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Experiment in instruction for adult science education Bagnall, R. G. 1977

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AN EXPERIMENT IN INSTRUCTION FOR ADULT SCIENCE EDUCATION by  RICHARD GORDON BAGNALL B.Sc.(Hons) V i c t o r i a University of Wellington (1968) A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Adult Education) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1977  Richard Gordon B a g n a l l , 1977  i  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  in p a r t i a l  an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y the L i b r a r y  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e requirements f o r of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I  avai1able for  agree  that  reference a n d study.  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head of my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . of  It  i s understood that c o p y i n g o r  publication  t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d without my  written permission.  Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  Date  /  /f*»  ii ABSTRACT  This study i s an evaluation of the study-research group technique as i t was applied to a program of l i b e r a l adult education i n New Zealand. It i s argued that techniques of instruction commonly used i n the teaching of research-based subjects are largely unsuitable for the achievement of desirable learning outcomes i n part time participants. Use of the techniques results i n instruction being heavily weighted with verbal information and, i n some cases, motor s k i l l s or middle-order i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s . The resultant learning i s of l i t t l e practicable value to the adult students; a situation which i s instrumental i n the present poor state of science adult education. The thesis i s developed that, to be relevant to the needs of adults, instruction i n the sciences should concentrate on the development of a c r i t i c a l attitude to science, and of higher-order i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s and cognitive strategies appropriate to systematic and s c i e n t i f i c solution of problems. Prerequisite verbal information and motor s k i l l s should be learned only as they are required for the solution of a problem. The study-research group technique has been proposed as one which could, theoretically, meet these requirements. The program i n which the technique was evaluated involved s i x groups of adult students. The research framework for the instruction was an environmental survey of an area proposed for development as a regional recreation reserve, research being directed toward the drafting of recommendations on development and management of the area. Each of the groups researched one of the following aspects of the area: history, geology, botany, freshwater biology, ornithology, and mammalogy. The evaluation instrument used was a post-course questionnaire. Items in the questionnaire e l i c i t e d information on: participant personal attributes;  socio-economic and educational background; preferred structuring of such programs; course entry motivations and r e a l i z a t i o n of associated expectations; and responses about the extent to which the technique achieved the desired learning outcomes and conformed to generally accepted principles of good adult education (e.g. ensuring high motivation to learning; ensuring active involvement i n learning). Particular analytic attention was given to an examination of the influences of participant background variables on the participant scoring of learning outcomes and adult education principles. Factor analysis was used to identify motivational and participational factors which were compared and related to group membership. Analysis revealed that the participants were disproportionately representative of the higher socio-economic and better educated sectors of the community. Nevertheless, on most participant background items, a wide range was represented i n each group. The results of the evaluation support the premise that the study-research group technique effectively can achieve the intended learning outcomes while conforming to accepted adult education principles. It also was concluded that the technique provided for meaningful learning by individuals of widely varying backgrounds. There was, however, some evidence that participants who had studied previously i n the d i s c i p l i n e of their group, through university extension or the Workers Education Association, derived most benefit from the course. Meaningful motivational and participational factors were i d e n t i f i e d , and appeared to be complementary, rather than alternative, measures of participant attributes. Three such factors discriminated among group membership. The botany and geology groups, and the botany and freshwater biology groups were found to be most closely related. Participant preferences i n relation to program structure, generally  iv  were closely identifiable with the practice i n the program. However, some incongruence was found which could have had a negative effect on evaluation scores. This p a r t i c u l a r l y derived from: the f a i l u r e of the program brochure to indicate to some participants the extent of the time commitment expected of them; a general desire for more discussion between groups; an expressed preference of several participants for shorter meetings; and i n s u f f i c i e n t involvement of participants i n decision-making within some groups. Of the seven general research hypotheses which were tested i n this evaluation, f i v e were confirmed. The f a i l u r e to identify a close relationship between motivational and participational factors weakened the confirmation of one hypothesis, and the finding of some incongruence between participant preferences and programming practice weakened confirmation of the f i n a l one. It i s concluded that the theoretical values of the technique generally are substantiated, but that additional, more objective and sequential testing should be undertaken of the technique i n a range of programs using alternative methods.  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS  LIST OF TABLES  Page . ix  LIST OF FIGURES  xi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  xii  Chapter I.  INTRODUCTION  1  I. NATURE OF THE PROBLEM  1  I I . PURPOSE OF THE STUDY  3  I I I . RESEARCH PROCEDURE  II.  4.  The Program Being Studied  4  The Evaluation Instrument  5  Research Hypotheses  6  Analysis of the Data  7  CONCEPTUAL BASIS TO THE STUDY  8  I. ADULT EDUCATION AND PROGRAM  8  I I . THE NEED FOR NEW APPROACHES TO SCIENCE TEACHING  11  The General Need  11  The New Zealand Situation  11  The F i e l d of Science Adult Education I I I . LEARNING THEORY IN ADULT EDUCATION  .'  12 15  Introduction  15  Gagne's Learning Systems Theory  17  Discussion  23  TV. PROCESSES OF ADULT EDUCATION  25  Introduction  25  The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Techniques  26  The Study-Research Group Type  30  The Generalizability of Process i n Adult Education. 35  vi  Chapter  P a g e  The Relationship Between Techniques and Learning Outcomes  36  Analysis of Research-Based Education i n Terms of Learning Outcomes  .'  39  V. PRINCIPLES OF ADULT EDUCATION IN THE DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT OF INSTRUCTION  45  Introduction  45  Commonly Identified Principles of Adult Education...  46  Additional Guidelines for Adult Instruction  57  Discussion  58  VI. PARTICIPANT BACKGROUND AND PARTICIPATION  60  The Adult Education Participant  60  The University Extension Participant i n New Zealand. VII. MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS IN ADULT EDUCATION  ,  61 65  Introduction  65  Motivational Factor Studies Based on Houle's Typology  66  Research Extending Motivational Factors  70  Motivational Factors i n Relation to Science Adult Education  72  The Relationship Between Motivation and Interest.... V I I I . PROGRAM DESIGN AND PUBLICITY IX. SUMMARY AND RESEARCH HYPOTHESES  III.  73 74  '. 75  Summary  75  Research Hypotheses  76  METHODS I. THE EVALUATION INSTRUMENT I I . VARIABLES USED IN THE ANALYSIS  81 81 83  vii Chapter  Page I I I . ANALYSIS OF THE DATA  TV.  84  RESULTS  87  I. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PARTICIPANTS  :  87  Sex  87  Age  87  Socio-Economic Status  87  Educational Background  90  Conclusions  95  I I . THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO THE LEARNING OF RESEARCH-BASED CONTENT  97  III.. THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO PRINCIPLES OF ADULT EDUCATION  101  IV. THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO PARTICIPANT BACKGROUND  105  V. THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO COURSE-ENTRY MOTIVATIONS  I l l  VI. MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS VII. PARTICIPATIONAL FACTORS Identification of Factors  113 119 119  Relationship Between Motivational and Participational Factors  124  Factors i n the Identification of Group Membership.. 127 . Summary  130  VIII. PROGRAM DESIGN AND PUBLICITY  131  Course Reading Material  131  Group Size  131  Intergroup Contact  132  Scheduling of Meetings  132  viii Chapter  Page Length of Meetings  132  Length of Course  133  Structuring of the Course  133  Adequacy of the Program Brochure  135  Course Planning Guidelines  135  Conclusions  136  V. CONCLUSIONS....  138  I. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PARTICIPANTS  138  I I . THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO THE LEARNING OF RESEARCH-BASED CONTENT  139  I I I . THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO PRINCIPLES OF ADULT EDUCATION  139  IV. THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO PARTICIPANT BACKGROUND  140  V. THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO COURSE-ENTRY MOTIVATIONS  140  VI. MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS  141  VII. PARTICIPATIONAL FACTORS  142  VIII. PROGRAM DESIGN AND PUBLICITY  VI.  142  IX. SUMMATIVE CONCLUSIONS  143  IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  146  REFERENCES APPENDICES  -  152 162  A. Description of the Program Being Studied  162  B. Letter Accompanying Questionnaire  167  C. The Questionnaire  169  D. Numbered L i s t of Variables Used i n Factor Analyses  178  ix LIST OF TABLES Table  Page  1. Gagn6's phases of learning, processes of learning, phases of instruction, influencing external events, and instructional events of a learning task  20  2. Gagn6's learning outcomes i n r e l a t i o n to prerequisite learning, instructional features, and c r i t i c a l learning conditions  21  3. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of techniques using the c r i t e r i a noted i n Figure 1  29  4. S u i t a b i l i t y of technique types i n r e l a t i o n to learning outcomes, as i d e n t i f i e d by selected authors  38  5. Theoretical s u i t a b i l i t y of techniques for achieving the c r i t i c a l learning conditions associated with each learning outcome 6. Matrix of adult education principles and authorities  40 , 47  7. Motivational factors i d e n t i f i e d by selected authors  68-69  8. Usable questionnaire returns i n r e l a t i o n to the t o t a l enrolment i n each group  83  9. Ratios by socio-economic class of: 1) general extension enrolment and the Wellington urban population, 2) early studyresearch group participants and the Wellington urban population, and 3) participants i n the present program and the New Zealand adult male population  91  10. Response to questionnaire items relating to learning outcomes.... 98 11. Correlation coefficients between learning outcome scores  99  12. Correlation coefficients among attendance, group membership, and the learning outcome scores  100  13. Participant evaluations of the extent to which the project realized the principles of adult education  .102  X  Table  Page  14. Correlation coefficients among scoring of adult education principles  102  15. Chi square values and probabilities of participantcharacteristic variables i n relation to group membership  105  16. Horizontal percentage of group membership i n relation to research background.  106  17. Horizontal percentage of group membership i n r e l a t i o n to previous formal non-credit study i n the d i s c i p l i n e of the group  107  18. Correlation coefficients between participant-characteristic variables, and the learning evaluation and response scores  109  19. Course-entry motivational items and correlation coefficients with satisfaction of the expectations  112  20. Motivational factors i d e n t i f i e d from the seventeen items  114  21. Participational factors i d e n t i f i e d with orthogonal rotation  120-121  22. Correlation coefficients between factor loadings on the orthogonally rotated participational and motivational factors 23. D i f f e r e n t i a b i l i t y among s i x study-research groups  125 128  24. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of participants into study-research groups, based on canonical variables developed i n the stepwise discriminant analysis  129  25. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of participants into study-research groups using Cooley and Lohnes centroids  129  26. Recommendations for improvement of program and instructional processes  134  27. Response to items regarding the adequacy of descriptive information i n the pre-enrolment brochure  134  xi LIST OF FIGURES Figure  Page  1. Tentative c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of technique categories  31  2. Learning outcomes i n relation to research-based education  A\  3. Age distribution of four groups: the participants, the university extension enrolment i n 1969, the adult population of the Wellington urban area, and the e a r l i e r study-research group participants  88  4. Socio-economic status distribution of participants compared with the New Zealand adult male population  89  5. Highest academic qualifications of four groups: the participants, the New Zealand adult population, the general university extension role, and the e a r l i e r study-research group participants  ,  92  6. Previous credit education i n the d i s c i p l i n e of the studyresearch group  93  7. Previous non-credit (adult) education i n the d i s c i p l i n e of the study-research group  93  8. Total number of previous adult education (non-credit) courses taken i n a l l subjects  94  9. Organizing i n s t i t u t i o n for previously taken adult education courses  ,  94  xii  ACKNOWLEDGEMFNTTS  The encouragement and constructive c r i t i c i s m of Dr C. Verner are deeply appreciated. Dr J.B.Collins gave invaluable assistance with analysis of the data and preparation of the report. In the l a t t e r capacity, Dr R.L. Taylor's interest and guidance i s also much valued. Members of the thesis committee are p a r t i c u l a r l y thanked for the way i n which they sacrificed other work to meet externally imposed deadlines associated with completion of this project. Thanks are extended to those organizations which made the program possible. In p a r t i c u l a r , Mobil O i l , The Wellington Regional Planning Authority, and the Internal Research Committee and Publications Committee of V i c t o r i a University. Particular individuals who should be mentioned i n this regard are Mr E.R.Henderson of the Wellington Regional Authority, and Mr K.M.Bennett of the V i c t o r i a University Extension Department. The successful running of the program was dependent on the group leaders, a l l of whom gave considerable time and energy, for minimal f i n a n c i a l reward. Appreciation i s also extended to a l l of the program participants, without whose involvement this evaluation could not have been made. Particular gratitude i s extended to the respondents who devoted considerable time to completing the questionnaire. The study could not have been completed i n the time available without the assistance and understanding of Alison Bagnall.  1  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  I. NATURE OF THE PROBLEM  The instruction of research-based content i n general, and of sciences in particular, i s a poorly developed component of adult education. Most educational offerings i n this area r e f l e c t a f a i l u r e to take the needs of society or of the adult participants into proper account. They are based on the transmission of segments of knowledge, most of which i s only of marginal h i s t o r i c a l value to the learners, and which i s not related at a l l to the solution of present-day problems. Some courses, namely those i n which laboratory experiemnts or f i e l d projects are included, place greater emphasis on the acquisition of selected motor s k i l l s and certain i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s (generally below the level of true problem solving). Since these adult education procedures r e f l e c t the curricula throughout the formal components of the educational i n s t i t u t i o n , i t i s reasonable to conclude that by far the greater majority of the adult population i s fundamentally ignorant of science i n terms of applying knowledge to the solution of problems which confront them, of c r i t i c a l l y evaluating the published conclusions of research e f f o r t s , and of comprehending the possible biological and sociological effects of the application to societal needs of any s c i e n t i f i c a l l y derived development. If democracy i s to function effectively i n the interests of i t s c i t i z e n s , those citizens must be capable of making sound evaluations of the cultural forces which affect them, and of making their decisions effective in action. I t i s generally acknowledged, whether one approves of i t or not,  2  that a major component of the cultural pressure i n modern society i s identifiable with the products and processes of s c i e n t i f i c research. I f the c i t i z e n i s unable to evaluate those products and how they might affect other components, or to comprehend the strengths and weaknesses of the processes, how w i l l i t be possible for democratic decisions to be made? The answer, l o g i c a l l y , i s that decisions of a truely democratic nature are not made since the citizens do not have the necessary input for the decision-making process. The inevitable result of this i s the development of opposing pressure-groups, each functioning i n what are considered to be the interests of i t s members. More often than not, however, the members of such pressure groups are i n t e l l e c t u a l l y i n no better a position to make decisions on the issues of their concern, either than' they were as non-members, or than are the other non-participating citizens. Pressure-group membership gathers i t s own group momentum, whether or not what i t argues for i s rational or humane. In a democracy, such groups tend to sway public opinion by the same process, and thus become powerful p o l i t i c a l and decision-making forces, i n spite of their general i n a b i l i t y to solve properly the problems for which they claim to have the solutions. This i s dysfunctional democracy, and i s substantially the expression of democracy i n western society today. It i s i n large part a product of adult ignorance of s c i e n t i f i c processes and of consequent ineffectuality i n making sensible judgements, and i n influencing the direction of societal change with those judgements. If there i s to be any hope of correcting this situation, science education must become relevant to the needs and interests of the c i t i z e n s . It must give them the capabilities with which they can c r i t i c a l l y evaluate a new s c i e n t i f i c 'discovery,' with which they can make a sensible decision by weighing the forces involved i n any particular issue," with which they can  3 counter the influences of commercialized pseudo-science, and with which they can obtain the necessary knowledge to accomplish these tasks. That the pre-adult component of the educational i n s t i t u t i o n i s f a i l i n g to meet this goal for a l l but a small minority of students i s manifestly clear. This places the corrective burden within the sphere of adult education where, as already noted, the task i s not being met with appropriate means. This i s , at least partly, because the appropriate means are not available to the adult educator. The means — techniques of adult education — are generally either not suited to the outcomes desired, or are only effective with full-time or substantially full-time students.  II. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY  This study i s an attempt to evaluate an adult education technique which i s theoretically suitable for achieving the types of learning outcome advocated i n the preceding section. The process being evaluated has been termed the 'study-research group' technique (Bagnall, 1975) since i t centers the learning and instruction around a team effort to solve an o r i g i n a l research problem. The team comprises a group of adult students with an experienced research worker as i t s leader and principal resource person. While variations of this technique have been used previously with more or less independent learners who were experienced and knowledgeable i n their subject (the 'project' process described by Rogers, 1971), the technique only recently has been developed as a structured, group-based procedure suitable for participants with widely varying backgrounds and previous relevant learning. An e a r l i e r evaluation of the technique was undertaken of three  4  study-research groups, two working i n the botanical f i e l d , the other geological. Participants i n these groups also were largely persons who had experienced previous adult instruction i n the subject of their group. This evaluation i s an attempt to determine whether the tentative conclusions drawn from the previous study may be strengthened, on the basis of an additional confirmation, and broadened as to their subject a p p l i c a b i l i t y .  I I I . RESEARCH PROCEDURE  The Program Being Studied The program (App.A) involved 84 participants (excluding group leaders) distributed among s i x study-research groups. As the research framework for the program, the groups were using a survey of approximately 2 000 hectares of rugged t e r r a i n proposed for use as a regional recreation reserve. The f i r s t part of the survey results have already been published (Bagnall, 1976b). The s i x study-research groups were organized around different aspects of the environmental evaluation: l o c a l history, geology, botany, freshwater biology, ornithology, and mammalogy. Each group was lead by one or two researchers who were selected primarily for their research expertise, and secondarily for their a b i l i t y to work with adult students. Enrolment was voluntary and without prerequisites except i n the case of the ornithology group where applicants were required to possess the capability of identifying the local avifauna by both sound and sight. When enrolling, applicants nominated the group to which they wished to belong and a second choice of group, i f they had one. Enrolments were accepted i n order of receipt up to a maximum of f i f t e e n i n each group, after which applicants were placed according to their second choice. Pre-course p u b l i c i t y was quite extensive, f a c i l i t a t e d by the  5 novelty and magnitude of the project. A r t i c l e s appeared i n a l l of the free, l o c a l , weekly, house-hold delivery newspapers, and i n both of the regional daylies. Also, a discussion of the project was broadcast by a regional radio station. Brochures s p e c i f i c a l l y on the project were mailed to selected interest-groups. The main Extension Department brochure and Department advertisements i n the regional newspapers invited persons to request a copy of this brochure which carried a detailed explanation of the project and included enrolment forms. Enrolments were only accepted i f they were on the appropriate forms. For both p o l i t i c a l and educational reasons a time l i m i t of ten months was placed on the program from i n i t i a l to f i n a l class meeting. Within that period, each group arranged i t s meeting times to suit the participants and the constraints of the subject matter. I n i t i a l meetings of a l l group participants were held to explain the project, and f i n a l meetings were held to discuss and draft recommendations arising out of the research work.  The Evaluation Instrument Time constraints did not permit pre-course or within-course evaluation i n any systematic fashion. Neither was time available at any stage for evaluation using an interview schedule. The evaluation instrument used i n this study was a questionnaire (App.C) mailed to each participant five weeks after the termination of the course. A personal l e t t e r (App.B) accompanied the questionnaire. Towards the end of the course specific mention was made, to the participants, of an impending questionnaire, and of the considerable assistance that their completing and forwarding of the questionnaire would be to the university i n i t s future programming. The time lag between course termination and d i s t r i b u t i o n of the questionnaire was intended to give participants time i n  6  which to consider and evaluate their attitudes to the program. The questionnaire included items on personal attributes, socio-economic variables, previous educational a c t i v i t y , individual response to specific aspects of the technique, and attitudes  toward a preferred structuring  of future such courses. Sixty-five usuable returns were received {11% of the i n i t i a l enrolment) and contribute to the body of data.  Research Hypotheses This evaluation i s based on^seven general research hypotheses, each with at least one specific hypothesis. The general hypotheses were directed to testing the following theses: 1) that the technique, as evaluated by the participants, i s a satisfactory one for the learning of research-based content; 2) that the technique conforms to important principles of adult education; 3) that the tchnique can provide, simultaneously i n one class, meaningful educational experiences for individuals of widely varying pre-entry educational, b i o l o g i c a l , and socio-economic backgrounds; 4) that the technique can s a t i s f y a wide range of course-entry motivations; 5) that the motivational orientations of the participants are similar to those identified i n other studies; 6) that meaningful participational factors can be i d e n t i f i e d and related to the motivational factors which together can form a basis for the identif i c a t i o n of participants i n each study-research group; and 7) that participants express general satisfaction with the program and p u b l i c i t y , i n that the type of structure preferred i s closely similar to that of the program participated i n .  7.  Analysis of the Data The questionnaire responses were coded and the data punched on to computer cards. A small number of secondary v a r i a b l e s — such as socioeconomic status — were derived from the primary variables. Analysis involved the derivation of frequency distributions and means for the scoring on each variable i n the questionnaire. Where required, -, . bivariate frequency distributions, horizontal, v e r t i c a l and t o t a l percentages, correlation coefficients and chi square values, with significances, were obtained. Factor analyses were run on the motivational orientation scores and selected variables (App.D) constituting participational items. The correlations between these two sets of derived factors were determined. The extent to which individual factor scores for each factor could be used as an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of membership i n each group was tested by stepwise discriminant analysis. Responses to open-ended questions were clustered on the basis of the attitudes and opinions expressed.  8 CHAPTER II  CONCEPTUAL BASIS TO THE STUDY  I. ADULT EDUCATION AND PROGRAM  For comparative purposes, the a c t i v i t y being evaluated i n this study must be identified correctly i n relation to other a c t i v i t i e s of an educational nature. To begin at a general l e v e l , i t can be stated that the a c t i v i t y f a l l s within the f i e l d of adult education as defined by Verner (1975, p.181), ..."Adult education i s any planned and organized a c t i v i t y provided by an individual, an i n s t i t u t i o n , or any other social instrumentality that i s intended s p e c i f i c a l l y to assist an adult to learn and which i s under the immediate and continuing supervision of an instructional agent who manages the conditions for learning i n such a way as to f a c i l i t a t e the successful achievement of the learning objectives." Approaching the question s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t l y , Essert § Spence (1968) recognize three major systems of education i n the community: the family educational system, the sequential-unit system, and the complementaryfunctional system. It i s into this last system which the a c t i v i t y here being studied would f i t . The authors define i t thus, ..."The complementary-functional system i s primarily focused upon providing systematic learning to meet a particular operational problem of l i f e , not learned or inadequately  learned  i n the family or the sequential-unit system. It i s complementary therefore, i n two respects: i t supplies that learning which i s required to meet a deficiency of learning i n other systems and i t adds to or enhances the maturing potential of the learner i n ways the other two systems cannot do."(p.261).  9 It i s also true that the participants i n the a c t i v i t y being studied generally conform to Schroeder's (1970) d e f i n i t i o n of them as "...anyone who has either discontinued or completed his formal education and i s now trying to re-engage i n the educational process."(p.39). The a c t i v i t y i n which the process was used i s also considered to constitute a program within the f i e l d of adult education. Program i s defined by Deniston § Rosenstock (1970, p.835) as "...an organized response to eliminate or reduce one or more problems where the response includes one or more objectives, performance of one or more a c t i v i t i e s , and expenditure of resources ... Any size of enterprise or response could constitute a program." Or by Verner (1964, p.34) as "...a series of learning experiences designed to achieve, i n a specified period of time, certain specific instructional objectives for an adult or group of adults." More p a r t i c u l a r l y , the program can be stated as being of the l i b e r a l education type, which i s defined by Carey (1961, p.7) as follows,. ..."Liberal education i s education that looks to areas of knowledge t r a d i t i o n a l l y considered liberating — knowledge of the physical and biological world, of oneself and others, of man's achievements and his cultures, of his religions and philosophical heritage. But to be appropriate to adult* education, this d e f i n i t i o n presupposes organization i n terms of the more important themes of adulthood rather than of adolescence. In b r i e f , to the extent that l i b e r a l content i s modified to take into account the adult's experience, thought patterns, and motivations i t i s l i b e r a l adult education..." F i n a l l y , i t should be stated that the evaluation relates not to the program, which i s the instructional umbrella, but to the efficacy of the * Throughout this report, i t a l i c s within quotes are those of the o r i g i n a l author except where otherwise specified.  10 instructional system i n f a c i l i t a t i n g learning. Peters $ Boshier (1976, p.198) make the d i s t i n c t i o n clear, ..."Program development i s concerned with determining desirable educational ends. Instructional design concerns the creation of structures and learning experiences that w i l l be employed to achieve educational ends. The program does not specify the means of achieving educational objectives; however, i t provides a framework within which methods, techniques and devices may be selected and used."  11 II. THE NEED FOR NEW APPROACHES TO SCIENCE TEACHING  The General Need Adult education writers not infrequently draw attention to the need for improvement i n instruction. For example, Boshier (1973), at the conclusion of his paper on participation and dropout, observes, ..."A theme of this paper has been that reasons for non-participation and dropout do not reside exclusively within the participant ... Techniques such as the formal lecture, the mainstay of most university adult education programmes, and conservatively defended, are inappropriate for certain groups. Lectures induce incongruence, actually prevent staff/student and student/student communication and for many courses could be discarded." (p.279). One of the recommendations made by Faure et a l (1972), which reflects a theme running throughout the document, i s for the integration of program types and their refocusing on the needs of individuals and society, ..."Rigid distinctions between different types of teaching — general, s c i e n t i f i c , technical and professional — must be dropped, and education ... must become theoretical, technological, practical and manual at the same time." (p.195). Thomas (1964, p.264) makes the comment that ..."The novelty factor should be eliminated from research, not from teaching ... The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of novelty i n what has been i n the past a familiar situation stimulates the desire to learn." This i s a very pertinent comment, and one which makes the evaluation results of studies such as the present one so d i f f i c u l t to relate to others.  The New Zealand Situation Since the needs which gave r i s e to the type of program being studied were those f e l t within the country of i t s development — New Zealand —  a  12 b r i e f comment should be made on some aspects of adult education i n that country. While Boshier's comments.above may reasonably be applied to the f i e l d i n New Zealand, some additional comments from the Committee on Lifelong Education (1972) could be noted. With regard to techniques the authors of this report observe, ..."The standard techniques remain: i n conceptual f i e l d s , lecture followed, hopefully, by discussion; and i n s k i l l s courses, demonstration followed by practice."(p.86). In addressing programming they recommend that ..."There should also be changes i n the scope of courses ... There i s and w i l l continue to be proportionately less demand for general survey or introductory courses i n single 'subjects.' Adult learners should be more aware of their individual interests and needs, which are rarely l i k e l y to be confined to single subjects and even more rarely to extend through the whole f i e l d of a subject. The new courses w i l l be often multi-disciplinary or cover quite specific aspects of a subject."(p.87). If there i s cause for disquiet about the adult education f i e l d i n general, the area of science instruction presents an even greater challenge. Hall (1970), i n his review of adult education i n New Zealand, described i t as "...the most backward phase of adult education i n New Zealand today." (p.157).  The F i e l d of Science Adult Education The pressing need for better and more c r i t i c a l adult understanding of modern science i s a theme of much adult education writing. Faure et a l (1972, p.148), writing on science education observe, ..."We cannot hope to absorb the knowledge explosion by cramming brains with more s c i e n t i f i c facts and by removing outdated subjects from the curriculum. Science must not be turned into a mere scholastic exercise. On the contrary, science teaching should be based on a pragmatic search for solutions to  13  problems arising out of the environment, either d i r e c t l y from r e a l i t y or derived from models." The authors also address the area of environmental education. They note, i n relation to environmental issues and problems, that ..."Stimulating awareness of such dangers i s a demanding new task for education, but p a r t i c u l a r l y appropriate to i t for many reasons and, too often, one that i s much underestimated."(p.101). Jeske (1973) develops this last theme s p e c i f i c a l l y i n relation to adult education. He recognizes the " . . . c i t i z e n s ' general lack of knowledge of the direct relationships between natural resources and standards of l i v i n g i n a modern society..."(p.307), but regards as even more serious "...the confusion generated by half-true pronouncements from usually credible sources masquerading as established facts..."(p.307). In response, he suggests that ..."These citizens want and need some sort of framework and the d i s c i p l i n e of a structure for learning experiences i n the area of environmental improvement; they want to be able to separate fact from f i c t i o n about environmental issues and  be able to make i n t e l l i g e n t  decisions on environmental matters. Adult education programs can contribute indeed, they have a great and inescapable responsibility f o r giving real leadership i n helping citizens learn to recognize and evaluate the s i g n i f i cance of environmental problems..."(p.308). Emmelin (1976) notes the importance of f i e l d experience i n environmental education and makes the observation that ...'The most important of the innovative functions performed by conservation education i s i t s pioneering of combinations of f i e l d work, i . e . direct experience of problems, with theoretical studies."(p.48). White § Kelly (1960) correctly observe the modern need for general adult understanding of science, but f a i l to make any appropriate recommendations. Indeed, what they suggest more resembles a school curriculum  14 for studying the products of science, than i t does recommendations for adult programming to meet needs i n this area. Hackel (1962) discusses the impact of science on society, and suggests that "...there must be a greater understanding of science on the part of most individuals. But this understanding must go beyond technology and hardware —  these are important, to be sure — but the increasingly  complex society i n which we l i v e requires the deeper understanding of what i s and how i t operates."(pp.176-177).  This understanding must be one  "...that transcends mere r e c a l l of remote facts and figures and manipulation of obscure formulae."(p.177). Evidently he did not think that much, i f any, adult education was appropriately directed at the time of writing, for he suggests that ..."This i s an area where those responsible for adult education might very well do some investigating, and I might add hopefully, some course offering."(p.177). Bagnall (1977) recognizes the general adult's f a i l u r e to comprehend the p r o b a b i l i s t i c nature of research results and conclusions, and asks "...how often i n the natural societal setting does one hear or read of research results, even the most recent and tenuous, being other than established fact?" In response to this question he suggests that ..."With entering so much applied biology/every aspect of our daily l i v i n g the present, general, naive acceptance of research material must surely be the greatest single modern f a i l u r e of our educational i n s t i t u t i o n , including the adult education component."  15  I I I . LEARNING THEORY IN ADULT EDUCATION  Introduction The d e s i r a b i l i t y of basing both instruction and i t s evaluation on a particular learning theory i s developed by Knowles (1973) i n his discussion of alternative learning theories available to the adult educator. He observes (p.93) that . . . " I f you aren't clear about what your theory i s — or even whether you have one —  the chances are that you w i l l end up with a hodgepodge.  You w i l l use different theories i n different times or situations, or conflicting theories for different decisions i n the same situation. You won't know why you are doing what you are doing." Unfortunately, there i s at present a considerable d i v e r s i t y of learning theories from which to choose, and these are not necessarily s t r i c t l y comparable or equivalent. For, as Dubin § Okun (1973, p.3) observe, ..."At present no single learning theory i s applicable i n a l l educational settings." The problem i s summarized by Gagne (1976, pp.41-42), ..."Contemporary information-processing theory concerns i t s e l f almost exclusively with the learning and retention of verbal information of the sort that i s exhibited as propositional knowledge. Other theorists have given attention to other kinds of learning outcomes they see as relevant to school instruction: Bruner to cognitive strategies, Bandura to attitudes, Gagne to intellectual s k i l l s . " Houle (1972) approaches the diversity by f i r s t identifying a number of 'credos.' He defines a credo as ..."A  statement of b e l i e f which i s not  part of any larger system of ideas or conceptions."(p.230). Six credos which tend to define an adult-educator's  approach to his task are i d e n t i f i e d .  Houle then presents a number of 'systems' which are essentially conceptual categories of learning theories.  16 Dubin § Okun (1973) approach the problem i n a more systematic fashion i n recognizing three principle orientations of the positions currently adhered to by learning theorists. These are stated as  —  "1. Behaviorism: Behaviorists concern themselves with the observables of behavior, namely s t i m u l i and responses. S t r i c t l y behaviorist doctrine avoids any speculation about what i s going on i n the mind. 2. Neo-behaviorism: Neo-behaviorists  also consider s t i m u l i and responses  as the only v a l i d indicators of behavior but they also consider what happens between the input of stimuli and the output of responses i n terms of mediational processes. 3. Cognitivism: Cognitive psychologists deal with man as a rule forming being and the cognitive structure of the individual i s considered to be of paramount importance for  learning."(p.4)  The authors explicate a number of theories i n terms of this taxonomy. Those s p e c i f i c a l l y included are: behaviorist — theory based on operant conditioning; neo-behaviorist  —  B.K.Skinner's C.Hull's drive  reduction theory, D.Hebb's neuro-physiological theory, A.Bandura's social learning theory and R.M.Gagn£'s learning systems theory; c o g n i t i v i s t — J.Bruner's discovery learning, D.Ausubel's reception learning and A.H.Maslow's and C.R.Roger's self-directed learning models. In choosing a learning theory most suitable for the evaluation and further development of a program such as that being studied here, one i s attracted by the relevance of a concept i n the writings of Dewey; namely his thesis of experiential learning, ..."Adaptation of the method to individuals of various degrees of maturity i s a problem for the educator ... But at every level there i s an expanding development of experience i f experience i s educative i n effect. Consequently, whatever the level of  17 experience, we have no choice but to operate i n accord with the pattern i t provides or else neglect the place of intelligence i n the development and control of a l i v i n g and moving experience."(Dewey, 1938, p.112). Another important concept to Dewey was that of the democratic social purpose of education (Dewey, 1916), which strongly influences Knowle's 'andragogical theory of adult learning *(Knowles, 1973). Dewey's experiental basis of ' s c i e n t i f i c thinking' i s further developed by Bruner i n his theory of 'discovery learning' (Bruner, 1960 § 1966). The instructional process i n the program being evaluated leans strongly toward Bruner's 'hypothetical mode' of teaching, where "...the teacher and the student are i n a more cooperative position ... The student i s not a bench-bound l i s t e n e r , but i s taking part- i n the formulation [of the instruction] and at times may play the principal role i n it."(Bruner, 1960, p.26). However, these theories suffer particularly,as noted above, from being based on a limited range of learning outcomes. I f evaluation i s to be based at least on the outcomes of learning, a more inclusive set of these i s required. One such approach i s that pursued by Bloom (1956) who has identified a comprehensive range of educational objectives based on the results of learning tasks. Gagne provides an even more instructionally functional approach by providing a theory of learning and instruction which links types of learning to both learning processes and learning outcomes.  Gagne's Learning Systems Theory Gagne (1965) identifies eight d i s t i n c t types of learning, each with i t s own set of required conditions. These are hierarchical i n that each subsequent type requires those before i t as prerequisites. The eight types, with a summary of the concept of each, are as follows —  1. Signal learning. Where the individual learns to make a general, diffuse response to a signal. 2. Stimulus-response learning. Where the learner acquires a precise response to a discriminated stimulus. 3. Chaining. In which the learner acquires a chain of two or more stimulus-response connections. 4. Verbal association. Which i s the learning of verbal chains. 5. Multiple discrimination. The a b i l i t y to discriminate between stimuli which may resemble each other to varying degrees. 6 . Concept learning. Acquiring the capability of making a common response to a class of stimuli the members of which may d i f f e r widely from each other i n physical appearance. 7. Rule learning. Where sequences of two or more concepts are learned, 8. Problem solving. Commonly termed 'thinking.' Two or more previously learned rules are combined into a new capability which i s based on a higher-order p r i n c i p l e . From the basis of these learning types, Gagne develops his theory through a model of the internal processes of learning. The model may be described thus, ..."In b r i e f , the model depicts the following flow of information from one hypothesized structure to another: a stimulus input from the receptors enters the sensory register (a very short-lived memory store), and then the short-term memory, where i t persists for about t h i r t y seconds or less. Rehearsal by the learner can maintain information here for longer periods. I t i s then coded for storage and transferred to the long-term memory, assumed to be a permanent repository. Later the information i s retrieved following a search, and when recovered i s transferred again to the short-term memory. At this point i t s appropriates i s considered, resulting i n a decision for further search, or for the  19 generation of responses that result i n the performance, by activation of the response generator. Important components of the model are the executive control processes, by means of which various kinds of information transfer are activated and modified. A similar function may be proposed for expectancies established i n preparation for an act of learning."(Gagne, 1976, p.23). Fundamental to the theory i s the d i s t i n c t i o n between the internal processes of learning and external s t i m u l i , as stated by Gagne (1975, p.44) ..."The internal processes of learning may be influenced by external  events  — stimuli from the learner's environment ... These external events, when they are planned f o r the purpose of supporting learning, are called by the general name of instruction." Eight processes of learning are recognized (Table 1). These are c o l l e c t i v e l y defined as "...the processes involved i n learning, retention, and transfer of learning."(1976, p.22). Each of these processes operationalizes a learning phase (Table 1). The phases are defined as "...the sequence of transformations brought about by these processes."(1976, p.22). The same set of phases i s recognized by Gagne as comprising 'phases of instruction,' . . . " I t seems reasonable, therefore, to distinguish as successive phases of instruction most  those interactions to external stimulation  and learning processes that/can clearly alter the course of learning. Designating instructional phases i n this way helps to emphasize the function of instruction as supportive of learning and thus to suggest the variety of tasks involved i n teaching."(1976, p.28). The key external events which influence learning i n each instructional phase are shown i n Table 1 together with the categorization of these into 'instructional events.' The second dimension of Gagne's theory i s that defined by the 'type of expected outcome' of learning (Table 2), i . e . the "...capabilities and  TABLE 1—Gagn6's phases of learning, processes of learning, phases of instruction, influencing external events, and instructional events of a learning task. Sources used, Gagn& (1975 § 1976). Phase of Learning 1. motivation 2.  Process of Learning expectancy  Phase of Instruction  Influencing External Events  motivation  a) communicating the goal to be achieved; or b) prior confirmation of expectancy through successful experience  apprehending  a) change i n stimulation to activate attention; b) prior perceptual learning; or c) added d i f f e r e n t i a l cues for perception  Instructional Events 1. activating motivation 2. informing learner of the objective 3. directing attention  apprehending  attention; selective perception  3. acquisition  coding; storage entry; acquisition rehearsal  a) suggested schemes for coding; or b) activating a set to employ an existing strategy for coding  4. retention  memory storage  retention  not known, but i s f a c i l i t a t e d by earlier presentation of dissimilar rather than similar proximate stimuli  5. recall  retrieval  recall  a) suggested schemes for r e t r i e v a l ; b) cues for r e t r i e v a l ; c) monitoring retrieval process to ensure the use of suitable search strategies  6. enhancing retention  6. generalization  transfer  generalization  a) a variety of contexts for retrieval . cueing  7. promoting transfer of learning  responding  performance  a) instances of the performance ('examples') a) informational feedback providing v e r i f ication or comparison with a standard  8. e l i c i t i n g performance , providing feedback  7. performance 8. feedback  reinforcement 1 feedback  4. stimulating r e c a l l 5. providing learning guidance —  1.Verbal Info.  TABLE 2 — Gagne's learning outcomes i n relation to prerequisite learning, instructional features, and c r i t i c a l learning conditions. From Gagne (1975) and Gagne § Briggs (1974). C r i t i c a l Learning Conditions Instructional Features Possible Prerequisite Learning  2.Tntel. skill 3.Cog.Str.  Expected Outcoir  4.Attitude 5.Motor Skill  — r e f e r e n t meanings of words, i.e. concepts; —context of related information (knowledge) or meaningf u l information (facts); — v e r b a l chains (names)  — p r o v i s i o n of larger, 1. activating attention by variations i n print or speech; meaningful context; 2. presenting a meaningful context (including —suggested coding imagery) for effective learning; schemes, including tables and diagrams 3. performance of restating fact or knowledge  —component simpler s k i l l s ; — information specific to the application examples  — p r i o r learning and r e c a l l of prerequisite s k i l l s  1. stimulating the retrieval of previously learned component s k i l l s ; 2. presenting verbal cues to the ordering of the combination of component s k i l l s ; 3. scheduling occasions for spaced reviews; 4. using a variety of contexts to promote transfer; 5. demonstration §/or verbal statement of new s k i l l  — i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s involved in problem solution; — information involved i n problem solution; —masses of organized knowledge — p r i o r success experience following choice of desired personal action; — i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with human model; — information and s k i l l s i n volved i n the personal action  —occasions for novel problem solving  1. verbal description of strategy; 2. providing a frequent variety of occasions for the use of strategies by posing novel problems to be solved t\ not specifying the solution class; 3. demonstration of solution by student 1. reminding learner of success experiences following choice of particular action; or, ensuring identification with an admired human model; 2. performing the chosen action, or observing i t s performance by a human model; 3. giving feedback for successful performance; or, observing feedback i n the human model  — executive routine controll i n g performance; — p a r t - s k i l l s or motor chains  — l e a r n i n g of executive routine (verbal • or otherwise); —repeated practice with informative (immediate and accurate) feedback  —experience of success following the choice of personal action; or —observation of these events i n a human model  1. presenting verbal or other guidance to cue the learning of the executive routine; 2. arranging repeated practice; 3. furnishing feedback with immediacy and accuracy  and dispositions produced by learning."(1976, p.22). Since these outcomes are of crucial importance i n the designing and managing of instruction the following definitions are included. 1) Verbal information. The closest Gagne gets to a d e f i n i t i o n of what he considers verbal information to be i s i n a discussion of the different types, ...'The f i r s t concerns the learning of labels, or names. A second pertains to the learning of isolated or single facts, which may or may not be parts of larger meaningful communications. The t h i r d kind ... i s the learning of organized information, or knowledge."(Gagne § Briggs, p.57). He also notes that ..."Information i s i d e n t i f i e d as 'verbal,' not because i t i s necessarily stored that way, but because verbal information i s the outcome." (Gagne, 1976, p.32). 2) Intellectual s k i l l s . "An i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l makes i t possible for an individual to respond to his environment through symbols."(Gagne § Briggs, p.36). Within this category there i s a hierarchy of types corresponding to the basic types of learning presented e a r l i e r (to which the parenthetical numbers refer): (2) stimulus-response  connections, (3) motor chains, (4)  verbal chains, (5) discriminations, (6) concrete concepts, (6) defined concepts, (7) rules, (8) higher-order rules. 3) Cognitive strategies; "This variety of capability i s given a different name because, although i t may be categorized as an i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l , i t .has some highly d i s t i n c t i v e characteristics. Most important of these i s that a cognitive strategy i s an internally organized s k i l l which covers the learner's own behavior ... The term cognitive strategies applies rather generally to various s k i l l s that are used by the learner to manage  the  process of attending, learning, remembering, and thinking." (Gagne § Briggs, p.47). 4) Attitudes. An attitude i s defined as "...an internal state which affects an individual's choice of action toward some object, person, or event."  23 (Gagne § Briggs, p.62). 5) Motor s k i l l s . 'Motor s k i l l s are learned capabilities that underlie performances whose outcomes are reflected i n the rapidity, accuracy, force, or smoothness of bodily movement."(Gagne t\ Briggs, p.66). The concept of prerequisite capabilities i s fundamental to Gagne's model, as stated, ..."Quite apart from the l o g i c a l or time-ordered sequences of instruction units inherent i n the content of a course or topic, there are sometimes reasons for sequencing  relating to the support of learning."  (1975, p.101). The most important of these prerequisites are noted i n Table 2. To relate these learning ourcomes to the processes of learning (via the instructional events and phases of instruction), Gagne recognizes value of identifying important 'instructional features' of, and  the  'critical  learning conditions' for each outcome (Table 2). He explains these thus, ..."Procedures of instructional planning to insure the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and inclusion of multiple outcomes may be aided by two kinds of 'editing.' F i r s t , one can check to see that certain important features of instruction relevant to the proposed learning outcomes have been included (...the c r i t i c a l learning conditions . . . ) . Second, by applying an 'outcome question,' one can insure that the instruction being designed i s indeed l i k e l y to reach i t s intended objective."(1975, pp.100-101). Thus, i n planning and evaluating instruction, the desired outcomes are linked v i a the ' c r i t i c a l learning conditions' associated with each outcome to the 'instructional events' associated with each phase and process of learning.  Discussion Of the learning theories currently available to the adult educator, Gagne's learning systems theory has much to commend i t on a number of counts.  These are p a r t i c u l a r l y : i t i s not subject-specific to any category of learning outcome; the learning outcomings provide a set of dependent variables for the planning and evaluation of instruction; and these outcomes are l o g i c a l l y linked v i a instructional and learning events to fundamental processes of learning. I t should be noted, however, that as a model for planning instruction, i t i s much stronger in. the area of i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l learning than i t i s for other outcomes. I t i s also strongly oriented toward manipulation of the learning environment, as noted by Dubin £, Okun (p.14) ..."The chief d i s t i n c t i o n between the behavioristic position adhered to by Skinner and .the neo-behavioristic positions of H u l l , Hebb, Bandura and Gagne i s that the l a t t e r theorists have incorporated mediational processes into t h e i r theories." I t thus may be found that the model i s not suitable for a l l adult learning situations, i n many of which considerable emphasis i s placed on learner s e l f - d i r e c t i o n of learning.  25 IV. PROCESSES OF ADULT EDUCATION  Introduction If the learning outcomes identified by Gagne are to be used i n evaluating the study-research group process, i t i s important to identify the class of educational procedures to which this process belongs. V a l i d comparisons can then be made with other members of that class. Verner (1964) categorizes processes into three classes: methods, techniques and devices. Devices are said to constitute ...'Various mechanical instruments, audio-visual aids, physical arrangements, and materials [which] are used by adult educators to augment the processes employed..."(p.37). Clearly the study-research group process does not f a l l into this category. Of the other two process categories, method i s defined as being "...the relationship established by the i n s t i t u t i o n with a potential body of participants for the purpose of systematically d i f f u s i n g knowledge among a prescribed but not necessarily f u l l y i d e n t i f i e d public ... [ i t ] i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y centered and, therefore, an administrative function..." (Verner, 1962, p.9). 'Technique, on the other hand, may be defined as the relationship established by the i n s t i t u t i o n a l agent (adult educator) to f a c i l i t a t e learning among a particular and precisely defined body of participants i n a specific s i t u a t i o n ... [ i t ] i s participant centered and, thus, a function of the learning situation."(op.cit., p.9). It i s clear from the foregoing that the study-research group process i s to be regarded as a technique, rather than a method. However, before leaving a consideration of methods, i t would be pertinent to consider which method the program being evaluated did conform to. In this regard Verner recognizes three subcategories of method: 'individual,' 'group' and 'community.' The program i s evidently a group method, and within that category best f i t s the d e f i n i t i o n of a class, ..."A class consists of a sequence of  26 learning experiences arranged i n a systematic order of predetermined . duration generally structured around a limited segment of knowledge i n which the agent i s charged s p e c i f i c a l l y with the general direction, organization, and control of the learning experience."(Verner, 1975, p.187). A further comment i s made to the effect that ..."Classes are generally structured around some specific content area and the instructional emphasis i s on content mastery rather than the group s o c i a l i z a t i o n process."(op. c i t . , p.188).  The C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Techniques The adult education l i t e r a t u r e i s replete with alternative c l a s s i f i cations or categorizations of techniques. Gagne (1976, p.21) recognizes four major categories: lecturing, discussion, tutoring', or the use of games. He notes that instruction may be provided by using these singly or i n combination. Verner (1962) uses a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n based on the learning objective or outcome. Thus, he recognizes three major categories of techniques, those appropriate to: the acquisition of imformation, the acquisition of a s k i l l , or the application of knowledge. Techniques for the acquisition of.information, he observes, "...require the least active involvement i n the learning process on the part of the learner..."(p.20). Techniques for acquiring a s k i l l primarily "...are concerned/with helping the participant acquire or develop proficiency i n performing a specific task. This would include communicative proficiency as well as manipulative s k i l l . Techniques i n this class involve a greater participation i n the learning process on the part of the learner than the informative techniques."(p.20). "The application of knowledge i s assumed to imply the u t i l i z a t i o n of s k i l l s or information and the application of principles to new situations ... to apply knowledge i s to use information and s k i l l s i n problem solving."(pp.20-21). While this c l a s s i f i c a t i o n does provide a functional means of c l a s s i f i n g techniques i t i s not compatible with  27 Gagne's categorization of learning outcomes. Verner (1962) also advances a two-dimensional c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , with the abscissa of a matrix being the 'degree of abstraction' and the ordinate being the 'degree of participation of the student i n the learning experience permitted, required, or encouraged.' This c l a s s i f i c a t i o n provides a good framework f o r the examination of techniques i n terms of the two component parameters, but i s d i f f i c u l t to focus into a nested sequence f o r use on one axis i n a matrix against learning outcomes. Leypoldt (1967) c l a s s i f i e s techniques into three categories based on very general types of outcomes, namely: 'knowing,' 'feeling' and 'doing.'. These appear to correspond approximately to Gagne's outcomes of verbal information ('knowing'), attitudes ('feeling') and motor s k i l l s ('doing') but the categories are defined only by example, making their interpretation more of a puzzle than a c l a r i f y i n g conceptual process. Bergevin et a l (1963) c l a s s i f y techniques into two categories: 'techniques' and 'subtechniques.' The l a t t e r are defined thus,..."The subtechnique ... resembles a technique but i s less complex and functions f o r a shorter period of time. A subtechnique i s used to adapt a technique to the requirements of a particular learning situation."(p.187). However, i f general practice i s any guide, a l l techniques can reasonably conform to this last c r i t e r i o n , making t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of no real value. Kidd (1959) deals with four categories of technique: 'lecture  type  a c t i v i t i e s , ' 'small group discussion,' ' s k i l l and process learning' and 'simulation.' These represent a confusion of process and outcome c r i t e r i a , and thus are not of practicable value. Knowles (1970) c l a s s i f i e s 38 different techniques each into one or more of f i v e different behavioral outcome categories. These outcomes, however, do not accord with Gagne's accepted learning outcomes, except i n two cases — 'knowledge' and 'attitudes.' His category of 'understanding' i s partly a  28 component of verbal information and partly i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s ;  'skills'  should be divided into motor and i n t e l l e c t u a l ; 'values' i s a component of attitudes; and interests' represents an aspect of motivation to learn, not an outcome. A number of authors (e.g. Tye, 1966) divide techniques into those suitable for small groups — with fewer than 15 to 20 persons —  and those  for larger groups. This provides a useful item of information for the practioner, but does not appear to cluster techniques at a l l well i n r e l a t i o n to learning outcomes. These attempts at c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e f l e c t the underlying problem of v a r i a b i l i t y i n the nature of techniques. In r e a l i t y , techniques represent points on a number of continuous dimensions. Each time a technique i s reapplied by another person or i n different situations i t i s l i k e l y to be shifted s l i g h t l y i n position on one of i t s dimensions. No generally acceptable and universally applicable c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s theoretically possible u n t i l adult educators: 1) identify the c r u c i a l dimensions; 2) draw (possibly arbitrary) boundaries along these to define the l i m i t s of each technique i n r e l a t i o n to each dimension; and 3) label each category. Verner (1962) has i d e n t i f i e d this problem and made a start by working with two dimensions, as discussed above. However, t h i s is"only a s t a r t , and our c o l l e c t i v e knowledge i s not yet s u f f i c i e n t l y structured to permit the presentation here of an acceptable typology. Accordingly, the l i s t i n g of techniques f o r the purposes of this study uses only crude types for the purposes of reducing the diversity. The types are presented i n Table 3. Authorities following type names refer to uses or explications of types. Where no authority i s noted, the grouping has been done by the author on the basis of the perceived relationships between techniques. The authority following each technique refers to a selected d e f i n i t i o n or explanation of the technique. In this table combinations of  29 TABLE 3 — C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of techniques using the c r i t e r i a noted i n Figure 1. Authorities following the types refer to seminal concepts of the type. Authorities following techniques refer to the d e f i n i t i o n a l source for that technique. Type 1. group discussion (Dietrick, 1960)  Technique brainstorming or idea inventory (Bergevin et a l , 1963); buzz group (Verner £, Booth, 1964); chain-reaction forum (Leypoldt, 1967); c i r c l e response (Leypoldt, 1967); colloquium (Verner t\ Booth, 1964); couple buzzers (Leypoldt, 1967); group discussion (Bergevin et a l , 1963); group drawing (Leypoldt, 1967); group writing (Leypoldt, 1967); round table (Verner £, Booth, 1964); seminar (Bergevin et a l , 1963); symposium—ancient concept (Bergevin et a l , 1963).  2. learner activities 3. lecture (Verner t\ Dickinson, 1967)  coaching (Knowles, 1970); critique (Stott, 1966); quiet meeting (Bergevin et a l , 1963); reading (Bergevin et a l , 1963). audience reaction team (Bergevin et a l , 1963) = audience l i s t ening panel (Miller, 1964) = group response team (Leypoldt, 1967); book report (Leypoldt, 1967); c l i n i c (Miller, 1964); colloquy (Bergevin et a l , 1963); committee (Bergevin et a l , 1963); debate (Dickinson, 197.3); debate forum (Leypoldt, 1967); forum (Bergevin et a l , 1963); interview (Bergevin et a l , 1963); interview forum (Leypoldt, 1967); lecture or speech (Verner L\ Booth, 1964); listening teams (Leypoldt, 1967); lecture forum (Leypoldt, 1967); panel (Verner § Booth, 1964); problem census (Miller, 1964); question period (Bergevin et a l , 1963) = r e c i t ation or question and answer technique (Dietrick, 1960); reaction panel (Leypoldt, 1967); screened speech (Leypoldt, 1967); symposium—modern concept (Bergevin et a l , 1963).  4. study research study-research group (Bagnall, 1975). group (Bagn a l l , 1975) 5. response f i l m forum (Miller, 1964); gallery conversations (Leypoldt, group 1967); learning or l i s t e n i n g team (Verner t] Booth, 1964) = music forum § play-reading talk-backs (Leypoldt, 1967). 6. demonf i e l d trip—demonstration (Dickinson, 1973); tours (Morgan et stration a l , 1963). field trip 7. demonstration  method or process demonstration (Verner § Booth, 1964); result demonstration (Morgan et a l , 1963).  8. project  research and report (Leypoldt, 1967); supervised research project (Verner § Booth, 1964).  9. jobcentered practice  supervised f i e l d work (Verner t\ Booth, 1964).  10. simulation (Kidd, 1959) 11. practice  case study (Leypoldt, 1967); exercise (Kidd, 1959); games (Stock, 1971); role playing (Staton, 1960); simulation (Verner £ Booth, 1964); sociodrama (Stock, 1971); T group (Kidd, 1959). d r i l l (Verner § Booth, 1964); practice (Verner $ Booth, 1964).  30 recognized techniques are not dealt with as such. To do so would make the diversity unmanageable, but this i s not to suggest that combinations are invalid i n any way. Subject-specific techniques, such as Leypoldt's (1967) 'depth Bible encounter' are also excluded. No claim i s made for completeness of the l i s t beyond the material cited. The variable nature of techniques, i n any case, does not make completeness a v a l i d c r i t e r i o n . The l o g i c a l relationships between the technique types are shown by the model i n Figure 1. V e r t i c a l position of a type i n the model does not relate to relative importance; the taxonomy i s purely for the purpose of v i s u a l i z i n g relationships. Because o f the dimensional v a r i a b i l i t y of techniques (discussed above), none of these types can be regarded as fixed or limited as to i t s content. For the same reason i t i s not possible to define s t r i c t l y each c r i t e r i o n item i n the taxonomy without destroying i t s functiona l i t y . The c r i t e r i a as noted i n the Figure thus are l e f t unqualified.  The Study-Research Group Type As defined by the c r i t e r i a i n the model of technique types ( f i g . 1) the study-research group i s a class of techniques i n which the instructional and learning a c t i v i t y i s closely tied to the object of study; where the instruction largely i s learner-centered and primarily a group a c t i v i t y ; and the a c t i v i t y i s based i n the f i e l d . To distinguish the study-research group from other potential techniques i n this area, the d e f i n i t i o n must be further qualified by stating that the technique i s structured by the a c t i v i t i e s directed toward the s c i e n t i f i c solution of an original research problem of some regional or greater importance. By 'original' i n the above d e f i n i t i o n i s meant that the problem or a closely similar one has not been solved before. The outcomes of the research thereby are unknown. By ' s c i e n t i f i c ' i s meant the use of procedures appropr i a t e to the relevant s c i e n t i f i c disciplines identifiable with the problem  FIGURE 1 Tentative c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of technique categories. Those marked with an asterisk are l o g i c a l l y invalid. techniques I  instruction § learning not closely tied to object of study  instruction § learning closely tied to object of study instruction largely instructorcentered I  primarily group activity  primarily individual activity  based i n based i n controlled field environment 5. RESPONSE GROUP I  abstraction from object of learning 8. PROJECT  primarily group activity  I  based i n controlled environment  instruction largely learnercentered  instruction largely instruetorcentered  primarily primarily group individual activity activity 1. GROUP 2. LEARNER DISCUSSION ACTIVITIES  primarily primarily group individual activity activity* •3. LECTURE  ,  —I  primarily individual activity*  I  based i n field 4.STUDYRESEARCH GROUP  I  I  instruction largely 1earnercentered  based i n field 6 . DEMONSTRATION FIELD TRIP  L—•  based i n controlled environment •7.DEMONSTRATION  1  not abstraction from object of learning 9. JOB-CENTERED PRACTICE  abstraction from object of learning 10.SIMULATION  not abstraction . from object of learning 11. PRACTICE  1  solution.The statement on relative importance of the problem i s not l o g i c a l l y essential as a component, but i t can be argued that, i n practice, the technique r e l i e s on the importance of or interest i n the problem as a motivating force for learning. In the f i e l d of adult education, the process which, on the basis of learner a c t i v i t y , i s most similar to the study-research group, i s that termed 'supervised research projects' i n the model (within type 8 — project). Verner t\ Booth (1964) term this 'setting up and carrying out projects under supervision,' and provide the following explanation ...'To provide an opportunity for previously learned principles and knowledge to be thought through i n their application to a specific project which i s then carried out i n an educationally controlled way so that .learning may be continuous throughout the experiment."(p.81). The main d i s t i n c t i o n apparent, i n this explication, between the supervised research project and the  study-research  group i s that the former i s concerned with applying previously learned s k i l l s and knowledge to a problem situation. The study-research group technique provides for the integration of prerequisite learning with i t s application, —  indeed the motivation to undertake the prerequisite learning i s derived  from each task i n the problem-solving  process.  Rogers (1971) devotes a chapter of her book to 'projects.' With reference to this class of a c t i v i t i e s she notes, ..."The opportunities which a project offers to work with the group, but as a free agent inside i t , also seem to stimulate a surprising amount of academic initiative."(pp.1623). This statement identifies what i s evidently a major feature of project work i n Great B r i t a i n , namely that i t i s essentially a loose coordination of individual, or essentially individual, research a c t i v i t i e s . Another important feature of much of that which i s paraded under the 'project' process i s that i t i s , i n r e a l i t y , a method of approach which i s using either the project or the study-research group technique. For example,  33 Rogers (pp.159-160), i n discussing a 'classic example' of the project, states, ..."In Nottingham a group of twenty students under the leadership of two tutors from the university ... made a study of the St. Ann's d i s t r i c t of the town ... The group, which began as a normal course i n sociology, turned i t s e l f over the three years into a highly e f f i c i e n t research team as well as continuing, as an adult-education group, to learn a good deal at a highly conceptual level about social class i n general, poverty i n general and sociology i n general." These contrasts aside, i t should be noted that study-research groups do f i t within Rogers' broad d e f i n i t i o n of 'project,' ..."Project work usually involves the group leaving the cocoon of the classroom and venturing out to seek raw materials from local people, records or conditions. Even where the materials have not been l o c a l , but have involved the group i n an intensive study of some foreign or national event, the result of the project, i t s end product, has often been i n a form which involved offering something to the community —  a book, an exhibtion, a series of study walks, a play."  (p.159). This i s , however, too broad a d e f i n i t i o n for meaningful i d e n t i f i cation. From the material presented i t i s evident, nevertheless, that at least some of what Rogers i s discussing f a l l s within the study-research group type. None of the examples includes sudstantial research i n the natural sciences and, as she notes, ..."The majority of projects so far produced by groups both i n B r i t a i n and i n the United States have been of a sociological, archaeological or h i s t o r i c a l kind..."(p.170). Arasteh's (1966) work, mostly with university undergraduate groups, i s definetely of the  study-research  group type, and i s i n the sociological f i e l d . Smith (1965) i n discussing adult education history teaching processes i n B r i t a i n , acknowledges, somewhat reluctantly, the role of research-based instruction, ..."The aim of  34 the local history course i s therefore seen by some as a need, from the s t a r t , to engage the student i n the actual work of research."(p.39). There are available the products of much of this a c t i v i t y , and perusal of these supports the conclusion that much of i t i s indeed 'project' work as defined here. For example, the report by Smith et al. (1963) which covers the accumulated results of a one-week residential school during which participants undertook small biological projects on various topics of personal interest. Such work, commonly undertaken through the B r i t i s h F i e l d Studies Centres, does not meet the c r i t e r i a of research importance or group a c t i v i t y for inclusion i n the study-research group process. Hutchinson (1965) i n an extensive examination of adult education processes i n the teaching of sciences could f i n d only limited evidence of research-based (project or study-research group) techniques. The application of these techniques was limited as to subject area — to botany and ornithology — and also limited to the drafting of species l i s t s and distribution maps. He also sees this a c t i v i t y i n the same role as that noted by Rogers, namely as following prerequisite learning undertaken with different instructional techniques. The stated or suggested values of the technique may be summarized as follows: 1) the learning process: — f a c i l i t a t e s the welding of a class or group into a working team (Bagnall, 1975); — makes good use of the existing s k i l l s of class members (Bagnall, 1975; (Rogers, 1971); — allows participants to find their own level of participation and appreciation at each stage of the work (Bagnall, 1975; Rogers, 1971); — encourages learning by making the material meaningful, by providing for practice and reinforcement, and by providing for self-assessment as  35 results are worked-up, discussed and checked (Bagnall, 1975); — maintains participant interest i n studying the subject (Bagnall, 1975); 2) the learning outcomes: — provides a means of teaching science as i t i s , namely an integration of existing information and research (Bagnall, 1975; Rogers, 1971; Arasteh, 1966); — develops i n participants a more informed and c r i t i c a l attitude towards science (Bagnall, 1975; Rogers, 1971; Arasteh, 1966); — provides a means of involving students i n o r i g i n a l and important applied research (Bagnall, 1975; Arasteh, 1966); —  encourages inter-disciplinary study (Rogers, 1971),  The Generalizability of Process i n Adult Education Verner (1968) develops a thesis concerning the r e l a t i v e d i f f u s i b i l i t y of methods and techniques i n adult education. He suggests that "...method i s culture-bound and cannot be transmitted successfully to another culture so that only the idea which underlies the method can be transmitted through stimulus diffusion."(p.91). Stimulus d i f f u s i o n refers to the trans-cultural transmission of ideas from which each culture develops i t s own methods to encompass the idea. Verner derives a number of propositions from this thesis. Those of particular pertinence here are (p.92): 1)..."Different societies develop unique methods to meet t h e i r need for continuous learning; consequently, a system of adult education established i n one i s not necessarily appropriate for another." and 2)..."The method developed to meet a s p e c i f i c need for learning i n one culture i s not necessarily suited to the same need i n a different culture." While these propositions were advanced as only "...functional hypotheses for further research i n adult education,"(p.92) they appear to be unrefuted and may warrant a higher status.  36 With regard to techniques, Verner (p.93) notes that ..."These propositions do not apply to techniques of instruction since these are based on different principles which are influenced by culture only i n d i r e c t l y ... While the methods of adult education are culture patterns derived from a given culture configuration, the techniques of instruction are derived from the psychological principles of human learning which are independent of culture." He also notes (Verner, 1962, p.9) that ..."Techniques are, for the most part, independent of methods ... i n general, most techniques are applicable under more than one method." Since the study-research group process i s reasonably c l a s s i f i e d as a technique these concepts have strong implications for the trans-cultural diffusion of the process and i t s use under different methods. The l i t e r a t u r e does, however, contain some cautionary notes. Smith (1965, p.42) comments, ..."The experience of many worthwhile adult classes surely i s that l i t t l e i s done i n the way of research by students, and there can be no case for offering courses only to those able and w i l l i n g to undertake such work. Adult education i s by d e f i n i t i o n directed to working adults who are without the opportunity or leisure for becoming professional students or full-time practitioners of an i n t e l l e c t u a l hobby." While Rogers (1971, p.172) observes that "...projects are not panaceas ... Projects are not miraculous teaching techniques to be produced out of a hat, but means to serve educational and possibly social ends, and to be employed therefore with proper caution and respect."  The Relationship Between Techniques and Learning Outcomes The d e s i r a b i l i t y of planning instruction and choosing techniques i n relation to the intended learning, outcomes was early promoted by Mueller (1937) who stated (referring to techniques as 'methods'), . . . " I f information  37 and knowledge are the outcomes desired at another time, appropriate methods of acquiring t h i s information and knowledge must be used ... Again, i f appreciations are what we are a f t e r , our methods w i l l be those whereby appreciations may be developed most readily."(Mueller, 1937, p.47). Mueller's categories of learning outcome necessarily r e f l e c t the knowledge available at the time of writing. Since then a number of adult educators have considered techniques i n r e l a t i o n to. learning outcomes. Unfortunately, compatibility of published outcome categories with Gagn6's recent taxonomy i s not easily and d e f i n i t i v e l y established. For example, the most commonly used scheme has been that which recognizes three outcomes (Verner, 1962): the acquisition of knowledge, the acquisition of a s k i l l , and the application of knowledge. Judging from the definitions of these categories, already noted e a r l i e r i n this section, i t appears that: 1) techniques for acquiring knowledge would primarily relate to Gagne's class of verbal information; 2) techniques for applying knowledge would primarily apply to i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s , but also to cognitive strategies, especially those related to problem solving; and 3) techniques for acquiring a s k i l l would primarily relate to motor s k i l l s but also strongly to intellectual s k i l l s . Accepting, tentatively, such uncertain relationships as those just developed i t i s possible to summarize the pertinent l i t e r a t u r e i n the form of a matrix of learning outcomes and technique types (Table 4). The technique types are those developed i n Figure 1 and Table 3. Consequently, the matrix must suffer from the additional inadequacies of the basic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Nevertheless, the clustering of references into certain c e l l s on the matrix should be expressive of some meaningful relationships. Because of the shortcomings of the technique c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , i t must be appreciated that not a l l techniques i n one class are equally suitable for instruction toward any  38  TABLE 4 — S u i t a b i l i t y of technique types i n relation to learning outcomes, as identified by selected authors. Upper-case l e t t e r indicates suitabi l i t y as identified by that authority; lower-case indicates unsuita b i l i t y . Parentheses indicate that the technique i s of lesser u t i l i t y as identified by the authority. Authorities: A = Bergevin et a l (1963); B = Champion (1975); C = Dickinson (1973); D = H i l l (1960); E = Kidd (1959); F = Knowles (1970); G = Leypoldt (1967); H = M i l l e r (1964); I = Morgan/(1963); J = Staton (1960); K = Stock (1971); L = Stott (1966); M = Tye (1966); N = Verner d, Booth (1964); 0 = Verner $ Dickinson (1967). /  ^"^•^^(Dutcome Verbal Tecrmiqu^~----~>^^^ Information 1. group A, D, G, L discussion 2. learner (A), (M), activities L 3. lecture A, C, D, E, F, G, I, J , L, N, 0 4. study-res. group F, M, N 5. response group 6. demonstration C, I, M field trip  Intellectual S k i l l C, D, E, F, I, J , L, N (A), L  Cognitive Attitude Motor Skill Strategy C, G, J , L, (A), B, D, F, L N F (A)  c, (M), o  c,  0  c, (D), e, c, (F), (L), o  F, N  (F), N  7. demonstration L  A, C, I, (J), M, N  (A)  8. project  A, M, N  9. job-centered practice 10. simulation 11. practice  A, G  M, N  0  A, C, E, I, J , L, M, N  N  N A, C, F, G, M, N H, J , M, N  c, ( J ) , (L), N  A, F, H, K, F, N M C, E, F, J , L, N  39  particular learning outcome. Neither can one class of techniques necessarily stand on i n i t s own, as, for example i n the essential linking of demonstration and practice i n s k i l l learning. I t i s not yet possible to weight each c e l l i n the matrix, but i n some cases, a class of techniques was noted as being markedly less effective for a particular outcome, i n which case this has  been  included. Also noted are e x p l i c i t y stated cases of unsuitab-  ility. An alternative, semi-theoretical, procedure i s to relate the c r i t i c a l learning conditions identified by Gagn6 for each learning outcome (Table 2) with the instructional events associated with each phase of instruction (Table 1). One can then apply the knowledge of each technique type to each intercept i n the table. By selecting only those technique types with component techniques having characteristics which would f a c i l i t a t e the a c t i v i t y identif i e d by the intercept, one arrives at the results i n Table 5. The conclusions there presented can be regarded only as very tentative, and as such should be used as a guide to research rather than instruction. It must also be restated that i n some cases not a l l of the techniques i n a class are equally suitable for the task associated with each positively marked c e l l i n the matrix. I f the matrix does nothing else, i t at least suggests that many techniques are quite unsuited to some learning outcomes, and that some techniques are suitable for use only i n conjunction with others. The high scoring given to the study-research group i s largely theoretical and open to substantiation or refutation by the present and future studies.  Analysis of Research-Based Education i n Terms of Learning Outcomes Before embarking on an evaluation of a technique which i s linked with the instruction of research-based content, i t i s important to form some concept of the key learning outcomes i n such a task. The c r u c i a l requirements i n relation to a problem-solving task are  40  TABLE 5 — Theoretical s u i t a b i l i t y of techniques for achieving the c r i t i c a l learning conditions (Table 2) associated with each learning outcome. Cross-hatching = technique suitable; asterisk = technique not suitable. Technique*excluded from a learning outcome category are considered to be unsuitable for a l l of the c r i t i c a l learning conditions identified. Instructional Events CD U C  rt 0  c o rt  OS  >>  •H 'H  DC P  +->  U  C  •H  DO P  -> c o 4rt • H ' H e o 4-> +->  DO  •H  E  U  <D  0)  T->  O  •H (NI  •H  -P  rH  P  0  +J  > C -o •H +-rt o o rt s 4-1 C 4-1  +->  Technique Type 1.group discussion o 2.learner a c t i v i t i e s 4-1 3.lecture P 4. study-research group rt 5. response group CD 6. demonstration f i e l d t r i p > 8.project 1.group discussion 2.learner a c t i v i t i e s 3. lecture 4. study-research group 5. response group 7. demonstration 8. project CD E 11. practice O  rt  DO  CD  c rH •>H  DO  DO  rt E vj  C rt p c 4-1o -.OP 10  E rt •H U +J  CD  T3 •H >  O P.  <D O P  rt  T3  -H  &0  LO  -H  e  c o is rt  • H -H  DC CD  CD CD CD SH  P,4H  tlO DO  P  •ss  CD 5-i  O SH P.  SH  CD  4-1  CD  00  O  r *  1.group discussion 3.lecture 4.study-research group 7. demonstration 8. project 11.practice  DO^  •H  p SH  rt CD  1.group discussion 4. study-research'group 3 5. response group 8. project 4-> rt;10 .simulation CD  SH O +->  I  2.learner a c t i v i t i e s 3. l e c t u r e — 4. study-research group 7.demonstration 9. job-centered practice 10.practice -  2 ^  r  PS  ^  2^  P  -H rH •• HP TJ O 4-> •H • H p p +-> 4H •U H-H> O rt (L) g ° r-H SH P  m  P,  41  shown i n Figure 2. Verbal information i s identified as a necessary prerequisite to the solution of a novel problem, i n that there i s l i t t l e point i n beginning the solution of a task at anything less than the current level of understanding. This i s not, however, to imply that large bodies of information need be learned before a problem i s tackled. Rather, that having defined the problem, the researcher should then apprise himself of the pertinent existing knowledge before embarking on the research program. In this way existing knowledge, the products of e a r l i e r research efforts, are put into the perspective of ongoing means to the solution of further problems, rather than as vast bodies of ' s c i e n t i f i c ' facts unrelated to current needs.  FIGURE 2 Learning outcomes i n relation to research-based  education.  fundamental frontier science research s k i l l s fundamental frontier research s k i l l s prerequisite  prerequisite  critical  knowledge  attitude -  ,  ATTITUDES  A  VERBAL INFORMATION  ,  basic science research s k i l l s basic research s k i l l s MOTOR  INTELLECTUAL  COGNITIVE  SKILLS  SKILLS  STRATEGIES  Appropriately c r i t i c a l attitudes are also regarded as prerequisites. The f a i l u r e to take this component into account i s a major f a i l i n g of the project technique as applied to novice researchers. However, i n a groupresearch project the attitudes of the more experienced members and of the leader are continually used as input and as reinforcing models i n the process of the research. The aim, then, i n the l a t t e r case i s to bring the attitudes  42 of each group member up to an appropriate level of scepticism and c r i t i c a l i t y in the course of the project. Intellectual s k i l l s are identified as basic research s k i l l s i n that they apply to a l l research subjects. Problem-solving s k i l l s are of particular importance and since, i n terms of Gagne's hierarchy of learning types they require a l l other appropriate s k i l l s as prerequisites, they must be seen as objectives to be attained i n the course of a whole project. Here, again, the group approach has the advantage of permitting participants to be involved meaningfully i n a problem-solving situation while developing the appropriate s k i l l s and learning them from fellow participants. By contrast, a participant i n an individual project situation requires the appropriate s k i l l s before he can make meaningful progress. In addition to requiring i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s , a l l p r a c t i c a l science subjects draw on certain motor s k i l l s . These tend to be highly specific to particular research techniques, and are thus most suitably learned as the need arises. In Figure 2 these are identified as d i s t i n c t i v e features of the category, 'basic science research s k i l l s . ' With the foregoing capabilities an individual i s reasonably well equipped to tackle problems and to c r i t i c i z e research studies when these f a l l into identifiable categories. However, i f the learner i s to engage i n problem solving by developing novel approaches, i t i s important that he possess the appropriate cognitive strategies with which to tackle the problems. In Figure 2 this identifies two more categories: 'fundamental frontier research s k i l l s ' (cognitive strategies and i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s ) , which apply to a l l truely creative research situations; and 'fundamental frontier science research s k i l l s ' (cognitive strategies, i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s and motor s k i l l s ) , which apply to truely creative practical science research situations. If we narrow our focus on learning goals to that of developing  43 the learner into one who i s constructively able to c r i t i c i z e and analyze the results of research which d i r e c t l y affect him (e.g. environmental research, n u t r i t i o n research) we can s l i g h t l y modify our desired outcomes. In this case the most important outcomes for a l l subjects are: a t t i t u d i n a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s and cognitive strategies. Given these, the prerequisites verbal information can be obtained, and motor s k i l l s are superfluous. Jeske (1973, p.284) leans toward this scheme i n viewing the need for environmental education as requiring the following— "...instruction that w i l l help adults: sort fact from fancy and the significant from the t r i v i a l i n environmental matters by acquiring appropriate knowledge and developing s k i l l s of analysis and synthesis ... [and w i l l ] develop s k i l l s necessary for evaluating facts and recognizing value judgements i n alternative proposals for resolving environmental matters." Accepting this last learning goal as the most appropriate one, at least for l i b e r a l adult education i n science subjects, two important observations emerge from the above analysis. F i r s t l y , verbal information and motor s k i l l s should be seen as means to an end, not as ends i n themselves. With particular reference to environmental education, Hackel (1962, p.175) states i t thus, ..."We may say, then that science i s a creative human a c t i v i t y , dependent on and responsive to societal structure, going beyond the encyclopedic phase of mere c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and organization of knowledge, and going beyond technology ..."This runs counter to p r a c t i c a l l y a l l adult education practice i n the area of concern, where t r a d i t i o n a l techniques such as lecturing, reading, and carrying out small scale laboratory or f i e l d experiments place overwheling emphasis on the acquisition of information and motor s k i l l s . Secondly, that i f the important learning outcomes —  attitudinal  change, i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l and cognitive strategy development — are to be  44  attained, the technique or techniques used must provide for appropriate learning i n a l l types of outcome categories. However, the outcomes being strived for at any particular time cannot be predetermined since they relate to other outcomes associated with other tasks which are i n turn linked to the unpredictable path of the problem-solving process. Each learner i s l i k e l y to be aiming at a different learning outcome at any particular time. In short, either the instructor structures a life-time of prerequisite learning for his adult students, or he structures the learning around an original research problem. Only the l a t t e r technique can theoretically attain the learning goals i n reasonable time for part-time adult students. Regrettably, most science adult educators opt for the former approach, and thereby develop, i f at a l l successful, competent amateur technicians and adults with funds of largely useless and h i s t o r i c a l , s c i e n t i f i c a l l y obtained, information.  45  V. PRINCIPLES OF ADULT EDUCATION IN TOE DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT OF INSTRUCTION  Introduction This section comprises the results of an attempt to extract, from the adult education l i t e r a t u r e , a set of commonly accepted principles representing the good design and management of instructional situations f o r adult learners. These principles may then be used as a set of target variables in the evaluation of the study-research group technique. The c r i t e r i a for inclusion of a publication were that i f contained at least three e x p l i c i t principles under whatever heading these were presented, and that i t was addressed s p e c i f i c a l l y to adult education. Much published material, not included i n this review, i s addressed either to matters of adult education philosophy, i n which case the concepts are too general to be included as practicable p r i n c i p l e s , or to procedures too s i t u a t i o n a l l y specific to be considered as principles for the f i e l d as a whole. The term 'principle' i s used to refer to a d i r e c t l y applicable procedural concept relevant to the f i e l d as a whole. Fundamental concepts; such as those obtained from psychological studies of adults, are not included since they cannot be applied d i r e c t l y as functional guidelines. Toward the opposite end of the conceptual spectrum, items are excluded because they relate only to s i t u a t i o n a l l y dependent components of adult education, e.g. instruction directed toward the achievement of particular learning outcomes. Although the purpose of this search was to identify principles pertaining to the design and management of instruction, many of these principles are generalizable to the program planning process. The greater part of the published work i n this area of instruction i s derived either from psychological studies of adults or more s p e c i f i c a l l y from research into  46 adult learning. Principles directed s p e c i f i c a l l y to the program planning process are rare and insecurely based due to the lack of c r i t e r i a by which program planning at the organizational level may be evaluated i n terms of adult learning. As Houle (1972, p.250) notes, "...the program-planning theories i n the general f i e l d of the curriculim have only limited usefulness for adult education since they are largely based on the specific practices of schools and colleges."  Commonly Identified Principles of Adult Education A summary of the p r i n c i p l e s , and of the authors who identify the principles, i s presented i n Table 6. No p r i n c i p l e was included i n this table i f i t was identified by fewer than 4 (25%) of the authors l i s t e d . The following i s a discussion of each p r i n c i p l e to reveal i t s meaning and extent. In each case, more than one authority i s used only as f a r as i s necessary to define the p r i n c i p l e using the above two c r i t e r i a .  A. Principles Pertaining to the Individualization of Learning 1. Ensure high motivation to learning This i s one of M i l l e r ' s s i x conditions of learning, and i s stated as ..."The student must be adequately motivated to change  behavior."(p.38).  Also, as Brunner et a l note, ..."learning i s most rapid when motivation i s strong..."(p.23).  But Verner and Booth observe that ..."With motivation  providing the stimulus to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an educational a c t i v i t y , futher and different motivation i s required i n order that such p a r t i c i p a t i o n result i n effective learning..."(p.24). The same point i s made by M i l l e r , "Motives which are strong enough to bring an individual into the learning s i t u a t i o n may be too weak by far to keep him i n i t for very long or to keep him at work; the very high drop-out rate i n adult programs which are not vocationally based i s i n part a measure of that motivation strength. By  47  TABLE 6 — Matrix of adult education principles and authorities. Asterisk indicates i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a p r i n c i p l e (row) by an author (column). Parentheses indicate that the author assumed or implied the principle.  LO  cn rH  LO  H  +J  •H  u o  LO 4-> i—t  rcn rH  0  oo  pq  1.ensure high motivation to learning  u  cn  rH r H v O VO  r~» *—• cn rH  vo cn cn rH bo  LO r H  rO  rC  vO  cn  C  CD r-l  cn cn  rH /->  O  v—'  •P  Au  Principles  ^ aj oo  tn  r-^  CTl cn r H  0  r Q  C  U  r-j  /—i  rH *—'  cn rH vO C -'cn o 5;  0 rH  vO  , — v v O  cn  o cn  f-^.  *—',—v  </) CD •H  o  "3"  cn  US"  U  0  cn  rH v—s  rC  0  +J  o o  1)  vO  vo  uJvO  ajOl rH UO" r H r H ?H — ' H V J I B 0 0 rH C S 0 •H o X 0 ra  Cn  v  dC ,2c  CL, P H £ H >  M  (*>  2.maintain adult autonomy 3.allow for individual pace and level of learning 4.make allowance for psychological and physiological ages  ( * ) * ( * )  (*)  (*)  5.provide for practice with reinforcement of correct behavior 6 . u t i l i z e group influences on learning  *(.*y  * * * * * * *  * * * * *  7.provide a secure learning environment  * *  8.ensure relevance of the material to the learner  * * * * * * * *  9.ensure meaningfulness of the material to the learner  * * *  10.enable individuals to u t i l i z e previous learning 11.ensure active involvement i n learning 12.provide for learner involvement i n needs diagnosis 13.provide for learner involvement i n course planning § management  * * *  *  * * * *  * *  * * * *  (*)  * * * *  (*)  * * * *  *****  * *  1 5 . f a c i l i t a t e learner awareness of behavioral inadequacy  * * * * *  * * * *  14.ensure learner knowledge of expected behavior  1 6 . f a c i l i t a t e learner s e l f evaluation  * ( ** ) *i *  *(*)(*)  * * * *  (*)  * * * *  48 far the weakest seems to be pure c u r i o s i t y , a lusting after knowledge for knowledge's sake..."(p.39). Gibb (1960) makes the point that "...to be maximally effective the motivation must be intrinsic."(p.59). Also included i n this p r i n c i p l e i s the concept of optimal tension. As stated by Jensen, "...the psychological tension level of"adult learners must be maintained at a level which permits tha release of energy into problem-solving  and work interactions at a rate required by the learning  projects and objectives set for the instructional group and i t s individual members."(p.148).  2. Maintain adult autonomy As stated by Pine § Home, ..."Learning i s f a c i l i t a t e d i n an atmosphere in which people f e e l they are respected ... [and] accepted."(p.133). Also, Jensen states, "...the authority and decision-making interactions between adult learners and instructors must be such that adults p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n an instructional group do not experience a loss of adult autonomy."(p.150). For Lindeman this p r i n c i p l e this p r i n c i p l e was one of the core elements i n his philosophy.  3. Allow for individual pace and level of learning This i s an e x p l i c i t recognition of the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of adult learning. As stated by Dickinson, ..."When he i s designing learning a c t i v i t i e s for adults, the instructor should recognize that each person w i l l learn at a different rate and that the type of material w i l l influence learning." (pp.10-11). The p r i n c i p l e i s also a component of Jensen's statement on diversity of goals, "...the development of multiple group goals for adult instruction must be permitted to the point that the group i s s t i l l able to function effectively as a group and that the f u l f i l l m e n t of individual learning needs i s promised."(p.149). He develops this further, "...adult learners must be given opportunity (without loss of personal esteem and  49 social responsibility) to determine r e a l i s t i c a l l y their present level of behavioral integrations with respect to proposed instructional objectives." (p.151). Pine § Home (p.126) state that ..."Learning i s f a c i l i t a t e d i n an atmosphere which emphasizes the uniquely personal and subjective nature of learning... [and] i n which difference i s good and desirable.."  4. Make allowance for psychological and physiological ages This principle overlaps strongly with number 3, but as these two principles are regarded separately by different authors, and agreement with '4' does not l o g i c a l l y imply agreement with '3', they are treated separately here. As stated by Tye (p.155), this principle i s that ..."Learning experiences ... should be organized according to the best available understanding of the characteristics of adulthood which are relevant to education." From the works of Vemer t\ Booth, Dickinson, and Brunner et a l i t i s evident that this understanding must include both psychological and physiological factors.  5. Provide f o r practice with reinforcement of correct behavior This principle i s frequently discussed as two separate principles (1. practice, and 2. reinforcement for correct behavior). However, i n a l l references to these, they are both considered and closely linked, they are, accordingly, placed i n the one category i n this paper. As summarized by M i l l e r , the principle i s stated i n two concepts, ..."The student must have opportunities to practice the appropiate behavior." (p.48) and ..."The student must get reinforcement of the correct behavior." (p.49). Jensen states i t thus,"...the gratifications or rewards adults experience from participating i n the instructional group must result primarily from problem-solving and work interactions leading to the  50 acquisition of new behaviors..."(p.149). Dickinson (p.11) observes that ...'Mere repetition without purpose or guidance i s of l i t t l e value as i t does not result i n increased learning." He also provides a very general d e f i n i t i o n of reinforcement,  ..."Reinforcement  i s anything i n the learning situation that increases the probability that the desired behavior w i l l be repeated."(p.12). Oddly, he treats 'Knowledge of Results' as a principle separate from 'Reinforcement,' although i t i s clear from his discussion that he understands the former as being a component of reinforcement. Thus, i n discussing 'Knowledge of Results' he notes, . . ..."Learning i s aided i f the adult finds out immediately after practice whether or not his response was correct. This feedback or knowledge of results acts as reinforcement..."(p.13).  B. Pricinples Pertaining to the Value or Group A c t i v i t i e s i n Learning 6. U t i l i z e group influences on learning A principle referring to the values to be derived from proper management of the interpersonal environment of groups, ranging i n size from a diad of one learner with an instructor, upwards. The range of concepts which this principle encompasses i s best demonstrated by the following selection of quotations. "For maximum learning the learner must interact with other learners i n such a way as to expose his a t t i t udes and gaps i n knowledge and s k i l l s to himself and to others."(Gibb, 1960, p.60). "Learning i s f a c i l i t a t e d i n an atmosphere which permits confrontation." (Pine § Home, p.133). "...the psychological climate should be one ... i n which there exists a s p i r i t of mutuality between teachers and students as j o i n t inquirers..."(Knowles, 1970, p.41). "Learning experiences should be organized so as to reduce the resistance to change inherent i n learning by ... attempting to mobilize the learning group to reduce individual resistance."(Tye, pp.151-152). "In terms of structural processes, a greater  51 amount of formal and informal interaction should be conscientiously structured to narrow instructor-learner social distance... V(Lan § Wong, p.140). A number of authors sound a cautionary note i n their discussion of group values, e.g. "There i s no question at a l l of the power of the group to reduce individual resistances to change i f properly mobilized; but pious insistence on r i t u a l s of informality and first-name c a l l i n g w i l l not necessarily ensure i t s mobilization on the side of effective learning." (Miller, p.41). While Brunner et a l (p.195), after discussing c o n f l i c t i n g studies i n the l i t e r a t u r e , suggest, ..."A possible hypothesis i n this area would be that under the stimulation of an environmental situation certain types of people learn more e f f i c i e n t l y i n group situations than working alone."  7. Provide a secure learning environment This p r i n c i p l e i s divided by Gibb (1958) into two: 'The Supportive Atmosphere Norm' ( i . e . the need for a secure learning environment i n which the adult learner can make mistakes), and 'The Provisional Behavior Norm  1  (i.e. the feeling of freedom on the part of the learner to make mistakes). M i l l e r notes (p.42), ..."The major resistance to change ... i s the defensiveness aroused on behalf of already established behaviors, and the fundamental requirement for success i s the provision of s u f f i c i e n t security for the student to permit him to relax his defensive  posture."  C. Principles Pertaining to the Content Material 8. Ensure relevance of the material to the learner The p r i n c i p l e i s of fundamental importance to a great many adult educators. Lindeman, writing i n the f i r s t quarter of this century, was one of the f i r s t adult education writers to address himself at length to i t s  52 development. He argued that education should be equated with l i f e and that adult education should go beyond vocational and m a t e r i a l i s t i c goals to encompass a l l of l i f e ' s ideals. As observed by Verner § Booth (p.22),.. .'The motives that lead to participation i n adult education or to learning stem from the needs that arise out of experience." The concept ranges i n intensity from the statement made by Lam t\ Wong (p. 140), ..."Specifically, course content must be brought within the interests of adult learners i n order to develop satisfaction among learners." to that of Gibb (1960, pp.58-59),  "Learning must be problem  centered. For the most significant kinds of learning that adults do, the problem must be a problem for the learner, not a problem of the teacher." McClusky observes that these problems may be equally those of the individual as of the community or society, . . . " I t would, however, be poor teaching as well as poor educational statesmanship i f i n our response to the learner's problems we ignored the larger problem of society; i n an ultimate sense these could be even more important to the adult than those close at hand of which he i s most sharply aware."(McClusky, p.169). Knowles. sees this principle as one arm of a dichotomy between a subject-orientated and a person-orientated approach, ..."To adults, education is a process of improving their a b i l i t y to deal with l i f e problems they face now. They tend, therfore, to enter an educational a c t i v i t y i n a problemcentered frame of mind ... Andragogy c a l l s for program builders and teachers who are person-centered, who don't teach subject matter but rather help persons learn."(Knowles, 1970, p.48). Champion (p.300), however, sounds a word of warning,...'The emphasis on student-centered rather than subjectcentered a c t i v i t i e s , which has done so much recently to improve the ways i n which tutors teach, has now, however, begun to go too f a r . "  53 9. Ensure meaningfulness of the material to the learner The intent of this principle i s encompassed i n the following statement by Dickinson (p.11), ..."Material that the learner believes to be meaningful i s learned more readily and i s remembered longer than material which i s seen as non-meaningful. Meaningfulness can be established i n two general ways: by presenting material that i s similar to something that i s already known, and by organizing new material i n a pattern that the learner can perceive." M i l l e r (p.50) concentrates on the appropiate sequencing of materials and n o t e s " T h e fault l i e s , often enough, not only i n the assignment'of impossible amounts of d i f f i c u l t reading material but i n the f a i l u r e to make clear to the student what the purpose of the reading i s , what i t s relationship i s to the learning goals which he can comprehend and find personally meaningful." McClusky, i n looking at meaningfulness i n relation to content takes, i n addition to the element i d e n t i f i e d by M i l l e r , the point that ...'To be meaningful, learning must give the adult as much insight into relationships as possible ... Operationally, this implies that i n learning an adult must achieve as large a perspective of his problem as possible, and be able to place ad hoc issues which cry for attention i n the context of this perspective."(Miller, p. 170). Knowles relates meaningfulness to teachable moments arising from developmental tasks, after the concept developed by Havighurst (ref. Havighurst § Orr, 1956), ..."If the teachable moment for a particular adult to acquire a given learning i s to be captured, i t i s obvious that the sequence of the curriculum must be timed so as to be i n step with h i s developmental tasks. This i s the appropriate organizing principle for an adult-education program,rather than the logic of the subject matter or the needs of the sponsoring instituition."(Knowles, 1970, p.47).  54 10. Enable individuals to u t i l i z e previous learning Zahn (p.75) identifies this principle when he n o t e s " T h e more the teacher of adults can base his teaching upon previous experience, the better and faster the adult w i l l learn." Lindeman considers the adult student's experience to be his greatest learning resource. Knowles makes the point very firmly, "...to an adult, his experience is_ him. He defines who he i s , establishes his s e l f - i d e n t i t y , i n terms of his accumulation of a unique set of experiences ... Because an adult defines himself largely by his experience, he has a deep investment i n i t s value. And so when he finds himself i n a situation i n which his experience i s not being used, or i t s worth i s minimised, i t i s not just his experience that i s being rejected — he feels rejected as a person."(Knowles,  1970, p.44).  Jensen (p.150) takes a pragmatic stance on this principle with the statement that "...adults must be free to assess and react to the expert knowledge of the instructor i n l i g h t of the r e a l i t i e s of their own l i f e experiences." McClusky (p.172) represents the most cautious approach i n suggesting, ..."Perhaps the adult needs to have more confidence i n the value of h i s experience, perhaps i t i s the task of the educator to help the adult reorganize his experience so he can learn how to extrapolate the particular u n t i l i t takes on the aspects of the universal."  D. Principles Pertaining to the Centering of Education on the Learner This group of principles i s encapsulated i n a statement by Powell § Benne (p.51), "...under a l l the group and community emphases there i s a strong and v i t a l agreement on the individual as the learner, the agent of learning and of judgement and acting, the goal and test of a l l the learningsituations that educators can devise."  55 11. Ensure active involvement i n learning Jensen (p.142) recognizes this principle as a societal 'value norm' which, he suggests, i s derived from the 'Protestant Ethic.' I t i s the "...value that learners should be kept psychologically involved i n the instructional situation, both emotionally and cognitively, to the highest possible degree. A 'good instructional situation' i s one i n which the learners are always highly interested and extending maximum effort to learn." As Gibb (1960, p.60) notes, ..."Several experiments indicate that the active learner i s a more effective learning organism than the passive learner." M i l l e r (p.40) observes that lack of involvement can negatively affect student motivation, through the learner being unable to see the learning task as personally important and significant. He further states that ..."Whatever the problems ... the basic issue remains clear and emphatic: I f we are interested i n having the student learn, he must be active i n some appropr i a t e fashion; he must have the opportunity to do what he i s supposed to learn to do."(p.49). This last statement reveals the closeness of this principle to number 5 (provide for practice with reinforcement of correct behavior), indeed principle number 11 i s a prerequisite of 5.  12. Provide for learner'involvement i n needs diagnosis Knowles i s the strongest proponent of this p r i n c i p l e , stating that "...great emphasis [ i n andragogy] i s placed on the involvement of adult learners i n a process of self-diagnosis of needs for learning."(Knowles, 1970, p.42). In his 1974 paper (p.315) he, interestingly, defines this process as ..."Mutual self-diagnosis." Pine § Home (p. 126) are rather more moderate i n their view of the p r i n c i p l e , ";..a situation i n which people are freely able to express their needs rather than having their needs directed to them." Indeed the general concept of this principle i s to ensure at least some involvement by  56 participants or potential participants i n needs diagnosis.  13. Provide for learner involvement i n course planning and management This principle i s clearly stated by Button (p.182), " . . . i f adult educators are to be successful i n their attempts to serve the public, they must involve the people i n planning these programs." Knowles (1970, p.42) sees this principle being applied as "...the involvement of the learners i n the process of planning their own learning, with the teacher serving as a procedural guide and content resource." Or, as stated by Boyle (p.23), ..."The planning group should include local citizens who are potential participants i n the program ... Democratic principles should be used wherever possible i n planning the program."  14. Ensure learner knowledge of expected behavior Verner £j Booth (p.24) note, ..."A knowledge of the task to be undertaken increases the efficiency with which i t i s accomplished..." M i l l e r (p.45) accepts as one of his s i x principles that ...'The student must have a clear picture of the behavior which he i s required to adopt." Whereas Knowles tends to regard this principle as a prerequisite or component of the following one.  15. F a c i l i t a t e learner awareness of behavioral inadequacy M i l l e r (p.42) states that ...'The student must be aware of the inadequacy of his present behavior." Knowles (1970, p.42) considers the application of this principle to be parts two and three of the three-element needs diagnosis. He develops the three parts thusrl) "Constructing a model of the competencies or characteristics required to achieve a given ideal model of performance ... 2) Providing diagnostic experiences i n which the learner can assess his present level of competencies i n the l i g h t of those  57 portrayed i n the model ... 3) Helping the learner to measure the gaps between his present competencies and those required by the model, so that he experiences a feeling of dissatisfaction about the distance between where he i s and where he would l i k e to be and i s able to identify specific directions of desirable growth."  16. F a c i l i t a t e learner self-evaluation This principle i s stated by Pine § Home (p. 126) as ..."Learning i s f a c i l i t a t e d i n an atmosthere i n which evaluation i s a cooperative process with emphasis on self-evaluation." Knowles (1970, p.43) pushes the emphasis more toward self-evaluation, "...andragogical theory prescribes a process of self-evaluation, i n which the teacher devotes his energy to helping the adults get evidence for themselves about the progress they are making toward their educational goals." He regards the process as being a ..."Mutual re-diagnosis of needs."(1974, p.315) Button (p.181) represents the other polar end of this p r i n c i p l e , and notes, ..."The learner must have feedback about progress toward goals." Jensen (p.150) i s i n an intermediate position i n c a l l i n g for learner-identification with the evaluation methods, "...the problem-solving and work interactions between adult learners must provide f o r the use of effective public methods for evaluating learning progress of individual adults."  Additional Guidelines for Adult Instruction A number of adult education principles which have appeared i n the l i t e r a t u r e are not included i n the foregoing discussion. In many cases they w i l l be recognized as components of the principles here recognized. In other cases they have been too situationally specific or non-functional to conform to the c r i t e r i a of inclusion. F i n a l l y , there are those which were addressed by only a few (less than 25%) on the authors included i n the matrix. Since  58 the guidelines i n the l a s t category may become accepted i n time, they are l i s t e d here for reference. 1. Only material which i s essential to the attainment of each learning objective should be included.(Tye, 1966) 2. Where there exists a gap, learners should be helped to raise t h e i r levels of aspiration to match their a b i l i t i e s . ( T y e , 1966) 3. A wide range of alternative techniques and devices for attaining objectives should be considered, and only those chosen which are most appropriate for each objective.(Boyle, 1958; Lam § Wong, 1974; Tye, 1966)  Discussion The principles of adult education derived from the l i t e r a t u r e are most completely encapsulated by Knowle's 'Andragogical Theory of Adult Learning' (Knowles, 1973). This i s not to suggest that the theory gave r i s e to the p r i n c i p l e s , or that, because i t encompasses most of the p r i n c i p l e s , i t i s necessarily the best theory to follow i n designing and managing adult education a c t i v i t i e s . Indeed, the 'theory' does not provide an adequate conceptual framework from which to plan and manage the details of adult education. I t i s rather an agglomeration of good management principles which can guide the general behavior of educators i n their task. The details of planning and management must rest on a more structured learning theory such as that of Gagne (Gagne § Briggs, 1974; Gagne, 1975). In spite of i t s limitations, Knowle's theory i s worth examining, at least because i t i s an attempt to interrelate a number of adult education principles. The theory derives, essentially, from these principles and thus has a rather poorly integrated foundation. Knowles recognizes this weakness and attempts to s h i f t the derivation of the theory to a lesser number of variables, thus, ..."Andragogical Theory i s based on at least four main  59 assumptions that are different from those of pedagogy."(Knowles, 1973, p.45). These assumptions are: 1) "...that as a person grows and matures his self-concept moves from one of t o t a l dependency to one of increasing self-directedness." (p.45) 2) "...that as an individual matures he accumulates an expanding reservoir of experience that causes him to become an increasingly r i c h resource for learning, and at the same time provides him with a broadening base to which to relate new learnings."(p.45) 3) "...that as an individual matures, his readiness to learn i s decreasingly the product of his b i o l o g i c a l development and academic pressure and i s increasingly the product of his developmental tasks required for the performance of his evolving social roles."(p.46) 4) "...that children have been conditioned to have a subject-centered orientation to most learning, whereas adults tend to have a problemcentered orientation to learning."(p.47). From the l i t e r a t u r e of adult education i t i s thus possible to identify a number of core principles of adult education which are generally applicable to the design and management of instruction. These can thereby form one set of target variables on which to evaluate an adult education program.  60 VI. PARTICIPANT BACKGROUND AND PARTICIPATION  The Adult Education Participant Johnstone § Rivera (1965), on the basis of t h e i r survey of adult education participants i n the United States, stated that ..."The f i r s t d i s t i n c t i v e feature of the participant i s that he i s younger than the average American adult."(p.6). But they observed that participants were about equally divided between men and women. Also, ..."The second outstanding feature of the participant i s that he i s better educated than the average adult ... Participants were also more l i k e l y to hold white-collar than blue-collar jobs and, i n addition, had median family incomes almost $1,200 higher than the average. Of these three indicators of socio-economic position, however (education, occupation and income), formal schooling was found to have by far the most powerful influence on rates of learning activity."(p.7). Boshier (1973) considers non-participation to be related causally to the same factors as i s dropout from a program. This thesis i s developed into a life-space, life-chance model outlined i n the following section, A fundamental concept of the model i s the positive relationship between non-participation (and dropout) and incongruence produced between the potential participant (or the dropout) and some components of the instructiona l setting. M i l l e r (1967) provides an alternative approach to the problem by using f o r c e - f i e l d analysis. He applies this procedure to different socioeconomic classes, for which he identifies alternative positive and negative forces encouraging and discouraging p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Verner § Davis (1964) reviewed the research l i t e r a t u r e on dropout and tested 26 personal and 18 situational factors which might contribute to  61 dropout. Their results, however, were inconclusive. Dickinson § Verner (1967) report on their studies of attendance and dropout patterns i n Canadian night school classes. They found that ..."In general, the persistent attenders were older, married house-wives who  had  children, while dropouts were younger and usually single."(p.24). A dropout was defined as one who was enrolled for the course but did not attend the f i n a l two sessions. Using this c r i t e r i o n they found an overall dropout of 27.81, but i n 'academic' subjects (including science courses) the average dropout was 39.1%. They found a similar d i f f e r e n t i a l i n the average d a i l y attendance, which was 63.51 o v e r a l l , but only 52.9% for the academic subjects.  The University Extension Participant i n New  Zealand  Recent research by Boshier (1969, 1970 § 1971a) provides material s p e c i f i c a l l y on participants i n V i c t o r i a University Extension programs. The s t a t i s t i c s , therefore, can be used as a basis for comparison with those of the present study. With regard to the university extension participants, Boshier (1969, p.131) concluded that they "...were well educated, of high socio-economic status, mostly work i n occupations which, for census purposes, are described as professional ... and"have probably participated i n some adult education a c t i v i t y before. If they were married, and have had a university education, they were less l i k e l y to drop-out than those who were single or of low educational attainment." He defined dropout, for most of his work, as "...a person, who, after being present for session 1 or 2 was absent for the mid-point session and four successive sessions of a continuing course." (1970, p.139). Boshier (1969) found fewer men  (35%) than women i n the extension  classes studied. Comparing the age d i s t r i b u t i o n of the participant population with that of the adult population i n the University Extension catchment area  62 (Boshier 1971a), he found the extension participants to be disproportionately young. The age figures were as follows (catchment area i n parentheses): 15-19 years, 7% (14%); 20-29 years, 46% (24%); 30-39 years, 21% (18%); 40-49 years, 17% (18%); 50-59 years, 7% (16%); and 60-69 years, 2% (10%). The distribution of highest academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n showed the university participant group to be essentially an educational e l i t e when compared with the national averages. The figures (Boshier, 1971a) were as follows (national averages i n parentheses): university degree or diploma, 28% (2%); teachers' or technical c e r t i f i c a t e , 28% (2%); university entrance or higher school c e r t i f i c a t e , 17% (4%); school c e r t i f i c a t e , 13% (5%); other q u a l i f i c a t i o n , 2% (4%); and no formal q u a l i f i c a t i o n 12% (83%). In the national census data referred to, the category 'other q u a l i f i c a t i o n ' i s broken down into: higher trade (2%), other trade (1%) and business college or shorthand c e r t i f i c a t e s (1%). Boshier (1971a) also found that, i n terms of occupational categories, the university extension role was heavily skewed toward the upper end of the scale when compared with both the national average and the extension catchment area (the Wellington urban area). The figures were as follows (Wellington urban work-force i n parentheses): professional and technical, 50% (14%); management and administration, 15% (6%); c l e r i c a l , and sales, 26% (35%); s k i l l e d , semi-skilled and unskilled, 8% (45%), m i l i t a r y personnel, 1% (<1%). Using the c r i t e r i o n mentioned e a r l i e r , Boshier (1969) found a dropout rate of 23% i n the general extension enrolment. Bagnall (1975) compiled s t a t i s t i c s on the participants i n the f i r s t three experimental study-research group projects. Compared with Boshier's figures f o r the university extension r o l e , he found an even higher proportion (47%) with university degrees, a s l i g h t l y higher proportion with no formal qualifications (17%), more with 'other qualifications' (8%),  fewer with teachers' or technical c e r t i f i c a t e s as their highest q u a l i f i c a t i o n (6%), and a s l i g h t l y lesser number with only university entrance or higher school c e r t i f i c a t e (14%), or with school c e r t i f i c a t e (81). He also obtained figures on previous participation i n education within the d i s c i p l i n e of the study-research group. Only eleven percent had not previously studied the subject. Twenty-five percent had done so as part of a university degree, and 64% i n adult education programs through university extension or the Workers Education Association. These l a s t two categories were not mutually exclusive. He found no significant difference i n the enrolment figures for men (51%) and women. While this contrasted markedly with Boshier's figures, s t a t i s t i c s taken from two annual reports (Dakin, 1973, 1974) revealed that non-science extension classes (arts, humanities, commerce, law and languages) had a d i s t r i b u t i o n similar to that shown by Boshier's study (30% men), but the sciences showed a d i s t r i b u t i o n similar to that i n the studyresearch groups (49% men). Bagnall's figures for age d i s t r i b u t i o n more closely followed the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Wellington urban area adult population than they did Boshier's figures for university extension participants. The figures were: 15-19 years (5%), 20-29 years (8%), 30-39 years (31%), 40-49 years (31%), 50-59 years (14%), and 60-69 years (11%). Compared with Boshier's s t a t i s t i c s the study-research groups, however, were more occupationally e l i t i s t , with 62% of the enrolment being professional and technical. The remaining d i s t r i b u t i o n was: management and administration (5%), c l e r i c a l and sales (5%), and s k i l l e d to unskilled (28%). This last figure, interestingly, being markedly higher than that i n the general extension enrolment. Bagnall also obtained data on the number of discipline-based societies to which a participant belonged and which were identifiable with  64  the subject of the study-research group. Eighty-five percent of the participants were found to belong to one or more such societies. He found a dropout rate of only 5%, which he compared with "...other extension science courses where rates of 501 and over are common at the end of a course."(p.24). However, i n terms of Boshier's d e f i n i t i o n there would have been no dropout i n the study-research groups. Mean daily attendance was 841. The average attendance was 71%,. 81%, and 100% i n each of the groups.  65 VII. MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS IN ADULT EDUCATION  Introduction Adult educators have long been interested i n the question of what motivates adults to participate i n particular adult education a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s f e l t that a better knowledge of why participants are present w i l l enable the instructor to more closely meet their needs, preventing them from dropping-out, and f a c i l i t a t i n g their learning of some relevant material. Styler (1950) reported on motivational studies i n Great B r i t a i n p r i o r to that time. He notes a study by Flood t\ Crossland (no reference given) i n which motives were c l a s s i f i e d into three groups: 1) 'vocational,' 2) 'general desire for knowledge,' and 3) 'societal and recreational.' Another reported study of t u t o r i a l class participants at Leeds recognized two categories: 1) 'personal and c u l t u r a l , ' and 2) 'social.' Whipple (1957) accepted three motivational categories: 1) 'vocational appeal,' 2) 'negative forces of defense against losses,' and 3) 'the urge to study as a result of a vocational interest or ambitions.' Dick (1964) claimed to have i d e n t i f i e d a factor of 'gregariousness,' on the grounds that adult education participants showed an overall higher did rate of participation i n community a c t i v i t i e s than/non-participants. He apparently f a i l e d to appreciate that both adult education participation and participation i n community a c t i v i t i e s are p o s i t i v e l y correlated with socio-economic status. Two psychological theories of motivation and need are frequently referred to by adult educators interested i n this problem. The f i r s t i s Maslow's (1954) 'hoiistic-dynamic theory of human motivation.' In this theory, Maslow postulates a needs 'hierarchy of prepotency.' Under normal circumstances unless needs lower i n the hierarchy (e.g. safety, belongingness) are substantially s a t i s f i e d , those higher up (esteem,  66 self-actualization) w i l l not be f e l t . The highest, and rarest, need i s said to be self-actualization, referring to the persistent s t r i v i n g of persons i n this category toward expression of their f u l l human potential. In spite of the stated rarety of self-actualizing persons, most l i b e r a l adult education i s scheduled on the basis of assumed motivation i n this category. The second general theory i s that of Havighurst (1952) who postulated a series of developmental tasks which w i l l become pressing at a certain time during human (including adult) development. These developmental tasks are said to be set by three forces: 1) the expectations of societal values, 2) the maturing and ageing of the body, and 3) the values and aspirations of the individual. The 'teachable moment,' at which an adult i s most l i k e l y to learn relevant material, i s at the time of personal r e a l i z a t i o n of the need to cope with each developmental task (Havighurst $ Orr, 1956). However, the strongest conceptualizing force which has guided recent research into motivation appears to be the typology developed by-Houle (1961). In this work he reports and discusses the results of detailed studies involving 22 selected continuing learners. Three types of orientation to learning were recognized: 1) 'goal-oriented' learners, those to whom education i s a means to the accomplishment of f a i l y clear-cut objectives; 2) 'activity-oriented' learners who participate for reasons which have no necessary connection (and often none at a l l ) to the announced purpose or content of the educational offering; and 3) 'learning-oriented' participants who are seeking knowledge for i t s own sake. This last category would coincide with Maslow's self-actualization  class.  Motivational Factor Studies Rased on Houle's Typology At about the time of Houle's study, a new procedure for the analysis of motivational data became available to researchers. This procedure of  67 factor analysis has since been applied by a number of researchers studying a variety of adult learning groups i n various countries. These authors have generally related their findings to Houle's typology and to the findings of previous factor analytic studies. The results and conclusions of most of these studies have been extensively reviewed elsewhere (Boshier, 1976; Dickinson § Clark, 1975), and no more than a summary i s warranted here. In each of these studies, one of three test item scales has been used: 1) Sheffield's (1964) 'continuing learning orientation index' (C.L.O.I.), 2) Boshier's (1971b) 'education participation scale' (E.P.S.), and 3) Burgess' (1971) 'reasons for educational participation' scale (R.E.P.). Table 7 shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of factors obtained. From t h i s , one can see that 12 factors have been i d e n t i f i e d by different authors, and of these only seven with any frequency (numbers 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, § 12). I t i s important to note, i n this regard, that the factors i d e n t i f i e d i n a study are substantially dependent on the items which one uses i n the survey instrument. As Boshier (1976, p.30) states, "...a factor can emerge simply because everyone i n a sample indicated they were not enrolled for the reasons described." For the purposes of comparison with the results of the present study, the following definitions have been accepted for the seven important factors i d e n t i f i e d i n Table 7. 1) Personal goal. "The personal-goal oriented learners are those who use education as the means of accomplishing f a i r l y clear-cut personal objectives." (Sheffield, 1964, p.17). 2) Professional goal. "The common theme ... i s that participants are enrolled i n order to acquire basic knowledge, attitudes, or s k i l l s that w i l l help them obtain or hold jobs..."(Hagg, 1976, p.32). 4) Social welfare. "Individuals scoring high on this dimension view their education as preparation for participation i n community a f f a i r s and 'service'  TABLE 7 ( a ) — Motivational factors identified by selected authors. The bottom row identifies the t i t l e used this study. Abbreviations following authorities refer to the instrument used. Factor goal orientation  Author Houle (1961) Boshier (1971b) E.P.S.  inner-other directed advancement  professional Boshier (1977) advancement E.P.S. Burgess (1971) desire to R.E.P. reach a personal goal  social welfare desire to reach a social goal  Dickinson § Clark (1975) C.L.0.1.  occupational orientation  societal orientation  Grabowski (1976) R.E.P.  desire to reach a personal goal  professional orientation desire f o r intellectual security job competence professional advancement  Haag (1976) E.P.S. Morstain § Smart (1974) E.P.S.  desire to reach social goal social welfare social welfare  Riddell (1976) E.P.S.  social welfare  personal goal Sheffield (1964) C.L.0.1. orientation  social goal orientation  Zack (1976) E.P.S. 1. personal goal  external expectations desire to com- desire to ply with form- reach a r e l a l requireigious goal ments  external expectations external expectations  professional advancement  social welfare  external expectations  2. profession- 3. i n t e l l e c t ual security a l goal  4. social welfare  5. external expectations  6. religious goal  TABLE 7(b)—Motivational factors identified by selected authors. The bottom row identifies the t i t l e used i n this study. Abbreviations following authorities refer to the instrument used. Author  Factor  Houle (1961)  a c t i v i t y orientation  Boshier (1971b) E.P.S. Boshier (1977) escape/ E.P.S. stimulation Burgess (1971) desire to R.E.P. escape  learning orientation  social contact  s e l f vs. other educational centerdness preparation cognitive interest  desire to take part i n social activity  desire to know  Dickinson § Clark (1975) C.L.0.1.  r e l i e f from boredom § frustration  sociability orientation  Grabowski (1976) R.E.P.  desire to escape  desire to take desire to part i n social study alone activity  desire to know  Haag (1976) E.P.S. Morstain § Smart (1974) E.P.S.  escape stimulation  social contact  cognitive interest  escape stimulation  social relationships  cognitive interest  Riddell (1976) E.P.S.  escape/ stimulation  social contact  cognitive interest  Sheffield (1964) C.L.0.1. Zack (1976) E.P.S.  interactive orientation  sociability orientation  need f u l f i l l ment orientation  escape/ stimulation 7. escape/ stimulation  learning orientation  learning orientation cognitive interest  8. social contact  9. individual study  10. a c t i v i t y need  11. self-other 12. cognitive centerdness interest  70 to mankind i n general." (Morstain § Smart, 1974, p.87). 5) External expectations. "Individuals who score high on this factor are seeking to f u l f i l l the expectations of others as opposed to their own i n t r i n s i c needs or desires." (Morstain § Smart, 1974, p.86). 7) Escape / stimutation. "...the desire to escape from some other a c t i v i t y or situation which i s unpleasant  or tedious." (Burgess, 1971, p.24). Also,  ..."Individuals who score high on this dimension tend to view their p a r t i c i pation i n college courses as a means of r e l i e f from everyday boredom and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , providing a contrast to their daily routine and overcoming the frustrations of day-to-day l i f e . " (Morstain § Smart, 1974, p.87). 8) Social contact, "...the desire to take part i n a social a c t i v i t y because the a c t i v i t y i s enjoyed for i t s own sake^"(Burgess, 1971, pp.23-24). 12) Cognitive interest, "...a desire to gain knowledge for the sake of knowing: to grow i n qualities and i n t e l l e c t and appreciation, to desire pleasure from learning, to enjoy mental exercises, and to remain i n command of learning s k i l l s . " (Burgess, 1971, p.18). The general conclusion from straight factor studies i s well stated by Sheffield (1964) who observes that a l l of the orientations i d e n t i f i e d are l i k e l y to be represented by adult learners i n any given adult education group of any reasonable s i z e , and that ..."Adult educators must recognize that adult learners come to continuing education a c t i v i t i e s with a variety of personal and educational objectives that are not necessarily consistent with the stated objective of the educational undertaking."  (p.22).  Research Extending Motivational Factors M i l l e r i\ McGuire (1961) note that regardless of what i s a particular participant's motivation for attending, i t i s unlikely to coincide with the aim of the instructor. As a way of a l l e v i a t i n g this they propose the application of 'dissonance theory,' which has relevance to the study-research  71 group process. To quote, " . . . i f the instructor creates dissonance by, for example, presenting the student with a considerable number of reasonable solutions to some single problem, he may create a situation which motivates the student toward adopting more rational modes of behaving i n situations that require a judgement."(p.26). Sheffield (1964) found the participant scoring on cognitive interest and social welfare factors to be positively correlated with participation and adult education a c t i v i t i e s . Boshier (1973) discusses a growth-deficiency model, i n which participants are regarded as either 'growth motivated' or 'deficiency motivated.' Growth motivated individuals are said to be 'expressing rather than coping,' and impelled primarily by inner determinants, whereas deficiency motivated persons are impelled by environmental factors and social pressure. Later, Boshier (1977) renamed these 'life-chance' (=deficiency) and  'life  space' (=growth) motivations. Motivational factors identified with l i f e chance are: escape/stimulation, professional goal and external expectations. Those i d e n t i f i e d with l i f e space are social welfare and cognitive interest. Testing some of the implications of this model with regard to selected independent variables Haag (1976) concluded that  "...continuous  learners tended to be growth motivated while sporadic learners tended to be deficiency motivated. Older participants, i n comparison to younger p a r t i c i pants, were growth motivated while younger participants were deficiency motivated. High socio-economic status participants tended to be growth motivated while low socio-economic participants tended to be deficiency motivated." (p.ii). Riddell (1976) examined the relationship between the escape/stimulation factor and psycho-social variables among older adults. She found that ..."Respondents motivated to attend for Escape/Stimulation manifested low levels of l i f e satisfaction, adjustment to developmental tasks of later  72 l i f e and social p a r t i c i p a t i o n ... [They also] tended to have lower educational background and previous job level than those who were not motivated by Escape/Stimulation  motives."(p.i).  Boshier (1977), however, found somewhat contradictory results i n a study of his life-space, life-chance model, and concluded, ...'The fact that several variables correlated with some 'life-chance' factors and not others suggests the life-chance/life-space continum may not be as unitary as was suggested..."(p.112). But he did find a positive correlation between socioeconomic indices and life-space motivation. Peters § Boshier (1976), in, summarizing the findings of motivational research observe, ..."Motives for p a r t i c i p a t i o n appear to be surface manifestations of psychological states which are i n turn related to developmental tasks and psycho-social conditions that characterize various age and socio-economic groups."(p.204).  Motivational Factors i n Relation to Science Adult Education The author i s not aware of any recent studies i n which the motivationa l factors i n science or research-based adult education are s p e c i f i c a l l y considered. However, the key conclusion from the foregoing review —  that  most adult learning groups of a reasonable size are l i k e l y to include learners with a l l of the main motivational orientations —  i s probably  generalizable to this area. In his review of the B r i t i s h motivational l i t e r a t u r e Styler (1950) draws two relevant conclusions: 1) "In Social and P o l i t i c a l subjects, and i n the Natural Sciences, the chief motive i s interest i n the world i n which the students live."(p.110) and 2) "Vocational motives appear to be more powerful i n the natural sciences than i n any other subject."(p.Ill). Such statements, the second i n particular, must be regarded as potentially dependent on the type of courses studied.  73 Emmelin (1976) relates the findings expressed by Styler to the poor development of adult education i n the f i e l d of environmental  science,  ..."Motives for participating i n most adult education programmes are related either to expectations of better jobs due to increased knowledge and/or a r t i f i c i a t i o n , or to hobby interests. This may be [the] reason for the lack of p a r a l l e l  increase i n environmental education with adult education ... At  present, job expectations w i l l bring only a small proportion of the adult population to environmental education. The importance of conservation education, which broadens to environmental education, has been pointed out and i s relevant to hobby interests."(p.51).  The Relationship Between Motivation and Interest For the purposes of interpretating questionnaire results, the relationship between motivation and interests i s of importance, since many participants would have d i f f i c u l t y i n differentiating one from the other. Atwood § E l l i s (1971) see an interest as being closely akin to a ' f e l t need,' which i s "...something regarded as necessary by the person or persons concerned,"(p.212). Bergevin et a l (1963, p.29) view the relationship thus, ..."Needs and interests are interrelated. Interests usually point toward needs. An interest i s usually the expression of a need we f e e l . When our needs and interests coincide we are usually motivated toward a learning experience." GagneS (1976, pp.28-29) sees an even more direct relationship, ...'The preparation for learning i s accomplished by instruction which activates motivation by appealing to student interests." M i l l e r § McGuire (1961) take an instructionally similar view i n their discussion of setting objectives for the evaluation of l i b e r a l studies programs. They suggest that i f one's category of behavioral concern i s motivation, then one's objectives and the evaluation items should be addressed to participant interests.  74 VIII. PROGRAM DESIGN AND PUBLICITY  The process being evaluated i n this study has been identified as a technique. Features of the programming method i n which the technique was structured are, therefore, s t r i c t l y not v a l i d l y included i n the evaluation. However, the assumption should be made that most participants would not be able f u l l y to separate components of the technique from those of the method. Programming then becomes a feature of the evaluation i n that any major incongruency, between participant preferences and the actual structure of the program i n which the technique i s run and tested, i s l i k e l y to be generalized by participants. The incongruency could thereby affect the participants evaluation of the technique. This would be so p a r t i c u l a r l y when variables such as dropout rate are being used as a measure of participant i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the technique. But, more generally, an individual highly incongruent with one aspect of the program, would find i t very d i f f i c u l t to avoid l e t t i n g this color his or her attitude to other aspects. Another area of program importance i n this regard i s the adequacy with which the pre-enrolment brochure described important features of the course. Clearly, i f the brochure i s misleading, or inadequately describes the processes involved, persons may enrol on the basis of factors perceived i n the brochure or inferred from i t but which are not features of the course. If this occurs the resulting dissatisfaction could seriously affect the evaluation.  75 IX. SUMMARY AM) RESEARCH HYPOTHESES  Summary The foregoing review provides a conceptual basis on which to base an evaluation of the technique. Section I shows the nature of the program into which the technique being evaluated was structured; the conclusion being that the program was of the l i b e r a l studies type. Section II looks at the kinds of needs which lay behind development of the technique. These were, p a r t i c u l a r l y , related to the necessity for a technique which provided instruction i n the sciences with emphasis on cognitive research s k i l l s rather than verbal information and motor s k i l l learning. Section I I I gives a b r i e f overview of learning theories applicable to adult education. One theory, Gagne's Learning Systems theory i s outlined i n greater d e t a i l because of i t s greater s u i t a b i l i t y over a variety of adult instructional situations. The learning outcomes i n Gagne's model were chosen for use i n the evaluation. Section TV covers processes of adult education. The process being evaluated i s categorized as a technique and, for comparative purposes, a tentative c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of techniques i s developed. The categories i n this c l a s s i f i c a t i o n are then related to the desired learning outcomes, both from a l i t e r a t u r e research and semi-theoretically on the basis of information about each technique category. The relative generalizability of techniques and devices i s considered since i t could have a bearing on more widespread use of the technique. F i n a l l y , research-based education i s analyzed i n terms of learning outcomes, so that appropriate emphasis may be placed on particular outcomes i n the evaluation.  76 Section V i s a summative review of adult education principles. The principles identified provide an additional set of target variables which are more learner-centered than the content-oriented learning outcomes of Gagne's theory. Section VI i s a b r i e f examination of background and participational patterns of adult education participants, especially those i n New Zealand university extension programs. The studies selected for more detailed summary are concerned with programs which are closely identifiable with the one being studied. They thus provide a point of reference for the present study. Section VII i s a review of the motivational orientation l i t e r a t u r e , the purpose being to identify motivational factors which may be expressed by participants i n this program. Derivative studies, i n which the factors are related to other variables, are only b r i e f l y reviewed since the present study i s not designed to provide for such analysis. Section VIII identifies the relationship between participant evaluation of the technique and reaction to components of program design and management. On the basis of the perceived relationship i t i s argued that programming features should be taken into account i n technique evaluation.  Research Hypotheses From the foregoing conceptual base, the following research hypotheses were generated as a basis for the evaluation. 1) General Hypothesis • That the technique, as evaluated by the participants, i s a satisfactory one for the learning of research-based content, to the extent that no more than 25% of the respondents rate the technique as poorly or doubtfully suitable for attainment of the learning outcomes.  77 Specific Hypotheses: a) that no more than 251 of respondents rate the technique as poorly or doubtfully suitable as a means of integrating the learning of verbal information with that of the appropriate s k i l l s by which the information can be applied to the solution of problems; b) that no more than 25% of respondents rate the technique as poorly or doubtfully suitable as a means of developing higher order rules and cognitive strategies for the solution of problems; c) that no more than 25% of respondents rate the technique as poorly or doubtfully suitable as a means of developing a more informed and c r i t i c a l attitude toward research. 2) General Hypothesis That the technique conforms to important principles of adult education, to the extent that no more than 12% of respondents rate the technique as unsuitable for r e a l i z a t i o n of the principles. Specific Hypotheses: a) that no more than 12% of respondents rate the technique as unsuitable as a means of maintaining high motivation; b) that, as reflections, of motivation, mean daily attendance i s greater than 55%, and dropout (using Boshier's criterion) i s less than 20%; c) that no more than 12% of respondents rate the technique as unsuitable as a means of f a c i l i t a t i n g individual pace of learning and level of involvement; d) that no more than 12% of respondents rate the technique as unsuitable as a means of providing for practice with reinforcement of correct behavior; e) that no more than 12% of respondents rate the technique as unsuitable as a means of u t i l i z i n g group influences on learning; f) that no more than 12% of respondents rate the technique as unsuitable as a means of ensuring relevance of the material to the learner;  g) that no more than 12% of respondents rate the technique as unsuitable as a means of ensuring meaningfulness of the material to the learner; , h) that no more than 12% of respondents rate the technique as unsuitable as a means of enabling individuals to u t i l i z e their previous learning; i ) that no more than 12% of respondents rate the technique as unsuitable as a means of f a c i l i t a t i n g learner self-evaluation. 3) General Hypothesis That the technique can provide, simultaneously i n one c l a s s , meaningful educational experiences for individuals of widely varying pre-entry educational, b i o l o g i c a l , and socio-economic backgrounds. Specific Hypotheses: a) that there i s no significant correlation between participant age and the learning evaluation,and response scores; b) that there i s no significant correlation between sex of the participants and the learning evaluation and response scores; c) that there i s no significant correlation between socio-economic status and the learning evaluation and response scores; d) that there i s no significant correlation between background i n research and the learning evaluation and response scores; e) that there i s no significant correlation between previous formal noncredit study i n the d i s c i p l i n e of the study-research group and the learning evaluation and response scores; f) that there i s no significant correlation between previous formal credit study i n the d i s c i p l i n e of the study-research group and the learning evaluation and response scores; g) that there i s no significant correlation between the previous number of adult education courses taken and the learning evaluation and response scores h) that there i s no significant correlation between the highest level of c e r t i f i c a t e d academic attainment and the learning evaluation and response  79  scores; i ) that there i s no significant correlation between the type of adult education i n s t i t u t i o n previously attended and the learning evaluation and response scores; j ) that respondent evaluation of background adequacy, between those p a r t i c i pants with, and those without a background i n research, does not d i f f e r by more than 251 i n any one category. 4) General Hypothesis That the technique can s a t i s f y a wide range of course-entry  motivations.  Specific Hypothesis a) That the correlations between scoring of important course-entry motivational items and satisfaction of the associated expectations are either weak or p o s i t i v e . 5) General Hypothesis That, within the l i m i t s of the test items used, motivational orientations of the participants are similar to those i d e n t i f i e d i n other studies. Specific Hypothesis a) That a factor analysis of the course-entry motivational items w i l l reveal factors similar to those i d e n t i f i e d i n other studies i n so far as appropriate items are included i n the instrument. 6) General Hypothesis That meaningful participational factors can be i d e n t i f i e d and related to the motivational factors, and together form a basis for the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of participants i n each study-research group. Specific Hypotheses: a) that meaningful participational factors exist among the items pertaining to: educational background, socio-economic status, personal attributes, evaluation of the technique, and preferred structuring of such programs;  80 b) that these participational factors can be related meaningfully to the motivational factors; c) that the respondent scores on the motivational and participational factors can be used to provide a reasonable measure of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n for p a r t i c i pants of each study-research group. 7) General Hypothesis That participants express general satisfaction with the program design and p u b l i c i t y , i n that the type of structure preferred i s closely similar to that of the program participated i n . Specific Hypotheses: a) that the majority of respondents prefer course reading material to be a mixture of hand-out papers and references given; b) that not more than 12% of the respondents prefer a mean group size outside the range of 10-20 persons; c) that not more than 25% of the respondents indicate d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the lack of intergroup contact during the course; d) that not more than 25% of the respondents prefer prescheduling of meetings to scheduling by the group; e) that not more than 25% of the respondents prefer half-day length meetings to full-day meetings; f) that not more than 25% of the respondents consider the course to have been too long; g) that not more than 12% of the respondents express the desire for more formal instruction, a formal prerequisite course, or for better structuring of the program; h) that, with regard to 1) the nature of the course subject matter, 2) the course technique, and 3) the expected time commitment, not more than 12% of the respondents score as poor the descriptive information i n the program. brochure.  81 CHAPTER I I I  METHODS  I. THE EVALUATION INSTRUMENT  The evaluation i s based on a questionnaire (App.C) mailed to each participant f i v e weeks after termination of the course. A personal l e t t e r (App.B) accompanied the questionnaire. Towards the end of the course specific mention was made to participants of an impending questionnaire, and of the d e s i r a b i l i t y of their completing and returning it.The time lag between course termination and d i s t r i b u t i o n of the questionnaire was intended to give participants the opportunity to consider and evaluate their attitudes to the program. The items i n the questionnaire are derived from the conceptual basis to the study, through the research hypotheses. However, some variations should be noted. F i r s t l y , i n formulating questions on learning outcomes i t was not considered to be good procedure to separate motor s k i l l learning from i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s since the former were appropriate i n only f i v e of the six groups. In terms of the desired learning outcomes, motor s k i l l s were to be learned, i n any case, only as far as was necessary for the achievement of each problem-solving task. Also, no specific mention was made of cognitive strategies since, as a concept, they are d i f f i c u l t to comprehend, and by their nature cannot be assessed r e l i a b l y through a subjective questionnaire. However, a general question directed toward this s k i l l was included i n the questionnaire. Secondly not a l l of the identified principles of adult education were included i n the questionnaire. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the following were  82 excluded: numbers two and seven ('maintain adult autonomy' and 'provide a secure learning environment') since these were considered to be more a function of individual instructor style and a b i l i t y , than a characteristic of the technique used; number four ('make allowance for psychological and physiological ages') since this was covered by number three ('allow f o r individual pace and level of learning'); numbers 11 and 13 ('ensure active involvement i n learning' and 'provide for learner involvement i n course planning and management') since they are so fundamental to the technique that a question on them would not be meaningful to participants; and numbers 12, 14 and 15 ('provide f o r learner involvement i n needs diagnosis,' 'ensure learner knowledge of expected behavior' and ' f a c i l i t a t e learner awareness of behavioral inadequacy') because the concepts involved would have been confusing, for many participants, i n r e l a t i o n to the project. This l a s t class of principles i s , nevertheless, considered to be a feature of the technique. Thirdly, i n choosing course-entry motivational items, i t was intended to keep the section as small as possible. The need f o r this arose out of the already discouragingly large size of the questionnaire. Course-entry motivations, while very interesting, were not an essential component of the evaluation, so their number was kept small. Rather than attempt to decimate the items on instruments such as Boshier's Educational Participation Scale, i t was decided to use a set of items from an e a r l i e r evaluation of the study-research group technique (Bagnall, 1975) and thereby to at least retain some comparability. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of usable questionnaire returns across the groups i s shown i n Table 8. The t o t a l of 65 represents a 11% return on the o r i g i n a l enrolment.  83 TABLE 8 — Usable questionnaire returns i n relation to the t o t a l enrolment i n each group. History Geology Enrolments Returns  15 8  17 15  Botany 15 13  F'w. Ornith. Mammal. Total Biology 14 9 • 14 84 12 6 11 65  I I . VARIABLES USED IN THE ANALYSIS  Most of the variables used i n the analysis were derived d i r e c t l y from the questionnaire items. The exceptions are noted here, F i r s t l y , 'occupation' was converted into a socio-economic status index on the basis of the scale developed by Elley § Irving (1972). This scale has been developed from New Zealand census data by using occupational categories and weighting them with an index comprising median educational attainment and income (equally weighted) of individuals i n the occupational category. Only the s i x major socio-economic categories of Elley § Irving were used, each participant being placed i n one of these from the seventy occupations i d e n t i f i e d by the authors. The scale i s , unfortunately, based only on the male working population, as are the following figures of national d i s t r i b u t i o n i n each class, 'one' being the highest class: one (5.8%), two (19.3%), three (13.3%), four (28.2%), f i v e (21.3%), and s i x (12.1%). However, i n the present study a l l retired persons, housewives, etc. were placed according to their previous occupational l e v e l . Secondly, a dichotomous variable ('with' or 'without') was developed to measure whether an individual had some occupational or higher educational background i n research. It was derived from the given information on occupation and education. Only a post-graduate degree was taken as educational evidence of research background. Positions such as technician and s c i e n t i s t were accepted as occupational evidence of a research background.  84 Thirdly, a t o t a l number of adult education courses previously taken was obtained from summing those relevant to the d i s c i p l i n e of the group, and 'other' such courses.. Fourthly, i n coding the organizing i n s t i t u t i o n for the adult education courses taken, an ordinal variable was created by scaling the i n s t i t u t i o n i n terms of i t s i n s t i t u t i o n a l s i m i l a r i t y with university extension (4 = university, 3 = W.E.A., 2 = secondary school evening class, 1 = other). Each respondent was scored only according to h i s or her highest i n s t i t u t i o n on this scale. F i f t h l y , i n coding the responses to the question on preferred group size of study-research groups, a number of respondents gave a range. Because responses were coded as absolute numbers, i n these cases the midpoint of the range was recorded. F i n a l l y , i n cases where respondents were invited to comment on their replies to previous questions, the comments were clustered on the-basis of content s i m i l a r i t y .  I I I . ANALYSIS OF THE DATA  1.  For the general hypotheses numbers 1 - 4  and 7 (sections I - V and  VIII i n the r e s u l t s ) , the following s t a t i s t i c s were derived from the relevant items: mean univariate frequency distribution and t o t a l percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n . Where bivariate analyses were required, the s t a t i s t i c s obtained were: frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n , horizontal percentage, v e r t i c a l percentage, t o t a l percentage, c h i square analysis with probability, and a correlation coefficient with probability. The correlation coefficient i n any particular case was obtained with the appropriate method for the type of data (Freeman, 1965): 1) f o r ordinal-ordinal variables, Goodman's and Kruskal's gamma (y); 2) f o r  85 nominal-ordinal variables, Freeman's coefficient of determination, theta (<?); and 3) for nominal-nominal variables, Guttman's lambda (_0. 2.  For general hypotheses 5 and 6 (sections VI L\ VII i n the results)  the following procedures were used (Gorsuch, 1974). — The motivational items (App.D) were factored from a correlation matrix on the raw scoring of each item. Item eight ('it l e t me out of some domestic chores') was eliminated as i t included no score above zero. A l l seven factors with eigenvalues greater than 1.0 were orthogonally rotated using the Varimax procedure to permit comparison with the participational factors. Factor scores, computed from regression coefficients, were normalized so that factor score covariances equalled zero. Items were included i n a factor only i f they showed a minimum loading of ±0.4, and were then used as the basis f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the factors. Participational items (App.D) were factored from a correlation matrix based on the raw scoring of each item. Eleven factors emerged with eigenvalues greater than one. These were obliquely rotated using Kaiser's ' l i t t l e j i f f y ' procedure. The factors were i d e n t i f i e d primarily on the basis of items which had minimum loadings of 0.4. Factor scores were produced from regression coefficients. Inter-factor correlation coefficients and covariances were calculated from the factor loadings and factor scores. To uncover interrelationships among clusters of motivational and participational issues, a second factoring and rotation, this time orthoblique, was limited to eight factors. These were given factor scores and identified with the same procedure as outlined for the motivational factors. To test the relationship between the orthogonally rotated motivational and participational factors correlation coefficients of the factor scores were determined. Stepwise discriminant analysis was used to test the degree to which  86 the factors were functions of study-research group membership. This was done by taking the groups as independent variables, and the motivational and participational factors as dependent variables, with participant factor scores as the scale items. Inclusion of both sets of factors was j u s t i f i e d on the grounds of the low correlation coefficients between factors i n the two sets. The analysis involved the computation of a set of linear c l a s s i f i cation functions by choosing independent variables i n a stepwise manner u n t i l the F-probabilities exceeded 0.05. Canonical variables were used to predict the group to which each respondent should belong, using two procedures: 1) the standard method (Kelly et aL, 1969) which uses the o r i g i n of the pooled means of the o r i g i n a l variables i n evaluating the canonical variables, and 2) Cooley § Lohnes' (1962) 'centroid' procedure.  87 CHAPTER TV  RESULTS  I . CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PARTICIPANTS  Sex The participant population was s l i g h t l y predominated by men (57%). This i s intermediate between the approximately equal d i s t r i b u t i o n found i n science extension courses, and the women-dominated general extension role (65% women).  Age  The age d i s t r i b u t i o n of participants, i s shown, with others for comparison, i n Figure 3. The d i s t r i b u t i o n i s generally more similar to that of the previous study-research groups and the Wellington adult urban population than i t i s to the general extension enrolment. The peak i n participation between 20 and 29 years, found by Boshier, i s not present. The participant population i s uniformly older, with higher percentages i n the 30 and over groups and lower percentages below 30 than are recorded by Boshier. In f a c t , there are no participants recorded below 20 years of age,  Socio-Economic Status The participant d i s t r i b u t i o n on the basis of socio-economic  status  i s shown, with the New Zealand adult male d i s t r i b u t i o n , i n Figure 4. The figures reveal an extremely skewed d i s t r i b u t i o n of the participant population toward the higher socio-economic categories. The categories are not necessarily s t r i c t l y comparable to those of Boshier (1971a) or Bagnall (1975). However, classes one, two and three  88 FIGURE 3 Age distributions of four groups: the participants, the university extension enrolment i n 1969, the adult population of the Wellington urban area (both Boshier, 1971a), and the e a r l i e r study-research group participants (Bagnall, 1975) 50—,  I*  45"  ^  40-  Wellington urban area university extension enrolment e a r l i e r study-research groups participants i n the present study  35-J tn  31  rt  rH  o  <D be rt  30 H  31  29  28  •s rt <u  C 2S-\ •H  23  I/) i-H  rt >  21 20H  I 18  18  •H  is-\  10H  14  I 15-19  II II § I II m m 20-29  30-39  40-49  age i n years  16  1I 14J.4  10  11  m =  50-59  60-69  89 FIGURE 4 Socio-economic status distribution of participants compared with the New Zealand adult male population (Elley § Irving, 1972)  60-,  New Zealand adult male population participant population  1 . 2 3 professional management c l e r i c a l $ § technical § admin. sales  4 skilled  5 6 semiskilled unskilled  socio-economic status classes  90 of the present study are approximately equivalent to: 1 — professional and technical, 2 — management and adminstration, and 3 — c l e r i c a l and sales. Classes four, f i v e and s i x , together, are approximately equivalent to the category of s k i l l e d , semiskilled and unskilled. Despite limitations to direct comparability, the ratios i n Table 9 give a reasonable idea of the comparative distributions within the three studies. The table shows that i n class one (professional and technical), participants were disproportionately represented r e l a t i v e to the national population by a factor of 9.6. In the previous study-research group evaluation, the ratio of participants to Wellington urban population was 4.4,  and  in Boshier's study of the general extension participant population, 3.6. The markedly greater representation i n the present study compared with the previous two probably would be reduced somewhat i f the divisor were the Wellington work-force figure and not the national figure. However, the even greater socio-economic e l i t i s m of the participants i n this program r e l a t i v e to those of the e a r l i e r studies would remain. The ratios i n the other classes are similar between studies excepting the greater representation of class three ( c l e r i c a l and sales) i n the present case.  Educational Background The d i s t r i b u t i o n of highest academic qualifications (fig.5) compares closely with that of the e a r l i e r study-research groups, excepting the higher proportion i n the "teachers or technical c e r t i f i c a t e ' category —  probably  r e f l e c t i n g a greater proportion of teachers i n the present study. This relative increase i n c e r t i f i c a t e d participants was not taken from the degreeholding class (which i s s l i g h t l y greater) but from a l l of the lower categories. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of participant's highest qualifications follows the same trend as that of the general extension population, which shows a disproportionate representation of the better qualified c i t i z e n r y , especially  91 those with university degrees and c e r t i f i c a t e s . While this i s an attribute of adult education i n general, and of university extension i n p a r t i c u l a r , i t i s even more marked i n the study-research group participant population.  TABLE 9 — Ratios by socio-economic class, of: 1) general extension enrolment and the Wellington urban population (Boshier, 1971a), 2) early study-research group participants and the Wellington urban population (Bagnall, 1975), and 3) participants i n the present program and the New Zealand adult male population. Socio-Economic Class Population (Ratio Dividend) 1) university extension 2) early studyresearch groups 3) participants i n present program  1 2 professional management § § technical administration  3 clerical § sales  4, 5 § 6 skilled, semiskilled, unskilled  3.6  2.5 '  0.7  0.2  4.4  0.8  0.1  0.6  9.6  1.0  1.5  0.1  Figure 6 shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of previous credit study i n the d i s c i p l i n e of the study-research group to which each participant belonged. The. pattern i s similar to that found for the e a r l i e r study-research group participants i n which 25% had university-level experience (29% i n the present study), and 20% had other t e r t i a r y or upper-level secondary school work (18% i n the present study). The d i s t r i b u t i o n of previous adult-education courses  (non-credit)  taken i n the d i s c i p l i n e of the participant's study-research group ( f i g . 7) shows a marked reduction i n the present study. Only 20% had taken two or more courses (61% i n the e a r l i e r study), although 11% had taken one course (3% i n the e a r l i e r study). However, the percentage of participants who  had  previously taken one or more adult education courses i n any subject (fig.8) was up to 75%.  92 FIGURE 5 Highest academic qualifications of four groups: the participants, the New Zealand adult population, the general university extension enrolment (Boshier, 1971 a), and the e a r l i e r study-research croup participants(Bagnall, 1975). ' 90-  £3 national average  85-  ^  university extension enrolment  80-  e a r l i e r study-research groups  75.  the present study  7065. tn  60-  D  Doctorate  H  Honors or Masters  B  Baccalaureate  1  o 55CO CD •H  50  50-  47  % 45•"d  •D?  ! 83  5 20  •H  £ 40-  1  :H*  •H  «*» 3530-  25  2520-  la  15 IDS'  2  I  S  university 0- degree  i I  28  28  17 14  4  13  I ____  teachers' or technical certificate highest  university school other entrance certifqualifor higher icate ication school certificate academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n  i  17 11  no formal qualification  FIGURE 6 Previous credit education i n the d i s c i p l i n e of the study-research group.  FIGURE 7 Previous non-credit (adult) education i n the d i s c i p l i n e of the study-research group. 70  60-  60-J  50-  50 i  o  to v CO  69  n  40H 40-  o 30-J  30  to  A  0  C O P<  20  20 J  20 H  20  to  (D  JH  11  10 4  10 4  graduate  undergraduate  other  school,  school  two or  one  t e r t i a r y seventh  sixth  more  course  form highest level of education  form  no courses  courses number of courses  94 FIGURE 8 Total number of previous adult education (non-credit) courses taken i n a l l subjects, 40 -,  35  30-1 c |20H IA  20  20  25  PH  £ 10-1 three or more courses  two courses  one course  none  number of courses  FIGURE 9 Organizing i n s t i t u t i o n for previously taken adult education courses. Only one i n s t i t u t i o n — t h a t most closely i d e n t i f i a b l e with the u n i v e r s i t y — i s plotted for each participant. 90 -, 82 80 70 60 5 50 H  £40 H 30 _ 20 10  10 0 university extension  W.E.A.  secondary school evening  organizing i n s t i t u t i o n  other  95 Combining the preceding two items, i t i s found that only 35% of the respondents had neither credit nor non-credit prior education i n the d i s c i p l i n e of their study-research groups. From Figure 9 i t can be seen that of those participants who previously had taken adult education courses (75% of respondents), 82% had taken one or more with the university, 10% with the Workers Education Association (W.E.A.) and the remaining 8% from other i n s t i t u t i o n s . This represents a strong p r i o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with university extension work. The general skewing toward high previous educational involvement in the d i s c i p l i n e of the group and i n university extension courses i n general, may well be related partly to the course p u b l i c i t y procedures. Fifty-two percent of respondents indicated that they f i r s t heard of the project on receiving a copy of the brochure. These persons must a l l have been i d e n t i f i e d by the university extension s t a f f as individuals with a previous involvement i n extension or a discipline-based society. Of the remaining 48 percent of respondents, the distribution of f i r s t knowledge of the project was as follows: personal contact, 14%; seeing the brochure on a notice board or similar place, 14%; verbal information from extension department s t a f f , 9%; from reading a newspaper a r t i c l e , 6%; or a newspaper advertisment, 5%. Forty-six percent of the participants were considered to have a background i n research, either through postgraduate study or through their occupations.  Conclusions The participant group reflected, reasonably closely, the adult population of the catchment area with regard to sex and age distributions. However, the distributions of socio-economic status and highest academic qualifications show the participants to have been disproportionately inclusive  96 of the high status and better educated groups. Thus, the program evidently was more attractive to persons i n such groups, either through i t s own appeal, or through the selective directing of p u b l i c i t y . The fact that 75% of the respondents had studied previously i n adult education- courses, and of these 85% with university extension, suggests that selective p u b l i c i t y may be an important factor. There was a general, although not disturbingly high, proportion of respondents (65%) who had participated previously i n education concerned with the d i s c i p l i n e of their group. It can be concluded that many of these persons had not studied the subject f o r some time. This i s supported by the fact that only 31% of the respondents had attended previously adult education courses i n the d i s c i p l i n e of their group, together with the predominantly middleaged respondent population, and the generally undergraduate or lower d i s t r i b u t i o n of previous credit study.  97  II. THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO THE LEARNING OF RESEARCH-BASED CONTENT  The general hypothesis for this section i s that the technique, as evaluated by the participants, i s a satisfactory one for the learning of research-based content, to the extent that no more than 25% of the respondents rate the technique as poorly or doubtfully suitable for attainment of the learning outcomes. Each of the three specific hypotheses i s directed to a learning outcome identified as important i n the conceptual basis for the study. These outcomes (higher i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s , cognitive strategies, and attitude to research) were associated with four items i n the evaluation questionnaire. Since, i n this section, the interpretation of results of each questionnaire item i s c r i t i c a l l y dependent on the form of the question, the essential components of each question are repeated here: 1) the technique provides a means of teaching research-based subjects as they r e a l l y are, namely an integration of existing information and research; 2) an object of the project was to increase your understanding of the studyresearch group subject as a f i e l d of study (not merely as a c o l l e c t i o n of facts and explanations); 3) an objective of the project was to increase your a b i l i t y to analyze, c r i t i c i z e and appreciate the limitations of research work i n the area of study; 4) the technique develops i n students a more informed and c r i t i c a l attitude towards research. Items 1 and 2 above were intended to relate to an emphasis on i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l learning, with verbal information as a means to application of the s k i l l s (research hypothesis l a ) . Item 3 was conceived  98 as relating to the development of higher order rules and cognitive strategies (hypothesis l b ) , and item 4 to the development of a more informed and c r i t i c a l attitude toward research (hypothesis l c ) . The results are shown i n Table 10. Each of the specific hypotheses i s confirmed i n that for none of the items does the scoring'in the lower two categories exceed 25%. However, for each of the learning outcomes there i s an important number of negative evaluations: 4% and 161 on the items relating to the integration of verbal information and s k i l l learning; 16% on the item relating to higher order rules and cognitive strategies; and 14% on the item relating to a t t i t u d i n a l learning.  TABLE 10 — Response to questionnaire items relating to learning outcomes. Asterisk indicates that the category was not offered i n the questionnaire.  Item 1) integration of information and research  Respondent Evaluation of Outcome (%) •very poorly doubtfully reasonably well well 3 2 4 1  X  _  4  40  56  3.5  2) the subject as a research field  16  *  16  *  49 52  3.2  3) c r i t i c a l research a b i l i t y  35 32  -  14  43  43  3.3  4) c r i t i c a l attitude  3.2  To ascertain whether or not the responses to these items tended toward uniformity (and hence would be strongly positively correlated), the correlation coefficients were calculated and are shown i n Table 11. From the table i t i s evident the general trend i s for a positive correlation. However, only two coefficients show a s i g n i f i c a n t l y high probability of correlation (integration of information and research with c r i t i c a l research a b i l i t y ; integration of information and research with the  99  subject as a research f i e l d ) . From an examination of the questionnaire items one could tentatively conclude that items 1 and 2 (integration of  information  and research; the subject as a research f i e l d ) were contributory factors to item 3 ( c r i t i c a l research a b i l i t y ) — hence the significance of the correlations — but were not seen by respondents as identical measures of the quality — hence the somewhat lower correlation between 1 and  TABLE 11 —  1. 2. 3. 4.  one  2.  Correlation coefficients between learning outcome scores. Double asterisk indicates a highly s i g n i f i c a n t probability of correlation (p = 0.01). Single asterisk indicates significance (p = 0.05).  integration of information and research the subject as a research f i e l d 0. 51* c r i t i c a l research a b i l i t y 0. 56** c r i t i c a l attitude. 0. 53* 1  0.84** 0.42* 0.33 2 3  The generally high correlations do, however, suggest that respondents tended to react s i m i l a r l y with respect to this group of items. This, i n turn, leads one to hypothesize a correlation between scoring of these items and some l i n k i n g (possibly causative) factor. Educational, socio-economic background, and b i o l o g i c a l items are examined i n section 3. Two other key variables are attendance, and the group to which participants belonged. The correlation coefficients for these items against the learning outcome scores are shown i n Table 12. As can be seen, there are no high or s i g n i f i c a n t correlations present, refuting any univariate causal relationship between either group membership or attendance record and the learning outcome evaluations. The hypotheses i n this section are thus confirmed, i n that the technique, as evaluated by the participants, i s seen as a satisfactory one for the learning of research-based content.  100  TABLE 12 — Correlation coefficients among attendance, group membership, and the learning outcome scores. None of the item pairs shows a significant probability of correlation (p = 0.05). Outcome Items 1. integration of information and research 2. the subject as a research f i e l d 3. c r i t i c a l research a b i l i t y 4. c r i t i c a l attitude  % meetings attended 0.14 0.27 0.21 0.13  group to which belonged 0.27 0.19 0.27 0.18  101 I I I . THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO PRINCIPLES OF ADULT EDUCATION  The general hypothesis f o r this section i s that the technique conforms to important principles of adult education, to the extent that no more than 12% of respondents rate the technique as unsuitable for r e a l i z a t i o n of the principles. Eight of the nine specific hypotheses relate to participant scoring of a p r i n c i p l e identified i n the conceptual basis to this study. Specific hypothesis 2b relates a higher-than-average attendance (>55%) and a lower-than-average dropout (<20%) to high motivation. The scoring of adult education principles i s presented i n Table 13. There i s a marked skewing toward positive i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the technique with the r e a l i z a t i o n of each p r i n c i p l e . F a c i l i t a t i n g learner self-evaluation shows the highest scoring of doubtful association with the technique.  This  may be related to an over-emphasis on group a c t i v i t i e s i n at least some of the groups. Each of the specific hypotheses relating to an adult education principle i s confirmed, i n that for none of them was the technique rated as unsuitable (the 'strongly disagree' category) by more than 12% of the respondents. The proportion of respondents who were doubtful that the technique was p a r t i c u l a r l y suitable for r e a l i z a t i o n of the principles was somewhat higher. However, only p r i n c i p l e number 8 ( f a c i l i t a t e learner self-evaluation) shows a high scoring (33%) i n this category. The intercorrelations among scoring of these eight principles are shown i n Table 14. Most of the intercorrelations are positive and have a significant probability. Only four of the eight items show some tendency towards independence: 3 — p r a c t i c e with reinforcement  (which i s less strongly  correlated with individual pace and l e v e l , relevance, and u t i l i z i n g previous learning); 7 — u t i l i z i n g previous learning (which i s less strongly correlated  TABLE 13 — Participant evaluations of the extent to which the project realized the principles of adult education. Participant Agreement that the Principle Applies to the Technique {% Respondents) strongly doubtfully probably strongly X disagree correct agree 2 3 4 1  Adult Education Principle  1.ensure high motivation to learning  -  8  46  46  2.allow for individual pace and level of learning  5  41  43  3.provide for practice with reinforcement of correct behavior 4 . u t i l i z e group influences on learning  52  5  43 62  33  3.5 3.3  5.ensure relevance of the material to the learner  -  11 5 9  39  52  3.4  6.ensure meaningfulness of the material to the learner  2  3  32  63  3.6  7.enable individuals to u t i l i z e previous learning  -  6 33  36  58  3.5  38  29  3.0  8 . f a c i l i t a t e learner self-evaluation  3.4 3.2  TABLE 14 — Correlation coefficients among scoring of adult education principles. Item numbers are those used i n Table 13 and the covering text. Double asterisk indicates a highly significant probability of correlation (p = 0.01); single asterisk indicates significance (p = 0.05). 1.ensure high motivation 2.allow for individual pace § l e v e l  0.60**  3.provide for practice with reinforcement  0.86** 0.40*  4 . u t i l i z e group influences '  0.80** 0.60** 0.72**  5.ensure relevance of material 6.ensure meaningfulness of material  0.55** 0.60** 0.54* 0.58* 0.68** 0.48* 0.78** 0.38  0.73**  7.utilize previous learning  0.30  0.65** 0.57**  8 . f a c i l i t a t e learner self-evaluation  0.67** 0.69** 0.65** 0.64** 0.59** 0.66** 0.50* 1  0.63** 0.20 2  3  0.28 4  5  6  7  103 with practice with reinforcement, high motivation, u t i l i z i n g group influences, and self-evaluation); 4 — u t i l i z i n g group influences (in relation to meaningfulness and relevance); and 2 —  individual pace and level (with  meaningfulness). The principles of adult education are thus reflecting a general attitude to the technique. Hypothesis 2b relates to attendance and dropout to motivation. The average daily attendance across a l l groups was 60%. This i s somewhat higher than Dickinson's and Verner's figure of 53% for academic subjects. However, the l a t t e r figure was based on courses which were, i n general, considerably storter and required much less class-time than did the program here studied. Dickinson § Verner show that length of course and dropout (and hence average attendance) are p o s i t i v e l y correlated. Bagnall recorded higher attendance figures i n e a r l i e r study-research courses than that noted here. The average daily attendance of the respondents (as differentiated from the participants) was 70%. Since this i s based on participant's memory of their previous record, i t i s possible that i t i s exaggerated. Nevertheless, one should be a l e r t to the p o s s i b i l i t y that the respondent population i s skewed somewhat i n the direction of higher participation. Using Boshier's c r i t e r i o n , dropout was found to be 12% This compares favorably with the general extension rate of 23% but less favorably when viewed beside the early study-research group rate of 5%. Bagnall (1975) observes that the normal dropout rate i n science courses i s considerably higher than that i n the other extension courses. This i s supported by Dickinson § Verner, who found a dropout rate of 39% i n academic courses. Using their c r i t e r i o n , the rate i n this study would be 32% The figure obtained using Boshier's c r i t e r i o n identifies much more closely, than does this l a s t one, with the number of persons who actually had dropped out, i n that they were no longer attending occasionally and making an effort to  104 find out what happened at the meetings which they missed. Of those who missed one or more meetings (941 of participants), the following reasons for absence were noted (percentages being respondents who identified the reason for one or more absences): away from the d i s t r i c t (301), i l l n e s s (28%), other commitments (70%), and miscellaneous (20%). Eighteen percent of respondents indicated that they had stopped attending before the course terminated, and an additional eight percent indicated declining attendance with progression of the course. The remainder missed only occasional meetings. In that the mean daily attendance figure exceeded 55%, and that dropout, using Boshier's c r i t e r i o n , was less than 20%, hypothesis 2b i s confirmed. However, the attendance and dropout s t a t i s t i c s do not compare favorably with those of e a r l i e r study-research groups. The general conclusion of this section i s that, i n confirmation of the general hypothesis, the technique does conform to those principles of adult education which were i d e n t i f i e d from the l i t e r a t u r e and addressed i n the questionnaire.  105 IV. THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO PARTICIPANT BACKGROUND  The general hypothesis f o r this section i s that the technique could provide, simultaneously i n one class, meaningful educational experiences for individuals of widely varying pre-entry educational, biologi c a l , and socio-economic backgrounds. The hypothesis demands that each of the classes (study-research groups) include a range of participant characteristics on each of the independent variables. Table 15 gives the chi square values and probabilities of deviation from random d i s t r i b u t i o n of each independent variable i n relation to membership of the s i x classes.  TABLE 15 — Chi square values and probabilities of participant-characteristic variables i n relation to group membership. Asterisk indicates significant deviation from random. Independant Variable a) age b) sex c) socio-economic status  x  2  P 0.53 0.13 0.03 0.01*  d) background i n research  18.85 8.50 33.66 15.48  e) previous formal non-credit study i n the d i s c i p l i n e of the group  37.71 0.00*  f) previous formal credit study i n the d i s c i p l i n e of the group g) number of adult education courses previously taken h) highest level of c e r t i f i c a t e d attainment  22.12 0.63 14.84 0.46 45.25 0.11  i ) type of adult education i n s t i t u t i o n previously attended  23.32  0.08  Two of the variables (background i n research and previous formal non-credit study i n the d i s c i p l i n e of the group) show disparate distributions. These are detailed i n Tables 16 and 17. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of participants with and without research backgrounds (Table 16) i s riot seriously clustered, i n that only one group  106 (ornithology) comprised individuals who were a l l i n one class. The other groups showed a reasonable number i n both classes. However, the distribution of persons having previously studied i n the d i s c i p l i n e of the group through adult education (Table 17) was less satisfactory. Undoubtedly reflecting the local a v a i l a b i l i t y  of such courses, only two groups (botany and geology)  had members i n a l l classes and only one other group (ornithology) had members i n two of the three classes. This strongly skewed distribution w i l l considerably weaken any conclusion drawn on hypothesis 3e (that there i s no significant correlation between previous formal non-credit study i n the d i s c i p l i n e of the study-research group and the learning evaluation and response scores), but need not weaken conclusions based on that specific hypothesis i n isolation.  TABLE 16 — Horizontal percentage of group membership i n relation to research background. Group history geology botany freshwater biology ornithology mammalogy total  No research Background 75  Research Background  n  25  8  73 38 25 100  27 62 75  15 13 12  -  6  36 58  64 42  11 65  To test the specific hypotheses 3a-3i (that i s , those requiring, for confirmation, no significant correlation between scoring on a participant background item and the learning evaluation and response scores) the correlation coefficients were determined for each of the participant characteristics, l i s t e d i n Table 15, i n relation to the following evaluation and response variables:  107 TABLE 17 — Horizontal percentage of group membership i n relation to previous formal non-credit study i n the d i s c i p l i n e of the group. Group  No Courses  One Course  Two Or More Courses  n 8 15 13  history-  100  -  -  geology botany  20  20 15  60  -  -  11  15  freshwater biology ornitholgy mammalogytotal  54 100 67 100 74  33  31  12 6 11 65  1. learning outcome; integration o-f information and research; 2. learning outcome; the subject as a research f i e l d ; 3. learning outcome; c r i t i c a l research  ability;  4. learning outcome; c r i t i c a l attitude; 5. adult education principle; ensure high motivation to learning; 6. adult education p r i n c i p l e ; allow for individual pace and level of learning; 7. adult education principle; provide for practice with reinforcement correct behavior; 8. adult education p r i n c i p l e ; u t i l i z e group influences on learning; 9. adult education principle; ensure relevance of the material to the learner; 10. adult education principle; ensure meaningfulness of the material to the learner; 11. adult education principle; enable individuals to u t i l i z e  previous  learning; 12. adult education p r i n c i p l e ; f a c i l i t a t e learner self-evaluation; 13. " adequacy of the course introductory sessions; 14. adequacy of the course reading materials;  of  108 15. increased a b i l i t y to continue study independently; 16. encouraged to seek further courses i n the subject of the group; 17. encouraged to seek courses i n other subjects. The correlation coefficients are shown i n Table 18. None of the has correlations / a s t a t i s t i c a l l y highly significant probability (p = 0.01). However, by raising the tolerance level to p = 0.05 the following significant correlations emerge: A) previous formal non-credit study i n the d i s c i p l i n e of the group and: — adult education p r i n c i p l e ; u t i l i z e group influences on learning (0.49); — adult education principle; ensure relevance of the material to the learner (0.41); — adult education p r i n c i p l e ; f a c i l i t a t e learner self-evaluation (0.38); — encouraged to seek further courses i n the subject of the group (0.57); B) type of adult education i n s t i t u t i o n previously attended and: — learning outcome; integration of information and research (0.38); — adult education principle; f a c i l i t a t e learner self-evaluation (0.37). These correlations suggest that there may be some positive association between previous formal non-credit study i n the d i s c i p l i n e of the group and the degree to which a learner identifies with the problem and process. There may also be a positive association between the type of adult education i n s t i t ution previously attended (in relation to university extension) and the degree to which the learner i s able to cope with the learning. This l a t t e r may be a function of the former. Confirmation of the f i n a l specific hypothesis i n this section demands that respondent evaluation of background adequacy, between those participants with, and those without a background i n research, does not d i f f e r by more than 25% i n any one category. Of those respondents who lacked a research background, 39 percent  TABLE 18 — Correlation coefficients between participant-characteristic variables (a-i) and the learning evaluation and response variables (1-17). Double asterisk indicates a highly significant proba. b i l i t y of correlation (p = 0.01). Single asterisk indicates significance (p = 0.05). h) highest ac. qual.  g) no. ad. ed. courses  0.22 0.32  -0.02 -0.03 -0.03 0.38* -0.18 0.07 -0.14 0.15 -0.05 -0.02 -0.19 0.17  i) prev. ad. ed. institution  f) credit ed., discipline  -0.12 0.34 -0.12 0.09 -0.21 0.17  e) non-credit ed., discipline  X  d) research background  t/i CD  c) socio-econ. status  a) age  1. integration of information t\ research 2. the subject as a research f i e l d  cr  -0.05 0.19  -0.08 0.22 0.14 0.12 0.33 0.10 -0.01 0.13  0.10 0.04  0.22 0.08  0.35  -0.02 0.12 -0.19 0.10 0.06 0.19 -0.09 0.13  0.04 0.00 -0.05 0.22  0.10  -0.13 0.12 -0.15 0.10  0.49*  10. meaningfulness of material 11. u t i l i z e previous learning  -0.14 0.04 -0.08 0.16  -0.09 0.08 -0.07 0.05  12. f a c i l i t a t e learner self-evaluation  -0.11 0.04  0.11 0.04  0.38*  13. adequacy, course introduction  0.23 0.19  0.10 0.21  0.04  14. adequacy, course reading 15. independent study, increased a b i l i t y  0.06 0.10  0.07 0.25  0.13  0.00 -0.03 -0.03 0.02  0.12 0.05  -0.34 0.08  0.04  -0.06 0.12  -0.23 0.14  0.57*  -0.14 -0.12 0.30 0.19 -0.28 -0.15 -0,11 0.25  -0.12 0.12  0.30 0.10  0.04  -0.18 -0.09 -0.18 0.06  3. c r i t i c a l research a b i l i t y 4. c r i t i c a l attitude 5. ensure high motivation 6. individual pace and level 7. practice with reinforcement 8. u t i l i z e group influences 9. relevance of material  16. more courses i n subject 17. more courses, other subjects  0.23 0.39  0.29  -0.14 -0.07 -0.05 0.31. 0.02 0.03 -0.16 0.35 0.20 -0.19 0.05 0.17 0.05 0.30 -0.01 0.23  0.13 -0.13 -0.13 0.41* 0.36 -0.01 0.01 0.18 0.00 0.08 -0.21 0.34 -0.17 -0.10 0.18  0.35 0.29 0.20 0.12  0.08 -0.14 -0.05 0.37* -0.14  0.01 -0.19 0.32  110 indicated that the lack was a hindrance to their participation. Of those possessing a research background, only 6 percent stated that i t was too s u p e r f i c i a l . The difference between these figures i s probably exaggerated by virtue of the f i r s t scale being only two point (hindrance/no hindrance) and the second scale being three-point (superficial/ adequate/ too detailed). Seventyeight percent of the participants scored i n the middle category on the second item which, i f divided equally, would eliminate the difference i n scoring between the items. Because of this error i n instrument design the result must remain inconclusive. The general hypothesis for this section (that the technique could provide, simultanously i n one class, meaningful educational experiences for individuals of widely varying pre-entry educational, b i o l o g i c a l , and socio-economic backgrounds) i s thus generally confirmed. Some reservations, however, must be held i n relation to the a b i l i t y of participants who have not previously studied the subject through university extension or W.E.A. programs to identify f u l l y with a l l aspects of the work. Also, for some participants, the lack of a research background was regarded as a hindrance to their f u l l participation. The f i n a l specific hypothesis called for a comparison between those participants with and those without an educational or occupational background i n research; the point of comparison being the respondents' evaluation of the adequacy of their background. Due to an error i n design of the questionnaire, this hypothesis could not be confirmed or rejected, although the responses pointed toward disconfirmation.  Ill  V. THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO COURSE-ENTRY MOTIVATIONS  The general hypothesis for this section i s that the technique can s a t i s f y a wide range of course-entry motivations. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the c r i t e r i o n of acceptance i s that the correlations between important course-entry motivational scores and satisfaction of the associated expectations are either weak or positive. Table 19 gives the course-entry motivational items and the extent to which the scoring of each was correlated with satisfaction of the associated expectation. In that there are no significant or highly significant negative correlations between motivational expectations and satisfaction, the hypothesis i s confirmed. However, there i s a suggestion i n the results that the appeal of being involved with a research project was not as well s a t i s f i e d for those who scored the item highly (correlation coefficient = -0.35). Also, those who were drawn p a r t i c u l a r l y by a group leader may have been somewhat disappointed (correlation coefficient = -0.36). The one highly significant positive c o r r e l a t i o n — s a t i s f a c t i o n with the subject-orientation motivational item (no. 15)—suggests a f a i r l y unchanging attitude to this factor as a result of the course. Other items either were i n v a l i d for comparative purposes or else showed very weak correlations.  112  TABLE 19—Course-entry motivational items and correlation coefficients with satisfaction of the expectations. Double asterisk indicates a highly significant probability of correlation (p = 0.01); single asterisk indicates significance (p = 0.05); n.a. indicates insufficient data for v a l i d comparison. N  Corr. With Satisfaction  29 2 43 34  -0.19  3 4  n.a. n.a.  19  -0.02  -  n.a.  3  n.a.  27 16  -0.35 -0.36  19  0.15  14. I am interested i n the geographical area  13 32  0.15 0.03  15. I am interested i n the subject of my studyresearch group  38  0.50**  16. I am interested i n the recreational-planning aspect of the project  34  0.17  8  n.a.  Course-Entry Motivational Item 1. the thought of working with other s i m i l a r l y interested persons 2. 3. 4. 5.  i t might help to use up spare time i t could be a good way to learn about the subject I enjoy working outside i t would give me an opportunity to get away from home 6. i t might start me on a new hobby 7. i t could be a good preliminary to other related work 8. i t might l e t me out of some domestic chores 9. a friend was also p a r t i c i p a t i n g 10. I liked the idea of being involved with a research project and i t s publication 11. to work with a particular group leader 12. the project work WAS related to my occupation 13. the project work was NOT related to my occupation  17. other (not specified i n the questionnaire)  n.a. 0.04 0.03  113 V I . MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS  Seven orthogonal factors with eigenvalues greater than one were obtained from the analysis. After rotation they accounted for 1.7, 1.6,  1.5,  1.5, 1.4, 1.4 and 1.3 percent of the variance respectively. The factors are shown i n Table 20. Each item was included i n one of the factors. Factor 1 (activity need) comprises: an orientation to outside work (0.791), and a participating friend (0.758). However, the l a t t e r item i s of minor importance as i t was rated above zero by only three respondents. 'Unrelated to occupation' (0.334) loads on this factor, and 'preliminary to other related work' (-0.130) loads negatively. The factor thus i s identifiable with Houle's a c t i v i t y orientation and perhaps more s p e c i f i c a l l y with Sheffield's a c t i v i t y need (factor 10, Table 7). Individuals who score highly on this factor are attracted by f i e l d a c t i v i t y and, i n some cases, by the participation of a friend or r e l a t i v e . The unrelatedness of the a c t i v i t y to their normal occupations also tends to be an attraction. Conversely, low scores are not attracted by the outdoor nature of the a c t i v i t y , i n which case the participation of a friend or relative i s of minor importance. Low scores also tend to view the a c t i v i t y as a preliminary to other related work. Factor 2 (cognitive interest) comprises three items: to i n i t i a t e a new hobby (0.733), to learn about the subject (0.657), and, negatively, to work with others having similar interests (-0.560). The f i r s t item i s of lesser importance than the others since i t was rated above zero by only four respondents. 'Unrelated to occupation' loads positively (0.311), while the three items: recreational-planning aspect of the project (-0.271), use up spare time (-0.262), and participating friend (-0.146) load negatively. The factor i s thus identifiable with the cognitive interest factor (number 12, Table 7).  TABLE 20 — Motivational factors identified from the seventeen items. Factor Number  Factor Name  Item Number  1  activityneed  4 9  2  cognitive interest  3  professional goal  6 3 1 12 10 7  Varimax Factor Loading  Variance Accounted for by Factor  0.791 0.758  1.67  0.733 0.657 -0.560  1.64  related to occupation 0.644 involvement with research and publication -0.621 preliminary to other related work 0.580  1.51 1.50  Abbreviated Item Name working outside participating friend i n i t i a t e a new hobby learn about the subject work with others of similar interests  4  personal goal  17 16 13  other items l i s t e d by respondents recreational-planning aspect of project unrelated to occupation  0.761 0.682 0.415  5  local area interest  14 11  geographical area work with a particular leader  0.807 0.430  1.45  6  secondaryactivity  2  use up spare time  0.690  1.37  7  escape/ stimulation  5 15  0.732 -0.722  1.29  to get away from home subject of the group  115 Individuals who score highly on this factor are attracted by the desire to learn i n the subject area of the study and also, i n some cases, by a desire to start a new hobby i n the f i e l d of the study. Interestingly, they are not inclined to be attracted by the thought of working with others having similar interests. They tend to take the study seriously, i n that i t i s not used as a f i l l - i n for spare time, but the study tends to be unrelated to their normal occupations. The converse applies to low scorers who are not or only weakly attracted by the desire to learn, are not inclined to be motivated by the thought of starting a new hobby but are l i k e l y to be attracted to work with others of similar interests and by the relatedness of the work to their normal occupations. Factor 3 (professional goal) comprises the items: related to occupation (0.644), preliminary to other related work (0.580) and, negatively, involvement with research and publication (-0.621). There are also weaker negative loadings of: to get away from home (-0.177), and working outside (-0.126). The factor thus i s identifiable as the professional goal factor (number 2, Table 7). Individuals who score highly on this factor are attracted by a perceived relatedness of the study to their occupations. They see p a r t i c i pation as a preliminary to other similar work, and are not attracted by the pure satisfaction of being involved i n a research project and i t s publication. A desire to get away from home and to work outside tend not to be issues. Low scorers, on the other hand, are not strongly attracted by a perceived relatedness of the study to their occupations, and they do not see participation as being an important preliminary to other similar work. They are, however, l i k e l y to be attracted by the research nature of the project and, to a lesser extent, by the desire to get out-of-doors and away from home.  116 Factor 4 (personal goal) comprises: additional items noted by the respondents  (0.761), the recreational-planning aspect of the project (0.682),  and motivation unrelated to occupation (0.415). The f i r s t item was scored above zero by only eight persons who noted a variety of motivations relating to personal objectives. A number of other items load somewhat negatively on this factor, especially: working outside (-0.210), to i n i t i a t e a new hobby (-0.174), involvement with research and publication (-0.166), and to work with a particular leader (-0.195). The factor thus may be identified tentatively with the personal goal factor (number 1, Table 7). Individuals who score highly on this factor are motivated by one or more of a variety of personal goals; for example: to increase their research a b i l i t y , to increase their f a c i l i t y i n identifying members of some group of organisms, to improve their a b i l i t y as instructors i n f i e l d study work, or to be i n f l u e n t i a l i n the making of decisions regarding future use of the land being surveyed. Such motivations are generally not associated with an attraction to the course on the basis of i t s perceived relatedness to the participant's normal occupation. A desire to work outside, to i n i t i a t e a new hobby i n the area of study, and to work with a particular group leader tend to be of l i t t l e or no importance, as does the attraction of research involvement per se. Low scores are unlikely to be motivated strongly by identified personal goals, but are attracted by the relatedness of the study to their occupations. Factor 5 (local area interest) comprises two items: attraction to the geographical area (0.807), and to working with a particular group leader (0.430). Most other items of any importance i n the factor load negatively: to work with others of similar interests (-0.277), to learn about the subject (-0.187), to work outside (-0.271), to get away from home (-0.331), involvement with research and publication (-0.277), work related to occupation (-0.194), and the study-research group subject (-0.289). 'Participating  117 friend,' however, loads positively (0.317). The factor i s thus d i f f i c u l t to identify, but suggests a desire to learn about the local area from an expert. Individuals scoring highly on this factor are attracted by the thought of working i n the particular geographical area of the study, and by a certain group leader with whom they wish to study. They also tend to be motivated by a participating friend or r e l a t i v e . However, working with others of similar interest, a desire to learn about the subject outside and away from home, involvement with research, and the relatedness of the study subject to their.normal occupations a l l tend to be of small importance to such persons. Conversely, low scorers are not inclined to be attracted by the geographical area, a particular group leader, or a participating friend or r e l a t i v e . They are, however, more l i k e l y to be motivated by a desire to learn about the subject of their group, i n an outside setting, away from home; they tend to view the work as more closely related to their occupations, and are l i k e l y to be attracted by involvement with research. In factor 6 (secondary a c t i v i t y ) only one item loads predominantly  —  to use up spare time (0.690) — and this was scored above zero by only two respondents. Work with others of similar interests (-0.476) loads negatively, as does preliminary to other related work (-0.578). There are smaller positive loadings by related to occupation (0.272), and the recreationalplanning aspect of the project (0.322). The factor thus i s tentatively identified as a secondary a c t i v i t y one. Individuals who score highly on this factor are not strongly attracted by others with similar' interests, but may be motivated to participate i n order to f i l l - i n time. The study i s unlikely to be undertaken as a preliminary to other similar work, but i t may be taken for i t s association with the participant's occupation, and because of an attraction to the recreationalplanning aspect of the work. The opposite motivations apply to low scorers. Factor 7 (escape/stimulation) comprises two items: to get away from  118 home (0.732) and negatively, the subject of the group (-0.722). It i s identifiable with the escape/stimulation factor (number 7, Table 7). High scorers on this factor are attracted to participation by a desire to escape from the home environment. Other researchers who have identified this factor, include i n i t escape from a variety of unpleasantnesses and, conversely, attraction to some form of stimulation. Due to the limited range of items i n the present survey instrument, however, i t i s not possible to take such a broad  view of the factor. High scorers are not  attracted strongly by the subject matter of the study — this being consistent with motivations of escape/stimulation motivated persons. Low scorers, on the other hand, are only weakly, or not at a l l , motivated by a desire to escape the home, but they are attracted by the subject matter of their studyresearch group. Of the seven factors identified as important i n the conceptual basis to this evaluation, four are detectable here: personal goal, professional goal, escape/stimulation, and cognitive interest. Of the others: 'social welfare' could not be expected since there were no items relating to i t ; s i m i l a r l y , there were no items s p e c i f i c a l l y relating to 'external expectations,' and any such motivation would be included i n the professional goal factor; and 'social contact' did not emerge from the limited number of items as being separate from 'activity need.' The specific hypothesis for this section was that a factor analysis of the course entry motivational items would reveal factors similar to those i d e n t i f i e d i n other studies i n so far as appropriate items were included i n the instrument. The results generally confirm the hypothesis. However, the limited number of items and the specific application of some of them to the particular project studied do not permit the drawing of firmly generalizable conclusions.  119 VII.  PARTICIPATIONAL FACTORS  The general hypothesis i s that meaningful participational factors can be identified and related to the motivational factors; and together form a basis for the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of participants i n each study-research group. The testing of this hypothesis i s best covered i n three sections, each relating to one of the specific hypotheses.  Identification of Factors The f i r s t specific hypothesis i s that meaningful participational factors exist among the items pertaining to: educational background, socioeconomic status, personal attributes, evaluation of the technique, and preferred structuring of such programs. Eleven factors having eigenvalues greater than one were obtained from the f i r s t analysis and were obliquely rotated. After the rotation the t o t a l variance accounted for by each factor was: factors 1(3.4), 2(2.9), 3(2.6), 4(2.2), 5(2.2), 6(1.9), 7(1.7), 8(1.7), 9(1.4), 10(1.4), and 11(1.3). The second factoring orthogonally rotated eight factors to permit comparison with the motivational factors. Only one item, preferred group size, did not load s i g n i f i c a n t l y on any factor, and was thus eliminated. After rotation the variance accounted for by each factor was: factor 1(6.9), 2(2.9), 3(2.6), 4(2.5), 5(2.4), 6(2.3), 7(1.9), and 8(1.8). The factors identified are shown i n Table 21. The factor characteristics noted i n the table were supported by the loadings of less important items. Individuals scoring highly on factor 1 (identification with the project process) rate the technique highly as a means of r e a l i z i n g the identified principles of good adult education. Conversely, low scorers do not consider that the technique i s generally suitable for f u l l expression of those principles.  TABLE 21(a) — Participational factors identified with orthogonal rotation. Asterisk indicates item loading more heavily on another factor (factor given i n parentheses). Factor Factor Number Characteristics 1  2  3  4  identification with project process  academic preparation  previous adult education identification with educational aspects of the proj ect  Item Number 43 41 36 42 40 35 39 37 44 38 28 26 23 24 21 29 27 30 22 34 33 53 48  value, value, value, value, value, value, value, value, value, value,  Abbreviated Item Name  Varimax Factor Loading  Variance Acc. f o r by Factor  research involvement teaching research uses group influences learning attitudes self-evaluation of learning maintains interest practice with reinforcement uses existing learning individual pace and level meaningful material  0.849 0.842 0.808 0.772 0.757 0.754 0.752 0.722 0.686 0.672  6.94  academic qualifications previous credit study i n discipline status research background age previous adult education institutions previous total adult education courses brochure adequacy, subject sex learning c r i t i c a l research a b i l i t i e s learning research procedures prefer scheduling by groups increased a b i l i t y , independent study  0.866 0.695 -0.677. 0.519 -0.435 0.795 0.773 0.506 0.480 0.649 0.646 0.608 0.575  2.92  2.60  2.49  TABLE 21(b) — Participational factors identified with orthogonal rotation. Asterisk indicates item loading more heavily on another factor (factor given i n parentheses).  Factor Item Factor Number Characteristics Number 5  6  7 8  continuing educationcentered subj ect interest  25 58 32 54 49 *56(6)  increased adult education interest  47 31 50 56  high participation identification with project activity  45 55 52 57 46  Abbreviated Item Name previous non-credit study would pay higher course fee brochure adequacy, time commitment preferred length of meetings increased motivation, courses i n discipline preferred frequency of half-day meetings adequacy, course reference material brochure adequacy, technique increased motivation, courses other disciplines preferred frequency of half-day meetings attendance preferred frequency, day-long meetings desire more intergroup contact preferred project duration adequacy, introductory material  Varimax Factor Loading 0.753 0.686 -0.527 0.427 0.404 -0.411 0.695 0.543 0.496 -0.451  Variance Acc. f o r by Factor  2.42  2.35  0.597 0.579  1.85  -0.567 0.557 0.484  1.76  122 Participants with high scoring on factor 2 (academic preparation) are generally younger, and of high formal academic attainment and  socio-economic  status. They are most l i k e l y to have previous credit study i n the d i s c i p l i n e of their group and to have backgrounds i n research. Low scorers, on the other hand, are older and of lower formal academic attainment and" socio-economic status. They also are less l i k e l y to have backgrounds i n research or to have previous credit study i n the d i s c i p l i n e of their group. Factor 3 (previous adult education) identifies a dimension relating to previous adult education and associated variables. High scorers are more l i k e l y to be women and to have participated i n previous adult education courses, p a r t i c u l a r l y through university extension. Related to t h i s , they are more s a t i s f i e d with the brochure material concerning the course subject matter. Conversely, low scorers on this factor tend to be men who are less l i k e l y to have participated i n any previous adult education courses, especia l l y through university extension. They are also less s a t i s f i e d with the brochure material relating to subject matter. Participants scoring highly on factor 4 (identification with educational aspects of the project) show high satisfaction with the way i n which the technique was used to develop their problem-solving i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s and cognitive strategies. They record generally increased a b i l i t y to study independently within the subject of their group, and show a preference for having course meetings scheduled by group discussion. Low scorers, on the other hand, tend to be unhappy with the technique as a means of learning problem-solving s k i l l s and cognitive strategies; their a b i l i t y to study independently i n the subject i s unchanged by participation i n the course, and they prefer prescheduled meeting times. In short, low scorers appear to require their education to be externally structured to a greater extent than was the case within this course. Participants scoring highly on factor 5 (continuing education-centered  123 subject interest) record greater previous commitment to involvement with adult education, and increased motivation to seek further courses, i n the subject of their group, as a result of participation i n the course. However, they find the brochure material, with regard to time commitment, to be inadequate. They also show a preference f o r full-day length, more widely spaced, meetings, and indicate a greater preparedness to pay high course fees. Low scorers tend to have l i t t l e or no previous involvement with adult education, and are either discouraged or unmoved with regard to further study in the d i s c i p l i n e of their group. They are happier with the brochure explanations of time commitment, but show a preference for shorter, more frequent, meetings i n courses for which they w i l l pay only a low fee. Factor 6 (increased adult education interest) draws together a number of items associated with increased motivation to attend courses i n other d i s c i p l i n e s . High scorers tend to record an increased motivation to attend adult education courses i n d i s c i p l i n e s , other than that of their group, as a result of their participation. They are inclined to be happier, than are low scorers, with the course reference material and with the brochure i n relation to descriptive information on the nature of the course technique. They do, however, tend to favor more widely spaced half-day meetings than do low scorers. Participants scoring highly on factor 7 (high participation) have high mean attendance figures and indicate a preference for more frequent full-day meetings. Low scorers have poorer attendance figures and, understandably, they opt for more widely spaced meetings. High scorers on factor 8 (identification with project a c t i v i t y ) tend to favor long projects — one or two years i n duration — and feel that the project i n which they participated suffered from too l i t t l e interchange among the study-research groups. Related to these items, such participants also show satisfaction with the course introductory material. On  124 the other hand, low scorers tend to be happy with the lack of intergroup contact, and favor shorter projects, considering the course introductory material to have been inadequate. General participational factors are thus i d e n t i f i a b l e , although the f i r s t factor selected from the orthogonal rotation may r e f l e c t a respondent tendency to score adjacent items, s i m i l a r l y . Nevertheless, the factors reveal some interesting i d e n t i f i a b l e orientations to the project, and thus confirm the s p e c i f i c hypothesis.  Relationship Between Motivational and Participational Factors The second s p e c i f i c hypothesis i s that the participational factors could be related meaningfully to the motivational factors. To test t h i s , correlation coefficients between the two sets of factors were prepared from the factor scores of each respondent on each orthogonal factor. The results are presented i n Table 22. The coefficients are a l l uniformly low. However, the higher values among them are worth noting: 1) a positive correlation (r = 0.37) between escape/stimulation and previous adult education; 2) a negative correlation (r = -0.22) between a c t i v i t y need and academic preparation; 3) a positive correlation (r = 0.20) between a c t i v i t y need and high participation; 4) a negative correlation (r = -0.29) between secondary a c t i v i t y need and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the project process; 5) a negative correlation (r = -0.25) between l o c a l area interest and academic preparation; 6) a positive correlation (r = 0.23) between l o c a l area interest and increased adult education interest; 7) a negative correlation (r = -0.21) between l o c a l area interest and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the project process; 8) a negative correlation (r = -0.23) between l o c a l area interest and high participation; 9) negative correlations (r = -0.23 i n both) between personal goal and both continuing education-centered subject interest and increased adult education interest; and 10) a negative correlation (r = -0.21) between  TABLE 22 — Correlation coefficients between factor loadings on the orthogonally rotated participational and motivational factors.  Motivational Factors 1.activity 2.cognitive interest need  3.professional goal  4.persona l goal  5.local 6.secondary activity area interest -0.29 -0.21  7.escape/ stimulation 0.00  Participational Factors  1.identification with the project process  -0.01  -0.04  -0.21  0.12  2.academic preparation  -0.22  -0.10  0.18  -0.05  -0.25  0.11  -0.10  3.previous adult education 4.identification with educational aspects of project  -0.06  0.04  -0.16  -0.06  0.09  -0.06  0.37  -0.06  -0.02  -0.01  0.06  0.06  -0.11  -0.02  5.continuing educationcentered subject interest  -0.16  0.09  -0.05  -0.23  -0.07  -0.11  -0.09  6.increased adult education interest  0.05  0.05  -0.09  -0.23  0.23  0.13  7.high participation 8.identification with project a c t i v i t y  0.20  0.09  - -0.03  -0.13  -0.23  -0.12  -0.09  0.02  -0.04  -0.13  -0.12  -0.02  -0.09  -0.17  '  -0.05  126 professional goal and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the project process. From these correlations some possible associations can be identified very tentatively — 1) Participants scoring highly on the escape/stimulation motivational factor are more l i k e l y to be women and to have participated i n previous adult education courses, p a r t i c u l a r l y through university extension. They are also l i k e l y to be more s a t i s f i e d with the brochure material concerning the course subject matter. The opposite tendencies apply to low scorers. 2) Participants scoring highly on the a c t i v i t y need motivational factor tend to be older and of lower formal academic attainment and socio-economic status. They are also less l i k e l y to have backgrounds i n research or to have previous credit study i n the d i s c i p l i n e of their group. However, they do tend to have high mean attendance figures and to indicate a preference for more frequent full-day meetings. 3) High scorers on the secondary a c t i v i t y need motivational factor are more l i k e l y to rate the technique poorly as a means of r e a l i z i n g the i d e n t i f i e d principles of good adult education. Conversely, low scorers on this a c t i v i t y need factor tend to score highly the technique as being generally suitable for the f u l l expression of the principles. 4) Participants scoring"highly on the motivational factor 'local area interest' tend to be older and of lower formal academic attainment and socio-economic status. They are less l i k e l y to have backgrounds i n research or to have previous credit study i n the d i s c i p l i n e of their group. However, they tend to record an increased motivation to attend courses i n d i s c i p l i n e s , other than that of their group as a result of their participation. They are >  also inclined to be happier with the course reference material and with the brochure i n relation to descriptive information on the nature of the course technique. They do not tend to score the technique highly as a means of r e a l i z i n g the identified principles of good adult education, and have  127 correspondingly low attendance figures; indicating, also, a preference for less frequent full-day meetings. 5) High scorers on the personal goal motivational factor tend to have l i t t l e or no previous involvement with adult education, and are either discouraged or unmoved by participation with regard to further study within or beyond the d i s c i p l i n e of their group. They are happier with the brochure explanation of time commitment, but not so with regard to the nature of the course technique. They show a preference for shorter, more frequent, meetings of study-research group courses, for which they w i l l pay only a low fee. 6) Participants scoring highly on the professional goal motivational factor show a tendency to rate the technique poorly as a means of r e a l i z i n g the identified principles of adult education. Conversely, low scorers are more apt to feel that the technique i s well suited to f u l l expression of the principles. In spite of the foregoing interesting trends i n the data, none of the correlations i s strong enough to support f u l l y the hypothesis that meaningful relationships could be found between the two sets of factors.  Factors i n the Identification of Group Membership The third specific hypothesis i s that the respondent factor scores on the motivational and participational factors could be used to provide a reasonable measure of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n for participants of each studyresearch group. The participant scores on both participational and motivational factors were examined v i a stepwise discriminant analysis to determine i f observable differences existed among any of the s i x study-research groups (geology, history, botany, freshwater biology, ornithology, and mammalogy). Three of these factors were significant discriminants. In order of discriminating power the factors were: 1) Increased Adult Education Interest, 2) A c t i v i t y  128 Need, and 3) Identification with the Project A c t i v i t y . Tlie extent to which these three factors enabled one to distinguish one study-research group from another i s shown i n Table 23; 41.51 of the respondents could be c l a s s i f i e d correctly into their respective groups. The distribution of assigned cases i s shown i n Table 24, and the results using the Cooley and Lohnes procedure i n Table 25.  TABLE 23 — D i f f e r e n t i a b i l i t y among s i x study-research groups. Probabilities are given i n parentheses. ' Group  History  Geology Botany Freshwater Biology Ornithology Mammalogy  6.66 (0.00069) 4.40 (0.00755) 3.20 (0.02948) 2.27 (0.08905) 4.17 (0.00982)  Geology  1.47 (0.23023) 10.64 (0.00002) 3.78 (0.01511) 14.83 (0.00000)  Botany  4.31 (0.00839) 2.90 (0.04217) 7.50 (0.00030)  Freshwater Biology  4.91 (0.00430) 0.79 (0.50697)  Ornithology  7.94 (0.00020)  Using either procedure for developing the variables, some groups show higher participant d i f f e r e n t i a b i l i t y than others. Geology, freshwater biology and mammalogy participants were quite highly dirrerentiable, whereas the history and ornithology participants were poorly so. The clustering of botany and geology participants i s interesting, since these two subject areas have been more strongly represented i n adult education programs of previous years than have the other subjects. The freshwater biology participants also tend to cluster with the botanists, which could be related to the fact that the botany group was f u l l y enrolled before the freshwater biology, and applicants for the former group generally gave freshwater biology as their second choice.  TABLE 24 — C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of participants into study-research groups, based on canonical variables developed i n the stepwise discriminant analysis. Those cases underlined were correctly assigned. Rows represent the actual membership of each group. Group History  History  Botany  2 1 0  F*w. B i o l .  2  Ornithology Mammalogy  3  Geology  0  Geology  Botany  Freshwater Ornithology Biology 2 1  Mammalogy  Total  2  0  11 6 0  1  2  0  0  3  3  0  13  1  5  0  1 4  1  0  0  1  6  1  4  0  6  11  1 0  1  8 15 12  % Classified Correctly 25 73 23 42 0 55  TABLE 25 — C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of participants into study-research groups using Cooley and Lohnes centroids. Those cases underlined were correctly assigned. Rows represent the actual membership of each group. Group History-  History  Geology  1 1  1  F'w. B i o l .  0 1  Ornithology Mammalogy  Geology Botany  Botany  Freshwater Ornithology Biology  Mammalogy  Total  % Classified Correctly  1 3  5 2  0 0  0 0  8 15  13 60  6 0  3  3  0  2  6  0  1 3  13 12  23 50  1  1  1  1  1  1  6  17  0  0  1  3  0  7  11  64  9  130 In conclusion, the overall correct c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of-the participants on the basis of the factor scores i s reasonably high. The specific hypothesis i s confirmed.  Summary The general hypothesis — that meaningful participational factors could be identified and related to the motivational factors; and together form a basis for the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of participants i n each group —  was  only p a r t i a l l y confirmed. The f i r s t specific hypothesis was confirmed with the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of participational factors. The second was not, since no significant correlations could be found between the sets of factors. The motivational and participational factor sets appear, rather, to be complementary, which i s supported by the entry of factors from both sets into the stepwise discriminant analysis. The third specfic hypothesis was confirmed with this last analysis and the subsequent correct c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of 41.5 of the respondents into their respective study-research groups.  percent  131 V I I I . PROGRAM DESIGN AND PUBLICITY  The general hypothesis for this section i s that participants express general satisfaction with the program design and p u b l i c i t y , i n that the type of structure preferred i s closely similar to that of the program studied. The testing of such an hypothesis i s best covered i n eight sections, each relating to one of the specific hypotheses.  Course Reading Material The specific hypothesis i s fhat the majority of respondents prefer course reading material to be a mixture of hand-out papers and references given. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of preferences expressed by participants i s : only hand-out material (11%), references only provided (15%), and a mixture of the two (74%). Evidently, by providing a mixture i n future courses, most participants would be well s a t i s f i e d . The specific hypothesis i s thus confrimed.  Group Size The specific hypothesis i s that not more than 12% of the respondents prefer a mean group size outside the range of 10-20 persons. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of respondent preferences i s as follows: 11 persons (9% of respondents), 12 persons (20%), 13 persons (20%), 15 persons (20%), 20 persons (24%), and 30 persons (7%). Thus, only seven percent of the respondents recorded a mean preference outside the range of 10-20 members. The average i s sixteen participants, which equates very closely with the stated maximum of f i f t e e n for the program. The range of numbers nominated (11-30) suggests, surprisingly, that the respondents may be unhappy with very small groups. The specific hypothesis i s thus confirmed.  132 Intergroup Contact The specific hypothesis i s that not more than 25% of the respondents indicate dissatisfaction with the lack of intergroup contact during the course. Responses to the questionnaire show that 73 percent of participants were not s a t i s f i e d with the lack of intergroup contact during the year. The specific hypothesis i s thus refuted. Failure to provide for meaningful exchange between study-research groups was c l e a r l y a shortcoming of the project.  Scheduling of Meetings The specific hypothesis i s that not more than 251 of the respondents prefer prescheduling of meetings to scheduling by the group. Study-research group meetings were scheduled i n f i v e of the s i x groups be agreement among the participants. Eighty percent of the respondents favored this rather than conforming to prescheduled meetings. The hypothesis i s thus confirmed.  Length of Meetings The specific hypothesis i s that not more than 25% of the respondents prefer half-day length meetings to full-day meetings. Fifty-seven percent of respondents indicated a preference for daylong meetings, 32 percent for half-day meetings,  eight percent were undecided  between these two, and'only three percent preferred a block course of about ten consecutive days. Most of the project meetings were a full-day i n length, with the remainder a half-day. There seems to be a desire for a somewhat greater proportion of half-day meetings than was the case; the hypothesis being refuted.  133 Length of Course The specific hypothesis i s that not more than 25% of the respondents consider the course to have been too long. The project was limited to one calendar year. Nineteen percent of respondents considered this to be too long, preferring a half year. Fortytwo percent preferred a f u l l year. But, most interestingly, 39 percent . indicated a preference for a two-year program. The hypothesis i s thus confirmed.  Structuring of the Course The specific hypothesis i s that not more than 12% of the respondents express the desire for more formal instruction, a formal prerequisite course, or for better structuring of the program. At selected points i n the questionnaire participants were asked to make recommendations on programming and instructional features which would have increased their satisfaction and involvement with the course. Most of the responses were so scattered as to be of no overall importance. However, there were a number of clusters, which are summarized i n Table 26. The c a l l s for more formal instruction and a formal introductory course suggest that these participants were not f u l l y able to identify with the study-research group technique and to cope with the material. This well may have arisen from inadequate pre-course preparation of the group leaders. The suggestions on better structuring of the course referred to such items as frequent lack of direction or understanding of how their work f i t t e d into the research aims of the project as a whole. The respondents who recorded dissatisfaction with meeting arrangements a l l came from the one group i n which there was evidently some poor management of this factor. The c a l l for more participant i n various involvement/aspects of the project i s a serious r e f l e c t i o n on the program since this i s one of the theoretical foundations of the method. It was evident  TABLE 26 — Recommendations for improvement of program and instructional processes. Recommendation  Nature of Recommendation  1. From respondents who f e l t that the a. more formal instruction course had met the educational b. a formal prerequisite objectives only poorly or reasonintroductory course ably—recommended structures for c. better structuring of the better meeting the objectives. course a. better understanding of meeting 2. Suggestions given for ways i n arrangements which the group leaders could b. more participant involvement have improved attendance. 3. General suggestions for improvement of the course.  a. more participant involvement b. smaller-scale project or survey area  % all % Respondents Respondents . i n Class 8 13 13  8  31  18  13 3 15  12 3 15  9  9  TABLE 27 — Response to items regarding the adequacy of descriptive information i n the pre-enrolment brochure. Descriptive Category  Evaluation (% i n each class) Adequate Excessive Poor 8  88  4  2. the course technique  23 .  74  3  3. the expected commitment of your time  16  78  6  1. the nature of the subject matter  135 from a study of the responses that i n some groups too many decisions were made by the group leader without involving the group. The remainder of respondents i n this category were unhappy at their not being involved i n actually writing the publications resulting from the work. In that over 12% of the respondents c a l l for modification of the course on each of the items noted (formality of instruction, formal prerequisite course, and improved program structure), the specific hypothesis i s refuted.  Adequacy of the Program Brochure The specific hypothesis i s that, with regard to: 1) the nature df the course subject matter, 2) the course technique, and 3) the expected time commitment, not more than 12% of the respondents score as poor the descriptive information i n the program brochure. Responses to the questionnaire items on adequacy of the brochure are summarized i n Table 27. Eight percent of respondents rated the descriptive material on subject matter as poor; 23 percent rated as poor the material concerning course technique; and 16 percent that concerning the expected commitment of their time. Thus, the l a s t two figures demand rejection of the hypothesis. The fact that 16 percent of the enrollees were unaware of the time commitment expected of them, at the very least, would have an effect on attendance figures. A better effort seems to be required i n presenting the technique although, hopefully, those entering the program with misconceptions would have been able to identify subsequently with the actual process. Course Planning Guidelines The preceding stated preferences on programming features can be used  136 as a general guide to the future planning of study-research group courses. However, i t can be argued that, as such a guide, the stated perferences are limited by the respondent's past range of experiences i n adult education. This i s undoubtedly so, but i t must also be appreciated that, regardless of just how limited an adult's outlook i s , i f he or she i s unhappy with a publicised program structure, this i s l i k e l y to act as a barrier to enrolment. Three additional items, not used i n the evaluation, may be of interest to programmers. F i r s t l y , the nominal $10.00 enrolment fee, made possible by grants from various sources, appears to have been potentially important i n attracting participants. Eighty-nine percent of respondents indicated that they would not have enrolled had the course not been subsidized. Secondly, the response to items relating to the preferred frequency of meetings. Assuming full-day meetings, 41 percent chose a fortnightly frequency, and 39 percent a monthly frequency. Assuming haly-day meetings, a higher proportion (61%) chose a fortnightly frequency with 16 percent selecting monthly. Thirdly, most of the meetings for courses such as this must, of necessity, be held on Saturday or Sunday. Traditionally, the sabbath has been avoided i n university extension courses, but on this course a f a i r l y equal d i s t r i b u t i o n between Saturday and Sunday meetings was evident. The expressed preferences of participants r e f l e c t t h i s , with 22 percent preferring Saturday, 17 percent Sunday, and 61 percent a mixture of both.  Conclusions The general hypothesis i s only partly confirmed, i n that four of the specific hypotheses were rejected (those relating to: intergroup contact, length of meetings, structuring of the course, and adequacy of the program  137 brochure). These represent areas of incongruency between participant preferences and actual features of the program. Such incongruencies are l i k e l y to have had a negative influence on participant evaluations of the technique.  138 CHAPTER V  CONCLUSIONS  I. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PARTICIPANTS  On two items the participant population was more representative of the Wellington urban population than that of the general university extension enrolment studied by Boshier (1969, 1971a). These were the relative numbers of men and women, which were almost equal, and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of participant ages. In contrast, the participants were disproportionately representative of the uppermost socio-economic class to an even greater degree than was the case i n the general university extension enrolment. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of participant highest academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n , predictably, follows the same general pattern. The better q u a l i f i e d , especially those with university degrees were a grossly over-represented segment of the population, while the unqualified were very weakly represented. These patterns are understandable i n terms of the high involvement demanded of participants, which would tend to selectively favor persons high i n self-confidence and intrapersonal competence, and favoring the higher-achievement social groups. Encouragingly, just over half of the respondents had not previously studied through credit courses i n the d i s c i p l i n e of their study-research group, and nearly 70 percent had not done so through non-credit adult education programs. Also, a quarter of the participants had not taken part previously i n any adult education programs, but of those who had done so, most had studied one or more courses organized through university extension. The participants thus represented a socio-economic and educational e l i t e , reasonably representative of the l o c a l age and sex d i s t r i b u t i o n ,  139 and with an encouaging number who had not participated previously i n adult education or studied the subject with which they were involved i n the program.  II. THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO THE LEARNING OF RESEARCH-EASED CONTENT  Emphasis i n the instruction and i t s evaluation was placed on those learning outcomes identified as important to a c r i t i c a l and practicable understanding of research. These were identified as an appropriately c r i t i c a l attitude, and higher-order i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s and cognitive strategies associated with problem-solving. Within the limitations of the type of evaluation instrument used, the technique appears to be well suited to the achievement of these outcomes.  I I I . THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO PRINCIPLES OF ADULT EDUCATION  A number of the principles of adult education identified i n the conceptual study were regarded as so fundamental to the technique that they were not included i n the evaluation instrument. Others were excluded because they related to individual instructor performance rather than to any characteristics of the technique. A l l of the principles actually evaluated through the questionnaire received encouragingly high ratings with one exception — the f a c i l i t a t i o n of learner self-evaluation — for which one third of the respondents indicated doubt as to the s u i t a b i l i t y of the technique for i t s r e a l i z a t i o n . The results of this section, however, should be regarded with caution. The high inter-item correlations, expressed i n both the factor  140 analysis and the individual item correlation coefficients, indicate that participant response to these items was rather uniform (probably a 'halo' effect). The s t a t i s t i c s on average attendance and dropout revealed a reasonably high involvement with, and interest i n , the course. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y so when one considers the t o t a l time commitment involved and the fact that a number of respondents indicated a f a i l u r e of the preenrolment p u b l i c i t y to communicate the true extent of that involvement.  TV. THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO PARTICIPANT BACKGROUND  In spite of the unrepresentative nature of the participant population, most of the groups included an acceptable range of participant b i o l o g i c a l , educational and socio-economic backgrounds. Nine participant background variables wers tested for correlation with seventeen learning evaluation and response variables. In that no highly significant correlations emerged i t could be concluded that the technique i s able to provide, simultaneously i n one class, meaningful educational experiences f o r individuals of widely varying background. However, there were indications that participants who had previously studied i n the d i s c i p l i n e of their group, through university extension or the Workers Education Association, were better able than others to identify f u l l y with a l l aspects of the technique.  V. THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO COURSE-ENTRY MOTIVATIONS  Of the seventeen course-entry motivational items used i n the of evaluation, one was not scored as important by any/the respondents, and f i v e were not scored as important by a large enough number of respondents to  141 permit meaningful analysis. Scores on the remaining items were tested for correlation with the extent to which participation met expectations associated with each motivational item. Analysis revealed no strongly negative correlations, and only one highly significant positive correlation. The remainder were weakly correlated either p o s i t i v e l y or negatively. Factor analysis of the motivational items indicated that not a l l commonly identified motivational factors were represented by the items. In p a r t i c u l a r , 'social welfare' was not provided f o r i n the evaluation instrument, while 'external expectations' and 'social contact' were subsumed within other factors. However, with these limitations as q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , i t may be concluded that the technique generally d i d s a t i s f y a wide range of course-entry motivations, and was assessed i n terms of commonly seen dimensions of quality.  VI. MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS  Seven acceptable motivational factors were obtained from the analysis. Four of these were comparable to those commonly identified i n e a r l i e r motivational studies. These were: 'cognitive interest,' 'professional goal,' 'personal goal,' and 'escape/stimulation.' The 'social welfare' factor d i d not emerge since no items relating to i t were included. The commonly identi f i e d factors 'external expectations' and 'social contact' d i d not separate from 'professional goal' and 'activity need' respectively. Factors other than those equatable with the seven primary factors were i d e n t i f i e d also. An 'activity need' and a 'secondary a c t i v i t y ' factor were related more closely to Houle's o r i g i n a l a c t i v i t y motivation than to any of the factors identified i n subsequent research. A 'local area interest' factor was i d e n t i f i e d , which related p a r t i c u l a r l y to an attraction to the  142 geographical  area.  The factoring of the limited number and range of motivational items i n the evaluation instrument thus produced an acceptably meaningful, although weak, group of factors.  VII. PARTICIPATIONAL FACTORS  The i n i t i a l factor analysis, of 38 participational items, involved oblique rotation of the factors and produced eleven acceptable factors. Limiting the second factoring to eight orthogonally rotated factors produced a somewhat different, but equally meaningful, set of factors. None of the orthogonally rotated factors correlated at a l l highly with any of the motivational factors. The two sets thus appeared to be complementary rather than alternative measures of the same orientations. This conclusion was supported by the entry of three factors from both sets into a discriminant analysis which successfully distinguished among the study-research groups. The factors which entered the discrimant analysis were (in decreasing order of discriminating power): 1) Increased Adult Education Interest, 2) A c t i v i t y Need, and 3) Identification with the Project A c t i v i t y . Some 41 of respondents percent/could be i d e n t i f i e d correctly as to their group membership. The identified motivational and participational factors can thus be concluded as reasonably reflecting the clustering of responses to the questionnaire items involved. VIII. PROGRAM DESIGN AND PUBLICITY  Program design and p u b l i c i t y items were included i n the questionnaire primarily to test for any major incongruence between participant  143 preferences and practice, and secondarily to provide additional data on which to base future programming efforts using the technique. The general conclusion could be drawn that the participant preferences were closely identifiable with the program design and p u b l i c i t y features. Major incongruence was thus not l i k e l y except i n a small number of participants i n terms of: the lack of intergroup contact during the survey, the preferred length of meetings, and the informal structure of the course. However, the f a i l u r e of the program to r e f l e c t the preferences of some participants could well have had a negative effect on evaluation of the technique. The inadequacy of explanatory material i n the pre-enrolment brochure for a significant number of participants could also have given r i s e to incongruence, low participation, and a generally poor evaluation by those affected.  IX. SUMMATIVE CONCLUSIONS  In defining the educational needs instrumental i n development of the study-research group technique, i t appears that some progress has been made. It can be concluded that the technique has considerable potential for the meaningful teaching of research-based material and i n developing c r i t i c a l research a b i l i t i e s . Further, the technique i s able to provide, within a single group, instruction for the meaningful and rewarding involvement of participants having widely different educational backgrounds. There i s , however, no firm basis on which to draw conclusions regarding the technique's a p p l i c a b i l i t y to program areas other than the l i b e r a l studies type i n which the technique has so far been applied, although Arasteh (1966) does appear to have used i t successfully i n undergraduate teaching of the social sciences. The use of such a technique with other methods and i n other cultures  144 must also remain open to further study, but on the basis of Verner's (1968) theory of d i f f u s i b i l i t y , the technique should be broadly generalizable, both to different methods and cultures. Caution, however, should be exercised i n attempting cross-culture transfer since, as Verner (p.93) notes, ..."The usefulness of a given technique may be influenced by the previous experiences of the learner which would be a matter of culture," A l l work with the technique has so far been undertaken  through  universities. Hopefully, other types of educational bodies w i l l find i t valuable, but i t i s worth noting that study-research groups are peculiarly suited to a university program. Haygood (1970) i d e n t i f i e s four general university goals into which adult education must f i t . These are stated as ..."(1) The discovery of new knowledge, through research and scholarly a c t i v i t i e s ; (2) The accumulation and storage of information...; (3) The dissemination of accumulated knowledge...; (4) The application of knowledge and s k i l l s to specific situations."(p.195). The study-research group technique encompasses three of these goals (numbers 1, 3 t\ 4), thus adding to the l i k e l y acceptability, to the university, of adult education programs involving the technique. This should contribute to a reduction i n the marginality of university extension divisions since, as noted by Clark (1958), marginality for such units derives, at least i n part, from low status and a f a i l u r e to perceive the work as d i r e c t l y related to the main aims of the university. Another value of the technique derives from i t s problem-centered approach. By choosing research projects which are evidently of some potential importance to society i t i s possible to obtain non-university funding for the projects. This serves the dual purpose of increasing the c r e d i b i l i t y of the work as far as the university i s concerned, while providing essential financial support beyond the participant course fees. This l a t t e r i s of particular concern to the adult educator who must  145 contend, i n a study-research program, with high staff/student r a t i o s , long contact hours (and hence high fees for group leaders), and extra costs associated with the research i t s e l f . Probably the greatest danger inherent i n this technique i s the tendency for solution of the research problem to become dominant over, and even suppressive of, the educational function. This i s l i k e l y to be of particular importance when outside deadlines are applied to completion of the research, as was the case i n the program used i n this evaluation. The rather poorer evaluation of the technique i n this program, compared with an e a r l i e r evaluation involving programs without such deadlines (Bagnall, 1975), i s possibly a result of this influence. F i n a l l y , i t must be stated that further evaluative studies of the technique are necessary before firm conclusions as to i t s s u i t a b i l i t y and the boundaries of i t s effective application can be drawn. The present evaluation was based on participant's self-perception of their learning. Objective testing of progressive learning during the course of a program, and the extent of i t s application following the program should be undertaken before generalizations are made about the technique.  146 CHAPTER VI  IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  An evaluation of any r e l a t i v e l y new technique, with which the associated instructors and programmers are experimenting, i s limited i n i t s external v a l i d i t y by the effects of the novelty on participant learning and attitudes. This problem has been i d e n t i f i e d frequently i n educational research, but i s one which cannot be eliminated f u l l y except through use of the technique over time — as novelty diminishes with increasing f a m i l i a r i t y . The generally good evaluation of the study-research group technique well may be exaggerated by this factor. Using the evaluation tentatively as a guideline, there i s cause to believe that the study-research group provides a more suitable process for the teaching of research-based material than do other techniques of adult education. This derives p a r t i c u l a r l y from the emphasis, forced by the technique, on the learning of appropriate attitudes, problem-solving s k i l l s and cognitive strategies, while conforming to accepted principles of good adult education. That the study-research group technique also i s suitable for participants i n one group with a considerable diversity of background experiences makes i t especially suitable for adult education. It can be argued that the time required for achievement of the learning outcomes i s excessive. However, i t i s doubtful that other techniques could achieve the same results i n an equivalent time for the outcomes desired, although there are probably considerably more e f f i c i e n t procedures for the learning of verbal information. The efficacy of the technique for use i n more vocationally oriented programs must remain open to experimentation. Any such t r i a l s , however, should be attempted only i f the desired learning outcomes are i n accord  147 with the strengths of the technique. To use this process for vocational or other programs on which the desired outcomes are substantially i n the motor s k i l l or verbal information categories could be quite inappropriate. At least on theoretical grounds there i s good reason to believe that the technique would be suitable for use with other methods and i n other cultures. But evaluated t r i a l s w i l l be required to confirm t h i s . The high staff/student ratios and participant commitment required for a program employing this technique would make i t s accommodation to the normal fee-setting structure of adult education organizations u n r e a l i s t i c . To attract participants, subsidies would be required beyond the level normally applied by an organization. However, the problem-centered framework of the technique provides a l o g i c a l avenue for pursuit of such funds. While there i s no l o g i c a l argument against use of the technique by other organizations, i t appears to be p a r t i c u l a r l y congruent with the i n s t i t u t i o n a l goals of u n i v e r s i t i e s , and i s thus l i k e l y to be most acceptable to these bodies. Further evaluative research must, however, also be undertaken into the s u i t a b i l i t y of the technique within the type of program structure used i n the present study. In particular, more objective, on-going testing of learning i n each of the outcome categories i s required. At least for the cultural groups involved with the program studied, some programming guidelines emerge from the stated preferences of partici^pants. High participant involvement i n a l l phases of the work i s essential. That this was not f u l l y realised i n the program undoubtedly contributed to some d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the technique. The involvement must cover as many programming and instructional decisions as possible — the setting of meeting schedules, the types of work undertaken and the research methods used. It must also extend throughout the research effort from i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the problem to preparation of the research reports and publications.  148 The major danger inherent i n use of the technique relates to a natural tendency for the research problem to assume dominance over p a r t i c i pant learning. The program here studied showed evidence of t h i s occuring. Avoidance of the trend would be f a c i l i t a t e d by the selection of research projects which do not carry s t r i c t completion deadlines, no matter how r e a l i s t i c these may look at the start. On the other hand, avoidance of research projects carrying deadlines, does remove an element of r e a l i t y and excitement from the work. I t can be argued, at the very least, that unneccessary deadlines imposed by the adult education organization should be avoided. The study-research group technique i s very demanding of active involvement by the participants. Unlike the situation with many other instructional techniques, i t i s not possible for a participant to adopt the role of a passive onlooker. In that active involvement f a c i l i t a t e s learning and remembering, this i s a very desirable attribute. It i s also valuable i n that i t f a c i l i t a t e s the pooling and sharing of participant s k i l l s and knowledge pertinent to the learning and problem-solving needs of group members. On the other hand, persons who feel threatened by such exposure of their a b i l i t i e s and inadequacies are l i k e l y to be discouraged from enrolling and, i f they do enrol, may drop out before their defensiveness i s broken down. These demands placed on the participants could be an important factor i n the disproportionately high participation of success-orientated persons — those from the better educated and higher socio-economic groups. However, the problemcentered framework of the technique, and i t s independence from sophisticated prerequisite knowledge and s k i l l s , make i t potentially suitable for a wide range of socio-economic groups. With appropriately directed p u b l i c i t y , good counselling, and sensitive leadership, the appeal of the study-research group technique could be made much more representative of the general adult population. It i s legitimately argued that functional research cannot be under-  149  taken without a good basis of knowledge and. grounding i n the appropriate s k i l l s . No issue i s taken here with such an argument. However, aggreement does not extend to endorsement of the widespread opinion that i t i s necessary to learn a wide range of specific s k i l l s and large quantities of verbal information i n a subject before one has identified any specific point of application for the s k i l l s and knowledge. This opinion can be argued against, both on theoretical grounds and from the results of this program and evaluation. Here, participants learned the necessary information and s k i l l s when these were identified as prerequisites to the solution of particular problems. In that way, learning becomes a means to an end, and acquires identifiable and comprehensible boundaries which are set by the nature of the problem. The learning acquires relevance and meaningfulness to the learner,, and becomes a challenge, with a specific and foreseeable goal. In terms of the identified need for alternative techniques i n science adult education, the study-research group appears to be, at the very least, a move i n the right direction. The number and range of research problems i n any community must surely be of such an order as would permit an essentially endless supply of research problems. The major barrier to more general application probably l i e s , not with the a v a i l a b i l i t y of suitable problems, but with the human commitment to such programs. S k i l l e d and sensitive program planners, committed to achieving the learning outcomes, w i l l be required, as w i l l acceptance by adult education i n s t i t u t i o n s . Commitment of funds also w i l l be necessary to provide r e a l i s t i c subsidies for the work. Of perhaps even greater importance i s the need for able scientists to make their time available to supervise the work of the study-research groups. The d i f f i c u l t i e s involved i n f i e l d i n g and successfully following through a program l i k e the one studied here are easily underestimated when decisions to proceed are based on published descriptive accounts. It would  150 be a much simpler task to undertake any research project by conventional means such as l e t t i n g a research contract to a consultancy body. It also would be considerably easier to offer adult science education using any of the existing more conventional techniques. However, i f we accept the need for the learning of attitudes and a b i l i t i e s with which adults can make sound evaluations of the s c i e n t i f i c a l l y based cultural forces affecting them, then to work along concentional lines i s tantamount to abrogating our responsibili t i e s as members of a demoncratically based society. In the f i e l d of science education, instructors of pre-adults have demonstrated clearly their inadequacy i n meeting the real educational needs of most students. Adult educators, to date, can claim no greater success. The net results i s a population dangerously ignorant of the processes of science. By accepting a continuation of the processes and structures which have given r i s e to t h i s situation, we w i l l be giving s i l e n t endorsement to i t s perpetuation, and w i l l become parties to the consequences. Alternatively, i f we are prepared to shoulder our democratic and professional r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , we w i l l strive to improve on the present. We w i l l seek to refine our knowledge of the learning required, and to improve our instructional processes as means of attaining the required learning. I f we delay u n t i l we perceive perfection i n this knowledge and i n the educational processes, we may never act or we may do so too late. Rather, we must grasp at what we have, t r y i t , evaluate i t , refine i t and extend i t . Whatever our role -- whether adult educator, s c i e n t i s t , educational admini s t r a t o r , or p o l i t i c i a n -- we must act to f a c i l i t a t e this process of experimentation and refinement. The study-research group technique i s available as a process which can be used to further our objectives i n developing a more s c i e n t i f i c a l l y c r i t i c a l and s k i l l e d adult population. I t should not be l e f t to wither into  151 the role of a h i s t o r i c a l l y interesting item, but should be applied, tested and improved, only being l e f t to history when superseeded by more effective processes.  152 REFERENCES Arsteh, A.R. Teaching Through Research. Leiden: E.J. B r i l l , 1966, 36lpp. Atwood, H.M. t\ E l l i s , J . The concept of need: an analysis f o r adult education. Adult Leadership, 1971, 19, 7, 210-212 $ 244. Bagnall, R.G. Study-research groups as a method of teaching the natural sciences. International Congress of University Adult Education Journal, 1975(a), 14, 2, 21-41. ibid.  Teaching through research: a new technique of teaching natural science subjects. Continuing Education i n New Zealand, 1976, 8, 2, 61-67.  ibid.  (Ed.) Survey of the Proposed Belmont Regional H i l l Park. :  Part One: Recommendations on Development and Management. Wellington, New Zealand: V i c t o r i a University, 1976(b), 63pp. ibid.  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An Overview of Adult Education Research. Washington, D.C: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1959, 279pp. Burgess, P, Reasons f o r adult participation i n group educational a c t i v t i e s . Adult Education, 1971, 22, 1, 3-29. Carey, J.T. Forms and Forces i n University Adult Education. Chicago: Center f o r the Study of Liberal Education for Adults, 1961, 229pp. Champion, A. Student participation and adult laeming. Adult Education (Gr. Br.), 1975, 47, 5, 298-303. Clark, B.R. The Marginality of Adult Education. Chicago: Center f o r the  154 Study of Liberal Education f o r Adults, 1958, 18pp. Committee on Lifelong Education. Lifelong Education. Wellington: New Zealand National Commission f o r UNESCO, 1972, 112pp. Cooley, W.W. § Lohnes, P.R. Multivariate Procedures f o r Behavioral Sciences. New York: Wiley, 1962, 211pp. Dakin, J.C. V i c t o r i a University of Wellington Department of University Extension Annual Report 1972. 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Attendance patterns and dropouts i n adult night school classes. Adult Education, 1967, 19, 1, 24-33. Dietrick, D.C. "Review of Research." i n H i l l , R.J. A Comparative Study of Lecture and Discussion Methods. New York: The Fund for Adult Education, 1960, 90-118.  155  Dubin, S.S. t\ Okun, M. Implications of learning theories for adult instruction. Adult Education, 1973, 24, 1, 3-19. Dutton, D. Should the clientele be involved i n program planning? Adult Leadership, 1970, 19, 6, 181-182. Elley, W.B. § Irving, J.C. A socio-economic index for New Zealand based on levels of education and income from the 1966 Census. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 1972, 7, 1, 153-167. Emmelin, L. The need for environmental education for adults. Convergence, 1976, 9, 1, 45-52. Essert, P.L. t\ Spence, R.B. Continuous learning through the educative community: an exploration of the family-educational, the sequential u n i t , and the complementary-functional systems. Adult Education, 1968, 18, 4, 260-271. Faure, E., Herrera, F., Kaddoura, A.-R., Lopes, H., Petrovsky, A.V., Rahnema, M. § Ward, F.C. Learning to be: the World of Education Today and Tomorrow. Paris: UNESCO, 1972, 313pp. Freeman, L.C. Elementary Applied S t a t i s t i c s : for Students i n Behavioral Science. New York: John Wiley § Sons, 1965, 298pp. Gagne, R.M. The Conditions of Learning. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1965 ( 2 ibid.  n d  ed.), 407pp.  Essentials of Learning for Instruction. Hinsdale, I l l i n o i s : The Dryden Press, 1975, 204pp.  ibid.  "The Learning Basis of Teaching Methods." i n Gage, N.L. The Psychology of Teaching Methods. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1976, 21-43.  Gagne, R.M. § Briggs, L.J. Principles of Instructional Design. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1974, 270pp. Gibb, J.R. A climate for learning. Adult Education, 1958, 9, 1, 19-21.  156 Gibb, J.R. "Learning Theory i n Education." i n Knowles, M.S. (Ed.) Handbook of Adult Education i n the United States. Chicago: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1960, 54-64. Gorsuch, R.L. Factor Analysis. Toronto: W.B.Saunders, 1974, 370pp. Grabowski, S.M. "Motivational and Participation  Patterns." i n Klevins,  C. (Ed.) Materials and Methods i n Continuing Education. New York: Klevins Publications, 1976, 213-221. Haag, U.F.E. Psychological Foundations of Motive f o r Participation i n Adult Education. Vancouver: University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976, unpublished M.A. thesis, 75pp. Hackel, E. The role of science i n university adult education. Adult Education, 1962, 12, 3, 173-177. H a l l , D.O.H. New Zealand Adult Education. London: Michael Joseph, 1970, 200pp. Havighurst, R.J. Developmental Tasks and Education. New York: David McKay Company, 1952 ( 2  n d  ed.) 100pp.  Havighurst, R.J. § Orr, B. Adult Education and Adult Needs. Chicago: Center for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults, 1956, 66pp. Haygood, K. "Colleges and Universities." i n Smith, R.M., Aker, G.F. § Kidd, J.R. (Ed's) Handbook of Adult Education. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1970, 191-212. H i l l , R.J. A Comparative Study of Lecture and Discussion Methods. New York: The Fund for Adult Education, 1960, 153pp. Houle, CO. The Enquiring Mind. Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1961, 87pp. ibid.  The Design of Education. San Fransisco: Jossey-Bass, 1972, 323pp.  Hutchinson, W.C. "Science." i n Dees, N, (Ed.) Approaches to Adult Teaching. New York: Pergamon Press, 1965, 143-166.  157 Jensen, C. "Social Psychology and Adult Education Practice." i n Jensen, G., Liveright, A.A. § Hallenbeck, W. (Ed's) Adult Education: Outlines of an Emerging F i e l d of University Study. Washington, D.C.: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1964, 137-153. Jeske, W.E. Should adult programs include courses relating to environmental concerns? Adult Leadership, 1973, 21, 9, 283-284, 307-308. Johnstone, J.W.C. <% Rivera, R.J. Volunteers for Learning: a Study of Educational Pursuits of American Adults. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, 1965, 624pp. Kelly, F.J., Beggs, D.L., McNeil, K.A., Eichelberger, T, § Lyon, J . Research and Design i n the Behavioral Sciences: Multiple Regression Approach. Carbondale: Southern I l l i n o i s University Press, 1969, 353pp. Kidd, J.R. How Adults Learn. New York: Association Press, 1959, 324pp. Knowles, M.S. The Modern Practice of Adult Education: Andragogy Versus Pedagogy. New York: Association Press, 1970, 384pp. ibid.  The Adult Learner: a Neglected Species. Houston: Gulf Publishing Company, 1973, 197pp.  ibid.  Issues i n adult learning psychology. Adult Leadership, 1974, 22, 9, 300-303 § 315-316.  Lam, Y.-L. § IVong, A. Attendance regularity of adult learners: an examination of content and structural factors. Adult Education, 1974, 24, 2, 130-142. Leypoldt, M.M. Forty Ways to Teach i n Groups. Valley Forge, Pennsylvania: r  The Judson Press, 1967, 125pp. Lindeman, E.C. The Meaning of Adult Education. Montreal: Harvest House, 1961 (reprint of 1926 ed.), 143pp. Maslow, A.H. Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper § Brothers, 1954, 411pp.  158 McClusky, H.Y. "The Relevance of Psychology for Adult Education." i n Jensen, G., Liveright, A.A. § Hallenbeck, W. (Ed's) Adult Education: Outlines of an Emerging F i e l d of University Study. Washington, D.C.: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1964, 155-175. M i l l e r , H.L. Teaching and Learning i n Adult Education. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1964, 340pp. ibid.  Participation of Adults i n Education: a Force-Field Analysis. Boston: Center for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults, 1967, 32pp.  M i l l e r , H.L. § McGuire, CH. Evaluating Liberal Adult Education. Chicago: Center f o r the Study of Liberal Education for Adults, 1961, 184pp. Morgan, B., Holmes, C E . t\ Bundy, C.E. Methods i n Adult Education. Danville, I l l i n o i s : The Interstate Printers § Publishers, 1963,189pp. Morstain, B.R. § Smart, J.C. Reasons for participation i n adult education courses: a multivariate analysis of group differences. Adult Education, 1974, 24, 2, 83-98. Mueller, A.D. Pririiples and Methods i n Adult Education. New York: Prentice-Hall, 1937, 428pp. Peters, J.M. § Boshier, R.W. "Developing Programs Congruent with Adult Motives, Needs and Interests." i n Klevins, C  (Ed.) Materials and  Methods i n Continuing Education. New York: Klevins Publications, 1976, 197-212. Pine, C J . § Home, P.J. Principles and conditions for learning i n adult education. Adult Leadership, 1969, 18, 4,.108-110, 126, 133-134. Powell, J.W. § Benne, K.D. "Philosophies of Adult Education." i n Knowles, M.S. (Ed.) Handbook of Adult Education i n the United States. Chicago: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1960, 41-53. R i d d e l l , B.C Psycho-Social Concomitants of Motivational Orientation i n a  159 Group of Older Adult Education Participants. Vancouver: University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976, unpublished M.A.  thesis, 92pp.  Rogers, J . Adults Learning. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1971, 222pp. Schroeder, W.L.  "Adult Education Defined and Described." i n Smith,  Aker, G.F. B, Kidd, J.R.  (Ed's) Handbook of Adult Education.  R.M.,  New  York: The Macmillan Publishing Company, 1970, 25-43. Sheffield, S.B. "The Orientations of Adult Continuing Learners." i n Solomon, D. § Houle, CO.  (Ed's) The Continuing Learner. Chicago:  Center for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults, 1964,  1-22.  Smith, A.E., Bullock, W.A.C. $ Hall-, R.H. F i e l d Studies Course. Gibraltar Point July 1963: Report on F i e l d Studies. Nottingham: University of Nottingham Department of Adult Education and the Workers' Educational Association, 1963, 44pp. Smith, H.J. "History." i n Dees, N. (Ed.) Approaches to Adult Teaching. New York: Pergamon Press, 1965, 36-45. Staton, T.F. How to Instruct Successfully: Modern Teaching Methods i n Adult Education. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1960, 292pp. Stock, A. "Role-Playing and Simulation Techniques." i n Stephens, M.D. Roderick, G.W.  §  (Ed's) Teaching Techniques i n Adult Education. Newton  Abbot, Devon: David $ Charles, 1971, 90-101. Stott, M.M.  A Review of Selected Research Related to the Use of Techniques  i n Adult Education. Vancouver: The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, unpublished M.A.  thesis, 1966, 344pp.  Styler, IV.E. The motives of adult students. Adult Education (Gr. Br.), 1950, 23, 2, 106-112. Thomas, A.M.  "The Concept of Program i n Adult Education." i n Jensen,  G.,  Liveright, A.A. § Hallenbeck, W. (Ed's) Adult Education: Outlines of an Emerging F i e l d of University Study. Washington, D.C.:  Adult  160 Education Association of the U.S.A., 1964, 241-269. Tye, N.B. Process Guidelines for Adult Education Program Development. New York: Columbia University, unpublished Ed.D. thesis, 1966, 266pp. Verner, C. A Conceptual Scheme for the Identification and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Processes. Washington, D.C: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1962, 34pp. ibid.  "Definition of Terms." i n Jensen, C , Liveright, A.A. § Hallenbeck, W. (Ed's) Adult Education: Outlines of an Emerging F i e l d of University Study. Washington, D.C: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1964, 27-39.  ibid.  Cultural diffusion and adult education. Adult Leadership, 1968, 17, 2, 49-51, 91-93.  ibid.  'Tundamental Concepts i n Adult Education." i n Knoll, J.H. (Ed.) Internationales Jahrbuch fur Erwachsenenbildung  1975. Bertelsmann,  Germany: Bertelsmann University, 1975, 177-192. Verner, C. § Booth, A. Adult Education. New York: The Center for Applied Research i n Education, 1964, 118pp. Verner, C. § Davis, G.S. Completions and dropouts: a review of research. Adult Education, 1964, 14, 3, 157-176. Verner, C. £j Dickinson, G. The lecture, an analysis and review of research. Adult Education, 1967, 17, 2, 85-100. Whipple, J.B. Especially for Adults. Chicago: Center for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults, 1957, 70pp. White, T. § Kelly, H.C "Science for Adults." i n Knowles, M.S. (Ed.) Handbook of Adult Education i n the United States. Chicago: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1960, 534-541. Zack, I. Characteristics of Participants i n a New Inner-City Night School. Vancouver: University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1976, unpublished  M.A. thesis, 136pp. Zahn, J.C. Differences between adults and youth affecting learning.. Adult Education, 1967, 17, 2, 67-77.  162  APPENDIX A Description of the Program Being Studied  The program was planned and run by the Extension Department of V i c t o r i a University, during the calendar year of 1975 (March to December). The primary research aim of the project was to undertake a basic survey of an area covering about 2,000 hectares, which had been recommended by the Wellington Regional Planning Authority for development as a Regional Park. The type of information sought i n the survey was that which would have a bearing on establishing the actual boundaries of the park, the s i t i n g of f a c i l i t i e s for users of the park, and the subsequent management of the area. An important secondary research aim was to obtain and record information which would be valuable and interesting to subsequent users of the park, p a r t i c u l a r l y those using the area for educational purposes. The study-research groups which undertook the project each comprised a group of interested adult members of the public working under the guidance of either one or two group leaders. The project was financed by grants from the Wellington Regional Planning Authority, Mobil O i l , the V i c t o r i a University Internal Research Committee and Extension Department. The salaries of the supporting admini s t r a t i v e s t a f f and the project leader were separately funded. The grant moneys paid for most of costs involved, p a r t i c u l a r l y the nominal fees paid to group leaders and the cost of materials for research, instruction and transport for groups on the project s i t e . Publication costs of the research report (part 1) were separately provided by the University Publications Committee. These subsidies allowed the course fee paid by each participant to be pegged at $10.00. The s i x study-research groups were organized around different aspects of the survey: local history, geology, botany,freshwater biology, ornithology,  163  and mammalogy. Each group was lead by one or two researchers who were selected primarily for their research expertise, and secondarily for their a b i l i t y to work with adult students.  They were either university faculty  members or researchers employed by the New Zealand Government. Pre-course p u b l i c i t y was quite extensive, being f a c i l i t a t e d by the novelty and magnitude of the project. A r t i c l e s appeared i n a l l of the free l o c a l , weekly, house-hold delivery newspapers, i n both of the regional daylies, and a discussion of the project was broadcast by a regional radio station. A brochure was prepared which outlined the project, i t s objectives (educational and research), the nature of the course a c t i v i t i e s , the l i k e l y time . commitment  expected of participants, the nature of expected participants,  general administrative d e t a i l s , and also included information on the group leaders. I t further, contained uniquely marked enrolment forms. Copies of the brochure were mailed to selected interest-groups. The main Extension Department brochure and newspaper advertisements lodged by the department i n regional newspapers invited persons to request a copy of this project brochure. Enrolment was voluntary and without prerequistes, except i n the case of the ornithology group where applicants were required to possess the capability of identifying the local avifauna by both sound and sight. To ensure that applicants had at l e a s t , been exposed to the explanatory material, only applications received on the special forms i n the brochure were accepted. On the forms, applicants nominated the group to which they wanted, to belong and a second choice, i f they had one. Enrolments were accepted i n order of receipt, without screening, although the project leader was available to give advice to persons requesting i t . Up to f i f t e e n enrolments were accepted for each group, after which applicants were placed according to their second choice. Final enrolment figures for the groups, excluding group leaders, were:  164 history (15), geology (17), botany (15), freshwater biology (14), ornithology (9), and mammalogy (14). Because most adults are not accustomed to committing themselves to educational programs beyond one year, and due to the time constraints on the research contract, a time l i m i t of ten months (March to December) was placed on the program from i n i t i a l to f i n a l class meeting. Within that period, each group arranged i t s meeting times to suit the participants and the constraints of the subject matter. The main project began early i n March 1975 when a l l participants assembled i n one group f o r the presentation and discussion of introductory material. The p r i n c i p a l topics were: features of the area to be studied, already completed planning and sociological research of application to the proposed park, the nature of the project, and the proposed modus operandi of each study-research group. After this introduction the study-research groups worked separately throughout the year i n their respective f i e l d s of study. The nature and frequency of meetings and the ways i n which the work was undertaken varied between groups as a result of the d i f f e r i n g demands of the research problems and the participants' other commitment.  The history group undertook much  of i t s work by having individuals concentrate on particular sources of information and lines of investigation. Their meetings (17), generally i n the evening, were used to discuss methods and findings. In contrast, the botany group undertook most of i t s research as one group, although on occasions they used up to four subgroups; a l l sampling and recording being undertaken during the 24 meetings which were mostly day-long occasions spent i n the f i e l d . The geology, ornithology and mammalogy groups had a work program which was s i m i l a r l y based i n the f i e l d , using one group or a number of subgroups. The freshwater biologists also worked as one group but found that  165 over half of their time had to be spent i n the laboratory, sorting, identifying and counting specimens from collected samples. These groups held between 15 and 20 meetings. Towards the end of November, when the study-research groups had completed the bulk of the research, each group leader prepared a summary report which included an account of the work done, the results obtained, and the conclusions and recommendations deriving from the work. A copy of this report from each group was given to a l l project participants and interested land-owners d i r e c t l y affected by the park proposals. At this stage the participants were asked also to complete a questionnaire on their active recreational interests, both past and present, and experience i n certain f i e l d s of importance i n development of the park, e.g. road design and track cutting. A l l interested study-research group participants and land-owners then met for a half-day for presentation of the summary reports. One week l a t e r , an evening and a f u l l day were given to discussion of the findings, with the aim of drawing up recommendations on development and management of the proposed park. Of the 82 persons actively involved i n the project, 57 participated i n this discussion phase of the work. Each was placed i n one of four discussion groups, the placing being designed to ensure the greatest possible breadth of experience and knowledge i n each group. Thus, each discussion group included at least one member of each study-research group and, as far as was possible, participants with a range of recreational and other relevant experience. A framework of discussion topics was given to each group member. The recommendations from the discussion groups and those made by the study-research groups, together with a few additional points made separately by some affected land-owners, were then collated and condensed by  /  the project leader into a set of recommendations for publication and forwarding to the Wellington Regional Planning Authority, as agreed the research contract.  167 APPENDIX B  L e t t e r Accompanying Questionnaire  [UNIVERSITY LETTER-HEAD]  26 January, 1976 Dear  BELMONT REGIONAL HILL PARK PROJECT 1975 As you a r e aware, t h i s p r o j e c t was designed w i t h the aim o f undertaking the survey w h i l e p r o v i d i n g a s t i m u l a t i n g educational framavork f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s such as y o u r s e l f i n which t o l e a r n about the subject under study and the methods used.  This "study-research group" approach t o education and research i s s t i l l i n the developmental  stage. I f we a r e t o continue w i t h the method,  improve on i t , and share our experiences w i t h other i n t e r e s t e d educational i n s t i t u t i o n s , we must have d e t a i l e d information on the responses o f participants.  I t i s important t h a t ALL p a r t i c i p a n t s a s s i s t w i t h t h i s assessment. The a t t i t u d e s o f those who were d i s s a t i s f i e d ; those who f a i l e d t o complete the course; those who were very pleased; and those who attended o n l y s p o r a d i c a l l y , are a l l e q u a l l y important t o u s .  To make i t p o s s i b l e t o handle the i n f o r m a t i o n , i t must be s e t i n a standard format. For t h i s purpose, the enclosed questionnaire has been  168 prepared.  You are urged to complete the questionnaire promptly and return i t to the University so that we may continue to improve our teaching i n this area. Note that the information from each respondent to the questionnaire w i l l be regarded as confidential. Any published material w i l l be i n such a form that no personal i d e n t i f i c a t i o n could be attached to any part of i t . Note also, that your responses w i l l be of value only i f you are completely frank and, i f necessary, ruthless i n your replies to the questionnaire.  Yours sincerely,  R. G. Bagnall Lecturer i n Science  169 APPENDIX C The Questionnaire In this copy of the questionnaire, spacing has been reduced, including that provided for response to questions for which more than one l i n e was available i n the f i e l d instrument. Where appropriate, the t o t a l number of responses i s shown i n parentheses.  BELMONT REGIONAL HILL PARK PROJECT Questionnaire to Participants Please complete this questionnaire and return i t i n the envelope provided not later than 21 FEBRUARY 1976. DELETE, TICK, or PRINT as appropriate. Please do NOT underline. 1. GROUP MEMBERSHIP You were a member of which study-research group? History (8), Geology (15), Botany (13), Freshwater Biology (12), Ornithology (6), Mammology (11). 2. PERSONAL INFORMATION —Age i n years -Male (37) / female- (28) —Current occupation (be specific) —Previous occupation i f now unemployed, r e t i r e d or committed to domestic duties —Academic qualifications ( i f any), please state major subjects i f degree, diploma, etc —Previous formal study i n the subject of your study-research group, including University Extension, WEA, secondary school, degree work, etc,; state subject, level ( i f appropriate) and organising i n s t i t u t i o n . . —Have you previously attended adult education courses i n OTHER subjects?  170 YES / NO . — I f "YES" to the previous question state, i f not covered above: the number of courses the subjects the organizing institutions KNOWLEDGE OF THE SUBJECT From which of the following sources did you f i r s t learn of the project and the fact that you might participate i n i t ? —from a friend (9) —from a newspaper a r t i c l e (4) —from a newspaper advertisement (3) —from a radio broadcast (0) —from receiving the brochure—solicited or unsolicited (34) —from seeing the brochure i n a l i b r a r y or similar place (9) —from the University Extension o f f i c e or s t a f f (6) PRE-ENROLMENT INFORMATION ON THE PROJECT Indicate, with a t i c k i n the appropriate column, the adequacy of the brochure description with regard to each of the following areas: less than adequate adequate the nature of the subject matter  more than adequate  (5)  (57)  (3)  the course technique  (15)  (48)  (2)  the expected commitment of your time  (10)  (49)  (4)  COURSE APPEAL, YOUR EXPECTATIONS AND SATISFACTION In the table below: (1) i n the l e f t hand section, nimber up to five items that most appealed to you i n the project at the time of enrolment. Number from 1 (most important) to 5 (least important). Use each number only once. I f more than f i v e items were important, you may t i c k those beyond  171 the f i f t h . (2) i n the right hand section of the table, please t i c k the appropriate column, opposite each of the items which you have numbered or ticked, to indicate the degree to which your interest was s a t i s f i e d . INITIAL APPEAL OF THE PROJECT  DEGREE OF SATISFACTION WITH PROJECT satis- high factory  low — t h e thought of working with other s i m i l a r l y i n t (2)  (16)  (13)  (1)  (1)  (0)  (3)  (16)  (26)  (2)  (8)  (26)  (0)  (0)  (3)  (2)  (1)  (2)  (7)  (9)  (3)  — i t l e t you out of some domestic chores:  (0)  (0)  (0)  — a friend was also participating: 1(1), 2(1), / ( l )  (0)  (1)  (2)  (7)  (13)  (8)  (0)  (5)  (11)  erested persons: 1(2), 2(5), 3(3), 4(10), 5(7), 7(2) — i t might help to use up spare time: 3(1), 4(1) — i t could be a good way to learn about the subject: 1(14), 2(8), 3(9), 4(7), 5(4), 7(4) —you enjoy working outside: 1(1), 2(5), 3(6), 4(8), 5(12), /(3) — i t would give you an opportunity to get away from home: 1(1), 3(1), / ( l ) — i t might start you on a new hobby: 2(1), 3(1), 4(1), 5(1) — i t could have been a good preliminary to other related work: 1(2), 2(3), 3(5), 4(3), 5(5), /(2)  —you l i k e d the idea of being involved with a research project and i t s publication: 1(5), 2(6), 3(6), 4(8), 5(3), /(2) — t o work with a particular group leader: 1(1), 2(5), 3(3), 5(3), 1(4)  172 INITIAL APPEAL OF THE PROJECT  DEGREE OF SATISFACTION WITH PROJECT low  s a t i s - high factory  the project was related to your occupation: 1(4), 2(5), 3(3), 4(2), 5(4), /(2)  (4)  (12)  (4)  (0)  (6)  (7)  (1)  (8)  (24)  (5)  (11)  (23)  (7)  (11)  (16)  (2)  (2)  (4)  the project was NOT related to your occupation: 1(1), 2(1), 3(5), 4(1), 5(3), /(2) you were interested i n the geographical area: 1(7), 2(7), 3(5), 4(9), 5(4), y ( l ) you were interested i n the subject of your studyresearch group: 1(15), 2(9), 3(6), 4(5), 5(3),  you were interested i n the recreational-planning aspect of the project: 1(8), 2(5), 3(9), 4(6), 5(6), /(4) other (please specify): 2(1), 3(1), 5(1), /(5) ADDITIONAL GAINS Did you derive anything else from the course? YES (40) / NO (25) If "YES" please specify:  ,  :  ..  EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES The primary educational objectives of these study-research groups may be stated as follows; pleases indicate, i n the appropriate column, the extent to which each was realized i n your case: YOUR ASSESSMENT poorly reason- well ably to increase your understanding of the studyresearch group subject as a f i e l d of study (not merely as a collection of facts and  (10)  (22)  (31)  173 explanations): 2) to increase your a b i l i t y to analyze, c r i t i c i z e and appreciate the limitations of research work  (10)  (20)  (33)  i n the area of study: If you answered "poorly" or 'reasonably' to either of the above, what type of course do you think would better meet these objectives? — f o r objective 1)  .  — f o r objective 2) 8. EDUCATIONAL VALUE The following have been suggested as the main educational strengths of the study-research group technique; indicate for each one, by t i c k i n g the appropriate column, the degree to which you concur i n the case of this project. strongly doubt disagree i t  it is strongly probably agree correct  —maintains student interest i n studying the subject  (0)  (5)'  (29)  (29)  (0)  (3)  (38)  (20)  (0)  (4)  (22)  (36)  (1)  (2)  (20)  (40)  (0)  (3)  (26)  (32)  (0)  (19)  (22)  (17)  — f a c i l i t a t e s the welding of a group into a working team —makes good use of existing s k i l l s of group members —encourages learning by making the material meaningful —encourages learning by providing for reinforcement and practice —encourages learning by providing for self-assessment as results are worked up, discussed and checked  174 strongly doubt disagree i t  it is strongly probably agree correct  provides a means of teaching research-based subjects as they r e a l l y are, namely an integration of  (0)  (2)  (23)  (32)  (0)  (8)  (25)  (25)  (0)  (5)  (22)  (30)  (3)  (7)  (25)  (26>  existing information and research develops i n students a more i n formed and c r i t i c a l attitude to•  wards research provides a means of involving. students i n o r i g i n a l and important applied research enables each student to set his or her own pace of learning and level of participation 9. ATTENDANCE — If you did not attend a l l scheduled meetings, how many (approximately) did you miss?.....(average  = 27%)  —Why?  — D i d you: attend sporadically?  (49)  stop attending after a while?  (11)  — I f "sporadically," did your attendance: improve during the year?...(l) decline during the year?...(5) —Could the organizers or group leaders have done anything to increase your attendance? YES (13) / NO (51) — If "YES," please state 10. YOUR BACKGROUND IN THE SUBJECT — D i d you find your background, i f any, i n the subject of your studyresearch group to be: — i n s u f f i c i e n t  (4)  175 —adequate  (38)  — t o o advanced  (3)  — I f you had no background i n the subject of your study-research group was this a hindrance? YES (7) / NO (11) 11. INTRODUCTORY MATERIAL ON THE PROJECT — D i d you find the material presented at the f i r s t two meetings to be: — t o o superficial —adequate  (4)  (50)  — t o o detailed  (10)  —How could i t have been better presented? 12. BACKGROUND READING DURING THE COURSE —Would you prefer:—hand-out material (assuming that you pay f o r i t i n an i n i t i a l l y higher fee)?  (7)  —references to source material (for you to buy or borrow)?  (9)  — a mixture of both the above?  (45)  —Was the amount of hand-out and/or reference material given during the course: — i n s u f f i c i e n t ? —adequate? —excessive?  (15) (46) (2)  13. CONTINUED POST-COURSE STUDY —Should you wish to continue study on your own i n the subject of your study-research group, do you think that this course has: (a) added to or given you the a b i l i t y to do so?  (51)  (b) not increased or not given you the a b i l i t y to do so? —if  (10)  'b' can you suggest any reasons?  —Has the course: (a)—encouraged you to seek other courses i n the subject?  (29)  —discouraged you from seeking other courses i n  176 the subject?  (2)  — n o t altered your motivation?  (34)  (b)—encouraged you to seek courses i n other subj ects?  (23)  — n o t altered your motivation?  (42)  14. GROUP SIZE Assuming that there i s only one group leader at any one time for a studyresearch group, how many persons would you consider to be an ideal number for one group? 15. INTERGROUP CONTACT —Would you have preferred more contact (discussion of methods, results, etc.) between study-research groups during the year? YES (43) / NO (16) — If "YES" have you any comments?  ..  .  16. SCHEDULING OF MEETINGS The introductory meetings must be prescheduled (dates printed i n the brochure); would you prefer other meetings to be: —prescheduled?  (13)  —scheduled by group discussion (as i n this project) ?  .(52)  17. LENGTH OF MEETINGS Would you prefer meetings to b e : — h a l f a day i n length? — f u l l - d a y i n length?  (26) (42)  —condensed into one block (2-3 weeks i n January) ?  (2)  18. FREQUENCY OF MEETINGS —Assuming full-day meetings, what frequency do you prefer? —weekly —fortnightly —monthly  (8) (23) (22)  177 —Assuming half-day meetings, what frequency do you prefer? —weekly  (9)  —fortnightly —monthly  (29) (8)  19. WEEKEND MEETING DAYS Do you prefer:—Saturdays? —Sundays?  (14) (11)  — a mixture of both?  (39)  20. LENGTH OF PROJECT —Would you have preferred this, course to be: —condensed into a six month period?  (12)  —extended to, say, two years?..... (24) —Have you any comments?  ..,  21. COURSE FEE The cost of this project was covered largely by grants from the Wellington Regional Planning Authority, Mobil O i l and the University. The fee paid by you ($10.00) would have been about $50.00 without this assistance. Would you have enrolled had the fee been of this order? YES (7) /NO (57) 22. SUGGESTIONS Have you any other suggestions for the improvement of projects such as this?  178 APPENDIX D Numbered L i s t of Variables Used i n Factor Analyses  In the following l i s t s the variable numbers refer only to those used i n the text of this dissertation. They are not referable to those i n the questionnaire instrument. The weighting and ranking of the variable values is shown i n parentheses following each variable.  A. Motivational Factors 1. The thought of working with other s i m i l a r l y interested persons (1 = item of minor importance, 2 = item f i f t h i n order of importance, 3 = item fourth i n order of importance, 4 = item t h i r d i n order of importance, 5 = item second i n order of importance, 6 = item most important) 2. I t might help to use up spare time (as above) 3. I t could be a good way to learn about the subject (as above) 4. I enjoy working outside (as above) 5. It would give me an opportunity to get away from home (as above) 6. I t might start me on a new hobby (as above) 7. I t could be a good preliminary to other related work (as above) 8. I t l e t me out of some domestic chores (as above) 9. A friend was also participating (as above) 10. I l i k e d the idea of being involved with a research project and i t s publication (as above) 11. To work with a particular group leader (as above) 12. The project work i s related to my occupation (as above) 13. The project work i s not related to my occupation (as above) 14. I am interested i n the geographical area (as above) 15. I am interested i n the subject of the study-research group (as above) 16. I am interested i n the recreational-planning aspect of the project  179 (as above) 17. Other items not noted on the questionnaire instrument (as above)  B. Participational Factors 21. Age (actual age i n years) 22. Sex (1 = male, 2 = female) 23. Socio-economic status (1 = highest socio-economic category, 2 = second highest, 3 = t h i r d , 4 = fourth, 5 = f i f t h , 6 = lowest  socio-economic  category) 24. Background i n research (1 = without, 2 = with) 25. Previous non-credit education i n the d i s c i p l i n e of the study-research group (0 = none, 1 = one course, 2 = two or more courses) 26. Previous education for credit i n the d i s c i p l i n e of the study-research group (0 = none, 1 = at school sixth form l e v e l , 2 = at school seventh form l e v e l , 3 = at Diploma or C e r t i f i c a t e at t e r t i a r y l e v e l , 4 = at undergraduate degree l e v e l , 5 = at graduate degree level) 27. Number of adult education courses previously participated i n (0 = none, 1 = one course, 2 = two courses, 3 = three or more courses) 28. Highest formal academic qualifications (0 = none, 1 = qualifications other than those following, 2 = School C e r t i f i c a t e , 3 = University Entrance and/or Higher School C e r t i f i c a t e , 4 = C e r t i f i c a t e or Diploma, 5 = Baccalaureate degree, 6 = Honors and/or Masters degree, 7 = Doctoral degree) 29. Organising i n s t i t u t i o n for adult education courses previously taken; highest one only (1 = other than those following, 2 = secondary school evening program, 3 = Workers Education  Association, 4 = university)  30. Adequacy of the project p u b l i c i t y brochure with regard to the nature of the subject matter (1 = less than adequate, 2 = adequate, 3 = more than adequate)  180 31. Adequacy of the project p u b l i c i t y brochure with regard to the course technique (as i n 30) 32. Adequacy of the project p u b l i c i t y brochure with regard to the expected commitment of individual time (as i n 30) 33. Realization of educational objective — to increase individual understanding of the study-research group subject, as a f i e l d of study, rather than as a c o l l e c t i o n of facts and explanations (1 = poorly, 2 = reasonably, 3 = well) 34. Realization of educational objective — to increase individual a b i l i t y to analyze, c r i t i c i z e and appreciate the limitations of research work i n the area of the study (as i n 33) 35. Educational value of the technique — maintains participant interest i n studying the subject (1 = strongly disgree, 2 = doubt i t , 3 = i t i s probably correct, 4 = strongly agree) 36. Educational value of the technique — f a c i l i t a t e s the welding of the group into a working team (as i n 35) 37. Educational value of the technique — makes good use of existing s k i l l s of group members (as i n 35) 38. Educational value of the technique — encourages learning by making the material meaningful (as i n 35) 39. Educational value of the technique — encourages learning by providing for reinforcement and practice (as i n 35) 40. Educational value of the technique — encourages learning by providing for self-assessment of progress (as i n 35) 41. Educational value of the technique — provides a means of teaching research-based subjects as they r e a l l y are, namely an intergration of existing information and research (as i n 35) 42. Educational value of the technique — develops i n participants a more informed and c r i t i c a l attitude towards research (as i n 35)  181 43. Educational value of the technique — provides a means of involving learners i n o r i g i n a l and important applied research (as i n 35) 44. Educational value of the technique — enables each participant to set his or her own pace of learning and level of participation (as i n 35) 45. Attendance of course meetings (% of meetings attended) 46. Adequacy of introductory material presented at the f i r s t two meetings (1 = too s u p e r f i c i a l , 2 = adequate, 3 = too detailed) 47. Adequacy of the reference and reading material provided during the course (1 = i n s u f f i c i e n t , 2 = adequate, 3 = excessive) 48. Influence of participation on a b i l i t y to undertake individual study i n the subject of the study-research group (1 = not added to provided, 2 = added to or provided) 49. Influence of participation on motivation to participate i n further courses i n the same subject (1 = discouraged, 2 = not changed, 3 = encouraged) 50. Influence of participation on motivation to participate i n courses i n other subjects (1 = not changed, 2 = encouraged) 51. Preferred number of participants i n a study-research group with one leader at any time (number of participants) 52. Preference for more*contact between study-research groups than was the case i n t h i s project (1 = no, 2 = yes) 53. Preference for scheduling group meetings by group discussion, rather than working to a prescheduled timetable (1 = no, 2 = yes) 54. Preferred length of meetings for study-research group projects (1 = halfday, 2 = either half or fullday, 3 = fullday, 4 = block course) 55. Assuming f u l l day-length meetings, preferred frequency of meetings for study-research group projects (1 = weekly, 2 = either weekly or fortnightly, 3 = fortnightly, 4 = either fortnightly or monthly, 5 = monthly)  182 56. Assuming half day-length meetings, preferred frequency of meetings for study-research group projects (as i n 55) 57. Preferred t o t a l time span of a study-research group project (1 = s i x months, 2 = one year, 4 = two years) 58. Enrolment i f fee had been $50.00 rather than $10.00 (1 = no, 2 = yes)  R.G. Bagnall PUBLICATIONS — Seimatosporium leptospermi sp. nov. on leaves of Leptospermum scoparium Forst. i n New Zealand and L. juniperirium J.E. Sm. i n Australia, (with J.E. Sheridan) New Zealand Journal of Botany,1972, 10, 69-73. —TIBhe dry weight and c a l o r i f i c value of l i t t e r f a l l i n a New Zealand Nothofagus forest. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 1972, 10, 27-36. — Permanent Quadrats on Kapiti Island. Wellington, New Zealand: V i c t o r i a University (Extension Publication no. 12), 1974, 164pp. — Vegetation of the raised beaches at Cape Turakirae, Wellington. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 1975, 13, 367-424. — Study-research groups as a method of teaching the natural sciences. International Congress of University Adult Education Journal, 1975, 14, 2, 21-41. — Teaching through research: a new technique of teaching natural science subjects. Continuing Education i n New Zealand, 1976, 8, 2, 61-67. —  (Ed.) Survey of the Proposed Belmont Regional H i l l Park. Part One: Recommendations on Development and Management. Wellington, New Zealand: V i c t o r i a University, 1976, 63pp.  — "Botany of the Proposed Belmont'Regional H i l l Park: Summary Report." i n Bagnall, R.G. (Ed.) Survey of the Proposed Belmont Regional H i l l Park. Part One: Recommendations on Development and Management. Wellington, New Zealand: V i c t o r i a University, 1976, 47-53.  

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