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Learning needs and job satisfaction of community mental health workers Quastel, Leah N. 1979

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9\ LEARNING NEEDS AND JOB SATISFACTION OF COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH WORKERS by LEAH N. QUASTEL B.A., SIR GEORGE WILLIAMS UNIVERSITY, 1971 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of A d u l t Education) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the re q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1979 (c) Leah N. Q u a s t e l , 1979. I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V6T 1W5 D a t e D E - 6 B P 7 5 - 5 1 1 E i A B S T R A C T The p r e s e n t s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n n e e d s o f c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s , a n d t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t r a i n i n g n e e d / o p p o r t u n i t y d i s c r e p a n c i e s and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s w i t h f e w l e a r n i n g n e e d / o p p o r t u n i t y d i s c r e p a n c i e s w o u l d be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r j o b t h a n p e o p l e i n s i t u a t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n a d e q u a t e t o mee t s e l f p e r c e i v e d l e a r n i n g n e e d s . C o n g r u e n c e was i n v o k e d a s an e x p l a n a t o r y c o n s t r u c t m e d i a t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n unmet l e a r n i n g n e e d s and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . A m o d i f i e d D e l p h i t e c h n i q u e was e m p l o y e d t o g e n e r a t e an i n v e n t o r y o f s k i l l s , k n o w l e d g e s and a t t i t u d e s r e q u i r e d t o p e r f o r m c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k . S i x t e e n D e l p h i p a n e l i s t s i d e n t i f i e d 73 c o m p e t e n c i e s w h i c h f o r m e d t h e i t e m p o o l f o r a l e a r n i n g n e e d s q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The J o b D e s c r i p t i v e I n d e x was a d o p t e d as a m e a s u r e o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . The S k i l l s , K n o w l e d g e s and A t t i t u d e s I n v e n t o r y , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e J o b D e s c r i p t i v e I n d e x and a s e v e n i t e m s o c i o -d e m o g r a p h i c q u e s t i o n n a i r e , was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o 103 h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s w o r k i n g i n e l e v e n c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h c e n t r e s i n t h e l o w e r m a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . L e a r n i n g n e e d s w e r e d e r i v e d b y s c a l e s c o r e a n a l y s i s . F i f t y -t h r e e o f 73 c o m p e t e n c i e s on t h e S k i l l s , K n o w l e d g e s and A t t i t u d e s I n v e n t o r y w e r e i d e n t i f i e d a s i t e m s f o r w h i c h more l e a r n i n g was r e q u i r e d . The r e s p o n d e n t s p e r c e i v e d few c o m p e t e n c y g a p s i n t a s k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k . The g r e a t e s t n e e d s f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g w e r e i d e n t i f i e d i n c o m p o n e n t p a r t s o f i i j o b t a s k s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e e v o l v i n g c o m m u n i t y o r i e n t e d r o l e , s u c h a s e d u c a t i n g t h e p u b l i c a b o u t m e n t a l h e a l t h and i l l n e s s and p l a n n i n g i n n o v a t i v e t h e r a p e u t i c p r o g r a m s . The h y p o t h e s i s was t e s t e d w i t h a c o r r e l a t i o n a l d e s i g n . The r e s u l t s s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t e d t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t t h e g r e a t e r t h e d e g r e e o f d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n l e a r n i n g n e e d s and l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s , t h e l e s s t h e j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . T h e r e w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n a l l s e c t i o n s o f t h e S k i l l s , K n o w l e d g e s and A t t i t u d e s I n v e n t o r y and e a c h f a c e t o f t h e J o b D e s c r i p t i v e I n d e x . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d a t t h e . 01 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . S t e p w i s e r e g r e s s i o n s u p p o r t e d t h e f u r t h e r c o n c l u s i o n t h a t unmet l e a r n i n g n e e d s w e r e p o w e r f u l p r e d i c t o r s o f j o b d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . D i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s a c c o u n t e d f o r 1 1 . 6 p e r c e n t o f t h e e x p l a i n e d v a r i a n c e o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n a s c o m p a r e d t o 8 . 3 p e r c e n t o f v a r i a n c e a c c o u n t e d f o r b y a l l o f t h e s e v e n s o c i o -d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o l l e c t i v e l y . The s i n g l e b e s t p r e d i c t o r o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n was unmet l e a r n i n g n e e d s i n ' T r e a t m e n t and C o m m u n i t y S e r v i c e s ' ( b e t a = - . 2 7 ) . The m o s t i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o e n g a g e i n c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s t o s a t i s f y p e r c e i v e d l e a r n i n g n e e d s a p p e a r s t o i n c r e a s e j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n w h i c h m a y , i n t h e l o n g r u n , i n f l u e n c e q u a l i t y o f p a t i e n t c a r e . i i i T able of Contents Page LIST OF TABLES v LIST OF FIGURES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i i Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION 1 T h e o r e t i c a l Framework 3 2. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 8 Need 8 Congruence 21 Job S a t i s f a c t i o n 25 3. INSTRUMENT DESIGN 34 Job D e s c r i p t i v e Index 34 S k i l l s , Knowledges, A t t i t u d e Inventory 38 4. METHOD 48 Design 48 Study P o p u l a t i o n 48 Procedure 50 Data A n a l y s i s 51 5. RESULTS • 53 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Respondents 53 Job S a t i s f a c t i o n 56 Learning Needs 58 Test of the Hypothesis 66 i v 6 . D I S C U S S I O N AND I M P L I C A T I O N S 78 L e a r n i n g N e e d s 78 C o n g r u e n c e 80 J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n 82 L e a r n i n g N e e d s and J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n 85 I m p l i c a t i o n s 88 7 . SUMMARY 90 R E F E R E N C E S 96 A P P E N D I C E S 107 A p p e n d i x A : Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 108 A p p e n d i x B : Memo o f A u t h o r i z a t i o n t o C o n d u c t S t u d y 134 A p p e n d i x C : Summary T a b l e s o f S t e p w i s e R e g r e s s i o n 136 V L I S T OF T A B L E S T A B L E PAGE 1. S c o r i n g o f J o b D e s c r i p t i v e I n d e x 35 2 . J o b D e s c r i p t i v e I n d e x S c o r e s u n d e r F i v e a s s u m p t i o n s o f A n s w e r i n g s t y l e 36 3 . J o b D e s c r i p t i v e I n d e x S c a l e s f o r E m p l o y e e s o f 21 C o m p a n i e s 38 4 . I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y R e l e v a n c e S c o r e s f o r S e v e n A r e a s o f C o m m u n i t y M e n t a l H e a l t h Work 43 5 . I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y Need S c o r e s f o r S e v e n A r e a s o f C o m m u n i t y M e n t a l H e a l t h Work 44 6 . I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y A v a i l a b i l i t y S c o r e s f o r S e v e n A r e a s o f C o m m u n i t y M e n t a l H e a l t h Work 45 7 . I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s o f S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y D i s c r e p a n c y S c o r e s f o r S e v e n A r e a s o f C o m m u n i t y M e n t a l H e a l t h Work 46 8 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f R e s p o n d e n t s b y C o m m u n i t y C a r e Teams 49 9 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f M e n t a l H e a l t h W o r k e r s b y Sex and M a r i t a l S t a t u s 54 1 0 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f M e n t a l H e a l t h W o r k e r s b y L e v e l o f E d u c a t i o n 55 1 1 . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f M e n t a l H e a l t h W o r k e r s b y P r o f e s s i o n a l A f f i l i a t i o n 56 1 2 . J o b D e s c r i p t i v e I n d e x S c o r e s f o r C o m m u n i t y M e n t a l H e a l t h W o r k e r s 57 1 3 . S k i l l s , K n o w l e d g e s , A t t i t u d e s I n v e n t o r y S c o r e s 59 1 4 . C r i s i s I n t e r v e n t i o n S c a l e S c o r e s 61 v i 1 5 . A s s e s s m e n t S c a l e S c o r e s 61 1 6 . T r e a t m e n t and C o m m u n i t y S e r v i c e s S c a l e S c o r e s 62 1 7 . R e l a t i o n s h i p s and C o m m u n i c a t i o n s S c a l e S c o r e s 63 1 8 . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n S c a l e S c o r e s 64 1 9 . D o c u m e n t a t i o n S c a l e S c o r e s 65 2 0 . E d u c a t i o n a l D u t i e s S c a l e S c o r e s 66 2 1 . C o r r e l a t i o n B e t w e e n J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n and Need f o r T r a i n i n g , O p p o r t u n i t y f o r T r a i n i n g and Unmet T r a i n i n g N e e d s 67 2 2 . C o r r e l a t i o n B e t w e e n J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n and Unmet T r a i n i n g N e e d s i n S e v e n A r e a s o f C o m m u n i t y M e n t a l H e a l t h Work 69 2 3 . Summary o f R e g r e s s i o n R e s u l t s w i t h J o b D e s c r i p t i v e I n d e x a s D e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e . . . . 71 2 4 . R e g r e s s i o n E q u a t i o n f o r J o b D e s c r i p t i v e I n d e x - E f f e c t s o f I n d e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e s o n O v e r a l l J o b . S a t i s f a c t i o n 73 v i i L I S T OF F I G U R E S F i g u r e P a g e 1. S c h e m a t i c R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n N e e d s , E d u c -a t i o n a l O p p o r t u n i t i e s and J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n 5 2 . S c h e m a t i c R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f E d u c a t i o n a l Need 14 3 . P r o p o r t i o n o f E x p l a i n e d V a r i a n c e on J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n 74 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o t h a n k t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r M e n t a l H e a l t h S e r v i c e s f o r t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i o n i n m a k i n g t h i s s t u d y f e a s i b l e . I am p a r t i c u l a r l y g r a t e f u l t o t h e c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s t u d y . I t h a n k my r e s e a r c h a d v i s o r , D r . R o g e r B o s h i e r , f o r h i s e n c o u r a g e m e n t and g u i d a n c e i n d i r e c t i n g t h i s s t u d y t o c o m p l e t i o n . I am a l s o i n d e b t e d t o D r . G a r y D i c k i n s o n and D r . J o h n C o l l i n s f o r a d v i c e g i v e n d u r i n g v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f t h i s s t ud y . I a c k n o w l e d g e w i t h g r a t i t u d e t h e i n t e r e s t and a s s i s t a n c e o f t h e f a c u l t y members o f t h e S c h o o l o f R e h a b i l i t a t i o n M e d i c i n e . M o s t i m p o r t a n t o f a l l , I t h a n k my h u s b a n d and t h r e e s o n s f o r t h e i r e n c o u r a g e m e n t and u n d e r s t a n d i n g . 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION As s o c i e t y copes with r a p i d advances i n medical technology and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l changes i n the h e a l t h f i e l d , h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s are f i n d i n g t h e i r b a s i c education p r e p a r a t i o n must be expanded. Continuing education i s one important way to f u r t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l development. It i s d e f i n e d as a systematic e f f o r t to maintain and develop s k i l l s , knowledges and a t t i t u d e s of persons a l r e a d y engaged i n p r o v i d i n g h e a l t h care so they can do t h e i r jobs or f i l l t h e i r r o l e s b e t t e r (Charters and B l a k e l y , 1974). Continuing education can f a c i l i t a t e a d a p t a t i o n to change. Implementation of the "team approach" to p a t i e n t care and maintenance of the c h r o n i c a l l y i l l i n home and community are two examples of the in n o v a t i o n s f o r which h e a l t h personnel must re-evaluate t h e i r r o l e s and adopt new a t t i t u d e s . One group c u r r e n t l y engaged in i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y team e f f o r t s to provide support to people r e q u i r i n g long term care are mental h e a l t h workers. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the h o s p i t a l has been the m i l i e u o f most mental h e a l t h workers; the prime r o l e of mental h e a l t h workers has been the care of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d p a t i e n t s . P u b l i c a t i o n of A c t i o n f o r Mental Health ( J o i n t Commission, 1961) followed by Pr e s i d e n t Kennedy's c a l l in 1963 f o r Federal g r a n t s to pl.an new c e n t r e s , c r e a t e d a r e v o l u t i o n a r y s h i f t i n the p s y c h i a t r i c f i e l d i n North America from c u s t o d i a l to community c a r e . The 2 t r a n s i t i o n f r o m p r o v i n c i a l h o s p i t a l t o c o m m u n i t y b a s e d i n t e r -d i s c i p l i n a r y m e n t a l h e a l t h t e a m s i s a p r o c e s s w h i c h h a s b e e n o c c u r i n g i n V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s i n c e 1 9 7 3 . T h i s s h i f t i n m i l i e u h a s had an i m p a c t o n m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s who m u s t k e e p a b r e a s t o f k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s and a d o p t new a t t i t u d e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e d e l i v e r y o f h e a l t h c a r e . I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a s e l s e w h e r e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , t h e c o m m u n i t y o r i e n t e d r o l e h a s c r e a t e d new n e e d s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n ( G l a s s c o t e and G u d e m a n , 1 9 6 9 ; E s t e s , 1 9 7 5 ) . A d u l t e d u c a t i o n s c h o l a r s e m p h a s i z e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c o n d u c t i n g a n e e d s - d i a g n o s i s a s an e a r l y s t e p i n t h e c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n p r o c e s s ( M i l l e r , 1 9 6 4 ; B e r g e v i n , 1 9 6 7 ; H o u l e , 1 9 7 2 ; K n o w l e s , 1975) . The s k i l l s , k n o w l e d g e s and a t t i t u d e s r e q u i r e d t o do t h e j o b f o r m t h e b a s i s f o r p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s t o e n h a n c e c o m p e t e n c i e s . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h g a p s e x i s t b e t w e e n p r e s e n t and d e s i r e d l e v e l s o f c o m p e t e n c e and t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s t o mee t e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s a f f e c t w o r k p e r f o r m a n c e ; t h e q u a l i t y o f p e r f o r m a n c e i n t u r n e f f e c t s t h e l e v e l o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e j o b ( S c h w a b and C u m m i n g s , 1 9 7 5 ) . T h e o r e t i c i a n s i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l p s y c h o l o g y s u g g e s t t h a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s b e t w e e n e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s , e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . Hammer ( 1 9 7 7 ) , f o r e x a m p l e , p r e s e n t s a m o d e l r e l a t i n g s a t i s f i e d (met) c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n n e e d s t o p o s i t i v e j o b a t t i t u d e s , j o b g r o w t h and f u l f i l l m e n t . H e r z b e r g ( 1 9 7 3 ) s u g g e s t s a c h i e v e m e n t , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a d v a n c e m e n t a r e a t t a i n a b l e t h r o u g h o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r new l e a r n i n g . G l a s s c o t e and 3 Gudeman ( 1 9 6 9 ) f o u n d "new l e a r n i n g " t o be t h e t h i r d m o s t f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d j o b s a t i s f i e r o f 377 c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s . C o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s a r e t o d a y c h a l l e n g e d b y t h e n e e d t o r e t a i n c l i e n t s i n t h e c o m m u n i t y and a r e f a c e d b y a p l e t h o r a o f new c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h a t g i v e r i s e t o n e e d s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . As t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n f r o m an i n s t i t u t i o n t o a c o m m u n i t y - c e n t e r e d a p p r o a c h c o n t i n u e s , i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s r e m a i n p r o f e s s i o n a l l y c o m p e t e n t and s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l and e v o l v i n g r o l e s . C a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e may be a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e p r o v i s i o n o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . I n s h o r t , w o r k e r s w i t h a c c e s s t o c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n may be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s a t i s f i e d t h a n w o r k e r s w i t h o u t a c c e s s t o a p p r o p r i a t e l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . H o w e v e r , i t a p p e a r s t h a t t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p h a s n o t b e e n s y s t e m a t i c a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d ; t h i s s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o p a r t l y r e c t i f y t h i s o m i s s i o n . T H E O R E T I C A L FRAMEWORK The p r o f e s s i o n a l b r i n g s t o a j o b c e r t a i n s k i l l s , k n o w l e d g e s and a t t i t u d e s . He a n t i c i p a t e s t h a t he w i l l n o t p o s s e s s a l l t h e c o m p e t e n c i e s " i d e a l l y " r e q u i r e d f o r t h e j o b . A s s u m i n g a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s c o n t i n u o u s l e a r n i n g , he w i l l s e e k o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o b r i d g e t h e g a p . When r e l e v a n t l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e a v a i l a b l e a s t a t e o f c o n g r u e n c e e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e w o r k e r and t h e w o r k e n v i r o n m e n t and t h e i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e s s a t i s f a c t i o n 4 w i t h h i s j o b and i n c r e a s e d f e e l i n g s o f c o m p e t e n c e . When t h e r e i s a d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s and e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h e r e i s a l a c k o f b a l a n c e (a s t a t e o f i n c o n g r u e n c e ) a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f e e l i n g s o f d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e j o b . F i g u r e 1 i s a s c h e m a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d / o p p o r t u n i t y d i s c r e p a n c i e s and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . The r e c t a n g l e a t t h e t o p d e p i c t s t h e s k i l l s , k n o w l e d g e s and a t t i t u d e s r e q u i r e d t o p e r f o r m t h e w o r k . E d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s a r i s e f r o m s e l f p e r c e i v e d g a p s i n c o m p e t e n c i e s w h i c h f o r m t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g . The l e f t s i d e r e p r e s e n t s m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s w i t h h i g h l e a r n i n g n e e d s and s u i t a b l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s o r t h o s e w i t h l o w n e e d s and few o p p o r t u n i t e s f o r t r a i n i n g , i . e . t h o s e w i t h l o w n e e d / o p p o r t u n i t y d i s c r e p a n c i e s . F e e l i n g s o f c o m p e t e n c e l e a d t o j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n w h i c h i n t u r n may e n h a n c e p e r f o r m a n c e . On t h e r i g h t hand s i d e a r e w o r k e r s w i t h h i g h e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d / o p p o r t u n i t y d i s c r e p a n c i e s . Unmet l e a r n i n g n e e d s may l e a d t o j o b d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and d e c r e a s e d p e r f o r m a n c e . C o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n n e e d s a r i s e a s a f u n c t i o n o f p e r s o n / e n v i r o n m e n t i n t e r a c t i o n s . T h i s b e l i e f i s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o M u r r a y ' s ( 1 9 3 8 ) n e e d / p r e s s t h e o r y , t h e c o n g r u e n c e p e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r y o f R o g e r s ( 1 9 5 9 ) , t h e f o r m u l a t i o n s o f c o g n i t i v e c o n s i s t e n c y t h e o r i s t s s u c h a s H e i d e r ( 1 9 5 8 ) . I n M u r r a y ' s n e e d / p r e s s m o d e l a " d i s s o n a n t " r e l a t i o n s h i p i s an u n s t a b l e n e e d / p r e s s c o m b i n a t i o n w h i c h m u s t l e a d t o a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e p r e s s i n a more c o n g r u e n t d i r e c t i o n o r t o a w i t h d r a w a l o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l . The c o n g r u e n c e n o t i o n , a s B o s h i e r and P e t e r s ( 1 9 7 6 ) 5 z: S k i l l s , K n o w l e d g e , A t t i t u d e s T . X . E d u c a t i o n a l N e e d s E d u c a t i o n a l O p p o r t u n i t i e s C o n g r u e n c e L J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n J o b D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n Figure 1 S C H E M A T I C R E P R E S E N T A T I O N O F R E L A T I O N S H I P B E T W E E N C O N T I N U I N G E D U C A T I O N N E E D S , E D U C A T I O N A L O P P O R T U N I T I E S A N D J O B S A T I S F A C T I O N 6 p o i n t out, can be a p p l i e d to many a d u l t education p r o c e s s e s . In t h i s study "congruence" i s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e or c o n s t r u c t mediating the r e l a t i o n s h i p between need/opportunity d i s c r e p a n c i e s and job s a t i s f a c t i o n . The dotted l i n e s p o r t r a y the f a c t congruence i s invoked as an expl a n a t o r y c o n s t r u c t . Congruence was not measured d i r e c t l y but i s presumed to e x p l a i n the hypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p between need/opportunity t r a i n i n g d i s c r e p a n c i e s and the presence or absence of job s a t i s f a c t i o n . T h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l support f o r congruence as an explanatory c o n s t r u c t i s summarized below. Thus, the purposes of the present study were: 1. To determine the l e a r n i n g needs of community mental h e a l t h workers. 2 . To t e s t the f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s i s : THAT community mental h e a l t h workers who p e r c e i v e a la c k of o p p o r t u n i t i e s to s a t i s f y t r a i n i n g needs w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r jobs than workers i n s i t u a t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a congruence between t r a i n i n g need and t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t y . Need/opportunity d i s c r e p a n c i e s may be of two types; high need-low o p p o r t u n i t y and low need-high o p p o r t u n i t y . C o n c e p t u a l l y and l o g i c a l l y these two types of d i s c r e p a n c i e s r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n t job o r i e n t a t i o n s , however i n the present study they were t r e a t e d n u m e r i c a l l y and a n a l y t i c a l l y as two extremes of a s i n g l e continuum. T h i s study i s l i m i t e d to an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the e f f e c t of both s a t i s f i e d and unmet l e a r n i n g needs on job a t t i t u d e s . The job s a t i s f a c t i o n of people with a wealth of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and few p e r c e i v e d l e a r n i n g needs i s a t o p i c s u i t a b l e f o r a subsequent study. 7 SUMMARY Community mental h e a l t h workers are cha l l e n g e d by the need to r e t a i n c l i e n t s i n home and community and are faced by new circumstances which g i v e r i s e to needs f o r c o n t i n u i n g education. It was hypothesized that workers with access to c o n t i n u i n g education to meet perc e i v e d l e a r n i n g needs may be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r job than workers without access to a p p r o p r i a t e l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . A schematic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the hypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p between need/opportunity d i s c r e p a n c i e s and job s a t i s f a c t i o n was presented i n Figure 1. In the second chapter the l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t to the concepts which s u s t a i n the t h e o r e t i c a l framework of the present study w i l l be rev iewed. 8 CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE L I T E R A T U R E I t i s n o t i n f r e q u e n t i n a y o u n g f i e l d f o r c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k s t o be b a s e d on t h e o r y and r e s e a r c h i n r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s ( J e n s e n , e t . a l . , 1 9 6 4 ) . The n o t i o n o f d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n t r a i n i n g n e e d s and t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s a s a p o t e n t i a l p r e d i c t o r o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n d r a w s , f o r i t s c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k , u p o n t h e w r i t i n g s o f s c h o l a r s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , t h e o r e t i c a l p s y c h o l o g y and a p p l i e d p s y c h o l o g y . C e n t r a l t o t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t unmet t r a i n i n g need i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n a r e t h r e e c o n c e p t s , t h a t o f " n e e d " , " c o n g r u e n c y " , and " j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n " . I n o r d e r t o d r a w t h e s e t h r e e c o n c e p t s i n t o one u n i f y i n g f r a m e w o r k , s e l e c t e d l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o e a c h i s p r e s e n t e d as a b a c k g r o u n d t o t h e s t u d y . NEED The C o n c e p t " N e e d " r a n k s h i g h among c o n c e p t s u s e d i n a d u l t and c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . The t e r m i s u s e d o f t e n , b u t i t s m e a n i n g i s o b s c u r e . K o m i s a r ( 1 9 6 1 ) c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e n o t i o n o f " n e e d " s u r v i v e s and t h r i v e s b e c a u s e o f i t s v a g u e n e s s and m u l t i p l i c i t y o f m e a n i n g s . L e a g a n s makes t h e same p o i n t when he s t a t e s : Need i s a s i m p l e and i n n o c e n t - a p p e a r i n g , f o u r - l e t t e r w o r d , b u t i s p r o b a b l y t h e m o s t d e c e p t i v e l y c o m p l e x , b a s i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , and f a r r e a c h i n g i n i t s 9 i m p l i c a t i o n s of a l l major terms i n the vocabulary of the a d u l t educator (1964, p. 89). Archambault (1957) t r a c e s the p o p u l a r i t y of need i n education to Dewey's< (1939) philosophy o f a l e a r n e r - c e n t e r e d rather than a subject-matter centered approach to e d u c a t i o n a l theory. I t s c u r r e n t favour i n a d u l t education l i t e r a t u r e i s emphasized by w r i t e r s such as M i l l e r (1964), Houle (1972), Bergevin (1967), and Knowles (1975). This emphasis may be due, as London (1960) notes, to the predominance of T y l e r ' s (1950) r a t i o n a l e i n c u r r i c u l u m theory. A fundamental p r i n c i p l e of a d u l t education concerns the importance of conducting a needs-diagnosis p r i o r to de s i g n i n g and implementing a l e a r n i n g experience. Despite the wide-spread acceptance of t h i s p r i n c i p l e the meaning of "needs" i s o f t e n b l u r r e d i n p r a c t i s e by i t s use without p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n s and by the confusing v a r i e t y of s e t t i n g s i n which i t i s employed. Much of the vagueness surrounding needs seems to be due to i t s i n d i s c r i m i n a t e a p p l i c a t i o n to communities (Hand, 1968; McMahon, 1970), s o c i e t i e s , i n s t i t u t i o n s and groups (Knowles, 1975), as wel l as to i n d i v i d u a l s . In order to c r e a t e some order out of chaos the i m p l i c i t and e x p l i c i t d e f i n i t i o n s of the term "need" were examined using the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : v a r i a n t uses of the term, b a s i c human needs, f e l t and r e a l needs, and e d u c a t i o n a l gaps. V a r i a n t Uses of the Term Needs may be c a l l e d " g e n e r a l " or " s p e c i f i c " depending on whether they r e f e r to a comprehensive program or to a s p e c i f i c 10 l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y . Both of these are f u r t h e r d i s t i n g u i s h e d by Knowles (1975) as " o p e r a t i o n a l " or "process" needs or as " e d u c a t i o n a l " or " l e a r n i n g " needs. L a b e l l i n g need as 11 e d u c a t i o n a l " i m p l i e s that i t i s capable of being s a t i s f i e d by means of a l e a r n i n g experience which can provide a p p r o p r i a t e knowledge, s k i l l s , or a t t i t u t d e s . By i m p l i c a t i o n , then, there are other needs such as " o p e r a t i o n a l " or "process" that cannot be met through e d u c a t i o n a l e xperiences. Archambault (1957) uses the term "genuine" to l a b e l those needs recognized on the b a s i s of an o b j e c t i v e demonstrable d e f i c i e n c y of an intended l e a r n e r i n r e l a t i o n to h i s env i ronment. Another a d j e c t i v e a p p l i e d to need i s the term " p r e s c r i p t i v e " used by Komisar (1961), Archambault (1957) and Atwood and E l l i s (1971). Reference to need i n the p r e s c r i p t i v e sense i m p l i e s need i n terms of o b j e c t i v e s , need in terms of requirement or n e c e s s i t y , need i n terms of d e f i c i e n c y , and needs and o b l i g a t i o n s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p of o b j e c t i v e s , n e c e s s i t y , d e f i c i e n c y and o b l i g a t i o n s and how these terms are d e f i n e d are e s s e n t i a l to a concept of need that has e d u c a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . Need i s a l s o o f t e n used i n r e f e r e n c e to communities, s o c i e t i e s , and i n s t i t u t i o n s . The problem, as Monette (1977) p o i n t s out, i s that "systems i n themselves do not have needs" (p. 122) but that i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the systems have needs which may be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the performance of the system. The term " s i t u a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s " as used by Leagans (1964) or "sources of i n f o r m a t i o n " as suggested by Boshier and Peters 11 (1976) would cause l e s s ambiguity than the term need when communities, i n s t i t u t i o n s or s o c i a l orders are considered i n determining e d u c a t i o n a l needs. Ba s i c Human Needs In the context of b a s i c human needs the term "need" i n d i c a t e s a d e f i c i e n t s t a t e that i n i t i a t e s a motive on the part of an i n d i v i d u a l , or an i n f e r r e d b i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e s i m i l a r to a d r i v e . T h i s c o n d i t i o n may be understood as a t e n s i o n s t a t e which causes g r a t i f i c a t i o n - s e e k i n g behaviour (Kendler, 1961). Maslow (1954) placed b a s i c human needs i n t o a h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e of f u l f i l l m e n t as f o l l o w s : p h y s i o l o g i c a l needs, s e c u r i t y needs, lo v e and belonging needs, esteem needs, and s e l f a c t u a l i z a t i o n needs. Basic human needs, whether i t be the need f o r s e c u r i t y ( t e n u r e ) , esteem ( s t a t u s ) , or s e l f a c t u a l i z a t i o n , p r o v i d e the deep m o t i v a t i n g s p r i n g s f o r c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a r n i n g (Boshier, 1977). T h i s concept of " b a s i c need" has been attacked by s c h o l a r s concerned with program p l a n n i n g . Monette (1977) and James (1956) po i n t out that b a s i c human needs do not preclude any p a r t i c u l a r form of s a t i s f a c t i o n , nor does the e x i s t e n c e of a b a s i c need i n any way l e s s e n the educator's task of goal d e l i n e a t i o n . Monette suggests t h a t "Because of i t s s t r e s s on i n t e n t i o n a l i t y the term want might best r e p l a c e need as motive" (1977, p. 125). F e l t and Real Needs The term " f e l t need" i s used synonymously with d e s i r e s , 12 wants, and i n t e r e s t s . A f e l t need i s considered by some educators (McMahon, 1970; Kramer, 1960) as s u r f a c e i n d i c a t o r s of problems. "Real need" or "normative need" i n c o n t r a s t , i s de f i n e d as gaps i n knowledge, s k i l l s or a t t i t u d e s measured according to some o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a or standard. The key i s s u e s surrounding " r e a l need" are those of v a l u e s , judgements, and standard s e t t i n g . Monette (1977), f o r example, argues that standards are not a b s o l u t e ; standards s e t by one expert may be c o n f l i c t i n g with those set by another. G r i f f i t h (1978) i s c r i t i c a l of a d u l t educators who u n c o n s c i o u s l y impose t h e i r own valu e s on a de t e r m i n a t i o n of what c o n s t i t u t e s a d e s i r a b l e standard. While there i s gen e r a l agreement (Archambault, 1957; James, 1956; Atwood and E l l i s , 1971; G r i f f i t h , 1978) that a value system i s e s s e n t i a l where needs are concerned, c r i t i c i s m i s l e v e l l e d at frequent f a i l u r e to make e x p l i c i t the b a s i s upon which normative j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r value s have been d e r i v e d . These s p e c i a l i z e d uses of the term "need" have emerged from the debate over the quest i o n of who can best assess the needs of h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s . Knox (1968) p o i n t s out that some educators b e l i e v e that a need has to be recognized by the p o t e n t i a l l e a r n e r before he i s motivated to c l o s e the gap. Others such as Bradshaw (1974), f o r example, a s s e r t that assessments of f e l t needs are t y p i c a l l y inadequate, because they are l i m i t e d by the pe r c e p t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l and may not t h e r e f o r e be an i n d i c a t o r of r e a l needs. In debates about the terms " r e a l " and " f e l t " needs the concept of need i s r a r e l y c o n s i d e r e d . Murray sums up the b a s i c 13 c o m p o n e n t s o f a n e e d s c o n s t r u c t i n t h e f o l l o w i n g m a n n e r : A n e e d i s a c o n s t r u c t (a c o n v e n i e n t f i c t i o n o r h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n c e p t ) w h i c h s t a n d s f o r a f o r c e ( t h e p h y s i o - c h e m i c a l n a t u r e o f w h i c h i s unknown) i n t h e b r a i n r e g i o n , a f o r c e w h i c h o r g a n i z e s p e r c e p t i o n , a p p e r c e p t i o n , i n t e l l i g e n c e , c o n a t i o n and a c t i o n i n s u c h a way a s t o t r a n s f o r m i n a c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n an e x i s t i n g , u n s a t i s f y i n g s i t u a t i o n ( 1 9 3 8 , p p . 1 2 3 -124) . The i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s o f M u r r a y ' s n e e d t h e o r y i s t h a t n e e d i s n o t e m p i r i c a l l y v e r i f i a b l e . The t e r m r e f e r s t o t h e p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l w o r l d o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , t h e u n i q u e and p r i v a t e v i e w e a c h p e r s o n h a s o f h i m s e l f and t h e e v e n t s i n w h i c h he t a k e s p l a c e . I f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p e r c e i v e s a n e e d t h e n , and o n l y t h e n , c a n a n e e d be s a i d t o e x i s t . C o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t o r s , e x p e r t s , and o t h e r s may a s s i s t p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n r e c o g n i z i n g g a p s i n s k i l l s , k n o w l e d g e s and a t t i t u d e s b u t t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f n e e d i n t h e s i t u a t i o n b e l o n g s p r o p e r l y t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l . " T h i s i s t h e c o r e n o t i o n o f a n d r a g o g y . The e d u c a t i o n p r o c e s s , a s F r e i r e ( 1 9 7 0 ) s u g g e s t s , b e g i n s w i t h t h e p e r c e i v e d n e e d s o f t h e c o n s t i t u e n c y . E d u c a t i o n a l G a p s The s a l i e n t i s s u e i n t h e n e e d s d i a g n o s i s p r o c e s s o f h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s i s t h e n o t i o n o f c o m p e t e n c e w h i c h r e f e r s t o t h e s k i l l s , k n o w l e d g e s and a t t i t u d e s r e q u i r e d t o do a j o b ( K n o x , 1 9 7 4 ; L e w i s , 1 9 7 4 ) . The g a p b e t w e e n p r e s e n t l e v e l and r e q u i r e d l e v e l o f c o m p e t e n c e i s w h a t K n o w l e s ( 1 9 7 5 ) , A t w o o d and E l l i s ( 1 9 7 1 ) and o t h e r s r e f e r t o a s an e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d . F i g u r e 2 i s a s c h e m a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d . 14 Educational Need ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ F i g u r e 2 S C H E M A T I C R E P R E S E N T A T I O N O F E D U C A T I O N A L N E E D L e a g a n s d e f i n e s n e e d as t h e g a p b e t w e e n , . " wha t i s " and " w h a t o u g h t t o b e " ( 1 9 6 4 , p . 9 2 ) . He i n c l u d e s b o t h l e a r n e r s and e d u c a t o r s i n d e t e r m i n i n g p r e s e n t l e v e l o f c o m p e t e n c y o r " w h a t i s " by a s t u d y o f t h e s i t u a t i o n u s i n g f a c t s t h a t a r e c a r e f u l l y s e l e c t e d , a n a l y z e d and i n t e r p r e t e d . "What o u g h t t o b e " o r d e s i r e d l e v e l o f c o m p e t e n c y i s d e t e r m i n e d b y r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s , e x p e r t o p i n i o n , and v a l u e j u d g e m e n t s . L e a g a n s c o n c l u d e s t h a t : In e v e r y human and p h y s i c a l s i t u a t i o n t h e r e a r e a l w a y s (1) t h e f a c t s , (2) p e o p l e ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e f a c t s , (3) p e o p l e s ' s a t t i t u d e s o r v a l u e j u d g e m e n t a b o u t t h e f a c t s and (4) p e o p l e ' s a c t i o n r e l a t e d t o t h e f a c t s . P r o b a b l y t h e m o s t p o w e r f u l a t t i t u d e s p e o p l e h a v e a r e t h o s e r e l a t e d t o wha t s h o u l d and wha t s h o u l d n o t be i n t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . H e n c e , p e o p l e t e n d t o e i t h e r a p p r o v e o r d i s a p p r o v e f a c t s ( a s t h e y s e e them) i n r e l a t i o n t o some d e s i r a b l e new c o n d i t o n ( 1 9 6 4 , p . 9 6 ) . 15 A s t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was p h e n o m e n o l o g i c a l i n n a t u r e , p e o p l e ' s a t t i t u d e s a b o u t t h e f a c t s and wha t s h o u l d be i n t h e i r s i t u a t i o n was o f p a r a m o u n t c o n c e r n . The t e r m e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d , t h e r e f o r e , was d e f i n e d a s s e l f - p e r c e i v e d g a p s i n j o b r e l a t e d s k i l l s , k n o w l e d g e s and a t t i t u d e s . M e a s u r e m e n t S t r a t e g i e s L i s t s o f n e e d a s s e s s m e n t p r o c e d u r e s a b o u n d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e ( K n o w l e s , 1 9 7 5 ; J o h n s o n , 1 9 6 7 ) . Some a p p r o a c h e s s u c h a s q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and t e s t s i n v o l v e i n d i v i d u a l s , o t h e r s i n v o l v e g r o u p s u s i n g b r a i n - s t o r m i n g , b u z z i n g , and o t h e r g r o u p p r o b l e m s o l v i n g t e c h n i q u e s . No one m e t h o d i s f a v o u r e d o v e r a n o t h e r , h o w e v e r t h e r e i s g e n e r a l c o n s e n s u s t h a t a s s e s s i n g n e e d s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s i s a c o m p l i c a t e d t a s k i n v o l v i n g more t h a n one p r o c e d u r e i f i t i s t o be a t a l l a d e q u a t e ( M c G r e g o r , 1 9 7 5 ; H i e m s t r a and L o n g , 1 9 7 4 ; G r i f f i t h , 1 9 7 8 ) . I n a s m u c h a s t h e n e e d a s s e s s m e n t p r o c e s s i s t i m e c o n s u m i n g , c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e e d s a n a l y s i s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s i s r a r e l y c a r r i e d o u t . I n a c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f p r o g r a m d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s e s i n s i x p r o f e s s i o n s , two o f w h i c h w e r e h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n s , P e n n i n g t o n and G r e e n ( 1 9 7 6 ) f o u n d l i t t l e o r no c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e e d s a s s e s s m e n t s w e r e b e i n g c o n d u c t e d . D i c k i n s o n and V e r n e r make t h e same p o i n t when t h e y s t a t e : The f i r s t t a s k e n c o u n t e r e d i n d e s i g n i n g i n s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n i s t h a t o f d e t e r m i n i n g t h e s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g n e e d s o f t h o s e e m p l o y e d i n t h e h e a l t h c a r e i n s t i t u t i o n . The p r o c e d u r e s t o a c h i e v e t h i s a r e a t a r e l a t i v e l y p r i m i t i v e s t a g e o f d e v e l o p m e n t . . . ( 1 9 7 4 , p . 186) . Some o f t h e more common m e t h o d s o f o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n 16 a b o u t l e a r n i n g n e e d s o f h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s w e r e e x a m i n e d ; t h e p a r t i c u l a r m e t h o d e m p l o y e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y c o m b i n e d s e v e r a l o f t h e m e t h o d s d i s c u s s e d b e l o w . S u r v e y s The p e r c e i v e d n e e d s o f h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e m o s t o f t e n d e t e r m i n e d t h r o u g h s u r v e y s c o n c e r n e d w i t h i n t e r e s t i n s p e c i f i c p r o g r a m s o r s u b j e c t m a t t e r . M c G r e g o r ( 1 9 7 5 ) and H i e m s t r a and Long ( 1 9 7 4 ) f o u n d t h i s m e t h o d t o be i n a d e q u a t e b e c a u s e p e r c e p t i o n o f wha t c o u r s e s w o u l d be o f i n t e r e s t d o e s n o t a u t o m a t i c a l l y e q u a t e w i t h a c t u a l j o b r e l a t e d n e e d s . T h i s v i e w i s r e i t e r a t e d b y M i l l e r ( 1 9 6 7 ) and C a s t l e and S t o r e y ( 1 9 6 8 ) , a s w e l l a s b y o t h e r s . I n t e r v i e w s I n t e r v i e w s c a n be o p e n e n d e d o r may i n v o l v e an i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e . The n o n - d i r e c t i v e t y p e a l l o w s f o r f r e e e x p r e s s i o n o f o p i n i o n and r e v e a l s f e e l i n g s , c a u s e s , and p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s ( R i v e r a and R o c k h i l l , 1 9 7 6 ) . The o p e n e n d e d i n t e r v i e w y i e l d s l e s s u n i f o r m and l e s s q u a n t i f i a b l e d a t a ( G l a s s c o t e and G u d e m a n , 1969) t h a n t h e m o r e c o n t r o l l e d t y p e . R e s u l t s o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e a r e e a s i e r t o p r o c e s s b u t t h e i r s t r u c t u r e t e n d s t o r e s t r i c t and t o i n f l u e n c e t h e r e s p o n s e s g i v e n ( G r i f f i t h , 1 9 7 8 ) . A m a j o r l i m i t a t i o n o f i n t e r v i e w i n g i s t h e t i m e i n v o l v e d . I t i s a s u i t a b l e m e t h o d w h e r e r e l a t i v e l y f e w p e o p l e a r e i n t e r v i e w e d o r when v a s t r e s o u r c e s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e n e e d s - d i a g n o s i s p r o c e s s . 17 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s The q u e s t i o n n a i r e method of need d e t e r m i n a t i o n has, according to M i l l e r (1970), the f o l l o w i n g advantages: 1. It permits wide coverage fo r minimum expense both i n money and e f f o r t . 2. I t allows f o r g r e a t e r u n i f o r m i t y i n the manner in which the q u e s t i o n s are posed. 3. It enables respondents to g i v e more considered answers. 4. I t l e s s e n s i n t e r v i e w e r e f f e c t . 5. It g i v e s the respondent a sense of p r i v a c y . 6. I t y i e l d s data that i s more r e a d i l y a n a l y s a b l e . T h i s method i s h i g h l y dependent on s k i l l in q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s t r u c t i o n and knowledge about the p r o f e s s i o n a l group under i n v e s t i g a t i o n . V a l i d i t y depends upon the w i l l i n g n e s s of respondents to provide i n f o r m a t i o n ; most q u e s t i o n n a i r e s do not allow f o r follow-up on misunderstood que s t i o n s or ambiguous answers. A major weakness of mailed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i s the problem of non-returns; those who answer the q u e s t i o n n a i r e may d i f f e r from non-respondents thereby b i a s i n g the sample. Peer Review and Record A u d i t These two procedures have emerged f a i r l y r e c e n t l y i n response to i n s i s t e n c e by consumers and l e g i s l a t i v e bodies f o r " a c c o u n t a b i l i t y " through e x t e r n a l monitoring of h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s ( S l e e , 1970). Peer review i s d e f i n e d by the American Medical A s s o c i a t i o n (1972) as the e v a l u a t i o n by p r a c t i s i n g p h y s i c i a n s of the q u a l i t y and e f f i c i e n c y of s e r v i c e s performed by other p r a c t i s i n g p h y s i c i a n s . Despite the resentment r a i s e d by i s s u e s surrounding peer review (Gottesman, 1974) i t has been advocated by v a r i o u s p r o f e s s i o n a l groups, such as 18 n u r s i n g ( P h a n e u f , 1 9 7 2 ) , p h a r m a c y ( A n d e r s e n , e t . a l . , 1974) and p s y c h i a t r y ( V a l e n t i n e , 1974) as a means o f i d e n t i f y i n g e d u c a t i o n a l g a p s . One o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f r e c o r d a u d i t i s t o e v a l u a t e d o c u m e n t a t i o n i n o r d e r t o m o n i t o r q u a l i t y o f c a r e . Weed ( 1 9 6 9 ) c o n s i d e r s t h i s an e f f e c t i v e m e t h o d o f d e t e r m i n i n g c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n n e e d s . O t h e r s ( C h a r t e r s and B l a k e l y , 1 9 7 4 ; K n o x , 1 9 7 4 ; D i c k i n s o n and V e r n e r , 1974) b e l i e v e r e c o r d s and c h a r t s a r e s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o be u s e d i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h more r i g o r o u s n e e d s d i a g n o s i s p r o c e d u r e s . J o b A n a l y s i s L e s s i n g e r ( 1 9 7 4 ) d i v i d e s j o b a n a l y s i s i n t o two b r o a d c a t e g o r i e s ; t h e f i r s t i n c l u d e s a l l t h o s e t e c h n i q u e s t h a t i s o l a t e w h o l e t a s k s o f a j o b , and t h e s e c o n d d i s s e c t s e a c h t a s k i n t o i t s c o m p o n e n t p a r t s o f k n o w l e d g e s , s k i l l s , and a t t i t u d e s r e q u i r e d t o p r o d u c e d e s i r e d r e s u l t s . M o s t o f t h e a n a l y t i c a l m e t h o d s p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e f a l l i n t o t h e f i r s t r a t h e r t h a n t h e s e c o n d c a t e g o r y . T h e s e m e t h o d s L e s s i n g e r l i s t s a s : J o b D e s c r i p t i o n s J o b S p e c i f i c a t i o n s T a s k I n v e n t o r i e s T i m e and M o t i o n S t u d i e s D i a r i e s C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t S t u d i e s Work S a m p l i n g M e a s u r e m e n t s ( 1 9 7 4 , p p . 3 3 1 - 3 3 9 ) . A s t o t h e s e c o n d c a t e g o r y o f j o b a n a l y s i s , L e s s i n g e r ( 1 9 7 4 ) u r g e s g r e a t e r r e s e a r c h e f f o r t s o n t h e p a r t o f h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s t o i d e n t i f y t h e p r e c i s e k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l e l e m e n t s o f a t a s k i n o r d e r t o a s c e r t a i n g a p s t h a t c a n be 19 bridged by t r a i n i n g . The D e lphi Technique Delphi i s a method of group problem a n a l y s i s designed f o r generating and r e f i n i n g ideas and o p i n i o n s on a s p e c i f i e d t o p i c . Group consensus i s sought through a s e q u e n t i a l s e r i e s of i n t e r r o g a t i o n s , u s u a l l y conducted by mailed q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i n t e r s p e r s e d with i n f o r m a t i o n and o p i n i o n feedback (Weatherman and Swenson, 1974). Helmer (1967) o r i g i n a l l y developed the Delphi technique using group processes i n b r a i n storming s e s s i o n s . He l a t e r m odified the process by employing mailed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s to reduce u n d e s i r a b l e aspects of group i n t e r a c t i o n . The Delphi technique has been adapted fo r use i n a number of d i v e r s e e d u a t i o n a l s t u d i e s . K l e i n and A l k i n (1971) d e s c r i b e i t s use as a s t r a t e g y probe for program planning; Jones (1973) employed a modified Delphi method as an assessment t o o l f o r determining o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r i o r i t i e s i n a s p e c i a l education program, and Hensley (1972) found the technique u s e f u l i n o b t a i n i n g p e r c e p t i o n s of c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n s . Bunning (1976) s i m i l a r l y used Delphi to generate a l i s t o f s k i l l s and knowledges r e q u i r e d by a d u l t educators. His success with t h i s technique as a means of t r a i n i n g need d e t e r m i n a t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h at i t i s a p o t e n t i a l l y v a l u a b l e s t r a t e g y f o r h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s . 20 The S k i l l s , Knowledges, and A t t i t u d e s Inventory The measurement s t r a g e t y employed in t h i s study combines s e v e r a l of the assessment methods d i s c u s s e d above. The i n v e s t i g a t o r was c o - o r d i n a t o r of a modified Delphi study of the s k i l l s , knowledges and a t t i t u d e s r e q u i r e d to perform community mental h e a l t h work. The technique was s i m i l a r to the one o r i g i n a l l y developed by Helmer (1967); group processes were used i n s i x b r a i n storming s e s s i o n s by three separate groups of people. The Delphi p a n e l i s t s were four experts i n the f i e l d of community p s y c h i a t r y , one a d m i n i s t r a t o r of the Greater Vancouver Mental Health S e r v i c e s , and eleven community mental h e a l t h workers r e p r e s e n t i n g s i x h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n s . S e l e c t i o n of experts was made on the recommendation of the Department of P s y c h i a t r y , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The panel members were requested to i s o l a t e whole tasks and then d i s s e c t each task i n t o component p a r t s of s k i l l s , knowledges and a t t i t u d e s as suggested by Lessinger (1974). Consensus, r a t h e r than convergence, of o p i n i o n was sought and obtained on p e r c e p t i o n s of the c u r r e n t job s i t u a t i o n and p r e d i c t i o n of s k i l l s , knowledges and a t t i t u d e s r e q u i r e d to e n r i c h s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d to c l i e n t s . The steps taken i n the D e l p h i - l i k e study are d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l i n chapter 3. The s k i l l s , knowledges and a t t i t u d e s l i s t generated by the Delphi p a n e l i s t s formed the item pool f o r a subsequent q u e s t i o n n a i r e which was administered to 103 community mental h e a l t h workers to gather data on s e l f p e r c e i v e d t r a i n i n g needs and t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The problems of non-returns ( M i l l e r , 21 1970) w e r e o v e r c o m e b y p e r s o n a l d e l i v e r y and f o l l o w - u p . The l e a r n i n g n e e d s o f p e o p l e i n t h e h e a l t h f i e l d f o r m t h e b a s i s f o r c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g . B e c a u s e t h e t e r m " n e e d " h a s many m e a n i n g s i t s u s e f u l l n e s s i n e d u c a t i o n i s d e p e n d e n t upon p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y a n e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d was d e f i n e d a s s e l f p e r c e i v e d g a p s i n j o b r e l a t e d s k i l l s , k n o w l e d g e s and a t t i t u d e s . CONGRUENCE A number o f " c o n s i s t e n c y t h e o r i e s " h a v e b e e n p r o p o s e d u n d e r v a r i o u s names s u c h a s b a l a n c e , c o n g r u i t y , s y m m e t r y and d i s s o n a n c e . T h e s e t h e o r i e s h a v e i n common t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l t e n d s t o b e h a v e i n ways t h a t m i n i m i z e i n t e r n a l i n c o n s i s t e n c y among h i s i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , among h i s i n t r a p e r s o n a l c o g n i t i o n s , o r among h i s b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s and a c t i o n s . I m p l i c i t i n t h e c o n g r u i t y f o r m u l a t i o n and i n o t h e r c o n s i s t e n c y m o d e l s i s t h e s t r u c t u r e o r c o n s t e l l a t i o n s o f a t t i t u d i n a l i t e m s . A t a g i v e n p o i n t i n t i m e and s p a c e t h e s e a t t i t u d e s a r e a s s u m e d t o e x i s t , i n t h e m i n d o f an i n d i v i d u a l , i n some s t a t e o f e q u i l i b r i u m t o one a n o t h e r . I f a n y o f t h e e l e m e n t s a r e a l t e r e d i n some w a y , a n i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e p r e v a i l i n g s t r u c t u r e . One means o f a c c o m m o d a t i n g s u c h an i n c o n s i s t e n c y i s f o r m o d i f i c a t i o n t o o c c u r i n a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e o t h e r e l e m e n t s , c h a n g e s i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f a new s t a t e o f e q u i l i b r i u m . W h i l e r e s e m b l i n g one a n o t h e r i n t h e i r u se o f t h i s f u n d a m e n t a l p r e d i c t i v e p o s t u l a t e , t h e v a r i o u s 22 t h e o r i e s d i f f e r e d in ways of d e f i n i n g c o n s i s t e n c y and the b e h a v i o u r a l realm to which the d e r i v e d p r e d i c t i o n s were a p p l i e d . The beginnings of formal c o n s i s t e n c y theory are traced by McGuire (1966) to Heider's (1946) paper on a t t i t u d e and c o g n i t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n i n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In a l a t e r book e n l a r g i n g upon the human preference f o r c o g n i t i v e c o n s i s t e n c y Heider d e f i n e s a balanced s t a t e as f o l l o w s : By a balanced s t a t e i s meant a s i t u a t i o n i n which the r e l a t i o n s among the e n t i t i e s f i t together harmoniously; there i s no s t r e s s toward change...it a l s o means that i f a balanced s t a t e does not e x i s t , then f o r c e s toward t h i s s t a t e w i l l a r i s e . I f a change i s not p o s s i b l e , the s t a t e of imbalance w i l l produce t e n s i o n (1958, p. 201). Newcomb (1959) a p p l i e d t h i s theory to communicative a c t s , examined i t s m o t i v a t i o n a l b a s i s , and elaborated upon i t i n terms of r o l e theory i n a three-element systems of o r i e n t a t i o n . C artwright and Harary (1956) g e n e r a l i z e d the three element systems to s t r u c t u r e s of any number of elements and p o s t u l a t e d a number of p r i n c i p l e s t h a t y i e l d p r e d i c t i o n s about e m p i r i c a l s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s . Abelson and Rosenberg (1958) developed a system using matrix algebra to d e f i n e the c o n s i s t e n c y l e v e l i n a m u l t i -element s t r u c t u r e . They formulated a s e r i e s of p o s t u l a t e s f o r a p p l y i n g t h e i r n o t i o n s to i n t r a p e r s o n a l c o g n i t i v e systems. While many c o n s i s t e n c y t h e o r i s t s had p r e v i o u s l y d e a l t with i n t e r p e r s o n a l s i t u a t i o n s , the work of Abelson and Rosenberg concerned the need for c o n s i s t e n c y among a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s and ideas that were i n t r a , r a ther than i n t e r , p e r s o n a l i n nature. The s e l f c o n s i s t e n c y theory of Lecky (1961) and the congruence p e r s o n a l i t y theory of Rogers (1959) emanate from the 23 p e r s p e c t i v e o f c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g y . L e c k y f o c u s e d on t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p e r s o n a l i t y and b e h a v i o u r i n t e r m s o f t h e i n t e g r a t i v e f o r c e s i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o m a i n t a i n m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a s a u n i f i e d w h o l e . He a r g u e s , f o r e x a m p l e , t h a t : a l l o f a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s v a l u e s a r e o r g a n i z e d i n t o a s i n g l e s y s t e m t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f whose i n t e g r i t y i s e s s e n t i a l The i n d i v i d u a l s e e s t h e w o r l d f r o m h i s own v i e w p o i n t , w i t h h i m s e l f a t t h e c e n t r e ( 1 9 6 1 , p p . 1 5 2 - 1 5 3 ) . C e n t r a l t o R o g e r s t h e o r y o f i n t r a - s e l f c o n g r u e n c e a r e h i s d e f i n i t i o n s o f s e l f c o n c e p t , s e l f e x p e r i e n c e , and t h e i d e a l s e l f . He d e f i n e s s e l f c o n c e p t a s : . . . . t h e o r g a n i z e d , c o n s i s t e n t , c o n c e p t u a l g e s t a l t c o m p o s e d o f p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e " I " o r "me" and t h e p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e " I " o r "me" t o v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f l i f e , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e v a l u e s a t t a c h e d t o t h e s e p e r c e p t i o n s ( 1 9 5 9 , p . 2 0 0 ) . The i d e a l s e l f i s t h e t e r m u s e d t o d e n o t e t h e s e l f c o n c e p t w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l w o u l d m o s t l i k e t o p o s s e s s , u p o n w h i c h he p l a c e s t h e h i g h e s t v a l u e . S e l f e x p e r i e n c e i s d e f i n e d a s : t h e r aw m a t e r i a l o f w h i c h t h e o r g a n i z e d s e l f c o n c e p t i s f o r m e d ( 1 9 5 9 , p . 2 0 0 ) . On t h e b a s i s o f a s e r i e s o f d e f i n i t i o n s w h i c h R o g e r s c a l l s c o n c e p t s he p r o p o s e s t h a t when s e l f e x p e r i e n c e s a r e i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f c o n c e p t o r a p p r o x i m a t e t h e i d e a l s e l f t h e n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l i s i n a s t a t e o f c o n g r u e n c e , w h i c h he e q u a t e s w i t h p o s i t i v e m e n t a l h e a l t h and s a t i s f a c t i o n . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , when a d i s c r e p a n c y d e v e l o p s b e t w e e n t h e s e l f a s p e r c e i v e d and t h e a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t h e n a s t a t e o f t e n s i o n o r i n c o n g r u e n c e a r i s e s w h i c h R o g e r s e q u a t e s w i t h d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n o r d i s c o r d a n t b e h a v i o u r s . A n o t h e r i n t r a p e r s o n a l c o n s i s t e n c y a p p r o a c h i s t h e t h e o r y o f 24 c o g n i t i v e d i s s o n a n c e p r o p o s e d b y F e s t i n g e r ( 1 9 5 7 ) . The c o r e n o t i o n o f t h e t h e o r y i s t h a t d i s s o n a n c e i s a n e g a t i v e d r i v e s t a t e w h i c h o c c u r s w h e n e v e r an i n d i v i d u a l s i m u l t a n e o u s l y h o l d s two p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y i n c o n s i s t e n t c o g n i t i o n s ( i d e a s , b e l i e f s , o p i n i o n s ) . Two c o g n i t i o n s a r e d i s s o n a n t i f , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e two c o g n i t i o n s a l o n e , t h e o p p o s i t e o f one f o l l o w s f r o m t h e o t h e r . S i n c e t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f d i s s o n a n c e i s p r e s u m e d t o be u n p l e a s a n t , i n d i v i u d a l s s t r i v e t o r e d u c e i t b y a d d i n g " c o n s o n a n t " c o g n i t i o n s o r b y c h a n g i n g one o r b o t h c o g n i t i o n s t o make them " f i t t o g e t h e r " b e t t e r ( 1 9 5 7 , p p . 9 - 1 1 ) . D i s s o n a n c e t h e o r y p r o d u c e d e x p e r i m e n t s and i n s p i r e d a t t i t u d e c h a n g e r e s e a r c h . I t h a s b e e n a p p l i e d , f o r e x a m p l e , t o s t u d i e s o n t h e e f f e c t s o f d e c i s i o n m a k i n g ( B r e h m , 1 9 5 6 ) , t h e e f f e c t o f t h r e a t and e x p e c t a n c y o n j u d g e m e n t s ( A r o n s o n , 1961) and t h e e f f e c t s o f e x p o s u r e t o i n f o r m a t i o n ( M i l l s , e t . a l . , 1959) . Two o t h e r c o n s i s t e n c y t h e o r i e s o f more d i v e r s e c o n t e n t and o r i g i n had i n common t h e l i n k s b e t w e e n c o g n i t i o n s . O s g o o d and Tannenbaum ( 1 9 5 5 ) d e v e l o p e d t h e i r c o n g r u i t y m o d e l t o a c c o u n t f o r c h a n g e s i n e v a l u a t i o n s t h a t r e s u l t f r o m o u t s i d e i n f o r m a t i o n l i n k i n g c o g n i t i o n s t h a t h a v e d i f f e r e n t v a l e n c e s . F i s h b e i n ( 1 9 6 7 ) e x a m i n e d c o n s i s t e n c y t h e o r y b y d e f i n i n g q u a n t i t a t i v e l y r e l a t i o n s among b e l i e f s , v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r a l i n t e n t i o n s . I n s u m m a r y , t h i s b r i e f r e v i e w h a s e x a m i n e d t h e w o r k o f r e s e a r c h e r s who s u b s c r i b e t o t h e t h e o r y t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s s t r i v e t o m a i n t a i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l " c o n g r u e n c e " o r " b a l a n c e " . 25 J O B S A T I S F A C T I O N The C o n c e p t o f J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n P s y c h o l o g i s t s h a v e b e e n s t u d y i n g t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n w o r k and w o r k e r s f o r o v e r h a l f a c e n t u r y . E a r l y s t u d i e s f o c u s e d on c o n c e r n s w i t h p e r s o n n e l s e l e c t i o n , p l a c e m e n t , and p r o b l e m s o f i m p r o v i n g p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e w o r k s i t u a t i o n ( M u n s t e r b e r g , 1 9 1 3 ) . The H a w t h o r n e s t u d i e s ( R o e t h l i s b e r g e r and D i c k s o n , 1939) s t i m u l a t e d an i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n e m p l o y e e a t t i t u d e and w o r k b e h a v i o u r . L a t e r w r i t i n g s b y L e w i n ( 1 9 3 8 ) and C o c h and F r e n c h ( 1 9 4 8 ) s e r v e d t o e m p h a s i z e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e s and f e e l i n g s a b o u t t h e i r wor k . I n s p i r e d b y t h e w r i t i n g s o f b o t h a t t i t u d e t h e o r i s t s ( F i s h b e i n , 1 9 6 7 ; F e s t i n g e r , 1957) and m o t i v a t i o n t h e o r i s t s ( M a s l o w , 1 9 5 4 ; M c C l e l l a n d , e t . a l . , 1 9 5 3 ; H e r z b e r g , e t . a l . , 1959) r e s e a r c h o n j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n p r o l i f e r a t e d i n t h e f i f t i e s and s i x t i e s . L o c k e ( 1 9 6 9 ) e s t i m a t e d i n h i s r e v i e w t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 , 0 0 0 a r t i c l e s had b e e n p u b l i s h e d on t h i s s u b j e c t . D e s p i t e t h e p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f s t u d i e s , j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n r e m a i n s a d i f f i c u l t c o n c e p t t o d e f i n e . I n a r e v i e w o f t h e m e a n i n g and m e a s u r e m e n t o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n Wanous and L a w l e r ( 1 9 7 2 ) f o u n d n i n e d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t u a l and o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s h a v e b e e n a d v a n c e d . Some s t u d i e s h a v e c o n c e n t r a t e d on o v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n ( B r a y f i e l d and R o t h e , 1 9 5 1 ) , o t h e r s o p e r a t i o n a l i z e j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n a s g o a l a t t a i n m e n t o r n e e d 26 f u l f i l l m e n t ( P o r t e r , 1961) and s t i l l o t h e r s h a v e d e a l t w i t h o n e o r more p a r t i c u l a r d i m e n s i o n s o r f a c e t s o f an e m p l o y e e ' s j o b ( B l o o d , 1 9 7 1 ; E w e n , 1 9 6 7 ) . I n h e r r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e , C a r r o l l ( 1 9 7 3 ) a g r e e s t h a t e a c h r e s e a r c h e r d e f i n e s s a t i s f a c t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o v a r i a b l e s u n d e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n and t h e t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k u s e d f o r a n a l y s i s . She f o u n d t h e t e r m s " j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n " , " j o b a t t i t u d e " , and " j o b m o r a l e " a r e u s e d i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y b y many a u t h o r s , w h i l e o t h e r s d r a w d e t a i l e d d i s t i n c t i o n s b e t w e e n them ( e . g . B e e r , 1 9 6 4 ) . I n a d i s c u s s i o n o f p r o b l e m s o f d e f i n i t i o n V r o o m s t a t e s : J o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and j o b a t t i t u d e s a r e u s e d i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y s i n c e b o t h r e f e r t o t h e a f f e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o t h e w o r k r o l e he i s o c c u p y i n g . P o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s a r e e q u a t e d w i t h s a t i s f a c t i o n and n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s w i t h d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n ( 1 9 6 4 , p . 9 9 ) . M o s t o f t h e s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d b y H e r z b e r g , e t . a l ^ ( 1 9 5 7 ) e m p l o y e d a g l o b a l o r g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . L a t e r s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n i s n o t a u n i d i m e n s i o n a l v a r i a b l e b u t s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a s a number o f f a c t o r s o r a r e a s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n . Wanous and L a w l e r ' s f i r s t d e f i n i t i o n o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n s t a t e s : O v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n i s t h e sum o f j o b f a c e t s a t i s f a c t i o n a c r o s s a l l f a c e t s o f a j o b ( 1 9 7 2 , p . 95) . S m i t h , e t . a l . ( 1 9 6 9 ) a n a l y z e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 200 j o b d i m e n s i o n s and f o u n d a c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n w h i c h e n a b l e d them t o c a t e g o r i z e j o b f a c e t s i n t o f i v e g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s : t h e w o r k i t s e l f , s u p e r v i s i o n , p a y , c o - w o r k e r s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r o m o t i o n . W h i l e no c l a i m was made t h a t t h e s e f i v e a r e a s w e r e 27 e x h a u s t i v e , t h e y w e r e f o u n d t o be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p r e v i o u s f a c t o r a n a l y t i c s t u d i e s ( A s h , 1 9 5 4 ; A s t i n , 1 9 5 8 ; B a e h r , 1 9 5 4 ; W h e r r y , 1 9 5 8 ) . The s a t i s f a c t i o n a h e a l t h c a r e p r o f e s s i o n a l d e r i v e s f r o m h i s j o b i s o f i n t e r e s t f r o m a h u m a n i t a r i a n p o i n t o f v i e w ( D a v i s and C h e r n s , 1975) and f r o m an e c o n o m i c p e r s p e c t i v e . The p r a c t i c a l r a t i o n a l e f o r e x a m i n i n g j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n i s b a s e d on t h e common s e n s e s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e j o b i s r e l a t e d t o s k i l l s , k n o w l e d g e s and a t t i t u d e s w h i c h i n t h e l o n g r u n a f f e c t q u a l i t y o f p a t i e n t c a r e ( S t a m p s , e t . a l . , 1 9 7 8 ) . M e a s u r e s o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n f o c u s o n a p a r t i c u l a r j o b t h e i n d i v i d u a l c u r r e n t l y h o l d s r a t h e r t h a n o n o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e ( P a y n e , e t . a l . , 1 9 7 6 ) . C o m b i n i n g d e f i n i t i o n s f o r w a r d e d b y V r o o m ( 1 9 6 4 ) , Wanous and L a w l e r ( 1 9 7 2 ) , and S m i t h , e t . a l . ( 1 9 6 9 ) f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n i s o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d a s t h e d e g r e e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n o r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n e a c h o f f i v e f a c e t s o f t h e j o b ; w o r k , s u p e r v i s i o n , p a y , p e o p l e , and p r o m o t i o n . O v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n i s t h e sum o f t h e s e f i v e f a c e t s . S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e Work I t s e l f I n t e r e s t o n t h e p a r t o f i n d u s t r i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s i n t h e m o t i v a t i o n a l c o n s e q u e n c e s o f j o b c o n t e n t was l a r g e l y i n s p i r e d b y t h e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n c e s t u d i e s o f H e r z b e r g , e t . a l . ( 1 9 5 9 ) . T h e y f o u n d t h e s t o r i e s t o l d a b o u t " g o o d " p e r i o d s o n t h e j o b m o s t f r e q u e n t l y c o n c e r n e d t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e j o b , a c h i e v e m e n t , r e c o g n i t i o n , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a d v a n c e m e n t . The w o r k i t s e l f was 28 f o u n d t o be t h e m o s t p o t e n t d i m e n s i o n o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n b y R o a c h ( 1 9 5 8 ) , K e n d a l l , e t . a l . ( 1 9 6 3 ) as w e l l a s n u m e r o u s o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s . F r o m t h e p r a c t i c a l s i d e , t h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f h a v i n g e m p l o y e e s m o t i v a t e d b y j o b c o n t e n t h a s r e l e v a n c e n o t o n l y f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f p e r s o n n e l b u t a l s o f o r t h e a r r a n g e m e n t o f w o r k . A t t e m p t s t o a l t e r t h e w o r k c o n t e n t so t h a t i t p r o v i d e s g r e a t e r s a t i s f a c t i o n h a s b e e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o n c e p t s s u c h a s j o b e n r i c h m e n t ( H e r z b e r g , 1 9 6 8 ; H u l i n and B l o o d , 1 9 6 8 ; M a h e r , 1 9 7 1 ; F o r d and B o r g a t t a , 1970) and j o b s c o p e ( S t o n e , e t . a l . , 1 9 7 7 ) . J o b e n r i c h m e n t l i t e r a t u r e s u b s u m e s u n d e r one r u b r i c b o t h t a s k c o m p l e x i t y and v a r i e t y a s w e l l a s w o r k a u t o n o m y , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r d e c i s i o n m a k i n g ( L o c k e , 1 9 7 5 ) . S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h P a y I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s e p a r a t e p a y f r o m l e s s q u a n t i t a t i v e g o a l s o r n o n - m a t e r i a l f a c t o r s s u c h a s p r e s t i g e , s o c i a l s t a t u s , l i f e s t y l e , r e c o g n i t i o n , and e v e n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . T h i s v i e w o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f l e v e l o f i n c o m e a s a f a c t o r i n j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n i s u p h e l d b y V r o o m ( 1 9 6 4 ) , and K a t z e l l and Y a n k e l o v i t c h ( 1 9 7 5 ) . The s p e c i f i c m o t i v a t i n g e f f e c t s o f p a y may be s e e n q u i t e d i f f e r e n t l y , d e p e n d i n g on o n e ' s t h e o r e t i c a l v i e w p o i n t . F o r e x a m p l e , H e r z b e r g , e t . a l . ( 1 9 5 9 ) v i e w p a y a s a s o u r c e o f w o r k e r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n o n l y . E q u i t y t h e o r i s t s ( A d a m s , 1 9 6 3 ; H o m a n s , 1 9 6 1 ; Goodman and F r i e d m a n , 1975) v i e w s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p a y d e p e n d e n t n o t on t h e a b s o l u t e amoun t o f t h e s e w a g e s , b u t o n t h e 29 r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h a t amoun t and some s t a n d a r d o f c o m p a r i s o n u s e d b y t h e i n d i v i d u a l . B a s i c t o t h e e q u i t y t h e o r y f o r m u l a t i o n i s t h e n o t i o n o f d i s t r i b u t i v e j u s t i c e , t h a t i s , m a i n t a i n i n g a common r a t i o i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e w a r d s b e t w e e n p e r s o n s p e r f o r m i n g s i m i l a r t a s k s . The p r o p o n e n t s o f e q u i t y t h e o r y a r g u e t h a t e m p l o y e e s e x a m i n e t h e i r i n p u t s , c o s t s , and r e w a r d s o n t h e j o b and c o m p a r e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h a t o f o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s i n s i m i l a r p o s i t i o n s . P a t c h e n ( 1 9 6 1 ) v i e w s s k i l l , s e n i o r i t y , and e d u c a t i o n a s i n p u t s w h i c h p r o f e s s i o n a l s c o n s i d e r i n c o m p a r i n g t h e i r s a l a r y w i t h t h a t o f o t h e r s . M u m f o r d ( 1 9 7 2 ) c l a i m s t h a t t h e i m p o r t a n c e a p r o f e s s i o n a l p l a c e s o n p a y v a r i e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r k i n g l i f e . I t i s l i k e l y t o be h i g h l y i m p o r t a n t t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l a t s u c h l i f e p e r i o d s a s s t a r t i n g t o r a i s e a f a m i l y , b u y i n g a home , e t c . , o r t o p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p s when s a l a r i e s a r e b e l o w w h a t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be l e g i t i m a t e e x p e c t a t i o n s . S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h S u p e r v i s i o n R e p o r t s o f e a r l y j o b a t t i t u d e s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t s t y l e o f s u p e r v i s i o n and b e h a v i o u r o f s u p e r v i s o r s i s one o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t d i m e n s i o n s o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n ( P u t n a m , 1 9 3 0 ; J a c k s o n , 1 9 5 3 ) . V r o o m and Mann ( 1 9 6 0 ) , f o r e x a m p l e , f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n j o b a t t i t u d e s o f w o r k e r s w i t h a u t h o r i t a r i a n s u p e r v i s o r s and t h o s e w i t h s u p e r v i s o r s p e r c e i v e d t o be e q u a l i t a r i a n i n s t y l e . S u p e r v i s o r y b e h a v i o u r , s u c h a s c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r e m p l o y e e s and l e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t i e s , w e r e p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h w o r k e r s a t i s f a c t i o n i n a number o f 30 s t u d i e s ( e . g . L i k e r t , 1 9 6 1 ) . M o r e r e c e n t e m p h a s i s o n j o b v a l u e s ( L o c k e , 1969) and p e r f o r m a n c e g o a l s ( E v a n s , 1970) h a s i n s p i r e d r e n e w e d c u r i o s i t y c o n c e r n i n g s u p e r v i s o r y b e h a v i o u r and a t t i t u d e s . S u p e r v i s o r s , a c c o r d i n g t o L o c k e , c a n i n f l u e n c e e m p l o y e e s a t i s f a c t i o n b y f a c i l i t a t i n g o r b l o c k i n g s u b o r d i n a t e v a l u e a t t a i n m e n t o r p e r f o r m a n c e g o a l s . E m p l o y e e s t e n d t o v a l u e s u p e r v i s o r s who h a v e i n f l u e n c e i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , a r e p l e a s a n t , f r i e n d l y and c o n s i d e r a t e and who h a v e t r a i t s i n common w i t h t h e m s e l v e s ( L o c k e , 1 9 7 5 ) . The e x t e n t t o w h i c h s u p e r v i s o r s i n f l u e n c e j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n i s n o t c l e a r c u t b u t a p p e a r s t o v a r y w i t h t h e d e g r e e o f a u t o n o m y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a c c o r d e d b y t h e p o s i t i o n and t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s n e e d f o r i n d e p e n d e n c e o r s u p p o r t . S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h C o - w o r k e r s T h e r e i s d a t a s u g g e s t i n g t h a t w o r k e r ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s o n t h e j o b . On t h e b a s i s o f i n t e r v i e w s , W a l k e r and G u e s t ( 1 9 5 2 ) f o u n d t h a t i s o l a t e d w o r k e r s d i s l i k e d t h e i r j o b s and g a v e s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n a s t h e p r i n c i p l e r e a s o n . T h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h S a w a t s k y ' s ( 1 9 5 1 ) o b s e r v a t i o n s t h a t l o w o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n t e r a c t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h h i g h t u r n o v e r r a t e s . i A l t h o u g h s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n a p p e a r s t o be a f a c t o r i n d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , i t d o e s n o t f o l l o w t h a t amoun t o f i n t e r a c t i o n n e c e s s a r i l y l e a d s t o s a t i s f a c t i o n . T y p e o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l 31 r e l a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n a w o r k s i t u a t i o n ( V r o o m , 1964) and s i m i l a r i t y o f a t t i t u d e s (Newcomb, 1956) e f f e c t g r o u p c o h e s i v e n e s s t o a g r e a t e r d e g r e e t h a n amoun t o f i n t e r a c t i o n ( C a r t w r i g h t and Z a n d e r , 1 9 6 8 ) . A n o t h e r v a r i a b l e w h i c h h a s b e e n h y p o t h e s i z e d t o a f f e c t t h e a t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f g r o u p s f o r t h e i r members i s t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e y a r e a c c e p t e d o r v a l u e d b y o t h e r g r o u p m e m b e r s . I n a s t u d y o f a c h i l d w e l f a r e a g e n c y , J a c k s o n ( 1 9 5 9 ) f o u n d a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n m e a s u r e s o f a p e r s o n ' s a t t r a c t i v e n e s s t o t h e g r o u p and m e a s u r e s o f t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h he was v a l u e d b y o t h e r g r o u p m e m b e r s . S i m i l a r e v i d e n c e i n l a b o r a t o r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n s was f o u n d b y D i t t e s ( 1 9 5 9 ) , Z a n d e r and C o h e n ( 1 9 5 5 ) and o t h e r s . I n t e r a c t i o n s b e t w e e n two o r more p e r s o n s i n a w o r k s i t u a t i o n a r e s a t i s f y i n g i f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n h a s t h e c o n s e q u e n c e o f f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f b o t h g r o u p and i n d i v i d u a l g o a l s . On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i n t e r a c t i o n w o u l d be f r u s t r a t i n g i f i t had t h e c o n s e q u e n c e o f i m p e d i n g p r o g r e s s t o w a r d s g o a l a t t a i n m e n t . T h i s v i e w i s u p h e l d b y t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d i e s o f D e u t s c h ( 1 9 4 9 ) and V r o o m ( 1 9 6 4 ) c o n c e r n i n g t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e among g o a l s o n a f f e c t i v e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n among g r o u p m e m b e r s . S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r P r o m o t i o n V r o o m ( 1 9 6 4 ) d e s c r i b e s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r o m o t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t e r m s o f e x p e c t a n c y / v a l e n c e t h e o r y . A p e r s o n ' s e v a l u a t i o n o f h i s p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d , 32 a c c o r d i n g t o V r o o m , t o h i s e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g p r o m o t i o n and t h e d e g r e e o f i m p o r t a n c e he a t t a c h e s t o a t t a i n i n g t h e p r o m o t i o n . T h i s v i e w f a v o u r s i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n s a t i s f a c t i o n w i h s i m i l a r p r o m o t i o n a l p o l i c i e s . V a r i a t i o n s i n amoun t o f p r o m o t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y h a v e b e e n r e l a t e d t o a b s e n t e e i s m , t u r n o v e r r a t e s , and a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e c o m p a n y o r o r g a n i z a t i o n . P a t c h e n ( 1 9 6 0 ) d e m o n s t r a t e d a h i g h e r f r e q u e n c y o f a b s e n c e s among p e r s o n s who f e l t t h e y d e s e r v e d p r o m o t i o n c o m p a r e d w i t h t h o s e who s t a t e d i n d i f f e r e n c e t o p r o m o t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . S i r o t a ( 1 9 5 9 ) s i m i l a r l y f o u n d a n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n m e a s u r e s o f p r o m o t i o n a l f r u s t r a t i o n and m e a s u r e s o f a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e c o m p a n y . P o r t e r and S t e e r s ( 1 9 7 5 , p . 281) c i t e f i f t e e n s t u d i e s i n w h i c h p r o m o t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a p p e a r t o r e p r e s e n t s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i n t e r m i n a t i o n d e c i s i o n s . O p p o r t u n i t y f o r p r o m o t i o n i s r e p e a t e d l y c i t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e a s a p o s i t i v e d i m e n s i o n r e l a t e d t o j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . A p o s i t i o n a t a h i g h e r l e v e l i n v o l v e s c h a n g e s i n s u p e r v i s i o n , j o b c o n t e n t , p a y and p o s s i b l y c o - w o r k e r s . C o n s e q u e n t l y i t c u t s a c r o s s a l l f a c e t s p r e v i o u s l y d i s c u s s e d . S e v e r a l o f t h e " i n t r i n s i c " o r " m o t i v a t o r " f a c t o r s c i t e d b y H e r z b e r g ( 1 9 7 3 ) s u c h a s r e c o g n i t i o n f o r a c h i e v e m e n t , a d v a n c e m e n t , and j o b g r o w t h f a l l u n d e r t h e r u b r i c o f p r o m o t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . F u r t h e r m o r e p e o p l e who h a v e h i g h n e e d s f o r a c h i e v e m e n t may e x p e r i e n c e e x t r e m e f r u s t r a t i o n i n j o b s w h i c h a r e p e r c e i v e d a s d e a d - e n d e d . 33 SUMMARY L i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e c o n c e p t s " n e e d " , " c o n g r u e n c y " , and " j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n " i n t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e y a p p e a r i n F i g u r e 1 was r e v i e w e d . C o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n n e e d s w e r e d e f i n e d a s s e l f p e r c e i v e d g a p s i n s k i l l s , k n o w l e d g e s and a t t i t u d e s r e q u i r e d t o do t h e j o b . T h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e was p r e s e n t e d s u p p o r t i n g t h e n o t i o n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s s t r i v e t o m i n i m i z e i n t e r n a l i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s among c o g n i t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s . C o n g r u e n c y t h e o r y was i n v o k e d a s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t l i n k i n g unmet e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s t o j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . O v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n was d e f i n e d as t h e sum o f d e g r e e s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n o r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h f i v e f a c e t s o f t h e j o b : w o r k , s u p e r v i s i o n , p a y , p e o p l e and p r o m o t i o n . T h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e was r e v i e w e d i n s u p p o r t o f t h e s e f i v e j o b d i m e n s i o n s . I n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r t h e m e a s u r e a d o p t e d t o d e t e r m i n e j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . The s t r a t e g y e m p l o y e d t o d e f i n e s k i l l s , k n o w l e d g e s and a t t i t u d e s r e q u i r e d t o p e r f o r m c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k and t h u s d e t e r m i n e l e a r n i n g n e e d s , w i l l be d e s c r i b e d . L a s t l y , e v i d e n c e w i l l be p r e s e n t e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e l i a b i l i t y a n d v a l i d i t y o f t h e m e a s u r e m e n t i n s t r u m e n t . 34 CHAPTER 3 INSTRUMENT DESIGN T h i s c h a p t e r o u t l i n e s t h e m e a s u r e m e n t s t r a t e g y e m p l o y e d f o r t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . S u b s e q u e n t l y t h e c h a p t e r r e v i e w s t h e s t e p s t a k e n i n d e s i g n i n g an i n s t r u m e n t t o m e a s u r e l e a r n i n g n e e d s . R e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y e s t i m a t e s o f t h e l e a r n i n g n e e d s m e a s u r e a r e r e p o r t e d . JOB D E S C R I P T I V E INDEX I n v i e w o f c r i t i c i s m l e v e l l e d a t j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n s t u d i e s w h i c h do n o t i n c o r p o r a t e s t a n d a r d i z e d a s s e s s m e n t s c a l e s ( P o r t e r and L a w l e r , 1 9 7 4 ; S t e e r s and P o r t e r , 1975) t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r e x e r c i s e d c a r e i n s e l e c t i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e m e a s u r i n g d e v i c e . The J o b D e s c r i p t i v e I n d e x ( J D I ) f r o m t h e C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y S t u d i e s o f S a t i s f a c t i o n ( S m i t h , e t . a l . , 1969) was a d o p t e d b e c a u s e : a) i t was d e s i g n e d f o r u se w i t h w i d e l y v a r y i n g g r o u p s o f i n d i v i d u a l s w o r k i n g u n d e r q u i t e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f e m p l o y m e n t s i t u a t i o n s . b) i t p r o v i d e s d e t a i l e d n o r m s f o r a l a r g e c r o s s s e c t i o n o f w o r k e r s . c ) i t i s s t r o n g l y f a v o u r e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e a s o n e o f t h e m o s t h i g h l y v a l i d a t e d and r e l i a b l e m e a s u r e s o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n ( V r o o m , 1 9 6 4 ; S t e e r s and P o r t e r , 1 9 7 5 ; P o r t e r and L a w l e r , 1 9 7 4 ; C um m ings and S c h w a b , 1 9 7 3 ) . The J D I m e a s u r e s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h e a c h o f f i v e a r e a s o f a j o b : w o r k c o n t e n t , s u p e r v i s i o n , p a y , c o - w o r k e r s , and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r o m o t i o n . F o r e a c h a r e a t h e r e i s a l i s t o f a d j e c t i v e s o r s h o r t p h r a s e s , and t h e r e s p o n d e n t i s i n s t r u c t e d t o i n d i c a t e w h e t h e r e a c h w o r d o r p h r a s e a p p l i e s t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r 35 f a c e t o f t h e j o b i n q u e s t i o n . I f a w o r d a p p l i e s , he i s a s k e d t o w r i t e " Y " ( f o r y e s ) b e s i d e t h e w o r d . I f t h e w o r d d o e s n o t a p p l y he i s a s k e d t o w r i t e " N " ( f o r n o ) . I f he c a n n o t d e c i d e he i s a s k e d t o e n t e r a q u e s t i o n mark ( ? ) . T a b l e 1 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s c o r i n g o f t h e 72 J D I i t e m s . T A B L E 1 SCORING OF J D I ITEMS R e s p o n s e S c o r e Y e s t o a p o s i t i v e i t e m 3 No t o a n e g a t i v e i t e m 3 ? t o a n y i t e m 1 Y e s t o a n e g a t i v e i t e m 0 No t o a p o s i t i v e i t e m 0 Two s t a t e m e n t s f r o m t h e s t a n d a r d t e s t w e r e a l t e r e d a s t h e y w e r e n o t a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n . I n Work " h o t " was r e p l a c e d b y " s t r e s s f u l " . I n P a y " s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o f i t s h a r i n g " was r e p l a c e d b y " s a t i s f a c t o r y f r i n g e b e n e f i t s " . The number o f p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e i t e m s v a r y i n e a c h a r e a . " Y e s " t o a p o s i t i v e and " n o " t o a n e g a t i v e i t e m i s r e f e r r e d t o a s " r e s p o n s e s e t " . The i t e m s c o r e s f o r e a c h o f t h e f i v e f a c e t s o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n a r e summed t o y i e l d a maximum s c o r e o f 5 4 . The s t a t i s t i c a l l y e x p e c t e d s c o r e s f r o m a b a l a n c e d a t t i t u d e r e s u l t i n g i n e q u a l p r o b a b i l i t y o f e n d o r s i n g f a v o u r a b l e 36 and u n f a v o u r a b l e i t e m s a r e t h e same f o r e a c h f a c e t and w o u l d y i e l d a s c o r e o f 2 7 . The o v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n s c o r e i s a r r i v e d a t b y summing o v e r t h e f a c e t s c o r e s and d i v i d i n g b y f i v e . I n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g e x p e c t e d J D I s c o r e s u n d e r t h e s e v e r a l a s s u m p t i o n s o f maximum p o s s i b l e s c o r e s , i n d i f f e r e n c e , p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e s t o a r e s p o n s e s e t and b a l a n c e d a t t i t u d e a r e shown i n T a b l e 2 . T A B L E 2 J D I E X P E C T E D SCORES UNDER F I V E ASSUMPTIONS OF ANSWERING S T Y L E S c a l e Maximum I n d i f f e r e n c e R e s p o n s e S e t B a l a n c e d S c o r e Y e s No A t t i t u d e O v e r a l l J o b 54 18 2 7 . ,6 2 6 . ,4 27 S a t i s f a c t i o n Work 54 18 3 0 . .0 2 4 . .0 27 S u p e r v i s i o n 54 18 3 0 . , 0 2 4 . , 0 27 P a y 54 18 2 4 . ,0 3 0 . ,0 27 C o - w o r k e r s 54 18 2 4 . . 0 3 0 . . 0 27 P r o m o t i o n 54 18 3 0 . .0 2 4 . , 0 27 I f t h e mean v a l u e s do n o t d i f f e r among t h e s c a l e s t h e t e s t i s a s s u m e d t o be a r e f l e c t i o n o f a n s w e r i n g s t y l e r a t h e r t h a n j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . A maximum s c o r e (54) i n e v e r y f a c e t i s i n d i c a t i v e 37 o f t e s t a c q u i e s c e n c e . The p o i n t s o f i n d i f f e r e n c e , w h e r e a w o r k e r a n s w e r s w i t h a q u e s t i o n m a r k t o e a c h i t e m , a r e t h e same f o r a l l s c a l e s - a s c o r e o f e i g h t e e n . I f t h e w o r k e r r e s p o n d s " y e s " t o e v e r y i t e m o r " n o " t o e v e r y i t e m t h e s c o r e s f o r e a c h s c a l e w o u l d a p p e a r a s shown i n T a b l e 2 u n d e r t h e " r e s p o n s e s e t " c o l u m n . A v a l u e o f 27 i n e a c h o f t h e f i v e f a c e t s r e f l e c t s an e q u a l p r o b a b i l i t y o f e n d o r s i n g f a v o u r a b l e and u n f a v o u r a b l e i t e m s and i s c o n s i d e r e d b y S m i t h , e t . a l . a s a n e u t r a l p o i n t o r b a l a n c e d a t t i t u d e ( 1 9 6 9 , p . 8 1 ) . V a l u e s s i m i l a r t o t h e s c o r e s p o r t r a y e d i n T a b l e 2 may o c c u r i n a n y o n e f a c e t and be d e r i v e d b y c o n s i d e r e d r e s p o n s e s t o e a c h i n d i v i d u a l i t e m . The c r u c i a l i s s u e i s w h e t h e r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f j o b a t t i t u d e s r e s u l t s f r o m d i s c r i m i n a b l e r e s p o n s e s t o s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f j o b c o n d i t i o n s ( e . g . , t h e t i r e s o m e n e s s o f t h e w o r k , p r o m o t i o n o n a b i l i t y , t a c t f u l n e s s o f s u p e r v i s o r ) . The J D I s c o r e s f o r 2 , 5 0 0 men and women s t u d i e d b y S m i t h , e t . a l . ( 1 9 6 9 ) a r e shown i n T a b l e 3 . A s c a n be s e e n i n T a b l e 3 t h e r e i s s u p p o r t f o r t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t w o r k e r s do r e s p o n d d i f f e r e n t i a l l y t o a s p e c t s o f t h e j o b w h i c h p r o d u c e g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e s t o p a r t i c u l a r a r e a s ( W o r k , P a y , e t c . ) . O b s e r v e d means d i f f e r b e t w e e n s c a l e s and do n o t a p p e a r t o r e f l e c t a n y o f t h e f i v e s t e r e o t y p e d a n s w e r i n g s t y l e s . The l a r g e s a m p l e s t u d i e d i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e J D I a s a m e a s u r e o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n p r o v i d e s a s t a n d a r d f o r c o m p a r i s o n w i t h s c o r e s o f c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s . T h e r e f o r e h i g h and l o w s c o r e s s h o u l d be n o t e d . Mean v a l u e s f o r c o - w o r k e r s and s u p e r v i s i o n a r e h i g h ( 4 2 . 7 and 4 1 . 1 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , and l o w f o r p a y and p a r t i c u l a r l y p r o m o t i o n ( 2 8 . 9 and 1 8 . 9 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . 38 S c o r e s a s shown i n T a b l e 3 i n d i c a t e a g e n e r a l t r e n d t o w a r d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n and c o l l e a g u e s and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r o m o t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . T A B L E 3 J D I S C A L E S S T A T I S T I C S FOR EMPLOYEES OF 21 COMPANIES S c a l e Mean S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n O v e r a l l J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h Work S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h S u p e r v i s i o n S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h P a y S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h C o - w o r k e r s S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h P r o m o t i o n 3 3 . 6 3 6 . 2 4 1 . 1 2 8 . 9 4 2 . 7 1 8 . 9 1 1 . 9 1 0 . 2 1 0 . 2 1 4 . 1 1 0 . 3 1 4 . 5 n=2500 S K I L L S , KNOWLEDGES, A T T I T U D E INVENTORY The l e a r n i n g n e e d s q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c r e a t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y . I t i s a j o b a n a l y s i s i n v e n t o r y b a s e d on s k i l l s , k n o w l e d g e s and a t t i t u d e s r e q u i r e d t o p e r f o r m c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k . The t a s k o f c r e a t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was 3 9 c o m p l e x a s t h e s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n was made up o f p e o p l e w i t h d i f f e r i n g t r a i n i n g and t h e j o b r e q u i r e m e n t s d i f f e r e d t o some e x t e n t f o r e a c h p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p . H o w e v e r , t h e r e was a t e n d e n c y t o use s t a f f a s " g e n e r a l i s t s " w i t h a s t r o n g d e g r e e o f o v e r l a p o f a c t i v i t y among t h e d i s c i p l i n e s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t o n l y a m i n o r i t y o f t h e s t a f f w o u l d h a v e had a n y t r a i n i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t h e a r e a o f c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h b u t w o u l d r e l y o n b a s i c t r a i n i n g , p a s t e x p e r i e n c e i n h o s p i t a l and a g e n c y s e t t i n g s , and a c q u i r e d s k i l l s w h i c h w o u l d be a p p l i e d t o t h e c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h e x p e r i e n c e . A l t h o u g h s t a f f w e r e u s e d a s g e n e r a l i s t s t h e r e w e r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n how t h e y f u n c t i o n e d , a r e a s i n w h i c h t h e y f u n c t i o n e d , and i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e r e s t . F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s i t was d e c i d e d t o i n q u i r e f i r s t o n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i f e a c h i t e m was r e l e v a n t t o t h e j o b . A m o d i f i e d D e l p h i t e c h n i q u e was e m p l o y e d t o c r e a t e a s k i l l s , k n o w l e d g e s and a t t i t u d e i n v e n t o r y . The t e c h n i q u e was s i m i l a r t o t h e one o r i g i n a l l y u s e d b y H e l m e r ( 1 9 6 7 ) . The f o l l o w i n g s t e p s w e r e t a k e n : 1. A l i s t o f s k i l l s , k n o w l e d g e s and a t t i t u d e s was c r e a t e d i n a b r a i n s t o r m i n g s e s s i o n b y two e x p e r t s i n t h e f i e l d and one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r M e n t a l H e a l t h S e r v i c e s e x e c u t i v e b r a n c h . The e x p e r t s w e r e a s k e d t o g r o u p t h e i t e m s i n t o c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d w h o l e t a s k s o r a r e a s c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l t o p e r f o r m c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k . S e v e n b r o a d g e n e r a l c a t e o g r i e s e m e r g e d b y c o n s e n s u s o f o p i n i o n . T h e r e w e r e c r i s i s i n t e r v e n t i o n , a s s e s s m e n t , t r e a t m e n t and c o m m u n i t y s e r v i c e s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , d o c u m e n t a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n a l d u t i e s . 2 . The l i s t was s u b m i t t e d t o two o t h e r e x p e r t s f o r c o m m e n t , i n p u t and d e l e t i o n s . The s e c o n d g r o u p o f e x p e r t s w e r e i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e i n i t i a l g r o u p o n t h e g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s . No i t e m s w e r e d e l e t e d . Ten i t e m s w e r e a d d e d t o t h e t r e a t m e n t and c o m m u n i t y s e r v i c e s s e c t i o n . 40 3 . The S t r a t h c o n a c o m m u n i t y c a r e t eam c o o p e r a t e d i n g e n e r a t i n g a new l i s t . F i r s t t h e team was p r e s e n t e d w i t h t h e s e v e n c a t e g o r i e s and a g r e e m e n t was r e a c h e d b y m a j o r i t y o p i n i o n t h a t t h e s e a r e a s d i d i n f a c t r e p r e s e n t c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k . A l i s t o f i t e m s was t h e n g e n e r a t e d f o r e a c h c a t e g o r y b y t h e e l e v e n team members i n a b r a i n s t o r m i n g s e s s i o n . T h i s l i s t was r e v i e w e d on two a d d i t i o n a l o c c a s i o n s b y t h e same e l e v e n p e o p l e . On e a c h r e v i e w , i t e m s n o t e s s e n t i a l w e r e d e l e t e d , i t e m s w i t h h i g h s i m i l a r i t y w e r e g r o u p e d t o g e t h e r , and i t e m s i n e a c h a r e a w e r e p r i o r i t y r a t e d , a l l b y c o n s e n s u s o f o p i n i o n . The f i n a l l i s t f r o m t h i s s e s s i o n c o n t a i n e d 100 i t e m s . The o p i n i o n o f t h e e l e v e n t eam members was u n a n i m o u s c o n c e r n i n g t h e d i v i s i o n and c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s o f t h e l i s t . 4 . The l i s t was t h e n c o m p a r e d t o t h e o n e c r e a t e d b y e x p e r t s . I t e m s n o t a p p e a r i n g on b o t h w e r e d e l e t e d . An e f f o r t was made t o s h o r t e n t h e l i s t , h o w e v e r c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k r e q u i r e s t h e i n t e g r a t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e , s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s f r o m a number o f f i e l d s - t h e j o b i s c o m p l e x and r e f l e c t e d i n t h e l a r g e number o f i t e m s . The f i n a l l i s t c o n t a i n e d 73 i t e m s d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e n s e c t i o n s : c r i s i s i n t e r v e n t i o n , a s s e s s m e n t , t r e a t m e n t and c o m m u n i t y s e r v i c e s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , d o c u m e n t a t i o n , and e d u c a t i o n a l d u t i e s . 5 . E a c h i t e m was g i v e n t h r e e r e s p o n s e s u b s e t s : r e l e v a n c e t o t h e w o r k , n e e d f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g , a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t r a i n i n g . E a c h s u b s e t o f t h e i t e m was g i v e n f i v e r e s p o n s e a l t e r n a t i v e s . The r e s p o n s e a l t e r n a t i v e s w e r e s c a l e d i n t h e T h u r s t o n e e q u a l - a p p e a r i n g i n t e r v a l f a s h i o n ( M i l l e r , 1970) f r o m " n e v e r " t o " a l w a y s " on r e l e v a n c e and " n o t a t a l l " t o " a g r e a t d e a l " on n e e d and a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t r a i n i n g . The a n c h o r w o r d s w e r e t a k e n f r o m t h e F l e i s h m a n " L e a d e r s h i p O p i n i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e " ( 1 9 6 9 ) . The J D I a n d S k i l l s , K n o w l e d g e s , A t t i t u d e I n v e n t o r y ( S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y ) w e r e c o m b i n e d t o f o r m a q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( A p p e n d i x A ) . The f i r s t p a g e o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s c r i b e s b r i e f l y t h e i n f o r m a t i o n b e i n g s o u g h t and p r o m i s e s c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . S e v e n q u e s t i o n s , deemed t o be c r i t i c a l d e m o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n , a r e a s k e d ; a g e , s e x , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , p r o f e s s i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n , number o f y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e f i e l d , and number o f p o s i t i o n s h e l d . 41 P R E T E S T The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o n i n e t e e n r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d s u b j e c t s t o p r e t e s t f a c e v a l i d i t y , t i m e r e q u i r e d , r e l i a b i l i t y and t o s o l i c i t g e n e r a l o p i n i o n s . The n i n e t e e n s u b j e c t s t o o k 40 t o 60 m i n u t e s t o c o m p l e t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h e mean t i m e b e i n g 45 m i n u t e s . A l l n i n e t e e n c l a i m e d t h e y e n j o y e d d o i n g i t , commented on t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s . Ten o f t h e n i n e t e e n s a i d f i l l i n g i t o u t was a l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e . No i t e m was s i n g l e d o u t a s b e i n g r e d u n d a n t - c r i t i c i s m c o n c e r n e d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s w h i c h w e r e t o o l o n g and c o m p l i c a t e d . On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s c r i t i c i s m t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was r e d o n e r e f i n i n g t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s t o s i m p l e s t a t e m e n t s . The same n i n e t e e n s u b j e c t s w e r e r e t e s t e d a t a two week i n t e r v a l t o a s s e s s t h e m e a s u r e ' s t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y . R e s p o n s e s o n t h e J D I w e r e s c o r e d a s shown i n T a b l e 1. R e s p o n s e s o n t h e S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y w e r e s c o r e d z e r o t o f o u r o n a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e and a d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e f o r e a c h i t e m was c a l c u l a t e d b y s u b t r a c t i n g o p p o r t u n i t y f r o m n e e d . A c o r r e l a t i o n d e s i g n was e m p l o y e d t o t e s t t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f r e s p o n s e s t o e a c h f a c e t o f t h e J D I and e a c h s u b s e t ( r e l e v a n c e , n e e d , and o p p o r t u n i t y ) o f t h e S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y . The c o r r e l a t i o n s r a n g e d f r o m 0 . 9 0 t o 0 . 9 9 i n d i c a t i n g h i g h r e l i a b i l i t y o n a t e s t - r e t e s t b a s i s . R E L I A B I L I T Y AND V A L I D I T Y OF THE INSTRUMENT A l l i t e m s i n t h e S k i l l s , K n o w l e d g e s , A t t i t u d e I n v e n t o r y w e r e t e s t e d f o r r e l i a b i l i t y and d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y b y means o f S c o t t ' s ( 1 9 6 0 ) h o m o g e n e i t y r a t i o H R . The o p t i m a l r a n g e o f 42 t h i s HR i s f r o m 0 . 1 5 t o 0 . 3 0 . B e l o w 0 . 1 0 , i t e m s l a c k s u f f i c i e n t c o h e r e n c e t o be a d e q u a t e m e a s u r e s o f a u n i d i m e n s i o n a l c o n s t r u c t : a b o v e 0 . 7 5 i t e m s a r e e x c e s s i v e l y r e d u n d a n t . The r e l e v a n c e s c a l e had HRs r a n g i n g f r o m 0 . 1 9 t o 0 . 4 5 ( T a b l e 4) w h i c h i n d i c a t e s a d e q u a t e h o m o g e n e i t y . C r o n b a c h ' s ( 1 9 5 1 ) a l p h a i s a n o t h e r m e a s u r e o f h o m o g e n e i t y w h i c h i s d e r i v e d f r o m i n t e r - i t e m c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r e a c h s c a l e s e p a r a t e l y . T h e r e f o r e , i f a l p h a s f o r e a c h o f two s c a l e s a r e g r e a t e r t h a n t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e m , t h e s c a l e s a r e a b l e t o c o n v e r g e on t h e c o n s t r u c t s and t o d i s c r i m i n a t e b e t w e e n t h e m . The C r o n b a c h 1 s a l p h a s f o r t h e r e l e v a n c e s c a l e w e r e a l l g r e a t e r t h a n c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n them ( T a b l e 4) i n d i c a t i n g d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y o f t h e s e i t e m s . M e a s u r e s o f n e e d f o r t r a i n i n g had HRs r a n g i n g f r o m 0 . 3 1 t o 0 . 4 8 ( T a b l e 5) s u g g e s t i n g a d e q u a t e h o m o g e n e i t y . D i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y i s i n d i c a t e d b y C r o n b a c h " s a l p h a s e x c e e d i n g t h e i n t e r s c a l e c o r r e l a t i o n s . A v a i l a b i l i t y o f t r a i n i n g m e a s u r e s had h i g h HRs ( 0 . 5 3 t o 0 . 7 3 ) i n d i c a t i n g a t e n d e n c y t o w a r d s r e d u n d a n c y ( T a b l e 6 ) . The a l p h a s w e r e g r e a t e r t h a n t h e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s s h o w i n g d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y . The d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s had HRs r a n g i n g f r o m 0 . 4 5 t o 0 . 6 1 . The h o m o g e n e i t y i s a d e q u a t e and d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y i s i n d i c a t e d ( T a b l e 7 ) . TABLE 4 INTERCORRELATIONS OF S.K.A. INVENTORY RELEVANCE SCORES FOR SEVEN AREAS OF COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH WORK. C r i s i s Assessment Treatment Relation- Admin- Document- Education Intervention and ships and i s t r a - a t i on Community Communic- t i o n Services ations C r i s i s Intervention Assessment .68 Treatment and Community Services .45 .62 Relat i o n s h i p s and Communication .49 .41 .49 Administration .32 .19 .41 .32 Documentation .34 .55 .55 .58 .34 Education .45 .25 .56 .29 .43 .25 Mean 2.70 2.88 2.44 3.20 2.38 2.77 1.64 Standard Deviation .62 .64 .45 .58 .61 .52 .45 Homogeneity Ratio .38 .45 .23 .39 .33 .28 .19 Cronbach's Alpha .81 .84 .89 .83 .74 .72 .67 TABLE 5 INTERCORRELATIONS OF S.K.A. INVENTORY NEED SCORES FOR SEVEN AREAS OF COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH WORK. C r i s i s Assessment Treatment Relation- Admin- Document- Education Intervention and ships and i s t r a - ation Community Communic- t i o n Services ations C r i s i s Intervention Assessment .66 Treatment and Community Services .63 .79 Relationships and Communications .64 .69 .67 Administration .40 .46 .49 .47 Documentation .50 .68 .67 .68 .59 Education .44 .62 .71 .61 .56 .74 Mean 1.66 1.60 1.7 1.38 1.65 1.38 1.62 Standard Deviation .50 .60 .50 .59 .70 .63 .68 Homogenei ty Ratio .33 .45 .31 .47 .44 .36 .40 Cronbach's Alpha .76 .85 .92 .87 .82 .79 .85 TABLE 6 INTERCORRELATIONS OF S.K.A. INVENTORY AVAILABILITY SCORES FOR SEVEN AREAS OF COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH WORK. C r i s i s Assessment Treatment Relation- Admin- Document- Education Intervention and ships and i s t r a - ation Community Communic- t i o n Services a t i o n s C r i s i s Intervention Assessment .85 Treatment and Community Services .75 .83 Relationships and Communications .69 .76 .89 Administration .60 .69 .82 .81 Documentation .63 .69 .84 .85 .82 Education .65 .67 .83 .79 .80 .83 Mean 1.63 1.56 1.25 1.18 1.16 1.12 .93 Standard Deviation .79 .95 .74 .87 .78 .89 .72 Homogeneity Ratio .53 .69 .57 .71 .56 .73 .59 Cronbach's Ratio .88 .94 .97 .95 .88 .95 .92 TABLE 7 INTERCORRELATIONS OF S.K.A. INVENTORY DISCREPANCY SCORES FOR SEVEN AREAS OF COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH WORK. C r i s i s Assessment Treatment Relation- Admin- Document- Education Intervention and ships and i s t r a - ation Community Communic- t i o n Services ations C r i s i s Intervention Assessment .75 Treatment and Community Services .67 .82 Rel a t i o n s h i p s and Communications .66 .76 .81 Administration .45 .52 .65 .61 Documentation .47 .68 .74 .73 .70 Education .50 .65 .77 .69 .67 .78 Mean .02 .05 .45 .20 .47 .26 .68 Standard Deviation .91 1.04 .19 .87 .94 .89 .93 Homogeneity Ratio .45 .61 .45 .56 .46 .46 .50 Cronbach's Alpha .84 .91 .95 .91 .83 .85 .90 47 SUMMARY The c r e a t i o n o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o g a t h e r d a t a f o r t e s t i n g t h e h y p o t h e s i s and d e t e r m i n i n g t h e l e a r n i n g n e e d s o f c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s was d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . The J o b D e s c r i p t i v e I n d e x was a d o p t e d a s a v a l i d , r e l i a b l e , and w i d e l y u s e d m e a s u r e o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . A m o d i f i e d D e l p h i t e c h n i q u e was e m p l o y e d t o g e n e r a t e a l i s t o f s k i l l s , k n o w l e d g e s and a t t i t u d e s r e q u i r e d t o do t h e j o b . The S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y and t h e J D I w e r e c o m b i n e d t o f o r m a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . An i n i t i a l page was i n c l u d e d r e q u e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on a g e , s e x , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , p r o f e s s i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n , number o f y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e f i e l d , and number o f p o s i t i o n s h e l d . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was p r e t e s t e d f o r r e l i a b i l i t y o n n i n e t e e n s u b j e c t s . C o r r e l a t i o n s r a n g e d f r o m 0 . 9 0 t o 0 . 9 9 i n d i c a t i n g h i g h r e l i a b i l i t y . The S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y was t e s t e d f o r h o m o g e n e i t y and d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y . The HRs f e l l b e t w e e n 0 . 1 9 and 0 . 7 3 i n d i c a t i n g t h a t f o r e a c h s c a l e t h e i t e m s had s u f f i c i e n t c o h e r e n c e t o be a d e q u a t e m e a s u r e s o f a u n i d i m e n s i o n a l c o n s t r u c t . C r o n b a c h ' s a l p h a s i n e a c h i n s t a n c e e x c e e d e d t h e i n t e r s c a l e c o r r e l a t i o n s i n d i c a t i n g d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y b e t w e e n s c a l e s . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r t h e m e t h o d o f t h e s t u d y w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . 48 CHAPTER 4 METHOD The p u r p o s e s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y w e r e t o d e t e r m i n e l e a r n i n g n e e d s o f c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s and t o t e s t a h y p o t h e s i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t r a i n i n g n e e d / o p p o r t u n i t y d i s c r e p a n c i e s and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . T h i s c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s t h e s t u d y d e s i g n c h o s e n t o f u l f i l l e a c h p u r p o s e . A l l c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d b y t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r M e n t a l H e a l t h S e r v i c e s w e r e e l i g i b l e f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h e s t u d y . The s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n i s b r i e f l y d e s c r i b e d b e l o w . S u b s e q u e n t l y p r o c e d u r e s e m p l o y e d t o g a t h e r d a t a a r e o u t l i n e d , and m e t h o d s u s e d t o a n a l y s e t h e d a t a a r e e x p l a i n e d . DESIGN L e a r n i n g n e e d s o f c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s w e r e e l i c i t e d b y s c a l e s c o r e a n a l y s i s . The h y p o t h e s i s was i n v e s t i g a t e d b y a c o r r e l a t i o n a l d e s i g n w h i c h p r o v i d e d a m a t r i x o f c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s i n d i c a t i n g t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h v a r i a t i o n s i n n e e d / o p p o r t u n i t y d i s c r e p a n c i e s c o r r e s p o n d w i t h v a r i a t i o n s i n j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . STUDY P O P U L A T I O N C o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s w e r e u s e d a s a s a m p l e f o r t h i s s t u d y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e now p r o v i d i n g one o f t h e ' n e w d i r e c t i o n s ' i n h e a l t h c a r e f o r w h i c h c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n 49 p r o g r a m s a r e a d v o c a t e d . The p o p u l a t i o n was d r a w n f r o m t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r M e n t a l H e a l t h S e r v i c e s ( G . V . M . H . S . ) l i s t o f e m p l o y e e s . T h e s e e m p l o y e e s a r e m e n t a l h e a l t h c a r e w o r k e r s , r e p r e s e n t i n g a number o f h e a l t h a l l i e d p r o f e s s i o n s , who w o r k i n e l e v e n m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y c o m m u n i t y c a r e t e a m s i n s p e c i f i c b o u n d a r y d e f i n e d a r e a s i n t h e l o w e r m a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T A B L E 8 D I S T R I B U T I O N OF RESPONDENTS BY COMMUNITY CARE TEAMS L o c a t i o n C o m m u n i t y C a r e N o . o f R e s p o n d e n t s % o f T o t a l C e n t r e i n S t u d y R e s p o n d e n t s R i c h m o n d R i c h m o n d 12 1 1 . 7 V a n c o u v e r M t . P l e a s a n t 10 9 . 7 V a n c o u v e r S o u t h 11 1 0 . 7 S t r a t h c o n e 11 1 0 . 7 K i t s i l a n o 11 1 0 . 7 V a n c o u v e r Wes t End 8 7 . 8 B r o a d w a y 9 8 . 7 V a n c o u v e r Wes t s i d e 12 1 1 . 7 B u r n a b y B u r n a b y S o u t h 7 6 . 8 B u r n a b y C e n t r a l 5 4 . 9 B u r n a b y N o r t h 7 6 . 8 T o t a l 103 1 0 0 . 0 The p o p u l a t i o n s t u d i e d w e r e t h o s e p e r s o n n e l whose j o b d e s c r i p t i o n d e f i n e d them a s c o m m u n i t y - b a s e d c a r e g i v e r s . One h u n d r e d and t w e l v e p e o p l e w e r e e l i g i b l e f o r i n c l u s i o n a t t h e 50 t i m e o f t h e s t u d y , A u g u s t , 1 9 7 6 . One h u n d r e d and t h r e e o u t o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f 112 s u b j e c t s p a r t i c i p a t e d . Of t h e r e m a i n i n g n i n e , t h r e e s u b j e c t s r e f u s e d t o c o - o p e r a t e , one was i l l i n h o s p i t a l , and t h e f i v e r e m a i n i n g p e o p l e w e r e a b r o a d . T a b l e 8 shows t h e l o c a t i o n o f e a c h t eam and t h e number o f s u b j e c t s p e r t e a m . PROCEDURE The c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r M e n t a l H e a l t h S e r v i c e s was e n l i s t e d p r i o r t o u n d e r t a k i n g t h e s t u d y . A l e t t e r o f i n t r o d u c t i o n and e x p l a n a t i o n was s e n t b y t h e G . V . M . H . S . t o t h e c o - o r d i n a t o r o f e a c h t e a m . (See A p p e n d i x B ) . A l i s t o f e m p l o y e e s w i t h a j o b d e s c r i p t i o n f o r e a c h was p r o v i d e d b y t h e G . V . M . H . S . f r o m w h i c h e l i g i b l e s u b j e c t s w e r e e x t r a c t e d . A number was a s s i g n e d t o e a c h s u b j e c t and a r andom s e l e c t i o n o f n i n e t e e n p e o p l e f o r a p r e t e s t m a d e . F o l l o w i n g t h e t e s t - r e t e s t p e r i o d e a c h c o - o r d i n a t o r was c o n t a c t e d t o o r g a n i z e a m e e t i n g w i t h a l l t eam m e m b e r s . E a c h o f t h e e l e v e n t e a m s was v i s i t e d and a h a l f - h o u r m e e t i n g h e l d w i t h a l l m e m b e r s . D u r i n g t h e s e s s i o n t h e s u b j e c t s w e r e t o l d t h a t t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r was c o n d u c t i n g a " L e a r n i n g N e e d s " s t u d y and t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i o n was n e e d e d . The p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e i n f o r m e d t h a t t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y w o u l d be a v a i l a b l e t o t h e G . V . M . H . S . t o i m p r o v e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s . A s t h e r e s p o n s e s w e r e t o be a n o n y m o u s , r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e u r g e d t o be f r a n k i n t h e i r r e p l i e s . i The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was t h e n d i s t r i b u t e d t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . 51 A week was a l l o t e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . E a c h t eam was s u b s e q u e n t l y r e v i s i t e d two o r t h r e e t i m e s t o c o l l e c t t h e c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The v i s i t s and i n t e r v e n i n g t e l e p h o n e c a l l s o f r e m i n d e r p r o v e d e f f e c t i v e i n o b t a i n i n g a 92 p e r c e n t r e t u r n r a t e . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t a l l p o s s i b l e r e t u r n s had b e e n o b t a i n e d when t h e 112 e l i g i b l e p e o p l e had b e e n a c c o u n t e d f o r . DATA A N A L Y S I S An i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number was p l a c e d a t t h e u p p e r r i g h t hand c o r n e r o f t h e f i r s t p a g e o f e a c h q u e s t i o n n a i r e . D a t a on d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s a g e , s e x , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , p r o f e s s i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n , number o f y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e , and number o f p o s i t i o n s h e l d was a n a l y z e d u t i l i z i n g t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o m p u t i n g C e n t r e M u l t i v a r i a t e C o n t i n g e n c y T a b u l a t i o n s ( M V T A B ) . Mean s c o r e s and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s o n d a t a o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e J D I and S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y w e r e a n a l y z e d b y a S c a l e S c o r e and S c a l e A n a l y s i s S u b r o u t i n e o f t h e S t a t i s t i c a l P a c k a g e f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s ( S P S S ) . The L E R T A P P r o g r a m was u s e d t o p r o v i d e mean r e l e v a n c e , n e e d , a v a i l a b i l i t y and d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s f o r e a c h o f t h e s e v e n s e c t i o n s o f t h e S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y . D a t a s u c h a s J D I S c o r e s and S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y s e c t i o n s c o r e s , w h i c h met t h e a s s u m p t i o n s f o r c o r r e l a t i o n s , w e r e a n a l y z e d u s i n g t h e U . B . C . C o m p u t i n g C e n t r e T r i a n g u l a r R e g r e s s i o n P a c k a g e ( T R I P ) . The INMSDC s u b - r o u t i n e o f T R I P p r o v i d e d m e a n s , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s and a c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x . S t e p w i s e r e g r e s s i o n (STPREG r o u t i n e o f T R I P ) was e m p l o y e d 52 t o t e s t t h e p r e d i c t i v e s t r e n g t h o f unmet l e a r n i n g n e e d s . SUMMARY A q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e l i v e r e d t o 112 c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s . A r e t u r n r a t e o f 92 p e r c e n t was o b t a i n e d , y i e l d i n g a s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n o f 103 p e o p l e . The d a t a was a n a l y z e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o m p u t i n g C e n t r e . L e a r n i n g n e e d s w e r e d e r i v e d b y a s u b r o u t i n e o f t h e S t a t i s t i c a l P a c k a g e f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . A c o r r e l a t i o n a l t e s t o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s was e m p l o y e d u s i n g t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a T r i a n g u l a r R e g r e s s i o n P a c k a g e . The r e s u l t s o f t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s w i l l be r e p o r t e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . 53 CHAPTER 5 R E S U L T S A s t h e l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s (Hammer , 1 9 7 7 ; G l a s s c o t e and G u d e m a n , 1 9 6 9 ) , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o a s s u m e t h a t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r "new l e a r n i n g " may e n h a n c e j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . I n o r d e r t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t r a i n i n g n e e d / o p p o r t u n i t y d i s c r e p a n c i e s and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o o b t a i n d e m o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n and d e t e r m i n e p e r c e i v e d l e a r n i n g n e e d s and j o b a t t i t u d e s . I n t h i s c h a p t e r s e v e n s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s a r e p r e s e n t e d . J o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e J D I , and l e a r n i n g n e e d s , a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y , a r e d i s c u s s e d . S u b s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e u l t s o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s t e s t i n g i s r e p o r t e d . C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S OF THE RESPONDENTS Of t h e 103 r e s p o n d e n t s , 48 w e r e men (46 .6%) and 55 w e r e women ( 5 3 . 4 % ) . The a v e r a g e age o f t h e s u b j e c t s was 3 5 . 5 y e a r s ( S . D . = 8 . 1 6 ) w i t h a r a n g e f r o m 23 y e a r s t o 63 y e a r s . F i f t y - s i x r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e s i n g l e , 30 m a r r i e d , n i n e d i v o r c e d , s i x s e p a r a t e d , and two w i d o w e d ( T a b l e 9 ) . 54 T A B L E 9 D I S T R I B U T I O N OF MENTAL HEALTH WORKERS BY S E X , AND M A R I T A L STATUS % o f t o t a l s t u d y N o . o f R e s p o n d e n t s p o p u l a t i o n Sex M a l e 48 4 6 . 6 F e m a l e 55 5 3 . 4 T o t a l 103 1 0 0 . 0 M a r i t a l S t a t u s S i n g l e 56 5 4 . 4 M a r r i e d 30 2 9 . 1 W i d o w e d 2 1 .9 D i v o r c e d 6 8 . 7 S e p a r a t e d 9 5 . 9 T o t a l 103 1 0 0 . 0 The mean e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l f e l l b e t w e e n h o l d i n g a B a c c a l a u r e a t e D e g r e e and a M a s t e r s d e g r e e ( T a b l e 1 0 ) . F o u r r e s p o n d e n t s had P h . D . d e g r e e s and e i g h t e e n r e s p o n d e n t s h e l d d o c t o r a l d e g r e e s i n m e d i c i n e . T h i r t y - s i x p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s had c o m p l e t e d G r a d e 12 and o b t a i n e d a d i p l o m a i n n u r s i n g , p s y c h i a t r i c n u r s i n g o r o c c u p a t i o n a l t h e r a p y . T a b l e 10 s h o w s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f s u b j e c t s b y e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . 55 T A B L E 10 D I S T R I B U T I O N OF MENTAL H E A L T H WORKERS BY L E V E L OF EDUCATION L e v e l o f E d u c a t i o n N o . o f R e s p o n d e n t s % o f p o p u l a t i o n G r a d e 12 + D i p l o m a 37 3 5 . 0 B . A . / B . S c . 19 1 8 . 4 M . A . / M . S c . 25 2 4 . 3 P h . D . 4 3 . 9 M . D . 18 1 7 . 4 T o t a l 103 1 0 0 . 0 S i x h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n s w e r e r e p r e s e n t e d . N u r s i n g and s o c i a l w o r k w e r e t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n l i s t e d b y c l o s e t o 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . E i g h t e e n p s y c h i a t r i s t s and 15 p s y c h i a t r i c n u r s e s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e s t u d y . The two r e m a i n i n g h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n s w e r e n o t h i g h l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n n u m b e r s -e i g h t o c c u p a t i o n a l t h e r a p i s t s and f i v e p s y c h o l o g i s t s . B o t h s o c i o l o g y and b u s i n e s s and commerce a r e n o t t r a d i t i o n a l l y r e g a r d e d a s h e a l t h a l l i e d p r o f e s s i o n s . I n c l u d i n g t h e two n o n -p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n d e n t s 6 . 8 p e r c e n t o f t h e s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n was made up o f p e o p l e who d i d n o t h a v e t h e u s u a l b a s i c h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n o r p r o f e s s i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n . T a b l e 11 s h o w s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s p o n d e n t s b y p r o f e s s i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n . 56 T A B L E 11 D I S T R I B U T I O N OF MENTAL H E A L T H WORKERS BY P R O F E S S I O N A L A F F I L I A T I O N P r o f e s s i o n N o . o f R e s p o n d e n t s % o f P o p u l a t i o n R e g i s t e r e d N u r s e s 25 2 4 . 3 P s y c h i a t r i c N u r s e s 15 1 4 . 6 S o c i a l W o r k e r s 25 2 4 . 3 O c c u p a t i o n a l T h e r a p i s t s 8 7 . 8 P s y c h o l o g i s t s 5 4 . 9 P s y c h i a t r i s t s 18 1 7 . 5 S o c i o l o g i s t s 4 3 . 9 N o n - P r o f e s s i o n a l s 2 1 .9 B u s i n e s s / C o m m e r c e 1 1 .0 T o t a l 103 1 0 0 . 0 The a v e r a g e l e n g t h o f e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e s t a t e d p r o f e s s i o n was 1 0 . 5 y e a r s ( S . D . = 6 . 4 ) . The a v e r a g e number o f p o s i t i o n s h e l d was f o u r ( S . D . = 2 . 2 ) . I n g e n e r a l , t h e s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n c a n be d e s c r i b e d a s e x p e r i e n c e d h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s w i t h f a i r l y s t a b l e w o r k h i s t o r i e s . T h e y a r e y o u n g t o e a r l y m i d d l e - a g e d a d u l t s , c l o s e t o e q u a l d i v i s i o n m a l e / f e m a l e , l e s s t h a n one t h i r d a r e m a r r i e d , o v e r one h a l f a r e s i n g l e and t h e r e s t d i v o r c e d , s e p a r a t e d o r w i d o w e d . JOB S A T I S F A C T I O N The J D I s c o r e s f o r 103 c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s show h i g h s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h f o u r f a c e t s o f t h e j o b and l o w s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p r o m o t i o n when c o m p a r e d t o 57 r e s p o n d e n t s s t u d i e d b y S m i t h , e t . a l . , 1 9 6 9 . T A B L E 12 J O B D E S C R I P T I V E INDEX SCORES FOR COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH WORKERS S e a l e Mean S t a n d a r d Dev i a t i o n D i f f e r e n c e o f Mean f r o m B a l a n c e d A t t i t u d e D i f f e r e n c e o f Mean f r o m C o r n e l l S t u d i e s * O v e r a l l J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n 3 6 . 5 7 . 6 + 9 . 5 + 2 . 9 S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h Work 3 8 . 9 7 . 4 + 1 1 . 9 + 2 . 7 S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h S u p e r v i s i o n 4 6 . 0 9 . 7 + 1 9 . 0 + 1 . 9 S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h P a y 3 6 . 9 1 1 . 7 + 9 . 9 + 8 . 0 S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h C o - w o r k e r s 4 6 . 6 7 . 1 + 1 9 . 6 + 3 . 8 S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r P r o m o t i o n 1 2 . 2 1 3 . 2 - 1 4 . 8 - 6 . 7 n = 103 * n = 2 , 5 0 0 A s c a n be s e e n i n T a b l e 12 t h e s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n w e r e more s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e o v e r a l l j o b and f o u r d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e J D I , p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h p a y , t h a n t h e C o r n e l l r e s p o n d e n t s . I n v i e w o f 5 8 t h e l a r g e n u m b e r o f p e o p l e s t u d i e d b y S m i t h , e t . a l . ( 1 9 6 9 ) s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r o m o t i o n c a n b e e x p e c t e d t o f a l l b e l o w t h a t o f a b a l a n c e d a t t i t u d e ( 2 7 ) . H o w e v e r c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s ' s c o r e s w e r e , o n t h e a v e r a g e , 6 . 7 p o i n t s b e l o w p e o p l e w o r k i n g i n i n d u s t r y a n d i n d i c a t e d a n u n u s u a l l y h i g h d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r o m o t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . L E A R N I N G N E E D S O F C O M M U N I T Y M E N T A L H E A L T H W O R K E R S T h e a v e r a g e " r e l e v a n c e " , " n e e d f o r t r a i n i n g " , " a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t r a i n i n g " , a n d " d i s c r e p a n c y " w e r e c a l c u l a t e d f o r e a c h i t e m o n t h e . S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y a n d s u m m e d o v e r f o r e a c h o f t h e s e v e n a r e a s o f c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k ( T a b l e 1 3 ) . N e e d f o r t r a i n i n g i n a l l a r e a s f e l l b e t w e e n " c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i t t l e " t o " t o s o m e d e g r e e " ( m e a n = 1 . 5 7 , s c a l e = 0 - 4 ) . S i m i l a r l y , c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n w a s p e r c e i v e d a s b e i n g a v a i l a b l e s l i g h t l y m o r e t h a n " c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i t t l e ' ( m e a n = 1 . 2 3 , s c a l e = 0 - 4 ) . T h u s , o n t h e a v e r a g e , d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s w e r e l o w ( 1 . 5 7 - 1 . 2 3 = 0 . 3 4 ) . T h e h i g h e s t a v e r a g e t r a i n i n g n e e d / o p p o r t u n i t y d i s c r e p a n c i e s w e r e i n t h e a r e a s o f e d u c a t i o n a l d u t i e s ( 0 . 6 9 ) a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( 0 . 4 9 ) . I n t h e s e t w o a r e a s , w h i c h w e r e p e r c e i v e d a s b e i n g l e a s t r e l e v a n t t o t h e j o b , t h e r e s p o n d e n t s e x p r e s s e d a n e e d f o r m o r e e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . T r e a t m e n t a n d c o m m u n i t y s e r v i c e s , a n a r e a r a t e d t h i r d l o w e s t i n r e l e v a n c e ( 2 . 4 4 ) w a s a l s o r a t e d t h i r d h i g h e s t i n u n m e t n e e d s ( 0 . 4 7 ) . I n a r e a s p e r c e i v e d a s b e i n g o f t h e g r e a t e s t r e l e v a n c y d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s t e n d e d t o b e l o w . R e l a t i o n s h i p s a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n , w h i c h h a d t h e h i g h e s t r e l e v a n c e s c o r e ( 3 . 2 0 ) w a s T A B L E 13 S K I L L S , KNOWLEDGES, A T T I T U D E INVENTORY SCORES T r a i n i n g T r a i n i n g A s p e c t s o f C o m m u n i t y R e l e v a n c e Need O p p o r t u n i t y D i s c r e p a n c y M e n t a l H e a l t h W o r k e r J o b Mean S . D . Mean S . D . Mean S . D . Mean S . D . C r i s i s I n t e r v e n t i o n 2 . 7 0 . 6 1 1 .66 . 5 0 1 .63 . 7 9 . 03 . 0 9 A s s e s s m e n t 2 . 8 8 . 6 3 1 .60 . 6 0 1 .55 . 8 9 . 05 . 1 0 T r e a t m e n t and C o m m u n i t y S e r v i c e s 2 . 4 4 . . 4 4 1 .72 . 5 0 1. 25 . 7 4 . 4 7 . 0 1 R e l a t i o n s h i p s and C o m m u n i c a t i o n 3 . 2 0 . 5 7 1 .38 . 5 9 1 .18 . 8 7 . 2 0 . 08 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 2 . 3 8 . 6 1 1 .65 . 7 0 1 .16 . 7 8 . 4 9 . 0 9 D o c u m e n t a t i o n 2 . 7 7 . 5 1 1 .38 . 6 3 1 .12 . 8 9 . 26 . 08 Ed u c a t i o n 1 .64 . 4 9 1 .62 . 6 8 . 9 3 . 7 2 . 6 9 . 0 9 S c a l e = 0 - 4 , n = 103 60 r a t e d t h i r d l o w e s t o n d i s c r e p a n c y ( 0 . 2 0 ) . A s s e s s m e n t and c r i s i s i n t e r v e n t i o n w e r e v i e w e d a s b e i n g ' a l m o s t a l w a y s ' r e l e v a n t ( 2 . 8 8 and 2 . 7 0 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . On t h e a v e r a g e , h o w e v e r , l e a r n i n g n e e d / o p p o r t u n i t y d i s c r e p a n c i e s w e r e n e g l i g i b l e ( 0 . 0 5 and 0 . 0 3 r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . S i m i l a r l y , d o c u m e n t a t i o n s c o r e d s e c o n d h i g h e s t i n r e l e v a n c e ( 2 . 7 7 ) and f o u r t h l o w e s t i n d i s c r e p a n c y ( 0 . 0 8 ) . F i f t y - t h r e e o u t o f 73 i t e m s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d a s c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e j o b f o r w h i c h more e d u c a t i o n was r e q u i r e d . I n T a b l e s 1 4 -20 i t e m s w h i c h s c o r e d t h e h i g h e s t o n unmet l e a r n i n g n e e d s i n e a c h o f t h e s e v e n a r e a s o f c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k a r e l i s t e d . The f i r s t s e c t i o n o f t h e S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y c o n t a i n e d s e v e n i t e m s p e r t i n e n t t o i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s i n a c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n ( T a b l e 1 4 ) . D e s p i t e t h e r e l e v a n c e o f t h i s a r e a f ew unmet n e e d s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d b y t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . A b i l i t y t o e x e r c i s e l e a d e r s h i p and a u t h o r i t y , managemen t o f p e r s o n a l a n x i e t i e s and k n o w l e d g e o f d r u g s w e r e t h e s k i l l s , k n o w l e d g e s and a t t i t u d e s f o r w h i c h e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s w e r e r e q u i r e d t o a s m a l l d e g r e e . 61 T A B L E 14 C R I S I S I N T E R V E N T I O N S C A L E SCORES I t e m R e l e v a n c e Need O p p o r t u n i t y Unmet Need A b i l i t y t o E x e r c i s e L e a d e r s h i p and A u t h o r i t y 2 . 7 5 1 .61 1 .51 . 10 Managemen t o f Own P e r s o n a l A n x i e t y 2 . 36 1 . 56 1 . 4 9 . 0 7 K n o w l e d g e o f D r u g s 3 . 28 2 . 0 0 1 .93 . 0 7 S c a l e 0 - 4 , N = 103 The ' A s s e s s m e n t ' s e c t i o n o f t h e S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y c o n t a i n e d s e v e n i t e m s d e s c r i b i n g s k i l l s n e e d e d t o a s s e s s c l i e n t ' s p r o b l e m s and m e n t a l s t a t u s . The a b i l i t y t o make use o f a p p r o p r i a t e l a b o r a t o r y and o t h e r t e s t s , and c o m p e t e n c y i n c o n d u c t i n g a f a m i l y i n t e r v i e w w e r e t h e two i t e m s w h i c h o b t a i n e d d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s ( T a b l e 1 5 ) . T A B L E 15 A S S E S S M E N T S C A L E SCORES Unmet I t e m R e l e v a n c e Need O p p o r t u n i t y Need Make Use o f L a b -o r a t o r y and O t h e r T e s t s 1 .16 1 . 6 9 1 . 2 3 . 4 6 C o n d u c t a F a m i l y I n t e r v i e w 2 . 3 8 2 . 0 8 1 .66 . 4 2 S c a l e 0 - 4 , n = 103 62 T r e a t m e n t and c o m m u n i t y s e r v i c e s f o r m t h e l a r g e s t p a r t o f c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k . T w e n t y - n i n e i t e m s w e r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n and 26 w e r e i d e n t i f i e d a s s k i l l s , k n o w l e d g e s and a t t i t u d e s f o r w h i c h more l e a r n i n g was r e q u i r e d . The e n t i r e s e c t i o n o n ' T r e a t m e n t and C o m m u n i t y S e r v i c e s ' c o u l d be u s e d b y p r o g r a m p l a n n e r s t o f o r m u l a t e e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . The s i x h i g h e s t s c o r i n g i t e m s o n l y a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 1 6 . T A B L E 16 TREATMENT AND COMMUNITY S E R V I C E S S C A L E SCORES I t e m R e l e v a n c e Need O p p o r t u n i t y Unmet Need L e g a l R i g h t s and L e g a l I s s u e s 2 . 41 2 . 29 1 . 1 3 1 .16 E v a l u a t e C o m m u n i t y N e e d s 2 . 33 1 .98 1 . 1 3 . 8 5 P l a y T h e r a p y 1. 04 1 . 5 5 . 7 7 . 7 8 F a m i l y T h e r a p y 2 . 2 0 2 . 1 6 1 .38 . 7 8 I n i t i a t i n g New P r o g rams 2 . 4 1 1 .84 1 . 1 0 . 7 4 K n o w l e d g e o f P s y c h o -P a t h o l o g y 3 . 4 3 1 .77 1 .06 . 6 1 S c a l e 0 - 4 , n = 103 63 The e i g h t i t e m s i n ' R e l a t i o n s h i p s and C o m m u n i c a t i o n s ' w e r e i n t h e a t t i t u d i n a l d o m a i n . Unmet l e a r n i n g n e e d s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d i n p e r s o n a l a w a r e n e s s o f d e f e n s i v e n e s s , s e x and age b i a s e s , and w i l l i n g n e s s t o e x p e n d t i m e and e f f o r t i n c o r r e c t i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . ( T a b l e 1 7 ) . T A B L E 17 R E L A T I O N S H I P S AND COMMUNICATIONS S C A L E SCORES Unmet I t e m R e l e v a n c e Need O p p o r t u n i t y Need A w a r e n e s s o f Own D e f e n s i v e n e s s 3 . 0 4 1 .57 1 . 2 7 . 3 0 A w a r e n e s s o f Sex o r Age B i a s e s 3 . 0 3 1 . 46 1 . 1 7 . 2 9 W i l l i n g n e s s t o C o r r e c t D i f f i c u l t i e s i n I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s 3 . 9 0 1 .51 1 .27 . 2 4 S c a l e 0 - 4 , n = 103 64 The s i x i t e m s i n ' A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ' w e r e k n o w l e d g e - b a s e d q u e s t i o n s . The p e r c e i v e d d e g r e e o f unmet n e e d s w e r e , o n t h e a v e r a g e , s e c o n d t o h i g h e s t i n t h i s s e c t i o n a s p o r t r a y e d i n T a b l e 1 3 . C o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s e x p r e s s a n e e d t o know m o r e a b o u t s y s t e m s and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e H e a l t h and W e l f a r e S y s t e m o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( T a b l e 1 8 ) . T A B L E 18 A D M I N I S T R A T I O N S C A L E SCORES Unmet I t e m R e l e v a n c e Need O p p o r t u n i t y Need T h e o r y o f S y s t e m s and O r g a n i z a t i o n s 2 . 1 7 1 .50 . 9 7 . 9 3 H e a l t h C a r e S y s t e m s o f B . C . 2 . 6 4 1 . 7 5 1 . 1 2 . 6 3 W e l f a r e S y s t e m 2 . 5 6 1 .77 1 .18 . 5 9 S c a l e 0 - 4 , n = 103 65 S e v e n i t e m s w e r e p r e s e n t e d i n ' D o c u m e n t a t i o n ' . The t a s k f o r w h i c h t h e g r e a t e s t n e e d f o r t r a i n i n g i n d i c a t e d was i n w r i t i n g s c i e n t i f i c p a p e r s f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . The o t h e r unmet n e e d was i n w r i t i n g p r o p o s a l s f o r p r o g r a m s and i n g e n e r a l c o m m i t t i n g i d e a s t o p a p e r ( T a b l e 1 9 ) . T A B L E 19 DOCUMENTATION S C A L E SCORES Unmet I t e m R e l e v a n c e Need O p p o r t u n i t y Need W r i t i n g S c i e n t i f i c P a p e r s f o r P u b l i c a t i o n . 8 9 2 . 1 1 . 7 3 1 .38 W r i t i n g P r o p o s a l s f o r P r o g r a m s , C o n c e p t s , e t c . 1 .92 1 . 7 5 . 9 2 . 8 3 S c a l e 0 - 4 , n = 103 I n t h e f i n a l s e c t i o n , ' E d u c a t i o n a l D u t i e s ' n i n e i t e m s w e r e p r e s e n t e d and t h r e e i d e n t i f i e d as s u b j e c t s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s ( T a b l e 2 0 ) . R e s p o n d e n t s p e r c e i v e d a n e e d f o r more l e a r n i n g i n p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s a s a t h e r a p e u t i c t o o l and k n o w l e d g e o f e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y i n g e n e r a l . C o m p e t e n c y g a p s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d i n t h e s k i l l s r e q u i r e d t o e d u c a t e t h e p u b l i c a b o u t m e n t a l h e a l t h and m e n t a l i l l n e s s . 66 T A B L E 20 E D U C A T I O N A L D U T I E S S C A L E SCORES I t e m R e l e v a n c e Need O p p o r t u n i t y Unmet Need P u b l i c E d u c a t i o n v i a M a s s M e d i a 1 .52 1 .73 . 4 7 1 . 2 6 Use o f E d u c a t i o n a l P r o g r a m s a s a T h e r a -p e u t i c t o o l 1 . 5 0 1 .81 . 9 2 . 8 9 K n o w l e d g e o f E d u c -a t i o n a l T h e o r y 1 .80 1 .76 . 9 4 . 8 2 S c a l e 0 - 4 , n = 103 T E S T OF THE HYPOTHESIS The h y p o t h e s i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s who p e r c e i v e a l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o s a t i s f y t r a i n i n g n e e d s w o u l d be s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r j o b s t h a n w o r k e r s i n s i t u a t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a c o n g r u e n c e b e t w e e n t r a i n i n g n e e d and t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t y . A c o r r e l a t i o n d e s i g n was e m p l o y e d t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s i s . A s c a n be s e e n i n T a b l e 2 1 , t h e g r e a t e r t h e amoun t o f n e e d / o p p o r t u n i t y d i s c r e p a n c y t h e l e s s t h e o v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n ( r = - . 3 5 , p < . 0 1 ) . Two o f t h e f i v e f a c e t s o f t h e J D I c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e o v e r a l l n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n ; s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p r o m o t i o n ( r = -. 2 2 , p < . 0 2 ) and s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h c o - w o r k e r s ( r = - . 2 1 , p < . 0 2 ) . The o t h e r t h r e e f a c e t s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n , w o r k , p a y and 67 s u p e r v i s i o n , a r e n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h unmet n e e d s b u t n o t a t a s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l . T A B L E 21 C O R R E L A T I O N BETWEEN JOB S A T I S F A C T I O N AND THREE INDEPENDENT V A R I A B L E S F a c e t o f J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n Need f o r O p p o r t u n i t y Unmet T r a i n i n g T r a i n i n g f o r T r a i n i n g N e e d s S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h Work - . 0 9 S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h S u p e r v i s o r - . 0 2 S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h P a y - . 0 1 S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h C o - w o r k e r s - . 0 1 S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r P r o m o t i o n - . 1 5 O v e r a l l J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n - . 0 9 . 10 12 . 13 . 2 3 * * . 2 7 * * * 3 2 * * * - . 1 5 - . 0 9 - . 1 2 - . 2 1 * * - . 2 2 * * - . 3 5 * * * * r > . 1 6 , d f = 1 0 2 , p < . 0 5 ** r > . 1 9 , d f = 1 0 2 , p < . 0 2 * * * r > . 2 3 , d f = 1 0 2 , p < . 0 1 The g r e a t e r t h e p e r c e i v e d a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h e m o r e t h e e x p r e s s e d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e j o b o v e r a l l ( r = . 3 2 , p < . 0 1 ) . Need f o r t r a i n i n g i s n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h o v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and a l l f i v e d i m e n s i o n s 68 o f t h e J D I b u t n o t a t a s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l . D i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s w e r e o b t a i n e d b y s u b t r a c t i n g n e e d f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g f r o m c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t y . A s shown i n T a b l e 21 more " t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s " a r e c o r r e l a t e d w i t h j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a n a r e " n e e d s " . T h u s r e s p o n d e n t s w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t r a i n i n g w e r e m o s t s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r c o - w o r k e r s , o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p r o m o t i o n and " o v e r a l l " j o b t h a n w e r e r e s p o n d e n t s w i t h f e w o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t r a i n i n g . D i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s i n s i x o f t h e s e v e n S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y s e c t i o n s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h o v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n ( T a b l e 2 2 ) . S e l f p e r c e i v e d c o m p e t e n c y g a p s i n ' D o c u m e n t a t i o n ' , t h e r e m a i n i n g i n v e n t o r y s e c t i o n , i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o one f a c e t o f s a t i s f a c t i o n , o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p r o m o t i o n ( r = - . 2 9 , d f = 1 0 2 , p < . 0 0 5 ) . D e s p i t e t h e l o w d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s t h e r e s u l t s a s s e e n i n T a b l e 22 show t h a t t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n unmet l e a r n i n g n e e d s i n a l l a r e a s o f c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k a n d e a c h f a c e t o f t h e J D I . A l l c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n f a c e t s o f t h e j o b and unmet n e e d s i n a l l a r e a s o f c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w e r e n e g a t i v e . E i g h t e e n c o r r e l a t i o n s ( d i s r e g a r d i n g t h o s e o n " o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n " ) w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t . T h e s e r e s u l t s s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t t h e p r e d i c t i o n t h a t l e a r n i n g n e e d / o p p o r t u n i t y d i s c r e p a n c i e s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s c o u l d be r e j e c t e d a t t h e . 0 1 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . The r e s u l t s w e r e n o t due t o c h a n c e . The r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h e J D I a s a m e a s u r e o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n h a s b e e n d o c u m e n t e d ( S m i t h , e t . a l . , 1 9 6 9 ) . The S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y p r o v e d t o be a r e l i a b l e and v a l i d m e a s u r e o f T A B L E 22 C O R R E L A T I O N BETWEEN JOB S A T I S F A C T I O N AND UNMET T R A I N I N G NEEDS I N S E V E N A R E A S OF COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH WORK A r e a s o f Unmet T r a i n i n g Need Work S u p e r v i s i o n P a y P e o p l e O p p o r t u n i t y f o r P r o m o t i o n O v e r a l l J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n C r i s i s I n t e r v e n t i o n - . 1 8 * - . 1 6 * - . 1 2 - . 2 0 * * - . 2 0 * * - . 2 5 * * * A s s e s s m e n t - . 1 7 * - . 1 1 - . 0 7 - . 1 8 * - . 3 3 * * * . 2 6 * * * T r e a t m e n t and C o m m u n i t y S e r v i c e - . 0 7 - . 0 9 - . 1 8 * - . 2 0 * - . 3 5 * * * - . 2 7 * * * R e l a t i o n s h i p s a n d C o m m u n i c a t i o n - . 1 7 * - . 0 2 - . 0 8 - . 2 6 * * * - . 2 1 * * - . 2 1 * * A d m i n i s t r a t i o n - . 1 2 - . 0 5 - . 0 5 - . 1 6 * - . 1 3 - . 1 8 * D o c u m e n t a t i o n - . 1 5 - . 0 1 - . 1 4 - . 1 0 - . 2 9 * * * - . 1 3 E d u c a t i o n - . 2 0 * * - . 0 9 - . 0 8 - . 1 6 * - . 3 2 * * * - . 2 1 * * * r > . 1 6 , d f = ** r > . 1 9 , d f = * * * r > . 2 3 , d f = 1 0 2 , p < . 0 5 1 0 2 , p < . 0 2 1 0 2 , p < . 0 1 70 c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s ' l e a r n i n g n e e d s , a s d i s c u s s e d i n c h a p t e r 3 and p o r t r a y e d i n T a b l e s 4 - 7 . T h e r e f o r e i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t p e o p l e who p e r c e i v e d i s c r e p a n c i e s b e t w e e n t r a i n i n g n e e d s and t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e l e s s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r j o b s t h a n t h o s e who p e r c e i v e f ew unmet l e a r n i n g n e e d s . The d a t a was f u r t h e r e x a m i n e d t o t e s t t h e p r e d i c t i v e s t r e n g t h o f unmet l e a r n i n g n e e d s . S t e p w i s e r e g r e s s i o n was e m p l o y e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f v a r i a n c e i n j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n e x p l a i n e d b y d i s c r e p a n c y v a r i a b l e s a s c o m p a r e d t o t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f v a r i a n c e a c c o u n t e d f o r b y s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s and r e l e v a n c y v a r i a b l e s . J . D . I , s c o r e s w e r e t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e i n t h e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n . The 21 i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s a s p o t e n t i a l p r e d i c t o r s o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n w e r e g r o u p e d a s f o l l o w s : 1. L e a r n i n g n e e d / o p p o r t u n i t y d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n s e v e n a r e a s o f c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k . 2 . S e v e n s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 3 . R e l e v a n c e o f s e v e n a r e a s o f c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h wor k . T a b l e 23 s h o w s t h e number o f p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s w h i c h a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e m a j o r p r o p o r t i o n o f e x p l a i n a b l e v a r i a n c e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e j o b o v e r a l l , w o r k , s u p e r v i s i o n , p a y , c o -w o r k e r s and p r o m o t i o n . A f t e r t h e s t e p shown i n T a b l e 23 t h e a d d i t i o n o f e a c h new v a r i a b l e f a i l e d t o a c c o u n t f o r more t h a n one p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e . T h u s f o u r t e e n v a r i a b l e s a c c o u n t e d f o r 23 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h w o r k . S e v e n v a r i a b l e s a c c o u n t e d f o r 30 p e r c e n t o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h  p r o m o t i o n w h e r e a s s e v e n v a r i a b l e s a c c o u n t e d f o r o n l y t h i r t e e n p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n . E i g h t 71 v a r i a b l e s a c c o u n t e d f o r 25 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h c o - w o r k e r s , and e l e v e n v a r i a b l e s a c c o u n t e d f o r 26 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p a y . F o r o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n t w e l v e p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s a c c o u n t e d f o r 25 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e . T A B L E 23 SUMMARY OF R E G R E S S I O N R E S U L T S WITH JOB D E S C R I P T I V E INDEX AS DEPENDENT V A R I A B L E O v e r a l 1 J o b S u p e r - C o -S a t i s f a c t i o n Work v i s i o n P a y W o r k e r s P r o m o t i o n F i n a l S t e p 12 14 7 11 8 7 R 2 . 2 5 . 2 3 . 1 3 . 2 6 . 2 5 . 3 0 F . P r o b . . 0 1 . 0 4 . 0 5 . 0 0 . 0 0 . 0 0 The e f f e c t s o f t h e t w e l v e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s i n o r d e r o f e n t r y i n t h e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n f o r o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n a r e shown i n T a b l e 2 4 . B e t a w e i g h t s a r e n o r m a l i z e d r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s and may be u s e d a s m e a s u r e s o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f e a c h i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e upon t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e . S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be p a i d t o n e g a t i v e ( - ) and p o s i t i v e (+) s i g n s . A m i n u s s i g n i n d i c a t e s t h e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e i s n e g a t i v e l y i n f l u e n c i n g and a p l u s s i g n r e p r e s e n t s a p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e on j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . T h u s t h e m o s t s a t i s f i e d c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r was t h e p e r s o n w i t h l o w l e a r n i n g n e e d / o p p o r t u n i t y d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n t r e a t m e n t and c o m m u n i t y s e r v i c e s ( b e t a = - . 2 7 ) , c r i s i s i n t e r v e n t i o n ( b e t a = - . 1 9 ) , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( b e t a = - . 1 2 ) , and 72 d o c u m e n t a t i o n ( b e t a = - . 1 5 ) . He o r she a c h i e v e d a h i g h e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , h e l d more t h a n f o u r p o s i t i o n s p r e v i o u s t o t h e c u r r e n t j o b , and had r e l a t i v e l y f e w e r y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e ( l e s s t h a n 1 0 . 5 ) . The m o s t s a t i s f i e d w o r k e r p e r c e i v e d a s s e s s m e n t and c r i s i s i n t e r v e n t i o n r e l e v a n c e a s l o w , and a d m i n s t r a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n and d o c u m e n t a t i o n r e l e v a n c e a s h i g h . I n a l l , t h e t w e l v e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s shown i n T a b l e 24 a c c o u n t e d f o r 25 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e i n o v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . D i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e i n s e c t i o n I I I o f t h e S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y ( t r e a t m e n t and c o m m u n i t y s e r v i c e s ) was t h e b e s t s i n g l e p r e d i c t o r ( b e t a = - . 2 7 ) o f t h e d e g r e e o f o v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . I t a c c o u n t e d f o r s e v e n p e r c e n t o f t h e e x p l a i n a b l e v a r i a n c e . D i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e i n t h e a r e a o f c r i s i s i n t e r v e n t i o n was t h e n e x t b e s t p r e d i c t o r ( b e t a = - . 1 9 ) o f s a t i s f a c t i o n . I t a c c o u n t e d f o r two p e r c e n t o f t h e e x p l a i n a b l e v a r i a n c e . R e l e v a n c e o f e d u c a t i o n a l d u t i e s was a s g o o d a p r e d i c t o r ( b e t a = . 1 9 ) as c r i s i s i n t e r v e n t i o n d i s c r e p a n c y , a l t h o u g h i t a c c o u n t e d f o r o n l y one p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e i n o v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . The p r o p o r t i o n o f e x p l a i n a b l e v a r i a n c e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e j o b o v e r a l l , w o r k , s u p e r v i s i o n , pay*- c o - w o r k e r s , and p r o m o t i o n a c c o u n t e d f o r b y a l l 21 i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s was t a l l i e d b y s o u r c e ( s e e A p p e n d i x C f o r t h e summary t a b l e s o f t h e s t e p w i s e r e g r e s s i o n and c u m u l a t i v e v a r i a n c e a c c o u n t e d f o r ) . F i g u r e 3 s h o w s t h a t f o r o v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , 1 1 . 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e was a c c o u n t e d f o r b y unmet l e a r n i n g n e e d s . The r e l e v a n c e o f t h e S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y i t e m s a c c o u n t e d f o r 6 . 9 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e and t h e s e v e n s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c 73 T A B L E 24 R E G R E S S I O N EQUATION FOR JOB D E S C R I P T I V E INDEX -E F F E C T S OF INDEPENDENT V A R I A B L E S ON O V E R A L L JOB S A T I S F A C T I O N V a r i a b l e s ( i n o r d e r C u m u l a t i v e o f e n t r y ) M u l t i p l e R R 2 S i m p l e r B e t a T r e a t m e n t and C o m m u n i t y S e r -v i c e s - D i s c r e -p a n c y . 2 6 . 0 7 - . 2 7 - . 2 7 E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l . 3 2 . 1 0 . 2 3 . 1 6 Number o f P o s i t i o n s H e l d . 3 6 . 1 3 . 1 4 . 1 6 A s s e s s m e n t -R e l e v a n c e . 3 9 . 1 5 - . 1 3 - . 1 4 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n -R e l e v a n c e . 4 1 . 1 7 . 0 6 . 1 4 C r i s i s I n t e r v e n t i o n -D i s c r e p a n c y . 4 4 . 1 9 - . 2 6 - . 1 9 Number o f Y e a r s o f E x p e r i e n c e . 4 5 . 2 0 . 0 3 - . 1 7 C r i s i s I n t e r v e n t i o n R e l e v a n c e . 4 6 . 2 1 - . 1 3 - . 1 6 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n -D i s c r e p a n c y . 4 7 . 2 2 - . 1 9 - . 1 2 E d u c a t i o n -R e l e v a n c e . 48 . 2 3 - . 1 4 . 1 9 D o c u m e n t a t i o n R e l e v a n c e . 4 9 . 2 4 . 0 4 . 1 4 D o c u m e n t a t i o n D i s c r e p a n c y . 5 0 . 2 5 - . 1 3 - . 1 5 F = . 0 0 6 74 Overall Job Satisfaction D i s c r e p a n c y R e l e v a n c e S o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c Character i s t i cs Work D i s c r e p a n c y R e l e v a n c e S o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 13.6%j D i s c r e p a n c y 11% R e l e v a n c e S o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Co-workers 10.5%| D i s c r e p a n c y 3.4% 13.7%*/ R e l e v a n c e S o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c Character is t i cs Supervision Promotion 5% 3%s/ D i s c r e p a n c y R e l e v a n c e S o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c Character is t i cs D i s c r e p a n c y R e l e v a n c e S o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Figure 3 PROPORTION OF EXPLAINED VARIANCE ON JOB SATISFACTION 75 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a c c o u n t e d f o r e i g h t p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e . The p r o p o r t i o n o f v a r i a n c e a c c o u n t e d f o r b y unmet l e a r n i n g n e e d s v a r i e d i n e a c h d i m e n s i o n o f t h e J D I . D i s c r e p a n c y a c c o u n t e d f o r t w e l v e p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e j o b , f i v e p e r c e n t o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s u p e r v i s i o n , 1 3 . 6 p e r c e n t o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p a y , 1 0 . 5 p e r c e n t o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h c o - w o r k e r s and 9 . 5 p e r c e n t o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r o m o t i o n . A s c a n be s e e n i n F i g u r e 3 , t h e v a r i a n c e a c c o u n t e d f o r b y s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was h i g h e r f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h c o - w o r k e r s ( 1 3 . 7 p e r c e n t ) and g r e a t e s t f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r o m o t i o n ( 2 1 . 5 p e r c e n t ) . E d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l a c c o u n t e d f o r t w e n t y p e r c e n t o f t h e e x p l a i n a b l e v a r i a n c e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r o m o t i o n and was t h e b e s t s i n g l e p r e d i c t o r ( b e t a = . 4 0 ) o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r o m o t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I n o v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , w h i c h i s t h e sum o f t h e f i v e J D I d i m e n s i o n s , l e a r n i n g n e e d / o p p o r t u n i t y d i s c r e p a n c i e s a c c o u n t e d f o r 3 . 7 p e r c e n t more o f t h e v a r i a n c e t h a n a l l s e v e n s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and 4 . 8 p e r c e n t m o r e t h a n t h e r e l e v a n c e o f s e v e n a r e a s o f c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k . The 21 p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s a c c o u n t e d f o r 2 6 . 6 p e r c e n t o f t h e e x p l a i n a b l e v a r i a n c e o f o v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . F o r t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f t h e e x p l a i n e d v a r i a n c e was a c c o u n t e d f o r b y t h e s e v e n d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s . Of t h e t h r e e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e g r o u p s ( d i s c r e p a n c y , s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and r e l e v a n c e ) a l l o w e d t o e n t e r t h e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n , d i s c r e p a n c y was t h e b e s t p r e d i c t o r o f o v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . C o m p a r e d t o s o c i o -d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s , d i s c r e p a n c y was a b e t t e r p r e d i c t o r b y a 76 f a c t o r o f 1 . 5 ; c o m p a r e d t o r e l e v a n c e v a r i a b l e s d i s c r e p a n c y was a b e t t e r p r e d i c t o r b y a f a c t o r o f 1 . 7 . The r e s u l t s o f t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s a s shown i n T a b l e 24 and F i g u r e 3 i n d i c a t e t h a t unmet l e a r n i n g n e e d s w e r e i m p o r t a n t p r e d i c t o r s o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . A s c a n be s e e n i n T a b l e 2 4 , d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s i n f o u r a r e a s o f c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k w e r e p o w e r f u l n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e r s o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . M o r e o v e r , t h e s i n g l e b e s t p r e d i c t o r o f t h e d e g r e e o f o v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n was l e a r n i n g n e e d / o p p o r t u n i t y d i s c r e p a n c y i n ' T r e a t m e n t and C o m m u n i t y S e r v i c e s ' . T h u s t h e r e s u l t s s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t unmet l e a r n i n g n e e d s o f c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s a r e j o b d i s s a t i s f i e r s . SUMMARY The r e s u l t s o f t h e d a t a a n a l y s e s w e r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . The s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f 48 m a l e and 53 f e m a l e c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g s i x h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n s . J o b s a t i s f a c t i o n was r e l a t i v e l y h i g h f o r c o n t e n t o f t h e w o r k , s u p e r v i s i o n , p a y and c o - w o r k e r s , and l o w f o r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r o m o t i o n . The a v e r a g e p e r c e i v e d l e a r n i n g need i n a l l s e v e n a r e a s o f t h e S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y was 1 .57 on a 0 -4 s c a l e . C o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n was p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g a v a i l a b l e c o m p a r a t i v e l y l i t t l e (mean s c o r e = 1 . 2 3 ) . The h i g h e s t a v e r a g e t r a i n i n g n e e d / o p p o r t u n i t y d i s c r e p a n c i e s w e r e i n t h e a r e a s o f e d u c a t i o n a l d u t i e s ( 0 . 6 9 ) and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( 0 . 4 9 ) . F i f t y - t h r e e o u t o f 73 i t e m s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d b y t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a s c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e j o b f o r w h i c h 77 more e d u c a t i o n was r e q u i r e d . The s c a l e s c o r e s f o r i t e m s w h i c h s c o r e d h i g h e s t o n unmet l e a r n i n g n e e d s i n e a c h o f t h e s e v e n a r e a s o f c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k w e r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 1 4 - 2 0 . The r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s c o n f i r m e d t h e h y p o t h e s i s : t h a t c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s i n s i t u a t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y t o s a t i s f y p e r c e i v e d l e a r n i n g n e e d s w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r j o b t h a n w o r k e r s i n s i t u a t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a p e r c e i v e d c o n g r u e n c e b e t w e e n t r a i n i n g need and t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t y . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s c o u l d be r e j e c t e d a t t h e . 01 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t v a r i a t i o n s i n l e a r n i n g n e e d / o p p o r t u n i t y d i s c r e p a n c i e s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h v a r i a t i o n s i n j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . F u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e d a t a showed t h a t o f s e v e n s o c i o -d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s e v e n r e l e v e n c e s c o r e s and s e v e n d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s , t h e d i s c r e p a n c y m e a s u r e s w e r e one and a h a l f t i m e s m o r e p o w e r f u l p r e d i c t o r s o f o v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . The r e s u l t s s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t e d t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t unmet l e a r n i n g n e e d s a r e j o b d i s s a t i s f i e r s . 78 CHAPTER 6 D I S C U S S I O N AND I M P L I C A T I O N S The p u r p o s e s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y w e r e t o d e t e r m i n e c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n n e e d s o f c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s and t o t e s t a h y p o t h e s i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t r a i n i n g n e e d / t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t y d i s c r e p a n c i e s and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s w i t h f e w n e e d / o p p o r t u n i t y d i s c r e p a n c i e s w o u l d be s i g n i f i c a n t l y more s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r j o b t h a n p e o p l e i n s i t u a t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y i n a d e q u a t e e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o m e e t s e l f p e r c e i v e d l e a r n i n g n e e d s . C e n t r a l t o t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t unmet t r a i n i n g n e e d s a r e n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n a r e t h e c o n c e p t s o f " n e e d " , " c o n g r u e n c y " , and " j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n " . T h e s e t h r e e c o n c e p t s w e r e d r a w n i n t o one u n i f y i n g f r a m e w o r k a s p o r t r a y e d s c h e m a t i c a l l y i n F i g u r e 1. The d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s w i l l be s t r u c t u r e d a r o u n d t h e c o n c e p t s w h i c h g u i d e d t h e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m . L E A R N I N G NEEDS OF COMMUNITY MENTAL H E A L T H WORKERS A s k i l l s , k n o w l e d g e s , and a t t i t u d e i n v e n t o r y p r o v i d e s a d e t a i l e d map f o r m e a s u r i n g t h e p e r c e i v e d n e e d s o f p o t e n t i a l l e a r n e r s w h i c h , a s F r e i r e ( 1 9 7 0 ) s u g g e s t s , a r e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e e d u c a t i o n p r o c e s s . The D e l p h i t e c h n i q u e p r o v e d t o be a v a l u a b l e s t r a t e g y f o r g e n e r a t i n g t h e S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y . The v a l i d i t y o f t h e t e c h n i q u e a s a m e t h o d o f a s s e s s i n g t r a i n i n g 79 n e e d s i s u p h e l d b y t h e f i n d i n g s o f K l e i n and A l k i n ( 1 9 7 1 ) , a s w e l l a s o t h e r s . When l e a r n e r s , e x p e r t s , and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s j o i n i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h a t s k i l l s , k n o w l e d g e s , and a t t i t u d e s o u g h t t o be r e q u i r e d i n a g i v e n s i t u a t i o n , no q u a r r e l a r i s e s c o n c e r n i n g v a l u e s o r j u d g e m e n t s . F o l l o w i n g t h e e x h o r t a t i o n s o f G r i f f i t h ( 1 9 7 8 ) , M o n e t t e ( 1 9 7 7 ) and o t h e r s , t h e b a s i s u p o n w h i c h n o r m a t i v e j u s t i f i c a t i o n s f o r v a l u e s w e r e d e r i v e d was made e x p l i c i t i n t h e n e e d s a n a l y s i s p r o c e s s . G r i f f i t h , f o r e x a m p l e , s a y s : The p r o c e s s o f e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s a s s e s s m e n t r e q u i r e s a n o r m a t i v e s t a n d a r d , a f a c t u a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n o f a g r o u p o f p o t e n t i a l l e a r n e r s , a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e t w o , and a c o m m i t m e n t t o t h e g o a l o f r e d u c i n g t h e d i s c r e p a n c y . The p r o c e s s i s i n h e r e n t l y p o l i t i c a l , i n v o l v i n g t h e v a l u e s o f t h e p r o g r a m p l a n n e r , e x p e r t s i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t m a t t e r , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e i n t e n d e d l e a r n e r s , and t h e p a r t i e s who w i l l b e a r t h e c o s t ( 1 9 7 8 , p . 393) . F o r l e a r n e r s and e d u c a t o r s who a r e c o m m i t t e d t o t h e g o a l o f r e d u c i n g t h e d i s c r e p a n c y , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s c a l e s c o r e a n a l y s e s o f t h e S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y a r e a g u i d e f o r p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . N e e d s , a s M o n e t t e ( 1 9 7 7 ) p o i n t s o u t , c h a n g e r a p i d l y and f u r t h e r d i a l o g u e b e t w e e n p l a n n e r s and p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i s r ecommended ( F r e i r e , 1 9 7 0 ; L e a g a n s , 1964) p r i o r t o p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g . L e a r n i n g n e e d / o p p o r t u n i t y d i s c r e p a n c i e s w e r e on t h e a v e r a g e l o w b u t w i d e r a n g i n g ( T a b l e 2 2 ) . F i f t y - t h r e e o u t o f 73 i t e m s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d a s c o m p o n e n t o f t h e j o b f o r w h i c h more e d u c a t i o n was r e q u i r e d . The r a n g e o f e d u a t i o n a l n e e d i s u p h e l d b y t h e f i n d i n g s o f E s t e s , 1 9 7 5 ; G l a s s c o t e and G u d e m a n , 1 9 6 9 ; and 80 W e b s t e r , e t . a l . , 1 9 7 1 . The r e s p o n s e s t o t h e S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y i n d i c a t e d t h a t c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s f e l t r e l a t i v e l y c o m p e t e n t i n t r a d i t i o n a l a r e a s o f t h e w o r k , s u c h a s d e a l i n g w i t h c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n s , a s s e s s i n g p r o b l e m s , a n d d e v e l o p i n g c o m f o r t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The m o s t p r e s s i n g n e e d s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s w e r e p e r c e i v e d i n a r e a s o f t h e j o b w h i c h p e r t a i n t o t h e e v o l v i n g c o m m u n i t y o r i e n t e d r o l e , s u c h a s e d u c a t i n g t h e p u b l i c a b o u t m e n t a l h e a l t h and i l l n e s s , and e v a l u a t i n g c o m m u n i t y n e e d s . Unmet l e a r n i n g n e e d s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d p r i m a r i l y i n f o u r o f t h e s e v e n a r e a s o f c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k : t r e a t m e n t and c o m m u n i t y s e r v i c e s , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , d o c u m e n t a t i o n , and e d u c a t i o n a l d u t i e s . A s a f u r t h e r g u i d e f o r p o t e n t i a l l e a r n e r s and e d u c a t o r s , t h e t e n i t e m s w h i c h s c o r e d h i g h e s t o n unmet n e e d s a c r o s s a l l a r e a s o f t h e S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y a r e l i s t e d : 1. W r i t i n g s c i e n t i f i c p a p e r s f o r p u b l i c a t i o n . 2 . P u b l i c e d u c a t i o n v i a mass m e d i a . 3 . L e g a l r i g h t s and l e g a l i s s u e s . 4 . T h e o r y o f s y s t e m s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 5 . Use o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s a s a t h e r a p e u t i c t o o l . 6 . E v a l u a t i o n o f c o m m u n i t y n e e d s . 7 . W r i t i n g p r o p o s a l s f o r p r o g r a m s , c o n c e p t s , e t c . 8 . K n o w l e d g e o f e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y 9 . P l a y t h e r a p y . 1 0 . F a m i l y t h e r a p y . CONGRUENCE A l t h o u g h c o n g r u e n c e was n o t d i r e c t l y m e a s u r e d t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t p e o p l e who p e r c e i v e h i g h n e e d f o r t r a i n i n g b u t l o w o p p o r t u n i t y a r e d i s s a t i s f i e d . T h e s e a t t i t u d e s p r o b a b l y s t e m f r o m f e e l i n g s o f i m b a l a n c e o r d i s e q u i l i b r i u m . 81 W h i l e a c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f i n c o n g r u e n c e i s t o l e r a b l e i n some c i r c u m s t a n c e s ( M i l l e r and R o k e a c h , 1968) i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t s m a l l l e a r n i n g n e e d / o p p o r t u n i t y d i s c r e p a n c i e s a r e i m p o r t a n t e n o u g h t o c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s t o c a u s e f e e l i n g s o f j o b d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . The r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n ( T a b l e 24) p r o v i d e s a p r o f i l e o f a h y p o t h e t i c a l " c o n g r u e n t " c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r and an " i n c o n g r u e n t " o n e . The c o n g r u e n t w o r k e r i s a " m o s t s a t i s f i e d " i n d i v i d u a l o r one w i t h no p e r c e i v e d n e e d / o p p o r t u n i t y d i s c r e p a n c i e s ; t h e i n c o n g r u e n t o r " l e a s t s a t i s f i e d " w o r k e r h a s h i g h n e e d s and i n a d e q u a t e c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The a r e a s o f c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k i n w h i c h t r a i n i n g n e e d / o p p o r t u n i t y d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n f l u e n c e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n a r e t r e a t m e n t and c o m m u n i t y s e r v i c e s ( b e t a = - . 2 7 ) , c r i s i s i n t e r v e n t i o n ( b e t a = - . 1 9 ) , d o c u m e n t a t i o n ( b e t a = - . 1 5 ) and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( b e t a = - . 1 2 ) . C o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n n e e d s a r i s e a s a f u n c t i o n o f p e r s o n / e n v i r o n m e n t i n t e r a c t i o n . The c o n g r u e n t w o r k e r p e r c e i v e s no unmet n e e d s i n t h e " d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n f l u e n c e r s " and i s , t h e r e f o r e , more s a t i s f i e d t h a n t h e i n c o n g r u e n t w o r k e r . The p r o f e s s i o n a l w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t unmet n e e d s i n t h e a b o v e l i s t e d a r e a s o f c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k i s p r e s u m e d t o be i n a s t a t e o f d i s e q u i l i b r i u m and i s l e a s t s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e j o b . The p r e d i c t i v e s t r e n g t h o f unmet l e a r n i n g n e e d s i n j o b d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n s o f c o n g r u e n c y t h e o r i s t s s u c h a s L e c k y ( 1 9 6 1 ) and R o g e r s ( 1 9 5 9 ) . R o g e r s , f o r e x a m p l e , p r o p o s e s t h a t when s e l f e x p e r i e n c e s a p p r o x i m a t e t h e i d e a l - s e l f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s i n a s t a t e o f 82 c o n g r u e n c e . A s s u m i n g t h e i d e a l s e l f i s t h a t o f a c o m p e t e n t p r o f e s s i o n a l t h e n d i s c r e p a n c i e s b e t w e e n t h e s e l f a s p e r c e i v e d and t h e a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e g i v e s r i s e t o a t e n s i o n s t a t e o r i n c o n g r u e n c e w h i c h R o g e r s e q u a t e s w i t h d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . JOB S A T I S F A C T I O N C o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s who h a v e a M . A . , P h . D . o r M . D . d e g r e e a r e more s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r j o b t h a n p e o p l e who h a v e a d i p l o m a o r B . A . d e g r e e . M o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y , a g r a d u a t e d e g r e e i s t h e m o s t p o t e n t s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c p r e d i c t o r o f s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p r o m o t i o n (See A p p e n d i x C , T a b l e 3 0 ) . A g r a d u a t e d e g r e e i s r e q u i r e d b y t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r M e n t a l H e a l t h S e r v i c e s f o r p r o m o t i o n t o h i g h e r l e v e l j o b s s u c h a s s e n i o r m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r o r t eam c o - o r d i n a t o r . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s who l i s t e d d i p l o m a o r B . A . ( 5 3 . 4 p e r c e n t ) as h i g h e s t l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n a r e d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h a d v a n c e m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s . P e o p l e w i t h M . D . D e g r e e s ( 1 7 . 4 p e r c e n t o f t h e s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n ) g e n e r a l l y h a v e v e r y g o o d a d v a n c e m e n t p r o s p e c t s . D o c t o r s * a t t i t u d e s a b o u t p r o m o t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s may h a v e i n f l u e n c e d t h i s p r e d i c t o r t o some e x t e n t . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e number o f y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e i s i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . A p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s u n e x p e c t e d f i n d i n g may be t h e c u r r i c u l a c h a n g e s t h a t h a v e o c c u r e d i n b a s i c t r a i n i n g o f h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t h e p a s t d e c a d e . C o m m u n i t y p s y c h i a t r y i s now i n c l u d e d i n t h e c o n t e n t o f m o s t u n d e r g r a d u a t e h e a l t h s c i e n c e s 83 p r o g r a m s ( N i c h o l i , 1 9 7 8 ) . M o r e o v e r p o s t g r a d u a t e e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l g r o u p s h a s e x p a n d e d i n t h e 1 9 7 0 ' s . T h u s t h e more e x p e r i e n c e d p e r s o n i s l e s s l i k e l y t o h a v e a p o s t g r a d u a t e d e g r e e t h a n t h e i n d i v i d u a l who c o m p l e t e d b a s i c t r a i n i n g l e s s t h a n t e n y e a r s ago and had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r o c e e d t o g r a d u a t e e d u c a t i o n . R e s p o n d e n t s who h e l d more j o b s i n t h e f i e l d o f m e n t a l h e l t h p r i o r t o t h e i r c u r r e n t p o s i t i o n w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e p r e s e n t j o b t h a n t h o s e who had f e w e r p o s i t i o n s . C a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n , u p h e l d b y t h e f i n d i n g s o f G l a s s c o t e and Gudeman ( 1 9 6 9 ) , s u g g e s t t h a t c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s e n j o y more a u t o n o m y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h a n c o l l e a g u e s w o r k i n g i n t r a d i t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . The i m p o r t a n c e o f a u t o n o m y and r e s p o n s i b l i t y a s j o b s a t i s f i e r s i s s t r e s s e d i n t h e s t u d i e s o f H e r z b e r g , e t . a l . ( 1 9 5 9 ) , P o r t e r and L a w l e r ( 1 9 7 4 ) a s w e l l a s n u m e r o u s o t h e r s . The p e r s o n who h a s had m o r e p r e v i o u s j o b s i s p r o b a b l y i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o c o m p a r e t h e b e n e f i t s e n j o y e d i n a c o m m u n i t y s e t t i n g . A g e , s e x , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , and p r o f e s s i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n w e r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r s o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . The i n s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o f a g e i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h s t u d i e s w h i c h i n d i c a t e t h a t s a t i s f a c t i o n i n c r e a s e s w i t h a g e ( e . g . C a r r o l , 1 9 7 3 ) . H u l i n and S m i t h ( 1 9 6 5 ) , f o r e x a m p l e , f o u n d age was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h i s was t h e r e s u l t o f a g e n e r a l a d j u s t m e n t t o l i f e . H o w e v e r p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s r e l a t i n g age t o j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n w e r e l a r g e l y c o n d u c t e d i n i n d u s t r i a l s e t t i n g s ; t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s may n o t be a p p l i c a b l e t o m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s . 84 F e m a l e s t e n d t o be s l i g h t l y m o r e s a t i s f i e d t h a n m a l e s ( A p p e n d i x C , T a b l e 2 5 ) . H u l i n and S m i t h ( 1 9 6 4 ) f o u n d t h e r e was a t e n d e n c y f o r f e m a l e s t o be l e s s s a t i s f i e d t h a n men b u t c o n c l u d e d t h a t i t i s n o t s e x b u t a c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d i n g p a y , j o b l e v e l , p r o m o t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and s o c i e t a l n o r m s t h a t c a u s e s i g n i f i c a n t s e x d i f f e r e n c e s i n j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . M i l l e r and M u t h a r d ( 1 9 6 5 ) a l s o s u p p o r t t h i s f i n d i n g . A s t h e r e i s no s e x b i a s i n h i r i n g , p a y , o r p r o m o t i o n a l p o l i c i e s f o r c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s , s e x was n e i t h e r a n t i c i p a t e d n o r f o u n d t o make a n y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e t o s a t i s f a c t i o n . The f i n d i n g s o n m a r i t a l s t a t u s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h o s e o f S a l i n a s ( 1 9 6 4 ) who f o u n d no c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s a t i s f a c t i o n and s i n g l e o r m a r r i e d p e o p l e . P r o f e s s i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n was n o t a s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . B r e s l a u , e t . a l . ( 1 9 7 8 ) f o u n d t h e w o r k s e t t i n g was m o r e s i g n i f i c a n t i n j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a n p r o f e s s i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n . S t a m p s , e t . a l . ( 1 9 7 8 ) , h o w e v e r , f o u n d t h a t p h y s i c i a n s a r e more s a t i s f i e d t h a n n u r s e s i n b o t h o u t p a t i e n t and h o s p i t a l s e t t i n g s . C o m m u n i t y h e a l t h w o r k e r s t e n d t o be m o r e s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e j o b o v e r a l l t h a n t h e 2 , 5 0 0 p e o p l e s t u d i e d b y S m i t h , e t . a l . ( 1 9 6 9 ) . A s shown i n T a b l e 1 2 , t h e mean s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p a y i s e i g h t p o i n t s h i g h e r t h a n t h e mean s c o r e o b t a i n e d b y r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h e C o r n e l l s t u d i e s . E q u i t y t h e o r i s t s ( e . g . H o m a n s , 1961) v i e w s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p a y d e p e n d e n t n o t o n t h e a b s o l u t e amoun t o f w a g e s , b u t o n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h a t amoun t and some s t a n d a r d o f c o m p a r i s o n u s e d b y t h e i n d i v i d u a l . I n c o m p a r i s o n 85 w i t h d i f f e r e n t e m p l o y e e s i n o t h e r s e t t i n g s , c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s a p p e a r t o be s a t i s f i e d w i t h s a l a r y . S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r o m o t i o n i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l o w e r ( 6 . 7 p o i n t s ) t h a n t h a t o f t h e C o r n e l l r e s p o n d e n t s . I n v i e w o f t h e n u m e r o u s s t u d i e s ( P o r t e r and S t e e r s , 1975) l i n k i n g d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p r o m o t i o n t o t e r m i n a t i o n i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r M e n t a l H e a l t h S e r v i c e s w i l l e x p e r i e n c e h i g h t u r n o v e r r a t e s u n l e s s a more d e s i r e a b l e a d v a n c e m e n t s t r u c t u r e i s i n s t i t u t e d . L E A R N I N G NEEDS AND JOB S A T I S F A C T I O N The g r e a t e r t h e l e a r n i n g n e e d / l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t y d i s c r e p a n c y t h e more t h e e x p r e s s e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e j o b . A l t h o u g h d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s w e r e l o w ( n e v e r e x c e e d e d two p o i n t s o n a z e r o t o f o u r s c a l e ) t h e g r e a t e r t h e m a g n i t u d e o f unmet n e e d t h e m o r e t h e i n d i v i d u a l was d i s s a t i s f i e d ( T a b l e 2 1 ) . The c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n unmet n e e d and s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h w o r k , s u p e r v i s i o n and p a y was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t (p > . 0 5 ) h o w e v e r t h e d i r e c t i o n was n e g a t i v e i n e a c h i n s t a n c e . W o r k e r s a p p e a r t o be m o s t d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h a d v a n c e m e n t p r o s p e c t s . The s i g n i f i c a n c e (p < . 0 2 ) o f t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h unmet n e e d s i n d i c a t e s t h a t o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n c r e a s e c o m p e t e n c e i s v i e w e d b y r e s p o n d e n t s a s t h e p a t h t o p r o m o t i o n . The g r e a t e r t h e g a p b e t w e e n l e a r n i n g n e e d s and l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h e l e s s t h e w o r k e r i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h c o l l e a g u e s . L o c k e ( 1 9 6 9 ) p o i n t s o u t t h a t i n t e r a c t i o n s a r e s a t i s f y i n g i f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n h a s t h e c o n s e q u e n c e o f f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e a t t a i n m e n t 86 o f g o a l s . C o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s e x p e c t t o l e a r n f r o m e a c h o t h e r i n c a s e c o n f e r e n c e s , c o n s u l t a t i o n , w o r k s h o p s and i n f o r m a l d i s c u s s i o n . F r u s t r a t i o n o f p r o g r e s s t o w a r d a t t a i n m e n t o f l e a r n i n g g o a l s a f f e c t s t h e q u a l i t y o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s . T h i s f i n d i n g i s u p h e l d b y t h e s t u d i e s o f D e u t s c h ( 1 9 4 9 ) , V r o o m ( 1 9 6 4 ) and C a r t w r i g h t and Z a n d e r ( 1 9 6 8 ) . The g r e a t e r t h e l e a r n i n g n e e d / o p p o r t u n i t y d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n a l l a r e a s o f c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k t h e l e s s t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h a l l d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e j o b ( T a b l e 2 2 ) . E i g h t e e n c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t and a l l t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e n e g a t i v e . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h i s f i n d i n g T a b l e 21 s h o w s t h a t t h e g r e a t e r t h e p e r c e i v e d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t r a i n i n g t h e m o r e s a t i s f i e d t h e r e s p o n d e n t i s w i t h a l l d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e j o b . T h u s i n a d e q u a t e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t r a i n i n g t o mee t p e r c e i v e d n e e d s a c t a s j o b d i s s a t i s f i e r s w h i l e t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s a c t a s j o b s a t i s f i e r s . The c o n c l u s i o n t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r j o b f a c t o r c a n be a s a t i s f i e r o r d i s s a t i s f i e r i s c o n t r a r y t o t h e f i n d i n g s o f H e r z b e r g , e t . a l . ( 1 9 5 9 ) b u t i s u p h e l d b y t h e r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s o f S m i t h and K e n d a l l ( 1 9 6 3 ) , D u n n e t t e , e t . a l . ( 1 9 6 5 ) , E w e n , e t . a l . ( 1 9 6 6 ) and o t h e r s . The s u g g e s t i o n b y Hammer ( 1 9 7 7 ) t h a t s a t i s f i e d (met) c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n n e e d s a r e r e l a t e d t o . p o s i t i v e j o b a t t i t u d e s and u n s a t i s f i e d (unmet ) l e a r n i n g n e e d s l e a d t o j o b d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i s s t r o n g l y u p h e l d b y t h e p r e s e n t f i n d i n g s . I n t h i s r e s p e c t , t h e r e s u l t s s u p p o r t H e r z b e r g ' s ( 1 9 7 3 ) v i e w t h a t a c h i e v e m e n t , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a d v a n c e m e n t ( j o b s a t i s f i e r s ) a r e a t t a i n a b l e t h r o u g h o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r new l e a r n i n g . T h i s i s a l s o c o n s i s t e n t w i t h G l a s s c o t e and Gudeman*s ( 1 9 6 9 ) f i n d i n g t h a t "new 87 l e a r n i n g " i s a j o b s a t i s f i e r . E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e l e v a n c e o f a s p e c t s o f c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k i n c o m p a r i s o n t o l e a r n i n g n e e d / o p p o r t u n i t y d i s c r e p a n c i e s p r o v i d e s u s e f u l i n s i g h t i n t o t h e d e s i r e o f w o r k e r s t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r c o m p e t e n c i e s . H i g h r e l e v a n c e / l o w unmet n e e d and l o w r e l e v a n c e / h i g h unmet n e e d i n t h e S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y s c o r e s i n d i c a t e a t r e n d s h o w i n g r e l a t i v e c o m p e t e n c e i n t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s ( a s s e s s m e n t and c r i s i s i n t e r v e n t i o n ) and g r e a t e s t unmet l e a r n i n g n e e d s i n e v o l v i n g c o m m u n i t y o r i e n t e d r o l e ( e d u c a t i o n a l d u t i e s , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t r e a t m e n t and c o m m u n i t y s e r v i c e s ) . F u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e s e n e e d s w o u l d p r o v i d e t h e w o r k e r w i t h k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s t o a s sume an a c t i v e r o l e i n p r e v e n t i o n p r o g r a m s a s w e l l a s p l a y t h e p a r t o f ombudsman o n b e h a l f o f c l i e n t s who l a c k t h e e n e r g y and w i l l t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f l e g a l , h e a l t h and w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s . P r o v i s i o n o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n t o i n c r e a s e j o b s c o p e w o u l d , a s S t o n e , e t . a l . ( 1 9 7 7 ) p o i n t o u t , i n c r e a s e j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . The f a c t t h a t unmet l e a r n i n g n e e d s i n f l u e n c e j o b d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n h a s i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e e f f e c t s o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n o n q u a l i t y o f p a t i e n t c a r e . M o s t s t u d i e s ( S t e e r s and P o r t e r , 1975) h a v e shown a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and j o b p e r f o r m a n c e . A l t h o u g h p e r f o r m a n c e was n o t m e a s u r e d i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e f a c t s a t i s f a c t i o n i n c r e a s e s w i t h a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n l e n d s c r e d e n c e t o t h e n o t i o n t h a t q u a l i t y o f c a r e i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . Of t h e f o u r d i s c r e p a n c y p r e d i c t o r s o f j o b d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , t h e m o s t i n f l u e n t i a l was unmet n e e d i n t r e a t m e n t and c o m m u n i t y 88 s e r v i c e s . T h i s f i n d i n g p r o v i d e s a r e a s o n a b l e a n s w e r t o t h e c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n q u e s t i o n : w h e r e d o e s one s t a r t i n t h e f a c e o f many n e e d s ? F u l f i l l m e n t o f t h i s n e e d c o u l d i n c r e a s e j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , p e r f o r m a n c e , and q u a l i t y o f c a r e . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e l e v a n c e i s a p o w e r f u l p r e d i c t o r o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s c o n c e r n i n g t h i s a r e a p r e d i c t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n ; i t w o u l d a p p e a r t o be t h e s e c o n d h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y f o r e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g . A s t h e r e l e v a n c e o f e d u c a t i o n a l d u t i e s i s t h e m o s t p o w e r f u l p r e d i c t o r o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , unmet l e a r n i n g n e e d s i n t h i s a r e a d e s e r v e h i g h p r i o r i t y f o r p l a n n e r s . T h u s i f r e l e v a n c e o f a n a r e a o f t h e w o r k i s s t u d i e d i n r e l a t i o n t o unmet n e e d a means e m e r g e s w h e r e b y p r o g r a m p l a n n e r s , i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e p o t e n t i a l l e a r n e r s , c a n make d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n p r i o r i t i e s . I M P L I C A T I O N S S e v e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s c a n be d r a w n f r o m t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y . The f i r s t c o n c e r n s t h e e m p h a s i s o n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n a s a f a c e t o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . L i f e l o n g p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r m a i n t e n a n c e o f c o m p e t e n c e and p r e v e n t i o n o f o b s o l e c e n c e and h a s w i d e r a n g i n g e f f e c t s o n t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d h i s j o b . D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and p o s s i b l e d i s e n g a g e m e n t o c c u r s i n s i t u a t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n c r e a s e c o m p e t e n c i e s . The s e c o n d i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y h a s i m p o r t a n c e f o r t h e p r o m o t i o n p o l i c y o f t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r M e n t a l H e a l t h 8 9 S e r v i c e s . F r u s t r a t i o n with advancement prospects has r e p e a t e d l y been r e l a t e d to absenteeism and turnover r a t e s which are c o s t l y and decrease q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e . A c o n t i n u i n g education program l i n k e d to a promotion s t r u c t u r e should increase worker's s a t i s f a c t i o n , and i n the long run, lead to improved s e r v i c e to the p u b l i c . The t h i r d i m p l i c a t i o n of the study p e r t a i n s to l e a r n i n g needs assessment. The Delphi technique encourages a convergence of o p i n i o n of e x p e r t s , educators, p o t e n t i a l l e a r n e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s on the s k i l l s , knowledges and a t t i t u d e s r e q u i r e d to do a s p e c i f i c j o b . In turn the S.K.A. Inventory i s a v a l u a b l e assessment t o o l f o r people i n v o l v e d i n the c o n t i n u i n g education of community mental h e a l t h workers. SUMMARY The r e s u l t s of the study were d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a pter. The data confirm the hypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e a r n i n g need/opportunity d i s c r e p a n c i e s and job s a t i s f a c t i o n and f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e the importance of c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . In the f i n a l chapter the study w i l l be b r i e f l y summarized. 90 CHAPTER 7 SUMMARY T h i s s t u d y was b a s e d on t h e n o t i o n t h a t unmet c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n n e e d s g i v e r i s e t o f e e l i n g s o f d i s e q u i l i b r i u m o r i n c o n g r u e n c e w h i c h l e a d t o j o b d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s , e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n was s c h e m a t i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n F i g u r e 1, r e p r o d u c e d h e r e . Skills, Knowledge, Attitudes Educational Needs A"" Congruence Job Satisfaction T Educational Opportunities 3 Incongruence J i i • 1 Job Dissatisfaction A s c a n be s e e n , t h e s k i l l s , k n o w l e d g e s and a t t i t u d e s r e q u i r e d t o do a j o b f o r m t h e b a s i s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g . T h u s , t h e f i r s t p h a s e o f t h e s t u d y was c o n c e r n e d w i t h d e t a i l i n g c o m p e t e n c i e s r e q u i r e d t o p e r f o r m t h e j o b o f t h e s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n . 91 C o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s w e r e t h e s u b j e c t s c h o s e n f o r t h e s t u d y b e c a u s e t h e t r a n s i t i o n f r o m an i n s t i t u t i o n a l t o a c o m m u n i t y - c e n t e r e d a p p r o a c h t o m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k s h o u l d g i v e r i s e t o n e e d s f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y w e r e : 1. t o d e t e r m i n e t h e l e a r n i n g n e e d s o f c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s . 2 . t o t e s t t h e f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s i s : T h a t c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s who p e r c e i v e a l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o s a t i s f y t r a i n i n g n e e d s w i l l be s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r j o b s t h a n w o r k e r s i n s i t u a t i o n s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a c o n g r u e n c e b e t w e e n t r a i n i n g n e e d and t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t y . A m o d i f i e d D e l p h i t e c h n i q u e was e m p l o y e d t o g e n e r a t e a l i s t o f s k i l l s , k n o w l e d g e s and a t t i t u d e s r e q u i r e d t o p e r f o r m c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k . F i r s t a l i s t was c r e a t e d b y two e x p e r t s and one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e e x e c u t i v e b r a n c h o f t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r M e n t a l H e a l t h S e r v i c e s . T h i s l i s t was t h e n s u b m i t t e d t o two o t h e r e x p e r t s f o r f u r t h e r i n p u t . One o f t h e e l e v e n c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h c a r e t e a m s i n t h e l o w e r m a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was r e c r u i t e d t o g e n e r a t e a new l i s t , w h i c h was t h e n c o m p a r e d t o t h a t o f t h e e x p e r t s . I n a l l , f o u r s t e p s w e r e t a k e n t o e n s u r e a c o n c e n s u s o f o p i n i o n b y e x p e r t s , p o t e n t i a l l e a r n e r s , and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o f t h e G . V . M . H . S . c o n c e r n i n g t h e s k i l l s , k n o w l e d g e s a n d a t t i t u d e s r e q u i r e d t o do t h e w o r k . T h i s p h a s e o f t h e s t u d y p r o d u c e d a 73 i t e m S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e n s e c t i o n s : c r i s i s i n t e r v e n t i o n , a s s e s s m e n t , t r e a t m e n t and c o m m u n i t y s e r v i c e s , r e l a t i o n s h i p s and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , d o c u m e n t a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n a l d u t i e s . 92 The J o b D e s c r i p t i v e I n d e x was a d o p t e d as a m e a s u r e o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . The J D I m e a s u r e s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h f i v e f a c e t s o f a j o b : w o r k c o n t e n t , s u p e r v i s i o n , p a y / c o - w o r k e r s , and o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p r o m o t i o n . O v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n i s t h e sum o f t h e s c o r e s o f t h e a b o v e f i v e f a c e t s . The l i t e r a t u r e o n j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s i n s t r u m e n t i s o n e o f t h e m o s t h i g h l y v a l i d a t e d and r e l i a b l e m e a s u r e s o f j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . The S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y was e m p l o y e d a s a m e a s u r e o f s e l f -p e r c e i v e d l e a r n i n g n e e d s and l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . E a c h i t e m was g i v e n t h r e e r e s p o n s e s u b s e t s : . r e l e v a n c e t o t h e w o r k , n e e d f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g , a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t r a i n i n g . E a c h s u b s e t o f t h e i t e m was g i v e n f i v e r e s p o n s e a l t e r n a t i v e s s c o r e d on a z e r o t o f o u r s c a l e . D i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s w e r e o b t a i n e d b y s u b t r a c t i n g d e g r e e o f n e e d f r o m d e g r e e o f a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t r a i n i n g . The J D I and S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y w e r e c o m b i n e d t o f o r m a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . An i n i t i a l p a r t was a d d e d w h i c h e x p l a i n e d b r i e f l y t h e i n f o r m a t i o n b e i n g s o u g h t and a s k e d s e v e n q u e s t i o n s deemed t o be c r i t i c a l s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c i n f o r m a t i o n . T h e s e w e r e : a g e , s e x , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , p r o f e s s i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n , number o f y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e , and number o f p r e v i o u s p o s i t i o n s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o n i n e t e e n r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d s u b j e c t s t o t e s t f a c e v a l i d i t y and t i m e r e q u i r e d . I t was r e a d m i n i s t e r e d t o t h e same s u b j e c t s two w e e k s l a t e r and a c o r r e l a t i o n a l d e s i g n was e m p l o y e d t o t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y . The c o r r e l a t i o n s r a n g e d f r o m 0 . 9 0 t o 0 . 9 9 i n d i c a t i n g h i g h r e l i a b i l i t y on a t e s t - r e t e s t b a s i s . F u r t h e r t e s t s o f t h e S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y ' s r e l i a b i l i t y and 93 v a l i d i t y b y means o f S c o t t ' s h o m o g e n e i t y r a t i o HR and C r o n b a c h ' s a l p h a p r o v e d t h a t t h e S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y s e c t i o n s had s u f f i c i e n t c o h e r e n c e t o be a d e q u a t e m e a s u r e s o f a u n i d i m e n s i o n a l c o n s t r u c t . A l l HRs w e r e w i t h i n t h e 0 . 1 0 t o 0 . 7 5 r a n g e i n d i c a t i n g a d e q u a t e h o m o g e n e i t y . C r o n b a c h ' s a l p h a s f o r a l l s c a l e s w e r e g r e a t e r t h a n t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n them i n d i c a t i n g d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y . One h u n d r e d and t w e l v e p e o p l e w e r e e l i g i b l e f o r i n c l u s i o n a t t h e t i m e o f t h e s t u d y , A u g u s t , 1 9 7 6 . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c o m p l e t e d b y 103 c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g a 92 p e r c e n t r e t u r n r a t e . The d a t a was a n a l y z e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a C o m p u t i n g C e n t r e . S o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w e r e a n a l y z e d b y means o f M V T A B . Mean s c o r e s and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o n d a t a o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e J D I and S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y w e r e a n a l y z e d b y s u b r o u t i n e s o f S P S S . The L E R T A P p r o g r a m was e m p l o y e d t o d e r i v e mean s c o r e s f o r e a c h o f t h e s e v e n s e c t i o n s o f t h e S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y . D a t a s u c h a s J D I s c o r e s and S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y s c o r e s , w h i c h met t h e a s s u m p t i o n s f o r c o r r e l a t i o n , w e r e a n a l y z e d u s i n g U . B . C . C o m p u t i n g C e n t e r T r i a n g u l a r R e g r e s s i o n P a c k a g e . S t e p w i s e r e g r e s s i o n was e m p l o y e d t o t e s t t h e p r e d i c t i v e s t r e n g t h o f unmet l e a r n i n g n e e d s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s showed t h a t t h e s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n w e r e e x p e r i e n c e d h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s w i t h f a i r l y s t a b l e w o r k h i s t o r i e s . T h e y w e r e y o u n g t o m i d d l e - a g e d a d u l t s , c l o s e t o e q u a l d i v i s i o n m a l e / f e m a l e , w i t h l e s s t h a n one t h i r d b e i n g m a r r i e d , o v e r one h a l f s i n g l e , and t h e r e s t d i v o r c e d , s e p a r a t e d o r w i d o w e d . A v e r a g e l e n g t h o f e x p e r i e n c e was 1 0 . 5 y e a r s and a v e r a g e number o f p o s i t i o n s h e l d w e r e f o u r . The h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d w e r e n u r s i n g , 94 p s y c h i a t r i c n u r s i n g , s o c i a l w o r k , o c c u p a t i o n a l t h e r a p y , p s y c h o l o g y and p s y c h i a t r y . S e v e n r e s p o n d e n t s d i d n o t h a v e t h e u s u a l b a s i c h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . The mean e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n f e l l b e t w e e n a B . A . d e g r e e and an M . A . d e g r e e -t h e r a n g e was f r o m G r a d e T w e l v e p l u s D i p l o m a t o M . D . C o m p a r e d t o t h e J D I s c o r e s o b t a i n e d b y 2 , 5 0 0 p a r t i c i p a n t s o f t h e C o r n e l l S t u d i e s , j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n s c o r e s o f c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s w e r e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h i n o v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n and f o u r j o b f a c e t s . S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p r o m o t i o n s c o r e s w e r e , on t h e a v e r a g e , 6 . 7 p o i n t s b e l o w t h e C o r n e l l r e s p o n d e n t s . L e a r n i n g n e e d / o p p o r t u n i t y d i s c r e p a n c i e s w e r e l o w ( b e l o w two on a z e r o t o f o u r p o i n t s c a l e ) b u t w i d e r a n g i n g . F i f t y - T h r e e o u t o f 73 i t e m s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d a s c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e j o b f o r w h i c h more t r a i n i n g was r e q u i r e d . The h y p o t h e s i s p r e d i c t e d a n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t r a i n i n g n e e d / o p p o r t u n i t y d i s c r e p a n c i e s and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . The r e s u l t s o f t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s showed t h a t t h e g r e a t e r t h e d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n p e r c e i v e d need and o p p o r t u n i t y t h e l e s s t h e j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . The c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n unmet n e e d and a l l f i v e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e J D I w e r e n e g a t i v e . O v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n was n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h unmet l e a r n i n g n e e d s ( r = - . 3 5 , p < . 0 1 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e t h e r e w e r e s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n a l l s e v e n s e c t i o n s o f t h e S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y and e a c h f a c e t o f t h e J D I . The r e s u l t s s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t e d t h e p r e d i c t e d r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n l e a r n i n g n e e d / o p p o r t u n i t y d i s c r e p a n c i e s and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d a t t h e . 01 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . 95 S t e p w i s e r e g r e s s i o n showed t h a t unmet l e a r n i n g n e e d s i n f o u r o f t h e s e v e n a r e a s o f c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k w e r e p o w e r f u l p r e d i c t o r s o f j o b d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . D i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s a c c o u n t e d f o r a g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e v a r i a n c e o f o v e r a l l j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a n a l l s e v e n s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s and a l l s e v e n ' r e l e v a n c e ' v a r i a b l e s . An u n a n t i c i p a t e d f i n d i n g was t h e p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t r a i n i n g and a l l d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e J D I . The g r e a t e r t h e p e r c e i v e d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n t h e m o r e t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e j o b . The f i r s t p h a s e o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y p r o d u c e d an S . K . A . I n v e n t o r y f o r c o m m u n i t y m e n t a l h e a l t h w o r k e r s . I t i s a v a l i d a t e d m e a s u r e m e n t s t r a t e g y f o r d e t e r m i n i n g l e a r n i n g n e e d s o f one i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y g r o u p o f h e a l t h w o r k e r s . The l e a r n i n g n e e d s i d e n t i f i e d b y t h e s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n and p r e s e n t e d h e r e i n p r o v i d e a g u i d e f o r p l a n n e r s o f c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s i n t h e f i e l d o f m e n t a l h e a l t h . The m o s t i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y i s t h e e m p h a s i s o n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s t o mee t p e r c e i v e d l e a r n i n g n e e d s . C o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n p r o m o t e s p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t , m a i n t a i n s c o m p e t e n c i e s , and i n f l u e n c e s p o s i t i v e j o b a t t i t u d e s . A s j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n may be l i n k e d t o j o b p e r f o r m a n c e , t h e i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o e n g a g e i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s t o s a t i s f y p e r c e i v e d l e a r n i n g n e e d s s h o u l d , i n t h e l o n g r u n , i n f l u e n c e q u a l i t y o f c a r e . 96 R E F E R E N C E S A b e l s o n , R . P . and R o s e n b e r g , M . J . , S y m b o l i c P s y c h o - l o g i c : A M o d e l o f A t t i t u d i n a l C o g n i t i o n . B e h a v i o u r a l S c i e n c e , 1 9 5 8 , 3 , 1-1 3 . A d a m s , J . S . T o w a r d an U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f I n e q u i t y . J o u r n a l o f  A b n o r m a l and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 3 , 6 7 , 4 2 2 - 4 3 6 . A m e r i c a n M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n . P e e r R e v i e w M a n u a l . C h i c a g o : The A m e r i c a n M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 7 2 . A n d e r s e n , E . L . ( C h a i r m a n ) and T a s k F o r c e On C o n t i n u i n g C o m p e t e n c e I n P h a r m a n c y . The C o n t i n u i n g C o m p e t e n c e o f P h a r m a c i s t s . J o u r n a l o f A m e r i c a n P h a r m a c e u t i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 7 4 , V o l . N S 1 4 , 7 , 3 4 0 - 3 4 5 . A r c h a m b a u l t , R . D . The C o n c e p t o f Need and i t s R e l a t i o n t o C e r t a i n A s p e c t s o f E d u c a t i o n a l T h e o r y . H a r v a r d E d u c a t i o n a l  R e v i e w , 1 9 5 7 , 2 7 , 3 8 - 6 2 . A r o n s o n , E . The E f f e c t o f E f f o r t o n t h e A t t r a c t i v e n e s s Of R e w a r d e d and U n r e w a r d e d S t i m u l i . J o u r n a l o f A b n o r m a l and S o c i a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 1 , 6 3 , 3 7 5 - 3 8 0 . A s h , P . The SRA E m p l o y e e I n v e n t o r y : A S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s . P e r s o n n e l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 5 4 , 7 , 3 3 7 - 3 6 4 . A s t i n , A . W . D i m e n s i o n s o f Work S a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h e O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e s o f C o l l e g e F r e s h m e n . J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 5 8 , 4 2 , 2 , 1 8 7 - 1 9 0 . A t w o o d , H . M . and E l l i s , J . The C o n c e p t o f N e e d : An A n a l y s i s f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . A d u l t L e a d e r s h i p , 1 9 7 1 , 1 9 , 7 , 2 1 0 - 2 1 2 , 2 4 4 . B a e h r , M . E . A F a c t o r i a l S t u d y o f t h e SRA E m p l o y e e I n v e n t o r y . P e r s o n n e l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 5 4 , 7 , 3 1 9 - 3 3 6 . B e e r , M . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S i z e And J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n . A c a d e m y o f  Managemen t J o u r n a l , 1 9 6 4 , 7 , 1, 3 4 - 4 4 . B e r g e v i n , P . A P h i l o s o p h y f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : S e a b u r y P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 . B l o o d , M . R . The V a l i d i t y Of I m p o r t a n c e . J o u r n a l O f A p p l i e d  P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 1 , 5 5 , 5 , 4 8 7 - 4 8 8 . B o s h i e r , R . M o t i v a t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n s R e - v i s i t e d : L i f e S p a c e M o t i v e s and t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 7 7 , 2 7 , 2 , 8 9 - 1 1 5 . 97 B o s h i e r , R . W . & P e t e r s , J . M . " A d u l t N e e d s , I n t e r e s t s and M o t i v e s . " I n K l e v i n s , C . ( E d . ) M a t e r i a l s and M e t h o d s i n  C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n . C a n o g a P a r k : K l e v e n s P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1 9 7 6 , 1 9 7 - 2 1 2 . B r a d s h a w , J . The C o n c e p t o f S o c i a l N e e d . E k i s t i c s , 1 9 7 4 , 2 2 0 , 4 , 1 8 4 - 1 8 7 . B r a y f i e l d , A . H . and R o t h e , H . F . An I n d e x o f J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n . J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 5 1 , 3 5 , 4 , 3 0 7 - 3 1 1 . B r e h m , J . W . P o s t d e c i s i o n C h a n g e s i n t h e D e s i r a b i l i t y o f A l t e r n a t i v e s . J o u r n a l O f A b n o r m a l and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 5 6 , 5 2 , 3 8 4 - 3 8 9 . B r e s l a u , N . , N o v a c k , A . H . , and G e r r i t , W. Work S e t t i n g s and J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n : A S t u d y Of P r i m a r y C a r e P h y s i c i a n s and P a r a m e d i c a l P e r s o n n e l . M e d i c a l C a r e , 1 9 7 8 , 1 6 , 1 0 , 8 5 0 - 8 6 2 . B u n n i n g , R . L . S k i l l s and K n o w l e d g e s f o r t h e A d u l t E d u c a t o r : A D e l p h i S t u d y . P h o e n i x : The C e n t e r f o r H i g h e r and A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , A r i z o n a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 6 . C a r o l l , B . J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n : A R e v i e w o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e . K e y  I s s u e s : B a c k g r o u n d R e p o r t s on C u r r e n t T o p i c s i n L a b o r - M a n a g e m e n t  R e l a t i o n s - N u m b e r 3 . I t h a c a , New Y o r k : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 3 . C a r t w r i g h t , D . and H a r a r y , F . S t r u c t u r a l B a l a n c e : a G e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f H e i d e r ' s T h e o r y . P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , 1 9 5 6 , 6 3 , 2 7 7 - 2 9 3 . C a r t w r i g h t , D . and Z a n d e r , A . G r o u p D y n a m i c s . E v a n s t o n : R o w , P e t e r s o n , 1 9 6 8 . C a s t l e , C . H . and S t o r e y , P . B . P h y s i c i a n s N e e d s and I n t e r e s t s i n C o n t i n u i n g M e d i c a l E d u c a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n M e d i c a l  A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 6 8 , O c t o b e r 1 4 , 6 1 1 - 6 1 4 . C h a r t e r s , A . N . and B l a k e l y , R . J . " T h e Managemen t o f C o n t i n u i n g L e a r n i n g : A M o d e l o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n a s a P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g S t r a t e g y f o r H e a l t h M a n p o w e r . " I n C h a r t e r s , A . N . a n d B l a k e l y , R . J . ( E d s . ) F o s t e r i n g t h e G r o w i n g N e e d t o L e a r n . S y r a c u s e : S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 4 , 1 - 6 3 . C o c h , L . and F r e n c h , L . R . O v e r c o m i n g R e s i s t a n c e t o C h a n g e . Human  R e l a t i o n s , 1 9 4 8 , 1, 5 1 2 - 5 3 2 . C r o n b a c h , L . C o e f f i c i e n t A l p h a and t h e I n t e r n a l S t r u c t u r e o f T e s t s . P s y c h o m e t r i k a , 1 9 5 1 , 1 6 , 3 , 2 9 7 - 3 3 4 . C u m m i n g s , L . L . and S c h w a b , D . P . P e r f o r m a n c e i n O r g a n i z a t i o n s . G l e n v i e w , I l l i n o i s : S c o t t , F o r e s m a n , 1 9 7 3 . 98 D a v i s , L . E . and C h e r n s , A . B . The Q u a l i t y o f W o r k i n g L i f e . V o l u m e I . P r o b l e m s , P r o s p e c t s and t h e S t a t e o f t h e A r t . New Y o r k : The F r e e P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 . D e u t s c h , M . An E x p e r i m e n t a l S t u d y o f t h e E f f e c t s o f C o - o p e r a t i o n and C o m p e t i t i o n upon G r o u p P r o c e s s . Human R e l a t i o n s , 1 9 4 9 , 2 , 1 9 9 - 2 3 1 . D e w e y , J . T h e o r y o f V a l u a t i o n . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 3 9 . D i c k i n s o n , G . and V e r n e r , C . " T h e P r o v i s i o n o f I n s e r v i c e E d u c a t i o n f o r H e a l t h M a n p o w e r . " I n C h a r t e r s , A . N . a n d B l a k e l y , R . J . ( E d s . ) F o s t e r i n g T h e G r o w i n g N e e d t o L e a r n . S y r a c u s e : S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 4 , 1 7 5 - 1 9 8 . D i t t e s , J . E . A t t r a c t i v e n e s s o f G r o u p a s F u n c t i o n o f S e l f - E s t e e m and A c c e p t e n c e b y G r o u p . J o u r n a l o f A b n o r m a l and S o c i a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 5 9 , 5 9 , 7 7 - 8 2 . D u n n e t t e , M . D . , C a m p b e l l , J . P . , and H a k e l , M . D . F a c t o r s C o n t r i b u t i n g t o J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n and J o b D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n S i x O c c u p a t i o n a l G r o u p s . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l B e h a v i o u r and Human  P e r f o r m a n c e , 1 9 6 7 , 2 , 1 4 3 - 1 7 4 . E s t e s , R . J . L e a r n i n g S t y l e P r e f e r e n c e s o f C o m m u n i t y M e n t a l H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s . C o m m u n i t y M e n t a l H e a l t h J o u r n a l , 1 9 7 5 , 1 1 , 4 , 4 5 0 - 4 5 9 . E v a n s , M . G . The E f f e c t s o f S u p e r v i s o r y B e h a v i o u r o n t h e P a t h G o a l R e l a t i o n s h i p . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l B e h a v i o u r and Human  P e r f o r m a n c e , 1 9 7 0 , 5 5 , 2 7 7 - 2 9 8 . E w e n , R . B . , S m i t h , P . C . , H u l i n , C L . and L o c k e , E . A . An E m p i r i c a l T e s t o f t h e H e r z b e r g T w o - F a c t o r T h e o r y . J o u r n a l o f  A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 6 , 5 0 , 1 2 , 5 4 4 - 5 5 0 . E w e n , R . B . W e i g h t i n g C o m p o n e n t s o f J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n . J o u r n a l o f  A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 7 , 5 1 , 1, 6 8 - 7 3 . F e s t i n g e r , L . A T h e o r y o f C o g n i t i v e D i s s o n a n c e . S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 . F i s h b e i n , M . " A t t i t u d e and t h e P r e d i c t i o n o f B e h a v i o u r . " I n F i s h b e i n , M . ( E d . ) A t t i t u d e T h e o r y and M e a s u r e m e n t s . New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y and S o n s , 1 9 6 7 , 4 7 7 - 4 9 2 . F l e i s h m a n , E . A . A M a n u a l f o r A d m i n i s t e r i n g T h e L e a d e r s h i p  O p i n i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . C h i c a g o : S c i e n c e R e s e a r c h A s s o c i a t e s , 1 9 6 9 . 99 F o r d , R . N . and B o r g a t t a , E . F . S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e Work I t s e l f . J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 0 , 5 4 , 2 , 1 2 8 - 1 3 4 . F r e i r e , P . P e d a g o g y o f t h e O p p r e s s e d . New Y o r k : H e r d e r and H e r d e r , 1 9 7 0 . G l a s s c o t e , R . M . and G u d e m a n , J . E . The S t a f f o f T h e M e n t a l H e a l t h  C e n t r e : A F i e l d S t u d y . W a s h i n g t o n : The J o i n t I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e o f t h e A m e r i c a n P s y c h i a t r i c A s s o c i a t i o n and The N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o f M e n t a l H e a l t h , 1 9 6 9 . G o o d m a n , P . S . and F r i e d m a n , A . " A n E x a m i n a t i o n o f A d a m s ' T h e o r y o f I n e q u i t y . " I n S t e e r s , R . M . and P o r t e r , L . W . ( E d s . ) M o t i v a t i o n  and Work B e h a v i o u r . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1 9 7 5 , 1 5 5 - 1 7 7 . G o t t e s m a n , D . M . M e a s u r i n g A t t i t u d e s a b o u t P e e r R e v i e w i n a U n i v e r s i t y D e p a r t m e n t o f P s y c h i a t r y . H o s p i t a l and C o m m u n i t y  P s y c h i a t r y , 1 9 7 4 , 2 5 , 1, 3 9 - 4 2 . G r i f f i t h , W . S . E d u c a t i o n a l N e e d s : D e f i n i t i o n , A s s e s s m e n t , , and U t i l i z a t i o n . S c h o o l R e v i e w , 1 9 7 8 , M a y , 3 8 3 - 3 9 4 . Hammer, V . B . A M o d e l R e l a t i n g an A d u l t i n a J o b , I n t e r e s t s and N e e d s , and C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n  i n N u r s i n g , 1 9 7 7 , 8 , 5 , 1 5 - 2 3 . H a n d , S . E . A n O u t l i n e o f a C o m m u n i t y S u r v e y f o r P r o g r a m P l a n n i n g  i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . T a l l a h a s s e e : F l o r i d a S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 6 8 . H e i d e r , F . A t t i t u d e s and C o g n i t i v e O r g a n i z a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f  P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 4 6 , 2 1 , 1 0 7 - 1 1 2 . H e i d e r , F . The P s y c h o l o g y o f I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s . New Y o r k : W i l e y , 1 9 5 8 . H e l m e r , 0 . S y s t e m a t i c U s e o f E x p e r t O p i n i o n . S a n t a M o n i c a : The Rand C o r p o r a t i o n , 1 9 6 7 . H e n s l e y , D . C . " A D e l p h i P r o c e d u r a l A n a l y s i s o f R o l e F u n c t i o n f o r t h e S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n S u p e r v i s o r i n M i s s o u r i . " D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a , 1 9 7 2 . H e r z b e r g , F . Work and T h e N a t u r e o f M a n . New Y o r k : The W o r l d P u b l i s h i n g C o m p a n y , 1 9 7 3 . H e r z b e r g , F . One M o r e T i m e : How do y o u M o t i v a t e E m p l o y e e s ? H a r v a r d B u s i n e s s R e v i e w , 1 9 6 8 , 4 6 , 1, 3 8 - 4 2 . H e r z b e r g , F . , M a u s n e r , B . and S n y d e r m a n , B . The M o t i v a t i o n t o  W o r k . New Y o r k : W i l e y , 1 9 5 9 . 100 H e r z b e r g , F . , M a u s n e r , B . , P e t e r s o n , R . O . , and C a p w e l l , D . F . J o b  A t t i t u d e s ; R e v i e w o f R e s e a r c h and O p i n i o n . P i t t s b u r g h : P s y c h o l o g i c a l S e r v i c e o f P i t t s b u r g h , 1 9 5 7 . H i e m s t r a , R . and L o n g , R . A S u r v e y o f ' F e l t ' v e r s u s ' R e a l ' N e e d s o f P h y s i c a l T h e r a p i s t s . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 7 4 , 2 4 , 4 , 2 7 0 - 2 7 9 . H o m a n s , G . C . S o c i a l B e h a v i o u r : I t s E l e m e n t a r y F o r m s . New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t - B r a c e , 1 9 6 1 . H o u l e , C . The D e s i g n o f E d u c a t i o n . S a n F r a n c i s c o : J o s s e y - B a s s , 1 9 7 2 . H u l i n , C L . and B l o o d , M . R . J o b E n l a r g e m e n t , I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s , and W o r k e r R e s p o n s e s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 1 9 6 8 , 6 9 , 4 1 - 5 5 . H u l i n , C . L . , and S m i t h , P . C A L i n e a r M o d e l o f J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n . J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 5 , 4 9 , 6 , 2 0 9 - 2 1 6 . H u l i n , C . L . , and S m i t h , P . C . Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n . J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 4 , 4 8 , 2 , 8 8 - 9 2 . J a c k s o n , J . M . R e f e r e n c e G r o u p P r o c e s s e s i n a F o r m a l O r g a n i z a t i o n . S o c i o m e t r y , 1 9 5 9 , 2 2 , 3 0 7 - 3 2 7 . J a c k s o n , J . M . The E f f e c t o f C h a n g i n g t h e L e a d e r s h i p o f S m a l l Work G r o u p s . Human R e l a t i o n s , 1 9 5 3 , 6 , 2 5 - 4 4 . J a m e s , B . Can ' N e e d s ' D e f i n e E d u c a t i o n a l G o a l s ? A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 5 6 , 7 , 1 9 - 2 6 . J e n s e n , G . , L i v e r i g h t , A . A . , and H a l l e n b e c k , W. ( E d s . ) A d u l t  E d u c a t i o n : O u t l i n e s o f an E m e r g i n g F i e l d o f U n i v e r s i t y S t u d y . C h i c a g o : A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e U . S . A . , 1 9 6 4 . J o h n s o n , R . " D e t e r m i n i n g T r a i n i n g N e e d s " . I n C r a i g , R . L . and B i t t e l , L . R . ( E d s . ) T h e T r a i n i n g and D e v e l o p m e n t H a n d b o o k . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1 9 6 7 , 1 6 - 3 2 . J o i n t C o m m i s s i o n on M e n t a l I l l n e s s and H e a l t h . A c t i o n f o r M e n t a l  H e a l t h ; F i n a l R e p o r t . New Y o r k : B a s i c B o o k s , 1 9 6 1 . J o n e s , W . A . " A n A n a l y s i s o f a S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n N e e d s A s s e s s m e n t U s i n g D e l p h i M e t h o d s . " D o c t o r a l D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a , 1 9 7 3 . K a t z e l l , R . A . and Y a n k e l o v i t c h , D . W o r k , P r o d u c t i v i t y a n d J o b  S a t i s f a c t i o n . New Y o r k : The P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o r p o r a t i o n , 1 9 7 5 . K e n d a l l , L . M . , S m i t h , P . C , H u l i n , C L . and L o c k e , E . A . " C o r n e l l S t u d i e s o f J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n : I V : The R e l a t i v e V a l i d i t y o f t h e J o b D e s c r i p t i v e I n d e x and O t h e r M e a s u r e s o f J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n . " I t h i c a : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 3 . ( M i m e o g r a p h e d . ) 101 K e n d l e r , T . S . C o n c e p t F o r m a t i o n . A n n u a l R e v i e w o f P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 1 , 1 2 , 4 4 7 - 4 7 2 . K l e i n , S . and A l k i n , M . C . " P r o g r a m P l a n n i n g T o o l s and P r o c e d u r e s . " I n K l e i n , S . , B a r r y , J . , C h u r c h m a n , D . , and N a d e a u , M . ( E d s . ) E v a l u a t i o n W o r k s h o p I : A n O r i e n t a t i o n . M o n t e r e y : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1 9 7 1 , 1 - 8 . K n o w l e s , M . S . The M o d e r n P r a c t i c e o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : A s s o c i a t e d P r e s s , 1 9 7 5 . K n o x , A . B . " C r i t i c a l A p p r a i s a l o f t h e N e e d s o f A d u l t s f o r E d u c a t i o n a l E x p e r i e n c e s a s a B a s i s f o r P r o g r a m D e v e l o p m e n t . " New Y o r k : T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 8 . (Mimeog r a p h e d . ) K n o x , A . B . " L i f e - L o n g S e l f D i r e c t e d E d u c a t i o n . " I n C h a r t e r s , A . N . and B l a k e l y , R . J . ( E d s . ) F o s t e r i n g t h e G r o w i n g N e e d t o  L e a r n . S y r a c u s e : S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 4 , 6 5 - 1 3 2 . K o m i s a r , P . " ' N e e d 1 and t h e N e e d s - C u r r i c u l u m . " I n S m i t h , B . O . , and E n n i s , R . H . ( E d s . ) L a n g u a g e and C o n c e p t s i n E d u c a t i o n . C h i c a g o : Rand M c N a l l y and C o . , 1 9 6 1 , 2 4 - 4 2 . K r a m e r , C . S . The D i a g n o s t i c P r o c e s s i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . B l o o m i n g t o n : I n d i a n a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 0 . L e a g a n s , J . P . A C o n c e p t o f N e e d s . J o u r n a l o f C o - o p e r a t i v e  E x t e n s i o n , 1 9 6 4 , 2 , 8 9 - 9 6 . L e c k y , P . S e l f - C o n s i s t e n c y : A T h e o r y o f P e r s o n a l i t y . New Y o r k : I s l a n d P r e s s , 1 9 6 1 . L e s s i n g e r , L . M . " E f f e c t i v e C a r i n g : an A p p r o a c h t o a R a t i o n a l Scheme f o r F i n a n c i n g C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n f o r H e a l t h M a n p o w e r . " I n C h a r t e r s , A . N . and B l a k e l y , R . J . ( E d s . ) F o s t e r i n g T h e G r o w i n g  N e e d t o L e a r n . S y r a c u s e : S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 4 , 2 7 9 - 3 1 2 . L e w i n , K . The C o n c e p t u a l R e p r e s e n t a t i o n and t h e M e a s u r e m e n t o f  P s y c h o l o g i c a l F o r c e s . D u r h a m : Duke U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 8 . L e w i s , A . " T h e Use o f A n a l y t i c a l T e c h n i q u e s t o D e t e r m i n e H e a l t h Manpower R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r E d u c a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g - o r How Do I F i n d Out What S k i l l s and K n o w l e d g e s t o T e a c h ? " I n C h a r t e r s , A . N . and B l a k e l y , R . J . ( E d s . ) F o s t e r i n g t h e G r o w i n g N e e d t o L e a r n . S y r a c u s e : S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 4 , 3 1 3 - 3 6 8 . L i k e r t , R . New P a t t e r n s o f M a n a g e m e n t . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1 9 6 1 . L o c k e , E . A . What i s J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n ? O r g a n i z a t i o n a l B e h a v i o u r  and Human P e r f o r m a n c e , 1 9 6 9 , 4 , 3 0 9 - 3 3 6 . 102 L o c k e , E . A . " T h e S u p e r v i s o r a s ' M o t i v a t o r ' : H i s I n f l u e n c e on E m p l o y e e P e r f o r m a n c e and S a t i s f a c t i o n . " I n S t e e r s , R . M . and P o r t e r , L . W . ( E d s . ) M o t i v a t i o n and Work B e h a v i o u r . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1 9 7 5 , 3 6 0 - 3 7 1 . L o n d o n , J . " P r o g r a m D e v e l o p m e n t i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . " I n K n o w l e s , M . S . ( E d . ) H a n d b o o k o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . C h i c a g o : A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e U . S . A . , 1 9 6 0 , 6 5 - 8 1 . M c C l e l l a n d , D . C . , A t k i n s o n , J . W . , C l a r k , R . A . , and L o w e l l , E . L . The A c h i e v e m e n t M o t i v e . New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1 9 5 3 . M c G r e g o r , L . " A D e s c r i p t i v e S t u d y o f O c c u p a t i o n a l and P h y s i c a l T h e r a p i s t s . " M a s t e r s T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 5 . M c G u i r e , W . J . "The C u r r e n t S t a t u s o f C o g n i t i v e C o n s i s t e n c y T h e o r i e s . " I n F e l d m a n , S . ( E d . ) C o g n i t i v e C o n s i s t e n c y . New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 , 2 - 4 7 . M c M a h o n , E . N e e d s - o_f P e o p l e and T h e i r C o m m u n i t i e s - A n d t h e  A d u l t E d u c a t o r . W a s h i n g t o n : A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e U . S . A . , 1 9 7 0 . M a h e r , J . R . New P e r s p e c t i v e s i n J o b E n r i c h m e n t . New Y o r k : V a n N o s t r a n d R e i n h o l d , 1 9 7 1 . M a s l o w , A . H . M o t i v a t i o n and P e r s o n a l i t y . New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row, 1 9 5 4 . M i l l e r , D . C . H a n d b o o k o f R e s e a r c h D e s i g n and S o c i a l M e a s u r e m e n t . New Y o r k : D a v i d M c K a y C o m p a n y , 1 9 7 0 . M i l l e r , G . E . C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n f o r Wha t? The J o u r n a l o f  M e d i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 6 7 , A p r i l , 3 2 0 - 3 2 6 . M i l l e r , G . R . and R o k e a c h , M . " I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s and T o l e r a n c e f o r I n c o n s i s t e n c y . " I n A b e l s o n R . P . , A r o n s o n , E . , M c G u i r e , W . J . , Newcomb, T . M . , R o s e n b e r g , M . J . , and T a n n e n b a u m , P . H . ( E d s . ) T h e o r i e s o f C o g n i t i v e C o n s i s t e n c y : A S o u r c e b o o k . C h i c a g o : Rand M c N a l l y , 1 9 6 8 , 6 2 4 - 6 3 2 . M i l l e r , H . L . T e a c h i n g and L e a r n i n g i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : M a c M i l l a n , 1 9 6 4 . M i l l e r , L . A . , and M u t h a r d , J . E . J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n and C o u n s e l o r P e r f o r m a n c e i n S t a t e R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A g e n c i e s . J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d  P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 5 , 4 9 , 8 , 2 8 0 - 2 8 3 . M i l l s , J . , A r o n s o n , E . , and R o b i n s o n , H . S e l e c t i v i t y i n E x p o s u r e t o I n f o r m a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f A b n o r m a l and S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 5 9 , 5 9 , 2 5 0 - 2 5 3 . 103 M o n e t t e , M . L . The C o n c e p t o f E d u c a t i o n a l N e e d : An A n a l y s i s o f S e l e c t e d L i t e r a t u r e . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 7 7 , 2 7 , 2 , 1 1 6 - 1 2 7 . M u m f o r d , E . J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n : A S t u d y o f C o m p u t e r S p e c i a l i s t s . L o n d o n : L o n g m a n , 1 9 7 2 . M u n s t e r b e r g , H . P s y c h o l o g y and I n d u s t r i a l E f f i c i e n c y . B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n - M i f f l i n , 1 9 1 3 . M u r r a y , H . A . E x p l o r a t i o n s I n P e r s o n a l i t y . New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 8 . Newcomb, T . M . " I n d i v i d u a l S y s t e m s o f O r i e n t a t i o n . " I n K o c h , S . ( E d . ) P s y c h o l o g y : A S t u d y o f a S c i e n c e . V o l u m e 3 . F o r m u l a t i o n s o f t h e P e r s o n and t h e S o c i a l C o n t e x t . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1 9 5 9 , 3 8 4 - 4 2 2 . Newcomb, T . M . The P r e d i c t i o n o f I n t e r p e r s o n a l A t t r a c t i o n . A m e r i c a n P s y c h o l o g i s t , 1 9 5 6 , 1 1 , 5 7 5 - 5 8 6 . N i c h o l i , A . M . ( E d . ) T h e H a r v a r d G u i d e t o M o d e r n P s y c h i a t r y . C a m b r i d g e : B e l k n a p P r e s s , 1 9 7 8 . O s g o o d , C E . and T a n n e n b a u m , P . H . The P r i n c i p l e o f C o n g r u i t y i n t h e P r e d i c t i o n o f A t t i t u d e C h a n g e . P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e v i e w , 1 9 5 5 , 6 2 , 4 2 - 5 5 . P a t c h e n , M . A b s e n c e and E m p l o y e e F e e l i n g s A b o u t F a i r T r e a t m e n t . P e r s o n n e l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 0 , 1 3 , 3 4 9 - 3 6 0 . P a t c h e n , M . The C h o i c e o f Wage C o m p a r i s o n s . E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1 9 6 1 . P a y n e , R . L . , F i n e m a n , S . and W a l l , T . D . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C l i m a t e and J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n : A C o n c e p t u a l S y n t h e s i s . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l  B e h a v i o u r and Human P e r f o r m a n c e , 1 9 7 6 , 1 6 , 1, 4 5 - 6 2 . P e n n i n g t o n , F . and G r e e n , J . C o m p a r a t i v e A n a l y s i s o f P r o g r a m D e v e l o p m e n t P r o c e s s e s i n S i x P r o f e s s i o n s . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 7 5 , 2 7 , 1, 1 3 - 2 3 . P h a n e u f , M . C . The N u r s i n g A u d i t : P r o f i l e f o r E x c e l l e n c e . New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1 9 7 2 . P o r t e r , L . W . A S t u d y o f P e r c e i v e d Need S a t i s f a c t i o n i n B o t t o m and M i d d l e Managemen t J o b s . J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 1 , 4 5 , 1, 1 - 1 0 . P o r t e r , L . W . and L a w l e r , E . E . B e h a v i o u r i n O r g a n i z a t i o n s . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1 9 7 4 . 104 P o r t e r , L . W . and S t e e r s , R . M . " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l , W o r k , and P e r s o n a l F a c t o r s i n E m p l o y e e T u r n o v e r and A b s e n t e e i s m . " I n S t e e r s , R . M . and P o r t e r , L . W . ( E d s . ) M o t i v a t i o n and Work  B e h a v i o u r . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1 9 7 5 , 2 7 6 - 2 9 6 . P u t n a m , M . L . I m p r o v i n g E m p l o y e e R e l a t i o n s . P e r s o n n e l J o u r n a l , 1 9 3 0 , 8 , 3 1 4 - 3 2 5 . R i v e r a , W . M . and R o c k h i l l , K . A G r a s s r o o t s N e e d s A s s e s s m e n t o n  E d u c a t i o n a l N e e d s I n t e r e s t s i n E a s t L o s A n g e l e s . L o s A n g e l e s : E a s t L o s A n g e l e s C o l l e g e , 1 9 7 6 . R o a c h , D . E . D i m e n s i o n s o f E m p l o y e e M o r a l e . P e r s o n n e l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 5 8 , 1 1 , 4 1 9 - 4 3 1 . R o e t h l i s b e r g e r , F . J . and D i c k s o n , W . J . Managemen t and T h e  W o r k e r . C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 9 . R o g e r s , C R . " A T h e o r y o f T h e r a p y , P e r s o n a l i t y , and I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s , a s D e v e l o p e d i n t h e C l i e n t - c e n t e r e d F r a m e w o r k . " I n K o c h , S . ( E d . ) P s y c h o l o g y : A S t u d y o f a S c i e n c e . V o l u m e 3 . F o r m u l a t i o n s o f t h e P e r s o n and t h e S o c i a l C o n t e x t . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1 9 5 9 , 1 8 4 - 2 5 6 . S a l i n a s , R . C " A n E x p l o r a t o r y S t u d y o f J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n A t t i t u d e s Among N o n - A c a d e m i c U n i v e r s i t y P e r s o n n e l . " M a s t e r s T h e s i s , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 4 . S a w a t s k y , J . C P s y c h o l o g i c a l F a c t o r s i n I n d u s t r i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n A f f e c t i n g E m p l o y e e S t a b i l i t y . C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 5 1 , 5 , 2 9 - 3 8 . S c o t t , W . A . M e a s u r e s o f T e s t H o m o g e n e i t y . E d u c a t i o n a l and  P s y c h o l o g i c a l M e a s u r e s , 1 9 6 0 , 2 0 , 1 2 , 7 5 1 - 7 5 7 . S c h w a b , D . P . and C u m m i n g s , L . L . " T h e o r i e s o f P e r f o r m a n c e and S a t i s f a c t i o n : a R e v i e w . " I n S t e e r s R . M . and P o r t e r L . W . ( E d s . ) M o t i v a t i o n and Work B e h a v i o u r . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1 9 7 5 , 2 2 3 -2 4 1 . S i r o t a , D . Some E f f e c t s o f P r o m o t i o n a l F r u s t r u a t i o n on E m p l o y e e s ' U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f , and A t t i t u d e s T o w a r d , M a n a g e m e n t . S o c i o m e t r y , 1 9 5 9 , 2 2 , 2 7 3 - 2 7 8 . S l e e , V . N . "The F u t u r e o f t h e M e d i c a l A u d i t . " P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e S e v e n t h A n n u a l H o s p i t a l M e d i c a l S t a f f C o n f e r e n c e . B o u l d e r : U n i v e r s i t y o f C o l o r a d o , 1 9 7 0 . S m i t h , P . C . and K e n d a l l , L . M . " C o r n e l l S t u d i e s o f J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n . " I t h i c a : C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 3 . ( M i m e o g r a p h e d . ) 105 S m i t h , P . C . , K e n d a l l , L . M . and H u l i n , C L . The M e a s u r e m e n t o f  S a t i s f a c t i o n i n Work and R e t i r e m e n t . C h i c a g o : Rand M c N a l l y , 1 9 6 9 . S t a m p s , P . L . , P i e d m o n t , E . B . , S l a v i t t , D . B . and H a a s e , A . M . M e a s u r e m e n t o f Work S a t i s f a c t i o n among H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s . M e d i c a l C a r e , 1 9 7 8 , 1 6 , 4 , 3 3 7 - 3 5 2 . S t e e r s , R . M . and P o r t e r , L . W . M o t i v a t i o n and Work B e h a v i o u r . New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1 9 7 5 . S t o n e , E . F . , M o w d a y , R . T . and P o r t e r , L . W . H i g h e r O r d e r Need S t r e n g t h s a s M o d e r a t o r s o f t h e J o b S c o p e - J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n R e l a t i o n s h i p . J o u r n a l o f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 7 , 6 2 , 4 , 4 6 6 -4 7 1 . T y l e r , R . B a s i c P r i n c i p l e s o f C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 5 0 . V a l e n t i n e , J . P e e r R e v i e w , Q u a l i t y o f C a r e , and P r o b l e m - O r i e n t e d R e c o r d s : T h r e e A s p e c t s o f A c c o u n t a b i l i t y . H o s p i t a l and C o m m u n i t y  P s y c h i a t r y , 1 9 7 4 , 2 5 , 1 0 , 6 7 8 - 6 7 9 . V r o o m , V . H . Work and M o t i v a t i o n . New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y and S o n s , 1 9 6 4 . V r o o m , V . H . and M a n n , F . C L e a d e r A u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m and E m p l o y e e A t t i t u d e s . P e r s o n n e l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 6 0 , 1 3 , 1 2 5 - 1 4 0 . W a l k e r , C R . and G u e s t , R . H . The Man on t h e A s s e m b l y L i n e . C a m b r i d g e : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 2 . W a n o u s , J . P . and L a w l e r , E . E . M e a s u r e m e n t and M e a n i n g o f J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n . J o u r n a l O f A p p l i e d P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 7 2 , 5 6 , 4 , 9 5 -1 0 5 . W e a t h e r m a n , R . and S w e n s o n , K . " D e l p h i T e c h n i q u e . " I n H e n c l e y , S . P . and Y a t e s , J . R . ( E d s . ) F u t u r i s m i n E d u c a t i o n . B e r k e l y : M c C u t c h a n P u b l i s h i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1 9 7 4 , 9 7 - 1 1 3 . W e b s t e r , T . G . , H o f f m a n , M . E . , and L a m s o n , W . C ( E d s . ) C o n t i n u i n g  E d u c a t i o n : A g e n t o f C h a n g e . R o c k v i l l e : N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o f M e n t a l H e a l t h , 1 9 7 1 . W e e d , L . L . M e d i c a l R e c o r d s , M e d i c a l E d u c a t i o n , and P a t i e n t C a r e :  The P r o b l e m - o r i e n t e d R e c o r d a s a B a s i c T o o l . C l e v e l a n d : C a s e W e s t e r n R e s e r v e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 9 . W h e r r y , R . J . F a c t o r A n a l y s i s o f M o r a l e D a t a : R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y . P e r s o n n e l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 9 5 8 , 1 1 , 7 8 - 8 9 . ^ £ £ - 1 ana social P s ^ c I X ^ »UT"?o""l?- * 107 A P P E N D I C E S A P P E N D I X A . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e P a g e 108 A P P E N D I X B . Memo o f A u t h o r i z a t i o n t o C o n d u c t S t u d y P a g e 134 A P P E N D I X C . Summary T a b l e s o f S t e p w i s e R e g r e s s i o n P a g e 138 108 A P P E N D I X A Q U E S T I O N N A I R E ON L E A R N I N G NEEDS S e c t i o n P a g e P a r t I - B a c k g r o u n d I n f o r m a t i o n 109 P a r t I I - The J o b D e s c r i p t i v e I n d e x 110 P a r t I I I - The S k i l l s , K n o w l e d g e s and A t t i t u d e s I n v e n t o r y 115 - 1 - 109 QUESTIONNAIRE ON LEARNING NEEDS This ques t i onna i r e i s d i v i d e d i n t o three p a r t s . In the f i r s t p a r t we would l i k e some background in fo rma t ion about you. In the second p a r t we would l i k e to know about some facets o f job s a t i s f a c t i o n . In the t h i r d pa r t we would l i k e your o p i n i o n on c o n t i n u i n g educat ion needs. The i n f o r -mation which you supply w i l l be kept c o n f i d e n t i a l and the re fo re you are requested not to w r i t e your name on any pa r t o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . PART ONE BACKGROUND INFORMATION What i s your age? What i s your sex? What i s your m a r i t a l s t a tu s? What i s your h ighes t Educa t iona l Q u a l i f i c a t i o n ? In which p r o f e s s i o n do you h o l d a degree or diploma? How many years o f work exper ience do you have i n t h i s p ro fe s s ion? How many f u l l t ime pay ing p o s i t i o n s have you h e l d i n t h i s p ro f e s s ion? - 2 - 110 PART TWO Please t h i n k o f your present work. What i s i t l i k e most of the t ime? In the b lank bes ide each word given below, w r i t e : Y for "yes" i f i t desc r ibes your work N for "no" i f i t does NOT desc r ibe your work ? i f you cannot decide WORK ON PRESENT JOB - -f a s c i n a t i n g rou t ine s a t i s f y i n g bor ing good c r e a t i v e respec ted s t r e s s f u l p leasant use fu l t i resome h e a l t h f u l c h a l l e n g i n g on your feet f r u s t r a t i n g s imple endless gives a sense o f accomplishment - 3 - 111 Think o f the k i n d o f s u p e r v i s i o n that you get on your j ob . How w e l l does each o f the f o l l o w i n g words desc r ibe your s u p e r v i s o r ? In the b lank bes ide each word below, pu t : Y i f i t descr ibes the s u p e r v i s i o n you get on your job N i f i t does NOT desc r ibe i t ? i f you cannot decide SUPERVISION ON PRESENT JOB --asks my advice hard to p lease i m p o l i t e p r a i s e s good work t a c t f u l i n f l u e n t i a l up- to-date doesn ' t superv i se enough quick tempered t e l l s me where I s tand annoying stubborn knows job w e l l bad i n t e l l i g e n t leaves me on my own around when needed l a z y - 4 - 112 Think o f the pay you get now. How w e l l does each o f the f o l l o w i n g words de sc t i be your present pay? In the blank bes ide each word, p u t : Y i f i t desc r ibes your pay N i f i t does NOT desc r ibe your pay ? i f you cannot decide PRESENT PAY --pay adequate f o r normal expenses s a t i s f a c t o r y f r i n g e b e n e f i t s b a r e l y l i v e on pay bad pay p rov ides l u x u r i e s insecure l e s s than I deserve h i g h l y p a i d underpaid - 5 - 113 Think o f the ma jo r i t y o f your co l l eagues i n mental h e a l t h and r e l a t e d agencies w i t h whom you work. How w e l l does each o f the f o l l o w -i n g words desc r ibe these people? In the blank bes ide each word below, p u t : Y i f i t desc r ibes the people you work w i t h N i f i t does NOT desc r ibe them ? i f you cannot decide PEOPLE ON YOUR PRESENT JOB - -s t i m u l a t i n g b o r i n g s 1 ow ambi t ious s t u p i d r e s p o n s i b l e fas t i n t e l l i g e n t easy to make enemies t a l k too much smart l a z y unpleasant no p r i v a c y a c t i v e narrow i n t e r e s t s l o y a l hard to meet - 6 - 114 Think o f the o p p o r t u n i t i e s fo r promotion tha t you have now. How w e l l does each o f the f o l l o w i n g words de sc t i be these? In the b lank bes ide each word, p u t : Y i f i t desc r ibes your o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r promotion N i f i t does NOT desc r ibe them ? i f you cannot decide OPPORTUNITIES FOR PROMOTION - -good o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r promotion oppor tun i ty somewhat l i m i t e d promotion on a b i l i t y dead-end job good chance f o r promotion u n f a i r promotion p o l i c y in f requent promotions r e g u l a r promotions f a i r l y good chance fo r promotion - 7 - 115 PART THREE Th i s p o r t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s a l i s t o f s k i l l s , knowledges or a t t i t u d e s which you might need to have i n order to perform your j o b . How r e l e v a n t i s each? Do you need f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g ? Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l - ab le to you? Ind i ca t e your answers by c i r c l i n g the appropr i a t e word ( s ) . S e c t i o n I : C r i s i s I n t e r v e n t i o n . 1. Management o f your own persona l anx i e ty i n c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n , Relevance to your work: Need f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: never not at a l l not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree to some degree of ten f a i r l y much f a i r l y much always a great dea l a great deal Rapid a n a l y s i s o f c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n . Relevance to your work: Need f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you : never not at a l l not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree to some degree of ten always f a i r l y a great much dea l f a i r l y a great much dea l 3. Knowledge o f i n t e r v e n t i o n methods, a v a i l a b i l i t y o f r e sou rces , and whom and when to c o n s u l t . Relevance to never seldom occas- of ten always your work: i o n a l l y Need fu r the r not at a l l compara t ive ly to some f a i r l y a great t r a i n i n g : l i t t l e degree much deal Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e not at a l l compara t ive ly to some f a i r l y a great to you: l i t t l e degree much deal - 8 - 116 A b i l i t y to e x e r c i s e l e a d e r s h i p and a u t h o r i t y i n a c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n . Relevance t o your work: Need fu r the r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: never not at a l l not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree to some degree of ten always f a i r l y much f a i r l y much a great dea l a great dea l Knowledge o f drugs p r e s c r i p t i v e , n o n - p r e s c r i p t i v e , e f f ec t s and s i d e e f f e c t s . Relevance to your work: never seldom occas-i o n a l l y of ten always Need fu r the r net at a l l compara t ive ly to some f a i r l y a great t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: l i t t l e degree much deal net at a l l compara t ive ly to some f a i r l y a great l i t t l e degree much deal A b i l i t y to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between i n t r a p s y c h i c , medica l problems and s i t u a t i o n a l r e a c t i o n . Relevance to your work: never seldom occas-i o n a l l y of ten always Need f u r t h e r not at a l l compara t ive ly to some f a i r l y a great t r a i n i n g : l i t t l e degree much dea l Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e not at a l l compara t ive ly to some f a i r l y a great to you: l i t t l e degree much dea l L i f e - s a v i n g F i r s t A i d measures ( e . g . , S t . John ' s Ambulance or Red Cross) Relevance to your work: never seldom occas-i o n a l l y of ten always Need fu r the r not at a l l compara t ive ly to some f a i r l y a great t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: l i t t l e degree much dea l not at a l l compara t ive ly to some f a i r l y a great l i t t l e degree much dea l - 9 - 1 1 7 Section I I : Assessment 8 . Conduct a comprehensive interview of i n d i v i d u a l s that includes a h i s t o r y of previous i l l n e s s and h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , state of current and past p h y s i c a l health, agencies and or other helping people involved, current l i f e s t y l e and existence of s i g n i f i c a n t others. Relevance to your work: never seldom occas-ional ly often always Need further t r a i n i n g : not at a l l comparatively l i t t l e to some degree f a i r l y much a great deal Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: not at a l l comparatively l i t t l e to some degree f a i r l y much a great deal Conduct a family interview. Relevance to never your work: seldom occas-i o n a l l y often always Need further t r a i n i n g : not at a l l comparatively l i t t l e to some degree f a i r l y much a great deal Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: not at a l l comparatively to some f a i r l y a great l i t t l e degree much deal 10. Evaluate p o t e n t i a l danger of c l i e n t to s e l f or others. Relevance to your work: never seldom occas-i o n a l l y often always Need further t r a i n i n g : not at a l l comparatively l i t t l e to some degree f a i r l y much a great deal Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: not at a l l comparatively l i t t l e to some f a i r l y a great degree much deal 11. Make use of appropriate laboratory examinations, psychological t e s t i n g , and other consultation as indicated i n the workup of psychological, s o c i a l , or physical problems. Relevance to your work: never seldom occas-i o n a l l y often always Need futher t r a i n i n g not at a l l comparatively l i t t l e to some degree f a i r l y much a great deal Is t r a i n i n g available to you; not at a l l comparatively l i t t l e to some degree f a i r l y much a great deal - 10 - 118 12. Determine l e v e l o f f u n c t i o n i n g tha t i n c l u d e s s e l f care s k i l l s , employment, a c t i v i t i e s , a b i l i t y to cope w i t h s t r e s s , problem s o l v i n g a b i l i t i e s , budget ing and f i n a n c e s , and pa t t e rn s o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Relevance to your work: never seldom occas-i o n a l l y o f t en always Need f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g : not at a l l compara t ive ly l i t t l e to some degree f a i r l y much a great dea l Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: not at a l l compara t ive ly l i t t l e to some degree f a i r l y much a great dea l 13. Recognize drug or a l c o h o l r e l a t e d problems. Relevance to your work: Need f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g : never not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree of ten f a i r l y much always a great dea l Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: not at a l l compara t ive ly l i t t l e to some degree f a i r l y much a great dea l 14. Formulate a treatment or i n t e r v e n t i o n p l a n based on a thorough a p p r a i s a l o f c l i e n t s ' problems, s i t u a t i o n and p o s i t i v e a t t r i b u t e s . Relevance to your work: never seldom occas-i o n a l l y o f ten always Need fu r the r t r a i n i n g : not at a l l compara t ive ly l i t t l e to some degree f a i r l y much a great dea l Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you : not at a l l compara t ive ly l i t t l e to some degree f a i r l y much a great dea l - l i - n g S e c t i o n I I I ; Treatment and Community S e r v i c e s 15. Knowledge o f normal human emotional growth and development: s t r e s s p e r i o d s . ages and s tages , Relevance to your work: never seldom occas -i o n a l l y o f ten always Need f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: not at a l l not at a l l compara t ive ly l i t t l e compara t ive ly l i t t l e to some f a i r l y a great degree much dea l to some f a i r l y a great degree much deal 16. D e t a i l e d knowledge o f community; i n c l u d i n g : c u l t u r e s and s u b - c u l t u r e s ; c l a s s norms, s tandards , expec ta t ions and demographic fea tures o f p o p u l a t i o n ; o r g a n i z a t i o n s , agenc ies , and f a c i l i t i e s . Relevance to your work: never seldom occas-i o n a l l y of ten always Need f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g : not at a l l compara t ive ly l i t t l e to some degree f a i r l y much a great deal Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: not at a l l compara t ive ly l i t t l e to some degree f a i r l y much a great dea l 17. Working knowledge o f l o c a l languages o ther than E n g l i s h . Relevance to your work: Need f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g : never not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree of ten always f a i r l y much a great dea l Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: not at a l l compara t ive ly l i t t l e to some degree f a i r l y much a great deal 18. Knowledge o f l e g a l r i g h t s o f c l i e n t s and o ther b a s i c l e g a l i s s u e s . Relevance to your work: Need fu r the r t r a i n i n g : never not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree of ten always f a i r l y much a great dea l Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: not at a l l compara t ive ly l i t t l e to some degree f a i r l y much a great deal - 12 - 120 19. Knowledge o f psychopathology. never Relevance to your work: Need fu r the r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: not at a l l not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree compara t ive ly to some l i t t l e degree o f t en f a i r l y much f a i r l y much always a great dea l a great dea l 20. Knowledge o f theory and methods o f p r e v e n t i o n . Relevance to your work: Need fu r the r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: never not at a l l r o t at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree to some degree of ten always f a i r l y a great much dea l f a i r l y a great much dea l 21. Employ, as a frame o f r e f e r ence , the f o l l o w i n g treatment p e r s p e c t i v e s or p h i l o s o p h i e s : a) I n t r a p s y c h i c . Relevance to your work: never seldom occas-i o n a l l y of ten always Need f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g : not at a l l compara t ive ly l i t t l e to some degree f a i r l y much a great deal Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: not at a l l compara t ive ly l i t t l e to some degree f a i r l y much a great dea l b) B e h a v i o r a l . Relevance to your work: Need fu r the r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: never not at a l l not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree of ten f a i r l y much always a great dea l compara t ive ly to some f a i r l y a great l i t t l e degree much deal - 13 -121 21 c) B i o l o g i c a l . Relevance to your work: Need f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you : never not at a l l not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas -i o n a l l y t o some degree of ten f a i r l y much always a great dea l compara t ive ly to some f a i r l y a great l i t t l e degree much deal d) S o c i o c u l t u r a l . Relevance to your work: Need fu r the r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you : never not at a l l not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree of ten f a i r l y much always a great dea l compara t ive ly to some f a i r l y a great l i t t l e degree much deal e) E x i s t e n t i a l . Relevance to your work: Need fu r the r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e t o you: never not at a l l not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree of ten f a i r l y much always a great dea l compara t ive ly to some f a i r l y a great l i t t l e degree much dea l f) Developmental . Relevance to your work: Need fu r the r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: never not at a l l not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas -i o n a l l y to some degree of ten f a i r l y much always a great deal to some f a i r l y a great degree much dea l 14 - 122 Employ as treatment methods the f o l l o w i n g : a) Talk therapy - i n d i v i d u a l . Relevance to your work: Need fu r the r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: never not at a l l not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas -i o n a l l y to some degree to some degree of ten always f a i r l y a great much dea l f a i r l y a great much deal Talk therapy - group. Relevance to never your work: Need fu r the r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: not at a l l not at a l l Ta lk therapy - f a m i l y . never Relevance to your work: Need f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: not at a l l not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree of ten f a i r l y much occas-i o n a l l y to some degree of ten f a i r l y much always a great deal compara t ive ly to some f a i r l y a great l i t t l e degree much deal always a great deal compara t ive ly to some f a i r l y a great l i t t l e degree much dea l b) Chemotherapy Relevance to your work: Need fu r the r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: never not at a l l not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree to some degree of ten always f a i r l y a great much dea l f a i r l y a great much dea l - 15 - 123 c) B e h a v i o r a l therapy never Relevance to your work: Need f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: not at a l l not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree compara t ive ly to some l i t t l e degree of ten f a i r l y much always a great dea l f a i r l y a great much dea l d) A c t i v i t y therapy Relevance to never your work: Need fu r the r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: not at a l l not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas -i o n a l l y to some degree of ten f a i r l y much always a great dea l compara t ive ly to some f a i r l y a great l i t t l e degree much deal e) Work therapy Relevance to your work: Need fu r t he r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: never not at a l l not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree of ten f a i r l y much always a great dea l compara t ive ly to some f a i r l y a great l i t t l e degree much dea l f) P lay therapy Relevance to your work: Need fu r t he r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: never not at a l l not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree to some degree of ten f a i r l y much f a i r l y much always a great deal a great dea l - 16 - 124 22. g) S u r v i v a l and d a i l y l i v i n g s k i l l s t r a i n i n g . Relevance to your work: Need fu r the r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you : never not at a l l not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas -i o n a l l y to some degree to some degree of ten f a i r l y much f a i r l y much always a great dea l a great deal h) Educa t iona l therapy . never Relevance to your work: Need fu r the r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: not at a l l not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree of ten f a i r l y much always a great dea l compara t ive ly to some f a i r l y a great l i t t l e degree much dea l i ) N o n - t r a d i t i o n a l others (such as b i o - e n e r g e t i c s , t r anscenden ta l m e d i t a t i o n , yoga, e t c . ) . Relevance to your work: never seldom occas-i o n a l l y of ten always Need fu r the r t r a i n i n g : not at a l l compara t ive ly l i t t l e to some degree f a i r l y much a great dea l Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you : not at a l l compara t ive ly l i t t l e to some degree f a i r l y much a great deal 23. Knowledge o f c o n s u l t a t i o n procedures. Relevance to your work: Need fu r the r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e t o you: never not at a l l not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree to some degree of ten always f a i r l y a great much dea l f a i r l y a great much dea l - 17 - 125 24. A b i l i t y to de f i n e needs o f consultee and appraise appropriateness o f request. Relevance to your work: Need f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: never not at a l l not at a l l seldom comparatively l i t t l e comparatively l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree to some degree o f t e n always f a i r l y much f a i r l y much a great deal a great deal 25. A b i l i t y t o evaluate community needs. Relevance to your work: Need f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: never not at a l l not at a l l seldom comparatively l i t t l e comparatively l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree o f t e n always f a i r l y a great much deal to some f a i r l y a great degree much deal 26. W i l l i n g n e s s to act as consultant, never Relevance to your work: Need f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: not at a l l not at a l l seldom comparatively l i t t l e comparatively l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree to some degree o f t e n always f a i r l y a great much deal f a i r l y a great much deal 27. A b i l i t y to conceptualize and i n i t i a t e new programs. Relevance to your work: Need f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: never not at a l l not at a l l seldom comparatively l i t t l e comparatively l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree t o some degree oft e n always f a i r l y a great much deal f a i r l y a great much deal - 18 - 126 28. Provide consultation services to individuals or groups, Relevance to your work: Need further training Is training available to you: never not at a l l not at a l l seldom comparatively l i t t l e comparatively little occas-ionally to some degree to some degree often fairly much fairly much always a great deal a great deal Section IV: Relationships and Communication 29. Relate to and communicate effectively and democratically with clients, team members, other agencies, general public. Relevance to your work: never seldom occas-ionally often always Need further training: not at all comparatively little to some degree fairly much a great deal Is training available to you: not at all comparatively little to some degree fairly much a great deal 30. Awareness of own personal value system, culture and class biases, Relevance to your work: never seldom occas-ionally often always Need further training: not at all comparatively little to some degree fairly much a great deal Is training available to you: not at all comparatively little to some degree fairly much a great deal 31. Awareness of sex biases or difficulties in communicating across age gaps. Relevance to your work: Need further training: is training available to you: never not at a l l not at a l l seldom comparatively l i t t l e comparatively l i t t l e occas-ionally to some degree to some degree often f a i r l y much f a i r l y much always a great deal a great deal - 19 - 127 32. A b i l i t y to use e f f e c t i v e l y channels o f communication from worker to top management. Relevance t o your work: never seldom occas-i o n a l l y o f t en always Need f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g : not at a l l compara t ive ly l i t t l e t o some degree f a i r l y much a great dea l Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: not at a l l compara t ive ly l i t t l e to some degree f a i r l y much a great dea l 33. S e n s i t i v i t y to p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e s and needs o f o t h e r s . Relevance to your work: never seldom occas-i o n a l l y o f ten always Need f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g : not at a l l compara t ive ly l i t t l e to some degree f a i r l y much a great deal Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: not at a l l compara t ive ly l i t t l e to some f a i r l y a great degree much deal 34. Aware o f own defensiveness and a b i l i t y to accept c r i t i c i s m . Relevance to your work: never seldom occas-i o n a l l y o f ten always Need f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g : not at a l l compara t ive ly l i t t l e t o some degree f a i r l y much a great deal Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: not at a l l compara t ive ly l i t t l e t o some degree f a i r l y much a great deal 35. W i l l i n g n e s s to expend t ime and e f f o r t in c o r r e c t i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i n i n t e r -pe rsona l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Relevance to never seldom occas- of ten always your work i o n a l l y Need fu r the r not at a l l compara t ive ly to some f a i r l y a great t r a i n i n g : l i t t l e degree much deal Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e not at a l l compara t ive ly to some f a i r l y a great to you: l i t t l e degree much dea l - 20 -128 36. Belief in the value of your work. never Relevance to your work: Need further training: Is training available to you: not at all not at all seldom comparatively little comparatively little occas-ionally to some degree to some degree often fairly much always a great deal fairly a great much deal Section V: Administration 37. Theory of organizations and systems, Relevance to your work: Need further training: Is training available to you: never not at all not at all seldom comparatively little comparatively little occas-ionally to some degree to some degree often always fairly a great much deal fairly a great much deal 38. Health care system in British Columbia. Relevance to your work: Need further training: Is training available to you: never not at all not at all seldom comparatively little comparatively little occas-ionally to some degree to some degree often always fairly a great much deal fairly a great much deal 39. Organization of welfare systems never Relevance to your work: Need further training: Is training available to you: not at all not at all seldom comparatively little comparatively little occas-ionally to some degree to some degree often always fairly a great much deal fairly a great much deal - 21 - 129 40. Greater Vancouver Mental Health Service - knowledge of organization, organi-zational objectives, funding, priority setting procedures of management, current and future planning. Relevance to your work: never seldom occas-ionally often always Need further training: not at all comparatively little to some fairly a great degree much deal Is training available to you: not at all comparatively to some fairly a great little degree much deal 41. Personnel Policies. Relevance to your work: Need further training: Is training available to you: never not at all not at all seldom comparatively little occas-ionally to some degree often fairly much always a great deal comparatively to some fairly a great little degree much deal 42. Unions and unionization issues. Relevance to your work: Need further training: Is training available to you: never not at all not at all seldom comparatively little occas-ionally to some degree often always fairly a great much deal comparatively to some fairly a great little degree much deal Section VI: Documentation 43. Ability to record in a literate medium the evaluation, problems, treatment goals and plans, treatment as executed and consequences of treatment. Relevance to your work: never seldom occas-ionally often always Need further training: not at all comparatively little to some degree fairly much a great deal Is training available to you: not at all comparatively little to some degree fairly much a great deal - 22 - 130 44. A b i l i t y to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between r e l evan t and n o n - e s s e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n . Relevance to your work: Need f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: never not at a l l not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree to some degree o f t en always f a i r l y much f a i r l y much a great dea l a great dea l 45. Understanding o f purposes o f r e c o r d keep ing . Relevance to your work: Need fu r the r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: never not at a l l not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree to some degree of ten always f a i r l y much f a i r l y much a great dea l a great dea l 46. Knowledge o f c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y i s s u e s . Relevance to your work: Need f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: never not at a l l not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree of ten always f a i r l y a great much dea l to some f a i r l y a great degree much dea l 47. A b i l i t y to communicate i n w r i t i n g w i t h agencies or i n d i v i d u a l s . Relevance to your work: Need fu r the r t r a i n i n g : never not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree o f t en always f a i r l y much a great dea l Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: not at a l l compara t ive ly l i t t l e t o some degree f a i r l y much a great deal - 23 - 131 48. Ability to write up philosophies, concepts, proposals, programs. Relevance to your work: Need further training: Is training available to you: never not at all not at all seldom comparatively little comparatively little occas-ionally to some degree to some degree often fairly much fairly much always a great deal a great deal 49. Skill in writing scientific papers for publication. Relevance to your work: Need further training: Is training available to you: never not at all not at all seldom comparatively little comparatively little occas-ionally to some degree to some degree often always fairly a great much deal fairly a great much deal Section VII: Education 50. Knowledge of Educational Theory. never Relevance to your work: Need further training: Is training available to you: not at all not at all seldom comparatively little comparatively little occas-ionally to some degree to some degree often fairly much fairly much always a great deal a great deal 51. Provision of in-service education. never Relevance to your work: Need further training: Is training available to you: not at all not at all seldom comparatively little comparatively little occas-ionally to some degree to some degree often always fairly a great much deal fairly a great much deal - 24 - 132 52. Do you p r o v i d e u n i p r o f e s s i o n a l educat ion? Relevance to your work: Need f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: never not at a l l not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree to some degree o f t en always f a i r l y a great much dea l f a i r l y a great much dea l 53. S u p e r v i s i o n o f s tudents a f f i l i a t e d w i th your Team f o r f i e l d exper ience . Relevance to your work: Need f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: never not at a l l not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree to some degree of ten always f a i r l y much f a i r l y much a great dea l a great dea l 54. P u b l i c Educa t ion Relevance to your work: Need f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: i n d i v i d u a l s , groups, agencies . seldom never not at a l l compara t ive ly l i t t l e not at a l l compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree to some degree of ten always f a i r l y a grea t much deal f a i r l y a great much dea l 55. P u b l i c Educa t ion v i a mass media. never Relevance to your work: Need f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: not at a l l not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree to some degree of ten always f a i r l y a great much dea l f a i r l y a great much dea l - 25 - 133 56. A b i l i t y to p l a n and execute educa t iona l programs as a t he r apeu t i c t o o l , Relevance to your work: Need f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: never not at a l l not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas -i o n a l l y to some degree to some degree of ten f a i r l y much f a i r l y much always a great dea l a great dea l 57. S u p e r v i s i o n o f V . I . P . , L . I . P . , v o l u n t e e r s , o r o ther n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l workers, Relevance to your work: Need fu r the r t r a i n i n g : never not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree of ten f a i r l y much always a great deal Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you: not at a l l compara t ive ly l i t t l e to some degree f a i r l y much a great dea l 58. Do you p rov ide i n t e r p r o f e s s i o n a l educat ion? Relevance to your work: Need f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g : Is t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e to you : never not at a l l not at a l l seldom compara t ive ly l i t t l e compara t ive ly l i t t l e occas-i o n a l l y to some degree to some degree of ten always f a i r l y a great much dea l f a i r l y a great much deal 59. Comments: P lease comment on other areas o f your work i n which you f e e l you need fu r the r t r a i n i n g . LQ/hh J u l y 13, 1976 134 A P P E N D I X B Memo o f A u t h o r i z a t i o n t o C o n d u c t S t u d y . P a g e 135 A P P E N D I X C SUMMARY T A B L E S OF THE S T E P W I S E R E G R E S S I O N T a b l e 25 - F i n a l S t e p i n R e g r e s s i o n E q u a t i o n P r e d i c t i n g O v e r a l l J o b S a t i s f a c t i o n 26 - F i n a l S t e p i n R e g r e s s i o n E q u a t i o n P r e d i c t i n g S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e C o n t e n t o f t h e Work 27 - F i n a l S t e p i n R e g r e s s i o n E q u a t i o n P r e d i c t i n g S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h S u p e r v i s i o n 28 - F i n a l S t e p i n R e g r e s s i o n E q u a t i o n P r e d i c t i n g S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h P a y 29 - F i n a l S t e p i n R e g r e s s i o n E q u a t i o n P r e d i c t i n g S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h C o - w o r k e r s 30 - F i n a l S t e p i n R e g r e s s i o n E q u a t i o n P r e d i c t i n g S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h P r o m o t i o n 137 TABLE 25 FINAL STEP IN REGRESSION EQUATION PREDICTING OVERALL JOB SATISFACTION » > » > S T E P N U M B E R 21 R E G R E S S I O N E Q U A T I O N FOR JDI R-SQUARED « 0 . 2 6 6 7 7 5 2 F - P R O B A B U I T Y I E V E L • 1 . 0 0 0 0 STANDARD ERROR JDI • 7 . 3 3 6 . F - P R O B A B I L I T Y - . 1 * 1 5 5 2 0 6 V A R I A B L E A C E C O E F F I C I E N T 0 . 4 0 8 1 1 1 1 1 E - 0 1 S T O . E R R . 0 . 1 6 9 2 F - R A T I D 0 . 5 8 1 7 E - 0 1 F - P R O B 0 . 7 9 6 6 N O R M C O E F F 0 . 4 3 6 3 E - 0 1 S E X MAR EOUC - 1 . 4 * 9 5 8 * 5 - 0 . 1 0 3 1 3 1 3 5 0 . 9 9 0 3 1 5 8 5 1 . 8 9 8 0 . 8 3 2 3 0 . 7 0 1 8 0 . 5 8 3 3 0 . 1 5 3 5 E - 0 1 1 . 9 9 1 0 . 4 5 3 4 0 . 8 6 9 4 0 . 1 5 8 2 - 0 . 9 5 1 8 E - 0 1 - 0 . 1 3 3 0 E - 0 1 0 . 2 2 1 8 P R O F N O V R S N O P D S - 0 . 2 6 7 7 4 8 8 * - 0 . 2 * 1 4 2 5 1 1 1 . 1 0 8 1 1 4 * 0 . 5 2 9 5 0 . 2 * 6 9 0 . 4 6 8 9 0 . 2 5 5 7 0 . 9 5 6 3 5 . 5 8 4 0 . 6 2 0 4 0 . 3 3 3 0 0 . 0 1 9 5 - 0 . 7 2 8 6 E - 0 1 • 0 . 2 0 2 1 0 . 3 2 3 0 C R I R E L C R I O I S A S S R E L - 0 . 5 1 3 1 2 9 8 1 - 0 . 1 7 9 6 8 8 6 3 - 0 . 2 * 7 4 5 4 * 0 0 . 3 1 6 2 0 . 1 9 S 9 0 . 2 8 2 4 2 . 6 0 1 0 . 6 4 1 6 0 . 7 6 7 7 0 . 1 0 6 6 0 . 3 6 4 9 0 . 3 8 7 6 • 0 . 2 6 9 5 • 0 . 1 5 0 2 -0 . 1 4 4 6 A S S D I S R X R E L R X O I S - O . 7 5 7 0 7 6 8 * E - 0 1 0 . 5 1 9 7 5 4 2 5 E - 0 1 - 0 . 3 3 5 3 9 7 0 9 E - 0 1 0 . 2 2 2 6 0 . 1 0 0 4 0. 7 6 2 2 E - 0 1 0 . 1 1 5 5 0 . 2 6 7 9 0 . 1 9 3 6 0 . 7 3 2 0 0 . 6 1 2 4 0 . 6 6 4 7 - 0 . 7 2 4 1 E - 0 1 0 . 8 7 9 2 E - 0 1 - 0 . 1 1 2 3 R E L R E L R E L O I S A O H R E L 0 . 1 6 8 6 8 2 4 0 0 . 2 3 1 6 7 7 3 9 E - 0 1 0 . 4 3 8 0 5 0 7 0 0 . 2 6 5 6 0 . 2 1 6 8 0 . 2 6 4 8 0 . 4 0 2 6 0 . U 4 2 E - 0 1 2 . 7 3 6 0 . 5 3 4 9 0 . 8 7 9 6 0 . 0 9 7 9 0 . 1 0 1 0 0 . 2 1 2 5 E - 0 1 0 . 2 1 1 7 A O M D I S D O C R E L D O C D I S - 0 . 1 9 0 7 4 6 6 8 0 . 3 1 0 2 1 3 4 9 0 . 4 3 1 8 5 1 2 * 0 . 2 0 9 6 0 . 3 2 8 8 0 . 2 4 8 8 0 . 6 2 6 2 0 . 8 9 0 2 1 . 0 1 3 0 . 3 6 8 8 0 . 3 5 0 9 0 . 0 8 2 6 • 0 . 1 4 2 2 0 . 1 4 7 8 0 . 3 5 6 2 E O R E L E O O I S C P r l S T A N T - 0 . 1 8 9 0 0 8 5 8 - 0 . 1 8 2 6 1 3 1 0 4 1 . 0 9 1 * 1 9 0 . 2 6 6 9 0 . 1 7 8 0 0 . 5 0 1 6 1 . 0 5 3 2 1 . 6 6 0 . 4 8 7 7 0 . 9 0 8 9 0 . 0 0 0 0 - 0 . 1 1 0 3 • 0 . 2 0 1 9 5 . 3 8 2 138 TABLE 26 FINAL STEP IN REGRESSION EQUATION PREDICTING SATISFACTION WITH THE CONTENT OF THE WORK >>>>>>STEP NUMBER " 21 * REGRESSION EQUATION FOR WORK R-SQUARED « 0.2*58618 F-PROBABILITY LEVEL - 1.0000 STANDARD ERROR WOftK « 7.260 F-PRDBABILITY - .22932773 VARIABLE COEFFICIENT AGE -0. 136*2*69 SIO. ERR. 0.167* F-RATIO 0.6638 F-PROB 0.4229 NORM COcFF -0.1495 SEX MAR EDUC 1. OA 7* 08*. -0.63738163 0.9341*706 1.878 0.8237 0.69*5 0.3109 0.5988 1.809 0.5856 0.4472 0.1789 0.7048E-01 -0.8422E-01 0.2144 PROF NOYRS NOPOS -0.53579ul3 0.5*9*17** -0.71216308 0.52*0 0.2**3 0.*6*1 1.0*5 $.057 2.355 0.3106 0.0258 0.1246 -0.1494 0.4714 -0.2127 CRIREL CRI01S ASSREL -0.8l821u72E-01 -0. 19969366 -0.19359098 0.31*9 0.1938 0.2795 0.6752E-01 1.061 0.*798 0.78*6 0.3069 0.4975 -0.4730E-01 -0.1710 -0.1160 ASSOIS RXREL RXOIS -0.303 29*62 0.1*287106 0.21000*88 0.2205 0.993BE-01 0.T543E-01 1.892 2.067 1.751 0.1691 0.1505 0.0066 -0.2973 0.2477 0.7209 RELREl RELDIS AO«REL -0. 19*50262 -0.18113193 -0.1*6*5118 0.2631 0.21*5 0.2621 0.5*66 0.7129 0.3123 0.46B3 0.4057 0.58*7 -0.1194 -0.1T03 -O.T252E-01 ADM01S 0OCR EL OOCOIS 0.27*0**07E-01 0.1901209* O.B8607B32E-01 0.207* 0.32 5* 0.2*62 0.1746E-01 0.3*1* 0.1295 0.86*5 0.5678 0.T186 0.2094E-01 0.9282E-01 . . Q.T490E-01 EOREL fODIS CONSTANT -0.53570333 -0.31179138 •8.59*223 0.26*1 0.1761 8.697 4.11* 3.13* 11.22 0.0*3* 0.0768 0.0000 -0.3203 -0.3533 4.523 139 TABLE 27 FINAL STEP IN REGRESSION EQUATION PREDICTING SATISFACTION WITH SUPERVISION >>>>>>STEP NUMBER 21 REGRESSION EQUATION FO% SUP R-SQUARED « 0.1594881 F-PROBAB1LI TV LEVEL » 1.0000 STANDARQ ERROR SUP - 10.06  F-PROBABILlTY - .78853928 VARIABLE COEFFICIENT STD. ERR. F-RATIO F-PROB NORM COEFF AGE -0.23319436 0.2321 I.010 0.3194 -0.1946 SEX -1.7914081 2.604 0.4734 0.5004 -0.9161E-01 MAR -1.3295030 1.142 1.356 0.2462 -0.1338 EDUC 0.31308966 0.96 26 0.1058 0.7417 0.5474E-01 PROF -0. 20115223 0.7263 0.7670E-01 0.7734 -0.4273E-01 NOYRS 0.14383024 0.3386 0.1804 0.6750 0.9400E-D1 NOPOS 0.75467135 0.6432 1.377 0.2426 0.1717 CRIREL -0.19708722 0.4365 0.2039 0.6569 -0.8676E-01 CRIDIS -0.29686801 0.26 87 1.221 0.2720 -0.1936 ASSREL -0.25388483 0.3874 0.4295 0.5214 -0.1158 ASSDIS -0.764 0036 3E-01 0.3056 0.6251E-01 0.7909 -0.5704E-01 RXREL -0.24801627E-01 0.1377 0.3242E-01 0.8352 -0.3275E-0I RXDI S -0.31045919E-01 0.1046 0.6817E-01 0.7604 -Q.6U7E-Q1 RELREL 0.13693683 0.3646 0.1410 0.7081 0.6401E-01 RELDIS 0.32299085 0.2974 1.160 0.2805 0.2312 AOMR EL -0.13575527 0.3632 0.1397 0.7093 -0.5120E-01 AOMDIS -0.62200954E-01 0.2675 0.4681E-01 0.6124 -0.3620E-01 OOCREL 0.18322682 0.4510 0.1651 0.6874 0.6813E-01 DOC01S 0.28707332 0.3412 0.T077 0.4074 0.1648 EOREL -0.79968072E-01 0.3661 0.4772E-01 0.8111 -0.3642E-01 EDOI S -0.21930766 0.2441 0.8071 0.3752 -0.1893 CONSTANT 67.136300 12.05 31.02 0.0000 6.864 140 TABLE 28 FINAL STEP IN REGRESSION EQUATION PREDICTING SATISFACTION WITH PAY »»»STEP NUMBER 21 REGRESSION EQUATION FOR PAY R-SQUARED - 0.275302* F-PR0BAB1LI TV LEVEL • 1.0000 STANDARD ERRHK PAY • 11.20  F-PROBABlLlTY » .11396572 V ARI ABLE COEFFICIENT STO. ERR. F-RATIO F-PROB NORM COEFF AGE -0.6*5506*3E-01 0.258* 0.6239E-01 0.7911 -0.4492E-01 SEX 3.28906*3 2.899 1.287 0.2589 0.1406 MAR 1.50*5828 1.271 1.401 0.2383 0.1263 EDUC -0.1930933* 1.072 0.3246E-01 0.8351 -0.2815E-01 PROF 0.918061*8 0.8087 1 .289 0.2586 0.1626 NOYRS 0.1881*769 0.3770 0.2490 0.6248 0.1025 NOPOS -O.B609*912E-01 0.7162 0.1445E-01 0.8716 -0.1633E-01 CRIREL 0.41335380E-01 0. *860 0. 7235E-02 6.8926 0.1518E-01 CRIDIS -0.13711782 0.2992 0.2101 0.6523 -0.7459E-01 ASSREL -0.77885586 0.*313 3.260 0.0712 -0.2963 ASSDIS 0.5*8691*3 0.3*03 2.600 0.1066 0.3416 RXRE L -0.15600125 0.153* 1.035 0.3133 -0.1718 RXDI S -0. 2768*908 0.116* 5.655 0.0188 -0.6037 RELREL 0.1 1016509 0.4060 0.7362E-01 0.7771 0.4295E-01 RELDIS -0.161213*6 0.3311 0.2371 0.6330 -0.9625E-01 ADMREL -0.*3362901 0.*0*5 1.149 0.2869 -0.1364 AOMDIS -0.9*096668E-01 0.3201 0.8640E-01 0.7623 -0.4566E-01 DOCREL 1.05 27679 0.5021 4.396 0.0370 0.3265 OOCDIS 1.02 50676 0.3799 7.279 0.0083 0.5504 EOREL 0.1*182817 0.*0 76 0.1211 0.7266 0.5387E-01 EDOI S -0. 135 77600 0.2718 0.2495 0.6245 -0.9773E-01 CONSTANT •1.5156*2 13. *2 9.568 0.0028 3.540 141 TABLE 29 FINAL STEP IN REGRESSION EQUATION PREDICTING SATISFACTION WITH CO-WORKERS »>»>STEP NUMPE B 21 REGRESSION EQUATION FDR PPLE R-SOUARED « 0.2764252 F-PROBABI LI TV LEVEL « 1.0000 STANDARD F RRDH F PL E » 6.866  F-PPOBA RILI TV « .11066410 VAR!ABLE COEFFICI ENT SID. ERR. F-RAT10 F-PROB NORM COEFF ACE -0.19592994 0.1584 1.531 0.2172 -0.2223 SEX 5.5431628 1.777 9.736 0.0026 0.3863 MAR -0.23481625 0.7790 0.9087E-01 0.7574 -0.3213E-01 EDur. 0.5033130" 0.656B 0.5872 0.4518 0.1196 PKOF 1.043B278 0.4956 4.436 0.0362 0.3015 NOVRS 0.89323300E-01 0.2311 0.1494 0.7007 0 . 7 9 38E-31 NOPOS 0.18874049 0.4389 0.1849 0.6714 0.5838E-01 CR IREL -0.17915999 0.2978 0.3619 0.5564 -0.1073 CRIDIS -0.91729417E-01 0.1833 0.2504 0.6239 -0.8136E-01 ASSREL 0.10350335 0.2643 0. 1533 0.6973 0.64216-01 ASSDIS 0.32B53024E-01 0.2085 0.2482E-01 0.8490 U.3335E-31 RXRE L -O.49362619E-02 0.9399E-01 0.2758E-02 0.9120 -0.8863E-02 RXDI S 0.4635352BE-01 0.7134E-01 0.4222 0.5250 0.1648 RELREL -0.18543850 0.248R 0.5555 0.4647 -0.1179 RELDIS -0.40254007 0.20 29 3.936 0.0480 -0.3919 AOMR EL -0.30319173E-01 0.2*79 0.1496E-01 0.8704 -0.1555E-01 ADMDI S -0.18944353 0. 1962 0.9326 0.3393 -0.1499 DOCBEL 0.50307964 0.3077 2.673 0.1019 0.2 544 DOCDIS 0.34650638 0.2328 2.215 0.1365 0.3034 EOREL -0.54611316E-01 0.2498 U.4780E-01 0.8110 -0.3382E-01 EODIS -0.551 86 020E-U1 0.1666 0.1098 0.7376 -0.6477E-01 CCNSTANT 42.728345 8.225 26.99 0.0000 5.940 142 TABLE 30 FINAL STEP IN REGRESSION EQUATION PREDICTING SATISFACTION WITH PROMOTION >>>>>>STEP NUMBER 21 REGRESSION EQUATION FOR PROM R-SQUARED - 0.3355764 F-PROBABU 1 TV LEVEL • 1.0000 STANDARD ERROR PROM • 12.11 F-PR0BAB1LI TV - .01783617 VARIABLE COEFFICIENT STD. ERR. F-RATIO F-PR08 NORM COEFF AGE 0. 13153258 0.2794 0.2217 0.6438 0.B107E-O1 SEX -0.26073387 3.134 0.6923E-02 0.8937 -0.9871E-02 MAR -0.23573175 1.374 0.2943E-01 0.8404 -0.1753E-01 EOUC 3.0909286 1.159 7.117 0.0090 0.3992. PROF -0.56965618 0.8742 0.4246 0.5238 -0.893BE-01 NOYRS -0. B8464895E-01 0.4076 0.4711E-01 0.8120 -0.4271E-01 NOPOS -0.67162668 0.7742 0.7526 0.3924 -0.1129 CRIREL -0.403B5050E-01 0.5253 0.5910E-02 0.8975 -0.13146-01 CRIDIS -0.178573B2 0.32 34 0.3049 0.5892 -0.8604E-01 ASSREL -0.25648099 0.4663 0.3026 0.5906 -0.8643E-01 ASSOIS -0.19304249 0.36 78 0.2755 0.6075 -0.1065 RXREL 0. 22108293 0. 1658 1.778 0.1828 0.2156 RXOI S -0.97243679E-01 0.1258 0.5971 0.4479 -0.1878 RELREL -0.284245 76 0.4389 0.4195 0.5264 -0.9815E-01 RELOIS 0.44613692 0.3579 1.554 0.2136 0.2359 ADMREL 0.22193056 0.4372 0.2577 0.6190 0.6183F-01 ADHD 1 S 0.37166333 0.3460 1.154 0.2860 0.1598 OOCREL 0.13625655 0.54 2 8 0.6301E-01 0.7903 0.3743E-01 * OOCDIS -0.36321182 0.4107 0.7821 0.3830 -0.1728 EOREL -0.22622608 0.44 06 0.2636 0.6151 -0.76UE-01 EDDtS -0.13502218 0.2938 0.2112 0.6515 -0.B609E-3 1 CONSTANT 13.14876* 14.51 0.8213 0.3709 Pt*931 

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