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Factors related to the continuing education needs of a selected group of professional engineers in British… Wilson, Dave Camden 1974

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FACTORS RELATED TO THE CONTINUING EDUCATION NEEDS OF A SELECTED GROUP OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA by DAVE CAMDEN WILSON, B.Ed., THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1968 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION (ADULT EDUCATION) in the Faculty of Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard Dean of Graduate School THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1974 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of Brit ish Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Depa rtment The University of Brit ish Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada ABSTRACT FACTORS RELATED TO THE CONTINUING EDUCATION NEEDS OF A SELECTED GROUP OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA DAVE C. WILSON UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1974 The rapidly increasing rate of advancement in the store of tech-nical and sc ient i f i c knowledge has greatly affected the working engineer, not only in Br i t ish Columbia, but throughout the world. This accelera-tion of new technological knowledge has resulted in a serious problem within the engineering profession - that is the erosion (obsolescence) of technical knowledge within the profession due to the diminishing value of once proven methods, and an emergence of new concepts and developments. The engineer is finding that the education he received in the university may not be suff icient to meet his changing needs throughout his working l i fe - t ime . Moreover, the qualif ications of the engineer in today's swiftly advancing technical world are very perishable commodities. There-fore, constant exposure to new advances in science and technology is v i ta l in order to maintain his intel lectual s k i l l s and his job competence; and thus enhance the state-of-the-art in his profession. The purpose of this study was to construct a profi le of the pro-fessional engineer in Br i t ish Columbia, and to determine factors that were related to the nature and extent of his participation in continuing education; his feeling about the need for regular continuing education programs; and whether or not these needs are presently being met. The selected random sample represented 136 of the nearly 5,000 engineers with fu l l registration in the Association of Professional Engineers in the Province of Br i t ish Columbia. The data was collected by means of a per-sonal interview schedule developed especially for a face-to-face exchange i i of information with the respondents. The research design established 327 factors to be used for devel-opment of the engineer's p ro f i le , and 178 factors to be used for cross-tabulation analysis for significant relationships with the 3 selected de-pendent variables. Of the 178 independent variables, 98 were related to the engineer's occupational environment, 20 were personal characterist ics, 43 related to educational experiences, and 17 were geographic factors. The 3 dependent variables were: the engineer's level of participation in continuing education; his feeling about the need for regular continuing education programs; and whether or not these needs are presently being met. The chi square s ta t i s t i c coupled with linear and multiple regres-sion analysis were used to determine s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant re lat ion-ships between the variables. The "typical engineer" was found to be one who: was over 45 years of age, was registered in 1 of 3 major f ie lds ( c i v i l , mechanical, or e lec t r i ca l ) , worked for a company for over 10 years, graduated over 10 years ago, had 3 or more employers, was involved in some supervision of others, was married and l ived in the lower mainland. The "typical par-t icipant" in course work or training programs was a younger man, on a lower salary, with strong encouragement from his company and his spouse to continue his education. There was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant relationship between the 3 dependent variables, indicating no direct connection between the engin-eer's level of participation and his feelings about continuing education. However, independent factors related to a l l 3 dependent variables i n -clude the company policy toward continuing education, his level of sat is -faction with his work, type of job function he performs, his age, income, number of years he has worked as an engineer, his home environment - es-pecially the attitude of his spouse toward his part icipation, year and f ie ld of professional registration, sources of further education he would choose in the future, his attitude toward "technical obsolescence" of knowledge in the engineering profession, the distance to the professional society meetings, and the ava i lab i l i t y of courses in his local area. The engineer's level of participation in continuing education was signif icantly related to 9 occupational factors, 3 personal factors, i i i 8 educational factors and 2 geographic factors. The engineer's feeling about the need for regular continuing edu-cation programs for his specific job function was s ignif icant ly related to 27 occupational factors, 5 personal factors, 11 educational factors and 1 geographic factor. The engineer's feeling toward his continuing education needs presently being met was signif icantly related to 20 occupational factors, 4 personal factors, 8 educational factors and 2 geographic factors. The results of the study indicate a need for further research on the continuing education needs of specific groups of engineers such as engineers in isolated areas, older engineers, and engineers in inter -discipl inary roles, Further study is also needed on the implications of self -directed learning, and the "technical obsolescence" of engineering knowledge in Br i t ish Columbia. It was recommended that better use be made of the vast wealth of technical experience found in the B.C. engin-eering profession. Moreover, a concerted joint effort should be made on the part of the professional association, the educational inst i tut ions , industry, and the government to better serve the continuing education needs of the engineers in Brit ish Columbia. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i i DEDICATION xiv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT xv CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1 Statement of the Problem 1 Purpose of the Study 2 Implications of the Study 2 Setting for the Study 3 Scope and Limitations 3 Research and Design Procedure 4 Definition of Terms 7 Footnotes 9 CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 10 Related Canadian Literature on Continuing Education for Engineers 10 Related American Studies on Continuing Education for Engineers 23 Footnotes 51 CHAPTER II I : A PROFILE OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA . . 55 •Occupational Factors 55 Personal Factors 64 Educational Background 66 Professional Development 66 The Need for Professional Development 73 Future Goals 80 Summary 86 v CHAPTER IV: FACTORS AFFECTING CONTINUING EDUCATION IN ENGINEERING 89 Level of Participation in Continuing Education in the Past Five Years 89 The Engineer's Feeling About the Need for Regular Continuing Education Programs for His Job Function 98 The Engineer's Feeling Toward His Continuing Education Needs Presently Being Met 105 Summary 112 CHAPTER V: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS 115 Summary 115 Conclusions 119 Recommendations 121 Implications 122 BIBLIOGRAPHY. 124 APPENDICES I. LETTERS TO ENGINEERS IN THE SAMPLE 131 PERSONAL INTERVIEW SCHEDULE 134 II. MV TAB UNIVARIATE TABLES FOR CHAPTER III 156 III . MV TAB BIVARIATE CONTINGENCY TABLES RELATED TO THE LEVEL OF PARTICIPATION IN CONTINUING EDUCATION 175 IV. MV TAB BIVARIATE CONTINGENCY TABLES RELATED TO THE . ENGINEER'S FEELING ABOUT THE NEED FOR REGULAR CONTINUING EDUCATION PROGRAMS 187 V. MV TAB BIVARIATE CONTINGENCY TABLES RELATED TO THE ENGINEER'S FEELING THAT HIS CONTINUING EDUCATION NEEDS ARE PRESENTLY BEING MET 197 VI. SIGNIFICANTLY RELATED DEPENDENT AND INDEPENDENT VARIABLES IN THE STUDY 208 vi LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Geographic Location of Sample By Distr ict 5 2. Field of Engineering Registration 5 3. Type of Employment in Engineering 6 4. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Field of Engineering Registration 55 5. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Selected Characteristics 57 6. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Number of Employers Since Starting Work In the Engineering Field . 59 7. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Present Job Function 59 8. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Level of Satisfaction With Work In Present Position 61 9. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Perceived Relevance of Training 62 10. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Specified Working Conditions 63 11. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Selected Personal Characteristics 65 12. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Educational Characteristics 67 13. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Participation in Continuing Education 68 14. Sources of Information Used To Keep Up-to-Date and Abreast of New Engineering Developments 70 15. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Level of Participation in the Professional Engineering Association 72 vi i Table Page 16. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Level of Participation in Organized Social Act iv i t ies 72 17. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Opportunities for Continuing Education Available 74 18. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Perception of Attitude of Employer to Continuing Education 75 19. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Perception of Technical Obsolescence and Need for Continuing Education 77 20. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Reasons for Participating in Continuing Education and Attitude of Spouse 78 21. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Reasons for Not Participating in Continuing Education Programs . . . 79 22. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Perception of the Future 81 23. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Direction of Present Job Function 82 24. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Perceived Need for Continuing Education 84 25. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Degree of Responsibility for Work Performed at Present 157 26. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Degree of Supervision and Leadership Exercised at Present 157 27. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Amount of Supervision Received at Present 158 28. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Their Main Reasons for Dissatisfaction 158 29. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Perceived Ways Continuing Education Could Help Remove Dissatisfaction 159 30. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Perceived Background for a Management (Supervisory) Position . . . 159 vi i i Table Page 31. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Amount of Work Time in Selected Areas 160 32. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Master's Degree. . 160 33. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Year Master's Degree Received 161 34. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Country Where Master's Degree was Received 161 35. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Field of Engineering in Which Master's Degree was Obtained . . . 161 36. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Doctor's Degree. . 162 37. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Degree in a Field Other Than Engineering 162 38. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Current Enrollment for Another Degree or Cert i f icate 162 39. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Future Perceived Enrollment in Engineering or Other Field . . . 163 40. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Correspondence Courses Since 1966 . 163 41. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Number of Correspondence Courses Taken Since 1966 163 42. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Self-Directed Learning Experience Since 1966 . . . . . . 164 43. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Type of Self-Directed Learning 164 44. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Method of Self-Directed Learning 164 45. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Awareness of Course Work Offered at Institutions of Higher or Continuing Education in B.C 165 46. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Distance to Nearest Engineering Society Technical Meeting 166 47. Percentage Distribution of Engineers Allowed to Attend University Courses on Company Time 166 ix Table Page 48. Percentage Distribution of Engineers Whose Company Allows or Encourages Further Courses and Percentage of Tuition Fees Company Pays 166 49. Percentage Distribution of Engineers Whose Rate of Tuition Paid by the Company is Based on the Type of Course Taken 167 50. Percentage Distribution of Engineers Whose Rate of Tuition Fees Paid by the Company is Based on the Type of Course 167 51. Is the Rate of Tuition Paid by Your Company Based on Your Grade in the Course 167 52. Percentage Distribution of Engineers Whose Course Must be Job-Related in Order to Receive Company Assistance 168 53. Company Attitude Toward Engineer in Selected Areas of Continuing Education 169 54. Percentage Distribution of Engineers Who Held Office in Local Association 170 55. Percentage Distribution of Engineers Who Served on Local Committees 170 56. Percentage Distribution of Engineers Who Contributed Art ic les or Papers 170 57. Percentage Distribution of Engineers Who Participated in the Engineering Association at a National Level . . . 171 '58. Percentage Distribution of Engineers' Preferences in Types of Future Continuing Education Courses 171 59. Percentage Distribution of Engineers' Preferences in the Course Time Duration 172 60. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Attitude Towards Communications Between the U.B.C. Continuing Education Department and the Engineer's Awareness of Their Programs 172 x Table Page 61. Percentage Distribution of Engineers' Perceived Attitude Toward Level of D i f f icu l ty in U.B.C. Extension Courses Attended 173 62. Percentage Distribution of Engineers' Classif ication of Engineering Continuing Education Courses at U.B.C. . 173 63. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Type of Program at U.B.C. as Perceived to Meet Personal Needs. . 173 64. Percentage Distribution of Engineers by Perceived Deficiencies in Personal Continuing Education Needs. . . 174 65. Company Conduction of In-House Training 176 66. Company Education Assistance Program 176 67. Rate of Tuition Based on Course Grades 177 68. Employment Status of the Engineer 177 69. Level of Satisfaction with Present Work 178 70. Present Gross Annual Income 178 71. Action of Immediate Supervisor 179 72. Motivation - Company Policy Toward Education 180 73. Attitude of Engineer's Spouse 181 74. Age of the Engineer 182 75. Engineer's Level of Formal Education 182 76. Deficiencies in Continuing Education 183 77. Field of Engineer's Registration 184 78. Sources of Future Continuing Education 185 79. Future Method for Continuing Education 185 80. Future Orientation of Education Courses 186 81. Level of Di f f icul ty of U.B.C. Courses 186 82. Does Company Have an Educational Assistance Program? . . . 188 83. Level of Satisfaction with Present Work 188 84. Motivation: Company Policy Toward Continuing Education. . 189 85. Present Marital Status of the Engineer 189 86. Engineer's Type of Accommodation 190 87. Problem of "Technical Obsolescence" of Knowledge in the Engineering Profession 190 xi Table Page 88. The Problem of Technical Obsolescence in the Engineer's Specific Work Area 191 89. Attitude of Spouse Toward the Engineer's Participation in Continuing Education . . . . 191 90. The Need For a Specific Engineering Background 192 91. Educational Attainment of Spouse 192 92. Awareness of Credit Courses Offered in Your Area 193 93. Level of Course Fees at U.B.C 193 94. Area of Technical Education to Best Fit the Engineer's Personal Need 194 95. Orientation Preferred For a Continuing Education Course . . 194 96. Area of Management Courses to Best Suit Your Personal Needs . 195 97. Self-Directed Learning in Past Five Years 195 98. Participation in Part-Time Credit Courses Toward a Further Degree 196 99. Poss ib i l i ty of Enrolling In a U.B.C. Course in the Future . 196 100. Is Rate of Tuition Paid By the Company Based on Course Grades? . 198 101. Number of Years Worked as an Engineer 198 102. Number of Years With Present Employer 199 103. Classif ication of Engineer's Company 199 104. Gross Annual Income of Engineer 200 105. Field of Engineering of Company 200 106. Service on a Professional Society 201 107. Age of the Engineer 201 108. Management Versus Technical Job Function in Next Ten Years 202 109. Field of Engineering for Professional Registration . . . . 202 110. Year of Professional Registration 203 111. Year of Bachelor's Degree 203 112. Awareness of Credit Courses Offered 204 113. Awareness of General Adult Education Courses 204 114. Type of U.B.C. Program To Best Meet Personal Needs . . . . 205 xi i Table Page 115. Participation In Credit Courses Toward a Further Degree . . 205 116. Orientation of Course Engineers Would Prefer 206 117. Relationship of Course Combining Engineering and Social Sciences Most Interesting to Engineers 206 118. Dist r ic t of the Engineer 207 119. Distance to Professional Engineering Society Meeting . . . 207 xi i i DEDICATION My deepest regret is that the man who was most interested and involved in this study did not l ive to see the finished product. His sincerest desire was to en-hance the state-of - the-art in the Engineering Profession. His loyalty and service to the Engineering Profession in Br i t ish Columbia were second to none. Because of my admiration for this man, whose dedication and enthusiasm were an inspiration to a l l who knew him, I am very proud to dedicate this thesis to the memory of the late Doctor Geoff Matthews. DAVE C. WILSON 1974 xi v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author is deeply indebted to many persons, for without their help this study could never have been done. Dr. John Niemi (Adult Education Department) and the late Dr. Geoff Matthews (Continuing Education Department - Engineering Programs) guided the investigation from i ts inception and their insistence upon the high-est standards of performance of which the author was capable. Their sup-port, encouragement, patience and continual willingness to help are very deeply appreciated. Appreciation is also expressed to Dr. Coolie Verner for much helpful advice, time, assistance, and more important, hope for the study's completion. Imperative to the study was the enthusiasm and financial assis -tance offered by the Association of Professional Engineers of the Province of Br i t ish Columbia, in a sincere effort to better serve the en-gineers of the province. Thanks also to the staff of the Department of Continuing Education - Engineering Programs who did everything in their power to assist in every way. Very much appreciated was the excellent data processing and sta-t i s t i c a l assistance given by Dr. Tony Kozak of the Faculty of Forestry and Mr. Dale Rusnell on the Regression Analysis; and by Miss Robin Russell and the Computing Centre staff on the MV TAB analysis. Their as-sistance was of immeasurable value to the study. I wish to thank a l l of the engineers in the study who so unself-ishly contributed their time and knowledge to assist in making the study a worthwhile endeavor. My deepest appreciation is extended to my family who never fai led to offer encouragement and assistance wherever and whenever possible. xv CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM A relat ively new concept in Canada is the idea of continuing l i fe - long educational programs for those active in the professions. Many professions, noticeably medicine, have carried out extensive research dealing with the continuing education needs of their members, but there i s , in Canada, a dearth of factual information related to the continuing education needs of professional engineers. The importance of sc ient i f i c advancement, changing technology, and the role of the engineer in society as a whole, cannot be over-stressed. Technological innovation has greatly affected the course of man's history for many centuries. The acceleration of technical advance-ment and innovation, often referred to as the "knowledge explosion" has reached a velocity never before achieved in the history of mankind, with the greater acceleration yet to come. Much research has focused on this tremendous growth of technical knowledge, but very l i t t l e on how an i n -dividual can effectively cope with i t . Participants in a Canadian conference on engineering and scien-t i f i c manpower (1956) expressed concern for the development and growth of the engineering profession in Canada when they stated: There is no area in our total economy more v i tal to our future as a nation than the development of the f u l l intel lectual po-tential of our human resources, and especially development of the sc ient i f ic and technological areas of these resources.* Obsolescence of technical knowledge represents a potential prob-lem for members of a l l professions which are grounded in a body of scien-t i f i c and technical knowledge. It is a special problem for the prac-t ic ing professional engineer since he has been considered as a person responsible for finding ways to implement these new sc ient i f ic discover-ies . Rothman (1969) stated that, 1 2 the f ie ld of engineering represents a clear example of an occupation where the threat of obsolescence is high, and where there exists direct and inferential evidence to suggest that actual obsolescence is a widespread phenomena.2 Wiegand (1966) further states of the engineer that: His competence and his value to society have been dependent upon his awareness of -the state of the art in both science and the world of experience.3 Moreover, i t is obvious that an increase, as well as a change, in the fund of knowledge upon which an engineer is expected to draw would have a proportionate effect upon his a b i l i t y to perform his daily assignments. The value of continuing education as a tool to cope with techni-cal obsolescence is beyond doubt, but only i f the needs of the engineers as individuals, as well as a profession, are determined and acted upon. To this end determination of needs, communication, programs, and p a r t i c i -pation are v i ta l factors in enhancing the state of the art of the engin-eering profession in Br i t ish Columbia. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY In Canada, and Br i t ish Columbia in part icular , there is a very obvious void with regard to research on the continuing education needs, participation factors, and the rate of technical obsolescence of prac-t ic ing professional engineers. The purpose of this research study is to assess s ta t i s t i ca l l y those factors related to the extent and magnitude of the problem of tech-nical obsolescence among engineers, their need for continuing education, their feelings about the need for regular programs, and the factors affecting the participation of registered practicing engineers in the Province of Br i t ish Columbia. IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY It would appear that there is a necessity for engineers to con-tinue their education for several reasons. First because the available fund of knowledge is growing quickly and the engineering curricula at U.B.C. is continually changing to absorb and relate this new knowledge. Secondly, because engineers may wish to change their specific job in the same f i e l d , to enter a new f i e l d , or to enter management or administrative 3 positions, continuing education is essential . Knowledge of the factors that affect an engineer's decision to continue his education could be of great value to those in centres for higher education who plan programs for engineers, for industries who run in-service training and for the professional societies who are also deep-ly concerned about the problem. SETTING FOR THE STUDY The engineers that constitute the population for this study are from a geographic area that is the whole of the province of Br i t ish Columbia. For purposes of this study the area has been divided into regions which include: 1. LOWER MAINLAND - Vancouver c i ty and surrounding d is t r ic ts and municipalities including the Fraser Valley represents by far the heaviest grouping of population in the province. The random sample of engineers is composed of 75.74 percent of those in this area. 2. VANCOUVER ISLAND - This area represents the second largest group in the sample - 11.03 percent. 3. OKANAGAN - about 350 miles from the lower mainland. It pre-sents 3.68 percent of the sample. 4. CARIBOU - Also about 350 miles from the lower mainland and accounts for 1.47 percent of the sample. 5. INTERIOR - About 430 miles from the lower mainland with 4.41 percent of the sample from this area. 6. NORTHERN - This region extends up to 800 miles from the lower mainland and is 3.68 percent of sample. The whole geographic area of Br i t ish Columbia is served by the Association of Professional Engineers of the Province of Br i t ish Columbia, with the head off ice in Vancouver. The main source of continuing edu-cation for engineers is the University of Br i t ish Columbia, Centre for Continuing Education - Engineering Programs, also located in Vancouver. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS The random sample of engineers for this study was drawn from a population that included only engineers of fu l l registration status 4 l is ted in the 1970 Directory of the Association of Professional Engineers of the Province of Br i t ish Columbia, thus engineers in training and un-registered engineers were excluded from the study. The study is primarily limited to an investigation of factors re-lated to the continuing education needs of B.C. engineers including their feeling about the need for regular continuing education programs and factors related to their part icipation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURE This study is an analytical and descriptive survey u t i l i z ing a structured interview schedule to col lect pertinent data. Population The population for the study includes only registered pro-fessional engineers who are currently members of the Association of Professional Engineers in the Province of Br i t ish Columbia. The 1970 B.C. Society Directory consisted of 4,569 engineers with fu l l regis-t rat ion. This population was restricted further by the following c r i -terion: They must be: (a) Resident in Br i t ish Columbia in 1971. (b) Employed in Br i t ish Columbia in 1971. (c) In fulf i l lment of the definit ion of a "working Engineer" as outlined in the engineering interview form (appendix I,p.135). Selection of Sample A three percent sample of 138 engineers was determined to be suff ic ient ly representative of the population for purposes of this re-search. A random sample was drawn from the population with no concern for factors such as area, f ie ld of engineering, or employment. In addition to the sample of 138, a total of 48 alternates were drawn. During the interim between the selection of the sample and the time of f i r s t contact, i t was discovered that 22 had either ret i red, died, lef t engineering, or had moved without leaving a forwarding address. Twenty-two names were therefore added to the sample from the l i s t of alternates. During the course of the personal interviewing i t was learned that one 5 further engineer had died and that one engineer would not respond to the study. Thus the f inal number for the study was 136 engineers. With regard to geographic and engineering f ie ld factors, the sample breaks down as follows: TABLE 1 GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION OF SAMPLE BY DISTRICT DISTRICT NUMBER PERCENT 1. LOWER MAINLAND 103 75.74 2. VANCOUVER ISLAND 15 11.03 3. OKANAGAN 5 3.68 4. CARIBOU 2 1.47 5. INTERIOR 6 2.21 6. NORTHERN B..C. 5 3.68 TOTAL 136 100.00 TABLE 2 FIELD OF ENGINEERING REGISTRATION FIELD NUMBER PERCENT 1. CIVIL 42 30.88 2. MECHANICAL 36 26.47 3. ELECTRICAL 27 19.85 4. CHEMICAL 4 2.94 5. METALLURGICAL (MINING) 10 7.35 6. MARINE (NAVAL) 0 0.00 7. FORESTRY 3 2.21 8. STRUCTURAL 8 5.88 9. GEOLOGICAL 6 4.41 TOTAL 136 100.00 6 TABLE 3 TYPE OF EMPLOYMENT IN ENGINEERING TYPE NUMBER PERCENT 1. SELF-EMPLOYED 13 9.56 2. PARTNERSHIP 10 7.35 3. WORK FOR EMPLOYER 105 77.21 4. OTHER (EDUCATION, ETC.) 8 5.88 TOTAL 136 100.00 The Personal Interview Schedule The personal interview schedule (Appendix I) used for this study was divided into sections devoted to gathering information about four groups of variables. The design of the instrument was oriented to ob-jective responses wherever possible, with ample space provided for per-sonal comments and suggestions. A further consideration was compatibility with previous research in an effort to obtain valid comparisons. The only "standardized" scale used in the instrument design was the Chapin Social Participation Scale . 4 The f i r s t draft of the interview schedule was pre-tested on five engineers who were part of the total population but not in the f inal sample. As a result of the pre-test some modifications and deletions were made in the preparation of the f inal draft . Data Collection The respondents were contacted by telephone and a personal inter -view arranged at their convenience during August and September, 1971. In the few cases where no contact could be made, or the engineer fai led to meet the requirements of the study, alternates were substituted. Data Analysis The data from the interview schedules was coded, edited, and key punched on computer cards. A l l data analysis was conducted using the f a c i l i t i e s of the Computing Centre at the University of Br i t ish Columbia. Types of analysis used in this study include: (1) REGRESSION ANALYSIS - FORTRAN IV PROGRAM5 Forty-nine parametric items were analyzed and tested for s ta t i s t i ca l l y signif icant differences using the Fortran program. The data was tested in two ways: (a) Simple Linear Regression: To find simple l inear correlation coeff ic ients. (b) Multiple Regression: To find multiple coefficients of determination (R2) using the variance ratio (F). (2) REGRESSION ANALYSIS - U.B.C. TRIP PROGRAM6 Forty-nine parametric items were analyzed and tested for s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant differences using the U.B.C. TRIP-Triangular Regression Package. Means, standard deviations and correlation coefficients were produced using TRIP-INMSDC. Simple l inear regression equations of the form y = a + bx were produced using TRIP-SIMREG. (3) MULTIVARIATE CONTINGENCY TABULATIONS: UBC-MVTAB PROGRAM7 One hundred sixty-eight non-parametric items were analyzed and tested using the Standard MVTAB program. The analysis consisted of univariate and bivariate frequency distribution tables tested by chi square, Chi prob., and Guttman's Lambda for s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant differences in the d i s t r i -butions of respondents by selected characteristics. Yates correction (collapsed tables) was applied where necessary. Percentage frequency distributions were also calculated for a l l tables. These tables show the relationships significant at the .05 level between the dependent and independent variables of this study. DEFINITION OF TERMS Since the major objective of this study is the discovery of factors related to the continuing education needs of working professional engineers, the related terms are defined as follows: Participation For purposes of this study participation is an act iv i ty in one of 8 three forms of continuing learning situations: (a) course work (formal, in -serv ice, or correspondence). (b) professional a c t i v i t i e s . (c) reading and self -directed learning. Company The term "company" was used in this study to indicate the organ-ization in which the respondent was employed, including private business, governmental agencies, educational inst i tut ions, and other organizations. This is opposed to self-employed or partnership in engineering. Credit Course A credit course is one for which recognition is given by a spon-soring body toward completion of a degree or diploma program in engineer-ing. Such a course would be one of a specified series such as is offered by some university extension programs. Non-Credit Course A course for which no formal recognition is given by the sponsor-ing body toward any specific degree or diploma program. Technical Course A technical course is a specialized or general engineering course composed of related science or mathematic elements designed to enhance an engineer's role in an engineering job function through sc ient i f ic advance-ment. Liberal Arts Course A l iberal arts course is non-technical in nature involving the humanities and social sciences. They could be related to engineering but not in a "sc ient i f i c" dimension. Management Course A course composed of technical or l iberal ar ts , elements, or both, oriented toward a person in (or entering) a supervisory or administrative position. A course usually geared to the effective use of men, materials and methods in engineering systems. In-House (In-Service) Course A course sponsored by a company usually for the benefit of im-9 proving its employee's specific job function. The course is mainly oriented toward company policy and procedure, and for the benefit of that company only. Technical Obsolescence The degree to which most engineers, including recent graduates, are unable to cope with new scientific or engineering developments or with the increased formalism of advanced technical subject matter. FOOTNOTES ^Proceedings of a National Conference on Engineering, Scientific,  and Technical Manpower (St. Andrews by the Sea, N . B T : the Conference, 1 9 5 6 ) , pp. 1 - 2 . 2 Robert A. Rothman, Knowledge Obsolescence Among Professionals:  A Study of Career, Personal, and Organizational Factors Related to  Technical Obsolescence Among Engineers. (Doctoral dissertation, Purdue University.) Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1 9 6 9 , p. 3 . 3 Richard Wiegand, Factors Related to Participation in Continuing  Education Among a Selected Group of Graduate Engineers. (Doctoral dis-sertation, The Florida State University.) Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1 9 6 6 , p. 1 . 4 F. S. Chapin, Experimental Designs in Sociological Research. New York: Harper Brothers, 1 9 5 5 . 5 J . L. Leigh, U.B.C. Fortran: IBM Fortran IV (G) Compiler. Vancouver: The University of British Columbia, Computing Centre, Dec, 1 9 7 2 . 6James H. Bjerring and Paul Seagreaves, U.B.C. Trip: Triangular  Regression Package. Vancouver: The University of British Columbia, Computing Centre, February, 1 9 7 2 . 7 J . Bjerring, S. Boyer, J . Campbell and G. Starkey, U.B.C. MVTAB: Mul ti vari ate Conti ngency Tabulati ons. Vancouver: The University of British Columbia, Computing Centre, October, 1 9 7 0 ; and Robin Russell, U.B.C. MVTAB: Update Manual, July, 1 9 7 2 . CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE There has been a growing awareness of the necessity for an en-gineer to continue his education but this increased awareness has not yet been reflected in analytical research carried out in Canada focused on the need for and participation in continuing education for engineers. There also appears to be a lack of information on continuing education needs of engineers and why those who participated had done so. The majority of the research oh such matters stems from the United States. The studies thus far conducted into continuing education needs of engineers have been largely specif ic studies designed to identify immediate problems and areas of concern regarding the state of the art in the engineering pro-fession. RELATED CANADIAN STUDIES ON CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR ENGINEERS During the last six years some effort has been put forth in Canada in an attempt to enhance the state of the art in professional en-gineering through continuing education programs. Most ef forts , however, have been rather superficial and lacking in factual descriptive and analytical data. Some of the more noteworthy contributions wi l l be br ief ly described. A seminar on continuing education for engineers was held at the University of Br i t ish Columbia.* The purpose of the seminar was to ascertain the position of continuing education for engineers in B.C., both at the universities and elsewhere. A further purpose was an effort to obtain a good deal more evidence upon which to plan for continuing education of engineers a l l over B.C. The underlying problem facing the seminar was summed up by Dean W. M. Armstrong, Faculty of Applied Science - U.B.C. and President, Canadian Council of Professional Engineers, when he stated that: 10 11 . . . because of the complexity of modern engineering, the voluminous technical l i terature , and other demands on our spare time, i t is increasingly apparent that an unprogrammed, casual effort at self-education is neither rea l i s t i c or ade-quate. Further problems facing the seminar members included the large time gap between formal university training and continuing education courses; the technical obsolescence of an engineer's knowledge, in that half of his knowledge wi l l be obsolete in ten years, plus half the know-ledge he wi l l need to know in ten years hasn't been discovered yet; and the problem of more co-ordination between employers, professional societ ies, university extension, and the university engineering depart-ments. The seminar brought to l ight some interesting points: 1. A l l companies contacted expressed some concern for the continuing education of engineers in their employ, although the extent of their concern varied widely. 2. No company seemed to have a formal policy for continuing education. 3. Decisions are usually based on the particular needs of a company at any given period of time. 4. Companies generally pay between 50 - 100 per cent of the employees' tuit ion fees. 5. Only in a few cases was an extended leave of absence for education granted. 6. From. 25 to 75 per cent of the employees in the larger companies in B.C. take some form of extra training courses on an irregular basis. 7. Some companies send employees outside of B.C. for training courses, particularly management oriented courses. 8. A very limited number of courses are offered by universities in B.C., and very few of these courses are offered outside of the Vancouver area. 9. The U.B.C. Extension Department is concerned mainly with management development programs, and about half of these have been in the com-puter f i e l d . 10. The engineering societies (E.I.C.) have conducted a limited program of education mainly of the "lecture series" type. 12 11. There are varying degrees of commitment to continuing education ex-pressed by the societies across Canada. 12. Professor R. E. Chant, Head, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Manitoba and Chairman, National Committee on Continuing Education, Engineering Institute of Canada, stated that, "Most groups that have studied the problem believe the existing methods are i n -adequate and certainly are in need of organization." 13. In Western Canada the E.I.C. has experienced success with a series of technical development programs comprised of intense short courses of three or four days duration. 14. Evening courses are not considered too suitable since the engineers are too busy to give up the time. 15. The use of correspondence courses are useful but not suitable for many advanced courses. 16. It is necessary to send many employees to the U.S. to get proper training and information. 17. Many potential employees refuse work in B.C. due to the lack of formal continuing education programs available. 18. A Master of Engineering program should be made available on a part-time basis for working engineers. 19. Graduate credit should be granted for research done in industry as well as on-campus work. 20. Professional societies must become more involved in education. 21. More effort must be made to study the development of continuing education for engineers in the U.S. 22. Progress in national development is directly related to advances in education. 23. No one has a monopoly in the f i e l d of continuing education, but rather, a l l should pool their resources to explore and promote con-tinuing education to benefit the greatest number and to insure a high degree of program quality. 2 In 1966 Dickinson summed up the need for continuing education programs for engineers in B.C. when he stated that: "In this period of rapid technological change i t is necessary for business and industrial workers to be constantly learning new techniques and processes." He 13 further claims that this need is beginning to be perceived by engineering societies across Canada, and that programs for engineers are being de-veloped. Although there has been considerable act iv i ty in continuing, education for engineers in B.C. since 1963, there has been no systematic development. Programs have been developed to meet immediate and specific needs but there is no planning to meet long-term needs. Only two of the sixty programs were offered outside of the Vancouver area. It appears that engineers in other parts of B.C. are not being adequately served. Some of the findings of the study include: 1. In 1966 there were sixty programs established. Of these programs, 36.6 per cent were technically oriented and 63.3 per cent were mana-gerial oriented. 2. Eight technical and thi r ty managerial programs consisted of a series of weekly meetings. 3. Seven programs of each were one to three day seminars. 4. Seven technical and one managerial program lasted for a week or more ( fu l l - t ime) . 5. Seventy-five per cent of the programs were sponsored by one agency. 6. Eighty per cent of these programs were conducted by the U.B.C. Extension Department. 7. None of the programs with a single sponsor were offered by engineer-ing firms. 8. The Engineering Faculty at U.B.C. sponsored three programs. 9. The Engineering Faculty at U.B.C. was involved in a l l f i fteen jo int ly sponsored programs. 10. The U.B.C. Extension Department was involved in ten of the jo int ly sponsored programs. 11. The Professional Engineering Society sponsored six programs and jo int ly sponsored eight of the f i f teen. 12. Twelve of the twenty-two technical programs were jo int ly sponsored, while only three of the forty-eight managerial programs were jo int ly sponsored. One of the few concerted efforts to study the engineering pro-3 fession in Canada was made by Gross. This study was concerned with en-gineers in the Canadian labour force, engineering education in the 14 universit ies, employment patterns, mobility patterns, and incomes, rather than continuing education needs of Canadian engineers. Since advanced education is a prime form of continuing education his findings are relevant to current trends in further education programs in Canada. He states that there is a very high, s ta t i s t i ca l l y significant relationship "between academic performance in the undergraduate years and enrollment in graduate school on a fu l l - t ime or part-time basis". He further claims that: "Those who achieved class I honors are more l ike ly to undertake advanced studies than those who did not." He also points out that an increasing percentage of top students go to graduate school, with 80 per cent for the 1954 group compared to 91 per cent for the 1964 group surveyed. Reasons for the increasing trend are, in part, due to more financial aid avai lable, status, increased complexity of the various engineering f i e l d s , better job opportunities, and higher salaries a v a i l -able. A further point is that about 75 per cent of the engineers who had entered graduate work with class I honors did so at Canadian universit ies. The same percentage of class II and class III students remained in Canada. The hypothesis that "bright students especially tend to leave Canada seek-ing graduate education elsewhere is not sustained". With regard to continuing education programs for engineers, tech-nical and managerial preparation are the two most l i ke l y programs which an engineer wi l l enter. He wi l l take technical courses due to a concern for technical obsolescence and for professional advancement and wi l l take managerial courses due to a lack of business courses in his undergraduate work coupled with the presence of managerial aspirations. About 77 per cent of the 1954 and 1959 group have not taken a single non-credit con-tinuing education course and 89 per cent of the 1964 group had not taken a course. Very few persons of any group had taken three or more courses. With regard to sponsorship of continuing education courses, 50 per cent were undertaken by a university, and 30 per cent were employer sponsored. The remaining 20 per cent were sponsored by professional societies, technical groups, correspondence schools, governments, and non-employer business organizations; with each playing a negligible role. The duration of courses ranged from two weeks to eight months; in inten-s i t y , they varied from one hour to forty hours per week. Both those 15 engineers who enter graduate school and those who do not, undertake non-credit continuing education courses to the same extent. Those who did not study for an advanced technical degree have undertaken non-degree managerial courses to a s ignif icant ly larger extent than those who did enter graduate school in engineering and science f ie lds . Moreover, "a decided preference exists for degree programs over non-degree training". Of 819 respondents, 32 per cent entered a program leading to an advanced degree, while only 17 per cent had taken at least one non-credit technical course and 13 per cent at least one non-credit business subject. "The pursuit of an advanced degree seems to carry more challenge, reward and status than the taking of non-credit courses." Gross sums up the continuing education characteristics of his sample by stating: Respondents who entered graduate school and those who did not were found to have the same enrollment rate in non-degree technical programs. This represents two levels of ambition. The former group, is especially eager to complement graduate work with some additional technical t ra ining; men in this category are l ike l y to choose high-level technical careers in research or education. The lat ter group wanted to compensate for lack of graduate t raining; i t actively sought to avoid technical obsolescence. Such persons are apt to hold technical jobs in industry in which they feel challenged. Of these two groups, the former is especially unlikely to seek non-degree managerial t ra ining, because i t appears to be un-needed at this time for a high-level technical career. With regard to in-service training about 48 per cent of a l l re-spondents received very short or no training in their f i r s t job. Twenty-one per cent had training experience lasting from one to six months. On the basis of this study more intermediate term training programs were recommended (from one to six months). A further finding is that contin-uing education is pursued generally by those who are employed in engineer-ing f ie lds where there is rapid technological change. Five major findings of the study in Canada were as follows: 1. The presence of a f lex ible labor market in Canada in which graduates can and do move across occupational, industr ia l , functional, and geo-graphic boundaries. 2. Increasingly f lexible engineering curr icula, in tune with the needs of individuals and industry. 16 3. A favorable economic situation characterized by relat ively high and r ising engineering salar ies. 4. A relative lack of French-Canadians involved in continuing education programs. 5. Many respondents report relat ively low levels of u t i l i za t ion and satisfaction in their job assignments. 4 Matthews reported on the Diploma program for Br i t ish Columbia Engineers established in the f a l l of 1966 at the University of Br i t ish Columbia. He contends that the growth rate of participation of engineers in the courses is indicative of the favorable change in attitude of en-gineers towards the importance of formal continuing engineering courses. The following table is presented: NO. COURSES PERSONS NO. COMPANIES YEAR OFFERED ATTENDING REPRESENTED 1966 6 391 153 1967 14 781 252 1968 42 1,561 366 He describes the course as follows: Cr i ter ia for the award of Diplomas in Engineering as approved by the Senate and the Board of Governors of the University of Br i t ish Columbia: 1. Candidates for a Diploma program must possess a bachelor's degree in engineering or acceptable equivalent, or be a registered member of the engineering profession. 2. Specific policy governing the curriculum and instruction for each Diploma Program wi l l be established by a Diploma Program Policy Committee. 3. Each program wi l l be approximately equivalent to 12 units of course work. 4. The course work wi l l be at the senior undergraduate or graduate level . 5. Satisfactory completion of each course wi l l be determined by examina-tion or other form of test . 6. The Diplomas do not form part of a degree program in engineering, and Diploma credit cannot be transferred to a degree program. 17 The Diploma in Administration for Engineers is the f i r s t to be developed. The curriculum consists of a set of core courses, which com-prise approximately half of the total number of courses offered plus specified courses which enable individuals to lean more towards either quantitative aspects of administrative decision making or the qualitative. 5 Crouch discusses the advantages of formal education as opposed to self study. He brings out the following points: 1. The engineer's time and effort can be used more effectively i f they u t i l i ze the special ists ' guidance. It is the specia l is t 's job to s i f t through the mass of books and periodicals to evaluate i t and determine what should be transmitted to the engineer. 2. Formal courses force the engineer to be committed to a schedule. A self-study schedule is easily avoided. 3. Formal course work challenges the engineer through involvement in situations where he meets new ideas and has to re-examine his own point of view. It "prevents the individual from subsiding into a comfortable rut". He also points out that: The engineer who wishes to achieve wi l l take advantage of the opportunities provided, while the one who does not care is l i ke l y to settle into a rut because i t is d i f f i c u l t to prevent a man from doing what he is inclined to do. Murray** regards continuing education as the catalyst between en-gineers and technological change. He sees the profession consisting of the educator, the educationalist, the researcher, and the practising en-gineer. Each section is divided into three groups: the manager, the supervisor and the executor. There is a difference of interests among the groups and "The Continuing Education process must cater to these interests in a manner which recognizes their importance". Therefore, he discusses continuing education programs in terms of each group: 1. The interests of the Management Group are served mostly by an evening lecture level where people are exposed to new techniques or new materials. 2. The interests of the Supervisor Group ca l l for intensive week-end seminars and courses in greater depth, or a one week course away from the distractions of work and family. 18 3. The interests of the Executor Group ca l l for intensive weekly lectures often of two term duration as established by University Graduate Departments. He indicates that because the Executor Group is being handled well by engineering schools, the efforts of continuing education should be directed to Management and Supervisor Groups. One example of the advantage of continuing education is that of the engineering manager who turns down a new technique because he doesn't understand i t , and remarks " . . . continuing education would make this unnecessary". It is necessary to establish the idea that continuing education is part of being professional and to this end i t is necessary to bombard every organization and publication with advertising to this effect. In respect to the financial aspect of continuing education courses Murray points out that: . . . an engineering education which costs $10,000 is returning between $7,000 and $25,000 per year. The expenditure of say $120 per year to maintain such an,investment is one which would be recommended by any financier especially when the expense is deductible for income tax purposes. The ar t ic le concludes with the warning: The day may not be far off when the engineer may lose his qual i -f ied status i f he has not continued his education to keep abreast of modern developments. Govier^ stresses that the main responsibil ity for avoiding tech-nical obsolescence l ies with the individual because his career depends upon his professional competence. In return for his services, the en-gineer expects opportunities and good remuneration. . . . He should obtain help from the professional and the tech-nical association which are his agents; he may expect help from the universities because of his importance to society; and he may expect help from industry because of industry's dependence on his knowledge and s k i l l . He outlines and discusses what the individual should do to avoid technical obsolescence: A. He must have a serious program and he must be prepared to spend time 19 and money on i t . He agrees with Dean Stelson that twelve or more hours a week are in order. B. Each individual must design his own program because i t depends on his interests, his job and what he wants from his career. This program must include: 1. Membership and active participation in at least two professional or technical associations. 2. Subscription to and serious reading of at least two technical journals. 3. Continual expansion and reading of the individual 's personal tech-nical l ibrary . 4. Attendance at refresher courses offered by his associations, com-pany, universities and inst i tutes. 5. Read widely and attend lectures and short courses on non-technical Dr. Govier, in contrast to much of the other l i terature reviewed in this chapter, stresses the importance of courses in the humanities. An understanding of history, philosophy, human relations and of social trends is important to him. Music, art and theatre also aid him in the d i f f i c u l t task of understanding man. 8 The Opinion Questionnaire was prepared by the Public Relations Committee Policy Subcommittee of the Association of Professional Engineers as part of the analysis stage of the program to achieve a policy. Four thousand three hundred questionnaires were forwarded to fu l l members of the Association resident in B.C. and a 52.33 per cent return was received. This return reflects the opinions of the interested members only. subjects. Some of the results pertinent to this study are as follows: Of the members who responded to the opinion questionnaire, 71.91 per cent were from Vancouver. Highest earned engineering degree: Bachelor Masters Doctorate 76.58 11.26 2.72 5.03 3.34 1.06 Other None Error 20 Present Studies: M.A. 0.13 M.Sc. 0.31 M.B.A. 1.65 Ph.D. 0.53 Engineering non-degree 6.95 Other degree 0.67 Other courses 21.10 None 62.11 Error 6.54 Which one major factor would most contribute to your changing your job? Pay 12.78 Responsibility 9.31 Location 6.19 Type of work 18.83 Security 1.11 Poor physical working conditions 0.36 Poor employer/employee relations 12.78 Opportunity for advancement 25.69 Other 6.06 Error 6.90 By which single means could your Branch encourage greater at -tendance at meetings? More interesting speakers 39.98 More discussion of SPEBC affairs 9.13 More social meetings 9.04 More technical meetings 17.76 Fewer meetings 4.36 Error 19.72 Do you feel that individual professional engineers are highly regarded by: Probably Definitely Definitely Probably Neutral Not Not Error a. The General Public 16.61 33.04 22.97 19.28 4.54 3.56 b. Other Professional Engineers 22.97 38.96 24.40 7.08 2.18 4.41 c. Other Professions 11.13 37.04 25.96 17.10 4.01 4.76 d. Governments 11.49 30.77 27.16 17.32 7.75 5.12 e. Clients using Engineering Services 28.36 46.97 13.71 4.76 1.07 5.12 f. Industrial Employees 14.56 37.98 25.96 12.15 3.25 5.74 g- Consultant Employers 25.78 37.40 17.76 9.13 3.61 6.32 Strongly Strongly Agree Agree Neutral Disagree Disagree Error I am interested in continuing my technical education 22 .89 48. .89 20. .44 3 .87 1. .07 2, .85 There are suitable courses available to continue my education 7 .17 48, .35 16. .03 19 .01 5. .52 3, .92 The Association should be more actively involved in promoting the ava i lab i l i t y of such courses for i ts members 21 .68 44, .03 23. .60 5 .30 1, .47 3. ,92 I am adequately compensated for the amount of work 6 .28 35. .93 19. .15 26 .22 8, .50 3, ,92 My job is challenging 30 .81 45. .68 12. .82 5 .25 2. .32 3. ,12 My s k i l l s as an engineer are being ut i l i zed adequately in my present job 12 .82 39. .27 18. .30 20 .44 5. ,74 3. ,42 The Association should provide more opportunities for members to meet each other 6 .99 26. .76 46, ,57 13 .71 1. ,91 4, .05 The APEBC should be actively involved with the university education of engineers 32, .41 46. .79 11. ,31 4 .19 1. ,87 3. ,43 I am actively looking for a better job 5. .74 10. .77 25. .73 29 .61 22, ,48 5. ,65 22 g Myers c r i t i c i zes the Canadian student for not having the sp i r i t of competition nor the urge toward scholarly dist inction as has the stu-dent in the United States. Canadians seem to be satisf ied to just get by, whereas in the United States there is a strong element reaching for master's and doctor's degrees. With regard to engineering education he states: I think that the 'aids and gimmicks' aspect of engineering education (such as drawing) has been and s t i l l i s , overdone at the expense of mathematics and physics. Myers feels strongly that engineers should leave a l l sociology, ar t , humanities, etc. to the proper people who are trained to handle i t . He is a firm believer in pure disc ipl ine study with very l i t t l e integra-tion of other d isc ip l ines. In Myers' opinion, Canadian industry w i l l continue to remain stagnant as long as the universities continue to turn out the traditional type of engineering graduate. Canada needs more s c i e n t i f i c , rather than technical , types of engineers and more engineers with advanced degrees. He found the Canadian engineer to be what he regards as a technician, and one probably not as well equipped for professional engineering work as the technician graduate who gets a diploma, not a degree, from institutes of technology. He claims that so long as industry refuses to acknowledge that what they really need are technical graduates and not graduate en-gineers, i t wi l l be d i f f i c u l t for universities to upgrade their courses. Too many so called "professional" engineers are doing only technician's work in Canada. The author makes the following recommendations for improving the Canadian scene: 1 . De-emphasize practical training in the university. 2. Stress more mathematics and physics. 3. Reduce the amount of arts and humanities. 4. Practical training should be le f t to industry. 5. A good compromise for training engineers is cooperative education. The student alternates periods of normal on-campus study in the uni -versity with equal periods of off-campus training in industry. 6. Establish a l iaison between students and industry by means of a 23 co-ordination department staffed by senior professional engineers. The fact that the Association of Professional Engineers in Br i t ish Columbia does not recognize the Engineering Physics graduate as an accept-able engineer, yet does recognize a l l other engineering graduates seems to indicate that they refuse to accept the more mathematically and scien-t i f i c a l l y oriented graduate. RELATED AMERICAN STUDIES ON CONTINUING EDUCATION FOR ENGINEERS Engineering Education: A Joint Effort The majority of the American l i terature reviewed for this study indicates that since World War II the problem of obsolescence of the en-gineer has become c r i t i c a l . Universit ies, industry and professional associations are. attempting to encourage and help the engineer to confront this problem through continuing education programs, but these groups appear to have doubts regarding the effectiveness of their programs in meeting the problem. Their d i f f i c u l t i e s in organizing and presenting new technologies and the apparent apathetic attitude of the engineers is d is -couraging. The Joint Advisory Committee10 established in March of 1964 under the chairmanship of Dr. Ernst Weber, President of the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn made the recommendation that: In the planning, industry and government should work closely with universities in order to evolve the most effective programs. Academic institutions should provide the leadership because they have the experience at developing and presenting course materials; indus-try should take the in i t ia t i ve and responsibil ity because: It is the engineers, particularly those with advanced training, that carry most of the responsibil ity for progress in the growth of industries. 1 The federal government, as a prime user of engineering resources, should increase awareness of continuing engineering study opportunities as well as make funds available to provide federally employed engineers with the means for technical self-renewal. 24 The committee also fe l t that Societies can contribute very s ig -nif icantly by u t i l i z ing their unique channels of communication directly to the engineer even though their voluntary nature " . . . makes the effectiveness of many actions rather nebulous". 12 The Working Group also supports the view that the problem of continuing education is not the sole responsibil ity of one group or i n -s t i tu t ion , but rather, i t is a national problem of wider dimensions. The Role of the Universities The role the universities must play in the continuing education of 13 engineers is established by Dubin and Marlow , who state: Practicing engineers can learn from many sources and many ex-periences, but educational institutions have t radit ional ly been looked to as sources of additional knowledge. 14 Brown is even more specific in stating the responsibil ity of the university in participating in continuing education programs: In the decades ahead the universities must play a continually greater role in furnishing programs for this updating of edu-cation and for setting standards of excellence. The universities have accepted the responsibil ity for part icipa-ting in continuing education without question. Their main concern has been that of providing courses which wi l l meet the needs and interests of engineers in confronting the obsolescence problem in spite of the con-tentious obstacles they face in doing so. Much of the l i terature reviewed has been studies of various as-15 pects of the continuing education program and i ts participants . Several of these studies reinforce the view that co-operation among universit ies, industry, government and professional associations is the only effective way to establish continuing education programs. Constance^ states: The educational atmosphere which the universities and colleges can offer is d i f f i c u l t to reproduce in industry. This atmos-phere can contribute heavily to the professional development of young engineers therefore industry and education must bear the joint responsibility for the advancement of the engineering pro-fession as a whole. 25 Knowles^also recognizes this theory: The importance of developing a close t ie with industry cannot be overemphasized i f one is to operate a successful continuing education program. 18 Raudsepp Research Inc. also recognizes the importance of the con-cept of a unified effort . "The university must establish better l iaison with industry." Problems in Providing Courses Faculty. - The universities grapple with problems of obsolescence among staf f , obsolescence of the courses themselves, attitudes of staf f , attitudes of engineers part ic ipating, and financial problems. Brown notes that teaching at the doctoral l eve l , conducting advanced research, and supervising doctoral theses are tasks cal l ing for a b i l i t i e s that are in short supply. As the number of graduate students is increased to meet the needs, the colleges themselves wi l l need more men qualif ied to teach. Moreover, there is s t i l l competition between industries and colleges for 19 the services of engineers with advanced degrees. Fleming points out that the time of senior faculty people is a limited resource that cannot be divided indef ini te ly : Can the faculty be expected to handle assignments of undergraduate teaching, graduate teaching, research, as well as the obsolescence problem? Does the university recruit a whole new staff to face this problem, and i f so, who wi l l pory\for i t , where wi l l they be recruited from? 20 Morris , a member of the University of California Engineering Advisory Council states that many engineering professors are already being pushed in their efforts to handle the regular day students with l i t t l e time or energy le f t over for evening classes. He suggests courses are needed which wi l l take advantage of the course and lecture preparation a l -ready completed by the day faculty members. Other suggested solutions come from Fleming who advises universi-ties to offer a sabbatical year for their faculty to up-date their own knowledge and Knowles who says faculty must be drawn from industry where possible and use these people to present lectures using modern techno-logical innovations such as video tapes to reach areas where there are no 26 colleges or universities to provide continuing education. The attitudes of faculty involved in continuing education are d is -cussed by Knowles. He says that faculty members who have had no contact with evening students tend to consider the part-time student of lesser capabil i t ies than his day-time counterpart. Those who have participated have been favorably impressed by these students. The faculty must realize that continuing education courses require an entirely different orienta-t ion : Evening students constitute a far more sophisticated student body - a student body for which the latest technological advances are a l l in a day's work. Evening students are also motivated differently and have economic goals as well as being forced to undertake a continuing education program to keep abreast of the times. In other words, motivation is job-related. Courses. - Getting practicing engineers to participate in courses has been a major problem and for this reason surveys have been made to identify their needs for specific course work in the hope i t wi l l give universities some direction in planning courses. 21 Kanun, in evaluating the Graduate Professional Improvement Program, involved professional workers in the f ie lds of agriculture and agricultural education such as extension personnel, agricultural teachers, home economics teachers, forestry personnel and professional employees in business and industry. She found that the method for professional improvement preferred by 54.6 per cent of the professional workers was off-campus graduate level courses. Fi f ty per cent were already registered in degree credit courses. Sixty-four per cent would register in non-credit courses and 67 per cent would register in "cert i f icate only" courses should these types of courses be offered in future. Eighty-two per cent of those workers involved in the study pre-ferred evening courses and 30.6 per cent were wi l l ing to travel up to f i f t y miles to attend these courses; 43.5% expected the courses to be practical ly and immediately relevant to their jobs. Raudsepp surveyed one thousand engineers in an effort to learn how engineers feel about technical obsolescence and what they are doing about 27 i t . He grouped the respondents into two groups: non-supervisory engin-eers and engineers in supervisory-management positions. In answer to the question: "If you feel you are not completely up to date in certain areas, have you taken any steps to do something about i t ? " , 66 per cent of the engineers and 62 per cent of the managers answered "yes". It is interest-ing to note here that in discussion of methods used to keep up to date, by far the largest group of engineers (28 per cent) . . . claim that their method of keeping up to date is through reading technical a r t i c les , papers and special textbooks. Other methods of keeping up to date were indicated by the en-gineers : 1. 15 per cent of the engineers surveyed take special advanced courses at local universit ies. (Mathematics, electronics, transistors, met-allurgy and computer programming. 2. Night school extension evening courses for non-credit are ut i l i zed by 11 per cent of the engineers. 3. 8 per cent of the engineers take advantage of company training or refresher courses. 4. 6 per cent of the engineers surveyed are studying for an advanced degree and 4 per cent indicated they had "gone back to school". 5. 5 per cent are enrolled in short periodic seminars. 6. 2 per cent are taking correspondence courses. Supervisors and Management: 1. 32 per cent claim that reading helps to keep them up to date (tech-nical journals mainly). 2. Almost 50 per cent of the above group engage in a program of se l f -education at home. 3. 12 per cent take specialized, supplementary or refresher courses at a college or university. 4. Evening session refresher courses are taken by 6 per cent. 5. 6 per cent take advantage of company sponsored in-plant courses. 6. 3 per cent make use of university extension courses. 7. 2 per cent are working toward an advanced degree. 8. 2 per cent contemplate a "back to school" movement. 28 9. Other methods used by 6 per cent include: a. reading reports, serving on committees concerned with present-day problems; b. obtaining l i terature and professional help in new methods and trends; c. consulting with experts in the f i e ld for information and l i t -erature; d. studying published data or talking to special ists in each area; e. attending development conferences sponsored by the universities to keep executives up to date on latest developments. Ideas on updating courses were as follows: 1. 14 per cent of the engineers and 17 per cent of the supervisory-management group fe l t that their present programs are adequate. 2. 33 per cent of the engineers fe l t that there was a need for more technical courses. 3. 6 per cent wanted state-of -art advances. 4. 4 per cent wanted lecturers and guest speakers (experts). 5. 4 per cent wanted economics and related math. 6. 30 per cent wanted a variety of miscellaneous programs. The supervisor managers wanted 31 per cent special technical cour-ses, 18 per cent wanted management courses and 10 per cent wanted s ta t i s -t i cs and related mathematics. Katz, l ike Kanun, found that continuing education studies should be relevant to the engineer's job and in addition, suggested that they should meet other more personal needs. He makes the following sugges-tions : 1. Classes should take place between 4:00 P.M. and 9:15 P.M. Mondays through Thursdays, scheduled to suit the instructor's ava i lab i l i t y . The premium times are 5:00 P.M. to 7:00 P.M. and 7:15 P.M. to 9:15 P.M., with the latter being most popular. 2. At least 15 minutes should be allowed between classes. 3. Students must leave work at least one hour before the start of a class. 4. Students should not be expected to travel more than 30 minutes each 29 way to class or fight heavy t r a f f i c . About 70 per cent of the students wi l l be drawn from a 10-mile radius. 5. Few students w i l l travel more than 15 miles. 6. Adequate parking f a c i l i t i e s is a must. 7. Premium classroom space should be used. Don't push off second-rate equipment on the classes. 8. A good food f a c i l i t y should exist in the v ic in i ty . 9. Prices for C.E.S. courses should be comparable with those for graduate work. 10. Grades should be limited to pass or not passed. 11. Auditors of classes must not be tolerated and should be asked to register or leave. 12. Students should not be expected to devote more than one night per week to class attendance, although some wi l l come twice. 13. Accurate attendance records are important as a basis for evalua-t ion. Up to 25 per cent absence from class may be unavoidable. 14. Lateness is an incurable feature of adult education. Zealous efforts to correct late arr ivals wi l l eliminate both the problem and the program. 15. Audio visual devices of a l l types are very effective. 16. Class size should be kept at an optimal s ize. Depth courses should not have less than 10 or more than 30. 17. Guest speakers can be an excellent change of pace, providing they are interesting and knowledgeable. Dubin and Marlow studied the extent and magnitude of the problem of the growth of knowledge and the problem of obsolescence but limited i t to the stated needs of engineers employed in various positions in Pennsylvania. The objective of the study was to determine the se l f -perceived educational needs of engineers employed in the industries of Pennsylvania who received their bachelor's degree five or more years prior to 1960. A further objective was to determine attitudes of engineers to-wards continuing education needs as related to their job, supervision and company. A f inal objective was to recommend methods for providing contin-uing educational programs for up-dating engineers in Pennsylvania. The study covered twenty-three f ields of engineering, twenty-three 30 industrial groups and four sizes of industries. The sample of 2,090 prac-t ic ing engineers was selected carefully so as to be representative of the engineers in Pennsylvania in each industrial category covering companies of a l l sizes and including engineers at various levels of responsibil ity and of a l l age groups. Results of the survey pertaining to continuing education courses are as follows: 1. Only a small percentage of the engineers were enrolled for an ad-vanced degree in engineering. 2. Lectures and seminars were given as the most frequent means of keep-ing abreast of technical knowledge. 3. In the basic sciences, mathematics and physics were l isted as subjects needed most frequently. 4. Engineering economy, engineering analysis, and computer programming were cited most frequently in the f i e ld of engineering sciences. 5. Automation, PERT., production management, instrumentation, quality control and systems engineering represent pressing needs in the applied aspects of engineering. 6. An outstanding finding of the study is the c r i t i c a l need for strength-ening the engineer's communications s k i l l s . 7. Almost 8 of 10 persons desired training in effective reading, effec-tive communication in organization, conference leadership, public speaking, oral presentation of s tat is t ica l and technical reports, technical report writing and business letter writ ing. 8. Respondents indicate that, they would take further work, i f available, not only in technical but also in managerial and social-humanistic studies for improvement of both their professional s k i l l s and general education. The report also emphasizes that universities and colleges should not only know how to teach but also recognize and enforce the rigorous and high standards needed to insure that the time spent in study wi l l be worthwhile. Wiegancf^ndertook to determine factors that were related to the nature and extent of participation in continuing education among a selec-ted group of graduate working engineers. 31 A study that shows the continuing education act iv i t ies of working engineers and the factors that have affected these act iv i t ies could be of use to those who are planning programs for engineers or who should develop such programs. He found that two dependent variables - Formal Credit Work and Professional Registration - had the highest number of relationships with the independent variables which were related to the respondent's educa-tional background at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Eight were re-lated to his job, another seven were geographical and the f inal six were personal factors. This would seem to indicate that those engineers who did well in their formal years at university were more inclined to take courses. Another conclusion of the study was that the greatest number of relationships existed among the job-related factors when compared to the different forms of part icipation. In other words, the respondent's job appeared to determine whether he took course work or engaged in pro-fessional ac t i v i t i es . 23 A further study by Lebold indicated the importance of good schol-arship. 1. The value of good scholarship was emphasized by the fact that twice as many alumni who placed in the upper decile of scholastic rank were in management as those who placed in the lowest deci le. 2. Graduates who placed above the median sholastical ly were more l ike ly to reach a higher job position. 3. The higher one's scholastic rank, the higher was his salary. 4. Engineering faculty members were more apt to stress the importance of academic goals and subjects stressing areas of mathematics and science. 5. Engineering alumni were more apt to stress the importance of applied goals, management and economics. 6. Engineering freshmen were more optimistic and engineering faculty more pessimistic regarding the achievement of educational goals. 7. Engineering freshmen were more apt to stress the importance of tech-nical and vocational subjects and goals. 8. The alumni stressed the importance of many of the practical and applied areas such as the development of special s k i l l s , shop, laboratories, 32 getting along with other people, management, speech and psychology. 9. The engineering faculty stressed subjects such as mathematics, en-gineering sciences, and professional development. 10. Faculty members were more apt to give higher achievement ranking to the development of social s k i l l s , such as getting along with other people, than were the alumni and seniors, but lower values for the achievement of c r i t i c a l thinking, communications s k i l l s , and scien-t i f i c fundamentals. 11. Alumni tended to favour five-year curricula with greater emphasis on co-operative education, sc ient i f i c education or social-humanistic programs. Faculty members and seniors tended to favor more scien-t i f i c programs. Freshmen were more apt to favor four year programs similar to the present one or a five year program with a co-operative or sc ient i f ic emphasis. The l i terature discussed thus far is mainly concerned with the im-portance of technical courses but several authors also emphasize the need 25 for more courses in humanities and social sciences. Florman advises: Without an education in the l iberal ar ts , the engineer can degen-erate into a mere technician, unaware of the social and cultural forces of his age, limited in his capacity to lead a rich and meaningful l i f e , and il l -equipped to play a significant role in molding the future. . . . True l iberal learning consists not of the social sciences, but of l i terature , philosophy, history and the fine arts . Somehow the engineer must be exposed to these subjects. 26 11 The American Society for Engineering and such authors as Whinnery, 27 28 19 Frank , Roadstrum , and Fleming discuss at length the necessity for courses in social sciences and courses in humanities which should be de-signed to lead the engineer to consider the social consequences of his work and to help him appreciate the human and societal problems involved in his projects. This group of authors emphasizes that more experimenta-tion is needed in special courses which must be designed to appeal to the engineer by relating his f ie ld of interest to the humanities. Financing. - A problem of great concern to universities establish-ing continuing education courses is that of financing. Dubin and Marlow quote Dean Merritt A. Williamson, College of 33 Engineering, at the Pennsylvania State University: Financial means must be found to prepare and offer up-to-date i n -struction . . . i f we are to make the best use of our profession-al personnel in the technological and managerial areas. The D.I.A.C. Working Group reports: Universities often question whether they wi l l be able to support this kind of act iv i ty without substantially increased support from their industrial and governmental customers. Fleming points out that the pressure on public funds is already so great that i f expanded education courses are introduced onto university campuses, the university's resources are s t i l l further diluted in respect to staff f a c i l i t i e s , parking and financing. He goes so far as to state: "I am not convinced that the university is the place where we should i n -troduce a program of this kind." Programs of Interest Television. - A continuing education program which is planned, directed and carried out by the university faculty and administered by a separate group has been proposed by Morris. This is organized to minimize the extra effort required by the faculty through ut i l i zat ion of the course and lecture preparation already completed by the faculty members. Tele-vision is the medium for this plan. Students can take courses at work or at home. The courses to be taught include speci f ical ly planned and scheduled courses by the regular fu l l - t ime faculty, with the course being given simultaneously to on-campus and off-campus students. These courses must involve what is known of the habits, motivations and desires of the potential students as well as encompassing a spectrum of content and allowing off-campus students to earn a Master degree. On-campus academic standards are applied to off-campus students and credit is given even for special courses by making the level compatible with the regular courses. A Master of Engineering degree would be granted to students meeting the universit ies' standards. To obtain a Doctor's degree, extra courses plus one year on campus must be met. The program is financed from student-company fees. In order to receive credit a student must register and pay on a per unit basis. There wi l l also be a nominal company charge. 34 The system allows for simultaneous transmission of multiple pro-grams on different T.V. channels through a common transmitter. Video tape, closed-circuit and open-circuit transmission wi l l be used where appro-priate. Some faculty retraining in teaching techniques wi l l be needed, but the good teacher is retrained continuously and this should not be a prob-lem. With proper use of part-time faculty from industry i t may be poss-ible to enhance this type of act iv i ty by spreading the work over a number of experienced and competent people rather than just using one faculty member and untrained teaching assistants. The advantages of this type of program are as follows: 1 . An expanded effort in continuing education for engineers. 2. Credit and recognition for students who study while they work. 3. Advanced degree without fu l l - t ime campus attendance. 4. Equality with regular university students. The same rewards, same courses and same professors. 5. Theoretically i t w i l l be economical and more convenient. 6. A chance to receive time off work to study. 7. The more students who participate, the cheaper the rate. 8. Television could handle thousands of off-campus students. 9. Open to graduates of a l l facul t ies . Morris, however, anticipates some problems. 1 . Faculty members must be wi l l ing to dedicate the required effort to the program. 2. A curriculum must be established that involves off-campus students. 3. Media techniques must be mastered by the faculty. 4. Problem of developing a T.V. system capable of serving the desired population (cost, complexity, operation). 5. Non-availabil ity of l ibrar ies to off-campus students. 6. Problem of standardizing exams and assignments. 7. Interference with work hours. 8. Problem of over-all co-ordination and co-operation. 9. Problem of examination scheduling for industry. 35 10. How many engineers want, or are qualif ied for advanced degree work? 11. May be d i f f i c u l t to obtain part-time assistants from industry. 29 Colorado Surge. - A project conducted during the academic year 1967-68 with 192 campus students and 432 industry students in 9 industrial or government settings participating. Four courses and 19 classes were involved in the f a l l quarter, 9 courses and 32 classes in the winter quar-ter , and 7 courses and 37 classes in the spring quarter. The industry students were enrolled in the Graduate School of Colorado State University and completed the same course requirements as the campus students. The graduate courses were taught by video tape. The video tapes were courier-delivered recordings of campus classes prepared on the pre-vious day and sent to remote plant sites for in-plant educational pro-grams. There was a requirement that the video tape not be delayed more than one day after arrival to the company. Tapes were erased and re-used during the year. Instructor-student interaction was encouraged by on-site v is i ts by instructors, by pre-arranged telephone conferences, and by the use of graphic transmission of material accompanied by voice. Prior to registration for the courses a pi lot tape describing each course was shown to prospective enrollees to f a c i l i t a t e enrollment decisions. Enrollment procedures were the same at remote sites as on campus. The program was under constant scrutiny and the following points were noted: - An attitude scale was administered during the second and ninth weeks of each quarter. There was a decline in mean attitude scores be-tween the i n i t i a l and f inal administrations for both remote and campus classes, with the rate of decline faster in remote areas. Signif icantly less favorable attitudes were noted for the remote classes, while achieve-ment scores were a bit higher than the campus classes. The difference in mean scale scores of classes conducted in government instal lations versus private industrial plants was not s ignif icant . No significant differences in attitude were found with regard to the educational policy of the com-pany, such as complete versus partial tuit ion refunded. There was a de-cline in attitude from the f i r s t to the second quarter but a dist inct re-covery of favorable attitudes during the third quarter. Two reasons for attitude increase in the third quarter are: 36 1 . The reputations of the instructors were established. 2. Novelty factor of medium wore off in the second quarter. 3. Instructors became more adept with the medium. - No significant differences were found between the two groups in achievement for a l l quarters combined. The f inal marks for the campus students were signif icantly lower at the end of the f a l l quarter than for industry but pulled up at the end of the second quarter. Remote students in industry achieved better grades on f inal course examinations. There was no evidence to show that the video tape lesson was not as effective as the campus lecture. It was concluded that remote students and campus students achieved equally wel l . - Some 60 per cent of a l l students in industry intended to use the courses toward an advanced degree. There was a tendency for students who had just taken courses to remain for three semesters, while those who had not recently taken courses tended to drop out after one or two semesters. Students in industry.tended to take degree credit courses in the f a l l , but job-oriented courses in the spring. Instructors who taught a l l three quarters were rated higher than those who taught only one or two, mainly due to the instructor's becoming more adept with the T.V. medium. - Of the 119 students who offered suggestions, about 50 per cent were considered mildly favorable and another 20 per cent were strongly favorable to the program. The following conclusions were based on student suggestions: 1 . Mechanical and technical aspects of producing the tapes are of major importance to effective instruction in programs of this type. 2. Industry students have a strong desire for some personal contact with the instructor even though the contact may be very l imited. 3. Unavailability of an instructor for informal feedback on a regular basis accentuates the need for rapid return of homework and examina-tions . 4. The characteristics usually cited as important in a classroom teacher are of equal or greater importance for teaching via educational te le -vision. 5 . Consideration must be given to the campus students to assure them that 37 their needs are not being slighted or that they are not being taken advantage of in the production of videotapes for industrial classes. 30 The GENESYS (Graduate Engineering Education System) plan was de-veloped to provide closed-circuit T.V. to four operating f a c i l i t i e s and thus greatly expand the sphere of influence of one instructor and his lessons. It helped to solve the following problems faced by those who attempt to in i t ia te a continuing education program: 1. There is a c r i t i c a l shortage of qualif ied professional talent in highly specialized subject areas of current science and technology. 2. The areas of specialization are growing in numbers with a resulting need for a wide variety of courses for a smaller number of students in each course. Since course work in continuing education is mainly financed by student fees, they generally f a i l in meeting objectives because fees are inadequate to support the variety of courses (and small numbers) that are required. 3. The teaching talent may not be located in the geographic area where i t is needed. The person who is most needed is usually needed in many places at the same time but by relat ively small groups of students. 4. Many of the qualif ied potential teachers are available only through an adjunct-professor relationship. These are people employed ful l - t ime in industry and are located in communities remote from the university campus. 5. Educational programs for employed engineers should be conducted in such locations as to keep travel time to the minimum. Locations should be such that no more than thirty minutes is required to reach the course. Many surveys have shown that student enrollments decline and the drop-out rate increases rapidly when travel time begins to ex-ceed thirty minutes. 6. The educational institution conducting the programs must be devoted to the maintenance of high standards of academic excellence. This re-quires that program planning, assessment of need, development and execution be in the hands of engineers and scientists rather than pro-fessional "extension" educationalists. 38 The course was put into effect on May 3, 1965 in Gainesvil le, Florida. Students from Orlando, Daytona Beach and Cape Kennedy were also part of the class through the medium of closed-circuit televis ion. Course characteristics are as follows: 1. It decreased travel time to within the th i r ty minutes in a l l four centres. Al l operating f a c i l i t i e s are located near heavily indus-t r ia l i zed areas to reduce travel time to a minimum. 2. It provided credit as well as non-credit courses. 3. The College of Engineering through GENESYS offers three post-graduate degrees - M.E., M.S.E., and Ph. D. 4. It was operated and organized by GENESYS faculty, engineers in indus-try and engineering faculty. 5. The area served can f a c i l i t a t e an unlimited amount of expansion in the future. 6. Instructors from industry can be far better ut i l i zed since they can lecture from any one of the four operating f a c i l i t i e s . 7. Al l of the f a c i l i t i e s involved in GENESYS are interconnected by closed c i r c u i t , talk-back television to provide instruction in specialized courses to small numbers of students at a l l reception points, and at any convenient hour of the day or night. The concept of ava i lab i l i t y of educational programs l ies beneath the entire plan for GENESYS. Future plans are for T.V. systems to be placed right into industrial settings to provide in-plant training during working hours. Up to forty courses per trimester can be made available in this way. Large aero-space organizations such as N.A.S.A. and M.I.L.A. are now tapped into the network for on-the-spot instruction. The system is designed to eventually accommodate twenty receiving points throughout the state of Florida. Another possibi l i ty for this sys-tem is the ease of video-taping a l l programs for later reference. The results so far show a tremendous increase in engineer pa r t i c i -pation in continuing education, as well as a doubling of class enrollments in graduate and post-graduate work. The Role of Industry Very few studies were available that indicate to what extent 39 industry is participating in continuing education. The l i terature re-viewed, however, does show that industry as a whole is paying more atten-tion to the problems of continuing education. The attitude of the indus-t r i a l i s t s seems to be summarized by Raudsepp, who noted: Engineers are considered tools and therefore are investments and i t is good business for industry to maintain or increase the worth of an investment. The size of the company and the f i e ld of engineering involved ap-pears to determine the extent to which the industry participates in con-tinuing education. The D.I.A.C. Working Group Survey of a l l companies in Southeastern Pennsylvania in 1963 showed that 98 per cent of them had some form of educational assistance program, while 86 per cent had in-plant courses and instruction. There i s , however, a wide variation in the de-31 gree to which a company wi l l participate. Kemper agrees: Probably no company wi l l readily admit i t does not have a training program, although the term training program covers an immense spectrum. 32 Elaborate programs such as thoje at Sandia Laboratory , Markem Machine Company and General Electr ic are evident in the aerospace and electronics f i e lds . Large companies involved in research and development such as Cummins Engine Company are also developing detailed programs of continuing education as a means of combating obsolescence, thereby i n -creasing their own eff iciency. Smaller companies in more stabil ized f ie lds such as c i v i l engineering where the new technologies are not advan-cing as rapidly, are more concerned with making a prof i t , not investing in continuing education programs. Raudsepp's survey of one thousand engineers indicates that most companies offer an educational fringe benefit. The majority of engineers surveyed have opportunities provided by their companies to attend university and 59 per cent must do their learn-ing after working hours, companies provided time for 19 per cent, and 7 per cent were granted partial time to pursue their studies. Of the su-pervisory management group, 73 per cent must study after working hours, 2 per cent were granted time off by the company, and partial time off was given to 15 per cent. 40 In general, companies wi l l support personnel taking courses as long as the course pertains to their f i e ld of endeavour. Raudsepp's study showed that 40 per cent of the engineers state that tuit ion and time off usually depend on course relevance. Ten per cent of the engineers main-tain there are no l imitations on the type of courses because they are a l l relevant. Seven per cent claim the company supports only degree-oriented courses. Of the supervisor-managers, 51 per cent state that the course must relate directly to their specialization in order to get company support. Nine per cent are free to choose any courses and for 8 per cent, the cour-ses must lead to a degree. Thirty per cent stated that courses should be generally related to the profession. Relatively few companies give even a limited number of their en-gineers the opportunity to re-educate themselves in depth. The primary reason for the limited number of sabbaticals is the cost factor. It was estimated that a ten-month course at the University of Pennsylvania sponsored by Bell Telephones cost between $18,000 and $25,000 per man for salary, l i v ing expenses and tu i t ion . Torpey's sur-vey of 290 employer representatives selected from a l l types of companies in most major industries employing scientists and engineers shows the other extreme; only .593 per cent of company gross sales was spent on educational act iv i t ies of any kind! Another interesting fact pointed out by Raudsepp was that a l -though most companies offer opportunities for advanced education, the majority of personnel surveyed in both engineering and supervisor-management groups estimate that less than one-third of the engineers take advantage of them. Torpey states: The challenge of providing educational opportunities for scien-t i s t s and engineers is complex. There are no simple "cure -a l l " approaches an employer can use to solve the problem permanently, and concern is l i ke l y to be sustained. Employers have selected those methods which best suit their or-ganizations in their attempts to aid the scientists and engineers already on their payrolls. The primary element in selecting the method for up-dating employees is the amount the employer can spend for such act iv i ty . 41 The predominant single technique pursued through company funds is the tuit ion refund plan; at the other extreme, post-doctoral training programs receive very l i t t l e financial encouragement. Torpey makes the following deductions: Insufficient attention appears to have given to the quality of educational act iv i ty under way in their organizations. The tone of some responses suggested company complacency. The ab-sence of any reference to evaluation of their educational pro-gram may be considered s ignif icant . Descriptions of Specific Company Programs Cummins Engine Company. - In February, 1966, a lecture program was organized at the University of Wisconsin for twenty-five engineers during their lunch hour at the Cummins Engine Company in Columbus, Indiana. Two of Wide Area Telephone Service l ines were used - Bell System's Conference Set provided the spoken communications and the electronic blackboard was Victor-Comptometer's Electro-writer. Sessions were con-ducted Monday and Wednesday to enable more people to attend. No formal evaluation was attempted; however, the program was judged a success p r i -marily because there was an increased rise in the use of computers to solve engineering problems. Another aspect of continuing education for engineers explored at Cummins is a program leading to the degree of Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering. This was achieved by means of two v is i t ing pro-fessors from Purdue University in the f a l l of 1966. Two courses were offered each semester from 3:30 P.M. to 6:30 P.M. two days each week. Purdue required th i r t y - s i x hours for this degree so a student who attend-ed every offering could complete the requirements in three years. The program was structured to provide maximum f l e x i b i l i t y in that required prerequisites and beginning level courses were scheduled so that a person could enter the program in any given semester. Four courses were offered the f i r s t and second year and six courses the third year and thereafter. An employee was allowed to audit a course providing he registered in ad-vance. This gave interested employees who either had advanced degrees, or did not wish to work toward a degree, the opportunity to update their t 42 knowledge in a given area. 37 Bell Telephone Laboratories. - A l l of the act iv i t ies described are voluntary except the Graduate Study Program which is required of a l l new members of Technical Staff entering Bell Laboratories at the bachelor's degree leve l . To participate f u l l y , the member of technical staff (MTS) must continually update and extend his education. The Graduate Study Program (GSP) is the f i r s t step in the continuing education of the new M.T.S. The GSP participation in engineering, mathematics, or one of the physical sciences is required of the new MTS employed at the bachelor's leve l . GSP generally leads to a master's degree within one or two years depending on the option selected jo int l y by the individual MTS and Bell Labs. Satisfactory completion of the program is a condition of continued employment. New Curricula are incorporated into GSP as needed. Tuition and related educational costs are borne entirely by Bell Labs. Through i t s continuing education program Bell Labs offers courses during normal working hours to encourage i t s professionals to keep pace with rapid technological advances. The new program makes i t possible for scientists and engineers to continue their technical education on a s t r i c t l y voluntary basis, throughout their careers. Bell Labs also pro-vides financial support for university study by employees. Most of the courses are being taught by Bell Labs specia l is ts , but professors from near-by universities also teach a few of them. An average class consists of from fifteen to th i r t y - f i ve participants and meets for a two-hour session each week for sixteen weeks. To make available to stu-dents the best lectures in various subjects at a l l locations, closed c i r -cuit television and video tapes are used. This plan couples a taped video lecture with a local expert in the subject, who answers questions, and assigns homework and tests. In-depth courses, taught at an advanced graduate school leve l , deal with subject matter at the forefront of technology. They are inten-ded to deepen the specialization of participants. Inter-discipl inary courses taught at a f i rst -year graduate level acquaint students with f ie lds bordering on their own and help them to see their own work in a broader context. Preparatory, or refresher courses, equivalent to senior 43 or f i rs t -year graduate level courses, are designed to strengthen the stu-dent's academic background to prepare him for in-depth courses. The Graduate Study Program is available through two routes. The One Year On Campus option involves enrollment in a university master's de-gree program to be completed within one calendar year of fu l l - t ime study on campus. The Local University Part Time option involves part-time study for two years. A bachelor's degree in aeronautical chemical, c i v i l , elec-t r i c a l , industrial or mechanical, chemistry or physics is normally suf-f ic ient preparation for the GSP. In certain cases one or more additional undergraduate courses may be prerequisite to graduate study. Awards under a Doctoral Support Plan (DSP) are made each year to those outstanding employees for whom i t is clearly indicated that pursuit of a doctorate is in the best interests of Bell Labs. Awards may be made for either partial or fu l l - t ime study. The salary of a fu l l - t ime p a r t i c i -pant is reduced during his period of support but tuit ion and registration fees are paid by Bell Labs. These in-hours graduate-level courses are taught by leading Bell Labs special ists and are intended for members of Technical Staff and other qualif ied employees. Included are both in-depth sequences and individual inter -discipl inary courses. The in-depth courses, dealing with state-of-the-art topics not generally available at universit ies, are designed to sharpen the s k i l l s of the special ist in his f i e l d . Within the f i r s t f ive years at Bell Labs, each member of the Technical Staff is normally assigned on a temporary basis to technical departments other than his own. The purpose of such internships is to broaden the technical horizons of the employer and to develop his aware-ness of total company ac t i v i t i es . Bell Labs employees may take advantage of a large number of cour-ses taught after working hours at most locations. Course offerings are at the graduate or undergraduate levels , and serve to expand the formal technical background of the employee. In addition, state-of-the-art courses enable the employee to keep abreast of recent developments in his f i e l d . More than one hundred courses, generally taught by members of Bell Labs staf f , are offered at no expense to participants. Special in-hours courses, organized periodically by individual 44 technical div is ions, help employees master new material in areas related to their work. These courses are designed to meet the unusual and immedi-ate educational needs of the technical areas. Course instruction is gen-eral ly provided by members of the Bell Labs technical staff . Other opportunities for continuing education are provided by Bell Lab. The Patent Division offers courses for those interested in pursuing careers in the f ie ld of patent law. The prerequisite of legal training may be met by an evening program at a local law school while working f u l l time during the day as a member of the Patent Staff . Enrollment in university short courses and seminars is encouraged and paid for . College and university teaching at night is also stressed for some employees. Participation in technical societies is considered valuable and important. Attendance at out-of-hours lectures is also en-couraged. Sandia Laboratory. - A Unified Science and Engineering Course (USE) consists of 26 subjects, presented by 25 lecturers in 177 lecture hours. These are presented to 25 to 30 participants during 6 weeks of fu l l - t ime classes, with a 1 week recess following the third week. Four 1^-hour lectures are given each day. The course begins by laying a fun-damental foundation in mathematics and physics and ends with applied sub-jects which are of particular significance to Sandia both now and in the foreseeable future. Modern developments are stressed. The high degree of integration which has been achieved between the subjects emphasizes the over-all unity of engineering, science, and mathematics, and demon-strates the universality of many basic concepts. Examinations are not compatible with the course objectives and are not given. A daily reading and problem assignment, co-ordinated with the following day's lectures, is made from the reference l ibrary of 23 books which is given to each participant with carefully selected books which he can use for future reference and self-study. The assignments serve to famil iarize the participant with the contents of his reference l ibrary. The course was held in existing training f a c i l i t i e s a few blocks from the Laboratory and the participant's fu l l - t ime job was to attend the course. The cost of the course was s l ight ly less than $300 per p a r t i c i -pant, $200 being spent for the reference l ibrary given to each participant. 45 Markem Machine Company. - This company imports both faculty and curriculum from the Northeastern University School of Continuing Education in Boston. The course was inaugurated in September, 1965 and was designed to run 3 years with 2 sessions per week, 2 classes per session, and 3 terms per year, without academic credit . Markem pays the entire cost of the courses, estimated at $1,000 per man per year. Company time is dona-ted for class work but homework must be done on the individual 's own time. The course material must be relevant to the participant's job. General E lect r ic . - The course was an intensive six-week program t i t l e d "Modern Engineering". The f i r s t session was held during June and July, 1961. Thirty - f ive students were professors from the University of Cal i forn ia , Los Angeles, assisted by outstanding scientists and engineers from industry and other universit ies. The university charged $1,500 for tui t ion and $20 per day to house the student. The course consisted of 100 ninety-minute lectures spread over 6 weeks. The students are required to absorb two parallel streams of know-ledge: in one stream are pure and applied mathematics and in the other are physics, chemistry, engineering and a l i t t l e biology. The timing of the course was such that the topics in the physical sciences would come in logical order and would be preceded by the necessary mathematics. The schedule called for 3 or 4 lectures per day (2 on Saturday) plus frequent after-dinner talks by notable scientists and engineers. No homework or examinations are given but each student was given textbooks to study. The course is offered twice a year with about 30 students per session. The cost to the company includes salaries ranging from $15,000 to $30,000 per year, l i v ing expenses of about $30 per day per man, for a total of some $350,000 per year. In addition, administrative costs are $60,000 per year. The Role of Societies Some authors have made passing comments about the effectiveness of the engineering Professional Organizations but few studies have been done by professional societies which cast any l ight on their attitude to -wards, or degree of, participation in continuing education programs. The voluntary nature of membership in professional associations and the large 46 number of professional organizations in existence are problems which s e r i -ously affect the influence professional associations can have on continu-ing education for engineers. The Joint Advisory Committee points out: A l l engineering societies have in common the fact that part ic ipa-tion in their act iv i t ies is predominantly an individual ef for t , motivated by a desire on the part of each member to keep abreast of his f i e l d . Because membership is voluntary and an individual matter, i t is d i f f i c u l t to evaluate the effectiveness of the actions of the societies. 38 A third problem brought to l ight by Stamm is that the associa-tions are not seen by engineers as representative of the engineering oc-cupation. This is attributed to bureaucratic control in the association and to the fact that the leadership is composed of executives in industry so that the societies reflect the organizational viewpoint rather than that of the engineer. To prevent unnecessary duplication of ef fort , the Engineer's Council for Professional Development joined with the off icers of the American Society for Engineering Education, the Engineers' Joint Council, and the National Society of Professional Engineers to appoint the Joint Advisory Committee on Continuing Engineering Studies. The objectives of the committee focused on the needs of the profession to catalogue, c la r -i f y , and evaluate alternate methods by which the many segments of engin-eering could update their needed technical competence and be effectively informed on new technology. The establishment of this committee would seem to indicate a concerned attitude toward the need for and part ic ipa-tion in continuing education for engineers. Some of the recommendations directed toward professional societies are as follows: 1. Societies are planning techniques to motivate their members more effect ively ; are placing greater emphasis on continuing education studies; are studying co-operative techniques, are recognizing the need for more active participation in program development. 2. Societies should vigorously promote as policy and practice the concept of learning throughout l i f e , and urgently promote as policy and practice the concept that i t is the responsibil ity of employers 47 to provide the opportunity and encourage employees to aim at these goals. 3. Increased communications should be developed between societies. 4. A national committee on continuing engineering studies should be formed in each society. 5. Societies should work more closely with educational institutions and with industry in developing new engineering study programs. 6. Societies should also continue to promote the use of technical l i t -erature and other self-teaching devices. 7. A main area of concern should be in meeting the needs of engineers located in remote areas. The Engineer The attitude of the engineer towards the need for continuing edu-cation courses in general, and his need to participate in part icular, ap-pears to be determined by his self-image. Most engineers have a powerful need to maintain and improve them-selves, to protect their self-esteem and to cultivate a growing sense of personal worth. 39 If the personal values and motives of the engineer do not interact harmoniously with the business environment in which he functions, the re-sulting conf l ict causes job dissatisfaction and motivates the engineer to seek a solution. Wiegand and Stamm point out that the working engineer reacts to continuing education in terms of his job. The engineer may seek to al leviate his frustration by taking courses to reduce his obsolescence thus enabling him to obtain a promotion, get a better job, increase his own confidence and s k i l l , or change careers entirely . 40 Constas and Danielson discuss the self-image and motivation of the engineer. Every engineer seeks prestige and status in his career. He must have a meaningful job to do which carries with i t a sense of im-portance and where there are v is ib le results. He needs an opportunity to achieve. The engineer wants to know what is expected of him and he wants feedback on his performance. He also expects a competitive and equitable salary. If these needs are not met, according to these authors, the se l f -image is not satisfactory and the engineer becomes frustrated. 48 According to Katz and Danielson, job dissatisfaction results when the engineer's ab i l i t y is not u t i l i z e d . Some engineers complain that they are confined to routine and non-challenging tasks which are menial and do not require any s k i l l to perform. Constas points out that while some en-gineers may seek job satisfaction by doing well in job-related a c t i v i t i e s , others, i f not ut i l i zed correctly, w i l l exercise their interests and a b i l -i t i es in non-work ac t i v i t i es . 41 Both Nader and Stamm feel that the status of the engineering pro-fession in general has been damaged by the use of engineering t i t l e s with-out regard to qual i f icat ion. Nader points out that: Another syndrome of the engineer's degraded professional status is shown by management's f u l l approval of s t y l i s t s , designers and costs analysts operating as quack engineers. Engineering . . . is an open occupation and access to i t can be made not only by those who have undergone engineering t raining, but also by those who have the practical technical experience or by others from closely related f i e l d s . 42 The personal status of the engineer, according to Perucci , has been degraded by the practice of some companies who bring in new talent rather than provide an opportunity for established professionals to keep abreast of new developments. The older professional is then relegated to a position of lower status in the company unless he attempts to enter ad-ministration, supervision or management. His security is further threat-ened by the discovery of his obsolescence. As Ferdinand says, because the engineer is not famil iar with the best technical way of performing his assignments, the obsolete engineer or scientist takes longer in s o l -ving technical problems, and the solutions he seeks are less effective than those of his more up-to-date colleagues. Perucci points out that the work of professionals entails such a high degree of s k i l l and knowledge that only fellow professionals can make accurate assessments of profes-sional performance. Therefore, the engineer becomes: . . . extremely vulnerable when the practitioner stands in a hierarchical , rather than c o l l e g i a l , relationship to a knowledge-able audience in an organizational setting. Another primary source of frustration for an engineer, according to Mi l ler , Nader and Stamm, is the confl ict between bureaucratic company 49 organization and professional goals and incentives. Stamm points out that organization is dominant over profession in applied settings in industry. Most engineers in his study did not believe they had the right to publish their results when they conflicted with the proprietary interests of the company. They indicated importance of organizational recognition and com-pany welfare over colleague recognition because the success of their own careers depends on the success of the organization. It would appear that the need for job security is a self-made chain which subjugates the minion to corporate management. Stamm maintains, however, that in discussing confl ict and accommodation with the industrial organization i t is impor-tant to distinguish between the scientist and the engineer because of the differences in motivation and goals between the two. The findings of Stamm and Mi l le r regarding the degree of conf l ict appear to be contingent upon the level at which the engineer is function-ing. Some of Stamm's findings may be summarized as follows: 1. There was a high degree of conf l ict between the engineer and the or-ganization in those who had advanced degrees, attended specialized schools and had not achieved their objectives with the company. 2. Engineers engaged in research and development are inclined to be less organization oriented than others such as managers and commercial en-gineers whose work follows bureaucratic procedure which is wel l -established. Mi l le r ' s study was more extensive and a brief summary of his f ind -ings follows: 1. Ph. D.'s perceive more professional incentives and less organizational control in a l l comparisons except those involving professional treat-ment and professional advancement opportunities than M.A.'s. 2. Scientists perceived more incentives and less control in a l l compari-sons except those involving type of supervisor and professional ad-vancement opportunities than engineers. 3. Scientists are more professional than engineers in terms of organiza-tional structure. 4. Engineers tended to show more symptoms of self-estrangement than scient ists . 50 5. The greater the organizational control the less the professional i n -centives and a greater degree of self-estrangement. 6. Persons in cohesive work groups experience less s t ra in , stress, and conf l ic t . The engineer whose professional and personal values are not in balance with his business environment should be motivated to upgrade him-self to improve his job mobility thus escaping an intolerable work s i tua-t ion , yet continue to identify with the profession, which is an important consideration in his self-concept. Enrollment in a professional improve-ment program related to his work would seem to be a desireable way to be-g in , but many engineers are reluctant to attend continuing education cour-ses. Constas says that many engineers enroll with the attitude that cour-ses are an automatic guarantee of promotion and raise in salary and are disi l lusioned when the reward is not forthcoming. If the engineer does receive a promotion into management as a result of continuing education courses, he may s t i l l be further frustrated by not being able to use his technology to solve the socio-economic problems he encounters. In either case, continuing education courses, for him, have been dis i l lusioning and he wi l l not enroll in further courses. McAreavy reveals that engineers do not enroll in courses because of several fears: fear of fa i lu re , fear he is too o ld , fear of competi-tion with fellow employees in higher management positions, fear of compe-t i t ion with more experienced engineers, fear of the competition of their younger and less obsolete colleagues by experienced engineers, and fear of company reprisals i f they do not obtain high grades. The findings of Katz indicate other reasons (or excuses) for non-participation in continuing education courses. These include: time can-not be spared, too much travel is involved, too many classes wi l l be missed due to time out-of-town, formal course work is not needed, and no homework is wanted. In the f inal analysis, i t would appear that no matter how many surveys, studies or art ic les are written to convince professional engin-eers of the importance of continuing education to their professional sta-tus and the personal advantages to be gained from participation in cour-ses, a decision to participate in such courses is an individual matter. 51 If the engineer wants to achieve, as Crouch notes, he wi l l take advantage of the opportunities provided. If he l ikes his rut, he wi l l stay there! FOOTNOTES ^Seminar on Continuing Education for Engineers. Vancouver: The University of Br i t ish Columbia, March 26, 1966, pp. 3-13. Gary Dickinson, "A Survey of Continuing Education for Br i t ish Columbia Engineers", Continuous Learning, Vol. 5, No. 6 (Ottawa: Canadian Association for Adult Education, November-December, 1966), pp. 276-78. o Andrew C. Gross, Engineering Manpower in Canada. (Doctoral d is -sertation, The Ohio State Univers i tyJ Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1968, pp. 136-351. 4 G. T. Matthews, "Continuing Education for Engineers in Br i t ish Columbia", The B.C. Professional Engineer, Vol. 20, No. 7, July, 1969, p. 6. 5 L. G. R. Crouch, "A Perspective on Continuing Education", The  B.C. Professional Engineer, Vol. 20, No. 7, July, 1969, p. 7. ^H. R. M. Murray, "How to Beat the Yearly Model Change in Education", The B.C. Professional Engineer, Vol. 20, No. 7, July, 1969, pp. 8- 9. 7 J . W. Govier, Engineering Digest, May, 1964, quoted in "Avoid Technical Obsolescence", The B.C. Professional Engineer, Vol. 20, No. 7, July, 1969, pp. 14-15. o C. G. Shearing, "The Opinion Questionnaire", The B.C. Professional  Engineer, Vol. 20, No. 5, May, 1970. Q B. R. Meyers, North of the Border: A Story Resulting from Two  Years in Canada. (New York: Vantage Press, 1963), Preface, p. 185. ^ Jo in t Advisory Committee, Continuing Engineering Studies:  Meeting the Challenge Through Industry, Academic_Institutions, Engineering  Societies and Government. (New York: Engineers' Council for Professional Development, Inc., 1965), p. 16-17. ^John R. Whinnery, The World of Engineering. (New York: McGraw-H i l l Book Company, 1965), p. 289. 12 D. I.A.C. Working Group, Implications of Continuing Education for  Scient i f ic and Technical Personnel. (Washington: Office of the Secretary of Defense, May, 1964), p. 8. 52 13 Samuel S. Dubin and Leroy H. Marlow, Continuing Professional  Education for Engineers in Pennsylvania. (University Park, Penn.: The Pennsylvania State University, 1965), p. v . , p. 134ff. 14 Gordon S. Brown, "Closing the Engineering Gap", Electr ical  Engineering, Vol. 82, No. 7. (New York: Institute of Electr ical and Electronic Engineers, July, 1963), p. 458ff. 15 Israel Katz, "Guide Lines for Continuing Engineering Studies: Programs in Urban Centres", Engineering Education, Vol. 57, No. 8. (University of Michigan, A p r i l , 1967), pp. 561-66. ^John D. Constance, How to Become a Professional Engineer. (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1966), p. 8. ^7Asa S. Knowles, "Continuing Education: Fastest Growing Dimension in Higher Education", Engineering Education, Vol. 57, No. 8 . (University of Michigan, A p r i l , 1967), pp. 555-57. I o Eugene Raudsepp, "Engineers Talk About Machine Design", Machine  Design, Vol. 36, No. 15. (Cleveland, Ohio: A Penton Publication, 1964), pp. 127-54. 19 Robben W. Fleming, "Reflections on Engineering Education", Engineering Education. (University of Michigan, December, 1967), pp. 279-82. 20 Albert J . Morris, "Plan For Continuing Engineering Education Through Television", Engineering Education. (University of Michigan, A p r i l , 1967), pp. 567-70. 21 Clara Kanun, Evaluation of a Graduate Professional Improvement  Program, 1965-1966. (St. Paul, Minnesota University, General Extension Division, September, 1966), pp. 14-17, p. 46 f f . 22 Richard Wiegand, Factors Related to Participation in Continuing  Education Among a Selected Group of Graduate Engineers. (Doctoral disser-tat ion, The Florida State University, Adult Education Department.) Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1966, p. 9, pp. 137, f f . 23 William K. Lebold, A Study of the Purdue University Engineering  Graduate. (Lafayette, Indiana! Purdue University, December, 1959), p. 300 f f . 24 John Francis McAreavy, An Analysis of Factors Affecting the  Achievement of Adults who Participate in Short Concentrated Management  Courses. (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Iowa.) Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1969. 25 Samuel C. Florman, "Liberal Learning and the Engineer", Engineering Education. (University of Michigan, May, 1967), p. 629. 53 The American Society for Engineering Education, General  Education in Engineering: A Report of the Humanistic Social Research  Project, Washington, D.C.: A. S. E. E., 1956. 27 Julian S. Frank, "A Short Course in Psychology for Engineer-Managers", Training and Development Journal, Vol. 22, No. 10. (Fa i r f ie ld , Conn.: A. S. T. DT, October, 1968), pp. 8-16. 28 W. H. Roadstrum, Excellence in Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute. (New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1967), p. 246 f f . 29 Charles 0. Neidt and Lionel V. Baldwin, "Use of Videotape for Teaching In-Plant Graduate Engineering Courses", Adult Education Journal, Vol. XX, No. 3. (Columbia, South Carolina: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., Spring, 1970), pp. 154-67. 30 John A. Nattress, "Genesys - Florida's Answer To the Problem of Continuing Education for Engineers in Industry", Journal of Engineering  Education, Vol. 56, No. 2. (University of Michigan, October, 1965), pp. 47-50. 31 John Dustin Kemper, The Engineer and His Profession. (University of Cal i fornia: Davis, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1967), p. 248. 32 0. E. Jones and D. L. Hughes, "Unified Science and Engineering: An In/House Continuing Education Course", Engineering Education. (University of Michigan, A p r i l , 1967), pp. 558-60. 33 Markem Machine Company, "How One Firm Keeps Its Engineers Up To Date", Business Management Magazine, Vol. 31, No. 1. (Management Magazine, Inc., October, 1966), pp. 107-10. 34 George A. W. Boehm, "Bringing Engineers Up To Date", Fortune, Vol. LXVII, No. 5. (Chicago, I l l i n o i s , Published by Time Inc., May, 1963), pp. 120-21, p. 180. 35 John J . Herring, "Continuing Engineering Education Through Telelecture and In-Plant Courses", Engineering Education. (University of Michigan, A p r i l , 1967), pp. 569-70. 36 William G. Torpey, "Company Investment In Continuing Education for Scientists and Engineers", Educational Record: Washington American  Council on Education, Vol. 45, F a l l , 1964, pp. 408-13. 37 C. R. Wischmeyer, Educational Opportunities at Bell Telephone  Laboratories. (Murray H i l l , New Jersey: Bell Telephone Laboratories, Research and Development Unit of the Bell System, 1970), pp. 15 f f . 38 Harold S. Stamm, The Nature and Process of Professionalization  Among Engineers in an Applied Industrial Setting. (New York, New York University.) Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1968, p. 400. 54 39 Perry A. Constas, "Engineering Education and the Engineer's Self-Image", Personnel Journal, Vol. 45, No. 3. (Engineers' Council for Professional Development, March, 1966), p. 154. 40 Lee E. Daniel son, Characteristics of Engineers and Scientists: Significant for Their Ut i l i zat ion and Motivation. Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1960, p. 136 f f . 41 Ralph Nader, "The Engineer's Professional Role: Universities, Corporations, and Professional Societies", Engineering Education Journal, February, 1967, p. 399. 42 / Robert Perucci, The Engineer and the Social System. (New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1969), pp. 344 f f . 43 Theodore N. Ferdinand, "On the Obsolescence of Scientists and Engineers", American Scient ist , Vol. 54, No. 1. (New Haven, Conn.: The Society of Sigma XI, March, 1966), pp. 46-56. 44 George Alfred Mi l l e r , Professionals In Bureaucracy: Role  Orientations and Alienation Among"Industrial Scientists and Engineers. (Seattle, University of Washington) Ann Arbor, Mich.: University Microfilms, 1966, p. 250 f f . CHAPTER III A PROFILE OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA One of the prime objectives of this study is to describe the characteristics of professional engineers in Br i t ish Columbia and to re-late these to their participation i n , and needs for , continuing education. OCCUPATIONAL FACTORS Over 75 per cent of the sample of engineers were registered in the f ie lds of c i v i l , mechanical and electr ical engineering with only 9 per cent registered in the marine, forestry and geological f ie lds which are the major resource industries in the province. TABLE 4 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY FIELD OF ENGINEERING REGISTRATION Professional Field of Engineering Registration Percentage Civ i l 42 30.88 Mechanical 36 26.47 Electr ical 27 19.85 Chemical 4 ' 2.94 Metallurgical (Mining) 10 7.35 Marine (Naval) 0 .00 Forestry 3 2.21 Structural 8 5.88 Geological 6 4.41 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00 Type of Employment Over 75 per cent of the engineers are employed and thus dependent on, and responsible to , an organization, while 17 per cent were indepen-dent of organization a f f i l i a t i o n s . Over half (58.09 per cent) of the engineers in this study are working in private industry; while 49.9 per cent are involved with govern-55 56 ment agencies, educational institutions or u t i l i t i e s where continuing education programs would be somewhat easier to implement. Over 60 per cent of the engineers have worked more than 15 years in the engineering f i e ld and over 80 per cent have worked more than 10 years. This suggests a tremendous amount of practical experience in the profession in Br i t ish Columbia. Over 25 per cent of the engineers have been with their present em-ployer more than 15 years while over 45 per cent have been with their pre-sent employer more than 10 years. On the other hand, almost 34 per cent of the engineers have been with their present employer less than 6 years. This would indicate a certain degree of job mobil ity, since only 3 per cent of the engineers have worked less than six years. There is a f a i r l y even balance between the practicing engineer, including education (49.26 per cent) and engineers involved in management functions (50 per cent). These figures are important in a later compari-son of continuing education needs and participation factors between prac-t ic ing engineers and engineers in management. (TABLE 5) About two-thirds of the engineers have had three or less employers since starting work as an engineer and 22 per cent are s t i l l with their f i r s t employer, while only 3 per cent have worked less than 6 years. One-third of the sample has had more than three employers and 10 per cent had over seven employers, which again indicates some job mobility. (TABLE 6) About half of the engineers (46 per cent) are involved in project planning and design work. The second largest group (23.53 per cent) are involved in the engineering services, while only 14 per cent are connected with teaching, research and development ac t i v i t i es . (TABLE 7) About 73 per cent of the engineers in the sample spent half or more of their time in a supervisory role on the job, while only 7.35 per cent had no supervisory duties at a l l . Over half of the engineers spend 50-75 per cent of their working time in a supervisory role. Of particular interest is that only two engineers required no technical background for their supervisory role , while 28 engineers required a technical back-ground although their role was entirely of supervisory capacity. This fact points out the need for retention (and up-grading) of technical know-ledge even though the job function is supervisory in nature. (TABLE 7) 57 TABLE 5 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY SELECTED EMPLOYMENT CHARACTERISTICS Number of Engineers Percentage Type of Employment: Work for an employer 105 77.21 Self-employed 13 9.56 Partnership 10 7.35 Other - education, study 8 5.38 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% Principle Employment C lass i f icat ion : Private industry 79 58.09 Educational inst i tut ion 8 5.88 Public U t i l i t i e s (Hydro, Telephone, etc.) 27 19.85 Government - Federal 8 5.88 Government - Provincial 11 8.09 Government - Municipal 3 2.21 Other 0 .00 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% Number of Years in the Engineering F ie ld : Less than 1 year 0 .00 1 - 5 years 4 2.94 6 - 1 0 years 21 15.44 11 - 15 years 29 21.32 More than 15 years 82 60.29 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% Number of Years with Present Employer: Less than 1 year 5 3.68 1 - 5 years 41 30.15 6 - 1 0 years 28 20.59 11 - 15 years 27 19.85 More than 15 years 35 25.74 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% Primary Role in Engineering: Education (including student) 8 5.88 Practicing Professional Engineer 59 43.38 Management (Supervisory) 56 41.18 General Administration 12 8.82 Other 1 .74 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% 58 There is to be a definite shift in supervisory function over the next ten years as perceived by the engineers. At present, 27 per cent of the engineers spend more than 75 per cent of their time on technical work, while ten years from now they anticipate that there would be only 13 per cent in technical functions. This suggests that there is to be a definite upward mobility shift in perceived supervisory/management roles. (TABLE 7). Only about 5 per cent of the engineers are dissatisf ied with their present position and 20.59 per cent of the sample have some dissatisfac-t ion , for a total of 25 per cent expressing various degrees of job dissat-isfact ion. Some of the main reasons for job dissatisfaction include: - Unable to accomplish self-established goals. - Routine or non-engineering work (no challenge). - Frustration through lack of advancement opportunity. - Poor salary and fringe benefits. - Poor working conditions (long hours of work). - Personal reasons including company p o l i t i c s . - Methods of decision-making (policy, red tape or control). - Poor level of support from the company, including use of non-competent personnel in support roles (or lack of support). See Appendix II for tables. It is encouraging to note that about 34 per cent of the engineers in the sample indicate a positive attitude toward continuing education programs in terms of helping to remove job dissatisfact ion. The other 66 per cent either had no job dissatisfactions or fe l t that education offered no solutions. Some ways that continuing education could help remove job dissat-isfactions include: - More specialized technical courses. - Courses on personal accomplishment and self-improvement for better per-formance . - General management courses. - Business methods courses including finance, law, and economics. (See Appendix II for detailed table.) 59 TABLE 6 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY NUMBER OF EMPLOYERS SINCE STARTING WORK IN THE ENGINEERING FIELD 1 Number of Employers 4 5 6 7 8 Total Number of Engineers Percent 30 22.06 29 21.32 32 23.53 6 4.41 16 11.76 2 1.47 7 5.15 12 8.82 2 1.47 136 100% TABLE 7 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY PRESENT JOB FUNCTION Number of Engineers Percentage Principle Job Function at Present: Research and development 10 7. ,35 Teaching (student or training director) 9 6. ,62 Design of systems or sub-systems 21 15. ,44 Marketing (application and sales) 12 8. .82 Engineering services ( ins ta l l ing , test ing, maintenance) 32 23. .53 Design for manufacture (production) 5 3. .68 Project planning 37 27. .21 Non-engineering (work unrelated to engineering) 2 1. .47 Other 8 5. .88 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100, .00% . Technical vs. Administrative Job Function: .35 Entirely technical function 10 7 75% technical - 25% supervisory 27 19, .85 50% technical - 50% supervisory 39 28 .68 25% technical - 75% supervisory 30 22 .06 75% supervisory - no technical background necessary 1 .74 Entirely supervisory - technical background necessary 28 20, .59 Entirely supervisory - no technical background 1 .74 necessary N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100, .00% Perceived Supervisory Role in Ten Years: .21 Entirely technical function 3 2, 75% technical - 25% supervisory 15 11. .03 50% technical - 50% supervisory 29 21, .32 25% technical - 75% supervisory 38 27 .94 Entirely supervisory 3 2 .21 Management and administration 44 32 .35 Retired (or don't know) 4 2 .95 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% 60 About 75 per cent of the engineers have had a promotion to a posi-tion of higher responsibil ity during the last f ive years. This figure is in l ine with the number of engineers who were satisf ied with their pre-sent working situation but there is no evidence to show that i t is the same 75 per cent or that promotion is the main c r i te r ia for job sat isfac-t ion. (TABLE 8) A majority (72 per cent) of the sample consider their technical engineering background to be very important to their present job func-t ion , while only 7 per cent feel i t is of l i t t l e importance or unnecess-ary. These figures are signif icant when you consider that about half of the sample are in management positions, and that many engineers in a technical position are not employed in their f i e ld of university t ra in -ing. It is apparent that a broad l iberal arts background is of some im-portance to an engineer in his job function as 88 per cent of the sample consider i t of some importance or compulsory, while only 17 per cent feel i t is unnecessary or of l i t t l e importance. It is in this area that con-tinuing education programs could greatly assist engineers to broaden their background, especially engineers entering the management f i e l d . The engineers are about evenly divided on whether or not they feel their present job function is becoming more specialized or more general-ized, with 36 per cent indicating more specialized and 38 per cent saying more generalized. Sl ightly over one-fourth (26 per cent) believe their job function remains about the same. (TABLE 9) Over half of the engineers work in town where they l ive and about 20 per cent are out-of-town (to work) at least half the time or more. This would affect continuing education programs as i t would be d i f f i c u l t for engineers working out-of-town to attend regularly scheduled courses. Exactly 50 per cent of the sample work over 40 hours per week, with the majority in the range of 40 - 60 hours. The implication is that engineers who work longer than 40 hours per week may not have time for regular continuing education programs on top of their work load. Over 30 per cent of the sample earn less than $15,000 per year. However, over 30 per cent earn more than $20,000 per year, with about 10 per cent earning over $30,000 per year. The largest group (35.29 per 61 TABLE 8 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY LEVEL OF SATISFACTION WITH WORK IN PRESENT POSITION Number of Engineers Percentage Level of Satisfaction with Work: Very sat isf ied Mainly sat isf ied Some satisfaction - some dissatisfaction Mainly dissatisf ied Very dissatisf ied 48 53 28 6 1 35.29 38.97 20.59 4.41 .74 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% Could continuing education programs  help remove any job dissatisfactions: Yes Possibly some No No response 16 31 85 4 11.76 22.79 62.50 2.94 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% Number of Years since Last Promotion: Less than 1 year 1 - 5 years 6 - 1 0 years More than 10 years No response  N = 136 TOTAL: 21 81 16 13 5_ 136 15.44 59.56 11.76 9.56 3.68 100.00% 62 TABLE 9 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY PERCEIVED RELEVANCE OF TRAINING Number of Engineers Percentage Relevance of specific engineering background  to present job function: Must have this background Very important Some importance L i t t l e importance Unnecessary 71 27 28 9 1 52.21 19.85 2 0 . 5 9 6.62 .74 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 1 0 0 . 0 0 % Relevance of a broad l iberal arts back- ground to present job function: Must have a l iberal arts background Important but not compulsory Some importance L i t t l e importance Unnecessary 22 52 45 1 1 6 16.18 38.24 33.09 8.09 4.41 = 136 TOTAL 136 1 0 0 . 0 0 % Specialized-generalized trend in  present job function: Much more specialized Sl ight ly more specialized About the same Slightly more generalized Much more generalized No response N = 136 TOTAL: 24 24 36 35 16 1 T 3 6 ~ 17.65 17.65 26.47 25.74 11.76 .74 1 0 0 . 0 0 % 63 TABLE 10 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY SPECIFIC WORKING CONDITIONS Number of Engineers Percentage Geographic Location of Work: In town (where you l ive) 72 52.94 75% in-town 36 26.47 50% in town 17 12.50 25% in town 5 3.68 Mostly out of town 6 4.41 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% Number of Work Hours per Week: 0 0 0.00 1 - 1 0 hours 0 0.00 21 - 40 hours 68 50.00 41 - 60 hours 61 44.85 Over 60 hours 7 5.15 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% Annual Income (Gross): Less than $5,000 per year 1 .74 $5,000 - $10,000 3 2.21 $10,000 - $15,000 40 29.41 $15,000 - $20,000 48 35.29 $20,000 - $25,000 20 14.71 $15,000 - $30,000 7 5.15 Over $30,000 per year 13 9.56 No response 4 2.94 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% 64 cent) earn in the range of $15,000 - $20,000 per year. With about 70 per cent of the engineers earning over $15,000 per year, salary may not be an important motivating factor for taking continuing education courses. (TABLE 10) PERSONAL FACTORS Over 94 per cent of the sample are married, and some 6 per cent are single or widowed. If family responsibil ity and obligations are re-lated to amount of time available for continuing education courses, then this is l i ke l y to be a significant factor in affecting the level of par-t ic ipat ion in programs. Over 71 per cent of the engineers f a l l in the age range of 35 - 54 years old with an equal number above and below. Most of the engineers (85 per cent) have been out of university for at least ten or more years, and about half for over twenty years.' In terms of proximity to formal education, this would represent a mature group with much practical work experience, rather than a fresh formal education background. Some 27 per cent of the wives have a university degree, while about two-thirds do not, and 43 per cent have never attended a university or college at a l l . About 11 per cent of the wives do not have high school graduation and about 34 per cent have nothing higher than high school graduation. The educational level of the wife can affect the willingness of the engineer to participate in continuing education. Those with higher educational levels can be expected to better understand the need for continuing study. This wi l l be considered in more detail later . As 80 per cent of the engineers reside within 30 miles of a center for continuing education offering engineering subjects, distance is not a legitimate barrier to participation except for the 10 per cent who reside more than 200 miles away from such a center and the 9 per cent who are between 30 and 200 miles away. Obviously regular engineering courses are available to at least 80 per cent of the sample. The other 20 per cent are severely handicapped with regard to attending courses on a regular basis. (TABLE 11) 65 TABLE 11 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY SELECTED PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS Number of Engineers Percentage Marital Status at Present: Single 6 4.41 Married 128 94.12 Widowed, separated, divorced 2 1.47 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% Age of the Engineer: Below 25 years old 0 0.00 25 - 34 20 14.71 3 5 - 4 4 49 36.03 4 5 - 5 4 48 35.29 55 - 64 18 13.24 65 years or older 1 ..74 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% Educational Level of Spouse: Less than high school graduation 15 11.03 High school graduation 31 22.79 Technical or vocational school 13 9.56 Some college or university work 33 24.26 Bachelor's degree(s) 33 24.26 Graduate degree(s) 4 2.94 Other (or not married) 7 5.15 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% Distance in Miles from U.B.C : 10 miles or less away 56 41.18 11 - 30 54 39.71 31 - 50 5 3.68 51 - 100 6 4.41 101 - 200 1 .74 More than 200 miles away 14 10.29 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% 66 EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND About 90 per cent of the sample have a bachelor's degree or high-er, while 15 per cent have a graduate degree. None of the engineers has less than 13 years of formal education. Only 25 per cent of the sample have ever taken credit courses beyond their f i r s t degree. About 75 per cent of the engineers received their bachelor's de-gree in engineering prior to 1961. Unless they have taken further courses since that degree, the majority of engineers have had no formal training in the past twelve years. Only 16.11 per cent have received a bachelor's degree within the past twelve years. Only 22 per cent of the sample received their bachelor's degree outside of Canada, while almost half received their degree here in Br i t ish Columbia. (TABLE 12) PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Since obsolescence is a major problem in professional engineering i t is important to consider the kinds of professional development that have occurred among the engineers in the province. Participation in professional development since 1966 has occurred primarily through in-service t ra in ing, with university courses a close second. Many engineers have been involved in more than one kind of pro-fessional development. The sample reported a total of 413 courses taken in the last 5 years, with 123 of these being sponsored by industry and 106 by the university. This is an average of some 3 courses per engineer in the past 5 years. It appears that management training courses have been the most popular type in the last 5 years, with technical courses ranking second. Almost half of the engineers have taken at least one management course since 1968, while only about 40 per cent have ta.ken a technical course, 15 per cent a l iberal arts course, and 18 per cent a personal interest or re-creation course. Since the same individual could be involved in a l l areas this does not indicate that different engineers were in each type of course. (TABLE 13) 67 TABLE 12 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY EDUCATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS Number of Engineers Percentage Number of Years of Formal Education: Less than 12 years High school graduation (12 years) 13 - 15 years (no university, no cert . ) Graduation from technical inst i tute 1 - 2 years university (no degree) 3 - 4 years university (no degree) University Bachelor's degree Post-graduate courses for credit Post-graduate degree (Master's or Doctorate) 0 0 0 4 2 5 91 13 21 .00 .00 .00 2.94 1.47 3.68 66.91 9.56 15.44 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% Bachelor's Degree in Engineering: No Working toward i t at present Yes 12 0 124 8.82 .00 91.18 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% Year Degree Received: Before 1930 1930 - 1940 1941 - 1950 1951 - 1960 1969 to present time No degree at present time 1 13 39 51 22 10 .74 9.56 28.68 37.50 16.18 7.35 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% Location of Degree: In Br i t ish Columbia Elsewhere in Canada United States Elsewhere in the world 66 30 7 23 48.53 22.06 5.15 16.91 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% 68 TABLE 13 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY PARTICIPATION IN CONTINUING EDUCATION Number of Number of Engineers Percent Courses Type of Course in Past 5 Years: U.B.C. credit courses or U.B.C. non-credit courses 46 33.82 106 Credit or non-credit courses taken at another university 9 6.62 25 Related courses at other educational centers 29 21.32 69 Industry-sponsored (in-service) courses 52 38.24 123 Technical Society, government or other courses 30 22.06 90 TOTAL: 136 100.00% 413 Subject Area of Courses Taken: Technical engineering courses 52 38.24 119 Management training courses 64 47.06 152 Related science or math courses 19 13.97 37 Liberal arts or humanities courses 21 15.44 47 Personal interest or recreation courses 25 18.38 47 Other 3 2.21 11 TOTAL: 136 100.00% 413 Number of Subscriptions to Trade or Professional Magazines: None 21 15.44 1 24 17.65 2 25 18.38 3 22 16.18 4 17 12.50 More than 4 subscriptions 27 19.85 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% Level of Participation in Part-Time Credit Courses toward a Further Degree in Engineering: Yes 32 23.53 No 86 63.24 Not sure 15 11.03 No response 2 1.47 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% 69 Engineers may feel strongly toward self -directed learning methods as part of their professional development, An indication of this is the number of personal magazine subscriptions they receive. Thirty-two per cent receive 4 or more subscriptions and close to half receive 3 or more. Only 15 per cent receive no subscriptions. (TABLE 13) The Engineer's Sources of Information The sources of information an engineer would use to keep up-to-date and abreast of new engineering developments were divided into 4 major groupings and l is ted in Table 14. The 4 groups include printed ma-ter ia ls (17 items), self -directed learning (5 items), educational programs (12 items), and audio-visual materials (3 items). Each engineer was able to choose as many items as he used regularly. In the f i r s t case, 4 sour-ces of printed materials of the 17 l is ted were used regularly by over half of the engineers. These sources include: sc ient i f i c and technical jour-nals, technical books or reports, manufacturer's l i terature , and l i t e r a -ture from the engineer's company. Sources least used (by less than 20 per cent of the sample) include: l i terature from other universities or tech-nical inst i tutes , l i terature from other societies outside of Br i t ish Columbia, l i terature from the U.B.C. Engineering Department, and the U.B.C. Centre for Continuing Education. In the second case, only 1 source of self -directed learning of the 5 l isted was used by over half of the engineers. This was discussion with fellow engineers, fr iends, or supervisors. Less than 25 per cent of the engineers use contact with practices of other industries or inst i tut ions, or consultants and special ists . In the third case, no educational sources, of the 12 l i s t e d , were used by over half of the engineers. Moreover, only 1 source was used by over 25 per cent of the sample. That was: lectures, conferences, and con-ventions (28 per cent of the sample). Sources least used (by less than 5 per cent of the sample) were: in-service courses sponsored by other com-panies, government-sponsored training programs, U.B.C. day-time courses, and courses sponsored by the professional society in B.C. In the fourth case, the use of audio-visual materials ranged from 35 per cent for newspapers, television and radio to only 10 per cent for f i lms, video tapes and audio tapes. 70 TABLE 14 SOURCES OF INFORMATION USED TO KEEP UP-TO-DATE AND ABREAST OF NEW ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENTS Sources of Information Yes c I No I Printed Materials Sc ient i f ic and technical journals 116 85 .29 20 14 .71 Technical books or reports 95 69 .85 41 30 .15 Manufacturer's l i terature 87 63 .97 49 36 .03 Literature from your own company 68 50 .00 68 50 .00 Literature printed outside of Canada 65 47 .79 71 52 .21 Company technical l ibrary material 64 47 .06 72 52 .94 Management and/or business journals 64 47 .06 72 52 .94 Business reports: marketing, sales, financial reports, etc. 63 46 .32 73 53 .68 Technical abstracts and indexes 60 44 .12 76 55 .88 Government data (al l levels) 56 41 .18 80 58.82 Journals in other f ie lds of engineering 51 37 .50 85 62 .50 Literature from Professional Society in B.C. 33 24 .26 103 75 .74 Literature from other companies 28 20 .59 108 79 .41 Literature from other universities or institutes 26 19 .12 110 80.88 Literature from other societies 23 16 .91 113 83 .09 Literature from U.B.C. Engineering Department 11 8 .09 125 91 .91 Literature from U.B.C. Centre for Continuing Education (Engineering Programs) 11 8 .09 125 91 .91 Self-Directed Learning Discussion with fellow engineers, fr iends, or supervisors 78 57 .35 58 42 .65 Self-directed learning (planned) 55 40 .44 81 59 .56 Home reference l ibrary 51 37 .50 85 62 .50 Contact with practices of other industries or institutions 30 22 .06 106 77 .94 Use of consultants or special ists 19 13 .97 117 86 .03 Educational Programs Lectures, conferences, and conventions 38 27 .94 98 72 .06 Professional society meetings 31 22 .79 105 77 .21 Workshops or in-service sponsored by your company 22 16 .18 114 83 .82 Seminars on specific topics 21 15 .44 115 84 .56 Courses at universities or institutions other than U.B.C. 15 11 .03 121 88 .97 U.B.C. Continuing Education courses (Engineering Division) 13 9 .56 123 90 .44 Engineering refresher courses 12 8.82 124 91 .18 Correspondence courses 7 5 .15 129 94.85 71 TABLE 14--Continued Sources of Information Yes % No % In-service courses sponsored by other companies 6 4.41 130 95.59 Government-sponsored training programs 5 3.68 131 96.32 U.B.C. day courses 4 2.94 132 97.06 Courses sponsored by the professional society in B.C. 1 .74 135 99.26 Audio-Visual Materials Newspapers, television and radio Libraries (city or university) Films, video tapes, and audio tapes 47 27 13 34.56 19.85 9.56 89 109 123 65.44 80.15 90.44 NOTE: More than one item may be selected by each respondent. 72 Printed materials appears to be by far the most popular source of information in an engineer's effort to keep up-to-date. Education pro-grams are the least used source. (TABLE 14) Ten per cent of the engineers regularly attend the Professional Association meetings, while 40 per cent do not attend at a l l and 50 per cent attend occasionally. TABLE 15 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY LEVEL OF PARTICIPATION IN THE PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION Participation in Professional Number of Engineering Association Engineers Percentage Do not attend local meetings 54 39.71 Attend local meetings occasionally 69 50.74 Attend local meetings regularly 13 9.56 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% Over half of the engineers in the sample indicated a low level of social part icipation. About 13 per cent of the sample are very active in organized act iv i t ies outside of work. TABLE 16 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY LEVEL OF PARTICIPATION IN ORGANIZED SOCIAL ACTIVITIES Level of Social Number of Participation * Engineers Percentage 0 44 32.35 Low 1 - 5 points 26 19.12 6 - 10 22 16.18 11 - 15 points 17 12.50 Medium 16 - 20 9 6.62 21 - 25 13 9.56 26 - 30 points 2 1.47 High 31 - 35 2 1.47 Over 35 points 1 .74 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% * Measured by the Chapin Social Participation Scale. 73 Over 55 per cent of the engineers are seldom or never offered training programs from the Society - or are unaware of what, i f anything, is being offered. Only 13 per cent claim they are offered useful training programs on a regular basis by the Society. Over 42 per cent of the sam-ple do not have access to company-sponsored in-house training courses, and a further 18 per cent only very seldom. Over 60 per cent of the engineers have some type of company-sponsored educational assistance program. (TABLE 17) . One-third of the engineers are actually encouraged and/or stimulated toward continuing education and training by their immediate supervisors. One-third of the supervisors take a non-commital att i tude, and one-third of the engineers don't know for sure what their immediate supervisor's at -titude is (or don't have an immediate supervisor). Some 38 per cent of the companies involved in this study have any positive influence on their engineers toward further continuing education programs or t ra ining, and only 12 per cent strongly influence and/or motivate the engineer. (TABLE 18) . THE NEED FOR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Almost half of the engineers agree that "technical obsolescence" of knowledge is a constant problem but not increasing in magnitude while 36 per cent feel that the problem is serious and, in fact , increasing in magnitude. Only 10 per cent f e l t that there is no problem, no increase, and in fact , is diminishing in significance. There is a strong feeling for the need to upgrade technical knowledge for the engineer's specific job function. About 40 per cent require constant upgrading, and close to a further 50 per cent require some upgrading as needs ar ise. Only 12 per cent require l i t t l e or no upgrading in their specific job area. No engin-eers stated that "technical obsolescence" does not apply, thus there ap-pears to be unanimous recognition that continuous learning is a major problem area in the engineering profession. Continuing education programs on a regular basis are considered to be very important by 37 per cent of the sample, however 48 per cent feel i t is only s l ight ly important, and 15 per cent believe that further educa-tion is not important at a l l to their specific job function. Since their feeling of the need for further education can be influenced by many other 74 TABLE 17 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY OPPORTUNITIES FOR CONTINUING EDUCATION AVAILABLE Number of Engineers Percentage Training Offered by Professional Society: Regularly offer training programs that are useful 18 13.24 Occasionally offer training programs that are useful 42 30.88 Seldom or never offer training programs 39 28.68 Not aware of what, i f anything, is being offered 37 27.20 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% Company Training: Yes 53 38.97 Very seldom 25 18.38 No 58 42.65 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% Courses on Company Time: Yes 85 62.50 No 29 21.32 Not sure 22 16.18 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% Assistance Program: Yes 83 61.03 No 41 30.15 Don't know 12 8.82 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% 75 TABLE 18 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY PERCEPTION OF ATTITUDE OF EMPLOYER TO CONTINUING EDUCATION Number of Engineers Percentage Action of Supervisor: Stimulates and assists engineer to up-date himself 45 33.09 Takes a non-commital attitude 46 33.82 Discourages further education and training 0 .00 Don't know for sure 16 11.76 Other 29 21.32 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% Company Policy: Strongly encourages-engineers to take further courses or training 16 11.76 Part ia l ly influences engineer 36 26.47 Has no influence on engineer 56 41.18 Discourages or hampers engineer 3 2.21 Company has no policy 21 15.44 Don't know 4 2.94 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% 76 variables, this factor was chosen as one of three prime factors in the study and wi l l be discussed in more detail later . (TABLE 19). Close to half of the engineers keep abreast of advancements in the engineering profession outside of Canada, 21 per cent are not too familiar or not at a l l aware, and 29 per cent are aware of advancements in their specific work area. There may be no relationship, however, between aware-ness, and actually keeping abreast of current advancements in their speci-f i c job function. (TABLE 19). Of those engineers who did participate in continuing education courses or training programs, 57 per cent did so to advance their techni-cal knowledge and, in effect , raise the state-of - the-art of the profession It is noteworthy that only 2 per cent choose further education as a means of entering a management or supervisory position and only 7 per cent as a means for a raise or promotion. Company pressure affected 2 per cent of the sample, while 4 per cent desired to transfer to a different f i e ld of engineering, and 7 per cent wished for an advanced degree. No participation in continuing education courses or training programs was re-ported by 21 per cent of the sample. Almost one-quarter of the engineers stated that they would par t i -cipate in a part-time degree program i f i t was offered. Moreover, 11 per cent were not sure, which means that a possible 35 per cent of the sample are l ike l y candidates for a part-time advanced degree program. About 55 per cent of the sample reported that their spouses would encourage them to participate in some form of continuing education pro-grams and 37 per cent claim an indifference on the part of the spouse, while only 3 per cent report that their spouses would discourage p a r t i c i -pation. This factor is probably a strong determinant of the level of par-t ic ipation of engineers in further training. (TABLE 20). Reasons for Non-Participation In an effort to determine why engineers do not participate in con-tinuing education programs, a l i s t of 19 specific reasons was drawn up (TABLE 21). The l i s t was divided into 4 major groups for analysis. The groups include: 3 reasons related to occupational factors, 4 related to personal factors, 11 related to educational factors, and 1 geographic 77 TABLE 19 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY PERCEPTION OF TECHNICAL OBSOLESCENCE AND NEED FOR CONTINUING EDUCATION Number of Engineers Percentage Level of Problem: A c r i t i c a l problem at present 4 2.94 Serious problem of increasing magnitude 47 34.56 Constant problem but not increasing 63 46.32 No problem and no anticipated increase 11 8.09 Diminishing in significance 2 1.47 Unaware of general picture 9 6.62 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% Level of Problem of Technical Obsolescence in Specific Work Area: Require constant upgrading to keep up 54 39.71 Require some upgrading as necessary 66 48.53 Require very l i t t l e upgrading 10 7.35 Present technical knowledge is suff icient 6 4.41 Does not apply in my work area 0 .00 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% Degree of Familiarity with Technical Advancements Outside of Canada: Keep currently abreast of a l l advancements 13 9.56 Keep abreast of most advancements 55 40.44 Only familiar with advancements that directly affect job function 39 28.68 Not too familiar with current advancements 25 18.38 Unfamiliar with any current advancements 4 2.94 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% Need for Regular C.E. jDroarams for His Job Function: Must have (on a regular basis) 18 13.24 Very important (on regular basis) 32 23.53 Sl ightly important (as required) 65 47.79 Not important 18 13.24 No need at a l l 3 2.21 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% 78 TABLE 20 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY REASONS FOR PARTICIPATING IN CONTINUING EDUCATION AND ATTITUDE OF SPOUSE  Number of Engineers Percentage Reasons for Participation in Continuing  Education or Training: Desire to broaden technical background for own satisfaction (include l iberal arts) 38 27, .94 Desire to advance knowledge in specific technical f ie ld 39 28, .68 Company "pressure" to take courses or training 3 2, .21 Desire to receive an advanced degree (credit) 10 7, .35 Would help to receive raise and/or promotion 10 7, .35 Desire to transfer to different f i e ld of engineering 5 3, .68 Best way into management or supervisory position 3 2, .21 To obtain better position with another employer 0 .00 To retain job during lay-off c r i s i s 0 .00 Did not participate at a l l 28 20, .59 * N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100, .00% Attitude of Spouse Toward an Engineer's Participation in Courses: Would (or does) strongly encourage the engineer for fu l l - t ime or part-time courses 37 27, .21 Would encourage the engineer but prefers i t be part-time programs 38 27, .94 Would neither encourage or discourage 50 36, .76 Would prefer no participation 3 2, .21 Would strongly discourage any participation 1 .74 No response (or not married) 7 ' 5! .15 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100, .00% 79 TABLE 21 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY REASONS FOR NOT PARTICIPATING IN CONTINUING EDUCATION PROGRAMS Reasons for Non-Participation Number of Engineers Percentage Occupational Factors Would not help to obtain a raise or promotion 30 22 .06 Could not obtain time off work 19 13 .97 No financial support from company 4 2 .94' Personal Factors Prefer to spend the time with family or friends 36 26 .47 Nothing of interest was available 32 23 .53 Programs did not f i l l personal needs 31 22 .79 Programs were too expensive 5 3 .68 Educational Factors Nothing in engineer's specific area was offered 25 18 .38 An advanced degree is of no use 25 18 .38 Such programs are not necessary to advance knowledge in a specific area 24 17 .65 Could obtain information and knowledge himself 23 16 .91 Such programs were not necessary to broaden technical background 16 11 .76 Because the courses are non-credit 7 5 .17 Courses are too advanced or too technically d i f f i c u l t 5 3 .68 Not happy with the quality of the programs offered 4 2 .94 Courses are too basic (not challenging) 4 2 .94 Not aware of programs unti l too late (poor communications) 2 1 .47 Don't believe in further education as such 1 .74 Geographic Factors Programs were not readily available 29 21 .32 NOTE: Engineers may choose more than one reason he feels is relevant. 80 factor. In the f i r s t case, the main occupational reason was that courses would not help to obtain a raise or promotion (22 per cent of sample). The least selected reason was lack of financial support from the company (3 per cent of the sample). In the second instance, there was 3 of the 4 personal reasons cho-sen about equally (23-26 per cent of the sample); while the fact that pro-grams were too expensive was the least picked reason (only 4 per cent of the responses). In the third case, 4 educationally-related reasons were about even in importance. They include: nothing in engineer's specific area was offered, an advanced degree is of no use, such programs are not necessary to advance knowledge in a specific area, and the engineer could obtain i n -formation and knowledge himself. The two least picked reasons were: not aware of programs unti l too la te , and don't believe in further education as such. In the last instance, one geographic factor was picked by 21 per cent of the sample. That i s , the programs were not readily available to them. Of the 6 most selected reasons for non-participation in continuing education, 3 were personal, 1 occupational, 1 geographic, and 1 education-a l . FUTURE GOALS The engineer's future goals w i l l have a large influence on the d i -rection the professional association and the university wi l l take i f the engineer's needs are to be adequately met. These goals (needs) are affec-ted by a great many factors acting on the engineers. One purpose of this study is to determine what the future goals of the engineers are, and what variables are influencing them (positively or negatively). The largest single group (35 per cent) choose self -directed learn-ing as their method of further education and upgrading. This is consis-tent with the findings in other professions. The feeling among many of the engineers is that they know what they need and can achieve the learn-ing experience on their own, and by choosing their own resource materials. 81 TABLE 22 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY PERCEPTION OF THE FUTURE Number of Engineers Percentage Sources in the Future: Continuing education at U.B.C. 38 27.94 Courses at some other university 9 6.62 Courses at a technical inst itute 3 2.21 In-service courses in industry 20 14.71 Professional Association sponsored courses 4 2.94 Government sponsored training 3 2.21 Correspondence courses 4 2.94 Self-directed learning 48 35.29 Other 6 4.41 No response 1 .74 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% Job Position Available in Next Ten Years: Only i f continue education, vigorously on credit courses and advanced degree 1 .74 Only i f I take credit or non-credit courses in f ie ld regularly 2 1.47 Only i f I take in-service training regularly 4 2.94 Only i f I study management subjects 8 5.88 St r ic t l y as a function of good work on the job (education is not a factor) 113 83.09 Other methods 8 5.88 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% Retrospective Choice of Education i f  You Could Start Over Again: An undergraduate engineering program (same) 56 4 1 . .18 Another type of profession (e.g. law, medicine, etc.) 22 16, .18 A l iberal arts or general education program 5 3, .68 A more sc ient i f ic engineering program than before 14 10. .29 A more general engineering program than before 31 22, .79 A business administration program 6 4. .41 Other 2 1. ,47 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100. ,00% 82 About the same number (35 per cent) choose university continuing education resources for further education. In-service training (15 per cent) made up the next largest group. (TABLE 22). Continuing education or training is not considered to be an impor-tant factor in achieving an advanced position over the next 10 years by 83 per cent of the sample. Rather, they believe that a change in position is s t r i c t l y a function of their performance on the job. Only 5 per cent of the sample see technical education or training as a method to achieve a higher posit ion, while 6 per cent see management education as the best means for upward mobility. The largest group (41 per cent) would choose the same engineering program i f they had their education to do a l l over again, 10 per cent wan-ted a more sc ient i f ic engineering program, and 23 per cent wanted an engin-eering program more general in context. A total of about 74 per cent of the sample then would take some form of engineering program over again. Of interest is the fact that 16 per cent of the engineers would choose an en-t i re l y different profession (e.g. law, medicine, etc.) and 8 per cent a l iberal arts or business administration program. (TABLE 22). Continuing Education Needs of Engineers  in Br i t ish Columbia Engineers are evenly divided on the future direction of their job functions, with 35 per cent claiming i t wi l l be more specialized and 37 per cent more generalized, while 27 per cent feel that i t w i l l remain about the same. (TABLE 23). TABLE 23 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY DIRECTION OF PRESENT JOB FUNCTION Number of Direction of Job Function Engineers Percentage Much more specialized Sl ightly more specialized About the same Slightly more generalized Much more generalized No response 24 24 36 35 16 1 17.65 17.65 26.47 25.74 11.76 .74 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% 83 There appears to be no agreement on any specific orientation of continuing education to serve a majority of interests. The engineers chose a l l types of programs with the only low response recorded for cour-ses related to engineering in the sciences and mathematics. There is a f a i r l y broad diversi f icat ion of engineers' interests with regard to technically oriented education. Areas that are not too popular are basic sciences (5 per cent) and mathematics (1.47 per cent). Of the sample, 20 per cent are not interested in technical subjects of any type. Of the sample, 41 per cent prefer a general management orientation for courses rather than a specif ic area, while 12 per cent of the sample have no interest at a l l in management type of courses. Over half of the engineers are interested in community and public relations or economics as an area of social science. Of interest is their lack of response to po l i t ics (1.47 per cent) or philosophy (3 per cent), however 10 per cent f e l t that English i s an important area to pursue. Management influences are noted in subjects such as economics (32 per cent), English (10 per cent)^ psychology and sociology (11 per cent), and public relations (23 per cent). (TABLE 24). About half of the engineers are satisf ied that their continuing education needs are being adequately met at the present time. The other half are equally balanced between no and only par t ia l l y . The 26 per cent who said no are the engineers who would most l i ke l y benefit from future modifications of continuing education programs, either by the university, by the Professional Association, or by industry. The 24 per cent whose needs are only part ia l ly met may also benefit by new concepts in continu-ing education programs. Of the 50 per cent whose needs are adequately be-ing met, there may be l i t t l e chance of convincing them of the need for further formal education or training (note that 35 per cent of the engin-eers use self -directed learning methods to upgrade themselves - TABLE 22). Exactly half of the sample do not intend to enroll in a continuing education course at the University of Br i t ish Columbia, however, 28 per cent indicate a definite yes and 22 per cent are uncertain. A good public relations program by the university could swing some of the uncertain re-sponses, and possibly some of the negative responses. Retaining the 84 TABLE 24 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY PERCEIVED NEED FOR CONTINUING EDUCATION Number of Engineers Percentage Orientation of Courses Preferred: Specialized - technical engineering General - technical engineering Part technical , part l iberal arts Liberal arts Specialized - management General management Related courses (sciences, math, physics) Not interested at present 24 17.65 17 12.50 18 13.24 14 10.29 19 13.97 25 18.38 5 3.68 14 10.29 136 100.00% N = 136 TOTAL: Area of Technical Education to Best  Fit Your Personal Needs: Basic sciences Engineering sciences Engineering analysis, design and systems Mathematics Communications s k i l l s Other Not interested in technical courses N = 136 TOTAL: 7 5.15 25 18.38 39 28.68 2 1.47 30 22.06 4 2.94 29 21.32 136 . 100.00% Area of Management Education to Best Fit Your Personal Needs: General management 56 41, .18 Personnel 12 8, .82 Financial 15 11, .03 Manufacturing 4 2, .94 Marketing and sales 4 2, .94 Research and development 8 5, .88 Design, systems and projects 21 15, .44 Other 0 .00 Not interested in management courses 16 11 .76 N = 136 TOTAL: . 136 100, .00% 85 TABLE 24--Continued Number of Engineers Percentage Area of Social Sciences to Best Fit Your Personal Needs: Community and public relations 31 22.79 Economics 43 31.62 English (speaking, composition, l i terature , etc.) 14 10.29 Fine arts (art, music, theatre, painting, etc.) 9 6.62 Foreign languages 7 5.1,5 History and geography 5 3.68 Philosophy 4 2.94 Pol i t i cs (or religion) 2 1.47 Psychology or sociology 15 11.03 Not at a l l interested 6 4.41 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% Are Your C.E. Needs Being Met at Present Time: Yes 67 49.26 No 35 25.74 Only part ia l ly 32 23.53 No response 2 1.47 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% Future U.B.C. Course Poss ib i l i t y : Yes 38 27.94 No 68 50.00 Uncertain 30 22.06 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% 86 support of the positive responses is also important. (TABLE 23). SUMMARY An engineering prof i le was developed to determine similar and unique characteristics representative of Br i t ish Columbia professional en-gineers - relevant to their continuing education needs and level of par t i -cipation. Over 75 per cent of the engineers in the sample were registered in one of three f ie lds of engineering - c i v i l , mechanical, or e lec t r i ca l . However, only 66 per cent are presently in those f ie lds . Mobility in en-gineering is indicated by the shift ing of engineering f ie lds among B.C. engineers. This mobility is an indication of the need for continuing pro-fessional education. Over 75 per cent of the sample work for an employer and are thus dependent on, and responsible to , an organization. Over 71 per cent of the engineers are in the age range of 35 - 54 with an equal number above and below. Over 60 per cent of the engineers have worked more than 15 years in the engineering f i e l d , and over 80 per cent have worked more than 10 years. There is an indication of a tremendous amount of practical ex-perience in the engineering profession in B.C. Of the sample 34 per cent have been with their present employer less than 6 years, while only 3 per cent have worked less than 6 years. Moreover, one-third of the sample have had more than 3 employers, and 10 per cent have had over 7. This would indicate a certain degree of job mobility among engineers. There is an even balance between the number of practicing engin-eers and the engineers involved in management functions. About half of the engineers are involved in project planning and design work, while only 14 per cent are connected with education, research, or development areas. About 75 per cent of the engineers spend at least half of their time in a supervisory role on the job, and only 7 per cent had no supervisory work at a l l . The engineers perceive less and less time in technical functions over the next 10 years, with a sharp increase in their supervisory role. Of the sample 25 per cent expressed various degrees of job dissat-isfact ions, while 34 per cent feel that continuing education would be use-ful in helping to remove any job dissatisfactions. 87 Of the sample 72 per cent consider their technical engineering background to be very important to their job function, however, over 85 per cent feel that a broad l iberal arts background is also important for work. Several factors are evident that make participation in formal con-tinuing education courses d i f f i c u l t for engineers. Almost half of the sample work out of town at least 25 per cent of the time; half of the sam-ple work over 40 hours per week; 94 per cent of the sample are married with family responsib i l i t ies ; 50 per cent of the engineers are over 45 years o ld ; and 20 per cent of the sample l ive more than 30 miles away from a location for continuing education which offers engineering subjects. About 90 per cent of the engineers have a bachelor's degree or higher, and 15 per cent have a graduate degree. Only 25 per cent of the sample have taken credit courses beyond their bachelor's degree, although 75 per cent of the sample received their degree previous to 1961. Regarding participation in continuing education, in-service t ra in -ing involves the greatest number of engineers, with U.B.C. courses a close second. Management courses have been the most popular since 1966 (50 per cent of sample). Of the sample 40 per cent have taken one or more techni-cal courses, and 35 per cent have taken l iberal ar ts , personal interest, or recreation courses. Most companies provide some in-service training or assistance, a l -though only one-third of the engineers are encouraged by their immediate supervisors to take further training. Only a small percentage of the re-spondents are currently enrolled for further training or education, a l -though 88 per cent feel they need i t . Only about 10 per cent of the respondents regularly attend pro-fessional association meetings, while 40 per cent never attend. Over half of the engineers f a l l into the low level of social participation (Chapin Scale), and only 13 per cent are active in organized act iv i t ies outside of work. Of the respondents, 85 per cent agree that "technical obsolescence" of engineering related knowledge is a constant problem and in fact increa-sing magnitude. An outstanding finding of the study is the engineer's feeling of 88 the c r i t i c a l need for upgrading, yet shows a lack of participation to achieve that end. The largest group of engineers (35 per cent) choose self -directed learning as their method of further education and upgrading in the future. These findings are consistent with other studies outlined in the background research. Exactly half of the sample do not intend on enrolling in a U.B.C. continuing education course. However, 28 per cent did indicate yes - some time in the future, while 22 per cent were uncertain. There is a definite need for better lines of communication, more company involvement, and a good public relations effort i f engineer par t i -cipation in continuing education is to increase s igni f icant ly . CHAPTER IV FACTORS AFFECTING CONTINUING EDUCATION IN ENGINEERING In order to make a more detailed analysis of factors affecting the participation of professional engineers in continuing education, a number of s ta t i s t i ca l tests were made in search of significant relat ion-ships among the variables studied. Three factors were used as dependent variables including participation in continuing education, feelings about the need for regular continuing education, and the engineer's feeling about his continuing education needs presently being met. In the f i r s t instance, participation in any organized continuing education act iv i ty during the 5 years preceeding the study was used as the dependent variable. In the second instance, feelings about the importance of regular continu-ing education programs were measured in a four point scale. In the third instance, the engineer's feeling about his education needs presently being met was measured on a three point scale. Four categories of independent variables were tested against the dependent variables and reported below. In conducting the tests for s ta t i s t i ca l significance, the c h i -square s ta t i s t i c was used on bivariate contingency tables at the .05 level of significance. Certain selected factors were then analyzed further using regression analysis of variance at the .05 and 0.10 levels of s ig -nificance. F inal ly , simple l inear correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis of variance at the .05 level of significance was used. A l l chi-square bivariate contingency tables at the .05 level or beyond for this chapter are to be found in Appendices I I I , IV and V (TABLES 65-119). LEVEL OF PARTICIPATION IN CONTINUING EDUCATION IN THE PAST FIVE YEARS Thirty selected independent variables related to occupational 89 90 factors were studied and four variables were found to be signif icantly re-lated to participation. The level of participation in continuing educa-tion is inversely related to the number of years an engineer has worked in engineering. This was significant at the .06 leve l . The level of par t i -cipation in continuing education is proportional to the number of em-ployees working for the company. This is significant at the .08 leve l . The level of participation in continuing education is s ignif icant -ly related to the number of graduate engineers in the engineer's div is ion. Significant at the .09 level . The engineer's level of participation in continuing education is s ignif icantly related to the number of engineers he supervises. S i g n i f i -cant at the .10 leve l . A further 23 selected independent variables were studied using the Fortran regression analysis program to find simple l inear correlation co-ef f ic ients . At the .05 level of significance only 1 variable was found to be signif icantly related. An engineer's level of participation in con-tinuing education is related to the percentage of course fees paid by the company. At the .10 level of significance a further 3 variables are s igni f -icantly related: Participation in continuing education is inversely related to the number of years an engineer has worked in the engineering f i e l d . It is directly related to the number of employees in the company location, and i t is d i -rectly related to the amount of time a company provides an engineer for professional development. Forty-five independent occupational variables were studied using the MV TAB Bivariate Contingency Tables program. (Chi Square Test). Eight variables were found to be s ignif icant ly related to the .05 level of s ig -nificance. There is a s ta t i s t i ca l l y significant relationship at the .005 level between the total number of courses taken by an engineer and his company's policy on conducting in-house training courses and workshops. An engineer's participation wi l l increase i f his company has such a pol -icy. (See TABLE 65). There is a s ta t i s t i ca l l y significant relationship at the .02 level 91 between the number of courses taken by an engineer and his company's pol -icy on an educational assistance program. An engineer's level of p a r t i c i -pation in continuing education wi l l increase i f his company has an educa-tional assistance program to aid in his professional development. Thirty-one out of 83 engineers have taken over 3 courses in the past 5 years where the company has an assistance program. Only 8 out of 50 engineers have taken over 3 courses in companies with no assistance program. Fourteen engineers have taken none. (See TABLE 66). There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant relationship between the num-ber of courses taken by an engineer, and the company's policy of paying tuit ion based on the engineer's course grades. An engineer's level of participation is higher i f the company does not base the rate of tuit ion i t w i l l pay on the engineer's grades in the courses in which he p a r t i c i -pates. (See TABLE 67). There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant relationship between the num-ber of courses taken by an engineer in the past 5 years and his employment status. Eighty-five of 105 engineers who work for an employer have taken 1 or more courses in the past 5 years, while only 12 of 23 self-employed engineers have taken 1 or more courses. Eleven of 23 self-employed en-gineers have taken no courses (48 per cent), while only 20. of 105 employed engineers have taken no courses (19 per cent). (See TABLE 68). There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant relationship between the en-gineer's level of participation in continuing education, and the level of satisfaction with his present work. An engineer tends to take more cour-ses as his level of job satisfaction decreases. This could be due, in part, to an engineer wishing to change his job or role in the company. Only 6 of 48 engineers who are sat isf ied with their present work have t a -ken more than 3 courses in the past 5 years, while 13 of 35 engineers who are dissat isf ied have taken more than 3 courses. (TABLE 69). The engineer's level of participation in continuing education is s ignif icantly related to the annual income from his employment. The num-ber of courses an engineer takes declines as his income increases. Thir-teen of 44 engineers making less than $15,000 per year have taken more than 3 courses in the past 5 years, while only 8 of 40 engineers making over $20,000 have taken more than 3 courses. Of the latter group 17 have 92 taken no courses at a l l in the past 5 years, compared to only 7 in the lowest income group. (TABLE 70). There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant relationship at the .01 level between an engineer's level of participation in continuing education and the action taken by his immediate supervisor to further the engineer's education or training. Engineers whose supervisors stimulate them to fur -ther their training or education tend to enroll in more courses. Fourteen of 45 engineers who are stimulated to take courses by their supervisors have taken more than 3 courses in the past 5 years, while only 4 engineers out of 33, whose supervisors take no action, have taken more than 3 cour-ses. (TABLE 71). There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant relationship between the en-gineer's level of participation in continuing education and motivation provided through the company policy on continuing education and training programs. Engineers who are encouraged by the company to take courses have a higher level of participation in continuing education than engin-eers who are discouraged by their company. Twenty-two out of 52 engineers who are motivated by the company have taken more than 3 courses in the past 5 years, while only 3 out of 24 engineers who are discouraged by their company have taken more than 3 courses. (TABLE 72). Personal Factors Four independent variables related to personal factors were tested for significance using the Fortran Regression Analysis Program to find simple linear correlation coeff ic ients. At the .05 level of significance 2 variables were found to be s ignif icant ly related to the engineer's level of participation in continuing education: a. The number of dependent children the engineer has who are l iv ing at home. b. The age of the engineer. Both of the above independent variables are inversely related to his level of participation in course work. That i s : as an engineer's family increases in s ize , and as he becomes older, his participation in continuing education decreases. Sixteen independent variables related to personal factors were tested against the engineer's level of participation in continuing 93 education using the MVTAB Chi Square Test at the .05 level of s i g n i f i -cance. Two variables were found to be s ignif icant ly related. There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant relationship between the en-gineer's level of participation in continuing education and the attitude of his spouse toward his participation in courses and training programs. Engineers who are encouraged by their spouses to participate in continuing education tend to take more courses than engineers whose spouses are non-committed or discourage the idea. Fifteen out of 37 engineers who were encouraged by their spouses took more than 3 courses in the past 5 years, while only 11 of 54 engineers whose spouses were indifferent or discour-aged the idea took more than 3 courses. (TABLE 73). There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant relationship between the en-gineer's level of participation in continuing education and the age of the engineer. As an engineer grows older, he tends to participate less in continuing education courses or training programs. Seven out of 20 engin-eers below the age of 35 took over 3 courses in the past 5 years, while only 14 out of 67 engineers over 45 years old took more than 3 courses. Only 1 engineer out of 20 under the age of 35 didn't take a course in the past 5 years, while 17 out of 67 over the age of 45 didn't take any cour-ses. (TABLE 74). Educational Factors Three independent variables related to the engineer's educational background were tested for significance using the Fortran Program. One variable was found to be s ignif icant ly related to the engineer's level of participation in continuing education. The engineer's level of part ic ipa-tion in continuing education programs is s ignif icant ly related to the amount of company time a firm wi l l allow the engineer to spend on pro-fessional development. Forty educationally related independent variables were tested against the engineer's level of participation in continuing education using the MV TAB Chi-Square Test at the .05 level of significance. Seven variables were found to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ignif icant . There is a s ta t i s t i ca l l y significant relationship between the en-gineer's level of participation and his level of formal education attained. Eleven of 11 engineers who do not have an engineering degree have taken 1 94 or more courses in the past 5 years. Six have taken more than 3 courses. Of the engineers with a bachelor's degree, only 22 of 91 have taken more than 3 courses, while 19 have taken none. Of the engineers who have some post graduate credit or an advanced degree, 14 out of 34 have taken no courses in the past 5 years. (TABLE 75). There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant relationship between the en-gineer's level of participation in continuing education and his se l f -evaluated deficiencies in his continuing education needs at present. It is interesting that 53 engineers don't know i f they have any deficiencies in their professional development. However, out of the 53 engineers, 40 have taken 1 or more courses in the past 5 years. Of the 29 engineers who feel they are deficient in l iberal arts (humanities) courses, 5 have taken more than 3 courses and 11 have taken none. Of the engineers who feel they are deficient in the area of management courses, only 2 of 11 have taken more than 3 courses. However, 10 out of 11 have taken 1 or more courses. The engineers who feel they are deficient in technical courses have the best participation leve l . Twenty out of 43 engineers have taken more than 3 courses in the past 5 years. (TABLE 76). There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant relationship between the en-gineer's level of participation in continuing education, and the f i e ld of engineering in which he received his professional registration. The 3 major f ie lds of registration ( C i v i l , Mechanical and Electr ical) produced about an equal amount of participation by i t s members. However, engineers in other f ields had a lower rate of participation. Only 7 of 31 engineers have taken over 3 courses in the past 5 years, while 14 (almost half) have taken none. (TABLE 77). An important relationship exists between the engineer's level of participation in continuing education, and sources of continuing education he would choose in the future. It is interesting to note that the largest group (48) picked self -directed learning as their future source of pro-fessional development. However, of the 48 engineers, 18 have not taken any courses in the past 5 years, while 13 have taken over 3 courses. En-gineers who picked U.B.C. courses for future professional development have the best record of past participation. Thirty-f ive of 38 have taken 1 or more courses in the past 5 years. This may indicate that they are planning 95 to maintain the same type of upgrading. (TABLE 78). Another important relationship is between an engineer's level of part ic ipation, and the method he would choose for taking continuing educa-tion courses in future. The majority (68) of the engineers would prefer short-concentrated courses. Of this group, 19 have never taken a course in the past 5 years. Evening courses rate second in popularity; however, only 7 engineers have taken over 3 courses and 8 have never taken any in the past 5 years. Engineers who prefer fu l l - t ime programs have the best level of part icipation. Eight of the 15 have taken over 3 courses and 13 have taken 1 or more courses. (TABLE 79). There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant relationship between the en-gineer's level of participation and the orientation of courses he would prefer in the future. Of the 13 engineers "not interested" in future courses, none have taken over 3 courses in the past 5 years; while 7 have taken no courses at a l l . The popularity of technical , l i b e r a l , and man-agement courses seems to be f a i r l y even. Eleven of 44 engineers who pre-fer a management course in the future have not taken a course in the past 5 years. Fourteen of the 32 engineers who picked a l iberal arts orienta-tion for the future have taken more than 3 courses in the past 5 years. (TABLE 80). An important factor to consider with an engineer's level of par-t ic ipat ion is his impression of the level of d i f f i cu l t y of the U.B.C. con-tinuing education courses. Eighty-one engineers of the 136 have never taken a U.B.C. continuing education course. Of the 10 engineers who feel the courses are too d i f f i c u l t , 7 have taken over 3 courses in the past 5 years. Of the 9 who feel the courses are too easy, only 1 has taken over 3 courses. Thirty-four of the 55 engineers who have taken a U.B.C. course fe l t that the courses were about r ight. (TABLE 81). Geographic Factors Six independent variables related to geographic factors were tes-ted against the engineer's level of participation in continuing education, using the Fortran Regression Program. One variable was found to be sta-t i s t i c a l l y significant at the .05 level of confidence. There is a s ignif -icant relationship between the engineer's level of participation and the amount of time he works out-of-town. The level of participation is pro-96 portional to the amount of time he spends working out-of-town. However, the distance an engineer l ives away from U.B.C. or a centre of continuing education was not s ignif icant ly related to his level of participation. Five independent variables related to geographic factors were tes-ted against level of participation using the TRIP Regression Program. Only 1 variable is s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant at the .06 level of confidence. The engineer's level of participation in continuing education is related inversely to the amount of time he spends travel l ing to (and from) work. Six geographic variables were tested against the engineer's level of participation using the MV TAB Chi-Square Test. None were found to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ignif icant . Multiple Regression Analysis of an Engineer's Level  of Participation in Continuing Education Thirty-three independent variables having a numerical value were tested against the engineer's level of participation in continuing educa-tion over the past 5 years, using the Fortran Multiple Regression Analysis Program. With regard to the total number of courses an engineer has taken in the past 5 years - 15 per cent of the variation can be attributed to the following independent variables: - Percent of an engineer's working time spent on professional development. - Inversely to the number of years he has worked as an engineer. - Inversely to the percentage of working time out-of-town. - The number of engineers he supervises at work. The Multiple Coefficient of determination is 15 per cent. R2 = 0.15005 The main dependent variable has been broken down into more speci-f i c areas of an engineer's level of participation in continuing education. The following is the more specific dependent variables and s ta t i s t i ca l l y related independent variables. Number of U.B.C. courses taken - 12.5 per cent of the variation can be attributed to the following independent variables: - Inversely to the number of years an engineer has worked in the engineering f i e l d . 97 - Percent of work time spent on professional development. Multiple Coefficient of determination is 12.5 per cent. R2 = 0.12538 Number of in-service courses taken - 14 per cent of the variation can be attributed to the following independent variables: - Number of employees in company location. - Number of engineers the engineer supervises. - Inversely to the age of the engineer. Multiple Coefficient of determination is 14 per cent. R2 = 0.14083 Number of professional society, government of other courses -10.5 per cent of the variation can be attributed to the following inde-pendent variables: - Number of engineers he supervises - Percent of work time spent on professional development. Multiple Coefficient of determination is 10.5 per cent. R2 = 0.10520 Number of technical courses taken - 11 per cent of the variation can be attributed to the following independent variables: - Inversely to the number of years worked as an engineer. - Number of engineers he supervises. - Inversely to the number of technicians and support personnel he supervises. Multiple Coefficient of determination is 11 per cent. R2 = 0.10950 Number of management courses taken - 13.8 per cent of the varia-tion can be attributed to the following independent variables: - Percent of work time spent on planning and organizing. - Inversely to the age of the engineer. Multiple Coefficient of determination is 13.8 per cent. R2 = 0.13781 Number of related science or mathematics courses taken - 9 per cent of the variation can be attributed to the following independent var i -ables : - Travelling time from home to work. 98 - Percent of work time spent on professional development. Multiple Coefficient of determination is 9 per cent. R2 = 0. 09032 Number of l iberal arts (humanities) courses taken - 3.3 per cent of the variation can be attributed to the independent variable: - Inversely to the number of years an engineer has worked in the engineering f i e l d . Multiple Coefficient of determination is 3.3 per cent. R2 = 0.03341 Number of personal interest courses taken - 5.8 per cent of the variation can be attributed to the independent variables: - Number of years with his present employer. - Inversely to the annual income of the engineer. Multiple Coefficient of determination is 5.8 per cent. R2 = 0.05772 Number of correspondence courses taken - 3.3 per cent of the va r i -ation can be attributed to the independent variable: - The number of dependent children l i v ing at home. Multiple Coefficient of determination is 3.3 per cent. R2 = 0.03263 THE ENGINEER'S FEELING ABOUT THE NEED FOR REGULAR CONTINUING EDUCATION PROGRAMS FOR HIS JOB FUNCTION This is the second dependent variable in the study. The engin-eer's feeling about the need for regular continuing education programs for his job function is c lass i f ied into three divisions for a l l the s t a t i s t i -cal analysis, as follows: (1) A very important need (50 engineers) (2) A s l ight ly important need (65 engineers) (3) Not important at a l l (21 engineers) This dependent variable is based entirely on the individual engin-eer's impression of his current work role , rather than on a numerical value as was the f i r s t dependent variable. Thus i t is a subjective analy-sis of opinion. 99 Occupational Factors Twenty-five independent variables related to occupational factors were compared with the feeling about the need for regular continuing edu-cation programs for his job function, using the TRIP Regression Analysis Program. At the .05 level of significance or beyond, 3 variables are sta -t i s t i c a l l y s ignif icant . They are as follows: - The percentage of an engineer's working time spent on economic evaluation (.01 level ) . - The percentage of an engineer's working time spent on self -directed learning (.03 level ) . - The percentage of an engineer's working time spent on direct supervision of others (.007 leve l ) . At the 0.1 level of signif icance, 3 further variables are related to the engineer's feeling about the need for regular continuing education programs. They are: - The number of graduate engineers in his division (.10 level) - The number of support personnel he supervises (.10 level) - Inversely related to the percentage of working time an engineer spends teaching (.09 leve l ) . Forty-five independent variables related to occupational factors were tested against the dependent variable using the MV TAB - Chi-Square Test at the .05 level of significance. Three variables were found to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ignif icant . There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant relationship between the en-gineer's feeling about the need for regular continuing education programs and whether or not the company has an educational assistance program. En-gineers who work for companies with an educational assistance program have a greater feeling of the need for regular continuing education programs for their specific job functions. Only 8 out of 83 engineers whose com-pany has an educational assistance program fe l t that the need is not im-portant, while 13 out of 50 engineers working for a company without a pol -icy fe l t that the need was not important. (TABLE 82). There is a s ta t i s t i ca l l y significant relationship between the en-gineer's feeling about the need for regular continuing education programs and his level of satisfaction with his present job function. 100 Of the 35 engineers who are dissatisf ied with their present job function, 13 feel that a regular continuing education program is very im-portant while 8 believe i t is not important. Of the 48 engineers who are very sat isf ied with their job, 22 feel the need for a regular continuing education program is very important and only 9 believe i t is not important (TABLE 83). There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant relationship between the en-gineer's feeling about the need for regular continuing education programs, and the motivation provided to the engineer through company policy on con-tinuing education. Engineers who are encouraged by their companies tend to feel stronger toward the need for regular continuing education pro-grams. Of the 16 engineers who are strongly encouraged by their company pol icy, 11 feel that regular continuing education programs are very im-portant, while only 1 engineer feels that i t is not important. (TABLE 84) Of the 24 engineers who are discouraged by their company policy only 7 be-lieve that regular programs are very important, while 8 feel that regular programs are not important. Personal Factors Four independent variables related to personal factors were tested using the TRIP Regression Analysis Program. Only 1 variable was s ta t i s -t i c a l l y signif icant (.08 level of confidence). The engineer's feeling about the need for regular continuing education programs for his job func-tion varied inversely to the number of years he resided in Br i t ish Columbia. Engineers new to Br i t ish Columbia tended to feel stronger about the need for regular programs, while long-time B.C. residents fe l t less strongly. Sixteen variables related to personal factors were tested against the dependent variable using the MV TAB Chi-Square Test at the .05 level of confidence. Five variables were found to be s ta t i s t i ca l l y s ignif icant. There is a s ta t i s t i ca l l y significant relationship between the en-gineer's feeling about the need for regular continuing education programs and his present marital status. Of the 8 single (divorced, separated, widowed, etc.) engineers, none fe l t that the need for regular programs was very important; while 3 fe l t that the need was not important. Of the 128 married engineers, 50 fe l t that the need for regular programs was very 101 important, and only 18 fe l t that i t was not important. (TABLE 85). There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant relationship between the en-gineer's feeling about the need for regular programs, and his present situation on accommodation. Engineers who own their own homes tend to feel stronger toward the need for regular continuing education programs. Only 3 of 22 engineers who rent feel the.need for regular programs is very important, while 47 out of 114 engineers who own their homes fe l t the need as very important. (TABLE 86). There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant relationship between the en-gineer's feeling about the need for regular continuing education programs and his feeling about the problem of "technical obsolescence" of knowledge in the engineering profession. Engineers who believe that "technical obsolescence" in the engineering profession is a serious problem feel strongly about the need for regular continuing education programs as a method to help overcome the problem. (TABLE 87). There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant relationship between the en-gineer's feeling about the need for regular continuing education programs and the amount of upgrading they require to overcome the problem of "technical obsolescence" of knowledge in their specif ic work area. En-gineers who require constant upgrading to overcome the problem of "tech-nical obsolescence" in their specific work area feel strongly about the need for regular continuing education programs. None of the 16 engineers who require very l i t t l e upgrading f e l t that regular programs were very important. However, 32 of the 54 engineers who require constant upgrading fe l t the need for regular programs was very important and only 6 fe l t that the need was not important. (TABLE 88). There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant relationship between the en-gineer's feeling about the need for regular continuing education programs and the attitude of his spouse toward his participation in continuing education. Engineers who are encouraged by their spouses to participate in continuing education programs feel strongly about the need for regular continuing education programs. Twenty-three of 37 engineers, who are en-couraged by their spouse, feel the need for regular programs is very im-portant; while only 9 of 54 engineers, who are discouraged by their spou-ses, feel that regular programs are very important, and 14 feel i t is of 102 no importance. (TABLE 89). Educational Factors Fifteen numerical independent variables related to educational factors were tested against the engineer's feeling about the need for reg-ular continuing education programs using the TRIP Regression Analysis Program. At the .05 level of confidence, 1 variable was found to be s ig -ni f icant ly related. The number of personal interest and/or recreation courses an engineer has taken over the last 5 years is related to his feeling about the need for regular continuing education programs. At the 0.1 level of confidence the number of industry-sponsored courses an engin-eer has participated in over the last 5 years is related to his feeling about the need for regular programs. Using the MV TAB Chi-Square Test on 44 independent variables re la -ted to educational factors, 10 proved to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant at the .05 level of confidence. Tables to be found in the Appendix. There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant relationship at the .04 level between the engineer's feeling about the need for regular continuing edu-cation programs for his job function, and the relevance of a specific en-gineering background to his present area of work. Engineers who must have a specific engineering background feel strongly about the need for regular programs. Thirty-one engineers out of 71 who fe l t they must have a speci-f i c engineering background also fe l t the need for regular continuing edu-cation programs; while none of the 10 engineers who didn't need their specific background, f e l t a need for regular programs. (TABLE 90). There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant relationship at the .04 level between an engineer's feeling about the need for regular continuing educa-tion programs and the educational attainment of his spouse. The engineer whose spouse achieved a high level of education tends to feel strongly about continuing education programs for himself. Out of the 48 engineers whose spouses have high school graduation only, only 11 fe l t the need for regular programs was very important; while of 37 engineers whose spouses had a university degree, 15 fe l t the need for regular programs was very important. Interestingly, the group of engineers who fe l t the strongest about the need for regular programs was the 46 engineers whose spouses had some university credit. Twenty-four fe l t the need for regular programs 103 was very important, while only 7 f e l t the need was not important. (TABLE 91). There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant relationship, at the .04 leve l , between the engineer's feeling about the need for regular programs and the ava i lab i l i t y of engineering credit courses in his area. His f e e l -ing about the need for regular courses is higher in areas where regular credit courses are offered. In such an area, 31 of 66 engineers fe l t a strong need for regular courses; while in an area where no courses are available, only 12 of 45 engineers fe l t a strong need to take courses. It is interesting to note that of the 103 engineers in the lower mainland, only 66 were aware of regular courses being offered. (TABLE 92). There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant relationship, at the .01 leve l , between an engineer's need for regular programs and the level of course fees charged at U.B.C. (the engineer's major source of continuing education programs). Of 57 engineers who are unaware of course fees, only 14 feel that regular courses are very important. Of 41 engineers who feel that the course fees are too high, 16 believe that regular courses are very important. Thirty-eight feel that the course fees are about r ight , and 20 of this group believe that regular courses are very important. (TABLE 93). There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant relationship, at the .03 leve l , between an engineer's feeling about the need for regular continuing education programs and the area of technical education that would best f i t his personal needs. Of the 29 engineers not interested in technical cour-ses, only 6 fe l t the need for regular programs was very important. Of the 32 engineers interested in basic engineering sciences, 9 fe l t strongly about the need for regular programs. Of the 36 engineers interested in communications and mathematics, 13 fe l t strongly about the need for regu-lar courses. The group with the strongest feeling about the need for regular programs was the 39 engineers interested in engineering analysis, design, and systems. Of this group, 22 fe l t strongly about the need for regular programs. (See TABLE 94). There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant relationship, at the .05 leve l , between an engineer's feeling about the need for regular continuing education programs, and the orientation he would prefer for a continuing 104 education course. Engineers who prefer technical courses have the strong-est feeling about the need for regular programs. Of the 46 engineers who prefer technical courses, 23 feel the need for regular programs is very important. Eleven of 32 engineers who prefer l iberal arts courses feel a strong need for regular programs; and 13 of 44 engineers interested in management courses feel a strong need for such courses. Thirteen engin-eers indicated no interest in any type of course, yet 3 fe l t the need for regular programs was very important (see TABLE 95). There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant relationship, at the .01 leve l , between the engineer's feeling about the need for regular continu-ing education programs, and the orientation of management courses to best suit his personal needs. Engineers interested in the design, research, and development areas of management fe l t the strongest about the need for regular programs. Of the 29 engineers in this group, 16 indicated the need for regular programs was very important. Of the 56 engineers inter -ested in general management, 19 indicated the need for regular programs was very important; while of 35 engineers interested in specific manage-ment, only 8 fe l t the need was very important. Sixteen engineers were not interested in management courses. (See TABLE 96). There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant relationship, at the .01 leve l , between the engineer's feeling about the need for regular continu-ing education programs, and the extent of his self -directed learning ex-periences over the last 5 years. Engineers who are engaged in se l f -directed learning experiences feel stronger about the need for regular continuing education than those who do not participate. Out of 72 engin-eers who do not participate in self -directed learning, only 20 feel the need for regular programs is very important; while of the 64 engineers who do participate, 30 feel the need for regular programs is very impor-tant, and only 12 feel i t is not important. (See TABLE 97). There is a s ta t i s t i ca l l y significant relationship, at the .005 leve l , between the engineer's feeling about the need for regular continu-ing education programs, and his desire to participate in part-time credit courses toward a further degree. Engineers wi l l ing to participate in such a program feel strongly about the need for regular programs, while engin-eers not interested in part-time credit courses feel much less strongly 105 about the need for regular programs. Of the 32 engineers who would par-t ic ipate in part-time credit courses, 19 fe l t the need for regular pro-grams was very important, and only 3 fe l t i t was not important. Of the 86 engineers not interested in credit courses, 25 fe l t the need for regu-lar programs is very important, while 17 fe l t i t i s not important. F i f -teen engineers were not sure about taking credit courses (see TABLE 98). There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant relationship, at the .001 leve l , between the engineer's feeling about the need for regular continu-ing education programs, and his poss ib i l i ty of enrolling in a U.B.C. course in the future. Engineers who wi l l possibly take a U.B.C. course in the future feel much stronger about the need for regular programs than those engineers who do not plan to attend a future course. Of the 68 en-gineers who do not plan to attend a future course, only 14 feel the need for regular programs is very important and 16 feel i t is not important. However, of the 38 engineers who do plan to take a course, 18 feel the need for regular courses is very important, while only 3 feel i t is not important. Of the 30 engineers who are uncertain about taking a course, 18 feel the need is very important, and only 2 believe there is no need to take regular courses (see TABLE 99). Geographic Factors Nine independent variables related to geographic factors were tes-ted using the MV TAB Chi-Square Test. No variables tested against the en-gineer's feeling about the need for regular continuing education programs were found to be significant at the .05 leve l . Five independent geographic variables were tested against the de-pendent variable using the TRIP Regression Analysis Program. One variable was found to be signif icantly related at the .05 leve l . The engineer's feeling about the need for regular continuing education programs is sta-t i s t i c a l l y related to the distance the engineers must travel to the near-est Professional Society meetings (.004 level of significance). THE ENGINEER'S FEELING TOWARD HIS CONTINUING EDUCATION NEEDS PRESENTLY BEING MET This third dependent variable in the study was divided into 3 106 categories: 1. Yes - the engineer's continuing education needs are presently being met (67 engineers). 2. No - the engineer's needs are not presently being met (67 engineers). 3. No response - (2 engineers). This dependent variable was tested against 4 groups of selected independent variables using the MB TAB Chi-Square Test for significance at the .05 level or beyond. Complete tables are found in Appendix V. Occupational Factors Forty-four independent variables related to occupational factors were tested against the engineer's feeling about his continuing education needs presently being met. Six variables were found to be s ta t i s t i ca l l y s ignif icant. There is a s ta t i s t i ca l l y signif icant relationship at the .008 leve l , between the engineer's continuing education needs presently being met, and whether or not the rate of course tuit ion paid by his company is based on course grades. Engineers, whose companies do not base tuit ion on course grades, feel their needs are being met to a greater degree than engineers whose companies base tuit ion on course grades. Only 10 of 34 engineers, whose company bases rate of tuit ion on course grades, feel their educational needs are being met; while 43 of 74 engineers, whose company does not, feel their needs are being met. Twenty-eight engineers do not know the policy of the company. (See TABLE 100). There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant relationship, at the .004 leve l , between the engineer's continuing education needs presently being met, and the number of years the engineer has worked in the engineering f i e l d . Only 6 of 25 engineers, who have worked less than 10 years, feel their needs are being met ; while 49 of 82 engineers, who have worked over 15 years, feel their needs are being met. It would appear that the longer an engineer works in engineering the stronger are his feelings that his continuing education needs are being met, although this feeling does not come from greater participation in courses (see level of participation versus age of the engineer in Chapter IV. (TABLE 101). 107 There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant relationship, at the .008 leve l , between an engineer's education needs being met, and the number of years he has worked for his present employer. The longer an engineer works for the same company, the greater he believes his education needs are being met. Of the 35 engineers who have worked for the same employer for over 15 years, 24 feel their needs are being met; while of the 46 en-gineers who have worked for the same employer less than 5 years, only 16 believe their needs are being met. This would indicate that continuing education has an important role for engineers who are changing jobs since they f e e l , to a much greater degree, that their needs are not being met. (See TABLE 102). There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant relationship, at the .02 leve l , between an engineer's education needs being met, and the c l a s s i f i -cation of the engineer's company. Private industry has the greatest per-centage of engineers who feel their education needs are not presently be-ing met. Of the 79 engineers, only 32 feel their needs are being met; while 14 out of 27 in Public U t i l i t i e s have their needs being met, and 21 out of 30 in educational inst i tut ions. It is interesting to note that 9 of 30 engineers involved in education do not feel their needs are being met. (See TABLE 103). There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant relationship, at the .01 leve l , between the engineer's continuing education needs being met, and gross annual income of the engineer. Engineers making higher salar ies, to a greater degree, feel their education needs are presently being met. Of the 44 engineers making under $15,000 per year, only 16 believe their needs are being met; while of the 40 engineers making over $20,000 per year, 27 have their needs met. This could indicate that engineers on a lower salary tend to view education as a method of obtaining advancement in the company as well as increased salaries. (See TABLE 104). There is a s ta t i s t i ca l l y significant relationship, at the .01 leve l , between the engineer's continuing education needs being met, and the f ie ld of engineering of the company. Engineers who work for companies involved in c i v i l engineering are most inclined to feel their education needs' are being met. Of this group of 30 engineers, 22 feel their needs aTe met. Electr ical has 15 of 32, and mechanical is the lowest with only 108 9 of 29 engineers with needs met. Forty-five engineers in "other" com-panies are divided evenly on needs being met. (See TABLE 105). Personal Factors Eighteen independent variables related to personal factors were compared to the engineer's continuing education needs being met. At the .05 level or beyond, 4 variables were found to be s ignif icant ly related. There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant relationship, at the .05 leve l , between an engineer's continuing education needs being met, and the engineer's service on a professional society committee. Engineers who serve on such committees are more inclined to feel that their needs are being met. Of the 39 engineers who have served on committees, 24 feel their needs are met; while of the 97 who have not served, only 43 have needs met. (See TABLE 106). There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant relationship, at the .0002 leve l , between the engineer's educational needs being met, and his age. An engineer's feeling that his educational needs are being met increases with his age. Of the 67 engineers who are 45 or over, 43 feel their needs are met. However, of the 20 engineers under 35, only 3 feel s imi lar ly , while 17 believe their needs are not presently being met. In the age group 35-44 there were 21 yes and 28 no responses. Interestingly, i t is the younger engineers who have a higher level of participation in continu-ing education, yet they feel stronger about their needs not being met. (Level of participation versus age was covered earl ier in Chapter IV, need versus age is TABLE 74, and see TABLE 107.) There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y significant relationship at the .02 leve l , between the engineer's educational needs being met and his per-ceived management-technical job function in the next 10 years. Engineers planning an increase in supervisory duties tend to feel stronger about their needs not being met. Of the 85 engineers who perceive mainly super-visory work in the next 10 years, 42 feel their educational needs are not being met. However, of the 18 engineers who perceive a mainly technical function, only 5 feel their needs are not met. There is an indication that continuing education programs could play a large role in an engin-eer's move into (or ahead in) management. (See TABLE 108). There is a s ta t i s t i ca l l y significant relationship, at the .003 109 leve l , between the engineer's educational needs being met, and his f i e ld of engineering for professional registration. In c i v i l engineering, 28 of 42 feel their needs are met; in e l e c t r i c a l , only 12 of 27; and in mechanical, only 10 of 36. It may be concluded that c i v i l engineers have a better opportunity to participate in educational a c t i v i t i e s , or that their f i e ld requires a lesser amount of upgrading. Earl ier in Chapter IV i t was determined that c i v i l engineering had the lowest level of p a r t i c i -pation in continuing education programs, with electr ical next and mechani-cal the highest. This seems to be exactly reverse to the order of their needs being met. (See TABLE 77 and TABLE 109). Educational Background Forty-eight independent variables related to educational factors were compared to the engineer's continuing education needs presently be-ing met. At the .05 level or beyond, 8 factors were signif icantly re la -ted. There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant relationship, at the .002 leve l , between the engineer's educational needs being met, and the year the engineer received his professional registration. The longer an engineer has been registered, the more l ike ly he is to feel his continuing education needs are being met. Of the 55 engineers registered after 1960, only 18 fe l t their needs are sat is f ied ; while of the 30 registered previous to 1950, 21 f e l t their needs f u l f i l l e d . This factor further i l lustrates a disparity between age, level of part ic ipa-t ion , and needs being met - as pointed out ear l ier . (See TABLE 110). There is a s ta t i s t i ca l l y significant relationship, at the .00003 leve l , between the engineer's educational needs being met, and the year he received his bachelor's degree in engineering. The farther back an en-gineer received his degree the more l ike ly he is to feel his educational needs are presently being met (similar to the year of registration). Of the 53 engineers who received their degree previous to 1950, 37 have no educational needs; while of the 22 whose degrees came after 1960, only 3 have their needs met and 19 are unsatisfied. The engineers who graduated between 1951 - 1960 are fa i r l y evenly divided (22 - no needs, 18 - needs). (See TABLE 111). 110 There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant relationship, at the .01 leve l , between the engineer's educational needs being met, and his aware-ness of credit courses being offered and available to him. Engineers who are aware of courses offered are more inclined to have their educational needs met. Of the 66 engineers who are aware of courses, 42 have their needs satisf ied while of the 45 who are unaware of courses, only 15 have no needs. Engineers who are sometimes aware of courses are evenly divided on needs (10 - no needs, 12 - needs). (See TABLE 112). There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant relationship, at the .003 leve l , between the engineer's educational needs being met, and his aware-ness of general adult education courses offered and available. Of the 74 engineers who are aware of courses, 43 have no educational needs while of 35 engineers who are "sometimes" aware of courses, only 9 have needs sat-isf ied and 26 do not. (See TABLE 113). There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant relationship, at the .02 leve l , between the engineer's educational needs being met, and the type of U.B.C. program that would best meet his personal needs. Engineers who would prefer a U.B.C. non-credit course are more inclined to feel they have their educational needs met than engineers who would choose credit work. Of the 93 engineers who would choose non-credit courses, 52 feel their needs sat is f ied ; while of the 39 who would choose credit courses, only 13 have needs met. (TABLE 114). There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant relationship, at the .001 leve l , between the engineer's educational needs being met and whether or not he would participate in credit courses toward a further degree i f courses were made available, and part-time. Engineers who would pa r t i c i -pate in such courses show stronger indications of needs not being met. Of the 32 engineers in this group, 25 indicate educational needs are not be-ing met while of the 86 engineers who would not participate, only 34 show needs unsatisfied. However, the needs of the latter group could be sat-is f ied by methods other than credit courses. (See TABLE 115). There is a s ta t i s t i ca l l y significant relationship, at the .02 leve l , between the engineer's educational needs being met, and the orien-tation of continuing education courses he would prefer. Engineers who would choose technical courses indicate the greatest level of unsatisfied I l l educational needs. Of the 46 engineers who would choose technical cour-ses, 29 show needs not met; of the 44 who would choose managerial courses, 23 indicate needs not met; and of the 32 who would choose l iberal arts courses, only 13 show needs not met. Of the 13 engineers not interested in any type of courses, 10 indicate their needs are met. (See TABLE 116). There is a s t a t i s t i c a l l y signif icant relationship, at the .01 l eve l , between the engineer's educational needs presently being met, and courses combining elements of engineering and social sciences they find most interesting. Of the 50 engineers who picked "technology and human values", 29 indicated their educational needs are not met. Of 27 who picked "technology and economics", 10 had needs; and of the 44 who picked "technology and the environment", 17 had needs unsatisfied. (See TABLE 117). Geographic Factors Six independent variables related to geographic factors were com-pared to the dependent variable. At the .05 leve l , 2 variables were s ig -n i f icant ly related. There is a s ta t i s t i ca l l y signif icant relationship at the .03 level between the engineer's educational needs presently being met, and the d is -t r i c t in which the engineer works. Engineers who l ive away from the lower mainland (location of the U.B.C. campus and the B.C. Professional Engineering Association) are more inclined to have continuing education needs that are not being met than those who are in close proximity. Of the 103 engineers who l ive in the lower mainland, only 46 feel their needs are not being met. However, of the 33 engineers in areas away from the lower mainland, 21 believe they have educational needs not sat isf ied. In part icular, of the 15 Vancouver Island engineers, 12 believe their needs are not adequately being met, and only 3 feel they are. (See TABLE 118). There is a s ta t i s t i ca l l y significant relationship, at the .001 leve l , between the engineer's educational needs presently being met, and the engineer's distance away from his professional engineering society meetings. Engineers who are in close proximity to society meetings are more inclined to feel their educational needs are being met. Of the 85 engineers within 10 miles of a society meeting location, 52 feel their 112 needs are being met; while of the 50 who are more than 10 miles away, only 15 have needs sat is f ied . Furthermore, of the 25 engineers over 20 miles away, only 6 have needs met. (See TABLE 119). SUMMARY The 3 dependent variables in this study were checked against 4 major groupings of independent variables. The cross tabulations were sta-t i s t i c a l l y tested for significance at the .05 level of confidence. The 3 dependent variables tested are: the level of participation in continuing education programs over the last 5 years; feeling about the need for regu-lar continuing education programs; and feeling about continuing education needs presently being met. The 4 groups of independent variables are: occupational factors, personal factors, educational background, and geo-graphic factors. The level of participation in continuing education was related at a s ta t i s t i ca l l y significant level to percentage of course fees paid by the company, company policy on an educational assistance program and on paying tuit ion fees based on course grades, employment status, level of satisfaction with present work, income, action taken by the immediate su-pervisor to encourage education, motivation provided through company pol -icy on education, and company policy on conducting in-house workshops. Personal factors related to participation were: the number of dependent children l iv ing at home, age, and the attitude of the spouse toward participation. Educational background produced 8 relationships including: the amount of time a firm wi l l allow for education, the level of formal educa-t ion , self-evaluation of deficiencies in continuing education at present, f ie ld of engineering of professional registration, sources of continuing education an engineer would choose in future, the method an engineer would choose for future continuing education, the orientation of courses pre-ferred in future, and the level of d i f f i cu l t y of U.B.C. continuing educa-tion courses. The geographic factors produced 2 relationships including the amount of time spend working out of town, and the amount of time spent travell ing to and from work. 113 The engineer's feeling about the need for regular continuing edu-cation programs was related to 6 occupational factors including the per-centage of an engineer's working time spent on economic evaluation, the percentage of an engineer's working time spent on self -directed learning, the percentage of an engineer's time spent on direct supervision of others, company policy on an educational assistance program, the level of satisfaction with the present job function and motivation provided through the company policy on continuing education. Personal factors included: present marital status, present s i tua-tion on accommodation, the feeling about the problem of "technical obso-lescence" of knowledge in the engineering profession, the amount of upgra-ding required to overcome the problem of "technical obsolescence", and the attitude of the spouse toward participation in continuing education. The educational factors were: the number of personal interest or recreation courses taken, the relevance of a specific engineering back-ground to the present job function, the educational level of the spouse, the ava i lab i l i t y of engineering credit courses in the area, the level of course fees charged for U.B.C. continuing education courses, the area of technical education to best f i t personal needs, orientation preferred for a continuing education course, orientation of management courses to best suit personal needs, the extent of self -directed learning experiences, the desire to participate in credit courses toward a further degree and the possib i l i ty of enrolling in a U.B.C. course in the future. The geographic factors produced 1 relationship - the distance an engineer must travel to the nearest professional society meeting. F inal ly , an engineer's feeling toward his continuing education needs presently being met was related to occupational factors, including rate of tuit ion fees paid by the company based on the engineer's grades in the course, the number of years worked in the engineering f i e l d , the number of years worked for his present employer, the c lass i f icat ion of the engineer's company, gross annual income of the engineer, and the main en-gineering f ie ld of the company. The personal factors were the engineer's service on a professional society committee, the age of the engineer, the perceived technical versus management function in the next 10 years and the f ie ld of engineering for 1 1 4 professional registration. The educational factors included the year the engineer received his professional registrat ion, the year the engineer received his bachelor's degree in engineering, awareness of credit courses being offer -ed and available, awareness of general adult education courses being of-fered and available, the type of U.B.C. program that would best meet per-sonal needs, participation in credit courses toward a further degree, orientation of continuing education courses preferred, and the type of course combining elements of engineering and social sciences most inter -esting. The geographic factors include: the d i s t r i c t in which the engin-eer works, and the distance to the nearest professional society meeting. CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND IMPLICATIONS SUMMARY The increasing rate of technological advancement and innovation has greatly affected the working engineer, not only in Br i t ish Columbia, but throughout the world. The engineer is finding that the education he received in the university may not be suff icient to meet his changing needs throughout his working l i fe - t ime . For example, engineers face not only a barrage of new sc ient i f ic data, but also an increased emphasis on the social implications of their work, and added ambitions (pressure) i n -to management/supervisory functions. Although engineering curricula are constantly changing to meet these new needs, i t is estimated that current graduate engineers have knowledge sufficient for only 5 to 10 years of work. The concept of regular continuing education programs for the pro-fessions is a relat ively new one in Canada. Medicine and Pharmacy have already made great strides in this area. The engineer cannot continue his role as "the implementer of science" unless he, too, constantly re-news his knowledge of new techniques and concepts in an effort to raise the state-of -the-art of his professional f i e ld to a level where i t just ly belongs. The purpose of this study was to construct a profi le of the pro-fessional engineer in Br i t ish Columbia, and to determine factors that were related to the nature and extent of his participation in continuing education; his feeling about the need for regular continuing education programs; and whether or not these needs are presently being met. The selected random sample represented 136 engineers of the 4,569 engineers With fu l l registration in the Association of Professional Engineers in the Province of Br i t ish Columbia. The data was collected by means of a personal interview schedule developed especially for a face-to-face 115 116 exchange of information with each of the 136 engineers in the sample. Using the data obtained, respondents were described in terms of their occupational environment, personal characterist ics, previous edu-cational experiences, geographic factors, and future objectives. Three hundred twenty-seven MV TAB univariate tables were studied to determine a profi le of Br i t ish Columbia engineers, while the MV TAB chi square sta-t i s t i c and linear and multiple regression analyses were employed to test for signif icant relationships in cross-tabulations of the selected var i -ables. The research design for this study established 178 factors that could be related to the 3 selected dependent variables. These factors were further c lass i f ied into 4 major groupings and thus became the i n -dependent variables in the study. The 4 groups include 98 occupational factors, 20 personal characterist ics, 43 factors related to educational experiences and. 17 geographic considerations. • A review of the l i terature revealed that many American studies had been made concerning continuing education for engineers, but they could mostly be termed "status studies" in that they were mainly con-cerned with kinds of courses engineers would l i k e , or factual data about the engineer himself (or his company). With regard to an investigation of the engineer's level of participation in continuing education and an engineer's educational needs, several noteworthy studies have been con-ducted. They include a study by the Pennsylvania State University, a Doctoral Dissertation by Richard Wiegand (Florida State University) and studies conducted at Purdue and Columbia Universities. However, very l i t t l e has been done in Canada in this respect. The engineer's profi le developed in Chapter III i l lustrates sev-eral significant points. Over 75 per cent of the engineers in the sample were registered in one of three f ie lds of engineering ( c i v i l , mechanical and e lec t r i ca l ) . However, only 66 per cent are s t i l l in those f ields which i l lustrates that there has been a shift in engineering f ie lds . Over 75 per cent of the sample work for an employer and are thus respon-sible to an organization and i t s policy. Over 71 per cent of the engin-eers are in the age range of 35 to 54 with an equal number above and be-low. Over 60 per cent have worked more than 15 years in the engineering f i e l d , and over 80 per cent have worked more than 10 years. Of the 117 sample, 34 per cent have been with their present employer less than 6 years while only 3 per cent have actually worked less than 6 years. More-over, one-third have had more than 3 employers and 10 per cent have had more than 7, showing a degree of job mobility among engineers. Engineers in primarily technical functions are about equal in number to engineers in supervisory/management roles, although 75 per cent of the engineers spend at least one-half of their time in a supervisory role on the job. Only 7 per cent stated they had no supervisory function at a l l . The en-gineers foresee less and less time spent in technical roles with a sharp increase of time spent in supervisory positions in the next 10 years. About half of the engineers are involved in project planning and design work, and only 14 per cent are involved in education, research and devel-opment a c t i v i t i e s . Of the sample, 25 per cent expressed various degrees of job dissat isfact ions, however, 34 per cent feel that continuing edu-cation would be useful in helping to remove such dissatisfactions. While 72 per cent consider their technical engineering background to be very important to their job function, over 85 per cent believe a broad l iberal arts background is also important for their work. About 90 per cent of the engineers have a bachelor's degree or higher in engineering, and of these, 15 per cent have a post graduate degree. Only 25 per cent have taken credit courses beyond their bachelor's degree although 75 per cent have received their degree over 10 years ago. Regarding participation in continuing education, in-service training involves the greatest num-ber of engineers, with U. B. C. courses a close second. Management cour-ses have been the most popular since 1966. Of the sample who have par-ticipated in courses, 50 per cent have taken management courses, 40 per cent technical courses, and 35 per cent l iberal ar ts , personal interest or recreation courses. Only about 10 per cent of the engineers regularly attend professional association meetings, while 40 per cent never attend. Over half of the sample f a l l into the low level of social participation (Chapin Scale) while only 13 per cent are active in organized act iv i t ies outside of work. Of the respondents, 85 per cent agree that "technical obsolescence" of engineering related knowledge is a constant, i f not i n -creasing problem facing engineers. The sources of information an engin-eer would use to keep up with new engineering developments were divided 118 into 4 major groups. In the f i r s t instance 4 sources of printed materi-als of 17 l i s ted were used by over half of the engineers. These include: sc ient i f ic and technical journals, technical books or reports, manufac-turer's l i terature , and l i terature from the engineer's company. In the second instance, only 1 source of self -directed learning of the 5 l is ted was used by over half of the sample. This was discussion with fellow en-gineers, friends or supervisors. Thirdly, no educational sources of the 12 l is ted were used by over half the sample, and only 1 source (lectures, conferences and conventions) was used by over 25 per cent of the engin-eers. In the last instance, the use of audio-visual materials ranged from 35 per cent using radio, newspapers and television to only 10 per cent using f i lms, video and audio tape. Over 55 per cent of the engin-eers stated the reason for participation in continuing education would be to advance knowledge in a technical area; while only 2 per cent would use education as a way into management, and none believe i t would help to obtain a better job with another company. Reasons for non-participation in continuing education were c lass i f ied into 4 groups. In the f i r s t group, the occupationally related reason for non-participation was that courses would not help to obtain a raise or promotion. In the second group, the main personal reason was that the engineer preferred to spend the time with his family and friends. In the third group, the main educationally related reasons were that nothing relevant was offered, no advanced degree is necessary, and programs are not needed to advance knowledge in required areas. Lastly, the fact that programs were not readily available was the geographic reason for non-participation. The cross-tabulation of the 4 groups of independent variables with the 3 major dependent variables produced many significant relat ion-ships. The engineer's level of participation in continuing education over the last 5 years was signif icantly related to 9 occupational fac-tors, 3 personal factors, 8 educational factors, and 2 geographic fac-tors. The multiple regression analysis of the engineer's level of par-t ic ipation (number of courses or training programs taken in the last 5 years) compared to 33 numerical independent variables showed that 15 per cent of the variation can be attributed to: the percentage of an 119 engineer's working time spent on professional development, to the number of years he has worked as an engineer, to the percentage of his working time out-of-town, and to the number of engineers he supervises at work. The engineer's feeling about the need for regular continuing edu-cation programs for his specific job function was signif icantly related to 9 occupational factors, 6 personal factors, 11 educational factors, and only 1 geographic factor. The engineer's feeling toward his continuing education needs pres-ently being met was s ignif icant ly related to 20 occupational factors, 4 personal factors, 8 educational factors, and 2 geographic factors (see appendix VI for a complete l i s t of related variables). CONCLUSIONS Over 75 per cent of the engineers were registered in only 3 f ields of engineering ( c i v i l , mechanical, and e l e c t r i c a l ) , only 9 per cent, how-ever, were registered in the marine, forestry and geological f ie lds which are the major resource areas in the province. Mobility in engineering is indicated by the shift ing of engineering f ields among B.C. engineers, since only 66 per cent are presently in the 3 major f i e lds . This mobil-i ty is an indication of the need for continuing professional education. Since over 80 per cent of the sample have worked more than 10 years, there is an indication of a tremendous amount of practical experience in the engineering profession in B.C. One-third of the sample have had more than 3 employers and 10 per cent have had over 7, which indicates a cer-tain degree of job mobility among engineers. However, no engineers be-lieve that continuing education would help in changing jobs. Several factors are evident that make participation in formal con-tinuing education courses d i f f i c u l t for engineers. Almost half of the sample work out-of-town at least 25 per cent of the time; half work over 40 hours per week; 94 per cent are married with family responsibi l i t ies ; half are over 45 years o ld ; 20 per cent l i ve more than 30 miles away from a location that offers continuing education in engineering subjects; and half believe that their needs are being met by other means. One of the main findings of this study is that the engineers feel there is a c r i t i -120 cal need for upgrading (88 per cent), yet they show a definite lack of participation to achieve that end. The largest group (35 per cent) chose self -directed learning as their method of further education and upgrading in the future. These findings are consistent with other studies outlined in the background research. In a cross-tabulation of the 3 dependent variables in the study, no significant relationships were found between the engineer's level of participation in continuing education, his feeling about the need for regular continuing education programs, or his feeling about whether his needs are presently being met. Although the dependent variables would appear homogeneous they each have basically a diverse set of s ignif icant -ly related independent variables. As pointed out ear l ie r , this i l l u s -trates that an engineer's degree of participation is not necessarily con-nected to his feelings about continuing education, but rather on prevai l -ing circumstances. However, by grouping several aspects of the engin-eer's working environment i t can be concluded that the company policy to-ward continuing education would affect a l l 3 dependent variables. Other occupational factors in common to a l l 3 are the engineer's level of sat-isfaction with his work, and the type of job function he regularly per-forms. Personal characteristics in common include the age of the engin-eer (number of years worked as an engineer, and income), and the home environment - especially the attitude of the spouse toward participation in education. Educational factors in common include elements of pro-fessional registration ( f ie ld and year), sources of further education in the future (orientation, type, method and awareness of ) , and attitude toward the "technical obsolescence" of engineering knowledge. Geogra-phic factors in common involve the distance to professional society meet-ings, and ava i lab i l i t y of courses in his local area. It can be concluded that the degree to which an engineer p a r t i c i -pates in continuing education programs, aside from the reason of pre-vail ing circumstances, is determined by several key factors. The main determinant is the age of the engineer. Tied in with age is income, the number of years worked in the engineering f i e l d , number of years with present employer, number of years since bachelor's degree and registra-tion were received, and number of dependent children. A l l these factors 1 2 1 appear to adversely affect the engineer's participation. Engineers who more recently received their bachelor's degree and registration have a far higher level of participation. Engineers would appear to grow more complacent or assume other act i v i t ies as time goes by. A further deter-minant is the company attitude toward continuing education. Companies who offer in-service t ra in ing, educational assistance plans, and motiva-tion to the engineer, have a higher level of engineer participation. A third major determinant is the engineer's job environment. Engineers who work out-of-town or are dissat isf ied with their present work are less l ike ly to participate. It can be stated that the working engineer reacts to continuing education principal ly in terms of his job. Other important influences are the educational attainment of his spouse, her attitude to-ward his participation in education, the regular ava i lab i l i t y of relevant and interesting courses to meet his personal needs, his awareness of course offerings, and other alternative methods of upgrading available to him such as self -directed learning. Moreover, only 37 per cent of the engineers believe there is an important need for regular formal continu-ing education programs, while 50 per cent feel these needs are presently being met. RECOMMENDATIONS Since Br i t ish Columbia is a tremendously large province with work-ing engineers out in remote areas, there should be better lines of commu-nication in an effort to keep a l l engineers up-to-date on a l l available sources of continuing education. A concerted joint effort on the part of the professional association, the universit ies, the government, and i n -dustry must be made to better serve a l l engineers in the province. The Association of Professional Engineers in the Province of Br i t ish Columbia should become more active in a l l forms of continuing education for engin-eers, since they are the organization best suited to reach a l l working engineers much more directly than can the universities or other ins t i tu -t ions. The Professional Association could also assume leadership in sponsoring further research into areas such as continuing education needs of special groups of engineers; such as engineers in isolated areas, the 122 older engineers, engineers in interdiscipl inary functions, and engineers changing f ields or job functions. The society could also work with i n -dustry and the educational institutions in an effort to develop alterna-tive education methods; such as better correspondence courses, travell ing short courses, part-time credit courses toward a further degree available to a l l engineers, jo int ly sponsored in-service courses, and various types of exchange programs. Since there is an indication of a tremendous amount of practical experience in the engineering profession in B.C., this r i ch , relat ively untapped source of knowledge could be more effec-t ively u t i l i zed . In this way industry can, become much more involved. Further research should be conducted on the implications of se l f -directed learning experiences among engineers, as this method was chosen by the largest group in the sample; again considering the isolated engin-eers, and engineers who spend much time out-of-town. More research should be done on the engineer's working environment in an effort to t ie his needs for new knowledge to his present (and future) job function. The whole area of "technical obsolescence" of engineering knowledge in B.C. needs more in-depth study. Lastly , there should be far more government involvement and con-cern for improving and expanding continuing education for. professional engineers in B.C. IMPLICATIONS This study contains implications for consideration and action on the part of several groups. As mentioned ear l ie r , the Association of Professional Engineers in the Province of Br i t ish Columbia should i n -crease their efforts to research and emphasize continuing education for engineers. The Association should be more active in planning and imple-menting regular programs, as well as promoting them to a l l concerned. In the opinion of many engineers in the sample, the "image" of the pro-fession in B.C. needs bolstering. The Association could find a solution through the use of effective continuing education programs and a solid public relations campaign, in an effort to raise the status of the pro-fession. 123 Universities and other educational institutions should expand and develop new methods and programs to better serve the changing needs of a l l B.C. engineers, especially those in isolated areas. In view of the fact that only 28 per cent of the respondents indicated they may take a U. B. C. course in the future (50 per cent do not intend taking a course, and 22 per cent are uncertain), much work must be done to induce a more positive attitude in the engineers toward the need for regular continuing education programs. The government (especially at the provincial level) must become much more actively involved in continuing education for the engineering profession since the strength, economy, and progress of the province re-l i es heavily on the "implementers of science". Perhaps the greatest implication is for action on the part of the industries which employ the engineers, since the welfare and growth of the company is often dependent on the competence and awareness of the en-gineering staff . The f inal implication for action is toward a major joint effort on the part of the association, the educational inst i tut ions , the government, and the companies, to work together and raise the state-of-the-art in the engineering profession, thus benefiting a l l . BIBLIOGRAPHY Alden, John. Professional Incomes of Engineers 1966 - 1967. New York: Engineering Manpower Commission, June, 1967. American Institute of Chemical Engineers. "How To Improve Engineering Education", A . I . Ch. E. Journal. 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"A Plan For Continuing Engineering Education Through Television", Engineering Education. University of Michigan, A p r i l , 1967. 128 Murphy, Ormond. Eighth Annual Report on Continuing Medical Education. Vancouver: Faculty of Medicine, The University of Br i t ish Columbia, September 1, 1969. Murray, H. R. M. "How To Beat the Yearly Model Change in Education", The B. C. Professional Engineer. Vol. 20, No. 7 (July, 1969). Myers, D. M. "The Next Fifty Years in Engineering." An address to the Vancouver Institute on November 19, 1960. Myers, B. R. North of the Border: A Story Resulting From Two Years in  Canada. New York: Vantage Press, 1963. Nader, Ralph. "The Engineer's Professional Role: Universit ies, Corporations, and Professional Societies", Engineering Education  Journal, (February, 1967). Nattress, John A. "Genesys - Florida's Answer to the Problem of Continuing Education for Engineers in Industry", Journal of  Engineering Education. 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"The Opinion Questionnaire", The B. C. Professional  Engineer. Vol. 20, No. 5 (May, 1970). Stamm, Harold S. "The Nature and Process of Professionalization Among Engineers in an Applied Industrial Setting." Doctoral Disserta-t ion , New York University, 1968. Thrane, William J . "Spectrum of Technical Education", Journal of Engineering Education. University of Michigan (November, 1966). Torpey, William G. "Company Investment in Continuing Education for Scientists and Engineers". Educational Record. Washington: American Council on Education, Vol. 45, F a l l , 1964. Venn, Grant. Man, Education and Work. Washington: American Council on Education, 1964. Whinnery, John R. The World of Engineering. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1965. Wiegand, Richard. "Factors Related to Participation in Continuing Education Among a Selected Group of Graduate Engineers." Adult Education Department, The Florida State University, 1966. Wischmeyer, C. R. Educational Opportunities at Bell Telephone  Laboratories. Murray H i l l , New Jersey: Bell Telephone Laboratories, Research and Development Unit of the Bell System, 1970. Zienkiewicz, 0. C. "The Next Decade of C iv i l Engineering." London: University College of Swansea, February 22, 1962. APPENDIX I LETTERS TO ENGINEERS IN THE SAMPLE PERSONAL INTERVIEW SCHEDULE 134 ENGINEERING INTERVIEW FORM 1971 RESEARCH PROJECT FACTORS RELATED TO THE CONTINUING EDUCATION NEEDS OF A SELECTED GROUP OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA. A Survey By: - The University of British Columbia Adult Education Research Centre - Center for Continuing Education (Engineering Programs,) University of British Columbia, and - The Association of Professional Engineers of the Province of British Columbia. RESPONDENT'S NAME (Optional) INTERVIEW NUMBER: DISTRICT NUMBER: RESPONDENT'S NUMBER: RESPONDENT'S ADDRESS: HOME TELEPHONE NUMBER: NAME OF COMPANY: LOCATION OF COMPANY: Record of Interview DATE: TIME: \ TO PLACE COMMENTS: 135 REQUIREMENTS OF RESPONDENTS FOR PURPOSES OF THIS RESEARCH STUDY 1. Resident in British Columbia in 1971. 2. Employed in British Columbia in 1971. 3. Current membership in the Association of Professional Engineers of the Province of British Columbia. Fulfillment of the definition of a "working engineer" as outlined below. 5. It is not necessary to have had your engineering training at the University of British Columbia, nor is i t necessary to have taken courses since your completion of formal training. DEFINITION OF A "WORKING ENGINEER" FOR PURPOSES OF THIS STUDY A person employed in business^ industry, or other area (including self-employed) who is engaged in engineering work at a level which requires a knowledge of engineering, physical, or mathematical sciences equivalent to at least that acquired through the completion of a formal university level program with a major in at least one area of the above mentioned f i e l d s , or equivalent knowledge leading to professional registration in an engineering association. Such a person might be engaged in research and development work, production management, technical sales, and/or a l l other types of work which normally require an engineering background and an engineering education. 136 ENGINEERING INTERVIEW FORM 1971 PART I - A. BACKGROUND INFORMATION Occupational Factors: C i r c l e the appropriate number on the right 1. Employment status at present: C i r c l e 1. Self-employed in engineering 1 2. Partnership in engineering firm 2 3. Work for employer in engineering 3 Unemployed at present I* 5. On study leave 5 6. Not working i n engineering f i e l d at present 6 7. Other: please specify _________________ 7 2. How many years have you worked as an engineer (or in the engineering f i e l d ) ? -1. Less than one year 1 2. 1 - 5 years 2 3. 6 - 1 0 years 3 «t. 11 - 15 years 1 5. more than 15 years 5 3 . How long have you been with your present employer (include self-employment)? ___ 1. Leas than one year 1 2. 1 - 5 years 2 3. 6 - 1 0 years 3 4. 11 - 15 years M 5. More than 15 years 5 4. What i s the t o t a l nu mber of employers you have had since starting work in the engineering f i e l d (include self-employment) ? 5. What i s the p r i n c i p a l industry c l a s s i f i c a t i o n in which you are now employed (include s e l f -employment) ? 6. General c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of your employer: 1. Private industry (include self-employed) 1 2. Educational i n s t i t u t i o n 2 3. Public U t i l i t i e s (B,C. Hydro, B.C. Tel, etc.) 3 1. Government - Federal **• 5. Government - Provincial 5 6. Government - Municipal 6 7. Other: please specify . 7 7. What is the approximate t o t a l number of employees in your company or organization? (If there i s more than one plant, give number of employees at your location only.) 1. Less, than 10 1 2. 11 - 50 2 3. 51 - 100 3 t. 101 - 200 5. 201 - 500 5 6. 501 - 1000 6 7. 1000 - 5000 7 8. More than 5000 8 137 What i s the approximate number of graduate engineers employed in the unit in which you normally work (e.g. department or division)? 1. One 2. 2 - 5 3. 6 - 1 0 U. 1 1 - 1 5 5. 16 - 20 6. 21 - 25 7. More than 25 7 Your full-time or primary job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n : 1. Education (student or teacher) 1 2. Practising professional engineer 2 3. Management (supervisory) 3 1. General Administration 4 5. Other: please specify 5 What i s your p r i n c i p a l job function at present? 1. Research and development 2. Teaching (or student) 3. Design of systems or sub-systems 4. Marketing (applications and sales) 5. Engineering services ( i n s t a l l a t i o n , testing and maintenance) 6. Design for manufacture (production) 7. Project planning 8. Non-engineering (work unrelated to engineering) 9. Other; please specify __. Degree of responsibility for work performed at present: 1. Responsible for my own work only 2. Responsible for my own work, plus some directing and/or planning for others 3. Responsible for the work of a department 1. Responsible for a l l operations of an organization 5. Establish technical and/or administrative policies for a department or organization 6. Other: please specify Degree of supervision and leadership you exercise at present: 1. No supervision of others 1 2. Assign and check work of 1-5 technicians or helpers 2 3. Give technical guidance to 1 or 2 junior engineers on a common project 3 4. Give technical guidance to engineers of less standing or to technicians assigned to a common project 4 5. Assign and outline work and advise on technical problems for other engineers 5 6. Outline more d i f f i c u l t problems and methods of approach for other engineers plus co-ordinate work programs 6 7. Review, evaluate and make decisions on the technical work of other engineers and/or supervisors 7 8. Give administrative direction to subordinate supervisors 8 138 Amount of supervision you receive at present: 1. Work under close supervision from others 1 2. Duties are assigned with detailed instructions and some supervision 2 3. Work i s not generally supervised in d e t a i l 3 4. Work i s assigned in terms of objectives with some guidance available i f desired 4 5. Work i s assigned i n terms of broad objectives to be accomplished - no supervision 5 6. Receive administrative direction only, based on organizational policies 6 7. Operate with broad management authority with no technical guidance and control; limited only by company policy 7 Your technical versus administrative (supervisory) job function at present i s ; 1. E n t i r e l y technical function on the job 1 2. 75% technical, 25% supervisory 2 3. 50% technical, 50% supervisory 3 4. 25% technical, 75% supervisory 4 5. 75% supervisory with no technical background 5 necessary 6. E n t i r e l y supervisory with a technical background necessary 6 7. Entirely supervisory with nio technical background necessary 7 The number of professional engineers who come d i r e c t l y under your supervision: _____ The number of technicians or support personnel who come under your supervision: General l e v e l of sat i s f a c t i o n with work i n your present position: 1. Very s a t i s f i e d 1 2. Mainly s a t i s f i e d 2 3. Some sat i s f a c t i o n , some.dissatisfaction 3 4. Mainly d i s s a t i s f i e d 4 5. Very d i s s a t i s f i e d 5 What are the main reasons for any ( i f any) dissatisfaction? Could Continuing Engineering education programs or courses help remove any dissatisfaction? 1. Yes 1 2 . Possibly some 2 3. No 3 Any comments on how or why they could? Indicate the number of years since your last promotion to a higher position of responsibility: 1. Less than one year 1 2. 1 - 5 years 2 3. 6 - 1 0 years 3 4. More than 10 years 4 139 Relevance of your s p e c i f i c engineering training (e.g. e l e c t r i c a l ) or science (technical) background to present job: 1. Must have t h i s background 2. Very important 3. Some importance 4. L i t t l e importance (only need occasionally) 5. Unnecessary Relevance of a broad l i b e r a l background to your present job (e.g. s o c i a l sciences, humanities, and other non-engineering or non-technical subjects): 1. Must have this l i b e r a l background 2. Important but not compulsory 3. Some importance 4. L i t t l e importance 5. Unnecessary What do you f e e l i s an important background for a management (supervisory) position? 1. Entirely technical background 2. 75% technical, 25% l i b e r a l 3. 50% technical, 50% l i b e r a l 4. 25% technical, 75% l i b e r a l 5. E n t i r e l y l i b e r a l background Please indicate the location where you currently spend most of your working time. If much of your time i s spent t r a v e l l i n g as part of your job, please indicate your home of f i c e location: What i s the approximate distrance ( i n miles) from home to work (one way only)? What i s the t r a v e l l i n g time one way? Your work i s mainly: 1. In-town (where you live) 2. 75% in-town 3. 50% in-town 4. 25% in-town 5. Mostly out-of-town L i s t the approximate percentage of your working time during the past year spent on: (Percentages do not have to t o t a l exactly 100%) 1. Company meetings 2. Consulting and co-ordinating 3. Drafting or designing 4. ' Economic evaluation (estimating) 5. F i e l d work 6. Laboratory or shop work 7. Planning and organization 8. Professional study (courses, conferences, training, etc.) 9 i Research and development 10. Self-development (reading, etc.) 11. Direct supervision of others 12. Teaching (formal or in-service training) 13. Technical report writing I t . . Other: please specify TOTAL 140 PART I - B PERSONAL FACTORS 1. What is your t o t a l work load at the present time? 1. Working at a full-time job, plus extra work 2. Working at a full-time job 3. Working part-time only 4. Unemployed at present 5. Retired 6. Student (sabbatical leave, etc.) 2. Number of work hours per week: 1. 0 2. 1 - 2 0 hours 3. 2 1 - 4 0 hours 4. 41 - 60 hours 5. over 60 hours 3. What i s your marital status as of June 30, 1971? 1. Single 2. Married 3. Widowed, separated, or divorced 4. Number of dependent children l i v i n g at home: 1. 0 2. 1 - 3 3. 4 - 6 children 4. more than 6 S. Present situation of accommodation: 1. Home (property) owner 2. Renting (house or apartment) 3. Hotel or motel 4. Staying with friends or rela t i v e s 5. Mobile home or t r a i l e r 6. Other: please specify 6. What i s your age as of June 30, 1971? 1. Below 25 2. 25 - 34 3. 35 - 44 4. 45 - 54 S. 55 - 64 6. 65 or over 7. Present gross annual income: 1. Less than $5,000 per year 2. $5,000 - $10,000 3. $10,000 - $15,000 4. $15,000 - $20,000 5. $20,000 - $25,000 6. $25,000 - $30,000 7. over $30,000 per year 141 8. What is the highest educational attainment of your spouse? 1. Less than high school graduation 2. High school graduation 3. Technical or vocational school 4. Some college or university work 5. Bachelor's degree (s) 6. Graduate degree (s) 7. Other: please specify 9. In what engineering f i e l d did you receive professional registration? D i v i s ion Year 10. How many years have you resided in B r i t i s h Columbia? 1. Less than one year 2. 1 - 5 years 3. 6 - 1 0 years 4. 1 1 - 1 5 years 5. 1 6 - 2 0 years 6. More than 20 years 11. About how many miles away from the U.B.C. campus, or regional centre that offers continuing education courses i n engineering, do you reside? 142 FORMAL EDUCATION How many years of formal education have you completed at present? 1. Less than 12 years 2. High school graduation (12 years) 3. 1 3 - 1 5 years (no university, no ce r t i f i c a t e ) 4. Graduation from technical i n s t i t u t e 5. 1-2 years of university (no degree) 6. 3-4 years of university (no degree) 7. University bachelor's degrae (4 04 5 years) 8. Post-graduate courses for credit 9. Post-graduate degree (master's or doctorate) Do you hold a Bachelor's degree i n Engineering? 1. No 2. Working towards i t at present 3. Yes If yes Year received Institution:! F i e l d of Engineering Do you hold a Master's degree i n Engineering? 1. No 2. Working towards i t at present 3. Yes If yes Year received Institution F i e l d of Engineering - . Do you hold a Doctor's degree i n Engineering? 1. No 2. Working towards i t at present 3. Yes If yes Year received Institution F i e l d of Engineering Have you a degree(s) i n a f i e l d other than Engineering? 1. No 2. Working on a degree at present F i e l d • Institution Number of courses taken 3. Yes If yes F i e l d • . Institution Year received 4. If no, do you plan to enrol Are you currently enrolled for another Engineering degree or c e r t i f i c a t e ? 1. No 2. Yes If yes Institution No of courses completed Type of degree or c e r t i f i c a t e F i e l d or Specialty 3. I f no, do you plan to enrol in anbther Engineering degree or a degree In a different f i e l d ? Institution ____ F i e l d 143 PART II PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT  TRAINING SINCE GRADUATION Please state the number of courses you have taken in each area since 1966: 1. 2. 3. 4. S. 6. 7. 8. 9. U.B.C. credit courses U.B.C. non-credit courses Credit courses at another University Non-credit courses at another University Related courses at other education centres Industry sponsored (in-service) courses Technical Society sponsored courses Government sponsored courses Other: please specify TOTAL Please state the number of courses taken in each of the following subject areas since 1966: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Technical engineering courses Management training courses Related science or math, courses Liberal arts or humanities courses Personal interest or recreational courses Other . — TOTAL 3. Have you taken any correspondence courses since 1966? 1. 2. No Yes If Yes - Number Please describe the type of course (s) I T - . Have you engaged in a self-directed learning experience since 1966 (e.g., systematic reading in a sp e c i f i c f i e l d ; learning a new s k i l l from a tutor or from books, or on your own)? 1. No . \ 2. Yes ' Please describe type and method: S. What courses have you taken since 1966 (included company training Course F i e l d \ L o c a t i o n Year i Duration : Sponsor 1 i 1 1 j 1 i 1 1 1 1  i ; L • —f _ 1 . : • — • • • i •" 1 i • ! : 1 ! : i Have you taken any courses sponsored by the U.B.C. Centre f o r Course i F i e l d L o c a t i o n j Year Duration Sponsorj — — — — I 144 7, Please state the number of trade or professional magazines for which you have a personal subscription . 1. 0 1 2 2. 1 Subscription 3. 2 ; 4. 3 I 5 . 4 I 6. More than 4 8 . What sources of in format ion do you use to keep up - to -da te and abreast of new developments? Ind icate the extent of your use of each method ( e . g . f r e q u e n t l y , o c c a s i o n a l l y , very seldom or never) 1 . S c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l j o u r n a l s 2 . Technical a b s t r a c t s and indexes 3 . Technical books or reports 4 . Manufacturers ' l i t e r a t u r e 5 . L i t e r a t u r e from UBC Engineering Dept. 6 . L i t e r a t u r e from UBC Center f o r Continuing Education (Engineering) 7. L i t e r a t u r e from Pro fess iona l Soc ie ty i n B r i t i s h Columbia 8 . L i t e r a t u r e from other s o c i e t i e s 9 . L i t e r a t u r e from other u n i v e r s i t i e s or t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e s 10. Government data ( a l l l e v e l s ) 11. P ro fess iona l S o c i e t y meetings 12. Business reports (market ing, s a l e s , f i n a n c i a l sources , e t c . ) 13: L i t e r a t u r e from your own company 14. L i t e r a t u r e from other companies 15. Management and/or business j o u r n a l s 16. D iscuss ion with f e l l o w eng ineers , f r i e n d s or superv isors 17. Workshops (or i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g ) sponsored by your company 18. Contact with p r a c t i c e s of other i n d u s t r i e s or i n s t i t u t i o n s 19. L e c t u r e s , conferences , conventions 2 0 . I n - s e r v i c e courses sponsored by other companies 2 1 . Correspondence courses 22 . Seminars on s p e c i f i c t o p i c s 23. Government-sponsored t r a i n i n g programs 24. Use of consu l tants or s p e c i a l i s t s 25. Engineering re f resher courses 26. S e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g 27. Journals i n other f i e l d s of engineer ing 28. Courses at u n i v e r s i t i e s or i n s t i t u t e s (other than UBC) 29. UBC day courses 30. UBC Engineering Extension courses 3 1 . Newspapers, TV and radio 32. L i b r a r i e s ( c i t y or u n i v e r s i t y ) 33. Courses sponsored by P ro fess iona l Soc ie ty 34. F i l m s , video tapes or audio tapes 35. Company techn ica l l i b r a r y 36. Home reference l i b r a r y 37. L i t e r a t u r e p r in ted outs ide Canada (any source) 38. Other? Please s p e c i f y F r e -quent Occ. Very Seldom or Never 145 9 . Your awareness of course work offered at institution(s) of higher or continuing eaucarion.in o._. , 1 j Yes Sometimes No j Don't Know 1. Available credit courses in j your engineering specialty that j would be useful to you in your : r v - o o a n r n n = ; i t i n n 1 1 2. Available non-credit courses (seminars, lectures, conferences, etc.) that would be useful to vou in vour present position 3. Available courses toward an advanced degree offered on a part-time basis for working engineers 4. Available college l e v e l courses of a general adult education nature th*at are not d i r e c t l y related to .vour nob 5. Available credit and/or non-credit correspondence courses 1 1 10. Professional Societies and/or Management societies in my geographical area: 1. Regularly offer training programs that are useful to me. 2. Occasionally offer training programs that are useful to me-' 3. Seldom or never offer such training programs. 4. Not aware of what, i f anything i s offered. 11. What is the distance (one way) to the nearest Engineering Society technical meeting? • Miles. 146 12. Does your company conduct in-house training courses or workshops? 1. Yes 1 2. Very seldom 2 3. No 3 13. Does your company allow you to attend in-house courses on company time? 1. Yes 1 2. No 2 3. Not sure 3 14. Does your company allow you to attend university courses on company time? [ 1. Yes 1 2. No 2 3. Not sure 3 15. What action does your immediate supervisor take to further your education and training? 1. Stimulates and assists me to up-date myself 1 2. Takes a non-committal attitude. 2 3. Discourages further education and training. 3 4. Don't know for sure. 4 5. OTHER: please state \ 5 16. Does your company have an educational assistance program? 1. Yes 1 2. No 2 3. Don't know 3 17. Has your company policy on continuing education or training motivated you to take!further courses? 1. Strongly encourages me to take courses 1 2. P a r t i a l l y influences me . 2 3. Has had no effect on jne 3 4. Discourages or hampers me 4 5. Company has no policy 5 18. If your company allows or encourages you to take further courses what percentage of your t u i t i o n fees does your company pay? % 1 . 0 % 1 2. 1 - 25% 2 3. 26 - 50% 3 4. 51 - 75% 4 5. 76 - 100% 5 19. Is the rate of t u i t i o n fees paid by the company based on the type of course you take? 1. Yes 1 2. No 2 3. Don't know 3 If Yes - B r i e f l y explain: 147 20. Is the rate of t u i t i o n paid by your company based on your grades in the course? 1. Yes 2. No 3. Don't know 21. Must the course (or training, conference, etc.) be job-related i n order to receive any company assistance (time c.7f or tuition) ? 1. Yes 2. No 3. Don't know 22. What i s your company's attitude toward you personally with regard to the following items? (check either - encourages (a), non-committal (b), discourages (c) or don't know (d) Check One 1 2 3 1. Enrolment for advanced degree in Engineering 2', Educational leave-of - a b s B n c e (sabbaticals) 3. Writing professional papers 4. Pursuing your own research 5. Registering personal patents 6. Attending company training courses 7. Holding o f f i c e in the Professional Society 8. Attending Society meetings, conferences, conventions, etc.. 9. Reading professional l i t e r a t u r e 10. Training for management (in-house) 11. Training for management (outside the company) 12. Advancement of your s c i e n t i f i c and technical s k i l l s 13. Other: Please specify (a) j (b) (d) : j i 1 i ! i ! i " 1 i i | . ...J 148 PART II - B INTERESTS AND ATTITUDES 1. To what extent to do you currently participate in the a c t i v i t i e s of your professional engineering association (ci r c l e one from each grouping)? C i r c l e (a) 1. Do not attend l o c a l meetings 1 2. Attend l o c a l meetings occasionally 2 3. Attend l o c a l meetings regularly 3 (b) 1. Have never held o f f i c e in the l o c a l association 1 2. Have held o f f i c e in the l o c a l association in 2 the past 3. Presently holding o f f i c e in the l o c a l association 3 (c) 1. Have never served on local.committees 1 2. Have served on l o c a l committees in the past 2 3. Am presently serving on a l o c a l committee 3 (d) 1. Have not contributed a r t i c l e s or papers (locally) 1 2. Have written several a r t i c l e s or papers 2 3. Regularly submit a r t i c l e s or papers 3 2. To what extent do you participate i n the engineering association at a national l e v e l ( c i r c l e as many as apply)? 1. Do not participate at a national l e v e l 1 2. Occasionally attend national meetings 2 3- Regularly attend national meetings 3 4. Have held o f f i c e at a national l e v e l 4 5. Have served on national committees 5 6. Have contributed a r t i c l e s or papers (nationally) 6 7. ' Have participated in engineering associations 7 outside Canada 3. CHAPIN SCALE - Social participation Would you please try to r e c a l l the names of a l l the community organizations that you have belonged to in the past year. (Do not include attendance at Church). F i l l i n name of organization (or club) and check each column that applies. Have Made Member Name of • Member- Regular Financial of a Held Organization ship Attendance Contribution Committee Office 1. 2. 3. 4. S. 6. 7. 8. SUB-TOTALS= TOTAL SCfRE= 149 1. 0 2. 1 - 5 3. 6 - 1 0 4. 11 - 15 5. 16 - 20 6. 2 1 - 2 5 7 2 6 - 3 0 8. 3 1 - 3 5 9. over 35 How do you f e e l about the problem of "Technical Obsolescence" of knowledge in the engineering profession in general? 1. A c r i t i c a l problem at present 2. A serious problem and increasing in magnitude 3. A constant problem but not increasing 4. No problem and no anticipated increase 5. Diminishing in significance 6. Unaware of general picture How do you f e e l about the problem of "Technical Obsolescence" of knowledge in your sp e c i f i c work area? 1. Require constant up-grading to keep up 2. Require some up-grading as necessary 3. Require very l i t t l e up-grading 4. Present technical knowledge i s s u f f i c i e n t 5. Does not apply to me in my work area What i s your "feeling" aboutthe need for a regular continuing education (or training) program for your engineering job function? 1. Must have (on a regular basis) 2. Very important (on a regular basis) 3. Slightly important (as required) 4. Not important 5. No need at a l l If married, please indicate the attitude of your spouse toward your participation in continuing education (or training) programs. 1. Would (or does) strongly encourage me, either full-time or part-time 2. Would encourage me but prefers that i t be part-time 3. Would neither encourage or discourage me 4. Would prefer I did not participate 5. Would strongly discourage my participation Would you participate i n "credit" courses offered on a part-time basis toward a further degree i n engineering (evening, weekend or correspondence courses, etc)? 1. Yes 2. No 3. Not sure For what reasons have you participated in continuing education or training programs ( c i r c l e more than one i f you wish)? 1. Desired to broaden my technical background for my owr» satisfaction (including a l i b e r a l background) 2. . Desired to advance my knowledge in a s p e c i f i c technical f i e l d 3. Company pressure to take courses or training 4. Desired to receive an advanced degree (credit) 5-. Would help to receive a raise and/or promotion 6. Desired to transfer into a different f i e l d of engineering 150 7. Best way into management or supervisory position 7 8. To obtain a better position with another employer 8 9. To- retain job during a lay-off c r i s i s 9 10. Other: please specify 10 1 0 . I f you did n^t participate in continuing education or training programs during the last few years, what are your reasons? 1 . Such programs were not necessary to broaden your technological background 1 2 . You did not feel such programs were necessary to advance your knowledge in a specific field 2 3 . An advanced degree is of no use to you 3 4 . Would not help obtain a raise or promotion 4 5 . Nothing in my specific area was offered 5 6 . Nothing of interest to you was available 6 7. You prefer to spend the time with your family or friends 7 8 . Program was not readily available to you 8 9 . Could not obtain time off work to attend 9 1 0 . No financial support from the company 10 1 1 . Could obtain information and knowledge on my own 11 1 2 . Not aware of program until too late (poor communication) 12 1 3 . Programs were too expensive 13 1 4 . Programs did not f i l l personal need 14 1 5 . Did not take courses because they are non-credit 15 1 6 . Not happy with the "quality" of programs offered 16 1 7 . Don't believe in further education as such 17 1 8 . ' Courses are too basic (not challenging) 18 1 9 . Courses are too advanced (too technical, difficult) 19 2 0 . Other? Please specify 2 0 11. To what degree are you familiar with (or aware of) technical advancements outside of Canada in your specificengineering f i e l d ? 1. Keep currently abreast of a l l advancements 1 2 . Keep abreast of most advancements 2 3. Only familiar with advancements that d i r e c t l y affect my job 3 4. Not too familiar with current advancements 4 5. Unfamiliar with current advancements 5 151 C i r c l e PART II - C FUTURE GOALS 1. What source of further education or training would you most l i k e l y choose in the future? 1. Continuing education at U.B.C. 1 2. Courses at some other university 2 3. Courses at a technical i n s t i t u t e 3 4. In-service courses in industry 4 5. Technical association sponsored courses 5 6. Government sponsored training 6 7. Correspondence courses 7 8 . Self-directed learning 8 9 . Other: please specify 9 2. In the position I could reasonably expect to hold in the next ten years, I would expect my time to be divided as follows: ( c i r c l e one) 1. Entirely technical function 1 2. 75% technical, 25% supervisory 2 3. 50% technical, 50% supervisory 3 4. 75% supervisory, 25% technical 4 5. Entirely supervisory 5 6. Management and administration 6 3. The position I could reasonably expect to hold in the next ten years w i l l be available to me: 1. Only i f I continue my education vigorously 1 on credit courses and an advanced degree 2. Only i f I take credit or non-credit courses in 2 my f i e l d regularly 3. Only i f I take in-service training regulary 3 4. Only i f I study management subjects 4 5. S t r i c t l y as a function of wheather or not I 5 do good work on the job (continuing education as such would not be a factor in the position I would hold) 6. Other: please specify 6 4. I f you had your education to do a l l over again, would you choose: 1. An undergraduate engineering program 2. Another type of profession (e.g. law, medicine, etc.) 3. A l i b e r a l arts or general education program 4. A more s c i e n t i f i c engineering program than before 5. A more general engineering program than before 6. A business administration program 7. Other: please specify 152 III CONTINUING EDUCATION NEEDS A. PARTICIPATION FACTORS Do you f e e l that your present job function i s becoming: 1. Much more specialized 2. S l i g h t l y more specialized 3. About the same 4. Slig h t l y more generalized 5. Much more generalized If you were to take more courses or training, would you prefer: 1. A short concentrated course (e.g. conference, a one week or less full-time course, etc.) 2. . 1 - 3 week evening course 3. 4 - 6 week evening course 4. 7 - 1 0 week evening course 5. More than 10 week evening course 6. Correspondence course (at your own speed) • 7. Full-time on-campus program 8. Other: please specify What time duration would you prefer for an evening course (or in-service training) 1. 1 hour-once per week 2. 1 hour - two times per week 3. 2 hours - once per week 4. 2 hours - twice per week 5. 3 hours - once per week 6. 3 hours - twice per week 7. More than three hours per week 8. Other: please specify Which orientation would you prefer for continuing education course? 1. Specialized - technical engineering 2. General - technical engineering 3. Part technical, part l i b e r a l 4. Liberal arts 5. Specialized management 6. General management 7. Related courses (sciences, math, physics) 8. Not interested at present Do you think that there i s a p o s s i b i l i t y of your enrolling in a U.B.C. continuing education course in the near future 1. ' Yes 2. No 3. Uncertain How do you feel about the fees being charged for U.B.C. continuing education non-credit courses? 1. Unaware of fee 2. Far too high 3. Slightly high 4. About right 6. Far too low 153 How would you c l a s s i f y the communications (publicity, promotion or advertising) of the U.B.C. Continuing Education Department as i t relates to your awareness of their offerings, etc.) 1. Very good 2. F a i r l y good 3. Averagt 4. Poor 5. Very poor 154 PART III - B PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION NEEDS 1. Which area of technical education would best f i t your personal needs? 1. Basic sciences 1 2 2. Engineering sciences 3. Engineering analysis, design and systems j> 4. Mathematics 5 5. Communications s k i l l s 6. Other: please specify 7. Not interested in technical courses / 2. Which area of management education would best f i t your personal needs? 1. General management 1 2. Personnel 2 3. Financial 3 4. Manufacturing 5. Marketing and sales 5 6. Research and development 6 7. Design, systems, projects 7 8. Not interested in management courses 8 9. Other: please specify 4 Which area of the " s o c i a l " sciences education would best f i t your personal needs? 1. Community and public relations J. 2. Economics 2 3. English (speaking, composition, li t e r a t u r e ) 3 4. Fine arts (art, music, theatre, painting, etc.) 4 5. Foreign languages 5 6. History or geography 6 7. Philosophy 7 8. P o l i c i t c s (or religion) 8 9. Psychology or sociology 10. Other: please specify 9 10 I f courses were offered on the relationship between engineering and the social sciences (humanities), which topic would interest you most? 1. Humanities i n a technological society 1 2. The influence of technology on international 2 understanding 3. Technology and. economics 3 4. Technology and p o l i t i c s (or religion) 4 5. Technology and human values 5 6. Technology and our environment 6 7. Technology and urban development 7 8. Other: please specify 8 9. Not interested in any such courses 155 What do you consider to be the l e v e l of d i f f i c u l t y in U.B.C. Extension courses which you have attended? 1. Too d i f f i c u l t 2. Very challenging 3. Sli g h t l y challenging 4. Average d i f f i c u l t y 5. L i t t l e challenge 6. Eassy 7. Far too easy (too simple or too basic) 8. Don't know How would you c l a s s i f y Engineering Extension courses at U.B.C? 1. Too specialized (too narrow in scope) 2. About right 3. Too generalized (too broad in scope) 4. Have never taken one Which type of program at U.B.C. would best meet your personal needs? 1. Non-credit courses (as required or neededj 2. Credit courses 3. Credit courses leading to a further degree 4. Courses toward a diploma (or c e r t i f i c a t e ) 5. Other: please specify Do you personally f e e l that your continuing education needs are being adequately met by training programs, courses, etc. available to you at the present time: 1. Yes 2. No 3. Only p a r t i a l l y Please l i s t any deficiencies in your continuing education that you are aware of at present Would you be interested in receiving a copy of the results of the data in the mail? 1. Yes 2. No APPENDIX II MV TAB UNIVARIATE TABLES FOR CHAPTER III APPENDIX II MV TAB UNIVARIATE TABLES TABLE 25 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY DEGREE OF RESPONSIBILITY FOR WORK PERFORMED AT PRESENT Number of Responsibility Engineers Percentage Responsible for own work only 6 4, .41 Own work plus some planning and direction of others 50 36. .76 Responsible for a l l the work of a department 38 27, .94 Responsible for a l l operations of an organization 26 19. .12 Establish technical and/or administrative policies of an organization 16 11, .76 Other 0 .00 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100, .00% TABLE 26 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY DEGREE OF SUPERVISION AND LEADERSHIP EXERCISED AT PRESENT Number of Supervision and Leadership Engineers Percentage No supervision of others 6 4, .41 Assign and check work of 1-5 technicians or helpers 23 16, .91 Give technical guidance to 1 or 2 junior engineers on a common project 5 3, .68 Give technical guidance to engineers of less stand-ing or to technicians assigned to common project 14 10, .29 Assign and outline work and advise on technical problems for other engineers 17 12. .50 Outline more d i f f i c u l t problems and methods of approach for other engineers plus coordinate work programs 5 3. ,68 Review, evaluate and make decisions on the technical work of other engineers and/or supervisors 23 16. ,91 Give administrative direction to subordinate super-visors 43 31. ,62 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100. ,00% 157 158 TABLE 27 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY AMOUNT OF SUPERVISION RECEIVED AT PRESENT Supervision Received Number of Engineers Percentage Work under close supervision from others 0 .00 Duties are assigned with detailed instructions and some supervision 2 1.47 Work is not generally supervised in detail 13 9.56 Work is assigned in terms of objectives with some guidance available i f desired 30 22.06 Work is assigned in terms of broad objectives to be accomplished - no supervision 34 25.00 Receive administrative direction only, based on organizational policies 20 14.71 Operate with broad management authority with no technical guidance and control , l imited only by company policy 37 27.21 N = 136 . TOTAL: 136 100.00% TABLE 28 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY THEIR MAIN REASONS FOR DISSATISFACTION (IF ANY) Number of Reasons for Dissatisfaction Engineers Percentage Unable to accomplish self-established goals 5 3, .68 Routine or non-engineering work 10 7. .35 No opportunity for advancement (frustration) 10 7. .35 Poor salary (or fringe benefits) 5 3. .68 Poor working conditions (hours, etc.) 4 2. .94 Personal po l i t i cs or reasons 14 10. .29 Method of decision making (policy, control , red tape) 16 11. .76 Poor level of support from company (money or help) 10 7. ,35 Lack of help or cr i t ic ism (poor communication) 0 .00 No dissatisfaction 62 45! .59 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100. ,00% 159 TABLE 29 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY PERCEIVED WAYS CONTINUED EDUCATION COULD HELP REMOVE DISSATISFACTION Continuing Education Number of Engineers Percentage Relevant l iberal arts offerings to engineers 4 2.94 More specialized technical courses 10 7.35 General technical courses 2 1.47 Special management courses 2 1.47 General management courses 4 2.94 More research and development programs 2 1.47 Business method, finance, law and economics 4 2.94 Courses on personal accomplishment and se l f -improvement for better performance 8 5.88 Raise the professional 'status' of engineers 2 1.47 No response 98 72.06 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% TABLE 30 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY PERCEIVED BACKGROUND FOR A MANAGEMENT (SUPERVISORY) POSITION Number of Background Engineers Percentage Entirely technical background 2 1.47 75% technical, 25% l iberal 52 38.24 50% technical , 50% l iberal 65 47.79 25% technical , 75% l iberal 16 11.76 Entirely l iberal background 0 .00 No response 1 .74 N = 136 TOTAL: 136 100.00% 160 TABLE 31 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY AMOUNT OF WORK TIME IN SELECTED AREAS T I M E S P E N T ACTIVITY 0% 10-40% 50-90% No. i No. c % No. % } 1. Company meetings 63 46 .32 73 53 .68 0 0. 00 2. Consulting and co-ordinating 36 26 .47 95 69 .85 5 3. 68 3. Drafting or designing 86 63 .24 39 28 .68 11 8. 09 4. Economic evaluating (estimating) 57 41 .91 79 58 .09 0 0. 00 5. Field work 67 49 .26 66 48 .53 3 2. 21 6. Laboratory or shop work 124 91 .18 12 8 .82 0 0. 00 7. Planning and organization 34 25 .00 100 73 .53 2 1. 47 8. Professional study (courses, conferences, t ra ining, etc.) 112 82 .35 24 17 .65 0 0. 00 9. Research and development 105 77 .21 30 22 .06 1 0. 74 10. Self-development (reading, etc.) 71 52 .21 65 47 .79 0 0. 00 11. Direct supervision of others 36 26 .47 92 67 .65 8 5. 88 12. Teaching (or formal in-service training) 117 86 .03 16 11 .76 3 2. 21 13. Technical report writing and routine work 52 38 .24 82 60 .29 2 1. 47 14. Other 123 90 .44 12 8.82 1 0. 74 TABLE 32 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY MASTER'S DEGREE Number of Degree Engineers Percentage 1. No 114 83.82 2. Working toward i t at present 0 0.00 3. Yes 21 15.44 0. No response 1 0.74 N = 136 TOTAL 136 100.00 161 TABLE 33 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY YEAR MASTER'S DEGREE RECEIVED Year Number of Engineers Percentage 1. Before 1930 1 0.74 2. 1930 - 1940 4 2.94 3. 1941 - 1950 4 2.94 4. 1951 - 1960 4 2.94 5. 1961 - 1970 8 5.88 0. No Master's 115 84.56 N = 136 TOTAL 136 100.00 TABLE 34 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY COUNTRY WHERE MASTER'S DEGREE WAS RECEIVED Country Number of Engineers Percentage 1. B.C. 9 6.62 2. Canada 2 1.47 3. U.S.A. 6 4.41 4. Elsewhere 4 2.94 0. No Master's 115 • 84.56 N = 136 TOTAL 136 100.00 TABLE 35 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY FIELD OF ENGINEERING IN WHICH MASTER1 'S DEGREE. WAS OBTAINED Number of Field Engineers Percentage 1. C iv i l 6 4.41 2. Mechanical 7 5.15 3. Electr ical 2 1.47 4. Chemical 1 0.74 5. Metallurgy 3 2.21 6. Marine 0 0.00 7. Forestry 0 0.00 8. Structural 0 0.00 9. Geological 3 2.21 0. No Master's degree 114 83.82 N : = 136 TOTAL 136 100.00 162 TABLE 36 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY DOCTOR'S DEGREE Doctor's Degree Number of Engineers Percentage 1. No 126 92.65 2. Working toward i t at present 1 0.74 3. Yes 7 5.15 0. No response 2 1.47 N = 136 136 100.00 TABLE 37 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY DEGREE IN A FIELD OTHER THAN ENGINEERING. Degree Number of Engineers Percentage 1. No 113 83.09 2. Working on a degree at present 6 4.41 3. Yes 15 11.03 4. Plan to enrol 1 0.74 0. No response 1 0.74 N = 136 TOTAL 136 100.00 TABLE 38 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY CURRENT ENROLLMENT FOR ANOTHER DEGREE OR CERTIFICATE Number of Currently Enrolled Engineers Percentage 1. No 132 97.06 2. Yes 4 2.94 N = 136 TOTAL 136 100.00 163 TABLE 39 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY PERCEIVED FUTURE ENROLLMENT IN ENGINEERING OR OTHER FIELD Plan to Enrol Number of Engineers Percentage 1. No 90 66.18 2. Yes 11 8.09 3. Don11 know 18 13.24 0 No response 17 12.50 N = 136 TOTAL 136 100.00 TABLE 40 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY CORRESPONDENCE COURSES SINCE 1966 Number of Courses Engineers Percentage 1. No 127 93.38 2. Yes 9 6.62 N = 136 TOTAL 136 100.00 TABLE 41 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY NUMBER OF CORRESPONDENCE COURSES TAKEN SINCE 1966 Number of Courses Number of Engineers Percentage 1. 0 5 3.68 2. 1 - 3 2 1.47 3. 4 - 6 1 0.74 4. 7 - 9 1 0.74 5. More than 9 0 0.00 0 No 127 93.38 N = 136 136 100.00 164 TABLE 42 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING EXPERIENCE SINCE 1966 (E.G. Systematic Reading in Specific F ie ld , Learning New S k i l l ) Number of Self-Directed Learning Engineers Percentage 1. No 72 52.94 2. Yes 64 47.06 N = 136 TOTAL 136 lOQ.OO TABLE 43 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY TYPE OF SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING Number of Type of Learning Engineers Percentage 1. Technical (related to job) 38 27.94 2. Managerial 11 8.09 3. Liberal arts 12 8.82 4. Personal interest 4 2.94 0 None 71 52.21 N = 136 TOTAL 136 . 100.00 TABLE 44 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY METHOD OF SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING Method Number of Engineers Percentage 1. Reading (Literature) 46 33.82 2. Media and materials 7 5.15 3. Tutor 2 1.47 4. Group discussion 4 2.94 5. Research and experiments 6 4.41 0 None 71 52.21 N = 136 TOTAL 136 100.00 TABLE 45 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY AWARENESS OF COURSE WORK OFFERED AT INSTITUTION(S) OF HIGHER OR CONTINUING EDUCATION IN B.C. Awareness Yes Sometimes No Don1 't Know No Response No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % 1. Available credit courses in your engineering specialty that would be useful to you in your present 21 15.44 13 2.12 posit ion. 66 48. 53 22 16.18 24 17, .65 2. Available non-credit courses (seminars, lectures, conferences, etc.) that would be useful to you 8.82 0.74 in your present position. 79 58. 09 38 27.94 6 4 .41 12 1 3. Available courses toward an ad-vanced degree offered on a part-23.53 2.21 time basis for working engineers. 49 36. 03 22 16.18 30 22 .06 32 3 4. Available college level courses of a general adult education nature that are not directly related to 0.74 your job. 74 54. .41 35 25.74 9 6 .62 17 12.50 1 5. Available credit and/or non-credit 1.47 correspondence courses. 74 54. ,41 35 25.74 9 6 .62 17 12.50 2 166 TABLE 46 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY DISTANCE (ONE WAY) TO NEAREST ENGINEERING SOCIETY TECHNICAL MEETING Distance Number of Engineers Percentage 1. 1 - 1 0 85 62.50 2. 11 - 20 25 18.38 3. 21 - 30 5 3.68 4. 31 - 60 9 6.62 5. 61 - 100 5 3.68 6. More than 100 miles 6 4.41 0 No response 1 0.74 N = 136 TOTAL 136 100.00 TABLE 47 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS ALLOWED TO ATTEND UNIVERSITY COURSES ON COMPANY TIME University Courses on Company Time Number of Engineers Percentage 1. Yes 62 45.59 2. No 42 30.88 3. Not sure 25 18.38 0 No response 7 5.15 N = 136 TOTAL 136 100.00 TABLE 48 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS WHOSE COMPANY ALLOWS OR ENCOURAGES FURTHER COURSES AND PERCENTAGE OF TUITION FEES COMPANY PAYS Tuition Fees Paid by Company Number of Engineers Percentage 1. 0 Per cent 21 15.44 2. 1 - 25 Per cent 2 1.47 3. 26 - 50 Per cent 22 16.18 4. 51 - 75 Per cent 10 7.35 5. 76 -100 Per cent 63 46.32 0 No 18 13.24 N = 136 136 100.00 168 TABLE 52 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS WHOSE COURSE (OR TRAINING, CONFERENCE, ETC.) MUST BE JOB-RELATED IN ORDER TO RECEIVE ANY COMPANY ASSISTANCE (TIME OFF OR TUITION) Job-Related Number of Engineers Percentage 1. Yes 99 72.79 2. No 20 14.71 3. Don't know 9 6.62 4. No response 8 5.88 N = 136 TOTAL 136 100.00 TABLE 53 COMPANY ATTITUDE TOWARD ENGINEER IN SELECTED AREAS OF CONTINUING EDUCATION  (a) (b) (c) Non-Company Attitude Encourages Committal Discourages Don't Know No Answer No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % 1. Enrolment for advanced degree in engineering 19 13 .97 63 46 .32 12 8.82 30 22. .06 12 8. .82 2. Educational leave-of-absence (Sabbaticals) 24 17 .65 47 34 .56 21 15 .44 34 25. .00 10 7. .35 3. Writing professional papers 73 53 .68 42 30.88 1 0 .74 10 7. .35 10 7, .35 4. Pursuing your own research 38 27 .94 68 50 .00 9 6 .62 10 7. .35 11 8. .09 5. Registering personal patents 24 17 .65 40 29 .41 25 18 .38 34 25. .00 13 9, .56 6. Attending company training courses 81 59 .56 29 21 .32 1 0 .74 12 8. .82 13 9. ,56 7. Holding off ice in the professional society 77 56 .62 40 29 .41 0 0 .00 10 7. .35 9 6, .62 8. Attending society meetings, con-ferences, conventions, etc. 73 53 .68 46 33 .82 3 2 .21 5 3. ,68 9 6, .62 9. Reading professional l i terature 104 76 .47 22 16 .18 0 0 .00 1 0. .74 9 6, .62 10. Training for management (in-house) 72 52 .94 34 25 .00 3 2 .21 17 12. .50 10 7, .35 11. Training for management (outside the company) 46 33 .82 45 33 .09 8 5 .88 27 19. .85 10 7. .35 12. Advancement of your sc ient i f ic and technical s k i l l s 90 66 .18 29 21 .32 3 2 .21 5 3. .68 9 6, .62 170 TABLE 54 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS WHO HELD OFFICE IN LOCAL ASSOCIATION Office in Local Association Number of Engineers Percentage 1. Have never held office in the local association. 109 80.15 2. Have held off ice in local association in past. 22 16.18 3. Presently holding off ice in local association. 5 3.68 N = 136 TOTAL 136 100.00 TABLE 55 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS WHO SERVED ON LOCAL COMMITTEES Local Committees Number of Engineers Percentage 1. Have never served on local committees 97 71.32 2. Have served on local committees in past 32 23.53 3. Am presently serving on a local committee 7 5.15 N = 136 136' 100.00 TABLE 56 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS WHO CONTRIBUTED ARTICLES OR PAPERS Contribution of Art ic les or Papers Number of Engineers Percentage 1. Have not contributed art ic les or papers ( locally) 110 80.88 2. Have written several art ic les or papers 24 17.65 3. Regularly submit art ic les or papers 1 0.74 0 No response 1 0.74 N = 136 136 100.00 171 TABLE 57 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS WHO PARTICIPATED IN THE ENGINEERING ASSOCIATION AT A NATIONAL LEVEL Number of Participation at National Level Engineers Percentage 1. Do not participate at a national level 102 75 .00 2. Occasionally attend national meetings 13 9 .56 3. Regularly attend national meetings 2 1 .47 4. Have held off ice at a national level 2 1 .47 5. Have served on national committees 0 0 .00 6. Have contributed art ic les or papers (nationally) 2 1 .47 7. Have participated in engineering assoc-iations outside Canada 6 4 .41 8. A l l of the above (2-7) 0 0 .00 9. No response 9 6 .62 N = 136 TOTAL 136 100 .00 TABLE 58 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS' PREFERENCES IN TYPES OF CONTINUING EDUCATION COURSES Number of Courses You Prefer Engineers Percentage 1. A short concentrated course (e.g. con-ference of one week or less , fu l l - t ime course, etc.) 68 50.00 2. 1 - 3 week evening course 8 5.88 3. 4 - 6 week evening course 8 5.88 4. 7 - 1 0 week evening course 13 9.56 5. More than 10 week evening course 11 8.09 6. Correspondence course (at your own speed) 8 5.88 7. Full-time on-campus program 15 11.03 8. Other: please specify 0 0.00 0 No response 5 3.68 N = 136 136 100.00 172 TABLE 59 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS' PREFERENCES IN THE COURSE TIME DURATION OF EVENING COURSES Number of Course Time Duration Engineers Percentage 1. 1 hour - once per week 2 1.47 2. 1 hour - two times per week 5 3.68 3. 2 hours - once per week 45 33.09 4. 2 hours - two times per week 29 21.32 5. 3 hours - once per week 34 25.00 6. 3 hours - two times per week 5 3.68 7. More than 3 hours per week 4 2.94 8. Other: please specify 0 0.00 0 No response 12 8.82 N = 136 TOTAL 136 100.00 TABLE 60 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY ATTITUDE TOWARDS COMMUNICATIONS BETWEEN THE UBC CONT. ED. DEPT. AND THE ENGINEERS' AWARENESS OF THEIR PROGRAMS Classify Communications Number of Engineers Percentage 1. Very good 58 42.65 2. Fair ly good 49 36.03 3. Average 15 11.03 4. Poor 8 5.88 5. Very poor 4 2.94 0 No response 2 1.47 N = 136 TOTAL 136 100.00 173 TABLE 61 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS' PERCEIVED ATTITUDE TOWARD LEVEL OF DIFFICULTY IN UBC EXTENSION COURSES ATTENDED Number of Level of Di f f icu l ty Engineers Percentage Too d i f f i c u l t 1 0.74 Very challenging 9 6.62 Sl ightly challenging 15 11.03 Average d i f f i cu l t y 19 13.97 L i t t l e challenge 5 3.68 Easy 2 1.47 Far too easy (too simple or basic) 2 1.47 Don't know 81 59.56 No response 2 1.47 N = 136 TOTAL 136 100.00 TABLE 62 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS' CLASSIFICATION OF ENGINEERING CONTINUING EDUCATION COURSES AT U.B.C. Number of Classif icat ion of Courses Engineers Percentage Too specialized (too narrow in scope) 13 ' 9.56 About right 32 23.53 Too generalized (too broad in scope) 1 0.74 Have never taken one 90 66.18 N = 136 TOTAL 136 100.00 TABLE 63 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY TYPE OF PROGRAM AT U.B.C. AS PERCEIVED TO MEET PERSONAL NEEDS Number of Type of Program Engineers Percentage Non-credit courses (as required or needed) 93 68, .38 Credit courses 4 2, .94 Credit courses leading to a further degree 20 14. .71 Courses toward a diploma (or cert i f icate) 8 5. ,88 Other 7 5. .15 No response 4 2. ,94 N = 136 TOTAL 136 100. .00 174 TABLE 64 PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ENGINEERS BY PERCEIVED DEFICIENCIES IN PERSONAL CONTINUING EDUCATION NEEDS Number of Deficiencies in Continuing Education Engineers Percentage Personal interest act iv i t ies or courses (lack of time). 7 •5. 15 S k i l l s to overcome specific technical obsolescence of knowledge 21 15. .44 Sk i l l s to overcome broad technical obsolescence of knowledge 8 5. .88 Specific managerial s k i l l s 4 2, .94 Broad managerial s k i l l s 7 5. .15 Economics, law, planning 0 0, .00 Liberal arts related to engineering 22 16. .18 Degree advancement opportunity (credit) 10 7. .35 Lack of resource materials ( l i terature, etc.) (For self -directed learning) 4 2. .94 Not aware of any deficiencies 53 38, .97 N = 136 TOTAL 136 100, .00 APPENDIX III MV TAB BIVARIATE CONTINGENCY TABLES RELATED TO THE LEVEL OF PARTICIPATION IN CONTINUING EDUCATION APPENDIX III MV TAB BIVARIATE CONTINGENCY TABLES LEVEL OF PARTICIPATION IN CONTINUING EDUCATION TABLE 65 COMPANY CONDUCTION OF IN-HOUSE TRAINING No Number of Courses Taken Response Yes No Totals In Past 5 Years No. % No. I No. % No. % No response 0 0.00 0 0 .00 1 0.74 1 0.74 No courses 1 0.74 15 11 .03 17 12.50 33 24.26 1 - 3 courses 0 0.00 32 23 .53 31 22.79 63 46.32 Over 3 courses 0 0.00 31 22 .79 8 5.88 39 28.68 TOTALS 1 0.74 78 57 .35 57 41.91 136 100.00 N = 136 Chi-square = 10.37 Level of significance is 0.005 2 degrees of freedom. TABLE 66 COMPANY EDUCATION ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Number of Courses Taken In Past 5 Years No Response Yes No Totals No. % No. % No. % No. % No response No courses 1 - 3 courses Over 3 courses 0 1 2 0 0.00 0.74 1.47 0.00 1 18 33 31 0.74 13.24 24.26 22.79 0 14 28 8 0.00 10.29 20.59 5.88 1 0.74 33 24.26 63 46.32 39 28.68 TOTAL 3 2.21 83 61.03 50 36.76 136 100.00 N = 136 df = 2 x 2 = 7.14 Level of significance = 0.02 176 177 TABLE 67 RATE OF TUITION BASED ON COURSE GRADES Number of Courses Taken In Past 5 Years No Response Yes No Totals No. % No. I No. 0 / 0 No. % No response 0 0.00 0 0 .00 1 0, .74 1 0.74 No courses 11 8.09 5 3 .68 17 12, .50 33 24.26 1 - 3 courses 9 6.62 14 10 .29 40 29, .41 63 46.32 Over 3 courses 8 5.88 15 11 .01 16 11, .76 39 28.68 TOTAL 28 20.59 34 25 .00 74 54, .41 136 100.00 N = 136 df = 2 x 2 = 5.36 Level of significance = 0.05 TABLE 68 EMPLOYMENT STATUS OF THE ENGINEER Self - Work For Number of Courses Taken Employed Employer Other Total In Past 5 Years No. % No. % W. % W. T No response 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 0.74 1 0.74 No courses 11 8.09 20 14.71 2 1.47 33 24.26 1 - 3 courses 10 7.35 51 37.50 2 1.47 63 46.32 Over 3 courses 2 1.47 34 25.00 3 2.21 39 28.68 TOTALS 23 16.91 105 77.21 8 5.88 136 100.00 N = 136 df = 4 x 2 = 11.23 Level of significance = 0.02 178 TABLE 69 LEVEL OF SATISFACTION WITH PRESENT WORK Very Mainly Dis-Number of Courses Taken Satisfied Satisfied sat isf ied Total In Past 5 Years W. T~ No. % No. % No. % No response 1 0.74 0 0 .00 0 0.00 1 0.74 No courses 15 11.03 10 7 .35 8 5.88 33 24.26 1 - 3 courses 26 19.12 23 16 .91 14 10.29 63 46.32 Over 3 courses 6 4.41 20 14 .71 13 9.56 39 28.68 TOTAL 48 35.29 53 38 .97 35 25.73 136 100.00 n = 136 df = 4 x 2 = 9.48 Level of significance = 0.04 TABLE 70 PRESENT GROSS ANNUAL INCOME Number of Courses No Under $15,000 - Over Taken in Past Response $15,000 $20,000 $20,000 Total 5 Years No. % No, % No. % No. % No. % No response 0 0 .00 0 0.00 0 0 .00 1 0 .74 1 0.74 No courses 0 0 .00 7 5.15 9 6 .62 17 12 .50 33 24.26 1 - 3 courses 4 2 .94 24 17.65 21 15 .44 14 10 .29 63 46.32 Over 3 courses 0 0 .00 13 9.56 18 13 .24 8 5 .88 39 28.68 TOTAL 4 2 .94 44 32.35 48 35 .29 40 29 .41 136 100.00 n = 136 df = 4 x 2 = 11.25 Level of significance = 0.02 179 TABLE 71 ACTION OF IMMEDIATE SUPERVISOR Number of Courses No Action No Stimu- Non- or d is -Taken in Past Respon: se lates committal couraged Total 5 Years No. e % No. % No. % No. % No. % No response 0 0 .00 1 0. 74 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 0. 74 No courses 5 3 .68 8 5. 88 7 5.15 13 9.56 33 24. 26 1 - 3 courses 6 4 .41 22 16. 18 19 13.97 16 11.76 63 46. 32 Over 3 courses 1 0 .74 14 10. 29 20 14.71 4 2.94 39 28. 68 TOTAL 12 8 .82 45 33. 09 46 33.82 33 24.26 136 100. 00 n = 136 df = 4 x 2 = 12. 11 Level of significance = 0.01 TABLE 72 _ CO MOTIVATION - COMPANY POLICY TOWARD EDUCATION ° Strongly Part ia l ly Number of Courses Taken No En- En- No Dis-In Past 5 Years Response courages courages Effect courages Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No response 0 0.00 1 0.74 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 0.74 No courses 2 1.47 1 0.74 3 2.21 20 14.71 7 5.15 33 24.26 1 - 3 courses 2 1.47 10 7.35 15 11.03 22 16.18 14 10.29 63 46.32 Over 3 courses 0 0.00 4 2.94 18 13.24 14 10.29 3 2.21 39 28.68 TOTAL 4 2.94 16 11.76 36 26.47 56 41.18 24 17.65 136 100.00 n = 136 df = 6 x 2 = 19.82 Level of significance = 0.003 TABLE 73 ATTITUDE OF THE ENGINEER'S SPOUSE Discourages Number of Courses Taken No Strongly or Non-In Past 5 Years Response Encourages Encourages Committal Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No response 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 0.74 1 0.74 No courses 4 2.94 7 5.15 4 2.94 18 13.24 33 24.26 1 - 3 courses 3 2.21 15 11.03 21 15.44 24 17.65 63 46.32 Over 3 courses 0 0.00 15 11.03 13 9.56 11 8.09 39 28.68 TOTAL 7 5.15 37 27.21 38 27.94 54 39.71 136 100.00 n = 136 df = 4 x 2 = 9.65 Level of significance = 0.04 182 TABLE 74 AGE OF THE ENGINEER Number of Courses Taken in Past 5 Years Below 35 35 - 44 45 & Over Total No. % No. % . No. % No. c iNo response 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 0.74 1 0 .74 No courses 1 0.74 15 11.03 17 12.50 33 24 .26 1 - 3 courses 12 8.82 16 11.76 35 25.74 63 46 .32 Over 3 courses 7 5.15 18 13.24 14 10.29 39 28 .68 TOTAL 20 14.71 49 36.03 67 49.26 136 100 .00 n = 136 df = 4 x 2 = 9.95 Level of significance = 0.04 TABLE 75 ENGINEER'S LEVEL OF FORMAL EDUCATION Post Grad. Bachelors Degree No Degree Degree or Credit Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No response 0 0.00 1 0.74 0 0 .00 1 0.74 No courses 0 0.00 19 13.97 14 10 .29 33 24.26 1 - 3 courses 5 3.68 49 36.03 9 6 .62 63 46.32 Over 3 courses 6 4.41 22 16.18 11 8 .09 39 28.68 TOTAL 11 8.09 91. 66.91 34 25 .00 136 100.00 n = = 136 df = 4 x 2 = 14.40 Level of significance = 0.006 Number of Courses Taken in Past 5 Years TABLE 76 DEFICIENCIES IN CONTINUING EDUCATION j - n T i Liberal Number of Courses Taken D o n , t K n o w A r t s Technical Management Total In Past 5 Years ^ ^ — N o . % No. % No. % No. % No response 1 0.74 0 0. 00 0 0. ,00 0 0.00 1 0.74 No courses 12 8.82 11 8. 09 9 6. ,62 1 0.74 33 24.26 1 - 3 courses 28 20.59 13 9. 56 14 10. ,29 8 5.88 63 46.32 Over 3 courses 12 8.82 5 3. ,68 20 14, ,71 2 1.47 39 28.68 TOTAL 53 38.97 29 21. 32 43 31, .62 11 8.09 136 100.00 n = 136 df = 4 2 x = 12.09 Level of significance = 0, .01 TABLE 77 FIELD OF ENGINEER'S REGISTRATION Number of Courses Taken In Past 5 Years C iv i l Mechanical Electrical Other No. % No. % No. % No. °/, 0 1 0.74 0 0.00. 0 0.00 0 0, .00 5 3.68 6 4.41 8 5.88 14 10, .29 26 19.12 16 11.76 11 8.09 10 7 .35 10 7.35 14 10.29 8 5.88 7 5 .15 Total No. % No response No courses 1 - 3 courses Over 3 courses 1 33 63 39 0.74 24.26 46.32 28.68 TOTAL 42 30.88 36 26.47 27 19.85 31 22.79 136 100.00 n = 136 df x 2 = 15.20 Level of significance = 6 = 0.01 TABLE 78 SOURCES OF FUTURE CONTINUING EDUCATION Industry Society Number of Courses Taken No Other In/ or Gov- Self In Past 5 Years Interest U.B.C. University Service ernment Directed Total No response 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 No courses 0 3 3 4 5 18 33 1 - 3 courses 1 22 3 13 8 16 63 Over 3 courses 0 13 6 3 4 13 39 TOTAL 1 38 12 20 17 48 136 n = 136 df = 8 x 2 = 17.26 Level of significance =0.02 TABLE 79 FUTURE METHOD FOR CONTINUING EDUCATION Number of Courses Taken Won't Short Evening Corres- Full-Time In Past 5 Years Consider Any Courses Course pondence Program Total No response 0 1 0 0 0 1 No courses 0 19 8 4 2 33 1 - 3 courses 1 25 25 7 5 63 Over 3 courses 0 23 7 1 8 39 TOTAL 1 68 40 12 15 136 n = 136 df = 6 x 2 = 13.51 Level of significance = 0.03 TABLE 80 FUTURE ORIENTATION OF EDUCATION COURSES Number of Courses Taken No Liberal No Total In Past 5 Years Response Technical Arts Management Interest No response 0 0 0 0 1 1 No courses 0 7 8 11 7 33 1 - 3 courses 1 25 10 22 5 63 Over 3 courses 0 14 14 11 0 39 TOTAL 1 46 32 44 13 136 n = 136 df = 6 X 2 = 15.72 Level of significance = 0.01 TABLE 81 LEVEL OF DIFFICULTY OF U.B.C. COURSES Number of Courses Taken No About Don't In Past 5 Years Response Di f f icu l t Right Too Easy Know Total No response 0 0 0 0 1 1 No courses 0 0 5 1 27 33 1 - 3 courses 0 3 17 7 36 63 Over 3 courses 2 7 12 1 17 39 TOTAL 2 10 34 9 81 136 n = 136 d f = 6 x 2 = 18.90 Level of significance = 0.004 APPENDIX IV MV TAB BIVARIATE CONTINGENCY TABLES RELATED TO THE ENGINEER'S FEELING ABOUT THE NEED FOR REGULAR CONTINUING EDUCATION PROGRAMS APPENDIX IV.. BIVARIATE MV TAB CONTINGENCY TABLES THE ENGINEER'S FEELING ABOUT THE NEED FOR REGULAR CONTINUING EDUCATION PROGRAMS TABLE 82 DOES COMPANY HAVE AN EDUCATIONAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM? Engineers Need For Regular Don1 't Know Yes No Total Programs No. % No. c I No. t I No. : I Very important 1 0.74 33 24 .26 16 11 .76 50 36 .76 Sl ightly 2 1.47 42 30 .88 21 15 .44 65 47 .79 Not important 0 0.00 8 5 .88 13 9 .56 21 15 .44 TOTAL 3 2.21 83 61 .03 50 36 .76 136 100 .00 n = 136 d f = 2 x 2 = 6.29 Level of significance = 0.04 TABLE 83 LEVEL OF SATISFACTION WITH PRESENT WORK Feeling About Very Mainly The Need For Satisf ied Satisfied Dissatisfied Total Regular Programs No. % No. % No. % No. : I Very important 22 16.18 15 11.03 13 9.56 50 36 .76 Some importance 17 12.50 34 25.00 14 10.29 65 47 .79 Not important 9 6.62 4 2.94 8 5.88 21 15 .44 TOTAL 48 35.29 53 38.97 35 25.74 136 100 .00 n = 136 d f = 4 x 2 = 10.78 Level of significance = 0.02 188 189 TABLE 84 MOTIVATION: COMPANY POLICY TOWARD CONTINUING EDUCATION Engineer's Need Strongly Partial No For No En- In- Encour- Dis-Regular Programs Response courages fluence agement courages Total Very important 2 11 16 14 7 50 Some importance 2 4 16 34 9 65 Not important 0 1 4 8 8 21 TOTAL 4 16 36 56 24 136 n = 136 d f = 6 x 2 = 18.04 Level of significance = 0.006 TABLE 85 PRESENT MARITAL STATUS OF THE ENGINEER Engineer's Need For Single Married Total Regular Programs No. lo No. c % No. c IVery important 0 0.00 50 36 .76 50 36 .76 Sl ightly important 5 3.68 60 44 .12 65 47 .79 Not important 3 2.21 18 13 .24 21 15 .44 TOTAL 8 5.88 128 94 .12 136 100 .00 n = 136 d f = 2 2 x = 6.19 Level of significance = 0 .04 190 TABLE 86 ENGINEER'S TYPE OF ACCOMMODATION Engineer's Need For Home Owner Rent Total Regular Programs No. % No. % No. % Very important 47 34.56 3 2.21 50 36. 76 Sl ight ly important 50 36.76 15 11.03 65 47. 79 Not important 17 12.50 4 2.94 21 15. 44 TOTAL 114 83.82 22 16.18 136 100. 00 n = 136 d f = 2 2 x = 6.23 Level of significance =0.04 TABLE 87 PROBLEM OF "TECHNICAL OBSOLESCENCE" OF KNOWLEDGE IN THE ENGINEERING PROFESSION Engineer's Need Serious Slight No For Problem Problem Problem Total Regular Programs No. % No. % No. % No. __% Very important 24 17 .65 23 16, .91 3 2. 21 50 36. 76 Sl ightly important 23 16 .91 27 19, .85 15 11. 03 65 47. 79 Not important 4 2 .94 13 9, .56 4 2. 94 21 15. 44 TOTAL 51 37 .50 63 46, .32 22 16. 18 136 100. 00 n = 136 d f = 4 x 2 = 10.10 Level of significance =0.03 191 TABLE 88 THE PROBLEM OF "TECHNICAL OBSOLESCENCE" IN THE ENGINEER'S SPECIFIC WORK AREA Engineer's Need For Regular Programs Constant Upgrading Required No. Some Upgrading Requi red No. % L i t t l e or no Upgrading Required No, % Total No. Very important 32 23, .53 18 13. .24 0 0, .00 50 36, .76 Sl ightly important 16 11, .76 39 28, .68 10 7, .35 65 47, .79 Not important 6 ' 4, .41 9 6, .62 6 4, .41 21 15, .44 TOTAL 54 39, .71 66 48, .53 16 11, .76 136 100. ,00 n = 136 d f = 4 x 2 = 26.98 Level of significance = 0.00003 TABLE 89 ATTITUDE OF SPOUSE TOWARD THE ENGINEER'S PARTICIPATION IN CONTINUING EDUCATION Engineer's Need Indifferent For No Strongly Some En- or Regular Programs Response Encourages couragement Discourages Total Very important 0 23 18 9 50 Sl ightly important 4 10 20 31 65 Not important 3 4 0 14 21_ TOTAL 7 37 38 54 136 n = 136 d f = 4 x 2 = 28.48 Level of significance = 0.00001 192 TABLE 90 (a) THE NEED FOR A SPECIFIC ENGINEERING BACKGROUND Engineer's Need Not For Must Have Important Important Total Regular Programs No. % No. % No. % No. _%_ Very important 31 22, .79 19 13, .97 0 0, .00 50 36. .76 Sl ightly important 32 23, .53 27 19, .85 6 4, .41 65 47, .79 Not important 8 5, .88 9 6, .62 4 2, .94 21 15, .44 TOTAL 71 52, .21 55 40, .44 10 7. .35 136 100. .00 n = 136 d f = 4 x 2 = 9.85 Level of significance =0.04 TABLE 91 (b) EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT OF SPOUSE Engineer's Need No High Some Uni- University For Response School versity Degree Total Regular Programs No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % Very important 0 0.00 11 8.09 24 17.65 15 11.03 50 36. 76 Sl ightly important 4 2.94 27 19.85 15 11.03 19 13.97 65 47. 79 Not important 3 2.21 8 5.88 7 5.15 3 2.21 21 15. 44 TOTAL 7 5.15 46 33.82 46 33.82 37 27.21 136 100. 00 n = 136 d f = 4 x 2 = 9.62 Level of significance =0.04 193 TABLE 92 (c) AWARENESS OF CREDIT COURSES OFFERED IN YOUR AREA Engineer's Need Courses Courses No No • ' For Offered Sometimes Courses Response Total Regular Programs No. % No. % No. % No. . % No. % Very important 31 22.79 6 4.41 12 8.82 1 0.74 50 36. 76 Sl ightly important 25 18.38 15 11.03 24 17.65 1 0.74 65 47. 79 Not important 10 7.35 1 0.74 9 6.62 1 0.74 21 15. 44 TOTAL 66 48.53 22 16.18 45 33.09 3 2.21 136 100. 00 n = 136 d f = 4 x 2 - 9.53 Level of significance = 0. .04 TABLE 93 (d) LEVEL OF COURSE FEES AT U.B.C. Engineer's Need About For Unaware Too High Right Total Regular Programs No. % No. % No. 2 0 No. c I Very important 14 10. 29 16 11. 76 20 14. .71 50 36 .76 Sl ightly important 32 23. 53 16 11. 76 17 12. .50 65 47 .79 Not important 11 8. 09 9 6. 62 1 0. .74 21 15 .44 TOTAL 57 41. 91 41 30. 15 38 27. .94 136 100 .00 n = 136 d f = 4 x 2 = 12.25 Level of significance = 0.01 TABLE 94 (e) AREA OF TECHNICAL EDUCATION TO BEST FIT THE ENGINEER'S PERSONAL NEED Engineer's Need Basic and Engineering Communications Not Interested For Engineering Analysis Math and in Technical Regular Programs Sciences Design & Systems Other Courses Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. ! I Very important 9 6.62 22 16.18 13 9.56 6 4.41 50 36 .76 Sl ightly important 19 13.97 11 8.09 19 13.97 16 11.76 65 47 .79 Not important 4 2.94 6 4.41 4 2.94 7 5.15 21 15 .44 TOTAL 32 23.53 39 28.68 36 26.47 29 21.32 136 100 .00 n = 136 d f = 6 x 2 = 13.37 Level of significance = 0.03 TABLE 95 (f) ORIENTATION PREFERRED FOR A CONTINUING EDUCATION COURSE Engineer's Need No Technical Liberal Arts Management Not For Response Courses Courses Courses Interested Total Regular Programs Number Number Number Number Number Number Very important 0 23 11 13 3 50 Sl ightly important 1 17 15 27 5 65 Not important 0 6 6 4 5 21 TOTAL 1 46 32 44 13 136 n = 136 d f = 6 x 2 = 12.55 Level of significance = 0.05 TABLE 96 (g) AREA OF MANAGEMENT COURSES TO BEST SUIT YOUR PERSONAL NEEDS Engineer's Need For General Management Specific Management Design Research Development Not Interested Total Regular Programs No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % Very important Sl ightly important Not important 19 32 5 13.97 23.53 3.68 8 5.88 18 13.24 9 6.62 16 11.76 11 8.09 2 1.47 7 5.15 4 2.94 5 3.68 50 36. 65 47. 21 15. 76 79 44 TOTAL 56 41.18 35 25.74 29 21.32 16 11.76 136 100. 00 n = 136 d f = 6 x 2 = 16.19 Level of significance =0.01 TABLE 97 (h) SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING IN PAST FIVE YEARS Engineer's Need For Regular Programs No Yes Total No. % No. % No. % Very important Sl ightly important Not important 20 43 9 14.71 31.62 6.62 30 22.06 22 16.18 12 8.82 50 65 21 36.76 47.79 15.44 TOTAL 72 52.94 64 47.06 136 100.00 n = 136 d f = 2 x 2 = 8.77 Level of significance = 0.01 TABLE 98 (1) PARTICIPATION IN PART-TIME CREDIT COURSES TOWARD A FURTHER DEGREE Engineer's Need For Regular Programs Yes No Not Sure No Response Total No. c i No_. c I No. % No. % No. % Very important 19 13 .97 25 18 .38 4 2.94 2 1.47 50 36.76 Sl ightly important 10 7 .35 44 32 .35 11 8.09 0 0.00 65 47.79 Not important 3 2 .21 17 12 .50 0 0.00 1 0.74 21 15.44 TOTAL 32 23 .53 86 63 .24 15 11.03 3 2.21 136 100.00 n = 136 d f = 4 x 2 = 14.53 Level of significance = 0.005 TABLE 99 (j) POSSIBILITY OF ENROLLING IN A U.B.C. COURSE IN THE FUTURE Engineer's Need For Regular Programs Yes Uncertain No Total No. % No. % No. 5 i No. % Very important 18 13.24 18 13.24 14 10, .29 50 36.76 Sl ight ly important 17 12.50 10 7.35 38 27, .94 65 47.79 Not important 3 2.21 2 1.47 16 11, .76 21 15.44 TOTAL 38 27.94 30 22.06 68 50, .00 136 100.00 n = 136 d f = 4 x 2 = 18.50 Level of significance = 0.001 APPENDIX V MV TAB BIVARIATE CONTINGENCY TABLES RELATED TO THE ENGINEER'S FEELING THAT HIS CONTINUING EDUCATION NEEDS ARE PRESENTLY BEING MET APPENDIX V THE ENGINEER'S FEELING THAT HIS CONTINUING EDUCATION NEEDS ARE PRESENTLY BEING MET OCCUPATIONAL FACTORS TABLE 100 IS RATE OF TUITION PAID BY THE COMPANY BASED ON COURSE GRADES Are C.E. Needs No Presently Response Yes No Total Being Met No. % 3 No. 0 t / No. c I No. % 0 No response 1 0. .74 0 0, .00 1 0 .74 2 1, .47 Yes 14 10. .29 10 7, .35 43 31 .62 67 49. .26 No 13 9. .56 24 17, .65 30 22 .06 67 49. .26 TOTAL 28 20. .59 34 25, .00 74 54 .41 136 100, .00 n = 136 d f = 1 x 2 = 6.93 Level of significance = 0.008 TABLE 101 NUMBER OF YEARS WORKED AS AN ENGINEER Are C.E. Needs 10 Years 11 - 15 Over 15 Presently or Less Years Years Total Being Met No. i No. % No. % No. 3 i 0 No response 0 0.00 1 0.74 1 0.74 2 1, .47 Yes 6 4.41 12 8.82 49 36.03 67 49, .26 No 19 13.97 16 11.76 32 23.53 67 49. .26 TOTAL 25 18.38 29 21.32 82 60.29 136 100. .00 n = 136 d f = 2 x 2 = 10.90 Level of significance = 0.004 198 199 TABLE 102 NUMBER OF YEARS WITH PRESENT EMPLOYER Are C.E. Needs 5 Years 6 - 15 Over 15 Presently or Less Years Years Total Being Met No. % No. % No. % No. 0 / 0 No response 1 0. 74 0 0. 00 1 0. 74 2 1, .47 Yes 16 11. 76 27 19. 85 24 17. 65 67 49. .26 No 29 21. 32 28 20. 59 10 7. 35 67 49. .26 TOTAL 46 33. 82 55 40. 44 35 25. 74 136 100. .00 n = 136 d f = 2 x 2 9.54 Level of si gnificance = = 0. 008 TABLE 103 CLASSIFICATION OF ENGINEER'S COMPANY Are C.E. Needs Private Education Public Presently Industry Institution U t i l i t i e s Total Being Met No. % No. % No. % No. °k ( No response 2 1.47 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 1. Al Yes 32 23.53 21 15.44 14 10.29 67 49. 26 No 45 33.09 9 6.62 13 9.56 67 49. 26 TOTAL 79 58.09 30 22.06 27 19.85 136 100. 00 n = 136 d f = 2 x 2 = 7.03 Level of significance =0.02 TABLE 104 GROSS ANNUAL INCOME OF ENGINEER No Under $15,000 to Over Are C, E. Needs Presently Response $15,000 $20,000 $20,000 Total Being Met N o > % ^ %~ . W. T~ No. % No. % No response 1 0.74 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 0.74 2 1.47 Yes 1 0.74 16 11.76 23 16.91 27 19.85 67 49.26 No 2 1.47 28 20.59 25 18.38 12 8.82 67 49.26 TOTAL 3 2.94 44 32.35 48 35.29 40 29.41 136 100.00 n = 136 d f = 2 x 2 = 9.12 Level of significance = 0.01 TABLE 105 FIELD OF ENGINEERING OF COMPANY Are C. E. Needs Presently Being Met C iv i l Mechanical Electrical Other Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. c, % No response 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 1.47 2 1 Al Yes 22 16.18 9 6.62 15 11.03 21 15.44 67 49 .26 No 8 5.88 20 14.71 17 12.50 22 16.18 67 49 .26 TOTAL 30 22.06 29 21.32 32 23.53 45 33.09 136 100 .00 n = 136 d f =3 x 2 = 10.85 Level of significance = 0.01 201 PERSONAL FACTORS TABLE 106 SERVICE ON A PROFESSIONAL SOCIETY COMMITTEE Are C. E. Needs Presently Being Met No Yes Total No. c I No. % No. % No response 0 0 .00 2 1.47 2 1.47 Yes 43 31 .62 24 17.65 67 49.26 No 54 39 .71 13 9.56 67 49.26 TOTAL 97 71 .32 39 28.68 136 100.00 n _ 136 d f = 1 x 2 = 3.73 Level of significance = 0.05 TABLE 107 AGE OF THE ENGINEER Are C. E. Needs 45 and Presently Below 35 35 - 44 Over Total Being Met No. t No. % No. % No. "f 0 No response 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 1.47 2 1, .47 Yes 3 2.21 21 15.44 43 31.62 67 49. .26 No 17 12.50 28 20.59 22 16.18 67 49. .26 TOTAL 20 14.71 49 36.03 67 49.26 136 100, .00 n = 136 d f =2 x 2 = 17.58 Level of significance = 0.0002 TABLE 108 MANAGEMENT VERSUS TECHNICAL JOB FUNCTION IN NEXT TEN YEARS Are C. E. Needs Presently No Response Mainly Technical Half of Each Mainly Supervisory Total Being Met No. % No. % . No. % No. % No. ° I No response Yes No 0 4 0 0.00 2.94 0.00 0 13 5 0.00 9.56 3.68 0 9 20 0.00 6.62 14.71 2 41 42 1.47 30.15 30.88 2 1 67 49 67 49 .47 .26 .26 TOTAL 4 2.94 18 13.24 29 21.32 85 62.50 136 100 .00 n = 136 d f = 2 x 2 = 7.62 Level of significance = 0.02 TABLE 109 FIELD OF ENGINEERING FOR PROFESSIONAL REGISTRATION Are C. E. Needs Presently Being Met C iv i l Mechanical Electrical Other Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No response Yes No 1 28 13 0.74 20.59 9.56 0 10 26 0.00 7.35 19.12 0 12 15 0.00 8.82 11.03 1 17 13 0. 12. 9. 74 50 56 2 1. 67 49. 67 49. Al .26 .26 TOTAL 42 30.88 36 26.47 27 19.85 31 22. 79 136 100, .00 n = 136 d f = 3 x 2 = 13.47 Level of significance = 0.003 EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND TABLE 110 YEAR OF PROFESSIONAL REGISTRATION Are C. E. Needs Presently Being Met 1950 or Earl ier No. % 1951 to 1960 No. % After 1960 No. % Total No. % No response 0 0.00 2 1.47 0 0.00 2 1.47 Yes 21 15.44 28 20.59 18 13.24 67 49.26 No 9 6.62 21 15.44 37 27.21 67 49.26 TOTAL 30 22.06 51 37.50 55 40.44 136 100.00 n = 136 d f = 2 x 2 = 12.36 Level of significance = 0.002 TABLE 111 YEAR OF BACHELOR'S DEGREE Are C. E. Needs Presently Being Met No Degree 1950 or Earl ier 1951--1960 1961 or Later Total No. %. No. % No. % No. % No. % No response Yes No 0 5 5 0.00 3.68 3.68 1 37 15 0.74 27.21 11.03 1 22 28 0.74 16.18 20.59 0 3 19 0.00 2.21 13.97 2 1.47 67 49.26 67 49.26 TOTAL 10 7.35 53 38.99 51 37.50 22 16.18 136 100.00 o n = 136 d f = 2 x2 = 21.66 Level of significance = 0.00003 TABLE 112 AWARENESS OF CREDIT COURSES OFFERED Are C. E. Needs Presently Being Met No Response Yes Sometimes No Total No. i No. h No. % No. < i No. % No response 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 1 .47 2 1.47 Yes 0 0.00 42 30.88 10 7.35 15 11 .03 67 49.26 No 3 2.21 24 17.65 12 8.82 28 20 .59 67 49.26 TOTAL 3 2.21 66 48.53 22 16.18 45 33 .09 136 100.00 n = 136 d f = 2 x2 = 8.96 Level of significance =0.01 TABLE 113 AWARENESS OF GENERAL ADULT EDUCATION COURSES Are C. E. Needs Presently Being Met No Response Yes Sometimes No Total No. i No. % No. % No. % 0 No. % No response 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 2 1. .47 2 1.47 Yes 0 0.00 43 31.62 9 6.62 15 11. .03 67 49.26 No 1 0.74 31 22.79 26 19.12 9 6, .62 67 49.26 TOTAL 1 0.74 74 54.41 35 25.74 26 19. .12 136 100.00 n = 136 d f = 2 x 2 = 11.70 Level of significance = 0.003 TABLE 114 TYPE OF U.B.C. PROGRAM TO BEST MEET YOUR PERSONAL NEEDS Are Your C. E. Needs Presently Being Met No Response Non-Credit Course Credit Course Total No. % " No. % No. % No. % No response 1 0.74 1 0.74 0 0.00 2 1. .47 Yes 2 1.47 52 38.24 13 9.56 67 49. .26 No 1 0.74 40 29.41 26 19.12 67 49. .26 TOTAL 4 2.94 93 68.38 39 28.68 136 100. .00 n = 136 d f = 1 x 2 = 5.00 Level of significance = 0.02 TABLE 115 PARTICIPATION IN CREDIT COURSES TOWARD A FURTHER DEGREE Are Your C. E. Needs Presently Being Met No Response Yes No Not Sure Total No. % No. i I No. % No. % No. 3 0 No response 0 0.00 0 0 .00 2 1.47 0 0.00 2 1. .47 Yes 3 2.21 7 5 .15 50 36.76 7 5.15 67 49. .26 No 0 0.00 25 18 .38 34 25.00 8 5.88 67 49. .26 TOTAL 3 2.21 32 23 .53 86 63.24 15 11.03 136 100. .00 n = 136 d f = 2 xc = 13.18 Level of significance = 0.001 TABLE 116 ORIENTATION OF COURSE ENGINEERS WOULD PREFER Are Your C. E. Needs No Liberal Not Presently Being Met Response Technical Arts Managerial Interested Total No response 1 0 0 0 1 2 Yes 0 17 19 21 10 67 No 0 29 13 23 2 67 TOTAL 1 46 32 44 13 136 n = 136 d f = 3 x 2 = 9.68 Level of significance =0.02 TABLE 117 RELATIONSHIP OF COURSE COMBINING ENGINEERING AND SOCIAL SCIENCES MOST INTERESTING TO ENGINEERS Technology Technology Technology Are Your C. E. Needs and Human and and Not Presently Being Met Values Economics Environment Interested Total No. % No. % No. % No. % No. \ I No response 1 0.74 0 0.00 0 0.00 1 0.74 2 1 .47 Yes 20 14.71 17 12.50 27 19.85 3 2.21 67 49 .26 No 29 21.32 10 7.35 17 12.50 11 8.09 67 49 .26 TOTAL 50 36.76 27 19.85 44 32.35 15 11.03 136 100 .00 n = 136 d f = 3 x 2 = 10.31 Level of significance = 0.01 GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS TABLE 118 DISTRICT OF THE ENGINEER Are Your C. E. Needs Lower Mainland Vancouver Island Rest of B.C. Total Presently Being Met No. % No. % No. % No. % No response 1 0.74 0 0.00 1 0.74 2 1.47 Yes 56 41.18 3 2.21 8 5.88 67 49.26 No 46 33.82 12 8.82 9 6.62 67 49.26 TOTAL 103 75.74 15 11.03 18 13.24 136 100.00 n = 136 d f = 2 x 2 = 6.44 Level of significance = 0.03 TABLE 119 DISTANCE TO PROFESSIONAL ENGINEERING SOCIETY MEETING Are Your C. E. Needs Presently Being Met No Response Less Than 10 Miles 1 1 - 2 0 Mi 1 es Over 20 Miles Total No. %. No. % No. % No. % No. 5 I No response Yes No 0 0 1 0.00 0.00 0.74 1 52 32 0.74 38.24 23.53 0 9 16 0.00 6.62 11.76 1 6 18 0.74 4.41 13.24 2 1 67 49 67 49 Al .26 .26 TOTAL 1 0.74 85 62.50 25 18.38 25 18.38 136 100 .00 n = 136 d f = 2 x 2 = 12.71 Level of significance = 0.001 APPENDIX VI SIGNIFICANTLY RELATED DEPENDENT AND INDEPENDENT VARIABLES IN THE STUDY APPENDIX VI SIGNIFICANTLY RELATED DEPENDENT AND INDEPENDENT VARIABLES IN THE STUDY (.05 LEVEL OF SIGNIFICANCE OR BEYOND) A. THE ENGINEER'S LEVEL OF PARTICIPATION IN CONTINUING EDUCATION 1. Occupational Factors -Percentage of course fees paid by the company. -Company policy on an educational assistance program. -Company policy on paying tuit ion fees based on course grades. -The engineer's employment status. -Level of satisfaction with present work. -Income of the engineer. -Action taken by immediate supervisor to encourage education. -Motivation provided through company policy on education. -Company policy on providing in-house workshops. 2. Personal Factors -The number of dependent children l iv ing at home. -The age of the engineer. -The attitude of the spouse toward participation in education. 3. Educational Factors -The amount of company time a firm wi l l allow for education. -Level of formal education. -Self-evaluation of deficiencies in continuing education. -F ie ld of professional engineering registration. -Sources of continuing education an engineer would choose. -Method chosen for future continuing education. -Orientation of courses preferred in future. -Level of d i f f i cu l t y of U.B.C. continuing education courses. 209 2 1 0 4. Geographic Factors -Amount of time spent working out-of-town. -Amount of time spent travel l ing to and from work. B. THE ENGINEER'S FEELING ABOUT THE NEED FOR REGULAR CONTINUING EDUCATION PROGRAMS 1 . Occupational Factors -Percentage of time spent on economic evaluation. -Percentage of work time spent on self -directed learning. -Percentage of time spent on direct supervision of others. -Company policy on an educational assistance program. -Level of satisfaction with present job function. -Motivation provided through company policy on education. 2 . Personal Factors -Present marital status. -Present situation on accommodation. -Feeling about the problem of "technical obsolescence" of knowledge. -The amount of upgrading required to overcome the "technical obsolescence" of knowledge. -Attitude of the spouse toward participation in education. 3. Educational Factors -Number of personal interest or recreation courses taken. -Relevance of a specific engineering background to present work function. -Area of technical education to best f i t personal needs. -Orientation preferred for a future continuing education course. -Orientation of future management courses for personal needs. -Extent of self -directed learning experiences. -Desire to participate in credit courses toward a further degree. -Poss ib i l i t y of enrolling in a U. B. C. course in future. 211 4. Geographic Factors -The distance an engineer must travel to the nearest professional society meeting. C. THE ENGINEER'S FEELING TOWARD HIS CONTINUING EDUCATION NEEDS PRESENTLY BEING MET 1. Occupational Factors -Rate of tuit ion fees paid by the company based on the engineer's grades in the course. -Number of years worked in the engineering f i e l d . -Number of years worked for present employer. -C lass i f icat ion of the company. -Gross annual income. -Main engineering f i e l d of the company. 2. Personal Factors -Engineer's service on a professional society committee. -Age of the engineer. -Perceived technical versus management function in the next 1 0 years. -F ie ld of professional registration. 3. Educational Factors -Year of professional registration. -Year of bachelor's degree in engineering. -Awareness of credit courses offered and available. -Awareness of general adult education courses offered and available. -Type of U. B. C. program to best suit personal needs. -Participation in credit courses toward a further degree. -Orientation of continuing education courses preferred. -Type of course combining elements of engineering and social sciences most interesting. 2 1 2 4. Geographic Factors -The d i s t r i c t in which the engineer works. -Distance to the nearest professional society meeting. 

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