UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A study of the reasons women give for participation in adult career education courses and comparative… Michaels, J. Dale 1979

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A STUDY OF THE REASONS WOMEN GIVE FOR P A R T I C I P A T I O N IN ADULT CAREER EDUCATION COURSES a n d A COMPARATIVE A N A L Y S I S OF SOME DEMOGRAPHIC C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S b y J . DALE MICHAELS A T H E S I S SUBMITTED IN P A R T I A L FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (ADULT EDUCATION DEPARTMENT) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA S E P T E M B E R , 1979 © J a y n e D a l e M i c h a e l s , 1979 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5 D a t e S e p t e m b e r 2 5 , 1979 i i ABSTRACT In S e p t e m b e r o f 1 9 7 4 , 1090 women w e r e s u r v e y e d a b o u t t h e i r r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e C a r e e r Programmes D i v i s i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y . In a d d i t i o n , t h e y w e r e a s k e d t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e i r m a r i t a l s t a t u s , a g e , t o t a l f a m i l y u n i t i n c o m e , and e n r o l l m e n t i n c e r t i f i c a t e p r o g r a m m e s . The E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e was s e l e c t e d a s a s u i t a b l e i n s t r u m e n t f o r t h e m e a s u r e m e n t o f r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c a r e e r p r o g r a m m e s . P r o f e s s i o n a l A d v a n c e m e n t , C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t , S e o c i a l W e l f a r e , S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s , E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s a n d E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n w e r e t h e s i x r e a s o n s w h i c h e m e r g e d i n o r d e r o f i n f l u e n c e by t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . M a r i t a l S t a t u s , Age and P r e s e n t O c c u p a t i o n w e r e f o u n d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o some o f t h e s i x r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g w h e r e a s T o t a l Income o f t h e F a m i l y U n i t and E n r o l l m e n t C e r t i f i c a t e Programmes w e r e n o t . M a r r i e d and " o t h e r " women as w e l l as women o v e r 30 y e a r s o f age had s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g t h a n s i n g l e o r y o u n g e r women. C a r e e r m o b i l i t y was f o u n d t o r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o age b u t n o t t o t h e o t h e r d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The f i n d i n g may f u r n i s h u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n c o l l e g e s , u n i v e r s i t i e s and i n s t i t u t e s i n s h a p i n g e d u c a t i o n a l and c o u n s e l l i n g p o l i c i e s . i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i i i L I S T OF TABLES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i PREFACE v i i i CHAPTER I . STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITION OF TERMS 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 S t a t e m e n t o f P r o b l e m 2 H y p o t h e s e s 3 A s s u m p t i o n s 4 S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e S t u d y 5 L i m i t a t i o n s 6 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 6 O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e T h e s i s . 9 I I . REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 10 C a r e e r Commitment 10 C a r e e r D e v e l o p m e n t 15 M o t i v a t i o n t o L e a r n 22 O b s t a c l e s t o Women's P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n P o s t S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n Programmes 26 Summary , 32 I I I . INSTRUMENTATION, METHODOLOGY, SAMPLE ANALYSIS OF THE DATA 34 PAGE I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n 34 E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e 34 S o c i o - E c o n o m i c I n d e x o f O c c u a p a t i o n s i n Canada 35 R e l i a b i l i t y 36 M e t h o d . 37 T r e a t m e n t o f t h e D a t a 38 S c o r i n g . . . . . 38 S t a t i s t i c a l T r e a t m e n t 39 The S a m p l e 40 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e S a m p l e 40 S o c i o - E c o n o m i c I n d e x o f P r e s e n t O c c u p a t i o n . 42 S o c i o - E c o n o m i c I n d e x o f O c c u p a t i o n a l G o a l . 4 3 Income o f t h e F a m i l y U n i t 43 E n r o l l m e n t i n a B . C . I . T . C e r t i f i c a t e Programme 44 A n a l y s i s o f t h e D a t a 46 E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e D a t a A n a l y s i s 46 P a r t i c i p a t i o n R e a s o n s 48 H y p o t h e s i s 1 . . 4 8 H y p o t h e s i s 2 48 H y p o t h e s i s 3 52 H y p o t h e s i s 4 52 H y p o t h e s i s 5 52 H y p o t h e s i s 6 55 H y p o t h e s i s 7 58 • H y p o t h e s i s 8 . 60 H y p o t h e s i s 9 . . 60 H y p o t h e s i s 10 . . . . " 63 I V . SUMMARY, DISCUSSION OF F I N D I N G S , CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS 65 PAGE Summary 65 The S a m p l e 65 I n s t r u m e n t s 65 D a t a C o l l e c t i o n . 66 A n a l y s i s 66 R e s u l t s 67 D i s c u s s i o n o f F i n d i n g s 71 E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e 71 P a r t i c i p a t i o n R e a s o n s a n d D e m o g r a p h i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 71 M a r i t a l S t a t u s 71 Age 72 T o t a l F a m i l y U n i t Income 72 E n r o l l m e n t i n a B . C . I . T . C e r t i f i c a t e Programme 73 S o c i o - E c o n o m i c D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e S a m p l e 73 C o n c l u s i o n s 74 I m p l i c a t i o n s 80 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r B . C . I . T . C a r e e r Programme D i v i s i o n 80 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r S t u d y 80 E p i l o g u e 82 BIBLIOGRAPHY 84 APPENDIX A EDUCATION PARTICIPATION SCALE ( E P S ) 89 APPENDIX B EDUCATION PARTICIPATION SCALE ( E P S ) 91 APPENDIX C SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDEX FOR 320 OCCUPATIONS IN 1961 CENSUS OF CANADA 93 APPENDIX D B . C . I . T . CERTIFICATE PROGRAMMES. . 103 APPENDIX E S I X FACTORS IN ORDER OF VARIANCE ACCOUNTED FOR 105 APPENDIX F CONTINUING EDUCATION QUESTIONNAIRE FOR WOMEN 109 v i L I S T OF T A B L E S TABLE PAGE 1 B l i s h e n S o c i o - E c o n o m i c I n d e x C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . . . . 36 2 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s D i s t r i b u t e d a n d R e t u r n e d 38 3 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Women by M a r i t a l S t a t u s 41 4 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Women b y Age 41 5 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Women b y B l i s h e n Index, o f P r e s e n t O c c u p a t i o n . 42 6 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Women by U n i t s o f U p w a r d C a r e e r M o b i l i t y 4 3 7 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Women by T o t a l Income o f t h e F a m i l y U n i t 44 8 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Women by E n r o l l m e n t i n a B . C . I . T . Programme 45 9 V a r i a n c e a n d R e a l t i v i t i e s f o r S i x E . P . S . F a c t o r s . . 46 10 E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e : S e c o n d - O r d e r F a c t o r L o a d i n g 47 11 M a r i t a l S t a t u s a n d R e a s o n s f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n B . C . I . T . C a r e e r P r o g r a m m e s . . 5 0 12 Age G r o u p A v e r a g e s a n d R e a s o n s f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n B . C . I . T . C a r e e r P r o g r a m m e s 51 13 Income G r o u p s a n d R e a s o n s f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n B . C . I . T . C a r e e r P r o g r a m m e s 5 3 14 C e r t i f i c a t e E n r o l l m e n t a n d R e a s o n s f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n B . C . I . T . C a r e e r P r o g r a m e s . . . . 54 15 O c c u p a t i o n a l S t a t u s a n d R e a s o n s f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n B . C . I . T . C a r e e r P r o g r a m m e s 56 16 O c c u p a t i o n a l M o b i l i t y a n d R e a s o n s f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n B . C . I . T . C a r e e r P r o g r a m m e s 57 17 C a r e e r M o b i l i t y a n d M a r i t a l S t a t u s 5 9 18 C a r e e r M o b i l i t y a n d Age 61 19 C a r e e r M o b i l i t y a n d F a m i l y U n i t Income 62 20 B . C . I . T . C e r t i f i c a t e P r o g r a m m e E n r o l l m e n t 64 21 Summary o f S i g n i f i c a n t R e l a t i o n s a n d D e m o g r a p h i c D a t a 70 22 E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e : S e c o n d - O r d e r F a c t o r L o a d i n g 76 2 3 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S t u d e n t P o p u l a t i o n by G e n d e r . . . . 82 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The i n v e s t i g a t o r w i s h e s t o t h a n k D r . J . E. T h o r n t o n , s u p e r v i s o r o f t h e t h e s i s , f o r h i s e n c o u r a g e m e n t , p a t i e n c e , s u p p o r t a n d t h o r o u g h a t t e n t i o n t o a l l m a t t e r s d u r i n g t h e l e n g t h y p l a n n i n g , d e v e l o p m e n t a n d c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y . S i m i l a r i l y , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r a c k n o w l e d g e s i n d e b t e d n e s s t o D r . M. B . N e v i s o n a n d D r . J . B . C o l l i n s f o r c o n s e n t i n g t o a c t on t h e t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e s and f o r t h e i r p e r t i n e n t , c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s . v i i i PREFACE In t h e f a l l o f 1969 I j o i n e d t h e f a c u l t y o f t h e B u s i n e s s D i v i s i o n a t t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y ( B . C . I . T . ) . A t t h a t t i m e t h e C a r e e r Programmes ( c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n ) o p e r a t i o n was j u s t b e g i n n i n g t o d e v e l o p . From 1969 t o 1974 I t a u g h t i n t h e C a r e e r Programmes a r e a as w e l l as t h e r e g u l a r " d a y s c h o o l " . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d I n o t i c e d t h e e m e r g e n c e o f an i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o g r a m m i n g p h i l o s o p h y w h i c h I b e l i e v e d t o be i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h my e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e C a r e e r Programmes c l a s s r o o m . C o u r s e s , programmes and c u r r i c u l u m w e r e d e v e l o p e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o f a c i l i t a t e c a r e e r g r o w t h and u p w a r d o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y w i t h i n o c c u p a t i o n s d o m i n a t e d by men. I t i s my b e l i e f t h a t C a r e e r Programmes a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a t B . C . I . T . have n o t y e t a c c e p t e d t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e s e r i o u s c a r e e r p l a n s o f women and h a v e been s l o w t o d e v e l o p a p p r o p r i a t e p r o g r a m m e s , a d m i s s i o n s c r i t e r i a , c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g , c o u r s e s c h e d u l i n g , f i n a n c i a l and o t h e r a i d s u c h as day c a r e f a c i l i t i e s . Two a s s u m p t i o n s a p p e a r t o have b e e n made by t h e s e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a b o u t t h e r e a s o n s f o r women p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n C a r e e r Programmes a t B . C . I . T . F i r s t , t h a t women w a n t e d t o e s c a p e t h e d u l l r e p e t i t i v e r o u t i n e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r r o l e as h o u s e w i f e a n d / o r l o w e r o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l w o r k e r s . S e c o n d , t h a t women w a n t e d t o meet " e l i g i b l e " men. T h e s e r e a s o n s w e r e n o t , i n my e x p e r i e n c e , t h e m a j o r o n e s on t h e b a s i s o f w h i c h women made d e c i s i o n s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n C a r e e r P r o g r a m m e s . I f o u n d t h e women I had as s t u d e n t s t o be g e n u i n e l y d e d i c a t e d t o e i t h e r i x c a r e e r e n r i c h m e n t o r t o an u p w a r d o c c u p a t i o n a l c a r e e r c h a n g e . I t i s f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t I h a v e u n d e r t a k e n t o e x a m i n e r e a s o n s women g i v e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n C a r e e r Programmes a t B . C . I . T . i n h o p e s o f c r e a t i n g an a w a r e n e s s o f t h e n e e d s o f women who s e e k c a r e e r m o b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n v o l v e m e n t i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n a t B . C . I . T . CHAPTER I STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM AND DEFINITION OF TERMS I n t r o d u c t i o n M o s t p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g an i n c r e a s e i n e n r o l l m e n t i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n i n g e n e r a l and i n p a r t i c u l a r i n t h e e n r o l l m e n t o f women. V a r i o u s a u t h o r s and c o m m i s s i o n s have r e f e r e n c e d t h e d i l e m m a s o f women. R e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e s e o p i n i o n s a r e K o m a r o v s k y ( 5 3 ) and t h e R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on t h e S t a t u s o f Women i n C a n a d a ( 7 0 ) . B o t h a g r e e t h a t a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a n d c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r women a r e e s s e n t i a l means o f r e d u c i n g p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t and a r e c a t a l y s t s i n l e a r n i n g t o d e a l w i t h t h e f r i c t i o n s o f a c h a n g i n g s o c i e t y . A c c o r d i n g t o A R e p o r t o f t h e P r e s i d e n t s ' C o m m i s s i o n on H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n , as q u o t e d by S t e i n ( 6 4 ) , t h e p r o c e s s o f e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be a l i b e r a l i z i n g p r o c e s s w h i c h a i m s t o : f i t men and women t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e b r o a d c u l t u r a l f o u n d a t i o n s , t h e s i g n i f i c a n t a c c o m p l i s h m e n t , and t h e u n f i n i s h e d b u s i n e s s o f t h i s s o c i e t y ; t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t e l l i g e n t l y i n c o m m u n i t y l i f e a n d p u b l i c a f f a i r s ; t o b u i l d a s e t o f v a l u e s t h a t w i l l c o n -s t i t u t e a d e s i g n f o r l i v i n g ; and t o t a k e a s o c i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e and p r o d u c t i v e p a r t i n t h e w o r l d o f w o r k . F r i e d a n ( 6 3 ) d r a w s a t t e n t i o n t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n as a means t o s e l f f u l f i l l m e n t . H e r t h i n k i n g i s r e i n f o r c e d by London ( 6 6 ) who e l a b o r a t e s on t h e e d u c a t i o n o f women and s t a t e s t h a t : A p a r t f r o m e m p l o y m e n t , e d u c a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t 1 2 r e s o u r c e s f o r t h e g r e a t e r r e a l i z a t i o n and f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e human b e i n g i n t h e t o t a l l i f e s t y l e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d women m u s t i n c r e a s i n g l y a v a i l t h e m s e l v e s o f t h i s r e s o u r c e . T h e s e v i e w s a r e v e r i f i e d by t h e many new programmes d e s i g n e d t o e n c o u r a g e p u r s u i t o f women's e d u c a t i o n . T i n k e r ( 6 5 ) and L o r i n g ( 6 9 ) a l s o r e f e r e n c e d e d u c a t i o n . L o r i n g ( 6 9 ) s t a t e d t h a t : Women a p p e a r t o be s e e k i n g c o n t i n u e d g r o w t h . W h i l e n o t e f o r e -g o i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s o f women, t h e y a r e d e t e r m i n e d t o c o n t i n u e t o become more s k i l l f u l a t a d d i t i o n a l t a s k s a t work and i n t h e c o m m u n i t y ; more a w a r e o f t h e m s e l v e s i n t h e c o n t e s t o f t h e i r a c t i o n s , a r t s , and s c o p e o f man. In s h o r t , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s s e e n as a p r i m a r y r e s o u r c e o f women i n a c h i e v i n g t h e i r g o a l s . In s p i t e o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and i n c r e a s e d e n r o l l m e n t o f women i n numerous programmes b e i n g t a i l o r e d f o r t h e m , t h e r e s t i l l i s l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e r e a s o n s women g i v e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c a r e e r c o u r s e s . A b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r women p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c a r e e r c o u r s e s w o u l d be e s s e n t i a l i n e d u c a t i o n a l programme p l a n n i n g , c o u n s e l l i n g and f o r t h e s t u d e n t s t h e m s e l v e s . S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m S i n c e B . C . I . T . had a s s u m e d t h a t women e n r o l l i n g i n C a r e e r Programmes f o r t h e m o s t . p a r t a r e n o t s e r i o u s l y c o n c e r n e d a b o u t a l i f e l o n g , r e w a r d i n g c a r e e r , t h e c e n t r a l p r o b l e m o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r e a s o n s women g i v e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e s e r e a s o n s t o s e l e c t e d d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , d e s i r e f o r upward c a r e e r m o b i l i t y and e n r o l l m e n t i n a B . C . I . T . c e r t i f i c a t e p r o g r a m m e . 3 More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e c e n t r a l p r o b l e m was b r o k e n down i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h a b l e s u b - p r o b l e m s : w h a t a r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e r e a s o n s women g i v e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g ( a s s e s s e d by means o f t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e ) and t h e i r m a r i t a l s t a t u s , a g e , p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n , d e s i r e f o r upward c a r e e r m o b i l i t y , t o t a l f a m i l y u n i t i n c o m e , and e n r o l l m e n t i n a B . C . I . T . c e r t i f i c a t e p r o g r a m m e : and w h a t a r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e i r d e s i r e f o r u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y and t h e i r m a r i t a l s t a t u s , a g e , t o t a l f a m i l y u n i t i n c o m e , e n r o l l m e n t i n a B . C . I . T . c e r t i f i c a t e programme? H y p o t h e s i s 1 R e a s o n s g i v e n by women f o r e n r o l l m e n t i n C a r e e r Programmes as m e a s u r e d by f a c t o r s c o r e s on t h e s i x E . P . S . s c a l e s do n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i -c a n t l y f o r women i n v a r i o u s m a r i t a l s t a t u s c a t e g o r i e s . H y p o t h e s i s 2 R e a s o n s g i v e n by women f o r e n r o l l m e n t i n C a r e e r Programmes as m e a s u r e d by f a c t o r s c o r e s on t h e s i x E . P . S . s c a l e s do n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i -c a n t l y f o r women i n v a r i o u s age c a t e g o r i e s . H y p o t h e s i s 3 R e a s o n s g i v e n by women f o r e n r o l l m e n t i n C a r e e r Programmes a s m e a s u r e d by f a c t o r s c o r e s on t h e s i x E . P . S . s c a l e s do n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i -c a n t l y f o r women i n v a r i o u s t o t a l f a m i l y u n i t i n c o m e c a t e g o r i e s . H y p o t h e s i s 4 R e a s o n s g i v e n by women f o r e n r o l l m e n t i n C a r e e r Programmes as m e a s u r e d by f a c t o r s c o r e s on t h e s i x E . P . S . s c a l e s do n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i -c a n t l y f o r women i n v a r i o u s e n r o l l m e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f B . C . I . T . 4 H y p o t h e s i s 5 T h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s o f women's p r e s e n t e m p l o y m e n t p o s i t i o n s a n d t h e r e a s o n s women g i v e f o r e n r o l l m e n t i n C a r e e r Programmes as m e a s u r e d by f a c t o r s c o r e s on t h e s i x E . P . S . s c a l e s . H y p o t h e s i s 6 T h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e s t a t u s o f w o m e n ' s o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l ( f i v e y e a r s i n t h e f u t u r e ) a n d t h e r e a s o n s women g i v e f o r e n r o l l m e n t i n C a r e e r Programmes as m e a s u r e d by f a c t o r s c o r e s on t h e s i x E . P . S . s c a l e s . H y p o t h e s i s 7 T h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e d e s i r e s f o r u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y and t h e m a r i t a l s t a t u s o f t h e women. H y p o t h e s i s 8 T h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e d e s i r e s f o r u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y a n d t h e age o f t h e women. H y p o t h e s i s 9 T h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e d e s i r e s f o r u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y and t h e t o t a l i n c o m e o f t h e f a m i l y u n i t . H y p o t h e s i s 10 T h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e d e s i r e s f o r u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y and e n r o l l m e n t i n a B . C . I . T . c e r t i f i c a t e p r o g r a m m e . A s s u m p t i o n s 1 . I t was a s s u m e d t h a t t h e E d u c a t i o n a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e ( B o s h i e r , 71) w o u l d be a v a l i d i n d i c a t o r o f r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n 5 c a r e e r c o u r s e s . 2 . I t was a s s u m e d t h a t t h e S o c i o - E c o n o m i c i n d e x f o r O c c u p a t i o n s i n C a n a d a ( B l i s h e n , 67) w o u l d be a v a l i d i n d i c a t o r o f u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y . 3 . The f i n a l a s s u m p t i o n was t h a t women's anonymous r e s p o n s e s w o u l d be r e l i a b l e as t o t h e i r r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g and t h e d e s i r e f o r upward c a r e e r m o b i l i t y . S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e S t u d y E n r o l l m e n t r e p o r t s i n d i c a t e t h e r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n numbers o f women i n t h e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e s . D o ! a n ( 6 3 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t : A m e r i c a n women a r e g o i n g t o c o l l e g e i n e v e r i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r s . I n t h e p a s t f i v e y e a r s ( 1 9 5 8 - 6 3 ) t h e e n r o l l m e n t o f women i n c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s h a s i n c r e a s e d by a b o u t f i f t y - o n e p e r c e n t . The i n c r e a s e has shown i t s e l f n o t o n l y among y o u n g women e n t e r i n g c o l l e g e f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e b u t among women who have r e t u r n e d t o c o l l e g e a f t e r b e i n g o u t f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . A c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e p o r t by t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on t h e S t a t u s o f Women i n Canada ( 7 0 ) i n d i c a t e d t h a t C a n a d i a n women a r e a l s o a t t e n d i n g a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programmes i n i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r s . W i t h i n c r e a s e d e n r o l l m e n t , r e s e a r c h e r s o f t e n comment on t h e i n a d e q u a c y o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e s . Many s u g g e s t e d t h a t p r e s e n t a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programmes c a n be i m p r o v e d . London ( 6 6 ) s t a t e d t h a t we a r e n o t a l w a y s open t o new s y s t e m a t i c l e a r n i n g programmes t h a t w o u l d more e f f e c t i v e l y r e a l i z e e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s . H e i s t ( 7 6 ) commented t h a t t h e n e e d o f women t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e s t h a t e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s become w a r e o f and t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t some o f t h e s p e c i a l p r o b l e m s o f women s t r i v i n g t o resume o r c o n t i n u e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n . 6 I n c r e a s e d e n r o l l m e n t i n c a r e e r programmes by women and c o n c e r n a b o u t t h e s e programmes m e e t i n g t h e i r n e e d s , i n p a r t , j u s t i f y t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s s t u d y . H o w e v e r , o f e v e n g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e i s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a women's r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c a r e e r programmes m a y , i n p a r t , i n f l u e n c e h e r i n m a k i n g d e c i s i o n s t o a d o p t o r r e j e c t s p e c i f i c c a r e e r p r o g r a m m e s . I t i s o f i n t e r e s t t h e n f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t o r s t o i n v e s t i g a t e women's r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c a r e e r c o u r s e s as a p a r t i a l i n d i c a t i o n o f s u p p o r t f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c a r e e r c o u r s e p r o g r a m m e s . B e c a u s e o f c o m m i t m e n t s e a r l y i n l i f e t o c a r e e r , m a r r i a g e and f a m i l y , women may p a r t i c i p a t e i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n t o u p g r a d e and u p d a t e t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r r e - e n t r y i n t o t h e l a b o u r f o r c e o r t o u p g r a d e t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r c a r e e r m o b i l i t y . The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y o f f e r s c a r e e r c r e d i t c o u r s e s and c e r t i f i c a t e programmes t h r o u g h t h e C a r e e r Programmes D i v i s i o n . T h e s e c o u r s e s a r e o f f e r e d p r i m a r i l y on a n i g h t s c h o o l b a s i s t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c t h r o u g h o u t t h e a c a d e m i c y e a r S e p t e m b e r t h r o u g h J u n e . T h i s s t u d y i s t h e f i r s t t o d e a l w i t h t h e r e a s o n s women g i v e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c a r e e r c r e d i t c o u r s e s a t t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y . The s t u d y may f u r n i s h u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r I n s t i t u t e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and programme p l a n n e r s i n s h a p i n g c o u r s e and c e r t i f i c a t e programme o f f e r i n g s . C o u n s e l l o r s , t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s -may be p r o v i d e d w i t h u s e f u l i n s i g h t s a b o u t women p a r t i c i p a n t s i n c a r e e r p r o g r a m m e s . 7 L i m i t a t i o n s T h i s s t u d y was l i m i t e d t o a l l women c o u r s e r e g i s t r a n t s who r e g i s t e r e d i n S e p t e m b e r o f 1974 i n t h e C a r e e r Programmes D i v i s i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y and i n c l u d e s women r e g i s t e r e d i n c r e d i t c o u r s e s o f n o t l e s s t h a n t w e l v e weeks (36 h o u r s ) d u r a t i o n . T h i s s t u d y was a l s o l i m i t e d t o t h o s e women who r e g i s t e r e d i n p e r s o n r a t h e r t h a n by m a i l . The p a r a m o u n t l i m i t a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c a r e e r c r e d i t c o u r s e s w i l l v a r y t h r o u g h o u t t h e s c h o o l y e a r a c c o r d i n g t o c i r c u m s t a n c e s w i t h i n e a c h p a r t i c i p a n t ' s l i f e and o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e a n d w i t h i n t h e c o u r s e e x p e r i e n c e i t s e l f . C i r c u m s t a n c e s may have e x i s t e d a t t h e t i m e o f r e g i s t r a t i o n f o r c o u r s e s a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h p r e d i s p o s e d t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s t o i n d i c a t e r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g w h i c h may n o t be r e l i a b l e . S i n c e t h i s n o t a l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y , no a t t e m p t w i l l be made t o d i s c u s s how r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n may c h a n g e o r t h e f a c t o r s t h a t may i n f l u e n c e c h a n g e . A n o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y i s t h e s e c t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n -n a i r e i t s e l f w h i c h i s u s e d t o m e a s u r e d e s i r e f o r upward c a r e e r m o b i l i t y . The S o c i o - E c o n o m i c I n d e x f o r O c c u p a t i o n s i n C a n a d a ( B l i s h e n , 67) was d e v e l o p e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e 1961 c e n s u s d a t a and may n o t be v a l i d f o r women i n t h e 1 9 7 0 ' s . No s i m i l a r s c a l e was a v a i l a b l e b a s e d on t h e 1971 c e n s u s d a t a a t t h e t i m e t h e s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d . D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y i s t h e o n l y p o s t -8 s e c o n d a r y t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n s t i t u t e i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I t i s l o c a t e d i n t h e c i t y o f B u r n a b y a n d o f f e r s c r e d i t c o u r s e s , c e r t i f i c a t e s a n d d i p l o m a s i n t h e a d v a n c e d t e c h n o l o g i c a l a r e a s o f B u s i n e s s , H e a l t h and E n g i n e e r i n g e d u c a t i o n . C a r e e r Programmes D i v i s i o n The C a r e e r Programmes D i v i s i o n i s one o f f i v e t e c h n o l o g i c a l d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y . The C a r e e r Programmes D i v i s i o n o f f e r s " n i g h t s c h o o l " c o u r s e s a n d c e r t i f i c a t e programmes t o t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . Some b a s i c p r e - r e q u i s i t e s a r e r e q u i r e d f o r e n t r y i n t o t h e b a s i c c o u r s e s . H i g h e r l e v e l c o u r s e s o f t e n r e q u i r e c o m -p l e t i o n o f p r e - r e q u i s i t e b a s i c c o u r s e s . C r e d i t i s g i v e n f o r w o r k e x p e r i e n c e and s t u d e n t s a r e a l l o w e d t o c h a l l e n g e c o u r s e s f o r c r e d i t . C r e d i t C o u r s e s C r e d i t c o u r s e s c a n be t h i r t y - s i x , f i f t y - f o u r o r one h u n d r e d a n d e i g h t h o u r s o f c l a s s r o o m i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c d i s c i p l i n e . E a c h c o u r s e c a r r i e s a c r e d i t w e i g h t i n g b a s e d on t h e number o f h o u r s o f i n -c l a s s room i n s t r u c t i o n . A s t a n d a r d t h i r t y - s i x h o u r c o u r s e n o r m a l l y c a r r i e s one u n i t o f c r e d i t . C e r t i f i c a t e and D i p l o m a Programmes A B . C . I . T . C e r t i f i c a t e i s a w a r d e d on c o m p l e t i o n o f a programme o f f i f t e e n u n i t s w i t h i n one t e c h n o l o g i c a l a r e a . A B . C . I . T . S e n i o r C e r t i f i -c a t e i s a w a r d e d on c o m p l e t i o n o f a programme o f t h i r t y u n i t s w i t h i n one t e c h n o l o g i c a l a r e a . C e r t i f i c a t e s a r e o f f e r e d i n t w e n t y - o n e t e c h n o l o g i c a l a r e a s i n b u s i n e s s , one t e c h n o l o g i c a l a r e a i n h e a l t h , and t h i r t e e n t e c h n o -l o g i c a l a r e a s i n e n g i n e e r i n g . A n a t i o n a l D i p l o m a o f T e c h n o l o g y may be a w a r d e d on c o m p l e t i o n o f a programme o f a t l e a s t f o r t y - f i v e u n i t s w i t h i n one t e c h n o l o g i c a l a r e a . Term The a c a d e m i c y e a r i s b r o k e n i n t o two t e r m s a t t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y , F a l l w h i c h i s t w e l v e weeks i n l e n g t h and S p r i n g w h i c h c a n be t w e l v e o r e i g h t e e n weeks i n l e n g t h . P a r t i c i p a n t P a r t i c i p a n t r e f e r s t o an a d u l t woman who has e n r o l l e d i n a B . C . I . T . C a r e e r Programmes D i v i s i o n c o u r s e i n S e p t e m b e r o f 1974 and who i s no l o n g e r r e q u i r e d , i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h c o m p u l s o r y a t t e n d a n c e r e g u l a t i o n s , t o a t t e n d c l a s s e s i n t h e r e g u l a r s c h o o l s y s t e m . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e T h e s i s A r e v i e w o f r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e i s p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r I I and c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n t o t h e t h e o r e t i c a l b a s e w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h e f r a m e w o r k f o r t h i s s t u d y . T h i s i s f o l l o w e d i n C h a p t e r I I I by a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n , an o u t l i n e o f t h e m e t h o d o l o g y e m p l o y e d , a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s a m p l e o f p a r t i c i p a n t s , an o u t l i n e o f t h e p r o c e d u r e s u s e d t o a n a l y z e t h e d a t a , r e s u l t s o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l t r e a t m e n t a p p l i e d , and d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s . C h a p t e r IV p r e s e n t s a summary o f t h e s t u d y , g i v e s some g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s , and s u g g e s t s some i m p l i c a t i o n s and a r e a s f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y . An e p i l o g u e p r o v i d e s a b r i e f h i s t o r y o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a n g e s a t B . C . I . T . f o r t h e p e r i o d 1974 t o 1979 w h i c h r e s u l t e d f r o m t h i s s t u d y . CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r e a s o n s women g a v e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c r e d i t c o u r s e s a t t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y ( B . C . I . T . ) . The r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n i n g r e a s o n s women gave f o r p a r t i c i -p a t i n g i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n was d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s : c a r e e r c o m m i t -m e n t , c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , m o t i v a t i o n t o l e a r n , and o b s t a c l e s t o women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e s . The c h a p t e r i s o r g a n i z e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e f o u r c a t e g o r i e s . C a r e e r Commitment Many women a p p e a r e d t o be more c o m m i t t e d t o a l i f e t i m e o f w o r k o u t s i d e t h e home t h a n i n t h e p a s t . The p r o f i l e o f t h e a v e r a g e women w o r k e r c h a n g e d f r o m t h e y o u n g s i n g l e f a c t o r y w o r k e r o r c l e r k t w e n t y y e a r s o f age t o o l d e r m a r r i e d women f o u n d i n many o c c u p a t i o n s and p r o f e s s i o n a l c a r e e r s ( M u l l i g a n , 7 3 ) . M o s t women p l a n n e d t o c o m b i n e a c a r e e r and m a r r i a g e ; some p l a n n e d a c a r e e r o n l y . Many o f t h o s e who s e t a s i d e t i m e f o r c h i l d - r e a r i n g p l a n n e d t o r e t u r n t o work a t a l a t e r d a t e . Y e t m y t h s a b o u t t h e work commitment o f women s t i l l a b o u n d e d and women s u f f e r e d f r o m a t t i t u d e s a b o u t t h e p r i o r i t y o f g e n d e r r o l e s o v e r o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s . S t e i n m a n ( 5 9 ) s t u d i e d 51 m i d d l e c l a s s c o l l e g e g i r l s and t h e i r 10 11 p a r e n t s . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and r a t i n g i n v e n t o r i e s d e f i n e d t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e r o l e o f women i n o u r s o c i e t y . A l l t h e g i r l s p l a n n e d c a r e e r s a f t e r c o l l e g e and 35 p l a n n e d t o c o n t i n u e a c a r e e r a f t e r m a r r i a g e ; 20 f o r f i n a n c i a l r e a s o n s , 8 f o r s e l f e x p r e s s i o n a n d 7 f o r f i n a n c i a l and s e l f e x p r e s s i o n n e e d s . O n l y 17 o f t h e i r m o t h e r s had p l a n n e d t o w o r k a f t e r m a r r i a g e t h o u g h m o s t had t h e s k i l l s t o f i n d a n d h o l d a j o b . W h i l e b o t h m o t h e r s a n d d a u g h t e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t women s h o u l d be e q u a l l y i n v o l v e d i n f a m i l y a f f a i r s a n d i n t h e p u r s u i t o f s e l f f u l f i l l m e n t o u t s i d e t h e h o m e , m o s t t h o u g h t t h a t h u s b a n d s and f a t h e r s w a n t e d them t o be t r a d i t i o n a l home-m a k e r s w i t h t h e i r l i v e s c e n t e r e d on t h e home and f a m i l y . M o s t f a t h e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t women s h o u l d c o m b i n e homemaking w i t h s e l f f u l f i l l i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Y e t o f 11 f a m i l i e s i n t e r v i e w e d o n l y 1 f a t h e r e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e t h i s h i s w i f e work s o t h a t s h e be a more s t i m u l a t i n g c o m p a n i o n . The o t h e r s seemed r e s e n t f u l o f o u t s i d e a c t i v i t i e s and r e l i e v e d when t h e y e n d e d . The a u t h o r c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e a m b i v a l e n t a t t i t u d e s o f h u s b a n d s and f a t h e r s t o w a r d s c a r e e r s f o r t h e i r w i v e s and d a u g h t e r s may c r e a t e s u b t l e o v e r t o n e s c a u s i n g t h e women t o s t e e r away f r o m g o a l s o t h e r t h a n t h o s e e x c l u s i v e l y home o r i e n t e d . Harmon ( 7 0 ) a t t e m p t e d t o f i n d t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n women who w e r e c o m m i t t e d t o c a r e e r s and women who w e r e n o t . The s u b j e c t s w e r e 169 u n i v e r s i t y e n t r a n t s d u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1 9 5 3 - 1 9 5 5 . Ten y e a r s l a t e r t h e y w e r e a s k e d t o l i s t t h e i r u s u a l o c c u p a t i o n and e m p l o y m e n t . N i n e t y - f o u r w e r e c a r e e r c o m m i t t e d ; 75 w e r e n o n - c o m m i t t e d . Women c o m m i t t e d t o c a r e e r s a t t e n d e d c o l l e g e l o n g e r , e a r n e d h i g h e r d e g r e e s , w o r k e d more y e a r s a f t e r l e a v i n g c o l l e g e , m a r r i e d l a t e r i n l i f e and b o r e f e w e r c h i l d r e n and a t more a d v a n c e d a g e s . The g r o u p s d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n H i g h S c h o o l Rank o r S c h o o l A b i l i t y T e s t . 12 C a r e e r c o m m i t t e d women a t age 18 d i d n o t have d i f f e r e n t c a r e e r p l a n s f r o m n o n - c a r e e r c o m m i t t e d women. C a r e e r c o m m i t t e e d women d i d n o t r e p o r t l e s s s a t i s f a c t i o n f r o m homes o r p a r t i c i p a t e l e s s i n v o l u n t e e r s e r v i c e s , n o r d i d t h e y have l e s s a c c o m p l i s h e d h u s b a n d s t h a n women u n c o m m i t t e d t o c a r e e r s . The a u t h o r c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e a s o n s women become c o m m i t t e d t o c a r e e r s a r e n o t c i r c u m s t a n t i a l b u t m o t i v a t i o n a l . C a r e e r m o t i v a t i o n seems t o come a t some p o i n t b e y o n d e n t r a n c e t o c o l l e g e . I t w o u l d seem i m p o r t a n t t o i n f o r m g i r l s e a r l y a b o u t c h o i c e s a v a i l a b l e t o them l a t e r s o t h a t as women who a r e c a r e e r c o m m i t t e d t h e y c a n p r e p a r e t h e m s e l v e s f o r t h e l i f e t h e y s e e k . F a r m e r and Bohn ( 7 0 ) b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e r e a s o n women e x p e r i e n c e c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n home a n d c a r e e r i s a c u l t u r a l l a g b e t w e e n s o c i a l o p p o r -t u n i t y and s o c i a l s a n c t i o n . The a u t h o r s , t h e r e f o r e , a t t e m p t e d t o r e d u c e h o m e - c a r e e r c o n f l i c t e x p e r i m e n t a l l y by p r o v i d i n g a m e a s u r e o f s o c i a l s a n c t i o n f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l l y d e m a n d i n g c a r e e r r o l e s and by m e a s u r i n g t h e e f f e c t o f t h i s r e d u c t i o n on home and c a r e e r i n t e r e s t s . The s t u d y c o n t r o l l e d f o r m a r i t a l s t a t u s t o d e t e r m i n e i t s r e l e v a n c e t o t h e v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s o f women when h o m e - c a r e e r s c o n f l i c t was r e d u c e d . The s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y w e r e 25 s i n g l e and 25 m a r r i e d w o r k i n g women. A l l t o o k t h e S t r o n g V o c a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t B l a n k t w i c e : f i r s t w i t h s t a n d a r d i n s t r u c t i o n s a n d s e c o n d w i t h e x p e r i m e n t a l h o m e - c a r e e r c o n -f l i c t - r e d u c i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s . I t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t women, i n r e s p o n s e t o a s e t w h i c h r e d u c e d h o m e - c a r e e r c o n f l i c t , w o u l d s c o r e h i g h e r on c a r e e r s c a l e s and l o w e r on home s c a l e s and t h a t m a r i t a l s t a t u s w o u l d n o t be a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e i n t h e e f f e c t o f h o m e - c a r e e r c o n f l i c t r e d u c t i o n . The s t u d y s u p p o r t e d b o t h h y p o t h e s e s . The a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e 13 l e v e l o f v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t i n women, i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e i r m a r i t a l s t a t u s , w o u l d be r a i s e d i f h o m e - c a r e e r c o n f l i c t w e r e r e d u c e d . M c M i l l a n , C e r r a a n d M e h a f f e y (71) d e s i g n e d a s t u d y t o c o m p a r e t h e o p i n i o n s o f a g r o u p o f u n m a r r i e d c o l l e g e women r e g a r d i n g t h e i r w o r k i n v o l v e m e n t a f t e r m a r r i a g e , w i t h t h e o p i n i o n s o f a g r o u p o f u n m a r r i e d c o l l e g e men r e g a r d i n g t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e w o r k i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e i r f u t u r e w i v e s . An e f f o r t was made t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e p r e f e r r e d r o l e f o r women c h a n g e d i n a n y s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n f o r e i t h e r men o r women d u r i n g t h e i r c o l l e g e c a r e e r s . S u b j e c t s i n t h e s t u d y w e r e 1817 f e m a l e and 1085 m a l e d o r m i t o r y r e s i d e n t s i n a m i d w e s t e r n u n i v e r s i t y . A q u e s t i o n n a i r e a s k e d women t o r e s p o n d w i t h t h e i r p r e f e r r e d work p l a n a f t e r m a r r a i g e a n d men t o r e s p o n d w i t h t h e work p l a n t h e y p r e f e r r e d f o r t h e i r f u t u r e w i v e s . The r e s u l t s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e showed t h a t 72 p e r c e n t o f t h e women p r e f e r r e d w o r k i n g a f t e r m a r r i a g e u n t i l t h e t i m e o f c h i l d r e n . They w o u l d d e v o t e f u l l t i m e t o t h e c h i l d r e n when y o u n g and w o u l d r e t u r n t o w o r k when t h e c h i l d r e n w e r e o l d e r . E i g h t p e r c e n t p r e f e r r e d t o work c o n t i n u o u s l y a f t e r m a r r i a g e . A b o u t 40 p e r c e n t o f t h e men p r e f e r r e d t h e i r w i v e s t o r e t u r n t o w o r k when t h e c h i l d r e n w e r e o l d e r ; 38 p e r c e n t p r e f e r r e d t h a t t h e i r w i v e s n o t work a f t e r m a r r i a g e u n l e s s e s s e n t i a l , and 12 p e r c e n t p r e f e r r e d t h e i r w i v e s n o t t o work a t a l l . More women p r e f e r r e d t o c o m b i n e c a r e e r and m a r r i a g e . More t h a n one t h i r d o f t h e . m e n and o n l y one e i g h t h o f t h e women p r e f e r r e d no work a f t e r t h e c h i l d r e n w e r e b o r n . Men c h o s e no f u r t h e r work a f t e r m a r r i a g e f o u r t i m e s more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n women. F i n e ( 7 5 ) d i s c u s s e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n m a l e e m p l o y e r s ' p e r -c e p t i o n s o f t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e i r f e m a l e e m p l o y e e s and t h e s e e m p l o y e e s ' 14 e x p e c t a t i o n s and c o m m i t m e n t . Many e x e c u t i v e s t h i n k t h e i r f e m a l e e m p l o y e e s w o r k t o e a r n e x t r a money a n d t h a t t h e y n e i t h e r w a n t n o r know how t o h a n d l e e x t r a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . B u t o v e r 40 p e r c e n t o f O n t a r i o ' s w o r k i n g women a r e s e l f s u p p o r t i n g . In 1972 t h e a b s e n t e e r a t e among e m p l o y e d C a n a d i a n men was h i g h e r t h a n t h a t among C a n a d i a n women. Women t o d a y a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e f u t u r e g o a l s o f t h e c o r p o r a t i o n . A T o r o n t o f e m a l e p l a c e m e n t a g e n c y f o u n d i n 1 9 7 5 , u n l i k e 15 y e a r s e a r l i e r , t h a t j o b s t h a t demanded n o t h i n g more t h a n an e i g h t h o u r day w e r e d i f f i c u l t t o f i l l . Women w a n t e d j o b s t h a t g a v e them a c h a n c e t o be c r e a t i v e and t a k e some i n i t i a t i v e . More t h a n t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f t h e a p p l i c a n t s t o t h i s a g e n c y w a n t e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a d v a n c e m e n t . J o b d e f i n i t i o n and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n e m p l o y e e a n d e m p l o y e r w e r e t h e k e y i s s u e s when h i r i n g a woman f o r an o f f i c e p o s i t i o n . S c h o e n e t a l . (71) r e p o r t e d t h a t women a r e n o t p o o r e r r i s k s t h a n men i n t h e i r commitment t o c o m p l e t e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m m e s . He f o u n d a l s o t h a t 42 p e r c e n t o f a l l women o f w o r k i n g age w e r e i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e , 54 p e r c e n t o f women w i t h a B a c h e l o r d e g r e e w e r e i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e and 59 p e r c e n t o f t h o s e w i t h f i v e o r more y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n w e r e w o r k i n g . Many women a r e w o r k i n g b e c a u s e o f p r e s s i n g e c o n o m i c n e e d s , o t h e r s f r o m c h o i c e ( M u l l i g a n , 7 3 ) . R a t e s o f u n e m p l o y m e n t and f i g u r e s i n c o m p a r a t i v e e a r n i n g s o f men and women r e f l e c t a p a t t e r n o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t women. T h e r e a r e i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h i s may be s o b e c a u s e women o c c u p y p o s i t i o n s o f l e s s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and p r e s t i g e . O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r and c a r e e r g o a l s w o u l d i n c r e a s e t h e i r p r o d u c t i v i t y , m i n i m i z e t h e r i s k o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n and p r o v i d e s o c i e t y w i t h more f u l l y r e a l i z e d t a l e n t . 15 From t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s r e v i e w e d w h i c h r e l a t e t o c a r e e r c o m m i t m e n t , i t c a n be c o n c l u d e d t h a t f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t women's r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programmes f a l l i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l a r e a s : m a r i t a l and c h i l d - r e a r i n g r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s ; m a l e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d f e m a l e c a r e e r s ; h o m e - c a r e e r c o n f l i c t ; c a r e e r v e r s u s c a r e e r - m a r r i a g e g o a l s ; and c a r e e r e x p e c t a t i o n s . C a r e e r D e v e l o p m e n t L u t e s (71) s u g g e s t e d ways t o c h i p away a t o c c u p a t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n -a l i s m and v e s t i g a l " h a n g u p s " a b o u t women i n t h e w o r l d o f w o r k . S e v e r a l i d e a s a r e recommended f o r c o u n s e l l o r s . Among t h e s e a r e : s p e c i a l c a r e e r n i g h t s f o r g i r l s and t h e i r p a r e n t s t o b r o a d e n t h e p e r s p e c t i v e s o f b o t h a b o u t work o p p o r t u n i t i e s ; more and b e t t e r o c c u p a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n d e s i g n e d t o e r o d e s t e r e o t y p e s , t o e n c o u r a g e a w i d e r a n g e o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e , and t o s t i m u l a t e e a r l y i n t e r e s t t o d e v e l o p t h e i n d i v i d u a l i t y o f g i r l s ; t h e u s e o f p a r e n t c o n f e r e n c e s t o h e l p p a r e n t s u n d e r s t a n d t h e c h a n g i n g r o l e s and t h e c h a n g i n g c h o i c e s i n t h e c a r e e r d e c i s i o n s o f g i r l s ; and t h e u s e o f c o - e d u c a t i o n a l g r o u p c o u n s e l l i n g t o e x p l o r e a t t i t u d e s and e x p e c t a n c i e s . C a m p b e l l and Harmon ( 6 8 ) s t u d i e d t h e v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s o f women i n n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s . T h e i r m a i n c o n c l u s i o n was t h a t i n t e r e s t i n v e n t o r y s c a l e s c a n r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s among women i n d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n s a t n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l s and s u c h s c a l e s c a n be u s e d by c o u n s e l l o r s who w o r k w i t h women s e e k i n g e m p l o y m e n t a t t h i s l e v e l . The a u t h o r s n o t e d t h a t t h e t y p i c a l woman w o r k e r i s no l o n g e r y o u n g and s i n g l e b u t f o r t y i s h , m a r r i e d and w i t h , a b o u t 20 y e a r s o f e m p l o y m e n t a h e a d o f h e r . 16 F o u g h t ( 7 0 ) p r e s e n t e d an o v e r v i e w o f t h e c h a n g e s i n a t t i t u d e s and p l a n s o f 83 a d u l t women s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n a n o n - c r e d i t , " n e x t - s t e p " programme a t O h i o S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y . The m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e i n a c a -d e m i c p l a n s o c c u r r e d w i t h i n t h e g r o u p o f women who upon e n t e r i n g t h e c o u r s e w e r e u n d e c i d e d as t o t h e i r g o a l s , A m a r k e d i n c r e a s e was n o t e d i n t h e number o f women a s p i r i n g t o a b a c h e l o r p r o g r a m m e . A c o n c e n t r a t e d e f f o r t was made t o a d v i s e e a c h woman o f a r o u t e o f r e - e n t r y t o an e d u c a t i o n a l programme a n d an a p p r o p r i a t e a c a d e m i c l o a d . Many women c h a n g e d t h e i r p l a n s and began w i t h a p a r t - t i m e programme u n t i l t h e y a d j u s t e d t o r e - e n t r y . The c o u n s e l l i n g c o n d u c t e d w i t h t h e s e women was r e a l i t y - b a s e d w h i c h i n v o l v e d l i s t e n i n g , a c t i n g as a s o u n d i n g b o a r d , and s u p p l y i n g i n f o r -m a t i o n and s u p p o r t d u r i n g d e c i s i o n m a k i n g . S e v e r a l s t a g e s w e r e a p p a r e n t i n t h e women's d e v e l o p m e n t . The f i r s t was a r e a d i n e s s s t a g e . T h i s was u s u a l l y a g e n e r a l a w a r e n e s s t h a t s o m e t h i n g more was n e e d e d t o m o t i v a t e them f o l l o w i n g t h e b u s y y e a r s o f home and f a m i l y . The m o s t i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r f o r a woman's r e - e n t r y i n t o e d u c a t i o n was t h e p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e o f h e r h u s b a n d . The s e c o n d s t a g e was t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s t a g e . T h i s i n v o l v e d a c q u i r i n g and r e s e a r c h i n g i n f o r m a t i o n as t o t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s and o p t i o n s a v a i l a b l e . A l t h o u g h h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d t o w a r d s a d e f i n i t e g o a l women l a c k e d i n f o r m a t i o n a n d c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e m s e l v e s and a b i l i t y t o d e f i n e t h i s g o a l . E x t r e m e g o a l m o t i v a t i o n , t i m e p r e s s , l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i n s e c u r i t y c r e a t e d c o n f u s i o n ; t h e woman c o u l d n o t t h i n k c l e a r l y o f h e r g o a l s and d i r e c t i o n s . The f i n a l s t a g e was a c t i o n . H e r e t h e a d u l t woman n e e d e d s u p p o r t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g and r e a s s u r a n c e n o t o n l y f r o m t h e c o u n s e l l o r b u t f r o m o t h e r women s t u d e n t s . The a u t h o r s t a t e d t h a t i n c o u n s e l l i n g t h e s e women she f e l t i t a d e f i n i t e a d v a n t a g e t o be a woman a n d t o have c o m b i n e d 17 many o f t h e r o l e s t h a t t h e c o u n s e l l e e was a n t i c i p a t i n g . The C o m m i t t e e on E d u c a t i o n a n d Employment o f Women ( 7 2 ) r e p o r t e d i n a s e c t i o n on c o m m i t m e n t , t h a t f e m a l e s t u d e n t s f o u n d t h e s e r v i c e s m o s t h e l p f u l t o them i n p l a n n i n g c a r e e r s w e r e t h e A c a d e m i c I n f o r m a t i o n C e n t r e , The C a r e e r C o u n s e l l i n g and P l a c e m e n t C e n t r e , and t h e P r e - M e d A d v i s o r y S e r v i c e s . Men and women f o u n d a d v i s o r s h e l p f u l as r o l e m o d e l s y e t m o s t o f t h e a d v i s o r s w e r e men. The s t u d y c o n c l u d e d w i t h a l i s t o f r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t o e n a b l e u n i v e r s i t i e s t o pay s p e c i a l h e e d t o t h e n e e d s and p r o b l e m s o f women. T h e s e i n c l u d e d o p e n i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l and a c a d e m i c a r e a s c l o s e d t o women i n t h e p a s t ; a s s i g n i n g h i g h e r p r i o r i t y t o t h e h i r i n g o f women i n p r o f e s s i o n a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e j o b s ; a n d a t t r a c t i n g more women s t u d e n t s t o d e p a r t m e n t s w i t h f e w women. The u n i v e r s i t y s h o u l d o r i e n t i t s c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s t o t h e n e e d s o f women by p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o meet women who have s u c c e s s f u l l y c o m b i n e d a c a r e e r and c h i l d r e a r i n g , by i n v o l v i n g t h e m a j o r d e p a r t m e n t i n programmes w h i c h g i v e a l l s t u d e n t s a b r o a d p e r s p e c t i v e on j o b s open t o t h e m , and by s e n s i t i z i n g c o u n s e l l o r s and a d v i s o r s t o t h e p r o b l e m s o f women. A l m q u i s t and A u g u s t ( 7 1 ) f o c u s e d on t h e s e v e r a l r o l e m o d e l s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e t h e l i f e s t y l e c h o i c e s o f c a r e e r women. They assumed t h a t c a r e e r s a l i e n c e f o r owmen, w h i c h i n t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n i n c l u d e d m o t i v a t i o n t o have b o t h m a r r i a g e and a c a r e e r , was a s p e c i a l t y p e o f a c h i e v e m e n t . They a l s o assumed t h a t t h e c a r e e r a s p i r a t i o n s o f c o l l e g e women w e r e e x p l i c a b l e w i t h i n a c o m b i n e d r o l e m o d e l - r e f e r e n c e g r o u p f r a m e w o r k . The p a p e r p r e s e n t e d d a t a d e r i v e d f r o m a l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y o f 110 s t u d e n t s a t a women's c o l l e g e . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d e a l i n g w i t h a d u l t r o l e c o n c e p t i o n s , o c c u p a t i o n a l p l a n s , work e x p e r i e n c e , s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s , d a t i n g , 18 s o c i a l l i f e and m a r r i a g e p l a n s w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d e v e r y f a l l s e m e s t e r . Tape r e c o r d e d i n t e r v i e w s p r o b i n g t h e s e a r e a s w e r e c o n d u c t e d e a c h s p r i n g s e m e s t e r o v e r a p e r i o d o f f o u r c o l l e g e y e a r s . N o n - c a r e e r s a l i e n c e was f o u n d t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s o r o r i t y m e m b e r s h i p , m a r r i a g e , e n g a g e m e n t o r " g o i n g s t e a d y " . C a r e e r s a l i e n c e was n o t s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o t h e e x t e n t o f d a t i n g i n c o l l e g e . C a r e e r s a l i e n c e was r e l a t e d t o c h o i c e o f f i e l d s c h o s e n by m a l e p e e r s and t o b r o a d e r work e x p e r i e n c e i n a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f j o b s . I t was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e i t h e r p a r e n t o r w i t h f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l . C a r e e r s a l i e n t s t u d e n t s more o f t e n had w o r k i n g m o t h e r s , w h i l e n o n -c a r e e r s a l i e n t s t u d e n t s had m o t h e r s who a r e more a c t i v e i n l e i s u r e p u r s u i t s . C a r e e r s a l i e n t s t u d e n t s f e l t t h a t p r o f e s s o r s w e r e more p o s i t i v e i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r a c a d e m i c a b i l i t y t h a n n o n - c a r e e r s a l i e n t s t u d e n t s . N o n -c a r e e r s a l i e n t women f e l t t h a t no o n e , p e e r s , f a m i l y members o r p r o f e s s o r s , i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e . C a r e e r s a l i e n t s t u d e n t s f e l t t h a t t h e y w e r e m o s t s t r o n g l y a f f e c t e d by c o l l e g e p r o f e s s o r s and o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e m o d e l s . V e t t e r (73) d i s c u s s e d t h e o u t l o o k f o r y o u n g women who may be c o n s i d e r i n g c a r e e r s i n s c i e n c e . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , few women e n t e r e d t h e s c i e n c e f i e l d s b u t t h i s was c h a n g i n g and u n i v e r s i t y s c i e n c e d e p a r t m e n t s w e r e a c t i v e l y r e c r u i t i n g f e m a l e s t u d e n t s . Women s c i e n t i s t s w e r e b e i n g s o u g h t by e m p l o y e r s and a f e m a l e e n g i n e e r i n g g r a d u a t e commanded a h i g h e r s t a r t i n g s a l a r y t h a n h e r m a l e c l a s s m a t e s . The o u t l o o k i n s c i e n c e , o v e r t h e l o n g r a n g e , was l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t f o r men and women. The p r o b l e m o f b o t h m a l e and f e m a l e was t o o b t a i n a c c u r a t e r e a l i s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s , f r o m t h e t i m e t h e y w e r e r e q u i r e d t o make t h e f i r s t d e c i s i o n t h a t m i g h t open f u t u r e c a r e e r d o o r s t o t h e t i m e o f g r a d u a t i o n . P o t e n t i a l s c i e n c e and e n g i n e e r i n g 19 s t u d e n t s s h o u l d r e a l i z e t h a t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s e s u b j e c t s r e q u i r e d c o n t i n u i n g l i f e t i m e s t u d i e s . T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r women who p l a n t o have a f a m i l y . T h e s e women have s e v e r a l o p t i o n s open t o them i f t h e y p l a n n e d t o d e v o t e t i m e t o c h i l d r e a r i n g . They can keep up w i t h t h e j o u r n a l s a t home and a t t e n d p r o f e s s i o n a l m e e t i n g s , work p a r t - t i m e , l e a v e t h e f i e l d e n t i r e l y and t a k e r e f r e s h e r c o u r s e s b e f o r e r e - e n t e r i n g t h e w o r k i n g w o r l d , o r t h e y c a n move i n t o r e l a t e d f i e l d s s u c h as management o r s c i e n t i f i c w r i t i n g . The m a j o r f a c t o r i n a s s e s s i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n s c i e n c e and e n g i n e e r i n g was t h e b a l a n c e between s u p p l y and demand. The number o f new g r a d u a t e s i n t h e p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s and e n g i n e e r i n g i s d r o p p i n g and i s l i k e l y t o c o n t i n u e t o do s o t h r o u g h 1 9 8 0 , w h i l e t h e numbers o f d e g r e e s g r a n t e d i n o t h e r f i e l d s i s r i s i n g s t e a d i l y . The U n i t e d S t a t e s D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o u r p r e d i c t e d a demand f o r e n g i n e e r s , m a t h e m a t i c i a n s , c h e m i s t s and p h y s i c i s t s and an o v e r s u p p l y o f l i f e s c i e n t i s t s . O p p r o t u n i t i e s f o r women i n t h e s i c e n c e s and e n g i n e e r i n g p r e s e n t l y e q u a l o r s u p a s s t h o s e f o r m a l e g r a d u a t e s . T r a d i t i o n a l f e m a l e e m p l o y m e n t a r e a s a r e a l m o s t s a t u r a t e d b u t o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e o p e n i n g i n b u s i n e s s and i n d u s t r y , and i n s t a t e and l o c a l g o v e r n m e n t . T e a c h e r s , p a r e n t s and s c i e n t -i s t s s h o u l d seek o u t g i r l s i n t e r e s t e d i n s c i e n c e and e n g i n e e r i n g and r e a c h them e a r l y enough t o c h o o s e an a p p r o p r i a t e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l programme w h i c h p r o v i d e s t h e n e c e s s a r y b a c k g r o u n d f o r e n t e r i n g t h e s e f i e l d s . C r o n k h i t e {69) n o t e d t h a t t h e r e was a marked d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e a b i l i t i e s o f f e m a l e c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s and t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s o f women i n l a t e r l i f e . A new p a t t e r n o f e d u c a t i o n was n e e d e d w h i c h w o u l d e n c o u r a g e a g i r l to g e t h e r t r a i n i n g e a r l y , to have h e r c h i l d r e n w h i l e s t i l l s t u d y -i n g , to make t i m e f o r c h i l d r e a r i n g , to c o n t i n u e s t u d y i n g and l a t e r to LEAF ZO OMITTED I N PAGE NUMBERING, 21 r e t u r n t o f o r m a l s t u d y . F a m i l i e s c a n h e l p b r i n g a b o u t t h i s new p a t t e r n by e n c o u r a g i n g t a l e n t e d g i r l s as w e l l as b o y s . C o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s s h o u l d t a l k w i t h p r o s p e c t i v e s t u d e n t s and p a r t i c u l a r l y f i r s t y e a r g i r l s as t h o u g h t h e i r work w o u l d l e a d t o a l i f e l o n g p r o f e s s i o n . C o l l e g e s s h o u l d t r y t o i d e n t i f y e a r l y t h e g i r l s who have t a l e n t s and g i f t s . H i g h s c h o o l s e n i o r s s h o u l d be g i v e n a c h a n c e t o work w i t h o l d e r p e o p l e and t o do i n d e p e n d e n t work t o s e e how s a t i s f y i n g s c h o l a r s h i p can b e „ C o l l e g e s s h o u l d e m p h a s i z e t h a t t h e l i b e r a l a r t s c u r r i c u l u m i s n o t s o l e l y a m a n ' s c u r r i c u l u m . Female s t u d e n t s s h o u l d be a b l e t o meet w i t h s u c c e s s f u l women and t h e r e s h o u l d be more women on f a c u l t y . C o l l e g e s s h o u l d p r o v i d e s c h o l a r s h i p s and f e l l o w s h i p s f o r women r e g a r d l e s s o f m a r i t a l s t a t u s . Women s h o u l d t r y t o f i n d and d e v e l o p ways i n w h i c h p a r t - t i m e work can be p o s s i b l e . The a u t h o r c o n c l u d e d by d e s c r i b i n g t h e R a d c l i f f e I n s t i t u t e f o r I n d e p e n d e n t ' S t u d y w h i c h a s s i s t s women t o r e t u r n t o p r o d u c t i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l l i v e s , o f t e n h a v i n g t a k e n t i m e o u t t o r e a r a f a m i l y . From t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s r e v i e w e d w h i c h r e l a t e t o c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , i t c a n be c o n c l u d e d t h a t f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t women's r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c p a t i n g i n c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t programmes f a l l i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : t h e e f f e c t s o f c o u n s e l l i n g on a woman's a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s c a r e e r s and h e r s u b s e q u e n t c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t , t h e v a l u e o f c e r t a i n i n v e n t o r y s c a l e s i n a s s e s s i n g t h e v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s o f women and t h e c o n s e q u e n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o u n s e l l i n g , methods o f e l i m i n a t i n g t h e b a r r i e r s t o c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t and of a d a p t i n g e x i s t i n g t h e o r i e s of v o c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t to t h e needs of women. 22 M o t i v a t i o n t o L e a r n D o t y ( 6 6 ) s t u d i e d a n d c o m p a r e d t h e p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a t t i t u d e s and o u t s i d e a c t i v i t i e s o f m a t u r e women u n d e r g r a d u a t e s and women o f s i m i l a r a g e s and b a c k g r o u n d who had n o t r e t u r n e d t o c o l l e g e . They s t u d i e d 40 u n d e r g r a d u a t e s and 40 women who had n e v e r been e n r o l l e d i n any c o l l e g e -d e g r e e programme c o u r s e a f t e r t h e age o f 2 3 . The m e d i a n age o f b o t h g r o u p s was 3 3 . A l l t h e women had a t t e n d e d c o l l e g e f o r a t l e a s t one s e m e s t e r p r e -v i o u s l y . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w h i c h i n c l u d e d an i t e m on a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d r e t u r n i n g t o c o l l e g e and a p e r s o n a l i t y i n v e n t o r y w e r e s e n t t o a l l t h e women. The u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s s t a t e d t h a t m a r r i a g e was t h e i r p r i m a r y r e a s o n f o r l e a v i n g c o l l e g e . T h e i r r e a s o n s f o r r e t u r n i n g w e r e : (1) an u n f u l f i l l e d d e s i r e f o r k n o w l e d g e , ( 2 ) d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h c l u b work and o t h e r s o c i a l o r c o m m u n i t y a c t i v i t i e s , ( 3 ) f i n a n c i a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r r e t i r e m e n t , ( 4 ) l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n j o b s n o t r e q u i r i n g a c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n , and ( 5 ) f i n a n c i a l h e l p w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n ' s e d u c a t i o n . A l l t h e s t u d e n t s b u t l e s s t h a n one t h i r d o f t h e n o n - s t u d e n t s p l a n n e d t o p u r s u e c a r e e r s on a f u l l t i m e b a s i s . The s t u d e n t s showed g r e a t e r c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n and more m a s c u l i n e i n t e r e s t p a t t e r n s t h a n . n o n - s t u d e n t s , w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s e women w e r e d i s -s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l h o u s e w i f e r o l e . T h e i r r e a s o n s f o r r e t u r n i n g t o c o l l e g e may be t h a n t h e y a r e more i n t e l l e c t u a l l y c u r i o u s and b e t t e r a b l e t o make l o n g r a n g e p l a n s t h a n a r e o t h e r women. The s t u d e n t s ' p e r s o n a l i t y t e s t f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d h i g h m e n t a l and p h y s i c a l p r o d u c t i v i t y and i n t e r e s t i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s . T h e s e women w e r e more a c t i v e , more i n t e r e s t e d i n m a n i p u l a t i n g t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t t o f i t t h e i r n e e d s and more l i k e l y t o s e e k o u t s o c i a l c o n t a c t s t h a n w e r e n o n - s t u d e n t s . The o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -e n c e i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f s t u d e n t s and n o n - s t u d e n t s was t h a t more h u s b a n d s 23 o f s t u d e n t s t h a n n o n - s t u d e n t s had a t t e n d e d c o l l e g e . F a c t o r s w h i c h m i g h t i n f l u e n c e a d e c i s i o n t o r e t u r n t o c o l l e g e w e r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t between t h e two g r o u p s : a d e q u a t e f a m i l y i n c o m e t o f i n a n c e t h e v e n t u r e , d o i n g o n e ' s own h o u s e w o r k , i n t e r e s t i n r e a d i n g n o n - f i c t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t c o u r s e s , p r o x i m i t y o f a c o l l e g e and s p a r e t i m e i n w h i c h t o a t t e n d . Hornby ( 7 2 ) s t a t e d t h a t most women a r e m o t i v a t e d t o a v o i d s u c c e s s b e c a u s e t h e y e x p e c t n e g a t i v e c o n s e q u e n c e s s u c h as s o c i a l r e j e c t i o n o r f e e l i n g s o f b e i n g u n f e m i n i n e i f t h e y s u c c e e d . Her h y p o t h e s i s was t h a t m o t i v e s t o a v o i d s u c c e s s a r e more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f women t h a n o f m e n , o f women o r i e n t e d t o h i g h a c h i e v e m e n t , and o f women o f h i g h a b i l i t y . She assumed t h a t i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s t r e n g t h o f m o t i v a t i o n t o a v o i d s u c c e s s w o u l d n o t a p p e a r u n l e s s a r o u s e d by t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f n e g a t i v e c o n s e q u e n c e s . She a p p l i e d a s t a n d a r d T h e m a t i c A p p e r c e p t i v e T e s t (TAT) i n w h i c h v e r b a l l e a d s w e r e u s e d r a t h e r t h a n p i c t u r e s . T h e r e were 90 f e m a l e s and 88 m a l e s i n t h e s t u d y . M o t i v a t i o n t o a v o i d s u c c e s s was c o n s i d e r e d t o be p r e s e n t i f s u b j e c t s i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e m a t i c l e a d a b o u t f i g u r e s o f t h e i r own g e n d e r made s t a t e m e n t s s h o w i n g c o n f l i c t a b o u t s u c c e s s . F e a r o f s u c c e s s d o m i n a t e d i n t h e f e m i n i n e r e s p o n s e and was a b s e n t i n t h e male r e s p o n s e . P a t t e r n s o f d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f f e a r o f s u c c e s s i m a g e r y were m a i n t a i n e d i n s u b s e q u e n t s a m p l e s o f w h i t e men and women t e s t e d . M o t i v a t i o n t o a v o i d s u c c e s s a p p e a r e d i n 47 p e r c e n t o f Grade 7 f e m a l e s , i n 88 p e r c e n t o f h i g h a b i l i t y f e m a l e u n d e r g r a d u a t e s and i n 86 p e r c e n t o f a s a m p l e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e c r e t a r i e s who w e r e h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s . S u b s e q u e n t t e s t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t m o t i v a t i o n t o a v o i d s u c c e s s was e s p e c i a l l y h i g h i n y o u n g women and t h e y a r e l e a s t l i k e l y t o 24 d e v e l o p i n t e r e s t s o r t o e x p l o r e t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l p o t e n t i a l when c o m -p e t i n g a g a i n s t o t h e r s , e x p e c i a l l y a g a i n s t men. L e t c h w o r t h ( 7 0 ) e x a m i n e d t h e m o t i v a t i o n s and d i f f i c u l t i e s o f o l d e r women s t u d e n t s and i n t e r p r e t e d them i n terms o f an i d e n t i t y -i n t e g r i t y m o d e l . T h i s s t u d y was c o n c e r n e d w i t h women who were f u l l - t i m e homemakers and h o u s e w i v e s f r o m u p p e r o r m i d d l e c l a s s f a m i l i e s . T h e i r a g e s w e r e between t h e l a t e t w e n t i e s and t h e l a t e f o r t i e s . Many o f t h e women who r e t u r n e d t o c o l l e g e w e r e i n t h e m i d s t o f an i d e n t i t y c r i s i s as t h e y have had 10 t o 15 y e a r s as w i v e s and m o t h e r s b e h i n d t h e m . They q u e s t i o n e d who t h e y w e r e , where t h e y w e r e g o i n g and i f t h e y c o u l d have a c a r e e r i n a d d i t i o n t o t h a t o f m o t h e r and w i f e . W i t h e m p h a s i s on h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n t h e y w e r e drawn t o c o l l e g e as a p o s s i b l e p l a c e t o d e v e l o p a more f a r - r e a c h i n g i d e n t i t y . T h i s c r i s i s i n v o l v e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e w o r l d f r o m a c r e a t i v e and u n i q u e p e r s p e c t i v e r a t h e r t h a n f r o m a c o n s e r v a -t i v e o n e . A s m a l l e r number o f women was i n t h e m i d s t o f an i n t e g r i t y c r i s i s . C o l l e g e a t t e n d a n c e may be a p o s i t i v e way o f s o l v i n g t h i s crisiSo More f r e q u e n t l y , women were a f f e c t e d by many f a c t o r s and d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d why t h e y f e l t as t h e y d i d . T h e i r r e a s o n s f o r r e t u r n i n g t o c o l l e g e w e r e : r e l i e f f r o m b o r e d o m , d e s i r e f o r an i n t e r e s t i n g j o b , e s c a p e f r o m r e s p o n s i -b i l i t i e s , d i v o r c e o r m a r i t a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . They were women who r e t u r n t o c o l l e g e as an a c t o f c o m p u l s i o n . De W o l f and L u n n e b o r g (72) a n a l y z e d t h e b i o g r a p h i c a l d a t a o f 100 women and 53 men o v e r age 35 who e n t e r e d t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n 1 9 7 0 - 7 1 . F a m i l y b a c k g r o u n d was s i m i l a r f o r men and women and a l m o s t a l l had p r e v i o u s l y a t t e n d e d c o l l e g e . The n o n - v o c a t i o n a l r e a s o n s g i v e n f o r 25 a t t e n d i n g c o l l e g e w e r e : t o grow i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and p e r s o n a l l y , t o p r o v i d e e n r i c h m e n t o f l e i s u r e t i m e , t o p r o v i d e i n s u r a n c e a g a i n s t t h e s u p p o r t o f s e l f o r f a m i l y a n d t o d e v e l o p s p e c i a l s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y f o r v o l u n t e e r w o r k . A h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f women t h a n men g a v e a l l t h e s e a n s w e r s . . E i g h t p e r -c e n t o f t h e m a l e s a n d t h r e e p e r c e n t o f t h e f e m a l e s w e r e s e n t t o c o l l e g e f o r a d d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n by an e m p l o y e r . H a l f o f t h e m a l e s and a l m o s t h a l f o f t h e f e m a l e s w a n t e d t o a d v a n c e i n a f i e l d i n w h i c h t h e y w e r e o r had been w o r k i n g . The j o b l e v e l o f t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l g o a l s t e n d e d t o be g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e m o s t r e c e n t j o b h e l d by b o t h g r o u p s . M u l l i g a n (73) r e p o r t e d t h a t d i r e c t o r s o f e d u c a t i o n a l programmes f o r women commented on t h e i r t e n a c i t y a n d e n t h u s i a s m when t h e y o v e r c o m e t h e i r i n i t i a l a p p r e h e n s i o n a b o u t t h e i r a b i l i t y t o m a s t e r c o u r s e m a t e r i a l and a c a d e m i c r e q u i r e m e n t s . They p r a i s e d t h e e n r o l l e e s ' p e r s i s t e n c e i n t h e i r p u r s u i t o f e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . C o l l e g e s w h i c h h a v e a n a l y z e d r e s u l t s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e i r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programmes have r e p o r t e d a h i g h e r r e t e n t i o n r a t e and a h i g h e r l e v e l o f a c h i e v e m e n t f o r m a t u r e women who r e t u r n t o e d u c a t i o n t h a n f o r u n d e r g r a d u a t e s who f o l l o w s t a n d a r d u n i -v e r s i t y p a t t e r n s . The d a t a s u p p o r t e d t h e v i e w t h a t p e o p l e l e a r n b e s t and p e r s i s t when t h e y a r e m o t i v a t e d t o l e a r n . From t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s r e v i e w e d , i t c a n be c o n c l u d e d t h a t m o t i v a t i o n t o l e a r n may be a f f e c t e d by s u c h f a c t o r s as l e v e l o f a s p i r a t i o n , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , c o g n i t i v e i n t e r e s t , d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h e x i s t i n g l i f e s t y l e s , f e a r o f s u c c e s s , a t t i t u d e o f s p o u s e , s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o r t h e e x p e c t a t i o n o f s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s . T h e s e f a c t o r s may s u b s e q u e n t l y a f f e c t women's r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e s . 26 O b s t a c l e s t o Women's P a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n P o s t S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n Programmes The C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n ( 6 9 ) r e p o r t e d t h a t women l o n g p a s t t h e i r s c h o o l o r c o l l e g e y e a r s meet many o b s t a c l e s when t h e y a t t e m p t t o r e t u r n t o t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m . The f i r s t r e q u i r e m e n t f o r t h e s e women was an a d e q u a t e i n f o r m a t i o n and c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e . B r i d g i n g c o u r s e s w e r e i m p o r t a n t i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y p r e p a r i n g t h e o l d e r s t u d e n t t o f a c e t h e c o n t e n t c o u r s e s . A d m i s s i o n r e g u l a t i o n s s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as t h e y a p p l y t o t h e o l d e r woman. Means s h o u l d be f o u n d t o a s s e s s t h e i n d i v -i d u a l as s h e now i s and t o r e c o g n i z e t h e l e a r n i n g i n v o l v e d i n l i f e e x p e r i -e n c e . F i n a n c i a l o b s t a c l e s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n c o u l d be a l l e v i a t e d i f b u r s a r i e s and l o a n s w e r e e x t e n d e d t o c o v e r t h e p a r t - t i m e s t u d e n t . The new i n c o m e t a x d e d u c t i o n s a l l o w e d f o r h o u s e k e e p i n g a s s i s t a n c e t o p r o v i d e a s m a l l t a x b e n e f i t . I n s t i t u t i o n s s h o u l d p r o v i d e f l e x i b l e s c h e d u l e s t o a l l o w women t o a t t e n d c l a s s e s i n d a y t i m e h o u r s . C o u r s e s i n v o l v i n g l a b o r a t o r y w o r k and t h e use o f e l a b o r a t e e q u i p m e n t a r e more d i f f i c u l t t o r e s c h e d u l e t h a n book c e n t e r e d c o u r s e s b u t i t w o u l d be i n t h e s e n e w e r f i e l d s t h a t t h e demand f o r t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l e x i s t s . T r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s c o n c e n t r a t e d i n l a r g e u r b a n a r e a s p r e s e n t an i n s u p e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y f o r many women. T h e r e i s a c l e a r n e e d f o r d i s p e r s a l o f t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . T h e r e s h o u l d be more o p p o r -t u n i t y t h a n e x i s t s t o d a y f o r m a t u r e women t o work i n f i e l d s r e l a t e d t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n s and c o m p l e m e n t a r y t o t h e m . Community c o l l e g e s s h o u l d s e t up c o u r s e s o f f e r i n g t h i s k i n d o f t r a i n i n g and a d m i s s i o n t o t h e c o u r s e s s h o u l d be k e p t as open as p o s s i b l e . T r a i n i n g s h o u l d e m p h a s i z e p r a c t i c e r a t h e r t h e n t h e o r y . P r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s s h o u l d t a k e some i n i t i a t i v e i n p r e s s i n g f o r r e f r e s h e r programmes f o r women who w i s h t o r e - e n t e r p r o f e s s i o n a l 27 l i f e . R i d d e l ! and B i n g h a m (no d a t e g i v e n ) r e v i e w e d t h e B o s t o n S t u d y  on H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n o f U r b a n Women. T h i s s t u d y , d e s i g n e d t o h e l p women r e t u r n i n g t o s c h o o l , was c o m p i l e d by a g r o u p o f B o s t o n i n n e r c i t y women who w e r e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m m e s . A i d e d by t h r e e p r o f e s s i o n a l s , t h e women r e c o r d e d t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s a n d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . The r e v i e w e r s f e l t t h a t t h e i n s i g h t s a n d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y w e r e o f r e a l p r a c t i c a l v a l u e t o o l d e r women r e t u r n i n g t o s c h o o l and t o e d u -c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t e r e s t e d i n d e v e l o p i n g programmes f o r t h e m . R i d d e l ! and B i n g h a m u r g e d t h a t s c h o o l s g r a n t c r e d i t f o r w o r k a n d l i f e e x p e r i e n c e , t h a t e x a m i n a t i o n s be d e v i s e d t o a r r i v e a t s u c h c r e d i t and t h a t n o n - e s s e n t i a l c o u r s e p r e - r e q u i s i t i e s be e l i m i n a t e d . They p u t h i g h p r i o r i t y on d e s i g n i n g b e t t e r c o u r s e s and on i n f o r m i n g t e a c h e r s o f t h e ways o l d e r s t u d e n t s c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e more t o t h e c l a s s r o o m . S m a l l e r c l a s s e s and s e m i n a r s w e r e more h e l p f u l t h a n b i g l e c t u r e s . They u r g e d r e m e d i a l c l a s s e s f o r t e a c h e r s who u s e d e x c e s s i v e a c a d e m i c j a r g o n and a r c a n e a l l u s i o n s i n t h e i r l e c t u r e s , t h u s c r e a t i n g a n e e d l e s s b a r r i e r b e t w e e n t h e s t u d e n t s and t h e m a t e r i a l . T e a c h e r s s h o u l d f i n d new ways o f d r a w i n g k n o w -l e d g e f r o m t h e i r s t u d e n t s . A d m i s s i o n s o f f i c e s o f t e n had no c l e a r c u t c r i t e r i a a p p l y i n g t o s t u d e n t s who had no c o l l e g e b o a r d s c o r e s o r r e c o r d s o f e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n h i g h s c h o o l . T h e s e o f f i c e s may n o t h e l p i n o v e r c o m i n g t h e r e s e n t m e n t t o f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n h e l d by l o w i n c o m e a d u l t s . A d m i s s i o n o f f i c i a l s c a n n o t a l w a y s e x p l a i n a p r o g r a m m e ' s g o a l s and p u r p o s e s , h e n c e an a p p l i c a n t was u n a b l e t o d e c i d e w h i c h programme b e s t s e r v e d h e r n e e d s . One c o l l e g e t r i e d t o s o l v e t h e s e p r o b l e m s by d e l e g a t i n g a d m i s s i o n d e c i s i o n s t o e i g h t women s t u d e n t s a l r e a d y i n t h e p r o g r a m m e . 28 F i n a n c e s p r e s e n t e d a m a j o r o b s t a n c l e t o women w i s h i n g t o e n r o l l i n e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m m e s . F i n a n c i a l a i d t o m a r r i e d women was u n u s u a l a s s c h o l a r s h i p s w e r e d i r e c t e d t o y o u n g s i n g l e p e o p l e . Many a g e n c i e s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t a woman's wage s u p p l e m e n t e d t h e f a m i l y i n c o m e , y e t g o v e r n m e n t s t a t -i s t i c s show o v e r 40 p e r c e n t o f a l l p o o r f a m i l i e s w e r e h e a d e d by women. C o n s e q u e n t l y e x p e n s e s o f g o i n g b a c k t o s c h o o l w e r e p r o h i b i t i v e f o r p o o r women: t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c h i l d c a r e e x p e n s e s a n d l o s s o f i n c o m e when a woman l e a v e s h e r j o b t o go b a c k t o s c h o o l . A v a i l a b i l i t y o f c h i l d c a r e was c r i t i -c a l f o r t h e m o t h e r who w a n t e d t o r e t u r n t o s c h o o l . Where c h i l d c a r e f a c i l i -t i e s e x i s t e d t h e y w e r e c o s t l y . Once a d m i t t e d t o c o l l e g e , t h e o l d e r woman had t o l e a r n a s e r i e s o f s k i l l s , s u c h a s u s i n g t h e l i b r a r y , s k i m m i n g b o o k s f o r e s s e n t i a l f a c t s , w r i t i n g p a p e r s and e x a m i n a t i o n s . A p l a c e was n e e d e d f o r o l d e r women t o e x c h a n g e i n f o r m a t i o n , f o r i n f o r m a l t a l k s e s s i o n s w h e r e women c o u n s e l one a n o t h e r ; and c r e d i t c o u r s e s w e r e n e e d e d i n w r i t i n g and o r g a n i z i n g p a p e r s . A s s i g n i n g t u t o r s t o c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s has r a r e l y been s u c c e s s f u l as t h e t u t o r i s o f t e n t h e age o f t h e woman's o l d e r c h i l d r e n , and t h e s e y o u n g p e o p l e l a c k t h e t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e and e m p a t h y t o o f f e r r e a l h e l p t o an o l d e r woman. The s t u d y recommended t h a t a d u l t women f o r m s t u d e n t a s s o c i a t i o n s t o p r e s s f o r t h e c h a n g e s t h e y n e e d . A n o t h e r p r o j e c t R i d d e l 1 and B i n g h a m s t u d i e d , The Urban Women's G u i d e t o H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n , p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n i n f o u r l a n g u a g e s and t o l d w h e r e o t h e r l a n g u a g e s c a n be t r a n s l a t e d . I t c o n t a i n e d s e c t i o n s on how t o c h o o s e a p r o g r a m m e , how t o a p p l y , w h e r e t o g e t f i n a n c i a l a i d and w h a t t o e x p e c t a f t e r a d m i s s i o n . F o r e a c h o f t h e programmes l i s t e d t h e r e was s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n s u c h as phone n u m b e r s , e n t r a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s , a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c h i l d c a r e 29 and a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e programme c o n t e n t . The g r o u p o r g a n i z e d The Women's I n n e r C i t y R e s o u r c e S e r v i c e t o h e l p o t h e r women r e t u r n i n g t o s c h o o l . S c h o e n , e t a l . (71) i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e m a j o r b a r r i e r s w h i c h b l o c k e d f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n by women i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . T h e s e w e r e : o v e r t d i s -c r i m i n a t i o n by f a c u l t i e s , d e a n s and o t h e r s a c t i n g i n o f f i c i a l c a p a c i t i e s ; i n s t i t u t i o n a l b a r r i e r s s u c h as r i g i d a d m i s s i o n a n d r e s i d e n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s , and i n g r a i n e d a s s u m p t i o n s on t h e p a r t o f b o t h men a n d women w h i c h d e n y t h e t a l e n t s and a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e f e m a l e . T h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s w e r e i n t e r n a l i z e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l and i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . The r e p o r t n o t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t number o f u n d e r g r a d u a t e d e p a r t m e n t s had d i f f i c u l t y r e c r u i t i n g women, b u t a l s o f o u n d a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h a t d i f f i c u l t y and t h e p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f r e c r u i t m e n t t e c h n i q u e s and m a t e r i a l s u s e d . T h e r e was l i t t l e e f f o r t t o b r o a d e n t h e s c o p e o f r e c r u i t m e n t t o i n -c l u d e p e o p l e n o t h i s t o r i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h a t f i e l d o f s t u d y . Hence a l l d e p a r t m e n t s w e r e u r g e d t o r e v i e w t h e i r r e c r u i t m e n t p r o c e d u r e and l i t e r a t u r e i n a r i g o r o u s a t t e m p t t o e n c o u r a g e a p p l i c a t i o n s f r o m h i g h s c h o o l women p a r t i c u l a r l y i n d e p a r t m e n t s h a n d i c a p p e d by s o c i a l p e r c e p t i o n s t h a t t h e y w e r e n o t f e m a l e d i s c i p l i n e s . S t e p s s h o u l d be t a k e n t o e n s u r e t h a t d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r a c t i c e s w e r e n o t u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t a t e -ment o f a d m i s s i o n s p o l i c y and i t was recommended t h a t c o m m i t t e e s be a p p o i n t e d a n n u a l l y t o r e v i e w t h e d a t a p r o v i d e d by t h e a d m i s s i o n s o f f i c e . A c c o r d i n g t o E k s t r o m ( 7 2 ) s i t u a t i o n a l b a r r i e r s t o women p a r t i c i -p a t i n g i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programmes may be s o c i o l o g i c a l , f a m i l i a l , f i n a n c i a l , r e s i d e n t i a l , o r p e r s o n a l . S o c i o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r s a r e c l a s s m e m b e r s h i p and i n g e n e r a l women f r o m u p p e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c g r o u p s a r e more l i k e l y t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n t h a n women f r o m l o w e r l e v e l s . E t h n i c 30 g r o u p m e m b e r s h i p i s a l s o r e l a t e d t o c o l l e g e a s p i r a t i o n and a t t e n d a n c e . The h i g h e s t d r o p - o u t r a t e i n i n n e r c i t y c o l l e g e programmes i s among w h i t e women. O b s t a c l e s a r i s e f r o m t h e a t t i t u d e s o f p a r e n t s o r h u s b a n d s , f r o m h e a d o f h o u s e -h o l d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , f r o m f a m i l y s i z e and c h i l d c a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , f r o m t h e n e c e s s i t y t o c a r e f o r i l l o r e l d e r l y f a m i l y m e m b e r s , f r o m l a c k o f h o u s e -h o l d a s s i s t a n c e a n d l a c k o f p r i v a c y f o r s t u d y e s p e c i a l l y f o r women w i t h y o u n g f a m i l i e s o r t h o s e l i v i n g i n c r o w d e d c o n d i t i o n s and f r o m m o b i l i t y n e e d e d i n a h u s b a n d ' s c a r e e r . A woman's p e r c e p t i o n o f m o b i l i t y and t h e h a n d i c a p s i t may p r e s e n t c a u s e d many t o d r o p o u t o f p r o g r a m m e s . F i n a n c e s c a n p r e s e n t o b s t a c l e s when f a m i l i e s a r e r e l u c t a n t t o b o r r o w o r u s e money f o r o t h e r f a m i l y n e e d s o r when i n c o m e i s l o s t d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f s t u d y . T h e r e m a y . b e c r i t i c i s m when a woman s p e n d s m o n e y , w h i c h c o u l d be s p e n t on t h e c h i l d r e n , on h e r own n e e d s . The d i s t a n c e o f home f r o m a s c h o o l o r c o l l e g e a n d l a c k o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n may make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r some women t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m m e s . P e r s o n a l f a c t o r s w h i c h may p r e s e n t o b s t a c l e s a r e l a c k o f h e a l t h , e n e r g y o r s t a m i n a , l a c k o f q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r a p a r t i c u l a r s c h o o l , l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e d u c a t i o n a t a p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l o r i n a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d and l a c k o f k n o w l e d g e o f a v a i l a b l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Hence women f r o m f a m i l i e s w h i c h a r e n o t o r i e n t e d t o e d u c a t i o n a r e unaware o f s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l programmes u s e f u l t o t h e m . N e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s o f f r i e n d s , n e i g h b o u r s , and e m p l o y e r s t o w a r d c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n and c o m m u n i t y p r e s s u r e s t o w a r d t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t i n v o l u n t e e r work o r s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s may m i t i g a t e a g a i n s t women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e s . D i s p o s i t i o n a l b a r r i e r s a r e t h o s e t h a t e x i s t w i t h i n t h e woman h e r -s e l f and may be t a u g h t i n s c h o o l o r m o d i f i e d by t e a c h i n g . T h e s e i n c l u d e f e a r 31 o f f a i l u r e , an a t t i t u d e t o w a r d i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y w h i c h v i e w s c o n t i n u i n g a n d h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a s i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h f e m i n i n e i d e n t i f y , r o l e p r e f e r e n c e , a m b i v a l e n c e a b o u t e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s , l e v e l o f a s p i r a t i o n , p a s s i v i t y , d e p e n d -e n c e and i n f e r i o r i t y f e e l i n g s . D i s p o s i t i o n a l b a r r i e r s w e r e c o v e r e d o n l y b r i e f l y s i n c e t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e p a p e r was t o i d e n t i f y t h e b a r r i e r s w h i c h m i g h t be c h a n g e d t h r o u g h b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g . The a u t h o r n o t e d t h a t t h e s t u d i e s o f t h e b a r r i e r s t o p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n f o r women w e r e l i m i t e d b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e r e s t r i c t e d t o a c o l l e g e o r . g r a d u a t e s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n . O t h e r t y p e s o f p o s t - s e c o n d a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s w e r e r a r e l y d i s c u s s e d o r s t u d i e d . A a n s t e a d ( 7 2 ) s t u d i e d t h e m a t u r e women s t u d e n t s , a g e d 25 a n d o v e r , e n r o l l e d i n c r e d i t c o u r s e s a t S a n t a Fe J u n i o r C o l l e g e d u r i n g 1 9 7 0 - 7 1 . O v e r h a l f o f t h e women w e r e b e t w e e n t h e a g e s 25 t o 34 and 71 p e r c e n t w e r e m a r r i e d w i t h two c h i l d r e n . They a t t e n d e d c l a s s e s p a r t - t i m e d u r i n g t h e day o r f u l l -t i m e a t n i g h t . The m o s t common p r o b l e m t h e y r e p o r t e d was l a c k o f t i m e f o r h o u s e h o l d d u t i e s and f a m i l y . H a l f o f t h e women i n d i c a t e d c o n c e r n a b o u t how t h e y w o u l d p e r f o r m a c a d e m i c a l l y and some w e r e c o n c e r n e d a b o u t s o c i a l a d j u s t -ment as w e l l . F a c t o r s m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e d e c i s i o n t o r e t u r n t o s c h o o l where t h e p r o c e d u r e s o f r e t u r n i n g , l o c a t i o n , f i n a n c i a l and j o b a r r a n g e m e n t s , c l a s s s c h e d u l i n g and j o b o r c o u r s e n e e d s . A few women m e n t i o n e d t h a t a c c e p t -a n c e by f a m i l y and f r i e n d s , t h e i n i t i a l f r i e n d l i n e s s and i n f o r m a l i t y on campus and t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e s o c i a l a t m o s p h e r e w e r e i m p o r t a n t i n t h e i r d e c i s i o n s t o r e t u r n . The r e s u l t s s u g g e s t e d t h a t m a t u r e women f a c e a n x i e t y when t h e y c o n s i d e r r e t u r n i n g t o c o l l e g e . The a u t h o r h y p o s t h e s i z e d t h a t , i f a woman has a r e l a t i v e l y l o w a n x i e t y l e v e l , t h e p r o c e d u r a l a r r a n g e m e n t s w e r e n o t i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and c o u l d be w o r k e d o u t ; h o w e v e r , women w i t h 32 h i g h a n x i e t y l e v e l s may n e e d s m o o t h e r p r o c e d u r a l a r r a n g e m e n t s when r e t u r n i n g t o s c h o o l . Two p o s s i b l e a p p r o a c h e s i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s a n x i e t y w o u l d i n v o l v e s p e c i a l p r o g r a m m e s . One w o u l d be a w e l l p u b l i c i z e d o n e - d a y programme t o r e a c h women who m i g h t n o t o t h e r w i s e d e c i d e t o r e t u r n t o s c h o o l . The o t h e r w o u l d be a c r e d i t c o u r s e s c h e d u l e d o v e r a c o l l e g e q u a r t e r f o r t h o s e who do and who a r e c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e i r a b i l i t y . The P r e s i d e n t ' s C o m m i s s i o n on S t a t u s o f Women ( 6 3 ) d e v o t e d a s e c t i o n t o c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r a d u l t women. The r e p o r t recommended t h a t c o l l e g e s , u n i v e r s i t i e s , t e c h n i c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l s work t o w a r d a c c e p t a n c e and e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f women t o p a r t - t i m e s t u d y . Such m e a s u r e s as g r a n t s and f i n a n -c i a l a i d , i n c r e a s e d f l e x i b i l i t y i n w o r k i n g o u t i n d i v i d u a l s c h e d u l e s a n d w i d e r use o f p r o f i c i e n c y t e s t i n g w o u l d i n c r e a s e t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r women t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . O t h e r means o f g i v i n g c r e d i t f o r k n o w -l e d g e and e x p e r i e n c e g a i n e d o u t s i d e n o r m a l a c a d e m i c c h a n n e l s w o u l d be h e l p -f u l . B r i d g i n g c o u r s e s s h o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d t o r e b u i l d h a b i t s o f s t u d y , t o i n t r o d u c e new t e c h n i q u e s and p r o v i d e t h e b a c k g r o u n d and c o n f i d e n c e f o r c o n t e m p o r a r y s t u d y and w o r k . D e v e l o p m e n t o f e d u c a t i o n a l and g u i d a n c e s e r v i c e s s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d t o h e l p t h e m a t u r e woman d e a l w i t h p r o b l e m s o f , and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e s u m i n g s t u d y . S p e c i a l programmes s h o u l d be c r e a t e d t o p r e p a r e m a t u r e women f o r work i n f i e l d s w h e r e t h e i r a p t i t u d e s a n d s o c i a l n e e d s c o i n c i d e . The r e p o r t commented t h a t many u n i v e r s i t i e s have a s s u m e d t h a t p a r t - t i m e a t t e n d a n c e means p a r t - w a y c o m m i t m e n t . Summary From t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s r e v i e w e d , i t c a n be c o n c l u d e d t h a t f a c t o r s t h a t a f f e c t women's r e a s o n s f o r commitment t o a c a r e e r a r e i n f l u e n c e d 33 by t h e f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l a r e a s : m a r i t a l and c h i l d - r e a r i n g r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s ; m a l e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d f e m a l e c a r e e r s ; h o m e - c a r e e r c o n f l i c t ; c a r e e r v e r s u s c a r e e r - m a r r i a g e g o a l s ; and c a r e e r e x p e c t a t i o n s . The e f f e c t s o f c o u n s e l l i n g , v a l u e s o f v o c a t i o n a l i n v e n t o r y s c a l e s , a n d t h e a d a p t a t i o n o r l a c k o f a d a p t a t i o n o f v o c a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t o p p o r -t u n i t i e s t o t h e n e e d s o f women a f f e c t s women's r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e s . M o t i v a t i o n t o l e a r n may be a f f e c t e d by s u c h f a c t o r s as l e v e l o f a s p i r a t i o n , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , c o g n i t i v e i n t e r e s t , d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h e x i s t i n g l i f e s t y l e s , f e a r o f s u c c e s s , a t t i t u d e s o f s p o u s e a n d s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . O b s t a c l e s t o women's p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a d u l t programmes f a l l i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : a d e q u a t e i n f o r m a t i o n and c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s ; f i n a n c i a l a i d p r a c -t i c e s ; l a c k o f day c a r e f a c i l i t i e s ; a c a d e m i c v e r s u s h o u s e h o l d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ; i n f l e x i b l e c l a s s s c h e d u l e s a n d l i b r a r y h o u r s ; l a c k o f ways t o t r a n s f e r c r e d i t s o r o f c r e d i t i n g l i f e e x p e r i e n c e ; a n x i e t y a b o u t r e t u r n i n g t o s c h o o l and f e a r o f f a i l u r e ; a t t i t u d e s o f p a r e n t s o r h u s b a n d s t o w a r d i n t e l l e c t u a l a c t i v i t y ; l e v e l o f a s p i r a t i o n a n d t h e i n a b i l i t y o r l a c k o f t i m e t o h a n d l e s e v e r a l r o l e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . Any o r a l l o f t h e f a c t o r s l i s t e d a b o v e may a f f e c t women's r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e s . CHAPTER I I I INSTRUMENTATION, METHODOLOGY, SAMPLE ANALYSIS OF THE DATA I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e The i n s t r u m e n t u s e d f o r t h e m e a s u r e m e n t o f r e a s o n s f o r women p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s a t t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y was t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e ( E . P . S . ) d e v e l o p e d by B o s h i e r ( 7 1 ) . I t was d e v e l o p e d t o t e s t H o u l e ' s ( 6 1 ) c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n . A f t e r e x a m i n i n g H o u l e ' s t y p o l o g y o f m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s , B o s h i e r (71) c o n s t r u c t e d 48 s c a l e d i t e m s a b o u t e d u c a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n w h i c h l i k e l y e x p l a i n a p a r t i c i p a n t s d e c i s i o n t o e n r o l l i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s . T h e s e 48 i t e m s f a c t o r e d i n t o 14 f i r s t - o r d e r f a c t o r s . B o s h i e r f u r t h e r a n a l y z e d t h e s e 14 f i r s t - o r d e r f a c t o r s w h i c h y i e l d e d 7 s e c o n d - o r d e r f a c t o r s l a b e l l e d as f o l l o w s : 1 . I n t e r p e r s o n a l i m p r o v e m e n t / e s c a p e 2 . I n n e r v e r s u s o t h e r - d i r e c t e d a d v a n c e m e n t 3 . S o c i a l s h a r i n g 4 . A r t i f a c t 5 . S e l f - c e n t r e d n e s s v e r s u s a l t r u i s m 6 . P r o f e s s i o n a l f u t u r e o r i e n t e d n e s s 7 . C o g n i t i v e i n t e r e s t The 7 s e c o n d - o r d e r f a c t o r s o f B o s h i e r ' s s t u d y a p p e a r t o be more d i s c r e t e t h a n t h e f i r s t - o r d e r f a c t o r s and a r e d e f i n e d i n A p p e n d i x A . 34 35 M o r s t a i n and S m a r t ( 7 4 ) r e p l i c a t e d B o s h e r ' s s t u d y e m p l o y i n g t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e w i t h a d u l t s e n r o l l e d f o r p a r t - t i m e work a t G l a s s b o r o S t a t e C o l l e g e . S i x s e c o n d - o r d e r f a c t o r s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d and l a b e l l e d a s f o l l o w s : 1 . S o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s 2 . E x t e r n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s 3 . S o c i a l w e l f a r e 4 . P r o f e s s i o n a l a d v a n c e m e n t 5 . E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n 6 . C o g n i t i v e i n t e r e s t T h e s e 6 i s e c o n d - o r d e r f a c t o r s a r e d e f i n e d i n A p p e n d i x B . T h i s s t u d y e m p l o y e d a s i m i l a r s i x f a c t o r s w i t h s c a l e l a b e l s as f o l l o w s : 1 . P r o f e s s i o n a l a d v a n c e m e n t 2 . C o g n i t i v e i n t e r e s t 3 . S o c i a l w e l f a r e 4 . S o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s 5 . E x t e r n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s 6 . E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n S o c i d - E c o n o m i c I n d e x o f O c c U p a t i d n s i n C a n a d a The B l i s h e n I n d e x ( 6 9 ) was u s e d t o m e a s u r e t h e d e s i r e f o r upward c a r e e r m o b i l i t y ^ . I t i s b a s e d on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f e d u c a t i o n and i n c o m e among i n c u m b e n t s i n 320 o c c u p a t i o n s i n t h e 1961 C e n s u s o f C a n a d a . The B l i s h e n I n d e x i s composed o f t e n c a t e g o r i e s as d i s p l a y e d i n T a b l e 1 . The S o c i o - E c o n o m i c I n d e x o f O c c u p a t i o n s i n C a n a d a i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as t h e B l i s h e n I n d e x . 36 TABLE 1 BLISHEN SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDEX C L A S S I F I C A T I O N CATEGORY T I T L E BLISHEN INDEX SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS 1 P r o f e s s i o n a l 6 6 . 0 5 - 7 6 . 6 9 H i g h 2 M a n a g e r i a l 5 5 . 6 2 - 6 6 . 0 4 3 S a l e s , S u p e r v i s o r y 4 7 . 9 5 - 5 5 . 4 1 4 F o r e m e n , C l e r i c a l 4 1 . 4 3 - 4 7 . 6 1 5 T y p i s t s , O p e r a t o r s 3 7 . 7 5 - 4 0 . 9 2 6 H i g h l y S k i l l e d T r a d e s 3 3 . 1 4 - 3 7 . 7 3 7 S k i l l e d T r a d e s 3 0 . 5 2 - 3 3 . 0 3 8 L a b o u r e r s - S k i l l e d 2 9 . 0 5 - 3 0 . 4 8 9 L a b o u r e r s - U n s k i l l e d 2 8 . 1 2 - 2 9 . 4 9 10 U n s k i l l e d W o r k e r s 2 5 . 3 6 - 2 8 . 1 1 Low * See A p p e n d i x C f o r a f u r t h e r b r e a k d o w n w i t h i n e a c h c a t e g o r y R e l i a b i l i t y The 48 i t e m E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e has been a d m i n i s t e r e d t o 2 g r o u p s o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . B o s h i e r (71) a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e s c a l e t o 233 r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s e n r o l l e d i n n o n - c r e d i t , n o n - v o c a t i o n a l c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s i n New Z e a l a n d . The 233 p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e drawn f r o m t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f 2 , 4 3 6 p a r t i c i p a n t s . P r i o r t o t h e a d m i n s t r a t i o n o f t h e E . P . S . B o s h i e r a d m i n i s t e r e d a 6 week t e s t - r e - t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y and f a c t o r i n g s t u d y f o r a l l 48 i t e m s . C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r a l l 48 i t e m s had c o r r e l a t i o n s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 0 . 0 0 1 l e v e l . 37 M o r s t a i n and S m a r t ( 7 4 ) a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e E . P . S . t o 611 a d u l t s e n r o l l e d f o r p a r t - t i m e c r e d i t c o u r s e w o r k a t G l a s s b o r o S t a t e C o l l e g e d u r i n g t h e 1972 F a l l s e m e s t e r . T h i s s a m p l e r e p r e s e n t e d o v e r 25 p e r c e n t o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s e n r o l l e d a t t h e C o l l e g e . R e s p o n d e n t s w e r e a l s o . a s k e d t h e i r s e x and a g e . S u b s t a n t i a l s i m i l a r i t y i n f a c t o r p a t t e r n s was f o u n d a c r o s s t h e s e two s a m p l e s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e c o e f f i c i e n t a l p h a r e l i a b i l i t y i n d i c e s o f t h e 6 E . P . S . s c a l e s d e r i v e d by M o r s t a i n and S m a r t ( 7 4 ) i s p r i m a r y e v i d e n c e o f t h e E . P . S . s c a l e s r e l i a b i l i t y . M o r s t a i n a n d S m a r t ( 7 4 ) f u r t h e r c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e E . P . S . r e f l e c t t o some d e g r e e t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f d i f f e r e n t m o t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s . M e t h o d Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e g i v e n t o women s t u d e n t s e n r o l l i n g i n t h e C a r e e r Programmes D i v i s i o n a t B . C . I . T . i n t h e F a l l o f 1 9 7 4 . Of t h e 1 , 1 8 7 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e t u r n e d , o n l y 1090 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e a n a l y z e d . The l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ( 9 1 . 3 % ) was due t o p a r t i c i p a n t s h a v i n g t o c o m p l e t e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s p r i o r t o r e g i s t e r i n g f o r t h e F a l l 1974 t e r m . 38 T A B L E 2 Q U E S T I O N N A I R E S D I S T R I B U T E D A N D R E T U R N E D NUMBER PERCENT T o t a l F e m a l e P o p u l a t i o n e n r o l l e d i n C a r e e r P r o g r a m m e s 1 , 5 4 9 T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n 2 4 . 0 % Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s : S a m p l e D i s t r i b u t e d 1 , 3 0 0 * 1 0 0 . 0 % R e t u r n e d 1 , 1 8 7 9 1 . 3 % U s a b l e * * 1 , 0 9 0 9 0 . 8 % S a m p l e a s P e r c e n t o f T o t a l F e m a l e P o p u l a t i o n 7 0 . 4 % *Women who p r e - r e g i s t e r e d by m a i l w e r e e x c l u d e d . * P a r t i a l l y c o m p l e t e d , i n c o r r e c t l y c o m p l e t e d a n d i n a c c u r a t e l y c o l l a t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e d i s c a r d e d . T r e a t m e n t o f t h e D a t a S c o r i n g T h e E . P . S . d a t a was r e c o r d e d on o p t i c a l l y s c a n n a b l e f o r m s w i t h e a c h q u e s t i o n a n s w e r e d on a 5 p o i n t s c a l e , ( v e r y much i n f l u e n c e t o v e r y l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e ) . The s c a l e m e a s u r e s t h e d e g r e e o f i n f l u e n c e t h e r e s p o n d e n t f e l t a p a r t i c u l a r s t a t e m e n t h a d on h e r d e c i s i o n t o e n r o l l i n a B . C . I o T . c o u r s e . T h e B l i s h e n I n d e x d a t a w e r e r e c o r d e d t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f t w o i t e m s on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e : a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t ' s p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n , a n d a s t a t e m e n t o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t ' s F i v e y e a r o c c u p a t i o n a l 39 g o a l . T h e s e r e a s o n s w e r e s u b s e q u e n t l y s c o r e d u s i n g t h e 10 c a t e g o r y b r e a k d o w n o f t h e B-Tishen I n d e x , ( s e e page 9 4 ) S t a t i s t i c a l T r e a t m e n t . The E . P . S . was a n a l y z e d u s i n g t h e Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y c o m p u t e r f a c i l i t i e s u t i l i z i n g t h e m u l t i v a r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l p a c k a g e S P S S 6 . The E . P . S . d a t a w e r e f a c t o r a n a l y z e d u s i n g t h e p r i n c i p a l c o m p o n e n t s m e t h o d PA1 i n S P S S . C a t t e l l ' s ( 6 6 ) S c r e e T e s t was e m p l o y e d t o s e l e c t t h e number o f f a c t o r s t o r e t a i n f o r r o t a t i o n . O r t h o g o n a l a n d o b l i q u e r o t a t i o n w e r e b o t h u s e d f o r c o m p a r i s o n . The o r t h o g o n a l r e s u l t s w e r e u s e d f o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s . A f t e r d e c i d i n g on 6 f a c t o r s , a f a c t o r s c o r e f o r e a c h o f t h e 1 , 0 9 0 women was c o m p u t e d f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l d a t a by means o f r e g r e s s i o n s on t h e 6 f a c t o r s . In t h i s m a n n e r , a Z s c o r e " v a l u e " f o r e a c h woman was o b t a i n e d f o r t h e o v e r a l l s a m p l e and f o r s u b s e t s o f t h e s a m p l e s e l e c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a . The n e x t s t a g e o f t h e a n a l y s i s was t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e f a c t o r s c o r e s w e r e i n any way r e l a t e d t o d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a g a t h e r e d i n d i c a t e d t h e p a r t i c i p a n t ' s m a r i t a l s t a t u s , a g e , t o t a l i n c o m e f o r t h e f a m i l y u n i t , i f t h e y w e r e e n r o l l e d i n a B . C . I . T . c e r t i f i c a t e p r o g r a m m e , a l o n g w i t h an i n d i c a t i o n o f p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n and c a r e e r g o a l as m e a s u r e d by t h e B l i s h e n I n d e x . The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s B l i s h e n I n d e x c a t e g o r y r e s p o n s e f o r t h e i r 5 y e a r o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l and f o r t h e i r p r e s e n t o c c u -p a t i o n s e r v e d as a m e a s u r e o f u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y . C o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e s w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d o f t h i s d i f f e r e n c e w i t h o t h e r d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a . T h i s was done i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e was any r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e 40 d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a and u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y . C h i s q u a r e was u s e d t o t e s t t h e d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n o b s e r v e d and e x p e c t e d f r e q u e n c i e s o f t h e d i s t r i -b u t i o n o f women a n d m a r i t a l s t a t u s , a g e , i n c o m e l e v e l , e n r o l l m e n t and d e s i r e s f o r u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y . The o r i g i n a l d a t a s t o r e d on c a r d s was l o s t i n 1 9 7 8 . The r e s u l t s r e p o r t e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e t h e r e f o r e r e s u l t s c a l c u l a t e d on d a t a a g g r e g a t e d by t h e p a r t i c u l a r c a t e g o r i e s i n q u e s t i o n u n d e r e a c h h y p o t h e s i s . The s t a t -i s t i c a l t e s t s a p p l i e d u s e t h o s e a p p r o p r i a t e t o e a c h h y p o t h e s i s w i t h a g g r e -g a t e d d a t a r a t h e r t h a n t h o s e t e s t w h i c h w o u l d h a v e been u s e d had t h e o r i g i n a l d a t a been a v a i l a b l e . Thus w h e r e i n t h e o r i g i n a l d a t a c o u l d have been u s e d t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s i s by means o f a s i m p l e P e a r s o n c o r r e l a t i o n , t h e u s e o f a g g r e g a t e d a t a r e q u i r e d an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e p r o c e d u r e w i t h ANOVA f a c t o r s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e c a t e g o r i e s i n q u e s t i o n . The S a m p l e  C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e S a m p l e The t o t a l e n r o l l m e n t f o r t h e 1974 F a l l t e r m a t B . C . I . T . was 6 , 4 5 6 s t u d e n t s . Of t h i s n u m b e r , 1 , 5 4 9 w e r e f e m a l e s t u d e n t s who made up 2 4 . 0 % o f t h e t o t a l s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n d u r i n g t h i s F a l l t e r m , ( s e e T a b l e 2 . M a r i t a l S t a t u s . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f T a b l e 3 shows a b r e a k d o w n o f m a r i t a l s t a t u s o f f e m a l e s t u d e n t s b a s e d on t h e number o f t h o s e m a r r i e d , s i n g l e , o r " o t h e r " . The g r e a t e s t number o f women w e r e " s i n g l e " (47%) and a s u r p r i s i n g number w e r e m a r r i e d ( 4 0 % ) . 41 TABLE 3 DISTRIBUTION OF WOMEN BY MARITAL STATUS MARITAL STATUS S i n g l e M a r r i e d O t h e r NUMBER OF WOMEN 512 436 142 PERCENT 47% 40% 13% TOTAL 1 , 0 9 0 1 0 0 . 0 A g e . T a b l e 4 shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s p o n d e n t s by a g e . The g r e a t e s t number o f women w e r e i n t h e 2 1 - 3 5 age g r o u p ( 3 3 . 0 % ) . The n e x t l a r g e s t g r o u p was t h e 26 - 30 g r o u p ( 2 4 . 0 % ) f o l l o w e d by t h e 31 -40 age g r o u p ( 1 6 % ) , t h e 41 - 60 age g r o u p ( 1 5 % ) , and t h e 1 7 - 2 0 age g r o u p (12%). O v e r 55 p e r c e n t o f t h e f e m a l e s t u d e n t s i n t h i s s t u d y were o v e r 25 y e a r s o f a g e . The mean age was 2 5 . 3 5 . TABLE 4 DISTRIBUTION OF WOMEN BY AGE AGE IN YEARS NUMBER OF WOMEN PERCENT 17 - 20 131 12% 21 - 25 359 33% 26 - 30 262 24% 31 - 40 174 16% 41 - 60 164 15% TOTAL 1 , 0 9 0 1 0 0 . 0 42 S o c i o - E c o n o m i c I n d e x o f P r e s e n t O c c u p a t i o n s T a b l e 5 shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f women by p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n on t h e B l i s h e n I n d e x . C a t e g o r y 3 w h i c h c o n t a i n s 4 6 . 6 % o f t h e women r e s p o n d e n t s i s e x e m p l i f i e d by s u c h o c c u p a t i o n s a s : s t e n o g r a p h e r s ; m e d i c a l and d e n t a l t e c h n i c i a n s ; r e a l e s t a t e s a l e s m e n ; b o o k k e e p e r s a n d c a s h i e r s ; m a n a g e r s and s u p e r v i s o r s ; and i n s u r a n c e s a l e s m e n . The n e x t l a r g e s t o c c u p a t i o n g r o u p was C a t e g o r y 4 ( 3 2 . 7 % ) and c o n t a i n s s u c h o c c u p a t i o n s a s : l i t h o g r a p h i c and p h o t o - o f f s e t o p e r a t o r s ; i n t e r i o r d e c o r a t o r s / w i n d o w d r e s s e r s ; t e l e p h o n e o p e r a t o r s ; a c t o r s ; c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s ; g r a d u a t e n u r s e s ; armed f o r c e s p e r s o n n e l . C a t e g o r y 1 and 2 c o n t a i n e d 109 r e s p o n d e n t s ( 1 0 % ) . C a t e g o r y 1 c o n t a i n s s u c h o c c u p a t i o n s a s c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m m e r s ; a c c o u n t a n t s and a u d i t o r s ; s c h o o l t e a c h e r s ; j u d g e s and m a g i s t r a t e s ; p h a r m a -c i s t s ; p r o f e s s i o n a l e n g i n e e r s ; a r c h i t e c t s ; l a w y e r s ; p h y s i c i a n s ; and p r o f e s s o r s . C a t e g o r y 2 c o n t a i n s s u c h o c c u p a t i o n s a s : a u t h o r s and j o u r n a l i s t s ; l i b r a r i a n s ; s a l e s m a n a g e r s ; c r e d i t and o f f i c e m a n a g e r s ; a r t i s t s and s o c i a l w e l f a r e w o r k e r s . L e s s t h a n 11 p e r c e n t o f t h e women who r e s p o n d e d t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e p o r t e d o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h b r e a k d o w n i n t o C a t e g o r i e s 5 t h r o u g h 9 . No women r e s p o n d e d who r e p o r t e d o c c u p a t i o n s i n C a t e g o r y 1 0 . TABLE 5 DISTRIBUTION OF WOMEN BY BLISHEN INDEX OF PRESENT OCCUPATION BLISHEN INDEX CATEGORY T I T L E NUMBER OF PERCENT 1 and 2 P r o f e s s i o n a l / M a n a g e r i a l 109 1 0 . 0 % 3 S a l e s / S u p e r v i s o r y 508 4 6 . 6 % 4 C l e r i c a l / F o r e m e n 356 3 2 . 7 % 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 and 9 S k i l l e d t o U n s k i l l e d L a b o u r 117 10.7% TOTAL 1 , 0 9 0 1 0 0 . 0 43 S o c i o - E c o n o m i c I n d e x o f O c c u p a t i o n a l G o a l R e s p o n d e n t s w e r e a s k e d t o p r o v i d e a s t a t e m e n t o f t h e i r F i v e y e a r o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l . T h e s e g o a l s w e r e c l a s s i f i e d by t h e B l i s h e n I n d e x ( s e e T a b l e 6 ) . R e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d an o c c u p a t i o n a l g a o l w h i c h was t h e n c o m -p a r e d w i t h t h e i r p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n . The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e i r p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l i n d e x and f i v e y e a r o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l i n d e x was t h e n t r a n s -l a t e d i n t o a number r e f l e c t i n g t h e number o f c a t e g o r i e s b e t w e e n t h e i r p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n and f i v e y e a r o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l . Of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s 2 9 . 5 % o f t h e women i n d i c a t e d no d e s i r e f o r upward c a r e e r m o b i l i t y as a s s e s s e d by t h e B l i s h e n I n d e x C a t e g o r y . O v e r 70% ( 7 0 . 5 % ) o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d a d e s i r e f o r u p w a r d c a r e e m o b i l i t y . TABLE 6 DISTRIBUTION OF WOMEN BY UNITS OF UPWARD CAREER MOBILITY UNIT OF UPWARD CAREER M O B I L I T Y * NUMBER OF WOMEN PERCENT 0 3 2 1 . 5 2 9 . 5 % 1 3 9 2 . 0 3 6 . 0 % 2 9 2 . 2 8 0 5% 3 2 8 4 . 3 2 6 . 0 % TOTAL 1 , 0 9 0 . 0 1 0 0 . 0 * 0 n e i n d i c a t e s a d e s i r e f o r u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y o f one B l i s h e n I n d e x C a t e g o r y , two i n d i c a t e s a d e s i r e f o r upward c a r e e r m o b i l i t y o f two B l i s h e n I n d e x C a t e g o r i e s , e t c . Income o f t h e F a m i l y U n i t T a b l e 7 shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f women by t o t a l i n c o m e o f t h e 44 f a m i l y u n i t . The g r e a t e s t number o f women f e l l i n t o t h e l o w e s t i n c o m e g r o u p c a t e g o r y , 27 p e r c e n t , o r 294 women r e s p o n d e n t s . T h i s i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g as t h e g r e a t e s t number o f t h e women s a m p l e d w e r e s i n g l e . The n e x t l a r g e s t g r o u p o f women f e l l i n t o t h e h i g h e s t i n c o m e c a t e g o r i e s , 37 p e r c e n t o r 4 0 3 women w i t h a t o t a l f a m i l y i n c o m e b e t w e e n $ 1 5 , 0 0 0 a n d o v e r . The r e m a i n i n g r e s p o n d e n t s f e l l i n t o i n c o m e c a t e g o r i e s a s f o l l o w s : 16 p e r c e n t i n t o t h e $ 8 , 0 0 0 - $ 9 , 9 9 9 c a t e g o r y ; 12 p e r c e n t i n t o t h e $ 1 0 , 0 0 0 -$ 1 1 , 9 9 9 c a t e g o r y ; and 8 p e r c e n t i n t o t h e $ 1 2 , 0 0 0 - $ 1 4 , 9 9 9 c a t e g o r y . TABLE 7 DISTRIBUTION OF WOMEN BY TOTAL INCOME OF THE FAMILY UNIT INCOME OF FAMILY UNIT ( d o l l a r s / y e a r ) NUMBER OF WOMEN PERCENT 6 , 0 0 0 - 7 , 9 9 9 294 27% 8 , 0 0 0 - 9 , 9 9 9 175 16% 1 0 , 0 0 0 - 11 , 9 9 9 131 12% 1 2 , 0 0 0 - 1 4 , 9 9 9 87 8% 1 5 , 0 0 0 - 1 9 , 0 0 0 196 18% 2 0 , 0 0 0 - o v e r 207 19% TOTAL 1 , 0 9 0 1 0 0 . 0 E n r o l l m e n t i n a B . C . I . T . C e r t i f i c a t e Programme T a b l e 8 shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f women e n r o l l e d i n a B . C . I . T . C e r t i f i c a t e P r o g r a m m e . The g r e a t e s t number o f women r e s p o n d e n t s (60%) w e r e n o t e n r o l l e d i n a B . C . I . T . C e r t i f i c a t e P r o g r a m m e , as c o m p a r e d t o 40 45 p e r c e n t o f t h e women who w e r e e n r o l l e d i n a B . C . I . T . C e r t i f i c a t e P r o g r a m m e . T h o s e who w e r e n o t e n r o l l e d i n a C e r t i f i c a t e Programme w e r e t a k i n g c o u r s e s on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . TABLE 8 DISTRIBUTION OF WOMEN BY ENROLLMENT IN A B . C . I . T . PROGRAMME TYPE OF PROGRAMME NUMBER OF WOMEN PERCENT B . C . I . T . C e r t i f i c a t e Programme 436 40% C o u r s e E n r o l l m e n t o n l y 654 60% TOTAL 1 , 0 9 0 1 0 0 . 0 Summary The l a r g e s t number o f p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e s i n g l e women, i n t h e 21 - 30 age c a t e g o r y , s e e k i n g s u b s t a n t i a l o c c u p a t i o n a l a d v a n c e m e n t . The a v e r a g e p a r t i c i p a n t , i n a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g s i n g l e and 21 t o 30 y e a r s o f a g e , was e a r n i n g b e t w e e n $ 6 , 0 0 0 and $ 1 2 , 0 0 0 a n n u a l l y . 46 A n a l y s i s o f t h e D a t a T h i s s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s an a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a . I t i n c l u d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f f i n d i n g s f o r e a c h h y p o t h e s i s t e s t e d . C o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e s w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d , and a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e and C h i s q u a r e w e r e u s e d t o t e s t h y p o t h e s e s 1 t h r o u g h 1 0 . E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e D a t a A n a l y s i s U s i n g p r i n c i p a l c o m p o n e n t f a c t o r a n a l y s i s , and a v a r i m a x r o t a t i o n p r o c e d u r e , 6 f a c t o r s w e r e e x t r a c t e d w h i c h w e r e q u i t e s i m i l a r t o t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by M o r s t a i n and S m a r t ( 7 4 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s e 6 f a c t o r s r e s u l t e d i n a p p a r e n t l y r e a s o n a b l e g r o u p s . T h u s , t h e s e 6 f a c t o r s w e r e r e t a i n e d f o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s . T a b l e 9 shows t h e m a j o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e 6 f a c t o r s . TABLE 9 VARIANCE AND R E L A T I V I T I E S FOR S I X E . P . S . FACTORS FACTOR LABEL VARIANCE ACCOUNTED FOR I P r o f e s s i o n a l A d v a n c e m e n t 1 0 . 1 % I I C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t 9 . 4 % I I I S o c i a l W e l f a r e 9 . 3 % IV S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s 6 . 8 % V E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s 5 . 9 % VI E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i on 5 . 9 % 47 T h e s e r e s u l t s c o n f i r m t h e f i n d i n g s o f two o t h e r s t u d i e s o f a d u l t p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d e l s e w h e r e , B o s h i e r ' s (71) s t u d y i n New Z e a l a n d , and M o r s t a i n and S m a r t ' s (74) s t u d y i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . However t h e f a c t o r s f o u n d i n t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e d d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n C a r e e r P r o g r a m m e s . T a b l e 10 shows c o m p a r i s o n s among t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e t h r e e s t u d i e s . B o t h B o s h i e r (71) and M o r s t a i n and S m a r t ( 7 4 ) s t u d i e d p a r t - t i m e g e n e r a l c o l l e g e / u n i v e r s i t y p a r t i c i p a n t s , t h i s s t u d y l o o k e d a t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t programmes w h e r e i n no g e n e r a l s t u d y c o u r s e s a r e o f f e r e d . TABLE 10 EDUCATION'PARTICIPATION SCALE: SECOND-ORDER FACTOR LOADING FACTOR BOSHIER'S STUDY (71) MORSTAIN & SMART'S STUDY (74) THIS STUDY I I n t e r p e r s o n a l I m p r o v e m e n t / E s c a p e S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement I I I n n e r v e r s u s O t h e r D i r e c t e d A d v a n c e m e n t E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t I I I S o c i a l S h a r i n g S o c i a l W e l f a r e S o c i a l W e l f a r e IV A r t i f a c t ( c o n f o r m i t y ) P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s V S e l f - C e n t e r e d v e r s u s A l t r u i s m E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s VI P r o f e s s i o n a l F u t u r e O r i e n t e d n e s s C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n V I I C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t 4 8 P a r t i c i p a t i n g R e a s o n s The n e x t s t a g e o f t h e a n a l y s i s was t o s e e i f t h e r e was a r e l a t i o n -s h i p b e t w e e n r e a s o n s women g i v e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g and t h e i r d e m o g r a p h i c o r i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The f i r s t s i x h y p o t h e s e s o f t h e s t u d y c o n c e r n e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e s e r e a s o n s as m e a s u r e d by t h e E . P . S . S c a l e and m a r i t a l s t a t u s , a g e , i n c o m e , B . C . I . T . p r o g r a m m e , p r e s e n t e m p l o y m e n t and F i v e y e a r o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l . H y p o t h e s i s 1 . R e a s o n s ( g i v e n by women) f o r e n r o l l m e n t i n C a r e e r programmes as m e a s u r e d by f a c t o r s c o r e s on t h e 6 E . P . S . s c a l e s do n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f o r women i n v a r i o u s m a r i t a l s t a t u s c a t e g o r i e s . As p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d , t h e t o t a l s a m p l e o f r e s p o n d e n t s (N = 1 0 9 0 ) was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e m a r i t a l s t a t u s g r o u p s . T a b l e 11 shows t h e a v e r a g e and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n o f f a c t o r s c o r e s f o r t h e E . P . S . s c a l e and t h e i n d i c a t e d m a r i t a l s t a t u s s u b g r o u p s . T h i s was c h e c k e d by an a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (ANOVA). The F t e s t was a p p l i e d as an i n d i c a t o r o f r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n m a r i t a l s t a t u s and t h e f a c t o r s c o r e s . A t t h e f i v e p e r c e n t l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s m u s t be r e j e c t e d f o r t h e f a c t o r s o f C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t and S o c i a l W e l f a r e b u r m u s t be a c c e p t e d f o r a l l o t h e r f a c t o r s . M a r r i e d and " o t h e r " women a p p e a r t o be m o t i v a t e d t o a g r e a t e r d e g r e e by C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t and S o c i a l W e l f a r e r e a s o n s . No o t h e r r e a s o n s r e l a t e t o m a r i t a l s t a t u s . H y p o t h e s i s 2 . R e a s o n s ( g i v e n by women) f o r e n r o l l m e n t i n C a r e e r programmes as m e a s u r e d by f a c t o r s c o r e s on t h e 6 E . P . S . s c a l e s do n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f o r women i n v a r i o u s age c a t e g o r i e s . 49 The t o t a l s a m p l e o f r e s p o n d e n t s was d i v i d e d i n t o f i v e age g r o u p s . F a c t o r . s c o r e s by age c a t e g o r y f o r t e s t i n g t h i s h y p o t h e s i s w e r e n o t a v a i l -a b l e , t h e r e f o r e , t h e e n t r i e s i n T a b l e 12 a r e ( b y e a c h age c a t e g o r y ) t h e mean o f o r i g i n a l v a r i a b l e means w h i c h l o a d on e a c h f a c t o r . Thus t h e e n t r i e s r a n g e b e t w e e n one and f i v e w i t h one r e f l e c t i n g " v e r y l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e " by t h a t f a c t o r and f i v e r e f l e c t i n g " v e r y much i n f l u e n c e " . T a b l e 12 e n t r i e s a r e n o t d i r e c t l y c o m p a r a b l e t h e r e f o r e t o e n t r i e s i n t h e o t h e r t a b l e s i n t h i s s e c t i o n . S i n c e t h e r e was no s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t age and r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i -p a t i o n s h o u l d be r e l a t e d i n l i n e a r f a s h i o n o n l y t h e t e s t o f t h i s h y p o t h e s i s e m p l o y e d a n o n l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n p r o c e d u r e . An F t e s t f o r n o n l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n o f age a g a i n s t r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n was c a l c u l a t e d . A t t h e f i v e p e r c e n t l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s must be a c c e p t e d f o r a l l f a c t o r s e x c e p t E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n . F o r t h e age c a t e g o r i e s 21 - 2 5 ; 31 - 40 and 41 - 60 w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s 64 p e r c e n t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n age and t h e f a c t o r i n d i c a t i n g E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n . Women i n t h e 21 - 25 and 31 - 60 age c a t e g o r i e s a p p e a r t o be more m o t i v a t e d by t h e f a c t o r o f E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n t h a n women i n t h e 17 - 20 and 26 - 30 age c a t e g o r i e s who a r e l e s s m o t i v a t e d by t h i s p a r t i c i -p a t i o n f a c t o r . No o t h e r r e a s o n s r e l a t e d t o a g e . TABLE 11 MARITAL STATUS AND REASONS FOR PARTICIPATION IN B . C . I . T . CAREER PROGRAMMES Number o f Women Reasons f o r P a r t i c i n a t i o n ( Z - S c o r e s ) M a r i t a l S t a t u s P e r c e n t P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t S o c i a l W e l f a r e S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n T o t a l 1090 100% S t . Mean Dev. S t . Mean Dev. S t . Mean Dev. S t . Mean Dev. Mean S t . Dev. S t . Mean Dev. S i n g l e 512 47% - . 0 2 9 1 . 0 9 0 - . 2 7 2 1 .007 - . 1 2 6 . 8 8 2 . 0 0 8 1 .020 - . 0 0 8 . 4 8 3 . 0 3 9 .868 M a r r i e d 436 40% - . 0 3 5 . 9 5 1 . 2 7 0 1.017 . 3 2 6 1 . 1 8 0 . 0 8 2 . 9 8 2 . 0 4 3 1 . 0 6 5 .014 1.131 O t h e r 142 13% . 1 8 2 . 8 1 9 . 2 5 9 . 6 8 5 . 3 6 8 . 6 6 6 . 2 2 8 1 . 0 0 2 " .077 . 9 5 0 . 0 9 9 1.131 OVERALL MEAN 0 . 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 0 0 000 0 . 0 0 0 d f = 2 , 1000 0 . 3 0 2 9 3 . 9 9 3 4 * 3 . 6 4 2 7 * 0 . 5 3 1 6 0 0823 0 . 1 1 9 8 F ( M a r i t a l S t a t u s C a t e g o r i e s ) = 3 . 0 0 = 4 . 6 0 O TABLE 12 AGE GROUP AVERAGES AND REASONS FOR PARTICIPATION IN B . C . I . T . CAREER PROGRAMMES Number o f Women Reasons f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n - (means o f o r i g i n a l v a r i a b l e means) Age • P e r c e n t P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t S o c i a l W e l f a r e S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n T o t a l Age M i d V a l u e o f Age C a t e g o r y 1090 100% 1 7 - 2 0 1 8 . 5 131 12% 1 . 9 8 0 2 . 7 0 3 3 . 1 9 5 3 . 3 5 6 3.601 3 . 5 0 0 21 - 25 23 359 33% 2.114 2 . 8 5 3 3 . 7 0 0 4 . 0 9 4 4 . 1 3 4 4 . 1 0 7 26 - 30 28 262 24% 2 . 0 6 8 3 . 0 7 8 3 . 5 2 9 3.917 4 . 8 5 6 3.877 31 - 40 3 5 . 5 - 174 16% 2 . 0 0 9 2 . 8 2 0 3 . 2 7 4 3 . 8 8 9 3.775 4 . 0 8 6 41 - 60 A v g . 5 0 . 5 2 5 . 3 5 164 15% 2 . 1 9 5 2 . 6 4 8 3.511 4 . 0 9 1 4 . 1 7 5 4 . 4 3 5 r = . 6 8 4 .351 .131 . 5 8 6 .152 . 8 4 8 d f = 4 , 1 0 0 0 F (Age C a t e g o r i e s ) 2 . 6 4 0 0 . 4 2 0 0 . 0 5 3 1 . 5 6 6 0.071 7 . 6 5 8 * F . 0 5 = 3 - 8 4 F _ 0 1 = 6 . 6 3 I en 52 H y p o t h e s i s 3 . R e a s o n s ( g i v e n by women) f o r e n r o l l m e n t i n C a r e e r programmes as m e a s u r e d by f a c t o r s c o r e s on t h e 6 E . P . S . s c a l e s do n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f o r women i n v a r i o u s t o t a l f a m i l y u n i t i n c o m e c a t e g o r i e s . The t o t a l s a m p l e o f women was d i v i d e d i n t o s i x i n c o m e c a t e g o r i e s . T a b l e 13 shows t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n f a c t o r s c o r e s on t h e E . P . S . s c a l e and t h e t o t a l f a m i l y u n i t i n c o m e c a t e g o r i e s i n d i c a t e d . R e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t -ween i n c o m e c a t e g o r i e s a n d f a c t o r s c o r e means w e r e c a l c u l a t e d a s w e l l as t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (ANOVA). A t t h e f i v e p e r c e n t l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s m u s t be a c c e p t e d f o r a l l f a c t o r s e x c e p t C o g n i t i t i v e I n t e r e s t . Thus one c a n c o n c l u d e t h a t f o r t h e 1 , 0 9 0 women t h e g r e a t e r t h e i n c o m e l e v e l t h e more l i k e l y t h e y a r e t o be m o t i v a t e d by c o g n i t i v e i n t e r e s t r e a s o n s , b u t no o t h e r r e a s o n s r e l a t e t o i n c o m e . H y p o t h e s i s 4 . R e a s o n s ( g i v e n by women) f o r e n r o l l m e n t i n C a r e e r programmes as m e a s u r e d by f a c t o r s o c r e s on t h e 6 E . P . S . s c a l e s do n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f o r women i n v a r i o u s e n r o l l m e n t c a t e g o r i e s o f B . C . I . T . p r o -grammes. The t o t a l s a m p l e was d i v i d e d i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s ; t h o s e e n r o l l e d i n a B . C . I . T . c e r t i f i c a t e programme and t h o s e who a r e n o t . T a b l e 14 shows t h e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e and r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n f a c t o r s c o r e s on t h e E . P . S . s c a l e and t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f e n r o l l m e n t . A t t h e f i v e p e r c e n t l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e o r a b o v e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s a c c e p t e d as t h e r e a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h o s e e n r o l l e d a n d n o t e n r o l l e d f o r a n y o f t h e s i x r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . H y p o t h e s i s 5 . T h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l TABLE 13 INCOME GROUPS AND REASONS FOR PARTICIPATION IN B . C . I . T . CAREER PROGRAMMES Number o f Women Reasons f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n ( Z - S c o r e s ) Income o f F a m i l y U n i t ( d o l l a r / y e a r ) P e r c e n t P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t S o c i a l W e l f a r e S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n T o t a l 1090 100% Mean S t . Dev. Mean S t . D e v . Mean S t . Dev. Mean S t . Dev. Mean S t . D e v . Mean S t . D e v . 6 , 0 0 0 - 7 , 9 9 9 295 27% . 1 9 5 1 . 0 8 1 - . 3 9 9 1.111 - . 2 8 4 . 8 8 4 - . 1 2 6 1 . 1 6 5 . 0 1 6 1 . 0 0 8 - . 1 6 2 . 9 1 6 8 , 0 0 0 - 9 , 9 9 9 175 16% - . 3 1 6 . 8 4 3 - . 3 7 9 . 6 8 4 - . 3 3 7 . 9 7 5 . 2 0 6 . 4 7 6 - . 0 1 2 . 5 1 5 . 2 6 6 . 9 9 9 1 0 , 0 0 0 - 1 1 , 9 9 9 131 12% - . 0 0 7 . 9 1 9 . 2 6 6 . 8 5 0 .172 . 9 8 1 . 0 6 7 . 9 7 8 .147 . 8 8 6 . 0 1 8 1 . 1 3 2 1 2 , 0 0 0 - 1 4 , 9 9 9 87 8% - . 3 2 3 1 . 0 6 0 . 0 9 3 1 . 6 4 2 . 5 3 6 1 . 0 5 4 - . 0 3 5 . 8 3 6 . 0 7 6 1 . 2 1 5 - . 4 6 1 . 9 9 3 1 5 , 0 0 0 - 1 9 , 9 9 9 196 18% . 2 4 7 . 6 7 8 . 3 4 3 . 7 7 5 . 0 7 9 1 . 2 5 8 - . 0 3 7 1 . 0 7 0 . 0 6 3 . 8 5 8 . 6 1 4 . 9 0 1 2 0 , 0 0 0 - o v e r 207 19% . 1 5 6 . 7 1 8 . 3 5 4 . 5 8 2 . 1 8 3 1 . 0 3 2 - . 0 3 8 1 . 0 6 3 . 2 6 0 . 9 4 3 .177 1 .131 • OVERALL MEAN . 0 5 7 - . 0 2 4 - . 0 2 5 - . 0 2 0 . 0 5 9 , - . 0 0 6 d f = 5 , 1000 F (Income C a t e g o r i e s ) . 9 5 7 2 . 3 9 2 * 1 . 3 6 7 . 2 0 7 . 2 9 0 1 . 6 6 6 F . 0 5 " 2 ' 2 -F „ . = 3 . 0 2 TABLE 14 CERTIFICATE ENROLLMENT AND REASONS FOR PARTICIPATION IN B . C . I . T . CAREER PROGRAMMES B . C . I . T . C e r t i f i c a t e Program Number o f Women Reasons f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n ( Z - S c o r e s ) P e r c e n t P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t S o c i a l Wei f a r e S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n T o t a l 1090 100% S t . Mean Dev. S t . Mean Dev. • S t . Mean Dev. S t . Mean Dev. Mean S t . Dev. S t . Mean Dev. E n r o l l e d Not E n r o l l e d 436 654 40% • 60% . 0 7 8 1 . 0 3 3 - . 0 8 5 . 9 9 5 .105 . 9 5 9 - . 0 7 2 1 . 0 1 0 .061 1 .012 - . 0 7 7 1 .026 - . 1 5 1 1 . 0 0 9 .161 . 9 6 8 - . 1 3 3 . 0 8 7 1 . 0 4 6 . 9 9 2 - . 1 6 9 1.017 . 1 4 8 . 9 8 5 d f = 1 , 1000 F ( E n r o l l m e n t C a t e g o r i e s ) . 6 5 5 . 8 1 2 .471 , 2 . 5 2 5 1 .182 2 . 5 4 0 F . 0 5 = 3 - 8 4 F > Q 1 = 6 . 6 3 I cn 55 s t a t u s o f women's p r e s e n t e m p l o y m e n t p o s i t i o n s and t h e r e a s o n s women g i v e f o r e n r o l l m e n t i n C a r e e r programmes as m e a s u r e d by f a c t o r s c o r e s on t h e 6 E . P . S . s c a l e s . The t o t a l s a m p l e was a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e i r p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n . The i n d i c a t e d o c c u p a t i o n was t h e n c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o one o f t h e t e n p o s s i b l e B l i s h e n I n d e x c a t e g o r i e s . T a b l e 15 shows t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f f a c t o r s c o r e s on t h e E . P . S . s c a l e s and p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s i n d i c a t e d . A t t h e f i v e p e r c e n t l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s a c c e p t e d f o r a l l b u t t h e f a c t o r l o a d i n g on C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t . T h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y and C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t . Women i n l o w s t a t u s o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s have a g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g f o r r e a s o n s o f C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t . Women i n h i g h e r s t a t u s o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s a l s o a p p e a r t o be m o t i v a t e d by r e a s o n s o f C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t . No o t h e r r e a s o n s r e l a t e d t o p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s . B l i s h e n c a t e g o r y f o u r c o n t a i n s s u c h o c c u p a t i o n s as m a n a g e r s and c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s as c o m p a r e d t o c a t e g o r i e s f i v e t h r o u g h t e n w h i c h c o n t a i n o c c u p a t i o n s s u c h as n u r s i n g a s s i s t a n t s , h a i r d r e s s e r s , l a b o u r e r s , l a u n d r y w o r k e r s and b a k e r s . H y p o t h e s i s 6 . T h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e a n t i c i p a t e d c h a n g e i n s t a t u s o f women's o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l ( f i v e y e a r s i n t h e f u t u r e ) and t h e r e a s o n s women g i v e f o r e n r o l l m e n t i n C a r e e r programmes as m e a s u r e d by f a c t o r s c o r e s on t h e 6 E . P . S . s c a l e s . The r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e a F i v e y e a r o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l . The i n d i c a t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l was c l a s s i f i e d i n t o one o f t h e t e n p o s s i b l e B l i s h e n I n d e x c a t e g o r i e s . The d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s TABLE 15 OCCUPATIONAL STATUS AND REASONS FOR PARTICIPATION IN B . C . I . T . CAREER PROGRAMMES B l i hen S o c i o -Economic Index o f O c c u p a t i o n Number o f Women Reasons f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n s ( Z - S c o r e s ) P e r c e n t P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t S o c i a l . W e l f a r e S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n T o t a l 1090 100% Mean . S t . Dev. S t . Mean Dev. Mean S t . Dev. Mean S t . Dev. Mean S t . Dev. Mean S t . Dev. C a t e g o r y 1 & 2 109 10.0% - . 0 7 1 . 9 1 2 . 1 8 9 . 8 4 0 .487 . 8 6 3 . 4 8 8 . 5 9 9 - . 0 0 1 . 8 5 5 - . 4 8 7 1 . 0 4 5 C a t e g o r y 3 508 4 6 . 6 % - . 0 1 6 . 9 0 5 . 1 9 3 . 6 9 8 - . 0 8 0 . 9 0 3 - . 0 2 8 .914 . 1 0 9 . 8 7 5 . 0 6 8 . 9 8 0 C a t e g o r y 4 356 32.7% - . 0 2 3 1 . 2 0 2 - . 4 5 5 1 . 2 0 8 - . 2 4 0 . 8 3 4 . 0 1 0 1 . 2 6 9 - . 0 6 5 1 .219 - . 1 1 2 . 9 0 5 C a t e g o r y 5 , 6 , 7 8 & 9 117 10.7% . 0 2 0 1 . 2 9 7 . 4 5 2 .912 .229 .782 - . 1 8 0 1 . 1 3 9 - . 3 3 9 1 . 3 3 0 - . 2 6 8 1 . 0 2 5 OVERALL MEAN - . 0 2 0 .041 - . 0 8 3 .017 . 0 0 7 - . 0 6 8 d f = 3 , 1000 F ( O c c u p a t i o n a l C a t e g o r y ) j . 0 1 3 4 . 1 7 7 * 1 .827 .867 . 6 0 8 1 .142 F Q 5 = 2 . 6 0 . F .01 = 3 - 7 8 cn TABLE 16 OCCUPATIONAL MOBILITY AND REASONS FOR PARTICIPATION IN B . C . I . T . CAREER PROGRAMMES Number o f Women Reasons f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n ( Z - S c o r e s ) U n i t s o f Upward M o b i l i t y P e r c e n t P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t S o c i a l W e l f a r e S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s Escape S t i m u l a t i o n T o t a l 1090 100% Mean S t . Dev. Mean S t . Dev. Mean S t . Dev. Mean S t . Dev. Mean S t . Dev. Mean S t . Dev. C a t e g o r y 1 556 51% . 0 6 4 .901 . 0 . 9 6 4 . 0 7 3 . 9 9 2 . 0 2 2 .991 .154 . 9 2 9 - . 1 5 0 . 9 5 8 C a t e g o r y 2 131 12% . 0 1 0 . 7 3 8 . 4 5 2 . 6 0 9 - . 0 3 3 .861 . 1 5 9 1 . 0 4 0 .331 . 6 1 8 . 0 0 8 1 . 1 6 4 C a t e g o r y 3 403 37% , 0 4 2 . 9 1 5 - . 2 4 0 . 9 3 9 - . 2 5 1 1 .051 - . 0 7 4 . 9 5 5 .277 . 9 4 3 . 2 8 9 . 9 0 8 OVERALL d f = 2 , MEAN 1000 . 0 4 8 - . 0 1 8 - . 0 5 5 . 0 0 8 . 0 3 0 . 0 2 6 F ( O c c u p a t i o n a l G o a l ) . 0 2 0 2 . 6 4 4 . 9 7 5 . 2 6 4 2 . 9 7 6 1 . 8 7 2 = 3 . 0 0 = 4 . 6 1 58 c u r r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a n d F i v e y e a r o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l was t h e n c a l c u l a t e d by s u b t r a c t i n g one f r o m t h e o t h e r . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a m e a s u r e o f d e s i r e f o r u p w a r d o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y . T a b l e 16 shows t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e f a c t o r s c o r e s on e a c h E . P . S . s c a l e and t h e F i v e y e a r o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l i n d i c a t e d . The t h e f i v e p e r c e n t l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s a c c e p t e d f o r a l l f a c t o r s . H o w e v e r , t h e f a c t o r s o f C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t and E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s a p p r o a c h a f i v e p e r c e n t l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . Upward C a r e e r M o b i l i t y and D e m o g r a p h i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s U s i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' s B l i s h e n I n d e x c a t e g o r y r e s p o n s e f o r a F i v e y e a r o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l a n d t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n as a m e a s u r e o f u p w a r d m o b i l i t y , c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e s o f t h i s d i f f e r e n c e c o m p a r i n g o t h e r d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d . T h i s was done i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e was any r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a and d e s i r e f o r u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y . The c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e s w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d f o r d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s v e r s u s t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n r e s p o n d e n t s ' o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l B l i s h e n I n d e x c a t e g o r y w i t h t h e i r p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l B l i s h e n I n d e x c a t e g o r y w e r e u s e d t o t e s t H y p o t h e s e s 7 t h r o u g h 1 0 . H y p o t h e s i s 7 . T h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e d e s i r e s f o r u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y a n d t h e m a r i t a l s t a t u s o f t h e women. T a b l e 17 s u m m a r i z e s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o v e r a l l u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y v e r s u s m a r i t a l s t a t u s i n d i c a t e d . A t t h e f i v e p e r c e n t l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s c a n n o t be r e j e c t e d f o r a l l o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l c a t e g o r i e s v e r s u s m a r i t a l s t a t u s . T h e r e f o r e t h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p TABLE 17 CAREER MOBILITY AND MARITAL STATUS D i f f e r e n c e B e t w e e n P r e s e n t O c c u p a t i o n and O c c u p a t i o n a l G o a l by B l i s h e n C a t e g o r y 0 1 2 3 TOTALS MARITAL STATUS NO. % NO. % NO. % NO. % NO. % S i n g l e 120 1 1 . 0 132 12.1 140 1 2 . 8 120 1 1 . 0 512 4 7 . 0 M a r r i e d 172 1 5 . 8 59 5 . 4 104 9 . 5 101 9 . 3 436 4 0 . 0 O t h e r 31 2 . 8 32 3 . 0 55 5 . 1 24 2 . 2 142 1 3 . 0 TOTAL 323 2 9 . 6 2 2 3 2 0 . 5 299 2 7 . 4 245 2 2 . 5 1090 1 0 0 . 0 Due t o r o u n d i n g % ' s a c r o s s rows may n o t e q u a l T o t a l % C h i S q u a r e X 2 = 6 . 9 8 , d f = 6 X 2 > ( J 1 = 1 6 . 8 60 b e t w e e n m a r i t a l s t a t u s a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l . H y p o t h e s i s 8 . T h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e d e s i r e s f o r u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y and t h e age o f t h e women. T a b l e 18 s u m m a r i z e s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o v e r a l l u p w a r d d e s i r e s f o r c a r e e r m o b i l i t y and a g e . A t t h e f i v e p e r c e n t l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s must be r e j e c t e d . The g r e a t e s t m o b i l i t y was o b s e r v e d i n t h e m i d - a g e c a t e g o r i e s w i t h l e s s m o b i l i t y o b s e r v e d a t t h e y o u n g e r and o l d e r e x t r e m e s . T h o s e e x p r e s s i n g no d e s i r e f o r u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y r e p r e s e n t 2 7 . 7 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n wand w i t h i n t h a t c a t e g o r y 5 5 . 2 p e r c e n t a r e b e t w e e n 21 a n d 30 y e a r s o f age and 4 4 . 8 p e r c e n t a r e o v e r 30 y e a r s o f a g e . Of t h e t o t a l r e s p o n d e n t s 57 p e r c e n t f a l l i n t o t h e 21 - 30 age c a t e g o r y . A p p r o x i m a t e l y one h a l f o f t h e women i n t h e 1 7 - 2 0 age c a t e g o r y e x p r e s s e d l i t t l e o r no d e s i r e f o r u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y . T h o s e t h a t d i d s e e k upward m o b i l i t y w e r e s e e k i n g o c c u p a t i o n s t h r e e B l i s h e n c a t e g o r i e s a b o v e t h e i r p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n . Of t h e women s e e k i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y , women i n t h e 21 - 30 age c a t e o g r y h a d t h e g r e a t e s t d e s i r e f o r u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y . Women i n t h e 31 - 60 age c a t e g o r i e s e x p r e s s e d a m o d e r a t e d e s i r e f o r u p w a r d m o b i l i t y . H y p o t h e s i s 9 . T h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e d e s i r e s f o r upward c a r e e r m o b i l i t y and t h e t o t a l i n c o m e o f t h e f a m i l y u n i t . , T a b l e 19 i n d i c a t e s t h e d i s t r i b t i o n o f o v e r a l l u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y and t h e t o t a l i n c o m e o f t h e f a m i l y u n i t . A t t h e f i v e p e r c e n t l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s must be a c c e p t e d , and t h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t o t a l i n c o m e o f t h e f a m i l y u n i t and d e s i r e f o r TABLE 18 CAREER MOBILITY AND AGE D i f f e r e n c e Between P r e s e n t O c c u p a t i o n and O c c u p a t i o n a l G o a l b y B l i s h e n C a t e g o r y AGE 0 1 2 3 TOTALS NO. % NO. % NO, % NO. % NO, % 1 7 - 2 0 0 0 55 5 . 0 0 0 76 7 . 0 131 1 2 . 0 21 - 25 69 6 , 3 86 7 , 9 135 1 2 , 4 69 6 ? 3 359 3 3 , 0 26 - 30 98 9 . 0 48 4 , 4 68 6 , 2 48 4 . 4 262 2 4 . 0 31 - 40 68 6 . 2 39 3 . 6 48 4 , 5 19 1 . 8 174 1 6 . 0 41 - 60 68 6 . 2 19 1 , 7 33 3 , 0 44 4 . 1 i 164 1 5 , 0 TOTAL 303 2 7 , 7 247 2 2 . 6 284 2 6 . 1 256 2 3 , 6 1090 1 0 0 . 0 X 2 = 2 6 . 9 0 ; d f • = 12 X 2 . 0 5 = 2 1 - ° X . 0 1 = 2 6 - 2 TABLE 19 CAREER MOBILITY AND FAMILY UNIT.INCOME D i f f e r e n c e B e t w e e n P r e s e n t O c c u p a t i o n and O c c u p a t i o n a l G o a l by B l i s h e n C a t e g o r y INCOME OF FAMILY UNIT 0 1 2 3 TOTALS ( D o l l a r s / y e a r ) NO. % NO. % NO. % NO. i % NO. % 6 , 0 0 0 - 7 , 9 9 9 43 3 . 9 74 6 . 9 70 6 . 4 107 9 . 8 294 2 7 . 0 8 , 0 0 0 - 9 , 9 9 9 44 4 . 1 55 5 . 0 65 6 . 0 11 1 . 0 175 1 6 . 0 1 0 , 0 0 0 - 1 1 , 9 9 9 60 5 . 5 27 2 . 5 27 2 . 5 1 . 5 131 1 2 . 0 1 2 , 0 0 0 - 1 4 , 9 9 9 16 1 . 5 22 2 . 0 33 3 . 0 16 1 . 5 87 8 . 0 1 5 , 0 0 0 - 1 9 , 9 9 9 78 7 . 2 25 2 . 3 36 3 . 3 57 5 . 2 196 1 8 . 0 2 0 , 0 0 0 - o v e r 89 8 . 2 25 2 . 3 68 6 . 2 25 2 . 3 * 207 1 9 . 0 TOTAL 330 3 0 . 3 228 2 1 . 0 299 2 7 . 4 233 2 1 . 3 1090 1 0 0 . 0 X" = 1 6 . 5 6 , d f = 15 = 2 5 . 0 = 3 0 . 6 63 u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y . H y p o t h e s i s 1 0 . T h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e d e s i r e s f o r u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y a n d e n r o l l m e n t i n a B . C . I . T . c e r t i f i c a t e p r o g r a m m e . T a b l e 20 s u m m a r i z e s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o v e r a l l u p w a r d d e s i r e f o r c a r e e r m o b i l i t y a n d e n r o l l m e n t i n a B . C . I . T . c e r t i f i c a t e p r o g r a m m e . A t t h e f i v e p e r c e n t l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s m u s t be a c c e p t e d and t h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n e n r o l l m e n t i n a c e r t i f i c a t e programme and d e s i r e f o r u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y . i TABLE 20 B . C . I . T . CERTIFICATE PROGRAMME ENROLLMENT D i f f e r e n c e Between P r e s e n t O c c u p a t i o n and O c c u p a t i o n a l G o a l by B l i s h e n C a t e g o r y B . C . I . T . CERTIFICATE PROGRAMME 0 1 2 3 TOTALS NO. % NO. % NO. % MO. % NO. % E n r o l l e d 102 9 . 4 53 4 ? 8 170 1 5 . 6 I l l 1 0 . 2 436 4 0 . 0 Not e n r o l l e d 230 2 1 . 1 171 1 5 . 7 141 1 2 . 9 112 1 0 . 3 654 6 0 . 0 TOTAL 332 3 0 . 5 224 2 0 , 5 311 2 9 . 5 2 2 3 2 0 . 5 1090 1 0 0 . 0 I X 2 = 7 . 1 4 , d f = 3 X 2 . 0 5 = 7 ' 8 1 X2 ftl = 1 1 . 3 0 CHAPTER IV SUMMARY, DISCUSSION OF F I N D I N G S , CONCLUSIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS SUMMARY The c e n t r a l p r o b l e m o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r e a s o n s women g i v e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c a r e e r programmes a t t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y . An a t t e m p t was a l s o made t o m e a s u r e t h e d e s i r e f o r u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y b e t w e e n g r o u p s o f women b a s e d on m a r i t a l s t a t u s , a g e , i n c o m e f o r t h e f a m i l y u n i t , and e n r o l l m e n t i n a B . C . I . T . c e r t i f i c a t e p r o g r a m m e . The S a m p l e The s a m p l e c o n s i s t e d o f 1090 women p a r t i c i p a n t s e n r o l l e d i n t h e C a r e e r Programmes D i v i s i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y f o r t h e F a l l , 1974 t e r m . The p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e s a m p l e d as a r e q u i r e m e n t t o r e g i s t e r f o r t h e F a l l , 1974 t e r m d u r i n g t h e c o u n s e l l i n g / r e g i s t r a t i o n week i n S e p t e m b e r 1 9 7 4 . I n s t r u m e n t s The E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e . T h i s E . P . S . s c a l e was d e v e l o p e d by B o s h i e r (71) t o p r o v i d e an a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e a s o n s p a r t i c i -p a n t s g i v e f o r a t t e n d i n g a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e s . The E . P . S . s c a l e c o n t a i n s 48 i t e m s w h i c h w e r e i s o l a t e d i n t o 6 f a c t o r s i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , , The o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e f a c t o r s a c c o u n t e d f o r l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n s o f 65 66 t h e v a r i a n c e w a s : p r o f e s s i o n a l a d v a n c e m e n t , c o g n i t i v e i n t e r e s t , s o c i a l w e l f a r e , s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , e x t e r n a l e x p e c t a t i o n s , a n d e s c a p e / s t i m u l a t i o n . S o c i o - E c o n o m i c I n d e x f o r O c c u p a t i o n s i n C a n a d a ( B l i s h e n I n d e x ) . The B l i s h e n I n d e x r a n k s 320 o c c u p a t i o n s on t h e b a s i s o f i n c o m e and e d u c a t i o n . Ten i n d e x c a t e g o r i e s e a c h c o n t a i n i n g 32 o c c u p a t i o n s w e r e u s e d . D e m o g r a p h i c s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e q u e s t e d d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a a b o u t r e s p o n d e n t s ' m a r i t a l s t a t u s , a g e , p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n , F i v e y e a r o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l , t o t a l i n c o m e o f t h e f a m i l y u n i t , and e n r o l l m e n t i n a B . C . I . T . c e r t i f i c a t e p r o g r a m m e . D a t a C o l l e c t i o n W i t h t h e p e r m i s s i o n and c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e D i r e c t o r o f t h e C a r e e r Programmes D i v i s i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d t o women r e g i s t r a n t s d u r i n g t h e two week r e g i s t r a t i o n / c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n h e l d i m m e d i a t e l y p r i o r t o t h e s t a r t o f t h e F a l l , 1974 t e r m . D a t a on t o t a l s t u d e n t e n r o l l m e n t and t h e b r e a k d o w n o f m a l e - f e m a l e e n r o l l m e n t f o r t h e F a l l , 1974 t e r m w e r e o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e C a r e e r Programmes D i v i s i o n . The number o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e t u r n e d was 1 , 1 8 7 , a 9 1 . 3 p e r c e n t r e t u r n . N i n e t y - s e v e n w e r e d i s c a r d e d b e c a u s e o f i n c o r r e c t c o m p l e t i o n , p a r t i a l c o m p l e t i o n o r i n a c c u r a t e i n i t i a l c o l l a t i o n . The number o f u s a b l e q u e s t i o n n a i r s was 1 , 0 9 0 ; 9 0 . 8 p e r c e n t . A n a l y s i s Ten h y p o t h e s e s w e r e p o s t u l a t e d , f o u r r e l a t e d t o t h e r e a s o n s women g i v e n f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c a r e e r programme c o u r s e s and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e s e r e a s o n s a n d : m a r i t a l s t a t u s , a g e , p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n , F i v e 67 y e a r o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l , t o t a l i n c o m e o f t h e f a m i l y u n i t , e n r o l l m e n t i n a B . C . I . T . c e r t i f i c a t e p r o g r a m m e . Two h y p o t h e s e s r e l a t e d t o t h e c u r r e n t o c c u p a t i o n , t h e i r F i v e y e a r o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l , s t a t u s o f women and t h e r e a s o n s women g i v e f o r e n r o l l m e n t i n B . C . I . T . c a r e e r p r o g r a m m e s . F o u r r e m a i n i n g h y p o t h e s e s t e s t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e i r d e s i r e f o r u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y and t h e i r m a r i t a l s t a t u s , a g e , t o t a l i n c o m e o f t h e f a m i l y u n i t , and e n r o l l m e n t i n a B . C . I . T . c e r t i f i c a t e p r o g r a m m e . R e s p o n s e s t o t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e w e r e f a c t o r a n a l y z e d by t h e p r i n c i p a l c o m p o n e n t m e t h o d a n d t h e r e s u l t i n g 15 f i r s t - o r d e r f a c t o r s w h i c h w e r e a n a l y z e d by C a t t e l V s ( 6 6 ) " S c r e e T e s t " o f l i n e a r i t y o f c u r v a t u r e o f t h e e i g e n v a l u e s . S i x s e c o n d - o r d e r f a c t o r s w e r e e x t r a c t e d f o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s . D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s w e r e u s e d t o a n a l y z e t h e d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a a n d o v e r a l l u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y . C h i S q u a r e t e s t s w e r e u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n t h e d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a a n d o v e r a l l u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y . R e s u l t s As d e f i n e d and m e a s u r e d by t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e 6 h y p o t h e s e s w e r e t e s t e d a n d f o u n d as f o l l o w s : N u l l H y p o t h e s i s 1 , t h a t t h e r e a s o n s ( g i v e n by women) f o r e n r o l l m e n t i n c a r e e r programmes as m e a s u r e d by f a c t o r s c o r e s on t h e 6 E . P . S . S c a l e s do n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f o r women i n v a r i o u s m a r i t a l s t a t u s c a t e g o r i e s , was r e j e c t e d f o r t h e f a c t o r s o f C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t and S o c i a l W e l f a r e and a c c e p t e d f o r a l l o t h e r f a c t o r s . C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t and S o c i a l W e l f a r e i s g r e a t e r among women i n t h e m a r r i e d and " o t h e r " m a r i t a l s t a t u s c a t e g o r i e s . Women i n t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s g e n e r a l l y have a g r e a t e r number o f r o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as c o m p a r e d t o s i n g l e 68 women a n d t h e r e f o r e a p p e a r t o be. i n f l u e n c e d by t h e r e a s o n s o f C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t and S o c i a l W e l f a r e t o a g r e a t e r d e g r e e . N u l l H y p o t h e s i s 2 , t h a t t h e r e a s o n s ( g i v e n by women) f o r e n r o l l m e n t i n c a r e e r programmes as m e a s u r e d by f a c t o r s c o r e s on t h e 6 E . P . S . S c a l e s do n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f o r women i n v a r i o u s age c a t e g o r i e s , was a c c e p t e d f o r a l l f a c t o r s e x c e p t E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n . E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n a f f e c t s t h e m o t i v a t i o n o f women m o s t d r a m a t i c a l l y i n t h e 21 - 25 a n d 31 - 60 age c a t e g o r i e s . The r o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h e x i s t i n g l i f e s t y l e s u s u a l l y a f f e c t women i n t h e s e age c a t e g o r i e s a l t h o u g h m o s t n o t a b l y women i n t h e 31 - 60 c a t e g o r y . N u l l H y p o t h e s i s 3 , t h a t t h e r e a s o n s ( g i v e n by women) f o r e n r o l l m e n t i n c a r e e r programmes as m e a s u r e d by f a c t o r s c o r e s on t h e 6 E . P . S . S c a l e s do n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f o r women i n v a r i o u s t o t a l f a m i l y u n i t i n c o m e c a t e g o r i e s , was a c c e p t e d f o r a l l f a c t o r s e x c e p t C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t . Women i n t h e h i g h e r i n c o m e g r o u p s ( a b o v e $ 1 5 , 0 0 0 ) a r e t h o s e m o s t m o t i v a t e d by c o g n i t i v e i n t e r e s t r e a s o n s . W i t h i n c o m e s i n e x c e s s o f $ 1 5 , 0 0 0 women i n t h i s c a t e g o r y may have t h e l a t i t u t d e t o p a r t i c i p a t e f o r r e a s o n s o f p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n a p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t . N u l l H y p o t h e s i s 4 , t h a t t h e r e a s o n s ( g i v e n by women) f o r e n r o l l -ment i n c a r e e r programmes as m e a s u r e d by f a c t o r s c o r e s on t h e 6 E . P . S . S c a l e s do n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f o r owmen i n v a r i o u s e n r o l l m e n t c a t e -g o r i e s o f B . C . I . T . p r o g r a m m e s , was a c c e p t e d f o r a l l f a c t o r s . N u l l H y p o t h e s i s 5 , t h a t t h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s o f owmen 1 s p r e s e n t e m p l o y m e n t p o s i t i o n s and t h e r e a s o n s women g i v e f o r e n r o l l m e n t i n c a r e e r programmes as m e a s u r e d by f a c t o r s c o r e s on t h e 6 E . P . S . S c a l e s , was a c c e p t e d f o r a l l f a c t o r s e x c e p t 69 C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t . C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t a p p e a r s as a m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r w h i c h i n f l u e n c e s women b o t h i n v e r y l o w p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s a n d t h o s e i n t h e h i g h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s as c o n t r a s t e d t o women i n m i d s t a t u s o c c u p a t i o n s s u c h n u r s i n g . T h e s e r e s u l t s may h a v e e m e r g e d a s a r e s u l t o f t h e t y p e o f o c c u p a t i o n s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s a n d t h e n a t u r a l m o b i l i t y p a t t e r n w i t h i n c a r e e r s w h i c h a r e c o n t a i n e d i n t h e h i g h e r o c c u -p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s . C l e r i c a l p o s i t i o n s a r e c o n t a i n e d i n B l i s h e n c a t e g o r y f i v e , f o r e x a m p l e . N u l l H y p o t h e s i s 6 , t h a t t h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e s t a t u s o f women's o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l ( f i v e y e a r s i n t h e f u t u r e ) and t h e r e a s o n s women g i v e f o r e n r o l l m e n t i n c a r e e r programmes as m e a s u r e d by t h e f a c t o r s c o r e s i n t h e 6 E . P . S . S c a l e s , was a c c e p t e d f o r a l l f a c t o r s . N u l l H y p o t h e s i s 7 , t h a t t h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e d e s i r e s f o r u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y and t h e m a r i t a l s t a t u s o f t h e women, was a c c e p t e d f o r a l l o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l c a t e g o r i e s v e r s u s . m a r i t a l s t a t u s . N u l l H y p o t h e s i s 8 , t h a t t h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e d e s i r e s f o r u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y a n d t h e age o f t h e women, was r e j e c t e d f o r a l l age c a t e g o r i e s . Women i n a l l age c a t e g o r i e s e x p r e s s e d some d e s i r e f o r u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y . M o s t n o t a b l y , women i n t h e 21 - 2 5 , and 26 - 30 age c a t e g o r y e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t s i n o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h w e r e a t l e a s t one B l i s h e n c a t e g o r y a b o v e t h e i r c u r r e n t o c c u p a t i o n . Women i n t h e s e age c a t e g o r i e s may have t h e most r e a l i s t i c o p p o r t u n i t y o f a c h i e v i n g t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e o c c u -p a t i o n a l g o a l s and t h i s may be t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e i r e x p r e s s i n g a s t r o n g d e s i r e f o r u p w a r d m o b i l i t y . 70 N u l l H y p o t h e s i s 9 , t h a t t h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e d e s i r e s f o r upward c a r e e r m o b i l i t y and t h e t o t a l i n c o m e o f t h e f a m i l y u n i t , was a c c e p t e d f o r a l l i n c o m e c a t e g o r i e s . N u l l H y p o t h e s i s 1 0 , t h a t t h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e d e s i r e s , f o r upward c a r e e r m o b i l i t y and e n r o l l m e n t i n a B . C . I . T . c e r t i f i c a t e p r o g r a m m e , was a c c e p t e d f o r t h e two e n r o l l m e n t c a t e g o r i e s . TABLE 21 SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT RELATIONS AND DEMOGRAPHIC DATA DEMOGRAPHIC S i g n i f i c a n t R e l a t i o n s h i p s E . P . S . F a c t o r C a r e e r M o b i l i t y M a r i t a l S t a t u s C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t / S o c i a l W e l f a r e Not s i g n i f i c a n t Age E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i on S i g n i f i c a n t T o t a l Income o f F a m i l y U n i t None Not s i g n i f i c a n t E n r o l l m e n t i n C a r e e r Programmes None S u g g e s t e d s i g n i f i c a n c e P r e s e n t O c c u p a t i o n C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t Not t e s t e d 71 DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e The f i n d i n g s o f two o t h e r s t u d i e s u s i n g t h e E . P . S . S c a l e , B o s h i e r (77) and M o r s t a i n a n d S m a r t ( 7 4 ) , i n d i c a t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s o c i a l a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n s as t h e p r i m a r y r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m m e s . T h e s e s t u d i e s w e r e o f g e n e r a l p a r t - t i m e c o l l e g e p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h i s s t u d y d e a l s w i t h women a t t e n d i n g p a r t - t i m e i n a c a r e e r o r i e n t e d i n s t i t u t i o n . The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y i n t e r e s t i n g l y i n d i c a t e t h a t P r o f e s s i o n a l A d v a n c e m e n t and C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t a r e t h e p r i m a r y r e a s o n s f o r women a t t e n d i n g B . C . I . T . ' s c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n p r o -grammes. P a r t i c i p a t i o n R e a s o n s and D e m o g r a p h i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s M a r i t a l S t a t u s . As i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e r e v i e w o f r e l a t e d l i t e r a -t u r e ( C h a p t e r I I ) r o l e c o n f l i c t was i d e n t i f i e d as a f a c t o r w h i c h a f f e c t s women's r e a s o n s f o r commitment t o a c a r e e r o r m o t i v a t i o n t o l e a r n . In t h i s s a m p l e , 40 p e r c e n t o f t h e women w e r e m a r r i e d , 47 p e r c e n t s i n g l e and t h e r e m a i n i n g 13 p e r c e n t f a l l i n t o t h e " o t h e r " c a t e g o r y . R e l a t i n g t h e E . P . S . S c a l e t o t h e m a r i t a l s t a t u s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e s t h a t C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t and S o c i a l W e l f a r e as c a t e g o r i e s o f r e a s o n s f o r e n r o l l m e n t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f o r women by m a r i t a l s t a t u s . Women who a r e m a r r i e d o r " o t h e r " e x p r e s s c o g n i t i v e i n t e r e s t and s o c i a l w e l f a r e as r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n more o f t e n t h a n s i n g l e women. R o l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and c o n f l i c t s w o u l d m o s t p r o b a b l y emerge i n t h e m a r r i e d a n d " o t h e r " m a r i t a l s t a t u s c a t e g o r i e s . 72 A g e . F i f t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t o f t h e women w e r e i n t h e n o r m a l c h i l d r e a r i n g a g e s b e t w e e n 21 t o 3 0 . T h i s f i n d i n g s u g g e s t s t h a t i n s p i t e o f r o l e c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n t h e r o l e s o f w i f e , m o t h e r a n d c a r e e r , many women w e r e s e e k i n g c a r e e r a d v a n c e m e n t t h r o u g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c a r e e r e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The r e v i e w o f r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e f o u n d t h a t l a c k o f t i m e t o h a n d l e s e v e r a l r o l e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y was an o b s t a c l e t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t i n s p i t e o f t h i s o b s t a c l e many women w e r e a b l e t o b a l a n c e t h e s e r o l e c o n f l i c t s and f i n d t h e t i m e t o a t t e n d c a r e e r programme c o u r s e s . C o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n E . P . S . and age showed l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x c e p t f o r t h e f a c t o r o f E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n . E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n i s a more o f t e n r e a s o n f o r b o t h o l d e r women (31 - 6 0 ) and y o u n g e r women (21 - 2 5 ) f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g t h a n f o r women i n t h e 1 7 - 2 0 a n d 26 - 30 age c a t e g o r y . The r e v i e w o f r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e n o t e d t h a t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h e x i s t i n g l i f e s t y l e s was one f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g t h e m o t i v a t i o n t o l e a r n . In p a r t , t h i s c o u l d a c c o u n t f o r t h e l o a d i n g o n t o t h e E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n f a c t o r f o r women i n t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e s e o l d e r / y o u n g e r c a t e g o r i e s o f women a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g c h a n g i n g r o l e s a s w i f e and m o t h e r as t h e i r c h i l d r e n grow up a n d t h e i r h u s b a n d ' s c a r e e r s a d v a n c e . The p r e s s u r e s f o r c h a n g e s i n s e l f and r o l e p e r c e p t i o n a r e l i k e l y g r e a t e s t d u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s . T o t a l F a m i l y U n i t I n c o m e . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t 37 p e r -c e n t o f t h e women p a r t i c i p a n t s come f r o m f a m i l y u n i t s w h e r e t h e t o t a l f a m i l y i n c o m e ( 1 7 4 ) was $ 1 5 , 0 0 0 o r o v e r . The n e x t l a r g e s t p e r c e n t a g e (27 p e r c e n t ) came f r o m t h e l o w e s t c a t e g o r y o f $ 6 , 0 0 0 t o $ 7 , 9 9 9 t o t a l f a m i l y i n c o m e c a t e g o r y . 73 In a d d i t i o n , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e E . P . S . S c a l e a n d t o t a l i n c o m e o f t h e f a m i l y u n i t i n d i c a t e s t h a t C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t i s n o t a r e a s o n f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g b e l o w $ 1 5 , 0 0 0 . The r e v i e w o f r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e n o t e d t h a t l a c k o f f i n a n c i a l a i d was an o b s t a c l e t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r women. E n r o l l m e n t i n a B . C . I . T . C e r t i f i c a t e P r o g r a m m e . E n r o l l m e n t i n a B . C . I . T . c e r t i f i c a t e programme m o s t o f t e n o c c u r s a f t e r a p a r t i c i p a n t has t a k e n s e v e r a l c o u r s e s w i t h i n t h e C a r e e r Programmes a r e a . The f a c t t h a t o n l y 40 p e r c e n t o f t h e women a r e c u r r e n t l y e n r o l l e d i n a c e r t i f i c a t e p r o -gramme was n o t u n u s u a l a s t h e y c a n e n r o l l a t any t i m e d u r i n g t h e i r p r o -gramme o f s t u d i e s a t B . C . I . T . S o c i o - E c o n o m i c D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e S a m p l e . N i n e t y p e r c e n t o f t h e women f a l l i n t o s o c i o - e c o n o m i c o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h w e r e d e s c r i b e d u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g s o f s u p e r v i s o r y / s a l e s ; c l e r i c a l / f o r e m a n ; a n d s k i l l e d t o u n s k i l l e d l a b o u r . T h i s s a m p l e c o n f i r m s t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n t h a t a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e women ( 9 0 . 0 p e r c e n t ) w e r e f o u n d i n o c c u -p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h c o n t a i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f e m a l e o c c u p a t i o n s . As i n d i c a t e d i n t h e r e v i e w o f r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e , many women have s o u g h t c a r e e r s p r e s c r i b e d l a r g e l y by t h e r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n o f o t h e r s . T h e s e t r a d i t i o n a l c a r e e r r o l e s w e r e i n a r e a s a c c e p t e d f o r women s u c h as s e c r e t -a r i a l , t e a c h i n g a n d n u r s i n g o c c u p a t i o n s . When a s k e d a b o u t t h e i r f i v e y e a r o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l , 7 0 . 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e women i n d i c a t e d an o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l o f one o r more s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c a t e g o r i e s a b o v e t h e i r p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n . A s i g n i f i c a n t p e r c e n t a g e ( 2 9 . 5 p e r c e n t ) o f t h e women i n d i c a t e d no d e s i r e f o r u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y b e t w e e n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c a t e g o r i e s . Some o f t h i s c o u l d be a c c o u n t e d f o r by 74 an e x a m p l e s u c h a s a n u r s e who w a n t s t o a c q u i r e s u p e r v i s o r y / m a n a g e r i a l s k i l l s i n o r d e r t o become a s u p e r v i s i n g n u r s e , t h i s w o u l d n o t be c o u n t e d a s s e e k i n g an i n c r e a s e i n o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y by t h e B l i s h e n S c a l e . The r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e c o n c l u d e d t h a t women, i n s p i t e o f money a n d v a r i e d o b s t a c l e s t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n , w e r e s e e k i n g c a r e e r m o b i l i t y . T h i s s t u d y s u p p o r t s t h e s e f i n d i n g s a n d f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e s u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y as t h e t a r g e t o f a s i g n i f i c a n t number ( 7 0 . 5 p e r c e n t ) o f women. An a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d p r e s e n t o c c u -p a t i o n a l g o a l showed t h a t c o g n i t i v e i n t e r e s t was a r e a s o n f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h i s may be e x p l a i n e d by a woman's d e s i r e t o a d v a n c e w i t h i n o n e s e x i s t i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y , a t h o u g h t t h i s f a c t was n o t s t u d i e d i n t h i s s a m p l e . The c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e E . P . S . S c a l e and t h e F i v e y e a r o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l showed t h a t none o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g a r e i n f l u e n c e d by f i v e y e a r o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l s . T h i s f i n d i n g i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h a t P r o -f e s s i o n a l A d v a n c e m e n t a p p e a r s n o t t o r e l a t e t o f i v e y e a r o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l s . The B l i s h e n I n d e x u s e d m e a s u r e s t h i s f i v e y e a r g o a l i n l a r g e r c h u n k s and may v e r y w e l l h a v e f a i l e d t o u n c o v e r r e a o n s o f m o b i l i t y w i t h i n an o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y . A p a r t i c i p a n t may u n d e r t a k e s u b s t a n t i a l amounts o f r e t r a i n i n g b u t t h e B l i s h e n c a t e g o r i e s may n o t d e t e c t t h e s e c h a n g e s . CONCLUSIONS T h i s s t u d y d e a l t w i t h m o t i v a t i o n f o r l e a r n i n g , as e x p r e s s e d i n r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g and d e s i r e f o r upward c a r e e r m o b i l i t y , o f women a t t e n d i n g B . C . I . T . C a r e e r Programmes D i v i s i o n c r e d i t c o u r s e s . S t a t i s -t i c a l i n f e r e n c e s b e y o n d t h i s s t u d y g r o u p a r e n o t j u s t i f i a b l e . W h i l e t e c h n i c a l l y t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y a r e a p p l i c a b l e o n l y t o t h i s s t u d y 75 g r o u p , an a t t e m p t h a s b e e n made t o r e l a t e t h e s e f i n d i n g s t o t h o s e o f p r e -v i o u s l y c o n d u c t e d s t u d i e s . On t h e b a s i s o f t h e r e s u l t s , i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t i n t h e p r e s e n t s a m p l e , t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s a r e v a l i d : 1 . Women a t t e n d i n g B . C . I . T . C a r e e r Programmes D i v i s i o n c r e d i t c o u r s e s a r e m o t i v a t e d t o l e a r n f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : P r o f e s s i o n a l A d v a n c e m e n t ; C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t ; S o c i a l W e l f a r e ; S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s ; E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s ; and E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n . T h i s f i n d i n g seems c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o f s u c h w r i t e r s as House ( 6 9 ) , B o s h i e r ( 7 1 ) , B u r g e s s ( 7 1 ) , M o r s t a i n and S m a r t ( 7 4 ) , a n d De W o l f and L u n n e b o r g ( 7 2 ) . The r e a s o n s f o r . p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n B . C . I . T . c a r e e r programmes i s c l e a r l y b a s e d on p r o f e s s i o n a l a d v a n c e m e n t r a t h e r t h a n on i n t e r p e r s o n a l o r s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i m p r o v e m e n t as f o u n d i n B o s h i e r ' s ( 7 1 ) and M o r s t a i n and S m a r t ' s ( 7 4 ) s t u d y . None o f t h e s t u d i e s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e s t u d i e d p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n s t i t u t e b u t r a t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g . 2 . M a r i t a l s t a t u s a f f e c t s t h e r e a s o n s two o f t h e s i x c a t e g o r i e s women g i v e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n B . C . I . T . C a r e e r Programmes D i v i s i o n c r e d i t c o u r s e s . C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t and S o c i a l W e l f a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e women i n t h e m a r r i e d and " o t h e r " m a r i t a l s t a t u s c a t e g o r i e s . R o l e c o n f l i c t s o r r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n may a c c o u n t f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s and s i n g l e women. 76 TABLE 22 EDUCATION P A R T I C I P A T I O N S C A L E : SECOND-ORDER FACTOR LOADING ( R e c a p i t u l a t e d f r o m Page 47) FACTOR B O S H I E R ' S STUDY ( 7 1 ) MORSTAIN & SMART'S STUDY ( 7 4 ) THIS STUDY I I n t e r p e r s o n a l I m p r o v e m e n t / E s c a p e S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s P r o f e s s i o n a l A d v a n c e m e n t I I I n n e r v e r s u s O t h e r D i r e c t e d A d v a n c e m e n t E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s C o g n i t i ve I n t e r e s t I I I S o c i a l S h a r i n g S o c i a l W e l f a r e S o c i a l W e l f a r e IV A r t i f a c t ( c o n f o r m i t y ) P r o f e s s i o n a l A d v a n c e m e n t S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s V S e l f - C e n t e r e d v e r s u s A l t r u i s m E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s VI P r o f e s s i o n a l F u t u r e O r i e n t e d n e s s C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n V I I C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t W h i l e v a r i m a x r o t a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s d i s t r i b u t e t h e v a r i a n c e a c c o u n t e d f o r a c r o s s t h e f a c t o r s s o t h a t t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h e l a r g e s t f a c t o r , a c o m p a r i s i o n o f t h e r o t a t e d f a c t o r p a t t e r n s among t h e s e t h r e e s t u d i e s i s n o n e t h e l e s s i n s t r u c t i v e . I t i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t t h e f i r s t f a c t o r t o emerge f o r t h i s s t u d y s h o u l d r e f l e c t p r e c i s e l y t h o s e r e a s o n s t h a t u n d e r l i e c a r e e r c h a n g e n a m e l y p r o f e s s i o n a l a d v a n c e m e n t . 77 T h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s o f M c M i l l a n , C e r r a and M e h a f f e y ( 7 1 ) who c o m p a r e d t h e o p i n i o n s o f a g r o u p o f u n m a r r i e d c o l l e g e women r e g a r d i n g t h e i r w o r k i n v o l v e m e n t a f t e r m a r r i a g e . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t 72 p e r c e n t o f t h e women p r e f e r r e d w o r k i n g a f t e r m a r r i a g e u n t i l t h e t i m e o f c h i l d r e n . S u c h v a r i a b l e s as number a n d t i m i n g o f c h i l d r e n , r o l e c o n f l i c t i n a h o m e - c a r e e r s i t u a t i o n as F a r m e r a n d Bohn ( 7 0 ) f o u n d w o u l d a f f e c t t h e r e a s o n s women g i v e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n B . C . I . T . C a r e e r Programmes c r e d i t c o u r s e s . W a t l e y ( 6 9 ) f o u n d t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r e d i n c a r e e r p l a n n i n g b e t w e e n t h o s e women who p l a n n e d a c a r e e r o n l y o r a m a r r i a g e - c a r e e r c o m b i n a -t i o n . 3 . In y o u n g e r a g e g r o u p s , age d i d n o t a f f e c t t h e r e a s o n s women g a v e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n B . C . I . T . C a r e e r Programmes D i v i s i o n c r e d i t c o u r s e s . B u t f o r o l d e r women, E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n r e a s o n s do a f f e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n C a r e e r P r o g r a m m e s . D o t y ( 6 6 ) f o u n d t h a t f o r a g r o u p o f women ( m e d i a n age 33) who r e t u r n e d t o c o l l e g e t h e y showed g r e a t e r c a r e e r o r i e n t a t i o n a n d g r e a t e r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l h o u s e w i f e r o l e . T h i s s t u d y s u p p o r t s t h e s e f i n d i n g s i n t h a t f o r t h e age g r o u p s 21 t o 25 and 31 t o 60 t h e r e was a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n age and r e a s o n s women g i v e f o r p a r t i c i -p a t i n g i n c a r e e r c r e d i t c o u r s e s . L e t c h w o r t h ( 7 0 ) f o u n d t h a t f o r women b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f 30 a n d 50 r o l e i d e n t i t y c r i s i s was a m o t i v a t o r f o r r e t u r n i n g t o c o l l e g e . The women b e i n g drawn t o c o l l e g e as a p o s s i b l e p l a c e t o d e v e l o p a more f a r - r e a c h i n g i d e n t i t y . L e t c h w o r t h ' s ( 7 0 ) f i n d i n g i s c o n -s i s t e n t w i t h t h e f i n d i n g i n t h i s s t u d y i n t h a t r o l e i d e n t i t y c r i s i s i s a v a r i a b l e w h i c h c o u l d be e x t r a p o l a t e d f r o m t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e on t h e E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n . L a n t z ' s ( 6 8 ) s t u d y o f women a g e d 30 t o 60 i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y i n t h a t L a n t z , f o u n d a r e l a t i o n -78 s h i p b e t w e e n t h e r e a s o n s women g i v e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g and a g e . S e l f - a w a r e n e s s / s e l f - k n o w l e d g e was f o u n d t o be p r i m a r y r e a s o n f o r women p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n u n i v e r s i t y p r o g r a m m e s . 4 . E n r o l l m e n t o r n o n - e n r o l l m e n t i n a B . C . I . T . c e r t i f i c a t e p r o -gramme d i d n o t a f f e c t t h e r e a s o n s women g a v e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n B . C . I . T . C a r e e r Programmes D i v i s i o n c r e d i t c o u r s e s . The r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e d i d n o t r e v e a l a n y s t u d i e s w h i c h r e v i e w e d t h e e n r o l l m e n t / n o n - e n r o l l m e n t i n a d e g r e e , d i p l o m a o r c e r t i f i c a t e p r o g r a m m e . 5 . P r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s d i d n o t a f f e c t t h e r e a s o n s women gave f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n B . C . I . T . C a r e e r Programmes D i v i s i o n c r e d i t c o u r s e s . M u l l i g a n ( 7 3 ) n o t e d t h a t t h e p r o f i l e o f t h e a v e r a g e woman w o r k e r has c h a n g e d d u r i n g t h e l a s t 50 y e a r s f r o m t h a t o f a f a c t o r y w o r k e r o r c l e r k t o t h a t o f women i n v o l v e d i n a g r e a t number o f o c c u p a t i o n s . The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y s u p p o r t M u l l i g a n ' s ( 7 3 ) s t u d y i n t h a t a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e d a d e s i r e t o move f r o m l o w e r l e v e l o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s t o h i g h e r l e v e l o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s . 6 . D e s i r e f o r u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y d i d n o t a f f e c t t h e r e a s o n s women g a v e f o r a t t e n d i n g B . C . I . T . C a r e e r Programmes D i v i s i o n c r e d i t c o u r s e s . H o w e v e r , P r o f e s s i o n a l A d v a n c e m e n t and C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t showed t h e s t r o n g e s t i n f l u e n c e i n t e r m s o f r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n B . C . I . T . p r o g r a m m e s . The c o n c l u s i o n s o f s u c h g r o u p s as t h e C o m m i t t e e on t h e E d u c a t i o n and Employment o f Women ( 7 3 ) f o u n d t h a t women had a d e s i r e t o be i n v o l v e d i n h i g h s o c i o - e c o n o m i c p r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s and t h a t t h e s e women w e r e w i l l i n g t o e n g a g e i n e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and p o s t p o n e m a r r i a g e and c h i l d r e n i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e t h i s g o a l . W a t l e y ( 6 9 ) a l s o f o u n d t h a t women c h o s e h i g h l e v e l p r o f e s s i o n s as t h e i r g o a l . 79 7 . M a r i t a l s t a t u s d o e s n o t a f f e c t t h e d e s i r e f o r u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y . As m e n t i o n e d i n p o i n t two s e v e r a l w r i t e r s a l s o f o u n d t h a t m a r i t a l s t a t u s d i d n o t a f f e c t t h e d e s i r e f o r u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y . The o p p o r -t u n i t i e s t o a c t on t h e d e s i r e f o r u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y t h r o u g h i n v o l v e -ment i n e d u c a t i o n a l programmes may be a f f e c t e d by s u c h v a r i a b l e s as m a r i t a l a n d c h i l d - r e a r i n g r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s , m a l e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d f e m a l e c a r e e r s , h o m e - c a r e e r c o n f l i c t , c a r e e r v e r s u s c a r e e r - m a r r i a g e g o a l s , and c a r e e r e x p e c t a t i o n s . 8 . Age a n d t h e d e s i r e f o r u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y a r e r e l a t e d i n t h a t women b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f 21 - 30 showed t h e s t r o n g e s t d e s i r e f o r u p w a r d o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y . D o t y ( 6 6 ) , L e t c h w o r t h ( 7 0 ) and L a n t z ( 6 8 ) f o u n d age r e l a t e d t o t h e d e s i r e f o r u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y f o r women o v e r 3 0 . D e s i r e f o r upward c a r e e r m o b i l i t y a m o n g s t y o u n g e r women was r e v i e w e d and r e p o r t e d by t h e C o m m i t t e e on t h e E d u c a t i o n and Employment o f Women ( 7 2 ) a n d W a t l e y ( 6 9 ) . 9 . T o t a l i n c o m e o f t h e f a m i l y u n i t d i d n o t a f f e c t t h e d e s i r e f o r u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y . E k s t r o m ( 7 2 ) and t h e C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n ( 6 9 ) f o u n d t h a t f i n a n c i a l b a r r i e r s do e x i s t i n many e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m m e s . H o w e v e r , n e i t h e r g r o u p c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h i s i n a n y way a f f e c t e d t h e d e s i r e f o r u p w a r d c a r e e r m o b i l i t y . T h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s s t u d y . 1 0 . E n r o l l m e n t o r n o n - e n r o l l m e n t i n a B . C . I . T . c e r t i f i c a t e p r o -gramme d o e s n o t a f f e c t t h e d e s i r e f o r upward c a r e e r m o b i l i t y . As m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e d i d n o t r e v e a l any s t u d i e s w h i c h c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e e n r o l l m e n t / n o n - e n r o l I m e n t v a r i a b l e . 80 IMPLICATIONS The f i n d i n g s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y s u g g e s t s e v e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e B . C . I . T . C a r e e r Programmes D i v i s i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t h e n e e d f o r f u r t h e r s t u d y . I m p l i c a t i o n f o r B . C . I . T . C a r e e r Programmes D i v i s i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s w h i c h a f f e c t women as p a r t i c i -p a n t s i n B . C . I . T . ' s C a r e e r Programmes s h o u l d be a d d r e s s e d by t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f B . C . I . T . I n i t i a l l y an a w a r e n e s s o f t h e s p e c i a l n e e d s and c o n s t r a i n t s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e womens' p a r t i c i p a t i o n w o u l d be a l o g i c a l f i r s t s t e p . B . C . I . T . C a r e e r Programmes D i v i s i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n must become more aware o f t h e s p e c i a l n e e d s o f women as t h e y r e l a t e t o c o u n s e l l i n g and e d u -c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m m i n g f o r a c c e p t a n c e o f o c c u p a t i o n a l u p w a r d m o b i l i t y , r o l e s t e r e o t y p i n g , and m a r i t a l s t a t u s : t h e s e v a r i a b l e s do a f f e c t t h e r e a s o n s women g i v e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n C a r e e r Programmes c r e d i t c o u r s e s . A d d i t i o n a l e m p h a s i s s h o u l d be p l a c e d on f i n a n c i a l a i d c o u n s e l l i n g f o r women a t t e n d i n g B . C . I . T . C a r e e r P r o g r a m m e s . A p r e - e n r o l I m e n t i n f o r m a t i o n / c o n f i d e n c e b u i l d i n g programme s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d and o f f e r e d t o a l l p r o s p e c t i v e women p a r t i c i p a n t s . I m p l i c a t i o n f o r F u r t h e r S t u d y T h e , f i n d i n g s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y n e e d f u r t h e r s u b s t a n t i a t i o n by i n v e s t i g a t i o n u s i n g o t h e r p o p u l a t i o n s f r o m p o s t - s e c o n d a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r i n g c a r e e r c r e d i t p r o g r a m m e s . A d d i t i o n a l s t u d y m i g h t be u n d e r t a k e n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a s : 1 . The same t y p e o f s t u d y s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n w i t h t h e m a l e r e g i s t r a n t s i n t h e B . C . I . T . C a r e e r Programmes D i v i s i o n t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e 81 i s a n y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n m e n ' s r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g a n d m a r i t a l s t a t u s , a g e , p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n , d e s i r e f o r u p w a r d m o b i l i t y , i n c o m e o f t h e f a m i l y u n i t and e n r o l l m e n t i n a B . C . I . T . C a r e e r P r o g r a m m e . 2. A f u r t h e r s t u d y o f women c u r r e n t l y e n r o l l e d i n t h e B . C . I . T . C a r e e r Programmes D i v i s i o n s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n w h i c h i n c l u d e s a r e - s t u d y o f . t h e same d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d f u r t h e r i n c l u d e s : number and a g e s o f c h i l d r e n ; home a n d f i n a n c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t r e l a t i v e t o a t t e n d a n c e ; o c c u -p a t i o n a l d a t a w h i c h w o u l d i n d i c a t e an i n t r a o r i n t e r o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y p a t h , e t c e t e r a . 3. An a d d i t i o n a l s t u d y s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n t o a s s e s s t h e a v a i l -a b i l i t y o f e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l f i n a n c i a l a i d f o r b o t h men a n d women p a r t i c i p a n t s . 4. An a s s e s s m e n t o f p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d , t h e r e a s o n s women g i v e f o r d r o p p i n g o u t o f a c o u r s e and a l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y t o t r a c e t h e s u c c e s s i n a t t a i n i n g f i v e y e a r o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l s w o u l d a d d t o t h e body o f k n o w l e d g e c o n c e r n i n g women and t h e m o t i v a t i o n t o l e a r n . 1 82 EPILOGUE JULY , 1979 S i n c e t h i s s t u d y was c o n d u c t e d i n t h e F a l l o f 1 9 7 4 , some i n t e r e s t i n g d e v e l o p m e n t s have o c c u r r e d a t B . C . I . T . w h i c h i n a d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t way s u p p o r t some o f t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e 1 9 7 7 - 7 8 a c a d e m i c y e a r e n r o l l m e n t b r e a k d o w n as c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e 1 9 7 4 - 7 5 b r e a k d o w n by s e x i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e . TABLE 23 DISTRIBUTION OF STUDENT POPULATION BY GENDER F a l l , 1974 and F a l l , 1978 STUDENT POPULATION F A L L , NUMBER 1974 PERCENT F A L L , NUMBER 1978 PERCENT F e m a l e M a l e 1 , 5 4 9 4 , 9 0 7 2 4 . 0 0 % 7 6 . 0 0 % 5 , 2 0 1 6 , 9 5 7 4 2 . 7 8 % 5 7 . 2 2 % TOTAL 6 , 4 5 6 1 0 0 . 0 0 % 1 2 , 1 5 8 1 0 0 . 0 0 % The n o t a b l e p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f women e n r o l l e d i n C a r e e r Programmes a t B . C . I . T . i s i n t e r e s t i n g i f y o u draw t h e c o n c l u s i o n f r o m t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s o f 1974 t h a t i n f a c t women a r e a t t e n d i n g B . C . I . T . f o r t h e p r i m a r y r e a s o n o f a d e s i r e t o a d v a n c e p r o f e s s i o n a l l y w i t h i n t h e i r 8 3 c u r r e n t o c c u p a t i o n o r b e t w e e n o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s . S e v e r a l programme c h a n g e s have been made w h i c h a r e more a p p l i c a b l e , f o r women who w i s h t o make c a r e e r c h a n g e s . F o r e x a m p l e , a s e c r e t a r y w i s h i n g t o a c q u i r e an e d u c a t i o n i n programmes w h i c h l e a d t o a m a n a g e r i a l o c c u p a t i o n may f i n d an e a s i e r e n t r y a n d c o u n s e l l i n g p o l i c y . A n o t h e r e x a m p l e may be a t y p i c a l f e m a l e - d o m i n a t e d p r o f e s s i o n , s u c h as n u r s i n g , t h e s e women r e t u r n t o B . C . I . T . t o a c q u i r e t h e s k i l l s w h i c h w i l l a l l o w them t o make a c a r e e r c h a n g e . Two m a j o r c h a n g e s i n t h e programme and c u r r i c u l u m o f f e r i n g s a t B . C . I . T . h a v e , i n my o p i n i o n , a f f e c t e d t h e e n r o l l m e n t s t a t i s t i c s p r e s e n t e d a b o v e . F i r s t l y , an u n a d v e r t i s e d " e v e n i n g " c a r e f a c i l i t y was o f f e r e d t o p a r e n t s a t t e n d i n g d u r i n g t h e 1 9 7 7 - 7 8 a c a d e m i c y e a r . T h i s f a c i l i t y was o f f e r e d t h r o u g h t h e c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g f a c i l i t y a t B . C . I . T . a n d a l l o w e d some 300 a d u l t s t o a t t e n d programmes who may have o t h e r w i s e been u n a b l e t o a t t e n d due t o r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o c h i l d r e n . The s e c o n d c h a n g e i s t h e p r o v i s i o n o f c a r e e r c o u n s e l l i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y d i r e c t e d a t t h e n e e d s o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g number o f f e m a l e s t u d e n t s i n t h e C a r e e r Programmes a r e a a t B . C . I . T . T h i s s e r v i c e became a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g t h e 1 9 7 7 - 7 8 a c a d e m i c y e a r and t h e i n f o r m a l i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t we r e c e i v e f r o m t h e c a r e e r c o u n s e l l o r s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e i r a b i l i t y t o f a c i l i t a t e women's a c c e s s t o s u c h t h i n g s as f i n a n c i a l a i d p r o -grammes h a s g r e a t l y a s s i s t e d them i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n programmes a t B . C . I . T . The q u e s t i o n w h i c h r e m a i n s u n a n s w e r e d a t t h i s t i m e i s t h e q u e s t i o n o f a c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n c u r r e n t f e m a l e s t u d e n t s and t h e f e m a l e s t u d e n t s s u r v e y e d i n t h e F a l l o f 1974 and t h e r e a s o n s t h e y g i v e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n programmes a t B . C . I . T . T h i s q u e s t i o n w o u l d p r o v i d e a r i c h o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y a t some f u t u r e p o i n t i n t i m e . < BIBLIOGRAPHY 84 85 BIBLIOGRAPHY A a s t e a d , J u d y , A S t u d y o f M a t u r e Women a t S a n t a Fe J u n i o r C o l l e g e . A T o p i c a l P a p e r . , F l o r i d a Community J u n i o r C o l l e g e I n t e r - I n s t i t u t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , J a n u a r y 1 9 7 2 . 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A F a c t o r A n a l y t i c a l E x p l o r a t i o n o f H o u l e ' s T y p o l o g y " , A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , X X I : 2 , 1 9 7 1 , p p . 3 - 2 6 . B u c c i e r i , C l a u d i a , C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n . I f a t F i r s t You D o n ' t S u c c e e d . C o l l e g e and U n i v e r s i t y B u s i n e s s , F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 1 , p p . 8 4 - 8 6 . B u r g e s s , P a u l , " R e a s o n s f o r A d u l t P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Group E d u c a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s " , A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , X X I 1 : 1 , 1 9 7 1 , p p . 3 - 2 9 . C a m p b e l l , D a v i d P. and H a r m o n , L e n o r e W . , V o c a t i o n a l I n t e r e s t s o f N o n -P r o f e s s i o n a l Women, F i n a l R e p o r t , S p o n s . A g e n c y O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n ( D . H . E . W . ) W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . , December 1 9 6 8 . 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F o u g h t , C a r o l A . , R e t u r n i n g Women S t u d e n t s : P r e - P o s t C o u n s e l l i n g A t t i t u d e s  and P l a n s , A m e r i c a n P e r s o n n e l and G u i d a n c e A s s o c i a t i o n , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . , M a r c h 2 4 , 1 9 7 0 . F r i e d a n , B e t t y , The F e m i n i n e M y s t i q u e , W. W. N o r t o n and C o m p a n y , New Y o r k , 1 9 6 3 . G a r r i s o n , R o g e r , S e e - W h a t t h e B o y s i n t h e Back R o o m ' W i l l H a v e , I m p r o v i n g C o l l e g e and U n i v e r s i t y T e a c h i n g , 1 9 6 9 , p p . Z\-ZZ. H a r m o n , L e n o r e W . , The C h i l d h o o d and A d o l e s c e n t P l a n s o f C o l l e g e Women, P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t A m e r i c a n P e r s o n n e l and G u i d a n c e A s s o c i a t i o n C o n v e n t i o n , L o u i s i a n n a , New O r l e a n s , M a r c h 1 9 7 0 . 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A d Hoc C o m m i t t e e t o R e v i e w t h e  S t a t u s o f Women a t t h e O h i o S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P h a s e s I and I I , O h i o S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , C o l u m b u s , A p r i l 1 9 7 1 , S t e i n , J . W . , "An A w a r e n e s s A p p r o a c h t o C o n t i n u i n g L i b e r a l G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n " , A d u l t L e a d e r s h i p , S p r i n g 1 9 6 4 . S t e i n m a n n , . A n n e , "Women's A t t i t u d e s Towards C a r e e r s " , V o c a t i o n a l G u i d a n c e  Q u a r t e r l y , Autumn 1 9 5 9 , p p . 1 5 - 1 8 . T i n k e r , Anne H „ , " P r o g r a m s f o r M a t u r e C o e d s " , A d u l t L e a d e r s h i p , M a r c h 1 9 6 5 . T r o w , J o a n n e J . , H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n f o r Women, I m p r o v i n g C o l l e g e and U n i v e r s i t y T e a c h i n g , p p . 1 9 - 2 0 . T u r n e r , B a r b a r a F . , S o c i a l i z a t i o n and C a r e e r O r i e n t a t i o n Among B l a c k  and W h i t e C o l l e g e Women, M a s s a c h u s e t t s U n i v e r s i t y , A m h e r s t , D e p a r t m e n t o f Human D e v e l o p m e n t , 1972. V e t t e r , B e t t y M . , "The O u t l o o k f o r Women i n S c i e n c e " , The S c i e n c e T e a c h e r , December 1 9 7 3 , p p . 2 2 - 2 4 . W a t l e y , Donovan J . , C a r e e r o r M a r r i a g e ? A L o n g i t u d i n a l S t u d y o f A b l e Young  Women, N a t i o n a l M e r i t S c h o l a r s h i p C o r p o r a t i o n , E v a n s t o n , I l l i n o i s ; F o r d F o u n d a t i o n , New Y o r k ; Math S c i e n c e F o u n d a t i o n , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . , 1 9 6 9 . Z y t o w s k i , D o n a l d G . , A T h e o r y o f V o c a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t f o r Women, A m e r i c a n P e r s o n n e l and G u i d a n c e A s s o c i a t i o n , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . , A p r i l 1 9 6 8 , p p . 6 6 0 - 6 6 4 . 89 APPENDIX A 90 EDUCATION PARTICIPATION SCALE ( E P S ) P r e p a r e d by R, B o s h i e r I t e m s I n c l u d e d i n t h e S e v e n S e c o n d - O r d e r F a c t o r s F a c t o r 1 - I n t e r p e r s o n a l I m p r o v e m e n t / E s c a p e I d e n t i f i e s p a r t i c i p a n t s who a r e s e e k i n g t o e s c a p e u n h a p p i n e s s and w i s h t o f a c i l i t a t e and i m p r o v e t h e i r i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h r o u g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . F a c t o r 2 - I n n e r v e r s u s O t h e r - D i r e c t e d A d v a n c e m e n t I d e n t i f i e s g o a l - o r i e n t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s who a r e e n r o l l e d f o r o t h e r - b u t n o t i n n e r - d i r e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l a d v a n c e m e n t r e a s o n s and deny t h a t t h e y a r e e n r o l l e d t o s e e k s o c i a l c o n t a c t . F a c t o r 3 - S o c i a l S h a r i n g I d e n t i f i e s p a r t i c i p a n t s who have e n r o l l e d i n o r d e r t o s h a r e a common i n t e r e s t w i t h t h e i r s p o u s e o r f r i e n d . F a c t o r 4 - A r t i f a c t I d e n t i f i e s p a r t i c i p a n t s w h o , i n s e e k i n g k n o w l e d g e t h r o u g h a d u l t e d u c a t i o n t h a t w i l l h e l p them w i t h o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l c o u r s e s , a r e t a k i n g p a r t i n an a c t i v i t y w h i c h i s c u s t o m a r y i n t h e c i r c l e s i n w h i c h t h e y m o v e . F a c t o r 5 - S e l f - c e n t r e d n e s s v e r s u s A l t r u i s m I d e n t i f i e s p a r t i c i p a n t s who h a v e e n r o l l e d f o r s e l f - c e n t r e d a n d a l t r u i s t i c c o m m u n i t y - o r i e n t e d r e a s o n s . F a c t o r 6 - P r o f e s s i o n a l F u t u r e O r i e n t e d n e s s I d e n t i f i e s p a r t i c i p a n t s who have e n r o l l e d as a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r f u t u r e a c t i v i t y p r i m a r i l y i n a p r o f e s s i o n a l o r j o b - r e l a t e d f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e . F a c t o r 7 - C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t I d e n t i f i e s p a r t i c i p a n t s who have e n r o l l e d f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i t s e l f . 91 APPENDIX B 92 EDUCATION PARTICIPATION SCALE ( E P S ) P r e p a r e d by B , M o r s t a i n and J , S m a r t I t e m s I n c l u d e d i n t h e S i x S e c o n d - O r d e r F a c t o r s F a c t o r 1 - S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s I d e n t i f i e s p a r t i c i p a n t s who have e n r o l l e d b e c a u s e o f a n e e d f o r p e r s o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n g r o u p a c t i v i t y , m a k i n g new f r i e n d s and b e i n g a c c e p t e d by o t h e r s . F a c t o r 2 - E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i on I d e n t i f i e s p a r t i c i p a n t s who have e n r o l l e d due t o c o n d i t i o n s r e l a t e d t o i n s t r u c t i o n s , s u g g e s t i o n s , o r r e q u i r e m e n t s f r o m i n d i v i d u a l s o r a g e n c i e s w i t h w h i c h t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e a s s o c i a t e d . I n d i v i d u a l s who s c o r e h i g h on t h i s f a c t o r a r e s e e k i n g t o f u l f i l l t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f o t h e r s as o p p o s e d t o t h e i r own i n t r i n s i c n e e d s o r d e s i r e s . F a c t o r 3 - S o c i a l W e l f a r e I d e n t i f i e s p a r t i c i p a n t s who have e n r o l l e d i n o r d e r t o p r e p a r e t h e m s e l v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o m m u n i t y a f f a i r s and " s e r v i c e " t o m a n k i n d i n g e n e r a l . F a c t o r 4 - P r o f e s s i o n a l A d v a n c e m e n t I d e n t i f i e s p a r t i c i p a n t s who t e n d t o p e r c e i v e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n as h i g h l y j o b o r v o c a t i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d , l e a d i n g t o g r e a t e r c o m p e t e n c e a n d h i g h e r s t a t u s i n t h e i r c h o s e n o c c u p a t i o n . F a c t o r 5 - E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n I d e n t i f i e s p a r t i c i p a n t s who v i e w t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a means o f r e l i e f f r o m e v e r y d a y b o r e d o m a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , p r o v i d i n g a c o n t r a s t t o t h e i r d a i l y r o u t i n e and o v e r c o m i n g t h e f r u s t r a t i o n o f d a y -t o - d a y l i f e . F a c t o r 6 - C o g n i t i v e I n t e r e s t I d e n t i f i e s p a r t i c i p a n t s who have e n r o l l e d as a r e s u l t o f a b a s i c i n q u i r y m o t i v a t i o n . 93 APPENDIX C 94 SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDEX FOR 320 OCCUPATIONS IN 1961 CENSUS OF CANADA OCCUPATION SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDEX CATEGORY C h e m i c a l E n g i n e e r s D e n t i s t s P r o f e s s o r s and C o l l e g e P r i n c i p a l s P h y s i c i a n s and S u r g e o n s G e o l o g i s t s M i n i n g E n g i n e e r s L a w y e r s and N o t a r i e s C i v i l E n g i n e e r s A r c h i t e c t s V e t e r i n a r i a n s E l e c t r i c a l E n g i n e e r s P r o f e s s i o n a l E n g i n e e r s , N . E . S . P h y s i c i s t s O p t o m e t r i s t s B i o l o g i c a l S c i e n t i s t s P h y s i c a l S c i e n t i s t s , N . E . S P h a r m a c i s t s M e c h a n i c a l E n g i n e e r s J u d g e s and M a g i s t r a t e s E c o n o m i s t s C h e m i s t s I n d u s t r i a l O s t e o p a t h s S c h o o l T e a c h e r s A c c o u n t a n t s and A u d i t o r s Owners and M a n a g e r s , E d u c a t i o n and R e l a t e d S e r v i c e s A c t u a r i e s a n d S t a t i s t i c i a n s C o m p u t e r P r o g r a m m e r s Owners a n d M a n a g e r s , C h e m i c a l & C h e m i c a l P r o d u c t s I n d u s t r i e s A d v e r t i s i n g M a n a g e r s A i r P i l o t s , N a v i g a t o r s and F l i g h t E n g i n e e r s Owners and M a n a g e r s , E l e c t r i c a l P r o d u c t s I n d u s t r i e s Owners and M a n a g e r s , P r i m a r y M e t a l I n d u s t r i e s Owners a n d M a n a g e r s , P a p e r and A l l i e d I n d u s t r i e s Owners and M a n a g e r s , F i n a n c e , I n s u r a n c e , R e a l E s t a t e A u t h o r s , E d i t o r s , J o u r n a l i s t s Owners and M a n a g e r s , R u b b e r I n d u s t r i e s E n g i n e e r s and C h i r o p r a c t o r s 7 6 . 6 9 7 6 . 4 4 7 6 . 0 1 7 5 . 5 7 7 5 . 4 9 7 5 . 4 2 7 5 . 4 1 7 5 . 1 6 7 4 . 5 2 7 4 . 4 6 7 4 . 3 4 7 4 . 2 7 7 3 . 8 1 7 3 . 7 7 7 3 . 2 2 7 2 . 9 4 7 2 . 8 7 7 2 . 7 8 7 2 . 2 4 71 . 9 0 7 0 . 9 4 7 0 . 4 3 7 0 . 2 5 7 0 . 1 4 6 8 . 8 0 6 8 . 3 2 6 7 . 7 8 6 7 . 5 0 6 6 . 7 9 6 6 . 0 5 6 6 . 0 4 6 5 . 7 8 6 5 . 2 9 6 4 . 7 8 6 4 . 5 2 6 4 . 2 3 6 4 . 0 9 95 OCCUPATIONS SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDEX CATEGORY Owners an.d M a n a g e r s , M a c h i n e r y I n d u s t r i e s 6 3 . 7 6 L i b r a r i a n s 6 3 . 7 5 Owners and M a n a g e r s , P e t r o l e u m and C o a l P r o d u c t s I n d u s t r i e s 6 3 . 0 2 S a l e s M a n a g e r s 6 2 . 0 4 Owners and M a n a g e r s , M i n e s , Q u a r r i e s , a n d O i l W e l l s 6 1 . 9 9 Owners and M a n a g e r s , T e x t i l e I n d u s t r i e s 6 1 . 9 6 Owners and M a n a g e r s , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n E q u i p m e n t I n d u s t r i e s 6 1 . 7 5 P r o f e s s i o n a l O c c u p a t i o n s , N . E . S 6 0 . 9 3 C r e d i t M a n a g e r s 6 0 . 8 1 O f f i c e M a n a g e r s 6 0 . 4 2 Owners a n d M a n a g e r s , H e a l t h and W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s 6 0 . 0 7 S e c u r i t y S a l e s m e n and B r o k e r s 5 9 . 9 1 R a d i o a n d T e l e v i s i o n A n n o u n c e r s 5 9 . 8 1 Owners and M a n a g e r s , P r i n t i n g , P u b l i s h i n g a n d A l l i e d I n d u s t r i e s 5 9 . 6 9 Owners and M a n a g e r s , F e d e r a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 5 9 . 6 0 Owners a n d M a n a g e r s , K n i t t i n g M i l l s 5 9 . 2 8 C l e r g y m e n and P r i e s t s 5 9 . 2 0 Owners and M a n a g e r s , M i s c e l l a n e o u s M a n u f a c t u r i n g I n d u s t r i e s 5 8 . 2 9 O t h e r H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s 5 8 . 2 7 A r t i s t s ( E x c e p t C o m m e r c i a l ) , A r t T e a c h e r s 5 8 . 2 1 I n s p e c t o r s and F o r e m e n , C o m m u n i c a t i o n 5 8 . 1 7 D r a u g h t s m e n 5 7 . 8 2 Owner and M a n a g e r s , M e t a l F a b r i c a t i o n I n d u s t r i e s 5 7 . 6 0 Owners a n d M a n a g e r s , L e a t h e r I n d u s t r i e s 5 7 . 2 3 S o c i a l W e l f a r e W o r k e r s 5 5 . 6 2 Owners and M a n a g e r s , N o n - M e t a l l i c M i n e r a l P r o d . I n d u s t r i e s 5 5 . 4 1 A d v e r t i s i n g S a l e s m e n and A g e n t s 5 5 . 3 7 P u r c h a s i n g A g e n t s and B u y e r s 5 5 . 2 2 I n s u r a n c e S a l e s m e n and A g e n t s 5 5 . 1 9 Owners and M a n a g e r s , C l o t h i n g I n d u s t r i e s 5 4 . 7 7 S c i e n c e and E n g i n e e r i n g T e c h n i c i a n s N . E . S . 5 4 . 7 5 B r o k e r s , A g e n t s and A p p r a i s e r s 5 4 . 7 4 Owners and M a n a g e r s , P r o v i n c i a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 5 4 . 5 4 96 OCCUPATIONS SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDEX CATEGORY A r t i s t s , C o m m e r c i a l Owners and M a n a g e r s , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n C o m m u n i c a t i o n and O t h e r U t i l i t i e s Owners and M a n a g e r s , W h o l e s a l e T r a d e Owners and M a n a g e r s , L o c a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n S u r v e y o r s C o m m e r c i a l T r a v e l l e r s Owners and M a n a g e r s , F u r n i t u r e a n d F i x t u r e s I n d u s t r i e s T e a c h e r s a n d I n s t r u c t o r s , N . E . S S t e n o g r a p h e r s Owners and M a n a g e r s , Food a n d B e v e r a g e I n d u s t r i e s R a d i o and T e l e v i s i o n E q u i p m e n t O p e r a t o r s P h y s i c a l a n d O c c u p a t i o n a l T h e r a p i s t s A t h l e t e s and S p o r t s O f f i c i a l s M u s i c i a n s and M u s i c T e a c h e r s N u r s e s - I n - T r a i n i n g B o o k k e e p e r s and C a s h i e r s F u n e r a l D i r e c t o r s and Embalmers F o r e m e n , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n E q u i p m e n t I n d u s t r i e s F o r e m e n , P r i m a r y M e t a l s I n d u s t r i e s R e a l E s t a t e S a l e s m e n and A g e n t s M e d i c a l and D e n t a l T e c h n i c i a n s P h o t o e n g r a v e r s P h o t o g r a p h e r s E n g r a v e r s , E x c e p t P h o t o e n g r a v e r s T i c k e t , S t a t i o n a n d E x p r e s s A g e n t s T r a n s p o r t B a t c h and C o n t i n u o u s S t i l l O p e r a t o r s O f f i c e r A p p l i a n c e O p e r a t o r s Owners and M a n a g e r s , C o n s t r u c t i o n I n d u s t r i e s F o r e m e n , E l e c t r i c P o w e r , Gas and W a t e r U t i l i t i e s Power S t a t i o n O p e r a t o r s L o c o m o t i v e E n g i n e e r s C o n d u c t o r s , R a i l r o a d Owners and M a n a g e r s , Owners and M a n a g e r s , S e r v i c e s F o r e m e n , P a p e r and A l l i e d I n d u s t r i e s Owners and M a n a g e r s , M o t i o n P i c t u r e and R e c r e a t i o n a l S e r v i c e s Linemen a n d S e r v i c e m e n - T e l e p h o n e , T e l e g r a p h and Power Wood I n d u s t r i e s M i s c e l l a n e o u s 5 4 . 0 6 5 3 . 8 5 5 3 . 8 0 5 3 . 2 9 5 3 . 2 5 5 2 . 6 8 5 2 . 1 1 5 2 . 0 7 5 1 . 9 6 5 1 . 7 0 5 1 . 5 1 5 1 . 1 1 5 1 . 1 1 5 0 . 9 3 4 9 . 9 1 4 9 . 5 5 4 9 . 4 7 4 9 . 2 1 4 9 . 1 1 4 8 . 7 4 4 8 . 5 6 4 8 . 2 6 4 8 . 0 7 4 7 . 9 5 4 7 . 6 1 4 7 . 6 0 4 7 . 1 2 4 6 . 9 5 4 6 . 7 5 4 6 . 2 0 4 5 . 9 9 4 5 . 6 8 4 5 . 5 2 4 5 . 4 8 4 5 . 3 6 4 5 . 1 9 4 5 . 0 5 9.7 OCCUPATIONS SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDEX CATEGORY F o r e m e n , O t h e r M a n u f a c t u r i n g I n d u s t r i e s 4 5 . 0 1 L i t h o g r a p h i c and P h o t o - O f f s e t O c c u p a t i o n s 4 5 . 0 0 T o o l m a k e r s , D i e m a k e r s 4 4 . 8 2 I n s p e c t o r s , C o n s t r u c t i o n 4 4 . 7 6 I n t e r i o r D e c o r a t o r s and Window D r e s s e r s 4 4 . 3 7 F o r e m e n , T r a d e 4 4 . 3 2 F o r e m e n , M i n e , Q u a r r y , P e t r o l e u m W e l l 4 4 . 2 7 T e l e p h o n e O p e r a t o r s 4 4 . 2 0 Owners a n d M a n a g e r s , F o r e s t r y , L o g g i n g 4 4 . 0 0 4 A c t o r s , E n t e r t a i n e r s , a n d Showmen 4 3 . 8 5 Owners a n d M a n a g e r s , R e t a i l T r a d e 4 3 . 6 9 M e c h a n i c s and R e p a i r m e n , O f f i c e M a c h i n e s 4 3 . 0 5 C l e r i c a l O c c u p a t i o n s , N . E . S . 4 2 . 9 8 M e c h a n i c s and R e p a i r m e n , A i r c r a f t 4 2 . 7 6 N u r s e s , G r a d u a t e 4 2 . 5 7 C o m p o s i t o r s and T y p e - S e t t e r s 4 2 . 3 0 Deck O f f i c e r s , S h i p 4 2 . 1 3 R e l i g i o u s W o r k e r s 4 1 . 8 4 Members o f Armed F o r c e s 4 1 . 4 3 L o c o m o t i v e F i r e m e n 4 0 . 9 2 E l e c t r i c i a n s , W i r e m e n , a n d E l e c t r i c a l R e p a i r m e n 4 0 . 6 8 A u c t i o n e e r s 4 0 . 4 8 C a n v a s s e r s and O t h e r D o o r - t o - D o o r S a l e s m e n 4 0 . 2 3 B r a k e m e n , R a i l r o a d 4 0 . 2 2 P a p e r M a k e r s 4 0 . 1 7 Owners and M a n a g e r s , P e r s o n a l S e r v i c e s 4 0 . 1 4 P r i n t i n g W o r k e r s , N . E . S . 4 0 . 1 3 M e c h a n i c s a n d R e p a i r m e n , R a d i o and T . V . R e c e i v e r s 4 0 J 1 2 P h o t o g r a p h i c P r o c e s s i n g O c c u p a t i o n s 4 0 . 0 5 E n g i n e e r i n g O f f i c e r s , S h i p 3 9 . 8 6 M i l l w r i g h t s 3 9 . 8 3 I n s p e c t o r s , G r a d e r s and S a m p l e r s , N . E . S . 3 9 . 8 2 I n s p e c t o r s , E x a m i n e r s , G a u g e r s - M e t a l 3 9 . 7 6 P a t t e r n m a k e r s ( e x c e p t p a p e r ) 3 9 . 7 5 T y p i s t s and C l e r k T y p i s t s 3 9 . 6 6 P o s t m a s t e r s 3 9 . 6 5 W e l l - D r i l l e r s and R e l a t e d W o r k e r s 3 9 . 5 5 F o r e m e n , A l l O t h e r I n d u s t r i e s 3 9 . 5 4 P r e s s m e n , P r i n t i n g 3 9 . 4 9 T e l e g r a p h O p e r a t o r s 3 9 . 3 7 I n s p e c t o r s and F o r e m e n , T r a n s p o r t 3 9 . 2 1 P r o j e c t i o n i s t s , M o t i o n P i c t u r e 3 9 . 1 5 F o r e m e n , T e x t i l e and C l o t h i n g I n d u s t r i e s 3 9 . 0 3 98 OCCUPATIONS SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDEX CATEGORY Lens G r i n d e r s and P o l i s h e r s ; O p t i c i a n s 3 8 . 82 B o o k b i n d e r s 3 8 . 54 F o r e m e n , Food a n d B e v e r a g e I n d u s t r i e s 3 8 . 2 1 G e n e r a l F o r e m e n , C o n s t r u c t i o n 3 7 . 90 O p e r a t o r s , . E l e c t r i c S t r e e t R a i l w a y 3 7 . 80 S t a t i o n a r y E n g i n e m e n 3 7 . 79 R o l l i n g M i l l O p e r a t o r s 3 7 . 76 C h e m i c a l and R e l a t e d P r o c e s s W o r k e r s 3 7 . 75 P r o s p e c t o r s 3 7 . 73 F o r e m e n , Wood and F u r n i t u r e I n d u s t r i e s 3 7 . 63 S a l e s C l e r k s 3 7 . 14 M a c h i n i s t s a n d M a c h i n e T o o l S e t t e r s 3 6 . 90 J e w e l l e r s and W a t c h m a k e r s 3 6 . 55 C i v i l i a n P r o t e c t i v e S e r v i c e O c c u p a t i o n s 3 5 . 80 S t e w a r d s 3 5 . 32 FArm M a n a g e r s a n d Foremen 3 5 . 05 O t h e r O c c u p a t i o n s i n B o o k b i n d i n g 3 4 . 97 Baggagemen a n d E x p r e s s m e n , T r a n s p o r t 3 4 . 8 5 M e t a l T r e a t i n g O c c u p a t i o n s , N . E . S 3 4 . 7 9 M e c h a n i c s and R e p a i r m e n , N . E . S . 3 4 . 77 R i g g e r s and C a b l e S p l i c e r s ( e x c e p t T e l e p h o n e , T e l e g r a p h and P o w e r ) 3 4 . .77 Furnacemen a n d H e a t e r s - M e t a l 3 4 . 75 C e l l u l o s e P u l p P r e p a r e r s 3 4 . 69 S t o c k C l e r k s and S t o r e k e e p e r s 3 4 . 6 3 L o g g i n g Foremen 3 4 . 61 B e v e r a g e P r o c e s s o r s 3 4 . .44 P l u m b e r s and P i p e f i t t e r s 3 4 . 38 H e a t T r e a t e r s , A n n e a l e r s , T e m p e r e r s 3 4 . 0 9 P a p e r M a k i n g O c c u p a t i o n s , N . E . S . . 3 4 . .07 H o i s t m e n , C r a n e m e n , D e r r i c k m e n 3 4 . 0 6 I n s p e c t o r s , G r a d e r s , S c a l e r s - Log and Lumber 3 3 . . 8 0 E l e c t r i c a l and E l e c t r o n i c s W o r k e r s N . E . S . 3 3 . . 8 0 S w i t c h m e n a n d S i g n a l m e n 3 3 . .76 F i t t e r s and A s s e m b l e r s - E l e c t r i c a l and E l e c t r o n i c s E q u i p m e n t 3 3 . , 5 7 S h e e t M e t a l W o r k e r s 3 3 , . 4 9 M e t a l D r a w e r s and E x t r u d e r s 3 3 , . 4 0 M i n e r s 3 3 . , 3 8 B a r t e n d e r s 3 3 . . 2 9 I n s u l a t i o n A p p l i e r s 3 3 . , 2 2 R o a s t e r s , C o o k e r s and O t h e r H e a t T r e a t e r s , C h e m i c a l 3 3 . . 1 4 99 OCCUPATIONS SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDEX CATEGORY F u r r i e r s 3 3 . 0 3 B o i l e r m a k e r s , P l a t e r s a n d S t r u c t u r a l M e t a l W o r k e r s 3 2 . 9 3 W e l d e r s and Flame C u t t e r s 3 2 . 79 Timbermen 3 2 . 61 T i r e a n d Tube B u i l d e r s 3 2 . 34 F i l e r s , G r i n d e r s , S h a r p e n e r s 3 2 . 18 S e r v i c e W o r k e r s , N . E . S 3 2 . 17 N u r s i n g A s s i s t a n t s and A i d e s 3 2 . 14 S h i p p i n g and R e c e i v i n g C l e r k s 3 2 . 14 Mi 11 men 3 2 . 13 Bus D r i v e r s 3 1 . 86 F o r e s t R a n g e r s and C r u i s e r s 3 1 . 85 M e t a l W o r k i n g M a c h i n e O p e r a t o r s 3 1 . 67 Q u a r r i e r s and R e l a t e d W o r k e r s 3 1 . 61 M o u l d e r s 3 1 . 32 P o r t e r s , B a g g a g e and P u l l m a n 3 1 . 30 M e c h a n i c s and R e p a i r m e n , M o t o r V e h i c l e 3 1 . 30 M e c h a n i c s and R e p a i r m e n , R a i l r o a d E q u i p m e n t 3 1 . 29 F i t t e r s and A s s e m b l e r s - M e t a l 31 . 28 C r u s h e r s , M i l l e r s , C a l e n d e r e r s -C h e m i c a l 3 1 . 12 E l e c t r o p l a t e r s , D i p P l a t e r s and R e l a t e d W o r k e r s 3 1 . 07 C u t t e r s , M a r k e r s - T e x t i l e s : Garment and G l o v e L e a t h e r 3 1 . 06 P r o d u c t i o n P r o c e s s and R e l a t e d W o r k e r s , N . E . S . 3 1 . 00 L o d g i n g a n d B o a r d i n g H o u s e k e e p e r s 3 0 . 94 B a r b e r s , H a i r d r e s s e r s , and M a n i c u r i s t s 3 0 . 94 C a b i n e t and F u r n i t u r e M a k e r s , Wood 3 0 . 88 D r i v e r - S a l e s m e n 3 0 . 74 L a b o u r e r s , P r i m a r y M e t a l I n d u s t r i e s 3 0 . 68 M e t a l w o r k i n g O c c u p a t i o n s , N . E . S . 3 0 . , 6 0 Deck R a t i n g s ( S h i p ) , B a r g e Crews and Boatmen 3 0 . 56 P a p e r P r o d u c t M a k e r s 3 0 . , 5 3 Postmen and M a i l C a r r i e r s 3 0 . , 5 2 S e r v i c e S t a t i o n A t t e n d a n t s 3 0 . , 4 8 B u t c h e r s and M e a t - C u t t e r s 3 0 . 48 Meat C a n n e r s , C u r e r s , P a c k e r s 3 0 . 48 Motormen ( V e h i c l e ) ( e x c e p t R a i l w a y ) 3 0 . . 4 8 W a i t e r s 3 0 . .47 H a w k e r s and P e d d l a r s 3 0 . . 4 3 O i l e r s and G r e a s e r s - M a c h i n e r y and V e h i c l e s ( e x c e p t S h i p ) 3 0 , . 4 3 T o b a c c o P r e p a r e r s and P r o d u c t s M a k e r s 30. . 3 9 U p h o l s t e r e r s 30. . 2 7 TOO OCCUPATIONS SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDEX CATEGORY T a i l o r s 3 0 . 2 6 L a b o u r e r s , T r a d e 3 0 . 1 9 B l e a c h e r s and D y e r s - T e x t i l e s 3 0 . 1 8 P a i n t e r s ( C o n s t r u c t i o n a n d M a i n t e n a n c e ) , P a p e r H a n g e r s and G l a z i e r s 3 0 . 0 8 T a x i D r i v e r s and C h a u f f e u r s 3 0 . 0 7 O p e r a t o r s o f E a r t h - M o v i n g a n d O t h e r C o n s t r u c t i o n M a c h i n e r y " 3 0 . 0 3 P a i n t e r s ( e x c e p t C o n s t r u c t i o n a n d M a i n t e n a n c e ) 3 0 . 0 0 C o r e m a k e r s 3 0 . 0 0 Baby S i t t e r s 2 9 . 9 9 L a b o u r e r s , M i n e 2 9 . 9 6 B l a c k s m i t h s , Hammermen, Forgemen 2 9 . 9 3 B r i c k l a y e r s , S t o n e m a s o n s , T i l e s e t t e r s 2 9 . 9 3 8 A t t e n d a n t s , R e c r e a t i o n a n d Amusement 2 9 . 9 2 P l a s t e r e r s and L a t h e r s 2 9 . 9 0 O t h e r Food P r o c e s s i n g O c c u p a t i o n s 2 9 . 8 9 B o t t l e r s , W r a p p e r s , L a b e l l e r s 2 9 . 8 0 C l a y , G l a s s a n d S t o n e W o r k e r s , N . E . S . 2 9 . 7 7 M a t e r i a l s - H a n d l i n g E q u i p m e n t O p e r a t o r s 2 9 . 7 6 L a b o u r e r s , P a p e r and A l l i e d I n d u s t r i e s 2 9 . 7 3 C a r p e n t e r s 2 9 . 7 1 V u l c a n i z e r s 2 9 . 6 2 F r u i t and V e g e t a b l e C a n n e r s and P a c k e r s 2 9 . 6 0 O t h e r R u b b e r W o r k e r s ° 2 9 . 5 1 L a b o u r e r s , C o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d S t o r a g e 2 9 . 5 1 M i l k P r o c e s s o r s 2 9 . 4 9 Cooks 2 9 . 4 3 C o n s t r u c t i o n W o r k e r s , N . E . S . 2 9 . 4 3 L o n g s h o r e m e n a n d S t e v e d o r e s 2 9 . 4 1 T r u c k D r i v e r s 2 9 . 3 1 G a r d e n e r s ( e x c e p t Farm) and G r o u n d s k e e p e r s 2 9 . 2 7 B a k e r s 2 9 . 2 6 L a b o u r e r s , E l e c t r i c P o w e r , Gas and W a t e r U t i l i t i e s 2 9 . 2 6 M e s s e n g e r s 2 9 . 2 3 Warehousemen and F r e i g h t H a n d l e r s 2 9 . 1 8 P o l i s h e r s and B u f f e r s - M e t a l 2 9 . 1 2 B o i l e r F i r e m e n ( e x c e p t S h i p ) 2 9 . 1 0 L a b o u r e r s , A l l O t h e r I n d u s t r i e s 2 8 . 9 6 L a u n d e r e r s and Dry C l e a n e r s 2 8 . 9 3 O t h e r A g r i c u l t u r a l O c c u p a t i o n s 2 8 . 9 3 D r e s s m a k e r s and S e a m s t r e s s e s 2 8 . 7 7 101 OCCUPATIONS SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDEX CATEGORY R i v e t e r s and R i v e t - H e a t e r s 2 8 . 7 6 M i l l e r s o f F l o u r and G r a i n 2 8 . 7 5 F u r n a c e m e n and K i l n m e n , C e r a m i c s and G l a s s 2 8 . 6 9 K n i t t e r s 2 8 . 6 8 T r a n s p o r t O c c u p a t i o n s , N . E . S . 2 8 . 6 3 L a b o u r e r s , O t h e r P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d D e f e n c e 2 8 . 6 1 W o o d w o r k i n g O c c u p a t i o n s , N . E . S . 2 8 . 5 6 S t o n e C u t t e r s and D r e s s e r s 2 8 . 5 2 A p p a r e l a n d R e l a t e d P r o d u c t s M a k e r s 2 8 . 4 4 T a n n e r s and T a n n e r y O p e r a t i v e s 2 8 . 4 2 S a w y e r s 2 8 . 2 9 W o o d w o r k i n g M a c h i n e O p e r a t o r s 2 8 . 2 9 L a b o u r e r s , O t h e r M a n u f a c t u r i n g I n d u s t r i e s 2 8 . 2 2 J a n i t o r s and C l e a n e r s , B u i l d i n g 2 8 . 2 2 L a b o u r e r s , Food and B e v e r a g e I n d u s t r i e s 2 8 . 1 2 K i t c h e n H e l p e r s and R e l a t e d S e r v i c e W o r k e r s 2 8 . 1 1 E n g i n e - R o o m R a t i n g s , F i r e m e n and O i l e r s , S h i p 2 8 . 1 1 N e w s v e n d o r s 2 8 . 0 8 L a b o u r e r s , R a i l w a y T r a n s p o r t 2 8 . 0 3 F i n i s h e r s and C a l e n d e r e r s 2 7 . 9 7 E l e v a t o r T e n d e r s , B u i l d i n g 2 7 . 9 6 S h o e m a k e r s and R e p a i r e r s , N o t i n F a c t o r y 2 7 . 8 7 S e w e r s and S e w i n g M a c h i n e O p e r a t o r s 2 7 . 8 7 Cement and C o n c r e t e F i n i s h e r s 2 7 . 8 6 G u i d e s 2 7 . 7 9 Farm L a b o u r e r s 2 7 . 7 7 L a b o u r e r s , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , e x c e p t R a i l w a y 2 7 . 7 2 10 L a b o u r e r s , Wood I n d u s t r i e s 2 7 . 5 7 L a b o u r e r s , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n E q u i p m e n t I n d u s t r i e s 2 7 . 4 9 O t h e r T e x t i l e O c c u p a t i o n s 2 7 . 4 4 C a r d e r s , Combers and O t h e r F i b r e P r e p a r e r s 2 7 . 3 7 L a b o u r e r s , C o n s t r u c t i o n 2 7 . 2 5 O t h e r L e a t h e r P r o d u c t s M a k e r s 2 7 . 1 9 F i s h e r m e n 2 7 . 1 7 L e a t h e r C u t t e r s 2 7 . 1 0 Loom F i x e r s and Loom P r e p a r e r s 2 7 . 0 9 Lumbermen, I n c l u d i n g L a b o u r e r s i n L o g g i n g 2 7 . 0 1 S p i n n e r s and T w i s t e r s 2 6 . 9 4 102 OCCUPATIONS SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDEX CATEGORY W e a v e r s 2 6 . 7 7 T e a m s t e r s 2 6 . 7 1 L a b o u r e r s , L o c a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 2 6 . 7 1 W i n d e r s and R e e l e r s 2 6 . 6 3 S e c t i o n m e n and T r a c k m e n 2 6 . 5 7 L a b o u r e r s , T e x t i l e and C l o t h i n g I n d u s t r i e s 2 6 . 5 6 S h o e m a k e r s and R e p a i r e r s - I n F a c t o r y 2 6 . 5 6 F i s h C a n n e r s , C u r e r s , a n d P a c k e r s 2 6 . 0 9 T r a p p e r s and H u n t e r s 2 5 . 3 6 10 103 A P P E N D I X D 104 B . C . I . T . C E R T I F I C A T E PROGRAMMES B u s i n e s s C e r t i f i c a t e i n A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Management B u s i n e s s C e r t i f i c a t e i n P e r s o n n e l M a n a g e m e n t B u s i n e s s C e r t i f i c a t e i n I n d u s t r i a l T r a i n i n g B u s i n e s s C e r t i f i c a t e f o r E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y / A d m i n i s t r a t i v e A s s i s t a n t s B u s i n e s s C e r t i f i c a t e i n M u n i c i p a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n B u s i n e s s C e r t i f i c a t e i n B r o a d c a s t C o m m u n i c a t i o n s B u s i n e s s C e r t i f i c a t e i n A c c o u n t i n g B u s i n e s s C e r t i f i c a t e i n A u d i t i n g B u s i n e s s C e r t i f i c a t e i n F i n a n c e B u s i n e s s C e r t i f i c a t e ' i n H o s p i t a l i t y I n d u s t r y M a n a g e m e n t B u s i n e s s C e r t i f i c a t e i n I n d u s t r i a l M a r k e t i n g B u s i n e s s C e r t i f i c a t e f o r T e c h n i c a l S a l e s R e p r e s e n t a t i v e B u s i n e s s C e r t i f i c a t e i n T r a v e l M a r k e t i n g a n d M a n a g e m e n t B u s i n e s s C e r t i f i c a t e i n A d v e r t i s i n g and P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s B u s i n e s s C e r t i f i c a t e i n R e t a i l M e r c h a n d i s i n g B u s i n e s s C e r t i f i c a t e i n T r a f f i c a n d T r a n s p o r t a t i o n M a n a g e m e n t B u s i n e s s C e r t i f i c a t e i n O p e r a t i o n s Management B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H o s p i t a l s ' A s s o c i a t i o n C e r t i f i c a t e i n H e a l t h C a r e Management — -B u i l d i n g T e c h n i c i a n C e r t i f i c a t e M e t a l l u r g i c a l T e c h n i c i a n C e r t i f i c a t e P a i n t T e c h n i c i a n C e r t i f i c a t e C h e m i c a l T e c h n i c i a n C e r t i f i c a t e C i v i l a n d S t r u c t u r a l T e c h n i c a l C e r t i f i c a t e E l e c t r i c a l a n d E l e c t r o n i c s T e c h n i c i a n C e r t i f i c a t e F o r e s t r y T e c h n i c i a n C e r t i f i c a t e I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n T e c h n i c i a n C e r t i f i c a t e C e r t i f i c a t e i n L a n d s c a p e T e c h n o l o g y E n g i n e e r i n g T e c h n i c i a n C e r t i f i c a t e i n M e c h a n i c a l T e c h n o l o g y C e r t i f i c a t e Programme i n D r a u g h t i n g M i n i n g T e c h n i c i a n C e r t i f i c a t e N a t u r a l Gas a n d P e t r o l e u m T e c h n i c i a n C e r t i f i c a t e S u r v e y i n g T e c h n i c i a n C e r t i f i c a t e 105 APPENDIX E 106 S I X FACTORS IN ORDER OF VARIANCE ACCOUNTED FOR FACTOR I PROFESSIONAL ADVANCEMENT E . P . S . QUESTION NUMBER QUESTION LOADING 11 To g i v e me h i g h e r s t a t u s i n my j o b . 6 9 5 20 To i n c r e a s e my c o m p e t e n c y i n my j o b . 6 8 8 0 3 To s e c u r e p r o f e s s i o n a l a d v a n c e m e n t . 6 7 4 30 To o b t a i n some i m m e d i a t e p r a c t i c a l b e n e f i t . 4 8 9 FACTOR I I COGNITIVE INTEREST E . P . S . QUESTION NUMBER QUESTION LOADING 22 To h e l p me e a r n a d e g r e e , d i p l o m a o r c e r t i f i c a t e . 5 7 0 13 To s t o p m y s e l f b e c o m i n g a c a b b a g e . 5 4 7 12 To s u p p l e m e n t a p r e v i o u s n a r r o w e d u c a t i o n . 4 9 6 18 To e s c a p e t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l n a r r o w n e s s o f my o c c u p a t i o n . 4 9 2 0 8 To s a t i s f y an i n q u i r i n g m i n d .471 14 To a c q u i r e a k n o w l e d g e t h a t w i l l h e l p w i t h o t h e r c o u r s e s . 4 5 2 27 To c l a r i f y w h a t I w a n t t o be d o i n g f i v e y e a r s f r o m now . 4 3 5 09 To o v e r c o m e t h e f r u s t r a t i o n o f d a y - t o -day l i v i n g . 4 2 7 j I i 107 FACTOR I I I SOCIAL WELFARE E . P . S . QUESTION NUMBER QUESTION LOADING 32 To i m p r o v e my a b i l i t y t o s e r v e m a n k i n d . 8 0 6 45 To i m p r o v e my a b i l i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n c o m m u n i t y w o r k . 7 4 7 24 To p r e p a r e f o r s e r v i c e t o t h e c o m m u n i t y . 6 6 1 04 To become more e f f e c t i v e as a c i t i z e n . 6 2 0 25 To g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o human r e l a t i o n s . 5 4 4 : 07 To r e s p o n d t o t h e f a c t t h a t I am s u r -r o u n d e d by p e o p l e who c o n t i n u e t o l e a r n . 5 1 2 01 To s e e k k n o w l e d g e f o r i t s own s a k e . 4 8 8 02 To s h a r e a common i n t e r e s t w i t h my s p o u s e o r f r i e n d . 4 6 9 46 To c o m p l y w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t p e o p l e w i t h s t a t u s and p r e s t i g e a t t e n d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s . 4 2 7 FACTOR IV SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS E . P . S . QUESTION NUMBER QUESTION i LOADING 19 To p a r t i c i p a t e i n g r o u p a c t i v i t y . 7 0 7 15 To f u l f i l l a n e e d f o r p e r s o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s and f r i e n d s . 6 8 5 35 To i m p r o v e my s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 5 9 1 ! 21 To g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o m y s e l f a n d my p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s . 5 3 5 ! 17 To meet members o f t h e o p p o s i t e s e x . 5 1 3 i 28 To become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h c o n g e n i a l i p e o p l e . 4 2 9 108 FACTOR V EXTERNAL EXPECTATIONS E . P . S . QUESTION NUMBER QUESTION 1 LOADING 36 To c a r r y o u t t h e e x p e c t a t i o n o f someone w i t h f o r m a l a u t h o r i t y .771 42 To c o m p l y w i t h t h e s u g g e s t i o n s o f -someone e l s e . 7 0 3 06 To c a r r y o u t t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f some a u t h o r i t y . 6 5 5 34 To k e e p up w i t h o t h e r s . 6 4 4 37 To t a k e p a r t i n an a c t i v i t y w h i c h i s c u s t o m a r y i n t h e c i r c l e i n w h i c h I move . 6 1 1 47 To c o m p l y w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s f r o m someone e l s e . 5 7 0 40 To e s c a p e an unhappy r e l a t i o n s h i p . 5 1 6 35 To i m p r o v e my s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 4 8 0 16 To k e e p up w i t h c o m p e t i t i o n . 4 2 8 38 To meet w i t h some f o r m a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . 4 1 1 FACTOR VI ESCAPE/STIMULATION E . P . S . QUESTION NUMBER QUESTION LOADING 31 To g e t a b r e a k i n t h e r o u t i n e o f I home o r w o r k . 7 4 3 \ 05 To g e t r e l i e f f r o m b o r e d o m . 6 8 0 09 To o v e r c o m e t h e f r u s t r a t i o n o f i d a y - t o - d a y l i v i n g . 6 3 5 | 26 To have a few h o u r s away f r o m r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . 6 2 0 | 28 To become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h c o n g e n i a l i p e o p l e . 5 9 2 ; 29 To p r o v i d e a c o n t r a s t t o t h e r e s t o f my l i f e . 5 7 4 i 44 To make new f r i e n d s . 5 6 5 ! 23 To e s c a p e t e l e v i s i o n . 5 4 5 i 48 To a s s i s t me when I go o v e r s e a s . 4 7 0 10 To be a c c e p t e d by o t h e r s . 4 3 3 109 APPENDIX F B R I T I S H COLUMBIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY CONTINUING EDUCATION QUESTIONNAIRE FOR WOMEN Y o u r r e p o n s e t o t h e a t t a c h e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l p r o v i d e us w i t h t h e r e a s o n s women g i v e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m s . The i n f o r m a t i o n y o u p r o v i d e u l t i m a t e l y w i l l h e l p us d e s i g n p r o g r a m s and c e r t i f i c a t e s t o h e l p women t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f c a r e e r d e v e l o p m e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Do n o t w r i t e y o u r name on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Y o u r r e s p o n s e s w i l l b e k e p t c o n f i d e n t i a l . Thank y o u . EVERY TIME YOU TURN A PAGE READ THE CATEGORIES CAREFULLY. SOMETIMES THE "VERY MUCH INFLUENCED" CATEGORY IS ON THE LEFT OF THE PAGE: SOMETIMES IT I S ON THE RIGHT. NO REASON FOR ENROLLING I S ANY MORE OR ANY LESS DESIRABLE THAN ANY. OTHER REASONS. BE FRANK THERE ARE NO RIGHT OR WRONG ANSWERS. REMEMBER TO READ THE CATEGORIES EACH TIME YOU TURN A PAGE. BEGIN ON THE NEXT PAGE 112 1 . BIOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION F o r O f f i c e Use O n l y V. 4 MARITAL STATUS: S i n g l e M a r r i e d O t h e r 5 Age i n y e a r s y e a r s 6 , 7 PRESENT P O S I T I O N : B r i e f l y d e s c r i b e y o u r p r e s e n t p o s i t i o n : : 8 , 9 _ 10 T o t a l Income o f F a m i l y U n i t : T h i s f i g u r e s h o u l d r e p r e s e n t t h e c o m b i n e d i n c o m e f p r t h e f a m i l y u n i t - s u c h a s h u s b a n d a n d w i f e 1 1 , 1 5 $ 16 O c c u p a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e : What i s y o u r v o c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e : T h i s s t a t e m e n t s h o u l d r e p r e s e n t y o u r 5 y e a r o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l . 1 7 , 18 19 A r e y o u e n r o l l e d i n a B . C . I . T . C e r t i f i c a t e P r o g r a m ? Y e s No 2 0 1 PARTICIPATION INDEX U s i n g the a t t ached l i s t o f reasons f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n a l programs, p lease i n d i c a t e the e x t e n t t o which each o f the reasons l i s t e d has i n f l u e n c e d you t o p a r t i c i -pa t e i n B . C . I . T . Programs. P l e a s e read each s tatement c a r e f u l l y and p lace a mark, u s i n g the p e n c i l p r o v i d e d , i n the a p p r o p r i a t e space an the a t tached IBM mark shee t . Here I s an example: Reason 23 . To escape t e l e v i s i o n 24. very much B much Q moderate Q 'influence ' influence ~'influence To p repare f o r s e r v i c e t o the ccmnuni ty . ^ very much 'influence g much influence C_ moderate influence little influence D_ little influence very little influence very little influence I f you f e e l statement (23)had "little influence" i n i m p e l l i n g you t o e n r o l i n B . C . I . T . programs then mark space D . bes ide i t e m #23 on the IBM sheet as i n d i c a t e d . I f you f e e l s tatement(24)had "very much influence" i n i m p e l l i n g y o u t o e n r o l i n B . C . I . T . programs then mark space A i e s i d e i t e m 24 an the IBM shee t as i n d i c a t e d . NAME OF TEST . . P A R T -D I R E C T I O N S : Rood ooeh ouoation andita lattarad onawora. Whan you hova dteidod which onawar it corract. blacKon Iho corraipandiita • pact oft ini. iht.t with o No. 2 pancil. Moao your mark oa long os lh« pair of lin.i. and complololy fill In. ar.a b.tw.MI lh« poif of linoe. If you chango your mind, oroaa your firaf mora C O M P L E T E L Y . Moh* no atroy morfca; fhay moy cownl ogomat you. G R A O E O R C L A S S . SAMPLE I. CHICAGO ia I -A . ....fry I . •...1.1. I-C '.. **!..« I -0 . .Itv I - C . .t.t. S C O R E S 0" ' .INSTRUCTOR DATE Or BIRTH. . I D E N T I F I C A T I O N N U M B E R I 5 I 13 17 21 23 29 33 3 r II -IS 19 31 33 e _ .jr.. A .JL. * e j» _ . A . . *... e o _ A _c JJ A t _ p_ t A e 0 t A c _ © k • e 0 I 4 ^ I t <$± r f t t tyt 32 36 11 PARTICIPATION INDEX 1- To seek knowledge for its own sake. ^ very much g much Q moderate 'influence ' influence ' influence little influence _ very little ' influence 2 . To share a common interest with my spouse or a friend. ^ very much g much r moderate „ little influence influence ' influence D. influence very little influence 3. To secure professional advancement. ^ very much g influence muah moderate influence ' influence little ' influence _ very little " influence 4 . To become more effective as a citizen of this city. ^ very much g much „ moderate _ '• influence ' influence ' influence little influence F very little ' influence 5 . To get relief from boredom. • very much g much ~ moderate « little _ very little ' influence ' influence ' influence influence influence To carry out the recommendation of some authority. » very much g much * moderate « little ~ very little ' influence ' influence ' influence ' influence * influence To respond to the fact that I am surrounded by people who continue to learn. « very much g much ,. moderate _ little - very little ' influence ' influence ' influence ' influence ' influence 8. To satisfy an inquring mind. » very much g much » moderate _ little _ very little ' influence ' influence ' influence ' influence ' influence To overcome the frustration of day-to-day living. , very much „ much - moderate . little p very little influence ' influence influence influence influence 10. To be accepted by others. . very much g much j. moderate _ little ~ very little " influence ' influence ' influence ' influence ' influence 115 11. To give me higher status in my job. A. B. C. 12. To supplement a narrow previous education. ^ very little g little £ moderate influence "' influence ' influence 13. To stop myself becoming a cabbage. much influence ^ very little g little moderate much influence ' influence ' influence ' influence 14. To acquire knowledge that will help with other courses. ^ very little g 1 little moderate much influence ' influence ' influence ' influence 15. To fulfill a need for personal associations and friendships. ^ very little g little ~ moderate influence ' influence ' influence 16. To keep up with competition. ^ very little g little j. moderate influence ' influence ' influence 17. To meet members of the opposite sex. much influence 0 much influence 18. •j much influence To escape the intellectual narrowness of my occupation. ^ very little g little Q moderate influence ' influence ' influence ^ very little g little j. moderate influence ' influence ' influence 19. To participate in group activity. ^ very little g little Q moderate influence ' influence ' influence To increase my competence in my job. 20. 21. ^ very little g little moderate D. much influence much influence much influence ' influence ' influence "' influence To gain insight into myself and my personal problems. ^ very little g little influence influence moderate influence 0. much influence £ very much influence £ very much influence £ very much influence £ very much influence £ very much influence £ very much influence £ very much influence £ very much influence £ very much influence £ very much influence 116 2 2 . To h e l p me earn a d e g r e e , diploma o r c e r t i f i c a t e . . very much much moderate tittle influence °- influence  C' influence influence 2 3 . To escape t e l e v i s i o n . very little influence ^ very much g m 24. uch Q moderate influence "' influence ' influence To prepare f o r s e r v i c e t o the community. D. little influence r very little ' influence ^ very much g m uch 2 5 . . moderate influence influence ' influence To g a i n i n s i g h t i n t o human r e l a t i o n s . D. little influence P very little influence 2 6 . , very much g much - moderate ' influence ' influence ' influence To have a few hours away from r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . 0 . little influence E. ; very little influence 27. ^ very much g much , moderate p little ' influence ' influence ' influence ' influence To c l a r i f y what I want t o be doing f i v e y e a r s from now. _ very little ' influence much C . moderate 28. ^ very muah g nr ' influence ' influence influence To become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h c o n g e n i a l p e o p l e . D. little influence ^ very little ' influence ^ very muah g much j . moderate influence ' influence ' influence little influence £ very little influence 29. 30. To p r o v i d e a c o n t r a s t to the r e s t o f my l i f e . C . ^ very much g much ^ moderate influence influence influence To o b t a i n some immediate p r a c t i c a l b e n e f i t . U little * influence _ very little ' influence much moderate 31. . very muah «  ' influence ' influence  v" influence To get a break i n the r o u t i n e o f home o r work. D. little influence - very little ' influence 32. , very much g muah - moderate ' influence ' influence ' influence To improve my a b i l i t y to serve mankind. little influence £ very little ' influence ^ very much g much influence C . moderate influence ' influence little influence £ very little influence 117 33. To comply with my employer's policy. . very little „ little ' influence ' influence 34. To keep up with others. moderate influence ^ very little g little j. moderate influence ' influence ' influence 35. To improve my social relationships. . very little g little - moderate ' influence ' influence ' influence 38. D. D. much influence muah influence much influence 36. To carry out the expectations of someone with formal authority. . very little g little . moderate « much ' influence ' influence ' influence ' influence _ very muah ' influence ^ very much influence g very muah influence ~ very much ' influence 37. To take part in an activity which is customary in the circule in which I move. , .very little g little . moderate ' influence ' influence ' influence To meet with some formal requirements. , very little _ little . moderate ' influence ' influence ' influence 39. To maintain or improve my social position. » very little g little _ moderate ' influence ' influence ' influence 40. To escape an unhappy relationship. ^ very little g little ^ moderate ' influence ' influence ' influence 41. To provide a contrast to my previous education. , very little g little - moderate ' influence ' influence ' influence 42. To comply with the suggestions of someone else. , very little „ little - moderate ' influence ' influence ' influence 43. To learn just for the sake of learning. , very little - little - moderate ' influence ' influence influence D. muah influence muah influence D. D. D. much influence much influence much influence much influence much influence _ very much ' influence _ very much ' influence r very much ' influence ^ very much influence £ very muah ' influence _ very muah ' influence E. ; very, much influence 118 44. To make new f r i ends . , very little g little ' influence ' influence „ moderate ^ much influence ' influence E very much influence 45, To improve ny a b i l i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n ccnmunity work. . very little g little ^ moderate ^ much influence ' influence ' influence ' influence j. very much influence 46. To comply w i t h the f ac t t ha t people w i t h s ta tus and p re s t i ge at tend adul t educat ion c lasses . ^ very little ^ li ttle moderate influence influence ' influence 47. To ccnply w i t h i n s t r u c t i c n s from someone else. very little _ little ^ moderate influence ' influence " " influence much influence much influence j. very much influence g very much influence 48. To a s s i s t me when I go overseas. very little B little ^ " influence ' influence ' influence moderate much influence j_ very much influence 

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