UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A taxonomic framework for adult education practices in North America McCreary, Elaine Kathryn 1980

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A TAXONOMIC  FRAMEWORK FOR  ADULT EDUCATION P R A C T I C E S I N NORTH AMERICA  by E L A I N E KATHRYN McCREARY Bachelor of A r t s Concordia University,  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED  (Andragogy) M o n t r e a l , 1977  IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  •in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f A d u l t  Education)  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g to the required  standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA September 1980  ©  E l a i n e K a t h r y n M c C r e a r y , 1980  OF  In  presenting  this  an a d v a n c e d  degree  the  shall  I  Library  f u r t h e r agree  for  scholarly  by h i s of  this  written  at  thesis  make  it  freely  that permission  purposes  for  may it  is  British  of  Columbia,  British  by  for  gain  Columbia  shall  the  that  not  requirements I  agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying  t h e Head o f  understood  of  of  of  for extensive  permission.  University  fulfilment  available  be g r a n t e d  financial  2075 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1W5  Date  in p a r t i a l  the U n i v e r s i t y  representatives*,  Department  The  thesis  of  this  or  that  study. thesis  my D e p a r t m e n t  copying  for  or  publication  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t  my  ii  ABSTRACT  As a domain o f s o c i a l s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s p l a g u e d bys e v e r a l methodological problems.  C h i e f among t h e s e a r e : l ) t h e i n a b i l i t y  t o c o n c e p t u a l l y i n t e g r a t e s e v e r a l l i n e s o f r e s e a r c h w h i c h c u r r e n t l y examine i s o l a t e d dimensions  o f t h i s complex s o c i a l p r a c t i c e ; 2) t h e i n a b i l i t y t o com-  pare c o n c r e t e c a s e s i n t h e i r i n f i n i t e d e t a i l ; 3) "the i n a b i l i t y t o make e x p l i c i t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f v a l u e s on t h e c h o i c e s w h i c h a r e made r e g a r d i n g p r a c t i c e ; and 4) t h e i n a b i l i t y t o i n t e r p r e t t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f h i s t o r i c a l s h i f t s i n t h e f i e l d of practice.  These m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e a l l a t t r i b u t a b l e t o  a s i n g l e m a j o r gap i n t h e o r y - t h e l a c k o f a comprehensive framework f o r a n a l y z i n g v a r i a t i o n s i n the f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e . The p r o b l e m u n d e r t a k e n  i n t h i s t h e s i s i s how t o a s s e m b l e a framework o f  b a s i c t y p e s o f p r a c t i c e none o f w h i c h w i l l r e d u c e i n t o t h e t e r m s o f a n o t h e r , and w h i c h r e p r e s e n t t h e minimum a r r a y o f t y p e s t h a t t a k e n i n c o m b i n a t i o n c a n accomodate a l l v a r i a t i o n s o f p r a c t i c e e v i d e n c e d assumption t h a t a d u l t education i s a normative  i n the f i e l d .  B a s e d on t h e  f i e l d , h e l p i n g a d u l t s t o change  i n d i r e c t i o n s which epitomize c e r t a i n v a l u e s , f o u r types o f p r a c t i c e are defined i n accord with the values i m p l i c i t i n t h e i r educational g o a l s .  These  d i r e c t i o n s o f a d u l t development b u i l d on t h e " s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s " l i t e r a t u r e . Two t e c h n i q u e s o f s o c i a l s c i e n t i f i c methodology a r e employed t o d e v e l o p these f o u r types. Abraham K a p l a n  The " a r t i c u l a t i o n o f a domain o f i n q u i r y " a s d e s c r i b e d by  (1964) i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r u s e where a s i m p l e d e f i n i t i o n o f a  domain w i l l n o t s u f f i c e .  A r t i c u l a t i o n creates a matrix with observational  c a t e g o r i e s ranged a c r o s s a s e t o f t h e o r e t i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s .  These c l a s s i f i -  c a t i o n s a r e c r e a t e d t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f M c K i n n e y ' s (1966) p r o c e d u r a l g u i d e l i n e s  ill  f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g the t e c h n i q u e o f " c o n s t r u c t i v e t y p o l o g y " .  The  data which  c o m p l e t e the m a t r i x a r e drawn f r o m s e m i - a n a l y t i c t r e a t m e n t s o f f i v e  observa-  t i o n a l d i m e n s i o n s w h i c h r e m a i n when the g o a l d i m e n s i o n i s u s e d a s t h e f o r d e f i n i n g the t y p e s .  basis  Those o b s e r v a t i o n a l d i m e n s i o n s i n c l u d e program  content,  e d u c a t i o n a l methodology, b a s i s o f e v a l u a t i o n , c l i e n t e l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , delivery location. i s analyzed  The  extensive  l i t e r a t u r e on t h e s e d i m e n s i o n s o f p r a c t i c e  f o r t h o s e v a r i a b l e s w h i c h a r e u n i q u e t o one  t h e r e f o r e s e r v e as d i s c r i m i n a t o r s between t y p e s , and v i r t u a l l y pervasive The  type of p r a c t i c e  of a l l types of p r a c t i c e .  r e s u l t s c o n s i s t of four fundamentally d i s t i n c t types of p r a c t i c e  I t i s a r g u e d t h a t the framework and  methodological uni-dimensional  and  education.  r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n h e r e n t i n the framework a r e p r e s e n t e d i n a f o r m a l  model.  and  those v a r i a b l e s w h i c h a r e  a s e t o f core c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which pervade a l l v a r i e t i e s o f a d u l t The  and  model t o g e t h e r r e p r e s e n t  scientific significant  advance o v e r p r e v i o u s a t t e m p t s t o a n a l y z e t h e f i e l d s u c h as scales.  U n i - d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l e s merge the o b s e r v a t i o n a l  and  t h e o r e t i c a l a x e s and a t t e m p t t o range a l l p r a c t i c e s between p o l a r i t i e s such as r e a c t i o n a r y and r e v o l u t i o n a r y , o r l i b e r a l and The  framework may  vocational.  be r e a d i l y a d a p t e d a s an i n s t r u m e n t t o p r o v i d e  " p r o f i l e s " o f e m p i r i c a l c a s e s and u s e d t o t e s t h y p o t h e s e s r e g a r d i n g c o n t e m p o r a r y and h i s t o r i c a l f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e .  The  f u n c t i o n s and  practices,  the  f o r m a l model p r o v i d e s  o f s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h i n t e g r a t e s a l a r g e volume o f concerning adult education  detailed  a  set  literature  and goes beyond c o n s o l i d a -  t i o n t o s u g g e s t h y p o t h e s e s f o r e m p i r i c a l t e s t t h a t can s y s t e m a t i c a l l y advance t h i s f i e l d of s o c i a l  research..  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS L i s t of I l l u s t r a t i o n s  iv  L i s t o f Tables  .....  Acknowledgements  v  .'  vi  Chapter I.  INTRODUCTION  1  Nature o f the Problem Methodological  1  obstacles i n the study o f adult education....  1  Source o f the problem: a s i n g l e major gap i n theory  4  Inadequacy o f previous attempts t o solve the/problem  5  Purpose o f the Study: To Produce a Comprehensive Framework f o r the Domain  7  D e f i n i t i o n o f terms  .  7  C r i t e r i a f o r an adequate framework  8  Usefulness o f a framework to d i s c i p l i n a r i a n s • and to p r a c t i t i o n e r s  9  ,'.  Plan o f the Study II.  Ii  LITERATURE REVIEW  13  Procedural Matters  1^-  Terminology i n the l i t e r a t u r e  14-  Selection g u i d e l i n e s . . . . . . .  15  Presentation o f Summarized Statements  16 26  Juxtaposition o f terms C r i t i q u e o f the L i t e r a t u r e . .  III.  28  Degree o f consensus  28  Conclusion  29  METHODOLOGY  30  Explanation o f Constructive Typology  -  Misapplied d e f i n i t i o n s and functions Uses o f constructed types  30 3^  -  37  A p p l i c a t i o n o f Constructive Typology t o the Domain o f Adult Education P r a c t i c e s  ^0  V  IV.  48  F I N D I N G S PART A : A N A L Y S I S OF THE TYPES AND THE DIMENSIONS D e f i n i t i o n o f t h e T y p e s by G o a l , F u n c t i o n ,  48  and Domain  Technical education. .Interpersonal  49  education  51  S e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g education  52  Social activist  54  education....'  S i m p l i f i c a t i o n of the A t t r i b u t e The c o n t e n t  57  Space  59  dimension.  The m e t h o d o l o g y d i m e n s i o n  63  The e v a l u a t i o n d i m e n s i o n .  68  The c l i e n t e l e d i m e n s i o n  72  The l o c a t i o n d i m e n s i o n  78  A M o d e l o f Formal R e l a t i o n s h i p s between E l e m e n t s : The T y p e s , V.  the Dimensions,  FINDINGS PART B:  the Core  88  SYNTHESIS OF THE V A R I A B L E S WITHIN EACH TYPE  P r e s e n t a t i o n o f the Taxonomic M a t r i x  89  Tentative  93  Explanatory  Technical  A c c o u n t i n g f o r e a c h Type  education  Interpersonal  93 108  education  S e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g education Social activist  ,  123 138  education  Common C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s VI.  83  i n a l l Adult Education P r a c t i c e s . . . . . . . .  CONCLUSIONS  158, 159  Summary o f t h e S t u d y  159  Conclusions  •  161  Regarding the four constructed types Regarding t h e taxonomic frumework  160  i..  162  R e g a r d i n g the model o f the d o m a i n . . . . . . .  164  Regarding a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r the p r a c t i t i o n e r .  166  Regarding a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r Implications Appendices References.  for Further ;  the d i s c i p l i n a r i a n  Research  ...  169 173 179  185  vi  - LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS  Figure 1.  Three Uses o f t h e Term " C o n t e n t s " i n E d u c a t i o n  2.  Sponsors o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n  3.  P r o c e d u r a l S k i l l s a s E d u c a t i o n a l Outcomes  4.  Varieties of Intellectual S k i l l s  102  5.  Schematic Summary o f t h e I n t e r p e r s o n a l Gap  110  T r a n s f o r m a t i o n s A c r o s s t h e I n t e r p e r s o n a l Gap  110  7.  An I n t e r a c t i o n Diagram o f a C l u b Group  121  8.  The Community P r o b l e m - S o l v i n g P r o c e s s  146  . 6.  Diagram 1. One D i m e n s i o n o f P r a c t i c e a t t h e Core o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n 2. 3«  4. 5. 6.  60 ;..  73 79  85, 174  S i x Dimensions o f P r a c t i c e a t t h e Core o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n  85, 1?4  One Dimension o f a B r a n c h o f P r a c t i c e showing Core and Unique V a r i a b l e s  8 6 , 175  One Dimension o f P r a c t i c e a s i t V a r i e s Across the F i e l d  86, 1?5  One D i m e n s i o n o f a B r a n c h o f P r a c t i c e showing Unique V a r i a b l e s Only  87, 176  A l l S i x Dimensions o f a B r a n c h o f P r a c t i c e i n c l u d i n g t h e i r Core and Unique V a r i a b l e s  87, 176  vii  — LIST OF TABLES 1.  J u x t a p o s i t i o n o f Roughly S i m i l a r Terms  Regarding 27  t h e G o a l s and F u n c t i o n s o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n 2.  Major Categories of Educational Design S i t u a t i o n s  3.  A Taxonomic Framework f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n P r a c t i c e s  .  92  i n North America 4-.  F e a t u r e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l P l a n n i n g f o r Courses and f o r F i v e Types o f E x p e c t e d  .5*  65  Outcomes  Topics, 96  P o s s i b l e P r e r e q u i s i t e R e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the D e s i g n o f Courses and T o p i c s  98  6.  Types o f T r a i n i n g and T h e i r G o a l s  115  7.  Common C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a l l Adult Education P r a c t i c e s  158  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The a u t h o r w i s h e s t o acknowledge w i t h t h a n k s the i n s p i r a t i o n and encouragement o f f e r e d by Wm. P. McCreary.  He n e v e r once s a i d . i t wasn't  worth d o i n g .  The a u t h o r a l s o acknowledges w i t h g r a t i t u d e t h e f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t p r o v i d e d f o r two y e a r s ' work t h r o u g h a U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Graduate F e l l o w s h i p *  1  CHAPTER I "'INTRODUCTION  Nature o f the  Problem  M e t h o d o l o g i c a l o b s t a c l e s I n the study o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n The  s y s t e m a t i c study o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s i s b e s e t w i t h method-  o l o g i c a l o b s t a c l e s each o f which i n h i b i t s t h e f u r t h e r development o f t h e o r y and insight.  Because o f t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s as a s o c i a l  phenomenon r e s e a r c h e r s have attempted examination.  Consequently  t o e x t r i c a t e one d i m e n s i o n a t a time f o r  t h e r e a r e s e p a r a t e b o d i e s o f l i t e r a t u r e on c l i e n t e l e s ,  methods and t e c h n i q u e s , c o n t e n t a r e a s , e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s and l o c a t i o n s a s though t h e s e dimensions o p e r a t e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y .  delivery  In fact with a l l  h i g h l y complex phenomena the dimensions a r e m u t u a l l y i n t e r a c t i v e .  So, f o r  example, t h e n a t u r e o f a t e c h n i q u e w i l l l i m i t t h e range o f c o n t e n t which  may  be t a u g h t u s i n g i t , and the n a t u r e o f a c o n t e n t a r e a w i l l l i m i t t h e range o f t e c h n i q u e s by w h i c h i t can s u c c e s s f u l l y be t a u g h t .  The p r a c t i c e o f a d u l t  e d u c a t i o n t h u s r e f e r s t o t h e c o n d u c t i n g o f programs and a c t i v i t i e s i n w h i c h s i x dimensions are i n i n t e r a c t i o n :  . e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l , c o n t e n t , methods and  techniques,  e v a l u a t i o n o f achievement, c l i e n t e l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and l o c a t i o n o f d e l i v e r y . P r a c t i c e i s t h u s a somewhat a b s t r a c t term used t o embrace t h e whole domain, a s one would speak o f "the p r a c t i c e o f m e d i c i n e " i n g e n e r a l t e r m s .  However, i n  s t u d y i n g p a r t i c u l a r c a s e s , one i s l o o k i n g a t s p e c i f i c e m p i r i c a l i n s t a n c e s , a s for  example " p r a c t i c e s i n O n t a r i o a t t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y . "  Concrete  2  p r a c t i c e s t h e n a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p a r t i c u l a r v a r i a n t s o f each o f t h e s i x dimensions.  E m p i r i c a l case s t u d i e s p r e s e n t s i x - d i m e n s i o n a l  while systematic time.  configurations  l i t e r a t u r e d e a l s w i t h o n l y one o r perhaps two d i m e n s i o n s a t a  One m a j o r m e t h o l o g i c a l  of p r a c t i c e conceptually,  problem t h e n i s how t o i n t e g r a t e t h e d i m e n s i o n s  so t h a t t h o s e c o n c e p t u a l  configurations w i l l a i d i n  the a n a l y s i s and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f e m p i r i c a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . A n o t h e r major m e t h o d o l o g i c a l in practice. tation.  o b s t a c l e i s how t o a n a l y z e h i s t o r i c a l changes  A n a l y s i s i n v o l v e s t h e two o p e r a t i o n s  o f d e s c r i p t i o n and i n t e r p r e -  D e s c r i p t i o n r e f e r s t o t h e r e p o r t i n g o f d a t a i n t h e terms o f e m p i r i c a l  observation.  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n r e f e r s t o t h e assessment o f meaning i n terms o f  some p o i n t o r p o i n t s o f r e f e r e n c e .  That t h e r e a r e f e w e r people i n a program  t h i s year than l a s t i s simple d e s c r i p t i o n .  Whether t h i s i s t o be i n t e r p r e t e d  as an improvement o r a d e c l i n e c a n o n l y be d e t e r m i n e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e c r i t e r i a which d e f i n e q u a l i t y f o r t h a t program.  t o the  Description of h i s t o r i c a l  changes i n p r a c t i c e i s p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h r e p o r t i n g t h e v a r i a t i o n between a g i v e n condition  and a p r e v i o u s  institution. abandoned.  one  o r even t h e o r i g i n a l c o n d i t i o n o f a program o r  Over t i m e new forms o f p r a c t i c e a r e c r e a t e d and o l d e r forms a r e Y e t how c a n t h e s e h i s t o r i c a l developments be p l a c e d i n t o t h e c o n -  t e x t o f t h e f i e l d a s a whole so t h a t t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e changes f o r t h e f i e l d c a n be u n d e r s t o o d ?  By what p o i n t s o f r e f e r e n c e  c a n t r e n d s be i n t e r p r e t e d ?  I s i t p o s s i b l e t o compare a n i n n o v a t i v e program w i t h t h e v e r y d i f f e r e n t ones w h i c h preceded i t ?  The degree o f d e t a i l i n c o n c r e t e  comparison v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e .  c a s e s i s i n f i n i t e and t h e i r  So a second major m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  t o f i n d some r e l i a b l e p o i n t s o f r e f e r e n c e ,  transcending  problem i s  e m p i r i c a l cases,  against  w h i c h changes i n p r a c t i c e may be measured i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s t h e i r - m e a n i n g and significance. A t h i r d methodological  o b s t a c l e i n v o l v e d i n t h e study o f a d u l t e d u e a t i o n  p r a c t i c e s i s how t o make e x p l i c i t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f v a l u e s .  A value i s a q u a l i t y  3  w h i c h one c h e r i s h e s , p r e f e r s , o r i s committed t o . directly".  I t i s seldom e x p e r i e n c e d  R a t h e r i t i s e x p e r i e n c e d i n d i r e c t l y w i t h i n some phenomenon.  Values  u n d e r l i e a t t i t u d e which a r e s a i d t o be a c o m b i n a t i o n o f b e l i e f , emotion, and b e h a v i o r a l tendency.  Thus one b e l i e v e s c e r t a i n persons, p l a c e s , and e v e n t s t o  be d e s i r a b l e t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t some p r e f e r r e d v a l u e i s e x p e r i e n c e d them.  through  One e x p e r i e n c e s emotions o f a t t r a c t i o n o r a v e r s i o n i n a c c o r d w i t h those  b e l i e f s ; and one tends t o seek o u t o r a v o i d e x p e r i e n c e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e v a l u e s i n h e r e n t i n them.  A d u l t e d u c a t o r s c a n be o b s e r v e d t o e x h i b i t a t t i t u d e s  toward  t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e i n t h e form o f p r e f e r e n c e s f o r c e r t a i n f o r m a t s , t e c h n i q u e s , e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s , s p o n s o r i n g a g e n c i e s , and so o n .  While  a t t i t u d e s may be imputed t o r e s t on v a l u e s h e l d by e d u c a t o r s , t h o s e v a l u e s a r e u s u a l l y i m p l i c i t r a t h e r t h a n e x p l i c i t , assumed r a t h e r t h a n examined.  Whether  t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d o r examined t h e v a l u e s h e l d by e d u c a t o r s w i l l s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e t h e way they p r a c t i c e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . of  t h e m a t t e r i s t h a t we always educate  Gale J e n s e n w r o t e :  i n some d i r e c t i o n ;  "The t r u t h  . . . I n t h i s we have  no c h o i c e ; b u t we do have c h o i c e a s t o t h e k i n d o f b e h a v i o r we b e l i e v e we s h o u l d develop.  We c a n make t h e s e c h o i c e s c o n s c i o u s l y and i n t e l l i g e n t l y i n t h e sense  t h a t we [ c a n b e ] aware o f t h e ways by w h i c h we a r r i v e a t them " ( J e n s e n , I 9 6 0 : 88).  I n o r d e r f o r e d u c a t o r s t o make d e c i s i o n s c o n s c i o u s l y and i n t e l l i g e n t l y  t h e r e a r i s e s t h e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problem  o f making e x p l i c i t t h e v a l u e i m p l i c a -  t i o n s , t h e s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n d i r e c t i o n o f l e a r n e r development, which a r e i m p l i e d i n t h e p r a c t i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e s between w h i c h e d u c a t o r s must c h o o s e . Systematic  a n a l y s i s o f p r a c t i c e s i n North America  should therefore provide not  only a d e s c r i p t i o n o f p r a c t i c e s found i n the f i e l d but an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s i n terms o f t h e v a l u e s t h e y promote. A f o u r t h m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problem c o n f o u n d i n g t h e s y s t e m a t i c s t u d y o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s i s how t o make comparisons cases.  between s p e c i f i c  empirical  T h i s p l a c e s i n a contemporary c o n t e x t t h e same d i f f i c u l t y which was .  t. encountered  i n h i s t o r i c a l , t i m e - s e r i e s comparisons.  Not o n l y i s the degree o f  d e t a i l i n f i n i t e i n e m p i r i c a l i n s t a n c e s but a l s o i t i s c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g . R a t i o n a l comparison  o f c a s e s t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e s the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f  which can a c t as a s t a n d a r d o f measurement among c a s e s , something  something  which  unlike  e m p i r i c a l c a s e s has a b s t r a c t e d a l i m i t e d number o f key c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and h o l d s them c o n s t a n t .  E m p i r i c a l c a s e s c o u l d t h e n be compared not d i r e c t l y t o each  o t h e r i n a l l t h e i r s h i f t i n g d e t a i l , but i n d i r e c t l y by the degree t o which resemble  which  they  o r d i f f e r from the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n which i s a c t i n g a s a, s t a n d a r d o f  measurement.  S y s t e m a t i c s t u d y o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s , whether programs  o r whole i n s t i t u t i o n s s p o n s o r i n g a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f program, has n o t moved much beyond d e s c r i p t i o n toward t h i s type o f c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n .  So the  problem  o f comparing c o n c r e t e c a s e s remains u n s o l v e d .  Source o f t h e problem:  a s i n g l e ma.jor gap i n t h e o r y  B r i e f l y , the f o u r m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems encountered  by t h e o r e t i c i a n s a r e :  i - the i n a b i l i t y t o i n t e g r a t e c o n c e p t u a l l y the v a r i o u s dimensions  of practice;  i i - the i n a b i l i t y t o a s s e s s the meaning o f v a r i o u s h i s t o r i c a l s h i f t s i n p r a c t i c e ; i i i - t h e i n a b i l i t y t o make e x p l i c i t the i n f l u e n c e o f v a l u e s on d e c i s i o n s , r e g a r d ing practice;  and  i v - the i n a b i l i t y t o compare e m p i r i c a l c a s e s . C l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s e f o u r m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems r e v e a l s t h a t t h e y a r e l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o a s i n g l e major gap i n t h e o r y : t h e r e i s no comprehensive framework o f t h e domain o f i n q u i r y w h i c h m i r r o r s t h e c o n c r e t e f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e s p e c i f y i n g b o t h i t s e x t e r n a l .boundaries w i t h o t h e r forms o f s o c i a l p r a c t i c e ,  and  i t s i n t e r n a l b o u n d a r i e s which d i s t i n g u i s h between b a s i c v a r i a t i o n s i n p r a c t i c e . E x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l b o u n d a r i e s t o t h e domain o f i n q u i r y s u p p l y t h e l i m i t s are necessary to a l l systematic theory.  which  They s p e c i f y t h e " u n i v e r s e o f d i s c o u r s e " .  A t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s the p r a c t i c e o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n r e s e m b l e s r e l i g i o n , s o c i a l .  a c t i v i s m , psychotherapy, of s o c i a l a c t i v i t y .  work, s o c i a l s e r v i c e , and r e c r e a t i o n among o t h e r forms  A framework o f t h e domain s h o u l d i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e p r o v i d e  a c l e a r s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f where e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s f o r a d u l t s end and  other  s i m i l a r but n o n - e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s b e g i n . S e c o n d l y , a framework o f the domain s h o u l d a r t i c u l a t e t h a t which s e t s a p a r t d i s t i n c t i v e " f i e l d s " w i t h i n the domain.  A c c o r d i n g t o t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e method-  o l o g i s t Abraham K a p l a n ( i 9 6 0 : 9 4 ) e v e r y l a w - l i k e statement scope d i m e n s i o n s  has f i e l d , range  which l i m i t the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of i t s c o n t e n t .  and  S p e c i f y i n g the  " f i e l d " t o which a law a p p l i e s c o n s t i t u t e s a s o l u t i o n t o the l o c u s problem, t h a t i s t h e problem o f s e l e c t i n g the u l t i m a t e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r o f an i n q u i r y (op. c i t . : ?8).  The l i t e r a t u r e o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s plagued w i t h s t a t e m e n t s ,  assumptions,  and c o n c l u s i o n s o f u n s p e c i f i e d a p p l i c a b i l i t y .  i n g e n e r a l terms i m p l y t h e y w i l l g e n e r a l i z e throughout  theoretical  S t a t e m e n t s couched  the whole domain, w h i l e  e v i d e n t l y e x c l u d i n g l a r g e s u b - s e c t i o n s w i t h i n the domain.  Adult education prac-  t i c e s a r e c l e a r l y not a homogenous domain and y e t s u b - s e c t i o n s o f the domain (which w i l l be c a l l e d t y p e s o f p r a c t i c e ) , have n e v e r been d e f i n e d i n a compreh e n s i v e framework.  Without t h e o r e t i c a l l y sound " t y p e s " i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o  examine c o n c r e t e c a s e s e f f e c t i v e l y f o r the purpose o f f i n d i n g e i t h e r contempo r a r y "branches o f p r a c t i c e " o r h i s t o r i c a l " t r a d i t i o n s o f p r a c t i c e " .  Inadequacy o f p r e v i o u s a t t e m p t s t o f i l l  the  gap  Many o f t h e d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d i e s o f c o n t e n t a r e a s , methods and  techniques,  e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s , c l i e n t e l e s and l o c a t i o n s u s e d i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , t h e y attempt  although  t o p r o v i d e a comprehensive overview o f t h e domain, add up t o not  much more t h a n a n n o t a t e d dimension of p r a c t i c e .  i n v e n t o r i e s - l i s t s o f p o s s i b l e o b s e r v a t i o n s i n each V a r i a n t s from w i t h i n each o f the d i m e n s i o n s  of p r a c t i c e  a r e not grouped i n t o c o n f i g u r a t i o n s w h i c h resemble a c t u a l p r a c t i c e .  Dimensions  a r e t r e a t e d a s though t h e y were s e p a r a b l e elements and not i n t e r a c t i v e components  6  o f a composite  phenomenon.  F o r example, S c h r o e d e r ' s  (1970) t y p o l o g y o f i n s t i t u -  t i o n s , McCoy's (1977) l i n k a g e o f l i f e s p a n s t a g e s and c o n t e n t i n t e r e s t s , B e r g e v i n M o r r i s - a n d Smith's e x c e l l e n t handbook on t e c h n i q u e s (1963), Walberg's (1974) book on e v a l u a t i o n , w h i l e f i n e . e x a m p l e s o f work i n t h e s e l i n e s , a r e e v i d e n c e t h e i s o l a t e d t r e a t m e n t s w h i c h a r e made o f i n t e r a c t i v e d i m e n s i o n s . s u c h as the C a n a d i a n  of  Alternatives  s t u d y "Coming o f A g e " ( K i d d & Selman,1978) do p r e s e n t com-  p o s i t e case s t u d i e s , and r e p o r t on most o f the d i m e n s i o n s o f p r a c t i c e i n p r a g m a t i c c o n f i g u r a t i o n s under the s e c t i o n "Programs and E x p e r i e n c e s " .  Unfortunately  t h e s e t e n d t o be h i g h l y i d i o g r a p h i c r a t h e r t h a n c o n c e p t u a l i z e d toward scientific generalization.  social  A n a l y z i n g phenomena o f p r a c t i c e r e q u i r e s h a v i n g some  means f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s so a s t o u n d e r s t a n d p l a c e w i t h i n the domain.  their  D e s c r i p t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n w i t h o u t some p o i n t s o f r e f e r -  ence, some c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e , cannot be  interpreted.  The c o n v e r s e o f t h e problem o f d e s c r i p t i o n w i t h o u t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s found i n the problem  of conceptualization without i l l u s t r a t i o n .  Conceptual s t u d i e s  which examine the r o l e o f v a l u e s i n g u i d i n g p r a c t i c e can o f f e r o n l y l i m i t e d i n s i g h t i f the a n a l y s e s a r e k e p t s e p a r a t e from e m p i r i c a l i l l u s t r a t i o n . t h e n o t i o n o f a s u c c e s s i o n o f v a l u e s proposed by Webster C o t t o n who  F o r example, described  t h r e e e r a s o f " i d e a l i s m " , " d i s i l l u s i o n " , and " r i s i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m " among a d u l t e d u c a t o r s , d o e s n o t s u b s t a n t i a t e how  t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o n v i c t i o n may  have  changed t h e c o n t e n t , methods, o r c l i e n t e l e o f the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s o f each e r a .  S i m i l a r l y , t h e n o t i o n o f c o m p e t i t i o n among v a l u e s o f f e r s s e v e r a l s i m p l e  a l t e r n a t i v e s t o a d u l t e d u c a t o r s , c l a i m i n g t h e y must choose between~the v a l u e s o f s o c i a l p r e s e r v a t i o n v e r s u s s o c i a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , o r between p e r s o n - o r i e n t e d v e r s u s s o c i e t y - o r i e n t e d p r a c t i c e , o r a g a i n between s p i r i t u a l arid p r o f e s s i o n a l commitment ±0 a aoicial...fflovemerit v e r s u s t h e v a l u e - f r e e a p p l i c a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g t e c h nology.  But t h e s e p o l a r i t i e s a r e n e v e r f u l l y e x t e n d e d  into empirical  indicators  o f t h e c o n c e p t s t o determine whether t h e a n a l y s e s encompass t h e whole range o f  7 adult education practices o r only a p o r t i o n of i t .  Conceptual analyses d i s c o n -  n e c t e d from e m p i r i c a l i n d i c a t o r s w i t h i n t h e f i e l d a r e t h u s a s n o n - p r o d u c t i v e a s e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s devoid of t h e o r e t i c a l  interpretation.  Purpose o f t h e Study: To Produce a Comprehensive Framework f o r t h e Domain  The purpose o f t h i s study i s t o produce a comprehensive framework t h a t a r t i c u l a t e s t h e domain o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s - a framework which  incor-  porates s i x dimensions o f p r a c t i c e i n c l u d i n g the v a l u e - l a d e n g o a l dimension, and p r o v i d e s b o t h a n e x t e r n a l boundary w i t h o t h e r s i m i l a r b u t n o n - e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s , and t h e i n t e r n a l b o u n d a r i e s which i d e n t i f y d i s t i n c t i v e s u b - s e c t i o n s w i t h i n t h e domain.  The f i r s t p r o p o s i t i o n o f t h e t h e s i s r e g a r d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s  a t work i n t h e domain of  i s t h a t c o n s t r u c t i v e t y p o l o g y w i l l r e v e a l a s m a l l number  s e t s o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s none o f which w i l l reduce i n t o t h e terms o f a n o t h e r .  S e c o n d l y t h a t t h e s e s e t s i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i l l accomodate a l l . v a r i a t i o n s o f p r a c t i c e i nthe f i e l d .  T h i r d l y , -these s e t s o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c a n be shown t o have  a common c o r e which b i n d s them t o a common s o c i a l p r a c t i c e .  The second p r o p o s i -  t i o n o f t h e t h e s i s , r e g a r d i n g sequences, i s t h a t t h e framework i f based on s u f f i c i e n t l y undated and n o n - l o c a l i z e d t y p e s w i l l prove t o be a means o f d e t a i l e d taxonomic d e s c r i p t i o n o f c a s e s so t h a t a c c u r a t e t i m e - s e r i e s comparisons  w i l l be  possible.  D e f i n i t i o n o f terms The b a s i c s e t o f t h e o r e t i c a l , and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l terms u s e d t h r o u g h o u t study a r e i n t r o d u c e d i n c h a p t e r one.  this  Each t e r m - i s u n d e r l i n e d t h e f i r s t time i t  i s employed and i t s usage i s e x p l a i n e d .  Because t h i s i n q u i r y f o c u s e s on t h e  c r e a t i o n o f m e t h o d o l o g i c a l t o o l s t o s t u d y e m p i r i c a l phenomena i t employs a s a  8  r u l e a b s t r a c t , t h e o r e t i c a l e n t i t i e s which a r e based on c o n c r e t e , e m p i r i c a l entities. the  Two s e t s o f p a r a l l e l terms t h u s emerge, and i t w i l l be h e l p f u l t o  r e a d e r t o b e a r i n mind t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t i c a l  Abstract Terms:  „ ^j » prac i c e  Concrete Terms:  „  r a c  "domain o f inquiry"  L C e  ,.  „  C r i t e r i a f o r a n adequate  distinctions:  " s u b - s e c t i o n s o f t h e domain" "types o f p r a c t i c e "  "field of practice"  "branches o f p r a c t i c e " ( c o n t e m p o r a r y ) "traditions of practice" ( h i s t o r i c a l )  framework  Abraham K a p l a n e x p l a i n s t h a t a r t i c u l a t i o n o f a domain o f i n q u i r y depends upon h a v i n g something which w i l l throw t h e s i m p l e i n v e n t o r y o f o b s e r v a t i o n a l terms i n t o r e l i e f - and t h a t something i s an independent c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e . The c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e p r o v i d e s p o i n t s o f r e f e r e n c e a g a i n s t w h i c h t o i n t e r p r e t empirical findings.  E f f e c t i v e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f a complex domain l i k e t h a t o f a d u l t  e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s a l s o depends upon h a v i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n s o f d e s c r i p t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o c c u r a t t h e same time b u t t h r o u g h t h e use o f two i n d e p e n d e n t axes.  T h i s i s a c c o m p l i s h e d by u s i n g i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e a n  a t t r i b u t e space w h i c h i s a s e r i e s o f c a t e g o r i e s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n a l terms t h a t i s displayed v e r t i c a l l y . ing  dijne__y__]__c_i__3ra^  location.  I n t h i s s t u d y t h e r e i s one c a t e g o r y f o r each o f t h e f o l l o w methodology,  e v a l u a t i o n , c l i e n t e l e , and  I n each c a t e g o r y many p o s s i b l e v a r i a t i o n s c a n be r e p o r t e d i n o b s e r v a -  t i o n a l terms.  A l i s t i n g o f a l l such terms p r o v i d e s an i n v e n t o r y o f p o s s i b l e  observations.  The c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e i s a s e r i e s o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s d e f i n e d i n  t h e o r e t i c a l terms and i s d i s p l a y e d h o r i z o n t a l l y .  The purpose o f t h i s s t u d y i s t o  produce a framework f o r t h e domain w h i c h w i l l propose f i v e s u c h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s : one f o r each o f f o u r t y p e s o f p r a c t i c e , and one f o r t h o s e d e f i n i t i v e  character-  i s t i c s which a r e e s s e n t i a l o r pervasive i n a l l v a r i a t i o n s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n practice. the  A framework o r m a t r i x o f terms r e s u l t s when o b s e r v a t i o n a l terms f r o m  v e r t i c a l a x i s are assigned a place along the h o r i z o n t a l a x i s according to the  9  h e a d i n g s p r o v i d e d by t h e c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e .  Types o f p r a c t i c e r e f e r s t o i n -  t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t combinations o f observational  terms l i s t e d v e r t i c a l l y under  each o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n t h e c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e .  A s such t h e y denote  t h e o r e t i c a l e n t i t i e s b u t t h e y serve t o demarcate b a s i c v a r i a t i o n s o f p r a c t i c e found i n the f i e l d . When t h e taxonomic framework i s a p p l i e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r p r a c t i c e t h e d i s p l a y o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which r e s u l t s i s r e f e r r e d t o a s a p r o f i l e o f t h a t p a r t i c u l a r practice.  I f p r o f i l e s were produced on a n a p p r o p r i a t e  sampling o f p r a c t i c e s  w i t h i n h i s t o r i c and g e o g r a p h i c l i m i t s t h e y would c o n s t i t u t e a n a n a l y s i s ' o f t h e f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e d u r i n g t h a t t i m e ; t h e y would t o g e t h e r p r o v i d e a d e t a i l e d a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e domain. I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t a t t e m p t s have been made t o a n a l y z e t h e domain o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s by combining t h e two o p e r a t i o n s  o f d e s c r i p t i o n and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n t o a o n e - d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l e r a t h e r t h a n l e a v i n g them s e p a r a t e i n a matrix.  B u t any such o n e - d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l e r e s u l t s i n a spectrum w h i c h i s  ambiguous i n i t s a p p a r e n t p r e s e n t a t i o n  o fempirical information,  i n i t s o b s c u r i n g o f t h e v a l u e s by w h i c h i t i s j u d g i n g phenomena.  and d e c e p t i v e The o n l y way  the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t c a n c l a i m t h e i n t e g r i t y o f o b j e c t i v e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f a domain i s by s e p a r a t i n g  terms a g a i n s t which t h e y a r e e v a l u a t e d .  U s e f u l n e s s o f a framework t o d i s c i p l i n a r i a n s and t o p r a c t i o n e r s D i s c i p l i n a r i a n s w i l l f i n d a taxonomic framework f o r t h e f i e l d h a s s e v e r a l productive  u s e s . The f o l l o w i n g poin-te are m o d e l l e d a f t e r H.H. Hyman who wrote on .  u s e s o f m i d d l e - r a n g e t h e o r y (1971:42-43) and showed t h a t a taxonomic framework: 1.  Encourages t h e c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f f i n d i n g s because i t i s comprehensive r a t h e r than p a r t i a l . rather than discount  2.  I t c a n accommodate a l l v a r i a t i o n s among c a s e s some on a n i d e o l o g i c a l b a s i s .  Improves upon t h e s i m p l e c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f f i n d i n g s i n t o d i m e n s i o n s o f  10  p r a c t i c e because i t l e n d s an i n t e r n a l o r d e r t o each d i m e n s i o n .  That  o r d e r comes f r o m i d e n t i f y i n g v a r i a t i o n s a s b e l o n g i n g t o one o r a n o t h e r o f t h e branches o f p r a c t i c e o r t o those e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which pervade t h e whole f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e . 3.  I n c r e a s e s t h e chance o f u n c o v e r i n g e m p i r i c a l a n o m a l i e s t o such l a w l i k e s t a t e m e n t s a s e x i s t because i t i d e n t i f i e s a p p r o p r i a t e s t u d i e s f o r c l o s e comparison.  Under s c r u t i n y these c a s e s w h i c h appeared t o conform  t o t h e same e x p l a n a t i o n may be d i s c o v e r e d t o have i n e x p l i c a b l e ences. 4.  differ-  Such u n e x p l a i n e d v a r i a t i o n s c a n s p a r k new l i n e s o f r e s e a r c h .  A s s i s t s i n the conceptualizing  o f t e s t s o f t h e o r y because i t d e f i n e s  f o u r e s s e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t c o n t e n t s o f p r a c t i c e i n which p a r t i c u l a r theories of learning, educational o r may not, 5.  d e s i g n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n and so on, may,  apply.  S t i m u l a t e s t h e o r i z i n g because i t m a i n t a i n s a c o n t i n u o u s d i a l o g u e between o b s e r v a t i o n and t h e o r y —  a s k i n g t h e t h e o r e t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f em-  p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s , and s e e k i n g - t h e e m p i r i c a l i n d i c a t o r s o f t h e o r e t i c a l entities. P r a c t i t i o n e r s w i l l a l s o f i n d a taxonomic framework f o r t h e f i e l d u s e f u l when they engage i n t a s k s t h a t a d d r e s s t h e f i e l d a s a whole, r a t h e r t h a n t a s k s f o c u s e d w i t h i n t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r segment. r e l a t e ' - t o t h e f i e l d a s a whole  Tasks w h i c h may cause p r a c t i t i o n e r s t o : . I i . 1 :  include:  1.  Engaging i n p r e - s e r v i c e  2.  Drawing on b a s i c r e s e a r c h , and i n n o v a t i o n s i n p r a c t i c e from a c r o s s  or in-service training;  . the f i e l d ; 3.  Conceptualizing  t h e most a p p r o p r i a t e s o r t s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l  associations;  and 4.  S e e k i n g g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e making o f e d u c a t i o n a l r e g i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l and d i s t r i c t  levels.  p o l i c y a t the n a t i o n a l ,  il  P l a n o f t h e StudyI n c h a p t e r one f o u r m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems r e l a t e d t o t h e s t u d y o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n were d e s c r i b e d and a t t r i b u t e d t o a s i n g l e major gap i n t h e o r y , t h e l a c k o f a comprehensive framework o f p r a c t i c e s w h i c h i n t e g r a t e s d i m e n s i o n s o f p r a c t i c e and makes e x p l i c i t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f v a l u e s on p r a c t i c a l d e c i s i o n s .  Such  a framework would have taxonomic a p p l i c a t i o n s : t o a n a l y z e and compare e m p i r i c a l c a s e s , and t o - a s s e s s the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f h i s t o r i c a l changes i n p r a c t i c e i n t h e field.  The inadequacy  o f previous attempts a t a d e p i c t i o n o f the f i e l d i s a t t r i -  buted t o t h e i r d i s j u n c t i o n o f c o n c e p t u a l and e m p i r i c a l e l e m e n t s .  Conceptual  s t u d i e s o f e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e s have n o t been g i v e n e m p i r i c a l i n d i c a t o r s , n o r have d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d i e s o f dimensions ture .  o f p r a c t i c e been p l a c e d i n a t h e o r e t i c a l  struc-  The c r i t e r i a f o r adequate a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h i s domain o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c -  t i c e s a r e t a k e n t o be t h e c o n c u r r e n t and independent use o f an a t t r i b u t e space o f o b s e r v a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s and a c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e o r e t i c a l tions.  These two operate a s axes t h a t f o r m a m a t r i x o f terms.  classifica-  The s u p e r i o r i t y  o f t h e m a t r i x o v e r a u n i d i m e n s i o n a l ' s c a l e w h i c h b l e n d s o b s e r v a t i o n a l and i n t e r p r e t i v e terms was e x p l a i n e d . Because a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s a normative d i r e c t i o n i t was d e t e r m i n e d  p r a c t i c e a l w a y s e d u c a t i n g i n some  t h a t prime o r g a n i z i n g c o n c e p t s o f t h e f i e l d o f p r a c -  t i c e would i n d i c a t e t h e range o f d i r e c t i o n s i n w h i c h i t e d u c a t e s .  I n c h a p t e r two  the r e s u l t s o f a l i t e r a t u r e s e a r c h on t h e s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a r e presented.  E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h i s l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s a s u f f i c i e n t degree o f consen-  sus on t h e g o a l s pursued and f u n c t i o n s f u l f i l l e d t h a t these rough u n i f o r m i t i e s a r e t a k e n a s t h e b a s i s f o r t h e c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e o f . t h e taxonomy. I n c h a p t e r t h r e e c o n s t r u c t i v e t y p o l o g y i s i n t r o d u c e d a s t h e methodology s u i t e d t o t u r n i n g t h e f o u r groups o f g o a l - f u n c t i o n statements c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f types o f p r a c t i c e . Howard B e c k e r ( l 9 5 0 ) »  into a setof  The c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f Max  Weber(l904),  and J o h n C. M c K i n n e y ( l 9 6 6 ) t o t h e development o f t h i s  12  methodology f o r t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s a r e i n c l u d e d .  The p r o c e d u r a l s t a g e s f o r  a p p l y i n g c o n s t r u c t i v e t y p o l o g y t o t h e domain o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s a r e described. In c h a p t e r f o u r , t h e a n a l y s i s phase o f f i n d i n g s , f o u r b a s i c t y p e s o f p r a c t i c e a r e d e f i n e d from t h e elements o f e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l , domain, and f u n c t i o n . O b s e r v a t i o n s from t h e f i v e r e m a i n i n g d i m e n s i o n s o f p r a c t i c e a r e s i m p l i f i e d  into  those p o i n t s o f o b s e r v a t i o n which a c t a s d i s c r i m i n a t o r s between t h e t y p e s and t h o s e p o i n t s o f o b s e r v a t i o n which a r e u n i f o r m t h r o u g h o u t t i o n s formed between d i v e r g e n t and common elements ( i n c l u d i n g t h e g o a l - f u n c t i o n d i m e n s i o n ) comprise  the f i e l d .  The r e l a -  i n a l l dimensions o f p r a c t i c e  a f o r m a l model o f p r a c t i c e .  The model i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n a s e t o f diagrams t h a t c o n c l u d e s t h e a n a l y s i s phase. In c h a p t e r f i v e , t h e s y n t h e s i s phase o f f i n d i n g s , t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i n g v a r i a b l e s i n each o b s e r v a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y a r e a r r a y e d a c r o s s t h e c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e to  form a m a t r i x o f t e r m s .  The terms t o be found under each h e a d i n g o f t h e con-  c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e a r e t h e n r e a d a s a whole c o n f i g u r a t i o n , o r a c o n s t r u c t e d type of  practice.  A t e n t a t i v e e x p l a n a t o r y . a c c o u n t i s g i v e n o f each o f t h e f o u r b a s i c  types o f p r a c t i c e  and o f t h e f i f t h c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f terms w h i c h forms a s e t o f  d e f i n i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of. a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e . In c h a p t e r s i x a b r i e f r e v i e w i s made o f t h e p r o c e d u r a l sequence o f t h e study.  C o n c l u s i o n s a r e drawn r e g a r d i n g t h e p r o g r e s s which h a s been made toward  producing  c o n s t r u c t e d t y p e s o f p r a c t i c e , a model o f t h e domain, and a taxonomic  framework f o r a n a l y z i n g p r a c t i c e s which o p e r a t i o n a l i z e s f o r t h e f i r s t time t h e b a s i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f p r a c t i c e foreshadowed by t h e s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s literature.  S e v e r a l d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e framework f o r t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r  and f o r t h e d i s c i p l i n a r i a n a r e d e s c r i b e d , and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h are  suggested.  *3  Chapter  II  LITERATURE REVIEW  I n t h i s c h a p t e r a j u s t i f i c a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d f o r t r e a t i n g g o a l and f u n c t i o n statements  t o g e t h e r a s prime o r g a n i z e r s f o r s u b s e c t i o n s o f t h e domain.  G u i d e l i n e s a r e g i v e n by which t h e a u t h o r s w r i t i n g on s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s were selected.  F o u r g e n e r a l themes which emerged from a p r e l i m i n a r y e x a m i n a t i o n  of  the l i t e r a t u r e a r e i n t r o d u c e d , and a s each a u t h o r ' s work i s r e v i e w e d the terms used i n i t f o r e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s a r e examined f o r s i m i l a r i t y t o one o f t h e f o u r themes.  Terms w h i c h do not approximate one o f the f o u r themes a r e n o t e d  summarized.  I n t a b l e 1 a l l terms f o u n d t o be r o u g h l y  and  s i m i l a r t o one o f the  f o u r themes a r e grouped t o g e t h e r , and each group i s t h e n examined f o r the degree o f consensus i t d i s p l a y s .  Each o r i g i n a l theme i s e l a b o r a t e d upon, on the b a s i s  o f t h e v a r i o u s terms c o n t r i b u t e d t o i t by t h e 12 a u t h o r s examined. s i o n drawn i s t h a t these terms a r e p r e d o m i n a n t l y  The  conclu-  e m p i r i c a l and c o n s t i t u t e an  i n d u c t i v e approach t o determining the goals o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n .  While c o n s t r u c -  t i v e t y p o l o g y i s not i n t e n d e d i n t h i s case t o p r o v i d e a d e d u c t i v e a p p r o a c h t o d e f i n i n g g o a l s , i t i s proposed t o use t h i s methodology t o improve t h e l e v e l o f c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f g o a l s so t h a t t h e y become p r e d o m i n a n t l y  theoretical i n  n a t u r e and c a n l e a d f u r t h e r p r o d u c t i o n o f s y s t e m a t i c t h e o r y r e g a r d i n g t h e practice of a d u l t education.  14  Procedural  T e r m i n o l o g y i n the  Matters  literature  Since education  i s a n o r m a t i v e p r a c t i c e , a s s i s t i n g people t o change i n  some p u r p o s i v e d i r e c t i o n , i t f o l l o w s t h a t b a s i c s u b s e c t i o n s  o f the domain would  be p r i m a r i l y i d e n t i f i e d by d i s t i n c t i v e d i r e c t i o n s o f l e a r n e r development. Reviewing  the l i t e r a t u r e o f p u r p o s i v e s t a t e m e n t s t u r n e d up s e v e r a l terms w h i c h r e f e r t o  the " d i r e c t i o n " o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n t i v e " , " g o a l " , " f u n c t i o n " , and been r e s e r v e d  activities.  "purpose".  Among them were "aim",  "objec-  I n t h i s study the t e r m "purpose"  has  t o i n d i c a t e some v a l u e w h i c h i s presumed t o l i e i n the human i n -  d i v i d u a l o r human c o l l e c t i v i t y beyond, but s e r v e d by, the achievement o f educational goal.  While one  g o a l " , aims, o b j e c t i v e s , and  " t a k e s an aim",  " s e t s an o b j e c t i v e " and  goals are reasonably interchangeable  targets of educational a c t i v i t i e s .  "Functions"  a sense o f " g e t t i n g t h e r e " t h a n the p r e v i o u s  "pursues a  as r e f e r r i n g t o  has more o f a p r o c e d u r a l  terms which d e f i n e  an  "there"  sense, directly.  However, s i n c e t h e f u l f i l m e n t o f an e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n i m p l i e s the achievement o f some concommitant g o a l , s t a t e m e n t s o f b o t h k i n d s were examined and for  juxtaposed  further analysis. The  l i t e r a t u r e on " s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s " o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  i s t h a t w h i c h makes  the most comprehensive s t a t e m e n t s r e g a r d i n g the range o f g o a l s pursued i n a d u l t education.  I n f a c t , " s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s " were u s u a l l y couched i n terms o f  v i d u a l development r a t h e r t h a n s o c i e t a l development. t o have been a m a t t e r o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e d u c t i o n i s m , ment as n o t h i n g more t h a n the sum  indi-  However t h i s does n o t seem t r e a t i n g s o c i e t a l develop-  o f development i n i n d i v i d u a l s ; i n s t e a d  f u n c t i o n s " seems t o have connoted the range o f f u n c t i o n s f u l f i l l e d a c r o s s r a t h e r t h a n f u n c t i o n s f u l f i l l e d w i t h i n s o c i e t y a s a system.  "social society  15  Selection guidelines The  s e l e c t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e f o r review followed three general  guidelines.  A u t h o r s were s e l e c t e d from among Canadian and U.S. e d u c a t o r s s i n c e i n t h i s c e n t u r y t h e s e two s o c i e t i e s had a b s o r b e d s i m i l a r economic c y c l e s and s i m i l a r i m p a c t s from t h e two w o r l d w a r s .  C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d from a d u l t e d u c a t o r s  were s i m i l a r , w i t h some c u l t u r a l v a r i a t i o n s i n emphasis r e f l e c t i n g economic e x p a n s i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and c u l t u r a l development i n Canada.  I n Europe,  by way o f c o n t r a s t , t h e b a s i c s o c i e t a l f a b r i c and t h e i m p a c t s o f economic and wartime e x p e r i e n c e s h a d been q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . A s a c o r o l l a r y t h e r o l e s o f a d u l t education  i n i t s s o c i e t i e s h a d formed a l o n g somewhat d i f f e r e n t l i n e s .  Among N o r t h A m e r i c a n e d u c a t o r s , t i o n was t o make a complete a c c o u n t i n g  a u t h o r s were s e l e c t e d whose a p p a r e n t i n t e n o f t h e range o f purposes f u l f i l l e d i n t h e  f i e l d a s opposed t o m e r e l y some f a m i l i a r o r p r e f e r r e d p o r t i o n o f i t .  Their e f f o r t s  t o p r o v i d e a summary o f t h e g o a l s o f o b s e r v e d p r a c t i c e s were sometimes w r i t t e n a s a " s t a t e o f t h e a r t " r e p o r t t o f e l l o w p r a c t i t i o n e r s . C o n s e q u e n t l y many s t a t e m e n t s have been drawn f r o m "Handbooks" ( o r r e v i e w s o f r e s e a r c h ) w r i t t e n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d from C a n a d i a n a n t h o l o g i e s . . T i m i n g o f p u b l i c a t i o n s was a l s o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n s e l e c t i n g s t a t e m e n t s . One w r i t e r i n Canada and one i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s were s e l e c t e d from each o f t h e 1930's, 19^0's, a n d 1950's i n a n a t t e m p t t o draw on t h e d e p r e s s i o n , reconstruction eras.  Two s t a t e m e n t s were t a k e n from each c o u n t r y  and one each from t h e 1970's.  wartime a n d  d u r i n g t h e 1960's  A s i t happens J.R. K i d d e d i t e d b o t h t h e 1950 and  1963 C a n a d i a n a n t h o l o g i e s and was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e remarks on g o a l s and f u n c tions.  D i v e r s i f i e d g o a l - f u n c t i o n s t a t e m e n t s c o u l d n o t be f o u n d f r o m t h e i d e a l i s t i c  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g World War I . I n s t e a d ,  s t r o n g l y worded s t a t e m e n t s  were t h e common mode d e s c r i b i n g t r a n s c e n d e n t human and s o c i e t a l purposes w h i c h would be s e r v e d by a d u l t  education.  16 I n a paper e n t i t l e d , "The Common Purpose i n F o u r T r a d i t i o n s o f A d u l t Educat i o n " (McCreary, 1979) transcendent  s t a t e m e n t s on t h e g o a l s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a n d t h e i r  p u r p o s e s i n t h e c o n t e x t o f human development were sampled f r o m a s  e a r l y a s 1798 and a s f a r a f i e l d a s E n g l a n d , T a n z a n i a , and L a t i n A m e r i c a .  I n that  s t u d y f o u r g e n e r a l a s p e c t s o f a d u l t p e r s o n a l i t y were a t t i m e s a d d r e s s e d by educators:  t h e a d u l t a s s k i l l e d worker, t h e a d u l t a s i n t e r - p e r s o n a l bonder, t h e  a d u l t as s e e k e r - b e l i e v e r , and the a d u l t as c i t i z e n .  Consequently these  aspects  o f a d u l t p e r s o n a l i t y were r e s t a t e d a s t h e f o l l o w i n g d e v e l o p m e n t a l g o a l s o f a d u l t education:  improving  u s e f u l s k i l l s ; enhancing the c a p a c i t y f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p ;  e n l i v e n i n g t h e s e a r c h f o r f u l f i l m e n t ; and e n a c t i n g p o l i t i c a l a n d economic s e l f determination.  The p r e s e n t l i t e r a t u r e s e a r c h f o c u s e d  t o r s o f the twentieth'century,  on N o r t h American-educa-  and a p r e l i m i n a r y e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i r w r i t i n g s  prompted a s l i g h t r e p h r a s i n g o f those f o u r g o a l s t o i n c l u d e e d u c a t i o n f o r : material u t i l i t y ; citizenship.  a)  b ) p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h ; c ) some i n t r i n s i c v a l u e ; and d )  I n t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s c h a p t e r a s each a u t h o r ' s s t a t e m e n t i s  examined h i s terms f o r e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s a r e i d e n t i f i e d , where p o s s i b l e , a s approximating  one o f t h e s e f o u r g e n e r a l themes.  C r i t e r i a f o r inclusion are l e f t  q u i t e open t o e n a b l e t h e f o r m a t i o n o f f o u r groups o f terms w h i c h a r e r o u g h l y similar.  A f t e r t h e s e a r e d i s p l a y e d i n Table i each group i s . examined more  c l o s e l y t o d e t e r m i n e t h e degree o f consensus and t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r commonality.  P r e s e n t a t i o n o f Summarized S t a t e m e n t s  P e t e r S a n d i f o r d , then D i r e c t o r o f E d u c a t i o n a l Research a t the Ontario of Education  i n 1935i c o n d u c t e d a n a t i o n - w i d e s u r v e y o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  College  activities  i n Canada i n w h i c h he r e p o r t e d f i n d i n g t h e t o p i c s o f "economics", " c u r r e n t  events",  " p o l i t i c s " , a n d " v o c a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n " a s b e i n g o f c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p o r t a n c e . The .  17  i  l a s t t o p i c c l a s s i f i e s e a s i l y under t h e theme o f m a t e r i a l u t i l i t y .  The f i r s t  t h r e e t o p i c s m i g h t have been t r e a t e d a s g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t programs, b u t g i v e n the s o c i a l c o n v i c t i o n o f e d u c a t o r s a c t i v e i n t h e P r a i r i e s and M a r i t i m e s d u r i n g t h e d e p r e s s i o n , a n d g i v e n K i d d ' s comment t h a t o n l y l a t e r d i d i n t e r e s t a r i s e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s (Kidd,1950:16), i t i s more l i k e l y t h a t programs i n c u r r e n t e v e n t s , p o l i t i c s , and economics were o f l o c a l r e l e v a n c e and promoted c i t i z e n a c t i v i t i e s t h e r e b y coming under t h e theme o f c i t i z e n s h i p . While p r o f e s s o r - a t Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y ^ • L y m a n B r y s o n wrote " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n " w h i c h he r e f e r r e d t o a s "a t e x t b o o k i n a new f i e l d "  (l936:iii).  I n i t he s t a t e d t h a t a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s h a d f i v e f u n c t i o n s w h i c h c o u l d be t i t l e d : r e m e d i a l , o c c u p a t i o n a l , r e l a t i o n a l , l i b e r a l , and p o l i t i c a l . F o r B r y s o n r e m e d i a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n meant t h a t e d u c a t i o n aimed a t b r i n g i n g a n a d u l t ' s " e d u c a t i o n a l equipment up t o t h e minimum t h a t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r l i f e i n an A m e r i c a n community" (30).  T h i s would i n c l u d e t h e a b i l i t y t o r e a d and t o w r i t e ,  t o speak E n g l i s h , and t o u n d e r s t a n d A m e r i c a n c i t i z e n s h i p , a s w e l l a s t o c a r r y on elementary  homemaking, c h i l d c a r e , h e a l t h and " c i v i l i z e d b e h a v i o r " .  Bryson's  l a t t e r f o u r c a t e g o r i e s match up w e l l w i t h t h e f o u r themes a l r e a d y i d e n t i f i e d . O c c u p a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n i n c l u d e d e d u c a t i o n w h i c h h e l p s a n a d u l t t o advance on t h e j o b , t o change j o b s , t o compensate f o r d i s p l a c e m e n t or adjust t o an occupation. a l l study r e g a r d i n g emotions,  by machinery, and t o choose  R e l a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n i n c l u d e d p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n and a t t i t u d e s , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l h a b i t s ( i b i d ) .  e d u c a t i o n was a term used t o s i g n i f y a c t i v i t i e s u n d e r t a k e n  Liberal  f o r t h e i r own sake and  n o t because t h e y were i n s t r u m e n t a l t o any r e s u l t s beyond t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f achievement.  I n t h i s sense l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n i n v o l v e d a r e c r e a t i o n a l element a n d  "the s h e e r enjoyment o f p l e a s a n t e f f o r t " (31)•  P o l i t i c a l education include a l l  s t u d i e s a n d e x p e r i e n c e s by w h i c h a d u l t s would undertake  t o make themselves  "better  members o f t h e commonwealth". While t h i s sounds l i k e t h e h a r m l e s s c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f p o l i t i c s , B r y s o n s p e c i f i c a l l y i n c l u d e d " a l l forms o f t r a i n i n g f o r p o l i t i c a l  18  action"  (31).  I n 1948, Education,  John M u i r , t h e n P r e s i d e n t o f t h e C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t  wrote a b o o k l e t e n t i t l e d " Q u e s t i o n s a n d Answers About A d u l t E d u c a t i o n  i n Canada".  Although bordering  on t r a n s c e n d e n t purposes h i s g o a l  a p p r o x i m a t e d t h e themes o f i n t r i n s i c p l e a s u r e  statements  from l e a r n i n g , m a t e r i a l  utility,  and f a m i l y p s y c h o l o g y , w i t h s p e c i a l emphasis on c i t i z e n s h i p . He s t a t e d t h a t a d u l t education  was a manner o f s t i m u l a t i n g e n q u i r i n g minds t h r o u g h a r t , music,  drama, h a n d i c r a f t s , and o t h e r i n t e r e s t s ; a way o f h e l p i n g people g e t on i n t h e w o r l d t h r o u g h t e c h n i c a l , v o c a t i o n a l a n d c o m m e r c i a l c o u r s e s t h a t h e l p e d them e a r n a b e t t e r l i v i n g , and home b u i l d i n g s k i l l s and o t h e r c o u r s e s t h a t h e l p e d them improve f a m i l y l i f e ; and t h i r d l y , a p l a n "whereby people l e a r n t o t a k e a hand i n the l i f e - a n d - d e a t h d e c i s i o n s o f t h e i r government"  (5,6).  I n f a c t , seven o f  the e i g h t i t e m s he l i s t e d a s the o b j e c t i v e s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  i n Canada were .  f o c u s e d on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s e x p e r i e n c e o f community: t o s t i m u l a t e a genuine s p i r i t o f democracy; t o broaden o u r s p i r i t o f t o l e r a n c e ; t o g i v e u s t h e f e e l i n g of belonging;  t o a i d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a c u l t u r e f o r everyone n o t j u s t f o r t h e  e l i t e ; t o g i v e t o young a d u l t s t h e hope and t o o l d e r a d u l t s t h e c o n f i d e n c e  that  have been shaken by w o r l d d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n ; t o r e s t o r e t h e sense o f community t o people who l i v e i n a n age o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and i s o l a t i o n  (6,7)-  I n 1948 t h e A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n p u b l i s h e d i t s "Handbook o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n t h e I h S . " , e d i t e d by Mary L . E l y , who had a l s o been e d i t o r o f t h e 1936  work " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n A c t i o n " .  s i x broad areas o f a c t i v i t y i n a d u l t education.  The handbook l i s t e d  "Vocational e f f i c i e n c y " and  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " seem t o a p p r o x i m a t e s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h .  And " p e r s o n a l  growth and s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n " a p p r o x i m a t e i n t r i n s i c s u b j e c t i v e p l e a s u r e s i n g and growing.  The unmatched c a t e g o r y " s p e c i a l group i n t e r e s t s " were a c t u a l l y  s p e c i a l c u r r i c u l u m packages f o r p a r t i c u l a r c l i e n t e l e g r o u p s . pursued roughly  of learn-  They t h e r e f o r e  t h e same f o u r b a s i c g o a l s a s h a d a l r e a d y been mentioned b u t u s e d  .19 treatments geared t o s p e c i a l c l i e n t e l e groups. I n d i s c u s s i n g developments and  trends i n adult education  1950  i n Canada i n  as measured a g a i n s t the e a r l i e r s u r v e y by P e t e r S a n d i f o r d , J.R.  Kidd,  Associate  D i r e c t o r o f the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , ( C . A . A . E . ) r e p o r t e d  in  the c i t i z e n s h i p theme t h e r e seemed t o be a de-emphasis on economic t o p i c s , a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t i n n a t i o n a l s o c i a l i s s u e s , and an i n c r e a s e i n i n t e r e s t i n Canada's i n t e r n a t i o n a l r o l e f o l l o w i n g the war.  N a t u r a l s c i e n c e was  still  a  rare t o p i c except i n r e l a t i o n to i t s m a t e r i a l u t i l i t y i n improving a g r i c u l t u r e . General i n t e r e s t t o p i c s included resource  c o n s e r v a t i o n and  the a t o m i c bomb.  Community a r t s o c i e t i e s s p o n s o r e d the t o u r i n g o f a r t c o l l e c t i o n s i n t o towns where no e x h i b i t i o n had e v e r been seen b e f o r e , and n a t i o n a l programmes o f awards f o r f i l m and r a d i o p r o d u c t i o n s  were i n s t i t u t e d .  Human r e l a t i o n s was  a growing a r e a  o f a d u l t programming i n c l u d i n g the t o p i c s o f m a r i t a l problems, c h i l d c a u s e s and p r e v e n t i o n  i n industry  welfare,  o f e m o t i o n a l i l l - h e a l t h , and worker-employer r e l a t i o n s h i p s  (Kidd,1950:16,17).  B u r t o n R. C l a r k i n h i s 195^  d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l -  i f o r n i a ( B e r k l e y ) , r e p o r t e d on the o b j e c t i v e s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n by the C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e Department o f E d u c a t i o n .  as  . These i n c l u d e d :  formulated t o make a d u l t s  aware o f t h e i r c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o one a n o t h e r and t o the community  (citi-  z e n s h i p theme); t o make them e c o n o m i c a l l y  theme);  more e f f i c i e n t ( m a t e r i a l u t i l i t y  t o d e v e l o p an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the a t t i t u d e s and p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t s r e q u i r e d f o r successful home.life provide  and f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p ( p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h theme); t o  f o r t h e development o f a v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s t h r o u g h o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r  s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , t o promote h e a l t h and p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , and t o p r o v i d e an opport u n i t y f o r c u l t u r a l development ( i n t r i n s i c i n t e r e s t theme); and broaden e d u c a t i o n a l background ( r e m e d i a t i o n  t o supplement and  theme).  F o r the i960 A.E.A. Handbook, W i l b u r C. H a l l e n b e c k , P r o f e s s o r E m e r i t u s , Teachers C o l l e g e , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , d e f i n e d f i v e f u n c t i o n s o f a d u l t  education  20 s  which were "required" by the American culture. He linked these to qualities of the individual which needed attention, and inferred from those qualities general objectives toward which adult education should work. The f i r s t of the functions was to expand communication'skills  such as the a b i l i t i e s to read, to listen, to  write, and to speak effectively (36)(remediation theme). The second was to develop vocational f l e x i b i l i t y with the incumbent changes In knowledge and s k i l l , and perhaps changes in locale, ideas, and patterns of living (material u t i l i t y theme with touches of psychological adjustment).  The third function defined was  the improvement of human relations, in family l i f e , industry, interracial, and intergroup relations (psychological health theme). The fourth function was to facilitate participation in organizations, politics, and the improvement of communities (citizenship theme). While acknowledging citizenship education,this i960 publication attributed lack of participation to people's "refusing" or "forgetting" to play their parts in the co-operative l i f e of the communities i n which they l i v e .  That sort of explanation predates a later widespread conviction  that the disenfranchised of society had never been enabled to learn the role of active citizenship, or had been actively prevented from exercising the role. The f i f t h of Hallenbeck's functions of adult education was to expedite personal growth and f u l f i l the interests of curious people. But in this regard he quoted Lyman Bryson as saying that "Most people do not know what there i s to be interested i n " (37) • Hallenbeck f e l t adult education was as responsible for helping people discover the desire for this kind of learning, as i t was for providing the learning opportunity i t s e l f . The Canadian publication "Learning and Society" edited by J.R. Kidd, formerly Director of the C.A.A.E, included a section on transcendent ideas and goals related to adult education.  The editor remarked that while "many of the ideas  here examined are not, of course, unique to adult education... notions of free w i l l , free exploration of ideas, free speech and association, and of action  21 g u i d e d by s t u d y , a r e c e n t r a l .  So i s c o n c e r n about the r e l e v a n c e  e d u c a t i o n and l i f e " (1963:108).  o f beauty i n  C l e a r l y the c h a p t e r was assembled from w r i t i n g s  on the broad c u l t u r a l purposes o f e d u c a t i o n and the v a l u e s c h e r i s h e d w i t h i n . i n d i v i d u a l s a n d Canadian s o c i e t y .  Only a t the b e g i n n i n g  o f S e c t i o n I I I on t h e  " O r g a n i z a t i o n a n d I n s t i t u t i o n s " o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n was b r i e f r e f e r e n c e made t o the f u n c t i o n s s e r v e d by t h i s f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e a n d t h e y were l i s t e d a s : v o c a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l , l i b e r a l a n d humane, and s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l  remedial, (165-I66).  H a r r y L . M i l l e r , A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r o f the C e n t e r f o r the Study o f L i b e r a l Education  f o r A d u l t s , i n a chapter e n t i t l e d "Adult Education  (1964)  Objectives"  contended t h a t i n a s t a t i c t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y , presuming t h e r e were adequate f a c i l i t i e s t o s o c i a l i z e c h i l d r e n , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n would be redundant ( 2 2 2 ) . Theref o r e the s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f a l l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n was the m u l t i t u d e o f changes experienced  by a d u l t s i n A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y due t o g e o g r a p h i c a l  m o b i l i t y , and t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n .  mobility, social  He t h u s f o u n d t h a t the c e n t r a l dilemma  o f f o r m u l a t i n g the aims o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n was t h e overwhelming d i v e r s i t y o f p a r t i c u l a r p u r p o s e s produced by the broad t a s k o f " r e s o c i a l i z i n g " a d u l t s  (224).  L o o k i n g t o p r o p o n e n t s o f a c e n t r a l c o r e c u r r i c u l u m f o r a d u l t s he f o u n d unconv i n c i n g the arguments f o r a l i b e r a l a r t s c u r r i c u l u m s t r u c t u r e d by the academic disciplines  (which he d e s i g n a t e d :  basic sciences, humanities,  and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s ) .  I n s t e a d he p r e f e r r e d a c u r r i c u l u m based on a n a l y s i s o f the c o n d i t i o n s o f a d u l t life.  Such a c u r r i c u l u m m i g h t c o n t a i n g r e a t i d e a s o f t h e Western t r a d i t i o n ,  s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s o f d e m o c r a t i c community, a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s . f a c t , s i n c e t h e r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e b e h a v i o r a l changes r e q u i r e d by a d u l t l i f e the d e f i n i t i o n o f l e a r n i n g i t s e l f , he s u g g e s t e d t h a t a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  In mirror  s h o u l d be  c o n c e n t r a t i n g on s i m p l y t e a c h i n g a d u l t s how t o l e a r n (225).  '•  I n M i l l e r ' s v i e w c u r r i c u l a f o r the young a r e u s u a l l y based on e i t h e r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s o f the young o r t h e s y s t e m a t i c  b o d i e s o f knowledge.  B y con-  t r a s t he s t a t e d t h a t " a l t h o u g h a good d e a l o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o n s i s t s o f f i l l i n g  22 i n gaps o f knowledge, t h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y a r e m e d i a l f u n c t i o n p e r i p h e r a l t o t h e c e n t r a l purpose o f the f i e l d "  (232).  S i n c e he v i e w e d the c e n t r a l purpose o f  a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a s a d a p t i o n t o change, i t s p r o p e r s u b j e c t m a t t e r t h e r e f o r e would a r i s e f r o m t h e " e x p e r i e n c e w o r l d s " o f a d u l t s which he d e s i g n a t e d :  the world o f  work, t h e s o c i a l w o r l d , t h e w o r l d o f form, and t h e w o r l d o f n a t u r e .  The w o r l d  o f work, he c l a i m e d , p r o v i d e s those problems w h i c h dominate a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a s t h e y do c u l t u r e i n g e n e r a l , problems w h i c h a r e r e d u c i b l e t o t r a i n i n g o b j e c t i v e s , t h e v e r b a l s k i l l s p r e r e q u i s i t e t o them, and a s a r e c e n t l y d e v e l o p i n g o b j e c t i v e , the management s k i l l s o f human r e l a t i o n s . his  T h i s l a s t g o a l i s b e t t e r matched w i t h  " s o c i a l w o r l d " under the theme o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g .  Miller's  other  r o l e o b j e c t i v e s f o r the s o c i a l world i n c l u d e d the p e r s o n a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l developments o f marriage, parenthood,  s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d a permeable b e l i e f s y s t e m .  I t a l s o i n c l u d e d c i t i z e n s h i p o b j e c t i v e s l i k e community p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d t h e p a r t i c u l a r m o r a l o b l i g a t i o n s o f l i v i n g i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s a s a dominant w o r l d power  (235)»  and r e s p o n s e .  What M i l l e r c a l l e d the w o r l d o f f o r m d e a l t w i t h e s t h e t i c  experience  I t c o u l d i n c l u d e s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , t h e s k i l l s o f e s t h e t i c judgment,  or simply f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h a r t h i s t o r y  (237).  The w o r l d o f n a t u r e a s i t i s known  t h r o u g h the- s c i e n c e s , he c o n c l u d e d , was o f l e a s t i n t e r e s t t o a d u l t l e a r n e r s d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t i t s e x c e s s i v e l y r a p i d change was t h r e a t e n i n g t h e w e l f a r e o f the s o c i a l o r d e r .  I n h i s own e x c e p t i o n a l l y l i t e r a t e way M i l l e r c l a i m e d t h a t  development o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the s c i e n t i f i c method were r e m e d i a l a c t i v i t i e s f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a s t h e y s h o u l d have been by t h e i n i t i a l e d u c a t i o n o f y o u t h I n t h e i r 1964  developed  (238).  book C o o l i e V e r n e r a n d A l a n B o o t h o f F l o r i d a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y  c l a i m e d t o base t h e i r f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n on " s o c i a l f o r c e s a n d f a c t o r s t h a t c r e a t e t h e need f o r c o n t i n u o u s l e a r n i n g " (9). t h e e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e i r c a t e g o r i e s does n o t s u p p o r t t h e c l a i m .  However  They seemed t o  presume t h a t e d u c a t i o n * i n y o u t h s o l e l y p r e p a r e d people f o r v o c a t i o n a l o r  23 p r o f e s s i o n a l competence, and o n l y l a t e r a s t h e r o l e s o f spouse, p a r e n t , o r c i t i z e n d e v e l o p i s a n " e x p a n s i o n a l f u n c t i o n " n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e competence i n a n e x panded range o f s o c i a l r o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  The term " e x p a n s i o n f u n c t i o n "  t h u s presumes some f i x e d c h r o n o l o g y o f l e a r n i n g , and does n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e between t h e knowledge o r s k i l l a s p e c t s o f new r o l e s , and t h e a t t i t u d i n a l o r a f f e c t i v e a s p e c t s o f new r o l e s . for  The " p a r t i c i p a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n " p r e p a r e d  c i t i z e n s h i p t h r o u g h p r o v i d i n g knowledge and t h e o p p o r t u n i t y  s k i l l s of participation. across society described  to practice the  This f u n c t i o n alone resembles the f u n c t i o n s by o t h e r a u t h o r s .  adults  fulfilled  V e r n e r and Eooth a l s o p e r c e i v e d  a  f u n c t i o n o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n t h e y c a l l e d " i n t e g r a t i o n a l " , w h i c h r e f e r r e d t o maki n g new a p p l i c a t i o n s o f knowledge a l r e a d y  p o s s e s s e d t o problems e n c o u n t e r e d ,  i d e n t i f y i n g needs f o r new l e a r n i n g , a n d i n t e g r a t i n g new l e a r n i n g t o p r e v i o u s e x perience.  T h i s " i n t e g r a t i o n f u n c t i o n " l i k e t h e " e x p a n s i o n " f u n c t i o n seems t o be  c a s t s t r i c t l y i n terms o f how an i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e s l e a r n i n g , r a t h e r s p e c i f y i n g what he l e a r n s , a s i t would be i d e n t i f i e d i n s o c i e t y . " i n t e g r a t i o n " might i m p l y i n t e g r a t i n g new o c c u p a t i o n a l l e a r n i n g o r new p a r e n t a l l e a r n i n g .  Their "personal"  than  F o r example,  l e a r n i n g , new c i t i z e n s h i p  function of adult education  might a p p e a r t o i d e n t i f y a s o c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c a t e g o r y o f l e a r n i n g a s t h e "participation" function did.  But while  t h e p e r s o n a l f u n c t i o n was s a i d t o f r e e  the i n d i v i d u a l "from i g n o r a n c e , o b s o l e t e a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s ,  and from i r r a t i o n a l  o r immature b e h a v i o r " ( 1 0 ) , i t cannot be i d e n t i f i e d f u r t h e r a s t o whether t h i s maturity  refers to interactions of a psychological, esthetic, philosophical o r  political sort.  V e r n e r and Booth's f u n c t i o n s  therefore  seem t o be imbedded i n  some i m p l i c i t t h e o r y o f t h e p s y c h o l o g y o f l e a r n i n g r a t h e r t h a n i n a n e m p i r i c a l o v e r v i e w o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s t h r o u g h o u t s o c i e t y , and t h e r e f o r e  despite  f i r s t appearances t h e i r terms do n o t f i t w i t h o t h e r w r i t i n g s on t h e s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s of adult education. I n 1 9 6 6 t h e C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n (CAAE), produced t h e i r  24 "White P a p e r on the E d u c a t i o n o f A d u l t s i n Canada".  The White P a p e r summarized  p r o p o s a l s f o r n a t i o n - w i d e development, and p r i n c i p l e s upon w h i c h such a d e v e l o p ment s h o u l d be b a s e d .  The p r o p o s a l s i n c l u d e d r e f e r e n c e s t o e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s  o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n o f which a d u l t b a s i c e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h , manpower development, t e c h n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l programs, and p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n s u p p o r t the m a t e r i a l u t i l i t y theme; community development and t r a i n i n g f o r c i t i z e n s h i p s u p p o r t the c i t i z e n s h i p theme; and p r e - u n i v e r s i t y s c i e n c e and h u m a n i t i e s f o r a d u l t s s u p p o r t t h e theme o f s t u d i e s o f i n t r i n s i c v a l u e i f t h e y were not i n t e n d e d t o be p r e professional.  The a u t h o r s d i d emphasize a need "above a l l t o make sure t h a t  the t e c h n i c a l - v o c a t i o n a l b i a s o f the p r i v a t e system i s b a l a n c e d by the humane and l i b e r a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o be found i n the p u b l i c system ( 5 ) . F o r the 1970Adult E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n (bVS.A.) Handbook, Wayne  Schroeder  o f F l o r i d a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , wrote.a c h a p t e r i n t e n d e d t o d e f i n e and d e s c r i b e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n which he t r e a t e d the q u e s t i o n o f g o a l s .  H i s c h a p t e r makes a  u s e f u l d i s t i n c t i o n between d e r i v i n g g o a l s d e d u c t i v e l y i n a normative  sort of  p r o c e s s , and d e r i v i n g them i n d u c t i v e l y through e m p i r i c a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s .  He  c i t e s as an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f g o a l statements w h i c h have been d e r i v e d i n d u c t i v e l y , the work o f A.A.  L i v e r i g h t t h a t s e t s as f o u r major g o a l s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  " o c c u p a t i o n a l , v o c a t i o n a l , and/or p r o f e s s i o n a l competence; p e r s o n a l and f a m i l y l i v i n g competence; s o c i a l and c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; and  self-fulfilment".  W i t h the p r e v i o u s e x c e p t i o n o f H a l l e n b e c k (i960) i t i s summaries o f t h i s i n d u c t i v e k i n d which are being considered i n t h i s c h a p t e r .  What S c h r o e d e r  calls  " d e d u c t i v e " g o a l s t a t e m e n t s a r e those d e r i v e d from v a l u e axioms w h i c h o f t e n r u n aground on v a l u e c o n f l i c t s l i k e " i n d i v i d u a l needs v s . s o c i e t a l needs" 1970:33)•  He o f f e r s the f o l l o w i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e s e two p o s i t i o n s :  and p h r a s e s commonly used by those who  (Schroeder, "Words  emphasize i n d i v i d u a l needs a r e : s k i l l s  and  knowledge n e c e s s a r y t o make judgements a b o u t s o c i a l change; s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n ; s e l f - f u l f i l m e n t ; l i b e r a l education; s e l f expression; r e a l i z a t i o n of p o t e n t i a l ;  2  5  c r e a t i v e a r t s and l e i s u r e e d u c a t i o n " ( i b i d ) . phasizes the i n t e g r i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l  The f i r s t g o a l i n t h i s l i s t  em-  c i t i z e n s w i t h r e g a r d to the d r i f t o f t h e i r  s o c i e t y , and t h u s c l a s s i f i e s w i t h i n t h e theme o f c i t i z e n s h i p .  The o t h e r g o a l s  c l a s s i f y w i t h i n t h e theme o f e d u c a t i o n f o r i t s i n t r i n s i c r a t h e r t h a n i n s t r u m e n t a l value.  Those who  and p h r a s e s  emphasize s o c i a l needs i n t h e i r d e d u c t i o n o f g o a l s use words  such a s " s o c i a l r o l e s , d e v e l o p m e n t a l  t a s k s , i n s t i t u t i o n a l need,  a d j u s t m e n t t o change, and t r a n s m i s s i o n o f the c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e " ( j & ) . two g o a l s , s o c i a l r o l e s and d e v e l o p m e n t a l  first  t a s k s may be subsumed a s i n t e r p e r s o n a l  c o m p e t e n c i e s u n d e r t h e theme o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g . t u t i o n a l needs, may  The  The t h i r d g o a l , i n s t i -  r e f e r t o the m a t e r i a l u t i l i t y theme o f o c c u p a t i o n a l competence.  But a x i o m a t i c g o a l statements l i k e "adjustment t o change" and  "transmission of  the c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e " a r e somewhat s i n i s t e r i n t h e i r a m b i g u i t y .  Does " a d j u s t -  ment" o p e r a t i o n a l i z e a s p a s s i v e a d a p t a t i o n t o change r a t h e r t h a n management o f it?  Does " t r a n s m i s s i o n " o p e r a t i o n a l i z e a s f u r t h e r p r o m o t i o n  culture only?  What becomes a p p a r e n t a s was  o f t h e dominant  i n d i c a t e d i n c h a p t e r one i s t h a t  u n t i l g o a l s t a t e m e n t s a r e o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d i n t o t h e terms o f the e m p i r i c a l p r a c t i c e s i n which t h e y can be observed  t h e c o n c e p t s r e m a i n u n p r o f i t a b l y ambiguous.  S i n c e these l a s t two p h r a s e s a r e ambiguous, t h e y a r e not used t o weight f u r t h e r .any one  theme.  I n 1978,  J.R. K i d d o f the O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e  f o r Studies i n Education  and  Gordon Selman o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia e d i t e d an a n t h o l o g y o f Canadian w r i t i n g s on a d u l t e d u c a t i o n e n t i t l e d "Coming o f Age".  I n the i n t r o d u c t i o n Selman  r e f e r r e d t o e d u c a t i o n a l r e s p o n s e s t o t h e p r e s s u r e s o f t h e t i m e s g r o u p i n g them u n d e r manpower t r a i n i n g  ( m a t e r i a l u t i l i t y ) , s o c i a l and economic community de-  velopment, and s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f women ( c i t i z e n s h i p ) , e d u c a t i o n f o r l e i s u r e ( i n t r i n s i c v a l u e ) , and t h e a r e a o f human r e l a t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l growth and development ( p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h ) (3-5)'  26 J u x t a p o s i t i o n o f terms I n t a b l e 1 a l l t e r m s w h i c h have been f o u n d t o be r o u g h l y o f the f o u r themes a r e grouped t o g e t h e r .  s i m i l a r to  one  F o r the most p a r t t h e s e terms have been  presented as i n d u c t i v e l y d e r i v e d goals of observed p r a c t i c e s .  While b o t h  H a l l e n b e c k (i960) and S c h r o e d e r (l9?0) have u s e d p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h a p p e a r t o deductive  t o d e v e l o p t h e i r terms, i n f a c t n e i t h e r a u t h o r i d e n t i f i e s any  as h a v i n g been l e f t u n a d d r e s s e d by p r a c t i c e s i n t h e f i e l d . g o a l s t a t e m e n t s may i n the domain —  So, i n e f f e c t t h e i r  has been a p r o b l e m a t i c  F o r example, M i l l e r ' s r e f e r e n c e  term meaning a t t i m e s t h a t w h i c h  perhaps a b i t r a r i f i e d .  i s that education and  w h i c h c l o s e s the gap  imagin-  The  a c t i v i t i e s f o r adult  most common d e f i n i t i o n o f  "remedial"  between what an a d u l t l e a r n e r a l r e a d y  has  t h a t l e v e l o f accomplishment which i s e x p e c t e d o f the average l e a r n e r com-  p l e t i n g the compulsory 10 f u n c t i o n s and off"  standard  t o development o f the s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e  and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the s c i e n t i f i c method as r e m e d i a l was  present  as the i n d u c t i v e approaches d i d .  c l o s e s the gap between what a l e a r n e r a l r e a d y has and a l m o s t any  education  goal  a l s o be u n d e r s t o o d a s r e p r e s e n t i n g a summary o f g o a l s  "Remedial e d u c a t i o n "  able .  be  o r 12  years of schooling.  goals of a d u l t education  As such i t p r e c e d e s the  p e r se, b r i n g i n g l e a r n e r s up t o t h a t  p o i n t f r o m w h i c h t h e y can engage i n f w c t h e r . - l e a r n i n g .  "take-  I n t h i s sense r e m e d i -  a t i o n a l s o r e f e r s t o the a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h o s e b a s i c s k i l l s w h i c h a r e p r e r e q u i s i t e for  most t y p e s o f employment and as such i t i s o f t e n p h r a s e d w i t h  training. utility.  occupational  B u t t h e t e r m c a n n o t s i m p l y be subsumed u n d e r the theme o f m a t e r i a l The  c i t i z e n s h i p s c h o o l s o f the A m e r i c a n s o u t h - e a s t i n the 1960's l i n k e d  l i t e r a c y d i r e c t l y w i t h v o t e r r e g i s t r a t i o n and so t i e d those b a s i c s k i l l s n o t  to  c h a n g i n g the l e a r n e r s ' economic s t a t u s but t o c h a n g i n g t h e i r c i v i l s t a t u s . S i m i l a r l i n k a g e s might be c o n t r i v e d t o t i e r e m e d i a l o r t o l e a r n i n g f o r i t s own  sake.  l e a r n i n g t o competent human r e l a t i o n s ,  So a n a l y s i s o f " r e m e d i a l " l e a d s t o the  t h a t i t i s not an a l t e r n a t e e d u c a t i o n a l d i r e c t i o n t o the f o u r a l r e a d y  conclusion  identified,  27  j YEAR  AUTHOR  1935  Peter  1936  Lyman B r y s o n  occupational  John M u i r  earn a b e t t e r living home b u i l d i n g skills vocational efficiency economic understanding  Mary S. E l y  U.S.  J.R. Kidd  CAN.  1956  agriculture  Burton  Clark  #  U.S.  I960  W. H a l l e n b e c k ^  U.S.  1963  CAN.  1964  liberal  political  family  a r t , music, drama, handicrafts  l i f e and death decisions of government  personal growth, selfrealization atom bomb conservation films & radio touring exhibits health, c u l t u r a l devel., avocational interests expedite personal growth  civic participation & responsibility  facilitate participation  liberal & humane  social & political  life  b e t t e r human relations community improvement m a r i t a l problems c h i l d welfare emotional h e a l t h worker-emplover home l i f e , 4 family relations  economically more e f f i c i e n t , educational background improve vocational human flexibility communic. s k i l l s relations read/write/speak vocational & technical  Harry " K i l l e r ^  national social issues international role civic responsibility  s o c i a l world: world o f form: s o c i a l world: industrial r e l . , esthetics community family l i f e , & self-expression participation self-understand. science & s o c i e t j health & basic community s k i l l s , manpower science, & development tech-vocational humanities training for professional citizenship individual Institutional social selfjudgement about needs roles actualization s o c i a l change world o f work: occupational  CAN.  C.A.A.E. White Paper  1970  W.L. Schroeder  U.S.  1978  relational  J.R. Kidd^  U.S.  1966  Citizenship economics c u r r e n t events politics  #  CAN.  1950  Some i n s t r i n s i c V a W  vocational information  U.S.  1948  Psychological Health  Sandiford  CAN.  1948  EDUCATION FOR: Material Utility  G.R. Selman  basic s k i l l s occupational vocational  human r e l a t i o n s  leisure s o c i a l & econ. ed p e r s o n a l growth community d e v e l . human p o t e n t i a l s s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s movement -ness o f women  Table 1 1 Juxtaposition of Roughly Similar Terms Regarding the  Goals and Functions of Adult Education  * Authors who » e n t i o n remediation  28  b u t r a t h e r c l o s e s t h e gap between a s t a g n a n t c o n d i t i o n and a c t i v e engagement w i t h one o f t h o s e g o a l s .  C r i t i q u e o f the L i t e r a t u r e  Degree o f consensus The thematic  f o u r s e t s o f terms d i s p l a y e d i n F i g u r e 1 a r e each r o u g h l y s i m i l a r t o a title  i n t e r n a l order.  identifying a goal-function direction. The f i r s t  B u t each s e t has i t s own  s e t r e f e r s t o m a t e r i a l l y p r a c t i c a l knowledge and s k i l l  and i n c l u d e s terms w h i c h have an element o f i n c o m e - e a r n i n g advantage ( v o c a t i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l , occupational, p r o f e s s i o n a l ) , o r income-disposal economic understanding),-  o r a r e ambiguous w i t h r e g a r d t o income ( a g r i c u l t u r e ,  g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n background, r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , and s p e a k i n g The  (home-building,  skills).  second s e t o f terms r e f e r s t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h b o t h w i t h i n t h e i n -  d i v i d u a l and demonstrated t h r o u g h s a t i s f a c t o r y i n t e r p e r s o n a l ' a n d transactions.  The terms i n t h i s g r o u p i n g i n c l u d e :  intergroup  f a m i l y l i f e , m a r i t a l problems,  c h i l d w e l f a r e , s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g , human r e l a t i o n s , e m o t i o n a l  h e a l t h , worker-  employer r e l a t i o n s , and community improvement when used i n t h e c o n t e x t o f i n t e r group r e l a t i o n s and t h e l e s s e n i n g o f p r e j u d i c e . The  terms i n t h e t h i r d s e t show t h e g r e a t e s t d i s p a r i t y o f a l l f o u r g r o u p s .  They i n d i c a t e e d u c a t i v e  experiences  undertaken f o r t h e i r i n t r i n s i c value  rather  t h a n t h e i r i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y , and speak i n g e n e r a l terms o f l e i s u r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and t h e development o f a v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s .  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e y i n c l u d e  p e r s o n a l growth, s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n , s e l f - f u l f i l m e n t and t h e human p o t e n t i a l s movement; a r t , m u s i c , drama, s c i e n c e and t h e h u m a n i t i e s ,  l i b e r a l and humane s t u d i e s ,  and c u l t u r a l development. The  f o u r t h s e t o f terms r e g a r d i n g t h e g o a l s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n r e f e r t o  c i t i z e n s h i p and i n c l u d e :  civic participation, civic responsibility, training for  29 c i t i z e n s h i p i n a w o r l d power.  Conclusion What t h i s l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w has a c h i e v e d i s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f m a j o r r e c u r r e n t themes i n the range o f f u n c t i o n s w h i c h a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s p e r c e i v e d t o f u l f i l i n society.  Such d e s c r i p t i v e m a t e r i a l i s not c a p a b l e i n i t s e l f o f e i t h e r  p r e d i c t i v e o r e x p l a n a t o r y power.  To d e v e l o p t h a t k i n d o f t h e o r y - b u i l d i n g p o t e n t i a l  r e q u i r e s t r a n s f o r m i n g these i n d u c t i v e l y d e r i v e d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s i n t o a s e t o f p r e c i s e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s w h i c h can be used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h h y p o t h e s e s t o d e v e l o p and t e s t s y s t e m a t i c t h e o r y r e g a r d i n g the f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e .  The  pro-  cedure w h i c h can produce p r e c i s e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s from r o u g h l y s i m i l a r e m p i r i c a l a b s t r a c t i o n s i s the methodology o f c o n s t r u c t e d t y p e s . w i d e l y used i n an u n c o n s c i o u s  and u n s y s t e m a t i c  r e s e a r c h e r s from a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . i t s systematic implementation.  way  Constructive typology i s  by s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s i n c l u d i n g  But w e l l d e v e l o p e d  g u i d e l i n e s do e x i s t f o r  I n c h a p t e r t h r e e , b o t h the g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  o f c o n s t r u c t i v e t y p o l o g y and the way  i n which i t i s a p p l i e d i n t h i s s t u d y t o  p r a c t i c e s of a d u l t education are d e s c r i b e d .  30  CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY  I n t h i s chapter an e x p o s i t i o n i s given o f the s c i e n t i f i c technique s t r u c t i v e typology i n c l u d i n g a n e x p l a n a t i o n o f the nature o f c o n s t r u c t e d  o f contypes,  m i s a p p l i e d d e f i n i t i o n s and f u n c t i o n s , a n d a p p r o p r i a t e u s e s o f c o n s t r u c t e d  types.  The a p p l i c a t i o n o f c o n s t r u c t i v e t y p o l o g y t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s a s i t has been c a r r i e d o u t i n t h i s s t u d y i s a l s o d e s c r i b e d .  E x p l a n a t i o n o f C o n s t r u c t i v e Typology  A c c o r d i n g t o John C. McKinney (1966)^ one o f t h e t h r e e main c o n t r i b u t o r s to  t h e development o f c o n s t r u c t i v e t y p o l o g y a s a t o o l o f t w e n t i e t h century- s c i e n c e ,  a l l t y p o l o g i e s are created t o a i d i n the a n a l y s i s o f s p e c i f i c bodies o f data, t o e s t a b l i s h " u n i f o r m i t i e s o f e x p l a n a t o r y v a l u e " , and t h u s c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s o l u t i o n o f some problem i n r e g a r d t o t h a t d a t a ( o p . c i t . : 2 0 l ) . S c i e n t i f i c work I s founded on t h e pragmatic  a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e w o r l d i s i n t e l l i g i b l e i n t h e sense t h a t  u n i f o r m i t i e s may be s t a t e d , and e x p l i c a b l e i n t h e sense t h a t those u n i f o r m i t i e s w i l l s t a n d t h e t e s t o f f u r t h e r e x p e r i e n c e , t h a t t h e y w i l l i n a word, r e c u r (op.cit.:2).  S c i e n t i f i c work i s d i r e c t e d toward d e m o n s t r a t i n g  uniformities i na  c o n c e p t u a l o r d e r t h a t e l i m i n a t e s t h e unique and t h e i r r e l e v a n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o a problem.  I n t h i s way t h e r e p e t i t i v e and i n t e r r e l a t e d a s p e c t s o f phenomena a r e  r e v e a l e d , n o t a s a b s o l u t e u n i f o r m i t i e s b u t a s r e g u l a r i t i e s w h i c h c a n be e x p r e s s e d i n p r o b a b i l i t y terms i n t h e form o f p r e d i c t i v e s t a t e m e n t s ( o p . c i t . : 2 , 3 ) •  Predic-  t i o n i s made p o s s i b l e by t h e i n t e n t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f o r d e r o u t o f d i v e r s i t y ,  31 g e n e r a l out o f u n i q u e , and r e c u r r e n t o u t o f o c c u r r e n t .  S c i e n t i f i c work p r o c e e d s  by o b s e r v a t i o n s d i r e c t e d by a problem, i n t e r e s t o r c o n c e r n .  That problem d i c t a t e s  the l i m i t s o f what may be c o n s i d e r e d a r e c u r r e n t i n s t a n c e , s i n c e no phenomena a c t u a l l y recur i n t h e i r concrete  wholeness.  The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t y p e s t o f a c i l i t a t e p r e d i c t i o n o f r e c u r r e n t i n s t a n c e s i s a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l approach a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e d a t a o f any s c i e n c e .  I t may be  e f f e c t i v e l y a r g u e d t h a t the s c i e n t i s t " t y p i c a l l y c o n s t r u c t s the u n i t s w i t h w h i c h he o p e r a t e s "  (op.cit.:3)«  I n s o c i a l s c i e n c e t h a t c o n s t r u c t e d e n t i t y may be a  type o f s o c i a l c o n d u c t , s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , o r even p e r s o n a l i t y (Becker,  1968:105).  The s o c i o l o g i s t r e f e r s t o conduct such a s c o m p e t i t i o n ,  accomodation, a s s i m i l a t i o n , and s o c i a l i z a t i o n .  conflict,  The h i s t o r i a n u t i l i z e s c o n s t r u c t e d  t y p e s o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n such a s t h e Greek c i t y - s t a t e , t h e f e u d a l system, t h e m a n o r i a l system, e a r l y P r o t e s t a n t i s m , and the m e d i e v a l Papacy (McKinney,1966:4). The h i s t o r i a n may c a s t p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e s i n terms such a s Whig, J a c o b i t e , C a l v i n i s t , H i g h l a n d clansman, o r " N a z i - e r a p a s s i v e German i n t e l l e c t u a l " (Becker, 1968 :  95)f o r the economist r e f e r t o a h y p o t h e t i c a l "economic man" (McKinney, 1966:4-). These t y p e s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d f o r the purposes o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e ; n o t one o f them conforms e x a c t l y t o any s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l i n s t a n c e . u s e f u l f i c t i o n s i s not c o n f i n e d t o t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s .  T h i s procedure o f c r e a t i n g I t i s apparent i n the  p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s where c o n s t r u c t s abound such a s t h e p e r f e c t l e v e r , f r i c t i o n l e s s motion, t h e p e r f e c t vacuum, p e r f e c t s u r f a c e s and s t r a i g h t - s i d e d c y l i n d e r s ( i b i d ) . W h i l e c o n s t r u c t e d t y p e s a r e common i n a l l s c i e n c e s t h e y are perhaps more  necessary  t o the conduct o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i n c e t h e s o c i a l w o r l d does n o t p r o v i d e  such  w e l l - d e l i n e a t e d o b j e c t s a s those from which the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s s t a r t . P a u l .Lazarsf e l d (1955) p h i l o s o p h e r a n d m e t h o d o l o g i s t  o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e , d e s c r i b e d the two  i d e a l s o f s o c i a l s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h a s v i s i o n and p r e c i s i o n -(1966). P r e c i s e . instruments are necessary  t o the development o f t e s t a b l e p r o p o s i t i o n s ; b u t i n  s o c i a l s c i e n c e v i s i o n i s r e q u i r e d t o d i s c e r n the v e r y o b j e c t s about w h i c h  32 propositions objects  a r e t o be d e v e l o p e d .  of s o c i a l a n a l y s i s  operations:  it  i s necessary  to create  the  (Lazarsfeld,1966:xi).  With constructed types two i n t e r w o v e n  In e f f e c t  one c r e a t e s t h e o b j e c t s  of s o c i a l a n a l y s i s  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n and s i m p l i f i c a t i o n .  through  Generalization  r e d u c e s r t h e n u m b e r o f o b j e c t s by c o n c e i v i n g o f t h e m a s b e i n g i d e n t i c a l . has t h e f u r t h e r  benefit  o f r e d u c i n g t h e number o f r e l a t i o n s t o be e x a m i n e d .  be a b l e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t i n r e g a r d t o some p r o b l e m t w o o b j e c t s may be i d e n t i c a l r e q u i r e s h a v i n g a p p l i e d some p a r t i a l l y available data.  way t o w a r d a more e x p l i c i t  statement of the t h e o r y - i n - u s e .  s i m p l i f i c a t i o n the c o n s t r u c t e d type i s t i e s o f phenomena t o a g e n e r a l l y  its  to  I n t h e c o m p l e m e n t a r y o p e r a t i o n one s i m p l i f i e s t h e o b j e c t theoretically  significant attributes  used to reduce  coherent l e v e l  113)•  the  descrip-  thus f o r c i n g  the  By g e n e r a l i z a t i o n  the d i v e r s i t i e s  (op.cit.:5)«  and  and c o m p l e x i -  To a c c o m p l i s h  this  r e l i n q u i s h i n g t h e g o a l o f d e s c r i b i n g a n y p a r t i c u l a r phenomenon  in  uniqueness. Types a r e c r e a t e d f r o m f a c t s and cannot escape b e i n g thrown back on  "if  To  considered  developed theory-in-use  t i o n by s e l e c t i n g o n l y i t s  goal requires  This  empty s p e c u l a t i o n i s n o t t o r e p l a c e  sound g e n e r a l i z a t i o n " ( B e c k e r , I 9 6 8 J  McKinney agreed t h a t a type c o u l d not u s e f u l l y  fiction.  of empirical cases to solve  be d r a w n a s o n l y a  U n l e s s the u n i f i e d c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n had been drawn from  among e m p i r i c a l c a s e s i t it  comparison  w o u l d n o t be p o s s i b l e t o r e l a t e t h e t y p e t o a c t u a l c a s e s Thus, d e s p i t e i t s f i c t i o n a l n a t u r e ,  no s a n c t u a r y f o r w i s h f u l t h i n k i n g .  t y p e one c r e a t e s a u n i t o f phenomenon s t r i c t l y  logical  approximations  w o u l d n o t be o f u s e l a t e r a s a s t a n d a r d f o r  e m p i r i c a l p r o b l e m s (1966:14).  constructed type o f f e r s  facts  V i a the  constructed  s o c i a l a n a l y s i s by d e s c r i b i n g an o b j e c t i v e l y  i n terms o f t h e o r e t i c a l l y  significant  probable  attributes.  The c o n s t r u c t e d t y p e r e l a t e s t o f a c t u a l e m p i r i c a l c a s e s i n a way t h a t ordinary  stereotype  does. n o t .  and i s an unplanned, a f f e c t u a l  A stereotype exaggeration.  the  often l a c k s an e m p i r i c a l  the  referent  33 In contrast,  The  "the c o n s t r u c t e d type i s a purposive, planned, s e l e c t i o n , a b s t r a c t i o n , c o m b i n a t i o n a n d (sometimes) a c c e n t u a t i o n o f a s e t o f c r i t e r i a with empirical referents that serves as a b a s i s f o r comparison o f e m p i r i c a l cases" ( o p . c i t . : l 6 ) .  s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s o f c o m b i n a t i o n and a c c e n t u a t i o n o f a t t r i b u t e s a l s o  g u i s h c o n s t r u c t e d types from  ordinary  concepts.  distin-  "Ordinary concepts are given  p r e c i s i o n a s c o n s t r u c t s t h r o u g h s e l e c t i o n and l i m i t a t i o n ; c o n s t r u c t e d t y p e s a r e g i v e n p r e c i s i o n t h r o u g h s e l e c t i o n , l i m i t a t i o n , c o m b i n a t i o n and a c c e n t u a t i o n . ' The c o n s t r u c t e d t y p e o r g a n i z e s e x p e r i e n c e i n a somewhat d i f f e r e n t f a s h i o n from t h e o r d i n a r y c o n c e p t i n t h a t i t forms a s e r i e s o f a t t r i b u t e s i n t o a that i snot necessarily  configuration  d i r e c t l y e x p e r i e n c e d and a c c e n t u a t e s one o r more o f t h e  a t t r i b u t e s f o r t h e o r e t i c a l purposes (op. c i t . : l l ; . B e s i d e s c o m b i n a t i o n and a c c e n t u a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h e t y p e i s a l s o distinguished  by c o n s i s t a n c y among a l l i t s a t t r i b u t e s and t h e c o n s t a n c y o f t h e i r  r e l a t i o n s t o each o t h e r . internally consistent and  McKinney c a l l e d t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n  o f a t t r i b u t e s an  "system o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , made up o f a b s t r a c t e d e l e m e n t s  formed i n t o a u n i f i e d c o n c e p t u a l p a t t e r n "  (op. c i t . : 5 ) »  R e l a t i o n s among t h e  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e a r b i t r a r i l y h e l d c o n s t a n t by t h e r e s e a r c h e r f o r h e u r i s t i c purposes.  S i n c e t h e r e l a t i o n s between t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e between c o n -  c e p t u a l elements they always remain h y p o t h e t i c a l be h e l d c o n s t a n t i n any c o n f i g u r a t i o n  r e l a t i o n s and t h e r e f o r e " m a y  c o n s i d e r e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o be o f  u t i l i t y w i t h respect t o the i n q u i r y being conducted. type i n the t e s t i n g o f t h e o r i e s p l a y s between s e l e c t e d formity ations  The r o l e o f t h e c o n s t r u c t e d  develops out o f the constant r e l a t i o n s i t d i s -  and u n i f i e d a t t r i b u t e s .  Because t h e t y p e f o c u s e s on u n i -  i t s use l e a d s t o t h e development o f h y p o t h e s e s about v a r i a t i o n s o r d e v i (op. c i t . : 6 ) .  34  M i s a p p l i e d d e f i n i t i o n s and f u n c t i o n s . D u r i n g h i s t e n u r e a s e d i t o r o f t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e p e r i o d i c a l A r c h i v , Max Weber (1904) made a p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t i n which he a r g u e d t h a t s e v e r a l d y s f u n c t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s were o f t e n c a r e l e s s l y a p p l i e d t o t h e c o n s t r u c t e d type i n s o c i a l s c i e n t i f i c writings.  Weber a r g u e d t h a t t h e c o n s t r u c t e d type c a n n o t s t a n d f o r a n  e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t y i n t h e i n f i n i t e f u l l n e s s o f t h e u n i q u e , so c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be p a i d t o i t s usage l e s t i t become r e i f i e d .  Casually d e f i n e d types  as t h e l e a r n i n g s o c i e t y , t h e l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t , t h e f o l k s c h o o l , t h e s o c i a l o f community development —  even i f c o n s t r u c t e d by m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y  p r o c e d u r e s — do n o t c o n s t i t u t e " r e a l " t h i n g s , b u t c o n c e p t u a l  such process  sound  touchstones  by means  o f w h i c h i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e s c r i b e , compare and c o n t r a s t a c t u a l happenings i n the w o r l d o f e x p e r i e n c e . Weber a l s o argued t h a t t h e c o n s t r u c t e d type does n o t p r e s e n t t h e average o r any o t h e r c e n t r a l tendancy o f a c l a s s o f phenomena.  Becker agreed t h a t while the  type p o t e n t i a l l y c o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d t o c o r r e s p o n d  t o a s t a t i s t i c a l mean o r mode  to do so would d i m i n i s h i t s u t i l i t y  (1968:127).  This i s a  thought-provoking  judgement s i n c e so much e d u c a t i o n r e s e a r c h h a s been o f t h e s u r v e y type d r a w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s from c e n t r a l tendencies.  McKinney added t h a t a l l c e n t r a l t e n d e n c i e s  a r e j u s t a s u n r e a l a s t h e c o n s t r u c t e d type i n t h e degree t o w h i c h they the e m p i r i c a l r e f e r e n t t h a t t h e y s u p p o s e d l y r e p r e s e n t " (1966:16).  "exaggerate  Furthermore,  any c e n t r a l tende.ncy g i v e s a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e extreme i t e m s t h a t i s n e c e s s a r i l y quite unreal.  The type i s a d e l i b e r a t e l y f o r m u l a t e d l i m i t i n g c a s e f r o m y  w h i c h t h e degree o f d e v i a n c y able ( i b i d ) .  o f any i t e m i n a d i s t r i b u t i o n i s p o t e n t i a l l y measur-  The t a s k s o f t h e average and c o n s t r u c t e d t y p e s a r e s i m p l y d i f f e r e n t ,  and t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o r e s e a r c h n o t d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e on t h e b a s i s o f u n r e a l i t y . T h i r d l y , Weber p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e p r e d i c t i v e v a l u e o f a c o n s t r u c t e d  type  i s n o t a m a t t e r o f i t s l i t e r a l l y f o r c a s t i n g a n e v e n t t o come a b o u t under some future circumstance.  I t i s n o t a h y p o t h e s i s which i s v e r i f i a b l e t h r o u g h i t s  35 indicators.  "The r e a s o n [ t h a t ] a type cannot be f o u n d i n ' e x t e r n a l n a t u r e '  r e s i d e s i n t h e f a c t t h a t i t h a s been m o d i f i e d by t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h h i s s p e c i a l background and s c i e n t i f i c purpose"  (Becker,1968:107).  I f  t h e t y p e e v e r d i d c o r r e s p o n d e x a c t l y t o any unique e v e n t i t would be o f no c o m p a r a t i v e v a l u e when a n o t h e r e v e n t was t o be examined - t h e a b s t r a c t e d c o n c e p t would have f a l l e n back i n t o t h e r e a l m o f e m p i r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e .  Therefore to f i n d  c o n c r e t e e x c e p t i o n s t o the type does n o t i n v a l i d a t e i t ; B e c k e r a s s e r t s "you c a n never expect a n y t h i n g  other than e x c e p t i o n s .  I f c o n s t r u c t and ' r e a l i t y '  exactly  c o r r e s p o n d y o u a r e i n t h e morass o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r " ( o p . c i t . : 1 2 0 ) . F o u r t h l y , Weber p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e r e i s a danger o f a t t r i b u t i n g t o t y p e s a m e t a p h y s i c a l i m p e r a t i v e , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h c o n s t r u c t e d t y p e s o f developmental! sequence such a s u r b a n i z a t i o n , s o c i a l i z a t i o n , o r c l a s s s t r u g g l e .  Weber i l l u s -  t r a t e d t h e p o i n t t h i s way, " . . . a l l s p e c i f i c a l l y M a r x i a n 'laws' and d e v e l o p m e n t a l constructs...are ideal types. f o r t h e assessment  [Their] heuristic  s i g n i f i c a n c e ..when they a r e used  o f r e a l i t y i s known t o everyone who has e v e r employed M a r x i a n  c o n c e p t s and h y p o t h e s e s .  S i m i l a r l y , t h e i r p e r n i c i o u s n e s s , a s soon a s t h e y a r e  thought o f as e m p i r i c a l l y v a l i d o r as r e a l ( i . e . , t r u l y metaphysical) ' e f f e c t i v e f o r c e s ' , ' t e n d e n c i e s ' , e t c . i s l i k e w i s e known t o t h o s e who have used them" 409).  (1904:  A d u l t educators are c u r r e n t l y e x p l o r i n g the usefulness o f constructed types  r e g a r d i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l sequence o f t h e a d u l t l i f e s p a n .  Without  scientific  r i g o r , " l i f e c y c l e t a s k s " c o u l d come t o be thought o f a s h a v i n g " e f f e c t i v e f o r c e " o r a s b e i n g m e t a p h y s i c a l human " t e n d e n c i e s " .  B e c k e r a g r e e d w i t h Weber t h a t  " g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s i n c o n s t r u c t i v e t y p o l o g y a r e n o t True, i f by t h i s i s meant t h e c o n t r o l l i n g , u l t i m a t e , i n e f f a b l e C a p i t a l T.  A l l that the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t can  mean by t r u t h i s some amount, however s l i g h t , o f p r e d i c t i v e power" (19681 124). Weber c a l l e d t h e l i m i t i n g case  "an i d e a l - t y p i c a l " by w h i c h he meant  t o convey a pure o r u n i f i e d c o n c e p t u a l e n t i t y .  However t h i s was o f t e n m i s t a k e n  36  a s a n i d e a l i n t h e sense o f m o r a l w o r t h i n v i t i n g e m u l a t i o n .  Modern usage o f  t y p o l o g y h a s s i m p l y dropped t h e use o f t h e term " i d e a l " because o f t h e c o n f u s i o n w h i c h i t engendered. F i n a l l y , McKinney added t o Weber's l i s t o f m i s a p p l i e d d e f i n i t i o n s , t h e a s s e r t i o n t h a t a c o n s t r u c t e d type i s n o t a homogenous u n i v e r s e .  While i t has  c l a s s i f i c a t o r y s i g n i f i c a n c e i t i s n o t e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e z o o l o g i c a l " c l a s s " because the type "has a c o n f i g u r a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t a l l y l a c k i n g i n t h e c l a s s a s a homogenous u n i v e r s e "  (1966:15).  T h i s s i g n i f i c a n c e may be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f r e e -  dom t h e i n q u i r e r h a s t o s e l e c t and t o a c c e n t u a t e  certain traits for  examination,  and p a r t i c u l a r l y t o shape a l l o t h e r t r a i t s i n t o u n i f i e d systems a c c o r d i n g t o v a r i a t i o n i n t h e prime t r a i t . Not o n l y i n a c c u r a t e d e f i n i t i o n s b u t a l s o i n a p p r o p r i a t e f u n c t i o n s a r e sometimes a s c r i b e d t o constructed types.  F o r example, d e s p i t e i d e a s t o t h e c o n t r a r y ,  t y p e s a r e n o t a l w a y s f o r use i n domains o f e q u a l g e n e r a l i t y .  They may range from  q u i t e d a t e d and l o c a l i z e d " q u a s i - h i s t o r i c a l " t y p e s t o undated, n o n - l o c a l i z e d highly abstracted types.  The e x a c t l e v e l o f g e n e r a l i t y would be s e t by t h e p a r t i -  c u l a r question guiding the research.  F o r purposes o f s h o r t term e x p l a n a t i o n o r  p r e d i c t i o n t h e r e s e a r c h e r might use a type l i k e " t h e A m e r i c a n M i d d l e Western s t a t e university".  F o r a problem o f g r e a t e r s p a t i a l scope and t e m p o r a l range a type  l i k e " t h e E u r o - A m e r i c a n u n i v e r s i t y " c o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d .  McKinney e x p l a i n e d t h e  advantages o f v a r y i n g t h e l e v e l o f g e n e r a l i t y t h i s way, "The more g e n e r a l a type i s t h e g r e a t e r t h e s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e e m p i r i c a l a t t r i b u t e s ; t h e more s p e c i f i c a type i s , t h e g r e a t e r t h e number o f g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o b s c u r e d by t h e mass  o f i d e o g r a p h i c d e t a i l " (1966:26). F u r t h e r m o r e , i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o t r a n s f e r t h e c o n s t r u c t e d type f r o m one f i e l d o f research t o another, w i t h i n t h e same f i e l d .  any more t h a n f r o m one problem l e v e l t o a n o t h e r  Types a r e s u b s t a n t i v e e n t i t i e s drawn f r o m t h e e m p i r i c a l  domain r e l e v a n t t o a p a r t i c u l a r problem and t h u s a r e n o t i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e  37 with other sciences  (op. cit.:5)«  F i n a l l y , the type cannot f u l f i l the purposes o f the monographic h i s t o r i a n whose t a s k i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the unique (Becker,1968 95) • :  While h i s t o r i c a l  t y p e s o f c o n d u c t , s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , o r p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r may  be used t o s e t  the c o n t e x t o f an e v e n t , i t s unique c h a r a c t e r i s conveyed t h r o u g h i d i o s y n c r a t i c detail.  Uses o f c o n s t r u c t e d Constructive  types  typology  can be a p p l i e d t o d a t a t o f u l f i l many t a s k s : t o  g e n e r a l i z e , i n d i v i d u a l i z e , s u r v e y , compare, p r e d i c t , q u a n t i f y , and  t e s t hypotheses.  To g e n e r a l i z e i s t o t r e a t c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l e n t i t i e s as v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l r e s p e c t t o a p a r t i c u l a r problem.  Because t h e y share t r a i t s t h a t are problem-  r e l e v a n t those e n t i t i e s a r e " b r a c k e t e d " may  together  be q u a l i t i e s o r b e h a v i o u r s t h a t draw t o g e t h e r  widely d i f f e r .  The  with  (bp. c i t . : 1 0 0 ) .  The  traits  phenomena w h i c h o t h e r w i s e  g e n e r a l i z e d type p r o v i d e s a means f o r e x t r a c t i n g i t s a p p r o x i -  mations f r o m d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t s  (McKirtney,1966:19)•  To i n d i v i d u a l i z e i s t o c r e a t e the o b j e c t o f s o c i a l a n a l y s i s by d r a w i n g from e m p i r i c a l c a s e s o n l y t h o s e a t t r i b u t e s r e l e v a n t t o the problem under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I n t h i s way  " b u r e a u c r a c y " , "mass s o c i e t y " , "modern c a p i t a l i s m " , " m e d i a e v a l .  feudalism",  and  " e a r l y C h r i s t i a n i t y " are constructs of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n which  have been p a t t e r n e d  from c r i t e r i a w i t h e m p i r i c a l r e f e r e n t s .  the o u t l i n e s o f t h e s e e n t i t i e s may scientific creativity.  P e r c e i v i n g where  u s e f u l l y be drawn r e q u i r e s a h i g h degree o f  P a u l L a z a r s f e l d has s a i d , "the o r i g i n a t o r s o f t h e s e  b e l o n g p r o p e r l y among the h e r o e s o f o u r i n t e l l e c t u a l h e r i t a g e : q u a l i f i e s typology  (l966:xi).  as a p i o n e e r i n g a c t i s i t s p o t e n t i a l t o h a n d l e  ideas What  "complicated,  s i m u l t a n e o u s i n t e r r e l a t i o n s among a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number o f v a r i a b l e s i n a p r e l i m i n a r y way" complexity  (McKinney,1966:216).  I t can do t h i s by s u b d i v i d i n g an  integrated  o f d a t a i n t o s e p a r a t e c o n f i g u r a t i o n s w h i c h each a c c o u n t f o r some p o r t i o n  38  o f the range o f v a r i a t i o n . To s u r v e y a domain o f i n q u i r y i s t o engage i n the i n i t i a l s e l e c t i o n o f d a t a r e l e v a n t t o a problem a r e a  (op. c i t . : 6 ) .  The  typology  " i s constructed  along  l i n e s s u f f i c i e n t l y g e n e r a l so t h a t i t can be s e t down on t h i s o r t h a t p o r t i o n o f the g i v e n t e r r a i n w i t h o u t t i p p i n g o v e r , so t o speak, and i t t h e n becomes p o s s i b l e t o s u r v e y t h a t t e r r i t o r y " (Becker,1968 : 107).  Typology o f f e r s  an  i n i t i a l l i n e o f advance upon many l a r g e - s c a l e problems o r d e r i n g phenomena i n t o groups w h i c h f a c i l i t a t e r e s e a r c h .  McKinney c o n c l u d e s ,  "The  c o n s t r u c t i o n of a  type o r a s e r i e s o f t y p e s h e l p s us t o know more p r e c i s e l y what mechanisms o r s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s a r e b e i n g p o s t u l a t e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o a problem a r e a " . (McKinney,1966:216).  As a s e n s i t i z i n g d e v i c e i t s use thus " a l l o w s s o c i a l  s c i e n t i s t s c o g n i t i v e l y t o map  broad a r e a s o f s o c i a l phenomena" ( i b i d ) .  T y p o l o g i e s d e s c r i b e unique phenomena i n terms w h i c h make i t p o s s i b l e to  compare them t o each o t h e r .  "  T h i s a c t o f t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o common terms  p r o v i d e s a c o n s i d e r a b l e advance o v e r d e s c r i p t i o n s w h i c h r e f l e c t the i d i o s y n c r a tic  n a t u r e o f each c a s e .  By the same t o k e n each t y p e i s n o t an end i n i t s e l f ;  i t s r e a s o n f o r b e i n g i s f o r c o m p a r i s o n w i t h e m p i r i c a l c a s e s , f o r the " c o n t i n u i n g observation of a c t u a l behaviours  i n terms o f the t y p e " (op. c i t . : 1 8 ) .  provides a b a s i s f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s , a "general by w h i c h a c o n c r e t e o c c u r r e n c e  i s comprehended" (op. c i t . : 1 9 ) .  The  type  standard  Becker a s s e r t s  .that the c o n s t r u c t e d type i s an i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o o l o f c o m p a r i s o n and a n a l y s i s when d e a l i n g w i t h t i m e - s e r i e s , c r o s s - s e c t i o n , o r r e l a t i v e l y u n d a t e d phenomena (1968  :  119).  When the c o n s t r u c t e d t y p e i s used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a n a p p r o p r i a t e hypot h e s i s i t w i l l have some power t o p r e d i c t .  The  t y p e a l s o p r e d i c t s by  implication;  i n a sense i t p r e d i c t s by d e f i n i t i o n , i n t h a t the d e f i n i t i o n w i l l c o n t a i n c r i t e r i a w h i c h i m p l y a p r e d i c t i v e schema.. McKinney i l l u s t s t r a t e s t h i s w i t h the c o n c e p t o f the r a t i o n a l man.  He w r i t e s , "...the c o n c e p t o f r a t i o n a l man  i m p l i e s the  .  ,  :  39 a d a p t a t i o n o f means t o ends...There i s an e x p e c t a n c y o f man when he i s v i e w e d as r a t i o n a l man t h a t i s o n l y p a r t i a l l y met by any g i v e n man....A c o m p a r i s o n o f the e x t e n t t o which a c t u a l men meet t h e e x p e c t a n c y s e r v e s a s t h e b a s i s f o r exp l a i n i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r b e h a v i o u r " (1966:13).  S i m i l a r p r e d i c t i v e schema  a r e i m p l i e d by a l l c o n s t r u c t e d t y p e s such a s the f e u d a l system, s c i e n t i f i c c h a r i s m a t i c l e a d e r , o r t h e a b s o l u t e vacuum, sphere, o r p l a n e . d i c t i v e schema, t h e type has a p r o b a b i l i t y e l e m e n t .  Beyond t h e p r e -  " C e r t a i n types of s o c i a l  conduct r e c u r I F AND WHEN c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s a r e g i v e n . . . " 102).  man,  (Becker,1968:  I n e x a m i n i n g an e m p i r i c a l case t h e type i s a b l e t o i n d i c a t e t h e degree  of prevalence  o f the t y p i c a l  f a c t o r s , and t h e r e b y i n d i c a t e t h e degree o f p r o b -  a b i l i t y o f o c c u r r e n c e o f the t y p i c a l consquences. of p r e d i c t i o n v i a constructed spective or prospective.  A t h i r d element i n t h e n a t u r e  t y p e s i s t h a t the p r e d i c t i o n c a n be e i t h e r r e t r o -  The u n i f i e d type may be drawn from t h e d a t a o f h i s t o r y  and used t o compare h i s t o r i c a l c a s e s t o i t s p r e d i c t i v e schema, j u s t as e a s i l y as i t may be drawn from contemporary o r p r o j e c t e d c a s e s (McKinney,1966:7)•  Finally,  l i k e a l e n s o p e n i n g t o i n c l u d e a l a r g e f i e l d o r f o c u s i n g down on a s p e c i f i c p o r t i o n , the q u a l i t y o f p r e d i c t i o n o f a c o n s t r u c t e d type v a r i e s w i t h i t s l e v e l o f generality.  The more g e n e r a l i z e d a t y p e  becomes i n space and t i m e , l i k e the  g e n e r a l i z e d type "the Euro-American u n i v e r s i t y " t h e l e s s d e t a i l e d c a n be t h e p r e d i c t i o n s based upon i t .  The more s p e c i f i c t h e type such a s "the mid-western  s t a t e u n i v e r s i t y " t h e g r e a t e r the degree o f s p e c i f i c i t y p o s s i b l e i n s h o r t term p r e d i c t i o n , and t h e g r e a t e r the degree o f e r r o r t o be e x p e c t e d even w i t h t h e c o n d i t i o n a l p r o v i s o , because t h e degree o f d e t a i l i s a p p r o a c h i n g t o o c l o s e t o t h e unique. P r o c e d u r e s t o q u a n t i f y phenomena d e v e l o p n a t u r a l l y o u t o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of types.  The f u n c t i o n s o f enumeration ( f r e q u e n c y  (degree o f d e v i a t i o n / f r o m  o f occurence),  measurement  t h e u n i f i e d t y p e ) , and p r e d i c t i o n ( p r o b a b i l i t y o f r e c u r -  r e n c e ) a r e i n h e r e n t i n t h e comparison o f e m p i r i c a l c a s e s t o t y p e s .  Quantitative  40  procedures i n t u r n are a b e n e f i c i a l adjunct  to constructive typology  enhancing  p r e c i s i o n and t h u s i m p r o v i n g t h e p r e d i c t i v e power o f t h e c o n s t r u c t e d  type a s a  t h e o r e t i c a l device Constructive conceptual  (op. c i t . : 6 ) . typology  may be used t o t e s t h y p o t h e s e s . A s a m i d d l e - g r o u n d  d e v i c e e x t r a c t e d f r o m e m p i r i c a l d a t a by t h e o r y - g u i d e d  constructive typology  selectivity,  c a n be used t o re-examine d a t a f o r i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s between  what t h e d a t a show and what t h e e x p l a n a t o r y  theories predicted.  These i n c o n s i s -  t e n c i e s t h e n l e a d t o r e f i n e m e n t o r even r e p l a c e m e n t o f t h e o r i e s .  A p p l i c a t i o n o f C o n s t r u c t i v e Typology t o the Domain o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n P r a c t i c e s  The c h a r a c t e r o f c o n s t r u c t e d  t y p e s produced d u r i n g a n i n q u i r y i s d e t e r m i n e d  by t h e problem a d d r e s s e d , i t s p r e d i c t i v e r a n g e , t h e h y p o t h e s e s p r o p o s e d , and t h e v e r i f i c a t i o n procedure used.  I n t h i s s t u d y t h e problem was t o d e s c r i b e i n d e t a i l  the d i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s e c t i o n and i n h i s t o r i c a l t i m e - s e r i e s .  p r a c t i c e s i n contemporary c r o s s -  The t h e o r e t i c a l a s s u m p t i o n was made t h a t  u n d e r l y i n g t h e range o f v a r i a t i o n s a r e f o u r b a s i c t y p e s o f p r a c t i c e i n f o r m e d by f o u r g o a l - f u n c t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t a l d i r e c t i o n s , each o f w h i c h a c c o u n t s f o r some p o r t i o n o f t h a t v a r i a t i o n . S i n c e t h e p r e d i c t i v e range was s e t r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y t o cover almost a century,  and p r o s p e c t i v e l y t o be i n d e t e r m i n a t e ,  the types  construc-  t e d were g e n e r a l i n c h a r a c t e r , r e l a t i v e l y undated and n o n - l o c a l i z e d i n terms o f e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r y , a l t h o u g h i n terms o f s o c i o l o g y o r a n t h r o p o l o g y t h e s e would be r e l a t i v e l y d a t e i and l o c a l i z e d c o n s t r u c t s , b e i n g l i m i t e d t o a s i n g l e and  century  s p e c i f i c t o North America. The p r o p o s i t i o n s r e g a r d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s a t work i n t h e domain a r e f i r s t l y ,  t h a t c o n s t r u c t i v e t y p o l o g y w i l l r e v e a l a s m a l l number o f s e t s o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s none o f w h i c h w i l l reduce i n t o t h e terms o f a n o t h e r .  Secondly, t h a t the s e t s i n  41.  c o m b i n a t i o n w i l l accomodate a l l v a r i a t i o n s t o be f o u n d i n t h e f i e l d . . . T h i r d l y , t h a t t h e s e s e t s o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c a n be shown t o have a common c o r e w h i c h b i n d s them t o a common s o c i a l p r a c t i c e .  . .  R e g a r d i n g sequences a t work i n t h e  domain i t i s p r o p o s e d t h a t a taxonomic framework based on s u f f i c i e n t l y u n d a t e d and n o n - l o c a l i z e d t y p e s w i l l prove t o be a means o f d e t a i l e d t i o n o f c a s e s so t h a t a c c u r a t e  taxonomic d e s c r i p -  t i m e - s e r i e s comparisons w i l l be p o s s i b l e .  V e r i f i c a t i o n o f t h e t y p e s would r e q u i r e t u r n i n g t h e taxonomic m a t r i x i n t o an i n s t r u m e n t ' f o r i , the e x a m i n a t i o n o f c a s e s from t h e f i e l d , , a n o p e r a t i o n w h i c h i s o u t l i n e d . i n p r o c e d u r a l stage s e v e n o f t h e t e c h n i q u e  of constructive  typology. McKinney ( 1 9 6 6 ) o u t l i n e d e i g h t p r o c e d u r a l s t a g e s common i n a l l a p p l i c a t i o n s o f c o n s t r u c t i v e t y p o l o g y , d e s c r i b i n g t h e sequence f r o m i n i t i a l s e t t i n g o f t h e r e s e a r c h problem t o f i n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e c o n s t r u c t e d t y p e ' s e m p i r i c a l verification.  The way i n w h i c h c o n s t r u c t i v e t y p o l o g y was a p p l i e d t o a d u l t edu-  c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s i n t h i s study i s reported  Stage one:  now, stage by s t a g e . .  D e l i n e a t i o n o f t h e Problem  Background r e a d i n g i n t h e h i s t o r y o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n l e d t o r e c o g n i t i o n o f several unresolved  t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e s such a s t h e c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r whether o r  not t h e r e c o u l d be a v a l u e - f r e e p r a c t i c e , t h e seeming i r r e l e v a n c e o f some methodo l o g i e s and e c c e n t r i c i t y o f some l o c a t i o n s o f program d e l i v e r y , t h e i m p l i c i t rank-ordering  o f some program c o n t e n t s a s more s i g n i f i c a n t t h a n o t h e r s , and  the r e c u r r e n t dilemma o f a p p r o p r i a t e e v a l u a t i o n and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y f o r e d u c a t i o n a l practice.  C o n f l i c t i n g o p i n i o n s on t h e s e i s s u e s seemed t o stem f r o m v a r y i n g  per-  s p e c t i v e s on what t h e f i e l d i s , o r s h o u l d b e . B u t t h e s e p e r s p e c t i v e s c o u l d n o t be r e s o l v e d w h i l e s e v e r a l m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  problems r e m a i n e d .  The  methodological  problems i n c l u d e d how t o i n t e g r a t e c o n c e p t u a l l y t h e s e v e r a l d i m e n s i o n s o f p r a c t i c e so t h a t complex c a s e s c o u l d be compared  and changes i n p r a c t i c e c o u l d be  42 analyzed.  Methodological  problems were t r a c e d t o a s i n g l e major gap i n t h e o r y  - t h e absence o f a comprehensive framework f o r t h e domain o f i n q u i r y . problem was d e l i n e a t e d a s t h e c o n c e p t u a l  So t h e  task o f d e p i c t i n g the d i v e r s i t y o f a d u l t  e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a s i n c e 1900 — o f c a s e s w i t h t h e minimum a r r a y o f t y p e s .  accommodate t h e f u l l range  The r a t i o n a l e o f a taxonomic framework  as s o l u t i o n t o t h e problem, and t h e p o t e n t i a l u s e f u l n e s s o f a f i e l d framework t o academic d i s c i p l i n a r i a n s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n were i n c l u d e d i n c h a p t e r one.  Stage two: F a m i l i a r i z a t i o n w i t h t h e r e l e v a n t a v a i l a b l e d a t a Two k i n d s o f m a t e r i a l on t h e f i e l d were examined.  The f i r s t k i n d was h i s t -  o r i c a l and i n c l u d e d case s t u d i e s o f programs l i k e t h e A n t i g o n i s h  co-operative  movement and t h e "Human E n t e r p r i s e " program o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , case s t u d i e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e F r o n t i e r C o l l e g e , Camp Laquemac, and H i g h l a n d e r F o l k s c h o o l , and b i o g r a p h i c a l a c c o u n t s from p r a c t i t i t i o n e r s (Corbett,195?) and from a d u l t l e a r n e r s (McKenna,1963)• was  The second k i n d o f m a t e r i a l on t h e f i e l d  s e m i - a n a l y t i c t r e a t m e n t s o f each o f t h e a s p e c t s  o f p r a c t i c e i n c l u d i n g program  c o n t e n t s , methods and t e c h n i q u e s o f d e l i v e r y , c l i e n t e l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , ment o f a c h i e v e m e n t , a n d l o c a t i o n s o f d e l i v e r y . s e m i - a n a l y t i c because t h e y l a c k a c o n c e p t u a l  assess-  These t r e a t m e n t s a r e c a l l e d  structure to identify their r e l e -  vance t o t h e range o f p r a c t i c e s i n t h e f i e l d , b u t each s e p a r a t e  treatment has  some degree o f i n t e r n a l o r d e r .  Stage t h r e e :  D e r i v a t i o n o f hypotheses about r e l a t i o n s h i p s and sequences  I n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p some, p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s and sequences a t work i n t h e f i e l d o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s , s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n i n t h e p h i l o sophy and methodology o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e t o d i s c o v e r how o t h e r academic d i s c i p l i n e s organize  t h e i r domains o f i n q u i r y .  . Abraham K a p l a n ' s (1964:74) d e s c r i p t i o n o f  43 the standards f o r " a r t i c u l a t i o n o f a f i e l d " , begins with a set o f e m p i r i c a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s about t h e f i e l d , and emphasizes t h e c r i t e r i o n o f s e p a r a t i o n of the conceptual  s t r u c t u r e from the a t t r i b u t e space.  applied to the f i e l d o f adult education  When t h i s s t a n d a r d was  p r a c t i c e s i t became e v i d e n t t h a t what was  c o n f o u n d i n g a s s u m p t i o n s about t h e f i e l d was t h e f a i l u r e t o p e r c e i v e  that i t  c o u l d n o t be r e d u c e d t o t h e terms o f j u s t one o f i t s competing i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . I t seemed i n f a c t t o be composed o f d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e s e t s o f f e a t u r e s d i r e c t e d toward d i f f e r e n t d e v e l o p m e n t a l g o a l s , and i t a l s o seemed t h a t each o f t h e s e g o a l - f u n c t i o n t y p e s o p e r a t e d i n d i s t i n c t i v e and m u t u a l l y  complementary ways.  R e g a r d i n g sequences, t h e p r o p o s i t i o n emerged t h a t i f t y p e s were d e f i n e d a t a s u f f i c i e n t l y undated and n o n - l o c a l i z e d l e v e l t h e n i t would be p o s s i b l e t o draw comparisons between i n c i d e n t s a s e a r l y a s t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y . of presentism  Errors  c o u l d be a v o i d e d by u s i n g t h e m a t r i x o f d e s c r i p t i v e elements t o  r e n d e r a s e n s i t i v e p r o f i l e o f each c a s e , d i s p l a y i n g i t s unique c h a r a c t e r i n a c c u r a t e d e t a i l • r a t h e r t h a n a s s i g n i n g t h e whole case t o a b a s k e t c a t e g o r y . -  Regarding  r e l a t i o n s and sequences: a n t i c i p a t i n g a s m a l l number o f s e t s o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and a n t i c i p a t i n g t h e c a p a c i t y f o r t i m e - s e r i e s comparisons c o n s t i t u t e d t h e r e s u l t s o f McKinney's s t a g e t h r e e o f c o n s t r u c t i v e typology.,  and were r e -  p o r t e d i n c h a p t e r one under "Purpose o f t h e S t u d y " .  Stage f o u r : D e l i n e a t i o n o f e m p i r i c a l u n i f o r m i t i e s ; and p r a g m a t i c r e d u c t i o n t o t y p e I n t h i s s t u d y i t was n e c e s s a r y t o d i v i d e McKinney's s t a g e f o u r o f c o n s t u c t i v e typology  i n t o i t s two p a r t s and e x e c u t e each p a r t s e p a r a t e l y .  t u r e s e a r c h on s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  The l i t e r a -  produced a sample o f t w e l v e  a u t h o r s whose w r i t i n g s were examined f o r s i m i l a r i t i e s t o f o u r themes o f b r o a d l y s t a t e d goals d e r i v e d from a n e a r l i e r study.  T h i s e x a m i n a t i o n produced o n l y one  r e c u r r e n t e x c e p t i o n t o t h o s e f o u r Jfchemes and t h a t was t h e theme o f a d u l t educat i o n as remediation  f o r basic education  missed e a r l i e r i n l i f e .  When t h i s c o n c e p t  44  was a n a l y z e d  i t was found n o t t o c o n s t i t u t e a n a l t e r n a t e d i r e c t i o n t o t h e f o u r  developmental d i r e c t i o n s already i d e n t i f i e d .  Rather i t represented  an e x t e n s i o n  o f those f u n c t i o n s t o engage a d u l t s a t t h e i r a c t u a l l e v e l o f competence r a t h e r t h a n a t t h e n o r m a t i v e l e v e l e x p e c t e d o f t h o s e who complete c o m p u l s o r y s c h o o l i n g . Each o f t h e groups o f g o a l - f u n c t i o n terms r e s u l t i n g from t h e l i t e r a t u r e  search  was examined f o r i t s i n t e r n a l o r d e r and t h e degree o f u n i f o r m i t y i t e x h i b i t e d . To t h i s p o i n t no a l t e r a t i o n had been made t o t h e o r i g i n a l terms e x c e p t t o e x t r a c t and group them.  Stage f o u r c o n t i n u e d :  Pragmatic r e d u c t i o n t o type  Following the e x p o s i t i o n o f constructive typology  i n chapter three i t  becomes p o s s i b l e t o proceed towards i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e rough u n i f o r m i t i e s r e s u l t i n g from t h e l i t e r a t u r e search. each type a c c o r d i n g  " R e d u c t i o n t o t y p e " amounts t o d e f i n i n g  t o i t s e s s e n t i a l , elements.  From each s e t o f g o a l - f u n c t i o n  terms t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e elements a r e combined t o produce a u n i f i e d d e f i n i t i o n : " T h i s type o f e d u c a t i o n a l  practice  i ) f u l f i l s the function o f  by  , i n order t o achieve  i i ) a g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e w h i c h i s _______ i n i i i ) a d e v e l o p m e n t a l l e a r n i n g domain w h i c h i s  ."  T h i s f o r m u l a when c o m p l e t e d f r o m each s e t o f terms c o n s t i t u t e s a p r a g m a t i c reduction o f the s e t t o a defined type.  The d e f i n i t i o n o f each t y p e i s r e p o r t e d  i n the opening s e c t i o n o f chapter f o u r .  Stage f i v e :  S i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e t y p e w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e a t t r i b u t e space  As d e t a i l e d i n c h a p t e r f o u r , f i v e o b s e r v a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s were d e v e l o p e d f r o m t h o s e o f Knowles  - t o p i c a l content,  e v a l u a t i o n o f achievement, e d u c a t i v e  methodology f o r l e a r n i n g , b a s i s f o r  l o c a t i o n , and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c l i e n t e l e s .  Each o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s had a n e x t e n s i v e  inventory of possible  observations.  e  45 These i n v e n t o r i e s were r e d u c e d by e x t r a c t i n g from them v a r i a b l e s w h i c h v i r t u a l l y pervade t h e f i e l d , and a s s e m b l i n g o f t h e f i e l d a s a whole.  these i n t o a s e t o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e f i n i t i v e  The r e m a i n i n g v a r i a b l e s jfere^, examined f o r d i s c r i m i n a t o r s  - those w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e one type o f p r a c t i c e a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y - s e t t i n g a p a r t t h a t type f r o m t h e o t h e r t h r e e .  These two o p e r a t i o n s were aimed a t e i t h e r  field-pervasive characteristics or type-discriminating characteristics.  The  s t u d y d i d n o t t r e a t v a r i a b l e s which might c h a r a c t e r i z e more t h a n one, b u t n o t a l l o f the c o n s t r u c t e d types.  T h i s would have i n v o l v e d h y p o t h e s i z e d p o i n t s o f  s i m i l a r i t y between t h e t y p e s and much more e l a b o r a t e t r e a t m e n t i s productive i n the f i r s t generation o f research t o develop The  o f v a r i a b l e s than types.  o b s e r v a t i o n a l , c a t e g o r i e s o f methodology and e v a l u a t i o n were so complex  t h a t t h e i r v a r i a b l e s were s u b - d i v i d e d i n t o a number o f c r i t i c a l p o i n t s f o r comparison.  W i t h i n methodology those p o i n t s o f o m p a r i s o n were: i ) a d e s c r i p t i v e  t i t l e o f t h e methodology, i i ) o b s t a c l e s t o l e a r n i n g , i i i ) s t r u c t u r i n g p r i n c i p l e s f o r o r d e r i n g l e a r n i n g t a s k s , and i v ) d i s t i n c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s .  Within evaluation  the p o i n t s o f c o m p a r i s o n were: i ) b a s i s i n o b j e c t i v e o r s u b j e c t i v e measures, i i ) f o c u s o f t h e e v a l u a t i o n , i i i ) outcomes e v a l u a t e d , and i v ) i n s t r u m e n t s  used.  C h a p t e r f o u r i n c l u d e s a r e v i e w o f each o f t h e f i v e o b s e r v a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s o f p r a c t i c e s e e k i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r those v a r i a b l e s which d i s c r i m i n a t e among t y p e s . I t c o n c l u d e s w i t h a s e r i e s o f diagrams i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s formed, among e l e m e n t s o f t h e domain.  These i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h e domain a n d i t s s u b s e c t i o n s  c o n s t i t u t e , a c c o r d i n g t o K a p l a n ' s c r i t e r i a , a f o r m a l model o f t h e domain.  Stage s i x :  Tentative explanatory accounting o f the types  An e x p l a n a t o r y a c c o u n t i n g i s i n t e n d e d t o r e a d a s a whole t h e s e t o f o b s e r v a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t t r i b u t e d t o a t y p e , and t o r e l a t e t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n t o a v a i l a b l e p r i n c i p l e s and t h e o r i e s .  The a c c o u n t i n g remains t e n t a t i v e s i n c e I t i s  r e l a t i n g new u n i t s o f o b s e r v a t i o n t o o l d e x p l a n a t o r y p r i n c i p l e s ; t h e u n i t s w i l l  46 u n d o u b t e d l y s t i m u l a t e new h y p o t h e s e s and may e v e n t u a l l y m o d i f y e x p l a n a t o r y principles.  A more r i g o r o u s e x a m i n a t i o n o f the r a t i o n a l e and r o l e o f each t y p e  o f p r a c t i c e might s t i m u l a t e h y p o t h e s e s about why a p a r t i c u l a r c l i e n t e l e group espouses one t y p e o f p r a c t i c e v i g o r o u s l y and o t h e r groups do n o t , o r why one t y p e of  p r a c t i c e i s emphasized d u r i n g some h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d and n o t a n o t h e r .  In  c h a p t e r f i v e each c o n s t r u c t e d t y p e o f p r a c t i c e i s l o o k e d a t a s a whole t o e l a b o r a t e upon i t s r a t i o n a l e and t o c l a r i f y i t s r o l e .  Stage seven;  E m p i r i c a l v e r i f i c a t i o n o f t y p e s , and  Stage e i g h t :  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the r e s u l t s  T o g e t h e r t h e s e comprise the q u a n t i t a t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t y p e s t o a body o f d a t a , and a phase o f i m p l e m e n t a t i o n beyond t h e scope o f t h i s s t u d y . A d u l t education  p r a c t i c e s i t would mean u s i n g t h e t e c h n i q u e s o f c o n t e n t a n a l y s i s on  d e s c r i p t i v e h i s t o r i c a l t e x t s t o i d e n t i f y terms w h i c h c o u l d be r e g a r d e d as e q u i v a l e n t s o f terms i n the m a t r i x . oped f o r each case s t u d y .  I n t h i s way a taxonomic p r o f i l e c o u l d be d e v e l -  The e m p i r i c a l v e r i f i c a t i o n s t a g e i s p o t e n t i a l l y ex-  t e n s i v e and c o u l d sample w i d e l y from t h e phenomenal u n i v e r s e under c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r a t e o f phenomenal a p p r o x i m a t i o n t o a t y p e . the  Interpretation of  r e s u l t s r e t u r n s the f o c u s o f a t t e n t i o n from the f i e l d t o t h e methodology  being  used t o e x p l o r e i t .  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n re-examines t h e c o n s t r u c t e d t y p e s and  may d e t e r m i n e f o r example, t h a t a number o f c l e a r - c u t s c a l e t y p e s have been i s o l a t e d r e p r e s e n t i n g degrees o f a p p r o x i m a t i o n t o t h e pure t y p e .  I t c o u l d happen  t h a t a r e c u r r i n g phenomenon i n the f i e l d i s a h y b r i d o f two pure t y p e s .  Numer-  ous t y p e s c a n be formed and f r e q u e n t l y have t o be formed i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r problem.  F o r example, t h e c i t i z e n s h i p theme o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s  f o r a d u l t s , on c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n might r e v e a l s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t i v e v a r i a t i o n s o v e r time so t h a t s u b - t y p e s a r e formed such a s "the 30's-type c i t i z e n s h i p " ( e c o n o m i c "the  5 0 ' s - t y p e c i t i z e n s h i p " ( i d e o l o g i c a l ) , and " t h e 70's-rtype  citizenship''  47  (consumer a c c o u n t a b i l i t y ) e d u c a t i o n . C o n v e r s e l y a s i n g l e t y p e c o u l d be f o u n d t o be r e l e v a n t t o a whole s e r i e s o f p r o b l e m s .  F o r example " t e c h n i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n "  a s a form o f p r a c t i c e might improve t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f hobby, manpower, and p r o fessional skill-learning alike.  B u t second and t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n r e s e a r c h on  t y p e s i s beyond t h e scope o f t h i s t h e s i s w h i c h aims o n l y t o i d e n t i f y t h e f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n minimum a r r a y o f t y p e s w h i c h w i l l a c c o u n t f o r t h e range o f v a r i a t i o n s evidenced i n the f i e l d .  48  CHAPTER IV  •  FINDINGS PART A: ANALYSIS OF THE  TYPES AND  THE  DIMENSIONS  I n t h i s c h a p t e r the c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e i s d e f i n e d which w i l l p r o v i d e h o r i z o n t a l a x i s f o r the taxonomic framework o f p r a c t i c e s .  a  Then the b o d i e s o f  r e s e a r c h a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each e m p i r i c a l c a t e g o r y o f the v e r t i c a l a x i s a r e exami n e d f o r v a r i a b l e s d i s t i n c t i v e t o each c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and f o r v a r i a b l e s common to a l l a d u l t education p r a c t i c e s . e x p l a i n e d why  Stage f i v e o f the methodology d e s c r i p t i o n  o n l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which a r e e i t h e r d i s c r i m i n a t o r s between  o r f i e I d - p e r v a s i v e are s o u g h t .  The  r e l a t i o n s formed between d i s t i n c t i v e  types,  and  common e l e m e n t s t h r o u g h the s i x d i m e n s i o n s o f p r a c t i c e a r e i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h  a  s e r i e s o f diagrams t h a t c o n c l u d e s the a n a l y s i s phase o f f i n d i n g s .  D e f i n i t i o n o f the Types by G o a l , F u n c t i o n and  The  Domain  f o u r t y p e s o f p r a c t i c e f o r m i n g the c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e a r e d e f i n e d  s e l e c t i o n , a b s t r a c t i o n , c o m b i n a t i o n and a c c e n t u a t i o n h i g h e s t degree o f c o n t r a s t among t y p e s .  o f q u a l i t i e s , to give  the  P r a g m a t i c r e d u c t i o n o f the rough g o a l -  - f u n c t i o n u n i f o r m i t i e s t o d e f i n e d t y p e s i s u n d e r t a k e n now  by r e - e x a m i n i n g those  s e t s o f g o a l - f u n c t i o n terms f o r the l e a d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by w h i c h t h e y most e f f e c t i v e l y be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from each o t h e r . considered  may  These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e  t o be l e a d i n g i n the sense t h a t t h e y f o r m an e s s e n t i a l d e f i n i n g  o f c o n c e p t s w h i c h g u i d e s t h e subsequent s e l e c t i o n o f a complementary s e t observational  by  set  of  terms from the f i v e r e m a i n i n g c a t e g o r i e s o f v a r i a b l e s o f p r a c t i c e .  49  The  e s s e n t i a l c o n c e p t s which w i l l be used t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e and s p e c i f y t h e  t y p e s o f p r a c t i c e a r e : t h e g e n e r a l a i m o r g o a l a s a g r e e d upon by l e a r n e r s and agent; t h e f u n c t i o n f u l f i l l e d i n terms o f t h e l e a r n e r ' s development i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e t h e e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l ; and t h e domain o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l a c t i v i t y c u l t i v a t e d ty the agent.  I n a d d i t i o n a few words a r e i n c l u d e d r e g a r d i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e  l e a r n e r ' s experience with respect to the educational g o a l . pose i s t o d e f i n e t h e t y p e s i n t h e i r most d i v e r g e n t t r a s t w i t h each o t h e r .  Here a g a i n t h e p u r -  terms t o h e i g h t e n t h e i r c o n -  B o t h i n t e r p e r s o n a l and s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g e d u c a t i o n  may  keep l e a r n e r s t e m p o r a r i l y unaware o f t h e p o t e n t i a l outcome o f an e x p e r i e n c e so t h a t t h e i r r e a c t i o n s w i l l be unbiased;, b u t t h i s s i m i l a r i t y i s de-emphasized so t h a t t h e . . d i s t i n c t i v e n a t u r e o f those two t y p e s o f e d u c a t i o n The  c a n be a c c e n t u a t e d .  d i s c r i m i n a t i n g q u e s t i o n p u t t o t h e l e a r n e r by s p e c u l a t i o n was:  What do y o u  f e e l i s b e i n g a d d r e s s e d i n y o u r l e a r n i n g t r a n s a c t i o n ? - To w h i c h t h e l e a r n e r r e p l i e d i n t h e form: " I f e e l t h i s l e a r n i n g i s t a k i n g p l a c e between  Technical The  and  ".  education f i r s t i n d u c t i v e l y d e r i v e d f u n c t i o n was r e f e r r e d t o a s e d u c a t i o n  m a t e r i a l u t i l i t y and i n c l u d e d terms o f a n i n c o m e - e a r n i n g , i n c o m e - d i s p o s a l , income-prerequisite  nature.  for or  The g o a l o f t h i s t y p e might have been d e s c r i b e d a s  the development o f " i n s t r u m e n t a l " s k i l l s s i n c e t h e y a i m a t a c h i e v i n g some g o a l s beyond t h e e d u c a t i v e  a c t i v i t y ; b u t t h i s t e r m c o u l d a s w e l l have i n c l u d e d t h e  s k i l l s of successful interpersonal transactions or of effectivec i t i z e n s h i p . " S k i l l s " was n o t q u i t e s a t i s f a c t o r y t o name t h e g o a l o f t h e t y p e because  skills  a r e c o n t r a s t e d w i t h knowledge and a t t i t u d e s a s e d u c a t i o n a l outcomes, arid  simple  knowledge o f a n i n f o r m a t i o n - r e c a l l s o r t had t o be i n c l u d e d .  So " s k i l l s " was  r e p l a c e d w i t h " a b i l i t i e s " because t h i s would accomodate t h e a b i l i t y t o r e c a l l information. for  Now i f " i n s t r u m e n t a l " i s . r e p l a c e d by " m a t e r i a l " , a s i n " e d u c a t i o n  m a t e r i a l u t i l i t y " t h e n t h e r e s u l t i n g term " m a t e r i a l a b i l i t y " h a s t h e  "  50 unfortunate  c o n n o t a t i o n o f money-making a b i l i t y and t h i s c o n s t r u c t e d type  more u s e f u l l y be c a s t as b r o a d e r t h a n t h a t .  can  A l l precisely defined a b i l i t i e s  competencies do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y make money but they can be d e v e l o p e d by a educational treatment.  S i n c e " t e c h n i q u e " r e f e r s t o any m e t h o d i c a l  and  similar  process  or  means which e n a b l e s the e f f i c i e n t accomplishment o f a t a s k o f any s o r t i t t h u s e v o l v e d t h a t the g o a l o f t h i s type o f p r a c t i c e came t o be t i t l e d , "To technical a b i l i t i e s " . intellectual s k i l l ,  develop  Such a b i l i t i e s would i n c l u d e a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n r e c a l l ,  psycho-motor s k i l l and  " p r o c e d u r a l " s k i l l s w h i c h combine  judgement about t a s k s w i t h sequences o f a psycho-motor s o r t . The  f u n c t i o n f u l f i l l e d by a l l t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s the b u i l d i n g o f com-  p e t e n c i e s , moving the c l i e n t f r o m an e n t r y l e v e l o f knowledge o r s k i l l t o a t a r g e t level.  I t i s t e c h n i c a l not i n the sense o f b e i n g p r a g m a t i c a p p l i c a t i o n o f the  s c i e n c e s , but i n the g e n e r i c sense o f t e c h n i c a l i n w h i c h a l l m e t h o d i c a l h a v i n g t o do w i t h the e x a c t o r m e c h a n i c a l p a r t o f any a r t o r s c i e n c e to  procedures may  be s a i d  be t e c h n i c a l . I n t h i s sense t o b u i l d competencies i s t o b u i l d r e l i a b l e  niques  " f o r r e n d e r i n g d e t a i l s i n the performance o f any a r t o r o f any  i n v o l v i n g s p e c i a l knowledge o r s k i l l " The domain o f a c t i v i t y may  (Winston D i c t i o n a r y ; 1020.)  tech-  process  •  be e i t h e r c o g n i t i v e o r psychomotor, and i s  c u l t i v a t e d by the a g e n t a c c o r d i n g t o the p r i n c i p l e s a p p r o p r i a t e t o e a c h .  The  cog-  n i t i v e domain o f l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y g e n e r a l l y p r o c e e d s from t a s k s w h i c h a r e c o n c r e t e t o those w h i c h a r e a b s t r a c t .  B o t h domains c o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o f o l l o w a  p r o g r e s s i o n o f t a s k s f r o m the s i m p l e t o the complex and i t i s p r i m a r i l y because o f t h i s e s s e n t i a l commonality t h a t t h e y a r e grouped, t o g e t h e r . t i o n a l goals a l l involve methodical,  " T e c h n i c a l " educa-  s y s t e m a t i c ways o f d o i n g t h i n g s whether, t h a t  i m p l i e s remembering, s o l v i n g , o r m a n i p u l a t i n g  such t h a t t a s k s c a n be sequenced  a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r i n c r e a s i n g degree o f c o m p l e x i t y .  This p r i n c i p l e both  guides  the d e s i g n and management o f i n s t r u c t i o n r e l a t e d t o these g o a l s , and p o i n t s t o the i n h e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h e x i s t s f o r e v a l u a t i n g degrees o f mastery o r  51  achievement i n r e l a t i o n t o such l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s . The  l e a r n e r engaged w i t h o b j e c t i v e s r e l a t e d t o t h i s t y p e o f e d u c a t i o n a l  g o a l e x p e r i e n c e s a "Me and I t " k i n d o f r e l a t i o n s h i p i n which t h e p e r s o n a l  level  o f accomplishment c a n be measured more o r l e s s o b j e c t i v e l y a g a i n s t a h i e r a r c h i c a l standard  o f complexity.  I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n t h e l e a r n e r l o o k s t o t h e agent a s a  t r a i n e r who c a n a s s i s t him t o a c h i e v e t h e d e s i r e d l e v e l o f competence.  Interpersonal The  education  second i n d u c t i v e l y d e r i v e d f u n c t i o n was r e f e r r e d t o a s e d u c a t i o n f o r  p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h and i n c l u d e d terms o f a p e r s o n a l , i n t e r p e r s o n a l , i n t r a g r o u p and i n t e r g r o u p n a t u r e .  The g o a l o f t h i s type was c l e a r l y t i e d t o t h e  n o t i o n o f " r e l a t i o n s " s i n c e even p e r s o n a l m e n t a l h e a l t h i n e v i t a b l y i n c l u d e d r e l a t i o n s with parents o r with s i g n i f i c a n t others.  "Relations" could include the  dyads o f m a r r i a g e , f r i e n d s h i p o r c o u n s e l l i n g and management i n t e r v i e w i n g ) t h e s m a l l group i n t e r a c t i o n s e x p e r i e n c e d i n committees, t a s k f o r c e s , management groups and so on; and t h e l a r g e group i n t e r a c t i o n s o c c u r r i n g between r a c i a l , r e l i g i o u s and e t h n i c c o m m u n i t i e s .  "Human" r e l a t i o n s was c o n s i d e r e d  b u t sounded  t o o s i m i l a r t o " p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s " and "human" c o n n o t e d "human p o t e n t i a l " a n d "humanism".  So t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s e l e c t e d f o r t h e g o a l o f t h i s t y p e o f e d u c a t i o n  has been termed "To improve i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s " . The  f u n c t i o n f u l f i l l e d by i n t e r p e r s o n a l e d u c a t i o n  i s the developing  of  a t t i t u d e s a n d b e h a v i o u r s t h a t produce more s a t i s f y i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s by e n a b l i n g the l e a r n e r t o p r a c t i c e p e r c e i v i n g h i m s e l f and o t h e r s more a c c u r a t e l y , h i m s e l f a u t h e n t i c a l l y , and r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e e x p r e s s i o n s b e n e f i c i a l way.  o f others i n a  expressing mutually  A l o n g w i t h t h e s e b a s i c s may be d e v e l o p e d t h e s k i l l s o f group  p a r t i c i p a t i o n , ' p e r s o n n e l management, and v a r i o u s h e l p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The  domain o f a c t i v i t y c u l t i v a t e d by t h e a g e n t i s p r i m a r i l y  /Since behaviours o r i g i n a t e i n emotionally-weighted  emotional.  a t t i t u d e s i t i s by p r a c t i c e  52 i n t h i s domain t h a t h a b i t u a l b e h a v i o u r s c a n be changed, r a t h e r t h a n by c o g n i t i v e change a l o n e .  S i t u a t i o n s a r e t h e r e f o r e e s t a b l i s h e d i n which t h e l e a r n e r may  i m m e d i a t e l y e x p e r i e n c e and e x p e r i m e n t w i t h h a b i t u a l and a l t e r n a t e ways o f p e r c e i v i n g , r e s p o n d i n g and e x p r e s s i n g h i m s e l f t o o t h e r s .  T h i s p r i n c i p l e o f immed-  i a t e e x p e r i e n c e and g u i d e d e x p e r i m e n t s t r u c t u r e s t h e d e s i g n and management o f t h i s k i n d o f l e a r n i n g and p o i n t s t o t h e consquent d u a l b a s i s f o r e v a l u a t i o n s i n c e b o t h a s u b j e c t i v e assessment o f a t t i t u d e change and a n o b j e c t i v e ment o f b e h a v i o u r a l  assess-  change c o n t r i b u t e t o the o v e r a l l e v a l u a t i o n o f achievement  i n r e l a t i o n t o t h i s type o f l e a r n i n g g o a l . The  l e a r n e r engaged i n t a s k s r e l a t e d t o t h i s type o f e d u c a t i o n a l  goal  e x p e r i e n c e s a "You and Me" k i n d o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n c e a c t i v i t i e s a r e c a s t i n t h e p r e s e n t tense w i t h o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s e i t h e r a c t i n g a s themselves o r p l a y i n g a prescribed r o l e .  I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n t h e l e a r n e r l o o k s t o t h e a g e n t t o be a r o l e  model who c a n demonstrate d e s i r e a b l e a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r s r a t h e r t h a n m e r e l y a trainer.  The a g e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o demonstrate c l e a r l y t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f one  a t t i t u d e o r response o v e r a n o t h e r i s c r u c i a l n o t o n l y t o t h e c r e d i b i l i t y o f t h e a g e n t a s knowing whereof he speaks, b u t t o t h e c r e d i b i l i t y o f t h e s o l u t i o n t h a t i s proposed f o r a n i n t e r p e r s o n a l problem and t h a t i s u n d e r t a k e n a s a n e d u c a t i o n a l objective.  Self-actualizing The  education  t h i r d i n d u c t i v e l y d e r i v e d f u n c t i o n was r e f e r r e d t o a s e d u c a t i o n  for i t s  i n t r i n s i c v a l u e and i n c l u d e d terms w h i c h spoke o f s a t i s f a c t i o n s and f u l f i l m e n t s o f an e s t h e t i c , i n t e l l e c t u a l , p h i l o s o p h i c o r s p i r i t u a l s o r t . problems i n d e f i n i n g t h e g o a l o f t h i s k i n d o f e d u c a t i o n  for i t s intrinsic  was whether t o phrase i t i n terms o f t h e p e r s o n o r s o c i e t y . education  One o f t h e main value  I t c o u l d be c a l l e d  f o r p e r s o n a l f u l f i l m e n t i n t h e s e a r c h f o r something p r e c i o u s and s i g -  nificant i n l i f e .  I t c o u l d e q u a l l y be c a l l e d " c u l t u r a l t r a n s m i s s i o n " a s i n t h e  53 amusing phrase o f one r u r a l C a n a d i a n t e a c h e r who spoke o f " c a r r y i n g t h e t o r c h o f c i v i l i z a t i o n " ; b u t a l s o c u l t u r a l t r a n s m i s s i o n a s i n t h e e x p a n s i v e phrase o f Maxine Greene who saw i n t h e study o f h i s t o r y t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f " e x t e n d i n g h o r i z o n s , and u n d e r s t a n d i n g what i t has been l i k e t o s u r v i v e , t o l e a v e t r a c e s i n the c a u s a l f o r c e s t h r o u g h w h i c h humankind h a s moved" (19?9J634). to consider r e c y c l i n g the n o t i o n o f education  f o r l i b e r a t i o n from  o b j e c t i o n a b l e be i t boredom, narrowness, o r m o r t a l i t y i t s e l f .  I t was t e m p t i n g everything  B u t l i b e r a l edu-  c a t i o n has most f r e q u e n t l y been i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e h u m a n i t i e s and has n o t e n l a r g e d t o i n c l u d e t h e p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s and t h e i r i m p a c t on human e x p e r i e n c e . Furthermore n e i t h e r r e l i g i o u s e x p e r i e n c e  nor secular a c t i v i t y that  h a r m o n i z e s body and mind i s c o n f o r t a b l y subsumed under t h e term l i b e r a l  education  although both c o n t r i b u t e l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s that are s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g . The  common element i n a l l t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s seems t o be t h e " s e l f " o f t h e  l e a r n e r , f o r i t i s not s o c i e t y which experiences t h e c a t h a r s i s o f mental t r a n s cendance, b u t t h e i n d i v i d u a l .  B u t " s e l f - f u l f i l m e n t " connoted s a t i s f a c t o r y  p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s ; and " s e l f - e n r i c h m e n t "  inter-  connoted a c q u i r i n g s o m e t h i n g from t h e  o u t s i d e whereas t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f t h i s k i n d o f e d u c a t i o n  i s a n a p p r e c i a t i o n which  d e v e l o p s because i t b r i n g s t o l i g h t something i n h e r e n t i n t h e l e a r n e r h i m s e l f . Therefore,  d e s p i t e i t s l i a b i l i t i e s , t h e o n l y term w h i c h seemed a p p r o p r i a t e was  "education  f o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n " because t h i s a l o n e c a n denote t h e s o r t o f  exploratory l e a r n i n g , the t e s t i n g o f e s t h e t i c o r r e l i g i o u s experiences one  engages t o f i n d t h a t w h i c h w i l l c a l l f o r t h something o f s i g n i f i c a n t  in:.which value  from w i t h i n t h e s e l f . The value  f u n c t i o n f u l f i l l e d by s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g education  i s the encouraging of  judgements i n r e g a r d t o e s t h e t i c and p h i l o s o p h i c c h o i c e s .  o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p l o r e and adopt f o r o n e s e l f a s t a n d a r d  I t offers the  f o r what i s b e a u t i f u l ,  what i s t r u e , and what i s good i n terms o f p i e t y , j u s t i c e , and e x c e l l e n c e i n human  experience.  54  The  domain o f a c t i v i t y i s e i t h e r a e s t h e t i c o r p h i l o s p h i c and i s c u l t i v a t e d  by t h e a g e n t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r i n c i p l e s a p p r o p r i a t e j e c t i v e s t a n d a r d s may be s e t f o r j u d g i n g and  More o r l e s s ob-  the t e c h n i c a l merit o f an a r t i s t i c  s t a n d a r d s o f l o g i c may be s e t f o r j u d g i n g  expositions.  t o each.  genre,  the t e c h n i c a l merit o f philosophic  B u t what t h e s e a r e a s o f l e a r n i n g have i n common t h a t s e t s them  a p a r t from s t r i c t l y t e c h n i c a l l e a r n i n g i s t h e i r a f f e c t i v e element, t h e p r o g r e s s i v e i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n o f values which i s taken as the e s s e n t i a l educational t h i s study the a f f e c t i v e educational Masia  goal.  In  o b j e c t i v e s i t e m i z e d by K r a t h w o l , Bloom, a n d  (1964) and p r e s e n t e d a s a s i n g l e h i e r a r c h y , a r e a p p l i e d a s two s i m i l a r b u t  s e p a r a t e h i e r a r c h i e s , one w h i c h l e a d s t o i n t e r p e r s o n a l l e a r n i n g g o a l s , and one with a s i m i l a r hierarchy  o f stages which leads t o s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g l e a r n i n g  goals.  W i t h i n t h e s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g type o f e d u c a t i o n t h e l e a r n e r engaged i n e x p l o r atory l e a r n i n g o f e i t h e r an aesthetic o r philosophic  s o r t e x p e r i e n c e s a n "I-Thou"  r e l a t i o n s h i p i n h i s . ^ l e a m i n g i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner. something which i s d i s c o v e r e d  When he f i n d s he l o v e s  t o e x i s t f a r away i n t h e u n i v e r s e o r l o n g ago i n  the p a s t , he f i n d s p a r t o f h i m s e l f t h a t h a s been w a i t i n g f o r d i s c o v e r y .  Finding  p a r t o f h i m s e l f here and t h e r e he comes t o r e a l i z e he i s immersed i n t h e u n i v e r s a l , so he becomes more d i r e c t l y c u r i o u s about t h e f u l l n a t u r e o f t h e u n i v e r s a l . some l e v e l t h e n he b e g i n s t o q u e s t i o n i t i n terms o f Thou. l e a r n e r l o o k s t o the agent a s c o n s u l t a n t  At  I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n the  r a t h e r t h a n t r a i n e r o r r o l e model.  Only  i n v e r y e s o t e r i c s e t t i n g s does one human i n d i v i d u a l t r a i n , o r model f o r a n o t h e r the f u l l - b l o w n , p e r f e c t e d and  l i b e r a t i o n o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s f r o m m o r t a l i t y and f i n i t u d e ,  these s e t t i n g s belong t o r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e not t o a d u l t education p r a c t i c e a s  i t h a s been d e f i n e d  here.  Social a c t i v i s t education The  f o u r t h i n d u c t i v e l y d e r i v e d f u n c t i o n was r e f e r r e d t o a s e d u c a t i o n f o r  c i t i z e n s h i p a n d i n c l u d e d two c l u s t e r s o f t e r m s , one w h i c h denoted a n a c t i o n  55 ( p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i n v o l v e m e n t , development, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ) and one which t h a t i n r e g a r d t o w h i c h t h e a c t i o n was t a k i n g p l a c e ( c i v i c l i f e , economics,  community).  denoted  society,  politics,  I n seeking t o d e f i n e the g o a l o f t h i s type o f e d u c a t i o n  the m o d i f i e r " s o c i a l " seemed t o be t h e most comprehensive.  But while " s o c i a l "  i s s u e s may be a s d r a s t i c a s r a c e r i o t s , man-made e n v i r o n m e n t a l d i s a s t e r s and p o l i c e - e n f o r c e d language p o l i c y , t h e terms " s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n " o r " s o c i a l i n v o l v e m e n t " seem m i l d by c o m p a r i s o n . moded a s a n emotive symbol.  " C i v i c " l i f e h a s l o n g s i n c e become o u t -  "Community" posed t h e problem o f d e n o t i n g a common-  a l i t y which i s e l u s i v e i n o u r c o s m o p o l i t a n n a t i o n s , o r which may o n l y a p p l y t o p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t ' g r o u p s such a s "the e c u m e n i c a l community", "the e n v i r o n m e n t a l community",  "the espionage community", o r t o e t h n i c and r e l i g i o u s groups such a s  "the Greek community", " t h e S i k h community", " t h e J e w i s h community".  That l e f t  o n l y t h e p r o s a i c terms " p o l i t i c a l " and "economic", b u t t h e s e seem t o denote t h e k i n d s o f a c t i o n w h i c h a r e fundamental all.  t o s h a p i n g t h e s o c i e t y t h a t i s s h a r e d by  P o l i t i c a l a n d economic d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a l s o i n d i c a t e where e d u c a t i o n must  f o c u s f o r t h e a d u l t who w i s h e s t o l e a r n how t o engage e f f e c t i v e l y i n t h e d e c i s i o n making which a f f e c t s him.  As f o r a n a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n term., " i n v o l v e m e n t " and  "development" were d i s c a r d e d a s t o o vague.  " P a r t i c i p a t i o n " a l o n e a s a term was  u n s a t i s f a c t o r y because i t s p r e v a l e n c e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e 1950's emphasized t o o h e a v i l y t h e a b s o r p t i o n o f new people i n t o t h e o l d system however i n a p p r o p r i a t e i t might be. H i s t o r y has overtaken t h a t d e f i n i t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a s a t i s f a c t o r y p o l i t i c a l and economic i d e a l ; t h e contemporary but e x t e n s i v e r e f o r m .  i d e a l seems t o be c o n t r o l l e d  T h e r e f o r e t h e g o a l statement f o r t h i s type o f e d u c a t i o n  needed t o i n c l u d e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y n o t o n l y o f i n f l u e n c i n g p a r t i c u l a r d e c i s i o n s b u t even o f i n f l u e n c i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g procedure i t s e l f .  The r a t h e r  l e n g t h y g o a l statement which r e s u l t e d , "To e n a b l e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i o economic d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g " i s s h o r t e n e d i n r e f e r e n c e s t o activism".  'education f o r  social  56 The  f u n c t i o n f u l f i l l e d by e d u c a t i o n f o r s o c i a l a c t i v i s m i s t h e f o r m i n g o f  a r e a l i s t i c awareness o f s o c i e t y .  T h i s awareness i s a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h a  c y c l i c a l p r o c e s s o f r a i s i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f c r i t i c a l thought a b o u t t h e s o c i a l environment, a l t e r n a t e d w i t h r a i s i n g t h e l e v e l o f a c t i v e i n f l u e n c e on p o l i t i c a l and  economic d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g .  The q u a l i t y o f c r i t i c a l t h o u g h t i s d e t e r m i n e d by  the degree t o w h i c h s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n being.  Self-determination  i s a predominant v a l u e w i t h i n a s o c i a l  a s a v a l u e opposes b o t h t h e p a s s i v i t y o f s u p e r f i c i a l  c o n f i d e n c e and t h e p a s s i v i t y o f d e s p a i r r e g a r d i n g The  t h e d e c i s i o n makers o f s o c i e t y .  a c t i o n phase o f t h e c y c l i c a l p r o c e s s p r a g m a t i c a l l y  a r e a t hand and i n a c o n s i d e r e d fluence  s o c i a l e x p e r i m e n t uses those r e s o u r c e s t o i n -  t h e problem s i t u a t i o n .  The ment.  takes whatever r e s o u r c e s  domain o f a c t i v i t y c u l t i v a t e d by t h e agent i s p r i m a r i l y s o c i a l e x p e r i -  As w i t h a f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g o f t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l , a e s t h e t i c , o r p h i l o s o p h i c  s o r t where t h e a c t i v i t y must i n v o l v e "a f e e l i n g t o n e " o r a n element o f "acceptance o r r e j e c t i o n " t o be v a l i d , w i t h t h i s s o c i a l a c t i v i s m type o f l e a r n i n g t h e educat i v e a c t i v i t y must i n v o l v e c o n s i d e r e d  s o c i a l e x p e r i m e n t t o be v a l i d , r a t h e r t h a n  r e m a i n i n a s t r i c t l y c o g n i t i v e mode. The  c o n v e r s e o f no a c t i o n o c c u r s i f c i r c u m s t a n c e s a r e p e r c e i v e d  as very  p r e s s i n g } i n t h i s case t h e l e a r n e r s may be tempted t o t a k e p r e c i p i t a t i v e a c t i o n . The  a g e n t ' s r o l e i s t h u s a d u a l one o f " a n i m a t o r " when l e a r n i n g i s c i r c u m v e n t i n g  the immediate i s s u e , and " d e c e l e r a t o r " when i m p u l s i v e a c t i o n t h r e a t e n s t h e learning opportunity.  A d u l t s engaged i n t h i s t y p e o f l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e a n  "Us a n d Them" k i n d o f r e l a t i o n s h i p .  T h i s r e m a i n s so e v e n when t h e l e a r n e r i s  engaged i n r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d a c t i o n such a s t e l e p h o n i n g  a p r o v i n c i a l Member  o f t h e L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, o r w r i t i n g a l e t t e r t o t h e e d i t o r , because a t t h e s e t i m e s t h e l e a r n e r i s i d e n t i f y i n g h i m s e l f w i t h a l l o t h e r s who might share h i s o p i n i o n i n c o n t r a s t w i t h those who d o n ' t .  57  S i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f the A t t r i b u t e Space  The n e x t p r o c e d u r a l s t a g e i n c o n s t r u c t i v e t y p o l o g y f o l l o w i n g a p r a g m a t i c r e d u c t i o n t o type o f e m p i r i c a l u n i f o r m i t i e s i s a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f the a t t r i b u t e space.  The a t t r i b u t e space i n t h i s case has f i v e c a t e g o r i e s , one f o r each o f  t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f p r a c t i c e under c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  Knowles i d e n t i f i e d f i v e dimen-  s i o n s o f t h e f i e l d i n w h i c h a d u l t e d u c a t i o n o p e r a t e s (1964) and c a l l e d them the i n s t i t u t i o n a l , c o n t e n t , g e o g r a p h i c a l , p e r s o n n e l and m o r p h o l o g i c a l d i m e n s i o n s . F o r t h i s s t u d y b o t h the g e o g r a p h i c a l and p e r s o n n e l elements were e x c l u d e d s i n c e i n s e e k i n g o u t a p p r o p r i a t e c a t e g o r i e s f o r the a t t r i b u t e space the c r i t e r i o n employed i s t h e degree o f t h e o r e t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e a t t r i b u t e .  Theoretical  s i g n i f i c a n c e , i n t u r n , r e s t s upon the a b i l i t y o f an a t t r i b u t e c a t e g o r y t o f u r t h e r d i s c r i m i n a t e between t h e b a s i c t y p e s o f p r a c t i c e b e i n g d e v e l o p e d .  N e i t h e r the  g e o g r a p h i c a l n o r the p e r s o n n e l elements would a l t e r t h e b a s i c range o f g o a l s i n p r i n c i p l e , o r the types o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e which serve those g o a l s . " m o r p h o l o g i c a l d i m e n s i o n " (form o f a c t i v i t y ) was r e t a i n e d as t h e  The  "methodology  d i m e n s i o n " i n w h i c h methods, t e c h n i q u e s , o b s t a c l e s t o l e a r n i n g , - a n d s t r u c t u r i n g p r i n c i p l e s a l l c o n t r i b u t e t o s h a p i n g t h e f i n a l form o f the a c t i v i t y .  The  t e n t d i m e n s i o n was a l s o r e t a i n e d i n much the same form a s Knowles d e f i n e d  conit.  The i n s t i t u t i o n a l d i m e n s i o n he judged t o be the most h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d a t t h e t i m e (1964:41) and the f o u n d a t i o n upon which the f i e l d was t h e n o r g a n i z e d i n the United States.  The e v o l v i n g r a t i o n a l e f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l t y p o l o g i e s i s examined  i n the l o c a t i o n d i m e n s i o n o f t h i s s t u d y and q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t f o c u s e v e n t u a l l y i s t a k e n f r o m t h e one on which Knowles l o c a t i o n d i m e n s i o n was based.  Two  d i m e n s i o n s a r e added w h i c h Knowles d i d n o t s i n g l e o u t : t h e e v a l u a t i o n and c l i e n t e l e dimensions.  Three c o n s t r u c t e d . t y p e s . o f e d u c a t i o n were d e v e l o p e d around  d e v e l o p m e n t a l g o a l s which s t a n d i n c o n t r a s t t o the t e c h n i c a l g o a l s o f c o n v e n t i o n a l  58 instruction. for  T h e r e f o r e i t was n e c e s s a r y t o s e a r c h out p r i n c i p l e s and i n s t r u m e n t s  e v a l u a t i n g achievement o f those g o a l s beyond t h e t e c h n i c a l l y e x a c t o b s e r v a b l e  indicators associated with behavioural objectives.  As f o r c l i e n t e l e  characteris-  t i c s , Knowles had subsumed l e a r n e r s and f a c i l i t a t o r s t o g e t h e r under a p e r s o n n e l dimension.  Agent r o l e s were e x c l u d e d from the domain o f t h i s s t u d y i n p a r t be-  cause o f t h e p r o h i b i t i v e s i z e o f t h e t a s k , and i n p a r t because agent r o l e s a r e a c c e s s o r y t o f u n d a m e n t a l t y p e s o f e d u c a t i o n which a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d from each o t h e r on the b a s i s o f i n h e r e n t q u a l i t i e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f l e a r n e r d e v e l o p ment.  The t h e o r e t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f l e a r n e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s made i t n e c e s s a r y  to l o o k f o r t h o s e which were t y p e - d i s c r i m i n a t i n g and those w h i c h were f i e l d pervasive .  The f i v e c a t e g o r i e s t h e n which comprise the a t t r i b u t e space o f t h i s  s t u d y a r e : program c o n t e n t s , e d u c a t i o n a l m e t h o d o l o g i e s , e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s , c l i e n t e l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and d e l i v e r y l o c a t i o n s . For dia  each c a t e g o r y s e v e r a l s t a t e m e n t s were sought from handbooks and compen-  o f r e s e a r c h which would be comprehensive o f the range o f p r a c t i c e s i n the  field.  Where t h e s e were not a v a i l a b l e a l a r g e number o f s p e c i a l i z e d s t u d i e s  were examined  i n an a t t e m p t t o r e p r e s e n t a d e q u a t e l y the f u l l range o f p o s s i b i l i -  t i e s i n that category.  I t was a p p a r e n t i n advance t h a t d e s c r i p t i v e  inventories,  a r r a n g e d i n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r , o r a c c o r d i n g t o some o t h e r i n t e r n a l r a t i o n a l e , would n o t o f f e r c l u e s t o t h e s e l e c t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s i n t o t y p e s .  I t was t h e r e - ..  f o r e n e c e s s a r y i n each c a t e g o r y t o seek o u t g u i d e l i n e s f o r the s e l e c t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s from t h a t c a t e g o r y w h i c h combine a p p r o p r i a t e l y w i t h v a r i a b l e s from the other dimensions o f p r a c t i c e .  59 The c o n t e n t d i m e n s i o n o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s Over a p e r i o d o f a l m o s t 4-0 y e a r s d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d i e s o f the c o n t e n t dimens i o n o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs have a l t e r n a t e d between g e n e r a l i z e d c r i t i q u e s o f l a r g e programming a r e a s , and d e s c r i p t i v e r e p o r t s o f s p e c i f i c programs. example the 1978 20  C a n a d i a n a n t h o l o g y , "Coming o f Age"  p a r t i c u l a r programs.  The 1970  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n courses with  ( K i d d & Selman) d e s c r i b e d  A.E.A. Handbook ( S m i t h , A k e r , & K i d d ) c r i t i q u e d Johnstone and R i v e r a ' s 1965  e i g h t l a r g e programming a r e a s .  For  s t u d y r e p o r t e d on  6l d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r .  The  i960  A.E.A. Handbook (Knowles) d i s c u s s e d f o u r t e e n broad programming a r e a s , w h i l e the 1948  Handbook ( E l y ) l i s t e d 32  s p e c i f i c program d e s c r i p t i o n s .  But n e i t h e r the s h o r t - l i s t nor l o n g - l i s t a p p r o a c h t o d e p i c t i n g the range o f programming c o n t e n t has been w h o l l y ness.  s u c c e s s f u l because o f m e t h o d o l o g i c a l weak-  T h i s weakness stemmed not from the f l u c t u a t i o n . o f f o c u s between d e s c r i p -  t i o n s a t a g e n e r a l i z e d and a t a s p e c i f i c l e v e l , but f r o m a m b i g u i t i e s i n t h e terms used t o guide s e l e c t i o n o f d a t a .  I n t h e 1970  A.E.A. Handbook f o r example,  one  c h a p t e r e n t i t l e d " C u r r i c u l u m and C o n t e n t " i n f a c t compared and c o n t r a s t e d not t h e s e two terms, b u t the terms c u r r i c u l u m and program ( A x f o r d : u n r e s o l v e d the s e v e r a l u s e s o f the term  397»398) l e a v i n g  "content".  C a r e f u l a n a l y s i s o f the c o n t e n t range a v a i l a b l e t o an a d u l t l e a r n e r r e q u i r e s t e r m i n o l o g y on a t l e a s t t h r e e l e v e l s o f g e n e r a l i t y : the a c t i v i t y l e v e l , t h e t u t i o n a l l e v e l , and t h e community l e v e l .  Dickinson  (1979) s u g g e s t s t h a t i f  "program" and " c o u r s e " a r e used t o s i g n i f y n o n - c r e d e n t i a l l i n g and a c t i v i t i e s r e s p e c t i v e l y ^ t h e n " c u r r i c u l u m " may  insti-  be used a t the  credentialling  institutional  l e v e l t o s i g n i f y the f u l l range o f e d u c a t i o n a l o f f e r i n g s o f t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n i n c l u d i n g b o t h i t s programs and c o u r s e s .  I n accordance w i t h these  distinctions,  "course c o n t e n t " r e f e r s t o a c r e d e n t i a l l i n g p r o c e s s i n w h i c h the range o f what i s l e a r n e d w i l l be more o r l e s s o b l i g a t o r y i n o r d e r t o s t a n d a r d i z e the  signifi-  cance o f t h e c e r t i f i c a t i o n ; by the same t o k e n "program c o n t e n t " r e f e r s t o a l e s s  60  f o r m a l i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y n o t aimed a t c e r t i f i c a t i o n i n which t h e range o f what i s l e a r n e d i s more o r l e s s o p t i o n a l a n d dependent upon n e g o t i a t i o n between t h e a g e n t a n d l e a r n i n g group.  "Content a r e a " may a l s o denote a p o r t i o n  o f knowledge s y s t e m a t i c a l l y s t o r e d i n t h e d i s c i p l i n e s , w h i c h changes o n l y a s f a s t a s t h e a r t s a n d s c i e n c e s themselves  a r e r e s t r u c t u r e d . I n marked c o n t r a s t  b o t h "course c o n t e n t " and "program c o n t e n t " r e f e r t o p a r t i c u l a r c o n f i g u r a t i o n s o f knowledge drawn t o g e t h e r f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s around a theme, i s s u e o r problem, a n d t h e s e may change v e r y r a p i d l y i n r e s p o n s e  t o changing course o r  program g o a l s . What r e m a i n s t o be c l a r i f i e d a r e t h e r e l a t i o n s among these t h r e e u s e s o f the term " c o n t e n t " : i ) t h e c o n t e n t d i m e n s i o n o f p u r i f i e d t y p e s o f e d u c a t i o n ; i i ) c o n t e n t a r e a s o f academic d i s c i p l i n e s ; and i i i ) t h e c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t o f a c t u a l programs a n d c o u r s e s .  These r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 1  w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e s how a program o f l o c a l h i s t o r y i s b e i n g  "PURIFIED TYPES" OF .EDUCATIONAL CONTENT 1. T e c h n i c a l 2. Interpersonal 3.  Self-actualizing  4. S o c i a l a c t i v i s t  developed.  ACTUAL PROGRAMMING . CONTENTS  DISCIPLINE . CONTENTS  G o a l ; To s t i m u l a t e awareness of the h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i ficance of l o c a l bldgs.  Arts:  Objectives: i - t o d e v e l o p a sense o f local identity ii i i i - to stimulate w i l l i n g n e s s to pressure gov'ts t o , preserve h e r i t a g e bldgs. iv-  Sciences:. Physical:  Social: ,  Learning tasks: 7- l a r g e r h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t o f l o c a l events  F i g . l : Three Uses o f t h e Term " C o n t e n t s " i n E d u c a t i o n z  -Historyl  61  The  g e n e r a l g o a l shown i n the i l l u s t r a t i o n i s t o s t i m u l a t e awareness o f  h i s t o r i c a l significance of l o c a l buildings. come from h i s t o r y . intended  But how  the  So the background i n f o r m a t i o n  t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s t o be h a n d l e d depends on  e d u c a t i o n a l outcomes.  will  the  Program p a r t i c i p a n t s are n o t g o i n g t o use  the  i n f o r m a t i o n t o pass a c i t i z e n s h i p t e s t so i t i s not the i n f o r m a t i o n r e c a l l  of  t e c h n i c a l p r a c t i c e that i s intended.  first  The  g e n e r a l g o a l o f "awareness" i s a  l e v e l outcome o f the a f f e c t i v e domain o f o b j e c t i v e s d e v e l o p e d by K r a t h w o l , and M a s i a (1964).  The  s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e " t o d e v e l o p a sense o f l o c a l  Bloom  identity"  as an a f f e c t i v e o b j e c t i v e b e l o n g s t o the s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g t y p e o f p r a c t i c e deve l o p e d i n t h i s taxonomy because i t d e a l s i n p e r s o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t meanings o f aesthetic objects. pressure  Yet a f u r t h e r c o u r s e o b j e c t i v e "to d e v e l o p a w i l l i n g n e s s t o  governments f o r a c t i o n "  would c l a s s i f y as a h i g h e r l e v e l outcome o f  the a f f e c t i v e domain and b e l o n g s i n the " s o c i a l a c t i v i s t " type o f p r a c t i c e o f the taxonomy because i t seeks t o i n f l u e n c e d e c i s i o n s which have been made i n the p a s t - ( i n t h i s case t o n e g l e c t h i s t o r i c a l b u i l d i n g s ) , t o r e v e r s e  that decision  and  i n s t e a d t o g e t some a p p r o p r i a t e  a c t i o n from the government b o d i e s concerned.'  The  s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r i s . t h a t because t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s  belong to d i f f e r e n t types of p r a c t i c e they w i l l n e c e s s i t a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y  dif-  f e r e n t methodologies.  learner  and  "Awareness" r e q u i r e s o n l y a m i l d i n t e r e s t f r o m the  s u p p o r t s what i s e s s e n t i a l l y a c o g n i t i v e o b j e c t i v e ; " w i l l i n g n e s s t o  governments" r e q u i r e s commitment and  pressure  p e r s i s t e n c e and t h e s e o n l y a r i s e i n a group  when i t becomes u n i t e d by a c o n v i c t i o n t h a t something w h i c h m a t t e r s t o them i s not g o i n g t o happen u n l e s s t h e y a c t t o g e t h e r . ive  i s a community development o b j e c t i v e .  knowledge s y s t e m a t i z e d  I n t h a t sense the l a t t e r  I t becomes e v i d e n t t h e n t h a t  objectthe  i n academic d i s c i p l i n e s and the c o n t e n t d i m e n s i o n o f  t y p e s o f p r a c t i c e a r e b o t h drawn upon t o weave t h e p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e n t s o f a c t u a l programs and c o u r s e s .  The  d i s c i p l i n e s systematize  knowledge a r e a s  t h e i r m e t h o d o l o g i e s f o r d i s c o v e r y and v e r i f i c a t i o n ; the t y p e s o f p r a c t i c e  and  62 systematize educational  g o a l s o f a d u l t s and t h e m e t h o d o l o g i e s b o t h f o r moving  toward those g o a l s , and f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e degree o f achievement a t t a i n e d . J u s t a s t h e r e may e x i s t b o t h d i r e c t , s i m p l e r e l a t i o n s between t h e c o n t e n t s of academic d i s c i p l i n e s and c o u r s e c o n t e n t s , betwen them, so t o o t h e r e  o r t a n g e n t i a l , compound r e l a t i o n s  a r e s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s between t h e " p u r i f i e d  t y p e s " o f c o n t e n t (those v a r i a b l e s o f t h e c o n t e n t d i m e n s i o n which c h a r a c t e r i z e each t y p e o f p r a c t i c e ) and t h e a c t u a l c o n t e n t s o f p a r t i c u l a r programs. F i r s t l y , t h e r e may e x i s t a s i m p l e 1:1 r e l a t i o n between t h e a c t u a l c o n t e n t o f a g i v e n program a n d t h e form o f p r a c t i c e used t o d e v e l o p i t .  F o r example,  pro--  grams i n mathematics, grammar, darkroom photography, square dance, t y p i n g and t e l e v i s i o n r e p a i r , - m a y a l l be t r e a t e d a s s t r a i g h t t e c h n i c a l competencies',' and  devel-  o p e d by i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s . P a r e n t e f f e c t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g , m a r r i a g e e n r i c h ment, and s e n s i t i v i t y t r a i n i n g f o r n u r s e s may a l l be t r e a t e d a s s t r a i g h t i n t e r personal  r e l a t i o n s and d e v e l o p e d by i n t e r p e r s o n a l l a b o r a t o r y methods.  Amateur  t h e a t r e , music a p p r e c i a t i o n , t h e d e m o c r a t i c t r a d i t i o n , m e d i c a l e t h i c s , a r c h i t e c t u r e f o r human communities, a n d t h e pagan r e l i g i o n s o f Europe may a l l be t r e a t e d as e d u c a t i o n f o r i n t r i n s i c enjoyment a n d d e v e l o p e d by t h e complementary methods of i m p r e s s i o n - r e f l e c t i o n .  And programs i n community h e a l t h r e s o u r c e s ,  f o r the e l d e r l y , parent v o l u n t e e r s  services  i n s c h o o l , a n d s t a r t i n g y o u r own f o o d  co-operative  may a l l emerge f r o m u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s a n d l e a d t o e x p a n s i o n o f c i t i zen i n f l u e n c e i n l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a s i s t y p i c a l o f s o c i a l a c t i v i s t  education.  S e c o n d l y , program c o n t e n t s may combine two o r more o f t h e f o u r b a s i c of p r a c t i c e . education. tion.  types  F o r example, consumer e d u c a t i o n may combine t e c h n i c a l a n d a c t i v i s t  A d u l t b a s i c e d u c a t i o n may combine t e c h n i c a l a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l educa-  Management t r a i n i n g may combine t e c h n i c a l a n d i n t e r p e r s o n a l  education.  Women's s t u d i e s may combine t e c h n i c a l , i n t e r p e r s o n a l a n d s o c i a l a c t i v i s t  education.  Programs on a g i n g may combine i n t e r p e r s o n a l , s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g a n d r e c e n t l y , a c t i v i s t education.  social  When t h e s e c o m b i n a t i o n s o c c u r , d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between t h e  63 v a r i o u s g o a l s a s t y p i c a l o f .one o r t h e o t h e r type o f p r a c t i c e i s u s e f u l a s a guide t o . s e l e c t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e methods and t e c h n i q u e s . L a s t l y , programs w i t h t h e same name may be t r e a t e d a s e i t h e r one type o f p r a c t i c e o r a n o t h e r depending upon the e d u c a t i o n a l purposes t h a t t h e s p o n s o r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n espouses.  F o r example, home and f a m i l y l i f e e d u c a t i o n may be  t r e a t e d a s t e c h n i c a l (household s k i l l s ) o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l ( c h i l d c a r e ) e d u c a t i o n . H i g h e r e d u c a t i o n may be t r e a t e d a s t e c h n i c a l ( c r e d e n t i a l l i n g ) , o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g (pleasure), o r s o c i a l a c t i v i s t (environmental s t u d i e s ) education. e d u c a t i o n may be s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g ( p e r s o n a l e n r i c h m e n t )  Intercultural  o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l (pre-  judice reduction) education. Thus c o n t e n t c o m b i n a t i o n s a s they a r e assembled f o r a c t u a l programs may draw on p u r i f i e d t y p e s o f c o n t e n t i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t ways.  The l a t e s t A.E.A.-  U.S.A. Handbook t o d e a l w i t h a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o n t e n t s (Boone, Shearon, W h i t e , and A s s o c i a t e s , 1 9 8 0 ) i s based on a c t u a l program c o n t e n t s a s t h e y have been a r r a n g e d f o r s p e c i a l g r o u p i n g s o f a d u l t l e a r n e r s . Boone says o f t h i s a p p r o a c h t h a t i t produces " f i v e thematic c a t e g o r i e s . . . [ w h i c h ] a r e not t i d y , e x h a u s t i v e , or mutually e x c l u s i v e " ( 4 ) .  I n c o n t r a s t , the p u r i f i e d types o f content are  s i m p l e , p r e c i s e , comprehensive, m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e ; and i t i s t h e s e w h i c h a r e a r r a y e d i n t h e taxonomic m a t r i x t o r e p r e s e n t t h e c o n t e n t d i m e n s i o n  of practice.  The n e x t d i m e n s i o n o f p r a c t i c e t o be examined i s t h e l a r g e s t and most complex —  t h a t o f e d u c a t i o n a l methodology.  The methodology d i m e n s i o n o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s T h i s d i m e n s i o n i n c l u d e s t h e s e l e c t i o n o f methods, a d e c i s i o n c e n t r a l t o program p l a n n i n g , a n d t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t e c h n i q u e s , a d e c i s i o n c e n t r a l t o t h e structuring of learning a c t i v i t i e s .  By i m p l i c a t i o n i t a l s o i n c l u d e s some r e f e r -  ence t o t h e f a c i l i t a t o r ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y — . ibut f r o m t h e o u t s e t o f t h i s s t u d y e x p l i c i t t r e a t m e n t o f agent a c t i v i t i e s , such a s  64 i ) c o u n s e l l i n g , i i ) a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i i i ) program p l a n n i n g , i v ) d e s i g n i n g , v ) managing, o r  v i ) e v a l u a t i n g o f a c t i v i t i e s , has had t o be e x c l u d e d o r i t would  expand each type o f p r a c t i c e by a t l e a s t s i x d i f f e r e n t agent r o l e s .  The method-  o l o g y c a t e g o r y a l s o e x c l u d e s s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o a d a p t a t i o n o f media  devices  and m a t e r i a l s s i n c e t h e s e a r e dependent upon t h e p a r t i c u l a r g o a l s , c o n t e n t s , t e c h n i q u e s , and l e a r n e r s i n v o l v e d ; and a r e d e c i d e d upon by the d e s i g n e r manager o f the l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y . The problem o f s h o p p i n g l i s t d e s c r i p t i o n s t h a t was e v i d e n t i n r e v i e w s o f program c o n t e n t s a r i s e s a g a i n i n the how-to d e s c r i p t i o n s o f p l a n n i n g  programs  and d e s i g n i n g managing l e a r n i n g groups - which r e p r e s e n t the agency and a c t i v i t y l e v e l s of a d u l t education r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The main elements o f t h e program p l a n -  n i n g sequence, which a r e : 1) needs a n a l y s i s o f a c o n s t i t u e n c y , 2) g o a l s e t t i n g , 3) program d e s i g n i n c l u d i n g method s e l e c t i o n and s e l e c t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e components,  complementary  4) program management, and 5) program e v a l u a t i o n ,  a r e g e n e r a l l y t r e a t e d as though the p r o c e s s i s u n i v e r s a l l y a p p l i c a b l e .  Cyril  Houle (1972:47) proposes seven s t a g e s o f a "fundamental system" f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g w h i c h he i l l u s t r a t e s w i t h w i d e l y d i s p a r a t e c a s e s .  While i t may  be  p o s s i b l e t h a t he has i d e n t i f i e d the p r o t o t y p i c a l e l e m e n t s o f e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g and t h a t h i s system can be s t r e t c h e d t o accomodate  even the e c c e n t r i c phenomena  o f s o c i a l a c t i v i s t e d u c a t i o n , so t h a t i t c o m p r i s e s the whole f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e —  t h i s v e r y comprehensiveness p r e s e n t s a new p r o b l e m .  The problem i s how t o  d i f f e r e n t i a t e the m e t h o d o l o g i e s employed i n b a s i c t y p e s o f p r a c t i c e w i t h a s t a t e ment so g e n e r a l i z e d t h a t i t subsumes a l l t y p e s o f p r a c t i c e .  Houle h i m s e l f s a y s  o f h i s f u n d a m e n t a l system t h a t i t s v e r y b r e a d t h and comprehensiveness may make i t t o o e l a b o r a t e f o r easy and r e a d y use (op. c i t . : 224).  I t s usefulness i n charac-  t e r i z i n g t h e f i e l d a s a whole w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f o l l o w i n g the f o u r t y p e s , under "Common C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a l l A d u l t E d u c a t i o n P r a c t i c e s " . Apps (1979) d e n i e s t h a t H o u l e ' s system r e p r e s e n t s the f i e l d , : c l a s s i n g t h i s .  65 a p p r o a c h w i t h T y l e r a s a s p e c i a l f o r m o f e d u c a t i o n a l e n g i n e e r i n g w h i c h moves bys t e p s toward b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s based o n l e a r n e r s ' needs.  Apps c o n t r a s t s t h i s  approach b o t h w i t h F r e i r e ' s s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n a r y approach t o p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n , and w i t h t h e h u m a n i t y - e n h a n c i n g p r o c e s s e s o f l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n a s a n a p p r o a c h t o educational planning.  T h i s s t u d y r e c o g n i z e s a l l these t h r e e —  approach, t h e s o c i a l e x p e r i m e n t , education —  the i n s t r u c t i o n a l  and the l i b e r a l v a l u e s - c l a r i f i c a t i o n approach t o  and a l s o acknowledges a f o u r t h b a s i c methodology i n t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l  l a b o r a t o r y approach.  These f o u r approaches t o t h e s e l e c t i o n o f methods a n d  t e c h n i q u e s a r e r e c o g n i z e d a s d i s c r i m i n a t o r s between t y p e s , w h i l e H o u l e ' s f u n d a m e n t a l system o f p l a n n i n g i s t r e a t e d a s more o r l e s s common t o a l l t y p e s o f educational practice. Houle a l s o p r o v i d e d a s e t |  M A J O R CATEGORIES OF EDUCATIONAL DESIGN SITUATIONS  of eleven s o c i a l situations (shown i n T a b l e 2 ) i n w h i c h e d u c a t i o n a l programs may be planned.  INDIVIDUAL C-l  A n individual designs an activity for himself  C-2  A n individual or a group designs an activity for another individual  While these g i v e  GROUP  some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e v a r i e t y  C-3  A group (with or without a continuing leader) designs an activity for itself  o f s o c i a l dynamics w h i c h may  C-4  A teacher or group of teachers designs an activity for, and > often with, a group of students  be a t work i n t h e p l a n n i n g  C-5  A committee designs an acuvity for a larger group  C-6  Two or more groups design an activity which will enhance their combined programs of service  C-7  A new institution is designed  C-8  A n institution designs an activity in a new format  s i t u a t i o n , and thereby  suggest  some a g e n t f u n c t i o n s i n e a c h , the c a t e g o r i e s do n o t i n any way  influence the essential  dependence o f t e c h n i q u e a n d method s e l e c t i o n upon t h e t y p e o f l e a r n i n g outcome b e i n g planned  INSTITUTION  C-9 A n institution designs a new activity in an established format C-10  Two or more institutions design an acuvity which will enhance their combined programs of service MASS  C - l 1 A n individual, group, or institution designs an activity for a .mass audience —' — '• :  f o r p a r t i c u l a r - l e a r n e r s ^ " T a b l e 2: (Houle, 1972:44)  E s s e n t i a l l y methods a r e i n s t i t u t i o n a l f o r m a t s f o r c o n t a c t i n g l e a r n e r s .  66 They mediate between c l i e n t s , g e n e r a l g o a l s , and r e s o u r c e s ; whereas  techniques,  b e i n g s t r u c t u r e d a c t i v i t i e s f o r e n g a g i n g the l e a r n e r w i t h a l e a r n i n g t a s k , media t e between c l i e n t s , s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s , and p a r t i c u l a r Methods were d e s c r i b e d by V e r n e r and Booth i n 1964  contents. as the ways i n w h i c h  the l e a r n e r s a r e o r g a n i z e d i n o r d e r t o conduct the e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . were j o i n e d by o t h e r w r i t e r s i n c l a s s i f y i n g c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , a p p r e n t i c e s h i p  They and  programmed i n s t r u c t i o n as " i n d i v i d u a l methods", and c o u r s e s , d i s c u s s i o n g r o u p s , workshops, c l i n i c s , and c o n f e r e n c e s the o n l y  as "group methods".  But  t h e y were v i r t u a l l y  "-biles t o d e f i n e a t h i r d c a t e g o r y o f methods i n w h i c h community d e v e l -  opment i s the o n l y i t e m .  Whereas i n d i v i d u a l and group methods a r e ways i n  which l e a r n e r s a r e o r g a n i z e d t o c o n d u c t e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , t o say so community development would be t o use the g o a l t o r e a c h the means.  of  Community  development i s a p r o c e s s i n w h i c h e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y i n t e r s e c t s w i t h the t i c a l , c u l t u r a l and economic a c t i v i t y o f a s o c i e t y .  poli-  Such a d u l t programming  i s a means t o an end w h i c h l i e s beyond the e d u c a t i o n a l e v e n t i t s e l f i n b o t h p l a c e and t i m e .  So community development i s not c a t e g o r i z e d i n t h i s s t u d y  as  an e d u c a t i o n a l method, but a g o a l o f human community toward w h i c h e d u c a t i o n a l practices contribute. However, e v e n r e v i e w i n g o n l y t h o s e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n methods f o r i n d i v i d u a l s and f o r groups i s s t i l l a m a t t e r o f t r y i n g t o i n t u i t the l a y o u t o f the f o r e s t by r e a d i n g a l i s t o f the names o f each t r e e . by w h i c h one may w i t h purposes.  There i s no c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e  a r r a y methods w i t h c o n t e n t s , w i t h t e c h n i q u e s , w i t h c l i e n t e l e s , No o v e r v i e w b r i n g s them a l l t o g e t h e r i n o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d the  f i e l d as a whole and i n i t s s u b f i e l d s . Techniques have sometimes been c l a s s i f i e d l i k e methods by the s o c i a l u n i t of a p p l i c a t i o n .  Bagford,  J o n e s , and W a l l e n  (1976) d i v i d e d t e c h n i q u e s i n t o s t r a -  t e g i e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n , f o r s m a l l groups and f o r l a r g e g r o u p s , but found i t necessary  t o i n c l u d e a c a t e g o r y o f " s p e c i a l use" s t r a t e g i e s .  still  The  6  ?  " s p e c i a l u s e " c a t e g o r y seems t o be a n i n d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o l e a r n i n g outcomes which V e r n e r and Booth used t o d i s t i n g u i s h - b e t w e e n t e c h n i q u e s f o r a c q u i r i n g ' knowledge o r s k i l l s , a n d t e c h n i q u e s f o r a p p l y i n g knowledge.  B u t some element  of knowledge i s p e r v a s i v e i n a l l l e a r n i n g so i t does n o t d i s t i n g u i s h and  sub-fields,  " s k i l l s " i s such a heterogeneous c a t e g o r y i t c a n subsume p a r e n t i n g , c a r  r e p a i r , and s u c c e s s f u l f i n a n c i a l i n v e s t m e n t , t h e l e a r n i n g o f which would c l e a r l y necessitate d i f f e r e n t sorts o f techniques. V e r n e r 'and---Booth  To compare t e c h n i q u e s i n d e t a i l  used a p a s s i v e - a c t i v e c o n t r a s t  Similar t o t h e  B u t o f t h e 25  a p p l i c a t i o n d i c h o t o m y ) a r r a y e d a g a i n s t degrees o f a b s t r a c t i o n . c a t e g o r i e s t h u s c r e a t e d s t r u c t u r a l l y , o n l y 13 h e l d examples;  acquisition-  and o f t h e 12  remaining, f i v e were d e s i g n a t e d " l o g i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e " (Verner,1962:22).  A taxon-  omy w i t h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s which a r e l o g i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e would seem t o be v e r y awkwardly s t r u c t u r e d a n d o f l i m i t e d  utility.  However l a c k i n g t h i s s o r t o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n may be, some a u t h o r s knowledga b l e on t h e s u b j e c t o f e d u c a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s a t t e m p t e d no o r g a n i z a t i o n o f them a t a l l beyond a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r i n g .  (19^3) f o r  B e r g e v i n , M o r r i s , and Smith  example l i s t f o u r t e e n t e c h n i q u e s t h i s way d i s c u s s i n g each a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y i n c l u d i n g i n i t s d e s c r i p t i o n a c h e c k l i s t o f q u e s t i o n s f o r d e c i d i n g whether or  n o t t o use i t , a n d a n e v a l u a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t t o f o l l o w i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n .  The i n s t r u m e n t s h e l p t i e t h e t e c h n i q u e s t o i n t e n d e d outcomes a n d t o e v a l u a t i o n practices.  B u t s i n c e no s t r u c t u r e o f e i t h e r outcomes o r e v a l u a t i o n p r a c t i c e s  i s o f f e r e d t h e r e i s l i t t l e advance i n s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n . Knowles he a t t e m p t e d  (1970:292,293) p r e p a r e d one b i b l i o g r a p h y on t e c h n i q u e s which t o a r r a n g e i n a t y p o l o g y a p p a r e n t l y drawn up a c c o r d i n g t o t h e  v a r i o u s management a b i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d o f t h e a g e n t - f a c i l i t a t o r .  The 40 t e c h -  n i q u e s l i s t e d were grouped under t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f : p r e s e n t a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s f o r l a r g e groups, d i s c u s s i o n t e c h n i q u e s f o r s m a l l g r o u p s , s i m u l a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s , T-group s e n s i t i v i t y t r a i n i n g ,  non-verbal  68  e x e r c i s e s , and s k i l l - p r a c t i c e e x e r c i s e s , d r i l l , and c o a c h i n g . communicates t h e scope o f t e c h n i q u e s  .While t h i s  i t does n o t i d e n t i f y t h e i r p l a c e i n r e l a -  t i o n t o o t h e r d i m e n s i o n s o f p r a c t i c e . Knowles d i d c r e a t e  (1970:294) a u s e f u l  i n v e n t o r y o f t e c h n i q u e s a l i g n e d w i t h s i x t y p e s o f b e h a v i o u r a l outcome: ledge, understanding,  list  s k i l l s , a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s , and i n t e r e s t s .  know-  A t the l e v e l  o f m i c r o - i n s t r u c t i o n a l outcomes t h i s m a t c h i n g o f a p p r o p r i a t e t e c h n i q u e s has some p r a c t i c a l v a l u e .  B u t s i n c e l e a r n i n g outcomes l i k e knowledge, s k i l l , and  a t t i t u d e o f t e n a p p e a r t o g e t h e r i n programs o f v e r y d i f f e r e n t t y p e s l i k e g a r d e n ing,  r e n a i s s a n c e v o c a l music, and c i v i l l i b e r t i e s a c t i v i s m , a n a r r a y o f t e c h n i -  ques by m i c r o - l e a r n i n g outcomes i s n o t p r a c t i c a l f o r t h e t a s k o f i d e n t i f y i n g complex t y p e s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e . The k e y t o a n a l y z i n g t h e methodology d i m e n s i o n i s t h a t methods and t e c h n i ques o f l e a r n i n g a l i g n w i t h b a s i c k i n d s o f l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s — a n d s i n c e  these  have been c o n c e p t u a l i z e d a l r e a d y t h r o u g h t h e g o a l - f u n c t i o n d e f i n i t i o n s and t h e unified  t y p e s o f c o n t e n t , s e l e c t i o n s c a n be made from t h i s methodology dimen-  s i o n t o a l i g n a p p r o p r i a t e l y w i t h each type o f p r a c t i c e . Methods and t e c h n i q u e s i  can be and o f t e n a r e a p p l i e d u n s u c c e s s f u l l y toward g o a l s f o r w h i c h t h e y a r e i n e f fectual.  B u t a m a t r i x headed w i t h a c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e o f h i g h l y d i f f e r e n -  t i a t e d t y p e s c a n s e p a r a t e methods and t e c h n i q u e s t e r i o n o f appropriateness type o f p r a c t i c e .  i n t o groups a c c o r d i n g t o a c r i -  with regard t o the e s s e n t i a l educational goal o f the  C l o s e l y a l l i e d t o t h e methodology d i m e n s i o n i s t h e b a s i s o f  evaluation of educational experiences.  T h i s d i m e n s i o n i s examined n e x t .  The e v a l u a t i o n d i m e n s i o n o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s There i s a c o n s i d e r a b l e body o f l i t e r a t u r e  on a c t i v i t i e s such as-:  testing,  e s t i m a t i n g , p r e d i c t i n g , a s s e s s i n g achievement, e v a l u a t i n g , j u d g i n g , and d e c i s i o n making.  These a c t i v i t i e s a r e u n d e r t a k e n w i t h an eye t o c r i t e r i a l i k e  v i t y , p r a c t i c a l i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y , v a l i d i t y and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y .  objecti-  I n the l a s t  20  69 y e a r s t h i s d i m e n s i o n o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e has d e v e l o p e d a t an unprecedented rate.  I t s h o u l d not be s u r p r i s i n g t h e r e f o r e t h a t c o n c e p t u a l c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f  t h i s area i s incomplete  and t h a t p r a c t i t i o n e r a p p l i c a t i o n o f the s k i l l s  involved  i s s t i l l l e s s t h a n might be d e s i r a b l e . T h i s p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l not d e a l w i t h d a t a c o l l e c t i o n w h i c h i s used to t e s t h y p o t h e s e s . researcher.  That i s the f u n c t i o n o f r e s e a r c h , performed by the academic  I n s t e a d , i t e x p l o r e s the f u n c t i o n o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n b e f o r e ,  and f o l l o w i n g an e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , w h i c h i s done f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ing  during regard-  f u t u r e p r i o r i t i e s and g u i d e l i n e s , and f o r a c c o u n t a b i l i t y on the p a r t o f the  p r a c t i t i o n e r w i t h r e s p e c t t o the c r i t e r i a p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d f o r a program j u s t completed. Any  c o n c e p t u a l framework.of. e v a l u a t i o n . i s l i k e l y t o i n c l u d e  E v a l u a t i o n may  e i g h t elements  f o c u s a t the l e v e l o f i n d i v i d u a l s , programs o r i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  such o b j e c t s as p e r s o n n e l , l e a r n e r s , m a t e r i a l s , c l i m a t e s , t e c h n i q u e s , f a c i l i t i e s , and on the e v a l u a t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s .  on  ideas,  I t s t e m p o r a l p e r s p e c t i v e may  a n t i c i p a t o r y , f o r m a t i v e , summative, o r f o l l o w - u p .  I t s purpose may  sion-making or f o r a c c o u n t a b i l i t y .  take place i n a n a t u r a l or  controlled-stimuli setting.  E v a l u a t i o n may  The a g e n t s who  be  be f o r d e c i -  c o n d u c t the e v a l u a t i o n may  nal  t o the e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , o r e x t e r n a l t o i t .  may  c o l l e c t d e s c r i p t i v e , and  be  interThey  judgmental d a t a , and even a t the program o r i n -  s t i t u t i o n l e v e l use n o r m - r e f e r e n c e d and r e l a t i v e standards,, o r c r i t e r i o n referenced, absolute  standards.  There a r e many v e r s i o n s o f the p r o c e d u r a l sequence w h i c h e v a l u a t i o n i n v o l v e Stuffiebeam  (1975:11) d i v i d e s the sequence i n t o " t h r e e b a s i c s t a g e s " f o r  1) d e l i n e a t i n g , 2) o b t a i n i n g , and 3) a p p l y i n g e v a l u a t i v e d a t a .  These can  be  e n l a r g e d upon w i t h a n i n e - s t e p sequence t h a t d e t a i l s the p r o c e d u r e . ..For example the f i r s t b a s i c stage o f d e l i n e a t i n g the k i n d o f d a t a t o be sought c a n be v i e w e d a s i n v o l v i n g the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e  stepsj  70  1.  Translate values into goals:  Decisions are not inherent i n data; d e c i s i o n s  a r e t a k e n a b o u t d a t a on t h e b a s i s o f some p o i n t o f r e f e r e n c e which outside the data.  stands  F o r e d u c a t o r s those p o i n t s o f r e f e r e n c e a r e v a l u e s  they  h o l d r e g a r d i n g p e o p l e / l e a r n i n g / s o c i e t y / l i f e / d e a t h / and the u n i v e r s e , v a l u e s which impinge on e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e and i n some sense become g o a l s e i t h e r a s l e a r n i n g outcomes f o r t h e s t u d e n t , o r a s p r o c e s s g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e teacher. 2.  Operationalize goals i n t o o b j e c t i v e s :  How w i l l t h e l e a r n e r know he under-  s t a n d s t h e c o n c e p t o f e v o l u t i o n , o r how w i l l t h e t e a c h e r know he i s p r o v i d ing  freedom t o l e a r n u n l e s s t h e g e n e r a l g o a l s a r e a n a l y z e d i n t o  indicators?  observable  O b j e c t i v e s a r e a way o f s t a t i n g those e x t e r n a l l y o b s e r v a b l e  indicators. 3«  S e t achievement s t a n d a r d s f o r o b j e c t i v e s :  Kibler's "behavioral objectives"  i n c l u d e standards as part o f -their d e f i n i t i o n .  Dickinson(l973s5l)  however  .: p o i n t s o u t t h a t f o r some purposes a n " i n f o r m a t i o n o b j e c t i v e " w h i c h c o n t a i n s • o n l y t h e a c t i o n v e r b and t h e p r o d u c t i s s u f f i c i e n t .  Standards w i l l s p e c i f y  w h i c h a t t r i b u t e s a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e a c t i o n o r p r o d u c t t o be n e c e s s a r y f o r the a c t i o n o r p r o d u c t t o be c o n s i d e r e d a s f u l f i l l i n g t h e o b j e c t i v e . The  second b a s i c - p h a s e  o f o b t a i n i n g d a t a , w h i c h i s dominated by t e c h n i c a l  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , c a n be s u b d i v i d e d i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e s t e p s : 4:  Develop an instrument:  An i n s t r u m e n t i s a w r i t t e n s e t o f o b s e r v a t i o n p o i n t s  o r i t e m s w h i c h have been c o n s t r u c t e d t o p r o v i d e v a l i d and r e l i a b l e o f t h e degree t o w h i c h t h e o b j e c t i v e h a s been met.  Instruments  evidence  i n c l u d e con-  t e n t t e s t s , i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e s , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , o p i n i o n a i r e s , and o b s e r v a t i o n s h e e t s f o r r a t i n g motor s k i l l s , i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s , o r p r o c e d u r a l simulations. 5•  C o l l e c t data:  T i m i n g i s i m p o r t a n t s i n c e t h e r e may be o b s e r v a t i o n p o i n t s  such a s e x p e c t a t i o n s p r i o r t o e n t r y , p r e - t e s t on o b j e c t i v e s p r i o r t o t r e a t -  merit-, r e t e n t i o n two days l a t e r , o r t r a n s f e r s i x weeks l a t e r , which must be t e s t e d on a p r e c i s e d a t e .  Of c o u r s e , no d a t a c a n be c o l l e c t e d w i t h o u t  get-  t i n g a c c e s s t o t h e s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n by g a i n i n g c l e a r a n c e from a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , i n s t r u c t o r s and t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s t h e m s e l v e s .  Completion  o f the evalua-  t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s may a l s o hinge on adeguate i n s t r u c t i o n s t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , or t r a i n i n g f o r observers o r i n t e r v i e w e r s . 6.  Analyze data:  A c o l l e c t i o n o f b i t s o f i n f o r m a t i o n must be s y s t e m a t i z e d o r  o r g a n i z e d i n t o summary statements be used i n making judgments.  o r formulations before i t can conveniently  D a t a may be " e y e b a l l e d " o r s u r v e y e d a t a g l a n c e  f o r c e n t r a l t e n d e n c i e s , d i s t r i b u t i o n s and d e v i a t i o n s .  W i t h normative  achieve-  ment e v a l u a t i o n s t h e d a t a may be s t a t i s t i c a l l y a n a l y z e d t o d e t e r m i n e mean, median a n d modal s c o r e s o r r a t i n g s , t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , o r t h e s t a n d a r d s c o r e and t h e n r e p o r t e d i n terms o f rank, p e r c e n t i l e s t a n d i n g o r s t a n i n e s . The f i n a l a n a l y z i n g phase may i n v o l v e a l l t h r e e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g s t e p s . ?.  I n t e r p r e t r e s u l t s : T h i s i s where t h e " v a l u i n g " t a k e s p l a c e , where t h e r e s u l t s o f d a t a a n a l y s i s a r e judged, and d e c i s i o n s a r e made r e g a r d i n g t h e s t a n d a r d s , e x p e c t a t i o n s o r c r i t e r i a w h i c h w i l l be s e t f o r ; f u t u r e programs. T h i s i s a l s o t h e phase where a c c o u n t a b i l i t y i s made w i t h r e s p e c t t o c r i t e r i a w h i c h were a l r e a d y s e t .  ;  8.  R e p o r t t h e c o n c l u s i o n s : A p p r o p r i a t e r e p o r t i n g may i n c l u d e s u p e r i o r s o r those who commissioned t h e e v a l u a t i o n , f e l l o w s t a f f , p a r t i c i p a n t l e a r n e r s , potent i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s , the general p u b l i c .  9. . A u d i t t h e e v a l u a t i o n : T h i s i s sometimes c a l l e d t h e m e t a - e v a l u a t i o n , o r judgment made about t h e p r o c e s s o f t h e p r i m a r y e v a l u a t i o n , and c o m p l e t e s a common p r o c e d u r a l sequence which t y p i f i e s a d u l t e d u c a t i o n g e n e r a l l y . "The  t h r e e main l e v e l s o f e v a l u a t i o n a r e t h e i n d i v i d u a l , t h e program, and  the i n s t i t u t i o n .  S i n c e t h e p r o c e d u r a l s e q u e n c e - p r o v i d e s no d i s c r i m i n a t o r s between  t y p e s o f p r a c t i c e i t may be t h a t t h e l e v e l s o f a g g r e g a t i o n a t w h i c h e v a l u a t i o n  72  t a k e s p l a c e w i l l o f f e r some c l u e t o d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between t y p e s . t o r u n a n a f f e c t assessment on i n s t i t u t i o n s t o e v a l u a t e  I t i s possible  t h e impact t h a t t h e y  are h a v i n g on c l i e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s w i t h r e g a r d t o l e a r n i n g .  The gen-  e r a l a p p r o a c h would seem t o a p p l y t h r o u g h o u t t h e f i e l d , and any s p e c i a l a d a p t a t i o n s w h i c h may d e v e l o p between t y p e s o f p r a c t i c e a r e n o t y e t i n e v i d e n c e . t h i s l e v e l does n o t seem t o o f f e r t y p e d i s c r i m i n a t o r s . e v a l u a t i o n , where S t u f f l e b e a m  So  S i m i l a r l y w i t h program  (1975) o f f e r e d a n e x c e l l e n t model t h a t b r o u g h t  f o r m a t i v e and summative p e r s p e c t i v e s t o b e a r o n f o u r k e y v a r i a b l e s o f program: goal, design,  p r o c e s s and p r o d u c t outcomes.  The approach i s so s u c c e s s f u l a s a  comprehensive statement t h a t once a g a i n what r e s u l t s a r e p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h seem t o be f i e l d - p e r v a s i v e r a t h e r t h a n t y p e - d i s c r i m i n a t o r s . A g r e a t advance was made i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l achievement t h r o u g h t h e development o f b e h a v i o u r a l to expressing  o r performance o b j e c t i v e s .  But they a r e best s u i t e d  c l o s e d , p r e c i s e l y defined,, e x t e r n a l l y o b s e r v a b l e changes i n behav-  i o u r ; n o t a l l l e a r n i n g i s c a p t u r e d by t h e i r " o b j e c t i v e " i n d i c a t o r s .  I n the cases  o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l , s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g , a n d s o c i a l a c t i v i s t outcomes, t h e s u b j e c t i v e sense o f h a v i n g changed may be a t l e a s t a s s i g n i f i c a n t a s o b j e c t i v e measures o f change.  T h e r e f o r e d i s c r i m i n a t i n g among t y p e s o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e t h r o u g h  the e v a l u a t i o n d i m e n s i o n i n v o l v e s p r i m a r i l y e x a m i n i n g t h e r e l a t i v e emphasis t h a t i s p l a c e d on o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e measures o f l e a r n e r a c h i e v e m e n t .  I n the  c l i e n t e l e d i m e n s i o n w h i c h f o l l o w s d i s c r i m i n a t o r s a r e sought among l e a r n e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which l e a d t o understanding o f l e a r n e r s e l e c t i o n o f type-goals.  The  c l i e n t e l e dimension o f a d u l t education  practices  D i s c r i m i n a t i n g among t y p e s o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e t h r o u g h t h e c l i e n t e l e d i m e n s i o n s h o u l d r e v e a l what k i n d o f l e a r n e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l l e a d l e a r n e r s t o s e l e c t one t y p e o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l d i r e c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n a n o t h e r . on t h e a d u l t l e a r n e r t e n d s t o c l u s t e r i n t o themes which o v e r l a p .  Literature Forced  apart  73 these clusters.would be: a) general theories of adult personality; b) psychos o c i a l theories of aging; c) theories of adult learning; and d) research related to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n educational a c t i v i t i e s .  General theories of adult personality: Among the psychologists most frequently quoted by adult educators are: A l l p o r t (1955). Erikson (l950|1968), Maslow (I954jl968), and Rogers (1951>1961). While the works of these authors may t e l l us something about the general dynamics of the adult personality, the developments they describe seem to occur i n highly i d i o s y n c r a t i c patterns and a t best o f f e r educators a back-drop to other elements more s i g n i f i c a n t f o r educational planning and design. personality researchers focus on behavioral motivators.  Some other  Murray (1953),  Atkinson (1966), and McClelland (1968) have explored the need f o r achievement and contrasted i t with a need f o r a f f i l i a t i o n .  However, these and other motiv-  ators l i k e prestige, power, and c u r i o u s i t y probably t e l l us a t l e a s t as much about job-related and s o c i a l or community-related educational a c t i v i t y .  a c t i v i t y as they do about  Where such generalized motivators most productively  overlap with education research i s more l i k e l y to be i n the area of learning behaviours and the f r o n t - l i n e view from the classroom, than i n the long perspective needed to see t h i s f i e l d of practice as a whole domain and i n i t s subfields.  Therefore as a key to f i e l d overview of the c l i e n t e l e s of  adult education, personality theory i s not very u s e f u l .  74  Psycho-social theories o f aging: Psycho-social l i f e s p a n research begun i n 1935 with the work o f Charlotte Buhler has been contributed to through the creative or consolidative works o f Overstreet  (1949), Peck (1956), McClusky (1964), Neugarten (I968jl976), Havighurst  (1972), Ilevinson (1974), Knox (1977). and McCoy(l977) among others.  Undoubtedly  l i f e s p a n theory has the potential to guide many aspects o f s o c i a l practice, but I t becomes most useful to educators as suggested by Huberman (1973) when the rough outlines o f developmental stages spin-off well defined developmental tasks which are amenable to an educational response.  This t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o educational terms  of reference r a r e l y takes place, with the notable exception o f V i v i a n McCoy's (1977) work which i s included i n Appendix A . Beyond these p a r t i c u l a r implications the educator i s l e f t to make sketchy assumptions about the impact of l i f e s p a n theory on the c l i e n t e l e component of h i s f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e .  Theories o f adult learning: The work of learning theorists l i k e Hull (1943), Hebb (1949), Skinner (1953; 1958), Brunner (l96l), Gagne (1965)1 Bandura (1965), and Ausubel (1968) i s l a r g e l y regarded as t e l l i n g us more about how to proceed toward c e r t a i n kinds o f learning outcomes than how to engage with adult learners as people.  Those who emphasize  the human r e l a t i o n s h i p i n learning, Rogers (196?),. and Knowles (19?0;1973)» i n p a r t i c u l a r , do not seem to see sub-types among adult learners and therefore dp not o f f e r any guide to d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s i n the array o f c l i e n t e l e s i n the f i e l d . The concepts o f " f l u i d " and " c r y s t a l i z e d i n t e l l i g e n c e have given some i n s i g h t into the M  learning behaviours o f younger and older adults respectively (Horn .&. Cattell,1967) • A second d i s t i n c t i o n between adult learners on the basis o f t h e i r motivations  for  learning, and therefore one would i n f e r i n the learning behaviours, was made by C y r i l Houle i n l 9 6 l .  He claimed that very active adult learners seemed to have  motivations with an emphasis on e i t h e r external goals, o r s o c i a l a c t i v i t y , o r  75 love o f l e a r n i n g .  A subsequent l i n e o f research was developed by S h e f f i e l d  (1964) and Burgess ( l 9 7 l ) «  Boshier (1971;1973;1977)experimented with the range  of motivational o r i e n t a t i o n s as s i x , then regrouped them i n t o a l i f e - s p a c e / life-chance dichotomy a f t e r the more general deficiency/growth dichotomy developed by Maslow(l954).  Not only do dichotomies o f t h i s s o r t seem to have predic-  t i v e power f o r the kinds o f external reward o r i n t e r n a l  s a t i s f a c t i o n to which  learners respond i n c l a s s , they a l s o have been used to explain two phenomena o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education.  P a r t i c i p a t i o n research i n a d u l t education: Patterns o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n can be studied a t f o u r d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s (the personal, i n s t i t u t i o n a l , community, o r s o c i e t a l levels)^ and i n two d i f f e r e n t ways ( e i t h e r i n terms o f rate o r d i r e c t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n ) .  Rate o f p a r t i c i -  pation considers three phenomena: " e i t h e r - o r " (Does X p a r t i c i p a t e o r not, and i n e i t h e r case, why?); " l i f e s p a n consistency" (Does X p a r t i c i p a t e more o r l e s s continuously o r only s p o r a d i c a l l y , and i n e i t h e r case, why?); and "completion/ drop-out" phenomena.  D i r e c t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e f e r s to the types o f subject  matter and methods o f r e l a t i n g t o educative assistance f o r which people express a preference.  Verner and Neylan (1966) established that extended duration o f a  course can contribute t o drop-out.  But Boshier's research with l i f e - s p a c e / l i f e -  chance educational motivations provides a more complete picture when i t suggests that l i f e - c h a n c e r s are more susceptible to a c o n d i t i o n o f "incongruence" within themselves and with t h e i r educational environment and consequently drop-out i n the short run o f a s i n g l e course than l i f e - s p a c e r s .  tend more to  Life-chancers  also seek a c o n d i t i o n o f "homeostasis" o r reduction o f external s t r e s s and therefore over a l i f e t i m e p a r t i c i p a t e s p o r a d i c a l l y only as external conditions r e quire them t o .  Life-spacers i n contrast experience congruence and tend to com-  plete i n the short run; and over a l i f e s p a n seek "heterostasis" o r the unusual  76. and stimulating so they p a r t i c i p a t e i n new a c t i v i t i e s on a regular b a s i s . While p a r t i c i p a t i o n rate studies examine differences between repeatercompleter participants and sporadic-dropout participants, they do not compare participants with non-participants  (McKinnon,1977:6).  Furthermore, treatments  of the "elther-or" phenomena include both those factors which provide an impetus toward p a r t i c i p a t i o n and those which pose a b a r r i e r to i t .  Pattyson (1961) noted  the p o t e n t i a l f o r the timing of a course by day-of-the-week to pose a b a r r i e r to p a r t i c i p a t i o n , while Anderson and Niemi (1969) i d e n t i f i e d inappropriate (ies impersonal) forms o f information communication to the lower-lower socio-economic group of c l i e n t e l e as a s i g n i f i c a n t b a r r i e r to p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Johnson and Rivera's exceptional 1965 survey which gathered data on nearly 25»000 adults provldedrigreat deal of impetus and b a r r i e r information and processed i t by means of 214 tables of bi#variate a n a l y s i s .  They reported that ZZ% of those Americans  polled p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a t l e a s t one educational a c t i v i t y that year, that age and schooling were the most s i g n i f i c a n t independent variables, and that the average participant was as l i k e l y to be female as male, was under 40, had  hlghschool  completion or better, an above average income, was married and had children, and was probably l i v i n g i n a suburb.  They also reported that the most s i g n i f i c a n t  b a r r i e r s i d e n t i f i e d were i n s u f f i c i e n t time, money and energy.  But the study d i d  not bring c l i e n t v a r i a b l e s together f r i t h o t h e r variables of practice i n complete oonfIgurations.  K i l l e r (1967) accomodated both the impetus and b a r r i e r aspects -  i n h i s force f i e l d analysis of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and McKinnon's advocacy of applying the adoption-of-innovations  model to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education o f f e r s at  l e a s t the p o s s i b i l i t y of bringing impetus and b a r r i e r f a c t o r s together i n a comprehensive formula with r e a l predictive power. None of the rate phenomena i n themselves provide the kind of f i e l d overview sought i n t h i s study unless they are t i e d to the d i r e c t i o n a l component of p a r t i c i p a t i o n mentioned e a r l i e r , i .e. j subject matter studied and method o f  77  learning preferred.  Johnstone and Rivera (1965) correlated each of seven factors  separately with the type of subject matter studied: methods (56)1 i n s t i t u t i o n s (64); sex, age, education l e v e l (80); l i f e cycle stage (94); and reasons or motives for  p a r t i c i p a t i o n (146).  But at most only two factors at a time (eg. l e v e l s of  education and types of community) were brought into c o r r e l a t i o n statements with a reduced array of subject matter (113).  Johnstone and Rivera also presented  evidence that younger persons* studies are more job-related and older persons' studies are l e s s u t i l i t a r i a n . Educational gerontology continues to pursue Jthe d e t a i l s of educational i n t e r e s t s over the l i f e s p a n as i l l u s t r a t e d by McCoy's table of l i f e cycle tasks and continuing education responses which i s shown i n Appendix A . A l l such l i f e span studies match the range of practices as dependent variable to learner l i f e span as the independent v a r i a b l e .  But to understand basic types of practice  requires seeing learner c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as dependent variables which a l i g n with some type of practice as independent Variable because of i t s inherent developmental goal. It i s evident that large numbers df North Americans are engaged i n educat i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and that c e n t r a l tendencies of t h i s population are known. The d r i v i n g and r e s t r a i n i n g forces at work on non-participants are also p a r t i a l l y understood, and these forces have implications f o r the outreach service that i s required to enable p a r t i c i p a t i o n . However t h i s present study i s interested i n c l i e n t e l e factors which w i l l indicate a successful match between the learner and the developmental d i r e c t i o n f a c i l i t a t e d by a type of educational p r a c t i c e . Complex c o r r e l a t i o n s of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' demographic/socio-economic/ecological/ personal/and s i t u a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with type of education have not been made. Johnstone and Rivera (1965) f o r example, brought one socio-economic f a c t o r ( l e v e l o f education) and one e c o l o g i c a l f a c t o r (type of community) into c o r r e l a t i o n statements with an array of subject matters studied.  But highly complex  78  correlations nay not be necessary.  I t may prove that s i t u a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  are a more r e l i a b l e i n d i c a t o r of goodness of f i t to educational d i r e c t i o n than any other kind of c l i e n t e l e factor including the personal factors on which many p a r t i c i p a t i o n studies have been based.  This study assumes that since education i s a  purposive, d i r e c t i o n a l a c t i v i t y the e s s e n t i a l variable i n educational a c t i v i t y i s goals - the broadly stated learning outcomes being pursued.  This study also  assumes that technical, interpersonal, s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g , and s o c i a l a c t i v i s t goals w i l l be chosen by people not primarily because of t h e i r age, income, or place of residence, but according to s i t u a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which make that type of goal a developmental p r i o r i t y f o r that learner at that time.  I t i s f e l t that  contingency orientations, not personal orientations, w i l l a f f o r t r e l i a b l e guidel i n e s to the p r a c t i t i o n e r f o r structuring educational environments that help 1 learners reach appropriate goals.  Some support f o r t h i s assumption that s p e c i f i c  circumstances have a stronger c o r r e l a t i o n to actions than generalized personal orientations i s found i n the research of Apel (1966) where educators' a t t i t u d e s were found to be more dependent upon t h e i r expectations regarding the e f f e c t of a s p e c i f i c change than upon any predisposition toward change i n general (op. c i t : 124).  The l o c a t i o n dimension of adult education In 1947 a l i n e o f research and a n a l y s i s was i n i t i a t e d by C y r i l Houle into the grouping of agencies i n which adult education a c t i v i t i e s take place.  His  four categories were based upon an examination of the o r i g i n a l purposes f o r which the agencies had been created.  These were adapted s l i g h t l y and reported  by Edmund de S. Brunner (1959t123) as shown i n Figure 2 .  79  1. A g e n c i e s d e v e l o p e d p r i m a r i l y f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n o f a d u l t s such a s u n i v e r s i t y and a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n and correspondence s c h o o l s . 2. A g e n c i e s d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n and y o u t h , such a s p u b l i c s c h o o l s , which o u t o f a sense o f the need have d e v e l o p e d programs o f a d u l t education& t h i s i n c l u d e s p a r e n t - t e a c h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s and c o l l e g e s . 3. I n s t i t u t i o n s developed t o serve t h e t h e whole community i n s p e c i f i c ways which have expanded t h e i r o r i g i n a l p r o grams t o i n c l u d e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , s u c h a s l i b r a r i e s , museums, and s o c i a l s e t t l e m e n t s . 4. A g e n c i e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s founded f o r n o n e d u c a t i o n a l purposes that have u n d e r t a k e n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n o r d e r t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e i r major programs a n d t o do t h e i r j o b b e t t e r . Among these a r e l a b o r u n i o n s , c h u r c h e s , cooperat i v e s , business o r g a n i z a t i o n s and the agencies o f h e a l t h , w e l f a r e and r e c r e a t i o n .  F i g u r e 2 : Sponsors o f a d u l t  education  (Brunner,1959:123) Knowles (,1964) d e l e t e d u n i v e r s i t i e s from a d u l t a g e n c i e s and added p r o p r i e t a r y s c h o o l s , and independent and r e s i d e n t i a l c e n t r e s . he added government a g e n c i e s ,  To "whole community" a g e n c i e s  and h e a l t h and w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s .  a g e n c i e s he added t h e mass media and v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . t h r e e a u t h o r s seem t o p r e s e r v e  To  "noneducational"  Although these  f o u r c a t e g o r i e s a s r e c o g n i z a b l y t h e same, t h e  c r i t e r i a f o r c a t e g o r i z a t i o n a r e never c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d .  I f T - I I I i s t o serve  the whole community one would e x p e c t i t t o be c o n t r a s t e d by T-IV s e r v i n g a spec i a l segment a s t h e c o n t r a s t o f a l i b r a r y and a l a b o u r u n i o n would suggest ( i g n o r i n g f o r t h e moment t h a t o n l y a s m a l l f r a c t i o n o f a community makes use o f its library).  I f T - I I I s e r v e s t h e whole community t h e n why d i d n ' t Knowles p l a c e  mass media t h e r e ?  I f T - I I I i s e d u c a t i o n a l t o c o n t r a s t T-IV a s  they why d i d Houle p l a c e s o c i a l s e t t l e m e n t s  noneducational  i n T-III?  Moving away from t h e i n d i c a t o r o f o r i g i n a l purpose, t h r e e t y p o l o g i e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l s p o n s o r s were d e v e l o p e d on t h e b a s i s o f dominance o f t h e a d u l t educ a t i o n purpose.  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t " i n s t i t u t i o n a l c l o u t " was t h e e s s e n t i a l  80 i n g r e d i e n t i n the o r i g i n a l - p u r p o s e t y p o l o g i e s ; a t any r a t e , dominance o f the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n f u n c t i o n became the e x p l i c i t i n d i c a t o r .  V e r n e r and B o o t h (1962)  spoke o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a s : i ) the p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n , i i ) an e x t e n s i o n o f the p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n , and i i i ) a means t o a c h i e v e some  noneducational f u n c t i o n .  I n e f f e c t they c o l l a p s e d the o l d T - I I I (whole community i n s t i t u t i o n s ) and (other goals) i n t o t h i s t h i r d category — noneducational f u n c t i o n s .  T-TV  Schroeder  (1970) r e t a i n e d f o u r c a t e g o r i e s based on the dominance o f the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n f u n c t i o n i n the s p o n s o r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s u g g e s t i n g t h a t i t c o u l d be: l ) the c e n t r a l f u n c t i o n , 2) the secondary f u n c t i o n , 3) an a l l i e d f u n c t i o n , o r 4) a s u b o r d i n a t e function.  I n 1970, G r i f f i t h r e p o r t e d a new  t y p o l o g y by Houle which used b o t h  the dominance i n d i c a t o r and the e d u c a t i o n a l - n o n e d u c a t i o n a l d i s t i n c t i o n . set of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s  This  c o n s i d e r e d t h a t i n i n s t i t u t i o n s which were p r i m a r i l y edu-  c a t i o n a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u l d be the dominant, c o o r d i n a t e o r s u b o r d i n a t e f u n c t i o n ; and t h a t i n i n s t i t u t i o n s which were o n l y p a r t l y e d u c a t i o n a l i t c o u l d o n l y be a c o o r d i n a t e o r s u b o r d i n a t e f u n c t i o n .  Thus t h e r e were i n a l l s i x w e l l - k n o w n .  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l s p o n s o r s based on the n a t u r e o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l purpose: H o u l e ' s (1947), Brunner's (1962), S c h r o e d e r ' s  (1970) and H o u l e ' s ( G r i f f i t h , 1 9 7 0 ) .  A n o t h e r approach e n t i r e l y was t a k e n by G r i f f i t h institutions.  (1959), Knowles' (1964), V e r n e r and B o o t h ' s  (1963)  from the c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n approach  with  a f i v e - s t a g e growth model f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  But the s t u d y o f i n s t i t u t i o n s a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s i n t h e i r  develop-  ment d i d not seem t o l e a d t o p r o d u c t i v e i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h e i r e d u c a t i v e f u n c t i o n any more t h a n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by purpose had.  G r i f f i t h r e p o r t e d , "Even though  i t i s p o s s i b l e t o c l a s s i f y an i n s t i t u t i o n o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n on the b a s i s o f the relative  importance  o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n the p r i o r i t y l i s t i n g o f e d u c a t i o n a l  o b j e c t i v e s o r on the b a s i s o f i t s s t a g e o f development, n e i t h e r o f the approaches a f f o r d s any a p p r e c i a b l e power o f p r e d i c t i o n " (1970:176).  81  I f predictive power i s lacking i n the r e s u l t s of these examinations question a r i s e s why were they undertaken i n the f i r s t place.  Why  the  distinguish  i n s t i t u t i o n s on the basis of e i t h e r the temporal or functional primacy of adult education within them?  The answer seems to be that primacy means i n s t i t u t i o n a l  influence over policy, funding and other forms of i n t e r n a l d e c i s i o n making  —  a l l of which would be useful f o r the administrators who are involved to understand.  But the primacy of function does not indicate a thing about the type of  adult education practiced i n those locations, only about the administrative support to p r a c t i c e . Perhaps the focus on i n s t i t u t i o n s as such i s not quite the r i g h t one to take i f the purpose i s to use the l o c a t i o n dimension to gain e i t h e r i n s i g h t or predictive  c o n t r o l over the educational practice that takes place.  To focus  on the host agency which sponsors a c t i v i t i e s submerges the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of adult education practices as phenomena i n t h e i r own r i g h t .  I t obscures the de-  f i n i t i o n of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d and foregoes a d i s t i n c t i o n between agencies on the basis of t h e i r place within branches of adult education, i n order to c a l i b r a t e degrees i n the margin between t h i s a c t i v i t y and other a c t i v i t i e s of the ing agency.  Perhaps t h i s i s misplaced e f f o r t .  sponsor-  Surely those engaged i n other  s o c i a l practices w i l l t e l l us how marginal we are to them; what we need to know i s where do they f i t into our  purposes.  Schroeder's 1980 typology shifted the focus from host i n s t i t u t i o n s which sponsor adult education a c t i v i t i e s (perhaps a f i n a n c i a l emphasis), of adult education i n the sense of managing i t s d e l i v e r y .  to providers  His typology of pro-  viders had a t r a d i t i o n a l grouping of i n s t i t u t i o n a l agencies (autonomous adult education agencies, youth education agencies, community service agencies, s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t agencies), as well as voluntary agencies (pressure groups, service clubs, mutual b e n e f i t s o c i e t i e s , professional associations) and two kinds of i n d i v i d u a l  82  a g e n t s ( e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l and v o l u n t e e r ) . a r e these d i s t i n c t i o n s b e i n g made?  A g a i n t h e q u e s t i o n c a n be a s k e d , why-  I f the l o c a t i o n o f an a c t i v i t y i s a s p e c i a l  i n t e r e s t agency what does i t m a t t e r t o t h e n a t u r e o f p r a c t i c e i f i t ' s a n i n s t i t u t i o n a l agency" o r a " v o l u n t a r y agency"?  What d i f f e r e n c e does i t make i f t h e  p r o v i d e r i s a n a g e n t under c o n t r a c t t o a n agency o r an a g e n t w o r k i n g f o r h i m s e l f ? Perhaps,>'in t h e way t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e may have been t h e e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r i n the goal-primacy  typologies, agent-learner  e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r i n the broader-cast  i n t e r a c t i o n s may be t h e  providers typology.  I f type-of-provider  a f f e c t s the k i n d o f a g e n t - l e a r n e r n e g o t i a t i o n s which a r e p o s s i b l e , t h i s would v e r y much i n f l u e n c e t h e r e s u l t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . S c h r o e d e r e v i d e n t l y t h o u g h t t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s o c i a l system i n e f f e c t was i n f l u e n t i a l enough t o m e r i t d e f i n i n g 16 d i f f e r e n t " p a t t e r n s o f d e c i s i o n c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n " l o o k i n g a t c o m b i n a t i o n s o f a g e n t and c l i e n t c o n t r o l o v e r macro and micro-decisions.  However s i x t e e n s e p a r a t e  formulas  f o r s o c i a l systems i s a n  u n w i e l d y number t o work w i t h when i t h a s n ' t y e t been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h i s i s the c r i t i c a l  element o f t h e l o c a t i o n d i m e n s i o n t o examine.  F o r a t h i r d time t h e q u e s t i o n c a n be a s k e d why b o t h e r t o examine where t h e educational a c t i v i t y takes place a t a l l ?  And t h e answer seems t o be t h a t where  the e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y t a k e s p l a c e d e t e r m i n e s t h e e n v i r o n m e n t —  i n i t s physical  s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s •— w h i c h c a n e i t h e r promote o r o b s t r u c t t h e achievement o f e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s .  Some r e s e a r c h has been u n d e r t a k e n on t h e  p h y s i c a l ( B e c k e r : 1 9 6 o ) , s o c i a l ( B o s h i e r , 1 9 7 3 , 1 9 7 7 } and C l a r k e , 1 9 8 0 ) a d m i n i s t r a t i v e (Schroeder,  1980)  and  aspects o f the l e a r n i n g environment.  But i n  c o m p a r i s o n t o methodology f o r example, w h i c h has r e c e i v e d a good d e a l o f a t t e n t i o n , t h e e d u c a t i v e environment has y e t t o come under s c r u t i n y p r o p o r t i o n a t e t o i t s p o t e n t i a l t o make o r b r e a k a n a d u l t ' s l e a r n i n g  success.  83  A Model of Formal Relationships between Elements: the Types, the Dimensions, the Core  The set of six diagrams which follows provides a visual representation of the four types of practice, denoting both the common characteristics and the variations of each of the five aspects of practice.  Each diagram simply em-  phasizes a different way of using the model to focus on some limited section of the f i e l d of practice at a time. But the diagrams do provide more than an i l l u s trated review of the taxonomic matrix because the matrix i s limited by i t s two dimensions.  In evoking three dimensions the diagrams are able to demonstrate r.<v  certain structural relations among the various observational categories and conceptual classifications.. This set of structural relations constitutes a model of adult education practice which illustrates both those definitive characteri s t i c s which establish the boundaries between this domain and other forms of social practice, and those particular sets of characteristics which distinguish within the domain four types of practice operating i n distinctive and complementary ways. These four types of practice are formal, constructed types but they bear certain qualities i n common with Cyril Houle' sinformally constructed types of learner orientations to learning.  Houle based his types on an examination of  those learners who exhibited certain qualities "to the highest degree" (1972x10). The four types of practice defined i n this study are based on an examination of programs, institutions and careers which evidenced the "most highly differentiated cases" of adult education practice, looking for the most eccentric features, as though the incidents of practice had been subjected to centrifugal forces of analysis.  At the same time those most essential or central features of practice  were being sought as though cases were being subjected to centripetal forces of analysis.  Houle selected the features of his three types of orientation from  64  the most " c o n s p i c u o u s c a s e s "  (op. c i t . s l 3 ) , t h o s e which seemed t o be "exemplars",  to epitomize d i s t i n c t i v e q u a l i t i e s . these conspicuous cases.  He r e p o r t e d two ways by w h i c h he i d e n t i f i e d  The f i r s t way was t o examine those t h a t were  "perceived  by o t h e r s " a s e x h i b i t i n g d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (op. c i t : 1 5 ) .  In this  present  contents,  s t u d y p r a c t i t i o n e r d i s c l a i m e r s about some g o a l s , c u r r i c u l u m  techniques,  o r modes o f e v a l u a t i o n were t a k e n a s v a l u a b l e i n d i c a t o r s o f a d i s -  t i n c t i v e t y p e o f p r a c t i c e , because they were b e i n g disowned by p r a c t i t i o n e r s who epitomized  another type o f p r a c t i c e .  The second way Houle used t o i d e n t i f y  " c o n s p i c u o u s c a s e s " was t o r e l y on t h e s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n o f l e a r n e r s who  felt  "they had t h e same b a s i c ways o f t h i n k i n g about t h e p r o c e s s i n which t h e y were engaged" (op. c i t . : 1 5 ) .  I n t h i s s t u d y two t y p e s o f s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n have been  used s p e c u l a t i v e l y t o i d e n t i f y t y p e s o f p r a c t i c e .  The f i r s t i s p r a c t i t i o n e r  s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n : what do e v i d e n t l y d i s s i m i l a r p r a c t i t i o n e r s s a y t o themselves regarding the goal o f a d u l t education,  t h e way one s h o u l d r e l a t e t o a d u l t  l e a r n e r s , structure t h e i r l e a r n i n g experiences  and e v a l u a t e  their  progress?  These p r a c t i t i o n e r s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s were matched w i t h l e a r n e r s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s f o c u s e d on what v a r i o u s l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s f e e l l i k e  t o the learner.  Non-  n e g o t i a b l e t e c h n i c a l o b j e c t i v e s produce a "me and i t " k i n d o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e l e a r n e r and t h e l e a r n i n g w i t h which he i s engaged; i n t e r p e r s o n a l l e a r n i n g produces a unique "you and I " k i n d o f r e l a t i o n s h i p ; s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g education  t h a t r e a c h e s t o l i m i t l e s s h o r i z o n s produces an " I and Thou.' k i n d o f  r e l a t i o n s h i p ; and s o c i a l a c t i v i s t l e a r n i n g , where t h e v a l u e s o f a p r i m a r y group a r e found t o be i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e v a l u e s o f a n o t h e r g r o u p , r e s u l t s i n a n "us and them" k i n d o f l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e  which them seeks o u t a l a r g e r sense o f "we".  Houle warned t h a t a d u l t e d u c a t o r s would n o t f i n d a s i n g l e n e a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e a d u l t l e a r n e r (op. c i t . : 5 3 ) «  T h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y i s a l s o based on the  c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t r y i n g t o f i n d a s i n g l e neat i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e f i e l d c e n t r a l tendencies  o n l y produces i n d e t e r m i n a t e  through  g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s about each o f  85  the d i m e n s i o n s personnel.  o f p r a c t i c e and p r o v i d e s no c l e a r d e p i c t i o n o f t h e f i e l d f o r i t s  R a t h e r , i n s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f t h e major v a r i a t i o n s o f p r a c t i c e  hope o f advances i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n .  lies  The diagrams w h i c h f o l l o w  d e p i c t s u b s e c t i o n s o f t h e domain and p r o v i d e f o r g r e a t e r r i g o r i n t h e c o n s o l i d a t i o n and p l a n n i n g o f f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h t h a n e x i s t s when b o u n d a r i e s on a domain are l e f t u n s p e c i f i e d . Diag.l  provides a view o f the c e n t r a l  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f one d i m e n s i o n practice.  of  :  I t c o u l d f o r example, be t h e  c l i e n t e l e dimension.  C e r t a i n aspects of  p e r s o n a l i t y theory, l i f e s p a n theory, f o r c e f i e l d a n a l y s i s o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n and so on have u n i f o r m a p p l i c a t i o n i n a l l f o u r types o f p r a c t i c e .  As such  they  p r o v i d e no d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between t y p e s of c l i e n t e l e but r a t h e r they provide a c o n c e p t u a l base f o r a l l a d u l t c l i e n t e l e s .  D i a g . i : One d i m e n s i o n o f p r a c t i c e at the core o f a d u l t education Diag. 2 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r of adult education p r a c t i c e s .  I t shows  t h a t each o f t h e s i x d i m e n s i o n s  have  some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which a r e u n i f o r m throughout  t h e f i e l d and t h u s may be c o n - '  s i d e r e d - t h e core, d e f i n i t i v e ones.  Taken  together these c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s f o r t h e e t h i c and e t h o s of a single profession.  This p a r t i c u l a r  c o n f i g u r a t i o n i s a n a b s t r a c t i o n and i s n e v e r found embodied i n c o n c r e t e p r a c t i c e s as the f o u r types are. Diag-2  : S i x dimensions o f p r a c t i c e at the core o f a d u i t education  But i t  does p r o v i d e a s t a b l e c o n c e p t u a l c e n t r e f r o m w h i c h each o f t h e f o u r t y p e s o f practice builds a variation.  1  86  Diag. 3  shows one d i m e n s i o n o f a branch  of p r a c t i c e - i n c l u d i n g b o t h i t s unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and those i t draws from the  core.  methodology  I f f o r example, t h i s were t h e dimension o f s o c i a l  p r a c t i c e i t would be f o u n d t h a t  activist field  t r i p s and group d i s c u s s i o n t e c h n i q u e s w h i c h a r e a l s o used i n o t h e r t y p e s o f p r a c t i c e have t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n here a s well.  These c o r e v a r i a b l e s p r o v i d e the  c e n t r i p e t a l f o r c e t o c o u n t e r a c t the d i vergence o f t y p e s o f p r a c t i c e toward separate p r o f e s s i o n s .  Unique v a r i a b l e s  of a branch a r e d i s c u s s e d i n Diag,. 3.  D i a g . 4 shows one d i m e n s i o n o f p r a c t i c e i n i t s f u l l range o f v a r i a t i o n s a c r o s s the  field.  I f i t were the g o a l  dimen-  s i o n t h i s would demonstrate t h a t t h e r e are  f o u r d i s t i n c t developmental d i r e c -  t i o n s a t t r i b u t e d t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , but d e s p i t e t h e i r d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s they a r e a l l anchored i n c e r t a i n d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r i n c i p l e s t h a t may be c o n s i d e r e d common goals.  F o r example, no t y p e o f p r a c t i c e  would espouse t h e g o a l o f making the l e a r n e r more dependent on the a g e n t . T h i s f o c u s i s one way t o p l a n t h e d e v e l Diag . 4  : One d i m e n s i o n o f p r a c t i c e as i t v a r i e s a c r o s s the f i e l d  opment o f p r o f e s s i o n a l competencies  —  eg. s p e c i a l i z i n g i n a l l types o f e v a l u ation.  87  Diag. 5 emphasizes the variables of a dimension which are unique to one branch of practice only. For example, in the social activist type, i n the methodology dimension "creation of a larger nucleus" i s a valuable technique which i s c r i t i c a l to this branch of practice and unheard of i n others. In the location dimension of this branch, unlike any other, inconvenient and uncomfortable locations may be the most Diag- 5 : One dimension of a branch of practice showing unique variables only  appropriate.  Diag • 6 shows the complete configuration of a branch of practice including i t s core and unique variables in a l l six d i mensions of practice.  A graduate school  course on "social activist education" or "interpersonal education" would give a comprehensive treatment to a l l dimensions which form that complex practice. Treating them as a whole and distinct entity makes i t possible to convey the ethic and ethos of a branch of practice, and prepare the practitioner to give Diag . 6 : A l l six dimensions of a branch of practice including their core and unique variables  specialized service by an immersion study of this branch alone.  88  CHAPTER V FINDINGS PART I I :  SYNTHESIS  OF THE VARIABLES WITHIN EACH TYPE I n t h e s y n t h e s i s phase o f f i n d i n g s t h e r e s u l t s o f a n a l y z i n g s e t s o f g o a l — f u n c t i o n s t a t e m e n t s f o r t h e i r e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s a r e brought t o g e t h e r w i t h s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s from t h e r e m a i n i n g f i v e d i m e n s i o n s o f p r a c t i c e . The d e f i n i t i o n o f e a c h t y p e g u i d e d t h e s e l e c t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s from each o f t h e d i m e n s i o n s t o form a c o h e r e n t , i n t e r n a l l y u n i f i e d c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f a t t r i b u t e s o f a t y p e o f p r a c t i c e , making i t a s h i g h l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from t h e o t h e r t h r e e t y p e s a s possible.  I n t h e p r o c e s s some v a r i a b l e s were i d e n t i f i e d which appeared t o be  pervasive o f the f i e l d .  I n a few i n s t a n c e s t h e s e v a r i a b l e s were c o n c r e t e s p e c i -  f i c s - a s w i t h " p u b l i c s c h o o l s " which may a c t a s a p r o v i d i n g l o c a t i o n f o r any one o r a l l f o u r of t h e t y p e s o f p r a c t i c e .  More f r e q u e n t l y t h e d e f i n i t i v e  character-  i s t i c s were p r i n c i p l e s o r c r i t e r i a d e r i v e d from each c a t e g o r y o f t h e a t t r i b u t e space, and from t h e g o a l - f u n c t i o n d e f i n i t i o n s . I n t h i s c h a p t e r t h e taxonomic m a t r i x i s p r e s e n t e d which i t e m i z e s v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d from each c a t e g o r y o f t h e a t t r i b u t e space and a l i g n s them w i t h a d e f i n e d goal-function.  Then each c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f i t e m s so a l i g n e d i s r e v i e w e d i n t u r n  w i t h a more i n - d e p t h e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r a t i o n a l e w h i c h u n i f i e s t h e t y p e .  The  c h a p t e r c o n c l u d e s w i t h a b r i e f l o o k a t t h e common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which were f o u n d t o be p r e s e n t i n v i r t u a l l y a l l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s .  89  Presentation  o f the Taxonomic M a t r i x  A f t e r t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t y p e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r g o a l and f u n c t i o n s , t h e a t t r i b u t e space o f f i v e  d i m e n s i o n s o f p r a c t i c e was examined t o  d e t e r m i n e which o f t h e known c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were f i e l d - p e r v a s i v e and which c o u l d be used a s d i s c r i m i n a t o r s among t h e f o u r t y p e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s .  The  c o n t e n t d i m e n s i o n was s i m p l i f i e d t o a c c o r d w i t h t h e l e a r n i n g domain o f t h e t y p e : f o r t e c h n i c a l l e a r n i n g , t h e c o g n i t i v e and psychomotor domains; f o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l l e a r n i n g , t h e a f f e c t i v e , e m o t i o n a l domain o f p e r s o n a l i t y ; f o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g l e a r n i n g , t h e a f f e c t i v e , v a l u i n g domain o f a r t i s t i c and m o r a l e x p e r i e n c e ; f o r s o c i a l a c t i v i s t l e a r n i n g a domain o f human c a p a b i l i t y a s y e t undeveloped i n e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h - a domain w h i c h c o m p r i s e s a f f e c t i v e and c o g n i t i v e outcomes but which f o c u s e s on t h e s k i l l s o f human c o l l e c t i v e l i f e . The methodology d i m e n s i o n  was s i m p l i f i e d v i a s e v e r a l d i s c r i m i n a t o r s .  F o u r d i s c r e t e approaches t o e d u c a t i o n a l  methodology were d i s t i n g u i s h e d and i d e n -  t i f i e d as : i n s t r u c t i o n , i n t e r p e r s o n a l l a b o r a t o r y , i m p r e s s i o n - r e f l e c t i o n , and s o c i a l experiment.  These approaches seem t o have d e v e l o p e d i n r e s p o n s e t o a  f o c u s on d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f l e a r n i n g o b s t a c l e s . p o i n t o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n among m e t h o d o l o g i e s .  Obstacles thus provided another  The r a t i o n a l e o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l  approach was based on overcoming t h e q u a n t i t y and c o m p l e x i t y o f m a t e r i a l i n t e c h n i c a l education; the r a t i o n a l e o f the i n t e r p e r s o n a l l a b o r a t o r y  involved  approach  was based on overcoming t h e v a r i o u s ego-defense mechanisms w h i c h human b e i n g s c o n t r i v e t o r a t i o n a l i z e i n a p p r o p r i a t e and i n e f f e c t i v e b e h a v i o u r s ; t h e r a t i o n a l e o f t h e i m p r e s s i o n - r e f l e c t i o n approach was based on overcoming t h e f e a r o r d i s a f f e c t i o n which r e p e l s p e o p l e from new s i g h t s , sounds, and t h o u g h t s , and keeps them s u b s i s t i n g below t h e i r own l e v e l o f a e s t h e t i c a n d s p i r i t u a l f u l f i l m e n t ; the r a t i o n a l e o f t h e s o c i a l e x p e r i m e n t a p p r o a c h was based on overcoming t h e p a s s i v e s u b m i s s i o n w h i c h r e s u l t s when p e o p l e have become c o n d i t i o n e d  to believe  90 they are helpless to d i r e c t the socio-economic events o f t h e i r existence. suing these assumptions about basic approaches to learning, and basic  Pur-  obstacles  to learning revealed d i s t i n c t i v e p r i n c i p l e s f o r structuring learning environments: i n s t r u c t i o n follows a sequence from concrete to abstract, or simple to complex, f o r example; interpersonal labs structure from l e s s to more s t r e s s f u l interactions, from revealing past f e e l i n g s to revealing present f e e l i n g s , f o r example; impression-reflection may  structure explorations around the basic  d i s c i p l i n e s , around s o c i a l r o l e s , or around e s s e n t i a l human issues - but  one  dictum which reverses the i n s t r u c t i o n a l approach i s to sequence from the l e a s t f a m i l i a r to the most f a m i l i a r i n order to gain i n s i g h t into one's own  social  norms by contrast; s o c i a l experiment follows a cycle from group introspective learning to common goal s e t t i n g , and then from s i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c learning to experimental a c t i o n .  S o c i a l experiment requires of the learner a l l the learning  outcomes a r t i c u l a t e d i n the other three types of practice, but i t also requires demonstration of s k i l l s not demanded by the other types of l e a r n i n g .  Approach,  obstacles, structuring p r i n c i p l e s , and f i n a l l y d i s t i n c t i v e techniques provided discriminators of methodological differences among the four types of p r a c t i c e . The dimension of evaluation had c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s of implementation which recur across a l l four types, l i k e the purposes of decision-making and accounts ability.  1  But the basis o f judging achievement varied, and the emphasis on o b j -  ective or subjective measures v a r i e d .  Evaluation i n technical education mea-  sures learner achievement of technical c a p a b i l i t i e s and requires s t r i c t l y an objective, external perspective.  Evaluation i n interpersonal education provides  feedback to the learner regarding h i s e f f e c t on other persons and combines obj e c t i v e and subjective perspectives with an emphasis on externally observable skills.  Evaluation i n s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g education assesses the degree to which  new values have been i n t e r n a l i z e d but emphasizes the subjective perspective  on  whether o r not the learning has reached the depth of meaning and significance  91  t h a t the l e a r n e r wished t o a c h i e v e .  S o c i a l a c t i v i s t education  again  emphasizes  o b j e c t i v e measures: o f l e a r n e r a t t i t u d e change from anomie toward autonomy; o f concrete  e n v i r o n m e n t a l change; and o f s o c i a l s y s t e m i c  to responsive  change f r o m n o n - r e s p o n s i v e  decision-making.  Examination o f the c l i e n t e l e dimension revealed theories o f personality, nor psycho-social  that neither  general  t h e o r i e s o f the l i f e s p a n , nor gener-  a l t h e o r i e s o f how a d u l t s l e a r n , n o r most p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t u d i e s based on p e r s o n a l , demographic o r e c o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e v e a l c l u s t e r i n g s o f c l i e n t e l e s according  t o the f o u r types o f p r a c t i c e .  I n s t e a d , t h e d i s c r i m i n a t o r proved t o  be s i t u a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which m o t i v a t e t h e l e a r n e r t o seek t h e t y p e s o f goal-outcomes around which each d i s t i n c t i v e type o f p r a c t i c e i s u n i f i e d . S p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e l o c a t i o n d i m e n s i o n were sought i n t h e r e s e a r c h a v a i l a b l e on s p o n s o r i n g  i n s t i t u t i o n s o f adult education.  I t was f o u n d  t h a t e x i s t i n g t y p o l o g i e s a l l l o o k e d i n w a r d t o t h e i n t e r n a l dynamics o f a d m i n i stration.  And w h i l e t h i s may o r may n o t p r o v i d e e n l i g h t e n m e n t r e g a r d i n g  admin-  i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i t does n o t a t a l l engage t h e s u b s t a n t i v e n a t u r e o f the p r a c t i c e b e i n g s p o n s o r e d .  The approaches used so f a r do n o t a s k which  s p e c i a l features o f the l o c a t i o n (of the p h y s i c a l p l a n t , the s o c i a l climate, and  the i n s t i t u t i o n a l character) are c o n s i s t e n t with the basic v a r i a t i o n s o f  p r a c t i c e which have been d i s t i n g u i s h e d .  C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e m a t r i x shows o n l y  some e l e m e n t a r y d i s t i n c t i o n s among l o c a t i o n s i n which a d u l t e d u c a t i o n place.  takes  ;  92  \ A  TAXONOMIC  FRAMEWORK' FOB  using constructed  ADULT  t  EDUCATION  PRACTICES  IN  NORTH  AMERICA  types c o n s i s t e n t w i t h f o u r fundamental g o a l s  1  1. GENERAL GOAL  TECHNICAL EDUCATION  2.  TO DEVELOP TECHNICAL ABILITIES  DOMAIN  TOPICAL CONTENT  i-Knbwledge r e c a l l : concrete s p e c i f i c s , a b s t r a c t i o n s and u n i v e r s a l s , c o n v e n t i o n s of knowledge o r g a n i s a t i o n i i - I n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s : manipulating iii-Psycho-motor -artistic  INSTRUCTION - may  information  s k i l l s : industrial, sportive, vocational  be i n d i v i d u a l i z e d o r f o r groups  OBSTACLES: complexity, volume, memory, t r a n s f e r STRUCTURING PRINCIPLES: simple to complex, c o n c r e t e to a b s t r a c t , d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e , known t o unknown DISTINCTIVE TECHNIQUES: ( c o g n i t i v e ) programmed t e x t , l e c t u r e , seminar m u l t i - m e d i a modules, computer, symposium (motor)demonstration, s k i l l p r a c t i c e , c o a c h i n g ( p r o c e d u r a l ) p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l s i m u l a t i o n s f i e l d placement, a p p r e n t i c e s h i p .  BASIS FOR EVALUATION  METHODOLOGY FOR LEARNING  1  OBJECTIVE ASSESSMENT OF LEVEL OF ACHIEVEMENT Outcomes evaluated: may be c r i t e r i o n - b a s e d , s e q u e n t i a l mastery, o r norm-based r a n k i n g U s i n g : psychomotor r a t i n g s c a l e s , content t e s t s , b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s based on t a s k a n a l y s i s GOAL ORIENTED (sometimes: a c t i v i t y ) Persons . . . . .  seeking seeking seeking seeking seeking  employment v o c a t i o n a l advancement c r a f t , , sport & r e c r e a t i o n home-centred s k i l l p r o f e s s i o n a l development  skill  t r a d e s schools and p o l y t e c h n i c s computer and i n f o r m a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s s t u d i o s , l a b s and workshops o f a l l k i n d s gymnasia, pools, t r a c k s and s p o r t i n g arenas s i t e s w i t h s p e c i a l i z e d t o o l s and equipment  TO ENABLE ACTIVE PARTICIPATION IN SOCIO-ECONOMIC DECISION-MAKING  primarily affective (aesthetic/philosophic)  p r i m a r i l y s o c i a l experiment  ENCOURAGING VALUE CHOICES. BY p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o c r i t i c a l l y assess experiences that s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t persons p r i v a t e l y and as c r e a t o r s o f s o c i e t y  DEVELOPING EFFECTIVE ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOURS .. BY g u i d i n g the p r a c t i c e o f p e r c e i v i n g , express i n g and responding to o t h e r s , and c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the q u a l i t a t i v e growth o f groupsi  i - L i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n : f i n e , l i t e r a r y , and forming a r t s ; h i s t o r y ; philosophy  i - G e n e r a l personal growth i n human r e l a t i o n s : i n dyads, t r i a d s , and s m a l l groups 1  i i - F a m i l y l i f e : marriage, p a r e n t i n g ,  k. SOCIAL ACTIVIST EDUCATION  SELF-ACTUALIZING EDUCATION TO INTENSIFY SELF-ACTUALIZATION  s u b j e c t matter which can be t r e a t e d as:  iv-Procedural s k i l l s : occupational, household, p r o f e s s i o n a l  CLIENTELE ORIENTATIONS  3.  p r i m a r i l y a f f e c t i v e (emotional)  FUNCTION: BUILDING COMPETENCIES BY t r a i n i n g the c l i e n t from an e n t r y l e v e l • of knowledge o r s k i l l to a t a r g e t l e v e l  SPECIAL LOCATIONS  INTERPERSONAL EDUCATION  TO IMPROVE INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS  • p r i m a r i l y c o g n i t i v e or psychomotor  Any  i 1 :  per-  i i - A d u l t h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n : humanistic i m p l i c a t i o n s i n a l l s o c i a l sciences, l i f e sciences and p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s  aging i  ^ v i l i - H e l p i n g professions: education, health -.—— - -^ K i i i - R e l i g l o u s e d u c a t i o n : m o r a l i t y , e t h i c s , t h e o l o g y , t r e a t e d i n a s e c t a r i a n , comparative services, social services, ministry ; o r ecumenical manner i v - I n t e r f a c i n g communities: r a c i a l , r e l i g i o u s , i v - H e a l t h e d u c a t i o n : p h y s i c a l and mental ethnic, l i n g u i s t i c | L  FORMING A REALISTIC AWARENESS OF SOCIETY BY r a i s i n g the q u a l i t y o f c r i t i c a l thought about the s o c i a l environment, and r a i s i n g the l e v e l of a c t i v e i n f l u e n c e on d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i-Community development i i - C o o p e r a t i v e economic management iii-Civil  liberties  iv-Cultural  self-determination  1  IMPRESSION-REFLECTION - may  LABORATORY - must be w i t h o t h e r s i n presenl-l'ocus work on components o f e f f e c t i v e r e l a t i r g  be s o l i t a r y o r group  v-Environmental p r o t e c t i o n vi-Union  building  SOCIAL EXPERIMENT - as a growing community  ^- .OBSTACLES: d i s a f f e c t i o n , overwork, s t a g n a t i o n STRUCTURING PRINCIPLES: by d i s c i p l i n e s ; by OBSTACLES: defense mechanisms, r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n . s o c i a l r o l e s ; by c e n t r a l i s s u e s STRUCTURING PRINCIPLES: l e a s t to most s t r e s s f u l DISTINCTIVE TECHNIQUES FOR: DISTINCTIVE TECHNIQUES: Impression:(direct)exhibits, concerts, t r a v e l case s t u d i e s : as i n - b a s k e t e x e r c i s e s , a; r o l e ( i n d i r e c t ) modeling, b i o g r a p h i e s , i n t e r v i e w s p l a y s , as i n t e r v i e w t e x t s , as f i l m simulation Reflection: diary, a r t i s t i c creativity,debate as t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s ' s a t i r e , pantomime, group i m p r o v i s a t i o n c l i n i c a l t r a i n i n g ; u n s t r u c t u r e d T-groupi^oii^-)--^" " Both: r e a d i n g / v i e w i n g / l i s t e n i n g & d i s c u s s i o n structured interpersonal labsj c r i t i c a l incis p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s o c i e t i e s ; c u l t u r a l exchange dent; behaviour l o g s ; non-verbal exercises  OBSTACLES: anomie, p a t e r n a l i s m , b i t t e r n e s s STRUCTURING PRINCIPLES: 1. r e c o g n i z i n g t e n s i o n : t a k i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 2. s t u d y i n g problem: s e t t i n g an o b j e c t i v e 3. e x p l o r i n g s i t u a t i o n : p l a n n i n g a c t i o n h. t a k i n g a c t i o n : a s s e s s i n g r e s u l t s DISTINCTIVE TECHNIQUES FOR: C i t i z e n s : o u t r e a c h , c o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n , nucleus Environment: i n v e n t o r y , reconnaissance I n t e r v e n t i o n : p e t i t i o n , l o b b y , l a r g e r nucleus  SUBJECTIVE/OBJECTIVE APPRAISAL OF THE DEGREE OF INTERNALIZATION Outcomes e v a l u a t e d : awareness, response, v a l u i n g , value sets, c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n Using: subjective s e l f - a p p r a i s a l , a t t i t u d e scales, follow-up studies  OBJECTIVE ESTIMATION OF THE DEGREE OF SELF-DETERMINATION Outcomes e v a l u a t e d : p e r s o n a l change from anomie t o autonomy; environmental change; change from non-responsive t o r e s p o n s i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g Using: a t t i t u d e s c a l e s ; s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r s ;  LEARNING ORIENTED (sometimes: a c t i v i t y ) Persons - more deeply c u r i o u s and l e s s instrument a l about l e a r n i n g than the average - whose s e l f - c o n c e p t i s h i g h - who are s e e k i n g renewal, and t r a n s c e n d ence o f d a i l y p r e o c c u p a t i o n s  GOAL ORIENTED Persons - d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by a p a r t i c u l a r unresolved s o c i a l issue - who w i s h t o understand an i s s u e as prelude to t a k i n g a c t i o n - who have some developed sense o f the common, good  (  -  OBJECTIVE/ SUBJECTIVE 1 FEEDBACK REGARDING ONE'S EFFECT ON OTHERS ' Outcomes e v a l u a t e d : p e r c e p t i o n , e x p r e s s i o n and* response; group c o n t r i b u t i o n ; group growth: Using: i n t e r v i e w content a n a l y s i s , s u b j e c t i v e Islf assessment; peer e v a l u a t i o n ; o b s e r v a t i o n j GOAL ORIENTED .Persons - who wish to improve some a s p e c t o f i t h e i r human r e l a t i o n s - " i n good touch w i t h r e a l i t y " ; not ( s e e k i n g therapy, o r r e m e d i a l intervention  \.-  '  \  . r e t r e a t - t y p e environments: h o t e l s , r e s o r t s , church-owned r e t r e a t s ' special institutes  |  i  I  . . . .  churches, synagogues, mosques, temples museums, a u d i t o r i u m s , p l a n e t a r i u m s g a l l e r i e s , theatres, l i b r a r i e s conservatories, observatories, laboratories  . . . .  in at on on  the s t r e e t city hall the p i c k e t l i n e the phone  . i n boardrooms . i n shareholders meetings . i n the c o u r t s  93  Tentative Explanatory Accounting f o r each Type:  In stage s i x of constructive typology the theoretician examines the set of variables which i s found aligned with each defined type, and seeks i t s unif y i n g rationale from the p r i n c i p l e s , theories and conventions which e x i s t .  Technical Education  Goal, function and t y p i c a l contents The goal of a l l technical education i s to develop i n the learner some techn i c a l a b i l i t i e s "having to do with the exact or mechanical part of any a r t or science"(Winston,1948:1020). Technical education subsumes a l l goals which are technical i n the generic sense of involving some "methodical" process or means which enables the ^ e f f i c i e n t " accomplishment o f a task.  These terms methodical  and e f f i c i e n t imply more than merely systematic approach to a learning goal since a l l educational practices endeavor to be systematic.  They imply that there i s  some shortest route to a goal which therefore must be c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e and defineable.  Technical goals are so precisely definable that learner performances  can be designated simply correct-incorrect, or right-wrong, so only here i s i t poss i b l e to say that "learning i s aided i f the adult finds out immediately  after  practice whether or not h i s response was correct " (Dickinson, 1973*13)• Technical education approaches such' learning goals through the function of building competencies i n the learner. I t develops proficiency a t tasks such as remembering some p a r t i c u l a r kind of knowledge, or demonstrating some p a r t i cular s k i l l .  Building competencies i s a matter of gradually r e f i n i n g perform-  ance, "shaping" i t (perhaps v i a rewards administered by a teacher) through successive approximations, to exactly match the desired performance (Shuell &  Lee, 1976:27).  94  Technical education encompasses broad content areas which are amenable to a common methodology.  Interpersonal education, s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g education and  s o c i a l a c t i v i s t education a l l c l e a r l y imply some s p e c i a l content to which they are r e s t r i c t e d .  Technical education by contrast subsumes v i r t u a l l y a l l p r e c i s i o n  competencies i n the cognitive and psychomotor domains —  examples o f which as  suggested by Gagne (1974:68) areeincluded i n Appendix B . So the content o f technical education may be thought o f as any subject matter which can be treated as "knowledge r e c a l l " (of concrete s p e c i f i c s , abstractions and universals, o r conventions o f knowledge organization), as " i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s "  (manipulating  information), as "psycho-motor s k i l l s " ( i n d u s t r i a l , sportive o r a r t i s t i c ) , or as "procedural s k i l l s "  —  ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ — — — — — — — Executing the procedure of parallel parking  PROCEDURE:  which combine decis  COMPONENT RULES:  I  sions and actions (occupational, voca-j t i o n a l , household,  I Moving front of car into position near curb  Approaching curb by backing at angle  Positioning car in starting position  Straightening wheels to parallel curb  CONCEPTS:  or p r o f e s s i o n a l ) . One example o f how procedural  skills  combine intellectual] and psycho-motor  Identifying alignment with other car  Identifying position for maximum wheel turn  Identifying sof  Identifying parallel position of car from turn  MOTOR SKILLS: Positioning vehicle in designate place  Backing at low speed in a designated direction  Moving front of car to the right while backing  Turning wheels straight from turn  ones i s given by Gagne with h i s analy s i s shown i n F i g . 3 .  F i g . 3 1 Procedural s k i l l s as educational outcomes (R.M. Gagne,1977«215)  Block s p e c i f i e d (1971«65) t h  a t  subject contents were most amenable to pre-  cise mastery approaches a) when they require I minimal p r i o r learning, o r when the students a l l possess the prerequisites; b) when subjects are o f a kind sequentially learned and i t s u n i t s are cumulative;  and c ) when the subjects are  "closed", that i s they emphasize convergent rather than divergent thinking.  95 Methodology geared t o n a t u r e o f the The  goal  g o a l o f t h i s type o f p r a c t i c e i s t o l e a d each l e a r n e r from h i s l e v e l  performance on e n t r y i n t o the e d u c a t i v e  environment t o the c r i t e r i o n l e v e l  performance by the most e f f i c i e n t r o u t e .  of  of  When t h e s e performances b u i l d on each  o t h e r i n a c u m u l a t i v e sequence towards some more complex t e r m i n a l peformance the elements are p r e s e n t f o r "mastery l e a r n i n g " on the p a r t o f the s t u d e n t "competency-based i n s t r u c t i o n " instruction  on the p a r t o f the t e a c h e r .  Competency-based  (CBl) c o n t r a s t s w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n a t three  With t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n l e a r n e r s and  points:  time per u n i t covered i s h e l d constant  t h e i r achievements v a r y ; w i t h CBI  the l e v e l o f achievement i s h e l d c o n s t a n t  and  for a l l  p e r s o n a l i z e d p a c i n g i s used so  ( i n t h a t each l e a r n e r e v e n t u a l l y  a c h i e v e s i t ) but the time which t h a t l e a r n i n g t a k e s w i l l v a r y f r o m s t u d e n t t o student.  With t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n e n t r a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e the f o c u s o f  a t t e n t i o n , w h i l e w i t h CBI And  finally,  e x i t r e q u i r e m e n t s are the c r i t i c a l s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e .  w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n what i s e x p e c t e d o f the s t u d e n t  be o n l y v a g u e l y communicated, o r even o n l y v a g u e l y c o n c e p t u a l i z e d t o r ' s mind, so s t u d e n t s a r e r e d u c e d t o second g u e s s i n g j  w h i l e i n CBI  r e g a r d i n g s t u d e n t performance a t e x i t a r e made e x p l i c i t i n the d e s i g n and a r e c l e a r l y communicated t o It i s essential  i n the  ing task. structuring  instruc-  expectations  instructional  students.  t h a t the environment w h i c h l e a r n e r s e n t e r f o c u s t h e i r a t t e n -  t i o n on the component t a s k s t h a t l e a d t o the c r i t e r i o n performance, and as c o m p l e t e l y  may  eliminate  as p o s s i b l e e x t r a n e o u s s t i m u l i t h a t would d i s t r a c t f r o m the  S h u e l l and Lee c l a i m t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n t a k e s p l a c e " i n any the environment i n such a way  s i r e d o b j e c t i v e " (op. c i t . : 6 ) .  The  learn-  situation  t h a t the l e a r n e r w i l l l e a r n some de-  b a s i c t a s k o f the t e a c h e r becomes t o a r r a n g e  the l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t , o r as Gagne would say, t o p r o v i d e optimum e x t e r n a l conditions.  E x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s v a r y t o s u i t the c a t e g o r y o f l e a r n i n g outcome.  96  Some k e y c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e f i v e c a t e g o r i e s o f l e a r n i n g outcomes are summarized by Gagne i n T a b l e 4 shown a t r i g h t .  In  Features of Instructional Planning for Courses and Topics, for Five Types of Expected Outcomes  s i m p l i f i e d form t h e k e y c o n  Type of Expected Outcome  Instructional Features  Outcome Question  d i t i o n f o r a knowledge/in-  Verbal Information  Meaningful context; suggested coding schemes, including, tables and diagrams  Will the student be able to state the desired information?  Intellectual Skill  Prior learning and recall of prerequisite skills  Will the student be able to demonstrate the application of the skill?  T h i s meaningful context o r  Cognitive Strategy  Occasions for novel problem solving  Will the student be able to originate new problems and their solutions?  may be e s t a b l i s h e d "by p r e -  Attitude  Experience of success following the choice of a personal action; or observation of these events in a human model  Will the student choose the intended personal action?  Motor Skill  Learning of executive routine; practice with informative feedback  Will the student be able to execute the motor performance?  f o r m a t i o n outcome i s a l a r g e r ..meaningful c o n t e x t i n which t o p l a c e i t f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and r e t r i e v a l  senting material that i s s i m i l a r t o something t h a t i s a l r e a d y known, and by o r g a n i z i n g new m a t e r i a l i n a pattern that the l e a r n e r can p e r c e i v e " 1973s11)•  (Dickinson, T a b l e 4:  For an I n t e l -  (Gagne, 197^:  102)  l e c t u a l s k i l l i t i s the p r o v i s i o n o f opportunities t o t r a n s f e r the s k i l l t o a d i f f e r e n t context o f a p p l i c a t i o n . F o r c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s the key c o n d i t i o n i s a unique, c h a l l e n g i n g problem.  F o r a motor s k i l l outcome t h e k e y c o n d i t i o n  i s p r a c t i c e o f p a r t - s k i l l s and t h e i n t e g r a t i n g s k i l l The  (Gagne & Briggs,1979:95)•  c o n d i t i o n s s u g g e s t e d f o r a t t i t u d e change conform i n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e t o  b e h a v i o u r i s t l e a r n i n g t h e o r y , and i n t h e second i n s t a n c e t o s o c i a l l e a r n i n g t h e o r y . T h i s study d i f f e r e n t i a t e s  between a t t i t u d e s w h i c h a r e a u x i l i a r y t o o t h e r l e a r n i n g  outcomes a n d t h o s e which a r e t h e m s e l v e s t h e f o c u s o f . l e a r n i n g e f f o r t s , and  97  considers  a t t i t u d e change a s such n o t t o be amenable t o t h e d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n a l  approach. Those t a s k s which have a m e a n i n g f u l u n i t y , and a means f o r i n f o r m i n g t h e l e a r n e r o f how w e l l he i s d o i n g , encourage him c e l h i s p r e v i o u s performance.  t o engage, t o s t r i v e , and t o e x -  T h i s i s t h e essence o f i n s t r u c t i o n a s t h e method-  ology o f a l l t e c h n i c a l education.  B r u n e r was c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e i n t r i n s i c  satis-  f a c t i o n o f r e p e a t e d s u c c e s s e s which i s p o s s i b l e w i t h c l e a r , s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g t a s k s , p r o v i d e s t h e o n l y r e l i a b l e momentum f o r l o n g term l e a r n i n g .  "External  r e i n f o r c e m e n t ( l i k e h i g h g r a d e s and o t h e r such r e w a r d s ) may i n d e e d g e t a p a r t i c u l a r a c t g o i n g and may even l e a d t o i t s r e p e t i t i o n , b u t i t does n o t n o u r i s h , r e l i a b l y , t h e l o n g c o u r s e o f l e a r n i n g . . . " (1966-128).  Obstacles to developing technical a b i l i t i e s With t h e l e a r n i n g o f t e c h n i c a l c o n t e n t s c o m p l e x i t y and q u a n t i t y a r e t h e primary obstacles,  so i t i s toward s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and r e d u c t i o n  t i o n a l environment i s a r r a n g e d . instruction.  Several  that the i n s t r u c -  o t h e r f a c t o r s may i n t e r f e r e w i t h  succes-  Lack o f i n t e r e s t o c c u r s * h e n t h e a t t e n t i o n i s r e p e l l e d from an ob-  j e c t r a t h e r t h a n a t t r a c t e d , and i t n e c e s s i t a t e s  g r e a t e r e f f o r t o r work f r o m  the l e a r n e r t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e same amount o f l e a r n i n g .  I n t e r e s t t e n d s t o be  r a i s e d by something which i s i n c o m p l e t e o r u n f i n i s h e d so t h a t t h e mind becomes engaged i n s e e k i n g c l o s u r e . P o o r a t t i t u d e may a l s o undermine l e a r n i n g .  I n c o n t r a s t t o t h e more v i t a l -  i s t i c a t t r a c t i o n - r e p u l s i o n o f ' i n t e r e s t " , ' a t t i t u d e " i n v o l v e s v a l u i n g and judgment. J u d g i n g some procedure t o be u s e l e s s does n o t encourage l e a r n i n g r e l a t e d t o i t . no m a t t e r how s u p e r f i c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g i t may b e . A t h i r d obstacle  t o t e c h n i c a l l e a r n i n g i s l a c k o f acceptance o f a l e a r n i n g  t a s k , a phrase used by S h u e l l and Lee (19?6:7'5) w h i c h may combine i n t e r e s t and a t t i t u d e w i t h o t h e r f a c t o r s l i k e f a t l q u e o r poor p r e s e n t a t i o n ,  a l t h o u g h they do  98  not specify t h i s .  I f the objectives of an i n s t r u c t i o n a l u n i t are not accepted  by students they may psychologically remove themselves from the i n s t r u c t i o n a l process. A fourth f a c t o r which may i n t e r f e r e with successful i n s t r u c t i o n i s lack of pre-  5  Table  Type of Expected Outcome  Gagne o f f e r s  Verbal Information (Knowledge) Intellectual Skill  as a summary of  Cognitive Strategy  r e q u i s i t e learning upon which to b u i l d .  j Possible Prerequisite Relationships in the Design of Courses and Topics  possible prerequisite learning  f o r each of f i v e types of  Attitude  i n s t r u c t i o n a l outcome. A f i f t h f a c t o r which may  Motor Skill  obstruct technical learning i s Inadequate memory, lacking  Possible Prerequisite Learning • Referent meanings of words, i.e., concepts ' Component simpler skills Information specific to the application examples Intellectual skills involved in problem solution Information involved in problem solution Masses of organized knowledge Prior success experience following choice of desired personal action Identification with human model Information and skills involved in the personal action Executive routine controlling performance Part-skills or motor chains  Table 5 : (Gagne, 1974:104)  e i t h e r " r e c a l l " which occurs when previous learning i s reproduced on cue, o r even "recognition" which occurs when material previously learned i s i d e n t i f i e d when encountered again (Dickinson, 1973^14)•  Some learning i s p o t e n t i a l l y "available" because i t was a c t u a l l y  learned i n the f i r s t place and i s " i n there somewhere", however the preferable case i s previous learning which i s a c t u a l l y "accessible" and can be r e c a l l e d on cue  (Shuell & Lee, 1976:6l).  Successful i n s t r u c t i o n uses mnemonic procedures  based upon the p r i n c i p l e of reduction of the amount of information bered.  to be remem-  Mnemonics accomplishes reduction by coding, or by organizing the new  information i n t o f a m i l i a r o r higher order u n i t s . Further obstacles to successful technical education occur with transfer both from past to present so that learning can be cumulative, and from the present  i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g i n which learning takes place to some future  99  s e t t i n g i n which i t w i l l be a p p l i e d  ( S h u e l l & Lee,1976:73)•  I t may improve  t r a n s f e r t o maximize s i m i l a r i t y between the p r e s e n t l e a r n i n g environment s i t u a t i o n s t o which t r a n s f e r i s d e s i r e d g e o g r a p h i c and  climatic conditions  and  (eg.: p r a c t i c i n g w i t h equipment i n the  i n w h i c h i t w i l l be u s e d ) .  I n s t e a d o f one  e x a c t p h y s i c a l s i m u l a t i o n i t may improve t r a n s f e r more t o p r o v i d e a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e s o r approaches t o the m a t e r i a l b e i n g l e a r n e d ,  such a s  p r a c t i c i n g d r i v i n g on a v a r i e t y o f c a r s , o r studying a v a r i e t y o f accounts d e s c r i b i n g an h i s t o r i c event f e r s and  generalizes  (op. c i t . : 7 l ) »  Some a c c o u n t s s u g g e s t t h a t n o t h i n g  so w e l l a s good a b s t r a c t i o n s ,  z a t i o n s , c o n c e p t u a l schemata, and  trans-  such a s p r i n c i p l e s , g e n e r a l i -  problem-attack s t r a t e g i e s .  A f i n a l f a c t o r i n t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n which many a u t h o r s see a s o b s t r u c t i n g s u c c e s s f u l l e a r n i n g i s the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  p r a c t i c e o f norm-referenced, competi-  t i v e , limited-reward  James H. B l o c k s e e s t h i s not j u s t a s  a p r a c t i c a l deterrent  e v a l u a t i o n systems.  t o l e a r n i n g but a s a fundamental i n j u s t i c e .  "As l o n g a s  i t i s assumed t h a t a l m o s t a l l c a n n o t l e a r n w e l l o r t h a t some can l e a r n than others,  better  the major problem i s t o s o r t the c a p a b l e from the i n c a p a b l e s t u d e n t s  . . . . I n a system o f few r e w a r d s ( e . g . h i g h g r a d e s ) a s t u d e n t may not be rewarded no m a t t e r how w e l l he l e a r n s so l o n g a s o t h e r s l e a r n b e t t e r A s f a r a s  the  l e a r n i n g e f f o r t i s c o n c e r n e d t h i s amounts t o punishment f o r s u c c e s s , not t o m e n t i o n the d i s t o r t i o n o f p e e r r e l a t i o n s w h i c h i t engenders from c o l l e a g u e t o c o m p e t i t o r ( B l o c k , 1971:65).  Structuring p r i n c i p l e s f o r technical education A v e r y g e n e r a l s o r t o f s t r u c t u r i n g p r i n c i p l e i s f o u n d i n the u s u a l c o u r s e o f i n t e l l e c t u a l development w h i c h moves from " e n a c t i v e "  u n d e r s t a n d i n g (a s e t o f  a c t i o n s ) , t o " i c o n i c " u n d e r s t a n d i n g (images t h a t summarize the s e t o f  actions)  to "symbolic" understanding (propositions w i t h i n a symbolic system).  A learner  w i t h a w e l l d e v e l o p e d s y m b o l i c system c a n by-pass the f i r s t two  stages, and  100  c o n v e r s e l y one who  does not work w e l l a t the s y m b o l i c  l e v e l may  b e n e f i t from  l e a r n i n g t a s k s w h i c h a r e a r r a n g e d f i r s t a t the i c o n i c o r even a t t h e  enactive  level. Another p r i n c i p l e which guides i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e s i g n f o r t h i s type of l e a r n ing  i s t o keep s e s s i o n s aimed a t psychomotor and l o w e r c o g n i t i v e outcomes r e l a -  t i v e l y " c l o s e d " w i t h the i n s t r u c t o r dominant, c o n t r o l l i n g every a s p e c t o f  the  l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n ; d e s i g n s aimed a t h i g h e r c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e outcomes a r e comparatively  "open", g i v i n g l e a r n e r s more a c t i / e c o n t r o l  (Dickinson,1973*78).  W i t h i n these general s t r u c t u r a l parameters a l e s s o n or i n s t r u c t i o n a l may  be p l a n n e d .  session  An i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g y w i l l i n c o r p o r a t e f i v e m a j o r components:  i ) p r e i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , i i ) i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t a t i o n , i i i ) student (Dick & Carey,1978:106).  c i p a t i o n , i v ) t e s t i n g , and v ) f o l l o w - t h r o u g h  parti-  Prein-  s t r u o t i o n a l a c t i v i t y i n c l u d e s m o t i v a t i o n o r g a i n i n g the l e a r n e r ' s a t t e n t i o n , t r a n s m i t t i n g awareness o f the o b j e c t i v e s o r outcomes t o be a c h i e v e d u n i t being presented, the n e c e s s a r y  with  the  and a n assessment o f the degree t o w h i c h l e a r n e r s p o s s e s s  p r e r e q u i s i t e knowledge,  i i ) I n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t a t i o n r e q u i r e s the  i n s t r u c t o r t o make d e c i s i o n s a b o u t s e q u e n c i n g , s i z e o f the c o n t e n t chunk, manner o f p r e s e n t a t i o n and i l l u s t r a t i v e examples, p l a n n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o p r a c t i c e t h e new  i i i ) Student p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l v e s s k i l l or rehearse  and r e c e i v e f e e d b a c k a b o u t adequacy o f p e r f o r m a n c e , through from o b s e r v a t i o n o f e n t r y behaviours,  iv)  t h e new  knowledge,  T e s t i n g may  be done  to p r e t e s t f o r approximation  of  performance on t h e u n i t o b j e c t i v e , t o t e s t i n g embedded i n t o t h e p r a c t i c e p e r i o d , to  the u n i t p o s t t e s t ( D i c k & C a r e y , 1 9 7 8 : 1 1 0 ) .  v) Follow-through  activities  d e c i d e d upon a c c o r d i n g t o the q u a l i t y o f t e r m i n a l p e r f o r m a n c e , and a r e  are  activities  e i t h e r o f a remedial o r enrichment nature. The a p p a r e n t u n i v e r s a l i t y o f t h e s e f i v e components i s d e c e p t i v e .  In s o c i a l  a c t i v i s t e d u c a t i o n f o r example t h e s e components a r e q u i t e u n r e c o g n i z a b l e . s o c i a l a c t i v i s t l e a r n i n g e a r l y agent i n p u t i s c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e .  For  Many s e s s i o n s  101  may  o c c u r i n which g u i d e d l e a r n e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s the o n l y r e c o g n i z a b l e  t h e r e i s no  a g e n t p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n ; t h e r e i s no t e s t i n g i n the  sense o r i n d i v i d u a l i z e d f o l l o w - t h r o u g h everyone.  what must not happen.  for out-  s i n c e t h a t k i n d o f a g e n t c l o s u r e on the s e s s i o n i s p r e c i s e l y The  o t h e r t y p e s are' l e s s p o l a r i z e d w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n but  s t i l l do not conform t o i t s p a t t e r n e x a c t l y .  Impression-reflection  such as exposure t o a c o n c e r t , b i o g r a p h i c a l f i l m , o r a r t e x h i b i t may minimal i n t r o d u c t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n e r experience,  by t h e a g e n t .  The  experiences offer a  group r e f l e c t i o n on the .  and o n l y l a t e r the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f some n o n - s u b j e c t i v e  a b o u t the e x p e r i e n c e  formal  toward the same knowledge and s k i l l  There i s not even l i k e l y t o be p r e - a c t i v i t y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f  comes t o be a c h i e v e d  experience  element;  information  i n s t r u c t i o n a l sequence i s not p r i m a r i l y  d e s i g n e d t o f a c i l i t a t e d i s c o v e r y , even o f a c o g n i t i v e s o r t , l e t a l o n e a v a l u i n g sort.  The  i n s t r u c t i o n a l sequence i s d e s i g n e d t o f a c i l i t a t e a b s o r p t i o n o f  d e t e r m i n e d u n i t s by the l e a r n e r .  pre-  F i n a l l y , t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l l a b w h i l e i t may  be sequenced i n the o r d e r o f i n s t r u c t i o n , may  a l s o r e v e r s e i n f o r m a t i o n and  t i c i p a t i o n i f the s p e c i f i c e x e r c i s e i s i n t e n d e d and d i s c o v e r y r a t h e r t h a n s k i l l p r a c t i c e .  par-  to f a c i l i t a t e s e l f - o b s e r v a t i o n  Even when i t does f o l l o w the sequence  o f i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l l a b must emphasize l e a r n e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n t o the s t u b b o r n n a t u r e o f emotions and a t t i t u d e s , r a t h e r t h a n emphasize  due  informa-  t i o n p r e s e n t a t i o n as i n s t r u c t i o n d o e s . Among the d e c i s i o n s made by the i n s t r u c t o r i n s t r u c t u r i n g the l e a r n i n g e v e n t i s how how  t o sequence l e a r n i n g t a s k s which l e a d t o the performance o b j e c t i v e ,  t o sequence o b j e c t i v e s w i t h i n a t o p i c , and how  course.  t o sequence t o p i c s w i t h i n a  Gagne and B r i g g s i l l u s t r a t e d f o u r d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f the  problem o f  i n s t r u c t i o n a l sequence as shown i n Appendix:B . Some g u i d e l i n e s f o r s e q u e n c i n g I n c l u d e the maxims o f g e n e r a l t o s p e c i f i c , c o n c r e t e  to a b s t r a c t , f a m i l i a r to  unknown, most to l e a s t f r e q u e n t , s i m p l e t o complex, a s w e l l a s f o l l o w i n g the order d i c t a t e d by l o g i c , and  i n t e r s p e r s i n g i n t e r e s t i n g t a s k s among the r o u t i n e  102  ones  19731:54,55).  (Dickinson,  Gagne t e n d e d t o e m p h a s i z e t h e maxim of  simple t o complex i n sequencing.  o r d e r i n g he r e f e r r e d  HIGHER-ORDER RULES  This  require as prerequisites  to as learning  hierarchies  and c o u l d a p p l y t o complex  psychomotor  operations as well as cognitive  operations. hierarchy  Figure  require as prerequisites  4 indicates the  of cognitive  Structuring  RULES  CONCEPTS  outcomes.  principles  require as prerequisites  f o r technical  e d u c a t i o n i n c l u d e how t o u s e s t u d e n t DISCRIMINATIONS practice appropriately. "massed p r a c t i c e "  only  perienced learners, tice"  F o r example:  and " d i s t r i b u t e d  activity  short  it  rest  prac-  periods  Practice i s also  t o i n c l u d e t h e whole  w i l l be needed a s a w h o l e ,  or not very meaningful  operation  (Dickinson,  performance. learner,  i s only•possible  Knowledge  (Gagne,1974:56) is  difficult  element o f l e a r n i n g h i e r a r c h i e s and p r a c t i c e  to cues f o r performance a r e c o r r e c t .  with specific  4:  Fig.  1973:11*12).  o f t h e components i s h a v i n g a n a c c u r a t e  objectives  i f  Varieties of intellectual skills, arranged (bottom to top) in order of increasing complexity  o r one p a r t a t a t i m e i f t h e o p e r a t i o n  For the learner an important  on performance  (simple types of learning)  f o r l e s s capable o r  l e s s experienced l e a r n e r s . structured  require as prerequisites  with capable and e x -  interspersed with  of alternate  using  sense o f whether  This structuring  o r not h i s responses  principle  through working with e x p l i c i t  standards b u i l t  of feedback  behavioural  i n , a g a i n s t which t o measure t h e l e a r n e r  o f r e s u l t s i n c l u d i n g b o t h a judgment a n d r e p o r t t o t h e  enables him t o modify h i s performance  toward t h e d e s i r e d l e v e l  of  skill.  103  A t t h e m i c r o - l e v e l o f a h i g h l y s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g t a s k i t may be u s e f u l and necessary  t o s t r u c t u r e t h e e n v i r o n m e n t t o maximize l e a r n i n g v i a a sequence o f  e x t e r n a l " i n s t r u c t i o n a l e v e n t s " w h i c h some a u t h o r s f e e l p a r a l l e l d i s c r e t e i n t e r n a l phases o f l e a r n i n g .  The n i n e i n s t r u c t i o n a l e v e n t s w h i c h t o w a r d one  s p e c i f i c learning task are: gaining attention; informing learner o f objective; s t i m u l a t i n g r e c a l l o f p r e r e q u i s i t e s ; presenting the stimulus m a t e r i a l ; providing l e a r n i n g guidance;  e l i c i t i n g t h e performance; p r o v i d i n g f e e d b a c k ; a s s e s s i n g .  p e r f o r m a n c e ; and e n h a n c i n g r e t e n t i o n and t r a n s f e r . Examples o f t h i s sequence o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l e v e n t s a s i t would be v a r i e d t o promote f i v e t y p e s o f l e a r n e d c a p a b i l i t i e s are offered  D i s t i n c t i v e techniques  by Gagne a n d B r i g g s (I974il66).  f o r b u i l d i n g t e c h n i c a l competencies  Most knowledge a c q u i s i t i o n t e c h n i q u e s a r e q u i t e f a m i l i a r , so much so t h a t t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r d e t a i l s may be o v e r l o o k e d .  The c l a s s f o r i n s t a n c e , i s b a s i c -  a l l y a c o l l e c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h each p e r s o n l e a r n i n g on h i s own. o c c a s i o n a l l y does a c l a s s become a r e a l s o c i a l g r o u p i n w h i c h group become a m a j o r i n f l u e n c e on l e a r n i n g ( D i c k i n s o n , 1973*71)•  Only  processes  I t i s therefore  p e c u l i a r l y s u i t e d t o o n l y one o f t h e f o u r b a s i c t y p e s o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e , not t o i n t e r p e r s o n a l l e a r n i n g , v a l u e s e x p l o r a t i o n o r community d e v e l o p m e n t . Ano t h e r i n d i s p e n s a b l e and too f a m i l i a r technique  i s thel e c t u r e . I t i s uniquely  s u i t e d t o g i v i n g very c u r r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n o r t o r a i s e i n t e r e s t i n a s u b j e c t which w i l l subsequently  be e x p l o r e d by o t h e r t e c h n i q u e s .  I t can introduce, analyze,  s t i m u l a t e a n d even i n s p i r e ( B e r g e v i n , M o r r i s , & Smith,1963:157)•  The p a n e l i s  "a g r o u p o f people h a v i n g a p u r p o s e f u l d i s c u s s i o n on a n a s s i g n e d t o p i c " ( o p . c i t . : 117)  i n o r d e r t o examine, i l l u s t r a t e a n d c l a r i f y , n o t d e b a t e .  may be u s e d i n - c o m b i n a t i o n  w i t h any i n f o r m a t i o n g i v i n g t e c h n i q u e  Question  periods  t o g i v e audience  members a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e q u e s t f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n o r e x p l a n a t i o n o f some point.  Q u e s t i o n i n g may a l s o be t u r n e d a r o u n d a n d u s e d by t h e p r e s e n t e r t o check  104 audience comprehension. c i p a n t s t o make s h o r t  The s e m i n a r i s a t e c h n i q u e  informative presentations  g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n by t h e g r o u p .  for allowing several  w h i c h t h e n become t h e b a s i s o f  The s e m i n a r i s u s e d f o r  s p e c i a l i z e d study  may be q u i t e a d v a n c e d , a n d i s d i r e c t e d by a r e c o g n i z e d a u t h o r i t y The f o r e g o i n g t r a d i t i o n a l  three  is  important  t o remember t h a t t h e s e  goal-function  of practice mixed i n t o  only the  outcomes.  been developed the e f f i c i e n t , These p r o v i d e  highly  other  other  " c l o s e d " i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s the student  p r o v i d e d a t each s t e p "  !  are  may a r r i v e  of the o b j e c t i v e .  materials  method  immediate  However because  into  the  program,  a t the terminal p o i n t u n s a t i s f i e d or u n c l e a r about B l o c k urges  (1971:7l) that a variety  of  "learning  be u s e d i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h p r o g r a m m e d i n s t r u c t i o n o r m a s t e r y i n c l u d i n g a s t o c k o f supplementary and a l t e r n a t i v e  which the l e a r n e r can t u r n to i n d i v i d u a l l y , l e a r n i n g problems,  individual  At higher l e v e l s  tutoring,  peer group sessions to d e a l  intensive  to o f f e r authoritative  (for  with  the  d i a g n o s i n g and a n a l y z i n g  s k i l l s are taught  through  skills.  institute skill  situations  complexity).  Motor s k i l l s and p r o c e d u r a l  cor-  m e t h o d s may be  i n s t r u c t i o n o n some b o d y o f k n o w l e d g e ,  or the c l i n i c  some  learning  a n d e v e n r e t e a c h i n g o f some b a s i c  of continuing education b r i e f  and  learning materials  u s e d s u c h a s t h e modern symposium (a s e r i e s o f r e l a t e d s p e e c h e s ) ,  issue),  "char-  i s n o t a b l e t o make a d -  j u s t m e n t s beyond the b r a n c h i n g o f t a s k s w h i c h i s w r i t t e n  or unresolved  types  objectives  focused  (Dickinson,1973 70).  these are  realistic  practice.  the  p r e s e n t a t i o n of- m a t e r i a l i n s m a l l s t e p s w i t h  of r e s u l t s  (designed  potentially  co-opted into  an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d  knowledge  materials,  which  program.  a c t e r i z e d by a n o r d e r l y  rectives"  a  cit.:l47).  of  t e c h n i q u e s do n o t s e r v e  They a r e a p p r o p r i a t e l y  known a s p r o g r a m m e d i n s t r u c t i o n .  parts  types  to the e x t e n t t h a t t e c h n i c a l knowledge and s k i l l  There have r e c e n t l y  consequently  (op.  information-disseminating techniques could  be u s e d i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h t e c h n i q u e s p e c u l i a r t o t h e o t h e r But i t  parti-  demonstration,  of  105  practice,  and c o a c h i n g .  procedural s k i l l s  It  i s u s e f u l to use s i m u l a t i o n s to d e v e l o p motor and  when t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n t o w h i c h t h e s k i l l  is  ferred occurs only  rarely,  the r i s k s i n v o l v e d  i n the r e a l s i t u a t i o n are h i g h as w i t h rescue  first  aid,  disasters —  or a i r  traffic  All  trans-  as i n space t r a v e l and deep s e a e x p l o r a t i o n ,  control.  For complex s i t u a t i o n s l i k e  a c h l o r i n e gas l e a k , f o r e x a m p l e — p h y s i c a l ,  s i m u l a t i o n s may be u s e d  t o be  or  when  operations, environmental  s o c i a l - and computer  concurrently.  o f t h e f o r e g o i n g t e c h n i q u e s a r e e n g i n e e r e d t o move t h e l e a r n e r a s  as p o s s i b l e to a precise c o g n i t i v e  o r psychomotor o b j e c t i v e .  e m o t i o n a l o r v a l u a t i o n c h a n g e , a n d t h e y do n o t l i f t ticipation.  T h e y do n o t  quickly address  c i t i z e n s from apathy to  T h e y do r e p l a c e i g n o r a n c e w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d c e r t a i n k i n d s  incompetence w i t h  skill.  parof  •  Outcomes and i n s t r u m e n t s : a s s e s s i n g t h e l e v e l  of  achievement  With education designed to b u i l d t e c h n i c a l competencies i n the l e a r n e r i s a b a s i c a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c h o i c e between t a k i n g n o r m - r e f e r e n c e d measures success or c r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d  measures o f s u c c e s s .  a r e d e s i g n e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e among l e a r n e r s , i n terms of t h e i r learners  (eg.  few h i g h  o r few j o b s ) then n o r m - r e f e r e n c e d t e s t i n g i s employed to determine a t a In  s y s t e m l e a r n e r p e r f o r m a n c e a n d r e w a r d may h a v e l i t t l e r e f e r e n c e d t e s t i n g i s e v e n more p e r v a s i v e l y ent manner.  Here  the l e a r n e r i s  In order to i n s t i t u t e  this  such a r e l a t i v e relationship.  i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h h i s own p r e v i o u s  systematic learner s t r i v i n g , , i t  o f e v a l u a t i o n i s employed where i t  between grades,  given  grading Criterion-  competitive but i n a r a d i c a l l y  outset to d e s i g n i n s t r u c t i o n around b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s sort  other  Where c o m p e t i t i o n  i s d e s i r e d o r r e q u i r e d because o f l i m i t e d rewards  moment w h i c h c o m p e t i t o r h a s t h e b e s t p e r f o r m a n c e .  of  Norm-referenced measures  t o r a n k them a g a i n s t e a c h  performance a b i l i t y a t a given t i m e .  i s desirable  there  differ-  performance.  i s necessary from  the  f o r the l e a r n e r .  This  t o h a v e t h e maximum n u m b e r  106  o f l e a r n e r s r e a c h competence w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e c r i t e r i o n performance, and where a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s a r e a d a p t e d t o g i v e each l e a r n e r t h e amount o f time he needs t o a t t a i n mastery o f a g i v e n l e a r n i n g t a s k .  I n such an " a b s o l u t e "  g r a d i n g system,to use B l o c k ' s t e r m i n o l o g y , performance and reward a r e i n t e g r a l l y related. There a r e p o t e n t i a l l y f o u r phases o f achievement e v a l u a t i o n : i ) the e n t r y b e h a v i o u r assessment, o r p r e t e s t p r i o r t o i n s t r u c t i o n ; i i ) i n - p r o g r e s s measures, a l s o c a l l e d embedded t e s t s , o r f o r m a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n ; i i i ) summative e v a l u a t i o n , t e r m i n a l assessment o r e x i t b e h a v i o u r ; and i v ) f o l l o w - u p , t r a n s f e r assessment or l o n g i t u d i n a l studies.  F o r n o r m - r e f e r e n c e d e v a l u a t i o n the f o c u s i s on e n t r y  b e h a v i o u r because i t d e t e r m i n e s the degree o f l e a r n e r r e a d i n e s s f o r the i n s t r u c t i o n w h i c h i s about t o be a d m i n i s t e r e d .  Formative e v a l u a t i o n guides teacher  b e h a v i o u r toward t h e group, k e e p i n g i n mind the normal d i s t r i b u t i o n c u r v e , s e e k i n g t o pass the m a j o r i t y w i t h a few h i g h a c h i e v e r s .  Terminal evaluation  o c c u r s a c c o r d i n g t o a s e t time p e r i o d a t term's end o r week's end and s t u d e n t s a r e graded a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r performance a t t h a t d e a d l i n e .  Follow-up studies  may be done t o d e t e r m i n e the r e l a t i o n between i n - c l a s s performance and t r a n s f e r performance, o r as l o n g - r a n g e p r e d i c t o r s o f s u c c e s s . With c r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d e v a l u a t i o n the f o c u s i s on e x i t b e h a v i o u r because i t i s dependent upon t h e l e a r n e r ' s achievement o f competence i n r e g a r d t o the b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s and h i s a b i l i t y t o demonstrate the c r i t e r i o n p e r f o r m a n c e . E n t r y b e h a v i o u r assessments check s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r competencies p r e r e q u i s i t e t o the i n s t r u c t i o n a l u n i t and from the o u t s e t h e l p t o i n d i v i d u a l i z e treatment.  instructional  I n - p r o g r e s s measures a r e l e a r n e r , not t e a c h e r - o r i e n t e d and must  r e l a t e r e s u l t s back i m m e d i a t e l y t o the l e a r n e r so he c a n a d j u s t h i s p e r f o r m a n c e . D i c k i n s o n (1°73J 13)  s u g g e s t s t h a t i n - p r o g r e s s , m e a s u r e s s h o u l d be k e p t ..brief,  and a r e . i n t e n d e d t o be d i a g n o s t i c , g i v i n g a d e t a i l e d , i n - d e p t h p r o f i l e o f l e a r n e r performance, t o guide supplementary a c t i v i t i e s .  They a r e not meant t o  107  be graded a s t h i s would d e t r a c t f r o m t h e i r v a l u e f o r t h e l e a r n e r .  Clientele orientation characteristics Goal o r i e n t a t i o n predominates i n b u i l d i n g t e c h n i c a l competencies because c l e a r l y t h e s e c a p a b i l i t i e s a r e u s e f u l f o r something.  The c l i e n t may be s e e k i n g  employment,' s e e k i n g v o c a t i o n a l advancement, s e e k i n g home-centred s k i l l s , o r s e e k i n g t o keep up w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l advancements.  I n some c a s e s t h e compe-  t e n c i e s b e i n g sought a r e c r a f t s , s p o r t and r e c r e a t i o n a l s k i l l s i n which case an a c t i v i t y o r i e n t a t i o n may n o t o n l y m o t i v a t e t h e t y p e o f e d u c a t i o n a l  situation  the l e a r n e r chooses t o engage i n , b u t a l s o m o t i v a t e t h e t r a n s f e r o f what i s learned i n t o the n a t u r a l s e t t i n g .  Locations  f o r technical education  Technical  education requires props.  When i t i s psychomotor o r p r o c e d u r a l  i t may i n v o l v e t r a d e s s c h o o l s and p o l y t e c h n i c s , a l l k i n d s , gymnasia, p o o l s and s p o r t i n g a r e n a s .  s t u d i o s , l a b s - and workshops o f When t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s  m a i n l y c o g n i t i v e , demanding knowledge mastery and i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s , i t may r e q u i r e computer f a c i l i t i e s ,  i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e s , and d i s p l a y media.  I n other  words, l o c a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n a r e s i t e s which have s p e c i a l i z e d t o o l s and equipment t o a i d t h e development o f c o m p e t e n c i e s .  108  Interpersonal  Education  Goal, f u n c t i o n , and t y p i c a l c o n t e n t s I n g e n e r a l terms the o v e r a l l g o a l o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l e d u c a t i o n i s the a t t a i n ment o f b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f o t h e r p e r s o n s . 1973  Henry C. Smith, a u t h o r o f the  text " S e n s i t i v i t y Training", defines several kinds o f understanding o f  o t h e r s which may be a c h i e v e d : r a t i o n a l i s t i c , a r t i s t i c ,  (3-9)•  p r a c t i c a l , and e m p i r i c a l  R a t i o n a l i s t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g embraces s u b j e c t i v e i m p r e s s i o n s a s a s o u r c e  o f knowledge s u p e r i o r t o , and independent  of, empirical facts.  Rationalistic  u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s the degree t o which a p e r s o n f e e l s c l o s e t o , sympathetic and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f a n o t h e r p e r s o n .  with,  Because i t s t r e s s e s i n n e r r e a l i t i e s , "the  o n l y measure o f t h i s k i n d o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s s u b j e c t i v e , i . e . , we understand a person when we f e e l we understand him" ( o p . c i t . : 5 ) .  A r t i s t i c understanding  .  i s a l s o a s u b j e c t i v e , n o n - s c i e n t i f i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g , b u t one which s t r e s s e s o u t e r realities.  I n c o n t r a s t t o the s c i e n t i s t who a b s t r a c t s f o r t h e purpose  d i c t i o n , the a r t i s t compresses f o r the purpose visual reality.  of pre-  o f i n t e n s i f y i n g the immediate  A r t i s t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s t h e degree t o which a p e r s o n i s aware  o f and r e s p o n s i v e t o the v i s u a l , a u d i b l e , and t a n g i b l e d e s c r i p t o r s o f a n o t h e r person.  P r a c t i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s o b j e c t i v e r a t h e r t h a n s u b j e c t i v e , emphasizing  the degree  t o which one person c a n i n f l u e n c e a n o t h e r t o behave i n a way t h a t t h e  f i r s t person d e s i r e s .  I t i s s p e c i f i c a l l y manipulative r a t h e r than  p r e d i c t i v e as e m p i r i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s .  generally  Where p r a c t i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s  u n c o n s c i o u s , u n s y s t e m a t i c and i n c o m p l e t e , e m p i r i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s c o n s c i o u s , s y s t e m a t i c and complete. degree  E m p i r i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n human r e l a t i o n s i s the  t o which one person can p r e d i c t a n o t h e r person's f e e l i n g s , thoughts and  b e h a v i o u r under f u t u r e c o n d i t i o n s from.what i s known about them i n t h e p r e s e n t . Interpersonal  e d u c a t i o n does n o t l e a d t o e m p i r i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g •. I t may  improve  109  demonstrably  a r t i s t i c and  p r a c t i c a l understanding of other persons.  But i t s  g r e a t e s t a p p e a l i s the d e e p e n i n g o f a sense o f r a t i o n a l i s t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f others. The  goal of i n t e r p e r s o n a l education  relations.  Towards t h a t end  i s the improvement o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l  i t f u l f i l s the f u n c t i o n o f d e v e l o p i n g  "behaviours t h a t l e a d t o m u t u a l l y  s a t i s f y i n g personal  a t t i t u d e s and  interactions.  I t accomplishes  t h i s by g u i d i n g l e a r n e r s i n the p r a c t i c e o f more e f f e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n , expression,  and r e s p o n s e t o o t h e r s ; and  i n the p r a c t i c e o f c o n t r i b u t i n g t o  q u a l i t a t i v e growth o f g r o u p s , s k i l l s w h i c h a r e u s e f u l i n a l l a s p e c t s life.  self-  of  the  social  F o r t h i s r e a s o n c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t i s i s found t o range f r o m g e n e r a l  per-  s o n a l growth i n the component s k i l l s o f human r e l a t i o n s , t o the p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s o f m a r r i a g e , p a r e n t i n g and the a g i n g c y c l e e n c o u n t e r e d i n f a m i l y t o the p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d i n management, h e a l t h t e a c h i n g and  s o c i a l work, and  life,  sciences,  t o the a m e l i o r a t i o n o f community l i f e w h i c h  takes  p l a c e when e s t r a n g e d r a c i a l , e t h n i c , o r r e l i g i o u s groups improve t h e i r m u t u a l r e s p e c t and  involvement.  Typical contents one  of i n t e r p e r s o n a l education  programs a r e l i k e l y t o i n c l u d e  o r s e v e r a l m a j o r s k i l l s o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication.  Regional  The  North-West  E d u c a t i o n a l Laboratory(NWKEL), P o r t l a n d , Oregon, d e v e l o p e d the f o l l o w i n g  i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the gap i n h e r e n t i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l communications r e v e a l i n g the principle of p a r t i a l information.  I n t e r p e r s o n a l communication  includes attempts  by the sender t o convey a message, whether o r not i t i s r e c e i v e d , as w e l l as a c t i o n s t h a t the r e c e i v e r r e s p o n d s t o as messages, whether o r not t h o s e a c t i o n s were i n t e n d e d a s messages.  The  n a t u r e o f human i n d i v i d u a l i t y does n o t a l l o w a  g u a r a n t e e t h a t the message s e n t w i l l be' the message r e c e i v e d . a s c h e m a t i c summary o f the i n t e r p e r s o n a l  gap.  Figure 5  offers  110  Fig. 5  '' S c h e m a t i c summary o f t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l gap (N-W.R.E.L.,1970,Unit 8, Handout 3)  The  i n t e r p e r s o n a l gap c o n t a i n s  f e r r e d t o as coding and decoding  two t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s .  operations.  i n t h e l i g h t o f h i s own i n t e n t i o n s ,  These s t e p s a r e r e -  E a c h o f us sees h i s own a c t i o n s  b u t we see t h e o t h e r ' s a c t i o n s i n t h e  l i g h t o f t h e e f f e c t t h e y have o n u s .  This i s the p r i n c i p l e o f p a r t i a l informa-  t i o n : e a c h p a r t y t o a n i n t e r a c t i o n h a s d i f f e r e n t and p a r t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n  about  the i n t e r p e r s o n a l g a p . I t i s now p o s s i b l e t o draw a more c o m p l e t e p i c t u r e o f the i n t e r p e r s o n a l gap a s f o l l o w s :  ( j. \  Private, known to A only  Effect on D  A's Actions  A's Intentions  Private, known to B only  / Public, \ -/ observable V \ by anybody /  \ j — J  1  • •  1  1  System of decoding  System of encoding  Must be inferred by A  Must be inferred by B  Fig.  6 : T r a n s f o r m a t i o n s a c r o s s t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l gap (N-W.R.E.L.,1970,Unit 8,Handout 3)  I t i s t h i s p r i n c i p l e o f p a r t i a l Information,  c r e a t i n g an e s s e n t i a l i n t e r p e r s o n a l  gap.which i s so p r o b l e m a t i c i n human r e l a t i o n s and i s t h e s o u r c e o f l e a r n i n g t a s k s d i r e c t e d toward b u i l d i n g m a j o r component s k i l l s o f human r e l a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g more s e n s i t i v e p e r c e p t i o n , or intervention.  authentic  s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , and c o n s t r u c t i v e  response  C o n t e n t s may a l s o be a r r a n g e d t o f o c u s o n g r o u p i n t e r a c t i o n s  r a t h e r t h a n s i m p l y d y a d i c i n t e r a c t i o n s , i n w h i c h c a s e a whole new s e t o f s k i l l s  Ill  a r e added. The  s k i l l o f s e n s i t i v e p e r c e p t i o n h a s broken down i n t o s e v e r a l component  p a r t s aimed a t b r e a k i n g t h e g r i p o f e x p e c t a t i o n s which p l a c e h a l o s around some persons and stigmas on o t h e r s , both o f w h i c h obscure a c c u r a t e p e r c e p t i o n s R. E.L.,1970,Unit 7|Handout 4 ) .  (N-W.  S m i t h has a n a l y z e d p e r c e p t i o n i n t o f o u r k i n d s :  o b s e r v a t i o n a l , t h e o r e t i c a l , i d i o g r a p h i c , and nomothetic ( s e n s i t i v i t y t o group c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) (197309).  He a l s o l i s t s t h e development o f s e l f - i n s i g h t and  awareness o f group p r o c e s s e s  (1973:30) among' s e n s i t i v i t y o b j e c t i v e s .  A second major i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l , a u t h e n t i c s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , s i m i l a r l y a c t s as a g e n e r a l program o b j e c t i v e . to  T h i s s k i l l i s n o t as s i m p l e a m a t t e r a s t r y i n g  be h o n e s t o r s i n c e r e , due t o t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n h e r e n t i n  the i n t e r p e r s o n a l gap. W i t h i n t h e gap, words o r a c t i o n s used t o e x p r e s s may n o t even m i n i m a l l y  convey what was i n t e n d e d .  Due t o t h e gap t h r e e  oneself principles  of a c t i o n accrue: i ) D i f f e r e n t i n t e n t i o n s may be e x p r e s s e d  by t h e same a c t i o n ;  i i ) The same a c t i o n may l e a d t o d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t s ; i i i ) D i f f e r e n t a c t i o n s may l e a d t o t h e same e f f e c t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y i t i s j u s t a s easy t o m i s r e p r e s e n t  oneself v e r b a l l y as i t i s to  make f a u l t y e x p r e s s i o n o f o n e s e l f through a c t i o n s . to  Consequently i t i s necessary  p r a c t i c e e x p r e s s i n g a c c u r a t e l y what one e x p e r i e n c e s o r p e r c e i v e s . A t h i r d major s k i l l o f human r e l a t i o n s i s r e s p o n d i n g  structively . t i v e response.  o r i n t e r v e n i n g con-  George M. Gazda e t a l have i d e n t i f i e d e i g h t d i m e n s i o n s o f c o n s t r u c The e i g h t a r e :  empathy, r e s p e c t , warmth, c o n c r e t e n e s s ,  ness, s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e , c o n f r o n t a t i o n , and immediacy.  "Empathy" i s demonstrated by  a r e s p o n d e n t who n o t o n l y a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t s t h e e x p r e s s e d s p e a k e r b u t who makes an " a d d i t i v e r e s p o n s e "  genuine-  emotions o f t h e  t h a t conveys u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f under-  l y i n g , u n e x p r e s s e d and perhaps u n c o n s c i o u s f e e l i n g s o f t h e s p e a k e r (Gazda e t a l , 1973:55)•  "Respect" a s used i n t h i s c o n t e x t r e f e r s t o b e l i e f i n t h e w o r t h and  112  p o t e n t i a l of another person.  "Warmth" i s a term used t o i d e n t i f y  responses o f the observer which convey a t t e n t i o n and i n t e r e s t arouse i n him the sense o f b e i n g accepted and s i g n i f i c a n t creteness",  t o the speaker and  to the observer. "Con-  being s p e c i f i c , i s e s p e c i a l l y important i n the e a r l y phases o f h e l p -  i n g to thouroughly to formulate honest,  the non-verbal  explore  problems a n d i n t h e f i n a l phase o f h e l p i n g t h e c l i e n t  specific plans.  "Genuineness" denotes responses which a r e c l e a r ,  authentic depictions of the observer's  external expressions  of h i s internal state.  another aspect of constructively used a p p r o p r i a t e l y  reactions,  and thus are congruent  "Self-disclosure"  responding to others.  is'considered  When s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e  to reveal personal information that demonstrates  similarity  a n d c l o s e n e s s i t c a n e n c o u r a g e t h e s p e a k e r i n h i s own s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n . problematic dimension of the h e l p f u l constructive confrontation  the respondent  response i s " c o n f r o n t a t i o n " .  In  o r o f a d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n . t h i n g s he  h a s b e e n s a y i n g a b o u t h i m s e l f a n d t h i n g s he h a s b e e n d o i n g .  " I m m e d i a c y " i s one  dimensions o f response as i t deals with the response  o r w i t h what i s t r a n s p i r i n g between t h e c o n v e r s a n t s .  itself,  T h i s i s where t h e a g e n t ' s  c a p a c i t y t o model f a c i l i t a t i v e a t t i t u d e s and i n i t i a t i n g b e h a v i o u r s  apparent  A more  i n f o r m s t h e speaker o f a d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e  c o n t e n t a n d a f f e c t o f what he i s s a y i n g ,  o f t h e more d i f f i c u l t  is  i s most  ( o p . cit.:55-59) •  A f o u r t h major s k i l l  of interpersonal relations providing a further  of l e a r n i n g tasks i s the capacity f o r contribution to the q u a l i t i a t i v e of groups.  Hedley Dimock o f M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y h a s i d e n t i f i e d s e v e r a l  to the q u a l i t y o f group i n t e r a c t i o n s  (1970:2-4).  " e m o t i o n a l c l i m a t e " o r the degree o f s e c u r i t y , w h i c h members f e e l .  refers  growth dimensions  of these-is  t r u s t and e s p e c i a l l y acceptance  The s e c o n d d i m e n s i o n i s " g r o u p i n v o l v e m e n t "  t o w h i c h members f e e l o c c u p i e d , a t t r a c t e d , "Interaction"  The f i r s t  source  or the extent  o r absorbed w i t h the group.  t o t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h members r e l a t e  and the e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f those i n t e r a c t i o n s .  t o each  other,  "Cohesion", the fourth  11.3  major dimension o f group growth, both i n t h e strength degree ity"  indicates the s o l i d a r i t y  or unity  of feeling,  o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s among m e m b e r s , a n d i n t h e  o f f e e l i n g t h e y have o f t h e group a s t h e i r s .  or i t s capacity to set goals,  Finally,  "group  productiv-  make d e c i s i o n s a n d a c c o m p l i s h i t s i n t e n d e d  t a s k s i s seen as a major dimension o f group maturing and s i g n i f i c a n t degree  o f members'  s a t i s f a c t i o n with the group.  acquire are behaviours of  productive  f o r the group,  designed to develop constructive  The  i n these  basic s k i l l s  elaborately particular  as a group.  family relations  behaviours  L e a r n i n g t a s k s may be  that contribute  to the q u a l i t a t i v e  ways.  of interpersonal  developed theories purpose  B e h a v i o u r s h e may a d o p t  and those which a r e s e l f - s e r v i n g and c o u n t e r -  f o r the group a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n Appendix C .  growth o f groups  seeks to  which h e l p a c o l l e c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s d e v e l o p a sense  group belonging and a task e f f e c t i v e n e s s  which a r e e f f e c t i v e  What t h e l e a r n e r  relations  may be c o m b i n e d w i t h many more  o f t h e human c o n d i t i o n d e p e n d i n g u p o n t h e l e a r n e r ' s  i n developing  interpersonal  skills.  Persons i n t e r e s t e d  o r e d u c a t i o n c o u l d draw on l i f e s p a n t h e o r i e s  illustrated  i n Appendix A .  s i o n s . c o u l d combine i n t e r p e r s o n a l s h i p w h i c h move f r o m l ) better  skills  self-exploration  self-understanding,  basic  of the c l i e n t ,  profesrelation-  through  d i r e c t i o n and a c t i o n .  c o - w o r k e r s may d i s p l a y  o f human r e l a t i o n s w i t h s t u d y  i s s u e s w h i c h may a r i s e  i n groups,  2)  These  intervention  i n management  o f human r e l a t i o n s h a v e b e e n c o m b i n e d w i t h  t e a m - b u i l d i n g and c o l l a b o r a t i o n .  skills  authority  on t h e p a r t  are. e a c h amenable t o c o n s t r u c t i v e  of t h e broader communications s t y l e s effective  i n the helping  a s d e s c r i b e d b y G a z d a e t al$."973:24) . F o r p e r s o n s  or marketing, the basic s k i l l s  educators  w i t h the phases o f t h e h e l p i n g  t o 3) more a p p r o p r i a t e  phases o f t h e h e l p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p from the helper,  Persons interested  in  such a s the  s e q u e n c e o f s t a g e s w h i c h was p r e p a r e d b y V i v i a n R . McCoy f o r a d u l t  (1977:16)  f o r the  i n order  study  to enable  C o m m u n i t y w o r k e r s may c o m b i n e t h e o f t h e developmental phases i n groups, t h e group a s a s y s t e m , methods f o r  114  r i g o r o u s o b s e r v a t i o n o f t i m e , r o l e , and t a s k b o u n d a r i e s i n groups, and related s k i l l s .  other  So i t can be seen t h a t beyond the b a s i c s k i l l s o f p a i r and  group r e l a t i o n s , the c o n t e n t o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s may  take  many v a r i a t i o n s depending upon the a n t i c i p a t e d a r e a s o f a p p l i c a t i o n .  Methodology geared t o n a t u r e o f the g o a l Because the c o n t e n t o f t h i s branch encompasses g o a l s which a r e more exp l i c i t l y e m o t i o n a l t h a n any o t h e r branch o f p r a c t i c e , i n c l u d i n g the a f f e c t i v e outcomes o f the s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g branch, i t s methods a r e geared t o e m o t i o n a l outcomes and d i s t i n g u i s h i t c l e a r l y from o t h e r t y p e s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e . Perhaps w i t h some l a t i t u d e o f a p p l i c a t i o n the term " l a b o r a t o r y " has been chosen t o d e s c r i b e the p a r t i c u l a r methodology employed by t h i s branch o f p r a c t i c e . i n t e r p e r s o n a l l a b o r a t o r y method may  be seen as h a v i n g s e v e r a l key  The  characteristics:  i t must be conducted  w i t h o t h e r persons a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d ; i t tends t o be  i n t e n s i v e , extended,  and sometimes i s o l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e which removes the l e a r n e r  from h i s h a b i t u a l environment;  i t f o c u s e s on the a n a l y s i s o f p r e s e n t  an  behaviours  and t h e i r a l t e r a t i o n i f n e c e s s a r y ; and i t d e a l s s e l e c t i v e l y w i t h the component s k i l l s o f human r e l a t i o n s . In r e g a r d t o s e n s i t i v e p e r c e p t i o n , Henry Smith d e s c r i b e s f o u r t y p e s o f s e n s i t i v i t y sequenced i n what he c o n c l u d e s i s the most l i k e l y o r d e r o f a c q u i s i t i o n (1973: pp.24-27).  O b s e r v a t i o n a l s e n s i t i v i t y i s the a b i l i t y t o l o o k a t and  l i s t e n t o a n o t h e r p e r s o n and remember what he l o o k e d l i k e and s a i d .  Theoretical  s e n s i t i v i t y i s the a b i l i t y t o s e l e c t and use t h e o r i e s t o make more a c c u r a t e p r e d i c t i o n s about what o t h e r s a r e l i k e l y t o f e e l , say, and do.  Nomothetic s e n s i -  t i v i t y t o the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a g i v e n type i s the a b i l i t y t o use t h i s knowledge i n making more a c c u r a t e p r e d i c t i o n s about i n d i v i d u a l s who person partake o f t h a t given t y p e .  i n some a s p e c t o f t h e i r  I d i o g r a p h i c s e n s i t i v i t y combines i n t u i t i v e  i m p r e s s i o n s i n t o p a t t e r n s t h a t r e n d e r an a c c u r a c y o f p r e d i c t i o n from knowledge o f  115  t h e ways i n w h i c h a n i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r s f r o m h i s g r o u p t y p e . these types and judges goal,  of sensitivity  a s l e a r n i n g g o a l s w i t h s e v e r a l methods f o r l e a r n i n g  the appropriateness o f each t o h e l p the l e a r n e r achieve each type o f  a s reported i n Table 6 (Smith, Since cognitive  thetic  Coals of Training  are de-  emphasized i n f a v o r  sensitivit-  w h i c h p r e p a r e one f o r c o n c r e t e  experience  and i n t e r a c t i o n  other i n d i v i d u a l s . illustrates  Table  T-Group Participation  Observational Sensitivity  of observa-  t i o n a l and idiographic i e s  Types of Training and Their Goals  t h e o r e t i c a l a n d nomo- .  sensitivity  1973:28).  outcomes a r e  not a major focus o f t h i s type o f practice,  Smith a l s o matches  6  No No  Yes  Yes  Nomothetic Sensitivity  No  Yes  Yes  Q  No  Table 6 :  (Smith,  1>73:28)  the appropriateness o f T-Group p a r t i c i p a t i o n and c l i n i c a l  to the development o f these l a t t e r k i n d s o f s e n s i t i v i t y . p r o d u c e d by p s y c h o l o g y  personal involvement which i n v o l v e s  and c l i n i c a l  him i n the e x p l o r a t i o n o f other persons and t h e i r  s u b s u m e d h e r e w i t h o t h e r modes o f l e a r n i n g u n d e r t h e b r o a d t e r m laboratory  method".  T h i s i s done s i n c e e v e n t h e c l i n i c a l  be s i m u l a t i o n s o n l y o r h i g h l y agent-in-training) pression,  response,  educa-  intense training  situations, are "interpersonal  training i s likely to  supervised i n order to give the learner,  opportunity  outcomes  type o f a d u l t  T-Group p a r t i c i p a t i o n which r e q u i r e s  o f the learner i n exploring himself,  training  The c o g n i t i v e  i n s t r u c t i o n are t y p i c a l o f the f i r s t  t i o n p r a c t i c e w h i c h was d e f i n e d .  Clinical Training  Theoretical Sensitivity  Idiographic Sensitivity  with  Psychology Instruction  t o e x p e r i m e n t w i t h new s k i l l s  (the  of perception,  and i n t e r v e n t i o n .  Obstacles to improving interpersonal  relations  Whichever methods and t e c h n i q u e s a r e employed t o r e a c h t h e e d u c a t i o n a l tives  ex-  s e t , there are i n e v i t a b l y  objec-  obstacles to t h i s type o f emotional l e a r n i n g as  116  t h e r e a r e o b s t a c l e s t o overcome i n c o g n i t i v e Gazda and h i s c o - a u t h o r s The f i r s t  o f these,  which f a v o r s reference, them.  identified five  "selective  one's preferred  i s t h e tendency t o perceive  habitual o r comfortably f a m i l i a r )  a n d t o deny r e a l i t i e s which a r e i n c o n g r u e n t  Thus one g e n e r a l l y  sense t o h i m whatever  change.  only  that  frame o f  by r e f u s i n g t o perceive  p e r c e i v e s h i m s e l f a s - f u n c t i o n i n g i n w a y s t h a t make  their disruptive  effect  second o b s t a c l e t o l e a r n i n g those t r u t h s for positive  George  (Gazda e t a l , 1973:40-44).  such obstacles  perception",  (i.e.,  and psychomotor l e a r n i n g .  Identification  on others.  "Identification"  is a  about one's s e l f which a r e p r e r e q u i s i t e  involves  anxiety  r e d u c t i o n through  ascribing  to o n e ' s s e l f t h e accomplishments and other v a l u e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f another person such a s one's spouse, o n e ' s c a r o r home.  group such a s o n e ' s p r o f e s s i o n ,  (but less attainable)  ( b u t more a t t a i n a b l e )  activity.  preoccupation with that a c t i v i t y .  a t t r i b u t i n g o n e ' s own  e s p e c i a l l y when t h e s e m o t i v e s a r e a s o u r c e  the a b i l i t y  t o recognize  especially relevant to  t h e s e o b s t a c l e s when t h e y  and t h e a b i l i t y , t o h e l p l e a r n e r s d i m i n i s h t h e i r i n t e r f e r e n c e  principles f o r interpersonal  Given the subtlety  with  (1973*37-42):  arise,  learning.  education  o f t h e l e a r n i n g outcomes sought by i n t e r p e r s o n a l  a n d t h e many o b s t a c l e s t o i t s a c h i e v e m e n t ,  and e x p l i c i t  pre-  T h u s t h e a g e n t who u n d e r t a k e s t o a s s i s t p e o p l e i n a c h i e v i n g  t h i s branch o f p r a c t i c e ,  program development  f o r a more  I t i s a l s o o f t e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by extreme  a t t i t u d i n a l a n d b e h a v i o u r a l improvement n e e d s , a s a s k i l l  Structuring  the acceptance and  activity,  "Projection" involves  motives and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o others, of great anxiety.  socially  t h a t was m o t i v a t e d b y s o c i a l l y u n a c c e p t a b l e i m -  "Compensation" blocks s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n by j u s t i f y i n g  development o f a l e s s p r e f e r r e d ferred  such a s  " R a t i o n a l i z a t i o n " i s a process i n which a person gives  acceptable reasons f o r behaviour pulses .  o r object  Smith has o f f e r e d f i v e  practice,  guides t o  (1) f o r m u l a t e r e a l i s t i c g o a l s t h a t a r e s p e c i f i c  components o f t h e d e s i r e d outcomes;  ( 2 ) sequence t h e g o a l s ,  alternating  117  complementary i n s t r u c t i o n a l and c l i n i c a l p e r i o d s ;  (3) r e d u c e  through sequencing t a s k s from l e a s t s t r e s s f u l towards and through r a t i n g success o f mastery r a t h e r each o t h e r ;  training. ability  The r o l e  t h e more s t r e s s f u l  than ranking p a r t i c i p a n t s  (4) f i t t h e m e t h o d t o t h e g o a l r a t h e r  t h i n g s w i t h one m e t h o d s u c h a s t h e T - G r o u p ;  than t r y i n g  to accomplish a l l  o f e v a l u a t i o n f o r l e a r n e r outcomes and. f o r program  techniques f o r developing  tasks,  against  a n d (5) e v a l u a t e t h e s u c c e s s  w i l l be r e v i e w e d a f t e r a c l o s e r l o o k a t t h e l e a r n i n g  Distinctive  defensiveness  of  account-  techniques.  effective  i n t e r p e r s o n a l a t t i t u d e s and behaviours S e v e r a l k i n d s o f t e c h n i q u e s have been d e v e l o p e d f o r l e a r n i n g t a s k s aimed a t change i n e m o t i o n - c h a r g e d a t t i t u d e s a n d b e h a v i o u r s .  T h e r e a r e many v a r i e t i e s  the case study used such as group d i s c u s s i o n of w r i t t e n accounts, interview nature  texts,  response  sheets f o r f i l m e d interviews  or a silhouetted actual interview.  sense o f immediate i n v o l v e m e n t . role-playing interactions, Behaviour logs s e n s i t i z e iours,  of either a simulated  participation i s possible  settings.  one t e c h n i q u e f o r p r a c t i c i n g a c c u r a t e  attitudes  And  labs enable the l e a r n e r to p r a c t i c e m i c r o - s k i l l s of  reporting  or personality  technique f o r accurate  specific, traits  observable  behav-  structured perception,  F o r example,  s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n i s behaviour  description  actions without imputing motives  (N-W.R.T.L.,1970,Unit  3i'Handout 2).  .Another  self-expression i s direct description of feelings  than l a b e l i n g the other person judgmentally o n e ' s own f e e l i n g s .  with  t h e l e a r n e r t o p e r c e p t i o n o f h i s own f e e l i n g s ,  e x p r e s s i o n and response components o f i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h o t h e r s .  which i n v o l v e s  a  and w i t h group i m p r o v i s a t i o n o f a s o c i a l s i m u l a t i o n .  and h a b i t s i n n a t u r a l r a t h e r than c o n t r o l l e d  interpersonal  programmed  A l l of these a f f o r d the l e a r n e r  More d i r e c t  of  as an i n d i r e c t  Both o f these s k i l l s markedly improve  technique which can improve s k i l l ' i n r e s p o n d i n g to o t h e r s  way o f  rather  expressing  self-expression.  A  i s m i r r o r i n g what t h e  7118  o t h e r has conveyed both i n c o n t e n t and i n a f f e c t .  T h i s i s o f c o u r s e a conven-  i e n t p e r c e p t i o n check f o r the l i s t e n e r , but can a l s o have a v e r y s u p p o r t i v e e f f e c t on t h e f i r s t s p e a k e r . been h e a r d .  I t g i v e s the speaker a g r a t i f y i n g sense o f h a v i n g  Furthermore i t educates  the s p e a k e r t o more e f f e c t i v e s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n  so t h a t t h e message he i n t e n d s a c t u a l l y g e t s conveyed.  As w e l l as t h e s e i n t e r v i e w  s k i l l s s e v e r a l t y p e s o f group a c t i v i t i e s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e s e p e r s o n a l and e m o t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l outcomes. S i n g e r e t al.(l975) have d i s t i n g u i s h e d s i x k i n d s o f s m a l l group e v e n t s which f o c u s group a c t i v i t y on e i t h e r l e a r n i n g o r b e h a v i o u r a l change t a s k s , a t e i t h e r a group, i n t e r p e r s o n a l o r i n t r a p e r s o n a l l e v e l .  Three o f  t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s , ' t h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l l e a r n i n g - group, t h e group p r o c e s s l e a r n i n g group, a n d the p e r s o n a l growth group a r e a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h i s t y p e o f p r a c t i c e .  Outcomes and i n s t r u m e n t s : p r o v i d i n g feedback  on p e r s o n a l and group  behaviour  Assessment can be made o f both p e r s o n a l growth i n t h e a b i l i t y t o i n t e r a c t w e l l w i t h o t h e r s , and group development toward c o h e s i o n and e f f i c i e n c y . development i n s e n s i t i v i t y o f p e r c e p t i o n can be a s s e s s e d through  Personal  (a) o b j e c t i v e  measures which t e s t f o r p r e d i c t i v e power, (b) s u b j e c t i v e measures o f the l e a r n e r ' s s e l f - a s s e s s m e n t , and  ( c ) s u b j e c t i v e measures o f o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f  the l e a r n e r ' s b e h a v i o u r .  Smith  (1973:30-31) c i t e d f i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s u s i n g  o b j e c t i v e measures o f the power o f T-Group e x p e r i e n c e t o improve the p e r c e p t i v e a b i l i t y o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n p r e d i c t i n g o t h e r s ' f e e l i n g s and b e h a v i o u r s .  The r e -  s u l t s seemed t o e s t a b l i s h the m a r g i n a l o r even c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e e f f e c t o f t h i s method i n i m p r o v i n g o b j e c t i v e l y v e r i f i a b l e s e n s i t i v i t y . assessments made by p a r t i c i p a n t s o f themselves  However, s u b j e c t i v e  a f t e r T-Group e x p e r i e n c e r e p o r t  " t h a t t h e i r s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s , s e n s i t i v i t y and i n t e r p e r s o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s were changed i n h i g h l y b e n e f i c i a l ways" (Smith,1973:32).  What these people r e p o r t  a c c o m p l i s h i n g , i n e f f e c t , i s r a t i o n a l i s t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g not e m p i r i c a l  U9 understanding.  They e x p e r i e n c e  " . . . a sense o f spontaneous g i v i n g of the  self,  the f r e e e x p r e s s i o n o f s e l f i n i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s without c a l c u l a t i o n c o s t o r g a i n to e i t h e r the g i v e r o r r e c e i v e r . . . " istic  u n d e r s t a n d i n g seems more r e a l t o u s ,  Smith c o n c l u d e s , " . . . r a t i o n a l -  i s more d e e p l y d e s i r e d , a n d i s  a b l y more i m p o r t a n t t o o u r p e r s o n a l s u r v i v a l a n d w e l l - b e i n g t h a n i s understanding (Smith, Subjective  it  prob-  empirical  1973:32).  m e a s u r e s may a l s o be t a k e n o f how o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s p e r c e i v e  learner's behaviour. corporate  of  the  The a s s e s s m e n t i s g i v e n t o t h e l e a r n e r s o t h a t he c a n i n -  e i t h e r as confirmation of present behaviours  w h i c h b e h a v i o u r s m i g h t be more e f f e c t i v e .  o r as an i n d i c a t i o n  T h i s i s the c y b e r n e t i c  principle  feedback a p p l i e d c o n s c i o u s l y and d i s c r e t e l y to i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s .  of  of  Smith  d e f i n e s feedback s i m p l y as knowledge o f the r e s u l t s o r e f f e c t s o f o n e ' s  be-  haviour  implies  toward o t h e r s ,  and emphasizes the r e i n f o r e c e m e n t o r reward t h i s  when t h a t b e h a v i o u r h a s b e e n s u p p o r t i v e  or f a c i l i t a t i v e to the o t h e r .  He a l s o  c a u t i o n s t h a t s u c c e s s f u l f e e d b a c k s h o u l d l e a d t r a i n e e s t o s e t new g o a l s f o r selves,  e v e n e n c o u r a g e them t o s e t h a r d g o a l s f o r t h e m s e l v e s ;  the l e a r n e r to improve h i s s e n s i t i v i t y ,  and i n f o r m him of h i s  (1973:36-37).  or intentions"  a n d how he s t a n d s w i t h u s i n r e l a t i o n t o h i s  defined  goals  (1967:75).  s t a t e o f development as a c o h e s i v e , e f f e c t i v e e n t i t y .  and  The s m a l l  i n t e r a c t i o n d i a g r a m w h i c h f o l l o w s was u s e d t o r e c o r d two o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d s f i v e minutes each,  taken during an hour's meeting, to give a reasonably  p i c t u r e o f who s p o k e t o whom w i t h w h a t f r e q u e n c y generally  he  individual•information  E v a l u a t i o n c a n a l s o be made o f t h e b e h a v i o u r s o f p e r s o n s i n g r o u p s , the group's  •  progress  N y l e n , M i t c h e l , and Stout  feedback as "communication which g i v e s back to another a b o u t how he h a s a f f e c t e d u s ,  should motivate  r e v e a l a n y d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n where  i s a n d w h e r e h e w a n t s t o be o r t h i n k s h e i s , towards those d e s i r e d c a p a b i l i t i e s  it  them-  (Dimock,1971»Book  of group of  accurate  11:23).  i n d i c a t e t h e p a r t i c i p a n t t o whom t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n was a d d r e s s e d .  Arrows Arrows  120 t o t h e c e n t r e i n d i c a t e a g e n e r a l comment n o t d i r e c t e d a t any one member.  Bars  on any l i n e i n d i c a t e t h e second and subsequent communications i n t h e same direction.  Fig. 7  : An i n t e r a c t i o n diagram o f a c l u b group based two  samples o f f i v e m i n u t e s e a c h . (Dimock,1971»Bk.II:23)  T h i s , o f c o u r s e , g i v e s o n l y a q u a n t i t a t i v e measure o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s , f r e q u e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s and r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d members. contributions one v e r s i o n  The q u a l i t y o f a member's  i s more c l e a r l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n a n i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s o f which i s i n c l u d e d  i n Appendix G •  identifies  I n the i n t e r a c t i o n  schedule, analysis  s c h e d u l e each member's b e h a v i o u r s a r e r e g i s t e r e d a g a i n s t c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h t i f y them a s e i t h e r f a c i l i t a t i v e o r o b s t r u c t i v e give  o f t h e group's a c t i v i t y .  a more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e group s e s s i o n  diagram a l o n e .  idenSchedules  t h a n does t h e i n t e r a c t i o n  121 I t i s p o s s i b l e t o see a group d e v e l o p o v e r time and a s s e s s whether o r n o t i t i s m a t u r i n g a s a group by comparing s e v e r a l r a t i n g s t a k e n on a group d e v e l o p ment s u r v e y s c h e d u l e a t i n t e r v a l s o f a week o r more.  An example o f group  development s u r v e y q u e s t i o n s i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix G .  These do n o t i d e n t i f y  w h i c h members a r e c o n t r i b u t i n g what, but r a t h e r whether o r not q u a l i t i e s e s s e n t i a l to group e f f e c t i v e n e s s a r e i n e v i d e n c e . These group q u a l i t i e s i n c l u d e u n i t y ( c o h e s i o n ) , s e l f - d i r e c t i o n ( t h e groups' own motive power), group c l i m a t e  (free-  dom t o be s p o n t a n e o u s ) , d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l e a d e r s h i p , d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , problem s o l v i n g (group e f f e c t i v e n e s s a t u t i l i z i n g a l l member's c o n t r i b u t i o n s and a c t i n g c r e a t i v e l y t o s o l v e i t s p r o b l e m s ) , method o f r e s o l v i n g d i s agreements w i t h i n group, e x t e n t t o which group meets members* needs  (security,  r e c o g n i t i o n , b e l o n g i n g ) , v a r i e t y o f group a c t i v i t i e s , and f i n a l l y d e p t h o f group a c t i v i t i e s ( e x t e n t t o which members can c o n t r i b u t e ' t h e i r f u l l p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , s k i l l s and c r e a t i v i t y ) . F i n a l l y , as w e l l as a s s e s s i n g i n d i v i d u a l development o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l or  skills,  group development o f c o h e s i o n and e f f e c t i v e n e s s , t h e agent i n t h i s type o f  a d u l t e d u c a t i o n may want t o e v a l u a t e t h e degree o f i n f l u e n c e t h e t r a i n i n g he p r o v i d e d had on t h e s e developments.  Smith suggests f o u r general types o f designs t o  e v a l u a t e t r a i n i n g : l ) measures a f t e r t r a i n i n g w i t h o u t a c o n t r o l group, 2)  measures b e f o r e and a f t e r t r a i n i n g w i t h o u t a c o n t r o l group, 3)  t r a i n i n g w i t h a c o n t r o l group, and 4)  measures  after  measures b e f o r e and a f t e r t r a i n i n g w i t h a  c o n t r o l group -(1973*4l). The f i r s t o f t h e s e d e s i g n s i s t h e most o f t e n u s e d b u t the  p o o r e s t ; t h e l a s t i s t h e l e a s t o f t e n used but the b e s t .  S m i t h acknowledges  the  e x t r a p r o c e d u r a l s t a g e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e d e s i g n t h a t uses measures b e f o r e and  a f t e r t r a i n i n g w i t h a c o n t r o l group b u t adds t h a t i t has t h e s e advantages: - M a t c h i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l and c o n t r o l groups on the b e f o r e - t r a i n i n g measures a v o i d s t h e danger t h a t t h e groups may n o t be comparable a t t h e b e g i n n i n g . - T a k i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e between b e f o r e - a n d - a f t e r measures i n t h e t r a i n e d  122  group i n d i c a t e s what changes t o o k p l a c e d u r i n g the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d . - Comparing t h e s e changes w i t h the changes t h a t t o o k p l a c e i n the  un-  t r a i n e d c o n t r o l group d u r i n g the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d i s o l a t e s the changes caused by the t r a i n i n g i t s e l f . - O v e r a l l , the e x a c t n e s s o f t h i s d e s i g n has conclusions  the advantage t h a t  confident  can be drawn f r o m a s t u d y based on a s m a l l number o f  trainees.  Clientele orientation characteristics Because o f the degree o f p e r s o n a l personal  and  commitment and  involvement i n both i n t e r -  group p r o c e s s l e a r n i n g , i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t l e a r n e r s would be  m o t i v a t e d by e i t h e r g e n e r a l i z e d l o v e o f l e a r n i n g o r f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . Interpersonal  l e a r n i n g i n v o l v e s changes i n p e r c e p t i o n  w i t h them some degree o f s t r e s s and l e a r n e r s have some e x t e r n a l s t i m u l u s  therefore  and  behaviour that  i t i s most l i k e l y t h a t these  i n t h e i r personal,  p r o f e s s i o n a l o r community  l i f e t h a t m o t i v a t e s them t o engage i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l e d u c a t i o n . must n o t have proved t o be e f f e c t i v e enough f o r them, and a more d r a s t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n t h a n i s r e q u i r e d .  Locations  Reading alone  therapy i s  apparently  Gazda e t a l (1973 23) d e s c r i b e  t h e s e p e r s o n s as b e i n g " i n good t o u c h w i t h r e a l i t y " and personal  bring  J  -  seeking through i n t e r -  e d u c a t i o n t o improve some a s p e c t o f t h e i r human r e l a t i o n s .  f o r interpersonal education  Because i n t e r p e r s o n a l l e a r n i n g outcomes a r e a t t i t u d i n a l and d e e p l y imbedded i n h a b i t u a l p a t t e r n s o f l i v i n g the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s i s f a c i l i t a t e d by o f the h a b i t u a l e n v i r o n m e n t .  disruption  Removing the l e a r n e r t o a r e s i d e n t i a l c e n t r e  such  as a h o t e l , r e s o r t , church-owned r e t r e a t , o r s p e c i a l i n s t i t u t e not o n l y p r o v i d e s him a new  p h y s i c a l space, and  which f o c u s e s on h i s l e a r n i n g .  s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t , but a l s o a d a i l y s c h e d u l e These l o c a t i o n s a r e most l i k e l y t o have the  123 s p e c i a l a d a p t a t i o n s o f a c o m f o r t a b l e , p l e a s a n t , and f l e x i b l e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n ment t h a t i s most s u i t e d t o t h i s k i n d o f l e a r n i n g . v i d e f o r an extended,  The l o c a t i o n c a n t h u s p r o -  i s o l a t e d , and i n t e n s i v e p e r s o n a l l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e .  S e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g . Education  G o a l , f u n c t i o n , and t y p i c a l  content  The g o a l o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g e d u c a t i o n i s t o e n r i c h a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e p e r s o n a l f u l f i l m e n t i n t h e s e a r c h f o r something p r e c i o u s and s i g n i f i c a n t i n life.  While no e d u c a t i o n a l program i s a b l e , o r s h o u l d t r y , t o s a t i a t e t h a t  d e s i r e f o r f u l f i l m e n t , what i t c a n do i s i n t r o d u c e a d u l t s ' t o some r i c h f o r e x p l o r a t i o n i n t h e w o r l d s o f a r t , h i s t o r y , s c i e n c e , and p h i l o s o p h y . t h e g o a l . i s t o do more t h a n m e r e l y  fields Of c o u r s e  s t i m u l a t e c u r i o s i t y about what l i e s w i t h i n  those phenomenal and noumenal w o r l d s .  I n d i s c r i m i n a t e consumption o f a r t , •  h i s t o r y , p h i l o s o p h y , o r s c i e n c e ' c a n l e a d nowhere b u t t o c o n f u s i o n and c y n i c i s m . T h e r e f o r e s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g e d u c a t i o n would be d o i n g t h e l e a r n e r a d i s s e r v i c e i f i t d i d n o t a l s o e q u i p him t o examine c r i t i c a l l y t h e r i c h e s o p e n i n g up t o h i m . The f u n c t i o n o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g e d u c a t i o n i s t h u s t o t r a i n i n t o t h e l e a r n e r the h a b i t o f q u e s t i o n i n g t h e v a l u e o f whatever he e n c o u n t e r s a g a i n s t h i s own standards.  A t f i r s t those s t a n d a r d s may be o n l y a n i n s t i n c t f o r what i s b e a u t i -  f u l , what i s good, and what i s t r u e .  B u t t h e h a b i t o f q u e s t i o n i n g , once adopted,  can be t u r n e d on t h o s e s t a n d a r d s as w e l l . i n g examples o f what may be beauty,  Thus r a t h e r t h a n a c q u i r i n g o r consum-  the f u n c t i o n o f t h i s s o r t o f education i s t o  t e a c h t h e l e a r n e r how t o q u e s t i o n what beauty r e a l l y i s . I n t h i s way he moves towards knowing, o r i n t e r n a l i z i n g what beauty i s , e x p a n d i n g w i t h i n h i m s e l f a sense o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i n g s .  124 There i s a v e r y l o n g t r a d i t i o n o f education f o r t h i s purpose.  The s e a r c h  f o r meaning a n d s i g n i f i c a n c e h a s o f t e n been c i t e d a s t h e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g of humanity i t s e l f .  B u t e d u c a t o r s have been a t odds a s t o w h i c h s o r t s o f e d -  u c a t i o n a l content would provide learners.  quality  t h e most s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g e x p e r i e n c e s f o r  L i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n i s a f a m i l i a r t e r m b u t one which o v e r t h e c e n t u r i e s  h a s i n d i c a t e d many d i f f e r e n t  sorts of content.  In C i c e r o ' s time  (l06-^3B.C.)  " a r t e s l i b e r a l i s " meant a l l t h e s k i l l s a n d a r t s p o s s e s s e d by t h e e d u c a t e d man.  I n t h e f i f t h c e n t u r y A . D . and f o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e Dark Ages,  free  educators  h a d a l l t h e y c o u l d manage t o k e e p a l i v e a " t r i v i u m " o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n a r t s logic,  grammar, a n d r h e t o r i c ) ,  geometry,  and a "quadrivium" o f systematic d i s c i p l i n e s  a r i t h m e t i c , astronomy and m u s i c With t h e r i s e o f u n i v e r s i t i e s  12th a n d 1 3 t h c e n t u r i e s t h e n e w l y r e d i s c o v e r e d (mental philosophy, 1956:377) •  (i.e.,  moral philosophy,  i n the  "Three P h i l o s o p h i e s o f A r i s t o t l e "  and n a t u r a l philosophy)  were added  D u r i n g t h e r e n a i s s a n c e sons o f t h e s q u i r a r c h y and n o b i l i t y  (Cowley,  who came  t o be e d u c a t e d n o t a s p r i e s t s b u t a s " g e n t l e m e n " s t u d i e d a n e v e r - e x p a n d i n g of mathematics and the i n c r e a s i n g l y respected v e r n a c u l a r languages. L a t i n w e r e k e p t o n a s w o r t h y a r e a s o f s t u d y a n d came t o be r e f e r r e d " c l a s s i c a l languages".  When E u r o p e a n c u l t u r e moved i n t o  America the o r i g i n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f u r t h e r  (i.e.,  field  Greek and to as the  the colonies o f North  l e a r n i n g were c a l l e d  "literary  s e m i n a r i e s " i n d i c a t i n g the emphasis p l a c e d on t h e study o f c l a s s i c a l languages i n order t o form c h a r a c t e r  (Cowley,1956:379)•  Following the.American revolution the  demands o f b u i l d i n g a n i n d e p e n d e n t n a t i o n r e q u i r e d t h e c o l l e g e s t o i n c l u d e i n g i n e x p e r i m e n t a l s c i e n c e a n d what B e n j a m i n F r a n k l i n c a l l e d " u s e f u l The r e c u r r i n g i s s u e o f t h e  19th  and  20th  train-  knowledge".  centuries regarding content  appro-  p r i a t e f o r l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n h a s been whether o r n o t t o i n c l u d e t h e s c i e n c e s . Some l i k e  John Stuart M i l l i n  I867  argued t h a t everyone's  education would  benefit  f r o m s t u d y i n g t h r o u g h t h e M e t h o d s o f s c i e n c e " t h e modes o f w h i c h t h e human i n t e l l e c t p r o c e e d s f r o m t h e known t o t h e u n k n o w n " (Cowley,1956:386).  Others  of the  125 same p e r i o d saw t h e s c i e n c e s as t o o narrow and c a r e e r - d i r e c t e d t o be o f g e n e r a l benefit.  T h i s v i e w seemed t o predominate a n d e d u c a t i o n which was f o r p e r s o n a l  enrichment  a l o n e g r a d u a l l y c e n t r e d on those s t u d i e s which l o o k e d t o humanity's  subjective l i f e .  The " H u m a n i t i e s " always i n c l u d e d l i t e r a t u r e , p h i l o s o p h y ,  music,  and f i n e a r t ; o f t e n b u t n o t always i n c l u d e d r e l i g i o n and h i s t o r y ; and sometimes i n c l u d e d modern o r c l a s s i c a l languages w i t h t h e i r l i t e r a t u r e s i n t h e o r i g i n a l form.  I n 196° the C e n t e r f o r t h e Study o f L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n f o r A d u l t s down-  p l a y e d t h e p h y s i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l s c i e n c e s a s l e s s t h a n r e l e v a n t s t u d i e s f o r a d u l t s because t h e s e a r e a s w e r e " d i f f i c u l t i f n o t i m p o s s i b l e t o h a n d l e i n a meani n g f u l f a s h i o n " (Whipple,Haygood,Goldman,Siegle,1969:14). statement  seems u n c o n s c i o n a b l e .  A decade l a t e r  this  Problems o f m e d i c a l e t h i c s , i n d u s t r i a l d i s e a s e s ,  n u c l e a r c o n t a m i n a t i o n , s p e c i e s e x t i n c t i o n , a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i t i c s , dependence on non-renewable s o u r c e s o f energy, c o n t r o v e r s i e s a t e v e r y t u r n have made t h e s c i e n c e s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e s t u d y o f man and "the good l i f e " . ban l i f e ,  The q u a l i t y o f u r -  t h e d e t e r i o r a t i n g e f f e c t s o f e x t e n s i v e c a r e e r and g e o g r a p h i c  the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s o f consumerism, and t h e response o f i n d i v i d u a l to  mobility,  conscience  government a c t i o n s , t h e s e and o t h e r q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g what i s d e s i r a b l e  a s o c i e t y , were c o n t r i b u t e d by t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s t o man's s e a r c h f o r f u l f i l m e n t . In  sum, the h i s t o r y o f e d u c a t i o n f o r p e r s o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g and f u l f i l m e n t  has been l o n g and v i g o r o u s .  The modern consensus on c o n t e n t seems t o be t h a t  i t c a n p r o p e r l y i n c l u d e the a r t s and p h i l o s o p h y , t h e h u m a n i s t i c i m p l i c a t i o n s o f a l l s c i e n c e s , and the study o f r e l i g i o u s p e r s p e c t i v e s on man. Even t h i s e x t e n s i v e c o n t e n t range would be i n c o m p l e t e w i t h o u t i n c l u d i n g a unique of (eg. to  the 20th c e n t u r y .  contribution  E a r l y i n v e n t o r i e s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n program c o n t e n t s  Ely,1936) r e c o g n i z e d " r e c r e a t i o n " a s a major a r e a o f a c t i v i t y .  The key  r e c r e a t i o n i n the scope o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n seems t o be t h e n o t i o n o f h e a l t h .  The d i s r u p t i o n s and p r e s s u r e s o f 20th c e n t u r y l i f e combined w i t h u n e n l i g h t e n e d consumption have l e d t o phenomena o f mental breakdown, m a r i t a l breakdown,  126  and p h y s i c a l breakdown i n a h o s t o f s t r e s s - r e l a t e d d i s e a s e s . have r a i s e d p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n the promotion gree .  These developments  o f h e a l t h t o an unprecedented de-  E d u c a t i o n a l outcomes r e l a t e d t o h e a l t h a r e t i e d t o s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g  e d u c a t i o n p a r t i a l l y by t h e i r dependence on a f f e c t i v e a t t i t u d e development r a t h e r than on s i m p l e c o g n i t i o n . H e a l t h v a l u e s a r e a l s o c l e a r l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s and l i f e p h i l o s o p h i e s .  The B l a c k Muslims,  Hebrew Orthodoxy,  Seventh Day A d v e n t i s t s , and Hindu communities a l l promote e x p l i c i t d i e t a r y p r a c t i c e s as p a r t o f t h e i r system o f v a l u e s o f the good l i f e .  Secular practices  such as the m e d i c a l use o f b i o f e e d b a c k , government f i t n e s s programs, e n v i r o n mental movements, and p e r s o n a l s t r e s s - r e d u c t i o n programs emphasize the c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n o f mental and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h and promote v a l u e s such a s a c t i v i t y , c a r e f u l d i e t , exercise'and drug-free sleep.  outdoor  The p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f  such  a c t i v i t i e s emphasizes t h a t the s e a r c h f o r m e n t a l and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h , through c o n s c i o u s l y developed  h a b i t s o f l i f e , must now  p r a c t i c e s f o r p e r s o n a l f u l f i l m e n t and  be i n c l u d e d among e d u c a t i o n a l  self-actualization.  Methodology geared t o type o f g o a l The g o a l o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g e d u c a t i o n i s t o d i s c o v e r w i t h i n o n e s e l f a sense o f beauty, goodness and t r u t h w h i c h r e c o g n i z e s when e x p e r i e n c e s embody t h o s e qualities. at  Such a sense o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i n h e r e n t i n t h e l e a r n e r , i n s t i n c t i v e  f i r s t , may  perience .  be c o n t i n u a l l y r e f i n e d a s a s t a n d a r d f o r t e s t i n g and j u d g i n g ex-  This i s not education f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n of e x t e r n a l standards.  It  i s e d u c a t i o n a l e x p l o r a t i o n f o r t h e purpose o f d i s c o v e r i n g p e r s o n a l l y m e a n i n g f u l and s a t i s f y i n g v a l u e s .  I t t h u s f a l l s s q u a r e l y w i t h i n the a f f e c t i v e domain o f  e d u c a t i o n a l outcomes a s d e s c r i b e d by K r a t h w o l , Bloom and M a s i a  (1964).  Because these a r e a f f e c t i v e outcomes o f an e s t h e t i c o r p h i l o s o p h i c s o r t t h e y c a n n o t be a c q u i r e d through i n s t r u c t i o n a l o n e . A f f e c t i v e v a l u e s have t o be encountered  and e x p e r i e n c e d , then c o n s c i o u s l y o r u n c o n s c i o u s l y judged  and  127 accepted o r r e j e c t e d . and judgmental, reflection  These two phases o f a f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g , t h e e x p e r i e n t i a l  g i v e r i s e t o what seems t o be t h e d i s t i n c t i v e  methodology o f e d u c a t i o n f o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n .  impressionD e v e l o p i n g new  i n t e r e s t s , new v o l u n t a r y a c t i v i t i e s ; seems t o r e q u i r e t h e i r b e i n g made v e r y r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , and t e s t a b l e w i t h o u t much i n c o n v e n i e n c e ,  commitment o r t h r e a t  The i n i t i a l phase i s thus a m a t t e r o f exposure t o new p o s s i b i l i t i e s and the opp o r t u n i t y t o t r y them out, w h i l e t h e complementary phase i s the musing on and a p p r a i s i n g o f the e x p e r i e n c e w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o o t h e r v a l u e s one h o l d s .  The  r e f l e c t i v e phase needs prompting, means, o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n and n o n - e v a l u a t i v e r e c o g n i t i o n from t h e agent t o encourage t h e l e a r n e r ' s e x p l o r a t i o n o f new v a l u e s .  Obstacles t o l e a r n i n g f o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n L e a r n i n g j u s t f o r the p l e a s u r e o f i t i s not s u s t a i n e d by t h e same o u t s i d e incentives that practical, interpersonal o r social a c t i v i s t learning i s . ing  Learn-  f o r p e r s o n a l f u l f i l m e n t i s more s u s c e p t i b l e t o t h e l e a r n e r ' s d i s a f f e c t i o n  w i t h the w o r t h o f l e a r n i n g i t s e l f , and w i t h h i s own s e l f - w o r t h . says t h a t '  t h e c h i e f n e g a t i n g f a c t o r which keeps one from becoming a l l t h a t  he c a n seems t o be a worthwhile  Glenn J e n s e n  ''something t h a t p r o h i b i t s a p e r s o n f r o m c o n s i d e r i n g h i m s e l f  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the human r a c e " (Jensen,1970:517)•  Jensen f e l t  t h a t two ways o f l i f e which r e s u l t from t h i s l a c k o f f u l f i l m e n t a r e t h e "workah o l i c " and t h e underemployed who f i l l s o f f - h o u r s 'with s t u l t i f y i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Those who t r y too h a r d a r e s e e k i n g r e c o g n i t i o n and s i g n i f i c a n c e a s c o n t r i b u t i n g persons;  those who don't t r y h a r d enough a r e s e e k i n g escape f r o m the d r a b n e s s o f  " s i m p l y g o i n g through the motions o f e x i s t i n g " ( i b i d ) .  B o t h l o s e o u t on the e x -  perience o f l e a r n i n g as a simple, personal joy. J e n s e n goes o n t o s a y t h a t the f u l l y - f u n c t i o n i n g s e l f , presumably one t h a t c a n l e a r n f o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n , "must have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o l i v e t h e good l i f e a n d have a r e a s o n t o b e " ( o p . c i t . : 5 2 2 ) .  Without t h e s e t h e p e r s o n i s l i k e l y  128  t o become a c l o s e d s e l f , f e a r f u l o f new a l l y a v o i d i n g new  experiences.  t a s k s , a n t i c i p a t i n g f a i l u r e , and  The most damaging g u a l i t y w h i c h may  gener-  develop i n  Jensen's o p i n i o n i s a l i e n a t i o n , the l o s s o f p r i d e and commitment when the f e e l s h i s own him  adult  e f f o r t s have l i t t l e t o do w i t h the good o r bad f o r t u n e t h a t b e f a l l s  (op. cit.:523).  T h i s l i n e o f a n a l y s i s would seem t o say t h a t u n l e s s  i s m a t e r i a l w e l l - b e i n g and c i v i l d i g n i t y f i r s t ,  t h e r e i s no p o s s i b i l i t y o f a r -  t i s t i c and p h i l o s o p h i c o r r e l i g i o u s p e r s p e c t i v e s t a k i n g h o l d , s i o n would o n l y make sense i f a r t / a n d p h i l o s o p h y than decorations  on a w e l l - d e v e l o p e d  there  But t h a t  conclu-  a n d ' r e l i g i o n are n o t h i n g more  m a t e r i a l and c i v i l o r d e r , something t o come  l a t e r when t h e r e i s t i m e , when the r e a l work i s done, r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r the v e r y l i f e - b l o o d o f m a t e r i a l and c i v i l r e v o l u t i o n and  being,  self-determination.  It  must be asked where the courage, v i s i o n , commitment and-sense o f s e l f - w o r t h a r e t o come from t o break the g r i p o f d i s m a l m a t e r i a l and c i v i l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . N o r t h A m e r i c a the power o f a r t i s t i c and e t h i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s t o r a i s e the  In capacity  i n people t o a c t u a l i z e what might be i s i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h the examples o f M y l e s Horton's Highlander F o l k s c h o o l ing),  (where t o p i c a l songs were used t o h e l p u n i o n b u i l d -  and w i t h Moses Goady's r e - c r e a t i o n o f economic h i s t o r y f o r the w o r k e r s o f  Nova S c o t i a i n h i s p a r a b l e  "The  G r e a t D e f a u l t o f the P e o p l e " .  The r e v i v a l o f  major a r t forms l i k e the c a r v i n g o f totems cannot be d i s a s s o c i a t e d from the r e d i s c o v e r y o f t r i b a l e t h i c s and the r e a s s e r t i o n o f the r i g h t t o s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n b e i n g made by N o r t h A m e r i c a ' s n a t i v e A r t and p h i l o s o p h y  peoples.  do not always awaken s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s ,  transform very personal self-consciousness. b a r the l e a r n e r ' s way  they  may  But d i s a f f e c t i o n and a l i e n a t i o n o n l y  t o a p p r e c i a t i n g someone e l s e ' s a r t and p h i l o s o p h y .  Disaf-  f e c t i o n and a l i e n a t i o n a r e d i s s o l v e d i n the d i s c o v e r y o f some a r t i s t i c form t h a t e x p r e s s e s the l e a r n e r ' s own expresses h i s l i f e  c o n d i t i o n , and some p h i l o s o p h i c p e r s p e c t i v e  experience.  that  129 Structuring p r i n c i p l e s f o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g education Three q u i t e d i f f e r e n t approaches have been used t o s t r u c t u r e v a l u e s f i c a t i o n education f o r adults.  clari-  Roughly s p e a k i n g t h e s e approaches a r e t h e m a i i c -  a l l y a r r a n g e d around a ) d i s c i p l i n e s o f knowledge, b) a d u l t s o c i a l r o l e s , o r c ) c e n t r a l problems o f l i f e . The  f i r s t o f these s t r u c t u r a l a l t e r n a t i v e s , the d i s c i p l i n e s , i s a formal  curriculum  approach t h a t h a s been p r a i s e d a s t r u l y and e f f e c t i v e l y g e n e r a l , b u t  w h i c h r e q u i r e s a f u l l - t i m e , s y s t e m a t i c s c h o o l i n g t o do i t j u s t i c e . schooling  Pull-time  i s w e l l beyond t h e means and p o s s i b l y beyond t h e t a s t e o f most a d u l t s  (Broudy,1959:3)•  The d i s c i p l i n e s approach does have t h e p o t e n t i a l t o g i v e  i n s i g h t i n t o t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among i t e m s o f knowledge ( M i l l e r , I 9 6 0 : 2 5 ) . I t a l s o e n a b l e s t h e l e a r n e r t o g r a s p t h e methods man u s e s t o d e s i g n s o l u t i o n s t o problems and t o f o r m u l a t e s t a n d a r d s by which t o t e s t t h o s e s o l u t i o n s  195^:29).  (Hutchins,  The main problem w i t h t h e f o r m a l d i s c i p l i n e s approach e s p e c i a l l y e v i -  d e n t when i t i s d e s c r i b e d  a s " k e e p i n g up w i t h new knowledge i n a l l m a j o r f i e l d s "  ( U n i v e r s i t y o f Oklahoma,  1970:49) i s t h a t I t seems t o be a n a b s t r a c t e x e r c i s e t o o  far  removed f r o m t h e w o r l d e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e a d u l t The  learner.  s o c i a l r o l e s approach s t r u c t u r e s b r o a d , s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g e d u c a t i o n  around t h e f a m i l y , c a r e e r and s o c i e t a l r o l e s o f a d u l t s .  The U n i v e r s i t y o f  Oklahoma chose t h i s approach f o r i t s a d u l t h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n program because i t seemed t h e most u s e f u l and a t t r a c t i v e way t o draw t o g e t h e r what i s known a b o u t human i n d i v i d u a l s and c h a n g i n g human i n s t i t u t i o n s such a s t h e f a m i l y , government, p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n a n d t h e m i l i t a r y ( U n i v e r s i t y o f Oklahoma,1970:50)•  However,  a l t h o u g h t h i s was a program c o n c e r n e d w i t h v a l u e c h o i c e s i t c l e a r l y emphasized v a l u e s w h i c h impinge on s o c i e t y a s e v i d e n c e d by t h e t i t l e o f t h e program, "Continuing Education f o r Public R e s p o n s i b i l i t y " .  This s o c i e t a l  perspective  on v a l u e s h a s sometimes been a d o p t e d a s though i t were broad enough t o i n c l u d e a l l human v a l u e q u e s t i o n s ,  b u t t h e s o c i a l r o l e s approach does n o t i n h e r e n t l y  130  d e a l w i t h questions o f i d e n t i t y , aging, m o r t a l i t y , transcendance,  the possib-  i l i t y o f p e r s o n a l s a l v a t i o n o r j u s t i f i c a t i o n , and o t h e r q u e s t i o n s f o c u s e d on the meaning o f human i n d i v i d u a l i t y .  Broudy (1959) p r e s e n t e d a s t r o n g c r i t i c i s m  o f t h e s o c i a l r o l e s theme i n a d u l t l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n .  He wrote,  "The very-  s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l r o l e s approach t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , o r any o t h e r k i n d o f education f o r t h a t matter, i s t h a t i t l o c a t e s the center o f g r a v i t y i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l primacy;  and i t i s almost i n e v i t a b l e t h a t t h e e v i l s o f t h e ' o t h e r  d i r e c t e d ' s o r t o f l i f e w i l l be i t s consequence" (op. c i t . : 5 ) »  Despite i t s  i n i t i a l a p p e a l , t h e problem w i t h t h e s o c i a l r o l e s approach i s t h a t i t d e a l s l e s s w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t v a l u e s o f human e x p e r i e n c e t h a n i t does w i t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s instrumental value to s o c i e t y . The  t h i r d s t r u c t u r a l a l t e r n a t i v e f o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g e d u c a t i o n i s based on  the theme o f c e n t r a l i s s u e s o f human e x p e r i e n c e .  Broudy c o n t r i b u t e d t h e n o t i o n  t h a t t h e r e a r e v a r i o u s t y p e s o r c a t e g o r i e s o f e x p e r i e n c e which have a v a l u e dimension,  among them would be economic, r e c r e a t i o n a l , . . a s s o e i a t i o n a l , . . i n t e l l e c t u a l ,  m o r a l , r e l i g i o u s and a e s t h e t i c t y p e s o f e x p e r i e n c e .  He a l s o noted t h a t w i t h i n  each o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h d i s c r e t e l e v e l s t o t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e , and t h a t t h e degree o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g one has w i t h i n a category o f value-experience i s e x h i b i t e d i n the q u a l i t y o f p r e f e r r e d e x p e r i ence (1959*9)•  A r r a n g i n g one's l i f e w i t h l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s o f time and money i s  o n l y f u r t h e r c o m p l i c a t e d by a m u l t i t u d e o f a l t e r n a t i v e s u n l e s s one has made t h e e f f o r t t o d e c i d e what v a l u e s w i l l guide h i s p r e f e r e n c e s .  How t o e a r n a l i v i n g ,  what t o spend f r e e time on, whom t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h , what t o b e l i e v e i n , what t o take c o m f o r t i n , a r e r e c u r r i n g q u e s t i o n s i n everyone's l i f e . Hutchin's promotion  o f "Great Books" was based on h i s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t con-  temporary problems f a c i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y a r e a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o r r e c o m b i n a t i o n o f fundamental p r o b l e m s .  He f e l t t h e r e e x i s t s a s e t o f b a s i c v a l u e  c o n f l i c t s , and t h a t i n " t r e a t i n g t h e most d i f f i c u l t s u b j e c t s o f human thought,  131  g r e a t books r e p r e s e n t the c l e a r e s t and t h a t can be done on t h e s e s u b j e c t s "  simplest expression  (1954:2).  periment as an example o f e d u c a t i o n f o r the sance man,  t o i n t e r p r e t and art,  M i l l e r c i t e d the G r e a t Books ex-  " s k i l l s o f the f r e e man"  the s k i l l s o f a n a l y s i s , c r i t i c i s m , and  M i l l e r wanted to see  or renais-  judgement. P a r t i c u l a r l y ,  the n o n - s p e c i a l i s t equipped by a sense o f v a l u e  judge the work o f e x p e r t s ,  political  institutions"  An i n t e r e s t i n g c l a i m was  implications  "to judge the beauty o f a work o f  the c r e d i b i l i t y o f the r e s u l t s o f s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h ,  o f s o c i a l and  o f the b e s t t h i n k i n g  o r the  desirability  (1960:28).  made f o r the p r e f e r a b i l i t y o f t h i s t h i r d v a l u e s  c l a r i f i c a t i o n approach o v e r the f o r m a l d i s c i p l i n e s o r s o c i a l r o l e s a p p r o a c h . Broudy proposed t h a t o n l y the v a l u e s c l a r i f i c a t i o n o r q u a l i t y o f l i f e n u r t u r e s i n the l e a r n e r a f e e l i n g o f o b l i g a t i o n t o maximize h i s and  approach  everyone  e l s e ' s p o s i t i v e v a l u e e x p e r i e n c e s , t h a t i t a l o n e evokes a sense o f d u t y which makes a m o r a l c l a i m upon the a d u l t from w i t h i n h i s own improvement.  Further,  nature regarding  self-  t h a t u n l e s s e d u c a t i o n f o r p r i v a t e and community l i f e  based i t s e l f on t h i s c o m p e l l i n g o b l i g a t i o n i t would r e m a i n "an ad hoc,  morally  t o o t h l e s s arrangement" ( I 9 5 9 s l 0 ) .  D i s t i n c t i v e techniques f o r encouraging value choices I t has  been e a r l i e r s t a t e d i n g e n e r a l terms t h a t t h i s form o f p r a c t i c e  employs a d i s t i n c t i v e methodology c o m b i n a t i o n here c a l l e d " i m p r e s s i o n - r e f l e c t i o n " . I m p r e s s i o n i m p l i e s t h a t the l e a r n e r w i l l be exposed to an e f f e c t i v e l y planned new  e x p e r i e n c e o f an a e s t h e t i c , p h i l o s o p h i c , p h y s i c a l o r s p i r i t u a l n a t u r e  perhaps "new" spective —  because i t i s b e i n g e x p e r i e n c e d w i t h new  s k i l l o r from a new  — per-  but f o r i t t o be l e a r n i n g the i m p r e s s i o n w i l l be something more t h a n  a mere r e p e t i t i o n o f p r e v i o u s i m p r e s s i o n s .  R e f l e c t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t the  e x p e r i e n c e w i l l be planned t o i n c l u d e an a p p r a i s a l phase i n w h i c h the a s s e s s e s t h e new  e x p e r i e n c e and  learning  learner  judges i t i n terms o f an emerging s e t o f  criteria.  132  T h i s p e r s o n a l , s u b j e c t i v e assessment o f t h e meaning and v a l u e o f an e x p e r i e n c e may r e q u i r e prompting  from t h e c o n s u l t i n g e d u c a t o r .  I t a l s o r e q u i r e s that the  l e a r n e r p o s s e s s o r a c q u i r e some means f o r e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e r e f l e c t i v e phase  —  perhaps t h r o u g h f r e e d i s c u s s i o n , perhaps through music, photography, s a t i r i c a l . skits or creative writing.  Any mode o f e x p r e s s i o n may be u s e f u l i n i n t e g r a t i n g  the new e x p e r i e n c e w i t h p r e v i o u s ones, o r p r i o r a t t i t u d e s .  B u t some e x p r e s s i o n  o f t h e new judgement a l l o w s t h e l e a r n e r t o engage w i t h o t h e r s i n an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e newly a d o p t e d p o s i t i o n .  The c o n s u l t i n g e d u c a t o r may suggest c r i t e r i a f o r  t e s t i n g and j u d g i n g t h e emerging o p i n i o n , b u t may most e f f e c t i v e l y encourage the. l e a r n e r ' s v a l u e e x p l o r a t i o n by s i m p l y h o n o u r i n g  I t with non-evaluative r e c o g n i t i o n .  Of t h e s e v e r a l t e c h n i q u e s most d i r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g e d u c a t i o n some f a c i l i t a t e t h e i m p r e s s i o n phase, some t h e r e f l e c t i o n phase and some accomodate b o t h .  Techniques which emphasize new i m p r e s s i o n s almost e x c l u -  s i v e l y would i n c l u d e museum e x h i b i t s , a r t d i s p l a y s , l e c t u r e s e r i e s l i k e "The Human E n t e r p r i s e " a s c i e n c e and h u m a n i t i e s  s e r i e s f o r a d u l t s a t Northern I l l i n o i s  U n i v e r s i t y , and t h e v a r i o u s t e l e v i s i o n e x t r a v a g a n z a s "Civilization" "The  l i k e Kenneth C l a r k ' s  s e r i e s , Y e h u d i Menhuin's "The Music o f Man", J o s e p h B r o n o w s k i ' s  A s c e n t o f Man",, and John Kenneth G a l b r a i t h ' s s e r i e s on economics.  A l l of  the f o r e g o i n g t e c h n i q u e s p r e s e n t new i m p r e s s i o n s d i r e c t l y t o t h e l e a r n e r , b u t i m p r e s s i o n s may a l s o be p r e s e n t e d i n d i r e c t l y through i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h  another  p e r s o n who i s r e a c t i n g t o e v e n t s , d e m o n s t r a t i n g v a l u e c o n v i c t i o n s , o r b e i n g reacted t o .  Bandura (1965) r e f e r s t o t h i s a s s o c i a l l e a r n i n g , o r t h a t l e a r n i n g  which t a k e s p l a c e a s a r e s u l t o f o b s e r v i n g b e h a v i o u r and a t t i t u d e m o d e l l i n g on the p a r t o f a n o t h e r human b e i n g . C. W r i g h t M i l l s (1954) emphasized human m o d e l l i n g a s a c r u c i a l element f o r the development o f human community.  H i s c o n c e r n was f o r t h e d r i f t away from  many n a t u r a l " p u b l i c s " i n s o c i e t y a s t h e d i s t i l l e r s o f p u b l i c w i l l , toward t h e "mass" d i s t r i b u t i o n o f o p i n i o n by a few p o w e r f u l and m a n i p u l a t i v e o p i n i o n makers.  133  H i s hope l a y w i t h the n a t u r a l l e a d e r s o f a community who pre-digested  mass o p i n i o n and  become the  speak out  against  " r a d i a n t p o i n t s , the f o c i " o f p r i m a r y  p u b l i c s , or face to face n a t u r a l p u b l i c s .  Then a d d r e s s i n g  a d u l t e d u c a t o r s he  s a i d t h a t i n o r d e r t o a t t r a c t these n a t u r a l community l e a d e r s t o programs on s o c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t themes "you must s u r r o u n d y o u r s t u d e n t s w i t h models o f s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d conduct, c l a r i f i e d c h a r a c t e r , and open r e a s o n a b l e n e s s , f o r I b e l i e v e i t i s i n the hope o f s e e i n g such models t h a t many s e r i o u s people go l e c t u r e s r a t h e r t h a n more c o n v e n i e n t l y  r e a d i n g b o o k s . . . . I n the end,  l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n . . . i s nonsense i f you do not have such men faculties.  F o r i n the end l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n  to  a l l talk  of  and women on y o u r  i s the r e s u l t o f the  liberating  and . s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g t o u c h o f such p e o p l e " (Mills,1954:15)• Techniques w h i c h accomodate, both new  i m p r e s s i o n s and p e r s o n a l r e f l e c t i o n s  would i n c l u d e a l l the v a r i o u s a r t i s t i c e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h a r e combined w i t h d i s c u s s i o n groups, such as the s y s t e m a t i c  r e a d i n g o f l i t e r a t u r e , immersion i n  music, o r e x p l o r a t i o n o f s c u l p t u r e and a r t e x h i b i t s .  Some s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t  s o c i e t i e s such a s m e d i e v a l i s t s , c h o r a l groups and t r a v e l s o c i e t i e s s p o n s o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f new  knowledge, s k i l l s , and a p p r e c i a t i o n s .  Some s p o n s o r p h i l o - .  sophic d e b a t e s f o r t h e i r members, such as the " C o n t r o v e r s i a l C l u b " begun by young businessman  i n a s m a l l I l l i n o i s c i t y f o l l o w i n g the F i r s t World  (Houle,1961:78), o r the Thomas More I n s t i t u t e i n M o n t r e a l ,  a  War  Quebec, which spon-  s o r s s h o r t d i s c u s s i o n s e r i e s on p h i l o s o p h i c themes. To the a e s t h e t i c d i s c u s s i o n groups  and p h i l o s o p h i c d i s c u s s i o n groups  may  be added community b u i l d i n g d i s -  c u s s i o n groups such as those which were sponsored by t h e Laquemac program i n Quebec.  Laquemac was  a r e s i d e n t i a l camp h o u s i n g groups o f 100  adults for  10  days a t a t i m e , sponsored by the U n i v e r s i t e de L a v a l , the M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n o f Quebec, and Macdonald C o l l e g e .  I t was  a t o t a l l y b i l i n g u a l , t r a i n i n g and  d i s c o v e r y e x p e r i e n c e f o r a d u l t e d u c a t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r community programs around Quebec.  By b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r two  f o u n d i n g p e o p l e s o f Canadian s o c i e t y •  134  in an isolated campsite, to elect a council for self-government and a committee of instructors for the educational program, i t became a social laboratory, reminiscent of interpersonal education.  To the extent that i t focused on  regional economic, political, cultural and social issues i t was reminiscent of . social activist education.  But Laquemac participants formed a temporary community  not intended to take action as a group. Rather the participants returned to their leadership roles i n their respective communities to live out what had been learned from their values clarification experience.  This feature of a  deep personal search for common cultural values i s what placed the Laquemac program squarely within education for self-actualization when that self i s understood to be the confluence of many individuals seeking humanity community. Laquemac was described as the expression of a hope "that the concept of a people's culture become firmly fixed as a fundamental goal for those who work in the f i e l d of adult education" in Canada (Kidd,1950:168). Other techniques which combine exposure to new impressions with conscious reflection upon them were suggested especially for developing the value of human community as "international interdependence" —  a concept which under current  global pressures seems to be replacing previous value emphasis on "national independence" (Compton,1978:30-33)•  Compton proposed anew the benefit to be  gained from such forms of discovery and expression as learning foreign languages, taking part in exchange programs, international cultural festivals, international universities, international publications, councils and task forces on policy development for alleviating global problems. Finally, whether the focus for values clarification i s on the human individual or human community, there are some techniques which facilitate primarily the reflective, evaluative phase of self-actualizing education.  These techniques  offer the learner an opportunity to make personally expressive statements about the current state of self-creation, of the weaving together of intersupportive  135  values.  They prompt s y n t h e s i z i n g s t a t e m e n t s w i t h o u t b u r d e n i n g t h e l e a r n e r w i t h  y e t more new  impressions.  Such t e c h n i q u e s  i n c l u d e a l l forms o f a r t i s t i c  t i v i t y from b l a n k v e r s e , t o w a l l m u r a l s , t o pantomime.  crea-  Group forms o f r e f l e c -  t i v e e x p r e s s i o n would i n c l u d e b o t h those d i s c u s s i o n s where the p a r t i c i p a n t s speak as t h e m s e l v e s , and i m p r o v i s a t i o n s where they p o r t r a y c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t g i v e n v a l u e s o r a t t i t u d e s . Because the d r a m a t i c  who  representation gives  e x p r e s s i o n t o human c o n v i c t i o n s i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r t h e a t r e t o s e r v e the l e a r n e r i n the a u d i e n c e as an i n d i r e c t f o r m o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n as w e l l as i t s more common  f u n c t i o n o f b e i n g a source  o f new  impressions.  Perhaps t h e development o f  what has been c a l l e d " t a s t e " f o r a g i v e n a r t i s t i c form (when i t i s a genuine and not a n . a f f e c t e d p r e f e r e n c e ) i s n o t h i n g more t h a n the d i s c o v e r y o f t h a t which most n e a r l y e x p r e s s e s  Outcomes and i n s t r u m e n t s  one's s e l f .  f o r a p p r a i s i n g the degree o f  internalization  The K r a t h w o l , Bloom and M a s i a taxonomy (1964) o f a f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l o u t comes has a h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e based on the p r i n c i p l e o f i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n . I n t e r n a l i z a t i o n acknowledges f i v e m a j o r s t a g e s o f a d o p t i o n o f a new v a l u e , from l ) the most s u p e r f i c i a l awareness o f i t , t o 2) a p a s s i v e c o m p l i a n c e o r r e s p o n s e to  i t , t o 3) an a c t i v e v a l u i n g o f i t , t o 4)  conceptualizing i t within a larger  v a l u e s e t , t o 5) i n t e g r a t i o n o f one's whole l i f e , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f one's whole character with that value.  T h i s h i e r a r c h y h e l p s t o d i s t i n g u i s h between some o f  the s t a g e s o f a d o p t i o n o f new and was  personal values.  I t i s not u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t e d ,  n e v e r i n t e n d e d by i t s c r e a t o r s t o be the f i n a l word on t e s t i n g o f a f f e c -  t i v e outcomes.  S t i l l , because i t p r o v i d e s g u i d e l i n e s f o r t e s t i t e m s w h i c h .  d i s t i n g u i s h between e x t e r n a l l y - e n f o r c e d , p a s s i v e c o m p l i a n c e t o a v a l u e , i n t e r n a l l y - p r e f e r r e d , v o l u n t a r y c h o i c e o f a v a l u e i t may  and  be u s e f u l f o r e v a l u -  a t i n g some a s p e c t s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n , f o r example, as t h i s would r e q u i r e o b j e c t i v e measures.  136  But beyond c r i t i c a l a s p e c t s o f s o c i a l i z a t i o n why would o b j e c t i v e measures of v a l u e - p r e f e r e n c e outcomes be n e c e s s a r y ?  S u r e l y i n t h e case o f s e l f -  a c t u a l i z i n g e d u c a t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n i s anchored  i n t h e s e l f o f t h e l e a r n e r , and  f o c u s e d n o t on t h e l e a r n e r ' s achievements o f e x t e r n a l l y s e t g o a l s , b u t on the program's e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n h e l p i n g the l e a r n e r a c h i e v e h i s d e s i r e d g o a l s . D i d i t meet t h e l e a r n e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s and e n a b l e him t o l i b e r a t e h i m s e l f from a degree o f i g n o r a n c e , p r e j u d i c e , f o o l i s h n e s s , narrowness,  and b l i n e h a b i t ? D i d  i t p r o v i d e a c h a n n e l f o r s p i r i t u a l renewal and r e l e a s e from boredom, a l i e n a t i o n and m e a n i n g l e s s n e s s ?  D i d i t b r i n g the l e a r n e r c l o s e r t o t h a t form o f p r o f o u n d  l i t e r a c y which Maxine Green s a i d "enables persons t o d i s c l o s e who t h e y a r e . . . to- t e l l t h e i r s t o r i e s , t o i n v e n t - t h e m s e l v e s . . . t o make c l e a r t h e r o l e o f vantage p o i n t even a s i t i l l u m i n a t e s t h e shapes o f t h e common w o r l d " (1979:634).  This  type o f program more t h a n any o t h e r t a k e s i t s cue f o r s u c c e s s o r o t h e r w i s e  from  the judgment o f l e a r n e r s . With t h e o t h e r t h r e e t y p e s o f e d u c a t i o n ' o b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e l e a r n er's  achievement dominates a s a n i n d i c a t o r o f program s u c c e s s .  gram i s s u c c e s s f u l i f l e a r n e r s demonstrate  A t e c h n i c a l pro-  t h e c r i t e r i o n performance.  An  i n t e r p e r s o n a l program i s s u c c e s s f u l i f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n e s t a b l i s h e s v i a p r e - and p o s t - t e s t t h a t t h e t r e a t m e n t group developed did  not.  A s o c i a l a c t i v i s t program i s c o n s i d e r e d s u c c e s s f u l i f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  move on a n a t t i t u d e s c a l e from anomie toward autonomy. for  s k i l l s t h e c o n t r o l group  B u t how c a n a program  s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n s e t the c r i t e r i o n behaviour f o r evaluation? Of a l l f o u r t y p e s o f e d u c a t i o n t h i s one r e v e r s e s t h e primacy o f o b j e c t i v e  measures, and a s k s n o t d i d t h e l e a r n e r a c h i e v e t h e program's o b j e c t i v e s , b u t d i d the program meet t h e l e a r n e r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s ?  Program s u c c e s s may h i n g e t h e n o n  t h e l e a r n e r ' s sense o f h a v i n g passed t h r o u g h a s i g n i f i c a n t e x p e r i e n c e . undoubtedly essence  This i s  a n e x c e p t i o n a l c h a l l e n g e f o r e d u c a t o r s t o t a k e on, b u t i t i s t h e  o f e d u c a t i o n t o honour t h e i n t e g r i t y o f t h e l e a r n e r and s e r v e t h e  137 unfoldment o f h i s c o n s c i o u s n e s s .  Evaluation o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g education i s  one p l a c e where t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s d e f i n e d i n e x p l i c i t and uncomprpmised terms.  Clientele orientation characteristics T h i s type o f e d u c a t i o n c a n o f f e r l i t t l e e x t e r n a l reward;  i t s main a t t r a c -  t i o n i s t h e enchantment o f f i n d i n g l i f e more r i c h and v a r i e d t h a n i t appeared. I t w i l l t h e r e f o r e draw c l i e n t s who a r e e s s e n t i a l l y l e a r n i n g o r i e n t e d , and whose self-concept i s high.  They may be l e s s i n s t r u m e n t a l because t h e y a r e o l d e r , o r  they may be i n s a t i a b l y c u r i o u s so t h a t t h e y s i m p l y d e s i r e t o have more s c i e n c e , art,  and p h i l o s o p h y i n t h e i r l i v e s .  They may be s e e k i n g r e n e w a l , and something  r e f r e s h i n g t o h e l p them t r a n s c e n d t h e p r e o c c u p a t i o n s o f d a i l y l i f e .  In this  r e s p e c t t h e y may be a c t i v i t y o r i e n t e d l i k e c l i e n t s who s t u d y t e c h n i c a l c o n t e n t s f o r non-instrumental reasons.  The d i s a f f e c t e d w i l l s e i z e w i t h e n t h u s i a s m any medium  which e x p r e s s e s t h e i r v i s i o n — ing  a s h a s been demonstrated  with inner-city  build-  m u r a l s , p o l i t i c a l s t r e e t t h e a t r e , and t h e s t e e l bands o f t h e C a r i b b e a n .  Those w i t h a l o w s e l f - c o n c e p t c a n be won o v e r t o new j o y i f t h e s k i l l s . f o r a c t u a l i z a t i o n a r e brought by t h e agent t o a l e v e l t h e y c a n r e a c h . demonstrated  self-  T h i s h a s been  i n g e r i a t r i c h o s p i t a l s where even p a t i e n t s i n t h e p a l l i a t i v e c a r e  wards r e s p o n d t o t h e chance t o use p e r c u s s i o n m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s .  I t h a s been  e v i d e n c e d i n p r i s o n s where t e n d i n g a s m a l l garden p a t c h o r c a r i n g f o r a p e t h a s noticeably modified p r i s o n e r behaviour.  Locations f o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g education There i s some e v i d e n c e t h a t e f f e c t i v e v a l u e s c l a r i f y i n g e d u c a t i o n c a n t a k e p l a c e c l o s e t o home —  i n t h e v i l l a g e i n s t i t u t e , t h e l o c a l l i b r a r y o r a church  h a l l , even q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t h e home a s s e e n w i t h t h e " L i v i n g Room L e a r n i n g " program i n B r i t i s h Columbia .(Kidd and Selman,1978:235)•  138  However f i e l d t r i p s c a n u s e f u l l y supplement t h e v a l u e c l a r i f i c a t i o n s which go on i n d i s c u s s i o n groups, and a t t h e same time make use o f s o c i e t y ' s c u l t u r a l s t o r e h o u s e s which i n c l u d e : museums, a u d i t o r i u m s , p l a n e t a r i u m s , g a l l e r i e s , theatres, l i b r a r i e s , conservatories, observatories, laboratories, synagogues, mosques and t e m p l e s .  churches,  R e g a r d i n g these examples o f c u l t u r a l  capital  t h e r e i s some i n t e r p l a y between t h e developments which t a k e p l a c e t h r o u g h v a l u e s c l a r i f y i n g e d u c a t i o n and s o c i a l a c t i v i s t e d u c a t i o n , s i n c e o n l y t h r o u g h w i e l d i n g p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e s u c c e s s f u l l y do m i n o r i t y groups and a b o r i g i n a l  peoples  o b t a i n t h e r e s o u r c e s t o e s t a b l i s h museums, g a l l e r i e s o f p h o t o g r a p h i c o r language  history,  institutes.  SOCIAL ACTIVIST EDUCATION  G o a l , f u n c t i o n and t y p i c a l c o n t e n t S o c i a l a c t i v i s t e d u c a t i o n d i r e c t s p e r s o n a l l e a r n i n g towards i m p r o v i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e e x p e r i e n c e d i n human communities.  I n t h e p a s t i t s g o a l has been  to b r i n g about pragmatic improvements t h a t were u s u a l l y e v i d e n c e d i n a more e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s ; b u t i n t h e l a s t decade emphasis has s h i f t e d onto t h e g o a l o f i m p r o v i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g and c a p a b i l i t y w i t h r e g a r d t o the s u c c e s s f u l management o f f u r t h e r changes i n t h e community.  S i n c e i t seems  u n l i k e l y t h a t e i t h e r i n d i v i d u a l o r mass a c t i o n s c a n be s u s t a i n e d s u c c e s s f u l l y as e d u c a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h o u t t h e s u p p o r t o f s m a l l group i n v o l v e m e n t , t h e f o l l o w ing a  t r e a t m e n t w i l l speak o f f a c e - t o - f a c e p r i m a r y groups, n e i g h b o u r s , and people i n community a s t h e c e n t r a l forum o f s o c i a l a c t i v i s t l e a r n i n g . The f u n c t i o n o f community d e v e l o p i n g e d u c a t i o n i s t o seek growth i n compe-  t e n c e , more t h a n t h e a l l e v i a t i o n o f m i s e r y ( B i d d l e & Biddle,1965:221) .  But i t s  f u n c t i o n i s o f t e n c o n f u s e d w i t h t h a t o f s e v e r a l o t h e r forms o f s o c i a l p r a c t i c e .  139 " S o c i a l w e l f a r e " s e r v i c e s f o r example, w h i l e s t r u g g l i n g t o g e t upstream a t t h e c a u s e s o f problems a r e p r i m a r i l y d e d i c a t e d t o r e l i e v i n g t h e symptoms. development",  "Economic  t h e r a l l y i n g c r y o f t h e 1960's, has come t o be j u d g e d a s o f t e n  m i s g u i d e d and e s s e n t i a l l y m i s s i n g t h e mark o f human development.  Similarly,  "community o r g a n i z a t i o n " presuming t h a t "community" a l r e a d y e x i s t s proceeds t o s y s t e m a t i z e r e l a t i o n s among e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s and l e a d e r s , t h u s a c h i e v i n g a m i n o r degree o f e f f i c i e n c y , w h i l e m i s s i n g a major o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e v e l o p emerging l e a d e r s and more v i t a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . sumes w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s , economic development,  " S o c i a l p l a n n i n g " though i t suband b e t t e r community o r g a n i z a t i o n  f a i l s i n p r i n c i p l e and c o n s e q u e n t l y i n f a c t when i t d e l i v e r s i l l - f i t t i n g t i o n s t o people who have n o t been a s s i s t e d t o a r t i c u l a t e t h e problems experience. to  they  S i m i l a r l y , both "information-communication" (from s o c i a l p l a n n e r s  t h e p e o p l e who a r e about t o be s u b j e c t e d t o a c h a n g e ) , and " e d u c a t i o n o f t h e  p u b l i c " (propaganda  from a s e c t o r which i s s e e k i n g c h a n g e ) , have more i n common  with p u b l i c i t y than education. is  solu-  The p r o t o t y p e o f community d e v e l o p i n g e d u c a t i o n  n e i t h e r a c l a s s r o o m n o r a p u b l i c i t y campaign b u t "a s m a l l group o f f r i e n d s  who a r e d e v o t e d t o t h e l o c a l good" ( o p . c i t . : 2 4 8 ) . The c o n t e n t o f s o c i a l a c t i v i s t e d u c a t i o n h a s t h r e e major e l e m e n t s i n i n t e r action: f i r s t l y ,  p e o p l e a s c i t i z e n s and n e i g h b o u r s who a r e a c t i n g on t h e i r own  b e h a l f i n r e a l r a t h e r t h a n s i m u l a t e d e v e n t s o f human community; s e c o n d l y , some immediate  p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n which i s a c t u a l r a t h e r t h a n c o n t r i v e d f o r educa-  t i o n a l purposes; and t h i r d l y , t h e s o c i o e c o n o m i c i n s t i t u t i o n s t h r o u g h which p e o p l e work t o a l l e v i a t e problems and b r i n g about a b e t t e r l i f e .  I n f a c t , the  l o n g e r range a c t i v i t y i s l a r g e l y " o r i e n t e d t o w a r d t h e d e s i g n o f s o c i o e c o n o m i c institutions"  ( B l a k e l y , 1 9 7 9 i l 8 ) so t h a t i n f u t u r e s i t u a t i o n s t h e y c a n more  e f f e c t i v e l y c l o s e t h e gap between human a s p i r a t i o n s and a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s . But t h e emphasis i s always w i t h t h e p e o p l e who a r e l e a r n i n g t o be c i t i z e n s , t o become "competent t o l i v e and g a i n some c o n t r o l o v e r a f r u s t r a t i n g and c h a n g i n g  140 ( B i d d l e & Biddle,1965:78).  world"  Methodology  geared t o nature o f the goal  Since the content  i s comprised o f problematic l o c a l s i t u a t i o n s ,  l e a r n i n g outcomes sought a r e t h e a b i l i t y n e e d s a n d manage t h e i r own d e s t i n y (Blakely,1979:22),  o f l o c a l people t o "perceive  emphasis on p r o b i n g ,  be a j u d i c i o u s  s o c i a l a c t i o n , a n d more c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g .  testing,  prudent a c t i o n d i r e c t e d  change i s t h e s o u r c e o f t h e t e r m " s o c i a l e x p e r i m e n t " methodology o f s o c i a l a c t i v i s t rather  t h e i r own  i n a manner b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e m s e l v e s "  t h e e d u c a t i o n a l methodology used w i l l  ation of c r i t i c a l thinking,  and the  education.  than c i t i z e n s h i p education,  toward d e s i r e d to describe  Without a c t i o n there  combinThe  social  the d i s t i n c t i v e i s philosophic  but without c r i t i c a l thought o f p o t e n t i a l  consequences and comparison o f a c t u a l w i t h a n t i c i p a t e d consequences any s o c i a l a c t i o n w i l l n o t produce an educative  experience.  The m e t h o d o l o g y o f s o c i a l a c t i v i s t t h a t b e g i n s w i t h t h e i r own p e r c e p t i o n s community e x i s t s . of community,  "It recognizes  i n a process that w i l l u t i l i z e  Biddle,1965:224).  to serve an expanding neighbourly  I t does n o t presume  the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l structures,  and i n s t i t u t i o n s  when n e e d e d "  but  (Biddle &  e n c o u r a g i n g them t o become " m o r e  good"  competent  ( o p . c i t . : 2 4 8 ) i s t h e b a s i c momentum o f  development.  A sense o f community, thus the f i r s t  situation. to value  needs.  S t a r t i n g w i t h t h e p e o p l e where t h e y a r e , h e l p i n g them u n c o v e r  commonalities with t h e i r neighbours,  is  of their  the necessity f o r the discovering o r creating  t h a t w i l l h e l p c r e a t e new o r g a n i z a t i o n s  community  education i n i t i a t e s a process i n people  of being together  significant  i n experience  and cooperative  outcome o f t h e i r g u i d e d e x p l o r a t i o n  action  of the l o c a l  T h e c o m m u n i t y b u i l d i n g e d u c a t o r s o f H i g h l a n d e r f o l k s c h o o l a l s o came  t h i s s e n s e o f common p u r p o s e a s t h e f i r s t  s t e p i n community  development.  " H i s t o r i c a l l y e d u c a t i o n i n A m e r i c a , more o f t e n t h a n n o t , h a s t a u g h t p e o p l e  that  141  when t h e c o n f l i c t between t h e m s e l v e s and a problem l e s s e n s o r d i s a p p e a r s , the problem i s s o l v e d . o r who  e l s e may  C r i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s t h o u g h t about t h e causes o f t h e  problem,  be a f f e c t e d by i t , o f t e n s t o p s a t t h i s p o i n t . . . H i g h l a n d e r sought  t o educate people away from the dead end o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m and i n t o the freedom t h a t grows from c o o p e r a t i o n and c o l l e c t i v e s o l u t i o n s "  (Adams,1975s208).  The A n t i g o n i s h c o o p e r a t i v e movement c a r r i e d on i n t h e A t l a n t i c p r o v i n c e s o f Canada t a u g h t t h e same e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e , t h a t s e l f i s h , c o m p e t i t i v e i n d i v i d u a l i s m was i n the end s e l f - d e f e a t i n g .  "No m a t t e r how  c a p a b l e and s k i l l e d the i n d i v i d u a l  i s , he soon l e a r n s t h a t t h e r e a r e f o r c e s i n s o c i e t y o v e r which he has no p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l , and w h i c h i n f l u e n c e the l i v e s o f a l l i n d i v i d u a l s i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e i r genius...Against these f o r c e s i n d i v i d u a l a c t i o n i s u s e l e s s . w i t h group a c t i o n " (laidlaw,196l:107)•  They must be  met  A t t h e same t i m e some a u t h o r s c a u t i o n e d  t h a t h a t r e d o f a common enemy would not make a s good a b a s i s f o r t h e community . b u i l d i n g p r o c e s s as the l a t e n t good w i l l i n a p o p u l a t i o n t o seek improvement i n the q u a l i t y o f l i f e .  S i m i l a r l y , an immediate c r i s i s was not as good a b a s i s on  which t o b e g i n t h e community p r o c e s s a s t h e many f r u s t r a t i o n s and hopes accumul a t e d from c r i s e s o f the p a s t ( B i d d l e & B i d d l e , 1 9 6 5 : 2 7 4 ) . The methodology o f s o c i a l a c t i v i s t e d u c a t i o n i s a s u b t l e b a l a n c e o f r e s p e c t f o r t h e hopes, e x p e r i e n c e , d e s p a i r and w i l l o f the p e o p l e , and r e c o g n i t i o n o f the p r e s e n t l i m i t s on t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r s e l f - h e l p .  Of t h e s e two q u a l i t i e s the more  e s s e n t i a l t o human d i g n i t y i s genuine r e s p e c t o f p e o p l e .  My l e s H o r t o n ,  founder  o f t h e A p p a l a c h i a n f o l k s c h o o l , " H i g h l a n d e r " , c o n c l u d e d from h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s o f l o c a l people and o u t s i d e r s t h a t " t h i s unacknowledged d i a l o g u e o f non-equals that so many people a r e c a r r y i n g on w i t h mountain people must come t o an end" 1975s183).  (Adams,  He was c o n v i n c e d t h a t e f f e c t i v e " t e a c h i n g must l e a r n t o work i n s i d e  the e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h o s e b e i n g t a u g h t " (op. c i t . : 4 7 ) . t h a t t h e p e o p l e , no m a t t e r how  H o r t o n became c o n v i n c e d  poor o r u n t u t o r e d , would know what t h e y needed t o  l e a r n , i f he c o u l d o n l y l e a r n t o l i s t e n t o them and t o t r a n s l a t e what he h e a r d  142-  i n t o an e d u c a t i o n a l program (op. c i t . : 2 4 ) .  James Draper i n t r o d u c e d the book  " C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n : Canada" w i t h a p r o v e r b on the same  theme;(1971:intro):  Go t o the people L i v e among them Learn' from them Love them Serve them P l a n w i t h them S t a r t w i t h what they know B u i l d on what they have The community d e v e l o p e r i s thus a midwife o f c i t i z e n s , the h e l p e r o f a n a t u r a l i n s t i n c t i v e p r o c e s s , i n t h i s case the a d u l t d e s i r e to manage one's own d e s t i n y . He i s "an e x p e r t i n e x p e d i t i n g a p r o c e s s t h a t works o n l y i f the p a r t i c i p a n t s the i n i t i a t i v e from him" ( B i d d l e & Biddle,1965:266).  I n t h i s way s o c i a l  take  activist  e d u c a t i o n i s seen t o b e g i n by b r i n g i n g people t o g e t h e r t o r e f l e c t upon events i n o r d e r t o l e a r n from them (op. c i t . : 8 8 ) . ' Out o f t h i s j o i n t e x p l o r i n g o f the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n and i t s causes grows s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e t o converse powerful.  w i t h the  S e l f - a s s u r a n c e grows "when c i t i z e n s have s t u d i e d and d i s c u s s e d  enough t o know t h a t they know what they a r e t a l k i n g about" (op.  Obstacles to s o c i a l a c t i v i s t  cit.:150).  education  Moses Coady gave g r e a t impetus t o s o c i a l a c t i v i s t e d u c a t i o n i n the A t l a n t i c p r o v i n c e s o f Canada w i t h a p a r a b l e "The Great D e f a u l t o f the P e o p l e " .  In t h i s  p a r a b l e he f u s e d the minutiae o f h i s t o r y i n t o a powerful myth about the growth o f economic i n s t i t u t i o n s and how the o r d i n a r y people l o s t c o n t r o l o f them. The myth would a p p l y e q u a l l y w e l l t o p o l i t i c a l and o t h e r s o c i a l where f o r the sake o f convenience  c i t i z e n s g i v e up t h e i r working  an i n s t i t u t i o n t o become i n s t e a d o n l y consumers o f i t s s e r v i c e s .  institutions, knowledge o f They pay f o r  t h i s s e r v i c e both by g i v i n g up some f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , and by g i v i n g up the c o n t r o l t h a t d i r e c t involvement  had a f f o r d e d them.  With time i n s t i t u t i o n s  tend  to become o v e r l a i d w i t h g r e a t e r f o r m a l i t y and a c o n v o l u t i o n o f " c h a n n e l s " which  143  -prevent people f u r t h e r from i n f l u e n c i n g o r even l e a r n i n g about i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i n s t r u m e n t s o f t h e i r own s o c i e t y . to  Some p e o p l e a r e b o r n w i t h p r i v i l e g e d a c c e s s  s o c i o e c o n o m i c i n s t i t u t i o n s ; t h e y d e v e l o p a h i g h e r degree o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g  and i n f l u e n c e r e g a r d i n g t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s .  F a t h e r James Tompkins who i n s p i r e d •  Coady's work was most d e e p l y c r i t i c a l n o t o f t h o s e p e r s o n s b o r n t o p r i v i l e g e b u t t h o s e who t h r o u g h h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n were a b l e t o r i s e above t h e i r d i s a d v a n t a g e d p e e r s and t h e n s i m p l y l e f t them b e h i n d .  B o t h t h e s e groups o f i n f l u e n t i a l  citi-  zens t e n d t o deny t h a t a l a r g e segment o f s o c i e t y i s n o t empowered t o p a r t i c i pate i n t h e socioeconomic d e c i s i o n s which shape i t .  So t h e f i r s t o b s t a c l e t o  e f f e c t i v e a c t i v i s t e d u c a t i o n i s d e n i a l on t h e p a r t o f p o t e n t i a l p r o v i d e r s t h a t people a r e p o w e r l e s s o r l a c k i n g t h e s k i l l s o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n .  This denial  communicates t o t h e p o w e r l e s s a s a sense o f i n e v i t a b i l i t y about t h e i r  social  s i t u a t i o n , and t e n d s t o deepen t h e i r a p a t h y . The  second t r a d i t i o n a l o b s t a c l e t o s o c i a l a c t i v i s t e d u c a t i o n h a s been t h e  tendency o f governments to,do t h i n g s f o r t h e p e o p l e , o r t o them, i n s t e a d o f w i t h them.  From t h i s p h i l a n t h r o p i c approach stem s o c i a l w e l f a r e p r o j e c t s w h i c h o v e r -  s t e p t h e vague and h o p e f u l mandates which t h e governed g i v e t h r o u g h e l e c t i o n procedures.  S o c i a l w e l f a r e p r o j e c t s , u s i n g l a r g e b u r e a u c r a c i e s and moving l a r g e  amounts o f t a x d o l l a r s , make i s o l a t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s aimed a t p h y s i c a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s . are  people  weakened f u r t h e r when such p r o j e c t s by-pass t h e p e o p l e ' s d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g  function. "are  D e s p i t e any m a t e r i a l improvement which r e s u l t s ,  B l a k e l y m a i n t a i n s t h a t growth i n community d e v e l o p s o n l y a s p e o p l e  t o t a l l y i n v o l v e d i n a l l o f the f r u s t r a t i o n s as w e l l as successes i n a r r i v i n g  at  the o b j e c t i v e " ( l 9 7 9 s l 9 ) •  of  f a i l u r e even i n t h e i r l i m i t e d o b j e c t i v e s because t h e b u r e a u c r a t s ' d i s t a n c e  D e c i s i o n s made by absentee b u r e a u c r a t s r u n t h e r i s k  from t h e scene v i r t u a l l y g u a r a n t e e s t h a t t h e y w i l l be " o v e r l o o k i n g . s o m e o f t h e t o t a l system", t h e l i v i n g community t h e y a r e t r y i n g t o s e r v e (op. c i t . : 2 2 ) . O t h e r w r i t e r s have s i m i l a r l y argued t h a t i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o c r e a t e a p e o p l e ' s  Ui4  s o c i e t y f o r them, o r t o purchase a way i n t o u t o p i a .  U t o p i a i s something human  b e i n g s s t r u g g l e f o r and grow towards, and those p e r s o n s who a r e r e s t r i c t e d t o • a passive  s t a t u s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r own s o c i e t y a r e p r e v e n t e d from such g r o w t h .  T h i s e r r o r c a n be committed a s e a s i l y a s a p p o i n t i n g  a c i t i z e n s ' committee from  an a u t o c r a t i c d i s t a n c e r a t h e r t h a n l e t t i n g the o p i n i o n - l e a d i n g  members o f a  community emerge and grow i n t o a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t o r y l e a d e r s h i p  (Biddle & Biddle,  1965,vii). Thus d e n i a l o f t h e p o w e r l e s s n e s s o f c i t i z e n s by t h o s e who have socioeconomic i n f l u e n c e , and p h i l a n t h r o p i c s o c i a l p r o j e c t s w h i c h r e l e g a t e c i t i z e n s t o a  passive  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e i r own s o c i e t y a r e o b s t a c l e s which may p r e c l u d e s o c i a l a c t i v i s t learning.  B i d d l e and B i d d l e have i d e n t i f i e d f i v e o t h e r o b s t a c l e s a s o f t e n  a r i s i n g i n t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s once l o c a l p e o p l e b e g i n t o come t o g r i p s their situation.  with  The f i r s t i s apathy shown e i t h e r a s a c t i v e r e s i s t a n c e t o com-  munity b u i l d i n g i n i t i a t i v e s , o r a s an e q u a l l y d y s