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Experiment in instruction for adult science education Bagnall, R. G. 1977

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AN EXPERIMENT IN INSTRUCTION FOR ADULT SCIENCE EDUCATION by RICHARD GORDON BAGNALL B.Sc.(Hons) Victoria University of Wellington (1968) A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Adult Education) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1977 Richard Gordon Bagnall, 1977 In p resent ing t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i 1 a b l e fo r reference a n d study. I f u r t h e r agree tha t permiss ion for e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l ga in s h a l l not be a l lowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date / /f*» i i i ABSTRACT This study is an evaluation of the study-research group technique as i t was applied to a program of li b e r a l adult education in New Zealand. It i s argued that techniques of instruction commonly used in the teaching of research-based subjects are largely unsuitable for the achievement of desirable learning outcomes in part time participants. Use of the techniques results i n instruction being heavily weighted with verbal information and, in some cases, motor s k i l l s or middle-order intellectual s k i l l s . The resultant learning i s of l i t t l e practicable value to the adult students; a situation which is instrumental i n the present poor state of science adult education. The thesis is developed that, to be relevant to the needs of adults, instruction i n the sciences should concentrate on the development of a c r i t i c a l attitude to science, and of higher-order intellectual s k i l l s and cognitive strategies appropriate to systematic and s c i e n t i f i c solution of problems. Prerequisite verbal information and motor s k i l l s should be learned only as they are required for the solution of a problem. The study-research group technique has been proposed as one which could, theoretically, meet these requirements. The program in which the technique was evaluated involved six groups of adult students. The research framework for the instruction was an environmental survey of an area proposed for development as a regional recreation reserve, research being directed toward the drafting of recommend-ations on development and management of the area. Each of the groups researched one of the following aspects of the area: history, geology, botany, freshwater biology, ornithology, and mammalogy. The evaluation instrument used was a post-course questionnaire. Items in the questionnaire e l i c i t e d information on: participant personal attributes; socio-economic and educational background; preferred structuring of such programs; course entry motivations and realization of associated expectations; and responses about the extent to which the technique achieved the desired learning outcomes and conformed to generally accepted principles of good adult education (e.g. ensuring high motivation to learning; ensuring active involvement in learning). Particular analytic attention was given to an examination of the influences of participant background variables on the participant scoring of learning outcomes and adult education principles. Factor analysis was used to identify motivational and participational factors which were compared and related to group membership. Analysis revealed that the participants were disproportionately representative of the higher socio-economic and better educated sectors of the community. Nevertheless, on most participant background items, a wide range was represented in each group. The results of the evaluation support the premise that the study-research group technique effectively can achieve the intended learning outcomes while conforming to accepted adult education principles. It also was concluded that the technique provided for meaningful learning by individuals of widely varying backgrounds. There was, however, some evidence that participants who had studied previously in the discipline of their group, through university extension or the Workers Education Association, derived most benefit from the course. Meaningful motivational and participational factors were identified, and appeared to be complementary, rather than alternative, measures of participant attributes. Three such factors discriminated among group member-ship. The botany and geology groups, and the botany and freshwater biology groups were found to be most closely related. Participant preferences in relation to program structure, generally iv were closely identifiable with the practice in the program. However, some incongruence was found which could have had a negative effect on evaluation scores. This particularly derived from: the failure of the program brochure to indicate to some participants the extent of the time commitment expected of them; a general desire for more discussion between groups; an expressed preference of several participants for shorter meetings; and insufficient involvement of participants in decision-making within some groups. Of the seven general research hypotheses which were tested in this evaluation, five were confirmed. The failure to identify a close relationship between motivational and participational factors weakened the confirmation of one hypothesis, and the finding of some incongruence between participant preferences and programming practice weakened confirmation of the f i n a l one. It is concluded that the theoretical values of the technique generally are substantiated, but that additional, more objective and sequential testing should be undertaken of the technique i n a range of programs using alternative methods. V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES . ix LIST OF FIGURES x i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i i Chapter I. INTRODUCTION 1 I. NATURE OF THE PROBLEM 1 II. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 3 III. RESEARCH PROCEDURE 4. The Program Being Studied 4 The Evaluation Instrument 5 Research Hypotheses 6 Analysis of the Data 7 II. CONCEPTUAL BASIS TO THE STUDY 8 I. ADULT EDUCATION AND PROGRAM 8 II. THE NEED FOR NEW APPROACHES TO SCIENCE TEACHING 11 The General Need 11 The New Zealand Situation 11 The Field of Science Adult Education .' 12 III. LEARNING THEORY IN ADULT EDUCATION 15 Introduction 15 Gagne's Learning Systems Theory 17 Discussion 23 TV. PROCESSES OF ADULT EDUCATION 25 Introduction 25 The Classification of Techniques 26 The Study-Research Group Type 30 The Generalizability of Process in Adult Education. 35 v i Chapter P a g e The Relationship Between Techniques and Learning Outcomes 36 Analysis of Research-Based Education in Terms of Learning Outcomes .' 39 V. PRINCIPLES OF ADULT EDUCATION IN THE DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT OF INSTRUCTION 45 Introduction 45 Commonly Identified Principles of Adult Education... 46 Additional Guidelines for Adult Instruction 57 Discussion 58 VI. PARTICIPANT BACKGROUND AND PARTICIPATION 60 The Adult Education Participant 60 The University Extension Participant in New Zealand. 61 VII. MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS IN ADULT EDUCATION , 65 Introduction 65 Motivational Factor Studies Based on Houle's Typology 66 Research Extending Motivational Factors 70 Motivational Factors i n Relation to Science Adult Education 72 The Relationship Between Motivation and Interest.... 73 VIII. PROGRAM DESIGN AND PUBLICITY 74 IX. SUMMARY AND RESEARCH HYPOTHESES '. 75 Summary 75 Research Hypotheses 76 II I . METHODS 81 I. THE EVALUATION INSTRUMENT 81 II. VARIABLES USED IN THE ANALYSIS 83 v i i Chapter Page II I . ANALYSIS OF THE DATA 84 TV. RESULTS 87 I. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PARTICIPANTS : 87 Sex 87 Age 87 Socio-Economic Status 87 Educational Background 90 Conclusions 95 II. THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO THE LEARNING OF RESEARCH-BASED CONTENT 97 III.. THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO PRINCIPLES OF ADULT EDUCATION 101 IV. THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO PARTICIPANT BACKGROUND 105 V. THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO COURSE-ENTRY MOTIVATIONS I l l VI. MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS 113 VII. PARTICIPATIONAL FACTORS 119 Identification of Factors 119 Relationship Between Motivational and Participat-ional Factors 124 Factors in the Identification of Group Membership.. 127 . Summary 130 VIII. PROGRAM DESIGN AND PUBLICITY 131 Course Reading Material 131 Group Size 131 Intergroup Contact 132 Scheduling of Meetings 132 v i i i Chapter Page Length of Meetings 132 Length of Course 133 Structuring of the Course 133 Adequacy of the Program Brochure 135 Course Planning Guidelines 135 Conclusions 136 V. CONCLUSIONS.... 138 I. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PARTICIPANTS 138 II. THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO THE LEARNING OF RESEARCH-BASED CONTENT 139 III. THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO PRINCIPLES OF ADULT EDUCATION 139 IV. THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO PARTICIPANT BACKGROUND 140 V. THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO COURSE-ENTRY MOTIVATIONS 140 VI. MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS 141 VII. PARTICIPATIONAL FACTORS 142 VIII. PROGRAM DESIGN AND PUBLICITY 142 IX. SUMMATIVE CONCLUSIONS 143 VI. IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 146 REFERENCES - 152 APPENDICES 162 A. Description of the Program Being Studied 162 B. Letter Accompanying Questionnaire 167 C. The Questionnaire 169 D. Numbered L i s t of Variables Used in Factor Analyses 178 ix LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Gagn6's phases of learning, processes of learning, phases of instruction, influencing external events, and instructional events of a learning task 20 2. Gagn6's learning outcomes i n relation to prerequisite learning, instructional features, and c r i t i c a l learning conditions 21 3. Classification of techniques using the c r i t e r i a noted i n Figure 1 29 4. Suitability of technique types i n relation to learning outcomes, as identified by selected authors 38 5. Theoretical s u i t a b i l i t y of techniques for achieving the c r i t i c a l learning conditions associated with each learning outcome 40 6. Matrix of adult education principles and authorities , 47 7. Motivational factors identified by selected authors 68-69 8. Usable questionnaire returns i n relation to the total enrolment in each group 83 9. Ratios by socio-economic class of: 1) general extension enrolment and the Wellington urban population, 2) early study-research group participants and the Wellington urban population, and 3) participants in the present program and the New Zealand adult male population 91 10. Response to questionnaire items relating to learning outcomes.... 98 11. Correlation coefficients between learning outcome scores 99 12. Correlation coefficients among attendance, group membership, and the learning outcome scores 100 13. Participant evaluations of the extent to which the project realized the principles of adult education .102 X Table Page 14. Correlation coefficients among scoring of adult education principles 102 15. Chi square values and probabilities of participant-characteristic variables in relation to group membership 105 16. Horizontal percentage of group membership in relation to research background. 106 17. Horizontal percentage of group membership i n relation to prev-ious formal non-credit study i n the discipline of the group 107 18. Correlation coefficients between participant-characteristic variables, and the learning evaluation and response scores 109 19. Course-entry motivational items and correlation coefficients with satisfaction of the expectations 112 20. Motivational factors identified from the seventeen items 114 21. Participational factors identified with orthogonal rotation 120-121 22. Correlation coefficients between factor loadings on the orthog-onally rotated participational and motivational factors 125 23. Differentiability among six study-research groups 128 24. Classification of participants into study-research groups, based on canonical variables developed in the stepwise discriminant analysis 129 25. Classification of participants into study-research groups using Cooley and Lohnes centroids 129 26. Recommendations for improvement of program and instructional processes 134 27. Response to items regarding the adequacy of descriptive information i n the pre-enrolment brochure 134 x i LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1. Tentative classification of technique categories 31 2. Learning outcomes in relation to research-based education A\ 3. Age distribution of four groups: the participants, the university extension enrolment in 1969, the adult population of the Wellington urban area, and the earlier study-research group participants 88 4. Socio-economic status distribution of participants compared with the New Zealand adult male population 89 5. Highest academic qualifications of four groups: the participants, the New Zealand adult population, the general university extension role, and the earlier study-research group participants , 92 6. Previous credit education i n the discipline of the study-research group 93 7. Previous non-credit (adult) education i n the discipline of the study-research group 93 8. Total number of previous adult education (non-credit) courses taken i n a l l subjects 94 9. Organizing institution for previously taken adult education courses , 94 x i i ACKNOWLEDGEMFNTTS The encouragement and constructive criticism of Dr C. Verner are deeply appreciated. Dr J.B.Collins gave invaluable assistance with analysis of the data and preparation of the report. In the latter capacity, Dr R.L. Taylor's interest and guidance i s also much valued. Members of the thesis committee are particularly thanked for the way in which they sacrificed other work to meet externally imposed deadlines associated with completion of this project. Thanks are extended to those organizations which made the program possible. In particular, Mobil O i l , The Wellington Regional Planning Authority, and the Internal Research Committee and Publications Committee of Victoria University. Particular individuals who should be mentioned in this regard are Mr E.R.Henderson of the Wellington Regional Authority, and Mr K.M.Bennett of the Victoria University Extension Department. The successful running of the program was dependent on the group leaders, a l l of whom gave considerable time and energy, for minimal financial reward. Appreciation is also extended to a l l of the program participants, without whose involvement this evaluation could not have been made. Particular gratitude is extended to the respondents who devoted considerable time to completing the questionnaire. The study could not have been completed in the time available without the assistance and understanding of Alison Bagnall. 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I. NATURE OF THE PROBLEM The instruction of research-based content in general, and of sciences in particular, i s a poorly developed component of adult education. Most educational offerings in this area reflect a failure to take the needs of society or of the adult participants into proper account. They are based on the transmission of segments of knowledge, most of which i s only of marginal historical value to the learners, and which is not related at a l l to the solution of present-day problems. Some courses, namely those i n which laboratory experiemnts or f i e l d projects are included, place greater emphasis on the acquisition of selected motor s k i l l s and certain intellectual s k i l l s (generally below the level of true problem solving). Since these adult education procedures reflect the curricula throughout the formal components of the educational institution, i t i s reasonable to conclude that by far the greater majority of the adult population is fundamentally ignorant of science in terms of applying knowledge to the solution of problems which confront them, of c r i t i c a l l y evaluating the published conclusions of research efforts, and of comprehending the possible biological and sociological effects of the application to societal needs of any s c i e n t i f i c a l l y derived development. If democracy is to function effectively in the interests of i t s citizens, those citizens must be capable of making sound evaluations of the cultural forces which affect them, and of making their decisions effective in action. It is generally acknowledged, whether one approves of i t or not, 2 that a major component of the cultural pressure in modern society is identifiable with the products and processes of s c i e n t i f i c research. If the citizen is unable to evaluate those products and how they might affect other components, or to comprehend the strengths and weaknesses of the processes, how w i l l i t be possible for democratic decisions to be made? The answer, logically, is that decisions of a truely democratic nature are not made since the citizens do not have the necessary input for the decision-making process. The inevitable result of this is the development of opposing pressure-groups, each functioning i n what are considered to be the interests of i t s members. More often than not, however, the members of such pressure groups are intellectually in no better a position to make decisions on the issues of their concern, either than' they were as non-members, or than are the other non-participating citizens. Pressure-group membership gathers i t s own group momentum, whether or not what i t argues for is rational or humane. In a democracy, such groups tend to sway public opinion by the same process, and thus become powerful p o l i t i c a l and decision-making forces, i n spite of their general i n a b i l i t y to solve properly the problems for which they claim to have the solutions. This i s dysfunctional democracy, and is substantially the expression of democracy i n western society today. It is i n large part a product of adult ignorance of s c i e n t i f i c processes and of consequent ineffectuality i n making sensible judgements, and in influencing the direction of societal change with those judgements. If there is to be any hope of correcting this situation, science education must become relevant to the needs and interests of the citizens. It must give them the capabilities with which they can c r i t i c a l l y evaluate a new sc i e n t i f i c 'discovery,' with which they can make a sensible decision by weighing the forces involved in any particular issue," with which they can 3 counter the influences of commercialized pseudo-science, and with which they can obtain the necessary knowledge to accomplish these tasks. That the pre-adult component of the educational institution i s f a i l i n g to meet this goal for a l l but a small minority of students is manifestly clear. This places the corrective burden within the sphere of adult education where, as already noted, the task is not being met with appropriate means. This i s , at least partly, because the appropriate means are not available to the adult educator. The means — techniques of adult education — are generally either not suited to the outcomes desired, or are only effective with full-time or substantially full-time students. II. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY This study i s an attempt to evaluate an adult education technique which is theoretically suitable for achieving the types of learning outcome advocated in the preceding section. The process being evaluated has been termed the 'study-research group' technique (Bagnall, 1975) since i t centers the learning and instruction around a team effort to solve an original research problem. The team comprises a group of adult students with an experienced research worker as i t s leader and principal resource person. While variations of this technique have been used previously with more or less independent learners who were experienced and knowledgeable i n their subject (the 'project' process described by Rogers, 1971), the technique only recently has been developed as a structured, group-based procedure suitable for participants with widely varying backgrounds and previous relevant learning. An earlier evaluation of the technique was undertaken of three 4 study-research groups, two working i n the botanical f i e l d , the other geological. Participants in these groups also were largely persons who had experienced previous adult instruction i n the subject of their group. This evaluation is an attempt to determine whether the tentative conclusions drawn from the previous study may be strengthened, on the basis of an additional confirmation, and broadened as to their subject applicability. I I I . RESEARCH PROCEDURE The Program Being Studied The program (App.A) involved 84 participants (excluding group leaders) distributed among six study-research groups. As the research framework for the program, the groups were using a survey of approximately 2 000 hectares of rugged terrain proposed for use as a regional recreation reserve. The f i r s t part of the survey results have already been published (Bagnall, 1976b). The six study-research groups were organized around different aspects of the environmental evaluation: local history, geology, botany, freshwater biology, ornithology, and mammalogy. Each group was lead by one or two researchers who were selected primarily for their research expertise, and secondarily for their a b i l i t y to work with adult students. Enrolment was voluntary and without prerequisites except i n the case of the ornithology group where applicants were required to possess the capability of identifying the local avifauna by both sound and sight. When enrolling, applicants nominated the group to which they wished to belong and a second choice of group, i f they had one. Enrolments were accepted in order of receipt up to a maximum of fifteen in each group, after which applicants were placed according to their second choice. Pre-course publicity was quite extensive, f a c i l i t a t e d by the 5 novelty and magnitude of the project. Articles appeared in a l l of the free, loca l , weekly, house-hold delivery newspapers, and in both of the regional daylies. Also, a discussion of the project was broadcast by a regional radio station. Brochures specifically on the project were mailed to selected interest-groups. The main Extension Department brochure and Department advertisements in the regional newspapers invited persons to request a copy of this brochure which carried a detailed explanation of the project and included enrolment forms. Enrolments were only accepted i f they were on the appropriate forms. For both p o l i t i c a l and educational reasons a time limit of ten months was placed on the program from i n i t i a l to f i n a l class meeting. Within that period, each group arranged i t s meeting times to suit the participants and the constraints of the subject matter. I n i t i a l meetings of a l l group participants were held to explain the project, and f i n a l meetings were held to discuss and draft recommendations arising out of the research work. The Evaluation Instrument Time constraints did not permit pre-course or within-course evaluation in any systematic fashion. Neither was time available at any stage for evaluation using an interview schedule. The evaluation instrument used in this study was a questionnaire (App.C) mailed to each participant five weeks after the termination of the course. A personal letter (App.B) accompanied the questionnaire. Towards the end of the course specific mention was made, to the participants, of an impending questionnaire, and of the considerable assistance that their completing and forwarding of the questionnaire would be to the university in i t s future programming. The time lag between course termination and distribution of the questionnaire was intended to give participants time in 6 which to consider and evaluate their attitudes to the program. The questionnaire included items on personal attributes, socio-economic variables, previous educational ac t i v i t y , individual response to specific aspects of the technique, and attitudes toward a preferred structuring of future such courses. Sixty-five usuable returns were received {11% of the i n i t i a l enrolment) and contribute to the body of data. Research Hypotheses This evaluation is based on^seven general research hypotheses, each with at least one specific hypothesis. The general hypotheses were directed to testing the following theses: 1) that the technique, as evaluated by the participants, i s a satisfactory one for the learning of research-based content; 2) that the technique conforms to important principles of adult education; 3) that the tchnique can provide, simultaneously in one class, meaningful educational experiences for individuals of widely varying pre-entry educational, biological, and socio-economic backgrounds; 4) that the technique can satisfy a wide range of course-entry motivations; 5) that the motivational orientations of the participants are similar to those identified i n other studies; 6) that meaningful participational factors can be identified and related to the motivational factors which together can form a basis for the identi-fication of participants i n each study-research group; and 7) that participants express general satisfaction with the program and publicity, in that the type of structure preferred is closely similar to that of the program participated in. 7. Analysis of the Data The questionnaire responses were coded and the data punched on to computer cards. A small number of secondary v a r i a b l e s — such as socio-economic status — were derived from the primary variables. Analysis involved the derivation of frequency distributions and means for the scoring on each variable in the questionnaire. Where required, -, . bivariate frequency distributions, horizontal, vertical and total percentages, correlation coefficients and chi square values, with significances, were obtained. Factor analyses were run on the motivational orientation scores and selected variables (App.D) constituting participational items. The correlations between these two sets of derived factors were determined. The extent to which individual factor scores for each factor could be used as an identification of membership i n each group was tested by stepwise discriminant analysis. Responses to open-ended questions were clustered on the basis of the attitudes and opinions expressed. 8 CHAPTER II CONCEPTUAL BASIS TO THE STUDY I. ADULT EDUCATION AND PROGRAM For comparative purposes, the activity being evaluated in this study must be identified correctly in relation to other a c t i v i t i e s of an educational nature. To begin at a general level, i t can be stated that the activity f a l l s within the f i e l d of adult education as defined by Verner (1975, p.181), ..."Adult education is any planned and organized activity provided by an individual, an institution, or any other social instrumentality that i s intended specifically to assist an adult to learn and which i s under the immediate and continuing supervision of an instructional agent who manages the conditions for learning i n such a way as to f a c i l i t a t e the successful achievement of the learning objectives." Approaching the question slightly differently, Essert § Spence (1968) recognize three major systems of education in the community: the family educational system, the sequential-unit system, and the complementary-functional system. It is into this last system which the activity here being studied would f i t . The authors define i t thus, ..."The complementary-functional system is primarily focused upon providing systematic learning to meet a particular operational problem of l i f e , not learned or inadequately learned in the family or the sequential-unit system. It is complementary therefore, in two respects: i t supplies that learning which is required to meet a deficiency of learning in other systems and i t adds to or enhances the maturing potential of the learner in ways the other two systems cannot do."(p.261). 9 It is also true that the participants in the activity being studied generally conform to Schroeder's (1970) definition of them as "...anyone who has either discontinued or completed his formal education and i s now trying to re-engage in the educational process."(p.39). The activity in which the process was used is also considered to constitute a program within the f i e l d of adult education. Program is defined by Deniston § Rosenstock (1970, p.835) as "...an organized response to eliminate or reduce one or more problems where the response includes one or more objectives, performance of one or more a c t i v i t i e s , and expenditure of resources ... Any size of enterprise or response could constitute a program." Or by Verner (1964, p.34) as "...a series of learning experiences designed to achieve, in a specified period of time, certain specific instructional objectives for an adult or group of adults." More particularly, the program can be stated as being of the l i b e r a l education type, which i s defined by Carey (1961, p.7) as follows,. ..."Liberal education is education that looks to areas of knowledge traditionally considered liberating — knowledge of the physical and biological world, of oneself and others, of man's achievements and his cultures, of his religions and philosophical heritage. But to be appropriate to adult* education, this definition presupposes organization i n terms of the more important themes of adulthood rather than of adolescence. In brief, to the extent that l i b e r a l content is modified to take into account the adult's experience, thought patterns, and motivations i t is l i b e r a l adult education..." Finally, i t should be stated that the evaluation relates not to the program, which is the instructional umbrella, but to the efficacy of the * Throughout this report, i t a l i c s within quotes are those of the original author except where otherwise specified. 10 instructional system in f a c i l i t a t i n g learning. Peters $ Boshier (1976, p.198) make the distinction clear, ..."Program development i s concerned with determining desirable educational ends. Instructional design concerns the creation of structures and learning experiences that w i l l be employed to achieve educational ends. The program does not specify the means of achieving educational objectives; however, i t provides a framework within which methods, techniques and devices may be selected and used." 11 II. THE NEED FOR NEW APPROACHES TO SCIENCE TEACHING The General Need Adult education writers not infrequently draw attention to the need for improvement in instruction. For example, Boshier (1973), at the conclus-ion of his paper on participation and dropout, observes, ..."A theme of this paper has been that reasons for non-participation and dropout do not reside exclusively within the participant ... Techniques such as the formal lecture, the mainstay of most university adult education programmes, and conservatively defended, are inappropriate for certain groups. Lectures induce incongruence, actually prevent staff/student and student/student communication and for many courses could be discarded." (p.279). One of the recommendations made by Faure et a l (1972), which reflects a theme running throughout the document, i s for the integration of program types and their refocusing on the needs of individuals and society, ..."Rigid distinctions between different types of teaching — general, s c i e n t i f i c , technical and professional — must be dropped, and education ... must become theoretical, technological, practical and manual at the same time." (p.195). Thomas (1964, p.264) makes the comment that ..."The novelty factor should be eliminated from research, not from teaching ... The identification of novelty in what has been in the past a familiar situation stimulates the desire to learn." This i s a very pertinent comment, and one which makes the evaluation results of studies such as the present one so d i f f i c u l t to relate to others. The New Zealand Situation Since the needs which gave rise to the type of program being studied were those f e l t within the country of i t s development — New Zealand — a 12 brief comment should be made on some aspects of adult education in that country. While Boshier's comments.above may reasonably be applied to the f i e l d in New Zealand, some additional comments from the Committee on Lifelong Education (1972) could be noted. With regard to techniques the authors of this report observe, ..."The standard techniques remain: i n conceptual f i e l d s , lecture followed, hopefully, by discussion; and in s k i l l s courses, demonstration followed by practice."(p.86). In addressing programm-ing they recommend that ..."There should also be changes in the scope of courses ... There is and w i l l continue to be proportionately less demand for general survey or introductory courses i n single 'subjects.' Adult learners should be more aware of their individual interests and needs, which are rarely l i k e l y to be confined to single subjects and even more rarely to extend through the whole f i e l d of a subject. The new courses w i l l be often multi-disciplinary or cover quite specific aspects of a subject."(p.87). If there is cause for disquiet about the adult education f i e l d in general, the area of science instruction presents an even greater challenge. Hall (1970), i n his review of adult education in New Zealand, described i t as "...the most backward phase of adult education i n New Zealand today." (p.157). The Field of Science Adult Education The pressing need for better and more c r i t i c a l adult understanding of modern science is a theme of much adult education writing. Faure et a l (1972, p.148), writing on science education observe, ..."We cannot hope to absorb the knowledge explosion by cramming brains with more sc i e n t i f i c facts and by removing outdated subjects from the curriculum. Science must not be turned into a mere scholastic exercise. On the contrary, science teaching should be based on a pragmatic search for solutions to 13 problems arising out of the environment, either directly from rea l i t y or derived from models." The authors also address the area of environmental education. They note, in relation to environmental issues and problems, that ..."Stimulating awareness of such dangers is a demanding new task for education, but particularly appropriate to i t for many reasons and, too often, one that is much underestimated."(p.101). Jeske (1973) develops this last theme specifically in relation to adult education. He recognizes the "...citizens' general lack of knowledge of the direct relationships between natural resources and standards of l i v i n g in a modern society..."(p.307), but regards as even more serious "...the confusion generated by half-true pronouncements from usually credible sources masquerading as established facts..."(p.307). In response, he suggests that ..."These citizens want and need some sort of framework and the discipline of a structure for learning experiences in the area of environmental improvement; they want to be able to separate fact from f i c t i o n about environmental issues and be able to make intelligent decisions on environmental matters. Adult education programs can contribute indeed, they have a great and inescapable responsibility for giving real leadership in helping citizens learn to recognize and evaluate the s i g n i f i -cance of environmental problems..."(p.308). Emmelin (1976) notes the importance of f i e l d experience i n environmental education and makes the observation that ...'The most important of the innovative functions performed by conservation education is i t s pioneering of combinations of f i e l d work, i.e. direct experience of problems, with theoretical studies."(p.48). White § Kelly (1960) correctly observe the modern need for general adult understanding of science, but f a i l to make any appropriate recommendations. Indeed, what they suggest more resembles a school curriculum 14 for studying the products of science, than i t does recommendations for adult programming to meet needs in this area. Hackel (1962) discusses the impact of science on society, and suggests that "...there must be a greater understanding of science on the part of most individuals. But this understanding must go beyond technology and hardware — these are important, to be sure — but the increasingly complex society in which we l i v e requires the deeper understanding of what is and how i t operates."(pp.176-177). This understanding must be one "...that transcends mere recall of remote facts and figures and manipulation of obscure formulae."(p.177). Evidently he did not think that much, i f any, adult education was appropriately directed at the time of writing, for he suggests that ..."This i s an area where those responsible for adult education might very well do some investigating, and I might add hopefully, some course offering."(p.177). Bagnall (1977) recognizes the general adult's failure to comprehend the probabilistic nature of research results and conclusions, and asks "...how often in the natural societal setting does one hear or read of research results, even the most recent and tenuous, being other than established fact?" In response to this question he suggests that ..."With entering so much applied biology/every aspect of our daily l i v i n g the present, general, naive acceptance of research material must surely be the greatest single modern failure of our educational institution, including the adult education component." 15 I I I . LEARNING THEORY IN ADULT EDUCATION Introduction The desirability of basing both instruction and i t s evaluation on a particular learning theory is developed by Knowles (1973) in his discussion of alternative learning theories available to the adult educator. He observes (p.93) that ..."If you aren't clear about what your theory is — or even whether you have one — the chances are that you w i l l end up with a hodgepodge. You w i l l use different theories in different times or situations, or conflicting theories for different decisions in the same situation. You won't know why you are doing what you are doing." Unfortunately, there is at present a considerable diversity of learning theories from which to choose, and these are not necessarily s t r i c t l y comparable or equivalent. For, as Dubin § Okun (1973, p.3) observe, ..."At present no single learning theory is applicable i n a l l educational settings." The problem i s summarized by Gagne (1976, pp.41-42), ..."Con-temporary information-processing theory concerns i t s e l f almost exclusively with the learning and retention of verbal information of the sort that is exhibited as propositional knowledge. Other theorists have given attention to other kinds of learning outcomes they see as relevant to school instruction: Bruner to cognitive strategies, Bandura to attitudes, Gagne to intellectual s k i l l s . " Houle (1972) approaches the diversity by f i r s t identifying a number of 'credos.' He defines a credo as ..."A statement of belief which is not part of any larger system of ideas or conceptions."(p.230). Six credos which tend to define an adult-educator's approach to his task are identified. Houle then presents a number of 'systems' which are essentially conceptual categories of learning theories. 16 Dubin § Okun (1973) approach the problem in a more systematic fashion in recognizing three principle orientations of the positions currently adhered to by learning theorists. These are stated as — "1. Behaviorism: Behaviorists concern themselves with the observables of behavior, namely stimuli and responses. S t r i c t l y behaviorist doctrine avoids any speculation about what i s going on in the mind. 2. Neo-behaviorism: Neo-behaviorists also consider stimuli and responses as the only valid indicators of behavior but they also consider what happens between the input of stimuli and the output of responses in terms of mediational processes. 3. Cognitivism: Cognitive psychologists deal with man as a rule forming being and the cognitive structure of the individual i s considered to be of paramount importance for learning."(p.4) The authors explicate a number of theories in terms of this taxonomy. Those specifically included are: behaviorist — B.K.Skinner's theory based on operant conditioning; neo-behaviorist — C.Hull's drive reduction theory, D.Hebb's neuro-physiological theory, A.Bandura's social learning theory and R.M.Gagn£'s learning systems theory; cognitivist — J.Bruner's discovery learning, D.Ausubel's reception learning and A.H.Maslow's and C.R.Roger's self-directed learning models. In choosing a learning theory most suitable for the evaluation and further development of a program such as that being studied here, one i s attracted by the relevance of a concept in the writings of Dewey; namely his thesis of experiential learning, ..."Adaptation of the method to individuals of various degrees of maturity is a problem for the educator ... But at every level there is an expanding development of experience i f experience is educative in effect. Consequently, whatever the level of 17 experience, we have no choice but to operate in accord with the pattern i t provides or else neglect the place of intelligence in the development and control of a l i v i n g and moving experience."(Dewey, 1938, p.112). Another important concept to Dewey was that of the democratic social purpose of education (Dewey, 1916), which strongly influences Knowle's 'andragogical theory of adult learning *(Knowles, 1973). Dewey's experiental basis of 'scientific thinking' is further developed by Bruner in his theory of 'discovery learning' (Bruner, 1960 § 1966). The instructional process in the program being evaluated leans strongly toward Bruner's 'hypothetical mode' of teaching, where "...the teacher and the student are in a more cooperative position ... The student is not a bench-bound listener, but is taking part- in the formulation [of the instruction] and at times may play the principal role in it."(Bruner, 1960, p.26). However, these theories suffer particularly,as noted above, from being based on a limited range of learning outcomes. If evaluation i s to be based at least on the outcomes of learning, a more inclusive set of these is required. One such approach is that pursued by Bloom (1956) who has identified a comprehensive range of educational objectives based on the results of learning tasks. Gagne provides an even more instructionally functional approach by providing a theory of learning and instruction which links types of learning to both learning processes and learning outcomes. Gagne's Learning Systems Theory Gagne (1965) identifies eight distinct types of learning, each with i t s own set of required conditions. These are hierarchical in that each subsequent type requires those before i t as prerequisites. The eight types, with a summary of the concept of each, are as follows — 1. Signal learning. Where the individual learns to make a general, diffuse response to a signal. 2. Stimulus-response learning. Where the learner acquires a precise response to a discriminated stimulus. 3. Chaining. In which the learner acquires a chain of two or more stimulus-response connections. 4. Verbal association. Which i s the learning of verbal chains. 5. Multiple discrimination. The a b i l i t y to discriminate between stimuli which may resemble each other to varying degrees. 6 . Concept learning. Acquiring the capability of making a common response to a class of stimuli the members of which may differ widely from each other i n physical appearance. 7. Rule learning. Where sequences of two or more concepts are learned, 8. Problem solving. Commonly termed 'thinking.' Two or more previously learned rules are combined into a new capability which i s based on a higher-order principle. From the basis of these learning types, Gagne develops his theory through a model of the internal processes of learning. The model may be described thus, ..."In brief, the model depicts the following flow of information from one hypothesized structure to another: a stimulus input from the receptors enters the sensory register (a very short-lived memory store), and then the short-term memory, where i t persists for about thirty seconds or less. Rehearsal by the learner can maintain information here for longer periods. It i s then coded for storage and transferred to the long-term memory, assumed to be a permanent repository. Later the information i s retrieved following a search, and when recovered i s transferred again to the short-term memory. At this point i t s appropriates is considered, resulting i n a decision for further search, or for the 19 generation of responses that result in the performance, by activation of the response generator. Important components of the model are the executive control processes, by means of which various kinds of information transfer are activated and modified. A similar function may be proposed for expectancies established in preparation for an act of learning."(Gagne, 1976, p.23). Fundamental to the theory is the distinction between the internal processes of learning and external stimuli, as stated by Gagne (1975, p.44) ..."The internal processes of learning may be influenced by external events — stimuli from the learner's environment ... These external events, when they are planned for the purpose of supporting learning, are called by the general name of instruction." Eight processes of learning are recognized (Table 1). These are collectively defined as "...the processes involved in learning, retention, and transfer of learning."(1976, p.22). Each of these processes operation-alizes a learning phase (Table 1). The phases are defined as "...the sequence of transformations brought about by these processes."(1976, p.22). The same set of phases is recognized by Gagne as comprising 'phases of instruction,' ..."It seems reasonable, therefore, to distinguish as successive phases of instruction those interactions to external stimulation most and learning processes that/can clearly alter the course of learning. Designating instructional phases i n this way helps to emphasize the function of instruction as supportive of learning and thus to suggest the variety of tasks involved in teaching."(1976, p.28). The key external events which influence learning in each instructional phase are shown in Table 1 together with the categorization of these into 'instructional events.' The second dimension of Gagne's theory is that defined by the 'type of expected outcome' of learning (Table 2), i.e. the "...capabilities and TABLE 1—Gagn6's phases of learning, processes of learning, phases of instruction, influencing external events, and instructional events of a learning task. Sources used, Gagn& (1975 § 1976). Phase of Learning Process of Learning Phase of Instruction Influencing External Events Instructional Events 1. motivation expectancy motivation a) communicating the goal to be achieved; or b) prior confirmation of expectancy through successful experience 1. activating motiv-ation 2. informing learner of the objective 2. apprehending attention; selective perception apprehending a) change in stimulation to activate attention; b) prior perceptual learning; or c) added differential cues for perception 3. directing attention 3. acquisition coding; storage entry; rehearsal acquisition a) suggested schemes for coding; or b) activating a set to employ an existing strategy for coding 4. stimulating recall 5. providing learning guidance 4. retention memory storage retention not known, but is facilita t e d by earlier presentation of dissimilar rather than similar proximate stimuli — 5. recall retrieval recall a) suggested schemes for retrieval; b) cues for retrieval; c) monitoring retrieval process to ensure the use of suitable search strategies 6. enhancing retention 6. generaliz-ation transfer generaliz-ation a) a variety of contexts for retrieval . cueing 7. promoting transfer of learning 7. performance responding performance a) instances of the performance ('examples') 8. e l i c i t i n g perform-ance , providing feedback 8. feedback reinforcement 1 feedback a) informational feedback providing verif-ication or comparison with a standard TABLE 2 — Gagne's learning outcomes i n relation to prerequisite learning, instructional features, and c r i t i c a l learning conditions. From Gagne (1975) and Gagne § Briggs (1974). 1.Verbal Info. Possible Prerequisite Learning —referent meanings of words, i.e. concepts; —context of related informat-ion (knowledge) or meaning-fu l information (facts); —verbal chains (names) Instructional Features —provision of larger, meaningful context; —suggested coding schemes, including tables and diagrams C r i t i c a l Learning Conditions 1. activating attention by variations in print or speech; 2. presenting a meaningful context (including imagery) for effective learning; 3. performance of restating fact or knowledge Expe 2.Tntel. skill —component simpler s k i l l s ; — information specific to the application examples — p r i o r learning and recall of prerequis-ite s k i l l s 1. stimulating the retrieval of previously learned component s k i l l s ; 2. presenting verbal cues to the ordering of the combination of component s k i l l s ; 3. scheduling occasions for spaced reviews; 4. using a variety of contexts to promote transfer; 5. demonstration §/or verbal statement of new s k i l l cted Outcoir 3.Cog.Str. — intellectual s k i l l s involved in problem solution; — information involved i n problem solution; —masses of organized knowledge —occasions for novel problem solving 1. verbal description of strategy; 2. providing a frequent variety of occasions for the use of strategies by posing novel problems to be solved t\ not specifying the solution class; 3. demonstration of solution by student 4.Attitude — p r i o r success experience following choice of desired personal action; — identification with human model; — information and s k i l l s in-volved in the personal action —experience of suc-cess following the choice of personal action; or —observation of these events in a human model 1. reminding learner of success experiences follow-ing choice of particular action; or, ensuring identification with an admired human model; 2. performing the chosen action, or observing i t s performance by a human model; 3. giving feedback for successful performance; or, observing feedback in the human model 5.Motor Skill — executive routine control-l i n g performance; — p a r t - s k i l l s or motor chains —learning of execut-ive routine (verbal • or otherwise); —repeated practice with informative (immediate and accurate) feedback 1. presenting verbal or other guidance to cue the learning of the executive routine; 2. arranging repeated practice; 3. furnishing feedback with immediacy and accuracy and dispositions produced by learning."(1976, p.22). Since these outcomes are of crucial importance in the designing and managing of instruction the following definitions are included. 1) Verbal information. The closest Gagne gets to a definition of what he considers verbal information to be is in a discussion of the different types, ...'The f i r s t concerns the learning of labels, or names. A second pertains to the learning of isolated or single facts, which may or may not be parts of larger meaningful communications. The third kind ... i s the learning of organized information, or knowledge."(Gagne § Briggs, p.57). He also notes that ..."Information i s identified as 'verbal,' not because i t is necessarily stored that way, but because verbal information i s the outcome." (Gagne, 1976, p.32). 2) Intellectual s k i l l s . "An intellectual s k i l l makes i t possible for an individual to respond to his environment through symbols."(Gagne § Briggs, p.36). Within this category there i s a hierarchy of types corresponding to the basic types of learning presented earlier (to which the parenthetical numbers refer): (2) stimulus-response connections, (3) motor chains, (4) verbal chains, (5) discriminations, (6) concrete concepts, (6) defined concepts, (7) rules, (8) higher-order rules. 3) Cognitive strategies; "This variety of capability i s given a different name because, although i t may be categorized as an intellectual s k i l l , i t .has some highly distinctive characteristics. Most important of these i s that a cognitive strategy is an internally organized s k i l l which covers the learner's own behavior ... The term cognitive strategies applies rather generally to various s k i l l s that are used by the learner to manage the process of attending, learning, remembering, and thinking." (Gagne § Briggs, p.47). 4) Attitudes. An attitude is defined as "...an internal state which affects an individual's choice of action toward some object, person, or event." 23 (Gagne § Briggs, p.62). 5) Motor s k i l l s . 'Motor s k i l l s are learned capabilities that underlie performances whose outcomes are reflected in the rapidity, accuracy, force, or smoothness of bodily movement."(Gagne t\ Briggs, p.66). The concept of prerequisite capabilities i s fundamental to Gagne's model, as stated, ..."Quite apart from the logical or time-ordered sequences of instruction units inherent i n the content of a course or topic, there are sometimes reasons for sequencing relating to the support of learning." (1975, p.101). The most important of these prerequisites are noted in Table 2. To relate these learning ourcomes to the processes of learning (via the instructional events and phases of instruction), Gagne recognizes the value of identifying important 'instructional features' of, and ' c r i t i c a l learning conditions' for each outcome (Table 2). He explains these thus, ..."Procedures of instructional planning to insure the identification and inclusion of multiple outcomes may be aided by two kinds of 'editing.' F i r s t , one can check to see that certain important features of instruction relevant to the proposed learning outcomes have been included (...the c r i t i c a l learning conditions . . . ) . Second, by applying an 'outcome question,' one can insure that the instruction being designed is indeed l i k e l y to reach i t s intended objective."(1975, pp.100-101). Thus, i n planning and evaluating instruction, the desired outcomes are linked via the ' c r i t i c a l learning conditions' associated with each outcome to the 'instructional events' associated with each phase and process of learning. Discussion Of the learning theories currently available to the adult educator, Gagne's learning systems theory has much to commend i t on a number of counts. These are particularly: i t is not subject-specific to any category of learning outcome; the learning outcomings provide a set of dependent variables for the planning and evaluation of instruction; and these outcomes are logically linked via instructional and learning events to fundamental processes of learning. It should be noted, however, that as a model for planning instruction, i t is much stronger in. the area of intellectual s k i l l learning than i t i s for other outcomes. It is also strongly oriented toward manipulation of the learning environment, as noted by Dubin £, Okun (p.14) ..."The chief distinction between the behavioristic position adhered to by Skinner and .the neo-behavioristic positions of Hull, Hebb, Bandura and Gagne is that the latter theorists have incorporated mediational processes into their theories." It thus may be found that the model i s not suitable for a l l adult learning situations, i n many of which considerable emphasis is placed on learner self-direction of learning. 25 IV. PROCESSES OF ADULT EDUCATION Introduction If the learning outcomes identified by Gagne are to be used in evaluating the study-research group process, i t is important to identify the class of educational procedures to which this process belongs. Valid comparisons can then be made with other members of that class. Verner (1964) categorizes processes into three classes: methods, techniques and devices. Devices are said to constitute ...'Various mechanical instruments, audio-visual aids, physical arrangements, and materials [which] are used by adult educators to augment the processes employed..."(p.37). Clearly the study-research group process does not f a l l into this category. Of the other two process categories, method i s defined as being "...the relationship established by the institution with a potential body of participants for the purpose of systematically diffusing knowledge among a prescribed but not necessarily f u l l y identified public ... [it] i s institutionally centered and, therefore, an administrative function..." (Verner, 1962, p.9). 'Technique, on the other hand, may be defined as the relationship established by the institutional agent (adult educator) to f a c i l i t a t e learning among a particular and precisely defined body of participants i n a specific situation ... [it] is participant centered and, thus, a function of the learning situation."(op.cit., p.9). It i s clear from the foregoing that the study-research group process is to be regarded as a technique, rather than a method. However, before leaving a consideration of methods, i t would be pertinent to consider which method the program being evaluated did conform to. In this regard Verner recognizes three subcategories of method: 'individual,' 'group' and 'community.' The program is evidently a group method, and within that category best f i t s the definition of a class, ..."A class consists of a sequence of 26 learning experiences arranged in a systematic order of predetermined . duration generally structured around a limited segment of knowledge i n which the agent is charged specifically with the general direction, organization, and control of the learning experience."(Verner, 1975, p.187). A further comment is made to the effect that ..."Classes are generally structured around some specific content area and the instructional emphasis i s on content mastery rather than the group socialization process."(op. c i t . , p.188). The Classification of Techniques The adult education literature i s replete with alternative c l a s s i f i -cations or categorizations of techniques. Gagne (1976, p.21) recognizes four major categories: lecturing, discussion, tutoring', or the use of games. He notes that instruction may be provided by using these singly or i n combination. Verner (1962) uses a classification based on the learning objective or outcome. Thus, he recognizes three major categories of techniques, those appropriate to: the acquisition of imformation, the acquisition of a s k i l l , or the application of knowledge. Techniques for the acquisition of.information, he observes, "...require the least active involvement in the learning process on the part of the learner..."(p.20). Techniques for acquiring a s k i l l primarily "...are concerned/with helping the participant acquire or develop proficiency in performing a specific task. This would include communicative proficiency as well as manipulative s k i l l . Techniques in this class involve a greater participation i n the learning process on the part of the learner than the informative techniques."(p.20). "The application of knowledge i s assumed to imply the u t i l i z a t i o n of s k i l l s or information and the application of principles to new situations ... to apply knowledge i s to use information and s k i l l s in problem solving."(pp.20-21). While this classification does provide a functional means of classifing techniques i t i s not compatible with 27 Gagne's categorization of learning outcomes. Verner (1962) also advances a two-dimensional class i f i c a t i o n , with the abscissa of a matrix being the 'degree of abstraction' and the ordinate being the 'degree of participation of the student in the learning experience permitted, required, or encouraged.' This classification provides a good framework for the examination of techniques in terms of the two component parameters, but i s d i f f i c u l t to focus into a nested sequence for use on one axis i n a matrix against learning outcomes. Leypoldt (1967) classifies techniques into three categories based on very general types of outcomes, namely: 'knowing,' 'feeling' and 'doing.'. These appear to correspond approximately to Gagne's outcomes of verbal information ('knowing'), attitudes ('feeling') and motor s k i l l s ('doing') but the categories are defined only by example, making their interpretation more of a puzzle than a clarifying conceptual process. Bergevin et al (1963) classify techniques into two categories: 'techniques' and 'subtechniques.' The latter are defined thus,..."The sub-technique ... resembles a technique but is less complex and functions for a shorter period of time. A subtechnique is used to adapt a technique to the requirements of a particular learning situation."(p.187). However, i f general practice i s any guide, a l l techniques can reasonably conform to this last criterion, making this classification of no real value. Kidd (1959) deals with four categories of technique: 'lecture type a c t i v i t i e s , ' 'small group discussion,' ' s k i l l and process learning' and 'simulation.' These represent a confusion of process and outcome c r i t e r i a , and thus are not of practicable value. Knowles (1970) classifies 38 different techniques each into one or more of five different behavioral outcome categories. These outcomes, however, do not accord with Gagne's accepted learning outcomes, except in two cases — 'knowledge' and 'attitudes.' His category of 'understanding' is partly a 28 component of verbal information and partly intellectual s k i l l s ; ' s k i l l s ' should be divided into motor and intellectual; 'values' i s a component of attitudes; and interests' represents an aspect of motivation to learn, not an outcome. A number of authors (e.g. Tye, 1966) divide techniques into those suitable for small groups — with fewer than 15 to 20 persons — and those for larger groups. This provides a useful item of information for the practioner, but does not appear to cluster techniques at a l l well in relation to learning outcomes. These attempts at classification reflect the underlying problem of v a r i a b i l i t y i n the nature of techniques. In r e a l i t y , techniques represent points on a number of continuous dimensions. Each time a technique i s reapplied by another person or i n different situations i t i s l i k e l y to be shifted slightly i n position on one of i t s dimensions. No generally acceptable and universally applicable classification is theoretically possible u n t i l adult educators: 1) identify the crucial dimensions; 2) draw (possibly arbitrary) boundaries along these to define the limits of each technique i n relation to each dimension; and 3) label each category. Verner (1962) has identified this problem and made a start by working with two dimensions, as discussed above. However, this is"only a start, and our collective knowledge i s not yet sufficiently structured to permit the presentation here of an acceptable typology. Accordingly, the l i s t i n g of techniques for the purposes of this study uses only crude types for the purposes of reducing the diversity. The types are presented in Table 3. Authorities following type names refer to uses or explications of types. Where no authority i s noted, the grouping has been done by the author on the basis of the perceived relationships between techniques. The authority following each technique refers to a selected definition or explanation of the technique. In this table combinations of 29 TABLE 3—Classification of techniques using the c r i t e r i a noted in Figure 1. Authorities following the types refer to seminal concepts of the type. Authorities following techniques refer to the definitional source for that technique. Type Technique 1. group discussion (Dietrick, 1960) brainstorming or idea inventory (Bergevin et a l , 1963); buzz group (Verner £, Booth, 1964); chain-reaction forum (Leypoldt, 1967); c i r c l e response (Leypoldt, 1967); colloquium (Verner t\ Booth, 1964); couple buzzers (Leypoldt, 1967); group discussion (Bergevin et a l , 1963); group drawing (Leypoldt, 1967); group writing (Leypoldt, 1967); round table (Verner £, Booth, 1964); seminar (Bergevin et a l , 1963); symposium—ancient concept (Bergevin et a l , 1963). 2. learner ac t i v i t i e s 3. lecture (Verner t\ Dickinson, 1967) coaching (Knowles, 1970); critique (Stott, 1966); quiet meeting (Bergevin et a l , 1963); reading (Bergevin et a l , 1963). audience reaction team (Bergevin et a l , 1963) = audience l i s t -ening panel (Miller, 1964) = group response team (Leypoldt, 1967); book report (Leypoldt, 1967); c l i n i c (Miller, 1964); colloquy (Bergevin et a l , 1963); committee (Bergevin et a l , 1963); debate (Dickinson, 197.3); debate forum (Leypoldt, 1967); forum (Bergevin et a l , 1963); interview (Bergevin et a l , 1963); interview forum (Leypoldt, 1967); lecture or speech (Verner L\ Booth, 1964); listening teams (Leypoldt, 1967); lecture forum (Leypoldt, 1967); panel (Verner § Booth, 1964); problem census (Miller, 1964); question period (Bergevin et a l , 1963) = recit-ation or question and answer technique (Dietrick, 1960); react-ion panel (Leypoldt, 1967); screened speech (Leypoldt, 1967); symposium—modern concept (Bergevin et a l , 1963). 4. study research group (Bag-n a l l , 1975) study-research group (Bagnall, 1975). 5. response group film forum (Miller, 1964); gallery conversations (Leypoldt, 1967); learning or listening team (Verner t] Booth, 1964) = music forum § play-reading talk-backs (Leypoldt, 1967). 6. demon-stration f i e l d t r i p f i e l d trip—demonstration (Dickinson, 1973); tours (Morgan et a l , 1963). 7. demon-stration method or process demonstration (Verner § Booth, 1964); result demonstration (Morgan et a l , 1963). 8. project research and report (Leypoldt, 1967); supervised research project (Verner § Booth, 1964). 9. job-centered practice supervised f i e l d work (Verner t\ Booth, 1964). 10. simulation (Kidd, 1959) case study (Leypoldt, 1967); exercise (Kidd, 1959); games (Stock, 1971); role playing (Staton, 1960); simulation (Verner £ Booth, 1964); sociodrama (Stock, 1971); T group (Kidd, 1959). 11. practice d r i l l (Verner § Booth, 1964); practice (Verner $ Booth, 1964). 30 recognized techniques are not dealt with as such. To do so would make the diversity unmanageable, but this is not to suggest that combinations are invalid in any way. Subject-specific techniques, such as Leypoldt's (1967) 'depth Bible encounter' are also excluded. No claim is made for completeness of the l i s t beyond the material cited. The variable nature of techniques, in any case, does not make completeness a valid criterion. The logical relationships between the technique types are shown by the model in Figure 1. Vertical position of a type in the model does not relate to relative importance; the taxonomy is purely for the purpose of visualizing relationships. Because of the dimensional v a r i a b i l i t y of techniques (discussed above), none of these types can be regarded as fixed or limited as to i t s content. For the same reason i t is not possible to define s t r i c t l y each criterion item i n the taxonomy without destroying i t s function-a l i t y . The c r i t e r i a as noted i n the Figure thus are l e f t unqualified. The Study-Research Group Type As defined by the c r i t e r i a in the model of technique types (fig. 1) the study-research group is a class of techniques in which the instructional and learning activity is closely tied to the object of study; where the instruction largely is learner-centered and primarily a group activ i t y ; and the activity is based in the f i e l d . To distinguish the study-research group from other potential techniques in this area, the definition must be further qualified by stating that the technique i s structured by the ac t i v i t i e s directed toward the sc i e n t i f i c solution of an original research problem of some regional or greater importance. By 'original' in the above definition is meant that the problem or a closely similar one has not been solved before. The outcomes of the research thereby are unknown. By 'scientific' is meant the use of procedures approp-riate to the relevant s c i e n t i f i c disciplines identifiable with the problem FIGURE 1 Tentative classification of technique categories. Those marked with an asterisk are logically invalid. techniques I instruction § learning closely tied to object of study instruction § learning not closely tied to object of study instruction largely 1earner-centered primarily primarily group individual activity activity I instruction largely instructor-centered I —I primarily primarily individual group activity* activity based in f i e l d 4.STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP based in controlled environment 5. RESPONSE GROUP I based in f i e l d I instruction largely learner-centered , L—• primarily primarily group individual activity activity 1. GROUP 2. LEARNER DISCUSSION ACTIVITIES I abstraction from object of learning 8. PROJECT I based in controlled environment 1 not abstraction from object of learning 9. JOB-CENTERED PRACTICE based in f i e l d 6 . DEMONSTRATION FIELD TRIP based in controlled environment •7.DEMONSTRATION abstraction from object of learning 10.SIMULATION not abstraction . from object of learning 11. PRACTICE instruction largely instruetor-centered primarily group activity •3. LECTURE 1 primarily individual activity* solution.The statement on relative importance of the problem is not logically essential as a component, but i t can be argued that, in practice, the technique relies on the importance of or interest in the problem as a motivat-ing force for learning. In the f i e l d of adult education, the process which, on the basis of learner a c t i v i t y , is most similar to the study-research group, is that termed 'supervised research projects' in the model (within type 8 — project). Verner t\ Booth (1964) term this 'setting up and carrying out projects under supervision,' and provide the following explanation ...'To provide an opportunity for previously learned principles and knowledge to be thought through in their application to a specific project which is then carried out in an educationally controlled way so that .learning may be continuous throughout the experiment."(p.81). The main distinction apparent, in this explication, between the supervised research project and the study-research group i s that the former is concerned with applying previously learned s k i l l s and knowledge to a problem situation. The study-research group technique provides for the integration of prerequisite learning with i t s application, — indeed the motivation to undertake the prerequisite learning i s derived from each task in the problem-solving process. Rogers (1971) devotes a chapter of her book to 'projects.' With reference to this class of a c t i v i t i e s she notes, ..."The opportunities which a project offers to work with the group, but as a free agent inside i t , also seem to stimulate a surprising amount of academic initiative."(pp.162-3). This statement identifies what is evidently a major feature of project work in Great Britain, namely that i t is essentially a loose coordination of individual, or essentially individual, research a c t i v i t i e s . Another important feature of much of that which is paraded under the 'project' process is that i t i s , in r e a l i t y , a method of approach which is using either the project or the study-research group technique. For example, 33 Rogers (pp.159-160), in discussing a 'classic example' of the project, states, ..."In Nottingham a group of twenty students under the leadership of two tutors from the university ... made a study of the St. Ann's d i s t r i c t of the town ... The group, which began as a normal course in sociology, turned i t s e l f over the three years into a highly efficient research team as well as continuing, as an adult-education group, to learn a good deal at a highly conceptual level about social class in general, poverty in general and sociology in general." These contrasts aside, i t should be noted that study-research groups do f i t within Rogers' broad definition of 'project,' ..."Project work usually involves the group leaving the cocoon of the classroom and venturing out to seek raw materials from local people, records or conditions. Even where the materials have not been l o c a l , but have involved the group i n an intensive study of some foreign or national event, the result of the project, i t s end product, has often been i n a form which involved offering something to the community — a book, an exhibtion, a series of study walks, a play." (p.159). This i s , however, too broad a definition for meaningful i d e n t i f i -cation. From the material presented i t is evident, nevertheless, that at least some of what Rogers is discussing f a l l s within the study-research group type. None of the examples includes sudstantial research i n the natural sciences and, as she notes, ..."The majority of projects so far produced by groups both in Britain and in the United States have been of a sociological, archaeological or historical kind..."(p.170). Arasteh's (1966) work, mostly with university undergraduate groups, is definetely of the study-research group type, and i s i n the sociological f i e l d . Smith (1965) in discussing adult education history teaching processes in Britain, acknowledges, some-what reluctantly, the role of research-based instruction, ..."The aim of 34 the local history course is therefore seen by some as a need, from the start, to engage the student in the actual work of research."(p.39). There are available the products of much of this a c t i v i t y , and perusal of these supports the conclusion that much of i t i s indeed 'project' work as defined here. For example, the report by Smith et al. (1963) which covers the accumulated results of a one-week residential school during which participants undertook small biological projects on various topics of personal interest. Such work, commonly undertaken through the B r i t i s h Field Studies Centres, does not meet the c r i t e r i a of research importance or group activity for inclusion i n the study-research group process. Hutchinson (1965) in an extensive examination of adult education processes in the teaching of sciences could find only limited evidence of research-based (project or study-research group) techniques. The application of these techniques was limited as to subject area — to botany and ornithology — and also limited to the drafting of species l i s t s and distribution maps. He also sees this activity in the same role as that noted by Rogers, namely as following prerequisite learning undertaken with different instructional techniques. The stated or suggested values of the technique may be summarized as follows: 1) the learning process: — f a c i l i t a t e s the welding of a class or group into a working team (Bagnall, 1975); — makes good use of the existing s k i l l s of class members (Bagnall, 1975; (Rogers, 1971); — allows participants to find their own level of participation and appreciation at each stage of the work (Bagnall, 1975; Rogers, 1971); — encourages learning by making the material meaningful, by providing for practice and reinforcement, and by providing for self-assessment as 35 results are worked-up, discussed and checked (Bagnall, 1975); — maintains participant interest in studying the subject (Bagnall, 1975); 2) the learning outcomes: — provides a means of teaching science as i t i s , namely an integration of existing information and research (Bagnall, 1975; Rogers, 1971; Arasteh, 1966); — develops in participants a more informed and c r i t i c a l attitude towards science (Bagnall, 1975; Rogers, 1971; Arasteh, 1966); — provides a means of involving students in original and important applied research (Bagnall, 1975; Arasteh, 1966); — encourages inter-disciplinary study (Rogers, 1971), The Generalizability of Process in Adult Education Verner (1968) develops a thesis concerning the relative d i f f u s i b i l i t y of methods and techniques in adult education. He suggests that "...method is culture-bound and cannot be transmitted successfully to another culture so that only the idea which underlies the method can be transmitted through stimulus diffusion."(p.91). Stimulus diffusion refers to the trans-cultural transmission of ideas from which each culture develops i t s own methods to encompass the idea. Verner derives a number of propositions from this thesis. Those of particular pertinence here are (p.92): 1)..."Different societies develop unique methods to meet their need for continuous learning; consequently, a system of adult education established in one is not necessarily appropriate for another." and 2)..."The method developed to meet a specific need for learning i n one culture is not necessarily suited to the same need in a different culture." While these propositions were advanced as only "...funct-ional hypotheses for further research i n adult education,"(p.92) they appear to be unrefuted and may warrant a higher status. 36 With regard to techniques, Verner (p.93) notes that ..."These propositions do not apply to techniques of instruction since these are based on different principles which are influenced by culture only indirectly ... While the methods of adult education are culture patterns derived from a given culture configuration, the techniques of instruction are derived from the psychological principles of human learning which are independent of culture." He also notes (Verner, 1962, p.9) that ..."Techniques are, for the most part, independent of methods ... in general, most techniques are applicable under more than one method." Since the study-research group process is reasonably classified as a technique these concepts have strong implications for the trans-cultural diffusion of the process and i t s use under different methods. The literature does, however, contain some cautionary notes. Smith (1965, p.42) comments, ..."The experience of many worthwhile adult classes surely i s that l i t t l e i s done in the way of research by students, and there can be no case for offering courses only to those able and w i l l i n g to undertake such work. Adult education is by definition directed to working adults who are without the opportunity or leisure for becoming professional students or full-time practitioners of an intellectual hobby." While Rogers (1971, p.172) observes that "...projects are not panaceas ... Projects are not miraculous teaching techniques to be produced out of a hat, but means to serve educational and possibly social ends, and to be employed therefore with proper caution and respect." The Relationship Between Techniques and Learning Outcomes The desirability of planning instruction and choosing techniques in relation to the intended learning, outcomes was early promoted by Mueller (1937) who stated (referring to techniques as 'methods'), ..."If information 37 and knowledge are the outcomes desired at another time, appropriate methods of acquiring this information and knowledge must be used ... Again, i f appreciations are what we are after, our methods w i l l be those whereby appreciations may be developed most readily."(Mueller, 1937, p.47). Mueller's categories of learning outcome necessarily reflect the knowledge available at the time of writing. Since then a number of adult educators have considered techniques in relation to. learning outcomes. Unfortunately, compatibility of published outcome categories with Gagn6's recent taxonomy is not easily and definitively established. For example, the most commonly used scheme has been that which recognizes three outcomes (Verner, 1962): the acquisition of knowledge, the acquisition of a s k i l l , and the application of knowledge. Judging from the definitions of these categories, already noted earlier in this section, i t appears that: 1) techniques for acquiring knowledge would primarily relate to Gagne's class of verbal information; 2) techniques for applying knowledge would primarily apply to intellectual s k i l l s , but also to cognitive strategies, especially those related to problem solving; and 3) techniques for acquiring a s k i l l would primarily relate to motor s k i l l s but also strongly to intellectual s k i l l s . Accepting, tentatively, such uncertain relationships as those just developed i t is possible to summarize the pertinent literature in the form of a matrix of learning outcomes and technique types (Table 4). The technique types are those developed in Figure 1 and Table 3. Consequently, the matrix must suffer from the additional inadequacies of the basic classification. Nevertheless, the clustering of references into certain ce l l s on the matrix should be expressive of some meaningful relationships. Because of the short-comings of the technique class i f i c a t i o n , i t must be appreciated that not a l l techniques in one class are equally suitable for instruction toward any 38 TABLE 4 — S u i t a b i l i t y of technique types in relation to learning outcomes, as identified by selected authors. Upper-case letter indicates suitab-i l i t y as identified by that authority; lower-case indicates unsuit-a b i l i t y . Parentheses indicate that the technique is of lesser u t i l i t y as identified by the authority. Authorities: A = Bergevin et a l (1963); B = Champion (1975); C = Dickinson (1973); D = H i l l (1960); E = Kidd (1959); F =/Knowles (1970); G = Leypoldt (1967); H = Miller (1964); I = Morgan/(1963); J = Staton (1960); K = Stock (1971); L = Stott (1966); M = Tye (1966); N = Verner d, Booth (1964); 0 = Verner $ Dickinson (1967). ^"^•^^(Dutcome Tecrmiqu^ ~----~>^ ^^  Verbal Information Intellect-ual S k i l l Cognitive Strategy Attitude Motor S k i l l 1. group discussion A, D, G, L C, D, E, F, I, J, L, N C, G, J, L, N (A), B, D, F, L 2. learner ac t i v i t i e s (A), (M), L (A), L (A) F 3. lecture A, C, D, E, F, G, I, J, L, N, 0 c, (M), o c, 0 c, (D), e, (F), (L), o c, 0 4. study-res. group 5. response group F, M, N F, N (F), N 6. demonstration f i e l d t r i p C, I, M 7. demonstration L A, C, I, (J), M, N (A) A, C, E, I, J, L, M, N 8. project A, G A, M, N M, N N 9. job-centered practice N 10. simulation A, C, F, G, H, J, M, N M, N A, F, H, K, M F, N 11. practice c, (J), (L), N C, E, F, J, L, N 39 particular learning outcome. Neither can one class of techniques necessarily stand on in i t s own, as, for example in the essential linking of demonstration and practice in s k i l l learning. It i s not yet possible to weight each c e l l in the matrix, but in some cases, a class of techniques was noted as being markedly less effective for a particular outcome, in which case this has been included. Also noted are explicity stated cases of unsuitab-i l i t y . An alternative, semi-theoretical, procedure i s to relate the c r i t i c a l learning conditions identified by Gagn6 for each learning outcome (Table 2) with the instructional events associated with each phase of instruction (Table 1). One can then apply the knowledge of each technique type to each intercept in the table. By selecting only those technique types with component techniques having characteristics which would f a c i l i t a t e the activity identi-fied by the intercept, one arrives at the results in Table 5. The conclusions there presented can be regarded only as very tentative, and as such should be used as a guide to research rather than instruction. It must also be restated that in some cases not a l l of the techniques in a class are equally suitable for the task associated with each positively marked c e l l i n the matrix. If the matrix does nothing else, i t at least suggests that many techniques are quite unsuited to some learning outcomes, and that some techniques are suitable for use only in conjunction with others. The high scoring given to the study-research group is largely theoretical and open to substantiation or refutation by the present and future studies. Analysis of Research-Based Education in Terms of Learning Outcomes Before embarking on an evaluation of a technique which i s linked with the instruction of research-based content, i t is important to form some concept of the key learning outcomes in such a task. The crucial requirements i n relation to a problem-solving task are 40 TABLE 5 — Theoretical s u i t a b i l i t y of techniques for achieving the c r i t i c a l learning conditions (Table 2) associated with each learning outcome. Cross-hatching = technique suitable; asterisk = technique not suitable. Technique*excluded from a learning outcome category are considered to be unsuitable for a l l of the c r i t i c a l learning conditions identified. Technique Type 1.group discussion 2.learner a c t i v i t i e s 3.lecture 4. study-research group 5. response group 6. demonstration f i e l d t r i p 8.project 1.group discussion 2.learner a c t i v i t i e s -3. lecture 4. study-research group 5. response group 7. demonstration 8. project 11. practice 1.group discussion 3.lecture 4.study-research group 7. demonstration 8. project 11.practice 1.group discussion 4. study-research'group 5. response group 8. project ;10 .simulation 2.learner act i v i t i e s 3. l e c t u r e — 4. study-research group 7.demonstration 9. job-centered practice 10.practice -Instructional Events DO c c o rt OS > > •H 'H +-> +-> U O rt s rt 0 CD rH > •H DO - P e o •H <D E T - > C -o o o 4-1 C 4-1 • H O (NI DC P c o •H 'H 4-> +-> U P 0) 0 r H + J •H +-> rt DO C •H 4-> rt E rt •H U + J CD DO P <D •H O T3 P •H rt > T3 O -H P . &0 LO c o • H -H O 4-> p p rt (L) •ss CD 5-i 10 DO p c rt -H is e rt DC CD P rH •H +-> 4H g ° O SH SH CD P . 4-1 CD U C rt E vj C rt o . P 4-1 - O SH CD CD CD P , 4 H tlO DO P P •H -H • P TJ •H -H U > • H O r-H SH CD P, 00 o 4-1 P rt CD > r * CD E O DO^  •H p SH rt CD CD 3 4-> rt r ^ PS 2 ^ 2 ^ m SH O +-> I 41 shown in Figure 2. Verbal information is identified as a necessary prerequisite to the solution of a novel problem, in that there is l i t t l e point in beginning the solution of a task at anything less than the current level of understanding. This is not, however, to imply that large bodies of information need be learned before a problem is tackled. Rather, that having defined the problem, the researcher should then apprise himself of the pertinent existing knowledge before embarking on the research program. In this way existing knowledge, the products of earlier research efforts, are put into the perspective of ongoing means to the solution of further problems, rather than as vast bodies of 'scientific' facts unrelated to current needs. FIGURE 2 Learning outcomes in relation to research-based education. fundamental frontier science research s k i l l s prerequisite prerequisite c r i t i c a l knowledge attitude - , A , ATTITUDES VERBAL INFORMATION fundamental frontier research s k i l l s basic science research s k i l l s basic research s k i l l s MOTOR SKILLS INTELLECTUAL SKILLS COGNITIVE STRATEGIES Appropriately c r i t i c a l attitudes are also regarded as prerequisites. The failure to take this component into account i s a major f a i l i n g of the project technique as applied to novice researchers. However, in a group-research project the attitudes of the more experienced members and of the leader are continually used as input and as reinforcing models i n the process of the research. The aim, then, in the latter case is to bring the attitudes 42 of each group member up to an appropriate level of scepticism and c r i t i c a l i t y in the course of the project. Intellectual s k i l l s are identified as basic research s k i l l s in that they apply to a l l research subjects. Problem-solving s k i l l s are of particular importance and since, in terms of Gagne's hierarchy of learning types they require a l l other appropriate s k i l l s as prerequisites, they must be seen as objectives to be attained in the course of a whole project. Here, again, the group approach has the advantage of permitting participants to be involved meaningfully in a problem-solving situation while developing the appropriate s k i l l s and learning them from fellow participants. By contrast, a participant i n an individual project situation requires the appropriate s k i l l s before he can make meaningful progress. In addition to requiring intellectual s k i l l s , a l l practical science subjects draw on certain motor s k i l l s . These tend to be highly specific to particular research techniques, and are thus most suitably learned as the need arises. In Figure 2 these are identified as distinctive features of the category, 'basic science research s k i l l s . ' With the foregoing capabilities an individual i s reasonably well equipped to tackle problems and to c r i t i c i z e research studies when these f a l l into identifiable categories. However, i f the learner is to engage in problem solving by developing novel approaches, i t is important that he possess the appropriate cognitive strategies with which to tackle the problems. In Figure 2 this identifies two more categories: 'fundamental frontier research s k i l l s ' (cognitive strategies and intellectual s k i l l s ) , which apply to a l l truely creative research situations; and 'fundamental frontier science research s k i l l s ' (cognitive strategies, intellectual s k i l l s and motor s k i l l s ) , which apply to truely creative practical science research situations. If we narrow our focus on learning goals to that of developing 43 the learner into one who is constructively able to c r i t i c i z e and analyze the results of research which directly affect him (e.g. environmental research, nutrition research) we can slightly modify our desired outcomes. In this case the most important outcomes for a l l subjects are: attitudinal, intellectual s k i l l s and cognitive strategies. Given these, the prerequisites verbal information can be obtained, and motor s k i l l s are superfluous. Jeske (1973, p.284) leans toward this scheme in viewing the need for environmental education as requiring the following— "...instruction that w i l l help adults: sort fact from fancy and the significant from the t r i v i a l in environmental matters by acquiring appropriate knowledge and developing s k i l l s of analysis and synthesis ... [and w i l l ] develop s k i l l s necessary for evaluating facts and recognizing value judgements i n alternative proposals for resolving environmental matters." Accepting this last learning goal as the most appropriate one, at least for l i b e r a l adult education i n science subjects, two important observations emerge from the above analysis. F i r s t l y , verbal information and motor s k i l l s should be seen as means to an end, not as ends in themselves. With particular reference to environ-mental education, Hackel (1962, p.175) states i t thus, ..."We may say, then that science i s a creative human act i v i t y , dependent on and responsive to societal structure, going beyond the encyclopedic phase of mere classification and organization of knowledge, and going beyond technology ..."This runs counter to practically a l l adult education practice in the area of concern, where traditional techniques such as lecturing, reading, and carrying out small scale laboratory or f i e l d experiments place overwheling emphasis on the acquisition of information and motor s k i l l s . Secondly, that i f the important learning outcomes — attitudinal change, intellectual s k i l l and cognitive strategy development — are to be 44 attained, the technique or techniques used must provide for appropriate learning in a l l types of outcome categories. However, the outcomes being strived for at any particular time cannot be predetermined since they relate to other outcomes associated with other tasks which are in turn linked to the unpredictable path of the problem-solving process. Each learner is l i k e l y to be aiming at a different learning outcome at any particular time. In short, either the instructor structures a life-time of prerequisite learning for his adult students, or he structures the learning around an original research problem. Only the latter technique can theoretically attain the learning goals i n reasonable time for part-time adult students. Regret-tably, most science adult educators opt for the former approach, and thereby develop, i f at a l l successful, competent amateur technicians and adults with funds of largely useless and h i s t o r i c a l , s c i e n t i f i c a l l y obtained, information. 45 V. PRINCIPLES OF ADULT EDUCATION IN TOE DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT OF INSTRUCTION Introduction This section comprises the results of an attempt to extract, from the adult education literature, a set of commonly accepted principles representing the good design and management of instructional situations for adult learners. These principles may then be used as a set of target variables in the evaluation of the study-research group technique. The c r i t e r i a for inclusion of a publication were that i f contained at least three explicit principles under whatever heading these were presented, and that i t was addressed specifically to adult education. Much published material, not included in this review, is addressed either to matters of adult education philosophy, in which case the concepts are too general to be included as practicable principles, or to procedures too situationally specific to be considered as principles for the f i e l d as a whole. The term 'principle' is used to refer to a directly applicable procedural concept relevant to the f i e l d as a whole. Fundamental concepts; such as those obtained from psychological studies of adults, are not included since they cannot be applied directly as functional guidelines. Toward the opposite end of the conceptual spectrum, items are excluded because they relate only to situationally dependent components of adult education, e.g. instruction directed toward the achievement of particular learning outcomes. Although the purpose of this search was to identify principles pertaining to the design and management of instruction, many of these principles are generalizable to the program planning process. The greater part of the published work in this area of instruction i s derived either from psychological studies of adults or more specifically from research into 46 adult learning. Principles directed specifically to the program planning process are rare and insecurely based due to the lack of c r i t e r i a by which program planning at the organizational level may be evaluated in terms of adult learning. As Houle (1972, p.250) notes, "...the program-planning theories in the general f i e l d of the curriculim have only limited usefulness for adult education since they are largely based on the specific practices of schools and colleges." Commonly Identified Principles of Adult Education A summary of the principles, and of the authors who identify the principles, is presented i n Table 6. No principle was included in this table i f i t was identified by fewer than 4 (25%) of the authors l i s t e d . The following is a discussion of each principle to reveal i t s meaning and extent. In each case, more than one authority i s used only as far as i s necessary to define the principle using the above two c r i t e r i a . A. Principles Pertaining to the Individualization of Learning 1. Ensure high motivation to learning This i s one of Miller's six conditions of learning, and is stated as ..."The student must be adequately motivated to change behavior."(p.38). Also, as Brunner et a l note, ..."learning is most rapid when motivation i s strong..."(p.23). But Verner and Booth observe that ..."With motivation providing the stimulus to participation i n an educational a c t i v i t y , futher and different motivation is required in order that such participation result in effective learning..."(p.24). The same point is made by M i l l e r , "Motives which are strong enough to bring an individual into the learning situation may be too weak by far to keep him in i t for very long or to keep him at work; the very high drop-out rate in adult programs which are not vocationally based is in part a measure of that motivation strength. By 47 TABLE 6 — Matrix of adult education principles and authorities. Asterisk indicates identification of a principle (row) by an author (column). Parentheses indicate that the author assumed or implied the principle. Principles </) oo CD LO •H + J i — t •H v—' u o CD r-l • P Au 1.ensure high motivation to learning cn LO cn rH f-^. * — ' , — v tn LO r-^  H CTl ^ aj cn rH 4-> 0 pq r C u o cn r- vo cn oo cn rH LO rH C 0 C 0 U r-j rO r Q "3" cn rH /-> c n O rH r~» *—• cn rH bo 0 rH US" rH vO VO / — i cn cn rH rH vO -'cn o , — v v O cn cn vO rH cn v—s rH *—' 0 vO cn r C + J o U rH C 1 ) o o vO v o 5; u J v O a j O l Cn rH UO" rH rH ?H v — ' H V J I B 0 0 d c C S 0 C ,2 •H o X 0 ra CL, P H £ H > M (*> 2.maintain adult autonomy 3.allow for individual pace and level of learning ( * ) * ( * ) 4.make allowance for psychological and physiological ages (*) (*) 5.provide for practice with rein-forcement of correct behavior *(.*y * * * 6.utilize group influences on learning * * * * * * * * * 7.provide a secure learning environment * * * * * *(*)(*) 8.ensure relevance of the material to the learner * * * * * * * * * * * 9.ensure meaningfulness of the material to the learner * * * ( * ) * * *  i * * * * 10.enable individuals to u t i l i z e previous learning * * * * * * * 11.ensure active involvement in learning * * * * * * 12.provide for learner involvement in needs diagnosis 13.provide for learner involvement in course planning § management (*) * * * * (*) * * * * * * * * * 14.ensure learner knowledge of expected behavior * * * * 15.facilitate learner awareness of behavioral inadequacy * * 16.facilitate learner self-evaluation (*) * * * * 48 far the weakest seems to be pure curiosity, a lusting after knowledge for knowledge's sake..."(p.39). Gibb (1960) makes the point that "...to be maximally effective the motivation must be intrinsic."(p.59). Also included i n this principle is the concept of optimal tension. As stated by Jensen, "...the psychological tension level of"adult learners must be maintained at a level which permits tha release of energy into problem-solving and work interactions at a rate required by the learning projects and objectives set for the instructional group and i t s individual members."(p.148). 2. Maintain adult autonomy As stated by Pine § Home, ..."Learning is f a c i l i t a t e d in an atmosphere in which people feel they are respected ... [and] accepted."(p.133). Also, Jensen states, "...the authority and decision-making interactions between adult learners and instructors must be such that adults participating i n an instruct-ional group do not experience a loss of adult autonomy."(p.150). For Lindeman this principle this principle was one of the core elements i n his philosophy. 3. Allow for individual pace and level of learning This i s an explicit recognition of the individuality of adult learning. As stated by Dickinson, ..."When he is designing learning act i v i t i e s for adults, the instructor should recognize that each person w i l l learn at a different rate and that the type of material w i l l influence learning." (pp.10-11). The principle i s also a component of Jensen's statement on diversity of goals, "...the development of multiple group goals for adult instruction must be permitted to the point that the group i s s t i l l able to function effectively as a group and that the fulfillment of individual learning needs is promised."(p.149). He develops this further, "...adult learners must be given opportunity (without loss of personal esteem and 49 social responsibility) to determine r e a l i s t i c a l l y their present level of behavioral integrations with respect to proposed instructional objectives." (p.151). Pine § Home (p.126) state that ..."Learning i s f a c i l i t a t e d in an atmosphere which emphasizes the uniquely personal and subjective nature of learning... [and] i n which difference is good and desirable.." 4. Make allowance for psychological and physiological ages This principle overlaps strongly with number 3, but as these two principles are regarded separately by different authors, and agreement with '4' does not logically imply agreement with '3', they are treated separately here. As stated by Tye (p.155), this principle i s that ..."Learning experiences ... should be organized according to the best available understanding of the characteristics of adulthood which are relevant to education." From the works of Vemer t\ Booth, Dickinson, and Brunner et a l i t is evident that this understanding must include both psychological and physiological factors. 5. Provide for practice with reinforcement of correct behavior This principle i s frequently discussed as two separate principles (1. practice, and 2. reinforcement for correct behavior). However, in a l l references to these, they are both considered and closely linked, they are, accordingly, placed i n the one category in this paper. As summarized by M i l l e r , the principle is stated i n two concepts, ..."The student must have opportunities to practice the appropiate behavior." (p.48) and ..."The student must get reinforcement of the correct behavior." (p.49). Jensen states i t thus,"...the gratifications or rewards adults experience from participating in the instructional group must result primarily from problem-solving and work interactions leading to the 50 acquisition of new behaviors..."(p.149). Dickinson (p.11) observes that ...'Mere repetition without purpose or guidance i s of l i t t l e value as i t does not result in increased learning." He also provides a very general definition of reinforcement, ..."Reinforcement i s anything i n the learning situation that increases the probability that the desired behavior w i l l be repeated."(p.12). Oddly, he treats 'Knowledge of Results' as a principle separate from 'Reinforcement,' although i t is clear from his discussion that he understands the former as being a component of reinforcement. Thus, i n discussing 'Knowledge of Results' he notes, . . ..."Learning i s aided i f the adult finds out immediately after practice whether or not his response was correct. This feedback or knowledge of results acts as reinforcement..."(p.13). B. Pricinples Pertaining to the Value or Group Activities i n Learning 6. U t i l i z e group influences on learning A principle referring to the values to be derived from proper management of the interpersonal environment of groups, ranging i n size from a diad of one learner with an instructor, upwards. The range of concepts which this principle encompasses is best demon-strated by the following selection of quotations. "For maximum learning the learner must interact with other learners i n such a way as to expose his a t t i t -udes and gaps i n knowledge and s k i l l s to himself and to others."(Gibb, 1960, p.60). "Learning i s f a c i l i t a t e d in an atmosphere which permits confrontation." (Pine § Home, p.133). "...the psychological climate should be one ... i n which there exists a s p i r i t of mutuality between teachers and students as joint inquirers..."(Knowles, 1970, p.41). "Learning experiences should be organized so as to reduce the resistance to change inherent in learning by ... attempting to mobilize the learning group to reduce individual resis-tance."(Tye, pp.151-152). "In terms of structural processes, a greater 51 amount of formal and informal interaction should be conscientiously structured to narrow instructor-learner social distance... V(Lan § Wong, p.140). A number of authors sound a cautionary note i n their discussion of group values, e.g. "There i s no question at a l l of the power of the group to reduce individual resistances to change i f properly mobilized; but pious insistence on rituals of informality and first-name calling w i l l not necessarily ensure i t s mobilization on the side of effective learning." (Miller, p.41). While Brunner et a l (p.195), after discussing conflicting studies in the literature, suggest, ..."A possible hypothesis i n this area would be that under the stimulation of an environmental situation certain types of people learn more ef f i c i e n t l y i n group situations than working alone." 7. Provide a secure learning environment This principle is divided by Gibb (1958) into two: 'The Supportive Atmosphere Norm' (i.e. the need for a secure learning environment i n which the adult learner can make mistakes), and 'The Provisional Behavior Norm1 (i.e. the feeling of freedom on the part of the learner to make mistakes). Mil l e r notes (p.42), ..."The major resistance to change ... i s the defensive-ness aroused on behalf of already established behaviors, and the fundamental requirement for success i s the provision of sufficient security for the student to permit him to relax his defensive posture." C. Principles Pertaining to the Content Material 8. Ensure relevance of the material to the learner The principle i s of fundamental importance to a great many adult educators. Lindeman, writing in the f i r s t quarter of this century, was one of the f i r s t adult education writers to address himself at length to i t s 52 development. He argued that education should be equated with l i f e and that adult education should go beyond vocational and materialistic goals to encompass a l l of l i f e ' s ideals. As observed by Verner § Booth (p.22),.. .'The motives that lead to participation i n adult education or to learning stem from the needs that arise out of experience." The concept ranges in intensity from the statement made by Lam t\ Wong (p. 140), ..."Specifically, course content must be brought within the interests of adult learners i n order to develop satisfaction among learners." to that of Gibb (1960, pp.58-59), "Learning must be problem centered. For the most significant kinds of learning that adults do, the problem must be a problem for the learner, not a problem of the teacher." McClusky observes that these problems may be equally those of the individual as of the community or society, ..."It would, however, be poor teaching as well as poor educational statesmanship i f in our response to the learner's problems we ignored the larger problem of society; i n an ultimate sense these could be even more important to the adult than those close at hand of which he i s most sharply aware."(McClusky, p.169). Knowles. sees this principle as one arm of a dichotomy between a subject-orientated and a person-orientated approach, ..."To adults, education is a process of improving their a b i l i t y to deal with l i f e problems they face now. They tend, therfore, to enter an educational activity i n a problem-centered frame of mind ... Andragogy calls for program builders and teachers who are person-centered, who don't teach subject matter but rather help persons learn."(Knowles, 1970, p.48). Champion (p.300), however, sounds a word of warning,...'The emphasis on student-centered rather than subject-centered a c t i v i t i e s , which has done so much recently to improve the ways i n which tutors teach, has now, however, begun to go too far." 53 9. Ensure meaningfulness of the material to the learner The intent of this principle is encompassed in the following statement by Dickinson (p.11), ..."Material that the learner believes to be meaningful is learned more readily and i s remembered longer than material which is seen as non-meaningful. Meaningfulness can be established i n two general ways: by presenting material that is similar to something that i s already known, and by organizing new material in a pattern that the learner can perceive." M i l l e r (p.50) concentrates on the appropiate sequencing of materials and n o t e s " T h e fault l i e s , often enough, not only in the assignment'of impossible amounts of d i f f i c u l t reading material but i n the failure to make clear to the student what the purpose of the reading i s , what i t s relation-ship is to the learning goals which he can comprehend and find personally meaningful." McClusky, i n looking at meaningfulness i n relation to content takes, in addition to the element identified by M i l l e r , the point that ...'To be meaningful, learning must give the adult as much insight into relationships as possible ... Operationally, this implies that i n learning an adult must achieve as large a perspective of his problem as possible, and be able to place ad hoc issues which cry for attention i n the context of this perspective."(Miller, p. 170). Knowles relates meaningfulness to teachable moments arising from developmental tasks, after the concept developed by Havighurst (ref. Havighurst § Orr, 1956), ..."If the teachable moment for a particular adult to acquire a given learning is to be captured, i t is obvious that the sequence of the curriculum must be timed so as to be i n step with his developmental tasks. This i s the appropriate organizing principle for an adult-education program,rather than the logic of the subject matter or the needs of the sponsoring instituition."(Knowles, 1970, p.47). 54 10. Enable individuals to u t i l i z e previous learning Zahn (p.75) identifies this principle when he n o t e s " T h e more the teacher of adults can base his teaching upon previous experience, the better and faster the adult w i l l learn." Lindeman considers the adult student's experience to be his greatest learning resource. Knowles makes the point very firmly, "...to an adult, his experience is_ him. He defines who he i s , establishes his self-identity, i n terms of his accumulation of a unique set of experiences ... Because an adult defines himself largely by his experience, he has a deep investment i n i t s value. And so when he finds himself in a situation i n which his experience is not being used, or i t s worth is minimised, i t i s not just his experience that i s being rejected — he feels rejected as a person."(Knowles, 1970, p.44). Jensen (p.150) takes a pragmatic stance on this principle with the statement that "...adults must be free to assess and react to the expert knowledge of the instructor i n light of the r e a l i t i e s of their own l i f e experiences." McClusky (p.172) represents the most cautious approach in suggesting, ..."Perhaps the adult needs to have more confidence i n the value of his experience, perhaps i t is the task of the educator to help the adult reorganize his experience so he can learn how to extrapolate the particular u n t i l i t takes on the aspects of the universal." D. Principles Pertaining to the Centering of Education on the Learner This group of principles is encapsulated in a statement by Powell § Benne (p.51), "...under a l l the group and community emphases there i s a strong and v i t a l agreement on the individual as the learner, the agent of learning and of judgement and acting, the goal and test of a l l the learning-situations that educators can devise." 55 11. Ensure active involvement in learning Jensen (p.142) recognizes this principle as a societal 'value norm' which, he suggests, i s derived from the 'Protestant Ethic.' It is the "...value that learners should be kept psychologically involved in the instruc-tional situation, both emotionally and cognitively, to the highest possible degree. A 'good instructional situation' i s one in which the learners are always highly interested and extending maximum effort to learn." As Gibb (1960, p.60) notes, ..."Several experiments indicate that the active learner i s a more effective learning organism than the passive learner." M i l l e r (p.40) observes that lack of involvement can negatively affect student motivation, through the learner being unable to see the learning task as personally important and significant. He further states that ..."Whatever the problems ... the basic issue remains clear and emphatic: If we are interested in having the student learn, he must be active i n some approp-riate fashion; he must have the opportunity to do what he is supposed to learn to do."(p.49). This last statement reveals the closeness of this principle to number 5 (provide for practice with reinforcement of correct behavior), indeed principle number 11 i s a prerequisite of 5. 12. Provide for learner'involvement i n needs diagnosis Knowles is the strongest proponent of this principle, stating that "...great emphasis [in andragogy] is placed on the involvement of adult learners in a process of self-diagnosis of needs for learning."(Knowles, 1970, p.42). In his 1974 paper (p.315) he, interestingly, defines this process as ..."Mutual self-diagnosis." Pine § Home (p. 126) are rather more moderate i n their view of the principle, ";..a situation in which people are freely able to express their needs rather than having their needs directed to them." Indeed the general concept of this principle i s to ensure at least some involvement by 56 participants or potential participants i n needs diagnosis. 13. Provide for learner involvement i n course planning and management This principle i s clearly stated by Button (p.182), " . . . i f adult educators are to be successful i n their attempts to serve the public, they must involve the people i n planning these programs." Knowles (1970, p.42) sees this principle being applied as "...the involvement of the learners in the process of planning their own learning, with the teacher serving as a procedural guide and content resource." Or, as stated by Boyle (p.23), ..."The planning group should include local citizens who are potential participants i n the program ... Democratic principles should be used wherever possible in planning the program." 14. Ensure learner knowledge of expected behavior Verner £j Booth (p.24) note, ..."A knowledge of the task to be under-taken increases the efficiency with which i t i s accomplished..." M i l l e r (p.45) accepts as one of his six principles that ...'The student must have a clear picture of the behavior which he is required to adopt." Whereas Knowles tends to regard this principle as a prerequisite or component of the following one. 15. Facilitate learner awareness of behavioral inadequacy Mi l l e r (p.42) states that ...'The student must be aware of the inadequacy of his present behavior." Knowles (1970, p.42) considers the application of this principle to be parts two and three of the three-element needs diagnosis. He develops the three parts thusrl) "Constructing a model of the competencies or characteristics required to achieve a given ideal model of performance ... 2) Providing diagnostic experiences i n which the learner can assess his present level of competencies in the light of those 57 portrayed i n the model ... 3) Helping the learner to measure the gaps between his present competencies and those required by the model, so that he experiences a feeling of dissatisfaction about the distance between where he i s and where he would l i k e to be and is able to identify specific directions of desirable growth." 16. Facilitate learner self-evaluation This principle i s stated by Pine § Home (p. 126) as ..."Learning is f a c i l i t a t e d i n an atmosthere in which evaluation i s a cooperative process with emphasis on self-evaluation." Knowles (1970, p.43) pushes the emphasis more toward self-evaluation, "...andragogical theory prescribes a process of self-evaluation, in which the teacher devotes his energy to helping the adults get evidence for themselves about the progress they are making toward their educational goals." He regards the process as being a ..."Mutual re-diagnosis of needs."(1974, p.315) Button (p.181) represents the other polar end of this principle, and notes, ..."The learner must have feedback about progress toward goals." Jensen (p.150) i s i n an intermediate position i n calling for learner-identification with the evaluation methods, "...the problem-solving and work interactions between adult learners must provide for the use of effective public methods for evaluating learning progress of individual adults." Additional Guidelines for Adult Instruction A number of adult education principles which have appeared in the literature are not included in the foregoing discussion. In many cases they w i l l be recognized as components of the principles here recognized. In other cases they have been too situationally specific or non-functional to conform to the c r i t e r i a of inclusion. Finally, there are those which were addressed by only a few (less than 25%) on the authors included in the matrix. Since 58 the guidelines in the last category may become accepted in time, they are l i s t e d here for reference. 1. Only material which i s essential to the attainment of each learning objective should be included.(Tye, 1966) 2. Where there exists a gap, learners should be helped to raise their levels of aspiration to match their abilities.(Tye, 1966) 3. A wide range of alternative techniques and devices for attaining objectives should be considered, and only those chosen which are most appropriate for each objective.(Boyle, 1958; Lam § Wong, 1974; Tye, 1966) Discussion The principles of adult education derived from the literature are most completely encapsulated by Knowle's 'Andragogical Theory of Adult Learning' (Knowles, 1973). This i s not to suggest that the theory gave rise to the principles, or that, because i t encompasses most of the principles, i t i s necessarily the best theory to follow i n designing and managing adult education a c t i v i t i e s . Indeed, the 'theory' does not provide an adequate conceptual framework from which to plan and manage the details of adult education. It i s rather an agglomeration of good management principles which can guide the general behavior of educators i n their task. The details of planning and management must rest on a more structured learning theory such as that of Gagne (Gagne § Briggs, 1974; Gagne, 1975). In spite of i t s limitations, Knowle's theory i s worth examining, at least because i t i s an attempt to interrelate a number of adult education principles. The theory derives, essentially, from these principles and thus has a rather poorly integrated foundation. Knowles recognizes this weakness and attempts to shift the derivation of the theory to a lesser number of variables, thus, ..."Andragogical Theory is based on at least four main 59 assumptions that are different from those of pedagogy."(Knowles, 1973, p.45). These assumptions are: 1) "...that as a person grows and matures his self-concept moves from one of total dependency to one of increasing self-directedness." (p.45) 2) "...that as an individual matures he accumulates an expanding reservoir of experience that causes him to become an increasingly rich resource for learning, and at the same time provides him with a broadening base to which to relate new learnings."(p.45) 3) "...that as an individual matures, his readiness to learn is decreasingly the product of his biological development and academic pressure and i s increasingly the product of his developmental tasks required for the performance of his evolving social roles."(p.46) 4) "...that children have been conditioned to have a subject-centered orientation to most learning, whereas adults tend to have a problem-centered orientation to learning."(p.47). From the literature of adult education i t is thus possible to identify a number of core principles of adult education which are generally applicable to the design and management of instruction. These can thereby form one set of target variables on which to evaluate an adult education program. VI. PARTICIPANT BACKGROUND AND PARTICIPATION 60 The Adult Education Participant Johnstone § Rivera (1965), on the basis of their survey of adult education participants in the United States, stated that ..."The f i r s t distinctive feature of the participant is that he is younger than the average American adult."(p.6). But they observed that participants were about equally divided between men and women. Also, ..."The second outstand-ing feature of the participant i s that he i s better educated than the average adult ... Participants were also more l i k e l y to hold white-collar than blue-collar jobs and, in addition, had median family incomes almost $1,200 higher than the average. Of these three indicators of socio-economic position, however (education, occupation and income), formal schooling was found to have by far the most powerful influence on rates of learning activity."(p.7). Boshier (1973) considers non-participation to be related causally to the same factors as i s dropout from a program. This thesis i s developed into a life-space, life-chance model outlined i n the following section, A fundamental concept of the model is the positive relationship between non-participation (and dropout) and incongruence produced between the potential participant (or the dropout) and some components of the instruction-a l setting. M i l l e r (1967) provides an alternative approach to the problem by using force-field analysis. He applies this procedure to different socio-economic classes, for which he identifies alternative positive and negative forces encouraging and discouraging participation. Verner § Davis (1964) reviewed the research literature on dropout and tested 26 personal and 18 situational factors which might contribute to 61 dropout. Their results, however, were inconclusive. Dickinson § Verner (1967) report on their studies of attendance and dropout patterns in Canadian night school classes. They found that ..."In general, the persistent attenders were older, married house-wives who had children, while dropouts were younger and usually single."(p.24). A dropout was defined as one who was enrolled for the course but did not attend the f i n a l two sessions. Using this criterion they found an overall dropout of 27.81, but in 'academic' subjects (including science courses) the average dropout was 39.1%. They found a similar differential i n the average daily attendance, which was 63.51 overall, but only 52.9% for the academic subjects. The University Extension Participant i n New Zealand Recent research by Boshier (1969, 1970 § 1971a) provides material specifically on participants i n Victoria University Extension programs. The s t a t i s t i c s , therefore, can be used as a basis for comparison with those of the present study. With regard to the university extension participants, Boshier (1969, p.131) concluded that they "...were well educated, of high socio-economic status, mostly work i n occupations which, for census purposes, are described as professional ... and"have probably participated in some adult education activity before. If they were married, and have had a university education, they were less l i k e l y to drop-out than those who were single or of low educational attainment." He defined dropout, for most of his work, as "...a person, who, after being present for session 1 or 2 was absent for the mid-point session and four successive sessions of a continuing course." (1970, p.139). Boshier (1969) found fewer men (35%) than women in the extension classes studied. Comparing the age distribution of the participant population with that of the adult population in the University Extension catchment area 62 (Boshier 1971a), he found the extension participants to be disproportionately young. The age figures were as follows (catchment area in parentheses): 15-19 years, 7% (14%); 20-29 years, 46% (24%); 30-39 years, 21% (18%); 40-49 years, 17% (18%); 50-59 years, 7% (16%); and 60-69 years, 2% (10%). The distribution of highest academic qualification showed the university participant group to be essentially an educational e l i t e when compared with the national averages. The figures (Boshier, 1971a) were as follows (national averages in parentheses): university degree or diploma, 28% (2%); teachers' or technical c e r t i f i c a t e , 28% (2%); university entrance or higher school ce r t i f i c a t e , 17% (4%); school ce r t i f i c a t e , 13% (5%); other qualification, 2% (4%); and no formal qualification 12% (83%). In the national census data referred to, the category 'other qualification' i s broken down into: higher trade (2%), other trade (1%) and business college or shorthand certificates (1%). Boshier (1971a) also found that, in terms of occupational categories, the university extension role was heavily skewed toward the upper end of the scale when compared with both the national average and the extension catchment area (the Wellington urban area). The figures were as follows (Wellington urban work-force in parentheses): professional and technical, 50% (14%); management and administration, 15% (6%); c l e r i c a l , and sales, 26% (35%); s k i l l e d , semi-skilled and unskilled, 8% (45%), military personnel, 1% (<1%). Using the criterion mentioned earlier, Boshier (1969) found a dropout rate of 23% i n the general extension enrolment. Bagnall (1975) compiled st a t i s t i c s on the participants in the f i r s t three experimental study-research group projects. Compared with Boshier's figures for the university extension role, he found an even higher proportion (47%) with university degrees, a slightly higher proportion with no formal qualifications (17%), more with 'other qualifications' (8%), fewer with teachers' or technical certificates as their highest qualification (6%), and a slightly lesser number with only university entrance or higher school certificate (14%), or with school certificate (81). He also obtained figures on previous participation in education within the discipline of the study-research group. Only eleven percent had not previously studied the subject. Twenty-five percent had done so as part of a university degree, and 64% in adult education programs through university extension or the Workers Education Association. These last two categories were not mutually exclusive. He found no significant difference i n the enrolment figures for men (51%) and women. While this contrasted markedly with Boshier's figures, s t a t i s t i c s taken from two annual reports (Dakin, 1973, 1974) revealed that non-science extension classes (arts, humanities, commerce, law and languages) had a distribution similar to that shown by Boshier's study (30% men), but the sciences showed a distribution similar to that i n the study-research groups (49% men). Bagnall's figures for age distribution more closely followed the distribution of the Wellington urban area adult population than they did Boshier's figures for university extension participants. The figures were: 15-19 years (5%), 20-29 years (8%), 30-39 years (31%), 40-49 years (31%), 50-59 years (14%), and 60-69 years (11%). Compared with Boshier's s t a t i s t i c s the study-research groups, however, were more occupationally e l i t i s t , with 62% of the enrolment being professional and technical. The remaining distribution was: management and administration (5%), c l e r i c a l and sales (5%), and s k i l l e d to unskilled (28%). This last figure, interestingly, being markedly higher than that in the general extension enrolment. Bagnall also obtained data on the number of discipline-based societies to which a participant belonged and which were identifiable with 64 the subject of the study-research group. Eighty-five percent of the participants were found to belong to one or more such societies. He found a dropout rate of only 5%, which he compared with "...other extension science courses where rates of 501 and over are common at the end of a course."(p.24). However, in terms of Boshier's definition there would have been no dropout in the study-research groups. Mean daily attendance was 841. The average attendance was 71%,. 81%, and 100% i n each of the groups. 65 VII. MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS IN ADULT EDUCATION Introduction Adult educators have long been interested in the question of what motivates adults to participate in particular adult education a c t i v i t i e s . It is f e l t that a better knowledge of why participants are present w i l l enable the instructor to more closely meet their needs, preventing them from dropping-out, and f a c i l i t a t i n g their learning of some relevant material. Styler (1950) reported on motivational studies in Great Britain prior to that time. He notes a study by Flood t\ Crossland (no reference given) in which motives were classified into three groups: 1) 'vocational,' 2) 'general desire for knowledge,' and 3) 'societal and recreational.' Another reported study of tutor i a l class participants at Leeds recognized two categories: 1) 'personal and cultural,' and 2) 'social.' Whipple (1957) accepted three motivational categories: 1) 'vocational appeal,' 2) 'negative forces of defense against losses,' and 3) 'the urge to study as a result of a vocational interest or ambitions.' Dick (1964) claimed to have identified a factor of 'gregariousness,' on the grounds that adult education participants showed an overall higher did rate of participation i n community ac t i v i t i e s than/non-participants. He apparently failed to appreciate that both adult education participation and participation i n community ac t i v i t i e s are positively correlated with socio-economic status. Two psychological theories of motivation and need are frequently referred to by adult educators interested in this problem. The f i r s t i s Maslow's (1954) 'hoiistic-dynamic theory of human motivation.' In this theory, Maslow postulates a needs 'hierarchy of prepotency.' Under normal circumstances unless needs lower in the hierarchy (e.g. safety, belong-ingness) are substantially satisfied, those higher up (esteem, 66 self-actualization) w i l l not be f e l t . The highest, and rarest, need i s said to be self-actualization, referring to the persistent striving of persons in this category toward expression of their f u l l human potential. In spite of the stated rarety of self-actualizing persons, most lib e r a l adult educat-ion is scheduled on the basis of assumed motivation in this category. The second general theory is that of Havighurst (1952) who postulated a series of developmental tasks which w i l l become pressing at a certain time during human (including adult) development. These developmental tasks are said to be set by three forces: 1) the expectations of societal values, 2) the maturing and ageing of the body, and 3) the values and aspirations of the individual. The 'teachable moment,' at which an adult i s most l i k e l y to learn relevant material, i s at the time of personal realization of the need to cope with each developmental task (Havighurst $ Orr, 1956). However, the strongest conceptualizing force which has guided recent research into motivation appears to be the typology developed by-Houle (1961). In this work he reports and discusses the results of detailed studies involving 22 selected continuing learners. Three types of orientation to learning were recognized: 1) 'goal-oriented' learners, those to whom education i s a means to the accomplishment of f a i l y clear-cut objectives; 2) 'activity-oriented' learners who participate for reasons which have no necessary connection (and often none at a l l ) to the announced purpose or content of the educational offering; and 3) 'learning-oriented' participants who are seeking knowledge for i t s own sake. This last category would coincide with Maslow's self-actualization class. Motivational Factor Studies Rased on Houle's Typology At about the time of Houle's study, a new procedure for the analysis of motivational data became available to researchers. This procedure of 67 factor analysis has since been applied by a number of researchers studying a variety of adult learning groups i n various countries. These authors have generally related their findings to Houle's typology and to the findings of previous factor analytic studies. The results and conclusions of most of these studies have been extensively reviewed elsewhere (Boshier, 1976; Dickinson § Clark, 1975), and no more than a summary i s warranted here. In each of these studies, one of three test item scales has been used: 1) Sheffield's (1964) 'continuing learning orientation index' (C.L.O.I.), 2) Boshier's (1971b) 'education participation scale' (E.P.S.), and 3) Burgess' (1971) 'reasons for educational participation' scale (R.E.P.). Table 7 shows the distribution of factors obtained. From th i s , one can see that 12 factors have been identified by different authors, and of these only seven with any frequency (numbers 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, § 12). It i s important to note, in this regard, that the factors identified in a study are substantially dependent on the items which one uses i n the survey instrument. As Boshier (1976, p.30) states, "...a factor can emerge simply because everyone i n a sample indicated they were not enrolled for the reasons described." For the purposes of comparison with the results of the present study, the following definitions have been accepted for the seven important factors identified i n Table 7. 1) Personal goal. "The personal-goal oriented learners are those who use education as the means of accomplishing f a i r l y clear-cut personal objectives." (Sheffield, 1964, p.17). 2) Professional goal. "The common theme ... i s that participants are enrolled in order to acquire basic knowledge, attitudes, or s k i l l s that w i l l help them obtain or hold jobs..."(Hagg, 1976, p.32). 4) Social welfare. "Individuals scoring high on this dimension view their education as preparation for participation in community affairs and 'service' TABLE 7(a)— Motivational factors identified by selected authors. The bottom row identifies the t i t l e used this study. Abbreviations following authorities refer to the instrument used. Author Factor Houle (1961) goal orientation Boshier (1971b) E.P.S. inner-other directed advancement Boshier (1977) E.P.S. professional advancement social welfare external expectations Burgess (1971) R.E.P. desire to reach a pers-onal goal desire to reach a social goal desire to com-ply with form-al require-ments desire to reach a r e l -igious goal Dickinson § Clark (1975) C.L.0.1. occupational orientation professional orientation societal orientation Grabowski (1976) R.E.P. desire to reach a pers-onal goal desire for intellectual security desire to reach social goal Haag (1976) E.P.S. job competence social welfare external expectations Morstain § Smart (1974) E.P.S. professional advancement social welfare external expectations Riddell (1976) E.P.S. social welfare Sheffield (1964) C.L.0.1. personal goal orientation social goal orientation Zack (1976) E.P.S. professional advancement social welfare external expectations 1. personal goal 2. profession-al goal 3. intellect-ual security 4. social welfare 5. external expectations 6. religious goal TABLE 7(b)—Motivational factors identified by selected authors. The bottom row identifies the t i t l e used in this study. Abbreviations following authorities refer to the instrument used. Author Factor Houle (1961) activity orientation learning orientation Boshier (1971b) E.P.S. social contact self vs. other centerdness educational preparation Boshier (1977) E.P.S. escape/ stimulation cognitive interest Burgess (1971) R.E.P. desire to escape desire to take part in social activity desire to know Dickinson § Clark (1975) C.L.0.1. r e l i e f from boredom § frustration sociability orientation interactive orientation learning orientation Grabowski (1976) R.E.P. desire to escape desire to take part i n social activity desire to study alone desire to know Haag (1976) E.P.S. escape stimulation social contact cognitive interest Morstain § Smart (1974) E.P.S. escape stimulation social relationships cognitive interest Riddell (1976) E.P.S. escape/ stimulation social contact cognitive interest Sheffield (1964) C.L.0.1. sociability orientation need f u l f i l l -ment orientat-ion learning orientation Zack (1976) E.P.S. escape/ stimulation cognitive interest 7. escape/ stimulation 8. social contact 9. individual study 10. activity need 11. self-other centerdness 12. cognitive interest 70 to mankind in general." (Morstain § Smart, 1974, p.87). 5) External expectations. "Individuals who score high on this factor are seeking to f u l f i l l the expectations of others as opposed to their own int r i n s i c needs or desires." (Morstain § Smart, 1974, p.86). 7) Escape / stimutation. "...the desire to escape from some other activity or situation which is unpleasant or tedious." (Burgess, 1971, p.24). Also, ..."Individuals who score high on this dimension tend to view their p a r t i c i -pation i n college courses as a means of r e l i e f from everyday boredom and responsibilities, providing a contrast to their daily routine and overcoming the frustrations of day-to-day l i f e . " (Morstain § Smart, 1974, p.87). 8) Social contact, "...the desire to take part i n a social activity because the activity i s enjoyed for i t s own sake^"(Burgess, 1971, pp.23-24). 12) Cognitive interest, "...a desire to gain knowledge for the sake of knowing: to grow in qualities and inte l l e c t and appreciation, to desire pleasure from learning, to enjoy mental exercises, and to remain in command of learning s k i l l s . " (Burgess, 1971, p.18). The general conclusion from straight factor studies i s well stated by Sheffield (1964) who observes that a l l of the orientations identified are l i k e l y to be represented by adult learners in any given adult education group of any reasonable size, and that ..."Adult educators must recognize that adult learners come to continuing education a c t i v i t i e s with a variety of personal and educational objectives that are not necessarily consistent with the stated objective of the educational undertaking." (p.22). Research Extending Motivational Factors M i l l e r i\ McGuire (1961) note that regardless of what i s a particular participant's motivation for attending, i t is unlikely to coincide with the aim of the instructor. As a way of alleviating this they propose the application of 'dissonance theory,' which has relevance to the study-research 71 group process. To quote, " . . . i f the instructor creates dissonance by, for example, presenting the student with a considerable number of reasonable solutions to some single problem, he may create a situation which motivates the student toward adopting more rational modes of behaving in situations that require a judgement."(p.26). Sheffield (1964) found the participant scoring on cognitive interest and social welfare factors to be positively correlated with participation and adult education a c t i v i t i e s . Boshier (1973) discusses a growth-deficiency model, in which participants are regarded as either 'growth motivated' or 'deficiency motivated.' Growth motivated individuals are said to be 'expressing rather than coping,' and impelled primarily by inner determinants, whereas deficiency motivated persons are impelled by environmental factors and social pressure. Later, Boshier (1977) renamed these 'life-chance' (=deficiency) and ' l i f e space' (=growth) motivations. Motivational factors identified with l i f e -chance are: escape/stimulation, professional goal and external expectations. Those identified with l i f e space are social welfare and cognitive interest. Testing some of the implications of this model with regard to selected independent variables Haag (1976) concluded that "...continuous learners tended to be growth motivated while sporadic learners tended to be deficiency motivated. Older participants, i n comparison to younger p a r t i c i -pants, were growth motivated while younger participants were deficiency motiv-ated. High socio-economic status participants tended to be growth motivated while low socio-economic participants tended to be deficiency motivated." ( p . i i ) . Riddell (1976) examined the relationship between the escape/stimulat-ion factor and psycho-social variables among older adults. She found that ..."Respondents motivated to attend for Escape/Stimulation manifested low levels of l i f e satisfaction, adjustment to developmental tasks of later 72 l i f e and social participation ... [They also] tended to have lower educational background and previous job level than those who were not motivated by Escape/Stimulation motives."(p.i). Boshier (1977), however, found somewhat contradictory results in a study of his life-space, life-chance model, and concluded, ...'The fact that several variables correlated with some 'life-chance' factors and not others suggests the life-chance/life-space continum may not be as unitary as was suggested..."(p.112). But he did find a positive correlation between socio-economic indices and life-space motivation. Peters § Boshier (1976), in, summarizing the findings of motivational research observe, ..."Motives for participation appear to be surface manifestations of psychological states which are i n turn related to develop-mental tasks and psycho-social conditions that characterize various age and socio-economic groups."(p.204). Motivational Factors in Relation to Science Adult Education The author is not aware of any recent studies in which the motivation-al factors i n science or research-based adult education are specifically considered. However, the key conclusion from the foregoing review — that most adult learning groups of a reasonable size are l i k e l y to include learners with a l l of the main motivational orientations — is probably generalizable to this area. In his review of the British motivational literature Styler (1950) draws two relevant conclusions: 1) "In Social and P o l i t i c a l subjects, and in the Natural Sciences, the chief motive is interest in the world in which the students live."(p.110) and 2) "Vocational motives appear to be more powerful in the natural sciences than in any other subject."(p.Ill). Such statements, the second in particular, must be regarded as potentially dependent on the type of courses studied. 73 Emmelin (1976) relates the findings expressed by Styler to the poor development of adult education in the f i e l d of environmental science, ..."Motives for participating in most adult education programmes are related either to expectations of better jobs due to increased knowledge and/or a r t i f i c i a t i o n , or to hobby interests. This may be [the] reason for the lack of parallel increase in environmental education with adult education ... At present, job expectations w i l l bring only a small proportion of the adult population to environmental education. The importance of conservation education, which broadens to environmental education, has been pointed out and is relevant to hobby interests."(p.51). The Relationship Between Motivation and Interest For the purposes of interpretating questionnaire results, the relationship between motivation and interests i s of importance, since many participants would have d i f f i c u l t y in differentiating one from the other. Atwood § E l l i s (1971) see an interest as being closely akin to a 'fel t need,' which is "...something regarded as necessary by the person or persons concerned,"(p.212). Bergevin et a l (1963, p.29) view the relationship thus, ..."Needs and interests are interrelated. Interests usually point to-ward needs. An interest is usually the expression of a need we feel. When our needs and interests coincide we are usually motivated toward a learning experience." GagneS (1976, pp.28-29) sees an even more direct relationship, ...'The preparation for learning is accomplished by instruction which activates motivation by appealing to student interests." M i l l e r § McGuire (1961) take an instructionally similar view in their discussion of setting objectives for the evaluation of l i b e r a l studies programs. They suggest that i f one's category of behavioral concern i s motivation, then one's objectives and the evaluation items should be addressed to participant interests. 74 VIII. PROGRAM DESIGN AND PUBLICITY The process being evaluated in this study has been identified as a technique. Features of the programming method in which the technique was structured are, therefore, s t r i c t l y not validly included in the evaluation. However, the assumption should be made that most participants would not be able f u l l y to separate components of the technique from those of the method. Programming then becomes a feature of the evaluation i n that any major incongruency, between participant preferences and the actual structure of the program in which the technique is run and tested, is l i k e l y to be generalized by participants. The incongruency could thereby affect the participants evaluation of the technique. This would be so particularly when variables such as dropout rate are being used as a measure of participant identification with the technique. But, more generally, an individual highly incongruent with one aspect of the program, would find i t very d i f f i c u l t to avoid letting this color his or her attitude to other aspects. Another area of program importance in this regard is the adequacy with which the pre-enrolment brochure described important features of the course. Clearly, i f the brochure is misleading, or inadequately describes the processes involved, persons may enrol on the basis of factors perceived in the brochure or inferred from i t but which are not features of the course. If this occurs the resulting dissatisfaction could seriously affect the evaluation. IX. SUMMARY AM) RESEARCH HYPOTHESES 75 Summary The foregoing review provides a conceptual basis on which to base an evaluation of the technique. Section I shows the nature of the program into which the technique being evaluated was structured; the conclusion being that the program was of the l i b e r a l studies type. Section II looks at the kinds of needs which lay behind development of the technique. These were, particularly, related to the necessity for a technique which provided instruction in the sciences with emphasis on cognitive research s k i l l s rather than verbal information and motor s k i l l learning. Section III gives a brief overview of learning theories applicable to adult education. One theory, Gagne's Learning Systems theory is outlined in greater detail because of i t s greater s u i t a b i l i t y over a variety of adult instructional situations. The learning outcomes in Gagne's model were chosen for use i n the evaluation. Section TV covers processes of adult education. The process being evaluated i s categorized as a technique and, for comparative purposes, a tentative classification of techniques i s developed. The categories i n this classification are then related to the desired learning outcomes, both from a literature research and semi-theoretically on the basis of information about each technique category. The relative generalizability of techniques and devices is considered since i t could have a bearing on more widespread use of the technique. Finally, research-based education is analyzed in terms of learning outcomes, so that appropriate emphasis may be placed on particular outcomes in the evaluation. 76 Section V i s a summative review of adult education principles. The principles identified provide an additional set of target variables which are more learner-centered than the content-oriented learning outcomes of Gagne's theory. Section VI i s a brief examination of background and participational patterns of adult education participants, especially those in New Zealand university extension programs. The studies selected for more detailed summary are concerned with programs which are closely identifiable with the one being studied. They thus provide a point of reference for the present study. Section VII i s a review of the motivational orientation literature, the purpose being to identify motivational factors which may be expressed by participants i n this program. Derivative studies, i n which the factors are related to other variables, are only br i e f l y reviewed since the present study i s not designed to provide for such analysis. Section VIII identifies the relationship between participant evaluation of the technique and reaction to components of program design and management. On the basis of the perceived relationship i t is argued that programming features should be taken into account i n technique evaluation. Research Hypotheses From the foregoing conceptual base, the following research hypotheses were generated as a basis for the evaluation. 1) General Hypothesis • That the technique, as evaluated by the participants, i s a satisfactory one for the learning of research-based content, to the extent that no more than 25% of the respondents rate the technique as poorly or doubtfully suitable for attainment of the learning outcomes. 77 Specific Hypotheses: a) that no more than 251 of respondents rate the technique as poorly or doubtfully suitable as a means of integrating the learning of verbal informat-ion with that of the appropriate s k i l l s by which the information can be applied to the solution of problems; b) that no more than 25% of respondents rate the technique as poorly or doubtfully suitable as a means of developing higher order rules and cognitive strategies for the solution of problems; c) that no more than 25% of respondents rate the technique as poorly or doubtfully suitable as a means of developing a more informed and c r i t i c a l attitude toward research. 2) General Hypothesis That the technique conforms to important principles of adult education, to the extent that no more than 12% of respondents rate the technique as unsuitable for realization of the principles. Specific Hypotheses: a) that no more than 12% of respondents rate the technique as unsuitable as a means of maintaining high motivation; b) that, as reflections, of motivation, mean daily attendance is greater than 55%, and dropout (using Boshier's criterion) i s less than 20%; c) that no more than 12% of respondents rate the technique as unsuitable as a means of f a c i l i t a t i n g individual pace of learning and level of involvement; d) that no more than 12% of respondents rate the technique as unsuitable as a means of providing for practice with reinforcement of correct behavior; e) that no more than 12% of respondents rate the technique as unsuitable as a means of u t i l i z i n g group influences on learning; f) that no more than 12% of respondents rate the technique as unsuitable as a means of ensuring relevance of the material to the learner; g) that no more than 12% of respondents rate the technique as unsuitable as a means of ensuring meaningfulness of the material to the learner; , h) that no more than 12% of respondents rate the technique as unsuitable as a means of enabling individuals to u t i l i z e their previous learning; i ) that no more than 12% of respondents rate the technique as unsuitable as a means of f a c i l i t a t i n g learner self-evaluation. 3) General Hypothesis That the technique can provide, simultaneously i n one class, meaningful educational experiences for individuals of widely varying pre-entry educational, biological, and socio-economic backgrounds. Specific Hypotheses: a) that there i s no significant correlation between participant age and the learning evaluation,and response scores; b) that there i s no significant correlation between sex of the participants and the learning evaluation and response scores; c) that there is no significant correlation between socio-economic status and the learning evaluation and response scores; d) that there i s no significant correlation between background in research and the learning evaluation and response scores; e) that there is no significant correlation between previous formal non-credit study i n the discipline of the study-research group and the learning evaluation and response scores; f) that there is no significant correlation between previous formal credit study in the discipline of the study-research group and the learning evaluation and response scores; g) that there is no significant correlation between the previous number of adult education courses taken and the learning evaluation and response scores h) that there i s no significant correlation between the highest level of certificated academic attainment and the learning evaluation and response 79 scores; i ) that there is no significant correlation between the type of adult education institution previously attended and the learning evaluation and response scores; j) that respondent evaluation of background adequacy, between those p a r t i c i -pants with, and those without a background i n research, does not dif f e r by more than 251 in any one category. 4) General Hypothesis That the technique can satisfy a wide range of course-entry motivations. Specific Hypothesis a) That the correlations between scoring of important course-entry motivational items and satisfaction of the associated expectations are either weak or positive. 5) General Hypothesis That, within the limits of the test items used, motivational orientations of the participants are similar to those identified i n other studies. Specific Hypothesis a) That a factor analysis of the course-entry motivational items w i l l reveal factors similar to those identified i n other studies in so far as appropriate items are included in the instrument. 6) General Hypothesis That meaningful participational factors can be identified and related to the motivational factors, and together form a basis for the identification of participants i n each study-research group. Specific Hypotheses: a) that meaningful participational factors exist among the items pertaining to: educational background, socio-economic status, personal attributes, evaluation of the technique, and preferred structuring of such programs; 80 b) that these participational factors can be related meaningfully to the motivational factors; c) that the respondent scores on the motivational and participational factors can be used to provide a reasonable measure of identification for p a r t i c i -pants of each study-research group. 7) General Hypothesis That participants express general satisfaction with the program design and publicity, i n that the type of structure preferred is closely similar to that of the program participated i n . Specific Hypotheses: a) that the majority of respondents prefer course reading material to be a mixture of hand-out papers and references given; b) that not more than 12% of the respondents prefer a mean group size outside the range of 10-20 persons; c) that not more than 25% of the respondents indicate dissatisfaction with the lack of intergroup contact during the course; d) that not more than 25% of the respondents prefer prescheduling of meetings to scheduling by the group; e) that not more than 25% of the respondents prefer half-day length meetings to full-day meetings; f) that not more than 25% of the respondents consider the course to have been too long; g) that not more than 12% of the respondents express the desire for more formal instruction, a formal prerequisite course, or for better structuring of the program; h) that, with regard to 1) the nature of the course subject matter, 2) the course technique, and 3) the expected time commitment, not more than 12% of the respondents score as poor the descriptive information in the program. brochure. 81 CHAPTER III METHODS I. THE EVALUATION INSTRUMENT The evaluation i s based on a questionnaire (App.C) mailed to each participant five weeks after termination of the course. A personal letter (App.B) accompanied the questionnaire. Towards the end of the course specific mention was made to participants of an impending questionnaire, and of the desirability of their completing and returning it.The time lag between course termination and distribution of the questionnaire was intended to give participants the opportunity to consider and evaluate their attitudes to the program. The items in the questionnaire are derived from the conceptual basis to the study, through the research hypotheses. However, some variations should be noted. F i r s t l y , i n formulating questions on learning outcomes i t was not considered to be good procedure to separate motor s k i l l learning from intellectual s k i l l s since the former were appropriate i n only five of the six groups. In terms of the desired learning outcomes, motor s k i l l s were to be learned, in any case, only as far as was necessary for the achievement of each problem-solving task. Also, no specific mention was made of cognitive strategies since, as a concept, they are d i f f i c u l t to comprehend, and by their nature cannot be assessed reliably through a subjective questionnaire. However, a general question directed toward this s k i l l was included in the questionnaire. Secondly not a l l of the identified principles of adult education were included in the questionnaire. Specifically, the following were 82 excluded: numbers two and seven ('maintain adult autonomy' and 'provide a secure learning environment') since these were considered to be more a function of individual instructor style and a b i l i t y , than a characteristic of the technique used; number four ('make allowance for psychological and physiological ages') since this was covered by number three ('allow for individual pace and level of learning'); numbers 11 and 13 ('ensure active involvement in learning' and 'provide for learner involvement in course planning and management') since they are so fundamental to the technique that a question on them would not be meaningful to participants; and numbers 12, 14 and 15 ('provide for learner involvement in needs diagnosis,' 'ensure learner knowledge of expected behavior' and 'f a c i l i t a t e learner awareness of behavioral inadequacy') because the concepts involved would have been confusing, for many participants, i n relation to the project. This last class of principles i s , nevertheless, considered to be a feature of the technique. Thirdly, i n choosing course-entry motivational items, i t was intended to keep the section as small as possible. The need for this arose out of the already discouragingly large size of the questionnaire. Course-entry motivations, while very interesting, were not an essential component of the evaluation, so their number was kept small. Rather than attempt to decimate the items on instruments such as Boshier's Educational Participation Scale, i t was decided to use a set of items from an earlier evaluation of the study-research group technique (Bagnall, 1975) and thereby to at least retain some comparability. The distribution of usable questionnaire returns across the groups is shown in Table 8. The total of 65 represents a 11% return on the original enrolment. 83 TABLE 8 — Usable questionnaire returns in relation to the total enrolment in each group. History Geology Botany F'w. Biology Ornith. Mammal. Total Enrolments 15 17 15 14 9 • 14 84 Returns 8 15 13 12 6 11 65 II. VARIABLES USED IN THE ANALYSIS Most of the variables used i n the analysis were derived directly from the questionnaire items. The exceptions are noted here, F i r s t l y , 'occupation' was converted into a socio-economic status index on the basis of the scale developed by Elley § Irving (1972). This scale has been developed from New Zealand census data by using occupational categories and weighting them with an index comprising median educational attainment and income (equally weighted) of individuals i n the occupational category. Only the six major socio-economic categories of Elley § Irving were used, each participant being placed i n one of these from the seventy occupations identified by the authors. The scale i s , unfortunately, based only on the male working population, as are the following figures of national distribution i n each class, 'one' being the highest class: one (5.8%), two (19.3%), three (13.3%), four (28.2%), five (21.3%), and six (12.1%). However, i n the present study a l l retired persons, housewives, etc. were placed according to their previous occupational level. Secondly, a dichotomous variable ('with' or 'without') was developed to measure whether an individual had some occupational or higher educational background i n research. It was derived from the given information on occupation and education. Only a post-graduate degree was taken as educational evidence of research background. Positions such as technician and scientist were accepted as occupational evidence of a research background. 84 Thirdly, a total number of adult education courses previously taken was obtained from summing those relevant to the discipline of the group, and 'other' such courses.. Fourthly, in coding the organizing institution for the adult education courses taken, an ordinal variable was created by scaling the institution i n terms of i t s institutional similarity with university exten-sion (4 = university, 3 = W.E.A., 2 = secondary school evening class, 1 = other). Each respondent was scored only according to his or her highest institution on this scale. F i f t h l y , i n coding the responses to the question on preferred group size of study-research groups, a number of respondents gave a range. Because responses were coded as absolute numbers, in these cases the mid-point of the range was recorded. Finally, i n cases where respondents were invited to comment on their replies to previous questions, the comments were clustered on the-basis of content similarity. I I I . ANALYSIS OF THE DATA 1. For the general hypotheses numbers 1-4 and 7 (sections I - V and VIII i n the results), the following s t a t i s t i c s were derived from the relevant items: mean univariate frequency distribution and total percentage distribution. Where bivariate analyses were required, the sta t i s t i c s obtained were: frequency distribution, horizontal percentage, vertical percentage, total percentage, chi square analysis with probability, and a correlation coefficient with probability. The correlation coefficient i n any particular case was obtained with the appropriate method for the type of data (Freeman, 1965): 1) for ordinal-ordinal variables, Goodman's and Kruskal's gamma (y); 2) for 85 nominal-ordinal variables, Freeman's coefficient of determination, theta (<?); and 3) for nominal-nominal variables, Guttman's lambda (_0. 2. For general hypotheses 5 and 6 (sections VI L\ VII in the results) the following procedures were used (Gorsuch, 1974). — The motivational items (App.D) were factored from a correlation matrix on the raw scoring of each item. Item eight ('it let me out of some domestic chores') was eliminated as i t included no score above zero. A l l seven factors with eigenvalues greater than 1.0 were orthogonally rotated using the Varimax procedure to permit comparison with the participational factors. Factor scores, computed from regression coefficients, were normalized so that factor score covariances equalled zero. Items were included i n a factor only i f they showed a minimum loading of ±0.4, and were then used as the basis for identification of the factors. Participational items (App.D) were factored from a correlation matrix based on the raw scoring of each item. Eleven factors emerged with eigenvalues greater than one. These were obliquely rotated using Kaiser's ' l i t t l e j i f f y ' procedure. The factors were identified primarily on the basis of items which had minimum loadings of 0.4. Factor scores were produced from regression coefficients. Inter-factor correlation coefficients and covariances were calculated from the factor loadings and factor scores. To uncover interrelationships among clusters of motivational and participational issues, a second factoring and rotation, this time ortho-blique, was limited to eight factors. These were given factor scores and identified with the same procedure as outlined for the motivational factors. To test the relationship between the orthogonally rotated motivat-ional and participational factors correlation coefficients of the factor scores were determined. Stepwise discriminant analysis was used to test the degree to which 86 the factors were functions of study-research group membership. This was done by taking the groups as independent variables, and the motivational and participational factors as dependent variables, with participant factor scores as the scale items. Inclusion of both sets of factors was j u s t i f i e d on the grounds of the low correlation coefficients between factors in the two sets. The analysis involved the computation of a set of linear c l a s s i f i -cation functions by choosing independent variables i n a stepwise manner u n t i l the F-probabilities exceeded 0.05. Canonical variables were used to predict the group to which each respondent should belong, using two procedures: 1) the standard method (Kelly et aL, 1969) which uses the origin of the pooled means of the original variables i n evaluating the canonical variables, and 2) Cooley § Lohnes' (1962) 'centroid' procedure. 87 CHAPTER TV RESULTS I . CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PARTICIPANTS Sex The participant population was sl i g h t l y predominated by men (57%). This i s intermediate between the approximately equal distribution found in science extension courses, and the women-dominated general extension role (65% women). Age The age distribution of participants, i s shown, with others for comparison, i n Figure 3. The distribution is generally more similar to that of the previous study-research groups and the Wellington adult urban population than i t is to the general extension enrolment. The peak i n participation between 20 and 29 years, found by Boshier, i s not present. The participant population is uniformly older, with higher percentages i n the 30 and over groups and lower percentages below 30 than are recorded by Boshier. In fact, there are no participants recorded below 20 years of age, Socio-Economic Status The participant distribution on the basis of socio-economic status is shown, with the New Zealand adult male distribution, in Figure 4. The figures reveal an extremely skewed distribution of the participant population toward the higher socio-economic categories. The categories are not necessarily s t r i c t l y comparable to those of Boshier (1971a) or Bagnall (1975). However, classes one, two and three 88 FIGURE 3 Age distributions of four groups: the participants, the university extension enrolment in 1969, the adult population of the Wellington urban area (both Boshier, 1971a), and the earlier study-research group participants (Bagnall, 1975) 50—, 45" 40-35-J tn rt rH o <D be rt •s rt <u C • H I/) i -H rt 30 H 2S-\ > 20H • H is-\ 10H 14 I 15-19 m I* II ^ Wellington urban area 23 university extension enrolment earlier study-research groups participants in the present study 31 21 18 II I m 29 31 18 I § II 28 16 1 14J.4 m = 10 I 11 20-29 30-39 40-49 age in years 50-59 60-69 89 FIGURE 4 Socio-economic status distribution of participants compared with the New Zealand adult male population (Elley § Irving, 1972) 60-, New Zealand adult male population participant population 1 . 2 3 4 5 6 professional management c l e r i c a l $ s k i l l e d semiskilled unskilled § technical § admin. sales socio-economic status classes 90 of the present study are approximately equivalent to: 1 — professional and technical, 2 — management and adminstration, and 3 — c l e r i c a l and sales. Classes four, five and s i x , together, are approximately equivalent to the category of s k i l l e d , semiskilled and unskilled. Despite limitations to direct comparability, the ratios in Table 9 give a reasonable idea of the comparative distributions within the three studies. The table shows that in class one (professional and technical), participants were disproportionately represented relative to the national population by a factor of 9.6. In the previous study-research group evaluat-ion, the ratio of participants to Wellington urban population was 4.4, and in Boshier's study of the general extension participant population, 3.6. The markedly greater representation i n the present study compared with the previous two probably would be reduced somewhat i f the divisor were the Wellington work-force figure and not the national figure. However, the even greater socio-economic elitism of the participants in this program relative to those of the earlier studies would remain. The ratios in the other classes are similar between studies excepting the greater representation of class three (clerical and sales) i n the present case. Educational Background The distribution of highest academic qualifications (fig.5) compares closely with that of the earlier study-research groups, excepting the higher proportion in the "teachers or technical cert i f i c a t e ' category — probably reflecting a greater proportion of teachers in the present study. This relative increase in certificated participants was not taken from the degree-holding class (which is slightly greater) but from a l l of the lower categories. The distribution of participant's highest qualifications follows the same trend as that of the general extension population, which shows a disproportionate representation of the better qualified citizenry, especially 91 those with university degrees and certificates. While this is an attribute of adult education in general, and of university extension in particular, i t is even more marked in the study-research group participant population. TABLE 9 — Ratios by socio-economic class, of: 1) general extension enrol-ment and the Wellington urban population (Boshier, 1971a), 2) early study-research group participants and the Wellington urban population (Bagnall, 1975), and 3) participants in the present program and the New Zealand adult male population. Population (Ratio Dividend) Socio-Economic Class 1 professional § technical 2 management § adminis-tration 3 c l e r i c a l § sales 4, 5 § 6 s k i l l e d , semiskilled, unskilled 1) university extension 3.6 2.5 ' 0.7 0.2 2) early study-research groups 4.4 0.8 0.1 0.6 3) participants in present program 9.6 1.0 1.5 0.1 Figure 6 shows the distribution of previous credit study in the discipline of the study-research group to which each participant belonged. The. pattern i s similar to that found for the earlier study-research group participants i n which 25% had university-level experience (29% i n the present study), and 20% had other tertiary or upper-level secondary school work (18% in the present study). The distribution of previous adult-education courses (non-credit) taken in the discipline of the participant's study-research group (fig. 7) shows a marked reduction in the present study. Only 20% had taken two or more courses (61% in the earlier study), although 11% had taken one course (3% i n the earlier study). However, the percentage of participants who had previously taken one or more adult education courses in any subject (fig.8) was up to 75%. 92 FIGURE 5 Highest academic qualifications of four groups: the participants, the New Zealand adult population, the general university extension enrolment (Boshier, 1971 a), and the earlier study-research croup participants(Bagnall, 1975). ' 90-85-80-75. 70-65. tn 60-o 55-CO CD • H 50-% 45-•"d •H £ 40-•H «*» 35-30-25-20-15 ID-S' 0-£3 national average ^ university extension enrolment earlier study-research groups the present study D Doctorate H Honors or Masters B Baccalaureate 50 47 28 2 S la •D? :H* 5 20 25 28 I 17 4I 14 13 ____ 83 ! 1 1 i I 17 i 11 university degree teachers' or tech-nical c e r t i f -icate highest university school other entrance c e r t i f - qualif-or higher icate ication school certificate academic qualification no formal quali f i c -ation FIGURE 6 Previous credit education in the discipline of the study-research group. 60-50-o to v 40-CO o to 0 C O P< to (D JH 30-J 20 J 10 4 20 graduate under- other school, school graduate tertiary seventh sixth form form highest level of education FIGURE 7 Previous non-credit (adult) educ-ation in the discipline of the study-research group. 70 n 69 60-J 50 i 40H 30 A 20 H 10 4 20 11 two or one no more course courses courses number of courses 94 FIGURE 8 Total number of previous adult education (non-credit) courses taken i n a l l subjects, 40 -, IA 30-1 c |20H PH £ 10-1 35 three or more courses 25 20 20 two courses one course none number of courses FIGURE 9 Organizing institution for previously taken adult education courses. Only one ins t i t u t i o n — t h a t most closely identifiable with the u n i v e r s i t y — i s plotted for each participant. 90 -, 82 80 -70 -60 -5 50 H £40 H 30 _ 20 -10 -0 10 university extension W.E.A. secondary school evening other organizing institution 95 Combining the preceding two items, i t is found that only 35% of the respondents had neither credit nor non-credit prior education in the discipline of their study-research groups. From Figure 9 i t can be seen that of those participants who previously had taken adult education courses (75% of respondents), 82% had taken one or more with the university, 10% with the Workers Education Association (W.E.A.) and the remaining 8% from other institutions. This represents a strong prior identification with university extension work. The general skewing toward high previous educational involvement in the discipline of the group and i n university extension courses in general, may well be related partly to the course publicity procedures. Fifty-two percent of respondents indicated that they f i r s t heard of the project on receiving a copy of the brochure. These persons must a l l have been identified by the university extension staff as individuals with a previous involvement in extension or a discipline-based society. Of the remaining 48 percent of respondents, the distribution of f i r s t knowledge of the project was as follows: personal contact, 14%; seeing the brochure on a notice board or similar place, 14%; verbal information from extension department staff, 9%; from reading a newspaper a r t i c l e , 6%; or a newspaper advertisment, 5%. Forty-six percent of the participants were considered to have a background in research, either through postgraduate study or through their occupations. Conclusions The participant group reflected, reasonably closely, the adult population of the catchment area with regard to sex and age distributions. However, the distributions of socio-economic status and highest academic qualifications show the participants to have been disproportionately inclusive 96 of the high status and better educated groups. Thus, the program evidently was more attractive to persons in such groups, either through i t s own appeal, or through the selective directing of publicity. The fact that 75% of the respondents had studied previously in adult education- courses, and of these 85% with university extension, suggests that selective publicity may be an important factor. There was a general, although not disturbingly high, proportion of respondents (65%) who had participated previously i n education concerned with the discipline of their group. It can be concluded that many of these persons had not studied the subject for some time. This i s supported by the fact that only 31% of the respondents had attended previously adult education courses in the discipline of their group, together with the predominantly middle-aged respondent population, and the generally undergraduate or lower distribution of previous credit study. 97 II. THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO THE LEARNING OF RESEARCH-BASED CONTENT The general hypothesis for this section is that the technique, as evaluated by the participants, is a satisfactory one for the learning of research-based content, to the extent that no more than 25% of the respon-dents rate the technique as poorly or doubtfully suitable for attainment of the learning outcomes. Each of the three specific hypotheses is directed to a learning outcome identified as important i n the conceptual basis for the study. These outcomes (higher intellectual s k i l l s , cognitive strategies, and attitude to research) were associated with four items in the evaluation questionnaire. Since, in this section, the interpretation of results of each questionnaire item i s c r i t i c a l l y dependent on the form of the question, the essential components of each question are repeated here: 1) the technique provides a means of teaching research-based subjects as they really are, namely an integration of existing information and research; 2) an object of the project was to increase your understanding of the study-research group subject as a f i e l d of study (not merely as a collection of facts and explanations); 3) an objective of the project was to increase your a b i l i t y to analyze, c r i t i c i z e and appreciate the limitations of research work in the area of study; 4) the technique develops in students a more informed and c r i t i c a l attitude towards research. Items 1 and 2 above were intended to relate to an emphasis on intellectual s k i l l learning, with verbal information as a means to application of the s k i l l s (research hypothesis l a ) . Item 3 was conceived 98 as relating to the development of higher order rules and cognitive strategies (hypothesis l b ) , and item 4 to the development of a more informed and c r i t i c a l attitude toward research (hypothesis l c ) . The results are shown in Table 10. Each of the specific hypotheses is confirmed in that for none of the items does the scoring'in the lower two categories exceed 25%. However, for each of the learning outcomes there is an important number of negative evaluations: 4% and 161 on the items relating to the integration of verbal information and s k i l l learning; 16% on the item relating to higher order rules and cognitive strategies; and 14% on the item relating to attitudinal learning. TABLE 10 — Response to questionnaire items relating to learning outcomes. Asterisk indicates that the category was not offered in the questionnaire. Respondent Evaluation of Outcome (%) Item poorly 1 doubtfully 2 reasonably well 3 •very well 4 X 1) integration of information and research _ 4 40 56 3.5 2) the subject as a research f i e l d 16 * 35 49 3.2 3) c r i t i c a l research a b i l i t y 16 * 32 52 3.2 4) c r i t i c a l attitude - 14 43 43 3.3 To ascertain whether or not the responses to these items tended to-ward uniformity (and hence would be strongly positively correlated), the correlation coefficients were calculated and are shown in Table 11. From the table i t i s evident the general trend is for a positive correlation. However, only two coefficients show a significantly high probability of correlation (integration of information and research with c r i t i c a l research a b i l i t y ; integration of information and research with the 99 subject as a research f i e l d ) . From an examination of the questionnaire items one could tentatively conclude that items 1 and 2 (integration of information and research; the subject as a research field) were contributory factors to item 3 ( c r i t i c a l research ab i l i t y ) — hence the significance of the correlat-ions — but were not seen by respondents as identical measures of the one quality — hence the somewhat lower correlation between 1 and 2. TABLE 11 — Correlation coefficients between learning outcome scores. Double asterisk indicates a highly significant probability of correlation (p = 0.01). Single asterisk indicates significance (p = 0.05). 1. integration of information and research 2. the subject as a research f i e l d 0. 51* 3. c r i t i c a l research a b i l i t y 0. 56** 0.84** 4. c r i t i c a l attitude. 0. 53* 0.42* 0.33 1 2 3 The generally high correlations do, however, suggest that respondents tended to react similarly with respect to this group of items. This, in turn, leads one to hypothesize a correlation between scoring of these items and some linking (possibly causative) factor. Educational, socio-economic background, and biological items are examined i n section 3. Two other key variables are attendance, and the group to which participants belonged. The correlation coefficients for these items against the learning outcome scores are shown in Table 12. As can be seen, there are no high or significant correlations present, refuting any univariate causal relationship between either group membership or attendance record and the learning outcome evaluations. The hypotheses i n this section are thus confirmed, in that the technique, as evaluated by the participants, is seen as a satisfactory one for the learning of research-based content. 100 TABLE 12 — Correlation coefficients among attendance, group membership, and the learning outcome scores. None of the item pairs shows a significant probability of correlation (p = 0.05). Outcome Items % meetings attended group to which belonged 1. integration of information and research 0.14 0.27 2. the subject as a research f i e l d 0.27 0.19 3. c r i t i c a l research a b i l i t y 0.21 0.27 4. c r i t i c a l attitude 0.13 0.18 101 III. THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO PRINCIPLES OF ADULT EDUCATION The general hypothesis for this section is that the technique conforms to important principles of adult education, to the extent that no more than 12% of respondents rate the technique as unsuitable for realization of the principles. Eight of the nine specific hypotheses relate to participant scoring of a principle identified in the conceptual basis to this study. Specific hypothesis 2b relates a higher-than-average attendance (>55%) and a lower-than-average dropout (<20%) to high motivation. The scoring of adult education principles i s presented i n Table 13. There is a marked skewing toward positive identification of the technique with the realization of each principle. Facilitating learner self-evaluation shows the highest scoring of doubtful association with the technique. This may be related to an over-emphasis on group ac t i v i t i e s i n at least some of the groups. Each of the specific hypotheses relating to an adult education principle is confirmed, i n that for none of them was the technique rated as unsuitable (the 'strongly disagree' category) by more than 12% of the respon-dents. The proportion of respondents who were doubtful that the technique was particularly suitable for realization of the principles was somewhat higher. However, only principle number 8 (f a c i l i t a t e learner self-evaluation) shows a high scoring (33%) i n this category. The intercorrelations among scoring of these eight principles are shown in Table 14. Most of the intercorrelations are positive and have a significant probability. Only four of the eight items show some tendency towards independence: 3 —practice with reinforcement (which is less strongly correlated with individual pace and level, relevance, and u t i l i z i n g previous learning); 7 — u t i l i z i n g previous learning (which is less strongly correlated TABLE 13 — Participant evaluations of the extent to which the project realized the principles of adult education. Adult Education Principle Participant Agreement that the Principle Applies to the Technique {% Respondents) strongly disagree 1 doubtfully 2 probably correct 3 strongly agree 4 X 1.ensure high motivation to learning - 8 46 46 3.4 2.allow for individual pace and level of learning 5 11 41 43 3.2 3.provide for practice with reinforcement of correct behavior - 5 43 52 3.5 4.utilize group influences on learning - 5 62 33 3.3 5.ensure relevance of the material to the learner - 9 39 52 3.4 6.ensure meaningfulness of the material to the learner 2 3 32 63 3.6 7.enable individuals to u t i l i z e previous learning - 6 36 58 3.5 8.facilitate learner self-evaluation - 33 38 29 3.0 TABLE 14 — Correlation coefficients among scoring of adult education principles. Item numbers are those used in Table 13 and the covering text. Double asterisk indicates a highly significant probability of correlation (p = 0.01); single asterisk indicates significance (p = 0.05). 1.ensure high motivation 2.allow for individual pace § level 0.60** 3.provide for practice with reinforcement 0.86** 0.40* 4.utilize group influences ' 0.80** 0.60** 0.72** 5.ensure relevance of material 0.55** 0.60** 0.54* 0.58* 6.ensure meaningfulness of material 0.68** 0.48* 0.78** 0.38 0.73** 7.utilize previous learning 0.30 0.63** 0.20 0.28 0.65** 0.57** 8.facilitate learner self-evaluation 0.67** 0.69** 0.65** 0.64** 0.59** 0.66** 0.50* 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 103 with practice with reinforcement, high motivation, u t i l i z i n g group influences, and self-evaluation); 4 — u t i l i z i n g group influences (in relation to meaningfulness and relevance); and 2 — individual pace and level (with meaningfulness). The principles of adult education are thus reflecting a general attitude to the technique. Hypothesis 2b relates to attendance and dropout to motivation. The average daily attendance across a l l groups was 60%. This is somewhat higher than Dickinson's and Verner's figure of 53% for academic subjects. However, the latter figure was based on courses which were, i n general, considerably storter and required much less class-time than did the program here studied. Dickinson § Verner show that length of course and dropout (and hence average attendance) are positively correlated. Bagnall recorded higher attendance figures i n earlier study-research courses than that noted here. The average daily attendance of the respondents (as differentiated from the participants) was 70%. Since this is based on participant's memory of their previous record, i t i s possible that i t i s exaggerated. Nevertheless, one should be alert to the possi b i l i t y that the respondent population i s skewed somewhat i n the direction of higher participation. Using Boshier's criterion, dropout was found to be 12% This compares favorably with the general extension rate of 23% but less favorably when viewed beside the early study-research group rate of 5%. Bagnall (1975) observes that the normal dropout rate in science courses i s considerably higher than that in the other extension courses. This is supported by Dickinson § Verner, who found a dropout rate of 39% i n academic courses. Using their criterion, the rate i n this study would be 32% The figure obtained using Boshier's criterion identifies much more closely, than does this last one, with the number of persons who actually had dropped out, in that they were no longer attending occasionally and making an effort to 104 find out what happened at the meetings which they missed. Of those who missed one or more meetings (941 of participants), the following reasons for absence were noted (percentages being respondents who identified the reason for one or more absences): away from the d i s t r i c t (301), illness (28%), other commitments (70%), and miscellaneous (20%). Eighteen percent of respondents indicated that they had stopped attending before the course terminated, and an additional eight percent indicated declining attendance with progression of the course. The remainder missed only occasional meetings. In that the mean daily attendance figure exceeded 55%, and that dropout, using Boshier's criterion, was less than 20%, hypothesis 2b is confirmed. However, the attendance and dropout s t a t i s t i c s do not compare favorably with those of earlier study-research groups. The general conclusion of this section is that, i n confirmation of the general hypothesis, the technique does conform to those principles of adult education which were identified from the literature and addressed i n the questionnaire. 105 IV. THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO PARTICIPANT BACKGROUND The general hypothesis for this section is that the technique could provide, simultaneously in one class, meaningful educational experiences for individuals of widely varying pre-entry educational, biolog-i c a l , and socio-economic backgrounds. The hypothesis demands that each of the classes (study-research groups) include a range of participant characteristics on each of the independent variables. Table 15 gives the chi square values and probabilities of deviation from random distribution of each independent variable in relation to membership of the six classes. TABLE 15 — Chi square values and probabilities of participant-characteristic variables in relation to group membership. Asterisk indicates significant deviation from random. Independant Variable x 2 P a) age 18.85 0.53 b) sex 8.50 0.13 c) socio-economic status 33.66 0.03 d) background in research 15.48 0.01* e) previous formal non-credit study in the discipline of the group 37.71 0.00* f) previous formal credit study i n the discipline of the group 22.12 0.63 g) number of adult education courses previously taken 14.84 0.46 h) highest level of certificated attainment 45.25 0.11 i) type of adult education institution previously attended 23.32 0.08 Two of the variables (background in research and previous formal non-credit study in the discipline of the group) show disparate distributions. These are detailed in Tables 16 and 17. The distribution of participants with and without research back-grounds (Table 16) is riot seriously clustered, in that only one group 106 (ornithology) comprised individuals who were a l l in one class. The other groups showed a reasonable number in both classes. However, the distribution of persons having previously studied in the discipline of the group through adult education (Table 17) was less satisfactory. Undoubtedly reflecting the local a v a i l a b i l i t y of such courses, only two groups (botany and geology) had members i n a l l classes and only one other group (ornithology) had members in two of the three classes. This strongly skewed distribution w i l l consid-erably weaken any conclusion drawn on hypothesis 3e (that there i s no significant correlation between previous formal non-credit study in the discipline of the study-research group and the learning evaluation and response scores), but need not weaken conclusions based on that specific hypothesis in isolation. TABLE 16 — Horizontal percentage of group membership in relation to research background. Group No research Background Research Background n history 75 25 8 geology 73 27 15 botany 38 62 13 freshwater biology 25 75 12 ornithology 100 - 6 mammalogy 36 64 11 total 58 42 65 To test the specific hypotheses 3a-3i (that i s , those requiring, for confirmation, no significant correlation between scoring on a participant background item and the learning evaluation and response scores) the correlation coefficients were determined for each of the participant characteristics, l i s t e d in Table 15, in relation to the following evaluation and response variables: 107 TABLE 17 — Horizontal percentage of group membership in relation to previous formal non-credit study in the discipline of the group. Group No Courses One Course Two Or More Courses n history- 100 - - 8 geology 20 20 60 15 botany 54 15 31 13 freshwater biology 100 - - 12 ornitholgy 67 33 - 6 mammalogy- 100 - - 11 total 74 11 15 65 1. learning outcome; integration o-f information and research; 2. learning outcome; the subject as a research f i e l d ; 3. learning outcome; c r i t i c a l 4. learning outcome; c r i t i c a l 5. adult education principle; 6. adult education principle; learning; 7. adult education principle; correct behavior; 8. adult education principle; 9. adult education principle; learner; 10. adult education principle; the learner; 11. adult education principle; learning; 12. adult education principle; 13. " adequacy of the course introductory sessions; 14. adequacy of the course reading materials; research a b i l i t y ; attitude; ensure high motivation to learning; allow for individual pace and level of provide for practice with reinforcement of u t i l i z e group influences on learning; ensure relevance of the material to the ensure meaningfulness of the material to enable individuals to u t i l i z e previous f a c i l i t a t e learner self-evaluation; 108 15. increased a b i l i t y to continue study independently; 16. encouraged to seek further courses in the subject of the group; 17. encouraged to seek courses in other subjects. The correlation coefficients are shown in Table 18. None of the has correlations /a s t a t i s t i c a l l y highly significant probability (p = 0.01). However, by raising the tolerance level to p = 0.05 the following significant correlations emerge: A) previous formal non-credit study in the discipline of the group and: — adult education principle; u t i l i z e group influences on learning (0.49); — adult education principle; ensure relevance of the material to the learner (0.41); — adult education principle; f a c i l i t a t e learner self-evaluation (0.38); — encouraged to seek further courses in the subject of the group (0.57); B) type of adult education institution previously attended and: — learning outcome; integration of information and research (0.38); — adult education principle; f a c i l i t a t e learner self-evaluation (0.37). These correlations suggest that there may be some positive association between previous formal non-credit study i n the discipline of the group and the degree to which a learner identifies with the problem and process. There may also be a positive association between the type of adult education i n s t i t -ution previously attended (in relation to university extension) and the degree to which the learner is able to cope with the learning. This latter may be a function of the former. Confirmation of the f i n a l specific hypothesis in this section demands that respondent evaluation of background adequacy, between those participants with, and those without a background in research, does not differ by more than 25% i n any one category. Of those respondents who lacked a research background, 39 percent TABLE 18 — Correlation coefficients between participant-characteristic variables (a-i) and the learning evaluation and response variables (1-17). Double asterisk indicates a highly significant proba-. b i l i t y of correlation (p = 0.01). Single asterisk indicates significance (p = 0.05). a) age cr t/i CD X c) socio-econ. status d) research background e) non-credit ed., discipline f) credit ed., discipline g) no. ad. ed. courses h) highest ac. qual. i) prev. ad. ed. institution 1. integration of information t\ research -0.12 0.34 -0.08 0.22 0.22 -0.02 -0.03 -0.03 0.38* 2. the subject as a research f i e l d -0.12 0.09 0.14 0.12 0.32 -0.18 0.07 -0.14 0.15 3. c r i t i c a l research a b i l i t y -0.21 0.17 0.33 0.10 0.23 -0.05 -0.02 -0.19 0.17 4. c r i t i c a l attitude -0.05 0.19 -0.01 0.13 0.39 -0.14 -0.07 -0.05 0.31. 5. ensure high motivation 0.10 0.04 0.22 0.08 0.35 0.02 0.03 -0.16 0.35 6 . individual pace and level -0.02 0.12 0.04 0.00 0.10 0.20 -0.19 0.05 0.17 7. practice with reinforcement -0.19 0.10 -0.05 0.22 0.29 0.05 0.30 -0.01 0.23 8. u t i l i z e group influences 0.06 0.19 -0.13 0.12 0.49* 0.13 -0.13 -0.13 0.35 9. relevance of material -0.09 0.13 -0.15 0.10 0.41* 0.36 -0.01 0.01 0.29 10. meaningfulness of material -0.14 0.04 -0.09 0.08 0.18 0.00 0.08 -0.21 0.20 11. u t i l i z e previous learning -0.08 0.16 -0.07 0.05 0.18 0.34 -0.17 -0.10 0.12 12. f a c i l i t a t e learner self-evaluation -0.11 0.04 0.11 0.04 0.38* 0.08 -0.14 -0.05 0.37* 13. adequacy, course introduction 0.23 0.19 0.10 0.21 0.04 -0.14 0.01 -0.19 0.32 14. adequacy, course reading 0.06 0.10 0.07 0.25 0.13 0.00 -0.03 -0.03 0.02 15. independent study, increased a b i l i t y 0.12 0.05 -0.34 0.08 0.04 -0.14 -0.12 0.30 0.19 16. more courses in subject -0.06 0.12 -0.23 0.14 0 .57* -0.28 -0.15 -0,11 0.25 17. more courses, other subjects -0.12 0.12 0.30 0.10 0.04 -0.18 -0.09 -0.18 0.06 110 indicated that the lack was a hindrance to their participation. Of those possessing a research background, only 6 percent stated that i t was too superficial. The difference between these figures is probably exaggerated by virtue of the f i r s t scale being only two point (hindrance/no hindrance) and the second scale being three-point (superficial/ adequate/ too detailed). Seventy-eight percent of the participants scored in the middle category on the second item which, i f divided equally, would eliminate the difference in scoring between the items. Because of this error in instrument design the result must remain inconclusive. The general hypothesis for this section (that the technique could provide, simultanously in one class, meaningful educational experiences for individuals of widely varying pre-entry educational, biological, and socio-economic backgrounds) i s thus generally confirmed. Some reservations, however, must be held in relation to the a b i l i t y of participants who have not previously studied the subject through university extension or W.E.A. programs to identify f u l l y with a l l aspects of the work. Also, for some participants, the lack of a research background was regarded as a hindrance to their f u l l participation. The f i n a l specific hypothesis called for a comparison between those participants with and those without an educational or occupational back-ground in research; the point of comparison being the respondents' evaluation of the adequacy of their background. Due to an error in design of the questionnaire, this hypothesis could not be confirmed or rejected, although the responses pointed toward disconfirmation. I l l V. THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO COURSE-ENTRY MOTIVATIONS The general hypothesis for this section is that the technique can satisfy a wide range of course-entry motivations. Specifically, the criterion of acceptance is that the correlations between important course-entry motivational scores and satisfaction of the associated expectations are either weak or positive. Table 19 gives the course-entry motivational items and the extent to which the scoring of each was correlated with satisfaction of the associated expectation. In that there are no significant or highly significant negative correlations between motivational expectations and satisfaction, the hypothesis i s confirmed. However, there i s a suggestion in the results that the appeal of being involved with a research project was not as well satisfied for those who scored the item highly (correlation coefficient = -0.35). Also, those who were drawn particularly by a group leader may have been somewhat disappointed (correlation coefficient = -0.36). The one highly significant positive correlation—satisfaction with the subject-orientation motivational item (no. 15)—suggests a f a i r l y unchanging attitude to this factor as a result of the course. Other items either were invalid for comparative purposes or else showed very weak correlations. 112 TABLE 19—Course-entry motivational items and correlation coefficients with satisfaction of the expectations. Double asterisk indicates a highly significant probability of correlation (p = 0.01); single asterisk indicates significance (p = 0.05); n.a. indicates insufficient data for valid comparison. Course-Entry Motivational Item N Corr. With Satisfaction 1. the thought of working with other similarly interested persons 29 -0.19 2. i t might help to use up spare time 2 n.a. 3. i t could be a good way to learn about the subject 43 0.04 4. I enjoy working outside 34 0.03 5. i t would give me an opportunity to get away from home 3 n.a. 6. i t might start me on a new hobby 4 n.a. 7. i t could be a good preliminary to other related work 19 -0.02 8. i t might l e t me out of some domestic chores - n.a. 9. a friend was also participating 3 n.a. 10. I liked the idea of being involved with a research project and i t s publication 27 -0.35 11. to work with a particular group leader 16 -0.36 12. the project work WAS related to my occupation 19 0.15 13. the project work was NOT related to my occupation 13 0.15 14. I am interested in the geographical area 32 0.03 15. I am interested in the subject of my study-research group 38 0.50** 16. I am interested in the recreational-planning aspect of the project 34 0.17 17. other (not specified in the questionnaire) 8 n.a. 113 V I . MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS Seven orthogonal factors with eigenvalues greater than one were obtained from the analysis. After rotation they accounted for 1.7, 1.6, 1.5, 1.5, 1.4, 1.4 and 1.3 percent of the variance respectively. The factors are shown in Table 20. Each item was included in one of the factors. Factor 1 (activity need) comprises: an orientation to outside work (0.791), and a participating friend (0.758). However, the latter item i s of minor importance as i t was rated above zero by only three respondents. 'Unrelated to occupation' (0.334) loads on this factor, and 'preliminary to other related work' (-0.130) loads negatively. The factor thus i s identifiable with Houle's activity orientation and perhaps more specifically with Sheffield's activity need (factor 10, Table 7). Individuals who score highly on this factor are attracted by f i e l d a c t i vity and, i n some cases, by the participation of a friend or relative. The unrelatedness of the activity to their normal occupations also tends to be an attraction. Conversely, low scores are not attracted by the outdoor nature of the ac t i v i t y , i n which case the participation of a friend or relative is of minor importance. Low scores also tend to view the activity as a preliminary to other related work. Factor 2 (cognitive interest) comprises three items: to i n i t i a t e a new hobby (0.733), to learn about the subject (0.657), and, negatively, to work with others having similar interests (-0.560). The f i r s t item is of lesser importance than the others since i t was rated above zero by only four respondents. 'Unrelated to occupation' loads positively (0.311), while the three items: recreational-planning aspect of the project (-0.271), use up spare time (-0.262), and participating friend (-0.146) load negatively. The factor is thus identifiable with the cognitive interest factor (number 12, Table 7). TABLE 20 — Motivational factors identified from the seventeen items. Factor Number Factor Name Item Number Abbreviated Item Name Varimax Factor Loading Variance Accounted for by Factor 1 activity-need 4 9 working outside participating friend 0.791 0.758 1.67 2 cognitive interest 6 3 1 in i t i a t e a new hobby learn about the subject work with others of similar interests 0.733 0.657 -0.560 1.64 3 profess-ional goal 12 10 7 related to occupation involvement with research and publication preliminary to other related work 0.644 -0.621 0.580 1.51 4 personal goal 17 16 13 other items listed by respondents recreational-planning aspect of project unrelated to occupation 0.761 0.682 0.415 1.50 5 local area interest 14 11 geographical area work with a particular leader 0.807 0.430 1.45 6 secondary-activity 2 use up spare time 0.690 1.37 7 escape/ stimulat-ion 5 15 to get away from home subject of the group 0.732 -0.722 1.29 115 Individuals who score highly on this factor are attracted by the desire to learn in the subject area of the study and also, in some cases, by a desire to start a new hobby in the f i e l d of the study. Interestingly, they are not inclined to be attracted by the thought of working with others having similar interests. They tend to take the study seriously, in that i t is not used as a f i l l - i n for spare time, but the study tends to be unrelated to their normal occupations. The converse applies to low scorers who are not or only weakly attracted by the desire to learn, are not inclined to be motivated by the thought of starting a new hobby but are l i k e l y to be attracted to work with others of similar interests and by the relatedness of the work to their normal occupations. Factor 3 (professional goal) comprises the items: related to occupat-ion (0.644), preliminary to other related work (0.580) and, negatively, involvement with research and publication (-0.621). There are also weaker negative loadings of: to get away from home (-0.177), and working outside (-0.126). The factor thus i s identifiable as the professional goal factor (number 2, Table 7). Individuals who score highly on this factor are attracted by a perceived relatedness of the study to their occupations. They see p a r t i c i -pation as a preliminary to other similar work, and are not attracted by the pure satisfaction of being involved i n a research project and i t s publication. A desire to get away from home and to work outside tend not to be issues. Low scorers, on the other hand, are not strongly attracted by a perceived relatedness of the study to their occupations, and they do not see participation as being an important preliminary to other similar work. They are, however, l i k e l y to be attracted by the research nature of the project and, to a lesser extent, by the desire to get out-of-doors and away from home. 116 Factor 4 (personal goal) comprises: additional items noted by the respondents (0.761), the recreational-planning aspect of the project (0.682), and motivation unrelated to occupation (0.415). The f i r s t item was scored above zero by only eight persons who noted a variety of motivations relating to personal objectives. A number of other items load somewhat negatively on this factor, especially: working outside (-0.210), to i n i t i a t e a new hobby (-0.174), involvement with research and publication (-0.166), and to work with a particular leader (-0.195). The factor thus may be identified tentatively with the personal goal factor (number 1, Table 7). Individuals who score highly on this factor are motivated by one or more of a variety of personal goals; for example: to increase their research a b i l i t y , to increase their f a c i l i t y i n identifying members of some group of organisms, to improve their a b i l i t y as instructors in f i e l d -study work, or to be influential in the making of decisions regarding future use of the land being surveyed. Such motivations are generally not associated with an attraction to the course on the basis of i t s perceived relatedness to the participant's normal occupation. A desire to work outside, to i n i t i a t e a new hobby in the area of study, and to work with a particular group leader tend to be of l i t t l e or no importance, as does the attraction of research involvement per se. Low scores are unlikely to be motivated strongly by identified personal goals, but are attracted by the relatedness of the study to their occupations. Factor 5 (local area interest) comprises two items: attraction to the geographical area (0.807), and to working with a particular group leader (0.430). Most other items of any importance in the factor load negatively: to work with others of similar interests (-0.277), to learn about the subject (-0.187), to work outside (-0.271), to get away from home (-0.331), involvement with research and publication (-0.277), work related to occupat-ion (-0.194), and the study-research group subject (-0.289). 'Participating 117 friend,' however, loads positively (0.317). The factor i s thus d i f f i c u l t to identify, but suggests a desire to learn about the local area from an expert. Individuals scoring highly on this factor are attracted by the thought of working in the particular geographical area of the study, and by a certain group leader with whom they wish to study. They also tend to be motivated by a participating friend or relative. However, working with others of similar interest, a desire to learn about the subject outside and away from home, involvement with research, and the relatedness of the study subject to their.normal occupations a l l tend to be of small importance to such persons. Conversely, low scorers are not inclined to be attracted by the geographical area, a particular group leader, or a participating friend or relative. They are, however, more l i k e l y to be motivated by a desire to learn about the subject of their group, in an outside setting, away from home; they tend to view the work as more closely related to their occupations, and are l i k e l y to be attracted by involvement with research. In factor 6 (secondary activity) only one item loads predominantly — to use up spare time (0.690) — and this was scored above zero by only two respondents. Work with others of similar interests (-0.476) loads negatively, as does preliminary to other related work (-0.578). There are smaller positive loadings by related to occupation (0.272), and the recreational-planning aspect of the project (0.322). The factor thus is tentatively identified as a secondary activity one. Individuals who score highly on this factor are not strongly attracted by others with similar' interests, but may be motivated to participate in order to f i l l - i n time. The study i s unlikely to be undertaken as a prelimin-ary to other similar work, but i t may be taken for i t s association with the participant's occupation, and because of an attraction to the recreational-planning aspect of the work. The opposite motivations apply to low scorers. Factor 7 (escape/stimulation) comprises two items: to get away from 118 home (0.732) and negatively, the subject of the group (-0.722). It is identifiable with the escape/stimulation factor (number 7, Table 7). High scorers on this factor are attracted to participation by a desire to escape from the home environment. Other researchers who have identified this factor, include in i t escape from a variety of unpleasant-nesses and, conversely, attraction to some form of stimulation. Due to the limited range of items in the present survey instrument, however, i t is not possible to take such a broad view of the factor. High scorers are not attracted strongly by the subject matter of the study — this being consis-tent with motivations of escape/stimulation motivated persons. Low scorers, on the other hand, are only weakly, or not at a l l , motivated by a desire to escape the home, but they are attracted by the subject matter of their study-research group. Of the seven factors identified as important in the conceptual basis to this evaluation, four are detectable here: personal goal, professional goal, escape/stimulation, and cognitive interest. Of the others: 'social welfare' could not be expected since there were no items relating to i t ; similarly, there were no items specifically relating to 'external expectations,' and any such motivation would be included in the professional goal factor; and 'social contact' did not emerge from the limited number of items as being separate from 'activity need.' The specific hypothesis for this section was that a factor analysis of the course entry motivational items would reveal factors similar to those identified in other studies in so far as appropriate items were included in the instrument. The results generally confirm the hypothesis. However, the limited number of items and the specific application of some of them to the particular project studied do not permit the drawing of firmly generalizable conclusions. 119 VII. PARTICIPATIONAL FACTORS The general hypothesis is that meaningful participational factors can be identified and related to the motivational factors; and together form a basis for the identification of participants in each study-research group. The testing of this hypothesis is best covered in three sections, each relating to one of the specific hypotheses. Identification of Factors The f i r s t specific hypothesis is that meaningful participational factors exist among the items pertaining to: educational background, socio-economic status, personal attributes, evaluation of the technique, and preferred structuring of such programs. Eleven factors having eigenvalues greater than one were obtained from the f i r s t analysis and were obliquely rotated. After the rotation the total variance accounted for by each factor was: factors 1(3.4), 2(2.9), 3(2.6), 4(2.2), 5(2.2), 6(1.9), 7(1.7), 8(1.7), 9(1.4), 10(1.4), and 11(1.3). The second factoring orthogonally rotated eight factors to permit comparison with the motivational factors. Only one item, preferred group size, did not load significantly on any factor, and was thus eliminated. After rotation the variance accounted for by each factor was: factor 1(6.9), 2(2.9), 3(2.6), 4(2.5), 5(2.4), 6(2.3), 7(1.9), and 8(1.8). The factors identified are shown in Table 21. The factor characteristics noted in the table were supported by the loadings of less important items. Individuals scoring highly on factor 1 (identification with the project process) rate the technique highly as a means of realizing the identified principles of good adult education. Conversely, low scorers do not consider that the technique i s generally suitable for f u l l expression of those principles. TABLE 21(a) — Participational factors identified with orthogonal rotation. Asterisk indicates item loading more heavily on another factor (factor given in parentheses). Factor Factor Item Abbreviated Item Name Varimax Variance Number Characteristics Number Factor Acc. for Loading by Factor 1 identification 43 value, research involvement 0.849 with project 41 value, teaching research 0.842 process 36 value, uses group influences 0.808 42 value, learning attitudes 0.772 40 value, self-evaluation of learning 0.757 6.94 35 value, maintains interest 0.754 39 value, practice with reinforcement 0.752 37 value, uses existing learning 0.722 44 value, individual pace and level 0.686 38 value, meaningful material 0.672 2 academic 28 academic qualifications 0.866 preparation 26 previous credit study in discipline 0.695 23 status -0.677. 2.92 24 research background 0.519 21 age -0.435 3 previous 29 previous adult education institutions 0.795 adult 27 previous total adult education courses 0.773 education 30 brochure adequacy, subject 0.506 2.60 22 sex 0.480 4 identification 34 learning c r i t i c a l research a b i l i t i e s 0.649 with educational 33 learning research procedures 0.646 aspects of the 53 prefer scheduling by groups 0.608 2.49 proj ect 48 increased a b i l i t y , independent study 0.575 TABLE 21(b) — Participational factors identified with orthogonal rotation. Asterisk indicates item loading more heavily on another factor (factor given in parentheses). Factor Number Factor Characteristics Item Number Abbreviated Item Name Varimax Factor Loading Variance Acc. for by Factor 5 continuing education-centered subj ect interest 25 58 32 54 49 *56(6) previous non-credit study would pay higher course fee brochure adequacy, time commitment preferred length of meetings increased motivation, courses in discipline preferred frequency of half-day meetings 0.753 0.686 -0.527 0.427 0.404 -0.411 2.42 6 increased adult education interest 47 31 50 56 adequacy, course reference material brochure adequacy, technique increased motivation, courses other disciplines preferred frequency of half-day meetings 0.695 0.543 0.496 -0.451 2.35 7 high participation 45 55 attendance preferred frequency, day-long meetings 0.597 0.579 1.85 8 identification with project activity 52 57 46 desire more intergroup contact preferred project duration adequacy, introductory material -0.567 0.557 0.484 1.76 122 Participants with high scoring on factor 2 (academic preparation) are generally younger, and of high formal academic attainment and socio-economic status. They are most l i k e l y to have previous credit study in the discipline of their group and to have backgrounds in research. Low scorers, on the other hand, are older and of lower formal academic attainment and" socio-economic status. They also are less l i k e l y to have backgrounds in research or to have previous credit study in the discipline of their group. Factor 3 (previous adult education) identifies a dimension relating to previous adult education and associated variables. High scorers are more l i k e l y to be women and to have participated in previous adult education courses, particularly through university extension. Related to thi s , they are more satisfied with the brochure material concerning the course subject matter. Conversely, low scorers on this factor tend to be men who are less l i k e l y to have participated in any previous adult education courses, especi-a l l y through university extension. They are also less satisfied with the brochure material relating to subject matter. Participants scoring highly on factor 4 (identification with educat-ional aspects of the project) show high satisfaction with the way in which the technique was used to develop their problem-solving intellectual s k i l l s and cognitive strategies. They record generally increased a b i l i t y to study independently within the subject of their group, and show a preference for having course meetings scheduled by group discussion. Low scorers, on the other hand, tend to be unhappy with the technique as a means of learning problem-solving s k i l l s and cognitive strategies; their a b i l i t y to study independently i n the subject is unchanged by participation in the course, and they prefer prescheduled meeting times. In short, low scorers appear to require their education to be externally structured to a greater extent than was the case within this course. Participants scoring highly on factor 5 (continuing education-centered 123 subject interest) record greater previous commitment to involvement with adult education, and increased motivation to seek further courses, in the subject of their group, as a result of participation in the course. However, they find the brochure material, with regard to time commitment, to be inadequate. They also show a preference for full-day length, more widely spaced, meetings, and indicate a greater preparedness to pay high course fees. Low scorers tend to have l i t t l e or no previous involvement with adult education, and are either discouraged or unmoved with regard to further study in the discipline of their group. They are happier with the brochure explanat-ions of time commitment, but show a preference for shorter, more frequent, meetings in courses for which they w i l l pay only a low fee. Factor 6 (increased adult education interest) draws together a number of items associated with increased motivation to attend courses in other disciplines. High scorers tend to record an increased motivation to attend adult education courses i n disciplines, other than that of their group, as a result of their participation. They are inclined to be happier, than are low scorers, with the course reference material and with the brochure in relation to descriptive information on the nature of the course technique. They do, however, tend to favor more widely spaced half-day meetings than do low scorers. Participants scoring highly on factor 7 (high participation) have high mean attendance figures and indicate a preference for more frequent full-day meetings. Low scorers have poorer attendance figures and, under-standably, they opt for more widely spaced meetings. High scorers on factor 8 (identification with project activity) tend to favor long projects — one or two years in duration — and feel that the project in which they participated suffered from too l i t t l e inter-change among the study-research groups. Related to these items, such participants also show satisfaction with the course introductory material. On 124 the other hand, low scorers tend to be happy with the lack of intergroup contact, and favor shorter projects, considering the course introductory material to have been inadequate. General participational factors are thus identifiable, although the f i r s t factor selected from the orthogonal rotation may reflect a respondent tendency to score adjacent items, similarly. Nevertheless, the factors reveal some interesting identifiable orientations to the project, and thus confirm the specific hypothesis. Relationship Between Motivational and Participational Factors The second specific hypothesis i s that the participational factors could be related meaningfully to the motivational factors. To test this, correlation coefficients between the two sets of factors were prepared from the factor scores of each respondent on each orthogonal factor. The results are presented in Table 22. The coefficients are a l l uniformly low. However, the higher values among them are worth noting: 1) a positive correlation (r = 0.37) between escape/stimulation and previous adult education; 2) a negative correlation (r = -0.22) between ac t i v i t y need and academic preparation; 3) a positive correlation (r = 0.20) between activity need and high participation; 4) a negative correlation (r = -0.29) between secondary activity need and identification with the project process; 5) a negative correlation (r = -0.25) between local area interest and academic preparation; 6) a positive correlation (r = 0.23) between local area interest and increased adult education interest; 7) a negative correlation (r = -0.21) between local area interest and identification with the project process; 8) a negative correlation (r = -0.23) between local area interest and high participation; 9) negative correlations (r = -0.23 in both) between personal goal and both continuing education-centered subject interest and increased adult education interest; and 10) a negative correlation (r = -0.21) between TABLE 22 — Correlation coefficients between factor loadings on the orthogonally rotated participational and motivational factors. Motivational Factors 1.activity need 2.cognitive interest 3.profes-sional goal 4.person-al goal 5.local area interest 6.secondary activity 7.escape/ stimul-ation Participational Factors 1.identification with the project process -0.01 -0.04 -0.21 0.12 -0.21 -0.29 0.00 Participational Factors 2.academic preparation -0.22 -0.10 0.18 -0.05 -0.25 0.11 -0.10 Participational Factors 3.previous adult education -0.06 0.04 -0.16 -0.06 0.09 -0.06 0.37 Participational Factors 4.identification with educational aspects of project -0.06 -0.02 -0.01 0.06 0.06 -0.11 -0.02 Participational Factors 5.continuing education-centered subject interest -0.16 0.09 -0.05 -0.23 -0.07 -0.11 -0.09 Participational Factors 6.increased adult education interest 0.05 0.05 -0.09 -0.23 0.23 0.13 ' -0.05 Participational Factors 7.high participation 0.20 0.09 - -0.03 -0.13 -0.23 -0.12 -0.09 Participational Factors 8.identification with project activity 0.02 -0.04 -0.13 -0.12 -0.02 -0.09 -0.17 126 professional goal and identification with the project process. From these correlations some possible associations can be identified very tentatively — 1) Participants scoring highly on the escape/stimulation motivational factor are more l i k e l y to be women and to have participated in previous adult educat-ion courses, particularly through university extension. They are also l i k e l y to be more satisfied with the brochure material concerning the course subject matter. The opposite tendencies apply to low scorers. 2) Participants scoring highly on the activity need motivational factor tend to be older and of lower formal academic attainment and socio-economic status. They are also less l i k e l y to have backgrounds in research or to have previous credit study in the discipline of their group. However, they do tend to have high mean attendance figures and to indicate a preference for more frequent full-day meetings. 3) High scorers on the secondary activity need motivational factor are more l i k e l y to rate the technique poorly as a means of realizing the identified principles of good adult education. Conversely, low scorers on this activity need factor tend to score highly the technique as being generally suitable for the f u l l expression of the principles. 4) Participants scoring"highly on the motivational factor 'local area interest' tend to be older and of lower formal academic attainment and socio-economic status. They are less l i k e l y to have backgrounds in research or to have previous credit study in the discipline of their group. However, they tend to record an increased motivation to attend courses in disciplines, other than that of their group> as a result of their participation. They are also inclined to be happier with the course reference material and with the brochure in relation to descriptive information on the nature of the course technique. They do not tend to score the technique highly as a means of realizing the identified principles of good adult education, and have 127 correspondingly low attendance figures; indicating, also, a preference for less frequent full-day meetings. 5) High scorers on the personal goal motivational factor tend to have l i t t l e or no previous involvement with adult education, and are either discouraged or unmoved by participation with regard to further study within or beyond the discipline of their group. They are happier with the brochure explanation of time commitment, but not so with regard to the nature of the course technique. They show a preference for shorter, more frequent, meetings of study-research group courses, for which they w i l l pay only a low fee. 6) Participants scoring highly on the professional goal motivational factor show a tendency to rate the technique poorly as a means of realizing the identified principles of adult education. Conversely, low scorers are more apt to feel that the technique is well suited to f u l l expression of the principles. In spite of the foregoing interesting trends in the data, none of the correlations is strong enough to support f u l l y the hypothesis that meaningful relationships could be found between the two sets of factors. Factors in the Identification of Group Membership The third specific hypothesis is that the respondent factor scores on the motivational and participational factors could be used to provide a reasonable measure of identification for participants of each study-research group. The participant scores on both participational and motivational factors were examined via stepwise discriminant analysis to determine i f observable differences existed among any of the six study-research groups (geology, history, botany, freshwater biology, ornithology, and mammalogy). Three of these factors were significant discriminants. In order of discriminating power the factors were: 1) Increased Adult Education Interest, 2) Activity 128 Need, and 3) Identification with the Project Activity. Tlie extent to which these three factors enabled one to distinguish one study-research group from another i s shown i n Table 23; 41.51 of the respondents could be classified correctly into their respective groups. The distribution of assigned cases is shown i n Table 24, and the results using the Cooley and Lohnes procedure in Table 25. TABLE 23 — Differentiability among six study-research groups. Probabilities are given i n parentheses. ' Group History Geology Botany Freshwater Biology Ornithology Geology 6.66 (0.00069) Botany 4.40 (0.00755) 1.47 (0.23023) Freshwater Biology 3.20 (0.02948) 10.64 (0.00002) 4.31 (0.00839) Ornithology 2.27 (0.08905) 3.78 (0.01511) 2.90 (0.04217) 4.91 (0.00430) Mammalogy 4.17 (0.00982) 14.83 (0.00000) 7.50 (0.00030) 0.79 (0.50697) 7.94 (0.00020) Using either procedure for developing the variables, some groups show higher participant d i f f e r e n t i a b i l i t y than others. Geology, freshwater biology and mammalogy participants were quite highly dirrerentiable, whereas the history and ornithology participants were poorly so. The clustering of botany and geology participants is interesting, since these two subject areas have been more strongly represented i n adult education programs of previous years than have the other subjects. The freshwater biology participants also tend to cluster with the botanists, which could be related to the fact that the botany group was f u l l y enrolled before the freshwater biology, and applicants for the former group generally gave freshwater biology as their second choice. TABLE 24 — Classification of participants into study-research groups, based on canonical variables developed in the stepwise discriminant analysis. Those cases underlined were correctly assigned. Rows represent the actual membership of each group. Group History Geology Botany Freshwater Biology Ornithology Mammalogy Total % Classified Correctly History 2 2 0 1 2 1 8 25 Geology 1 11 1 2 0 0 15 73 Botany 0 6 3 3 0 1 13 23 F*w. Biol. 2 0 1 5 0 4 12 42 Ornithology 3 1 1 0 0 1 6 0 Mammalogy 0 0 1 4 0 6 11 55 TABLE 25 — Classification of participants into study-research groups using Cooley and Lohnes centroids. Those cases underlined were correctly assigned. Rows represent the actual membership of each group. Group History Geology Botany Freshwater Biology Ornithology Mammalogy Total % Classified Correctly History- 1 1 1 5 0 0 8 13 Geology 1 9 3 2 0 0 15 60 Botany 0 6 3 3 0 1 13 23 F'w. Biol. 1 0 2 6 0 3 12 50 Ornithology 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 17 Mammalogy 0 0 1 3 0 7 11 64 130 In conclusion, the overall correct classification of-the participants on the basis of the factor scores is reasonably high. The specific hypothesis is confirmed. Summary The general hypothesis — that meaningful participational factors could be identified and related to the motivational factors; and together form a basis for the identification of participants in each group — was only p a r t i a l l y confirmed. The f i r s t specific hypothesis was confirmed with the identification of participational factors. The second was not, since no significant correlations could be found between the sets of factors. The motivational and participational factor sets appear, rather, to be complementary, which is supported by the entry of factors from both sets into the stepwise discriminant analysis. The third specfic hypothesis was confirmed with this last analysis and the subsequent correct classification of 41.5 percent of the respondents into their respective study-research groups. 131 VIII. PROGRAM DESIGN AND PUBLICITY The general hypothesis for this section is that participants express general satisfaction with the program design and publicity, in that the type of structure preferred i s closely similar to that of the program studied. The testing of such an hypothesis is best covered in eight sections, each relating to one of the specific hypotheses. Course Reading Material The specific hypothesis is fhat the majority of respondents prefer course reading material to be a mixture of hand-out papers and references given. The distribution of preferences expressed by participants i s : only hand-out material (11%), references only provided (15%), and a mixture of the two (74%). Evidently, by providing a mixture in future courses, most participants would be well satisfied. The specific hypothesis i s thus confrimed. Group Size The specific hypothesis is that not more than 12% of the respondents prefer a mean group size outside the range of 10-20 persons. The distribution of respondent preferences i s as follows: 11 persons (9% of respondents), 12 persons (20%), 13 persons (20%), 15 persons (20%), 20 persons (24%), and 30 persons (7%). Thus, only seven percent of the respondents recorded a mean preference outside the range of 10-20 members. The average i s sixteen participants, which equates very closely with the stated maximum of fifteen for the program. The range of numbers nominated (11-30) suggests, surprisingly, that the respondents may be unhappy with very small groups. The specific hypothesis is thus confirmed. 132 Intergroup Contact The specific hypothesis is that not more than 25% of the respondents indicate dissatisfaction with the lack of intergroup contact during the course. Responses to the questionnaire show that 73 percent of participants were not satisfied with the lack of intergroup contact during the year. The specific hypothesis is thus refuted. Failure to provide for meaningful exchange between study-research groups was clearly a shortcoming of the project. Scheduling of Meetings The specific hypothesis i s that not more than 251 of the respondents prefer prescheduling of meetings to scheduling by the group. Study-research group meetings were scheduled i n five of the six groups be agreement among the participants. Eighty percent of the respondents favored this rather than conforming to prescheduled meetings. The hypothesis is thus confirmed. Length of Meetings The specific hypothesis i s that not more than 25% of the respondents prefer half-day length meetings to full-day meetings. Fifty-seven percent of respondents indicated a preference for day-long meetings, 32 percent for half-day meetings, eight percent were undecided between these two, and'only three percent preferred a block course of about ten consecutive days. Most of the project meetings were a full-day in length, with the remainder a half-day. There seems to be a desire for a somewhat greater proportion of half-day meetings than was the case; the hypothesis being refuted. 133 Length of Course The specific hypothesis i s that not more than 25% of the respondents consider the course to have been too long. The project was limited to one calendar year. Nineteen percent of respondents considered this to be too long, preferring a half year. Forty-two percent preferred a f u l l year. But, most interestingly, 39 percent . indicated a preference for a two-year program. The hypothesis is thus confirmed. Structuring of the Course The specific hypothesis is that not more than 12% of the respondents express the desire for more formal instruction, a formal prerequisite course, or for better structuring of the program. At selected points in the questionnaire participants were asked to make recommendations on programming and instructional features which would have increased their satisfaction and involvement with the course. Most of the responses were so scattered as to be of no overall importance. However, there were a number of clusters, which are summarized in Table 26. The calls for more formal instruction and a formal introductory course suggest that these participants were not f u l l y able to identify with the study-research group technique and to cope with the material. This well may have arisen from inadequate pre-course preparation of the group leaders. The suggestions on better structuring of the course referred to such items as frequent lack of direction or understanding of how their work f i t t e d into the research aims of the project as a whole. The respondents who recorded dissatisfaction with meeting arrangements a l l came from the one group in which there was evidently some poor management of this factor. The c a l l for more participant i n various involvement/aspects of the project is a serious reflection on the program since this i s one of the theoretical foundations of the method. It was evident TABLE 26 — Recommendations for improvement of program and instructional processes. Nature of Recommendation Recommendation % Respondents . in Class % a l l Respondents 1. From respondents who f e l t that the course had met the educational objectives only poorly or reason-ably—recommended structures for better meeting the objectives. a. more formal instruction b. a formal prerequisite introductory course c. better structuring of the course 13 8 13 8 31 18 2. Suggestions given for ways in which the group leaders could have improved attendance. a. better understanding of meeting arrangements b. more participant involvement 13 12 3 3 3. General suggestions for improvement of the course. a. more participant involvement b. smaller-scale project or survey area 15 15 9 9 TABLE 27 — Response to items regarding the adequacy of descriptive information in the pre-enrolment brochure. Descriptive Category Evaluation (% in each class) Poor Adequate Excessive 1. the nature of the subject matter 8 88 4 2. the course technique 23 . 74 3 3. the expected commitment of your time 16 78 6 135 from a study of the responses that in some groups too many decisions were made by the group leader without involving the group. The remainder of respondents in this category were unhappy at their not being involved in actually writing the publications resulting from the work. In that over 12% of the respondents c a l l for modification of the course on each of the items noted (formality of instruction, formal prerequisite course, and improved program structure), the specific hypothesis is refuted. Adequacy of the Program Brochure The specific hypothesis is that, with regard to: 1) the nature df the course subject matter, 2) the course technique, and 3) the expected time commitment, not more than 12% of the respondents score as poor the descriptive information in the program brochure. Responses to the questionnaire items on adequacy of the brochure are summarized in Table 27. Eight percent of respondents rated the descrip-tive material on subject matter as poor; 23 percent rated as poor the material concerning course technique; and 16 percent that concerning the expected commitment of their time. Thus, the last two figures demand rejection of the hypothesis. The fact that 16 percent of the enrollees were unaware of the time commitment expected of them, at the very least, would have an effect on attendance figures. A better effort seems to be required in presenting the technique although, hopefully, those entering the program with mis-conceptions would have been able to identify subsequently with the actual process. Course Planning Guidelines The preceding stated preferences on programming features can be used 136 as a general guide to the future planning of study-research group courses. However, i t can be argued that, as such a guide, the stated perferences are limited by the respondent's past range of experiences in adult education. This is undoubtedly so, but i t must also be appreciated that, regardless of just how limited an adult's outlook i s , i f he or she is unhappy with a publicised program structure, this is l i k e l y to act as a barrier to enrolment. Three additional items, not used in the evaluation, may be of interest to programmers. First l y , the nominal $10.00 enrolment fee, made possible by grants from various sources, appears to have been potentially important in attract-ing participants. Eighty-nine percent of respondents indicated that they would not have enrolled had the course not been subsidized. Secondly, the response to items relating to the preferred frequency of meetings. Assuming full-day meetings, 41 percent chose a fortnightly frequency, and 39 percent a monthly frequency. Assuming haly-day meetings, a higher proportion (61%) chose a fortnightly frequency with 16 percent selecting monthly. Thirdly, most of the meetings for courses such as this must, of necessity, be held on Saturday or Sunday. Traditionally, the sabbath has been avoided i n university extension courses, but on this course a f a i r l y equal distribution between Saturday and Sunday meetings was evident. The expressed preferences of participants reflect this, with 22 percent preferring Satur-day, 17 percent Sunday, and 61 percent a mixture of both. Conclusions The general hypothesis is only partly confirmed, i n that four of the specific hypotheses were rejected (those relating to: intergroup contact, length of meetings, structuring of the course, and adequacy of the program 137 brochure). These represent areas of incongruency between participant preferences and actual features of the program. Such incongruencies are l i k e l y to have had a negative influence on participant evaluations of the technique. 138 CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS I. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PARTICIPANTS On two items the participant population was more representative of the Wellington urban population than that of the general university extension enrolment studied by Boshier (1969, 1971a). These were the relative numbers of men and women, which were almost equal, and the distribution of participant ages. In contrast, the participants were disproportionately representative of the uppermost socio-economic class to an even greater degree than was the case in the general university extension enrolment. The distribution of participant highest academic qualification, predictably, follows the same general pattern. The better qualified, especially those with university degrees were a grossly over-represented segment of the population, while the unqualified were very weakly represented. These patterns are understand-able in terms of the high involvement demanded of participants, which would tend to selectively favor persons high in self-confidence and intrapersonal competence, and favoring the higher-achievement social groups. Encouragingly, just over half of the respondents had not previously studied through credit courses in the discipline of their study-research group, and nearly 70 percent had not done so through non-credit adult education programs. Also, a quarter of the participants had not taken part previously in any adult education programs, but of those who had done so, most had studied one or more courses organized through university extension. The participants thus represented a socio-economic and educational e l i t e , reasonably representative of the local age and sex distribution, 139 and with an encouaging number who had not participated previously in adult education or studied the subject with which they were involved in the program. II. THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO THE LEARNING OF RESEARCH-EASED CONTENT Emphasis in the instruction and i t s evaluation was placed on those learning outcomes identified as important to a c r i t i c a l and practicable understanding of research. These were identified as an appropriately c r i t i c a l attitude, and higher-order intellectual s k i l l s and cognitive strategies associated with problem-solving. Within the limitations of the type of evaluation instrument used, the technique appears to be well suited to the achievement of these outcomes. III. THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO PRINCIPLES OF ADULT EDUCATION A number of the principles of adult education identified i n the conceptual study were regarded as so fundamental to the technique that they were not included i n the evaluation instrument. Others were excluded because they related to individual instructor performance rather than to any characteristics of the technique. A l l of the principles actually evaluated through the questionnaire received encouragingly high ratings with one exception — the f a c i l i t a t i o n of learner self-evaluation — for which one third of the respondents indicated doubt as to the s u i t a b i l i t y of the technique for i t s realization. The results of this section, however, should be regarded with caution. The high inter-item correlations, expressed in both the factor 140 analysis and the individual item correlation coefficients, indicate that participant response to these items was rather uniform (probably a 'halo' effect). The st a t i s t i c s on average attendance and dropout revealed a reasonably high involvement with, and interest i n , the course. This i s particularly so when one considers the total time commitment involved and the fact that a number of respondents indicated a failure of the pre-enrolment publicity to communicate the true extent of that involvement. TV. THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO PARTICIPANT BACKGROUND In spite of the unrepresentative nature of the participant populat-ion, most of the groups included an acceptable range of participant biological, educational and socio-economic backgrounds. Nine participant background variables wers tested for correlation with seventeen learning evaluation and response variables. In that no highly significant correlations emerged i t could be concluded that the technique is able to provide, simultaneously i n one class, meaningful educational experiences for individuals of widely varying background. However, there were indications that participants who had previously studied i n the discipline of their group, through university extension or the Workers Education Association, were better able than others to identify f u l l y with a l l aspects of the technique. V. THE STUDY-RESEARCH GROUP TECHNIQUE IN RELATION TO COURSE-ENTRY MOTIVATIONS Of the seventeen course-entry motivational items used in the of evaluation, one was not scored as important by any/the respondents, and five were not scored as important by a large enough number of respondents to 141 permit meaningful analysis. Scores on the remaining items were tested for correlation with the extent to which participation met expectations assoc-iated with each motivational item. Analysis revealed no strongly negative correlations, and only one highly significant positive correlation. The remainder were weakly correlated either positively or negatively. Factor analysis of the motivational items indicated that not a l l commonly identified motivational factors were represented by the items. In particular, 'social welfare' was not provided for i n the evaluation instrument, while 'external expectations' and 'social contact' were sub-sumed within other factors. However, with these limitations as qualifications, i t may be concluded that the technique generally did satisfy a wide range of course-entry motivations, and was assessed i n terms of commonly seen dimensions of quality. VI. MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS Seven acceptable motivational factors were obtained from the analysis. Four of these were comparable to those commonly identified in earlier motivational studies. These were: 'cognitive interest,' 'professional goal,' 'personal goal,' and 'escape/stimulation.' The 'social welfare' factor did not emerge since no items relating to i t were included. The commonly ident-i f i e d factors 'external expectations' and 'social contact' did not separate from 'professional goal' and 'activity need' respectively. Factors other than those equatable with the seven primary factors were identified also. An 'activity need' and a 'secondary act i v i t y ' factor were related more closely to Houle's original activity motivation than to any of the factors identified in subsequent research. A 'local area interest' factor was identified, which related particularly to an attraction to the 142 geographical area. The factoring of the limited number and range of motivational items in the evaluation instrument thus produced an acceptably meaningful, although weak, group of factors. VII. PARTICIPATIONAL FACTORS The i n i t i a l factor analysis, of 38 participational items, involved oblique rotation of the factors and produced eleven acceptable factors. Limiting the second factoring to eight orthogonally rotated factors produced a somewhat different, but equally meaningful, set of factors. None of the orthogonally rotated factors correlated at a l l highly with any of the motivational factors. The two sets thus appeared to be complementary rather than alternative measures of the same orientations. This conclusion was supported by the entry of three factors from both sets into a discriminant analysis which successfully distinguished among the study-research groups. The factors which entered the discrimant analysis were (in decreasing order of discriminating power): 1) Increased Adult Education Interest, 2) Activity Need, and 3) Identification with the Project Activity. Some 41 of respondents percent/could be identified correctly as to their group membership. The identified motivational and participational factors can thus be concluded as reasonably reflecting the clustering of responses to the questionnaire items involved. VIII. PROGRAM DESIGN AND PUBLICITY Program design and publicity items were included in the question-naire primarily to test for any major incongruence between participant 143 preferences and practice, and secondarily to provide additional data on which to base future programming efforts using the technique. The general conclusion could be drawn that the participant preferences were closely identifiable with the program design and publicity features. Major incongruence was thus not l i k e l y except in a small number of participants i n terms of: the lack of intergroup contact during the survey, the preferred length of meetings, and the informal structure of the course. However, the failure of the program to reflect the preferences of some participants could well have had a negative effect on evaluation of the technique. The inadequacy of explanatory material i n the pre-enrolment brochure for a significant number of participants could also have given rise to incongruence, low participation, and a generally poor evaluation by those affected. IX. SUMMATIVE CONCLUSIONS In defining the educational needs instrumental i n development of the study-research group technique, i t appears that some progress has been made. It can be concluded that the technique has considerable potential for the meaningful teaching of research-based material and in developing c r i t i c a l research a b i l i t i e s . Further, the technique is able to provide, within a single group, instruction for the meaningful and rewarding involve-ment of participants having widely different educational backgrounds. There i s , however, no firm basis on which to draw conclusions regarding the technique's applicability to program areas other than the lib e r a l studies type in which the technique has so far been applied, although Arasteh (1966) does appear to have used i t successfully i n undergraduate teaching of the social sciences. The use of such a technique with other methods and in other cultures 144 must also remain open to further study, but on the basis of Verner's (1968) theory of d i f f u s i b i l i t y , the technique should be broadly generalizable, both to different methods and cultures. Caution, however, should be exercised in attempting cross-culture transfer since, as Verner (p.93) notes, ..."The usefulness of a given technique may be influenced by the previous experiences of the learner which would be a matter of culture," A l l work with the technique has so far been undertaken through universities. Hopefully, other types of educational bodies w i l l find i t valuable, but i t is worth noting that study-research groups are peculiarly suited to a university program. Haygood (1970) identifies four general university goals into which adult education must f i t . These are stated as ..."(1) The discovery of new knowledge, through research and scholarly a c t i v i t i e s ; (2) The accumulation and storage of information...; (3) The dissemination of accumulated knowledge...; (4) The application of knowledge and s k i l l s to specific situations."(p.195). The study-research group technique encompasses three of these goals (numbers 1, 3 t\ 4), thus adding to the l i k e l y acceptability, to the university, of adult education programs involving the technique. This should contribute to a reduction i n the marginality of university extension divisions since, as noted by Clark (1958), marginality for such units derives, at least i n part, from low status and a failure to perceive the work as directly related to the main aims of the university. Another value of the technique derives from i t s problem-centered approach. By choosing research projects which are evidently of some potential importance to society i t i s possible to obtain non-university funding for the projects. This serves the dual purpose of increasing the c r e d i b i l i t y of the work as far as the university i s concerned, while providing essential financial support beyond the participant course fees. This latter is of particular concern to the adult educator who must 145 contend, in a study-research program, with high staff/student ratios, long contact hours (and hence high fees for group leaders), and extra costs associated with the research i t s e l f . Probably the greatest danger inherent i n this technique is the tendency for solution of the research problem to become dominant over, and even suppressive of, the educational function. This i s l i k e l y to be of particular importance when outside deadlines are applied to completion of the research, as was the case in the program used i n this evaluation. The rather poorer evaluation of the technique in this program, compared with an earlier evaluation involving programs without such deadlines (Bagnall, 1975), i s possibly a result of this influence. Finally, i t must be stated that further evaluative studies of the technique are necessary before firm conclusions as to i t s s u i t a b i l i t y and the boundaries of i t s effective application can be drawn. The present evaluation was based on participant's self-perception of their learning. Objective testing of progressive learning during the course of a program, and the extent of i t s application following the program should be under-taken before generalizations are made about the technique. 146 CHAPTER VI IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS An evaluation of any relatively new technique, with which the associated instructors and programmers are experimenting, i s limited in i t s external v a l i d i t y by the effects of the novelty on participant learning and attitudes. This problem has been identified frequently in educational research, but is one which cannot be eliminated f u l l y except through use of the technique over time — as novelty diminishes with increasing familiarity. The generally good evaluation of the study-research group technique well may be exaggerated by this factor. Using the evaluation tentatively as a guideline, there i s cause to believe that the study-research group provides a more suitable process for the teaching of research-based material than do other techniques of adult education. This derives particularly from the emphasis, forced by the technique, on the learning of appropriate attitudes, problem-solving s k i l l s and cognitive strategies, while conforming to accepted principles of good adult education. That the study-research group technique also i s suitable for participants in one group with a considerable diversity of background experiences makes i t especially suitable for adult education. It can be argued that the time required for achievement of the learning outcomes is excessive. However, i t is doubtful that other techniques could achieve the same results in an equivalent time for the outcomes desired, although there are probably considerably more efficient procedures for the learning of verbal information. The efficacy of the technique for use i n more vocationally oriented programs must remain open to experimentation. Any such t r i a l s , however, should be attempted only i f the desired learning outcomes are in accord 147 with the strengths of the technique. To use this process for vocational or other programs on which the desired outcomes are substantially in the motor s k i l l or verbal information categories could be quite inappropriate. At least on theoretical grounds there is good reason to believe that the technique would be suitable for use with other methods and in other cultures. But evaluated t r i a l s w i l l be required to confirm this. The high staff/student ratios and participant commitment required for a program employing this technique would make i t s accommodation to the normal fee-setting structure of adult education organizations unrealistic. To attract participants, subsidies would be required beyond the level normally applied by an organization. However, the problem-centered frame-work of the technique provides a logical avenue for pursuit of such funds. While there i s no logical argument against use of the technique by other organizations, i t appears to be particularly congruent with the institutional goals of universities, and is thus l i k e l y to be most acceptable to these bodies. Further evaluative research must, however, also be undertaken into the s u i t a b i l i t y of the technique within the type of program structure used in the present study. In particular, more objective, on-going testing of learning i n each of the outcome categories i s required. At least for the cultural groups involved with the program studied, some programming guidelines emerge from the stated preferences of partici^-pants. High participant involvement in a l l phases of the work i s essential. That this was not f u l l y realised in the program undoubtedly contributed to some dissatisfaction with the technique. The involvement must cover as many programming and instructional decisions as possible — the setting of meeting schedules, the types of work undertaken and the research methods used. It must also extend throughout the research effort from identification of the problem to preparation of the research reports and publications. 148 The major danger inherent in use of the technique relates to a natural tendency for the research problem to assume dominance over p a r t i c i -pant learning. The program here studied showed evidence of this occuring. Avoidance of the trend would be f a c i l i t a t e d by the selection of research projects which do not carry s t r i c t completion deadlines, no matter how r e a l i s t i c these may look at the start. On the other hand, avoidance of research projects carrying deadlines, does remove an element of rea l i t y and excitement from the work. It can be argued, at the very least, that unneccess-ary deadlines imposed by the adult education organization should be avoided. The study-research group technique is very demanding of active invol-vement by the participants. Unlike the situation with many other instructional techniques, i t is not possible for a participant to adopt the role of a passive onlooker. In that active involvement f a c i l i t a t e s learning and remembering, this is a very desirable attribute. It i s also valuable in that i t f a c i l i t a t e s the pooling and sharing of participant s k i l l s and knowledge pertinent to the learning and problem-solving needs of group members. On the other hand, persons who feel threatened by such exposure of their a b i l i t i e s and inadequacies are l i k e l y to be discouraged from enrolling and, i f they do enrol, may drop out before their defensiveness is broken down. These demands placed on the participants could be an important factor in the disproportion-ately high participation of success-orientated persons — those from the better educated and higher socio-economic groups. However, the problem-centered framework of the technique, and i t s independence from sophisticated prerequisite knowledge and s k i l l s , make i t potentially suitable for a wide range of socio-economic groups. With appropriately directed publicity, good counselling, and sensitive leadership, the appeal of the study-research group technique could be made much more representative of the general adult population. It i s legitimately argued that functional research cannot be under-149 taken without a good basis of knowledge and. grounding in the appropriate s k i l l s . No issue is taken here with such an argument. However, aggreement does not extend to endorsement of the widespread opinion that i t is necessary to learn a wide range of specific s k i l l s and large quantities of verbal information in a subject before one has identified any specific point of application for the s k i l l s and knowledge. This opinion can be argued against, both on theoretical grounds and from the results of this program and evaluation. Here, participants learned the necessary information and s k i l l s when these were identified as prerequisites to the solution of particular problems. In that way, learning becomes a means to an end, and acquires identifiable and comprehensible boundaries which are set by the nature of the problem. The learning acquires relevance and meaningfulness to the learner,, and becomes a challenge, with a specific and foreseeable goal. In terms of the identified need for alternative techniques i n science adult education, the study-research group appears to be, at the very least, a move in the right direction. The number and range of research problems in any community must surely be of such an order as would permit an essentially endless supply of research problems. The major barrier to more general application probably l i e s , not with the a v a i l a b i l i t y of suitable problems, but with the human commitment to such programs. Skilled and sensitive program planners, committed to achieving the learning outcomes, w i l l be required, as w i l l acceptance by adult education institutions. Commitment of funds also w i l l be necessary to provide r e a l i s t i c subsidies for the work. Of perhaps even greater importance is the need for able scientists to make their time available to supervise the work of the study-research groups. The d i f f i c u l t i e s involved in fielding and successfully following through a program l i k e the one studied here are easily underestimated when decisions to proceed are based on published descriptive accounts. It would 150 be a much simpler task to undertake any research project by conventional means such as letting a research contract to a consultancy body. It also would be considerably easier to offer adult science education using any of the existing more conventional techniques. However, i f we accept the need for the learning of attitudes and a b i l i t i e s with which adults can make sound evaluations of the s c i e n t i f i c a l l y based cultural forces affecting them, then to work along concentional lines is tantamount to abrogating our responsibil-i t i e s as members of a demoncratically based society. In the f i e l d of science education, instructors of pre-adults have demonstrated clearly their inadequacy in meeting the real educational needs of most students. Adult educators, to date, can claim no greater success. The net results i s a population dangerously ignorant of the processes of science. By accepting a continuation of the processes and structures which have given rise to this situation, we w i l l be giving silent endorsement to i t s perpet-uation, and w i l l become parties to the consequences. Alternatively, i f we are prepared to shoulder our democratic and professional responsibilities, we w i l l strive to improve on the present. We w i l l seek to refine our knowledge of the learning required, and to improve our instructional processes as means of attaining the required learning. If we delay u n t i l we perceive perfection in this knowledge and in the educat-ional processes, we may never act or we may do so too late. Rather, we must grasp at what we have, try i t , evaluate i t , refine i t and extend i t . Whatever our role -- whether adult educator, scientist, educational admin-istrator, or p o l i t i c i a n -- we must act to f a c i l i t a t e this process of experimentation and refinement. The study-research group technique is available as a process which can be used to further our objectives in developing a more s c i e n t i f i c a l l y c r i t i c a l and sk i l l e d adult population. It should not be l e f t to wither into 151 the role of a his t o r i c a l l y interesting item, but should be applied, tested and improved, only being l e f t to history when superseeded by more effective processes. 152 REFERENCES Arsteh, A.R. Teaching Through Research. Leiden: E.J. B r i l l , 1966, 36lpp. Atwood, H.M. t\ E l l i s , J. The concept of need: an analysis for adult education. Adult Leadership, 1971, 19, 7, 210-212 $ 244. Bagnall, R.G. 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Sheffield, S.B. "The Orientations of Adult Continuing Learners." in Solomon, D. § Houle, CO. (Ed's) The Continuing Learner. Chicago: Center for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults, 1964, 1-22. Smith, A.E., Bullock, W.A.C. $ Hall-, R.H. Field Studies Course. Gibraltar Point July 1963: Report on Field Studies. Nottingham: University of Nottingham Department of Adult Education and the Workers' Educational Association, 1963, 44pp. Smith, H.J. "History." in Dees, N. (Ed.) Approaches to Adult Teaching. New York: Pergamon Press, 1965, 36-45. Staton, T.F. How to Instruct Successfully: Modern Teaching Methods in Adult Education. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1960, 292pp. Stock, A. "Role-Playing and Simulation Techniques." in Stephens, M.D. § Roderick, G.W. (Ed's) Teaching Techniques i n Adult Education. Newton Abbot, Devon: David $ Charles, 1971, 90-101. Stott, M.M. A Review of Selected Research Related to the Use of Techniques in Adult Education. Vancouver: The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, unpublished M.A. thesis, 1966, 344pp. Styler, IV.E. The motives of adult students. Adult Education (Gr. Br.), 1950, 23, 2, 106-112. Thomas, A.M. "The Concept of Program in Adult Education." in Jensen, G., Liveright, A.A. § Hallenbeck, W. (Ed's) Adult Education: Outlines of an Emerging Field of University Study. Washington, D.C.: Adult 160 Education Association of the U.S.A., 1964, 241-269. Tye, N.B. Process Guidelines for Adult Education Program Development. New York: Columbia University, unpublished Ed.D. thesis, 1966, 266pp. Verner, C. A Conceptual Scheme for the Identification and Classification of Processes. Washington, D.C: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1962, 34pp. ibid . "Definition of Terms." i n Jensen, C, Liveright, A.A. § Hallenbeck, W. (Ed's) Adult Education: Outlines of an Emerging Field of University Study. Washington, D.C: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1964, 27-39. ibid. Cultural diffusion and adult education. Adult Leadership, 1968, 17, 2, 49-51, 91-93. ibid . 'Tundamental Concepts i n Adult Education." in Knoll, J.H. (Ed.) Internationales Jahrbuch fur Erwachsenenbildung 1975. Bertelsmann, Germany: Bertelsmann University, 1975, 177-192. Verner, C. § Booth, A. Adult Education. New York: The Center for Applied Research in Education, 1964, 118pp. Verner, C. § Davis, G.S. Completions and dropouts: a review of research. Adult Education, 1964, 14, 3, 157-176. Verner, C. £j Dickinson, G. The lecture, an analysis and review of research. Adult Education, 1967, 17, 2, 85-100. Whipple, J.B. Especially for Adults. Chicago: Center for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults, 1957, 70pp. White, T. § Kelly, H.C "Science for Adults." i n Knowles, M.S. (Ed.) Handbook of Adult Education in the United States. Chicago: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1960, 534-541. Zack, I. Characteristics of Participants in a New Inner-City Night School. Vancouver: University of British Columbia, 1976, unpublished M.A. thesis, 136pp. Zahn, J.C. Differences between adults and youth affecting learning.. Adult Education, 1967, 17, 2, 67-77. 162 APPENDIX A Description of the Program Being Studied The program was planned and run by the Extension Department of Victoria University, during the calendar year of 1975 (March to December). The primary research aim of the project was to undertake a basic survey of an area covering about 2,000 hectares, which had been recommended by the Wellington Regional Planning Authority for development as a Regional Park. The type of information sought in the survey was that which would have a bearing on establishing the actual boundaries of the park, the siting of f a c i l i t i e s for users of the park, and the subsequent management of the area. An important secondary research aim was to obtain and record information which would be valuable and interesting to subsequent users of the park, particularly those using the area for educational purposes. The study-research groups which undertook the project each comprised a group of interested adult members of the public working under the guidance of either one or two group leaders. The project was financed by grants from the Wellington Regional Planning Authority, Mobil O i l , the Victoria University Internal Research Committee and Extension Department. The salaries of the supporting admin-istrative staff and the project leader were separately funded. The grant moneys paid for most of costs involved, particularly the nominal fees paid to group leaders and the cost of materials for research, instruction and transport for groups on the project si t e . Publication costs of the research report (part 1) were separately provided by the University Publications Committee. These subsidies allowed the course fee paid by each participant to be pegged at $10.00. The six study-research groups were organized around different aspects of the survey: local history, geology, botany,freshwater biology, ornithology, 1 6 3 and mammalogy. Each group was lead by one or two researchers who were selected primarily for their research expertise, and secondarily for their a b i l i t y to work with adult students. They were either university faculty members or researchers employed by the New Zealand Government. Pre-course publicity was quite extensive, being f a c i l i t a t e d by the novelty and magnitude of the project. Articles appeared in a l l of the free lo c a l , weekly, house-hold delivery newspapers, in both of the regional daylies, and a discussion of the project was broadcast by a regional radio station. A brochure was prepared which outlined the project, i t s objectives (educat-ional and research), the nature of the course a c t i v i t i e s , the l i k e l y time . commitment expected of participants, the nature of expected participants, general administrative details, and also included information on the group leaders. It further, contained uniquely marked enrolment forms. Copies of the brochure were mailed to selected interest-groups. The main Extension Department brochure and newspaper advertisements lodged by the department in regional newspapers invited persons to request a copy of this project brochure. Enrolment was voluntary and without prerequistes, except i n the case of the ornithology group where applicants were required to possess the capability of identifying the local avifauna by both sound and sight. To ensure that applicants had at least, been exposed to the explanatory material, only applications received on the special forms i n the brochure were accepted. On the forms, applicants nominated the group to which they wanted, to belong and a second choice, i f they had one. Enrolments were accepted in order of receipt, without screening, although the project leader was available to give advice to persons requesting i t . Up to fifteen enrolments were accepted for each group, after which applicants were placed according to their second choice. Final enrolment figures for the groups, excluding group leaders, were: 164 history (15), geology (17), botany (15), freshwater biology (14), ornithology (9), and mammalogy (14). Because most adults are not accustomed to committing themselves to educational programs beyond one year, and due to the time constraints on the research contract, a time limit of ten months (March to December) was placed on the program from i n i t i a l to f i n a l class meeting. Within that period, each group arranged i t s meeting times to suit the participants and the constraints of the subject matter. The main project began early in March 1975 when a l l participants assembled i n one group for the presentation and discussion of introductory material. The principal topics were: features of the area to be studied, already completed planning and sociological research of application to the proposed park, the nature of the project, and the proposed modus operandi of each study-research group. After this introduction the study-research groups worked separately throughout the year i n their respective fields of study. The nature and frequency of meetings and the ways i n which the work was undertaken varied between groups as a result of the differing demands of the research problems and the participants' other commitment. The history group undertook much of i t s work by having individuals concentrate on particular sources of information and lines of investigation. Their meetings (17), generally i n the evening, were used to discuss methods and findings. In contrast, the botany group undertook most of i t s research as one group, although on occasions they used up to four subgroups; a l l sampling and recording being undertaken during the 24 meetings which were mostly day-long occasions spent in the f i e l d . The geology, ornithology and mammalogy groups had a work program which was similarly based in the f i e l d , using one group or a number of subgroups. The freshwater biologists also worked as one group but found that 165 over half of their time had to be spent in the laboratory, sorting, identifying and counting specimens from collected samples. These groups held between 15 and 20 meetings. Towards the end of November, when the study-research groups had completed the bulk of the research, each group leader prepared a summary report which included an account of the work done, the results obtained, and the conclusions and recommendations deriving from the work. A copy of this report from each group was given to a l l project participants and interested land-owners directly affected by the park proposals. At this stage the participants were asked also to complete a questionnaire on their active recreational interests, both past and present, and experience in certain fields of importance in development of the park, e.g. road design and track cutting. A l l interested study-research group participants and land-owners then met for a half-day for presentation of the summary reports. One week later, an evening and a f u l l day were given to discussion of the findings, with the aim of drawing up recommendations on development and management of the proposed park. Of the 82 persons actively involved in the project, 57 participated in this discussion phase of the work. Each was placed in one of four discussion groups, the placing being designed to ensure the greatest possible breadth of experience and knowledge in each group. Thus, each discussion group included at least one member of each study-research group and, as far as was possible, participants with a range of recreational and other relevant experience. A framework of discussion topics was given to each group member. The recommendations from the discussion groups and those made by the study-research groups, together with a few additional points made sep-arately by some affected land-owners, were then collated and condensed by / the project leader into a set of recommendations for publication and forwarding to the Wellington Regional Planning Authority, as agreed the research contract. APPENDIX B Letter Accompanying Questionnaire [UNIVERSITY LETTER-HEAD] Dear BELMONT REGIONAL HILL PARK PROJECT 1975 As you are aware, t h i s project was designed with the aim of undertaking the survey while providing a stimulating educational framavork f o r the participants such as yourself i n which to learn about the subject under study and the methods used. This "study-research group" approach to education and research i s s t i l l i n the developmental stage. I f we are to continue with the method, improve on i t , and share our experiences with other interested educational i n s t i t u t i o n s , we must have detailed information on the responses of part i c i p a n t s . I t i s important that ALL participants a s s i s t with t h i s assessment. The attitudes of those who were d i s s a t i s f i e d ; those who f a i l e d to complete the course; those who were very pleased; and those who attended only sporadically, are a l l equally important to us. 167 26 January, 1976 To make i t possible to handle the information, i t must be set i n a standard format. For t h i s purpose, the enclosed questionnaire has been 168 prepared. You are urged to complete the questionnaire promptly and return i t to the University so that we may continue to improve our teaching in this area. Note that the information from each respondent to the questionnaire w i l l be regarded as confidential. Any published material w i l l be i n such a form that no personal identification could be attached to any part of i t . Note also, that your responses w i l l be of value only i f you are completely frank and, i f necessary, ruthless in your replies to the questionnaire. Yours sincerely, R. G. Bagnall Lecturer in Science 169 APPENDIX C The Questionnaire In this copy of the questionnaire, spacing has been reduced, including that provided for response to questions for which more than one line was available in the f i e l d instrument. Where appropriate, the total number of responses i s shown i n parentheses. BELMONT REGIONAL HILL PARK PROJECT Questionnaire to Participants Please complete this questionnaire and return i t i n the envelope provided not later than 21 FEBRUARY 1976. DELETE, TICK, or PRINT as appropriate. Please do NOT underline. 1. GROUP MEMBERSHIP You were a member of which study-research group? History (8), Geology (15), Botany (13), Freshwater Biology (12), Ornithology (6), Mammology (11). 2. PERSONAL INFORMATION —Age i n years -Male (37) / female- (28) —Current occupation (be specific) —Previous occupation i f now unemployed, retired or committed to domestic duties —Academic qualifications ( i f any), please state major subjects i f degree, diploma, etc —Previous formal study in the subject of your study-research group, including University Extension, WEA, secondary school, degree work, etc,; state subject, level ( i f appropriate) and organising institution.. —Have you previously attended adult education courses in OTHER subjects? 170 YES / NO . — I f "YES" to the previous question state, i f not covered above: the number of courses the subjects the organizing institutions KNOWLEDGE OF THE SUBJECT From which of the following sources did you f i r s t learn of the project and the fact that you might participate in i t ? —from a friend (9) —from a newspaper ar t i c l e (4) —from a newspaper advertisement (3) —from a radio broadcast (0) —from receiving the brochure—solicited or unsolicited (34) —from seeing the brochure in a library or similar place (9) —from the University Extension office or staff (6) PRE-ENROLMENT INFORMATION ON THE PROJECT Indicate, with a tick i n the appropriate column, the adequacy of the brochure description with regard to each of the following areas: less than adequate adequate more than adequate the nature of the subject matter (5) (57) (3) the course technique (15) (48) (2) the expected commitment of your time (10) (49) (4) COURSE APPEAL, YOUR EXPECTATIONS AND SATISFACTION In the table below: (1) i n the l e f t hand section, nimber up to five items that most appealed to you i n the project at the time of enrolment. Number from 1 (most important) to 5 (least important). Use each number only once. If more than five items were important, you may tick those beyond 171 the f i f t h . (2) i n the right hand section of the table, please tick the appropriate column, opposite each of the items which you have numbered or  ticked, to indicate the degree to which your interest was satisfied. INITIAL APPEAL OF THE PROJECT DEGREE OF SATISFAC-TION WITH PROJECT low satis-factory high —the thought of working with other similarly int-erested persons: 1(2), 2(5), 3(3), 4(10), 5(7), 7(2) (2) (16) (13) — i t might help to use up spare time: 3(1), 4(1) (1) (1) (0) — i t could be a good way to learn about the sub-ject: 1(14), 2(8), 3(9), 4(7), 5(4), 7(4) (3) (16) (26) —you enjoy working outside: 1(1), 2(5), 3(6), 4(8), 5(12), /(3) (2) (8) (26) — i t would give you an opportunity to get away from home: 1(1), 3(1), / ( l ) (0) (0) (3) — i t might start you on a new hobby: 2(1), 3(1), 4(1), 5(1) (2) (1) (2) — i t could have been a good preliminary to other related work: 1(2), 2(3), 3(5), 4(3), 5(5), /(2) (7) (9) (3) — i t l e t you out of some domestic chores: (0) (0) (0) — a friend was also participating: 1(1), 2(1), / ( l ) (0) (1) (2) —you liked the idea of being involved with a res-earch project and i t s publication: 1(5), 2(6), 3(6), 4(8), 5(3), /(2) (7) (13) (8) — t o work with a particular group leader: 1(1), 2(5), 3(3), 5(3), 1(4) (0) (5) (11) 172 INITIAL APPEAL OF THE PROJECT DEGREE OF SATISFAC-TION WITH PROJECT low satis-factory high the project was related to your occupation: 1(4), 2(5), 3(3), 4(2), 5(4), /(2) (4) (12) (4) the project was NOT related to your occupation: 1(1), 2(1), 3(5), 4(1), 5(3), /(2) (0) (6) (7) you were interested i n the geographical area: 1(7), 2(7), 3(5), 4(9), 5(4), y(l) (1) (8) (24) you were interested i n the subject of your study-research group: 1(15), 2(9), 3(6), 4(5), 5(3), (5) (11) (23) you were interested i n the recreational-planning aspect of the project: 1(8), 2(5), 3(9), 4(6), 5(6), /(4) (7) (11) (16) other (please specify): 2(1), 3(1), 5(1), /(5) (2) (2) (4) ADDITIONAL GAINS Did you derive anything else from the course? YES (40) / NO (25) If "YES" please specify: , : .. EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES The primary educational objectives of these study-research groups may be stated as follows; pleases indicate, in the appropriate column, the extent to which each was realized i n your case: YOUR ASSESSMENT poorly reason-ably well to increase your understanding of the study-research group subject as a f i e l d of study (10) (22) (31) (not merely as a collection of facts and 173 explanations): 2) to increase your a b i l i t y to analyze, c r i t i c i z e and appreciate the limitations of research work (10) (20) (33) in the area of study: If you answered "poorly" or 'reasonably' to either of the above, what type of course do you think would better meet these objectives? — f o r objective 1) . — f o r objective 2) 8. EDUCATIONAL VALUE The following have been suggested as the main educational strengths of the study-research group technique; indicate for each one, by ticking the appropriate column, the degree to which you concur in the case of this project. strongly disagree doubt i t i t i s probably correct strongly agree —maintains student interest i n studying the subject (0) (5)' (29) (29) — f a c i l i t a t e s the welding of a group into a working team (0) (3) (38) (20) —makes good use of existing s k i l l s of group members (0) (4) (22) (36) —encourages learning by making the material meaningful (1) (2) (20) (40) —encourages learning by providing for reinforcement and practice (0) (3) (26) (32) —encourages learning by providing for self-assessment as results are worked up, discussed and checked (0) (19) (22) (17) 174 strongly disagree doubt i t i t i s probably correct strongly agree provides a means of teaching res-earch-based subjects as they real-l y are, namely an integration of existing information and research (0) (2) (23) (32) develops i n students a more in-formed and c r i t i c a l attitude to-• wards research (0) (8) (25) (25) provides a means of involving. students i n original and import-ant applied research (0) (5) (22) (30) enables each student to set his or her own pace of learning and level of participation (3) (7) (25) (26> 9. ATTENDANCE — If you did not attend a l l scheduled meetings, how many (approximately) did you miss?.....(average = 27%) —Why? — D i d you: attend sporadically? (49) stop attending after a while? (11) — I f "sporadically," did your attendance: improve during the year?...(l) decline during the year?...(5) —Could the organizers or group leaders have done anything to increase your attendance? YES (13) / NO (51) — If "YES," please state 10. YOUR BACKGROUND IN THE SUBJECT —Did you find your background, i f any, in the subject of your study-research group to be: — i n s u f f i c i e n t (4) 175 —adequate (38) —too advanced (3) — I f you had no background in the subject of your study-research group was this a hindrance? YES (7) / NO (11) 11. INTRODUCTORY MATERIAL ON THE PROJECT —Did you find the material presented at the f i r s t two meetings to be: —too superficial (4) —adequate (50) —too detailed (10) —How could i t have been better presented? 12. BACKGROUND READING DURING THE COURSE —Would you prefer:—hand-out material (assuming that you pay for i t in an i n i t i a l l y higher fee)? (7) —references to source material (for you to buy or borrow)? (9) — a mixture of both the above? (45) —Was the amount of hand-out and/or reference material given during the course: — i n s u f f i c i e n t ? (15) —adequate? (46) —excessive? (2) 13. CONTINUED POST-COURSE STUDY —Should you wish to continue study on your own in the subject of your study-research group, do you think that this course has: (a) added to or given you the a b i l i t y to do so? (51) (b) not increased or not given you the a b i l i t y to do so? (10) — i f 'b' can you suggest any reasons? —Has the course: (a)—encouraged you to seek other courses in the subject? (29) —discouraged you from seeking other courses in 176 the subject? (2) —not altered your motivation? (34) (b)—encouraged you to seek courses in other subj ects? (23) —not altered your motivation? (42) 14. GROUP SIZE Assuming that there i s only one group leader at any one time for a study-research group, how many persons would you consider to be an ideal number for one group? 15. INTERGROUP CONTACT —Would you have preferred more contact (discussion of methods, results, etc.) between study-research groups during the year? YES (43) / NO (16) — If "YES" have you any comments? .. . 16. SCHEDULING OF MEETINGS The introductory meetings must be prescheduled (dates printed i n the brochure); would you prefer other meetings to be: —prescheduled? (13) —scheduled by group discussion (as in this project) ? .(52) 17. LENGTH OF MEETINGS Would you prefer meetings to be:—half a day in length? (26) —f u l l - d a y i n length? (42) —condensed into one block (2-3 weeks in January) ? (2) 18. FREQUENCY OF MEETINGS —Assuming full-day meetings, what frequency do you prefer? —weekly (8) —fo r t n i g h t l y (23) —monthly (22) 177 —Assuming half-day meetings, what frequency do you prefer? —weekly (9) —fortnightly (29) —monthly (8) 19. WEEKEND MEETING DAYS Do you prefer:—Saturdays? (14) —Sundays? (11) — a mixture of both? (39) 20. LENGTH OF PROJECT —Would you have preferred this, course to be: —condensed into a six month period? (12) —extended to, say, two years?..... (24) —Have you any comments? .., 21. COURSE FEE The cost of this project was covered largely by grants from the Wellington Regional Planning Authority, Mobil Oil and the University. The fee paid by you ($10.00) would have been about $50.00 without this assistance. Would you have enrolled had the fee been of this order? YES (7) /NO (57) 22. SUGGESTIONS Have you any other suggestions for the improvement of projects such as this? 178 APPENDIX D Numbered List of Variables Used i n Factor Analyses In the following l i s t s the variable numbers refer only to those used in the text of this dissertation. They are not referable to those i n the questionnaire instrument. The weighting and ranking of the variable values is shown i n parentheses following each variable. A. Motivational Factors 1. The thought of working with other similarly interested persons (1 = item of minor importance, 2 = item f i f t h i n order of importance, 3 = item fourth i n order of importance, 4 = item third i n order of importance, 5 = item second i n order of importance, 6 = item most important) 2. It might help to use up spare time (as above) 3. It could be a good way to learn about the subject (as above) 4. I enjoy working outside (as above) 5. It would give me an opportunity to get away from home (as above) 6. It might start me on a new hobby (as above) 7. It could be a good preliminary to other related work (as above) 8. It l e t me out of some domestic chores (as above) 9. A friend was also participating (as above) 10. I liked the idea of being involved with a research project and i t s publication (as above) 11. To work with a particular group leader (as above) 12. The project work is related to my occupation (as above) 13. The project work i s not related to my occupation (as above) 14. I am interested i n the geographical area (as above) 15. I am interested i n the subject of the study-research group (as above) 16. I am interested in the recreational-planning aspect of the project 179 (as above) 17. Other items not noted on the questionnaire instrument (as above) B. Participational Factors 21. Age (actual age i n years) 22. Sex (1 = male, 2 = female) 23. Socio-economic status (1 = highest socio-economic category, 2 = second highest, 3 = third, 4 = fourth, 5 = f i f t h , 6 = lowest socio-economic category) 24. Background i n research (1 = without, 2 = with) 25. Previous non-credit education in the discipline of the study-research group (0 = none, 1 = one course, 2 = two or more courses) 26. Previous education for credit i n the discipline of the study-research group (0 = none, 1 = at school sixth form le v e l , 2 = at school seventh form le v e l , 3 = at Diploma or Certificate at tertiary level, 4 = at undergraduate degree level, 5 = at graduate degree level) 27. Number of adult education courses previously participated in (0 = none, 1 = one course, 2 = two courses, 3 = three or more courses) 28. Highest formal academic qualifications (0 = none, 1 = qualifications other than those following, 2 = School Certificate, 3 = University Entrance and/or Higher School Certificate, 4 = Certificate or Diploma, 5 = Baccalaureate degree, 6 = Honors and/or Masters degree, 7 = Doctoral degree) 29. Organising institution for adult education courses previously taken; highest one only (1 = other than those following, 2 = secondary school evening program, 3 = Workers Education Association, 4 = university) 30. Adequacy of the project publicity brochure with regard to the nature of the subject matter (1 = less than adequate, 2 = adequate, 3 = more than adequate) 180 31. Adequacy of the project publicity brochure with regard to the course technique (as i n 30) 32. Adequacy of the project publicity brochure with regard to the expected commitment of individual time (as in 30) 33. Realization of educational objective — to increase individual under-standing of the study-research group subject, as a f i e l d of study, rather than as a collection of facts and explanations (1 = poorly, 2 = reasonably, 3 = well) 34. Realization of educational objective — to increase individual a b i l i t y to analyze, c r i t i c i z e and appreciate the limitations of research work in the area of the study (as i n 33) 35. Educational value of the technique — maintains participant interest i n studying the subject (1 = strongly disgree, 2 = doubt i t , 3 = i t i s probably correct, 4 = strongly agree) 36. Educational value of the technique — fa c i l i t a t e s the welding of the group into a working team (as i n 35) 37. Educational value of the technique — makes good use of existing s k i l l s of group members (as in 35) 38. Educational value of the technique — encourages learning by making the material meaningful (as i n 35) 39. Educational value of the technique — encourages learning by providing for reinforcement and practice (as i n 35) 40. Educational value of the technique — encourages learning by providing for self-assessment of progress (as in 35) 41. Educational value of the technique — provides a means of teaching research-based subjects as they really are, namely an intergration of existing information and research (as in 35) 42. Educational value of the technique — develops in participants a more informed and c r i t i c a l attitude towards research (as in 35) 181 43. Educational value of the technique — provides a means of involving learners in original and important applied research (as i n 35) 44. Educational value of the technique — enables each participant to set his or her own pace of learning and level of participation (as in 35) 45. Attendance of course meetings (% of meetings attended) 46. Adequacy of introductory material presented at the f i r s t two meetings (1 = too superficial, 2 = adequate, 3 = too detailed) 47. Adequacy of the reference and reading material provided during the course (1 = insufficient, 2 = adequate, 3 = excessive) 48. Influence of participation on a b i l i t y to undertake individual study in the subject of the study-research group (1 = not added to provided, 2 = added to or provided) 49. Influence of participation on motivation to participate i n further courses i n the same subject (1 = discouraged, 2 = not changed, 3 = encouraged) 50. Influence of participation on motivation to participate i n courses i n other subjects (1 = not changed, 2 = encouraged) 51. Preferred number of participants i n a study-research group with one leader at any time (number of participants) 52. Preference for more*contact between study-research groups than was the case i n this project (1 = no, 2 = yes) 53. Preference for scheduling group meetings by group discussion, rather than working to a prescheduled timetable (1 = no, 2 = yes) 54. Preferred length of meetings for study-research group projects (1 = halfday, 2 = either half or fullday, 3 = fullday, 4 = block course) 55. Assuming f u l l day-length meetings, preferred frequency of meetings for study-research group projects (1 = weekly, 2 = either weekly or fortnightly, 3 = fortnightly, 4 = either fortnightly or monthly, 5 = monthly) 182 56. Assuming half day-length meetings, preferred frequency of meetings for study-research group projects (as i n 55) 57. Preferred total time span of a study-research group project (1 = six months, 2 = one year, 4 = two years) 58. Enrolment i f fee had been $50.00 rather than $10.00 (1 = no, 2 = yes) R.G. Bagnall PUBLICATIONS — Seimatosporium leptospermi sp. nov. on leaves of Leptospermum scoparium Forst. in New Zealand and L. juniperirium J.E. Sm. in Australia, (with J.E. Sheridan) New Zealand Journal of Botany,1972, 10, 69-73. —TIBhe dry weight and c a l o r i f i c value of l i t t e r f a l l in a New Zealand Nothofagus forest. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 1972, 10, 27-36. — Permanent Quadrats on Kapiti Island. Wellington, New Zealand: Victoria University (Extension Publication no. 12), 1974, 164pp. — Vegetation of the raised beaches at Cape Turakirae, Wellington. New Zealand  Journal of Botany, 1975, 13, 367-424. — Study-research groups as a method of teaching the natural sciences. Inter-national Congress of University Adult Education Journal, 1975, 14, 2, 21-41. — Teaching through research: a new technique of teaching natural science subjects. Continuing Education i n New Zealand, 1976, 8, 2, 61-67. — (Ed.) Survey of the Proposed Belmont Regional H i l l Park. Part One: Recom-mendations on Development and Management. Wellington, New Zealand: Victoria University, 1976, 63pp. — "Botany of the Proposed Belmont'Regional H i l l Park: Summary Report." in Bagnall, R.G. (Ed.) Survey of the Proposed Belmont Regional H i l l Park. Part  One: Recommendations on Development and Management. Wellington, New Zealand: Victoria University, 1976, 47-53. 

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