UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Production and reproduction : a critical analysis of the use of ’reproduction’ in Marxist literature… Molloy, Maureen Anne 1980

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1980_A8 M65.pdf [ 3.05MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0055942.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0055942-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0055942-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0055942-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0055942-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0055942-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0055942-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0055942-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0055942.ris

Full Text

PRODUCTION AND REPRODUCTION: C R I T I C A L ANALYSIS OF THE USE OF • REPRODUCTION* MARXIST LITERATURE ON THE FAMILY AND THE STATE by Maureen Anne M o l l o y The U n i v e r s i t y Of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1980 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( D e p a r t m e n t o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e g u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA May 1980 (c) Maureen Anne M o l l o y , 1980 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requ i rement s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I ag ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y & S o c i o l o g y The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1WS D a t e Of-t. 14 1980 ft i i ABSTRACT The t h e s i s i s an e x p l o r a t i o n and a c r i t i q u e o f t h e • r e p r o d u c t i o n ' p r o h l e m m a t i c . Ihe f i r s t s e c t i o n e x p l o r e s how t h r e e a u t h o r s - - L c u i s A l t h u s s e r , W a l l y Seccombe, and A n g e l a M i l e s , have c o n s t r u c t e d e p i s t e m o l o g i e s o f p r o d u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n . E a c h a u t h o r ' s l o c a t i o n o f r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n o f l a b o u r power i n b a s e o r s u p e r s t r u c t u r e , F a m i l y o r S t a t e i s e x p l i c a t e d and d i s c u s s e d , and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t ween F a m i l y and S t a t e s u g g e s t e d by e a c h a u t h o r i s c r i t i c a l l y e x p l o r e d . I n t h e s e c o n d s e c t i o n o f t h e p a p e r I a r g u e f o r a r e t u r n t o M a r x ' s e p i s t e m c l c g y o f p r o d u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n - - t h a t r e p r o d u c t i o n i s a l w a y s c o n c r e t e p r o d u c t i o n s e e n i n c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s . The q u e s t i o n o f what c o n s t i t u t e s p r o d u c t i o n i n M a r x i s t t h e o r y i s r a i s e d and t h e w o r k s o f Eaymond W i l l i a m s and E. P. Thompson a r e e x p l o r e d a s a l t e r n a t e and more v i a b l e a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e p r o b l e m . The p o s i t i o n i s a d v a n c e d t h a t t h e t o t a l i t y o f s o c i a l p r o d u c t i o n and t h e t o t a l i t y o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s must be i n c l u d e d i n a n a l y s i s o f C a p i t a l i s t s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n s . The f i n a l t h r e e s e c t i o n s e x p l o r e some o f t h e p r o b l e m s c f c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g t h e F a m i l y , t h e S t a t e , and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n them, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r e m p h a s i s on t h e i r i i i r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s i n r e p r o d u c i n g l a b o u r power and t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n . Two major p o i n t s o f d i s c u s s i o n a r e : 1) t h a t t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f l a b o u r power c a n n o t be s a i d t o be t h e l i n k between women's work, and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e i r o p p r e s s i o n , i n t h e home and i n t h e S t a t e . T h a t l i n k must be f o u n d i n h i s t o r i c a l l y s p e c i f i c p r o c e s s e s and r e l a t i o n s , r a t h e r t h a n i n the p r o d u c t ( l a b o u r power) o f t h e l a b o u r p r o c e s s ; and 2) t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n c a n n o t be a s s i g n e d t o any one 's p h e r e * o f s o c i e t y , s u c h as The F a m i l y , The S t a t e , o r The S u p e r s t r u c t u r e , n o r can i t be c o n s i d e r e d e i t h e r wholey o r m o s t l y a m a t t e r o f i d e o l o g y . I t must be s e e n as o r g a n i z e d p r a c t i c e , which d e r i v e s f r c m a t t e m p t s o f r u l i n g c l a s s e s t o i n c o r p o r a t e and n u l l i f y c h a l l e n g e s t o t h e i r d o m i n a t i o n . i v T A B L E OF C O N T E N T S A b s t r a c t i i A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s .v I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 R e p r o d u c t i o n : T h e U s e O f T h e C o n c e p t I n C o n t e m p o r a r y M a r x i s t T h e o r y 7 P r o d u c t i o n a n d R e p r o d u c t i o n : A n A l t e r n a t e E p i s t e m o l o g y 1 5 T h e R e l a t i o n O f T h e F a m i l y T o T h e S t a t e 2 3 W o m e n ' s W o r k : R e p r o d u c t i o n , P e r s o n a l S e r v i c e , O r T h e R e s e r v e A r m y O f L a b o u r ? 3 2 T h e F a m i l y , T h e S t a t e , A n d T h e R e p r o d u c t i o n O f T h e R e l a t i o n s O f P r o d u c t i o n 3 9 C o n c l u s i o n 4 6 F o o t n o t e s 4 9 B i b l i o g r a p h y 5 1 A p p e n d i x : T h e C o r p o r a t e S t a t e A n d T h e W o r k i n g C l a s s F a m i l y 5 6 B i o g r a p h i c a l F o r m 6 2 V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k t h e many p e o p l e who a s s i s t e d me i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . J i m L i n d s e y and D o r o t h y S m i t h i n t r o d u c e d me t c v e r y d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t s o f M a r x i s m , f o r c i n g me t o c h a l l e n g e i t s b a s i c p r e c e p t s . P e t e r Gose and Kim P o l l o c k h e l p e d me t o c o n f r o n t and r e w o r k my s t r u c t u r a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s e x and c l a s s o p p r e s s i o n . V e r y s p e c i a l t h a n k s t o my a d v i s o r s — H e l g a J a c o b s o n , M a r t i n S i l v e r m a n , and J c h n M c M u l l a n - - e a c h o f whom c o n t r i b u t e d i n a u n i q u e way t o my u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r o b l e m s I c h o s e t o t a c k l e . My h u s b a n d , B r i a n , and my s o n s , L u k e and D a n i e l , g a v e me s p e c i a l s u p p o r t t h r o u g h o u t . F i n a l l y , I w c u l d l i k e t o t h a n k my f r i e n d J u d y M o s o f f , who l a b o u r e d t h r o u g h t h e i n i t i a l c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e t h e s i s , who t a d g € r e d , c h e e r e d , and g e n e r a l l y was t h e r e t h r o u g o u t t h e v e r y d i f f i c u l t f i n a l w r i t i n g . I t i s t o h e r t h i s work i s d e d i c a t e d . . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n The r e l a t i o n between women's s u b o r d i n a t i o n i n t h e home and t h e p a r t i c u l a r n a t u r e o f women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e w o r k p l a c e i s a c e n t r a l i s s u e f o r M a r x i s t - f e m i n i s t s . F e m i n i s t t h e o r y w h i c h e x p l a i n s women's s u b o r d i n a t i o n i n t h e f a m i l y i n t e r m s o f E n g e l s ' a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y , i n h e r i t a n c e , and women a s p r o d u c e r s o f h e i r s , o r i n t e r m s o f t h e p h y s i c a l d e p e n d e n c e o f women due t o p r o l o n g e d y e a r s o f c h i l d - b e a r i n g and n u r s i n g , c a n e x p l a i n t h e s u b o r d i n a t i o n o f women i n t h e w o r k p l a c e o n l y i n t e r m s o f a c a r r y - o v e r o f s e x i s m b a s e d i n t h e f a m i l y . A t t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n t h e s e x - s e g r e g a t e d n a t u r e o f t h e w o r k p l a c e i n c o n t e m p o r a r y c a p i t a l i s m r e v e r t u l t i m a t e l y t o e i t h e r s e x i s m o r a f u n c t i o n a l i s t a n a l y s i s o f t h e d i v i d e - a n d - r u l e s t r a t e g y o f t h e C a p i t a l i s t s . The s e a r c h i n t h e l a s t f ew y e a r s h a s been t o f i n d a s t r u c t u r a l l i n k b e t w e e n t h e p l a c e o f women i n t h e f a m i l y and a t work. F o r some t h e o r i s t s r e p r o d u c t i o n p r o v i d e s t h i s c r i t i c a l c o n n e c t i o n . The s p e c i a l r o l e o f women i n r e p r o d u c i n g t h e human s p e c i e s c a n n o t be d e n i e d , and t h e p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f f e m a l e b i o l o g y h a v e b e e n e x p l o r e d a t l e n g t h by f e m i n i s t s . F i r e s t o n e ( 1 9 7 0 ) , De B e a u v o i r ( 1 9 5 2 ) , and more r e c e n t l y , H a m i l t o n (1977) 1 h a v e p o i n t e d o u t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f 2 p r e g n a n c y , c h i l d b i r t h , l a c t a t i o n , and o t h e r a s p e c t s o f f e m a l e anatomy i n p r o d u c i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g i n e q u a l i t y b e t w e e n men and women. How e v e r , women's c a p a c i t y t o b e a r c h i l d r e n i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o e x p l a i n t h e p e r s i s t a n c e o f s e x i s m o r t h e s p e c i f i c i t y o f t h e f o r m s o f s e x i s m w i t h w h i c h a r e now c u r e n t . P r e g n a n c y , c h i l d b i r t h , e t c e t e r a , n e v e r o c c u r i n an a - h i s t o r i c a l o r an a r c u l t u r a l s e t t i n g ; r a t h e r women g i v e b i r t h , n u r s e , a b o r t , as w e l l a s r a i s e f o o d , make m a t s , work i n f a c t o r i e s w i t h i n h i s t o r i c a l l y s p e c i f i c s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . I t i s t h e s e r e l a t i o n s w h i c h s h a p e a n d d e t e r m i n e t h e p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s o f s e x i s m a t any g i v e n h i s t o r i c a l t i m e . I n M a r x i s t and M a r x i s t - f e m i n i s t a n a l y s i s o f modern C a p i t a l i s m , t h e meaning o f ' r e p r o d u c t i o n ' h a s n o t been c o n f i n e d t o human p r o c r e a t i o n , b u t has been u s e d f o r t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f l a b c u r power and t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n . The a r g u m e n t h a s b e e n made t h a t r e p r o d u c t i o n c f l a b o u r p o w e r , o f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n , o r o f ' r e p r o d u c t i o n g e n e r a l l y ' i s t h e s p e c i a l t a s k o f women a n d / o r t h e S t a t e a n d / o r t h e F a m i l y . I t i s h e r e t h a t t h e i s s u e becomes t h o r n y , f o r we a r e d e a l i n g n o t w i t h how human i n d i v i d u a l s come t o been h o r n h u t how l a b o u r power i s p r o d u c e d . I m p l i c i t i n t h i s q u e s t i o n i s how r e l a t i o n s o f d o m i n a t i o n and e x p l o i t a t i o n w h i c h make o f human b e i n g s mere l a b o u r power a r e p r o d u c e d and r e p r o d u c e d . A t t h i s p o i n t , t h e c o n t e n t i o n t h a t wcmen have a s p e c i a l o r e x c l u s i v e r o l e i s l e s s t e n a b l e . O v e r t h e p a s t t e n y e a r s t h e s e q u e s t i o n s h a v e f o r m e d t h e b a s i s o f two s e p a r a t e h u t r e l a t e d d i s c o u r s e s i n M a r x i s t 3 t h e o r y , d i s c o u r s e s w h i c h a r e now b e g i n n i n g t o merge. The f i r s t i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e S t a t e , p a r t i c u l a r i l y t h e r o l e o f t h e S t a t e i n r e p r o d u c i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n . The s e c o n d i s t h e d i s c o u r s e on women w h i c h h a s l a r g e l y f o c u s e d on t h e r o l e o f women i n r e p r o d u c i n g l a b o u r power;. A body o f l i t e r a t u r e e x i s t s i n w h i c h t h e c o n c e p t o f r e p r o d u c t i o n i s c r u c i a l t o t h e a n a l y s i s o f modern C a p i t a l i s t s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n s - - r e p r o d u c t i o n d e f i n e d n o t as human p r o c r e a t i o n , b u t a s a g e n e r a l i s e d s o c i a l p r o c e s s . M o r e o v e r , women and t h e i r work i n t h e F a m i l y and t h e S t a t e have o c c u p i e d a c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n t h i s a n a l y s i s . T h i s t h e s i s i s b o t h an e x p l o r a t i o n and a c r i t i q u e o f t h e ' r e p r o d u c t i o n ' p r o b l e m m a t i c . I b e g i n w i t h t h e c o n c e p t f o r two r e a s o n s : f i r s t , b e c a u s e i t has beome an i m p o r t a n t way o f o r g a n i s i n g t h e o r e t i c a l work on women and t h u s d e s e r v e s t o be l o c k e d a t c r i t i c a l l y ; and s e c o n d , b e c a u s e t h e l i t e r a t u r e c o n t a i n s e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s w h i c h s e r v e t o i l l u m i n a t e d i f f i c u l t i e s , n o t o n l y i n a n s w e r i n g q u e s t i o n s a b c u t t h e p o s i t i o n o f women, b u t , p e r h a p s more i m p o r t a n t l y , i n p o s i n g q u e s t i o n s . The i s s u e s r a i s e d by t h i s k i n d o f c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s c a s t d o u b t on t h e . b a s i c c o n c e p t s o f M a r x i s t t h e o r y , many o f w h i c h have b e e n a c c e p t e d a s r e c e i v e d t r u t h s . Base and s u p e r s t r u c t u r e , p r o d u c t i v e and u n p r o d u c t i v e l a b o u r , p r o d u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n , t h e S t a t e , t h e F a m i l y , t h e d e f i n t i o n s o f c l a s s a l l come u n d e r s c r u t i n y . Our- u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f any one o f t h e s e c o n c e p t s h a s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r d e f i n i n g t h e o t h e r s . I n a c e r t a i n s e n s e t h e y d e f i n e e a c h o t h e r i n a way w h i c h i s more t a u t o l o g i c a l 4 t h a n s e q u e n t i a l . The f i r s t t a s k o f t h e t h e s i s i s t o e x p l o r e how t h r e e d i f f e r e n t a u t h o r s h a v e c o n s t r u c t e d e p i s t e m c l o g i e s b a s e d on t h e s e k e y c o n c e p t s — t h a t i s , how t h e c o n c e p t s h a v e been j u x t a p o s e d t o c o n s t r u c t ( s o m e t i m e s l i t e r a l l y ) m o d e l s o f t h e s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n s o f modern C a p i t a l i s m . I have c h o s e n t o do an i n - d e p t h c r i t i q u e o f t h r e e a u t h o r s r a t h e r t h a n a b r o a d r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e b e c a u s e I w i s h e d t o e x a m i n e i n d e t a i l t h e u n d e r l y i n g e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s i n t h e s e k e y a t t e m p t s t o e s t a b l i s h t h e t h e o r e t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f ' r e p r o d u c t i o n 1 i n M a r x i s t t h e o r y . The f i r s t two p a p e r s , Seccombe's "The H o u s e w i f e and Her L a b o u r Under C a p i t a l i s m " (1973) and A l t h u s s e r ' s " I d e o l o g y and I d e o l o g i c a l S t a t e A p p a r a t u s e s " (1971) a r e l a n d m a r k p a p e r s w h i c h have i n f o r m e d t h e d e b a t e on women and t h e S t a t e s i n c e t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n . Much l a t e r w o r k , a l t h o u g h c r i t i c a l o f t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e s e p a p e r s , h a s b u i l t upon f o u n d a t i o n s l a i d by t h e s e two a u t h o r s . The t h i r d p a p e r . M i l e s ' " F e m i n i s m and C l a s s A n a l y s i s " (1978) b u i l d s an a n a l y s i s o f t h e p o s i t i o n o f women on t h e c c n c e p t o f r e p r o d u c t i o n . The a u t h o r a t t e m p t s t o e l i m i n a t e t h e c o n c e p t s o f ba s e and s u p e r s t r u c t u r e . W h i l e t h i s p a p e r f a i l s u l t i m a t e l y t o a c c o m p l i s h i t s t a s k , i t d o e s r a i s e some i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n , t h e n , i s a d e t a i l e d c r i t i q u e o f t h e s e s e m i n a l w o r k s . The e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s b e t w e e n p r o d u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n a r e e x a m i n e d w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o how t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s c o n s t r u c t e d i n t e r m s o f t h e c o n c e p t s o f b a s e a nd s u p e r s t r u c t u r e . E a c h a u t h o r ' s l o c a t i o n o f 5 r e p r o d u c t i o n o f l a b o u r power and r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n i n b a s e o r s u p e r s t r u c t u r e , , f a m i l y o r S t a t e i s e x p l i c a t e d and d i s c u s s e d . F i n a l l y , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e S t a t e and t h e F a m i l y s u g g e s t e d by each o f t h e a u t h o r s i s c r i t i c a l l y e x p l o r e d . I n t h e s e c o n d s e c t i o n o f t h e p a p e r I a r g u e f o r a r e t u r n t o Marx's e p i s t e m o l o g y o f p r o d u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n - - t h a t r e p r o d u c t i o n i s a l w a y s c o n c r e t e p r o d u c t i o n s e e n i n c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s . The q u e s t i o n o f what c o n s t i t u t e s p r o d u c t i o n i n M a r x i s t t h e o r y i s r a i s e d and t h e works o f Raymond W i l l i a m s and E. P. Thompson a r e e x p l o r e d a s a l t e r n a t e and more v i a b l e a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e problem. The p o s i t i o n i s a d v a n c e d t h a t t h e t o t a l i t y o f s o c i a l p r o d u c t i o n and t h e t o t a l i t y o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s must be i n c l u d e d i n a n a l y s i s o f C a p i t a l i s t s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n s . The f i n a l t h r e e s e c t i o n s e x p l o r e some o f t h e p r o b l e m s o f c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g t h e F a m i l y , t h e S t a t e , and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between them, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r e m p h a s i s on t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s i n r e p r o d u c i n g l a b o u r power and t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n . Two major p o i n t s o f d i s c u s s i o n a r e : 1) t h a t t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f l a b o u r power c a n n o t be s a i d t o be t h e l i n k between women's work, and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e i r o p p r e s s i o n , i n t h e home and i n t h e S t a t e . T h a t l i n k must be f o u n d i n h i s t o r i c a l l y s p e c i f i c p r o c e s s e s and r e l a t i o n s , r a t h e r t h a n i n t h e p r o d u c t ( l a b o u r power) o f t h e l a b o u r p r o c e s s ; and 2) t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n c a n n o t be a s s i g n e d t o any one ' s p h e r e ' o f s o c i e t y , s u c h as The F a m i l y , The S t a t e , o r The 6 S u p e r s t r u c t u r e , n o r c a n i t be c o n s i d e r e d e i t h e r w h o l e y o r m o s t l y a m a t t e r o f i d e o l o g y . I t must he s e e n a s o r g a n i z e d p r a c t i c e , w h i c h d e r i v e s f r o m a t t e m p t s o f r u l i n g c l a s s e s t o i n c o r p o r a t e and n u l l i f y c h a l l e n g e s t o t h e i r d o m i n a t i o n . The t h e o r y d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s t h e s i s i s a n a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e an a l t e r n a t i v e t o c u r r e n t a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s e x and c l a s s o p p p r e s s i c n . I t does s o by b e g i n n i n g f r o m a more o p e n - e n d e d c o n c e p t i o n o f c l a s s t h a n t h a t i n t h e p a p e r s a n a l y s e d i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n ; . C l a s s c o n c e i v e d a s a s t r u c t u r a l - e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n c a n n c t encompass t h e v a r i e t y o f e x p e r i e n c e s and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s w h i c h shape p e o p l e ' s l i v e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t d e e s n o t a l l o w f o r human a g e n c y . As E. P. Thompson p u t s i t no h i s t o r i c a l c a t e g o r y h a s b e e n more m i s u n d e r s t o o d , t o r m e n t e d , and d e h i s t o r i c i s e d t h a n t h e c a t e g o r y o f s o c i a l c l a s s ; a s e l f - d e f i n i n g h i s t o r i c a l f o r m a t i o n , w h i c h men and women make o u t o f t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e o f s t r u g g l e , h a s been r e d u c e d t o a s t a t i c s t r u c t u r e o f w h i c h men a r e n o t t h e a g e n t s b u t t h e v e c t o r s ( 1 9 7 8 2 3 8 ) • C l a s s must be e x p a n d e d t o i n c l u d e o t h e r r e l a t i o n s " o f p o w e r , o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s , s e x u a l , c u l t u r a l , n o r m a t i v e , " (ibi&Qs^y I n d e e d , i f t h e c o n c e p t i s t o be u s e f u l i n a n a l y s i n g h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s e s , i t must i n c l u d e t h e s e r e l a t i o n s , f o r t h e y s h a p e t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s and a c t i o n s o f p e o p l e . I f c l a s s becomes d e f i n e d t o i n c l u d e t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s b e t w een men's and women's w o r k - p a t t e r n s b o t h i n t h e l a b o u r f o r c e and a t home, women a r e no l o n g e r s e e n a s r e l a t e d t o t h e means c f p r o d u c t i o n t h r o u g h t h e i r h u s b a n d s ' l a b o u r , b u t a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e t o t a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f 7 r e l a t i o n s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e r e l a t i o n s o f d o m i n a t i o n a t any g i v e n h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d . I t i s hoped t h i s t h e s i s w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a t h e o r y w h i c h w i l l e n h a n c e t h i s mode o f a n a l y s i s . R e p r o d u c t i o n ; The Use Of The C o n c e p t I n C o n t e m p o r a r y M a r x i s t T h e o r y The c o n c e p t o f r e p r o d u c t i o n g a i n e d t h e o r e t i c a l p r o m i n a n c e i n t h e work o f L o u i s A l t h u s s e r i n t h e l a t e 1 9 6 0 ' s . A l t h u s s e r d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h r e e k i n d s o f r e p r o d u c t i o n : r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n , 2 r e p r o d u c t i o n o f l a b o u r p o wer, and r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n ( A l t h u s s e r , 197 1 : 1 2 8 - 1 3 0 ) . A l t h o u g h he s e e s r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n a s p a r t o f t h e o n g o i n g p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s , he l o c a t e s r e p r o d u c t i o n o f l a b o u r power and r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n o u t s i d e t h e p r o c e s s o f p r o d u c t i o n , i n t h e s u p e r s t r u c t u r e . R e p r o d u c t i o n , t h e n , i s t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n b a s e and s u p e r s t r u c t u r e , i n s o f a r a s i t i s t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e s u p e r s t r u c t u r e t o r e p r o d u c e t h e r e l a t i o n s o f t h e b a s e : i t i s p o s s i b l e and n e c e s s a r y t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e e s s e n t i a l o f t h e e x i s t e n c e and t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s u p e r s t r u c t u r e on t h e b a s i s o f r e p r o d u c t i o n ( e m p h a s i s i n o r i g i n a l ) ( i b i d : 1 3 6 ) . U s i n g what he c a l l s ' t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l m e t a p h o r ' , A l t h u s s e r c o n s t r u c t s a t h r e e - s t o r i e d m o d el o f s o c i e t y : t h e b a s e , g i v i n g r i s e t o t h e s u p e r s t r u c t u r e w h i c h i n t u r n r e p r o d u c e s 8 t h e r e l a t i o n s of t h e b a s e . The s u p e r s t r u c t u r e , i s composed of two t i e r s — t h e R e p r e s s i v e S t a t e A p p a r a t u s (RSA) and t h e I d e o l o g i c a l S t a t e a p p a r a t u s ( I S A ) . The RSA c o m p r i s e s t h e p o l i c e , and armed f o r c e s , t h e p r i s o n s y s t e m , and t h e l e g a l s y s t e m . I t " s e c u r e s by r e p r e s s i o n ... t h e p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e a c t i o n o f t h e I d e o l o g i c a l S t a t e A p p a r a t u s e s " ( i b i d : 1 5 0 ) . I d e o l o g i c a l S t a t e A p p a r a t u s e s r e p r o d u c e t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n t h r o u g h i d e o l o g y . They i n c l u d e r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e t r a d e u n i o n s , t h e l e g a l and j u d i c i a l s y s t e m s , p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s i n d u s t r y , t h e F a m i l y , and t h e c u l t u r a l phenomena ^ L i t e r a t u r e , the A r t s , and S p o r t s ) ( i b i d , 1 4 3 ) . . T h i s m u l t i - l e v e l e d c o n c e p t i o n i s p r e m i s e d on an i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e p a r a t i o n between b a s e and s u p e r s t r u c t u r e . The b a s e i s d e f i n e d as an a b s t r a c t i o n — " t h e u n i t y o f t h e p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s and t h e r e l a t i o n s o f • p r o d u c t i o n " ( i b i d : 1 3 4 ) . The s u p e r s t r u c t u r e , on t h e o t h e r hand i s a hodge-podge c f l e g a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d i n s t i t u t i o n s , t h e f a m i l y , and t h e A r t s . The c a t e g o r i e s , however a r e n o t a b s o l u t e and he q u a l i f i e s two o f them — t h e f a m i l y ISA and t h e l e g a l ISA. The f a m i l y " o b v i o u s l y has o t h e r f u n c t i o n s t h a n t h a t o f an ISA. I t i n t e r v e n e s i n t h e r e p o d u c t i o n of l a b o u r power. I n d i f f e r e n t modes o f p r o d u c t i o n i t i s t h e u n i t o f p r o d u c t i o n a n d / o r t h e u n i t c f c o n s u m p t i o n " ( i b i d : 1 4 3 ) . S i m i l a r i l y t h e Law " b e l o n g s t o b o t h t h e R e p r e s s i v e S t a t e A p p a r a t u s and t o t h e s y s t e m o f ISA's ( i b i d : 143). I t i s odd t h a t he f a i l s t o n o t e t h a t a l l t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s which he a s s i g n s t o t h e s u p e r s t u c t u r e p e r f o r m o t h e r ' f u n c t i o n s ' ; t h e c o m u n i c a t i o n s 9 i n d u s t r y and t h e A r t s , f o r e x a m p l e p r o d u c e s u r p l u s v a l u e , w h i l e t h e t r a d e u n i o n s c o n t r i b u t e t o p r o d u c t i o n by r e p r e s s i v e a s w e l l as i d e o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s . The i n s i t u t i o n a l d i s t i n c t i o n .between b a s e and s u p e r s t r u c t u r e , b e t w e e n p r o d u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n i s . n o t t e n a b l e . A l t h u s s e r subsumes t h e f a m i l y u n d e r t h e S t a t e , a s one o f t h e I S A ' s . O t h e r I S A ' s , e x c e p t i n g p e r h a p s t h e A r t s , a r e f o r m a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h o p e r a t e e i t h e r t h r o u g h i n t e r n a l c l a s s r e l a t i o n s ( s u c h a s t h e l e g a l s y s t e m and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s i n d u s t r y ) o r a r e t h e m s e l v e s s p e c i f i c a l l y c l a s s o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( t h e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s and t h e t r a d e u n i o n s ) . H o w e v e r , t h e F a m i l y c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d an i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h t h e same r e l a t i o n t o t h e p r o c e s s o f d o m i n a t i o n as t h e o t h e r I S A ' s . F i r s t , f a m i l i e s a r e n o t c o n s t i t u t e d as c l a s s r e l a t i o n s ; s e c o n d , f a m i l i e s do n o t h a v e autonomy i n t h e p o l i t i c a l a r e n a . The F a m i l y , a s a p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n , c a n n o t r e p r e s e n t ' i t s e l f . I t may be , and o f t e n i s , t h e f o c u s o f c l a s s s t r u g g l e , b u t i t i s n o t t h e s i t e o f c l a s s s t r u g g l e a s a r e t h e o t h e r ISA ' s . T h i s i s s o b e c a u s e t h e r e i s , a t t h e same t i m e , a m u l t i t u d e o f f a m i l i e s and no s u c h t h i n g a s 'The F a m i l y ' . The t e r m i t s e l f i s a r e i f i c a t i o n . W h i l e A l t h u s s e r r e c o g n i z e s t h a t f a m i l i e s may be d i f f e r a c c o r d i n g t o mode o f p r o d u c t i o n , he d o e s n o t e n t e r t a i n t h e p c s s i b l i l i t y t h a t t h e f a m i l y may be f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t f o r d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s . w i t h i n a mode o f p r o d u c t i o n - - t h a t i s t h a t f a m i l i e s i n d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s a r e n o t h o m o l o g o u s s t r u c t u r e s d o i n g p a r a l l e l o r c o m p l i m e n t a r y work, b u t t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n o f ' f a m i l y work' 10 t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n r e l a t i o n s may be f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t d e p e n d i n g on t h e c l a s s p o s i t i o n o f i t s members. A l t h u s s e r ' s e p i s t e m o l o g y i s b l a t a n t l y f u n c t i o n a l i s t a s , i n a d i f f e r e n t way, i s t h e m o d el p r o p o s e d by W a l l y Seccombe. W h i l e A l t h u s s e r d e f i n e s p r o d u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n as t h e f u n c t i o n s o f d i s t n c t i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e a l m s o f b a s e and s u p e r s t r u c t u r e , S e c ccmbe, who a n a l y s e s p r o d u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n a s one p r o c e s s , c o n s i d e r s t h a t b a s e and s u p e r s t r u c t u r e s i g n i f y " d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n a l l e v e l s , o r a s p e c t s o f t h e s o c i a l w o r l d havng a c e r t a i n d e f i n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p t o one a n o t h e r " (Seccombe, 1 9 7 3 : 1 4 ) . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e b a s e i s t h e " s o c i a l a c t i v i t y w h i c h e n s u r e s t h e p r o d u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e m a t e r i a l w o r l d " ( i b i d : 1 4 ) , w h i l e t h e s u p e r s t r u c t u r e i s i d e o l o g y w h i c h " s u s t a i n s t h e c o h e r e n c e o f t h e s o c i a l w o r l d a t t h e l e v e l o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s " ( i b i d : 1 4 ) . The F a m i l y , a c c o r d i n g l y , b e l o n g s t o b o t h r e a l m s , r e p r o d u c i n g l a b o u r power as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e b a s e and r e p r o d u c i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n a s an i d e o l o g i c a l o r s u p e r s t r u c t u r a l f u n c t i o n . R e p r o d u c t i o n o f l a b o u r power and r e p r o d u c t i o n o f r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n a r e f u n c t i o n a l l y d i s t i n c t b u t u n i f i e d i n t h e same l a b o u r p r o c e s s . L i k e A l t h u s s e r , SecconLbe s e e s t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n as an l a r g e l y i d e o l o g i c a l m a t t e r . However, w h i l e A l t h u s s e r l o c a t e s r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e S t a t e , Seccombe c o n t e n d s i t i s m a i n l y c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e f a m i l y . To a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , 11 t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e two d e r i v e s f r o m d i v e r g e n t c o n c e p t i o n s o f t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e F a m i l y and t h e S t a t e , a l t h u s s e r subsumes t h e F a m i l y u n d e r t h e S t a t e a s one o f t h e I d e o l o g i c a l S t a t e A p p a r a t u s e s . . Seccombe d o e s n o t d e f i n e a s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e F a m i l y and t h e S t a t e ; r a t h e r he r e l i e s on a ccmmonsense n o t i o n w h i c h i s i m p l i c i t r a t h e r t h a n e x p l o i t . The S t a t e and t h e F a m i l y a r e p r e s e n t e d a s e s s e n t i a l l y s e p a r a t e b u t c o m p l i m e n t a r y i n s t i t u t i o n s : The f a m i l y h a s a s p e c i a l r o l e t o p l a y i n t h e i d e o l o g i c a l r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n . The s t a t e ( t h r o u g h i t s e d u c a t i o n a l and media a p p a r a t u s ) i s a c o m p l i m e n t b u t n o t a s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h e f a m i l y i n t h i s r e g a r d ( i b i d : 1 3 ) . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e F a m i l y i s p o s i t e d a s somehow s e p a r a t e and a p a r t f r o m t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d : " t h e f i r s t s i x y e a r s o c c u r i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y w i t h i n t h e n u c l e a r f a m i l y " ( i b i d : 1 3 ) . Not o n l y i s t h i s e m p i r i c a l l y f a l s e , s i n c e many c h i l d r e n s p e n d a g r e a t d e a l o f t i m e i n n u r s e r y s c h o o l s , d a y - c a r e c e n t r e s , and w i t h r e l a t i v e s , b u t e v e n c h i l d r e n who a r e r a i s e d i n n u c l e a r f a m i l i e s a r e e x p o s e d t o o t h e r r e l a t i o n s b e c a u s e f a m i l i e s a r e i m p l i c a t e d i n and p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e l a t i o n s o t h e r t h a n i n t e r n a l o n e s . I n f a c t e v e n t o use m e t a p h o r s s u c h a s i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l i s m i s l e a d i n g b e c a u s e f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s a r e c o n t i n g e n t on and p a r t o f t h e t o t a l s e t o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i n t h e s o c i e t y . Seccombe h e r e f a l l s p r e y t o t h e i d e o l o g i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n p u b l i c and p r i v a t e . . He assumes t h a t t h e F a m i l y i s somehow a s e l f - c o n t a i n e d u n i t . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t he c o n f u s e s t h e p h y s i c a l s p a c e i n w h i c h a c h i l d m i g h t i n d e e d s p e n d t h e m a j o r i t y o f i t s t i m e w i t h t h e 12 s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s to which t h e c h i l d i s e x p o s e d . The i n f l u e n c e c f t e l e v i s i o n a l o n e s h o u l d h a v e p r e v e n t e d t h i s c o n f u s i o n . E q u a l l y p r o b l e m m a t i c i s Seccombe's l o c a t i o n of women's work i n t h i s model o f the F a m i l y and t h e S t a t e . He a c c e p t s one o f t h e more p o t e n t i d e o l o g i e s a b o u t and a g a i n s t women t h a t i t i s wcmen who a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f " w i l l i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r t h e s o c i a l o r d e r " ( i b i d : 13) .. W h i l e he i s c o r r e c t i n n o t i n g t h a t M a r x i s t s have i g n o r e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c h i l d s o c i a l i z a t i o n , he sheds no l i g h t on t h e s u b j e c t by b u y i n g worn-out myths a b o u t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f m o t h e r i n g . E e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n must be c a r r i e d o u t between c l a s s e s , n o t w i t h i n them. I t c a n n o t he c o n s t r u e d as t h e major t a s k o f e i t h e r t h e f a m i l y o r t h e mother b e c a u s e t h e f a m i l y i s n o t c o n s t i t u t e d by c l a s s r e l a t i o n s . A M a r x i s t t h e o r y o f c h i l d s o c i a l i z a t i o n must b e g i n by d e m o l i s h i n g t h e i d e a t h a t f a m i l i e s a r e a i r - t i g h t c o mpartments .with f i r m l y d e f i n e d b o u n d a r i e s and must b e g i n t o a n a l y s e t h e e x a c t n a t u r e o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s t o which t h e c h i l d i s e x p o s e d . M i l e s p r o v i d e s a r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e from A l t h u s s e r ' s and Seccomhe's d i s c u s s i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n . She se e s t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between r e p r o d u c t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n a s a d i s t i n c t i o n between male and f e m a l e . . She r e j e c t s t h e b a s e / s u p e r s t r u c t u r e model u t i l i s e d by A l t h u s s e r and Seccombe , and s u b s t i t u t e s a d i c h o t o m y p r e d i c a t e d on g e n d e r - b a s e d s p h e r e s o f i n f l u e n c e . R e p r o d u c t i o n i s d e f i n e d a s 13 n o t j u s t t h e . b e a r i n g o f c h i l d r e n and t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e b u t t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f c a p i t a l i s m and p a t r i a r c h y t h e m s e l v e s — s u c h a r e a s as s o c i a l i z a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h c a r e , and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f l e i s u r e , p r i v a t e l i f e a n d c o n s u m p t i o n ( M i l e s , 1 9 7 8 : 3 7 ) . M i l e s c o n t e n d s t h a t t h e r e h a s been a s h i f t i n i m p o r t a n c e f r o m p r o d u c t i o n ( t h e male s p h e r e ) t o r e p r o d u c t i o n ( t h e f e m a l e s p h e r e ) . I n h e r vi e w t h e n a r r o w s p h e r e o f c o m m o d i t y p r o d u c t i o n .... ha s l o s t i t s commanding r o l e . The mechanism o f t h e m a r k e t and wage l a b o u r c a n no l o n g e r a l o n e , i n t e g r a t e and r e p r o d u c e c a p i t a l i s t and p a t r i a r c h a l r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n and d o m i n a t i o n (ibid:34).„ The f e m a l e s p h e r e o f r e p r o d u c t i o n i s " p o t e n t i a l l y a u t o n o m o u s and d e t e r m i n i n g " ( i b i d : 3 4 ) . M i l e s ' p a p e r c a n be c r i t i c i s e d on many g r o u n d s . . Her c o n c e p t o f r e p r o d u c t i o n l a c k s s p e c i f i c i t y , i t l u m p s t o g e t h e r many d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f s o c i a l r e p r o d u c t i o n * Her k n o w l e d g e o f t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e f a m i l y and women's work seems s c a n t y and h e r a n a l y s i s i s b e r e f t o f any c o n c e p t o f p r o p e r t y r e l a t i o n s w h i c h a r e e x t a n t i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s . . S h e s e e s t h e a d v e n t o f c o r p o r a t e c a p i t a l i s m w i t h i t s m a s s i v e c o m p o nent o f s t a t e p l a n n i n g as c r e a t i n g a f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t f o r m o f o p p r e s s i o n t h a n was f o u n d i n e a r l i e r s t a g e s o f c a p i t a l i s m — a f o r m o f o p p r e s s i o n b a s e d i n r e p r o d u c t i o n . More c r i t i c a l i s h e r i n s i s t e n c e on t h e a b s o l u t e d i s t i n c t i o n between r e p r o d u c t i o n and p r o d u c t i o n , w h i c h s h e c o n s i g n s t o s e p a r a t e ' s p h e r e s ' as w e l l a s s e p a r a t e g e n d e r s . Her c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t we must " a s s e r t t h e c l a i m s and v a l u e s o f r e p r o d u c t i o n a g a i n s t p r o d u c t i o n " r a t h e r t h a n " r e d u c i n g r e p r o d u c t i o n t o an a d j u n c t o f p r o d u c t i o n and 1 4 d e f i n i n g i t a s a s p e c i f i c f o r m o f l a b o u r " ( i b i d : 36)... She p r o p o s e s a new f o r m o f t h e b a s e - s u p e r s t r u c t u r e d i c h o t o m y , b a s e d on g e n d e r and t h u s e v o l v e s a s e p a r a t i o n b e t w e e n p r o d u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n s i m i l a r t o A l t h u s s e r s . The m e r i t o f M i l e s ' p a p e r i s h e r i n s i s t e n c e t h a t t h e S t a t e and t h e work o f women i n t h e heme be e x a m i n e d a s i m p o r t a n t i n t h e i r own r i g h t , r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g r e l e g a t e d t o t h e s u p e r s t r u c t u r e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , she f a i l s t o p r o v i d e an a d e q u a t e e m p i r i c a l o r t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r h e r v i e w s D e s p i t e p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s o f t h e i r t h e o r i e s a n d d e f i n i t i o n s o f c o n c e p t s , a l l t h r e e a u t h o r s a r e engaged i n t h e same mode o f a n a l y s i s . E a c h i s a t t e m p t i n g t o l o c a t e a p r i v i l e g e d s i t e where r e p r o d u c t i o n c a n be s a i d t o be o c c u r r i n g . a l t h u s s e r and M i l e s d e f i n e r e p r o d u c t i o n a s a d i s t i n c t p r o c e s s , a l t h o u g h n e i t h e r s t a t e s c l e a r l y how r e p r o d u c t i o n i s t o be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m p r o d u c t i o n . Seccombe, a l t h o u g h c o m m i t t e d t o t h e p o s i t i o n t h a t r e p r o d u c t i o n i s p r o d u c t i o n s e e n a s a c o n t i n u o u s p r o c e s s , l o c a t e s r e p r o d u c t i o n c f l a b o u r power and r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s c f p r o d u c t i o n i n s p e c i f i c l o c a t i o n s — t h e F a m i l y , t h e S t a t e , t h e S u p e r s t r u c t u r e . A l l t h r e e a u t h o r s a r e w o r k i n g i n a s t r u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l i s t d i s c o u r s e - - p r o c e e d i n g f r o m t h e a s s u m p t i o n f r o m t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t i f t h e r i g h t ' p l a c e c a n be l o c a t e d , t h e t h e o r e t i c a l c o g c a n be d r o p p e d i n t o p l a c e a n d t h e s o c i a l m a c h i n e w i l l g r i n d on. 15 The a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h i s mode o f a n a l y s i s i s t o a r t i c u l a t e a t h e o r y w h i c h a i d s us t o u n d e r s t a n d how t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s c o n t r i b u t e t o and c o n s t i t u t e t h e p r o d u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l w o r l d . The d e v e l o p m e n t o f s u c h a t h e o r y n e c e s s i t a t e s a new e p i s t e m o l c g y o f p r o d u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n --one w h i c h r e f l e c t s t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f human a c t i v i t i e s a s w e l l a s t h e c o n s t r a i n t s o f t h e d o m i n a n t s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . P r o d u c t i o n And R e p r o d u c t i o n : An A l t e r n a t e E p i s t e m o l o g y The c e n t r a l e p i s t e m o l o l g o g i c a l i s s u e r a i s e d by t h e p r e c e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n i s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n p r o d u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n . I t h a s b een shown t h a t t h e r e a r e two f u n d a m e n t a l p r o b l e m s i n t h e w o r k s o f t h e a u t h o r s d i s c u s s e d . The f i r s t i s t h e s e p a r a t i o n b e t w e e n p r o d u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n s u g g e s t e d by M i l e s and A l t h u s s e r ; t h e s e c o n d i s t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n f r o m m a t e r i a l p r o d u c t i o n s u g g e s t e d by Seccombe. I n t h i s s e c t i o n an a l t e r n a t e a p p r o a c h t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n / r e p r o d u c t i o n p r o b l e m i s e x p l o r e d . The p r e m i s e i s t h a t r e p r o d u c t i o n i s a l w a y s p r o d u c t i o n i n c o n t i n u i t y : t h e r e a r e no e m p i r i c a l o r e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l g r o u n d s f o r l o c a t i n g r e p r o d u c t i o n i n a s e p a r a t e ' s p h e r e ' f r o m p r o d u c t i o n . I n f a c t , t o do s o o b s c u r e s t h e r e a l r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e r e p r o d u c t i o n . 16 The c b v i c u s q u e s t i o n i s what, t h e n , i s p r o d u c t i o n ? What a r e t h e s o c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t k i n d s o f p r o d u c t i o n ? How a r e t h e y t c be a n a l y s e d ? I w i l l a r g u e t h a t u n d e r l y i n g t h e • s p h e r e s ' a p p r o a c h ( e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e a u t h o r s c r i t i q u e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n ) , i s a b a s e / s u p e r s t r u c t u r e model w h i c h d e r i v e s f r o m an e c o n o m i s t i c c o n c e p t o f p r o d u c t i o n . The w o r k s o f Raymond W i l l i a m s (1S77) and E. P. Thompson ( 1 9 7 8 , 1976) , w h i c h a r e p r e m i s e d on a b r o a d e r c o n c e p t o f p r o d u c t i o n , a r e p r o p o s e d a s an a l t e r n a t i v e a p p r o a c h w h i c h a l l o w s d i f f e r e n t and more r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e . S t a t e and t h e F a m i l y t o be p o s e d . But b e f o r e r e f e r r i n g t o t h e s e w o r k s , i t i s u s e f u l t o u n d e r s t a n d how Marx a n a l y s e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p r o d u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n . When Marx r e f e r s t o a g e n e r a l i z e d c o n c e p t o f s o c i a l r e p r o d u c t i o n he d e f i n e s i t a s p r o d u c t i o n i n c o n t i n u i t y : k s o c i e t y c a n no more c e a s e t o p r o d u c e t h a n i t c a n c e a s e t o consume. When v i e w e d , t h e r e f o r e a s a c o n n e c t e d w h c l e , and a s a f l o w i n g on w i t h i n c e s s a n t re.newal, e v e r y s o c i a l p r o c e s s o f p r o d u c t i o n i s a t t h e same t i m e a p r o c e s s o f r e p r o d u c t i o n (Marx, 1 9 6 7 : 5 6 6 ) . More c c m m o n l y , and i n k e e p i n g w i t h h i s i n s i s t e n c e t h a t no p r o c e s s e v e r e x i s t s i n t h e a b s t r a c t , Marx a n a l y s e s s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s o f r e p r o d u c t i o n — t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f l a b o u r p o w e r , t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n , and t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n . . R e p r o d u c t i o n o f l a b o u r power and r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n a r e a l w a y s c o n n e c t e d t o and u s e d i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y w i t h p r o d u c t i o n : t h e v a l u e o f l a b o u r power i s d e t e r m i n e d , a s i n t h e c a s e o f e v e r y o t h e r c o m m o d i t y , by t h e l a b o u r - t i m e n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n f and c o n s e q u e n t l y 17 a l s o t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n , o f t h i s s p e c i a l a r t i c l e . . . l a b o u r power e x i s t s o n l y as a c a p a c i t y o r power o f t h e l i v i n g i n d i v i d u a l . I t s p r o d u c t i o n c o n s e q u e n t l y p r e s u p p o s e s i t s e x i s t e n c e . G i v e n t h e i n d i v i d u a l , t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f l a b o u r power c o n s i s t s o f h i s r e p r o d u c t i o n o f h i m s e l f o r h i s m a i n t e n a n c e , ( e m p h a s i s mine) ( i b i d : 1 7 1 ) . He a n a l y s e s t h r e e c o n s t i t u e n t p r o c e s s e s o f t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f l a b o u r power: t h e d a i l y r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e w o r k e r , t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f new l a b o u r e r s , and t h e c o s t o f e d u c a t i o n o r s k i l l a q u i s i t i o n . He d o e s n o t , a s h a s been n o t e d many t i m e s , d e a l a t a l l w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n o f d o m e s t i c l a b o u r t o t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f l a i o u r power, as t h a t much r e m a r k e d upon q u o t e p u t s i t : 3 t h e m a i n t e n a n c e and r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s i s and must e v e r b e, a c o n d i t i o n o f t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f C a p i t a l . B u t t h e C a p i t a l i s t may s a f e l y l e a v e i t s f u l f i l l m e n t t o t h e l a b o u r e r s i n s t i n c t s o f s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n ( i b i d : 5 7 2 ) . Marx does n o t s e p a r a t e t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n i n t o a d i s t i n c t i n s t i t u t i o n a l s p h e r e o f s o c i a l p r a c t i c e c o r does he c o n f i n e i t t o t h e s p h e r e o f i d e o l o g y . He i n s i s t s t h a t i t i s c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n i t s e l f w h i c h r e c r e a t e s t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n . . C a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n , , t h e r e f o r e , o f i t s e l f r e p r o d u c e s t h e s e p a r a t i o n b e t ween l a b o u r power and t h e means o f l a b o u r . I t t h e r e f o r e r e p r o d u c e s and p e r p e t u a t e s t h e c o n d i t i o n f o r e x p l o i t i n g t h e l a b o u r e r . I t i n c e s s a n t l y f o r c e s him t o s e l l h i s • l a b o u r power i n o r d e r t c l i v e and e n a b l e s t h e c a p i t a l i s t t o p u r c h a s e l a b o u r power i n o r d e r t h a t he m i g h t e n r i c h h i m s e l f ( i b i d : 5 7 7 ) . P r o d u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n a r e a s p e c t s o f t h e same p r o c e s s , n o t f u n c t i o n s o f s e p a r a t e b u t r e l a t e d i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e a l m s , o r o f an a r c h i t e c t u a l c o n c e p t i o n o f b a s e and s u p e r s t r u c t u r e . C a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , u n d e r i t s a s p e c t o f a c o n t i n u o u s c o n n e c t e d p r o c e s s , o f a p r o c e s s o f 18 r e r o d u c t i o n , p r o d u c e s n o t o n l y c o m m o d i t i e s , n o t o n l y s u r p l u s v a l u e , b u t a l s o p r o d u c e s and r e p r o d u c e s t h e c a p i t a l i s t r e l a t i o n ( i b i d : 5 7 8 ) . W h i l e i t i s t r u e t h a t Marx d i d n o t a n a l y s e e i t h e r t h e c o r p o r a t e S t a t e o r t h e monopoly f o r m o f c a p i t a l w h i c h i s c u r r e n t l y o p e r a n t , t h e r e i s v a l u e i n f o l l o w i n g h i s m e t h o d o l o g y , i n e m p h a s i z i n g t h a t r e p r o d u c t i o n i s a l w a y s p r o d u c t i o n i n c o n t i n u i t y . The c o n c e p t o f r e p r o d u c t i o n i s a t t h e same t i m e t e l e o l o g i c a l and r e f l e x i v e ; i t d o e s n o t r e f e r t o a c t u a l c o n c r e t e human p r a c t i c e , b u t t o t h e r e l a t i o n o f p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e t o t h e p a s t o r t h e f u t u r e . . R e p r o d u c t i o n i s a l w a y s c o n c r e t e p r o d u c t i o n c a r r i e d o u t i n s p e c i f i c s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o s p e c i f y b o t h what i s b e i n g p r o d u c e d and r e p r o d u c e d and h o w - - t h a t i s t h r o u g h what k i n d o f r e l a t i o n s o f d o m i n a n c e and s u b o r d i n a t i o n — t h e p r o d u c t i o n i s a c c o m p l i s h e d . Much o f t h e t h e o r e t i c a l d i f f i c u l t y i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n b etween p r o d u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n s t e m s f r o m M a r x ' s use o f ' p r o d u c t i o n ' . The d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n l a b o u r w h i c h p r o d u c e s s u r p l u s - v a l u e ( C a p i t a l ) and l a b o u r w h i c h i s p r o d u c t i v e ' g e n e r a l l y * o f u s e - v a l u e s , s e r v i c e s , c o m m o d i t i e s o r ' r e a l l i f e ' i s b a s i c t o M a r x ' s e c o n o m i c a n a l y s i s . . He i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e c o n c e p t o f p r o d u c t i o n must a l w a y s be h i s t o r i c a l l y s i t u a t e d and t h a t i n a n a l y s i s o f t h e C a p i t a l i s t mode o f p r o d u c t i o n t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n l a b o u r w h i c h p r o d u c e s s u r p l u s v a l u e and o t h e r f o r m s o f l a b o u r must be m a i n a t i n e d . (Gough, 1 9 7 2 ) . H o w e v e r , t h e c o n c e p t o f p r o d u c t i o n b a s e d on t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n l e d u n t i l r e c e n t l y , t o 19 l a c k o f r e c o g n i t i o n o f o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f o r m s o f s o c i a l l a b o u r and t h e r e l a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h a t l a b o u r i s p e r f o r m e d . I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e work o f women i n t h e home a n d t h e work o f S t a t e e m p l o y e e s were e i t h e r i g n o r e d o r were d i f f i c u l t t o a n a l y s e u s i n g t h i s e c o n o m i s t i c c o n c e p t o f p r o d u c t i o n . I n f a c t , t h e s e k i n d s o f work were n o t c o n s i d e r e d t o be p r o d u c t i o n . C o n c o m m i t a n t w i t h t h i s c o n c e p t o f p r o d u c t i o n i s t h e d i v i s i o n c f s o c i a l a c t i o n o r s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n s i n t o d i s t i n c t ' s p h e r e s ' o r ' r e a l m s ' . D i s t i n c t i v e r e a l m s o f b a s e and s u p e r s t r u c t u r e a r e c e n t r a l t o e a c h o f t h e a n a l y s e s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n . F o r a l t h u s s e r , t h e b a s e i s p r o d u c t i o n o f s u r p l u s - v a l u e ( f o r c e s and r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n ) ; t h e s u p e r s t r u c t u r e i s t h e S t a t e ( r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n ) . a c c o r d i n g t o Seccombe m a t e r i a l a c t i v i t y i s t h e b a s e ; i d e o l o g y t h e s u p e r s t r u c t u r e . M i l e s s e e s t h e work c f women as t h e b a s e , w i t h p r o d u c t i o n r e l e g a t e d t o a s u p p o r t i v e r o l e * T h i s mode o f a n a l y s i s a t t e m p t s t o o b j e c t i f y and make w a t e r t i g h t t h e ' r e a l m s ' and t h e n t o p o s i t c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e m . O v e r t h e p a s t h u n d r e d . y e a r s , M a r x i s t s h a v e d e v e l o p e d a p l e t h o r a o f c o n c e p t s a i m e d a t b r i d g i n g t h e gap between b a s e and s u p e r s t r u c t u r e . M e d i a t i o n , h o m o l o g y , d e l a y s and g a p s h a v e a l l been u s e d t o c o n n e c t o r e x p l a i n d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s b e t w e e n t h e b a s e and t h e s u p e r s t r u c t u r e ^ 4 t h e p r o b l e m , h o w e v e r , i s n o t t h a t we have i n a d e q u a t e c o n c e p t u a l t o o l s f o r m a k i n g c o n n e c t i o n s . B a t h e r , t h e d i f f i c u l t y l i e s w i t h t h e f u n d a m e n t a l c o n c e p t s — b a s e and s u p e r s t r u c t u r e — t h e m s e l v e s : 20 t h e a n a l y t i c c a t e g o r i e s , as s o o f t e n i n i d e a l i s t t h o u g h t , h a v e , a l m o s t u n n o t i c e d , become s u b s t a n t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s w h i c h t h e n h a b i t u a l l y t a k e p r i o r i t y e v e r t h e whole s o c i a l p r o c e s s t o w h i c h , as a n a l y t i c c a t e g o r i e s , t h e y a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o s p e a k i ... a n a l y s t s began t o t h i n k o f ' t h e b a s e " and ' t h e s u p e r s t r u c t u r e ' a s i f t h e y were s e p a r a b l e c o n c r e t e e n t i t i e s . I n d o i n g s o t h e y l o s t s i g h t o f t h e v e r y p r o c e s s e s - - n o t a b s t r a c t r e l a t i o n s b u t c o n s t i t u t i v e p r o c e s s e s — w h i c h i t s h o u l d h a v e been t h e s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m t o e m p h a s i z e ( W i l l i a m s , 1977 : 8 0 ) . W i l l i a m s p r o c e e d s f r o m q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t i o n o f s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s t h a n one p r e m i s e d on b a s e and s u p e r s t r u c t u r e . He b e g i n s w i t h a c o n c e p t i o n s e t o u t by E n g e l s ( l e t t e r t o B l o c h q u o t e d i n W i l l i a m s , 1977:79) t h a t " t h e d e t e r m i n i n g e l e m e n t i n h i s t o r y i s t h e p r o d u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n o f r e a l l i f e " . W i l l i a m s ' c o n c e p t o f p r o d u c t i o n e m p h a s i z e s p r o c e s s r a t h e r t h a n s t r u c t u r e . He r e f u s e s . a p r i o r i t o make s t r u c t u r e s r a t h e r t h a n r e a l human a c t i v i t i e s d e t e r m i n a n t . The e m p h a s i s on p r o c e s s a l l o w s t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a l l f o r m s o f s o c i a l p r o d u c t i o n i n a n a l y s i s o f s o c i e t i e s . We a r e no l o n g e r c o n f i n e d t o t h e i d e a t h a t p r o d u c t i o n i s a l w a y s and n e c e s s a r i l y t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f s u r p l u s v a l u e . As W i l l i a m s p u t s i t i f p r o d u c t i o n i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y i s ( o n l y ) t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f c o m m o d i t i e s f o r m a r k e t , t h e n d i f f e r e n t b u t m i s l e a d i n g t e r m s a r e f o u n d f o r e v e r y o t h e r k i n d o f p r o d u c t i o n and p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e " ( i b i d :92) . W i l l i a m s ' a s s e r t i o n t h a t a n a l y s i s s h o u l d f o c u s on " o u r a c t u a l p r o d u c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s w i t h o u t a s s u m i n g i n a d v a n c e t h a t o n l y some o f them a r e m a t e r i a l " ( i b i d : 9 4 ) e n a b l e s us t o e x a m i n e t h e S t a t e , t h e F a m i l y , a n d t h e work o f women 2 1 t h e r e i n , as p r o d u c t i v e p r o c e s s e s i n t h e i r own r i g h t . I t doe s n o t howver, a l l o w us t o assume t h a t t h e s e p r o c e s s e s a r e i s o l a t e d or u n c o n n e c t e d . R e i f i e d c a t e g o r i e s o f F a m i l y o r S t a t e a r e as u s e l e s s as r e i f i e d c a t e g o r i e s o f base and s u p e r s t r u c t u r e . What i s c a l l e d f o r i s a n a l y s i s of t h e r e a l c o n n e c t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s between t h e s e p r o c e s s e s . Workers i n b o t h t h e F a m i l y and the S t a t e p e r f o r m c r u c i a l s o c i a l l a b o u r . . M o r e o v e r , t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f " t h e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l o r d e r " by t h e S t a t e and t h e r u l i n g c l a s s i s n e c c e s s a r y t o t h e c o n t i n u e d p r o d u c t i o n o f s u r p l u s - v a l u e . Frcm c a s t l e s and p a l a c e s and c h u r c h e s t o p r i s o n s and workhouses and s c h o o l s ; from weapons o f war t o a c o n t r o l l e d p r e s s afiy r u l i n g c l a s i n v a r i a b l e ways t h o u g h a l w a y s m a t e r i a l l y , p r o d u c e s a s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l o r d e r . These a r e n e v e r s u p e r s t r u c t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . They a r e t h e n e c e s s a r y m a t e r i a l p r o d u c t i o n w i t h i n which an a p p a r e n t l y s e l f - s u b s i s t e n t mode o f p r o d u c t i o n c a n he c a r r i e d o u t ( i b i d : 9 3 ) . The major s h o r t c o m i n g o f W i l i a m s ' t h e o r y i s t h a t i t does n o t s u c c e s s f u l y g r a p p l e , w i t h t h e major r e l a t i o n s which shape or d e f i n e t h e s e p r o c e s s e s . M i s s i n g f r o m MARXISM AND LITERATURE i s a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n - - r e l a t i o n s o f c o - o p e r a t i o n , d o m i n a t i o n and e x p l o i t a t i o n — which a r e c o n s t i t u t i v e o f t h e s o c i a l p r o c e s s of p r o d u c t i o n . I n h i s h a s t e t o p r o v i d e an a l t e r n a t i v e t o s t r u c t u r a l i s m W i l l i a m s r e d u c e s a l l s o c i a l p r o c e s s t o t h e same l e v e l c f d e t e r m i n a t i o n . He f a i l s t o d e a l w i t h s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s as t h e y a r e c o n t i n u a l l y p r a c t i c e d and r e g e n e r a t e d and as t h e y c h a n g e . T h e r e i s no need t o s u b s t i t u t e a s t r u c t u r a l i s m b a s e d on r e l a t i o n s f o r one b a s e d on ba s e and s u p e r s t r u c t u r e . The answer l i e s somewhere between t h e c h a o s 22 o f t r e a t i n g a l l s o c i a l a c t i o n a s e q u a l i n w e i g h t and a b s t r a c t e d b a s e . I n M a r x i s t a n a l y s i s t h e C a p i t a l r e l a t i o n ( i . e . t h e e x p r o p r i a t i o n o f s u r p l u s v a l u e t h r o u g h wage l a b o u r ) h a s been t h e m a j o r f o c u s o f a t t e n t i o n u n t i l r e c e n t l y . B u t t h e C a p i t a l r e l a t i o n c a n n o t be t a k e n as t h e o n l y k i n d o f s o c i a l p r o d u c t i o n . Marx e m p h a s i z e s t h a t i t i s f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f c a p i t a l t h a t o n l y la-bour w h i c h d i r e c t l y p r o d u c e s s u r p l u s v a l u e i s p r o d u c t i v e . The c a p i t a l r e l a t i o n i s n o t t h e o n l y , r e l a t i o n o f d o m i n a t i o n i n C a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s . B o t h t h e F a m i l y and t h e S t a t e p r o d u c e t h r o u g h , and a r e c o n s t i t u t e d b y , s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s w h i c h a r e n o t c h a r a c t e r i s e d by wage l a b o u r o r t h e a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f s u r p l u s v a l u e . M o r e o v e r t h e r e l a t i o n between f a m i l y members a n d t h e S t a t e i s a power r e l a t i o n i t s e l f . I f we a r e t o u n d e r s t a n d how C a p t i a l i s t s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n s c h a n g e and y e t c o n t i n u e t o p r o d u c e and r e p r o d u c e t h e m s e l v e s , t h e t o t a l i t y o f s o c i a l p r o d u c t i o n and t h e t o t a l i t y o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i n w h i c h t h a t p r o d u c t i o n t a k e s p l a c e must be c o n s i d e r e d . The r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s t h e s i s i s d e v o t e d t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n c f hew t h i s k i n d o f a n a l y s i s o f t h e F a m i l y and t h e S t a t e m i g h t b e g i n . The f i r s t q u e s t i o n a d r e s s e d i s how, g i v e n t h a t t h e y c a n no l o n g e r be r e l e g a t e d t o t h e s u p e r s t r u c t u r e , t h e F a m i l y a n d t h e S t a t e a r e t o be c o n c e p t u a l i s e d . I n t h e f i n a l s e c t i o n s I r e t u r n t o t h e i s s u e s o f t h e r e p r c d u c t i o n l a b o u r power and t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n . The q u e s t i o n c o n s i d e r e d i s how wa r e d u c i n g a l l s c c i a l a c t i o n t o t h e o f an 23 can begin to analyse these s o c i a l processes as they r e l a t e to the position of women in the Family and the State. . The Relation Of The Family To The State I f Family and State cannot be relegated to the superstructure, i t becomes necessary to re-examine what i t meant by these terms in order that we can begin to re-conceptualize them i n a manner which more adequately r e f l e c t s and reveals active , l i v e d s o c i a l processes. Thompson (1978:249) i n s i s t s on "the necessary generality and e l a s t i c i t y cf h i s t o r i c a l concepts as expectations rather than rules." I t i s with t h i s attitude towards the concepts of Family and State that t h i s work proceeds. This section i s not, therefore a review of the l i t e r a t u r e . Rather i t i s an attempt to re-think Family and State as relationships of production, and of dominance and subordination, with a view to developing' a theory which w i l l further to work of empirical, h i s t o r i c a l enquiry. An analysis of the roles of thea family and the State i n reproducing labour power and rela t i o n s of production must • begin by c l a r i f y i n g the relationships between them. Since the advent of Althusser i t i s also necessary to define what i t meant by the term State — a s his concept of the State i s v i r t u a l l y synonymous with the r u l i n g c l a s s . By State I means the 'State-proper' — the formally constituted govermental i n s t i t u t i o n * It i s important to distinguish between the ruling class and the 24 • S t a t e - p r o p e r • , s i n c e t h e l a t t e r i s c o n s t i t u t e d by c l a s s r e l a t i o n s . However, t h e r e i s some u n d e r l y i n g v a l i d i t y t o t h e A l t h u s s e r i a n c o n c e p t o f t h e S t a t e . One o f t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e s of t h e S t a t e b e i n g t h a t i t r e g u l a t e s i t s own b o u n d a r i e s ; i t d e f i n e s f o r the whole n a t i o n t h e s e p a r a t i o n between i t s e l f and t h e s o - c a l l e d p r i v a t e s e c t o r . The c o n c e p t o f c a p i t a l as a r e l a t i c f i o r s p e c i f i c f o r m t h r o u g h which s u r p l u s i s e x t r a c t e d from d i r e c t p r o d u c e r s c o n t a i n s e x p l i c i t l y a s t a t e m e n t o f r i g h t s i n p r o p e r t y . Thus the c a p i t a l r e l a t i o n i s n o t o n l y an e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n b u t a s o c i a l r e l a t i o n . T hese a s p e c t s o f c a p i t a l a r e n o t s e p a r a t e b u t f o r m an i d e n t i t y . The f a c t t h a t t h i s i s d i f f i c u l t t o e x p r e s s i n o u r l a n g u a g e i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f c a p i t a l i s t i d e o l o g y which o b s c u r e s t h e r e l a t i o n between o u r l e g a l s y s t e m and c u r e c c n c m i c s y s t e m . The S t a t e e x e m p l i f i e s t h e u n i t y o f s u r p l u s v a l u e e x t r a c t i o n , c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n , and c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f p r o p e r t y as r i g h t . I n t h i s s e n s e t h e S t a t e i s t h e S t a t e - c a p i t a l i s t . T h i s i s a d i f f i c u l t p o i n t , f o r i t i s n o t meant t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e S t a t e i s e i t h e r t h e whole r u l i n g c l a s s o r t h a t i t a c t s d i r e c t l y i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e whole r u l i n g c l a s s . The p o i n t i s more s i m p l y t h a t t h e c a p t i a l i s t S t a t e i s n o t s e p a r a t e from t h e p r o c e s s o f e x p r o p r i a t i n g s u r p l u s - v a l u e n o r c a n i t be posed i n t h i s s e n s e a s s u p e r s t r u c t u r a l t o some 'economic' b a s e . A l t h o u g h i t may t a k e d i f f e r e n t forms and e m p h a s i z e d i f f e r e n t means o f c o n t r o l , t h e S t a t e i s an i n t r i n s i c p a r t o f C a p i t a l . 25 As s u c h , t h e S t a t e h a s a s p e c i a l ( a l t h o u g h n o t e x c l u s i v e ) r c l e i n o r g a n i z i n g c l a s s r e l a t i o n s . The S t a t e a s an i n s t i t u t i o n i s o p p r e s s i v e n o t o n l y t o t h e p r o d u c e r s o f s u r p l u s v a l u e , b u t i s c o n s t i t u t e d by and o p e r a t e s t h r o u g h i n t e r n a l c l a s s r e l a t i o n s . , 5 A t t i m e s t h e S t a t e o p e r a t e s t h r o u g h c a p i t a l i s t r e l a t i o n s , when, f o r e x a m p l e i t e x p r o p r i a t e s s u r p l u s - v a l u e t h r o u g h i t s g o v e r n m e n t c o r p o r a t i c n s . However, t h e m a j o r i t y o f S t a t e e m p l o y e e s a r e n o t e x p l o i t e d ( i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e y p r o d u c e no s u r p l u s v a l u e ) . W o r k e r s who a r e p a i d f r e m r e v e n u e s g e n e r a t e d by t a x a t i o n w c u l d f a l l i n t o t h i s c a t e g o r y . T hese e m p l o y e e s — t e a c h e r s , h e a l t h - c a r e w o r k e r s , p c l i c e , much c l e r i c a l s t a f f , and s o c i a l w o r k e r s , among' o t h e r s — f o r m an i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e p a r t o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s e s o f modern c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s . T h i s d u a l a s p e c t o f t h e S t a t e - - t h a t i t o r g a n i z e s and d o m i n a t e s t h e whole w o r k i n g c l a s s , t h r o u g h an i n t e r n a l c l a s s r e l a t i o n i s c r u c i a l . What M i l e s , f o r e x a m p l e , c o n s i d e r s t h e r e p r o d u c t i v e work c f t e a c h e r s , s o c i a l w o r k e r s , e t c e t e r a , i s p r o d u c t i o n w h i c h i s c a r r i e d o u t i n f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t and more c o m p l e x r e l a t i o n s t h a n e i t h e r t h e p r o d u c t i v e work o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n c a r r i e d o u t by h o u s e w i v e s . I t i s a two-way r e l a t i o n --a s u b o r d i n a t e r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e S t a t e , t h e e m p l o y e r , and a d o m i n a t i n g r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e o b j e c t s o f l a b o u r — s c h o o l - c h i l d r e n , w e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t s , e t c . 26 W h i l e t h e r e i s , i n any n a t i o n , one S t a t e which o r g a n i z e s c l a s s r e l a t i o n s , t h e r e i s n o t one F a m i l y . T h e r e a r e i n d e e d many f a m i l i e s , b o t h n u m e r i c a l l y , b u t a l s o i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e F a m i l y i s n o t t h e same t h i n g e i t h e r f o r d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s o r a t d i f f e r e n t h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d s . S t u d i e s o f t h e F a m i l y a l m o s t i n e v i t a b l y h a r k back t o t h e t i m e when t h e F a m i l y was t h e u n i t o f p r o d u c t i o n , and was s e l f - s u f f i c e n t . 6 The c l a s s i c example i s the yeoman p e a s a n t f a m i l y which p r o d u c e d i t s own s u b s i s t e n c e and p a i d some k i n d of r e n t t o a f e u d a l l o r d , or t h e a r t i s a n f a m i l y w h i c h p r o d u c e d b o t h a c r a f t f o r e xchange and engaged i n s u b s i s t e n c e f a r m i n g . These e x a m p l e s s h o u l d be viewed w i t h some d e g r e e o f s c e p t i c i s m ; t h e y f i t a l i t t l e t o o w e l l w i t h t h e b o u r g e o i s i d e o l o g y o f a s o c i e t y o f f r e e i n d e p e n d a n t p r o d u c e r s . Two p o i n t s need t o be remembered: f i r s t , t h e r e h a s n e v e r been a s o c i e t y of f r e e i n d e p e n d a n t p r o d u c e r s — a l l members o f a r t i s a n h o u s e h o l d s d i d n o t s h a r e e q u a l l y i n t h e p r o d u c t c f t h e i r l a b o u r , n o r were t h e s e h o u s e h o l d s composed of o n l y k i n members. A p p r e n t i c e s , j o u r n e y m e n , and s e r v a n t c h i l d r e n a l l c o n t r i b u t e d t o p r o d u c t i o n b u t d i d n o t a l l own t h e p r o d u c t . S e c o n d , t h e r e i s l i t t l e known a b o u t the r o l e o f f a m i l i e s i n t h e l a b o u r p r o c e s s on f e u d a l desmesnes; i t seems l i k e l y t h a t t h e s e r f ' s f a m i l y was n o t t h e u n i t o f l a b o u r . A r i e s (1962:404) and P i n c h b e c k ( 1 930,39), f o r e x a m p l e , s u g g e s t t h a t i t i s n o t u n t i l t h e end o f t h e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h a t a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o u r e r s c e a s e d l i v i n g w i t h t h e i r e m p l o y e r s . The e x i s t e n c e o f common l a n d s and h e r d e r s who l o o k e d a f t e r t h e s t o c k o f t h e whole v i l l a g e s u g g e s t s t h a t 27 f o r some a s p e c t s o f s u b s i s t e n c e , t h e l a b o u r p r o c e s s was o r g a n i z e d by v i l l a g e r a t h e r t h a n by f a m i l y . T h r e e i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s may be drawn from t h i s : 1) e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e does n o t s u p p o r t the c l a i m t h a t The F a m i l y was e v e r The U n i t of P r o d u c t i o n ; 2) The F a m i l y i s n o t m o n l i t h i c i n f o r m , r e l a t i o n s , o r s t r u c t u r e a c r o s s c l a s s e s ; and 3) The F a m i l y i s n o t m o n o l i t h i c t h r o u g h o u t h i s t o r y . U n d e r l y i n g a l l c f t h e s e i s t h e f a c t t h a t ' F a m i l y ' , l i k e o t h e r c o n c e p t s o f h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m must somehow be s t r e t c h e d t o encompass many d i f f e r e n t f o r m s and r e l a t i o n s a s t h e s e f o r m s and r e l a t i o n s a c t u a l l y change o v e r t i m e . T h i s i s an i m p o r t a n t p o i n t --one o f t e n made b u t s e l d o m a c t e d upon. I t i s n o t some g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i v e g u a l i t y ( s u c h as - G o u g i ' s (1971:760) d e f i n t i o n o f t h e F a m i l y as "a m a r r i e d c o u p l e o r o t h e r g r o u p o f a d u l t k i n f o l k who c o - o p e r a t e e c o n o m i c a l l y and i n u p b r i n g i n g o f c h i l d r e n , and a l l o r most o f whom s h a r e a common d w e l l i n g " ) which g i v e s i n s t i t u t i o n s s o c i a l and a n a l y t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , b u t the r e l a t i o n s i n which t h e y a r e embedded and and which c o n s t i t u t e them. A s i m p l e example i s th e d i f f e r e n c e between a woman c l e a n i n g h e r home, t h e home o f a m i d d l e - c l a s s p r o f e s s i o n a l , o r an o f f i c e b u i l d i n g a s an employee o f a b u i l d i n g m a i n t e n a n c e f i r m . I n e a c h c a s e she i s w o r k i n g i n a d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n t o t h e dominant mode o f p r o d u c t i o n ; h e r m o t i o n s may be t h e same b u t t h e work i s c o n s t i t u t e d d i f f e r e n t l y . In t h e f i r s t c a s e she i s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o h e r own m a i n t e n a n c e u n p a i d ; i n the s e c o n d she i s b e i n g p a i d o u t of r e v e n u e and i n t h i r d c a s e she i s p r o d u c i n g a commodity ( i n t h e form o f a s e r v i c e ) which i s 28 s o l d f o r more t h a n t h e c o s t o f p r o d u c i n g t h e l a b o u r power she expended i n i t s p r o d u c t i o n . I n o t h e r words she i s p r o d u c i n g s u r p l u s - v a l u e . P a r a l l e l e x a m p l e s can be drawn f o r t h e F a m i l y i n d i f f e r e n t modes o f p r o d u c t i o n , i n d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s , and even i n d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s o r s t a g e s o f a g i v e n mode o f p r o d u c t i o n . M i d d l e t o n , f o r e x a m p l e , does a v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g a n a l y s i s o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f d i f f e r e n t f o r m s o f f e u d a l dues ( s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s ) f o r women's p o s i t i o n i n t h e 14th c e n t u r y . He c o n c l u d e s t h a t a c o m b i n a t i o n o f l a r g e h o u s e f u l ( h o u s e h o l d ) and heavy l a b o u r dues (as o p p o s e d t o dues i n r e n t o r i n k i n d ) were the c o n d i t i o n s most c o n d u c i v e t o t h e c r e a t i o n o f a d i s t i n c t and s e p a r a t e h o u s e w i f e r o l e among t h e p e a s a n t r y . Thus t h e d i s t i n c t and s e p a r a t e r o l e of h o u s e w i f e was n o t an i n n o v a t i o n o f t h e C a p i t a l i s t e p o c h but o c c u r r e d i n t h e c l a s s i c mode o f f e u d a l e x p l o i t a t i o n ( M i d d l e t o n , 1978:159). When s c h o l a r s r e f e r t o t h e c h a n g i n g n a t u r e o f t h e F a m i l y between f e u d a l i s m and c a p i t a l i s m , n o t i n g t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e F a m i l y as t h e u n i t o f p r o d u c t i o n , t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s p h e r e s , t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e wage worker and t h e hcuseswife, t h e i m p l i c a t i o n must be t h a t t h e F a m i l y i s a f u n d a m e n t a l l y d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n u n d e r c a p i t a l i s m t h a n i t was under f e u d a l i s m . The a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e same term f o r s u c h v a s t l y d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s must be a c c o m p a n i e d by much q u a l i f i c a t i o n . & s e c o n d p o i n t i s t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e g u a n t i t y o f l i t e r a t u r e on women o f d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s , t h e r e has been l i t t l e a t t e m p t t o examine how t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f F a m i l y d i f f e r s between c l a s s e s . The 2 9 d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e e a r l i e r s t a g e s o f c a p i t a l i s m has been f a i r l y w e l l documented (see C l a r k , 1 9 1 9 ; P i n c h b e c k , 1930; H a m i l t o n , 1977 f o r e x a m p l e ) . However, l i k e o t h e r e x t e r n a l s i g n s o f c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s , f a m i l i e s have been s u b j e c t , a t l e a s t on t h e s u r f a c e , t o t h e b l u r r i n g o f c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s . D o r o t h y S m i t h (1972) s u g g e s t s t h a t u ppper c l a s s women m a i n t a i n t h e c l a s s as a c l a s s , by o r g a n i z i n g s o c i a l t i e s , e x c l u s i v i t y o f s c h o o l s , e t c e t e r a . Working c l a s s women do n o t do t h e same wcrk f o r t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s . L e o n o r e D a v i d o f f (1972) makes a s i m i l a r s u g g e s t i o n a b o u t t h e work o f upper c l a s s women i n h e r s t u d y o f 19th c e n t u r y E n g l i s h s o c i e t y THE BEST CIRCLES: SOCIETY, ETIQUETTE, AND THE SEASON. The c o n c e p t o f The F a m i l y i s a r e i f i c a t i o n which h i d e s r e a l c h a n g e s i n t h e r e l a t i o n o f women and c h i l d r e n t o t h e i r means o f p r o d u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n . I f we view f a m i l i e s a s com p l e x e s o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s , which change d r a s t i c a l l y t h r o u g h o u t h i s t o r y , we c a n n o t assume t h a t The F a m i l y i s an a - h i s t o r i c a l s t r u c t u r e which i s ' m o d i f i e d ' t h r o u g h h i s t o r y o r w h i c h has ' r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s • which a r e t a k e n o v e r by t h e S t a t e . . 7 Nor can we assume t h a t C a p t i a l i s m • has ' e r o d e d ' t h e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y t o the n u c l e a r f a m i l y . However, a major d i f f i c u l t y a r i s e s i n t h a t i t becomes v e r y awkward t o d i s c u s s The F a m i l y b e c a u s e o f t h e n e c e s s i t y t o q u a l i f y s o p a r t i c u l a r i l y t h e c l a s s and t i m e p e r i o d r e f e r r e d t o . I t becomes e x t r e t t e l y i m p o r t a n t t o d e s c r i b e a c t u a l p r a c t i c e s which c o n s t i t u t e t h e F a m i l y i n q u e s t i o n . 30 B e c a u s e o f t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f r e l a t i o n s w hich c o n s t i t u t e t h e S t a t e and t h e F a m i l y , i t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o s p e c i f y a s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n between them. The r e l a t i o n o f d o m i n a t i o n between p r o l e t a r i a t and C a p i t a l i s t can be e x p r e s s e d i n t e r m s o f wage l a b o u r and s u r p l u s - v a l u e . I t has e v e n , ( p r o b a b l y t o t h e d e t r i m e n t o f p o l i t i c a l t h e o r y ) been r e d u c e d t o m a t h e m a t i c a l f o r m u l a e . 8 b u t r e l a t i o n s i n f a m i l i e s , i n t h e S t a t e and between f a m i l y members and t h e S t a t e c a n n o t be e x p r e s s e d s o s i m p l y , and a t t e m p t s t o do t h i s have f a l l e n f a r s h o r t o f a d e g u a t e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h o s e i n s t i t u t i o n s . Y e t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o t a l k a b o u t t h e F a m i l y i n modern c a p i t a l i s t s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n s w i t h o u t r e f e r r i n g t o t h e S t a t e . I n a v e r y p r a c t i c a l way, t h e S t a t e d e f i n e s and m a i n t a i n s t h e F a m i l y , b o t h by m a r r i a g e , d i v o r c e , and p r o p e r t y l a w s , s o c i a l s e r v i c e s and w e l f a r e r e g u l a t i o n s , but a l s o i n t h a t i t d e f i n e s t h e j u r i s d i c t i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s o f b o t h i t s e l f and t h e F a m i l y . Two d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s o f t h e r e l a t i o n between t h e F a m i l y and t h e S t a t e were d e v e l o p e d by a l t h u s s e r and Seccombe. A l t h u s s e r saw the F a m i l y as an I d e o l o g i c a l S t a t e A p p a r a t u s : he subsumed t h e F a m i l y under t h e S t a t e . Seccombe, on t h e e t h e r hand, viewed t h e F a m i l y and t h e S t a t e as c o m p l i m e n t a r y , a l m o s t homologous i n s t i t u t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y a s t h e y r e l a t e d t o t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n . Both t h e s e . m o d e l s must be r e j e c t e d . The c o n c e p t o f F a m i l y a s ISA does n o t h o l d w ater even w i t h i n A l t h u s s e r ' s own terms c f r e f e r e n c e . The F a m i l y i s n o t a g o v e r n i n g a g e n c y ; i t ( i f one can speak o f ' i t ' ) i s g o v e r n e d , 3 1 c o n t r o l l e d , and r e g u l a t e d . The power f l o w s ( a l m o s t ) one way. F a m i l i e s a r e n o t c o n s t i t u t e d as p o l i t i c a l e n t i t i e s : i n o u r s o c i e t y t h e y have no p o l i t i c a l i d e n t i t y . Seccombe's t h e s i s t h a t F a m i l y and S t a t e a r e homologous i n s t i t u t i o n s f a i l s t o work f o r t h e same r e a s o n : t h e r e i s t o e g r e a t a power d i f f e r e n t i a l t o make h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n c r e d i b l e . M oreover t h e power d i f f e r e n t i a l i s n o t j u s t q u a n t i t a t i v e , b u t i s q u a l i t a t i v e . F a m i l i e s and S t a t e a r e d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f s o c i a l phenomena. T h a t t h e y c an be po s e d a s c o m p a r a b l e i s n o t a c c i d e n t a l , b u t i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f an i d e o l o g y which a r o s e i n t h e 17th c e n t u r y - - t h a t t h e f a m i l y was a ' l i t t l e g o v ernment', a j u n i o r model o f t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y . 9 The p r o b l e m , I t h i n k , i s t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n between S t a t e and f a m i l y has been i n c o r r e c t l y p o s e d . I n s t e a d o f a s k i n g what i s t h e r e l a t i o n between t h e F a m i l y and t h e S t a t e , we s h o u l d be a s k i n g what a r e t h e r e l a t i o n s between f a m i l i e s and t h e S t a t e . By p l u r a l i z i n g t h e term , .we remove i t from t h e r e a l m o f i d e a l t y p e s and b r i n g i t c l o s e r t o a c t i v e human b e i n g s . With t h e p l u r a l , i t becomes p o s s i b l e t o d e a l w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e a r e i n d e e d d i f f e r e n t r e l a t i o n s and t h a t t h e S t a t e i s a c t i v e i n p r o m o t i n g t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s . From t h i s p o i n t any a n s w e r s must be a r r i v e d e m p i r i c a l l y . We c a n examine how t h e S t a t e o p e r a t e s by s t u d y i n g t h e l a w s which a f f e c t f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s , by l o o k i n g a t who t h e s e l a w s a d d r e s s --men, women o r c h i l d r e n , t o whom t h e y a p p l y , and more i m p o r t a n t l y t o whom t h e y a r e a p p l i e d . T h i s l a t t e r p o i n t i n v o l v e s n o t j u s t t h e w r i t t e n r e g u l a t i o n s b u t how t h e s e a r e i n t e r p r e t e d and a c t e d 32 on by s o c i a l w o r k e r s , t e a c h e r s , l a w y e r s , p u b l i c h e a l t h w o r k e r s , e t c . F i n a l l y , we must know what t h e s t r a t e g i e s o f p e o p l e a f f e c t e d by t h e s e r e g u l a t i o n s a r e , f o r p e o p l e s t r u g g l e i n t h i s a r e n a t o o a g a i n s t t h e power o f t h e r u l i n g c l a s s . Any a n a l y s i s which d o e s n o t t a k e t h i s i n t o a c c o u n t i s i n c o m p l e t e . O n l y w i t h t h e k i n d o f knowledge t h i s a p p r o a c h can p r o v i d e w i l l any more g e n e r a l o r a b s t r a c t s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t t h e r e l a t i o n between F a m i l y and S t a t e be p o s s i b l e . . Women's Work: R e p r o d u c t i o n , P e r s o n a l S e r v i c e , Or The R e s e r v e Army Of L a b o u r ? C l a r i f y i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s between f a m i l i e s and t h e S t a t e i s a n e c e s s a r y p r e c o n d i t i o n t o a d d r e s s i n g t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n i s between women's work i n t h e home and p a i d work o u t s i d e t h e heme, p a r t i c u l a r i l y p a i d work f o r t h e S t a t e . The w o r k i n g c l a s s f a m i l y t o d a y i s n o t p r e m i s e d on a n o n - w o r k i n g w i f e a s i t was f i f t y y e a r s ago; t h e 1920's marks t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e r e - e n t r y o f m a r r i e d w o r k i n g c l a s s women (as w e l l as m i d d l e c l a s s women) i n t o t h e l a b o u r f o r c e i n an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g number which does n o t seem t o have peaked y e t (Armstong S A r m s t r o n g , 1978; K o l k o , 1978). i o t h e e s s e n t i a l q u e s t i o n f o r M a r x i s t - f e m i n i s t s t o d a y i s t o e x p l a i n t h e r e l a t i o n between women's l a b o u r - f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h e i r work i n t h e home. T h i s i s a d i f f i c u l t i s s u e ; e a c h t h e o r y p r o f f e r e d i n e x p l a n a t i o n a r i s e s f r o m n o t o n l y a 33 s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t s e t o f q u e s t i o n s , but a l s o a d i f f e r e n t s e t o f i d e a s a b o u t t h e n a t u r e o f s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s . I n t h i s s e c t i o n I s h a l l e x p l o r e t h r e e s u c h t h e o r i e s : one, t h a t i t i s women's r o l e i n r e p r o d u c t i o n (of l a b o u r power, t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n , o r ' r e p r o d u c t i o n g e n e r a l l y ' ) which d e t e r m i n e s t h e i r p c s t i c n ; two, t h a t women, whether i n t h e home o r a t work a r e i n r e l a t i o n s o f p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e t o men; and t h r e e , t h a t women form an i n d u s t r i a l r e s e r v e army, coming i n t o t h e w o r k f o r c e d u r i n g , t i m e s o f e x p a n s i o n and b e i n g e x p e l l e d d u r i n g r e c e s s i o n ; e a c h o f t h e s e t h e o r i e s w i l l be a s s e s s e d i n te r m s o f how i t a d d r e s s e s o r f a i l s t o a d d r e s s t h e q u e s t i o n o f how, i n t h e l i v e s o f r e a l women t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c employment c y c l e s and p a t t e r n s a r e p o s s i b l e - - i . e » , i n what way do the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s o f w o r k p l a c e and home r e i n f o r c e e a c h o t h e r so t h a t women do work, b ut work a t l o w e r wages and i n d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s t h a n do men? The e a r l y p a r t o f t h i s t h e s i s was d e v o t e d t o d e m o n s t r a t i n g why a g e n e r a l c o n c e p t o f r e p r o d u c t i o n was an i n a d e q u a t e c o n c e p t u a l t o o l t o e x p l a i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f women i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n s . However, e v e n when t h e p r o d u c t o f t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o r p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s i s s p e c i f i e d (as i n r e p r o d u c t i o n o f l a b o u r power) , i t i s s t i l l i n a d e q u a t e . The s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f any p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s comes n o t from t h e p r o d u c t , b u t t h e r e l a t i o n s t h r o u g h which t h a t p r o c e s s i s c a r r i e d o u t . Making t h e p r o d u c t (whether l a b o u r power o r o r r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n ) d e t e r m i n a n t , i s a k i n d o f f u n c t i o n a l i s m b e c a u s e i t s e p a r a t e s r e p r o d u c t i o n f r o m p r o d u c t i o n , and l o c a t e s them i n d i f f e r e n t 34 s p h e r e s or s e c t o r s . R e p r o d u c t i o n o f l a b o u r power i s c a r r i e d o u t n o t j u s t by women b u t by e v e r y o n e who s e l l s t h e i r own l a b o u r power or p e r f o r m s a s e r v i c e f o r someone e l s e who s e l l s t h e i r l a b o u r power. The p r o d u c t i o n o f consumer goods c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f l a b o u r power t h e t i m e s p e n t f i x i n g c a r s u s e d f o r work, b u y i n g c l o t h i n g , p a i n t i n g t h e h o u s e , t a k i n g out t h e g a r b a g e , i s t i m e s p e n t r e p r o d u c i n g l a b o u r power - - j u s t a s i s t i m e s p e n t t e a c h i n g c h i l d r e n , • d o c t o r i n g ' , - o r c o c k i n g m e a l s . The l i n k between women's work i n t h e home and i n t h e S t a t e i s f o u n d i n o t h e r a s p e c t s o f the work p r o c e s s r a t h e r t h a n i n t h e p r o d u c t ( l a b o u r power) i t s e l f . I f t h e r e i s a r e l a t i o n between t h e p o s i t i o n o f women i n the home and i n t h e w o r k p l a c e , and, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , between women's work i n t h e home and t h a t o f S t a t e e m p l o y e e s s u c h as t e a c h e r s , n u r s e s , and s o c i a l w o r k e r s , i t must be l o o k e d f o r i n t h e n a t u r e o f women's p a i d l a b o u r and t h e s p e c i f i c l a b o u r p r o c e s s o f t h e s o - c a l l e d S t a t e r e p r o d u c t i v e w o r k e r s . R e p r o d u c t i o n of l a b o u r power i n t h e home and r e p r o d u c t i o n o f l a b o u r power i n t h e S t a t e a r e c a r r i e d o u t under d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . The s o u r c e s o f income f o r a h o u s e w i f e v a r y d e p e n d i n g on h e r c l a s s p o s i t i o n , t h a t o f h e r husband and whether s h e h e r s e l f i s w o r k i n g . The income b a s i s f o r S t a t e w o r k e r s comes from s u r p l u s e x p r o p r i a t e d from t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s e i t h e r d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h t a x a t i o n o r i n d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h c o r p o r a t e t a x e s . A l t h o u g h n e i t h e r l a b o u r i n t h e heme n o r l a b o u r i n t h e S t a t e i s p r o d u c t i v e o f s u r p l u s - v a l u e , t h e S t a t e worker r e c e i v e s a wage o r s a l a r y 35 f o r s p e c i f i c work p e r f o r m e d . The h o u s e w i f e , a l t h o u g h she may i e s u p p o r t e d , d o e s n o t r e c e i v e pay d i r e c t l y f o r work p e r f o r m e d . The amount o f work she does i n t h e home i s n o t t i e d t o t h e s h a r e c f f a m i l y income which goes i n t o h e r own r e p r o d u c t i o n . A number of t h e o r i s t s ( s e e , f o r example M e i s s n e r , 1977, W i l e n s k y , 1966) have made t h e p o i n t t h a t women w o r k i n g o u t s i d e t h e home a r e o f t e n i n r e l a t i o n s o f p e r s o a n l s e r v i c e t o men. The te r m " p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e " i s a d i f f i c u l t one. As a g l o s s i t c o v e r s e v e r y t h i n g from w a i t r e s s e s , h o u s e m a i d s , and c l e a n e r s , t o s e c r e t a r i e s , n u r s e s and t e a c h e r s . I t e x p l a i n s l i t t l e . I n f a c t , i t can be j u s t a n o t h e r way o f s a y i n g 'women's work i s women's work'. The l i n k made i s p u r e l y i d e o l o g i c a l : t h e k i n d o f ' p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e ' r e n d e r e d by a s e c r e t a r y i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t r e n d e r e d by a n u r s e and a g a i n f r c m t h a t r e n d e r e d by a c l e a n i n g woman. Nurse and t e a c h e r s s e r v e ( r e a d n u r t u r e ) t h e i r c h i l d r e n ; s e c r e t a r i e s s e r v e ( r e a d a r e s e r v a n t s ) t o . t h e i r t o s s e s o r e m p l o y e r s ; c l e a n i n g l a d i e s s e r v e ( r e a d a r e i n t h e s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s , t h a t i s i n d u s t r i e s where s e r v i c e i s s o l d a s a commodity) t h e c u s t o m e r s o f t h e i r e m p l o y e r s . The t e r m s e r v i c e l a c k s any s p e c i f i c i t y as a d e s c r i p t i o n o f a s o c i a l r e l a t i o n . The r e s e r v e army o f l a b o u r t h e o r y o p e r a t e s a t a d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t u a l l e v e l t h a n do e i t h e r of t h e above. By d e f i n t i o n , a l l p e r s o n s ( o t h e r t h a n i n f a n t s ) qho a r e n o t employed a r e p a r t o f t h e r e s e r v e army o f C a p i t a l i s m . I n t h i s s e n s e t h e t e r m r e v e a l s n o t h i n g a b o u t t h e s p e c i f i c i t y o f t h e r e l a t i o n between women's work i n t h e home and i n t h e 36 w o r k p l a c e . The r e s e r v e t h e o r y has been a p p p l i e d t o women i n two ways.: 1) t o e x p l a i n the movement o f women i n and o u t o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f r e c e s s i o n , e x p a n s i o n , o r p o l i t i c a l c r i s i s - - p a r t i c u l a r i l y d u r i n g wartime and d e p r e s s i o n ( A r m s t r o n g S A r m s t r o n g , 1978; Humphries, 1976) ; and 2) t o e x p l a i n t h e expanded l a b o u r f o r c e f o r women d u r i n g t h e l a s t f c r t y y e a r s ( C o n n e l l y , 1S78). The q u e s t i o n b e i n g d e a l t w i t h h e r e i s a t a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l t h a n e i t h e r o f t h e s e , f o r we a r e a t t e m p t i n g t o e x p l i c a t e t h e a s p e c t s o f women's work b o t h i n t h e f a m i l y and t h e w o r k p l a c e which make f o r t h e d i s t i n c t (from men) employment p a t t e r n s o f women. We a r e l o o k i n g f o r t h e b a s i s of t h e p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f o p p r e s s i o n t h a t women e x p e r i e n c e . I t c a n be a r g u e d t h a t , i n t h i s s e n s e t o o , women f o r m a r e s e r v e army. The d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t t h e y f o r m a r e s e r v e v i s a v i s e a c h o t h e r r a t h e r t h a n v i s a v i s men . F u r t h e r m o r e even a t t h i s l e v e l o f s p e c i f i c i t y t h e c o n c e p t o f a r e s e r v e army l a c k s e x p l a n a t o r y power. I t c a n n o t show how t h i s p r o c e s s a c t u a l l y h a p p ens. The c o n c e p t o f t h e r e s e r v e army i s e s s e n t i a l l y a s t r u c t u r a l i s t e x p l a n a t i o n b a s e d on t h e movement o f c a p i t a l r a t h e r t h a n on t h e more s p e c i f i c a t t r i b u t e s o f j o b s and p e o p l e ' s l i v e s . I f women do form a r e s e r v e army i n t h i s s e n s e , i t i s a symptom o f s p e c i f i c a t t r i b u t e s o f women's l i v e s and o c c u p a t i o n s . The r e s e r v e p a t t e r n s works t h r o u g h f e a t u r e s o f womens' l i v e s which make them more v u l n e r a b l e t h a n men t o f l u c t u a t i o n s i n employment. T h e r e a r e two a s p e c t s o f women's work t h a t have l a r g e l y gone un m e n t i o n e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e : f i r s t , , women's work i s 37 u i i t g u i t c u s . The k i n d s o f work t h a t most women d o — c l e r i c a l work, n u r s i n g , t e a c h i n g , c l e a n i n g a r e f o u n d i n any community where a moderate number o f p e o p l e l i v e . U n l i k e men's work, women's i s not t i e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n o f s p e c i a l i z e d i n d u s t r y , t u t i s c a p a b l e o f b e i n g c a r r i e d o u t a l m o s t a n j w h e r e i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l i s e d w o r l d . . Second, women t e n d t o be crowded i n t o a few s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n s — ( a g a i n , h e a l t h c a r e , t e a c h i n g , c l e r i c a l work) r e s u l t i n g i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f a l a b o u r f o r c e which may o r may n o t be h i g h l y s k i l l e d , b u t i s l a r g e and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . 1 1 The t e n l e a d i n g f e m a l e o c c u p a t i o n s i n Canada i n 1971 a c c o u n t e d f o r 46% o f a l l f e m a l e w o r k e r s , w h i l e t h e l e a d i n g f i f t e e n male o c c u p a t i o n s c o n t a i n c n l y 35% o f a l l male w o r k e r s . The o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y which has t h e l a r g e s t p e r c e n t (4.3) o f a l l male w o r k e r s i s f a r m e r s . The c o r r e s p o n d i n g o c c u p a t i o n f o r f e m a l e s i s c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s . T h i s c a t e g o r y c o n t a i n s 12.2 p e r c e n t o f a l l f e m a l e w o r k e r s . These two a s p e c t s of women's work, the u b i q u i t y and t h e l a c k o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n r e s u l t i n b o t h g e o g r a p h i c a l m o b i l i t y and e a s y e n t r y and e x i t f r o m t h e l a b o u r f o r c e . From t h e p o i n t o f view o f c a p t i a l , a p e c u l i a r l a b o u r market i s p r o v i d e d — s h i f t i n g i n t e r m s o f i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , w i t h a r e s e r v e ' t a k e n c a r e o f by h u s b a n d s , w e l f a r e payments e t c . , amenable t o p a r t - t i m e work. I t i s a l a b o u r f o r c e which c a n be c a l l e d f o r t h i n t i m e s o f e x p a n s i o n by p r o v i s i o n o f c h i l d - c a r e a s s i s t a n c e , t a x b r e a k s e t c . and he f o r c e d o u t t y r e d u c t i o n o f t h e same. At the same t i m e t h e growth c f two c r one and a h a l f income f a m i l i e s a l l o w s a r i s e i n t h e c o s t o f l i v i n g which keeps women w i t h c h i l d r e n 38 e c o n o m i c a l l y d e pendent on h u s b a n d s . When we c o n s i d e r t h e work o f f e m a l e S t a t e e m p l o y e e s , we must i n c l u d e a n o t h e r f a c t o r . The o b j e c t s o f t h e l a b o u r o f n u r s e s , t e a c h e r s , and s o c i a l w o r k e r s , a r e r e a l human i n d i v i d u a l s . T h e r e i s an upward l i m i t on how many c h i l d r e n a t e a c h e r c a n e f f e c t i v e l y manage i n a c l a s s r o o m and how many p a t i e n t s a n u r s e s can p r o v i d e w i t h a d e q u a t e c a r e . T h i s c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e need f o r a l a r g e l a b o u r f o r c e w i t h an upward l i m i t on p r o d u c t i v i t y c r e a t e s a c o r r e s p o n d i n g p r e s s u r e t o keep wages down, as h i g h e r wages c a n n o t be o f f s e t by i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i v i t y b r o u g h t on by t e c h n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e . T h i s l i m i t i s n o t a b s o l u t e , b u t i s c o n s t r a i n i n g , a d d i t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s come from t h e s t r u g g l e of p a r e n t s , c o n s u m e r s , and S t a t e e m p l o y e e s t h e m s e l v e s t o l i m i t c l a s s s i z e , p a t i e n t l o a d , and t o i m p r o v e work c o n d i t i o n s . The S t a t e c a n e i t h e r expand s e r v i c e s d u r i n g t i m e s o f e c o n o m i c e x p a n s i o n c r s o c i a l d i s r u p t i o n o r t r y t o i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i v i t y by i n c r e a s i n g w o r k l o a d s d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f r e c e s s i o n o r when t h e r e i s a need f o r r a p i d a c c u m u l a t i o n . T h e s e f a c t o r s a l o n e do n o t e x p l a i n why women a r e engaged i n o c c u p a t i o n s w i t h t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s . A c o m p l e t e a c c o u n t o f hew women's o p p r e s s i o n i s p e r p e t u a t e d must t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t s o c i a l i z a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n p r o c e s s e s , as w e l l as m a cro-economic f a c t o r s , s u c h a s c y c l e s o f c a p i t a l e x p a n s i o n and c o n t r a c t i o n . The p o i n t h e r e i s s i m p l y t h a t a nswers must n o t be s o u g h t i n s i m p l i f i e d c a t e g o r i e s o r s t r u c t u r e s . I n s t e a d we must t r a c e t h e a c t u a l p r o c e s s e s by 39 which women e n t e r and l e a v e the l a b o u r f o r c e , and e x p o s e t h e l i n k s between t h e s e t r a n s i t i o n s and o t h e r f a c t o r s s u c h a s h u s b a n d s 1 c c c u p a t i c n a l s t a t u s . S t a t e s u p p o r t f o r c h i l d - c a r e , as w e l l as ' l a r g e r ' e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s . The p r o b l e m c a n t h e n be s e e n as p a r t o f t h e l a r g e r p r o c e s s by which r e l a t i o n s o f d o m i n a t i o n a r e p r o d u c e d and r e p r o d u c e d u n d e r modern C a p i t a l i s m . The F a m i l y , The S t a t e , And The E e p r o d u c t i o n Of The R e l a t i o n s Of P r o d u c t i o n The p r o b l e m c f t h e p e r s i s t e n c e o f C a p i t a l i s t r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n i s e x t r e m e l y complex (and i r r i t a t i n g ) . T h e o r i e s o f hew r e l a t i o n s o f d o m i n a t i o n and e x p l o i t a t i o n a r e c o n t i n u a l l y r e p r o d u c e d , w h i l e a t t h e same same t r e m e d o u s c h a n g e s i n s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e b r o u g h t a b o u t , have p r o l i f e r a t e d r e c e n t l y . The q u e s t i o n a t t h e r o o t o f t h i s i n q u i r y i s (of c o u r s e ) why t h e r e has been no r e v o l u t i o n i n modern i n d u s t r i a l i s e d n a t i o n s . Much o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e has been c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n o f c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s t o r e v o l u t i o n , i d e o l o g y and c l a s s s t r u g g l e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , a good p a r t o f t h e d e b a t e has been m i s d i r e c t e d f r c m t h e o u t s e t . T h i s i s due i n p a r t t o a m i s -c o n s t r u c t i o n c f one o f t h e b a s i c p r e m i s e s o f h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m . Marx' and E n g e l s ' s t a t e m e n t t h a t " t h e h i s t o r y o f a l l h i t h e r t o e x i s t i n g s o c i e t y i s t h e h i s t o r y of c l a s s 40 s t r u g g l e " (Marx and E n g e l s , 1S59:7) has been d o u b l y t r a n s f o r m e d , f i r s t by A l t h u s s e r , i n t o c l a s s s t r u g g l e i s t h e motor f o r c e o f h i s t o r y , 1 2 and t h e n , i m p l i c i t l y , i f n o t e x p l i c i t l y , i n t o r e v o l u t i o n i s t h e motor f o r c e o f h i s t o r y . The e x p e c t a t i o n of immanent r e v o l u t i o n p r o b a b l y d e r i v e s f r o m Marx's o w n " p r e d i c t i o n s o f t h e c o l l a p s e o f c a p i t a l i s m . Many s c h o l a r s have f a i l e d u t t e r l y t o d e a l w i t h s t r u g g l e — a c a s e p e r h a p s c f n e t s e e i n g t h e t r e e s f o r t h e f o r e s t . On a more e x p l i c i t l e v e l , t h e d e b a t e has p r o c e e d e d from two f u n d a m e n t a l m i s - c o n c e p t i o n s o f t h e p r o b l e m . The f i r s t , m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , i s t h e a t t e m p t t o l o c a t e a ' r e a l m ' o r ' s p h e r e ' i n which r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n t a k e s p l a c e . The s e c o n d , i s t h e r e l a t i o n o f i d e o l o g y t o c o e r c i o n and c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I s h a l l e x p l o r e some o f the i m p l i c a t i o n s and p r o b l e m s o f e a c h o f t h e s e a p p r o a c h e s and p r e s e n t an a l t e r n a t i v e a p p r o a c h b a s e d on t h e c o n c e p t o f hegemony as d e v e l o p e d by W i l l i a m s . The p r o b l e m c f l o c a t i n g r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s c f p r o d u c t i o n i n a ' r e a l m ' ( u s u a l l y t h e s u p e r s t r u c t u r e ) o f a s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n was d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s t e x t . S p e c i f i c a l l y , A l t h u s s e r ' s model o f t h e S t a t e was shown t o be i n t e r n a l l y i n c o n s i s t e n t and t o depend on t h e o r e t i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s i n s o c i a l p r a c t i c e which c o u l d n o t be m a i n t a i n e d e m p i r i c a l l y . Seccombe a l s o l o c a t e d s r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e s u p e r s t r u c t u r e ( a l b e i t a d i f f e r e n t s u p e r s t r u c t u r e f r o m A l t h u s s e r ' s ) ; he e m p h a s i z e d t h e i d e o l o g i c a l n a t u r e o f t h i s k i n d o f r e p r o d u c t i o n . The p r o b l e m K i t h t h i s • l o c a t i o n ' i s n o t t h a t r e p r o d u c t i o n o f 4 1 r e l a t i o n s of dominance d o e s n o t go cn i n t h e S t a t e , i n f a m i l i e s , by i d e o l o g y , but t h a t i t c a n n o t , f o r many r e a s o n s , be s a i d t o go on e x c l u s i v e l y i n any o f t h e s e ' p l a c e s ' . E e p r o d u c t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n i s and must be o r g a n i z e d a t w hatever l e v e l , s p h e r e o r r e a l m t h a t c a n be i n v e n t e d o r e x t r a c t e d from complex s o c i a l p r a c t i c e . However, to ask the g u e s t i o n , 'where' i s i n f a c t t o ask t h e wrong g u e s t i o n i . 'Where' i s l o c a t e d ( i f one can be e x c u s e d f o r u s i n g t h a t term) i n a f u n c t i o n a l i s t p r o b l e m m a t i c . I t assumes a s o c i e t v w i t h i n t e r l o c k i n g p a r t s o r g e a r s , n e a t l y d e f i n e d , which keep each o t h e r g o i n g . I n f a c t A l t h u s s e r i s r e a l l y P a r s o n s i n M a r x i s t c l o t h i n g - - p o s i t i n g a s o c i e t y which works t h r o u g h i n t e r l o c k i n g s t r u c t u r e s . The a l t e r n a t i v e , f a r more d i f f i c u l t , i s t o t r y t o d i s c o v e r t h e m u l t i p l e ways i n which t h e p r a c t i c e o f r e a l p e o p l e b o t h m a i n t a i n s and c h a l l e n g e s (a l i t t l e p o i n t which A l t h u s s e r seems t o f o r g e t ) t h e d o m i n a n t p r o p e r t y r e l a t i o n s . The s e c o n d p r o b l e m i s t h e r e l a t i o n c f i d e o l o g y t o c o e r c i o n and c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and t h e n c e t o s o c i a l r e p r o d u c t i o n . Both Seccombe and A l t h u s s e r c o n s i d e r i d e o l o g y to be t h e major f a c t o r i n t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s of p r o d u c t i o n . B a s i c t o t h i s a s s u m p t i o n a r e two d i s t i n c t i o n s : between i d e o l o g y and m a t e r i a l p r a c t i c e and between i d e o l o g y and c o e r c i o n . The p r o b l e m s w i t h t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between i d e o l o g y and m a t e r i a l p r a c t i c e have been t h o r o u g h l y e x p l i c a t e d t y W i l l i a m s (1S77). H i s argument i s t h a t i d e o l o g y must al w a y s be t r a n s m i t t e d , communicated, o r p r e s e n t e d i n m a t e r i a l f o r m . ' I t ' n e v e r e x i s t s 'out t h e r e ' i n 42 t h e d i s e m b o d i e d form o f p u r e i d e a s . I d e o l o g y , a s p r a c t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s c a n n o t t e s e p a r a t e d from t h e p r o c e s s e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f i t s p r o d u c t i o n . The d i s t i n c t i o n between i d e o l o g y and c c e r c i c n i s somewhat e a s i e r to d e a l w i t h . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n (on which i s b a s e d t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between RSA's and ISA's) d e r i v e s from t h e work o f G r a m s c i which has i n f o r m e d much o f t h e d e b a t e on t h e S t a t e and t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s c f p r o d u c t i o n , . To view t h i s k i n d o f r e p r o d u c t i o n as a m a t t e r o f i d e o l o g y i s c l e a r l y i d e a l i s t : i t d e n i e s t h e v e r y m a t e r i a l b a s i s o f o p p r e s s i o n under c a p i t a l i s m . However, t o s e e i t as a c o m b i n a t i o n o f i d e o l o g y and c o e r c i o n i s e q u a l l y m i s l e a d i n g . U n d e r l y i n g t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n i s t h e model o f E n l i g h t e n m e n t Man — c o n s e n t i n g , t h r o u g h m i s i n f o r m a t i o n , t o h i s o p p r e s s i o n o r b e i n g a c t i v e l y c o e r c e d . The l i n e between i d e o l o g y and c o e r c i o n , l i k e t h e l i n e between b a s e and s u p e r s t r u c t u r e i s d i f f i c u l t t o m a i n t a i n . I n a c t u a l i t y r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f e x p l o i t a t i o n and r e p r e s s i o n i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s i s more a c t i v e l y l i v e d and o r g a n i z e d t h a n i s s u g g e s t e d by e i t h e r o f t h e s e t e r m s . W i l l i a m s d e v e l o p s the c o n c e p t o f 'hegemony' t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e p e r s i s t e n c e o f r e l a t i o n s o f dominance: (hegemony) s e e s t h e r e l a t i o n s o f dominance and s u b o r d i n a t i o n , i n t h e i r f o r m s a s p r a c t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , as i n e f f e c t a s a t u r a t i o n o f t h e whole p r o c e s s o f l i v i n g - - n o t o n l y p o l i t i c a l and e c o n o m i c a c t i v i t y , nor o n l y o f m a n i f e s t s o c i a l a c t i v i t y , b u t o f t h e whole s u b s t a n c e o f l i v e d i d e n t i t i e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t o s u c h a d e p t h t h a t t h e p r e s s u r e s and l i m i t s o f what can u l t i m a t e l y be s e e n an e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l s y s t e m seem t o most o f us t h e p r e s s u r e s and l i m i t s o f s i m p l e e x p e r i e n c e and common s e n s e . Hegemony ... i 4 3 i s a whole body of p r a c t i c e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s , o v e r t h e whole o f l i v i n g : o u r s e n s e s and a s s i g n m e n t s o f e n e r g y , o u r s h a p i n g p e r c e p t i o n s o f o u r s e l v e s and o u r w o r l d . I t i s a l i v e d s y s t e m o f meanings and v a l u e s - - c o n s t i t u t i v e and c o n s t i t u t i n g - - w hich as t h e y a r e e x p e r i e n c e d as p r a c t i c e s a p p e a r as r e c i p r o c a l l y c o n f i r m i n g ( W i l l i a m s , op c i t : 1 0 S ) . When viewed i n t h i s way, r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n c a n be u n d e r s t o o d as a s o c i a l t o t a l i t y o c c u r r i n g n o t , f o r example ' i n ' t h e f a m i l y , b u t b e c a u s e t h e r e i s 'the f a m i l y ' ; b e c a u s e ' f a m i l y ' i s a s e t o f p r a c t i c e s and r e l a t i o n s i n which and t h r o u g h which we e x p e r i e n c e a n d c o n s t i t u t e r e a l i t y . W i l l i a m s e m p h a s i s on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f d o m i n a t i o n — t h e c r e a t i o n o f a 'common-sense' w o r l d , a l l o w s us t c a v o i d s e e i n g r e p r o d u c t i o n o f r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n a s i d e o l o g i c a l o r even as a c o m b i n a t i o n c f i d e o l o g y and c o e r c i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n l y a s p e c t s o f b o t h i d e o l o g y and c o e r c i o n i n r e p r o d u c t i o n o f r e l a t i o n s o f dominance, t h e s e t e r m s have a r e i n a d e q u a t e i n t h e m s e l v e s t o d e a l w i t h t h e p r o b l e m . The p e r s i s t a n c e o f o p p r e s s i v e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i s more m a t e r i a l , more a c t i v e l y l i v e d and p r a c t i c e d t h a n i s s u g g e s t e d by t h e s e t e r m s . • W i l l i a m s a l s o r e - d e f i n e s ' d e t e r m i n a t i o n ' - - away from the s e n s e o f c o n t r o l l i n g o r d e f i n i n g t o ' t h e s e t t i n g o f l i m i t s and t h e e x e r t i o n of p r e s s u r e s ' . D e t e r m i n a t i o n i n t h i s s e n s e comes n o t from an a b s t r a c t e d mode o f p r o d u c t i o n , b u t from t h e whole s o c i a l p r o c e s s . Thompson makes t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e s t u d y o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t mode o f p r o d u c t i o n and t h e s t u d y o f 44 c a p i t a l i s t : t h e problem, i s t o move from t h e c i r c u i t s o f c a p i t a l t o c a p i t a l i s m ; from a h i g h l y c o n c e p t u a l i z e d and a b s t r a c t e d mode o f p r o d u c t i o n , w i t h i n w hich d e t e r m i n i s m a p p e a r s as a b s o l u t e t o h i s t o r i c a l d e t e r m i n a t i c n s as e x e r t i n g o f p r e s s u r e s , as a l o g i c o f p r o c e s s w i t h i n a l a r g e r (and s c m e t i m e s c o u n t e r v a i l i n g ) p r o c e s s (Thompson, 1978: 355). (emphasis mine) The p r o b l e m w i t h t h e s t r u c t u r a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n o f r e p r o d u c t i o n c f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n i s t h a t i t i s p r e m i s e d on a f i x i t y i n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s which e x i s t s i f c l a s s r e l a t i o n s a r e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e e c o n o m i c t e r m s o f s u r p l u s v a l u e e x t r a c t i o n , but c a n n o t d e a l w i t h a c t u a l h i s t o r i c a l c h a n g e s i n p r a c t i c e s and r e l a t i o n s . Thompson h i m s e l f p r o v i d e s t h e b e s t example o f h i s t o r i c a l method on c h a n g e s i n t h e f a m i l y as t h e ' l o g i c o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t p r o c e s s ' i n h i s p a p e r on i n h e r i t a n c e p r a c t i c e o f t h e 17th c e n t u r y e n g l i s h yeomen, "The G r i d o f I n h e r i t a n c e " . He d e m o n s t r a t e s how t h e i n h e r i t a n c e p r a c t i c e s o f t h e yecmanry, p a r t i c u l a r i l y t h e a t t a c h i n g c f m o r t g a g e s o n t o i n h e r i t e d l a n d t o p r o v i d e f o r c h i l d r e n who were n o t i n h e r i t i n g t h e l a n d i t s e l f , l e d t c i n c r e a s i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n and dependance cn urban c a p i t a l : t h e new mortgages c a r r i e d t h e s m a l l man i n t o a w i d e r and more r u t h l e s s money market q u i t e o u t s i d e h i s own e x p e r t i s e . An a l e r t m a n o r i a l owner ... c o u l d t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e s i t u a t i o n by g r a n t i n g a f o r e c l o s i n g mortgage on h i s own c o p y h o l d . . « . (the yeomen) were v i c t i m s , not o f f o r c e d d i s p o s s e s s i o n , but o f ' f a i r ' e c onomic p r a c t i c e , o f good l a w y e r s , and o f ... d e b t (Thompson, (19 76; 347) . J a ne Humphries (1977) p r o v i d e s a s i m i l a r d e m o n s t r a t i o n i n h e r a c c o u n t c f t h e s t r u g g l e o f t h e 19th c e n t u r y w o r k i n g 45 c l a s s f o r ' f a m i l y l i f e ' . Her p o i n t i s t h a t t h e F a m i l y was n o t a s t r u c t u r e i m p o s e d on t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s by an o m n i s c i e n t r u l i n g c l a s s , b u t was t h e r e s u l t of s t r u g g l e s o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s t o a t t a i n a r e a s o n a b l e s t y l e o f l i f e . B o t h t h e s e a u t h o r s a r e making t h e same p o i n t — t h a t s o c i a l c h a n g e i s a r e s u l t o f t h e p r a c t i c e s o f r e a l p e o p l e and t h a t r e a l m a t e r i a l power o f t h e r u l i n g c l a s s , n o t j u s t i d e o l o g y , i s used t o c o n t r o l and a r t i c u l a t e t h e outcomes c f w o r k i n g c l a s s a s p i r a t i o n s t o r u l i n g c l a s s i n t e r e s t s . What W i l l i a m s c a l l s hegemony c a n a l s o be c a l l e d t h e o r g a n i z e d l i m i t s on v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s . R e p r o d u c t i o n o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s i s t h e f o c u s o f c l a s s s t r u g g l e . The r u l i n g c l a s s r e t a i n s i t s hegemony, n o t b e c a u s e i t somehow knows what i s most a d v a n t a g e o u s a t any g i v e n t i m e , b u t by a t t e m p t i n g t o a r t i c u l a t e and i n c o r p o r a t e c h a l l e n g e s t o i t s dominance i n t o t h e g i v e n s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s — b y t u r n i n g t h e demands o f t h e s u b o r d i n a t e d c l a s s e s i n t o p r a c t i c e s which enhance i t s own p o s i t i o n . R e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n must be seen as a s o c i a l p r a c t i c e , which i s n o t p a r t i c u l a r t o any i d e a l i z e d s p h e r e o f s o c i a l l i f e . The r e l a t i o n s which c o n s t i t u t e t h e s y s t e m o f dominance i n c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s a r e n o t r e p r o d u c e d by women, by t h e f a m i l y , c r s p e c i f i c a l l y by t h e S t a t e . They a r e r e p r o d u c e d i n t h e t o t a l i t y o f s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s which do n o t c h a l l e n g e t h e b a s i c p r o p e r t y r e l a t i o n s o f C a p i t a l i s m . 46 C o n c l u s i o n R e p r o d u c t i o n , whether o f human i n d i v i d u a l s , l a b o u r power, o r t h e r e l a t i o n s o f dominance i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i a l f o r m a t i o n s i s a l w a y s a r e a l p r o d u c t i o n process,. N o t h i n g i s e v e r r e p r o d u c e d b u t i s a l w a y s p r o d u c e d t h r o u g h and i n a s p e c i f i c s o c i a l r e l a t i o n . The r e p r o d u c t i o n o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s c a n t e seen t o be o r g a n i z e d a s p r a c t i c e o r a s m u t u a l l y r e i n f o r c i n g s e t s o f p r a c t i c e s * The b a s i s o f t h i s d o m i n a t i o n i s i n c o n t r o l o f p r o d u c t i o n , n o t o n l y t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f s u r p l u s v a l u e , b u t • t h e p r o d u c t i o n and r e p r o d u c t i o n c f l a b o u r power, i d e o l o g y , weapons, l a w s , and p r i s o n s . The o r i g i n a l t a s k o f t h i s p a p e r was t o examine t h e use o f t h e c o n c e p t ' r e p r o d u c t i o n ' i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between women's o p p r e s s i o n i n t h e home and i n th e w o r k p l a c e . I t has been a r g u e d t h a t r e p r o d u c t i o n , e i t h e r as a g e n e r a l c o n c e p t o r as t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f l a b o u r power o r t h e r e l a t i o n s c f p r o d u c t i o n , c a n n o t e x p l a i n t h e r e l a t i o n .between t h e s e two a s p e c t s o f t h e o p p r e s s i o n o f women. R e p r o d u c t i o n i s a l w a y s , f i r s t , p r o d u c t i o n , and i t i s t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s and r e l a t i o n s t h a t we must l o o k t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p o s i t i o n of women. 47 I n e x p l o r i n g t h e e p i s t e m o l o g y o f t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n l i t e r a t u r e , I have been f o r c e d t o l o c a t e t h a t d e b a t e i n a l a r g e r d e b a t e on how t o ' t h i n k ' a b o u t s o c i e t y and s o c i a l p r o c e s s e s . I t has been d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e t e r m s o f t h e ' r e p r o d u c t i o n ' q u e s t i o n , which i n d e e d i s t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e x and c l a s s , have been d e f i n e d by a s t r u c t u r a l i s t c o n c e p t i o n o f s o c i e t y . The t h e o r e t i c a l s e a r c h f o r a ' l i n k ' .between sex and c l a s s i s t h e s e a r c h f o r an a r t i c u l a t i n q s t r u c t u r e w hich w i l l ' s o l v e ' t h e p r o b l e m . Sex and c l a s s t h e m s e l v e s a r e c o n c e p t u a l i z e d a s s t r u c t u r e s e i t h e r a s s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t s t r u c t u r e s ( t h e C a p i t a l i s m and P a t r i a r c h y p o s i t i o n ) o r as s t r u c t u r e s which w i l l c o l l a p s e i n t o e a c h o t h e r . The c o n c e p t s o f c l a s s and sex a r e r e i f i e d , a l t h o u g h i n d i f f e r e n t ways. Sex i s e t e r n a l , g r o u n d e d i n t h e body; c l a s s i s more h i s t o r i c a l b u t i s d e f i n e d a s an e c o n o m i c c a t e g o r y r a t h e r t h a n as s o c i a l p r o c e s s . By s t e p p i n g o u t s i d e t h e s t r u c t u r a l i s t d i s c o u r s e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o b e g i n t c r e f o r m u l a t e t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between sex and c l a s s . The o p p r e s s i o n of women can be s e e n as one o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s o f d o m i n a t i o n which i s p a r t o f an o n g o i n g and n o n - m o n o l i t h i c p r o c e s s o f d o m i n a t i o n and e x p l o i t a t i o n . The q u e s t i o n o f how t h i s o p p r e s s i o n 'works', how i t a r t i c u l a t e s w i t h o t h e r f o r m s of o p p r e s s i o n and s t r u g g l e becomes t h e s u b j e c t f o r e m p i r i c a l d i s c o v e r y . The t a s k f o r s o c i a l i s t f e m i n i s t s i s t o e x p o s e t h e r e a l d e t e r m i n a n t s t h r o u g h which t h e work and l i v e s of women a r e o r g a n i z e d , and how t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e 48 c o n t i n u e d c o n t r o l c f t h e c a p i t a l i s t c l a s s . 49 FOOTNOTES 1 R o b e r t a H a m i l t o n p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on t h i s i s s u e i n her book THE LIBERATION OF WOMEN Georg e A l l e n And Unwin, London, 1978. 2 No one has y e t s u g g e s t e d t h a t r e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n i s g e n d e r - b a s e d , p r e s u m a b l y b e c a u s e i t i s c a r r i e d o u t l a r g e l y by men, who a r e n e u t r a l . M i l e s comes c l o s e t o s u g g e s t i n g t h i s , b u t h e r c o n c e p t s a r e so vague she c a n n o t q u i t e make t h e l e a p . I do n o t d e a l w i t h t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n i n t h i s p a p e r , l a r g e l y b e c a u s e o f c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by my own i n i t i a l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f t h e c e n t r a l p r o h l e m m a t i c . I l e a v e i t f o r a n o t h e r t i m e . . 3 That he has been c a s t i g a t e d p_ost mortem f o r t h i s s u p p o s e d o m i s s i o n i s p r o b a b l y more.a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e . p r e s e n t s t a t e o f h i s t o r i c a l work on women and t h e f a m i l y t h a n on Marx's own work. A t h o r o u g h r e a d i n g o f t h e f o o t n o t e s i n CAPITAL I r e v e a l s a m a t e r i a l b a s i s f o r h i s i g n o r a n c e o f t h e m a t t e r o f d o m e s t i c l a b o u r among t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s e s . At t h e . t i m e o f th e w r i t i n g o f CAPITAL d o m e s t i c l a b o u r , i f i t c a n be c a l l e d t h a t , was o r g a n i s e d much d i f f e r e n t l y t h a n i t i s now. The m a j o r i t y o f w o r k i n g c l a s s women were engaged i n f a c t o r y l a b o u r , farm l a b o u r , and o t h e r f o r m s o f wage work o r d o m e s t i c s e r v i c e . M a r r i e d w o r k i n g c l a s s women sel d o m had t h e ec o n o m i c means t o a v o i d wage l a b o u r u n t i l t h e l a t e r p a r t o f t h e 19th c e n t u r y ; t h e i r r o l e i n t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n of l a b o u r -power was somewhat d i f f e r e n t a t t h e t i m e Marx was w r i t i n g t h a n i t i s now. . * W i l l i a m s (1977:95-114) d i s c u s s e s i n d e t a i l t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e c o n c e p t s . 5 T h e . s o c i a l c l a s s p o s i t i o n o f S t a t e employees has been t h e s u b j e c t o f much d e b a t e i n M a r x i s t t h e o r y . The problem has been t o draw on Marx's d i s t i n c t i o n between p r o d u c t i v e and u n p r o d u c t i v e l a b o u r , a s he a p p l i e d i t t o t h e p r o c e s s o f c i r c u l a t i o n , and d e r i v e a s i m i l a r c r i t e r i a t o a n a l y s e t h e work done by S t a t e e m p l o y e e s . Workers who pr o d u c e s u r p l u s v a l u e — t h a t i s p r o d u c e i n a c a p i t a l i s t r e l a t i o n — a r e p a r t o f t h e same c l a s s whether t h e y p r o d u c e f o r p r i v a t e c o r p o r a t i o n s o r f o r p u b l i c ones s u c h a s crown c o r p o r a t i o n s o r n a t i o n a l i z e d i n d u s t r i e s . The r e a l p r o b l e m i s t o p r o v i d e c r i t e r i a f o r t h e c l a s s b a s i s o f n o n - p r o d u c t i v e w o r k e r s . The l a r g e s t p o r t i o n o f S t a t e e m p l o y e e s a r e p a i d , n o t o u t o f a wage t h e v a l u e of which t h e y t h e m s e l v e s p r o d u c e , but o u t o f s u r p l u s e x t r a c t e d i n t h e f o r m o f t a x e s , e i t h e r d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s o r i n d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h t a x i n g t h e s u r p l u s a p p r o p r i a t e d by c o r p o r a t i o n s . F o r f u r t h e r e x p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s way o f d e a l i n g w i t h c l a s s , s e e L i n d s e y ( n d ) , and C a r c h e d i (1977a, b.) 6 See, f o r example, H a m i l t o n (op c i t ) , B e n s t o n (1969), and Z a r e t s k y ( 1 9 7 6 ) . 50 7 Seccombe, (1973:16) f o r example s a y s " c e r t a i n key f a c e t s of t h e r e p r o d u c t i o n o f an i n c r e a s i n g l y a d v a n c e d l a b o u r f o r c e were removed from t h e h o u s e h o l d and assumed by t h e s t a t e (as w i t n e s s e d i n t h e e x p o n e n t i a l growth of a l l a s p e c t s o f e d u c a t i o n ) . T h i s n o t o n l y d i m i n i s h e d t h e f a m i l y ' s f u n c t i o n w i t h i n t h e s o c i a l o r d e r , b u t i t has t r i v i a l i z e d t h e n a t u r e o f d o m e s t i c l a b o u r s t i l l f u r t h e r . " Eowbotham (1973: 59) a l s o v i e w s t h e s t a t e i n t h i s way: " a l r e a d y i n t h e l a s t q u a r t e r o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e s t a t e b e g i n s t o t a k e o v e r some o f t h e f a m i l y ' s f o r m e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r u p b r i n g i n g and e d u c a t i o n . " 8 W i t h r e g a r d t o t h i s , one m i g h t c o n s i d e r t h a t p e r h a p s t h e •screw o f s u r p l u s - v a l u e ' has been t u r n e d once t o o o f t e n by t h e o r e t i c i a n s . A l t h o u g h we a l l f o n d l y wish i t were so s i m p l e , t h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e i s any d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e r a t e o f e x p l o i t a t i o n and c l a s s c o n s c i o u s n e s s o r r e v o l u t i o n . Q u i t e t h e o p p o s i t e i t s o metimes seems. E.P. Thompson p r o v i d e s a b r i l l i a n t c r i t i q u e o f Marx's a p p l i c a t i o n o f P o l i t i c a l E c onomic a n a l y s i s t o c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t i e s i n THE POVERTY OF THEORY ( 1 9 7 8 ) , s t a t i n g t h a t " t h e whole s o c i e t y c o m p r i s e s many a c t i v i t i e s , and r e l a t i o n s (of power, o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s , s e x u a l , c u l t u r a l n o r m a t i v e ) which a r e n o t t h e c o n c e r n o f P o l i t i c a l Economy ... t h e r e f o r e P o l i t i c a l Economy c a n n o t show c a p i t a l i s m as • c a p i t a l i n t h e t o t a l i t y o f i t s r e l a t i o n s ' : i t has no t e r m s to do t h i s . O n l y a h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i s m which c o u l d b r i n g a l l a c t i v i t i e s and r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n a c o h e r e n t view c o u l d do t h i s . " R e c e n t l y Maxine Molyneux made a s i m i l a r , i f l e s s d e v e l o p e d c r i t i q u e c f t h e d o m e s t i c l a b o u r d e b a t e i n h e r p a p e r "Beyond T h e . D o m e s t i c Labour D e b a t e " , New L e f t Review, 1979. 9 A g a i n , s e e H a m i l t o n (op c i t ) f o r a t h o r o u g h d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i d e o l o g y o f t h e f a m i l y a s t h e ' l i t t l e commonwealth•. 1 0 F o r h i s t o r i c a l b a c k g r o u n d on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e h o u s ebound h o u s e w i f e , see A p p e n d i x : The C o r p o r a t e S t a t e and t h e Working C l a s s F a m i l y . 1 1 D o r o t h y Smith f i r s t b r o u g h t t h i s a s p e c t o f women's work t o my a t t e n t i o n . 1 2 F o r f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h i s p o i n t s e e Thompson, THE POVERTY OF THEORY (1 9 7 8 ) . 51 BIBLIOGRAPHY A l t h u s s e r , L o u i s 1971 " I d e o l o g y And I d e o l o g i c a l S t a t e A p p a r a t u s e s . " i n LENIN AND PHILOSOPHY AND OTHER ESSAYS. New Yo r k : I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s . A r i e s , P h i l l i p e 1962 CENTURIES OF CHILDHOOD New Y o r k : V i n t a g e Books. A r m s t r o n g , P a t 5 Hugh 1978 THE DOUBLE GHETTO. T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d & S t e w a r t L t d . A l e x a n d e r , S a l l y 1976 "Women's Work I n N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y E n g l a n d : A St u d y Of The Y e a r s 1820-50." i n THE RIGHTS AND WRONGS OF WOMEN. J u l i e t M i t c h e l l S Anne O a k l e y (eds) Harmcndsworth: P e n g u i n Books. B e n s t o n , M a r g a r e t 1969 THE POLITICAL ECONOMY CF WOMEN. Toronto:New Hcgtown P r e s s . Bouldi.ng, E l s i e 1976 " F a m i l i a l C o n s t r a i n t s On Work R o l e s . " i n WOMEN AND THE WORKPLACE. Ma r t h a 4 1 a x a l l 8 B a r b a r a Reagan (eds) C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y Of C h i c a g o P r e s s . C a r c h e d i , G. 1975a "On The Economic I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Of The New M i d d l e C l a s s . " ECONOMY AND SOCIETY 4 (1) : 1-86,. 197 5b "The Economic I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Of The S t a t e E m p l o y e e s . " SOCIAL PRAXIS 3 (12):93-100. C l a r k , A l i c e 19 19 THE WORKING LIVES OF WOMEN IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. London: C a s s . C o n n e l l y , P a t r i c i a 1978 LAST HIRED FIRST FIRED. T o r o n t o : Women's P r e s s . 52 D a v i e s , Jo Anne 1978 " M a r r i a g e , P o l i t i c s , And A n t h r o p o l o g y . " ms. D a v i d o f f , L e o n o r e 1972 THE EEST CIRCLES: SOCIETY, ETIQUETTE, AND THE SEASON. London: Croom Helm. De Beauvoir, Simone 1952 THE SECOND SEX. New York.: Alfred A. Knopf. F i r e s t o n e , S h u l a m i t h 1970 THE DIALECTIC OF SEX. New Y o r k : Morrow. Gough, I a n 1972 "Marx's T h e o r y Of P r o d u c t i v e L a b o u r . " NEW L E F T REVIEW 76:47-72* Gough, K a t h l e e n 1971 "The O r i g i n Of The F a m i l y . " JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND THE FAMILY 3 3 ( 4 ) : 1/60-771. Gramsci, Antcnio 1973 SELECTIONS FROM THE PRISON NOTEBOOKS. Q u i n t o n Hoare 6 G e o f f r e y Smith (eds),. New Y o r k : I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s . H a m i l t o n , R o b e r t a 1978 THE LIBERATION OF WOMEN London: George A l l e n S Unwin. Hobsbawm, E. J . 1977 THE AGE OF CAPITAL. London.: Sphere Books. Humphries, Jane 1977 "The Working C l a s s F a m i l y , Women's L i b e r a t i o n , And C l a s s S t r u g g l e : The Case Of N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y B r i t i s h H i s t o r y . " REVIEW OF RADICAL POLITICAL ECONOMICS 9 (3) : 25-4 1. 1976 "Wcmen: S c a p e g o a t s and S a f e t y V a l v e s o f t h e G r e a t D e p r e s s i o n . " REVIEW OF RADICAL POLITICAL ECONOMICS 8(1) :98-121. 53 KolJco, G a b r i e l 1978 "Working Wives: T h e i r E f f e c t s On The S t r u c t u r e Of The Working C l a s s . " SCIENCE & SOCIETY 42 (3): 257-277. l i n d s e y , James nd "The C o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n C f S o c i a l C l a s s : Comments On ft Debate And & P r o p o s a l . " ms F r e n c h t r a n s l a t i o n f o r t h c o m i n g i n L'HOMME ET LA SOCIETE. Marx, K a r l 1967 CAPITAL. New York: I n t e r n a t i o n a l P u b l i s h e r s . Marx, K a r l S F r i e d r i c h E n g e l s 1959 THE MANIFESTO OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY. i n MARX AND ENGELS' EASIC WRITINGS ON POLITICS AND PHILOSPHY. L e w i s S. F e u e r ( e d ) . Garden C i t y : D o u b l e d a y . M i d d l e t o n , C h r i s t o p h e r 1979 "The S e x u a l D i v i s i o n Of L a b o u r I n F e u d a l E n g l a n d . " NEW LEFT REVIEW 113-114: 147-168. M i d d l e t o n , Lucy 1977 WOMEN IN THE LABOUR MOVEMENT: THE BRITISH EXPERIENCE. London: Croom Helm. M e i s s n e r , M a r t i n 1S77 " I n d u s t r i a l Man: I n t e r e s t e d O m i s s i o n i n t h e S t u d y o f the S o c i a l R e l a t i o n s o f P r o d u c t i o n . " P r e s e n t e d a t t h e A n n u a l M e e t i n g s o f t h e C a n a d i a n S o c i o l o g y S A n t h r o p o l o g y A s s o c i a t i o n : F r e d e r i c t o n , New B r u n s w i c k . M i l e s , A n g e l a 1978 "Feminism And C l a s s A n a l y s i s . " ATLANTIS 3 ( 2 ) : 22-39. Molyneaux, Maxine 1979 "Eeyond t h e D o m e s t i c L a b o u r D e b a t e . " NEW LEFT REVIEW 116: 3-27. E i n c h b e c k , I v y 1930 WOMEN WORKERS IN THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION. London: George S o u t l e d g e & Sons L t d . 54 P r G n t i c G A l i s o n 197gf "The F e m i n i z a t i o n Of T e a c h i n g . " I n THE NEGLECTED MAJORITY: ESSAYS IN CANADIAN WOMEN'S HISTORY. Susan Mann T r o f i m i n k o f f And A l i s o n P r e n t i c e ( e d s ) . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d & S t e w a r t . O a k l e y , Anne 1.976 "Wisewoman And M e d i c i n e Man: Changes I n The Management Of C h i l d b i r t h . " i n THE RIGHTS AND WRONGS OF WOMEN. J u l i e t M i t c h e l l & Anne O a k l e y ( e d s ) . Harmondsworth: P e n g u i n E o o k s . Seccombe, W a l l y 1973 "The H o u s e w i f e And Her L a b o u r Under C a p i t a l i s m . " NEW LEFT REVIEW 83: 2-22. S m i t h , D o r o t h y 1973 "Women, the F a m i l y , and C o r p o r a t e C a p i t a l i s m . " i n WOMEN IN CANADA. M a r y l e e S t e v e n s o n ( e d ) . T o r o n t o : New P r e s s . Thompson, D o r o t h y 1976 "Wcmen I n R a d i c a l P o l i t i c s : A L o s t D i m e n s i o n . " i n THE RIGHTS AND WRONGS OF WOMEN. J u l i e t M i t c h e l l & Anne O a k l e y ( e d s ) . Harmondsworth: P e n g u i n B o o k s . Thompson, E.P. 1976 "The G r i d Of I n h e r i t a n c e . " i n FAMILY AND INHERITANCE. Thompson, Goody, & T h i r s k ( e d s ) . C a m b r i d g e : Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1978 THE POVERTY OF THEORY. London: M e r l i n P r e s s . fiowbotham, S h e i l a 1973 HIDDEN FROM HISTORY. London: P l u t o P r e s s . . W i l e n s k y , H a r o l d 1968 WOMEN'S WORK, ECONOMIC GROWTH, IDEOLOGY, STRUCTURE. I n s i t u t e o f I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s R e p r i n t 321. B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s . W i l l i a m s , Raymond 1977 MARXISM AND LITERATURE. O x f o r d : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 55 Z a r e t s k y , E l i 1S76 C AFIIALISM, TEE FAMILY, AND PERSONAL L I F E . New Y o r k : H a r p e r Row. 56 APPENDIX The C o r p o r a t e S t a t e And The Working C l a s s F a m i l y The r i s e o f c o r p o r a t e c a p t i a l i s m and t h e c o i n c i d e n t a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e c o r p o r a t e s t a t e w i t h i t s f u l l c o m p l i m e n t o f m i n s i t r i e s , d e p a r t m e n t s , s t a t e - o w n e d h o s p i t a l s , s o c i a l w e l f a r e p r o g r a m s , and p e r h a p s s o c i a l i z e d m e d i c i n e , marks t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t r e m e n d o u s change i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f women and the s t r u c t u r e o f t h e f a m i l y . The p e r i o d from 1870 u n t i l t h e f i r s t w o r l d war saw t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m t h r o u g h o u t w e s t e r n E u r o p e and N o r t h A m e r i c a , l e g a l s t a t u s o f one k i n d or a n o t h e r g r a n t e d t o t r a d e u n i o n s a n d , i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l i s e d c o u n t r i e s , t h e a p p a r e n t d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f m a r r i e d w o r k i n g c l a s s women, i n t o t h e home and o r g a n i z e d a t t e m p t s t o e x c l u d e them from i n d u s t r i a l l a b o u r . At t h e same t i m e t h e r e was an i n f l u x o f women i n t o t e a c h i n g , t h e c r e a t i o n c f t h e p r o f e s s i o n o f n u r s i n g , t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e women's s u f f r a g e demands, and a m a s s i v e o r g a n i s e d v o l u n t a r y r e f o r m movement among m i d d l e and upper c l a s s women.. D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d — f r o m 1870 t o 1920 - - t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e o f f a t h e r i n t h e f a c t o r y , mother a t home w i t h b a b i e s , and c h i l d r e n (not i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y ) i n s c h o o l , i s c r e a t e d . 57 I n o r d e r t o make c l e a r t h i s change i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e c o u n t seme c f t h e p r e v i o u s c h a n g e s i n women's p o s i t i o n i n t h e f a m i l y and t o t h e i r own means o f s u b s i s t e n c e . D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d of p r i m i t i v e a c c u m u l a t i o n , from a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1500 t o t h e l a t e 18th c e n t u r y , t h e r e were two c o u n t e r v a i l i n g t e n d a n c i e s i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f a r t i s a n women. I n some g u i l d s t h e r i g h t s c f wives were e n t r e n c h e d , and women owned and r a n b u s i n e s s e s i n h e r i t e d from t h e i r h u s b a n d s ( B o u l d i n g , 1976; H a m i l t o n , 1978). On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e r e was a p r o g r e s s i v e e x c l u s i o n of women from c r a f t s t o which t h e y had t r a d i t i o n a l l y had r i g h t s . F o r e x a m p l e , b e f o r e t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y b r e w i n g was c o n s i d e r e d t h e r i g h t o f widows and u n a t t a c h e d women; i n t h e e a r l y 1500's men began t o brew and women were l e g a l l y e x c l u d e d (Rowbatham, 1973; B o u l d i n g , 1S76). D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h e emergent c a p i t a l i s t a p p r o p r i a t e d h i s w i f e ' s l a b o u r . She assumed more r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r t h e d o m e s t i c c o n c e r n s w h i l e he c o n c e n t r a t e d on a c c u m u l a t i n g c a p i t a l . H a m i l t o n (1978) c h r o n i c l e s t h e change i n i d e o l o g y d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d f r o m a C a t h o l i c view o f woman a s h a z a r d t o s a l v a t i o n t o t h e p r o t e s t a n t i d e a c f woman as h e l p m e e t and p a r t n e r * Women o f t h e yeoman c l a s s were e q u a l l y s u b j e c t t o c h a n g e . In most p l a c e s widows' r i g h t s t o t h e l a n d h e l d by t h e i r h u s b a n d s were w e l l - e n t r e n c h e d u n t i l t h e 18th c e n t u r y (Thompson, 1S76), b u t d a u g h t e r s d i d n o t a l w a y s have r i g h t s t o l a n d . Women w i t h o u t p r o p e r t y f o u n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d h u s b a n d s and were o b l i g e d , sometimes by l a w , t o p e r f o r m f a r m l a b o u r a t e x t r e m e l y low wages. I.n many p a r i s h e s t h e y were b a r r e d 58 f r o m r e c e i v i n g p a r i s h r e l i e f ( i n s t i t u t e d i n t h e 16th c e n t u r y ) , w h i l e i n mcst o t h e r s t h e y r e c e i v e d l e s s t h a n h a l f o f what a s i n g l e man r e c e i v e d ( P i n c h b e c k , 1930:80). Many women were thrown o f f t h e l a n d by t h e E n c l o s u r e A c t s and became v a g a b o n d s , p r o s t i t u t e s , p e t t y c r i m i n a l s and w a n d e r e r s , f o r m i n g .with t h e i r c h i l d r e n t h e b a s i s o f t h e ur b a n p r o l e t a r i a t . W i t h t h e a d v e n t o f i n d u s t r i a l i z t i c n i n t h e l a t e 18th c e n t u r y , a l l members o f wor k i n g c l a s s f a m i l i e s had t o engage i n wage l a b o u r , o f t e n w o r k i n g 16 t o 18 h o u r s a day* The f a c t t h a t wcmen e a r n e d a wage gave them a measure o f i n d e p e n d a n c e , b u t t h i s was h i g h l y c i r c u m s c r i b e d by i n t e n s e p o v e r t y and i n t e n s e c o m p e t i t i o n f o r work. Such d o m e s t i c l a b o u r as was p e r f o r m e d was r e l e g a t e d t o t h e a g e d , t h e i n f i r m , o r t h e young. S a l l y A l e x a n d e r (1976:98) n o t e s , f o r example t h a t " t h e m a j o r i t y o f c h i l d r e n a t B e t h n a l G r e e n market ( h e l d e v e r y Monday and Tuesday from 7 a m t o 9 a m ) were g i r l s c f seven and up who were h i r e d by t h e week a s n u r s e s and s e r v a n t s , m o s t l y t o weavers' f a m i l i e s . " Young c h i l d r e n were o f t e n drugged w i t h o p i a t e s o r s i m p l y l e f t a l o n e w h i l e t h e i r mothers work. Some women p a i d c h i l d -m i n d e r s t c l o o k a f t e r t h e i r c h i l d r e n and many t i m e s f a i l e d t o p i c k them up. Many b a b i e s were s t a r v e d to d e a t h so t h a t t h e s e e q u a l l y d e s p e r a t e women c o u l d t a k e i n y e t o t h e r s f o r pay ( O a k l e y , 1 9 7 6 : 4 0 ) . H o u s e h o l d membership was f l u i d and i n c o n s t a n t ; p e o p l e o f t e n s h a r e d a c c o m o d a t i o n w i t h n o n - k i n - -a p r a c t i c e known as ' h u d d l i n g ' . K i n and f r i e n d s h i p r e l a t i o n s were i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e s o f s u p p o r t and employment: Humphries 59 (1977: 3 1) nct.es t h e e x t e n t t o which p e o p l e d e n i e d t h e m s e l v e s i n o r d e r t o s a v e r e l a t i v e s f r o m t h e p o o r h o u s e . As one o f Mayhew's i n f o r m a n t s s a i d "we a l l s t a r v e t o g e t h e r as c o n t e n t e d l y as we can (quot e d i n Humphries, 1977:31). By t h e l a s t t h i r d o f t h e 19th c e n t u r y t h i s had a l l begun t o change a g a i n . M i d d l e - c l a s s r e f o r m g r o u p s and t r a d e u n i o n i s t s a l i k e began t o a g i t a t e , n o t f o r b e t t e r w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s f o r women,but f o r t h e e x c l u s i o n o f m a r r i e d women from t h e w o r k f o r c e . The ' f a m i l y wage' became a m a j o r p l a t f o r m c f t r a d e u n i o n demands, and women were a c t i v e l y e x c l u d e d f r c m p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n u n i o n s on t h e gr o u n d s t h a t t h e y u n d e r c u t men's wages. M i d d l e c l a s s r e f o r m e r s were l e s s c o n c e r n e d a b o u t men's wages t h a n t h e y were w i t h t h e f u t u r e o f t h e e m p i r e . They m a i n t a i n e d t h a t young g i r l s who had grown up i n f a c t o r i e s knew n o t h i n g about housework and a p p e a r e d t o have ' l o s t ' t h e i r m o t h e r i n g i n s t i n c t s . . I n f a n t m o r t a l i t y was so h i g h t h a t t h e r e was c o n c e r n t h a t t h e r e would n e t be a w o r k i n g c l a s s w i t h i n a few g e n e r a t i o n s , as a r e s u l t p u b l i c h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s were begun, p u b l i c h e a l t h and s o c i a l wcrk became p r o f e s s i o n a l i z e d , w e l l - b a b y c l i n i c s were f o u n d e d , c c m p l u s o r y e d u c a t i o n and c h i l d - l a b o u r laws p a s s e d . Working c l a s s women were s u p p o s e d t o l e a r n t o be c l e a n , n e a t , c h a s t e b e f o r e m a r r i a g e , and good m o t h e r s . The i d e a l f a m i l y was one w i t h mother a t heme, c h i l d r e n a t s c h o o l , and f a t h e r a t t h e f a c t o r y , a l t h o u g h a l l w o r k i n g c l a s s women were n o t a b l e t o a v o i d f a c t o r y wcrk a f t e r m a r r i a g e , the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n was i n o r d i n a t e l y s u c c e s s f u l . T h e r e a f t e r m a r r i e d women who were d e s t i t u t e o r whose hu s b a n d s c o u l d n o t 60 s u p p o r t them were g e n e r a l l y r e s t r i c t e d t o f o r m s o f p e t t y commodity p r c d u c t i c n — s u c h as h a i r d r e s s i n g o r home s e w i n g , d o m e s t i c s e r v i c e , o r t h e h o r r o r s o f sweated l a b o u r which combined t h e c o n v e n i e n c e o f low o v e r h e a d w i t h t h e * C h r i s t i a n ' i d e o l o g y o f k e e p i n g mother i n t h e home. The c h a n g e s i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s f a m i l y and i n t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h e S t a t e t o w o r k i n g c l a s s f a m i l i e s a r e a p p a r e n t i n much o f the h i s t o r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on women o f t h i s p e r i o d . However t h e s e c h a n g e s a r e n o t a l w a y s r e c o g n i z e d o r d e a l t w i t h e x p l i c i t l y . . J a n e Humphries (op c i t ) t o u c h e s on the s u b j e c t i n h e r d e f e n s e o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s f a m i l y . . Bowbotham c h r o n i c l e s , s e e m i n g l y u n c o n s c i o u s l y and w i t h o u t comment, t h e change i n c o n c e r n o f r e f o r m e r s f r o m women's w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s ( i n t h e 1830's and 40*s) t o c o n c e r n w i t h " t h e i n t e r e s t s o f women a t home" (op c i t : 139). She m e n t i o n s t h e g r o w i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e S t a t e i n t h e f i n a l g u a r t e r o f t h e 19th c e n t u r y b u t d o e s n o t p u r s u e t h e i m p l i c a t i c n s c f t h i s growth f o r c h a n g i n g f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s . One a u t h o r who does e x p l c i t l y r e c o g n i z e and d e s c r i b e t h i s change i s D o r o t h y Thompson i n h e r p a p e r "Women i n R a d i c a l E o l i t i c s " . She r e c o r d s t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f w o r k i n g c l a s s women from r a d i c a l p o l i t i c a l movements i n t h e 1840's, b u t o f f e r s o n l y meagre a n a l y s i s o f t h i s phenomenon. She d o e s however n o t e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f m i d d l e - c l a s s women r e f o r m e r s , p a r t i c u l a r i l y t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n t h e t e m p e r a n c e movement. Z a r e t s k y , (1976) p o i n t s t o t h i s t i m e as t h e p e r i o d when ' p e r s o n a l l i f e ' became t h e r i g h t o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s as w e l l o f t h e m i d d l e c l a s s e s , b u t e m p h a s i z e s t h e 6 1 i d e o l o g i c a l c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s 'heme' r a t h e r t h a n t h e p r o c e s s of r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n i t s e l f . O t h e r s t u d i e s have been done on t h e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f h e a l t h s e r v i c e s and t h e c r e a t i o n o f p u b l i c h e a l t h s y s t e m ( O a k l e y , 1976) , t h e f e m i n i z a t i o n o f t e a c h i n g ( P r e n t i c e , 1 977) , and v o l u n t a r y wcrk done by m i d d l e c l a s s r e f o r m e r s ( M i d d l e t o n , 1 977) hewever, no s t u d y has been done which l i n k s t h e e conomic c h a n g e s and t h e r e - s t r u c t u r i n g o f c a p i t a l t o th e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f w o r k i n g c l a s s women i n t o t h e home. Nor has t h e p r o c e s s i n d i f f e r e n t i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s been compared, a l t h o u g h i t seems t o have o c c u r e d i n a l l o f them. T h e r e seem t o he a v a r i e t y c f f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s change. One p o i n t which may be s i g n i f i c a n t i s t h a t , o f t h e f i f i t y y e a r p e r i o d o f r e o r g a n i z a t i o n , Hobsbawn ( 1 9 7 7 ) s t a t e s t h a t t w e n t y - t h r e e y e a r s — f r o m 1873 t o 1896 --were y e a r s c f w o r l d - w i d e e c o n o m i c d e p r e s s i o n , y e a r s which f o l l o w e d however, a p e r i o d o f u n p r e c e d e n t e d a c c u m u l a t i o n . I n B r i t a i n , t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s , a f t e r 100 y e a r s o f s u p e r -e x p l o i t a t i o n were u n h e a l t h y , m a l f o r m e d , and a c c i d e n t p r o n e . M a s s i v e e m i g r a t i o n o f men t o t h e c o l o n i e s r e s u l t e d i n a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number o f women a t home: i t 1900 t h e f e m a l e p o p u l a t i o n was one m i l l i o n i n e x c e s s o f t h e male. F i n a l l y , as Humphries p o i n t s o u t , t h e f a m i l y wage and t h e r i g h t t o a home was one o f t h e few a r e a s where w o r k i n g c l a s s a s p i r a t i o n s " c o u l d be a c c o m p a n i e d by s u p p o r t i v e m o b i l i z a t i o n o f b o u r g e o i s i d e o l o g y " (op c i t : 3 6 ) . 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0055942/manifest

Comment

Related Items