UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A taxonomic framework for adult education practices in North America 1980

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A TAXONOMIC FRAMEWORK FOR ADULT EDUCATION PRACTICES I N NORTH AMERICA by ELAINE KATHRYN McCREARY B a c h e l o r o f A r t s ( A n d r a g o g y ) C o n c o r d i a U n i v e r s i t y , M o n t r e a l , 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS • i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( D e p a r t m e n t o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA S e p t e m b e r 1 9 8 0 © E l a i n e K a t h r y n M c C r e a r y , 1 9 8 0 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I ag ree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s * , i t i s u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date i i ABSTRACT As a domain of s o c i a l s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h a d u l t education i s plagued by- s e v e r a l methodological problems. C h i e f among these a r e : l ) the i n a b i l i t y to c o n c e p t u a l l y i n t e g r a t e s e v e r a l l i n e s o f r e s e a r c h which c u r r e n t l y examine i s o l a t e d dimensions o f t h i s complex s o c i a l p r a c t i c e ; 2) the i n a b i l i t y t o com- pare concrete cases i n t h e i r i n f i n i t e d e t a i l ; 3) "the i n a b i l i t y to make e x p l i c i t the i n f l u e n c e o f v a l u e s on the cho i c e s which are made r e g a r d i n g p r a c t i c e ; and 4) the i n a b i l i t y to i n t e r p r e t the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f h i s t o r i c a l s h i f t s i n the f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e . These methodological d i f f i c u l t i e s are a l l a t t r i b u t a b l e to a s i n g l e major gap i n theory - the l a c k o f a comprehensive framework f o r a n a l y z i n g v a r i a t i o n s i n the f i e l d of p r a c t i c e . The problem undertaken i n t h i s t h e s i s i s how t o assemble a framework o f b a s i c types o f p r a c t i c e none o f which w i l l reduce i n t o the terms o f another, and which r e p r e s e n t the minimum a r r a y o f types t h a t taken i n combination can accomodate a l l v a r i a t i o n s o f p r a c t i c e evidenced i n the f i e l d . Based on the assumption t h a t a d u l t education i s a normative f i e l d , h e l p i n g a d u l t s to change i n d i r e c t i o n s which epitomize c e r t a i n v a l u e s , f o u r types o f p r a c t i c e are d e f i n e d i n accord w i t h the val u e s i m p l i c i t i n t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s . These d i r e c t i o n s o f a d u l t development b u i l d on the " s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s " l i t e r a t u r e . Two techniques o f s o c i a l s c i e n t i f i c methodology are employed to develop these f o u r t y p e s . The " a r t i c u l a t i o n o f a domain o f i n q u i r y " as d e s c r i b e d by Abraham Kaplan (1964) i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r use where a simple d e f i n i t i o n o f a domain w i l l not s u f f i c e . A r t i c u l a t i o n c r e a t e s a m a t r i x w i t h o b s e r v a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s ranged a c r o s s a s e t of t h e o r e t i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . These c l a s s i f i - c a t i o n s are c r e a t e d through the use of McKinney's (1966) p r o c e d u r a l g u i d e l i n e s i l l f o r implementing the technique o f " c o n s t r u c t i v e t y p o l o g y " . The d a ta which complete the m a t r i x are drawn from s e m i - a n a l y t i c treatments o f f i v e observa- t i o n a l dimensions which remain when the g o a l dimension i s used as the b a s i s f o r d e f i n i n g the t y p e s . Those o b s e r v a t i o n a l dimensions i n c l u d e program content, e d u c a t i o n a l methodology, b a s i s of e v a l u a t i o n , c l i e n t e l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and d e l i v e r y l o c a t i o n . The e x t e n s i v e l i t e r a t u r e on these dimensions of p r a c t i c e i s a nalyzed f o r those v a r i a b l e s which are unique to one type of p r a c t i c e and t h e r e f o r e serve as d i s c r i m i n a t o r s between types, and those v a r i a b l e s which are v i r t u a l l y p e r v a s i v e of a l l types o f p r a c t i c e . The r e s u l t s c o n s i s t o f f o u r fundamentally d i s t i n c t types of p r a c t i c e and a s e t o f core c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which pervade a l l v a r i e t i e s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . The r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n h e r e n t i n the framework are presented i n a f o r m a l s c i e n t i f i c model. I t i s argued t h a t the framework and model tog e t h e r r e p r e s e n t s i g n i f i c a n t m e t hodological advance over p r e v i o u s attempts t o analyze the f i e l d such as u n i - d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l e s . Uni-dimensional s c a l e s merge the o b s e r v a t i o n a l and t h e o r e t i c a l axes and attempt t o range a l l p r a c t i c e s between p o l a r i t i e s such as r e a c t i o n a r y and r e v o l u t i o n a r y , o r l i b e r a l and v o c a t i o n a l . The framework may be r e a d i l y adapted as an instrument to p r o v i d e d e t a i l e d " p r o f i l e s " o f e m p i r i c a l cases and used t o t e s t hypotheses r e g a r d i n g the contemporary and h i s t o r i c a l f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e . The formal model p r o v i d e s a s e t o f s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s which i n t e g r a t e s a l a r g e volume o f l i t e r a t u r e c o n c erning a d u l t education f u n c t i o n s and p r a c t i c e s , and goes beyond c o n s o l i d a - t i o n t o suggest hypotheses f o r e m p i r i c a l t e s t t h a t can s y s t e m a t i c a l l y advance t h i s f i e l d o f s o c i a l research.. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Illustrations i v Li s t of Tables ..... v Acknowledgements .' v i Chapter I. INTRODUCTION 1 Nature of the Problem 1 Methodological obstacles i n the study of adult education.... 1 Source of the problem: a single major gap i n theory 4 Inadequacy of previous attempts to solve the/problem 5 Purpose of the Study: To Produce a Comprehensive Framework for the Domain 7 Definition of terms . 7 C r i t e r i a f o r an adequate framework 8 Usefulness of a framework to disciplinarians • and to practitioners ,'. 9 Plan of the Study I i II. LITERATURE REVIEW 13 Procedural Matters 1̂ - Terminology i n the literature 14- Selection guidelines....... 15 Presentation of Summarized Statements 16 Juxtaposition of terms 2 6 Critique of the Literature.. 28 Degree of consensus 28 Conclusion 2 9 III. METHODOLOGY 30 Explanation of Constructive Typology - 30 Misapplied definitions and functions 3^ Uses of constructed types - 37 Application of Constructive Typology to the Domain of Adult Education Practices ^0 V I V . F INDINGS PART A : ANALYSIS OF THE TYPES AND THE DIMENSIONS 48 D e f i n i t i o n o f t h e T y p e s by G o a l , F u n c t i o n , a n d D o m a i n 48 T e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n . 4 9 . I n t e r p e r s o n a l e d u c a t i o n 5 1 S e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g e d u c a t i o n 52 S o c i a l a c t i v i s t e d u c a t i o n . . . . ' 54 S i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f t h e A t t r i b u t e S p a c e 57 The c o n t e n t d i m e n s i o n . 59 The m e t h o d o l o g y d i m e n s i o n 63 The e v a l u a t i o n d i m e n s i o n . 68 The c l i e n t e l e d i m e n s i o n 72 The l o c a t i o n d i m e n s i o n 78 A M o d e l o f F o r m a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n E l e m e n t s : The T y p e s , t h e D i m e n s i o n s , t h e C o r e 83 V . F INDINGS PART B : SYNTHESIS OF THE VARIABLES WITHIN EACH TYPE 88 P r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e Taxonomic M a t r i x 89 T e n t a t i v e E x p l a n a t o r y A c c o u n t i n g f o r e a c h Type 93 T e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n 93 I n t e r p e r s o n a l e d u c a t i o n 108 S e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g e d u c a t i o n , 123 S o c i a l a c t i v i s t e d u c a t i o n 138 Common C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a l l A d u l t E d u c a t i o n P r a c t i c e s . . . . . . . . 1 5 8 , V I . CONCLUSIONS 159 Summary o f t h e S t u d y 159 C o n c l u s i o n s • 160 R e g a r d i n g t h e f o u r c o n s t r u c t e d t y p e s 161 R e g a r d i n g t h e t a x o n o m i c f r u m e w o r k i . . 162 R e g a r d i n g t h e m o d e l o f t h e d o m a i n . . . . . . . 164 R e g a r d i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r . 166 R e g a r d i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e d i s c i p l i n a r i a n . . . 169 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 173 A p p e n d i c e s ; 179 185 R e f e r e n c e s . v i - LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1. Three Uses o f the Term "Contents" i n Education 60 2. Sponsors o f A d u l t Education ;.. 73 3 . P r o c e d u r a l S k i l l s as E d u c a t i o n a l Outcomes 79 4 . V a r i e t i e s o f I n t e l l e c t u a l S k i l l s 102 5 . Schematic Summary o f the I n t e r p e r s o n a l Gap 110 . 6 . Transformations Across the I n t e r p e r s o n a l Gap 110 7. An I n t e r a c t i o n Diagram o f a Club Group 121 8 . The Community Problem-Solving Process 146 Diagram 1. One Dimension o f P r a c t i c e a t the Core o f A d u l t Education 85, 174 2. S i x Dimensions o f P r a c t i c e a t the Core o f Adu l t Education 85, 1?4 3« One Dimension o f a Branch o f P r a c t i c e showing Core and Unique V a r i a b l e s 86, 175 4 . One Dimension o f P r a c t i c e as i t V a r i e s Across the F i e l d 86, 1?5 5. One Dimension of a Branch o f P r a c t i c e showing Unique V a r i a b l e s Only 87, 176 6 . A l l S i x Dimensions o f a Branch o f P r a c t i c e i n c l u d i n g t h e i r Core and Unique V a r i a b l e s 87, 176 v i i — LIST OF TABLES 1. J u x t a p o s i t i o n of Roughly S i m i l a r Terms Regarding the Goals and Functions o f A d u l t Education 27 2. Major Categories o f E d u c a t i o n a l Design S i t u a t i o n s . 65 3. A Taxonomic Framework f o r A d u l t Education P r a c t i c e s i n North America 92 4-. Features of i n s t r u c t i o n a l P lanning f o r Courses and Topics, f o r F i v e Types of Expected Outcomes 96 . 5 * P o s s i b l e P r e r e q u i s i t e R e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the Design of Courses and Topics 98 6 . Types of T r a i n i n g and T h e i r Goals 115 7. Common C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a l l A d u l t Education P r a c t i c e s 158 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes t o acknowledge w i t h thanks the i n s p i r a t i o n and encouragement o f f e r e d by Wm. P. McCreary. He never once s a i d . i t wasn't worth doing. The author a l s o acknowledges w i t h g r a t i t u d e the f i n a n c i a l support provided f o r two years' work through a U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Graduate F e l l o w s h i p * 1 CHAPTER I "'INTRODUCTION Nature of the Problem Methodological o b s t a c l e s I n the study of a d u l t education The systematic study of a d u l t education p r a c t i c e s i s beset w i t h method- o l o g i c a l o b s t a c l e s each o f which i n h i b i t s the f u r t h e r development o f theory and i n s i g h t . Because of the complexity of a d u l t education p r a c t i c e s as a s o c i a l phenomenon researchers have attempted to e x t r i c a t e one dimension a t a time f o r examination. Consequently there are separate bodies of l i t e r a t u r e on c l i e n t e l e s , methods and techniques, content areas, e v a l u a t i o n procedures and d e l i v e r y l o c a t i o n s as though these dimensions operated independently. I n f a c t w i t h a l l h i g h l y complex phenomena the dimensions are mutually i n t e r a c t i v e . So, f o r example, the nature of a technique w i l l l i m i t the range of content which may be taught u s i n g i t , and the nature of a content area w i l l l i m i t the range of techniques by which i t can s u c c e s s f u l l y be taught. The p r a c t i c e o f a d u l t education thus r e f e r s t o the conducting of programs and a c t i v i t i e s i n which s i x dimensions are i n i n t e r a c t i o n : .educational g o a l , content, methods and techniques, e v a l u a t i o n of achievement, c l i e n t e l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and l o c a t i o n of d e l i v e r y . P r a c t i c e i s thus a somewhat a b s t r a c t term used t o embrace the whole domain, as one would speak of "the p r a c t i c e of medicine" i n general terms. However, i n s t u d y i n g p a r t i c u l a r cases, one i s l o o k i n g a t s p e c i f i c e m p i r i c a l i n s t a n c e s , as f o r example " p r a c t i c e s i n Ontario a t the t u r n of the century." Concrete 2 p r a c t i c e s then are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p a r t i c u l a r v a r i a n t s of each of the s i x dimensions. E m p i r i c a l case s t u d i e s present s i x - d i m e n s i o n a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s while systematic l i t e r a t u r e deals w i t h only one or perhaps two dimensions a t a time. One major methological problem then i s how to i n t e g r a t e the dimensions of p r a c t i c e c o n c e p t u a l l y , so t h a t those conceptual c o n f i g u r a t i o n s w i l l a i d i n the a n a l y s i s and understanding of e m p i r i c a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . Another major methodological o b s t a c l e i s how to analyze h i s t o r i c a l changes i n p r a c t i c e . A n a l y s i s i n v o l v e s the two operations of d e s c r i p t i o n and i n t e r p r e - t a t i o n . D e s c r i p t i o n r e f e r s to the r e p o r t i n g of data i n the terms of e m p i r i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n r e f e r s to the assessment of meaning i n terms o f some p o i n t o r p o i n t s of r e f e r e n c e . That there are fewer people i n a program t h i s year than l a s t i s simple d e s c r i p t i o n . Whether t h i s i s to be i n t e r p r e t e d as an improvement or a d e c l i n e can only be determined w i t h reference to the c r i t e r i a which d e f i n e q u a l i t y f o r t h a t program. D e s c r i p t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l changes i n p r a c t i c e i s p o s s i b l e through r e p o r t i n g the v a r i a t i o n between a given c o n d i t i o n and a previous one or even the o r i g i n a l c o n d i t i o n of a program or i n s t i t u t i o n . Over time new forms o f p r a c t i c e are created and o l d e r forms are abandoned. Yet how can these h i s t o r i c a l developments be placed i n t o the con- t e x t of the f i e l d as a whole so t h a t the s i g n i f i c a n c e of these changes f o r the f i e l d can be understood? By what p o i n t s of reference can trends be i n t e r p r e t e d ? I s i t p o s s i b l e to compare an in n o v a t i v e program w i t h the very d i f f e r e n t ones which preceded i t ? The degree of d e t a i l i n concrete cases i s i n f i n i t e and t h e i r comparison v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e . So a second major methodological problem i s to f i n d some r e l i a b l e p o i n t s of referen c e , transcending e m p i r i c a l cases, a g a i n s t which changes i n p r a c t i c e may be measured i n order t o assess their-meaning and s i g n i f i c a n c e . A t h i r d methodological o b s t a c l e i n v o l v e d i n the study o f a d u l t edueation p r a c t i c e s i s how to make e x p l i c i t the i n f l u e n c e o f v a l u e s . A value i s a q u a l i t y 3 which one c h e r i s h e s , p r e f e r s , o r i s committed t o . I t i s seldom experienced d i r e c t l y " . Rather i t i s experienced i n d i r e c t l y w i t h i n some phenomenon. Values u n d e r l i e a t t i t u d e which are s a i d to be a combination of b e l i e f , emotion, and be h a v i o r a l tendency. Thus one b e l i e v e s c e r t a i n persons, p l a c e s , and events to be d e s i r a b l e to the extent t h a t some p r e f e r r e d value i s experienced through them. One experiences emotions of a t t r a c t i o n o r a v e r s i o n i n accord w i t h those b e l i e f s ; and one tends to seek out or a v o i d experiences according to the val u e s inherent i n them. A d u l t educators can be observed to e x h i b i t a t t i t u d e s toward t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e i n the form of preferences f o r c e r t a i n formats, techniques, e v a l u a t i o n procedures, sponsoring agencies, and so on. While a t t i t u d e s may be imputed to r e s t on v a l u e s h e l d by educators, those values are u s u a l l y i m p l i c i t r a t h e r than e x p l i c i t , assumed r a t h e r than examined. Whether taken f o r granted o r examined the v a l u e s h e l d by educators w i l l s t r o n g l y i n - f l u e n c e the way they p r a c t i c e a d u l t education. Gale Jensen wrote: "The t r u t h of the matter i s t h a t we always educate i n some d i r e c t i o n ; ...In t h i s we have no choice; but we do have choice as to the k i n d o f behavior we b e l i e v e we should develop. We can make these choices c o n s c i o u s l y and i n t e l l i g e n t l y i n the sense t h a t we [can be] aware o f the ways by which we a r r i v e a t them " (Jensen, I 9 6 0 : 8 8 ) . I n order f o r educators to make d e c i s i o n s c o n s c i o u s l y and i n t e l l i g e n t l y there a r i s e s the methodological problem of making e x p l i c i t the value i m p l i c a - t i o n s , the s u b t l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n d i r e c t i o n o f l e a r n e r development, which are i m p l i e d i n the p r a c t i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e s between which educators must choose. Systematic a n a l y s i s o f p r a c t i c e s i n North America should t h e r e f o r e provide not only a d e s c r i p t i o n of p r a c t i c e s found i n the f i e l d but an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f these f i n d i n g s i n terms o f the val u e s they promote. A f o u r t h methodological problem confounding the systematic study of a d u l t education p r a c t i c e s i s how t o make comparisons between s p e c i f i c e m p i r i c a l c ases. T h i s p l a c e s i n a contemporary context the same d i f f i c u l t y which was . t. encountered i n h i s t o r i c a l , t i m e - s e r i e s comparisons. Not only i s the degree of d e t a i l i n f i n i t e i n e m p i r i c a l i n s t a n c e s but a l s o i t i s c o n s t a n t l y changing. R a t i o n a l comparison of cases t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e s the establishment of something which can a c t as a standard of measurement among cases, something which u n l i k e e m p i r i c a l cases has a b s t r a c t e d a l i m i t e d number of key c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and which holds them constant. E m p i r i c a l cases c o u l d then be compared not d i r e c t l y to each other i n a l l t h e i r s h i f t i n g d e t a i l , but i n d i r e c t l y by the degree to which they resemble or d i f f e r from the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n which i s a c t i n g as a, standard of measurement. Systematic study of a d u l t education p r a c t i c e s , whether programs o r whole i n s t i t u t i o n s sponsoring a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f program, has not moved much beyond d e s c r i p t i o n toward t h i s type of c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n . So the problem of comparing concrete cases remains unsolved. Source of the problem: a s i n g l e ma.jor gap i n theory B r i e f l y , the f o u r methodological problems encountered by t h e o r e t i c i a n s are: i - the i n a b i l i t y to i n t e g r a t e c o n c e p t u a l l y the v a r i o u s dimensions of p r a c t i c e ; i i - the i n a b i l i t y to assess the meaning of v a r i o u s h i s t o r i c a l s h i f t s i n p r a c t i c e ; i i i - the i n a b i l i t y to make e x p l i c i t the i n f l u e n c e of values on decisions, regard- i n g p r a c t i c e ; and i v - the i n a b i l i t y to compare e m p i r i c a l cases. Close examination of these f o u r methodological problems r e v e a l s t h a t they are l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to a s i n g l e major gap i n theory: there i s no comprehensive framework o f the domain of i n q u i r y which m i r r o r s the concrete f i e l d of p r a c t i c e s p e c i f y i n g both i t s e x t e r n a l .boundaries w i t h other forms of s o c i a l p r a c t i c e , and i t s i n t e r n a l boundaries which d i s t i n g u i s h between b a s i c v a r i a t i o n s i n p r a c t i c e . E x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l boundaries to the domain o f i n q u i r y supply the l i m i t s which are necessary to a l l systematic theory. They s p e c i f y the "universe of discourse". At d i f f e r e n t times the p r a c t i c e of a d u l t education resembles r e l i g i o n , s o c i a l . a c t i v i s m , psychotherapy, work, s o c i a l s e r v i c e , and r e c r e a t i o n among other forms of s o c i a l a c t i v i t y . A framework of the domain should i n the f i r s t place provide a c l e a r s p e c i f i c a t i o n of where e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s f o r a d u l t s end and other s i m i l a r but non-educational p r a c t i c e s begin. Secondly, a framework of the domain should a r t i c u l a t e t h a t which s e t s apart d i s t i n c t i v e " f i e l d s " w i t h i n the domain. According t o the s o c i a l science method- o l o g i s t Abraham Kaplan (i960:94) every l a w - l i k e statement has f i e l d , range and scope dimensions which l i m i t the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of i t s content. S p e c i f y i n g the " f i e l d " to which a law a p p l i e s c o n s t i t u t e s a s o l u t i o n to the l o c u s problem, t h a t i s the problem of s e l e c t i n g the u l t i m a t e subject-matter of an i n q u i r y (op. c i t . : ? 8 ) . The l i t e r a t u r e o f a d u l t education i s plagued w i t h statements, t h e o r e t i c a l assumptions, and c o n c l u s i o n s of u n s p e c i f i e d a p p l i c a b i l i t y . Statements couched i n general terms imply they w i l l g e n e r a l i z e throughout the whole domain, while e v i d e n t l y e x c l u d i n g l a r g e sub-sections w i t h i n the domain. A d u l t education prac- t i c e s are c l e a r l y not a homogenous domain and yet sub-sections of the domain (which w i l l be c a l l e d types of p r a c t i c e ) , have never been d e f i n e d i n a compre- hensive framework. Without t h e o r e t i c a l l y sound "types" i t i s not p o s s i b l e to examine concrete cases e f f e c t i v e l y f o r the purpose of f i n d i n g e i t h e r contemp- orary "branches of p r a c t i c e " or h i s t o r i c a l " t r a d i t i o n s of p r a c t i c e " . Inadequacy of previous attempts t o f i l l the gap Many of the d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d i e s of content areas, methods and techniques, e v a l u a t i o n procedures, c l i e n t e l e s and l o c a t i o n s used i n a d u l t education, although they attempt to provide a comprehensive overview of the domain, add up to not much more than annotated i n v e n t o r i e s - l i s t s of p o s s i b l e observations i n each dimension of p r a c t i c e . V a r i a n t s from w i t h i n each of the dimensions of p r a c t i c e are not grouped i n t o c o n f i g u r a t i o n s which resemble a c t u a l p r a c t i c e . Dimensions are t r e a t e d as though they were separable elements and not i n t e r a c t i v e components 6 of a composite phenomenon. For example, Schroeder's (1970) typology of i n s t i t u - t i o n s , McCoy's (1977) l i n k a g e of l i f e s p a n stages and content i n t e r e s t s , Bergevin Morris-and Smith's e x c e l l e n t handbook on techniques (1963), Walberg's (1974) book on e v a l u a t i o n , while fine.examples of work i n these l i n e s , are evidence of the i s o l a t e d treatments which are made of i n t e r a c t i v e dimensions. A l t e r n a t i v e s such as the Canadian study "Coming of Age"(Kidd & Selman,1978) do present com- p o s i t e case s t u d i e s , and r e p o r t on most of the dimensions of p r a c t i c e i n prag- matic c o n f i g u r a t i o n s under the s e c t i o n "Programs and Experiences". U n f o r t u n a t e l y these tend t o be h i g h l y i d i o g r a p h i c r a t h e r than c o n c e p t u a l i z e d toward s o c i a l s c i e n t i f i c g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . A n a l y z i n g phenomena of p r a c t i c e r e q u i r e s having some means f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s so as to understand t h e i r place w i t h i n the domain. D e s c r i p t i v e o b s e r v a t i o n without some p o i n t s of r e f e r - ence, some conceptual s t r u c t u r e , cannot be i n t e r p r e t e d . The converse of the problem of d e s c r i p t i o n without i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s found i n the problem of c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n without i l l u s t r a t i o n . Conceptual s t u d i e s which examine the r o l e o f values i n g u i d i n g p r a c t i c e can o f f e r only l i m i t e d i n - s i g h t i f the analyses are kept separate from e m p i r i c a l i l l u s t r a t i o n . For example, the n o t i o n of a succession o f values proposed by Webster Cotton who d e s c r i b e d three eras of " i d e a l i s m " , " d i s i l l u s i o n " , and " r i s i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m " among a d u l t educators, does not s u b s t a n t i a t e how these d i f f e r e n c e s i n c o n v i c t i o n may have changed the content, methods, or c l i e n t e l e o f the a d u l t education p r a c t i c e s o f each e r a . S i m i l a r l y , the n o t i o n of c o m p e t i t i o n among values o f f e r s s e v e r a l simple a l t e r n a t i v e s to a d u l t educators, c l a i m i n g they must choose between~the v a l u e s of s o c i a l p r e s e r v a t i o n versus s o c i a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , or between person-oriented versus s o c i e t y - o r i e n t e d p r a c t i c e , or again between s p i r i t u a l arid p r o f e s s i o n a l com- mitment ±0 a aoicial...fflovemerit versus the v a l u e - f r e e a p p l i c a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g t e c h - nology. But these p o l a r i t i e s are never f u l l y extended i n t o e m p i r i c a l i n d i c a t o r s o f the concepts to determine whether the analyses encompass the whole range of 7 a d u l t education p r a c t i c e s o r only a p o r t i o n of i t . Conceptual analyses d i s c o n - nected from e m p i r i c a l i n d i c a t o r s w i t h i n the f i e l d are thus as non-productive as e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s devoid of t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Purpose of the Study: To Produce a Comprehensive Framework f o r the Domain The purpose of t h i s study i s to produce a comprehensive framework t h a t a r t i c u l a t e s the domain o f a d u l t education p r a c t i c e s - a framework which i n c o r - porates s i x dimensions of p r a c t i c e i n c l u d i n g the value-laden goal dimension, and provides both an e x t e r n a l boundary w i t h other s i m i l a r but non-educational p r a c t i c e s , and the i n t e r n a l boundaries which i d e n t i f y d i s t i n c t i v e sub-sections w i t h i n the domain. The f i r s t p r o p o s i t i o n of the t h e s i s r e g a r d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s at work i n the domain i s th a t c o n s t r u c t i v e typology w i l l r e v e a l a small number of s e t s of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s none o f which w i l l reduce i n t o the terms of another. Secondly t h a t these s e t s i n combination w i l l accomodate a l l . v a r i a t i o n s o f prac- t i c e i n the f i e l d . T h i r d l y , -these s e t s of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be shown t o have a common core which binds them to a common s o c i a l p r a c t i c e . The second p r o p o s i - t i o n of the t h e s i s , r e garding sequences, i s t h a t the framework i f based on suf- f i c i e n t l y undated and n o n - l o c a l i z e d types w i l l prove to be a means of d e t a i l e d taxonomic d e s c r i p t i o n o f cases so t h a t accurate t i m e - s e r i e s comparisons w i l l be p o s s i b l e . D e f i n i t i o n of terms The b a s i c set o f t h e o r e t i c a l , and methodological terms used throughout t h i s study are intro d u c e d i n chapter one. Each term-is u n d e r l i n e d the f i r s t time i t i s employed and i t s usage i s e x p l a i n e d . Because t h i s i n q u i r y focuses on the c r e a t i o n of methodological t o o l s to study e m p i r i c a l phenomena i t employs as a 8 r u l e a b s t r a c t , t h e o r e t i c a l e n t i t i e s which are based on concrete, e m p i r i c a l e n t i t i e s . Two s e t s o f p a r a l l e l terms thus emerge, and i t w i l l be h e l p f u l to the reader to bear i n mind the f o l l o w i n g c r i t i c a l d i s t i n c t i o n s : A b s t r a c t „ r a c ^ j L C e » "domain of "sub-sections of the domain" Terms: prac i c e i n q u i r y " "types o f p r a c t i c e " Concrete „ ,. „ " f i e l d o f "branches o f p r a c t i c e " (contemporary) Terms: p r a c t i c e " " t r a d i t i o n s of p r a c t i c e " ( h i s t o r i c a l ) C r i t e r i a f o r an adequate framework Abraham Kaplan e x p l a i n s t h a t a r t i c u l a t i o n of a domain of i n q u i r y depends upon having something which w i l l throw the simple inventory o f o b s e r v a t i o n a l terms i n t o r e l i e f - and t h a t something i s an independent conceptual s t r u c t u r e . The conceptual s t r u c t u r e provides p o i n t s of reference a g a i n s t which to i n t e r p r e t e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s . E f f e c t i v e a r t i c u l a t i o n of a complex domain l i k e t h a t of a d u l t education p r a c t i c e s a l s o depends upon having the operations of d e s c r i p t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n occur a t the same time but through the use of two independent axes. This i s accomplished by usi n g i n a d d i t i o n t o the conceptual s t r u c t u r e an a t t r i b u t e space which i s a s e r i e s of c a t e g o r i e s f o r o b s e r v a t i o n a l terms t h a t i s d i s p l a y e d v e r t i c a l l y . I n t h i s study there i s one category f o r each of the f o l l o w - i n g dijne__y__]__c_i__3ra^ methodology, e v a l u a t i o n , c l i e n t e l e , and l o c a t i o n . I n each category many p o s s i b l e v a r i a t i o n s can be reported i n observa- t i o n a l terms. A l i s t i n g o f a l l such terms provides an inv e n t o r y o f p o s s i b l e o b s e r v a t i o n s . The conceptual s t r u c t u r e i s a s e r i e s of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s d e f i n e d i n t h e o r e t i c a l terms and i s d i s p l a y e d h o r i z o n t a l l y . The purpose of t h i s study i s to produce a framework f o r the domain which w i l l propose f i v e such c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s : one f o r each o f f o u r types of p r a c t i c e , and one f o r those d e f i n i t i v e c h a r a c t e r - i s t i c s which are e s s e n t i a l o r pervasive i n a l l v a r i a t i o n s o f a d u l t education p r a c t i c e . A framework o r matrix of terms r e s u l t s when o b s e r v a t i o n a l terms from the v e r t i c a l a x i s are assigned a place along the h o r i z o n t a l a x i s according to the 9 headings provided by the conceptual s t r u c t u r e . Types of p r a c t i c e r e f e r s to i n - t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t combinations o f o b s e r v a t i o n a l terms l i s t e d v e r t i c a l l y under each of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n the conceptual s t r u c t u r e . As such they denote t h e o r e t i c a l e n t i t i e s but they serve to demarcate ba s i c v a r i a t i o n s of p r a c t i c e found i n the f i e l d . When the taxonomic framework i s a p p l i e d to a p a r t i c u l a r p r a c t i c e the d i s p l a y o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which r e s u l t s i s r e f e r r e d to as a p r o f i l e of t h a t p a r t i c u l a r p r a c t i c e . I f p r o f i l e s were produced on an appropriate sampling of p r a c t i c e s w i t h i n h i s t o r i c and geographic l i m i t s they would c o n s t i t u t e an anal y s i s ' of the f i e l d of p r a c t i c e d u r i n g t h a t time; they would together provide a d e t a i l e d a r t i c u l a t i o n o f the domain. I t should be noted t h a t attempts have been made to analyze the domain of a d u l t education p r a c t i c e s by combining the two operations of d e s c r i p t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i n t o a one-dimensional sc a l e r a t h e r than l e a v i n g them separate i n a m a t r i x . But any such one-dimensional sc a l e r e s u l t s i n a spectrum which i s ambiguous i n i t s apparent p r e s e n t a t i o n o f e m p i r i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , and deceptive i n i t s obscuring o f the val u e s by which i t i s judging phenomena. The only way the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t can c l a i m the i n t e g r i t y o f o b j e c t i v e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f a domain i s by sep a r a t i n g terms ag a i n s t which they are evaluated. Usefulness o f a framework to d i s c i p l i n a r i a n s and t o p r a c t i o n e r s D i s c i p l i n a r i a n s w i l l f i n d a taxonomic framework f o r the f i e l d has s e v e r a l productive uses. The f o l l o w i n g poin-te are modelled a f t e r H.H. Hyman who wrote on . uses of middle-range theory (1971:42-43) and showed t h a t a taxonomic framework: 1. Encourages the c o n s o l i d a t i o n of f i n d i n g s because i t i s comprehensive r a t h e r than p a r t i a l . I t can accommodate a l l v a r i a t i o n s among cases r a t h e r than discount some on an i d e o l o g i c a l b a s i s . 2. Improves upon the simple c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f f i n d i n g s i n t o dimensions of 10 p r a c t i c e because i t lends an i n t e r n a l order to each dimension. That order comes from i d e n t i f y i n g v a r i a t i o n s as belonging t o one or another of the branches of p r a c t i c e o r to those e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which pervade the whole f i e l d of p r a c t i c e . 3. Increases the chance of uncovering e m p i r i c a l anomalies to such law- l i k e statements as e x i s t because i t i d e n t i f i e s a ppropriate s t u d i e s f o r c l o s e comparison. Under s c r u t i n y these cases which appeared to conform to the same e x p l a n a t i o n may be discovered to have i n e x p l i c a b l e d i f f e r - ences. Such unexplained v a r i a t i o n s can spark new l i n e s o f r e s e a r c h . 4 . A s s i s t s i n the c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g of t e s t s of theory because i t d e f i n e s f o u r e s s e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t contents of p r a c t i c e i n which p a r t i c u l a r t h e o r i e s o f l e a r n i n g , e d u c a t i o n a l design, p a r t i c i p a t i o n and so on, may, or may not, apply. 5 . S t i m u l a t e s t h e o r i z i n g because i t maintains a continuous dialogue between obs e r v a t i o n and theory — a s k i n g the t h e o r e t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of em- p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s , and seeking-the e m p i r i c a l i n d i c a t o r s of t h e o r e t i c a l e n t i t i e s . P r a c t i t i o n e r s w i l l a l s o f i n d a taxonomic framework f o r the f i e l d u s e f u l when they engage i n t a s k s t h a t address the f i e l d as a whole, r a t h e r than t a s k s focused w i t h i n t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r segment. Tasks which may cause p r a c t i t i o n e r s t o : . I i . 1 : relate'-to the f i e l d as a whole i n c l u d e : 1 . Engaging i n p r e - s e r v i c e or i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g ; 2. Drawing on bas i c research, and in n o v a t i o n s i n p r a c t i c e from across . the f i e l d ; 3. C o n c e p t u a l i z i n g the most appropriate s o r t s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s ; and 4 . Seeking g u i d e l i n e s f o r the making o f ed u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y a t the n a t i o n a l , r e g i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l and d i s t r i c t l e v e l s . i l P l a n of the Study- I n chapter one f o u r methodological problems r e l a t e d to the study o f a d u l t education were des c r i b e d and a t t r i b u t e d t o a s i n g l e major gap i n theory, the l a c k of a comprehensive framework of p r a c t i c e s which i n t e g r a t e s dimensions of p r a c t i c e and makes e x p l i c i t the i n f l u e n c e of values on p r a c t i c a l d e c i s i o n s . Such a framework would have taxonomic a p p l i c a t i o n s : to analyze and compare e m p i r i c a l cases, and to-assess the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f h i s t o r i c a l changes i n p r a c t i c e i n the f i e l d . The inadequacy o f previous attempts a t a d e p i c t i o n of the f i e l d i s a t t r i - buted to t h e i r d i s j u n c t i o n of conceptual and e m p i r i c a l elements. Conceptual s t u d i e s of e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e s have not been given e m p i r i c a l i n d i c a t o r s , nor have d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d i e s o f dimensions of p r a c t i c e been placed i n a t h e o r e t i c a l s t r u c - ture . The c r i t e r i a f o r adequate a r t i c u l a t i o n of t h i s domain of e d u c a t i o n a l prac- t i c e s are taken to be the concurrent and independent use of an a t t r i b u t e space of o b s e r v a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s and a conceptual s t r u c t u r e o f t h e o r e t i c a l c l a s s i f i c a - t i o n s . These two operate as axes t h a t form a matrix of terms. The s u p e r i o r i t y o f the matrix over a unidimensional'scale which blends o b s e r v a t i o n a l and i n t e r - p r e t i v e terms was e x p l a i n e d . Because a d u l t education i s a normative p r a c t i c e always educating i n some d i r e c t i o n i t was determined t h a t prime o r g a n i z i n g concepts of the f i e l d of prac- t i c e would i n d i c a t e the range of d i r e c t i o n s i n which i t educates. I n chapter two the r e s u l t s of a l i t e r a t u r e search on the s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s o f a d u l t education are presented. Examination of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s a s u f f i c i e n t degree of consen- sus on the goals pursued and f u n c t i o n s f u l f i l l e d t h a t these rough u n i f o r m i t i e s are taken as the b a s i s f o r the conceptual s t r u c t u r e of.the taxonomy. In chapter three c o n s t r u c t i v e typology i s introduced as the methodology s u i t e d to t u r n i n g the f o u r groups of g o a l - f u n c t i o n statements i n t o a set of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f types o f p r a c t i c e . The c o n t r i b u t i o n s of Max Weber(l904), Howard B e c k e r ( l 9 5 0 ) » and John C. McKinney ( l 9 6 6 ) to the development of t h i s 12 methodology f o r the s o c i a l sciences are i n c l u d e d . The procedural stages f o r a p p l y i n g c o n s t r u c t i v e typology to the domain of a d u l t education p r a c t i c e s are de s c r i b e d . In chapter f o u r , the a n a l y s i s phase of f i n d i n g s , f o u r b a s i c types of prac- t i c e are d e f i n e d from the elements of ed u c a t i o n a l g o a l , domain, and f u n c t i o n . Observations from the f i v e remaining dimensions o f p r a c t i c e are s i m p l i f i e d i n t o those p o i n t s of observation which a c t as d i s c r i m i n a t o r s between the types and those p o i n t s of observation which are uniform throughout the f i e l d . The r e l a - t i o n s formed between div e r g e n t and common elements i n a l l dimensions of p r a c t i c e ( i n c l u d i n g the g o a l - f u n c t i o n dimension) comprise a formal model of p r a c t i c e . The model i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n a set of diagrams t h a t concludes the a n a l y s i s phase. In chapter f i v e , the sy n t h e s i s phase of f i n d i n g s , the d i s c r i m i n a t i n g v a r i - ables i n each o b s e r v a t i o n a l category are arrayed across the conceptual s t r u c t u r e to form a matrix of terms. The terms to be found under each heading o f the con- c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e are then read as a whole c o n f i g u r a t i o n , or a cons t r u c t e d type of p r a c t i c e . A t e n t a t i v e explanatory.account i s given of each of the f o u r basic types of p r a c t i c e and of the f i f t h c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f terms which forms a set of d e f i n i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of. a d u l t education p r a c t i c e . In chapter s i x a b r i e f review i s made of the procedural sequence of the study. Conclusions are drawn regarding the progress which has been made toward producing c o n s t r u c t e d types o f p r a c t i c e , a model of the domain, and a taxonomic framework f o r a n a l y z i n g p r a c t i c e s which o p e r a t i o n a l i z e s f o r the f i r s t time the b a s i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t types of p r a c t i c e foreshadowed by the s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s l i t e r a t u r e . S e v e r a l d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n s of the framework f o r the p r a c t i t i o n e r and f o r the d i s c i p l i n a r i a n are described, and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h are suggested. * 3 Chapter I I LITERATURE REVIEW In t h i s chapter a j u s t i f i c a t i o n i s presented f o r t r e a t i n g goal and f u n c t i o n statements together as prime o r g a n i z e r s f o r subsections of the domain. Gu i d e l i n e s are given by which the authors w r i t i n g on s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s were s e l e c t e d . Four general themes which emerged from a p r e l i m i n a r y examination of the l i t e r a t u r e are introduced, and as each author's work i s reviewed the terms used i n i t f o r e d u c a t i o n a l goals are examined f o r s i m i l a r i t y to one of the f o u r themes. Terms which do not approximate one of the f o u r themes are noted and summarized. I n t a b l e 1 a l l terms found to be roughly s i m i l a r t o one of the f o u r themes are grouped together, and each group i s then examined f o r the degree of consensus i t d i s p l a y s . Each o r i g i n a l theme i s elaborated upon, on the b a s i s of the v a r i o u s terms c o n t r i b u t e d to i t by the 12 authors examined. The c o n c l u - s i o n drawn i s t h a t these terms are predominantly e m p i r i c a l and c o n s t i t u t e an i n d u c t i v e approach to determining the goals of a d u l t education. While c o n s t r u c - t i v e typology i s not intended i n t h i s case to provide a deductive approach to d e f i n i n g g o a l s , i t i s proposed to use t h i s methodology to improve the l e v e l of c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f goals so t h a t they become predominantly t h e o r e t i c a l i n nature and can l e a d f u r t h e r production of systematic theory r e g a r d i n g the p r a c t i c e of a d u l t education. 14 Procedural Matters Terminology i n the l i t e r a t u r e Since education i s a normative p r a c t i c e , a s s i s t i n g people to change i n some purposive d i r e c t i o n , i t f o l l o w s t h a t basic subsections of the domain would be p r i m a r i l y i d e n t i f i e d by d i s t i n c t i v e d i r e c t i o n s of l e a r n e r development. Review- i n g the l i t e r a t u r e o f purposive statements turned up s e v e r a l terms which r e f e r to the " d i r e c t i o n " of a d u l t education a c t i v i t i e s . Among them were "aim", "objec- t i v e " , " g o a l " , " f u n c t i o n " , and "purpose". In t h i s study the term "purpose" has been reserved to i n d i c a t e some value which i s presumed to l i e i n the human i n - d i v i d u a l or human c o l l e c t i v i t y beyond, but served by, the achievement of an e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l . While one "takes an aim", "sets an o b j e c t i v e " and "pursues a g o a l " , aims, o b j e c t i v e s , and goals are reasonably interchangeable as r e f e r r i n g to t a r g e t s o f e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . "Functions" has more of a procedural sense, a sense of " g e t t i n g t h e r e " than the previous terms which define "there" d i r e c t l y . However, since the f u l f i l m e n t of an e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n i m p l i e s the achievement of some concommitant g o a l , statements of both kinds were examined and juxtaposed f o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s . The l i t e r a t u r e on " s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s " of a d u l t education i s t h a t which makes the most comprehensive statements regarding the range of goals pursued i n a d u l t education. In f a c t , " s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s " were u s u a l l y couched i n terms of i n d i - v i d u a l development r a t h e r than s o c i e t a l development. However t h i s does not seem to have been a matter of p s y c h o l o g i c a l reductionism, t r e a t i n g s o c i e t a l develop- ment as nothing more than the sum of development i n i n d i v i d u a l s ; i n s t e a d " s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s " seems to have connoted the range of f u n c t i o n s f u l f i l l e d across s o c i e t y r a t h e r than f u n c t i o n s f u l f i l l e d w i t h i n s o c i e t y as a system. 1 5 S e l e c t i o n g u i d e l i n e s The s e l e c t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e f o r review f o l l o w e d three general g u i d e l i n e s . Authors were s e l e c t e d from among Canadian and U.S. educators since i n t h i s cen- t u r y these two s o c i e t i e s had absorbed s i m i l a r economic c y c l e s and s i m i l a r impacts from the two world wars. Consequently the s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d from a d u l t educators were s i m i l a r , w i t h some c u l t u r a l v a r i a t i o n s i n emphasis r e f l e c t i n g economic expansion i n the United S t a t e s and c u l t u r a l development i n Canada. In Europe, by way of c o n t r a s t , the basic s o c i e t a l f a b r i c and the impacts of economic and wartime experiences had been q u i t e d i f f e r e n t . As a c o r o l l a r y the r o l e s of a d u l t education i n i t s s o c i e t i e s had formed along somewhat d i f f e r e n t l i n e s . Among North American educators, authors were s e l e c t e d whose apparent i n t e n - t i o n was to make a complete accounting o f the range of purposes f u l f i l l e d i n the f i e l d as opposed to merely some f a m i l i a r o r p r e f e r r e d p o r t i o n o f i t . T h e i r e f f o r t s to provide a summary of the goals of observed p r a c t i c e s were sometimes w r i t t e n as a "s t a t e o f the a r t " r e p o r t t o f e l l o w p r a c t i t i o n e r s . Consequently many statements have been drawn from "Handbooks" (or reviews of research) w r i t t e n i n the United States and from Canadian a n t h o l o g i e s . . Timing o f p u b l i c a t i o n s was a l s o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n s e l e c t i n g statements. One w r i t e r i n Canada and one i n the United S t a t e s were s e l e c t e d from each of the 1930's, 19^0's, and 1950's i n an attempt t o draw on the depression, wartime and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n e r a s . Two statements were taken from each country d u r i n g the 1960's and one each from the 1970's. As i t happens J.R. Kidd e d i t e d both the 1950 and 1963 Canadian a n t h o l o g i e s and was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the remarks on goals and func- t i o n s . D i v e r s i f i e d g o a l - f u n c t i o n statements c o u l d not be found from the i d e a l i s t i c r e c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g World War I . Instead, s t r o n g l y worded statements were the common mode d e s c r i b i n g transcendent human and s o c i e t a l purposes which would be served by a d u l t education. 16 I n a paper e n t i t l e d , "The Common Purpose i n Four T r a d i t i o n s o f A d u l t Educa- t i o n " (McCreary, 1979) statements on the goals o f a d u l t education and t h e i r transcendent purposes i n the context o f human development were sampled from as e a r l y as 1798 and as f a r a f i e l d as England, Tanzania, and L a t i n America. I n t h a t study f o u r g e n e r a l aspects o f a d u l t p e r s o n a l i t y were a t times addressed by educators: the a d u l t as s k i l l e d worker, the a d u l t as i n t e r - p e r s o n a l bonder, the a d u l t as s e e k e r - b e l i e v e r , and the a d u l t as c i t i z e n . Consequently these aspects of a d u l t p e r s o n a l i t y were r e s t a t e d as the f o l l o w i n g developmental goals o f a d u l t education: improving u s e f u l s k i l l s ; enhancing the c a p a c i t y f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p ; e n l i v e n i n g the search f o r f u l f i l m e n t ; and enac t i n g p o l i t i c a l and economic s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . The present l i t e r a t u r e search focused on North American-educa- t o r s of the twentieth'century, and a p r e l i m i n a r y examination of t h e i r w r i t i n g s prompted a s l i g h t r ephrasing o f those f o u r goals to i n c l u d e education f o r : a) m a t e r i a l u t i l i t y ; b) p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h ; c ) some i n t r i n s i c v a l u e ; and d) c i t i z e n s h i p . I n the remainder o f t h i s chapter as each author's statement i s examined h i s terms f o r e d u c a t i o n a l goals are i d e n t i f i e d , where p o s s i b l e , as approximating one of these f o u r general themes. C r i t e r i a f o r i n c l u s i o n are l e f t q u i t e open to enable the formation o f f o u r groups o f terms which are roughly s i m i l a r . A f t e r these are d i s p l a y e d i n Table i each group i s . examined more c l o s e l y to determine the degree o f consensus and the b a s i s o f t h e i r commonality. P r e s e n t a t i o n of Summarized Statements P e t e r S a n d i f o r d , then D i r e c t o r o f Ed u c a t i o n a l Research a t the Ontario C o l l e g e of Education i n 1935i conducted a nation-wide survey o f a d u l t education a c t i v i t i e s i n Canada i n which he reported f i n d i n g the t o p i c s o f "economics", "current events", " p o l i t i c s " , and " v o c a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n " as being o f con s i d e r a b l e importance. The . 17 i l a s t t o p i c c l a s s i f i e s e a s i l y under the theme o f m a t e r i a l u t i l i t y . The f i r s t three t o p i c s might have been t r e a t e d as general i n t e r e s t programs, but given the s o c i a l c o n v i c t i o n o f educators a c t i v e i n the P r a i r i e s and Maritimes d u r i n g the depression, and given Kidd's comment t h a t only l a t e r d i d i n t e r e s t a r i s e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s (Kidd,1950:16), i t i s more l i k e l y t h a t programs i n c u r r e n t events, p o l i t i c s , and economics were o f l o c a l relevance and promoted c i t i z e n a c t i v i t i e s thereby coming under the theme of c i t i z e n s h i p . While p r o f e s s o r - a t Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia University^•Lyman Bryson wrote "Adult Education" which he r e f e r r e d to as "a textbook i n a new f i e l d " ( l 9 3 6 : i i i ) . In i t he s t a t e d t h a t a d u l t education i n the United States had f i v e f u n c t i o n s which c o u l d be t i t l e d : r e medial, o c c u p a t i o n a l , r e l a t i o n a l , l i b e r a l , and p o l i t i c a l . For Bryson remedial a d u l t education meant t h a t education aimed a t b r i n g i n g an a d u l t ' s " e ducational equipment up to the minimum t h a t i s necessary f o r l i f e i n an American community" (30). This would i n c l u d e the a b i l i t y to read and t o w r i t e , to speak E n g l i s h , and to understand American c i t i z e n s h i p , as w e l l as to c a r r y on elementary homemaking, c h i l d care, h e a l t h and " c i v i l i z e d behavior". Bryson's l a t t e r f o u r c a t e g o r i e s match up w e l l w i t h the f o u r themes a l r e a d y i d e n t i f i e d . Occupational education i n c l u d e d education which helps an a d u l t t o advance on the job, t o change j o b s , to compensate f o r displacement by machinery, and to choose o r a d j u s t to an occupation. R e l a t i o n a l education i n c l u d e d parent education and a l l study r e g a r d i n g emotions, a t t i t u d e s , and p s y c h o l o g i c a l h a b i t s ( i b i d ) . L i b e r a l education was a term used to s i g n i f y a c t i v i t i e s undertaken f o r t h e i r own sake and not because they were i n s t r u m e n t a l to any r e s u l t s beyond the s a t i s f a c t i o n of achievement. I n t h i s sense l i b e r a l education i n v o l v e d a r e c r e a t i o n a l element and "the sheer enjoyment o f pleasant e f f o r t " (31)• P o l i t i c a l e ducation i n c l u d e a l l s t u d i e s and experiences by which a d u l t s would undertake to make themselves " b e t t e r members o f the commonwealth". While t h i s sounds l i k e the harmless contemplation o f p o l i t i c s , Bryson s p e c i f i c a l l y i n c l u d e d " a l l forms o f t r a i n i n g f o r p o l i t i c a l 18 a c t i o n " (31). In 1948, John Muir, then P r e s i d e n t of the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t Education, wrote a booklet e n t i t l e d "Questions and Answers About A d u l t Education i n Canada". Although bordering on transcendent purposes h i s g o a l statements approximated the themes of i n t r i n s i c pleasure from l e a r n i n g , m a t e r i a l u t i l i t y , and f a m i l y psychology, w i t h s p e c i a l emphasis on c i t i z e n s h i p . He s t a t e d t h a t a d u l t education was a manner o f s t i m u l a t i n g e n q u i r i n g minds through a r t , music, drama, h a n d i c r a f t s , and other i n t e r e s t s ; a way of h e l p i n g people get on i n the world through t e c h n i c a l , v o c a t i o n a l and commercial courses t h a t helped them earn a b e t t e r l i v i n g , and home b u i l d i n g s k i l l s and other courses t h a t helped them improve f a m i l y l i f e ; and t h i r d l y , a pl a n "whereby people l e a r n to take a hand i n the l i f e - a n d - d e a t h d e c i s i o n s o f t h e i r government" (5,6). In f a c t , seven o f the e i g h t items he l i s t e d as the o b j e c t i v e s o f a d u l t education i n Canada were . focused on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s experience of community: to s t i m u l a t e a genuine s p i r i t of democracy; to broaden our s p i r i t o f t o l e r a n c e ; to give us the f e e l i n g of belonging; t o a i d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a c u l t u r e f o r everyone not j u s t f o r the e l i t e ; to give to young a d u l t s the hope and to o l d e r a d u l t s the confidence t h a t have been shaken by world d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n ; t o r e s t o r e the sense of community to people who l i v e i n an age of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and i s o l a t i o n (6,7)- In 1948 the American A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t Education p u b l i s h e d i t s "Handbook of A d u l t Education i n the IhS.", e d i t e d by Mary L. E l y , who had a l s o been e d i t o r of the 1936 work "Adult Education i n A c t i o n " . The handbook l i s t e d s i x broad areas o f a c t i v i t y i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . " V o c a t i o n a l e f f i c i e n c y " and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " seem to approximate s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h . And "personal growth and s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n " approximate i n t r i n s i c s u b j e c t i v e pleasures of l e a r n - i n g and growing. The unmatched category " s p e c i a l group i n t e r e s t s " were a c t u a l l y s p e c i a l c u r r i c u l u m packages f o r p a r t i c u l a r c l i e n t e l e groups. They t h e r e f o r e pursued roughly the same f o u r b a s i c goals as had a l r e a d y been mentioned but used .19 treatments geared t o s p e c i a l c l i e n t e l e groups. In d i s c u s s i n g developments and trends i n a d u l t education i n Canada i n 1950 as measured a g a i n s t the e a r l i e r survey by P e t e r S a n d i f o r d , J.R. Kidd, A s s o c i a t e D i r e c t o r of the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t Education,(C.A.A.E.) reporte d i n the c i t i z e n s h i p theme there seemed to be a de-emphasis on economic t o p i c s , a c o n t i n u a t i o n of i n t e r e s t i n n a t i o n a l s o c i a l i s s u e s , and an i n c r e a s e i n i n t e r e s t i n Canada's i n t e r n a t i o n a l r o l e f o l l o w i n g the war. N a t u r a l science was s t i l l a r a r e t o p i c except i n r e l a t i o n to i t s m a t e r i a l u t i l i t y i n improving a g r i c u l t u r e . General i n t e r e s t t o p i c s i n c l u d e d resource c o n s e r v a t i o n and the atomic bomb. Community a r t s o c i e t i e s sponsored the t o u r i n g o f a r t c o l l e c t i o n s i n t o towns where no e x h i b i t i o n had ever been seen before, and n a t i o n a l programmes of awards f o r f i l m and r a d i o productions were i n s t i t u t e d . Human r e l a t i o n s was a growing area of a d u l t programming i n c l u d i n g the t o p i c s of m a r i t a l problems, c h i l d w e l f a r e , causes and p r e v e n t i o n of emotional i l l - h e a l t h , and worker-employer r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n i n d u s t r y (Kidd,1950:16,17). Burton R. C l a r k i n h i s 195^ d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n a t the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l - i f o r n i a ( B e r k l e y ) , reported on the o b j e c t i v e s of a d u l t education as formulated by the C a l i f o r n i a State Department o f Education. . These i n c l u d e d : to make a d u l t s aware of t h e i r c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o one another and to the community ( c i t i - zenship theme); t o make them economically more e f f i c i e n t ( m a t e r i a l u t i l i t y theme); to develop an understanding of the a t t i t u d e s and personal adjustments r e q u i r e d f o r s u c c e s s f u l home.life and f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p ( p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h theme); t o provide f o r the development o f a v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s through o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , to promote h e a l t h and p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , and t o provide an oppor- t u n i t y f o r c u l t u r a l development ( i n t r i n s i c i n t e r e s t theme); and to supplement and broaden e d u c a t i o n a l background (remediation theme). For the i960 A.E.A. Handbook, Wilbur C. Hallenbeck, P r o f e s s o r Emeritus, Teachers C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , d e f i n e d f i v e f u n c t i o n s of a d u l t education 20 s which were "required" by the American culture. He linked these to qualities of the individual which needed attention, and inferred from those qualities general objectives toward which adult education should work. The f i r s t of the functions was to expand communication'skills such as the abilities to read, to listen, to write, and to speak effectively (36)(remediation theme). The second was to develop vocational flexibility with the incumbent changes In knowledge and s k i l l , and perhaps changes in locale, ideas, and patterns of living (material ut i l i t y theme with touches of psychological adjustment). The third function defined was the improvement of human relations, in family l i f e , industry, interracial, and intergroup relations (psychological health theme). The fourth function was to facilitate participation in organizations, politics, and the improvement of com- munities (citizenship theme). While acknowledging citizenship education,this i960 publication attributed lack of participation to people's "refusing" or "forgetting" to play their parts in the co-operative l i f e of the communities in which they live. That sort of explanation predates a later widespread conviction that the disenfranchised of society had never been enabled to learn the role of active citizenship, or had been actively prevented from exercising the role. The f i f t h of Hallenbeck's functions of adult education was to expedite personal growth and f u l f i l the interests of curious people. But in this regard he quoted Lyman Bryson as saying that "Most people do not know what there is to be interes- ted in" (37) • Hallenbeck felt adult education was as responsible for helping people discover the desire for this kind of learning, as i t was for providing the learning opportunity itself. The Canadian publication "Learning and Society" edited by J.R. Kidd, formerly Director of the C.A.A.E, included a section on transcendent ideas and goals re- lated to adult education. The editor remarked that while "many of the ideas here examined are not, of course, unique to adult education... notions of free will, free exploration of ideas, free speech and association, and of action 21 guided by study, are c e n t r a l . So i s concern about the relevance o f beauty i n education and l i f e " (1963:108). C l e a r l y the chapter was assembled from w r i t i n g s on the broad c u l t u r a l purposes of education and the values che r i s h e d w i t h i n . i n d i v i d u a l s and Canadian s o c i e t y . Only a t the beginning o f S e c t i o n I I I on the "Organization and I n s t i t u t i o n s " o f a d u l t education was b r i e f reference made t o the f u n c t i o n s served by t h i s f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e and they were l i s t e d as: r e m e d i a l , v o c a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l , l i b e r a l and humane, and s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l (165-I66). Harry L. M i l l e r , A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r o f the Center f o r the Study o f L i b e r a l Education f o r A d u l t s , i n a chapter e n t i t l e d "Adult Education O b j e c t i v e s " (1964) contended t h a t i n a s t a t i c t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i e t y , presuming there were adequate f a c i l i t i e s t o s o c i a l i z e c h i l d r e n , a d u l t education would be redundant (222). There- f o r e the s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f a l l a d u l t education was the multitude o f changes experienced by a d u l t s i n American s o c i e t y due t o geographical m o b i l i t y , s o c i a l m o b i l i t y , and t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n n o v a t i o n . He thus found t h a t the c e n t r a l dilemma of f o r m u l a t i n g the aims o f a d u l t education was the overwhelming d i v e r s i t y o f p a r t i c u l a r purposes produced by the broad task o f " r e s o c i a l i z i n g " a d u l t s (224). Looking to proponents o f a c e n t r a l core c u r r i c u l u m f o r a d u l t s he found uncon- v i n c i n g the arguments f o r a l i b e r a l a r t s c u r r i c u l u m s t r u c t u r e d by the academic d i s c i p l i n e s (which he designated: b a s i c s c i e n c e s , humanities, and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s ) . Instead he p r e f e r r e d a c u r r i c u l u m based on a n a l y s i s o f the c o n d i t i o n s o f a d u l t l i f e . Such a c u r r i c u l u m might c o n t a i n great i d e a s o f the Western t r a d i t i o n , s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s o f democratic community, and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s . I n f a c t , s i n c e the r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e b e h a v i o r a l changes r e q u i r e d by a d u l t l i f e m i r r o r the d e f i n i t i o n o f l e a r n i n g i t s e l f , he suggested t h a t a d u l t education should be co n c e n t r a t i n g on simply t e a c h i n g a d u l t s how to l e a r n (225). '• I n M i l l e r ' s view c u r r i c u l a f o r the young are u s u a l l y based on e i t h e r the developmental t a s k s o f the young o r the systematic bodies o f knowledge. By con- t r a s t he s t a t e d t h a t "although a good d e a l o f a d u l t education c o n s i s t s o f f i l l i n g 22 i n gaps o f knowledge, t h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y a remedial f u n c t i o n p e r i p h e r a l to the c e n t r a l purpose o f the f i e l d " (232). Since he viewed the c e n t r a l purpose o f a d u l t education as adaption to change, i t s proper s u b j e c t matter t h e r e f o r e would a r i s e from the "experience worlds" of a d u l t s which he designated: the world o f work, the s o c i a l world, the world o f form, and the world o f nature. The world o f work, he claimed, provides those problems which dominate a d u l t education as they do c u l t u r e i n g e n e r a l , problems which are r e d u c i b l e to t r a i n i n g o b j e c t i v e s , the v e r b a l s k i l l s p r e r e q u i s i t e t o them, and as a r e c e n t l y developing o b j e c t i v e , the management s k i l l s o f human r e l a t i o n s . This l a s t g oal i s b e t t e r matched w i t h h i s " s o c i a l world" under the theme o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g . M i l l e r ' s o t h e r r o l e o b j e c t i v e s f o r the s o c i a l world i n c l u d e d the personal p s y c h o l o g i c a l develop- ments o f marriage, parenthood, s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a permeable b e l i e f system. I t a l s o i n c l u d e d c i t i z e n s h i p o b j e c t i v e s l i k e community p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the p a r t i c u l a r moral o b l i g a t i o n s of l i v i n g i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s as a dominant world power (235)» What M i l l e r c a l l e d the world of form d e a l t w i t h e s t h e t i c experience and response. I t c o u l d i n c l u d e s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , the s k i l l s o f e s t h e t i c judgment, o r simply f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h a r t h i s t o r y (237). The world o f nature as i t i s known through the- s c i e n c e s , he concluded, was o f l e a s t i n t e r e s t to a d u l t l e a r n e r s d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t i t s e x c e s s i v e l y r a p i d change was t h r e a t e n i n g the welfare o f the s o c i a l o r d e r . I n h i s own e x c e p t i o n a l l y l i t e r a t e way M i l l e r claimed t h a t development o f the s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e and understanding o f the s c i e n t i f i c method were remedial a c t i v i t i e s f o r a d u l t education as they should have been developed by the i n i t i a l education o f youth (238). I n t h e i r 1964 book C o o l i e Verner and A l a n Booth o f F l o r i d a State U n i v e r s i t y claimed t o base t h e i r f o r m u l a t i o n o f the f u n c t i o n s o f a d u l t education on " s o c i a l f o r c e s and f a c t o r s t h a t c r e a t e the need f o r continuous l e a r n i n g " (9). However the e x p o s i t i o n o f t h e i r c a t e g o r i e s does not support the c l a i m . They seemed to presume t h a t education* i n youth s o l e l y prepared people f o r v o c a t i o n a l o r 23 p r o f e s s i o n a l competence, and only l a t e r as the r o l e s of spouse, parent, o r c i t i z e n develop i s an "expansional f u n c t i o n " necessary t o provide competence i n an ex- panded range o f s o c i a l r o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The term "expansion f u n c t i o n " thus presumes some f i x e d chronology of l e a r n i n g , and does not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the knowledge or s k i l l aspects o f new r o l e s , and the a t t i t u d i n a l o r a f f e c t i v e aspects o f new r o l e s . The " p a r t i c i p a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n " prepared a d u l t s f o r c i t i z e n s h i p through p r o v i d i n g knowledge and the oppo r t u n i t y to p r a c t i c e the s k i l l s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . This f u n c t i o n alone resembles the f u n c t i o n s f u l f i l l e d across s o c i e t y described by other a u t h o r s . Verner and Eooth a l s o perceived a f u n c t i o n of a d u l t education they c a l l e d " i n t e g r a t i o n a l " , which r e f e r r e d to mak- i n g new a p p l i c a t i o n s of knowledge a l r e a d y possessed to problems encountered, i d e n t i f y i n g needs f o r new l e a r n i n g , and i n t e g r a t i n g new l e a r n i n g t o previous ex- peri e n c e . This " i n t e g r a t i o n f u n c t i o n " l i k e the "expansion" f u n c t i o n seems to be c a s t s t r i c t l y i n terms o f how an i n d i v i d u a l experiences l e a r n i n g , r a t h e r than s p e c i f y i n g what he l e a r n s , as i t would be i d e n t i f i e d i n s o c i e t y . For example, " i n t e g r a t i o n " might imply i n t e g r a t i n g new oc c u p a t i o n a l l e a r n i n g , new c i t i z e n s h i p l e a r n i n g o r new p a r e n t a l l e a r n i n g . T h e i r "personal" f u n c t i o n o f a d u l t e ducation might appear to i d e n t i f y a s o c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t category o f l e a r n i n g as the " p a r t i c i p a t i o n " f u n c t i o n d i d . But while the personal f u n c t i o n was s a i d to f r e e the i n d i v i d u a l "from ignorance, obsolete a t t i t u d e s and va l u e s , and from i r r a t i o n a l o r immature behavior" ( 1 0 ) , i t cannot be i d e n t i f i e d f u r t h e r as to whether t h i s m a t u r i t y r e f e r s t o i n t e r a c t i o n s o f a p s y c h o l o g i c a l , e s t h e t i c , p h i l o s o p h i c a l o r p o l i t i c a l s o r t . Verner and Booth's f u n c t i o n s t h e r e f o r e seem to be imbedded i n some i m p l i c i t theory o f the psychology o f l e a r n i n g r a t h e r than i n an e m p i r i c a l overview of a d u l t education p r a c t i c e s throughout s o c i e t y , and th e r e f o r e d e s p i t e f i r s t appearances t h e i r terms do not f i t w i t h other w r i t i n g s on the s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . I n 1966 the Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t Education (CAAE), produced t h e i r 24 "White Paper on the Education o f A d u l t s i n Canada". The White Paper summarized proposals f o r nation-wide development, and p r i n c i p l e s upon which such a develop- ment should be based. The proposals i n c l u d e d references to e d u c a t i o n a l goals o f a d u l t education of which a d u l t b a s i c education, h e a l t h , manpower development, t e c h n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l programs, and p r o f e s s i o n a l education support the m a t e r i a l u t i l i t y theme; community development and t r a i n i n g f o r c i t i z e n s h i p support the c i t i z e n s h i p theme; and p r e - u n i v e r s i t y science and humanities f o r a d u l t s support the theme o f s t u d i e s of i n t r i n s i c value i f they were not intended to be pre- p r o f e s s i o n a l . The authors d i d emphasize a need "above a l l to make sure t h a t the t e c h n i c a l - v o c a t i o n a l b i a s of the p r i v a t e system i s balanced by the humane and l i b e r a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s to be found i n the p u b l i c system ( 5 ) . For the 1970Adult Education A s s o c i a t i o n (bVS.A.) Handbook, Wayne Schroeder of F l o r i d a State U n i v e r s i t y , wrote.a chapter intended to d e f i n e and d e s c r i b e a d u l t education i n which he t r e a t e d the question o f g o a l s . H i s chapter makes a u s e f u l d i s t i n c t i o n between d e r i v i n g goals d e d u c t i v e l y i n a normative s o r t of process, and d e r i v i n g them i n d u c t i v e l y through e m p i r i c a l g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . He c i t e s as an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f goal statements which have been d e r i v e d i n d u c t i v e l y , the work of A.A. L i v e r i g h t t h a t s e t s as f o u r major goals of a d u l t education " o c c u p a t i o n a l , v o c a t i o n a l , and/or p r o f e s s i o n a l competence; personal and f a m i l y l i v i n g competence; s o c i a l and c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; and s e l f - f u l f i l m e n t " . With the previous exception o f Hallenbeck (i960) i t i s summaries of t h i s i n d u c t i v e k i n d which are being considered i n t h i s chapter. What Schroeder c a l l s "deductive" goal statements are those d e r i v e d from value axioms which o f t e n run aground on value c o n f l i c t s l i k e " i n d i v i d u a l needs v s . s o c i e t a l needs" (Schroeder, 1970:33)• He o f f e r s the f o l l o w i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n o f these two p o s i t i o n s : "Words and phrases commonly used by those who emphasize i n d i v i d u a l needs are : s k i l l s and knowledge necessary t o make judgements about s o c i a l change; s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n ; s e l f - f u l f i l m e n t ; l i b e r a l education; s e l f expression; r e a l i z a t i o n o f p o t e n t i a l ; 2 5 c r e a t i v e a r t s and l e i s u r e education" ( i b i d ) . The f i r s t g o a l i n t h i s l i s t em- phasizes the i n t e g r i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s w i t h regard to the d r i f t o f t h e i r s o c i e t y , and thus c l a s s i f i e s w i t h i n the theme of c i t i z e n s h i p . The other goals c l a s s i f y w i t h i n the theme of education f o r i t s i n t r i n s i c r a t h e r than i n s t r u m e n t a l v a l u e . Those who emphasize s o c i a l needs i n t h e i r deduction of goals use words and phrases such as " s o c i a l r o l e s , developmental t a s k s , i n s t i t u t i o n a l need, adjustment to change, and t r a n s m i s s i o n of the c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e " ( j & ) . The f i r s t two g o a l s , s o c i a l r o l e s and developmental tasks may be subsumed as i n t e r p e r s o n a l competencies under the theme of p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g . The t h i r d g o a l , i n s t i - t u t i o n a l needs, may r e f e r to the m a t e r i a l u t i l i t y theme of o c c u p a t i o n a l competence. But axiomatic goal statements l i k e "adjustment to change" and " t r a n s m i s s i o n of the c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e " are somewhat s i n i s t e r i n t h e i r ambiguity. Does " a d j u s t - ment" o p e r a t i o n a l i z e as passive a d a p t a t i o n to change r a t h e r than management of i t ? Does " t r a n s m i s s i o n " o p e r a t i o n a l i z e as f u r t h e r promotion of the dominant c u l t u r e only? What becomes apparent as was i n d i c a t e d i n chapter one i s t h a t u n t i l g o a l statements are o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d i n t o the terms of the e m p i r i c a l prac- t i c e s i n which they can be observed the concepts remain u n p r o f i t a b l y ambiguous. Since these l a s t two phrases are ambiguous, they are not used to weight f u r t h e r .any one theme. In 1978, J.R. Kidd of the Ontario I n s t i t u t e f o r Studies i n Education and Gordon Selman of the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia e d i t e d an anthology of Canadian w r i t i n g s on a d u l t education e n t i t l e d "Coming of Age". I n the i n t r o d u c t i o n Selman r e f e r r e d t o e d u c a t i o n a l responses to the pressures o f the times grouping them under manpower t r a i n i n g ( m a t e r i a l u t i l i t y ) , s o c i a l and economic community de- velopment, and s o c i a l consciousness of women ( c i t i z e n s h i p ) , education f o r l e i s u r e ( i n t r i n s i c v a l u e ) , and the area o f human r e l a t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l growth and development ( p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h ) (3-5)' 26 J u x t a p o s i t i o n of terms In t a b l e 1 a l l terms which have been found to be roughly s i m i l a r to one of the f o u r themes are grouped togeth e r . For the most p a r t these terms have been presented as i n d u c t i v e l y d e r i v e d goals of observed p r a c t i c e s . While both Hallenbeck (i960) and Schroeder (l9?0) have used procedures which appear to be deductive to develop t h e i r terms, i n f a c t n e i t h e r author i d e n t i f i e s any g o a l as having been l e f t unaddressed by p r a c t i c e s i n the f i e l d . So, i n e f f e c t t h e i r g o a l statements may a l s o be understood as r e p r e s e n t i n g a summary of goals present i n the domain — as the i n d u c t i v e approaches d i d . "Remedial education" has been a problematic term meaning a t times t h a t which c l o s e s the gap between what a l e a r n e r a l r e a d y has and almost any standard imagin- able . For example, M i l l e r ' s reference t o development of the s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e and understanding of the s c i e n t i f i c method as remedial a c t i v i t i e s f o r a d u l t education was perhaps a b i t r a r i f i e d . The most common d e f i n i t i o n o f "remedial" i s t h a t education which c l o s e s the gap between what an a d u l t l e a r n e r a l r e a d y has and t h a t l e v e l o f accomplishment which i s expected of the average l e a r n e r com- p l e t i n g the compulsory 10 o r 12 years of s c h o o l i n g . As such i t precedes the f u n c t i o n s and goals of a d u l t education per se, b r i n g i n g l e a r n e r s up to t h a t "take- o f f " p o i n t from which they can engage i n fwcther.-learning. I n t h i s sense remedi- a t i o n a l s o r e f e r s t o the a c q u i s i t i o n o f those b a s i c s k i l l s which are p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r most types o f employment and as such i t i s o f t e n phrased w i t h o c c u p a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . But the term cannot simply be subsumed under the theme of m a t e r i a l u t i l i t y . The c i t i z e n s h i p schools o f the American south-east i n the 1960's l i n k e d l i t e r a c y d i r e c t l y w i t h v o t e r r e g i s t r a t i o n and so t i e d those b a s i c s k i l l s not to changing the l e a r n e r s ' economic s t a t u s but t o changing t h e i r c i v i l s t a t u s . S i m i l a r l i n k a g e s might be c o n t r i v e d t o t i e remedial l e a r n i n g to competent human r e l a t i o n s , o r to l e a r n i n g f o r i t s own sake. So a n a l y s i s of "remedial" l e a d s to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i t i s not an a l t e r n a t e e d u c a t i o n a l d i r e c t i o n t o the f o u r a l r e a d y i d e n t i f i e d , 27 YEAR AUTHOR j EDUCATION FOR: Ma t e r i a l Psychological Some i n s t r i n s i c U t i l i t y Health V a W C i t i z e n s h i p 1935 CAN. Peter Sandiford vocational information economics current events p o l i t i c s 1936 U.S. Lyman Bryson # occupational r e l a t i o n a l l i b e r a l p o l i t i c a l 1948 CAN. John Muir earn a better l i v i n g home b u i l d i n g s k i l l s family l i f e a r t , music, drama, handicrafts l i f e and death decisions of government 1948 U.S. Mary S. E l y vocational e f f i c i e n c y economic understanding better human r e l a t i o n s community improvement personal growth, s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n c i v i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n & r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 1950 CAN. J.R. Kidd a g r i c u l t u r e marital problems c h i l d welfare emotional health worker-emplover atom bomb conservation f i l m s & radio touring e x h i b i t s national s o c i a l issues i n t e r n a t i o n a l r o l e 1956 U.S. Burton C l a r k # economically more e f f i c i e n t , educational background home l i f e , 4 family r e l a t i o n s health, c u l t u r a l devel., avocational i n t e r e s t s c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y I960 U.S. W. Hallenbeck^ vocational f l e x i b i l i t y communic. s k i l l s read/write/speak improve human r e l a t i o n s expedite personal growth f a c i l i t a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n 1963 CAN. J.R. Kidd^ vocational & te c h n i c a l l i b e r a l & humane s o c i a l & p o l i t i c a l 1964 U.S. Harry " K i l l e r ^ world of work: occupational s o c i a l world: i n d u s t r i a l r e l . , family l i f e , & self-understand. world of form: e s t h e t i c s self-expression science & s o c i e t j s o c i a l world: community p a r t i c i p a t i o n 1966 CAN. C.A.A.E. White Paper health & basic s k i l l s , manpower tech-vocational professional science, & humanities community development t r a i n i n g f o r c i t i z e n s h i p 1970 U.S. W.L. Schroeder I n s t i t u t i o n a l needs s o c i a l r o l e s s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n i n d i v i d u a l judgement about s o c i a l change 1978 G.R. Selman basic s k i l l s occupational vocational human r e l a t i o n s l e i s u r e personal growth human po t e n t i a l s movement s o c i a l & econ. ed community devel. s o c i a l conscious- -ness of women Table 1 1 Juxtaposition of Roughly Similar Terms Regarding the Goals and Functions of Adult Education * Authors who »ention remediation 28 but r a t h e r c l o s e s the gap between a stagnant c o n d i t i o n and a c t i v e engagement w i t h one of those g o a l s . C r i t i q u e o f the L i t e r a t u r e Degree o f consensus The f o u r s e t s of terms d i s p l a y e d i n Figure 1 are each roughly s i m i l a r to a thematic t i t l e i d e n t i f y i n g a g o a l - f u n c t i o n d i r e c t i o n . But each set has i t s own i n t e r n a l order. The f i r s t s e t r e f e r s to m a t e r i a l l y p r a c t i c a l knowledge and s k i l l and i n c l u d e s terms which have an element o f income-earning advantage ( v o c a t i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l , o c c u p a t i o n a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l ) , o r income-disposal (home-building, economic understanding),- o r are ambiguous w i t h regard to income ( a g r i c u l t u r e , general education background, reading, w r i t i n g , and speaking s k i l l s ) . The second set of terms r e f e r s t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h both w i t h i n the i n - d i v i d u a l and demonstrated through s a t i s f a c t o r y i n t e r p e r s o n a l ' a n d i n t e r g r o u p t r a n s a c t i o n s . The terms i n t h i s grouping i n c l u d e : f a m i l y l i f e , m a r i t a l problems, c h i l d w e l f a r e , s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g , human r e l a t i o n s , emotional h e a l t h , worker- employer r e l a t i o n s , and community improvement when used i n the context o f i n t e r - group r e l a t i o n s and the l e s s e n i n g o f p r e j u d i c e . The terms i n the t h i r d s et show the g r e a t e s t d i s p a r i t y o f a l l f o u r groups. They i n d i c a t e educative experiences undertaken f o r t h e i r i n t r i n s i c value r a t h e r than t h e i r i n s t r u m e n t a l i t y , and speak i n general terms o f l e i s u r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and the development o f a v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , they i n c l u d e personal growth, s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n , s e l f - f u l f i l m e n t and the human p o t e n t i a l s move- ment; a r t , music, drama, science and the humanities, l i b e r a l and humane s t u d i e s , and c u l t u r a l development. The f o u r t h s et of terms regarding the goals o f a d u l t education r e f e r to c i t i z e n s h i p and i n c l u d e : c i v i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n , c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t r a i n i n g f o r 29 c i t i z e n s h i p i n a world power. Conclusion What t h i s l i t e r a t u r e review has achieved i s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of major r e - c u r r e n t themes i n the range o f f u n c t i o n s which a d u l t education i s perceived to f u l f i l i n s o c i e t y . Such d e s c r i p t i v e m a t e r i a l i s not capable i n i t s e l f of e i t h e r p r e d i c t i v e or explanatory power. To develop t h a t k i n d of t h e o r y - b u i l d i n g p o t e n t i a l r e q u i r e s transforming these i n d u c t i v e l y d e r i v e d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s i n t o a s e t of p r e c i s e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s which can be used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h hypotheses to develop and t e s t systematic theory r e g a r d i n g the f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e . The pro- cedure which can produce p r e c i s e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s from roughly s i m i l a r e m p i r i c a l a b s t r a c t i o n s i s the methodology of c o n s t r u c t e d types. C o n s t r u c t i v e typology i s w i d e l y used i n an unconscious and unsystematic way by s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s i n c l u d i n g researchers from a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . But w e l l developed g u i d e l i n e s do e x i s t f o r i t s systematic implementation. I n chapter three, both the general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c o n s t r u c t i v e typology and the way i n which i t i s a p p l i e d i n t h i s study to p r a c t i c e s of a d u l t education are d e s c r i b e d . 30 CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY In t h i s chapter an e x p o s i t i o n i s given o f the s c i e n t i f i c technique o f con- s t r u c t i v e typology i n c l u d i n g an e x p l a n a t i o n of the nature of const r u c t e d types, misapplied d e f i n i t i o n s and f u n c t i o n s , and appropriate uses o f const r u c t e d types. The a p p l i c a t i o n o f c o n s t r u c t i v e typology to a d u l t education p r a c t i c e s as i t has been c a r r i e d out i n t h i s study i s a l s o d e s c r i b e d . E x p l a n a t i o n o f C o n s t r u c t i v e Typology According to John C. McKinney (1966)^ one of the three main c o n t r i b u t o r s to the development o f c o n s t r u c t i v e typology as a t o o l of t w e n t i e t h century- science, a l l t y p o l o g i e s are created to a i d i n the a n a l y s i s o f s p e c i f i c bodies o f data, to e s t a b l i s h " u n i f o r m i t i e s of explanatory v a l u e " , and thus c o n t r i b u t e to the s o l u t i o n of some problem i n regard to t h a t data(op.cit. : 2 0 l ) . S c i e n t i f i c work I s founded on the pragmatic assumption t h a t the world i s i n t e l l i g i b l e i n the sense t h a t u n i f o r m i t i e s may be s t a t e d , and e x p l i c a b l e i n the sense t h a t those u n i f o r m i t i e s w i l l stand the t e s t o f f u r t h e r experience, t h a t they w i l l i n a word, r e c u r ( o p . c i t . : 2 ) . S c i e n t i f i c work i s d i r e c t e d toward demonstrating u n i f o r m i t i e s i n a conceptual order t h a t e l i m i n a t e s the unique and the i r r e l e v a n t w i t h r e s p e c t to a problem. I n t h i s way the r e p e t i t i v e and i n t e r r e l a t e d aspects o f phenomena are rev e a l e d , not as absolute u n i f o r m i t i e s but as r e g u l a r i t i e s which can be expressed i n p r o b a b i l i t y terms i n the form o f p r e d i c t i v e statements (op.cit.: 2 , 3 )• P r e d i c - t i o n i s made p o s s i b l e by the i n t e n t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f order out of d i v e r s i t y , 31 general out of unique, and r e c u r r e n t out of occ u r r e n t . S c i e n t i f i c work proceeds by observations d i r e c t e d by a problem, i n t e r e s t or concern. That problem d i c t a t e s the l i m i t s of what may be considered a r e c u r r e n t i n s t a n c e , s i n c e no phenomena a c t u a l l y r e c u r i n t h e i r concrete wholeness. The c o n s t r u c t i o n of types to f a c i l i t a t e p r e d i c t i o n o f r e c u r r e n t i n s t a n c e s i s a methodological approach a p p l i c a b l e to the data of any s c i e n c e . I t may be e f f e c t i v e l y argued t h a t the s c i e n t i s t " t y p i c a l l y c o n s t r u c t s the u n i t s w i t h which he operates" ( o p . c i t . : 3 ) « I n s o c i a l science t h a t c o n s t r u c t e d e n t i t y may be a type of s o c i a l conduct, s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , o r even p e r s o n a l i t y (Becker, 1968:105). The s o c i o l o g i s t r e f e r s to conduct such as competition, c o n f l i c t , accomodation, a s s i m i l a t i o n , and s o c i a l i z a t i o n . The h i s t o r i a n u t i l i z e s c o n s t r u c t e d types of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n such as the Greek c i t y - s t a t e , the f e u d a l system, the manorial system, e a r l y P r o t e s t a n t i s m , and the medieval Papacy (McKinney,1966:4). The h i s t o r i a n may c a s t p e r s o n a l i t y types i n terms such as Whig, J a c o b i t e , C a l v i n i s t , Highland clansman, o r "Nazi-era passive German i n t e l l e c t u a l " (Becker, 1968 : 95)f or the economist r e f e r to a h y p o t h e t i c a l "economic man" (McKinney, 1966:4-). These types are c o n s t r u c t e d f o r the purposes of s o c i a l science; not one of them conforms e x a c t l y to any s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l i n s t a n c e . This procedure of c r e a t i n g u s e f u l f i c t i o n s i s not confined to the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . I t i s apparent i n the p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s where c o n s t r u c t s abound such as the p e r f e c t l e v e r , f r i c t i o n l e s s motion, the p e r f e c t vacuum, p e r f e c t surfaces and s t r a i g h t - s i d e d c y l i n d e r s ( i b i d ) . While co n s t r u c t e d types are common i n a l l sciences they are perhaps more necessary to the conduct o f s o c i a l science s i n c e the s o c i a l world does not provide such w e l l - d e l i n e a t e d o b j e c t s as those from which the n a t u r a l sciences s t a r t . P a u l .Lazars- f e l d (1955) philosopher and methodologist o f s o c i a l s c i e nce, d e s c r i b e d the two i d e a l s o f s o c i a l s c i e n t i f i c research as v i s i o n and p r e c i s i o n -(1966). P r e c i s e . instruments are necessary to the development of t e s t a b l e p r o p o s i t i o n s ; but i n s o c i a l science v i s i o n i s r e q u i r e d to d i s c e r n the very o b j e c t s about which 32 p r o p o s i t i o n s a r e t o be d e v e l o p e d . I n e f f e c t i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o c r e a t e t h e o b j e c t s o f s o c i a l a n a l y s i s ( L a z a r s f e l d , 1 9 6 6 : x i ) . W i t h c o n s t r u c t e d t y p e s one c r e a t e s t h e o b j e c t s o f s o c i a l a n a l y s i s t h r o u g h two i n t e r w o v e n o p e r a t i o n s : g e n e r a l i z a t i o n a n d s i m p l i f i c a t i o n . G e n e r a l i z a t i o n reducesr t h e number o f o b j e c t s by c o n c e i v i n g o f them a s b e i n g i d e n t i c a l . T h i s has t h e f u r t h e r b e n e f i t o f r e d u c i n g t h e number o f r e l a t i o n s t o be e x a m i n e d . To be a b l e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t i n r e g a r d t o some p r o b l e m two o b j e c t s may be c o n s i d e r e d i d e n t i c a l r e q u i r e s h a v i n g a p p l i e d some p a r t i a l l y d e v e l o p e d t h e o r y - i n - u s e t o t h e a v a i l a b l e d a t a . I n t h e c o m p l e m e n t a r y o p e r a t i o n one s i m p l i f i e s t h e o b j e c t d e s c r i p - t i o n by s e l e c t i n g o n l y i t s t h e o r e t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t t r i b u t e s t h u s f o r c i n g t h e way t o w a r d a more e x p l i c i t s t a t e m e n t o f t h e t h e o r y - i n - u s e . By g e n e r a l i z a t i o n a n d s i m p l i f i c a t i o n t h e c o n s t r u c t e d t y p e i s u s e d t o r e d u c e t h e d i v e r s i t i e s a n d c o m p l e x i - t i e s o f phenomena t o a g e n e r a l l y c o h e r e n t l e v e l ( o p . c i t.:5)« To a c c o m p l i s h t h i s g o a l r e q u i r e s r e l i n q u i s h i n g t h e g o a l o f d e s c r i b i n g a n y p a r t i c u l a r phenomenon i n i t s u n i q u e n e s s . T ypes a r e c r e a t e d f r o m f a c t s a n d c a n n o t e s c a p e b e i n g t h r o w n b a c k o n f a c t s " i f empty s p e c u l a t i o n i s n o t t o r e p l a c e s o u n d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n " ( B e c k e r , I 9 6 8 J 113)• M c K i n n e y a g r e e d t h a t a t y p e c o u l d n o t u s e f u l l y be d r a w n a s o n l y a l o g i c a l f i c t i o n . U n l e s s t h e u n i f i e d c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n h a d b e e n d r a w n f r o m a p p r o x i m a t i o n s among e m p i r i c a l c a s e s i t w o u l d n o t be o f u s e l a t e r a s a s t a n d a r d f o r c o m p a r i s o n o f e m p i r i c a l c a s e s - i t w o u l d n o t be p o s s i b l e t o r e l a t e t h e t y p e t o a c t u a l c a s e s t o s o l v e e m p i r i c a l p r o b l e m s (1966:14). T h u s , d e s p i t e i t s f i c t i o n a l n a t u r e , t h e c o n s t r u c t e d t y p e o f f e r s no s a n c t u a r y f o r w i s h f u l t h i n k i n g . V i a t h e c o n s t r u c t e d t y p e one c r e a t e s a u n i t o f s o c i a l a n a l y s i s b y d e s c r i b i n g a n o b j e c t i v e l y p r o b a b l e phenomenon s t r i c t l y i n t e r m s o f t h e o r e t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t t r i b u t e s . The c o n s t r u c t e d t y p e r e l a t e s t o f a c t u a l e m p i r i c a l c a s e s i n a way t h a t t h e o r d i n a r y s t e r e o t y p e does . n o t . A s t e r e o t y p e o f t e n l a c k s a n e m p i r i c a l r e f e r e n t a n d i s a n u n p l a n n e d , a f f e c t u a l e x a g g e r a t i o n . 33 I n c o n t r a s t , "the cons t r u c t e d type i s a purposive, planned, s e l e c t i o n , - a b s t r a c t i o n , combination and (sometimes) a c c e n t u a t i o n of a set of c r i t e r i a w i t h e m p i r i c a l r e f e r e n t s t h a t serves as a b a s i s f o r comparison o f e m p i r i c a l cases" ( o p . c i t . : l 6 ) . The s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s o f combination and acc e n t u a t i o n o f a t t r i b u t e s a l s o d i s t i n - g u i s h c o n s t r u c t e d types from o r d i n a r y concepts. "Ordinary concepts are given p r e c i s i o n as c o n s t r u c t s through s e l e c t i o n and l i m i t a t i o n ; c o n s t r u c t e d types are given p r e c i s i o n through s e l e c t i o n , l i m i t a t i o n , combination and accentuation.' The const r u c t e d type organizes experience i n a somewhat d i f f e r e n t f a s h i o n from the ord i n a r y concept i n t h a t i t forms a s e r i e s o f a t t r i b u t e s i n t o a c o n f i g u r a t i o n t h a t i s not n e c e s s a r i l y d i r e c t l y experienced and accentuates one or more of the a t t r i b u t e s f o r t h e o r e t i c a l purposes (op. c i t . : l l ; . Besides combination and acc e n t u a t i o n of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s the type i s a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h e d by consistancy among a l l i t s a t t r i b u t e s and the constancy of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s to each o t h e r . McKinney c a l l e d the c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f a t t r i b u t e s an i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t "system o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , made up of a b s t r a c t e d elements and formed i n t o a u n i f i e d conceptual p a t t e r n " (op. c i t . : 5 ) » R e l a t i o n s among the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are a r b i t r a r i l y h e l d constant by the researcher f o r h e u r i s t i c purposes. Since the r e l a t i o n s between these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are between con- c e p t u a l elements they always remain h y p o t h e t i c a l r e l a t i o n s and therefore"may be h e l d constant i n any c o n f i g u r a t i o n considered by the researcher to be o f u t i l i t y w i t h r e s p e c t t o the i n q u i r y being conducted. The r o l e o f the co n s t r u c t e d type i n the t e s t i n g of t h e o r i e s develops out o f the constant r e l a t i o n s i t d i s - p l a y s between s e l e c t e d and u n i f i e d a t t r i b u t e s . Because the type focuses on u n i - f o r m i t y i t s use le a d s to the development o f hypotheses about v a r i a t i o n s o r d e v i - a t i o n s (op. c i t . : 6 ) . 34 M i s a p p l i e d d e f i n i t i o n s and f u n c t i o n s . During h i s tenure as e d i t o r o f the s o c i a l science p e r i o d i c a l A r c h i v , Max Weber (1904) made a p o l i c y statement i n which he argued t h a t s e v e r a l d y s f u n c t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s were o f t e n c a r e l e s s l y a p p l i e d to the cons t r u c t e d type i n s o c i a l s c i e n - t i f i c w r i t i n g s . Weber argued t h a t the co n s t r u c t e d type can not stand f o r an e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t y i n the i n f i n i t e f u l l n e s s of the unique, so c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n should be p a i d t o i t s usage l e s t i t become r e i f i e d . C a s u a l l y d e f i n e d types such as the l e a r n i n g s o c i e t y , the l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t , the f o l k s c h o o l , the s o c i a l process of community development — even i f constructed by metho d o l o g i c a l l y sound procedures — do not c o n s t i t u t e " r e a l " t h i n g s , but conceptual touchstones by means of which i t i s p o s s i b l e to d e s c r i b e , compare and c o n t r a s t a c t u a l happenings i n the world o f experience. Weber a l s o argued t h a t the cons t r u c t e d type does not present the average o r any other c e n t r a l tendancy o f a c l a s s o f phenomena. Becker agreed t h a t while the type p o t e n t i a l l y c o u l d be constructed to correspond to a s t a t i s t i c a l mean or mode to do so would d i m i n i s h i t s u t i l i t y (1968:127). T h i s i s a thought-provoking judgement s i n c e so much education research has been o f the survey type drawing c o n c l u s i o n s from c e n t r a l tendencies. McKinney added t h a t a l l c e n t r a l tendencies are j u s t as u n r e a l as the constructed type i n the degree to which they "exaggerate the e m p i r i c a l r e f e r e n t t h a t they supposedly rep r e s e n t " (1966:16). Furthermore, any c e n t r a l tende.ncy give s a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the extreme items t h a t i s neces- s a r i l y q u i t e u n r e a l . The type i s a d e l i b e r a t e l y formulated l i m i t i n g case from y- which the degree o f deviancy o f any item i n a d i s t r i b u t i o n i s p o t e n t i a l l y measur- able ( i b i d ) . The tas k s o f the average and cons t r u c t e d types are simply d i f f e r e n t , and t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s to research not d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e on the b a s i s of u n r e a l i t y . T h i r d l y , Weber pointed out t h a t the p r e d i c t i v e value o f a const r u c t e d type i s not a matter o f i t s l i t e r a l l y f o r c a s t i n g an event t o come about under some f u t u r e circumstance. I t i s not a hypothesis which i s v e r i f i a b l e through i t s 35 i n d i c a t o r s . "The reason [ t h a t ] a type cannot be found i n ' e x t e r n a l nature' r e s i d e s i n the f a c t t h a t i t has been modif i e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r i n accordance w i t h h i s s p e c i a l background and s c i e n t i f i c purpose" (Becker,1968:107). I f the type ever d i d correspond e x a c t l y to any unique event i t would be of no comparative value when another event was t o be examined - the a b s t r a c t e d concept would have f a l l e n back i n t o the realm of e m p i r i c a l experience. Therefore to f i n d concrete exceptions to the type does not i n v a l i d a t e i t ; Becker a s s e r t s "you can never expect anything other than e x c e p t i o n s . I f c o n s t r u c t and ' r e a l i t y ' e x a c t l y correspond you are i n the morass of the p a r t i c u l a r " (op. c i t . : 1 2 0 ) . F o u r t h l y , Weber pointed out th a t there i s a danger o f a t t r i b u t i n g to types a metaphysical imperative, e s p e c i a l l y w i t h c o n s t r u c t e d types o f developmental! sequence such as u r b a n i z a t i o n , s o c i a l i z a t i o n , or c l a s s s t r u g g l e . Weber i l l u s - t r a t e d the p o i n t t h i s way, " . . . a l l s p e c i f i c a l l y Marxian 'laws' and developmental c o n s t r u c t s . . . a r e i d e a l types. [ T h e i r ] h e u r i s t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e ..when they are used f o r the assessment of r e a l i t y i s known to everyone who has ever employed Marxian concepts and hypotheses. S i m i l a r l y , t h e i r p e r n i c i o u s n e s s , as soon as they are thought of as e m p i r i c a l l y v a l i d o r as r e a l ( i . e . , t r u l y metaphysical) ' e f f e c t i v e f o r c e s ' , 'tendencies', e t c . i s l i k e w i s e known to those who have used them" (1904: 409). A d u l t educators are c u r r e n t l y e x p l o r i n g the usefulness o f c o n s t r u c t e d types regarding the developmental sequence o f the a d u l t l i f e s p a n . Without s c i e n t i f i c r i g o r , " l i f e c y c l e t a s k s " c o u l d come to be thought o f as having " e f f e c t i v e f o r c e " o r as being metaphysical human "tendencies". Becker agreed w i t h Weber t h a t " g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s i n c o n s t r u c t i v e typology are not True, i f by t h i s i s meant the c o n t r o l l i n g , u l t i m a t e , i n e f f a b l e C a p i t a l T. A l l t h a t the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t can mean by t r u t h i s some amount, however s l i g h t , of p r e d i c t i v e power" (19681 124). Weber c a l l e d the l i m i t i n g case "an i d e a l - t y p i c a l " by which he meant to convey a pure o r u n i f i e d conceptual e n t i t y . However t h i s was o f t e n mistaken 36 as an i d e a l i n the sense o f moral worth i n v i t i n g emulation. Modern usage of typology has simply dropped the use of the term " i d e a l " because of the co n f u s i o n which i t engendered. F i n a l l y , McKinney added to Weber's l i s t o f mi s a p p l i e d d e f i n i t i o n s , the a s s e r t i o n t h a t a cons t r u c t e d type i s not a homogenous u n i v e r s e . While i t has c l a s s i f i c a t o r y s i g n i f i c a n c e i t i s not e q u i v a l e n t to the z o o l o g i c a l " c l a s s " because the type "has a c o n f i g u r a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t o t a l l y l a c k i n g i n the c l a s s as a homogenous u n i v e r s e " (1966:15). This s i g n i f i c a n c e may be a t t r i b u t e d to the f r e e - dom the i n q u i r e r has t o s e l e c t and to accentuate c e r t a i n t r a i t s f o r examination, and p a r t i c u l a r l y to shape a l l other t r a i t s i n t o u n i f i e d systems according to v a r i - a t i o n i n the prime t r a i t . Not only i n a c c u r a t e d e f i n i t i o n s but a l s o i n a p p r o p r i a t e f u n c t i o n s are some- times a s c r i b e d to cons t r u c t e d types. For example, d e s p i t e ideas to the c o n t r a r y , types are not always f o r use i n domains of equal g e n e r a l i t y . They may range from q u i t e dated and l o c a l i z e d " q u a s i - h i s t o r i c a l " types to undated, n o n - l o c a l i z e d h i g h l y a b s t r a c t e d types. The exact l e v e l of g e n e r a l i t y would be s e t by the p a r t i - c u l a r q u estion g u i d i n g the re s e a r c h . F or purposes of short term e x p l a n a t i o n o r p r e d i c t i o n the researcher might use a type l i k e "the American Middle Western s t a t e u n i v e r s i t y " . For a problem o f g r e a t e r s p a t i a l scope and temporal range a type l i k e "the Euro-American u n i v e r s i t y " c o u l d be c o n s t r u c t e d . McKinney e x p l a i n e d the advantages o f v a r y i n g the l e v e l of g e n e r a l i t y t h i s way, "The more general a type i s the g r e a t e r the s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of the e m p i r i c a l a t t r i b u t e s ; the more s p e c i f i c a type i s , the g r e a t e r the number of general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s obscured by the mass of ideographic d e t a i l " (1966:26). Furthermore, i t i s not p o s s i b l e to t r a n s f e r the co n s t r u c t e d type from one f i e l d o f rese a r c h to another, any more than from one problem l e v e l to another w i t h i n the same f i e l d . Types are substantive e n t i t i e s drawn from the e m p i r i c a l domain r e l e v a n t t o a p a r t i c u l a r problem and thus are not interchangeable 37 w i t h other sciences (op. cit.:5)« F i n a l l y , the type cannot f u l f i l the purposes of the monographic h i s t o r i a n whose task i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the unique (Becker,1968 :95) • While h i s t o r i c a l types of conduct, s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , o r personal c h a r a c t e r may be used to s e t the context of an event, i t s unique c h a r a c t e r i s conveyed through i d i o s y n c r a t i c d e t a i l . Uses of c o n s t r u c t e d types C o n s t r u c t i v e typology can be a p p l i e d to data to f u l f i l many t a s k s : to g e n e r a l i z e , i n d i v i d u a l i z e , survey, compare, p r e d i c t , q u a n t i f y , and t e s t hypotheses. To g e n e r a l i z e i s to t r e a t c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l e n t i t i e s as v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l w i t h respect to a p a r t i c u l a r problem. Because they share t r a i t s t h a t are problem- r e l e v a n t those e n t i t i e s are " b r a c k e t e d " together (bp. c i t . : 1 0 0 ) . The t r a i t s may be q u a l i t i e s or behaviours that draw together phenomena which otherwise widely d i f f e r . The g e n e r a l i z e d type provides a means f o r e x t r a c t i n g i t s a p p r o x i - mations from d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l contexts (McKirtney,1966:19)• To i n d i v i d u a l i z e i s to create the o b j e c t of s o c i a l a n a l y s i s by drawing from e m p i r i c a l cases only those a t t r i b u t e s r e l e v a n t to the problem under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I n t h i s way "bureaucracy", "mass s o c i e t y " , "modern c a p i t a l i s m " , "mediaeval . feudalism", and " e a r l y C h r i s t i a n i t y " are c o n s t r u c t s of s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n which have been patterned from c r i t e r i a w i t h e m p i r i c a l r e f e r e n t s . P e r c e i v i n g where the o u t l i n e s o f these e n t i t i e s may u s e f u l l y be drawn r e q u i r e s a h i g h degree of s c i e n t i f i c c r e a t i v i t y . P a u l L a z a r s f e l d has s a i d , "the o r i g i n a t o r s o f these ideas belong p r o p e r l y among the heroes of our i n t e l l e c t u a l h e r i t a g e : ( l966:xi). What q u a l i f i e s typology as a p i o n e e r i n g a c t i s i t s p o t e n t i a l to handle "complicated, simultaneous i n t e r r e l a t i o n s among a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e number of v a r i a b l e s i n a p r e l i m i n a r y way" (McKinney,1966:216). I t can do t h i s by s u b d i v i d i n g an i n t e g r a t e d complexity of data i n t o separate c o n f i g u r a t i o n s which each account f o r some p o r t i o n 38 o f the range of v a r i a t i o n . To survey a domain of i n q u i r y i s to engage i n the i n i t i a l s e l e c t i o n o f data r e l e v a n t to a problem area (op. c i t . : 6 ) . The typology " i s c o n s t r u c t e d along l i n e s s u f f i c i e n t l y general so t h a t i t can be set down on t h i s or t h a t p o r t i o n of the given t e r r a i n without t i p p i n g over, so to speak, and i t then becomes p o s s i b l e to survey t h a t t e r r i t o r y " (Becker,1968 : 107). Typology o f f e r s an i n i t i a l l i n e o f advance upon many l a r g e - s c a l e problems o r d e r i n g phenomena i n t o groups which f a c i l i t a t e r e s e a r c h . McKinney concludes, "The c o n s t r u c t i o n of a type or a s e r i e s of types helps us to know more p r e c i s e l y what mechanisms o r s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s are being p o s t u l a t e d w i t h r e s p e c t to a problem area" . (McKinney ,1966:216). As a s e n s i t i z i n g device i t s use thus "allows s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s c o g n i t i v e l y to map broad areas of s o c i a l phenomena" ( i b i d ) . Typologies describe unique phenomena i n terms which make i t p o s s i b l e " to compare them to each o t h e r . This a c t o f t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o common terms provides a considerable advance over d e s c r i p t i o n s which r e f l e c t the i d i o s y n c r a - t i c nature of each case. By the same token each type i s not an end i n i t s e l f ; i t s reason f o r being i s f o r comparison w i t h e m p i r i c a l cases, f o r the " c o n t i n u i n g o b s e r v a t i o n of a c t u a l behaviours i n terms of the type" (op. c i t . : 1 8 ) . The type provides a b a s i s f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s , a "general standard by which a concrete occurrence i s comprehended" (op. c i t . : 1 9 ) . Becker a s s e r t s .that the c o n s t r u c t e d type i s an i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o o l o f comparison and a n a l y s i s when d e a l i n g w i t h t i m e - s e r i e s , c r o s s - s e c t i o n , o r r e l a t i v e l y undated phenomena (1968 : 119). When the constructed type i s used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h an appropriate hypo- t h e s i s i t w i l l have some power to p r e d i c t . The type a l s o p r e d i c t s by i m p l i c a t i o n ; i n a sense i t p r e d i c t s by d e f i n i t i o n , i n t h a t the d e f i n i t i o n w i l l c o n t a i n c r i t e r i a which imply a p r e d i c t i v e schema.. McKinney i l l u s t s t r a t e s t h i s w i t h the concept of the r a t i o n a l man. He w r i t e s , "...the concept o f r a t i o n a l man i m p l i e s the . :, 39 a d a p t a t i o n o f means to ends...There i s an expectancy o f man when he i s viewed as r a t i o n a l man t h a t i s o n l y p a r t i a l l y met by any given man....A comparison of the extent to which a c t u a l men meet the expectancy serves as the b a s i s f o r ex- p l a i n i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r behaviour" (1966:13). S i m i l a r p r e d i c t i v e schema are i m p l i e d by a l l c o n s t r u c t e d types such as the f e u d a l system, s c i e n t i f i c man, c h a r i s m a t i c l e a d e r , o r the absolute vacuum, sphere, or plane. Beyond the pre- d i c t i v e schema, the type has a p r o b a b i l i t y element. " C e r t a i n types of s o c i a l conduct r e c u r I F AND WHEN c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s are g i v e n . . . " (Becker ,1968: 102). In examining an e m p i r i c a l case the type i s able to i n d i c a t e the degree of prevalence of the t y p i c a l f a c t o r s , and thereby i n d i c a t e the degree o f prob- a b i l i t y of occurrence of the t y p i c a l consquences. A t h i r d element i n the nature of p r e d i c t i o n v i a constructed types i s t h a t the p r e d i c t i o n can be e i t h e r r e t r o - s p e c t i v e o r p r o s p e c t i v e . The u n i f i e d type may be drawn from the data o f h i s t o r y and used to compare h i s t o r i c a l cases to i t s p r e d i c t i v e schema, j u s t as e a s i l y as i t may be drawn from contemporary or p r o j e c t e d cases (McKinney,1966:7)• F i n a l l y , l i k e a l e n s opening to i n c l u d e a l a r g e f i e l d or f o c u s i n g down on a s p e c i f i c por- t i o n , the q u a l i t y o f p r e d i c t i o n o f a cons t r u c t e d type v a r i e s w i t h i t s l e v e l o f g e n e r a l i t y . The more general i z e d a type becomes i n space and time, l i k e the g e n e r a l i z e d type "the Euro-American u n i v e r s i t y " the l e s s d e t a i l e d can be the p r e d i c t i o n s based upon i t . The more s p e c i f i c the type such as "the mid-western s t a t e u n i v e r s i t y " the g r e a t e r the degree of s p e c i f i c i t y p o s s i b l e i n s h o r t term p r e d i c t i o n , and the g r e a t e r the degree o f e r r o r to be expected even w i t h the con- d i t i o n a l p r o v i s o , because the degree of d e t a i l i s approaching too c l o s e to the unique. Procedures to q u a n t i f y phenomena develop n a t u r a l l y out of the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f types. The f u n c t i o n s o f enumeration (frequency o f occurence), measurement (degree o f d e v i a t i o n / f r o m the u n i f i e d t y p e ) , and p r e d i c t i o n ( p r o b a b i l i t y o f r e c u r - rence) are i n h e r e n t i n the comparison of e m p i r i c a l cases to typ e s . Q u a n t i t a t i v e 40 procedures i n t u r n are a b e n e f i c i a l adjunct to c o n s t r u c t i v e typology enhancing p r e c i s i o n and thus improving the p r e d i c t i v e power of the co n s t r u c t e d type as a t h e o r e t i c a l device (op. c i t . : 6 ) . C o n s t r u c t i v e typology may be used to t e s t hypotheses. As a middle-ground conceptual device e x t r a c t e d from e m p i r i c a l data by theory-guided s e l e c t i v i t y , c o n s t r u c t i v e typology can be used to re-examine data f o r i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s between what the data show and what the explanatory t h e o r i e s p r e d i c t e d . These i n c o n s i s - t e n c i e s then l e a d to refinement or even replacement o f t h e o r i e s . A p p l i c a t i o n o f C o n s t r u c t i v e Typology t o the Domain of A d u l t Education P r a c t i c e s The c h a r a c t e r o f cons t r u c t e d types produced d u r i n g an i n q u i r y i s determined by the problem addressed, i t s p r e d i c t i v e range, the hypotheses proposed, and the v e r i f i c a t i o n procedure used. I n t h i s study the problem was to describe i n d e t a i l the d i v e r s i t y o f North American a d u l t education p r a c t i c e s i n contemporary c r o s s - s e c t i o n and i n h i s t o r i c a l t i m e - s e r i e s . The t h e o r e t i c a l assumption was made t h a t u n d e r l y i n g the range o f v a r i a t i o n s are f o u r b a s i c types o f p r a c t i c e informed by f o u r g o a l - f u n c t i o n developmental d i r e c t i o n s , each o f which accounts f o r some por- t i o n o f t h a t v a r i a t i o n . Since the p r e d i c t i v e range was s e t r e t r o s p e c t i v e l y to cover almost a century, and p r o s p e c t i v e l y to be indeterminate, the types c o n s t r u c - t e d were general i n c h a r a c t e r , r e l a t i v e l y undated and n o n - l o c a l i z e d i n terms of ed u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r y , although i n terms o f s o c i o l o g y o r anthropology these would be r e l a t i v e l y d a t e i and l o c a l i z e d c o n s t r u c t s , being l i m i t e d to a s i n g l e century and s p e c i f i c to North America. The p r o p o s i t i o n s r e g a r d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s a t work i n the domain are f i r s t l y , t h a t c o n s t r u c t i v e typology w i l l r e v e a l a s m a l l number of s e t s o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s none of which w i l l reduce i n t o the terms o f another. Secondly, t h a t the s e t s i n 41. combination w i l l accomodate a l l v a r i a t i o n s to be found i n the f i e l d . ..Thirdly, t h a t these s e t s of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be shown to have a common core which . . binds them to a common s o c i a l p r a c t i c e . Regarding sequences a t work i n the domain i t i s proposed t h a t a taxonomic framework based on s u f f i c i e n t l y undated and n o n - l o c a l i z e d types w i l l prove to be a means of d e t a i l e d taxonomic d e s c r i p - t i o n of cases so t h a t accurate t i m e - s e r i e s comparisons w i l l be p o s s i b l e . V e r i f i c a t i o n o f the types would r e q u i r e t u r n i n g the taxonomic matrix i n t o an instrument'fori, the examination o f cases from the f i e l d , , an o p e r a t i o n which i s o u t l i n e d . i n procedural stage seven o f the technique of c o n s t r u c t i v e typology. McKinney ( 1 9 6 6 ) o u t l i n e d e i g h t procedural stages common i n a l l a p p l i c a t i o n s of c o n s t r u c t i v e typology, d e s c r i b i n g the sequence from i n i t i a l s e t t i n g o f the research problem to f i n a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the co n s t r u c t e d type's e m p i r i c a l v e r i f i c a t i o n . The way i n which c o n s t r u c t i v e typology was a p p l i e d to a d u l t edu- c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s i n t h i s study i s re p o r t e d now, stage by stage. . Stage one: D e l i n e a t i o n o f the Problem Background reading i n the h i s t o r y o f a d u l t education l e d to r e c o g n i t i o n of s e v e r a l unresolved t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e s such as the controversy over whether o r not there c o u l d be a v a l u e - f r e e p r a c t i c e , the seeming i r r e l e v a n c e o f some method- o l o g i e s and e c c e n t r i c i t y o f some l o c a t i o n s o f program d e l i v e r y , the i m p l i c i t r a n k-ordering o f some program contents as more s i g n i f i c a n t than ot h e r s , and the r e c u r r e n t dilemma of appr o p r i a t e e v a l u a t i o n and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . C o n f l i c t i n g opinions on these i s s u e s seemed to stem from v a r y i n g per- s p e c t i v e s on what the f i e l d i s , o r should be. But these p e r s p e c t i v e s c o u l d not be r e s o l v e d while s e v e r a l methodological problems remained. The methodological problems i n c l u d e d how to i n t e g r a t e c o n c e p t u a l l y the s e v e r a l dimensions o f prac- t i c e so t h a t complex cases c o u l d be compared and changes i n p r a c t i c e c o u l d be 42 a n a l y z e d . Methodological problems were t r a c e d to a s i n g l e major gap i n theory - the absence of a comprehensive framework f o r the domain of i n q u i r y . So the problem was d e l i n e a t e d as the conceptual task of d e p i c t i n g the d i v e r s i t y of a d u l t education p r a c t i c e s i n North America si n c e 1900 — accommodate the f u l l range o f cases w i t h the minimum a r r a y o f type s . The r a t i o n a l e of a taxonomic framework as s o l u t i o n to the problem, and the p o t e n t i a l usefulness of a f i e l d framework to academic d i s c i p l i n a r i a n s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f a d u l t education were i n c l u d e d i n chapter one. Stage two: F a m i l i a r i z a t i o n w i t h the r e l e v a n t a v a i l a b l e data Two kin d s o f m a t e r i a l on the f i e l d were examined. The f i r s t k i n d was h i s t - o r i c a l and i n c l u d e d case s t u d i e s of programs l i k e the A n t i g o n i s h co-operative movement and the "Human E n t e r p r i s e " program of the U n i v e r s i t y of I l l i n o i s , case s t u d i e s of i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e F r o n t i e r C o l l e g e , Camp Laquemac, and Highlander F o l k s c h o o l , and b i o g r a p h i c a l accounts from p r a c t i t i t i o n e r s (Corbett ,195?) and from a d u l t l e a r n e r s (McKenna,1963)• The second k i n d of m a t e r i a l on the f i e l d was s e m i - a n a l y t i c treatments of each of the aspects of p r a c t i c e i n c l u d i n g program contents, methods and techniques o f d e l i v e r y , c l i e n t e l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , assess- ment o f achievement, and l o c a t i o n s o f d e l i v e r y . These treatments are c a l l e d s e m i - a n a l y t i c because they l a c k a conceptual s t r u c t u r e to i d e n t i f y t h e i r r e l e - vance to the range of p r a c t i c e s i n the f i e l d , but each separate treatment has some degree o f i n t e r n a l order. Stage three : D e r i v a t i o n o f hypotheses about r e l a t i o n s h i p s and sequences In order to develop some, pe r c e p t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s and sequences a t work i n the f i e l d of a d u l t education p r a c t i c e s , study was undertaken i n the p h i l o - sophy and methodology o f s o c i a l science to d i s c o v e r how other academic d i s c i p l i n e s organize t h e i r domains of i n q u i r y . . Abraham Kaplan's (1964:74) d e s c r i p t i o n o f 43 the standards f o r " a r t i c u l a t i o n o f a f i e l d " , begins w i t h a se t o f e m p i r i - c a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s about the f i e l d , and emphasizes the c r i t e r i o n of s e p a r a t i o n of the conceptual s t r u c t u r e from the a t t r i b u t e space. When t h i s standard was a p p l i e d to the f i e l d o f a d u l t education p r a c t i c e s i t became evident t h a t what was confounding assumptions about the f i e l d was the f a i l u r e to perceive t h a t i t c o u l d not be reduced t o the terms o f j u s t one of i t s competing i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . I t seemed i n f a c t to be composed of d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e s e t s of f e a t u r e s d i r e c t e d toward d i f f e r e n t developmental goals, and i t a l s o seemed t h a t each of these g o a l - f u n c t i o n types operated i n d i s t i n c t i v e and mutually complementary ways. Regarding sequences, the p r o p o s i t i o n emerged t h a t i f types were d e f i n e d a t a s u f f i c i e n t l y undated and n o n - l o c a l i z e d l e v e l then i t would be p o s s i b l e to draw comparisons between i n c i d e n t s as e a r l y as the t u r n o f the century. E r r o r s o f presentism c o u l d be avoided by u s i n g the matrix o f d e s c r i p t i v e elements to render a s e n s i t i v e p r o f i l e of each case, d i s p l a y i n g i t s unique c h a r a c t e r i n accur- ate d e t a i l • r a t h e r than a s s i g n i n g the whole case to a basket category.- Regarding r e l a t i o n s and sequences: a n t i c i p a t i n g a sm a l l number of s e t s o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and a n t i c i p a t i n g the c a p a c i t y f o r t i m e - s e r i e s comparisons c o n s t i t u t e d the r e s u l t s of McKinney's stage three o f c o n s t r u c t i v e typology., and were r e - ported i n chapter one under "Purpose o f the Study". Stage f o u r : D e l i n e a t i o n of e m p i r i c a l u n i f o r m i t i e s ; and pragmatic r e d u c t i o n to type I n t h i s study i t was necessary to d i v i d e McKinney's stage f o u r o f constuc- t i v e typology i n t o i t s two p a r t s and execute each p a r t s e p a r a t e l y . The l i t e r a - t u r e search on s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s o f a d u l t education produced a sample o f twelve authors whose w r i t i n g s were examined f o r s i m i l a r i t i e s to f o u r themes o f broadly s t a t e d goals d e r i v e d from an e a r l i e r study. This examination produced o n l y one r e c u r r e n t e x c e p t i o n to those f o u r Jfchemes and t h a t was the theme o f a d u l t educa- t i o n as remediation f o r b a s i c education missed e a r l i e r i n l i f e . When t h i s concept 44 was analyzed i t was found not to c o n s t i t u t e an a l t e r n a t e d i r e c t i o n to the f o u r developmental d i r e c t i o n s a l r e a d y i d e n t i f i e d . Rather i t represented an ext e n s i o n o f those f u n c t i o n s to engage a d u l t s a t t h e i r a c t u a l l e v e l o f competence r a t h e r than a t the normative l e v e l expected o f those who complete compulsory s c h o o l i n g . Each o f the groups o f g o a l - f u n c t i o n terms r e s u l t i n g from the l i t e r a t u r e search was examined f o r i t s i n t e r n a l order and the degree o f u n i f o r m i t y i t e x h i b i t e d . To t h i s p o i n t no a l t e r a t i o n had been made to the o r i g i n a l terms except to e x t r a c t and group them. Stage f o u r continued: Pragmatic r e d u c t i o n to type F o l l o w i n g the e x p o s i t i o n o f c o n s t r u c t i v e typology i n chapter three i t becomes p o s s i b l e to proceed towards i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the rough u n i f o r m i t i e s r e s u l t i n g from the l i t e r a t u r e search. "Reduction to type" amounts to d e f i n i n g each type ac c o r d i n g to i t s e s s e n t i a l , elements. From each s e t of g o a l - f u n c t i o n terms the f o l l o w i n g three elements are combined to produce a u n i f i e d d e f i n i t i o n : "This type of e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e i ) f u l f i l s the f u n c t i o n o f by , i n order to achieve i i ) a general o b j e c t i v e which i s _______ i n i i i ) a developmental l e a r n i n g domain which i s ." This formula when completed from each s e t of terms c o n s t i t u t e s a pragmatic r e d u c t i o n o f the s e t to a de f i n e d type. The d e f i n i t i o n o f each type i s r e p o r t e d i n the opening s e c t i o n of chapter f o u r . Stage f i v e : S i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f the type w i t h regard to the a t t r i b u t e space As d e t a i l e d i n chapter f o u r , f i v e o b s e r v a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s were developed from those o f Knowles - t o p i c a l content, methodology f o r l e a r n i n g , b a s i s f o r e v a l u a t i o n o f achievement, educative l o c a t i o n , and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f c l i e n t e l e s . Each of these c a t e g o r i e s had an extensive i n v e n t o r y o f p o s s i b l e o b s e r v a t i o n s . e 45 These i n v e n t o r i e s were reduced by e x t r a c t i n g from them v a r i a b l e s which v i r t u a l l y pervade the f i e l d , and assembling these i n t o a s e t of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e f i n i t i v e of the f i e l d as a whole. The remaining v a r i a b l e s jfere^, examined f o r d i s c r i m i n a t o r s - those which c h a r a c t e r i z e one type o f p r a c t i c e almost e x c l u s i v e l y - s e t t i n g apart t h a t type from the other t h r e e . These two operations were aimed a t e i t h e r f i e l d - p e r v a s i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o r t y p e - d i s c r i m i n a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The study d i d not t r e a t v a r i a b l e s which might c h a r a c t e r i z e more than one, but not a l l o f the cons t r u c t e d types. This would have i n v o l v e d hypothesized p o i n t s o f s i m i l a r i t y between the types and much more elaborate treatment o f v a r i a b l e s than i s productive i n the f i r s t generation o f research to develop types. The o b s e r v a t i o n a l , c a t e g o r i e s of methodology and e v a l u a t i o n were so complex t h a t t h e i r v a r i a b l e s were sub-divided i n t o a number of c r i t i c a l p o i n t s f o r com- p a r i s o n . W i t h i n methodology those p o i n t s of omparison were: i ) a d e s c r i p t i v e t i t l e o f the methodology, i i ) o b s t a c l e s to l e a r n i n g , i i i ) s t r u c t u r i n g p r i n c i p l e s f o r o r d e r i n g l e a r n i n g t a s k s , and i v ) d i s t i n c t i v e techniques. W i t h i n e v a l u a t i o n the p o i n t s o f comparison were: i ) b a s i s i n o b j e c t i v e o r s u b j e c t i v e measures, i i ) focus o f the e v a l u a t i o n , i i i ) outcomes evaluated, and i v ) instruments used. Chapter f o u r i n c l u d e s a review o f each o f the f i v e o b s e r v a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s of p r a c t i c e seeking i n p a r t i c u l a r those v a r i a b l e s which d i s c r i m i n a t e among types. I t concludes w i t h a s e r i e s o f diagrams i l l u s t r a t i n g the r e l a t i o n s formed, among elements o f the domain. These i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f the domain and i t s subsections c o n s t i t u t e , according to Kaplan's c r i t e r i a , a formal model o f the domain. Stage s i x : T e n t a t i v e explanatory accounting o f the types An explanatory accounting i s intended to read as a whole the set o f observ- able c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t t r i b u t e d to a type, and to r e l a t e the c o n f i g u r a t i o n to a v a i l a b l e p r i n c i p l e s and t h e o r i e s . The accounting remains t e n t a t i v e s i n c e I t i s r e l a t i n g new u n i t s o f obs e r v a t i o n to o l d explanatory p r i n c i p l e s ; the u n i t s w i l l 46 undoubtedly s t i m u l a t e new hypotheses and may e v e n t u a l l y modify explanatory p r i n c i p l e s . A more r i g o r o u s examination o f the r a t i o n a l e and r o l e o f each type of p r a c t i c e might s t i m u l a t e hypotheses about why a p a r t i c u l a r c l i e n t e l e group espouses one type of p r a c t i c e v i g o r o u s l y and other groups do not, o r why one type of p r a c t i c e i s emphasized d u r i n g some h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d and not another. I n chapter f i v e each con s t r u c t e d type o f p r a c t i c e i s looked a t as a whole to elaborate upon i t s r a t i o n a l e and to c l a r i f y i t s r o l e . Stage seven; E m p i r i c a l v e r i f i c a t i o n o f types, and Stage e i g h t : I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s Together these comprise the q u a n t i t a t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n o f types to a body of data, and a phase of implementation beyond the scope of t h i s study. A d u l t ed- u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s i t would mean usin g the techniques of content a n a l y s i s on d e s c r i p t i v e h i s t o r i c a l t e x t s to i d e n t i f y terms which c o u l d be regarded as e q u i - v a l e n t s of terms i n the m a t r i x . In t h i s way a taxonomic p r o f i l e c o u l d be d e v e l - oped f o r each case study. The e m p i r i c a l v e r i f i c a t i o n stage i s p o t e n t i a l l y ex- t e n s i v e and c o u l d sample widely from the phenomenal universe under c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o determine the r a t e o f phenomenal approximation t o a type. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the r e s u l t s r e t u r n s the focus of a t t e n t i o n from the f i e l d to the methodology being used to explore i t . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n re-examines the c o n s t r u c t e d types and may determine f o r example, t h a t a number of c l e a r - c u t s c a l e types have been i s o - l a t e d r e p r e s e n t i n g degrees of approximation to the pure type. I t c o u l d happen t h a t a r e c u r r i n g phenomenon i n the f i e l d i s a h y b r i d o f two pure types. Numer- ous types can be formed and f r e q u e n t l y have to be formed i n connection w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r problem. For example, the c i t i z e n s h i p theme o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s f o r a d u l t s , on c l o s e r examination might r e v e a l s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t i v e v a r i a t i o n s over time so t h a t sub-types are formed such as "the 30's-type c i t i z e n s h i p " ( e c o n o m i c "the 50 's-type c i t i z e n s h i p " ( i d e o l o g i c a l ) , and "the 70's-rtype c i t i z e n s h i p ' ' 47 (consumer a c c o u n t a b i l i t y ) education. Conversely a s i n g l e type c o u l d be found to be r e l e v a n t to a whole s e r i e s of problems. For example " t e c h n i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n " as a form o f p r a c t i c e might improve the e f f i c i e n c y o f hobby, manpower, and pro- f e s s i o n a l s k i l l - l e a r n i n g a l i k e . But second and t h i r d generation research on types i s beyond the scope o f t h i s t h e s i s which aims only to i d e n t i f y the f i r s t g e neration minimum a r r a y o f types which w i l l account f o r the range o f v a r i a t i o n s evidenced i n the f i e l d . 48 CHAPTER IV • FINDINGS PART A: ANALYSIS OF THE TYPES AND THE DIMENSIONS In t h i s chapter the conceptual s t r u c t u r e i s d e f i n e d which w i l l provide a h o r i z o n t a l a x i s f o r the taxonomic framework o f p r a c t i c e s . Then the bodies o f research a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each e m p i r i c a l category of the v e r t i c a l a x i s are exam- in e d f o r v a r i a b l e s d i s t i n c t i v e to each c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and f o r v a r i a b l e s common to a l l a d u l t education p r a c t i c e s . Stage f i v e o f the methodology d e s c r i p t i o n e x p l a i n e d why only c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which are e i t h e r d i s c r i m i n a t o r s between types, o r f i e I d - p e r v a s i v e are sought. The r e l a t i o n s formed between d i s t i n c t i v e and common elements through the s i x dimensions o f p r a c t i c e are i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h a s e r i e s of diagrams t h a t concludes the a n a l y s i s phase of f i n d i n g s . D e f i n i t i o n o f the Types by Goal, Func t i o n and Domain The f o u r types of p r a c t i c e forming the conceptual s t r u c t u r e are d e f i n e d by s e l e c t i o n , a b s t r a c t i o n , combination and a c c e n t u a t i o n o f q u a l i t i e s , to give the h i g h e s t degree o f c o n t r a s t among types. Pragmatic r e d u c t i o n o f the rough g o a l - - f u n c t i o n u n i f o r m i t i e s to d e f i n e d types i s undertaken now by re-examining those s e t s o f g o a l - f u n c t i o n terms f o r the l e a d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by which they may most e f f e c t i v e l y be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from each ot h e r . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are considered to be l e a d i n g i n the sense t h a t they form an e s s e n t i a l d e f i n i n g set o f concepts which guides the subsequent s e l e c t i o n o f a complementary set o f o b s e r v a t i o n a l terms from the f i v e remaining c a t e g o r i e s of v a r i a b l e s of p r a c t i c e . 49 The e s s e n t i a l concepts which w i l l be used to d i f f e r e n t i a t e and s p e c i f y the types o f p r a c t i c e are: the general aim o r goal as agreed upon by l e a r n e r s and agent; the f u n c t i o n f u l f i l l e d i n terms o f the l e a r n e r ' s development i n order t o achieve the e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l ; and the domain o f developmental a c t i v i t y c u l t i v a t e d t y the agent. I n a d d i t i o n a few words are i n c l u d e d r e g a r d i n g the nature o f the l e a r n e r ' s experience w i t h respect to the e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l . Here again the pur- pose i s to de f i n e the types i n t h e i r most divergent terms to heighten t h e i r con- t r a s t w i t h each o t h e r . Both i n t e r p e r s o n a l and s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g education may keep l e a r n e r s t e m p o r a r i l y unaware o f the p o t e n t i a l outcome of an experience so t h a t t h e i r r e a c t i o n s w i l l be unbiased;, but t h i s s i m i l a r i t y i s de-emphasized so t h a t t h e . . d i s t i n c t i v e nature o f those two types o f education can be accentuated. The d i s c r i m i n a t i n g question put to the l e a r n e r by s p e c u l a t i o n was: What do you f e e l i s being addressed i n your l e a r n i n g t r a n s a c t i o n ? - To which the l e a r n e r r e p l i e d i n the form: " I f e e l t h i s l e a r n i n g i s t a k i n g place between and ". Tec h n i c a l education The f i r s t i n d u c t i v e l y d e r i v e d f u n c t i o n was r e f e r r e d to as education f o r m a t e r i a l u t i l i t y and i n c l u d e d terms o f an income-earning, income-disposal, o r income-prerequisite nature. The goal o f t h i s type might have been d e s c r i b e d as the development o f "i n s t r u m e n t a l " s k i l l s s i n c e they aim a t a c h i e v i n g some goals beyond the educative a c t i v i t y ; but t h i s term c o u l d as w e l l have i n c l u d e d the " s k i l l s o f s u c c e s s f u l i n t e r p e r s o n a l t r a n s a c t i o n s o r of e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n s h i p . " S k i l l s " was not q u i t e s a t i s f a c t o r y to name the goal o f the type because s k i l l s are c o n t r a s t e d w i t h knowledge and a t t i t u d e s as edu c a t i o n a l outcomes, arid simple knowledge o f an i n f o r m a t i o n - r e c a l l s o r t had to be i n c l u d e d . So " s k i l l s " was re p l a c e d w i t h " a b i l i t i e s " because t h i s would accomodate the a b i l i t y to r e c a l l i n f o r m a t i o n . Now i f " i n s t r u m e n t a l " i s . r e p l a c e d by " m a t e r i a l " , as i n "education f o r m a t e r i a l u t i l i t y " then the r e s u l t i n g term " m a t e r i a l a b i l i t y " has the 50 unfortunate connotation of money-making a b i l i t y and t h i s c o n s t r u c t e d type can more u s e f u l l y be c a s t as broader than t h a t . A l l p r e c i s e l y d e f i n e d a b i l i t i e s and competencies do not n e c e s s a r i l y make money but they can be developed by a s i m i l a r e d u c a t i o n a l treatment. Since "technique" r e f e r s to any methodical process o r means which enables the e f f i c i e n t accomplishment o f a task of any s o r t i t thus evolved t h a t the goal o f t h i s type of p r a c t i c e came to be t i t l e d , "To develop t e c h n i c a l a b i l i t i e s " . Such a b i l i t i e s would i n c l u d e accurate i n f o r m a t i o n r e c a l l , i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l , psycho-motor s k i l l and "procedural" s k i l l s which combine judgement about tasks w i t h sequences o f a psycho-motor s o r t . The f u n c t i o n f u l f i l l e d by a l l t e c h n i c a l education i s the b u i l d i n g o f com- petencies, moving the c l i e n t from an entry l e v e l o f knowledge o r s k i l l to a t a r g e t l e v e l . I t i s t e c h n i c a l not i n the sense of being pragmatic a p p l i c a t i o n of the s c i e n c e s , but i n the generic sense of t e c h n i c a l i n which a l l methodical procedures having to do w i t h the exact o r mechanical p a r t o f any a r t o r science may be s a i d to be t e c h n i c a l . I n t h i s sense to b u i l d competencies i s to b u i l d r e l i a b l e t e c h - niques " f o r r e n d e r i n g d e t a i l s i n the performance of any a r t or o f any process i n v o l v i n g s p e c i a l knowledge or s k i l l " (Winston D i c t i o n a r y ; 1020.) • The domain of a c t i v i t y may be e i t h e r c o g n i t i v e o r psychomotor, and i s c u l t i v a t e d by the agent acc o r d i n g to the p r i n c i p l e s appropriate to each. The cog- n i t i v e domain of l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y g e n e r a l l y proceeds from ta s k s which are con- c r e t e to those which are a b s t r a c t . Both domains c o u l d be expected to f o l l o w a p r o g r e s s i o n of t a s k s from the simple t o the complex and i t i s p r i m a r i l y because o f t h i s e s s e n t i a l commonality t h a t they are grouped, together. " T e c h n i c a l " educa- t i o n a l goals a l l i n v o l v e methodical, systematic ways of doing t h i n g s whether, t h a t i m p l i e s remembering, s o l v i n g , or manipulating such t h a t tasks can be sequenced according to t h e i r i n c r e a s i n g degree of complexity. This p r i n c i p l e both guides the design and management of i n s t r u c t i o n r e l a t e d t o these g o a l s , and p o i n t s to the inherent o r g a n i z a t i o n which e x i s t s f o r e v a l u a t i n g degrees o f mastery o r 5 1 achievement i n r e l a t i o n to such l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e s . The l e a r n e r engaged w i t h o b j e c t i v e s r e l a t e d to t h i s type o f e d u c a t i o n a l goal experiences a "Me and I t " k i n d of r e l a t i o n s h i p i n which the personal l e v e l o f accomplishment can be measured more o r l e s s o b j e c t i v e l y a g a i n s t a h i e r a r c h i c a l standard o f complexity. I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n the l e a r n e r l o o k s to the agent as a t r a i n e r who can a s s i s t him t o achieve the d e s i r e d l e v e l o f competence. I n t e r p e r s o n a l education The second i n d u c t i v e l y d e r i v e d f u n c t i o n was r e f e r r e d to as education f o r p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h and i n c l u d e d terms of a perso n a l , i n t e r p e r s o n a l , i n t r a - group and i n t e r g r o u p nature. The goal o f t h i s type was c l e a r l y t i e d to the n o t i o n o f " r e l a t i o n s " since even personal mental h e a l t h i n e v i t a b l y i n c l u d e d r e - l a t i o n s w i t h parents o r w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s . " R e l a t i o n s " c o u l d i n c l u d e the dyads o f marriage, f r i e n d s h i p o r c o u n s e l l i n g and management i n t e r v i e w i n g ) the sma l l group i n t e r a c t i o n s experienced i n committees, task f o r c e s , management groups and so on; and the l a r g e group i n t e r a c t i o n s o c c u r r i n g between r a c i a l , r e l i g i o u s and e t h n i c communities. "Human" r e l a t i o n s was considered but sounded too s i m i l a r t o " p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s " and "human" connoted "human p o t e n t i a l " and "humanism". So the d e s c r i p t i o n s e l e c t e d f o r the go a l o f t h i s type o f education has been termed "To improve i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s " . The f u n c t i o n f u l f i l l e d by i n t e r p e r s o n a l education i s the developing of a t t i t u d e s and behaviours t h a t produce more s a t i s f y i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s by e n a b l i n g the l e a r n e r t o p r a c t i c e p e r c e i v i n g h i m s e l f and others more a c c u r a t e l y , expressing h i m s e l f a u t h e n t i c a l l y , and responding t o the expressions o f others i n a mutually b e n e f i c i a l way. Along w i t h these b a s i c s may be developed the s k i l l s o f group p a r t i c i p a t i o n , ' p e r s o n n e l management, and v a r i o u s h e l p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The domain o f a c t i v i t y c u l t i v a t e d by the agent i s p r i m a r i l y emotional. /Since behaviours o r i g i n a t e i n emotionally-weighted a t t i t u d e s i t i s by p r a c t i c e 52 i n t h i s domain th a t h a b i t u a l behaviours can be changed, r a t h e r than by c o g n i t i v e change alone. S i t u a t i o n s are th e r e f o r e e s t a b l i s h e d i n which the l e a r n e r may immediately experience and experiment w i t h h a b i t u a l and a l t e r n a t e ways of per- c e i v i n g , responding and expressing h i m s e l f to o t h e r s . This p r i n c i p l e of immed- i a t e experience and guided experiment s t r u c t u r e s the design and management of t h i s k i n d o f l e a r n i n g and p o i n t s to the consquent d u a l b a s i s f o r e v a l u a t i o n s i n c e both a s u b j e c t i v e assessment o f a t t i t u d e change and an o b j e c t i v e assess- ment of behavioural change c o n t r i b u t e to the o v e r a l l e v a l u a t i o n o f achievement i n r e l a t i o n to t h i s type o f l e a r n i n g g o a l . The l e a r n e r engaged i n tasks r e l a t e d to t h i s type o f e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l experiences a "You and Me" k i n d of r e l a t i o n s h i p since a c t i v i t i e s are c a s t i n the present tense w i t h other i n d i v i d u a l s e i t h e r a c t i n g as themselves o r p l a y i n g a p r e s c r i b e d r o l e . I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n the l e a r n e r l o o k s to the agent to be a r o l e model who can demonstrate d e s i r e a b l e a t t i t u d e s and behaviours r a t h e r than merely a t r a i n e r . The agent's a b i l i t y to demonstrate c l e a r l y the s u p e r i o r i t y o f one a t t i t u d e o r response over another i s c r u c i a l not only to the c r e d i b i l i t y o f the agent as knowing whereof he speaks, but to the c r e d i b i l i t y of the s o l u t i o n t h a t i s proposed f o r an i n t e r p e r s o n a l problem and t h a t i s undertaken as an e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e . S e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g education The t h i r d i n d u c t i v e l y d e r i v e d f u n c t i o n was r e f e r r e d to as education f o r i t s i n t r i n s i c value and i n c l u d e d terms which spoke o f s a t i s f a c t i o n s and f u l f i l m e n t s o f an e s t h e t i c , i n t e l l e c t u a l , p h i l o s o p h i c o r s p i r i t u a l s o r t . One o f the main problems i n d e f i n i n g the goal of t h i s k i n d of education f o r i t s i n t r i n s i c value was whether to phrase i t i n terms of the person o r s o c i e t y . I t c o u l d be c a l l e d education f o r personal f u l f i l m e n t i n the search f o r something precious and s i g - n i f i c a n t i n l i f e . I t c o u l d e q u a l l y be c a l l e d " c u l t u r a l t r a n s m i s s i o n " as i n the 53 amusing phrase o f one r u r a l Canadian teacher who spoke o f " c a r r y i n g the t o r c h of c i v i l i z a t i o n " ; but a l s o c u l t u r a l t r a n s m i s s i o n as i n the expansive phrase o f Maxine Greene who saw i n the study of h i s t o r y the p o s s i b i l i t y of "extending hor- i z o n s , and understanding what i t has been l i k e to s u r v i v e , to leave t r a c e s i n the c a u s a l forces through which humankind has moved" (19?9J634). I t was tempting to c o n s i d e r r e c y c l i n g the n o t i o n o f education f o r l i b e r a t i o n from e v e r y t h i n g o b j e c t i o n a b l e be i t boredom, narrowness, o r m o r t a l i t y i t s e l f . But l i b e r a l edu- c a t i o n has most f r e q u e n t l y been i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the humanities and has not en- l a r g e d to i n c l u d e the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l sciences and t h e i r impact on human ex- perience . Furthermore n e i t h e r r e l i g i o u s experience nor s e c u l a r a c t i v i t y t h a t harmonizes body and mind i s c o n f o r t a b l y subsumed under the term l i b e r a l education although both c o n t r i b u t e l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t are s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g . The common element i n a l l these a c t i v i t i e s seems to be the " s e l f " o f the l e a r n e r , f o r i t i s not s o c i e t y which experiences the c a t h a r s i s o f mental t r a n s - cendance, but the i n d i v i d u a l . But " s e l f - f u l f i l m e n t " connoted s a t i s f a c t o r y i n t e r - p ersonal r e l a t i o n s ; and "self-enrichment" connoted a c q u i r i n g something from the outside whereas the c u l m i n a t i o n o f t h i s k i n d of education i s an a p p r e c i a t i o n which develops because i t b r i n g s to l i g h t something inherent i n the l e a r n e r h i m s e l f . Therefore, d e s p i t e i t s l i a b i l i t i e s , the only term which seemed appropriate was "education f o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n " because t h i s alone can denote the s o r t o f ex p l o r a t o r y l e a r n i n g , the t e s t i n g o f e s t h e t i c o r r e l i g i o u s experiences in:.which one engages to f i n d t h a t which w i l l c a l l f o r t h something of s i g n i f i c a n t value from w i t h i n the s e l f . The f u n c t i o n f u l f i l l e d by s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g education i s the encouraging of value judgements i n regard to e s t h e t i c and p h i l o s o p h i c c h o i c e s . I t o f f e r s the opp o r t u n i t y to explore and adopt f o r o n e s e l f a standard f o r what i s b e a u t i f u l , what i s t r u e , and what i s good i n terms o f p i e t y , j u s t i c e , and e x c e l l e n c e i n human experience. 54 The domain o f a c t i v i t y i s e i t h e r a e s t h e t i c o r p h i l o s p h i c and i s c u l t i v a t e d by the agent a c c o r d i n g to the p r i n c i p l e s a p p r o p r i a t e to each. More o r l e s s ob- j e c t i v e standards may be s e t f o r judging the t e c h n i c a l merit o f an a r t i s t i c genre, and standards o f l o g i c may be se t f o r judging the t e c h n i c a l m e r i t o f p h i l o s o p h i c e x p o s i t i o n s . But what these areas o f l e a r n i n g have i n common t h a t sets them apart from s t r i c t l y t e c h n i c a l l e a r n i n g i s t h e i r a f f e c t i v e element, the progressive i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n o f values which i s taken as the e s s e n t i a l e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l . I n t h i s study the a f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s i t e m i z e d by Krathwol, Bloom, and Masia (1964) and presented as a s i n g l e h i e r a r c h y , are a p p l i e d as two s i m i l a r but separate h i e r a r c h i e s , one which leads to i n t e r p e r s o n a l l e a r n i n g goals, and one wi t h a s i m i l a r h i e r a r c h y o f stages which leads to s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g l e a r n i n g g o a l s . W ithin the s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g type of education the l e a r n e r engaged i n e x p l o r - a t o r y l e a r n i n g o f e i t h e r an a e s t h e t i c o r p h i l o s o p h i c s o r t experiences an "I-Thou" r e l a t i o n s h i p i n h i s . ^ l e a m i n g i n the f o l l o w i n g manner. When he f i n d s he l o v e s something which i s di s c o v e r e d to e x i s t f a r away i n the universe o r long ago i n the past, he f i n d s p a r t o f h i m s e l f t h a t has been w a i t i n g f o r d i s c o v e r y . F i n d i n g p a r t o f h i m s e l f here and there he comes to r e a l i z e he i s immersed i n the u n i v e r s a l , so he becomes more d i r e c t l y c u r i o u s about the f u l l nature o f the u n i v e r s a l . A t some l e v e l then he begins to question i t i n terms o f Thou. I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n the l e a r n e r l o o k s t o the agent as c o n s u l t a n t r a t h e r than t r a i n e r o r r o l e model. Only i n very e s o t e r i c s e t t i n g s does one human i n d i v i d u a l t r a i n , o r model f o r another the f u l l - b l o w n , p e r f e c t e d l i b e r a t i o n o f consciousness from m o r t a l i t y and f i n i t u d e , and these s e t t i n g s belong to r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e not to a d u l t education p r a c t i c e as i t has been d e f i n e d here. S o c i a l a c t i v i s t education The f o u r t h i n d u c t i v e l y d e r i v e d f u n c t i o n was r e f e r r e d to as education f o r c i t i z e n s h i p and i n c l u d e d two c l u s t e r s of terms, one which denoted an a c t i o n 55 ( p a r t i c i p a t i o n , involvement, development, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ) and one which denoted t h a t i n regard to which the a c t i o n was t a k i n g place ( c i v i c l i f e , s o c i e t y , p o l i t i c s , economics, community). I n seeking to d e f i n e the g o a l o f t h i s type o f education the m o d i f i e r " s o c i a l " seemed to be the most comprehensive. But while " s o c i a l " i s s u e s may be as d r a s t i c as race r i o t s , man-made environmental d i s a s t e r s and p o l i c e - e n f o r c e d language p o l i c y , the terms " s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n " o r " s o c i a l involvement" seem m i l d by comparison. " C i v i c " l i f e has lon g s i n c e become out- moded as an emotive symbol. "Community" posed the problem o f denoting a common- a l i t y which i s e l u s i v e i n our cosmopolitan n a t i o n s , o r which may only apply to p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t ' g r o u p s such as "the ecumenical community", "the environmental community", "the espionage community", or to e t h n i c and r e l i g i o u s groups such as "the Greek community", "the Sikh community", "the Jewish community". That l e f t o n l y the p r o s a i c terms " p o l i t i c a l " and "economic", but these seem to denote the kinds o f a c t i o n which are fundamental to shaping the s o c i e t y t h a t i s shared by a l l . P o l i t i c a l and economic decision-making a l s o i n d i c a t e where education must focus f o r the a d u l t who wishes to l e a r n how to engage e f f e c t i v e l y i n the d e c i s i o n - making which a f f e c t s him. As f o r an appropriate a c t i o n term., "involvement" and "development" were di s c a r d e d as too vague. " P a r t i c i p a t i o n " alone as a term was u n s a t i s f a c t o r y because i t s prevalence i n the l i t e r a t u r e o f the 1950's emphasized too h e a v i l y the a b s o r p t i o n o f new people i n t o the o l d system however i n a p p r o p r i a t e i t might be. H i s t o r y has overtaken t h a t d e f i n i t i o n o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n as a s a t i s - f a c t o r y p o l i t i c a l and economic i d e a l ; the contemporary i d e a l seems to be c o n t r o l l e d but extensive reform. Therefore the goal statement f o r t h i s type o f education needed to i n c l u d e the p o s s i b i l i t y not only of i n f l u e n c i n g p a r t i c u l a r d e c i s i o n s but even o f i n f l u e n c i n g the nature o f the decision-making procedure i t s e l f . The r a t h e r lengthy g o a l statement which r e s u l t e d , "To enable a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i o - economic decision-making" i s shortened i n references to 'education f o r s o c i a l a c t i v i s m " . 56 The f u n c t i o n f u l f i l l e d by education f o r s o c i a l a c t i v i s m i s the forming o f a r e a l i s t i c awareness o f s o c i e t y . This awareness i s accomplished through a c y c l i c a l process o f r a i s i n g the q u a l i t y o f c r i t i c a l thought about the s o c i a l environment, a l t e r n a t e d w i t h r a i s i n g the l e v e l o f a c t i v e i n f l u e n c e on p o l i t i c a l and economic decision-making. The q u a l i t y o f c r i t i c a l thought i s determined by the degree to which s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n i s a predominant value w i t h i n a s o c i a l b eing. S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n as a value opposes both the p a s s i v i t y o f s u p e r f i c i a l confidence and the p a s s i v i t y of d e s p a i r r e g a r d i n g the d e c i s i o n makers o f s o c i e t y . The a c t i o n phase o f the c y c l i c a l process p r a g m a t i c a l l y takes whatever resources are a t hand and i n a considered s o c i a l experiment uses those resources to i n - fluence the problem s i t u a t i o n . The domain o f a c t i v i t y c u l t i v a t e d by the agent i s p r i m a r i l y s o c i a l e x p e r i - ment. As w i t h a f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g o f the i n t e r p e r s o n a l , a e s t h e t i c , o r p h i l o s o p h i c s o r t where the a c t i v i t y must i n v o l v e "a f e e l i n g tone" o r an element o f "acceptance o r r e j e c t i o n " to be v a l i d , w i t h t h i s s o c i a l a c t i v i s m type o f l e a r n i n g the educa- t i v e a c t i v i t y must i n v o l v e considered s o c i a l experiment to be v a l i d , r a t h e r than remain i n a s t r i c t l y c o g n i t i v e mode. The converse of no a c t i o n occurs i f circumstances are perce i v e d as very pressing} i n t h i s case the l e a r n e r s may be tempted to take p r e c i p i t a t i v e a c t i o n . The agent's r o l e i s thus a dual one of "animator" when l e a r n i n g i s circumventing the immediate i s s u e , and " d e c e l e r a t o r " when impulsive a c t i o n threatens the l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t y . A d u l t s engaged i n t h i s type o f l e a r n i n g experience an "Us and Them" k i n d o f r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s remains so even when the l e a r n e r i s engaged i n r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d a c t i o n such as telephoning a p r o v i n c i a l Member of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly, o r w r i t i n g a l e t t e r to the e d i t o r , because a t these times the l e a r n e r i s i d e n t i f y i n g h i m s e l f w i t h a l l others who might share h i s o p i n i o n i n c o n t r a s t w i t h those who don't. 57 S i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f the A t t r i b u t e Space The next procedural stage i n c o n s t r u c t i v e typology f o l l o w i n g a pragmatic r e d u c t i o n to type of e m p i r i c a l u n i f o r m i t i e s i s a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f the a t t r i b u t e space. The a t t r i b u t e space i n t h i s case has f i v e c a t e g o r i e s , one f o r each of the dimensions of p r a c t i c e under c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Knowles i d e n t i f i e d f i v e dimen- si o n s o f the f i e l d i n which a d u l t education operates (1964) and c a l l e d them the i n s t i t u t i o n a l , content, geographical, personnel and morphological dimensions. For t h i s study both the geographical and personnel elements were excluded since i n seeking out appropriate c a t e g o r i e s f o r the a t t r i b u t e space the c r i t e r i o n employed i s the degree of t h e o r e t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the a t t r i b u t e . T h e o r e t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , i n t u r n , r e s t s upon the a b i l i t y o f an a t t r i b u t e category to f u r t h e r d i s c r i m i n a t e between the b a s i c types of p r a c t i c e being developed. N e i t h e r the geographical nor the personnel elements would a l t e r the b a s i c range of g o a l s i n p r i n c i p l e , o r the types o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e which serve those g o a l s . The "morphological dimension" (form of a c t i v i t y ) was r e t a i n e d as the "methodology dimension" i n which methods, techniques, o b s t a c l e s to learning,-and s t r u c t u r i n g p r i n c i p l e s a l l c o n t r i b u t e to shaping the f i n a l form of the a c t i v i t y . The con- t e n t dimension was a l s o r e t a i n e d i n much the same form as Knowles d e f i n e d i t . The i n s t i t u t i o n a l dimension he judged to be the most h i g h l y developed a t the time (1964:41) and the foundation upon which the f i e l d was then organized i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The e v o l v i n g r a t i o n a l e f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l t y p o l o g i e s i s examined i n the l o c a t i o n dimension of t h i s study and q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t focus e v e n t u a l l y i s taken from the one on which Knowles l o c a t i o n dimension was based. Two dimensions are added which Knowles d i d not s i n g l e out: the e v a l u a t i o n and c l i e n t e l e dimensions. Three constructed.types.of education were developed around developmental goals which stand i n c o n t r a s t to the t e c h n i c a l goals of c o n v e n t i o n a l 58 i n s t r u c t i o n . Therefore i t was necessary to search out p r i n c i p l e s and instruments f o r e v a l u a t i n g achievement of those goals beyond the t e c h n i c a l l y exact observable i n d i c a t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h behavioural o b j e c t i v e s . As f o r c l i e n t e l e c h a r a c t e r i s - t i c s , Knowles had subsumed l e a r n e r s and f a c i l i t a t o r s together under a personnel dimension. Agent r o l e s were excluded from the domain o f t h i s study i n p a r t be- cause of the p r o h i b i t i v e s i z e o f the task, and i n p a r t because agent r o l e s are accessory to fundamental types o f education which are d i s t i n g u i s h e d from each o t h e r on the b a s i s o f inherent q u a l i t i e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f l e a r n e r develop- ment. The t h e o r e t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f l e a r n e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s made i t necessary to l o o k f o r those which were t y p e - d i s c r i m i n a t i n g and those which were f i e l d - pervasive . The f i v e c a t e g o r i e s then which comprise the a t t r i b u t e space o f t h i s study a r e : program contents, e d u c a t i o n a l methodologies, e v a l u a t i o n procedures, c l i e n t e l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and d e l i v e r y l o c a t i o n s . For each category s e v e r a l statements were sought from handbooks and compen- d i a o f research which would be comprehensive of the range of p r a c t i c e s i n the f i e l d . Where these were not a v a i l a b l e a l a r g e number of s p e c i a l i z e d s t u d i e s were examined i n an attempt to represent adequately the f u l l range of p o s s i b i l i - t i e s i n t h a t category. I t was apparent i n advance t h a t d e s c r i p t i v e i n v e n t o r i e s , arranged i n a l p h a b e t i c a l order, o r a c c o r d i n g t o some other i n t e r n a l r a t i o n a l e , would not o f f e r c l u e s t o the s e l e c t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s i n t o t ypes. I t was t h e r e - .. f o r e necessary i n each category to seek out g u i d e l i n e s f o r the s e l e c t i o n of v a r i a b l e s from t h a t category which combine a p p r o p r i a t e l y w i t h v a r i a b l e s from the other dimensions o f p r a c t i c e . 59 The content dimension of a d u l t education p r a c t i c e s Over a p e r i o d o f almost 4-0 years d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d i e s o f the content dimen- s i o n o f a d u l t education programs have a l t e r n a t e d between g e n e r a l i z e d c r i t i q u e s o f l a r g e programming areas, and d e s c r i p t i v e r e p o r t s of s p e c i f i c programs. For example the 1978 Canadian anthology, "Coming of Age" (Kidd & Selman) d e s c r i b e d 20 p a r t i c u l a r programs. The 1970 A.E.A. Handbook (Smith, Aker, & Kidd) c r i t i q u e d e i g h t l a r g e programming areas. Johnstone and R i v e r a ' s 1965 study r e p o r t e d on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n courses w i t h 6 l d i f f e r e n t types of s u b j e c t matter. The i960 A.E.A. Handbook (Knowles) discussed f o u r t e e n broad programming areas, w h i l e the 1948 Handbook ( E l y ) l i s t e d 32 s p e c i f i c program d e s c r i p t i o n s . But n e i t h e r the s h o r t - l i s t nor l o n g - l i s t approach to d e p i c t i n g the range of programming content has been wholly s u c c e s s f u l because of methodological weak- ness. This weakness stemmed not from the f l u c t u a t i o n . o f focus between d e s c r i p - t i o n s a t a g e n e r a l i z e d and a t a s p e c i f i c l e v e l , but from a m b i g u i t i e s i n the terms used to guide s e l e c t i o n o f d a t a . I n the 1970 A.E.A. Handbook f o r example, one chapter e n t i t l e d "Curriculum and Content" i n f a c t compared and c o n t r a s t e d not these two terms, but the terms c u r r i c u l u m and program (Axford: 397»398) l e a v i n g unresolved the s e v e r a l uses of the term "content". C a r e f u l a n a l y s i s of the content range a v a i l a b l e to an a d u l t l e a r n e r r e q u i r e s terminology on a t l e a s t three l e v e l s o f g e n e r a l i t y : the a c t i v i t y l e v e l , the i n s t i - t u t i o n a l l e v e l , and the community l e v e l . D i c k i n s o n (1979) suggests t h a t i f "program" and "course" are used to s i g n i f y n o n - c r e d e n t i a l l i n g and c r e d e n t i a l l i n g a c t i v i t i e s r e s p e c t i v e l y ^ then "curriculum" may be used a t the i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e v e l to s i g n i f y the f u l l range of e d u c a t i o n a l o f f e r i n g s o f t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n i n c l u d i n g both i t s programs and courses. I n accordance w i t h these d i s t i n c t i o n s , "course content" r e f e r s t o a c r e d e n t i a l l i n g process i n which the range of what i s l e a r n e d w i l l be more o r l e s s o b l i g a t o r y i n order t o standardize the s i g n i f i - cance o f the c e r t i f i c a t i o n ; by the same token "program content" r e f e r s to a l e s s 60 f o r m a l i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y not aimed a t c e r t i f i c a t i o n i n which the range o f what i s l e a r n e d i s more o r l e s s o p t i o n a l and dependent upon n e g o t i a t i o n between the agent and l e a r n i n g group. "Content a r e a " may a l s o denote a p o r t i o n of knowledge s y s t e m a t i c a l l y s t o r e d i n the d i s c i p l i n e s , which changes only as f a s t as the a r t s and sciences themselves are r e s t r u c t u r e d . In marked c o n t r a s t both "course content" and "program content" r e f e r to p a r t i c u l a r c o n f i g u r a t i o n s o f knowledge drawn together f o r e d u c a t i o n a l purposes around a theme, i s s u e o r problem, and these may change very r a p i d l y i n response t o changing course o r program g o a l s . What remains to be c l a r i f i e d are the r e l a t i o n s among these three uses of the term "content": i ) the content dimension o f p u r i f i e d types of education; i i ) content areas o f academic d i s c i p l i n e s ; and i i i ) the c u r r i c u l u m content of a c t u a l programs and courses. These r e l a t i o n s h i p s are i l l u s t r a t e d i n Fi g u r e 1 which i l l u s t r a t e s how a program o f l o c a l h i s t o r y i s being developed. "PURIFIED TYPES" OF .EDUCATIONAL CONTENT 1. T e c h n i c a l 2 . I n t e r p e r s o n a l 3. S e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g 4. S o c i a l a c t i v i s t ACTUAL PROGRAMMING . CONTENTS Goal; To s t i m u l a t e awareness of the h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i - f i c a n c e of l o c a l b l d g s . O b j e c t i v e s : i - to develop a sense o f l o c a l i d e n t i t y i i - i i i - to s t i m u l a t e w i l l i n g n e s s to pressure gov'ts to , preserve h e r i t a g e b l d g s . i v - L e arning t a s k s : 7- l a r g e r h i s t o r i c a l context o f l o c a l events DISCIPLINE . CONTENTS A r t s : Sciences:. P h y s i c a l : S o c i a l : , -H i s t o r y l F i g . l : Three Uses o f the Term " C o n t e n t s " z i n Education 61 The general g o a l shown i n the i l l u s t r a t i o n i s to s t i m u l a t e awareness of the h i s t o r i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f l o c a l b u i l d i n g s . So the background i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l come from h i s t o r y . But how t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s to be handled depends on the intended e d u c a t i o n a l outcomes. Program p a r t i c i p a n t s are not going to use the i n f o r m a t i o n to pass a c i t i z e n s h i p t e s t so i t i s not the i n f o r m a t i o n r e c a l l of t e c h n i c a l p r a c t i c e t h a t i s intended. The general goal of "awareness" i s a f i r s t l e v e l outcome of the a f f e c t i v e domain of o b j e c t i v e s developed by Krathwol, Bloom and Masia (1964). The s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e "to develop a sense of l o c a l i d e n t i t y " as an a f f e c t i v e o b j e c t i v e belongs to the s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g type of p r a c t i c e dev- eloped i n t h i s taxonomy because i t d e a l s i n p e r s o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t meanings of a e s t h e t i c o b j e c t s . Yet a f u r t h e r course o b j e c t i v e "to develop a w i l l i n g n e s s to pressure governments f o r a c t i o n " would c l a s s i f y as a h i g h e r l e v e l outcome of the a f f e c t i v e domain and belongs i n the " s o c i a l a c t i v i s t " type of p r a c t i c e of the taxonomy because i t seeks to i n f l u e n c e d e c i s i o n s which have been made i n the p a s t - ( i n t h i s case to n e g l e c t h i s t o r i c a l b u i l d i n g s ) , to reverse t h a t d e c i s i o n and i n s t e a d to get some appropriate a c t i o n from the government bodies concerned.' The s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the c u r r i c u l u m developer i s . t h a t because these o b j e c t i v e s belong to d i f f e r e n t types of p r a c t i c e they w i l l n e c e s s i t a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f - f e r e n t methodologies. "Awareness" r e q u i r e s only a m i l d i n t e r e s t from the l e a r n e r and supports what i s e s s e n t i a l l y a c o g n i t i v e o b j e c t i v e ; " w i l l i n g n e s s to pressure governments" r e q u i r e s commitment and p e r s i s t e n c e and these only a r i s e i n a group when i t becomes u n i t e d by a c o n v i c t i o n t h a t something which matters to them i s not going to happen unless they a c t together. I n t h a t sense the l a t t e r o b j e c t - i v e i s a community development o b j e c t i v e . I t becomes evident then t h a t the knowledge systematized i n academic d i s c i p l i n e s and the content dimension of types of p r a c t i c e are both drawn upon to weave the p a r t i c u l a r contents of a c t u a l programs and courses. The d i s c i p l i n e s systematize knowledge areas and t h e i r methodologies f o r d i s c o v e r y and v e r i f i c a t i o n ; the types o f p r a c t i c e 62 systematize e d u c a t i o n a l goals of a d u l t s and the methodologies both f o r moving toward those g o a l s , and f o r e v a l u a t i n g the degree o f achievement a t t a i n e d . J u s t as there may e x i s t both d i r e c t , simple r e l a t i o n s between the contents of academic d i s c i p l i n e s and course contents, o r t a n g e n t i a l , compound r e l a t i o n s betwen them, so too there are s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s between the " p u r i f i e d types" o f content (those v a r i a b l e s o f the content dimension which c h a r a c t e r i z e each type o f p r a c t i c e ) and the a c t u a l contents o f p a r t i c u l a r programs. F i r s t l y , there may e x i s t a simple 1:1 r e l a t i o n between the a c t u a l content o f a given program and the form o f p r a c t i c e used to develop i t . For example, pro-- grams i n mathematics, grammar, darkroom photography, square dance, t y p i n g and t e l e - v i s i o n repair,-may a l l be t r e a t e d as s t r a i g h t t e c h n i c a l competencies',' and d e v e l - oped by i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques. Parent e f f e c t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g , marriage e n r i c h - ment, and s e n s i t i v i t y t r a i n i n g f o r nurses may a l l be t r e a t e d as s t r a i g h t i n t e r - personal r e l a t i o n s and developed by i n t e r p e r s o n a l l a b o r a t o r y methods. Amateur t h e a t r e , music a p p r e c i a t i o n , the democratic t r a d i t i o n , medical e t h i c s , a r c h i t e c - ture f o r human communities, and the pagan r e l i g i o n s o f Europe may a l l be t r e a t e d as education f o r i n t r i n s i c enjoyment and developed by the complementary methods of i m p r e s s i o n - r e f l e c t i o n . And programs i n community h e a l t h resources, s e r v i c e s f o r the e l d e r l y , parent v o l u n t e e r s i n scho o l , and s t a r t i n g your own food co-operative may a l l emerge from u n s a t i s f a c t o r y l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s and l e a d t o expansion o f c i t i - zen i n f l u e n c e i n l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s as i s t y p i c a l o f s o c i a l a c t i v i s t e d u c a t i o n . Secondly, program contents may combine two o r more o f the f o u r b a s i c types of p r a c t i c e . For example, consumer education may combine t e c h n i c a l and a c t i v i s t education. A d u l t b a s i c education may combine t e c h n i c a l and i n t e r p e r s o n a l educa- t i o n . Management t r a i n i n g may combine t e c h n i c a l and i n t e r p e r s o n a l education. Women's s t u d i e s may combine t e c h n i c a l , i n t e r p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l a c t i v i s t e d u c a t i o n . Programs on aging may combine i n t e r p e r s o n a l , s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g and r e c e n t l y , s o c i a l a c t i v i s t e d u c a t i o n . When these combinations occur, d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between the 63 v a r i o u s goals as t y p i c a l o f .one o r the other type o f p r a c t i c e i s u s e f u l as a guide t o . s e l e c t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e methods and techniques. L a s t l y , programs with the same name may be t r e a t e d as e i t h e r one type o f p r a c t i c e o r another depending upon the e d u c a t i o n a l purposes t h a t the sponsor- i n g i n s t i t u t i o n espouses. For example, home and f a m i l y l i f e education may be t r e a t e d as t e c h n i c a l (household s k i l l s ) o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l ( c h i l d care) education. Higher education may be t r e a t e d as t e c h n i c a l ( c r e d e n t i a l l i n g ) , o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g ( p l e a s u r e ) , o r s o c i a l a c t i v i s t (environmental s t u d i e s ) education. I n t e r c u l t u r a l education may be s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g (personal enrichment) o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l (pre- j u d i c e r e d u c t i o n ) education. Thus content combinations as they are assembled f o r a c t u a l programs may draw on p u r i f i e d types o f content i n three d i f f e r e n t ways. The l a t e s t A.E.A.- U.S.A. Handbook to d e a l w i t h a d u l t education contents (Boone, Shearon, White, and A s s o c i a t e s , 1 9 8 0 ) i s based on a c t u a l program contents as they have been arranged f o r s p e c i a l groupings o f a d u l t l e a r n e r s . Boone says o f t h i s approach t h a t i t produces " f i v e thematic categories...[which] are not t i d y , exhaustive, o r mutually e x c l u s i v e " ( 4 ) . In c o n t r a s t , the p u r i f i e d types o f content are simple, p r e c i s e , comprehensive, mutually e x c l u s i v e ; and i t i s these which are arraye d i n the taxonomic matrix to represent the content dimension o f p r a c t i c e . The next dimension o f p r a c t i c e to be examined i s the l a r g e s t and most com- p l e x — t h a t o f e d u c a t i o n a l methodology. The methodology dimension o f a d u l t education p r a c t i c e s This dimension i n c l u d e s the s e l e c t i o n o f methods, a d e c i s i o n c e n t r a l to program planning, and the s e l e c t i o n o f techniques, a d e c i s i o n c e n t r a l t o the s t r u c t u r i n g o f l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . By i m p l i c a t i o n i t a l s o i n c l u d e s some r e f e r - ence t o the f a c i l i t a t o r ' s involvement i n the l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y —. ibut from the outset o f t h i s study e x p l i c i t treatment o f agent a c t i v i t i e s , such as 64 i ) c o u n s e l l i n g , i i ) a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i i i ) program planning, i v ) de s i g n i n g , v) managing, or v i ) e v a l u a t i n g o f a c t i v i t i e s , has had to be excluded or i t would expand each type o f p r a c t i c e by a t l e a s t s i x d i f f e r e n t agent r o l e s . The method- ology category a l s o excludes s p e c i f i c reference to adaptation of media devices and m a t e r i a l s s i n c e these are dependent upon the p a r t i c u l a r g o a l s , contents, techniques, and l e a r n e r s i n v o l v e d ; and are decided upon by the designer manager of the l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y . The problem o f shopping l i s t d e s c r i p t i o n s t h a t was evident i n reviews o f program contents a r i s e s again i n the how-to d e s c r i p t i o n s o f planning programs and designing managing l e a r n i n g groups - which represent the agency and a c t i v i t y l e v e l s of a d u l t education r e s p e c t i v e l y . The main elements of the program p l a n - ning sequence, which are: 1) needs a n a l y s i s o f a c o n s t i t u e n c y , 2) goal s e t t i n g , 3) program design i n c l u d i n g method s e l e c t i o n and s e l e c t i o n o f complementary a d m i n i s t r a t i v e components, 4) program management, and 5) program e v a l u a t i o n , are g e n e r a l l y t r e a t e d as though the process i s u n i v e r s a l l y a p p l i c a b l e . C y r i l Houle (1972:47) proposes seven stages of a "fundamental system" f o r e d u c a t i o n a l planning which he i l l u s t r a t e s w i t h widely d i s p a r a t e cases. While i t may be p o s s i b l e t h a t he has i d e n t i f i e d the p r o t o t y p i c a l elements of e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g and t h a t h i s system can be s t r e t c h e d to accomodate even the e c c e n t r i c phenomena o f s o c i a l a c t i v i s t education, so t h a t i t comprises the whole f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e — t h i s very comprehensiveness presents a new problem. The problem i s how to d i f f e r e n t i a t e the methodologies employed i n b a s i c types of p r a c t i c e w i t h a s t a t e - ment so g e n e r a l i z e d t h a t i t subsumes a l l types o f p r a c t i c e . Houle h i m s e l f says of h i s fundamental system t h a t i t s very breadth and comprehensiveness may make i t too elaborate f o r easy and ready use (op. c i t . : 224). I t s usefulness i n charac- t e r i z i n g the f i e l d as a whole w i l l be discussed f o l l o w i n g the f o u r types, under "Common C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a l l A d u l t Education P r a c t i c e s " . Apps (1979) denies t h a t Houle's system represents the f i e l d , : c l a s s i n g t h i s . 65 approach w i t h T y l e r as a s p e c i a l form o f ed u c a t i o n a l engineering which moves by- steps toward b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s based on l e a r n e r s ' needs. Apps c o n t r a s t s t h i s approach both w i t h F r e i r e ' s s o c i a l r e v o l u t i o n a r y approach to planning education, and w i t h the humanity-enhancing processes of l i b e r a l education as an approach to edu c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g . This study recognizes a l l these three — the i n s t r u c t i o n a l approach, the s o c i a l experiment, and the l i b e r a l v a l u e s - c l a r i f i c a t i o n approach to education — and a l s o acknowledges a f o u r t h b a s i c methodology i n the i n t e r p e r s o n a l l a b o r a t o r y approach. These f o u r approaches t o the s e l e c t i o n o f methods and techniques are recognized as d i s c r i m i n a t o r s between types, w h i l e Houle's funda- mental system o f planning i s t r e a t e d as more o r l e s s common to a l l types o f ed u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . Houle a l s o provided a s e t | o f eleven s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s (shown i n Table 2 ) i n which e d u c a t i o n a l programs may be planned. While these give some i n d i c a t i o n o f the v a r i e t y o f s o c i a l dynamics which may be a t work i n the planning s i t u a t i o n , and thereby suggest some agent f u n c t i o n s i n each, the c a t e g o r i e s do not i n any way i n f l u e n c e the e s s e n t i a l dependence o f technique and method s e l e c t i o n upon the type M A J O R CATEGORIES OF EDUCATIONAL DESIGN SITUATIONS INDIVIDUAL C - l An individual designs an activity for himself C-2 An individual or a group designs an activity for another in- dividual GROUP C-3 A group (with or without a continuing leader) designs an activity for itself C-4 A teacher or group of teachers designs an activity for, and > often with, a group of students C-5 A committee designs an acuvity for a larger group C-6 Two or more groups design an activity which will enhance their combined programs of service INSTITUTION C-7 A new institution is designed C-8 An institution designs an activity in a new format C-9 An institution designs a new activity in an established format C-10 Two or more institutions design an acuvity which will en- hance their combined programs of service MASS C - l 1 A n individual, group, or institution designs an activity for a .mass audience :—' — '• o f l e a r n i n g outcome being planned f o r p a r t i c u l a r - l e a r n e r s ^ " T a b l e 2: (Houle, 1972:44) E s s e n t i a l l y methods are i n s t i t u t i o n a l formats f o r c o n t a c t i n g l e a r n e r s . 66 They mediate between c l i e n t s , general g o a l s , and resources; whereas techniques, being s t r u c t u r e d a c t i v i t i e s f o r engaging the l e a r n e r w i t h a l e a r n i n g task, medi- ate between c l i e n t s , s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s , and p a r t i c u l a r contents. Methods were described by Verner and Booth i n 1964 as the ways i n which the l e a r n e r s are organized i n order to conduct the e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . They were j o i n e d by other w r i t e r s i n c l a s s i f y i n g correspondence, a p p r e n t i c e s h i p and programmed i n s t r u c t i o n as " i n d i v i d u a l methods", and courses, d i s c u s s i o n groups, workshops, c l i n i c s , and conferences as "group methods". But they were v i r t u a l l y the o n l y "-biles to define a t h i r d category of methods i n which community d e v e l - opment i s the only item. Whereas i n d i v i d u a l and group methods are ways i n which l e a r n e r s are organized to conduct e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , to say so of community development would be to use the goal to reach the means. Community development i s a process i n which e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y i n t e r s e c t s w i t h the p o l i - t i c a l , c u l t u r a l and economic a c t i v i t y o f a s o c i e t y . Such a d u l t programming i s a means to an end which l i e s beyond the e d u c a t i o n a l event i t s e l f i n both place and time. So community development i s not c a t e g o r i z e d i n t h i s study as an e d u c a t i o n a l method, but a goal of human community toward which e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s c o n t r i b u t e . However, even r e v i e w i n g only those a d u l t education methods f o r i n d i v i d u a l s and f o r groups i s s t i l l a matter of t r y i n g to i n t u i t the l a y o u t of the f o r e s t by reading a l i s t o f the names of each t r e e . There i s no conceptual s t r u c t u r e by which one may a r r a y methods w i t h contents, w i t h techniques, w i t h c l i e n t e l e s , w i t h purposes. No overview b r i n g s them a l l together i n order to understand the f i e l d as a whole and i n i t s s u b f i e l d s . Techniques have sometimes been c l a s s i f i e d l i k e methods by the s o c i a l u n i t of a p p l i c a t i o n . Bagford, Jones, and Wallen (1976) d i v i d e d techniques i n t o s t r a - t e g i e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n , f o r s m a l l groups and f o r l a r g e groups, but s t i l l found i t necessary to i n c l u d e a category of " s p e c i a l use" s t r a t e g i e s . The 6 ? " s p e c i a l use" category seems to be an i n d i r e c t reference to l e a r n i n g outcomes which Verner and Booth used t o distinguish-between techniques f o r a c q u i r i n g ' knowledge o r s k i l l s , and techniques f o r a p p l y i n g knowledge. But some element of knowledge i s pervasive i n a l l l e a r n i n g so i t does not d i s t i n g u i s h s u b - f i e l d s , and " s k i l l s " i s such a heterogeneous category i t can subsume par e n t i n g , c a r r e p a i r , and s u c c e s s f u l f i n a n c i a l investment, the l e a r n i n g o f which would c l e a r l y n e c e s s i t a t e d i f f e r e n t s o r t s o f techniques. To compare techniques i n d e t a i l Verner 'and---Booth used a p a s s i v e - a c t i v e c o n t r a s t Similar to the a c q u i s i t i o n - a p p l i c a t i o n dichotomy)arrayed a g a i n s t degrees o f a b s t r a c t i o n . But of the 25 c a t e g o r i e s thus created s t r u c t u r a l l y , only 13 h e l d examples; and of the 12 remaining, f i v e were designated " l o g i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e " (Verner ,1962:22). A taxon- omy w i t h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s which are l o g i c a l l y impossible would seem to be very awkwardly s t r u c t u r e d and of l i m i t e d u t i l i t y . However l a c k i n g t h i s s o r t of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n may be, some authors knowledg- able on the subj e c t o f e d u c a t i o n a l techniques attempted no o r g a n i z a t i o n o f them a t a l l beyond a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r i n g . Bergevin, M o r r i s , and Smith (19^3) f o r example l i s t f o u r t e e n techniques t h i s way d i s c u s s i n g each a u t h o r i t a t i v e l y i n c l u d i n g i n i t s d e s c r i p t i o n a c h e c k l i s t o f questions f o r d e c i d i n g whether or not to use i t , and an e v a l u a t i o n instrument to f o l l o w i t s implementation. The instruments h e l p t i e the techniques to intended outcomes and to e v a l u a t i o n p r a c t i c e s . But since no s t r u c t u r e of e i t h e r outcomes o r e v a l u a t i o n p r a c t i c e s i s o f f e r e d there i s l i t t l e advance i n s y s t e m a t i z a t i o n . Knowles (1970:292,293) prepared one b i b l i o g r a p h y on techniques which he attempted to arrange i n a typology apparently drawn up according to the va r i o u s management a b i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d o f the a g e n t - f a c i l i t a t o r . The 40 te c h - niques l i s t e d were grouped under the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of: p r e s e n t a t i o n techniques, audience p a r t i c i p a t i o n techniques f o r l a r g e groups, d i s c u s s i o n techniques f o r s m a l l groups, s i m u l a t i o n techniques, T-group s e n s i t i v i t y t r a i n i n g , non-verbal 68 e x e r c i s e s , and s k i l l - p r a c t i c e e x e r c i s e s , d r i l l , and coaching. .While t h i s l i s t communicates the scope of techniques i t does not i d e n t i f y t h e i r place i n r e l a - t i o n to other dimensions o f p r a c t i c e . Knowles d i d create (1970:294) a u s e f u l inventory o f techniques a l i g n e d w i t h s i x types o f behavioural outcome: know- ledge, understanding, s k i l l s , a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s , and i n t e r e s t s . At the l e v e l o f m i c r o - i n s t r u c t i o n a l outcomes t h i s matching o f appropriate techniques has some p r a c t i c a l v a l u e . But s i n c e l e a r n i n g outcomes l i k e knowledge, s k i l l , and a t t i t u d e o f t e n appear together i n programs o f very d i f f e r e n t types l i k e garden- i n g , renaissance v o c a l music, and c i v i l l i b e r t i e s a c t i v i s m , an a r r a y o f t e c h n i - ques by m i c r o - l e a r n i n g outcomes i s not p r a c t i c a l f o r the t a s k of i d e n t i f y i n g complex types of a d u l t education p r a c t i c e . The key to a n a l y z i n g the methodology dimension i s t h a t methods and t e c h n i - ques o f l e a r n i n g a l i g n w i t h b a s i c kinds o f l e a r n i n g outcomes—and since these have been co n c e p t u a l i z e d already through the g o a l - f u n c t i o n d e f i n i t i o n s and the u n i f i e d types o f content, s e l e c t i o n s can be made from t h i s methodology dimen- s i o n to a l i g n a p p r o p r i a t e l y w i t h each type o f p r a c t i c e . Methods and techniques i can be and o f t e n are a p p l i e d u n s u c c e s s f u l l y toward goals f o r which they are i n e f - f e c t u a l . But a matrix headed w i t h a conceptual s t r u c t u r e o f h i g h l y d i f f e r e n - t i a t e d types can separate methods and techniques i n t o groups according to a c r i - t e r i o n o f appropriateness w i t h regard t o the e s s e n t i a l e d u c a t i o n a l goal o f the type o f p r a c t i c e . C l o s e l y a l l i e d to the methodology dimension i s the b a s i s o f e v a l u a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l experiences. This dimension i s examined next. The e v a l u a t i o n dimension o f a d u l t education p r a c t i c e s There i s a co n s i d e r a b l e body o f l i t e r a t u r e on a c t i v i t i e s such as-: t e s t i n g , e s t i m a t i n g , p r e d i c t i n g , a s s e s s i n g achievement, e v a l u a t i n g , judging, and d e c i s i o n - making. These a c t i v i t i e s are undertaken w i t h an eye to c r i t e r i a l i k e o b j e c t i - v i t y , p r a c t i c a l i t y , r e l i a b i l i t y , v a l i d i t y and a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . I n the l a s t 20 69 years t h i s dimension of e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e has developed a t an unprecedented r a t e . I t should not be s u r p r i s i n g t h e r e f o r e t h a t conceptual c o n s o l i d a t i o n of t h i s area i s incomplete and t h a t p r a c t i t i o n e r a p p l i c a t i o n o f the s k i l l s i n v o l v e d i s s t i l l l e s s than might be d e s i r a b l e . This present i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l not d e a l w i t h data c o l l e c t i o n which i s used to t e s t hypotheses. That i s the f u n c t i o n o f research, performed by the academic re s e a r c h e r . Instead, i t explores the f u n c t i o n o f data c o l l e c t i o n before, d u r i n g and f o l l o w i n g an e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , which i s done f o r decision-making regard- i n g f u t u r e p r i o r i t i e s and g u i d e l i n e s , and f o r a c c o u n t a b i l i t y on the p a r t of the p r a c t i t i o n e r w i t h r e s p e c t to the c r i t e r i a p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d f o r a program j u s t completed. Any conceptual framework.of. e v a l u a t i o n . i s l i k e l y t o i n c l u d e e i g h t elements E v a l u a t i o n may focus a t the l e v e l o f i n d i v i d u a l s , programs o r i n s t i t u t i o n s , on such o b j e c t s as personnel, l e a r n e r s , m a t e r i a l s , c l i m a t e s , techniques, i d e a s , f a c i l i t i e s , and on the e v a l u a t i o n s themselves. I t s temporal p e r s p e c t i v e may be a n t i c i p a t o r y , formative, summative, o r f o l l o w - u p . I t s purpose may be f o r d e c i - sion-making or f o r a c c o u n t a b i l i t y . E v a l u a t i o n may take place i n a n a t u r a l or c o n t r o l l e d - s t i m u l i s e t t i n g . The agents who conduct the e v a l u a t i o n may be i n t e r - n a l to the e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , o r e x t e r n a l to i t . They may c o l l e c t d e s c r i p t i v e , and judgmental data, and even a t the program o r i n - s t i t u t i o n l e v e l use norm-referenced and r e l a t i v e standards,, o r c r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d , absolute standards. There are many v e r s i o n s of the procedural sequence which e v a l u a t i o n i n v o l v e Stuffiebeam (1975:11) d i v i d e s the sequence i n t o "three b a s i c stages" f o r 1) d e l i n e a t i n g , 2) o b t a i n i n g , and 3) a p p l y i n g e v a l u a t i v e d a t a . These can be enlarged upon w i t h a n i n e - s t e p sequence t h a t d e t a i l s the procedure. ..For example the f i r s t b a s i c stage o f d e l i n e a t i n g the k i n d o f data to be sought can be viewed as i n v o l v i n g the f o l l o w i n g three steps j 7 0 1. T r a n s l a t e v a l u e s i n t o g o a l s : D e c i s i o n s are not inherent i n data; d e c i s i o n s are taken about data on the b a s i s o f some poi n t o f reference which stands outside the d a t a . For educators those p o i n t s of reference are values they h o l d r e g a r d i n g p e o p l e / l e a r n i n g / s o c i e t y / l i f e / d e a t h / and the u n i v e r s e , values which impinge on e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e and i n some sense become goals e i t h e r as l e a r n i n g outcomes f o r the student, o r as process g u i d e l i n e s f o r the teacher. 2. O p e r a t i o n a l i z e goals i n t o o b j e c t i v e s : How w i l l the l e a r n e r know he under- stands the concept o f e v o l u t i o n , o r how w i l l the teacher know he i s p r o v i d - i n g freedom to l e a r n unless the general goals are analyzed i n t o observable i n d i c a t o r s ? O b j e c t i v e s are a way of s t a t i n g those e x t e r n a l l y observable i n d i c a t o r s . 3 « Set achievement standards f o r o b j e c t i v e s : K i b l e r ' s " b e h a v i o r a l o b j e c t i v e s " i n c l u d e standards as pa r t o f -their d e f i n i t i o n . D i c k i n s o n ( l 9 7 3 s 5 l ) however .: p o i n t s out t h a t f o r some purposes an "inf o r m a t i o n o b j e c t i v e " which contains • only the a c t i o n verb and the product i s s u f f i c i e n t . Standards w i l l s p e c i f y which a t t r i b u t e s are necessary f o r the a c t i o n o r product to be necessary f o r the a c t i o n o r product to be considered as f u l f i l l i n g the o b j e c t i v e . The second basic-phase of o b t a i n i n g data, which i s dominated by t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , can be subdivided i n t o the f o l l o w i n g three steps: 4: Develop an instrument: An instrument i s a w r i t t e n s e t of ob s e r v a t i o n p o i n t s o r items which have been cons t r u c t e d to provide v a l i d and r e l i a b l e evidence of the degree to which the o b j e c t i v e has been met. Instruments i n c l u d e con- t e n t t e s t s , i n t e r v i e w schedules, q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , o p i n i o n a i r e s , and observa- t i o n sheets f o r r a t i n g motor s k i l l s , i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s , o r procedural s i m u l a t i o n s . 5• C o l l e c t data: Timing i s important since there may be observation p o i n t s such as expectations p r i o r to e n t r y , p r e - t e s t on o b j e c t i v e s p r i o r to t r e a t - merit-, r e t e n t i o n two days l a t e r , o r t r a n s f e r s i x weeks l a t e r , which must be t e s t e d on a p r e c i s e date. Of course, no data can be c o l l e c t e d without get- t i n g access to the subject p o p u l a t i o n by g a i n i n g clearance from a d m i n i s t r a - t o r s , i n s t r u c t o r s and the p a r t i c i p a n t s themselves. Completion o f the evalua- t i o n instruments may a l s o hinge on adeguate i n s t r u c t i o n s to the p a r t i c i p a n t s , o r t r a i n i n g f o r observers o r i n t e r v i e w e r s . 6. Analyze data: A c o l l e c t i o n o f b i t s o f i n f o r m a t i o n must be systematized o r organized i n t o summary statements o r formula t i o n s before i t can con v e n i e n t l y be used i n making judgments. Data may be "ey e b a l l e d " o r surveyed a t a glance f o r c e n t r a l tendencies, d i s t r i b u t i o n s and d e v i a t i o n s . With normative achieve- ment e v a l u a t i o n s the data may be s t a t i s t i c a l l y analyzed to determine mean, median and modal scores o r r a t i n g s , the standard d e v i a t i o n , o r the standard score and then reported i n terms of rank, p e r c e n t i l e standing o r s t a n i n e s . The f i n a l a n a l y z i n g phase may i n v o l v e a l l three o f the f o l l o w i n g s t e p s . ?. I n t e r p r e t r e s u l t s : This i s where the " v a l u i n g " takes p l a c e , where the r e s - u l t s of data a n a l y s i s are judged, and d e c i s i o n s are made reg a r d i n g the stan- dards, expectations o r c r i t e r i a which w i l l be s e t for; f u t u r e programs. This i s a l s o the phase where a c c o u n t a b i l i t y i s made w i t h respect to c r i t e r i a which were already s e t . ; 8. Report the c o n c l u s i o n s : Appropriate r e p o r t i n g may i n c l u d e s u p e r i o r s o r those who commissioned the e v a l u a t i o n , f e l l o w s t a f f , p a r t i c i p a n t l e a r n e r s , poten- t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s , the general p u b l i c . 9. . A u d i t the e v a l u a t i o n : This i s sometimes c a l l e d the meta-evaluation, o r judgment made about the process o f the primary e v a l u a t i o n , and completes a common procedural sequence which t y p i f i e s a d u l t education g e n e r a l l y . "The three main l e v e l s o f e v a l u a t i o n are the i n d i v i d u a l , the program, and the i n s t i t u t i o n . Since the procedural sequence-provides no d i s c r i m i n a t o r s between types o f p r a c t i c e i t may be t h a t the l e v e l s o f aggregation a t which e v a l u a t i o n 7 2 takes place w i l l o f f e r some cl u e to d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between typ e s . I t i s p o s s i b l e to run an a f f e c t assessment on i n s t i t u t i o n s t o evaluate the impact t h a t they are having on c l i e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s and values w i t h regard to l e a r n i n g . The gen- e r a l approach would seem to apply throughout the f i e l d , and any s p e c i a l adapta- t i o n s which may develop between types of p r a c t i c e are not yet i n evidence. So t h i s l e v e l does not seem t o o f f e r type d i s c r i m i n a t o r s . S i m i l a r l y w i t h program e v a l u a t i o n , where Stufflebeam (1975) o f f e r e d an e x c e l l e n t model t h a t brought formative and summative p e r s p e c t i v e s t o bear on f o u r key v a r i a b l e s of program: go a l , design, process and product outcomes. The approach i s so s u c c e s s f u l as a comprehensive statement t h a t once again what r e s u l t s are p r i n c i p l e s which seem to be f i e l d - p e r v a s i v e r a t h e r than t y p e - d i s c r i m i n a t o r s . A great advance was made i n the e v a l u a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l achievement through the development o f be h a v i o u r a l o r performance o b j e c t i v e s . But they are best s u i t e d to expressing c l o s e d , p r e c i s e l y defined,, e x t e r n a l l y observable changes i n behav- i o u r ; not a l l l e a r n i n g i s captured by t h e i r " o b j e c t i v e " i n d i c a t o r s . In the cases o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l , s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g , and s o c i a l a c t i v i s t outcomes, the s u b j e c t i v e sense o f having changed may be a t l e a s t as s i g n i f i c a n t as o b j e c t i v e measures of change. Therefore d i s c r i m i n a t i n g among types o f ed u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e through the e v a l u a t i o n dimension i n v o l v e s p r i m a r i l y examining the r e l a t i v e emphasis t h a t i s placed on o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e measures o f l e a r n e r achievement. In the c l i e n t e l e dimension which f o l l o w s d i s c r i m i n a t o r s are sought among l e a r n e r charac- t e r i s t i c s which l e a d to understanding o f l e a r n e r s e l e c t i o n o f typ e - g o a l s . The c l i e n t e l e dimension of a d u l t education p r a c t i c e s D i s c r i m i n a t i n g among types o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e through the c l i e n t e l e dimension should r e v e a l what k i n d o f l e a r n e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l l e a d l e a r n e r s to s e l e c t one type o f developmental d i r e c t i o n r a t h e r than another. L i t e r a t u r e on the a d u l t l e a r n e r tends to c l u s t e r i n t o themes which o v e r l a p . Forced apart 73 these clusters.would be: a) general theories of adult personality; b) psycho- social theories of aging; c) theories of adult learning; and d) research related to participation i n educational a c t i v i t i e s . General theories of adult personality: Among the psychologists most frequently quoted by adult educators are: Allport (1955). Erikson (l950|1968), Maslow (I954jl968), and Rogers (1951>1961). While the works of these authors may t e l l us something about the general dyna- mics of the adult personality, the developments they describe seem to occur i n highly idiosyncratic patterns and at best offer educators a back-drop to other elements more significant for educational planning and design. Some other personality researchers focus on behavioral motivators. Murray (1953), Atkinson (1966), and McClelland (1968) have explored the need for achievement and contrasted i t with a need for a f f i l i a t i o n . However, these and other motiv- ators lik e prestige, power, and curiousity probably t e l l us at least as much about job-related and social or community-related activity as they do about educational a c t i v i t y . Where such generalized motivators most productively overlap with education research i s more l i k e l y to be in the area of learning behaviours and the front-line view from the classroom, than i n the long perspective needed to see this f i e l d of practice as a whole domain and i n i t s subfields. Therefore as a key to f i e l d overview of the clienteles of adult education, personality theory i s not very useful. 74 Psycho-social theories of aging: Psycho-social lifespan research begun i n 1935 with the work of Charlotte Buhler has been contributed to through the creative or consolidative works of Overstreet (1949), Peck (1956), McClusky (1964), Neugarten (I968jl976), Havighurst (1972), Ilevinson (1974), Knox (1977). and McCoy(l977) among others. Undoubtedly lifespan theory has the potential to guide many aspects of social practice, but It becomes most useful to educators as suggested by Huberman (1973) when the rough outlines of developmental stages spin-off well defined developmental tasks which are amenable to an educational response. This translation into educational terms of reference rarely takes place, with the notable exception of Vivian McCoy's (1977) work which i s included in Appendix A . Beyond these particular implications the educator i s l e f t to make sketchy assumptions about the impact of lifespan theory on the clientele component of his f i e l d of practice. Theories of adult learning: The work of learning theorists like Hull (1943), Hebb (1949), Skinner (1953; 1958), Brunner (l96l), Gagne (1965)1 Bandura (1965), and Ausubel (1968) i s largely regarded as t e l l i n g us more about how to proceed toward certain kinds of learning outcomes than how to engage with adult learners as people. Those who emphasize the human relationship i n learning, Rogers (196?),. and Knowles (19?0;1973)» i n particular, do not seem to see sub-types among adult learners and therefore dp not offer any guide to differentiations i n the array of clienteles i n the f i e l d . The concepts of " f l u i d " and "crystalized M intelligence have given some insight into the learning behaviours of younger and older adults respectively (Horn .&. Cattell,1967) • A second distinction between adult learners on the basis of their motivations for learning, and therefore one would infer i n the learning behaviours, was made by Cyr i l Houle i n l 9 6 l . He claimed that very active adult learners seemed to have motivations with an emphasis on either external goals, or social a c t i v i t y , or 75 love of learning. A subsequent line of research was developed by Sheffield (1964) and Burgess ( l97 l )« Boshier (1971;1973;1977)experimented with the range of motivational orientations as six, then regrouped them into a life-space/ life-chance dichotomy aft e r the more general deficiency/growth dichotomy devel- oped by Maslow(l954). Not only do dichotomies of this sort seem to have predic- tive power for the kinds of external reward or internal satisfaction to which learners respond i n class, they also have been used to explain two phenomena of participation i n adult education. Participation research i n adult education: Patterns of participation can be studied at four different levels (the personal, i n s t i t u t i o n a l , community, or societal levels)^ and i n two different ways (either i n terms of rate or direction of participation). Rate of p a r t i c i - pation considers three phenomena: "either-or" (Does X participate or not, and i n either case, why?); "lifespan consistency" (Does X participate more or less con- tinuously or only sporadically, and i n either case, why?); and "completion/ drop-out" phenomena. Direction of participation refers to the types of subject matter and methods of relating to educative assistance f o r which people express a preference. Verner and Neylan (1966) established that extended duration of a course can contribute to drop-out. But Boshier's research with l i f e - s p a c e / l i f e - chance educational motivations provides a more complete picture when i t suggests that life-chancers are more susceptible to a condition of "incongruence" within themselves and with their educational environment and consequently tend more to drop-out i n the short run of a single course than life-spacers. Life-chancers also seek a condition of "homeostasis" or reduction of external stress and there- fore over a lifetime participate sporadically only as external conditions re- quire them to. Life-spacers i n contrast experience congruence and tend to com- plete i n the short run; and over a lifespan seek "heterostasis" or the unusual 76. and stimulating so they participate i n new a c t i v i t i e s on a regular basis. While participation rate studies examine differences between repeater- completer participants and sporadic-dropout participants, they do not compare participants with non-participants (McKinnon,1977:6). Furthermore, treatments of the "elther-or" phenomena include both those factors which provide an impetus toward participation and those which pose a barrier to i t . Pattyson (1961) noted the potential for the timing of a course by day-of-the-week to pose a barrier to participation, while Anderson and Niemi (1969) identified inappropriate (ies impersonal) forms of information communication to the lower-lower socio-economic group of clientele as a significant barrier to participation. Johnson and Rivera's exceptional 1965 survey which gathered data on nearly 25»000 adults provldedrigreat deal of impetus and barrier information and processed i t by means of 214 tables of bi#variate analysis. They reported that ZZ% of those Americans polled participated i n at least one educational activity that year, that age and schooling were the most significant independent variables, and that the av- erage participant was as l i k e l y to be female as male, was under 40, had hlghschool completion or better, an above average income, was married and had children, and was probably l i v i n g i n a suburb. They also reported that the most significant barriers identified were insufficient time, money and energy. But the study did not bring c l i e n t variables together frithother variables of practice i n complete oonfIgurations. K i l l e r (1967) accomodated both the impetus and barrier aspects - i n his force f i e l d analysis of participation, and McKinnon's advocacy of applying the adoption-of-innovations model to participation i n adult education offers at least the possibility of bringing impetus and barrier factors together i n a com- prehensive formula with real predictive power. None of the rate phenomena i n themselves provide the kind of f i e l d over- view sought i n this study unless they are tied to the directional component of participation mentioned earlier, i .e. j subject matter studied and method of 77 learning preferred. Johnstone and Rivera (1965) correlated each of seven factors separately with the type of subject matter studied: methods (56)1 institutions (64); sex, age, education level (80); l i f e cycle stage (94); and reasons or motives for participation (146). But at most only two factors at a time (eg. levels of education and types of community) were brought into correlation statements with a reduced array of subject matter (113). Johnstone and Rivera also presented evidence that younger persons* studies are more job-related and older persons' studies are less u t i l i t a r i a n . Educational gerontology continues to pursue Jthe details of educational interests over the lifespan as illustrated by McCoy's table of l i f e cycle tasks and continuing education responses which i s shown i n Appendix A . A l l such l i f e - span studies match the range of practices as dependent variable to learner l i f e - span as the independent variable. But to understand basic types of practice requires seeing learner characteristics as dependent variables which align with some type of practice as independent Variable because of i t s inherent develop- mental goal. It i s evident that large numbers df North Americans are engaged i n educa- tional a c t i v i t i e s and that central tendencies of this population are known. The driving and restraining forces at work on non-participants are also partially understood, and these forces have implications for the outreach service that i s required to enable participation. However this present study i s interested i n clientele factors which w i l l indicate a successful match between the learner and the developmental direction f a c i l i t a t e d by a type of educational practice. Complex correlations of participants' demographic/socio-economic/ecological/ personal/and situational characteristics with type of education have not been made. Johnstone and Rivera (1965) for example, brought one socio-economic factor (level of education) and one ecological factor (type of community) into correlation statements with an array of subject matters studied. But highly complex 78 correlations nay not be necessary. It may prove that situational characteristics are a more reliable indicator of goodness of f i t to educational direction than any other kind of clientele factor including the personal factors on which many parti- cipation studies have been based. This study assumes that since education i s a purposive, directional a c t i v i t y the essential variable i n educational activity i s goals - the broadly stated learning outcomes being pursued. This study also assumes that technical, interpersonal, self-actualizing, and social a c t i v i s t goals w i l l be chosen by people not primarily because of their age, income, or place of residence, but according to situational characteristics which make that type of goal a developmental priority for that learner at that time. It i s f e l t that contingency orientations, not personal orientations, w i l l affort reliable guide- lines to the practitioner for structuring educational environments that help 1 learners reach appropriate goals. Some support for this assumption that specific circumstances have a stronger correlation to actions than generalized personal orientations i s found i n the research of Apel (1966) where educators' attitudes were found to be more dependent upon their expectations regarding the effect of a specific change than upon any predisposition toward change in general (op. c i t : 124). The location dimension of adult education In 1947 a line of research and analysis was initiated by C y r i l Houle into the grouping of agencies i n which adult education a c t i v i t i e s take place. His four categories were based upon an examination of the original purposes for which the agencies had been created. These were adapted slightly and reported by Edmund de S. Brunner (1959t123) as shown i n Figure 2 . 79 1. Agencies developed p r i m a r i l y f o r the education o f a d u l t s such as u n i v e r s i t y and a g r i c u l t u r a l e xtension and correspondence s c h o o l s . 2. Agencies developed f o r the education o f c h i l d r e n and youth, such as p u b l i c schools, which out o f a sense of the need have developed programs o f a d u l t education& t h i s i n c l u d e s parent-teacher a s s o c i a t i o n s and c o l l e g e s . 3. I n s t i t u t i o n s developed to serve the the whole community i n s p e c i f i c ways which have expanded t h e i r o r i g i n a l pro- grams to in c l u d e a d u l t education,such as l i b r a r i e s , museums, and s o c i a l s e t t l e m e n t s . 4. Agencies and i n s t i t u t i o n s founded f o r noneducational purposes that have undertaken a d u l t education i n order to strengthen t h e i r major programs and to do t h e i r j o b b e t t e r . Among these are l a b o r unions, churches, coopera- t i v e s , business o r g a n i z a t i o n s and the agencies o f h e a l t h , welfare and r e c r e a t i o n . Figure 2 : Sponsors of a d u l t education (Brunner,1959:123) Knowles (,1964) d e l e t e d u n i v e r s i t i e s from a d u l t agencies and added p r o p r i e t a r y schools, and independent and r e s i d e n t i a l c e n t r e s . To "whole community" agencies he added government agencies, and h e a l t h and welfare agencies. To "noneducational" agencies he added the mass media and vo l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . Although these three authors seem to preserve f o u r c a t e g o r i e s as re c o g n i z a b l y the same, the c r i t e r i a f o r c a t e g o r i z a t i o n are never c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d . I f T - I I I i s to serve the whole community one would expect i t to be contras t e d by T-IV s e r v i n g a spe- c i a l segment as the c o n t r a s t o f a l i b r a r y and a lab o u r union would suggest ( i g n o r i n g f o r the moment t h a t only a sm a l l f r a c t i o n o f a community makes use o f i t s l i b r a r y ) . I f T - I I I serves the whole community then why d i d n ' t Knowles place mass media there? I f T - I I I i s ed u c a t i o n a l to c o n t r a s t T-IV as noneducational they why d i d Houle place s o c i a l settlements i n T-III? Moving away from the i n d i c a t o r o f o r i g i n a l purpose, three t y p o l o g i e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l sponsors were developed on the b a s i s o f dominance of the a d u l t edu- c a t i o n purpose. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t " i n s t i t u t i o n a l c l o u t " was the e s s e n t i a l 80 i n g r e d i e n t i n the o r i g i n a l - p u r p o s e t y p o l o g i e s ; a t any r a t e , dominance o f the a d u l t education f u n c t i o n became the e x p l i c i t i n d i c a t o r . Verner and Booth (1962) spoke of a d u l t education as: i ) the primary f u n c t i o n , i i ) an extension o f the primary f u n c t i o n , and i i i ) a means to achieve some noneducational f u n c t i o n . I n e f f e c t they c o l l a p s e d the o l d T - I I I (whole community i n s t i t u t i o n s ) and T-TV (other g o a l s ) i n t o t h i s t h i r d category — noneducational f u n c t i o n s . Schroeder (1970) r e t a i n e d f o u r c a t e g o r i e s based on the dominance o f the a d u l t education f u n c t i o n i n the sponsoring i n s t i t u t i o n suggesting t h a t i t c o u l d be: l ) the c e n t r a l f u n c t i o n , 2) the secondary f u n c t i o n , 3) an a l l i e d f u n c t i o n , or 4) a subordinate f u n c t i o n . I n 1970, G r i f f i t h r e p o r t e d a new typology by Houle which used both the dominance i n d i c a t o r and the educational-noneducational d i s t i n c t i o n . This set o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s considered t h a t i n i n s t i t u t i o n s which were p r i m a r i l y edu- c a t i o n a l a d u l t education c o u l d be the dominant, coordinate or subordinate func- t i o n ; and t h a t i n i n s t i t u t i o n s which were only p a r t l y e d u c a t i o n a l i t c o u l d only be a coordinate o r subordinate f u n c t i o n . Thus there were i n a l l s i x well-known . c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l sponsors based on the nature o f the i n s t i t u t i o n a l purpose: Houle's (1947), Brunner's (1959), Knowles' (1964), Verner and Booth's (1962), Schroeder's (1970) and Houle's (Griffith,1 9 7 0 ) . Another approach e n t i r e l y from the c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n approach was taken by G r i f f i t h (1963) w i t h a f i v e - s t a g e growth model f o r a d u l t education i n s t i t u t i o n s . But the study o f i n s t i t u t i o n s a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s i n t h e i r develop- ment d i d not seem to l e a d to productive i n f l u e n c e over t h e i r educative f u n c t i o n any more than the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n by purpose had. G r i f f i t h r e p o r t e d , "Even though i t i s p o s s i b l e to c l a s s i f y an i n s t i t u t i o n o f a d u l t education on the b a s i s of the r e l a t i v e importance of a d u l t education i n the p r i o r i t y l i s t i n g o f e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s o r on the b a s i s o f i t s stage o f development, n e i t h e r o f the approaches a f f o r d s any a p p r e c i a b l e power o f p r e d i c t i o n " (1970:176). 81 If predictive power i s lacking i n the results of these examinations the question arises why were they undertaken i n the f i r s t place. Why distinguish institutions on the basis of either the temporal or functional primacy of adult education within them? The answer seems to be that primacy means institutional influence over policy, funding and other forms of internal decision making — a l l of which would be useful for the administrators who are involved to under- stand. But the primacy of function does not indicate a thing about the type of adult education practiced i n those locations, only about the administrative support to practice. Perhaps the focus on institutions as such i s not quite the right one to take i f the purpose i s to use the location dimension to gain either insight or predictive control over the educational practice that takes place. To focus on the host agency which sponsors a c t i v i t i e s submerges the characteristics of adult education practices as phenomena i n their own right. It obscures the de- f i n i t i o n of this particular f i e l d and foregoes a distinction between agencies on the basis of their place within branches of adult education, i n order to calibrate degrees in the margin between this activity and other a c t i v i t i e s of the sponsor- ing agency. Perhaps this i s misplaced effort. Surely those engaged i n other social practices w i l l t e l l us how marginal we are to them; what we need to know i s where do they f i t into our purposes. Schroeder's 1980 typology shifted the focus from host institutions which sponsor adult education a c t i v i t i e s (perhaps a financial emphasis), to providers of adult education i n the sense of managing i t s delivery. His typology of pro- viders had a traditional grouping of institutional agencies (autonomous adult education agencies, youth education agencies, community service agencies, special interest agencies), as well as voluntary agencies (pressure groups, service clubs, mutual benefit societies, professional associations) and two kinds of individual 82 agents ( e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l and v o l u n t e e r ) . Again the question can be asked, why- are these d i s t i n c t i o n s being made? I f the l o c a t i o n o f an a c t i v i t y i s a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t agency what does i t matter to the nature o f p r a c t i c e i f i t ' s an i n s t i - t u t i o n a l agency" o r a "voluntary agency"? What d i f f e r e n c e does i t make i f the p r o v i d e r i s an agent under c o n t r a c t to an agency o r an agent working f o r h i m s e l f ? Perhaps,>'in the way t h a t i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e may have been the e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r i n the goal-primacy t y p o l o g i e s , agent-learner i n t e r a c t i o n s may be the e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r i n the broader-cast p r o v i d e r s typology. I f t y p e - o f - p r o v i d e r a f f e c t s the k i n d o f agent- l e a r n e r n e g o t i a t i o n s which are p o s s i b l e , t h i s would very much i n f l u e n c e the r e s u l t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . Schroeder e v i d e n t l y thought the nature o f the s o c i a l system i n e f f e c t was i n f l u e n t i a l enough to merit d e f i n i n g 16 d i f f e r e n t "patterns o f d e c i s i o n c o n t r o l - o r i e n t a t i o n " l o o k i n g a t combinations o f agent and c l i e n t c o n t r o l over macro and m i c r o - d e c i s i o n s . However s i x t e e n separate formulas f o r s o c i a l systems i s an unwieldy number to work w i t h when i t hasn't yet been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h i s i s the c r i t i c a l element o f the l o c a t i o n dimension to examine. For a t h i r d time the question can be asked why bother to examine where the ed u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y takes place a t a l l ? And the answer seems t o be t h a t where the e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y takes place determines the environment — i n i t s p h y s i c a l s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l aspects •— which can e i t h e r promote o r o b s t r u c t the achievement o f e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s . Some research has been undertaken on the p h y s i c a l (Becker : 1 9 6 o ) , s o c i a l (Boshier,1973,1977} and Clarke,1 9 8 0 ) and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e (Schroeder, 1 9 8 0 ) aspects o f the l e a r n i n g environment. But i n comparison to methodology f o r example, which has r e c e i v e d a good de a l o f a t t e n - t i o n , the educative environment has yet to come under s c r u t i n y proportionate to i t s p o t e n t i a l to make or break an a d u l t ' s l e a r n i n g success. 83 A Model of Formal Relationships between Elements: the Types, the Dimensions, the Core The set of six diagrams which follows provides a visual representation of the four types of practice, denoting both the common characteristics and the variations of each of the five aspects of practice. Each diagram simply em- phasizes a different way of using the model to focus on some limited section of the field of practice at a time. But the diagrams do provide more than an il l u s - trated review of the taxonomic matrix because the matrix is limited by its two dimensions. In evoking three dimensions the diagrams are able to demonstrate r.<v certain structural relations among the various observational categories and con- ceptual classifications.. This set of structural relations constitutes a model of adult education practice which illustrates both those definitive character- istics which establish the boundaries between this domain and other forms of social practice, and those particular sets of characteristics which distinguish within the domain four types of practice operating in distinctive and complemen- tary ways. These four types of practice are formal, constructed types but they bear certain qualities in common with Cyril Houle' sinformally constructed types of learner orientations to learning. Houle based his types on an examination of those learners who exhibited certain qualities "to the highest degree" (1972x10). The four types of practice defined in this study are based on an examination of programs, institutions and careers which evidenced the "most highly differentiated cases" of adult education practice, looking for the most eccentric features, as though the incidents of practice had been subjected to centrifugal forces of analysis. At the same time those most essential or central features of practice were being sought as though cases were being subjected to centripetal forces of analysis. Houle selected the features of his three types of orientation from 64 the most "conspicuous cases" (op. c i t . s l 3 ) , those which seemed to be "exemplars", to epitomize d i s t i n c t i v e q u a l i t i e s . He reported two ways by which he i d e n t i f i e d these conspicuous cases. The f i r s t way was to examine those t h a t were "perceived by o t h e r s " as e x h i b i t i n g d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (op. c i t : 1 5 ) . In t h i s present study p r a c t i t i o n e r d i s c l a i m e r s about some goals, c u r r i c u l u m contents, techniques, o r modes o f e v a l u a t i o n were taken as va l u a b l e i n d i c a t o r s o f a d i s - t i n c t i v e type o f p r a c t i c e , because they were being disowned by p r a c t i t i o n e r s who epitomized another type o f p r a c t i c e . The second way Houle used to i d e n t i f y "conspicuous cases" was to r e l y on the s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n of l e a r n e r s who f e l t "they had the same b a s i c ways of t h i n k i n g about the process i n which they were engaged" (op. c i t . : 1 5 ) . In t h i s study two types o f s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n have been used s p e c u l a t i v e l y to i d e n t i f y types o f p r a c t i c e . The f i r s t i s p r a c t i t i o n e r s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n : what do e v i d e n t l y d i s s i m i l a r p r a c t i t i o n e r s say to themselves regarding the goal of a d u l t education, the way one should r e l a t e to a d u l t l e a r n e r s , s t r u c t u r e t h e i r l e a r n i n g experiences and evaluate t h e i r progress? These p r a c t i t i o n e r s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s were matched with l e a r n e r s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s focused on what v a r i o u s l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s f e e l l i k e to the l e a r n e r . Non- negotiable t e c h n i c a l o b j e c t i v e s produce a "me and i t " k i n d o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between the l e a r n e r and the l e a r n i n g w i t h which he i s engaged; i n t e r p e r s o n a l l e a r n i n g produces a unique "you and I " k i n d of r e l a t i o n s h i p ; s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g education t h a t reaches to l i m i t l e s s h o rizons produces an " I and Thou.' k i n d o f r e l a t i o n s h i p ; and s o c i a l a c t i v i s t l e a r n i n g , where the values o f a primary group are found to be i n c o n f l i c t w i t h the values o f another g r o u p , r e s u l t s i n an "us and them" k i n d o f l e a r n i n g experience which them seeks out a l a r g e r sense o f "we". Houle warned t h a t a d u l t educators would not f i n d a s i n g l e neat i n t e r p r e t a - t i o n o f the a d u l t l e a r n e r (op. c i t . : 5 3 ) « This present study i s a l s o based on the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t r y i n g to f i n d a s i n g l e neat i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the f i e l d through c e n t r a l tendencies only produces indeterminate general statements about each o f 85 the dimensions of p r a c t i c e and provides no c l e a r d e p i c t i o n o f the f i e l d f o r i t s personnel. Rather, i n s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f the major v a r i a t i o n s o f p r a c t i c e l i e s hope o f advances i n understanding o f a d u l t education. The diagrams which f o l l o w d e p i c t subsections o f the domain and provide f o r g r e a t e r r i g o r i n the c o n s o l i d a - t i o n and planning o f f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h than e x i s t s when boundaries on a domain are l e f t u n s p e c i f i e d . D i a g . l provides a view o f the c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of one dimension o f : p r a c t i c e . I t c o u l d f o r example, be the c l i e n t e l e dimension. C e r t a i n aspects of p e r s o n a l i t y theory, l i f e s p a n theory, f o r c e f i e l d a n a l y s i s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n and so on have uniform a p p l i c a t i o n i n a l l f o u r types o f p r a c t i c e . As such they provide no d i s c r i m i n a t i o n between types of c l i e n t e l e but r a t h e r they provide a conceptual base f o r a l l a d u l t c l i e n t e l e s . D i a g . i : One dimension o f p r a c t i c e a t the core of a d u l t education Diag-2 : S i x dimensions o f p r a c t i c e a t the core o f a d u i t education Diag. 2 i l l u s t r a t e s the c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r of a d u l t education p r a c t i c e s . I t shows t h a t each o f the s i x dimensions have some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which are uniform throughout the f i e l d and thus may be con-' sidered-the core, d e f i n i t i v e ones. Taken together these c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s provide the b a s i s f o r the e t h i c and ethos of a s i n g l e p r o f e s s i o n . This p a r t i c u l a r c o n f i g u r a t i o n i s an a b s t r a c t i o n and i s never found embodied i n concrete prac- t i c e s as the f o u r types a r e . But i t does provide a s t a b l e conceptual centre from which each o f the f o u r types o f p r a c t i c e b u i l d s a v a r i a t i o n . 1 86 Diag . 4 : One dimension of p r a c t i c e as i t v a r i e s across the f i e l d D iag. 3 shows one dimension of a branch of p r a c t i c e - i n c l u d i n g both i t s unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and those i t draws from the core. I f f o r example, t h i s were the methodology dimension of s o c i a l a c t i v i s t p r a c t i c e i t would be found t h a t f i e l d t r i p s and group d i s c u s s i o n techniques which are a l s o used i n other types of p r a c t i c e have t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n here as w e l l . These core v a r i a b l e s provide the c e n t r i p e t a l f o r c e to counteract the d i - vergence of types of p r a c t i c e toward separate p r o f e s s i o n s . Unique v a r i a b l e s of a branch are discussed i n Diag,. 3. Diag.4 shows one dimension of p r a c t i c e i n i t s f u l l range of v a r i a t i o n s across the f i e l d . I f i t were the goal dimen- s i o n t h i s would demonstrate t h a t there are f o u r d i s t i n c t developmental d i r e c - t i o n s a t t r i b u t e d to a d u l t education, but d e s p i t e t h e i r d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s they are a l l anchored i n c e r t a i n developmental p r i n c i p l e s t h a t may be considered common go a l s . For example, no type of p r a c t i c e would espouse the goal o f making the l e a r n e r more dependent on the agent. This focus i s one way to p l a n the d e v e l - opment of p r o f e s s i o n a l competencies — eg. s p e c i a l i z i n g i n a l l types of e v a l u - a t i o n . 87 Diag- 5 : One dimension of a branch of practice showing unique variables only Diag. 5 emphasizes the variables of a dimension which are unique to one branch of practice only. For example, in the social activist type, in the methodology dimension "creation of a larger nucleus" is a valuable technique which is critical to this branch of practice and unheard of in others. In the location dimension of this branch, unlike any other, inconvenient and un- comfortable locations may be the most appropriate. Diag . 6 : A l l six dimensions of a branch of practice including their core and unique variables Diag • 6 shows the complete configuration of a branch of practice including its core and unique variables in a l l six di- mensions of practice. A graduate school course on "social activist education" or "interpersonal education" would give a comprehensive treatment to a l l dimen- sions which form that complex practice. Treating them as a whole and distinct entity makes i t possible to convey the ethic and ethos of a branch of practice, and prepare the practitioner to give specialized service by an immersion study of this branch alone. 88 CHAPTER V FINDINGS PART I I : SYNTHESIS OF THE VARIABLES WITHIN EACH TYPE In the s y n t h e s i s phase of f i n d i n g s the r e s u l t s o f a n a l y z i n g s e t s o f g o a l — f u n c t i o n statements f o r t h e i r e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s are brought together w i t h s e l e c t e d v a r i a b l e s from the remaining f i v e dimensions o f p r a c t i c e . The d e f i n i - t i o n o f each type guided the s e l e c t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s from each o f the dimensions to form a coherent, i n t e r n a l l y u n i f i e d c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f a t t r i b u t e s o f a type o f p r a c t i c e , making i t as h i g h l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the other three types as p o s s i b l e . In the process some v a r i a b l e s were i d e n t i f i e d which appeared t o be pervasive of the f i e l d . In a few in s t a n c e s these v a r i a b l e s were concrete s p e c i - f i c s - as w i t h " p u b l i c s c h o o l s " which may a c t as a p r o v i d i n g l o c a t i o n f o r any one o r a l l f o u r of the types o f p r a c t i c e . More f r e q u e n t l y the d e f i n i t i v e c h a r a c t e r - i s t i c s were p r i n c i p l e s o r c r i t e r i a d e r i v e d from each category o f the a t t r i b u t e space, and from the g o a l - f u n c t i o n d e f i n i t i o n s . In t h i s chapter the taxonomic matrix i s presented which i t e m i z e s v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d from each category of the a t t r i b u t e space and a l i g n s them w i t h a d e f i n e d g o a l - f u n c t i o n . Then each c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f items so a l i g n e d i s reviewed i n t u r n w i t h a more in-depth examination o f the r a t i o n a l e which u n i f i e s the type. The chapter concludes w i t h a b r i e f look a t the common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which were found to be present i n v i r t u a l l y a l l a d u l t education p r a c t i c e s . 89 P r e s e n t a t i o n o f the Taxonomic M a t r i x A f t e r the d e f i n i t i o n o f type c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r goal and f u n c t i o n s , the a t t r i b u t e space o f f i v e dimensions o f p r a c t i c e was examined t o determine which of the known c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were f i e l d - p e r v a s i v e and which cou l d be used as d i s c r i m i n a t o r s among the f o u r type c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . The content dimension was s i m p l i f i e d to accord w i t h the l e a r n i n g domain o f the type: f o r t e c h n i c a l l e a r n i n g , the c o g n i t i v e and psychomotor domains; f o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l l e a r n i n g , the a f f e c t i v e , emotional domain o f p e r s o n a l i t y ; f o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g l e a r n i n g , the a f f e c t i v e , v a l u i n g domain o f a r t i s t i c and moral experience; f o r s o c i a l a c t i v i s t l e a r n i n g a domain o f human c a p a b i l i t y as y e t undeveloped i n ed u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h - a domain which comprises a f f e c t i v e and c o g n i t i v e outcomes but which focuses on the s k i l l s o f human c o l l e c t i v e l i f e . The methodology dimension was s i m p l i f i e d v i a s e v e r a l d i s c r i m i n a t o r s . Four d i s c r e t e approaches to e d u c a t i o n a l methodology were d i s t i n g u i s h e d and i d e n - t i f i e d as : i n s t r u c t i o n , i n t e r p e r s o n a l l a b o r a t o r y , i m p r e s s i o n - r e f l e c t i o n , and s o c i a l experiment. These approaches seem t o have developed i n response t o a focus on d i f f e r e n t types of l e a r n i n g o b s t a c l e s . Obstacles thus provided another p o i n t of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n among methodologies. The r a t i o n a l e o f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l approach was based on overcoming the q u a n t i t y and complexity o f m a t e r i a l i n v o l v e d i n t e c h n i c a l education; the r a t i o n a l e o f the i n t e r p e r s o n a l l a b o r a t o r y approach was based on overcoming the v a r i o u s ego-defense mechanisms which human beings c o n t r i v e to r a t i o n a l i z e i n a p p r o p r i a t e and i n e f f e c t i v e behaviours; the r a t i o n a l e of the i m p r e s s i o n - r e f l e c t i o n approach was based on overcoming the f e a r o r d i s - a f f e c t i o n which r e p e l s people from new s i g h t s , sounds, and thoughts, and keeps them s u b s i s t i n g below t h e i r own l e v e l o f a e s t h e t i c and s p i r i t u a l f u l f i l m e n t ; the r a t i o n a l e o f the s o c i a l experiment approach was based on overcoming the passive submission which r e s u l t s when people have become co n d i t i o n e d to b e l i e v e 90 they are helpless to direct the socio-economic events of their existence. Pur- suing these assumptions about basic approaches to learning, and basic obstacles to learning revealed distinctive principles for structuring learning environ- ments: instruction follows a sequence from concrete to abstract, or simple to complex, for example; interpersonal labs structure from less to more stressful interactions, from revealing past feelings to revealing present feelings, for example; impression-reflection may structure explorations around the basic disciplines, around social roles, or around essential human issues - but one dictum which reverses the instructional approach i s to sequence from the least familiar to the most familiar i n order to gain insight into one's own social norms by contrast; social experiment follows a cycle from group introspective learning to common goal setting, and then from situation-specific learning to experimental action. Social experiment requires of the learner a l l the learning outcomes articulated i n the other three types of practice, but i t also requires demonstration of s k i l l s not demanded by the other types of learning. Approach, obstacles, structuring principles, and f i n a l l y distinctive techniques provided discriminators of methodological differences among the four types of practice. The dimension of evaluation had certain principles of implementation which recur across a l l four types, li k e the purposes of decision-making and accounts1 a b i l i t y . But the basis of judging achievement varied, and the emphasis on obj- ective or subjective measures varied. Evaluation i n technical education mea- sures learner achievement of technical capabilities and requires s t r i c t l y an objective, external perspective. Evaluation i n interpersonal education provides feedback to the learner regarding his effect on other persons and combines ob- jective and subjective perspectives with an emphasis on externally observable s k i l l s . Evaluation i n self-actualizing education assesses the degree to which new values have been internalized but emphasizes the subjective perspective on whether or not the learning has reached the depth of meaning and significance 91 t h a t the l e a r n e r wished to achi e v e . S o c i a l a c t i v i s t education a g a i n emphasizes o b j e c t i v e measures: o f l e a r n e r a t t i t u d e change from anomie toward autonomy; o f concrete environmental change; and of s o c i a l systemic change from non-responsive to responsive decision-making. Examination o f the c l i e n t e l e dimension revealed t h a t n e i t h e r general t h e o r i e s o f p e r s o n a l i t y , nor ps y c h o - s o c i a l t h e o r i e s o f the l i f e s p a n , nor gener- a l t h e o r i e s o f how a d u l t s l e a r n , nor most p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t u d i e s based on per- s o n a l , demographic o r e c o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e v e a l c l u s t e r i n g s o f c l i e n t e l e s according to the f o u r types o f p r a c t i c e . Instead, the d i s c r i m i n a t o r proved to be s i t u a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which motivate the l e a r n e r to seek the types o f goal-outcomes around which each d i s t i n c t i v e type o f p r a c t i c e i s u n i f i e d . S p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the l o c a t i o n dimension were sought i n the research a v a i l a b l e on sponsoring i n s t i t u t i o n s o f a d u l t education. I t was found th a t e x i s t i n g t y p o l o g i e s a l l looked inward to the i n t e r n a l dynamics o f admini- s t r a t i o n . And while t h i s may o r may not provide enlightenment regarding admin- i s t r a t i v e decision-making i t does not a t a l l engage the subs t a n t i v e nature o f the p r a c t i c e being sponsored. The approaches used so f a r do not ask which s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s o f the l o c a t i o n (of the p h y s i c a l p l a n t , the s o c i a l c l i m a t e , and the i n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r ) are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the bas i c v a r i a t i o n s o f p r a c t i c e which have been d i s t i n g u i s h e d . Consequently, the matrix shows only some elementary d i s t i n c t i o n s among l o c a t i o n s i n which a d u l t education takes p l a c e . ; 92 \ A TAXONOMIC FRAMEWORK' FOB ADULT EDUCATION PRACTICES IN NORTH AMERICA t using constructed types consistent with four fundamental goals 1. TECHNICAL EDUCATION 1 i 1 2. INTERPERSONAL EDUCATION : 3 . SELF-ACTUALIZING EDUCATION k. SOCIAL ACTIVIST EDUCATION GENERAL GOAL TO DEVELOP TECHNICAL ABILITIES TO IMPROVE INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS TO INTENSIFY SELF-ACTUALIZATION TO ENABLE ACTIVE PARTICIPATION IN SOCIO-ECONOMIC DECISION-MAKING DOMAIN • p r i m a r i l y cognitive or psychomotor p r i m a r i l y a f f e c t i v e (emotional) p r i m a r i l y a f f e c t i v e ( a e s t h e t i c / p h i l o s o p h i c ) p r i m a r i l y s o c i a l experiment FUNCTION: BUILDING COMPETENCIES BY t r a i n i n g the c l i e n t from an entry l e v e l • of knowledge or s k i l l to a target l e v e l DEVELOPING EFFECTIVE ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOURS .. BY guiding the p r a c t i c e of p e r c e i v i n g , expres- s i n g and responding to others, and contribut- i n g to the q u a l i t a t i v e growth of groupsi ENCOURAGING VALUE CHOICES. BY p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s to c r i t i c a l l y assess experiences that s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t persons p r i v a t e l y and as c r e a t o r s of s o c i e t y FORMING A REALISTIC AWARENESS OF SOCIETY BY r a i s i n g the q u a l i t y of c r i t i c a l thought about the s o c i a l environment, and r a i s i n g the l e v e l of a c t i v e influence on decision-making TO PI CA L CO NT EN T Any subject matter which can be treated as: i-Knbwledge r e c a l l : concrete s p e c i f i c s , a b s t r a c t i o n s and u n i v e r s a l s , conventions of knowledge organisation i i - I n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s : manipulating information iii-Psycho-motor s k i l l s : i n d u s t r i a l , s p o r t i v e , - a r t i s t i c i v -Procedural s k i l l s : occupational, v o c a t i o n a l household, professional i-General personal growth i n human r e l a t i o n s : i n dyads, t r i a d s , and small groups 1 i i - F a m i l y l i f e : marriage, parenting, aging i ^ v i l i - H e l p i n g professions: education, h e a l t h -.——L-1-^ se r v i c e s , s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , m i n i s t r y ; i v - I n t e r f a c i n g communities: r a c i a l , r e l i g i o u s , e t h n i c , l i n g u i s t i c | i - L i b e r a l education: f i n e , l i t e r a r y , and per- forming a r t s ; h i s t o r y ; philosophy i i - A d u l t higher education: humanistic i m p l i c a - t i o n s i n a l l s o c i a l sciences, l i f e sciences and p h y s i c a l sciences K i i i - R e l i g l o u s education: m o r a l i t y , e t h i c s , theology, treated i n a s e c t a r i a n , comparative or ecumenical manner iv- H e a l t h education: p h y s i c a l and mental i-Community development i i - C o o p e r a t i v e economic management i i i - C i v i l l i b e r t i e s i v - C u l t u r a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n v-Environmental p r o t e c t i o n vi-Union b u i l d i n g ME TH OD OL OG Y FOR  LE AR NI NG  INSTRUCTION - may be i n d i v i d u a l i z e d or f o r groups OBSTACLES: complexity, volume, memory,1 t r a n s f e r STRUCTURING PRINCIPLES: simple to complex, concrete to abstract, d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c t i c e , known to unknown DISTINCTIVE TECHNIQUES: (c o g n i t i v e ) programmed t e x t , l e c t u r e , seminar multi-media modules, computer, symposium (motor)demonstration, s k i l l practice, coaching (procedural) physical and s o c i a l simulations f i e l d placement, apprenticeship. LABORATORY - must be with others i n presenl-l'ocus work on components of e f f e c t i v e r e l a t i r g -̂ OBSTACLES: defense mechanisms, r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n . STRUCTURING PRINCIPLES: l e a s t to most s t r e s s f u l DISTINCTIVE TECHNIQUES: case stu d i e s : as in-basket e x e r c i s e s , a; r o l e plays, as interview t e x t s , as f i l m simulation as t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s '( c l i n i c a l t r a i n i n g ; unstructured T-groupi^oii^-)--^" -" s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r p e r s o n a l l a b s j c r i t i c a l i n c i - dent; behaviour logs; non-verbal exercises IMPRESSION-REFLECTION - may be s o l i t a r y or group .OBSTACLES: d i s a f f e c t i o n , overwork, stagnation STRUCTURING PRINCIPLES: by d i s c i p l i n e s ; by s o c i a l r o l e s ; by c e n t r a l i s s u e s DISTINCTIVE TECHNIQUES FOR: I m p r e s s i o n : ( d i r e c t ) e x h i b i t s , concerts, t r a v e l ( i n d i r e c t ) modeling, biographies, interviews R e f l e c t i o n : d i a r y , a r t i s t i c c r e a t i v i t y , d e b a t e s a t i r e , pantomime, group improvisation Both: r e a d i n g / v i e w i n g / l i s t e n i n g & d i s c u s s i o n s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s o c i e t i e s ; c u l t u r a l exchange SOCIAL EXPERIMENT - as a growing community OBSTACLES: anomie, paternalism, b i t t e r n e s s STRUCTURING PRINCIPLES: 1. recognizing tension: t a k i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 2. studying problem: s e t t i n g an o b j e c t i v e 3. e x p l o r i n g s i t u a t i o n : planning a c t i o n h. t a k i n g a c t i o n : assessing r e s u l t s DISTINCTIVE TECHNIQUES FOR: C i t i z e n s : outreach, c o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n , nucleus Environment: inventory, reconnaissance Inter v e n t i o n : p e t i t i o n , lobby, l a r g e r nucleus BA SI S FOR  EV AL UA TI ON  OBJECTIVE ASSESSMENT OF LEVEL OF ACHIEVEMENT Outcomes evaluated: may be c r i t e r i o n - b a s e d , sequential mastery, or norm-based ranking Using: psychomotor r a t i n g scales, content t e s t s , behavioural objectives based on task a n a l y s i s OBJECTIVE/ SUBJECTIVE 1 FEEDBACK REGARDING ONE'S EFFECT ON OTHERS ' Outcomes evaluated: perception, expression and* response; group c o n t r i b u t i o n ; group growth: Using: i n t e r v i e w content a n a l y s i s , subjective Islf assessment; peer evaluation; observation j SUBJECTIVE/OBJECTIVE APPRAISAL OF THE DEGREE OF INTERNALIZATION Outcomes evaluated: awareness, response, v a l u i n g , value s e t s , c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n Using: su b j e c t i v e s e l f - a p p r a i s a l , a t t i t u d e s c a l e s , follow-up studies OBJECTIVE ESTIMATION OF THE DEGREE OF SELF-DETERMINATION Outcomes evaluated: personal change from anomie to autonomy; environmental change; change from non-responsive to responsive decision-making Using: a t t i t u d e s c a l e s ; s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r s ; CL IE NT EL E OR IE NT AT IO NS  GOAL ORIENTED (sometimes: a c t i v i t y ) Persons - seeking employment - seeking vocational advancement - seeking craft,, sport & r e c r e a t i o n s k i l l - seeking home-centred s k i l l - seeking professional development GOAL ORIENTED .Persons - who wish to improve some aspect of t h e i r human r e l a t i o n s - " i n good touch with r e a l i t y " ; not seeking therapy, or remedial i n t e r v e n t i o n \ . - i ( ' \ LEARNING ORIENTED (sometimes: a c t i v i t y ) Persons - more deeply curious and l e s s instrumen- t a l about l e a r n i n g than the average - whose self-concept i s high - who are seeking renewal, and transcend- ence of d a i l y preoccupations GOAL ORIENTED Persons - d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by a p a r t i c u l a r unresolved s o c i a l issue - who wish to understand an issue as prelude to t a k i n g a c t i o n - who have some developed sense of the common, good SP EC IA L LO CA TI ON S . trades schools and polytechnics . computer and information f a c i l i t i e s . s t u d i o s , labs and workshops of a l l kinds . gymnasia, pools, t r a c k s and s p o r t i n g arenas . s i t e s with s p e c i a l i z e d t o o l s and equipment . r e t r e a t - t y p e environments: h o t e l s , r e s o r t s , church-owned r e t r e a t s s p e c i a l i n s t i t u t e s ' | . churches, synagogues, mosques, temples . museums, auditoriums, planetariums . g a l l e r i e s , t h e a t r e s , l i b r a r i e s . conservatories, observatories, l a b o r a t o r i e s . i n the s t r e e t . i n boardrooms . at c i t y h a l l . i n shareholders . on the p i c k e t l i n e meetings . on the phone . i n the courts i I 9 3 Tentative Explanatory Accounting for each Type: In stage six of constructive typology the theoretician examines the set of variables which i s found aligned with each defined type, and seeks i t s uni- fying rationale from the principles, theories and conventions which exist. Technical Education Goal, function and typical contents The goal of a l l technical education i s to develop i n the learner some tech- nical a b i l i t i e s "having to do with the exact or mechanical part of any art or science"(Winston,1948:1020). Technical education subsumes a l l goals which are technical i n the generic sense of involving some "methodical" process or means which enables the ̂ e f f i c i e n t " accomplishment of a task. These terms methodical and efficient imply more than merely systematic approach to a learning goal since a l l educational practices endeavor to be systematic. They imply that there i s some shortest route to a goal which therefore must be clearly identifiable and defineable. Technical goals are so precisely definable that learner performances can be designated simply correct-incorrect, or right-wrong, so only here i s i t pos- sible to say that "learning i s aided i f the adult finds out immediately after practice whether or not his response was correct" (Dickinson, 1973*13)• Technical education approaches such' learning goals through the function of building competencies i n the learner. It develops proficiency at tasks such as remembering some particular kind of knowledge, or demonstrating some parti- cular s k i l l . Building competencies i s a matter of gradually refining perform- ance, "shaping" i t (perhaps via rewards administered by a teacher) through successive approximations, to exactly match the desired performance (Shuell & Lee, 1976:27). 94 Technical education encompasses broad content areas which are amenable to a common methodology. Interpersonal education, self-actualizing education and social a c t i v i s t education a l l clearly imply some special content to which they are restricted. Technical education by contrast subsumes virtua l l y a l l precision competencies in the cognitive and psychomotor domains — examples of which as suggested by Gagne (1974:68) areeincluded i n Appendix B . So the content of technical education may be thought of as any subject matter which can be treated as "knowledge r e c a l l " (of concrete specifics, abstractions and universals, or conventions of knowledge organization), as "intellectual s k i l l s " (manipulating information), as "psycho-motor s k i l l s " (industrial, sportive or a r t i s t i c ) , or as "procedural s k i l l s " — ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ — — — — — — — - which combine decis sions and actions (occupational, voca-j tional, household, or professional). One example of how procedural s k i l l s combine intellectual] and psycho-motor ones i s given by Gagne with his anal- ysis shown in F i g . 3 . PROCEDURE: COMPONENT RULES: Executing the procedure of parallel parking Positioning car in starting position CONCEPTS: I I Approaching curb by backing at angle Identifying alignment with other car MOTOR SKILLS: Moving front of car into position near curb Identifying sof Positioning vehicle in designate place Straightening wheels to parallel curb Identifying position for maximum wheel turn Backing at low speed in a designated direction Identifying parallel position of car from turn Moving front of car to the right while backing Turning wheels straight from turn Fig. 3 1 Procedural s k i l l s as educational outcomes (R.M. Gagne,1977«215) Block specified (1971«65) t h a t subject contents were most amenable to pre- cise mastery approaches a) when they require I minimal prior learning, or when the students a l l possess the prerequisites; b) when subjects are of a kind sequentially learned and i t s units are cumulative; and c) when the subjects are "closed", that i s they emphasize convergent rather than divergent thinking. 95 Methodology geared to nature of the goal The goal of t h i s type of p r a c t i c e i s t o l e a d each l e a r n e r from h i s l e v e l o f performance on e n t r y i n t o the educative environment to the c r i t e r i o n l e v e l o f performance by the most e f f i c i e n t r o u t e . When these performances b u i l d on each other i n a cumulative sequence towards some more complex t e r m i n a l peformance the elements are present f o r "mastery l e a r n i n g " on the p a r t of the student and "competency-based i n s t r u c t i o n " on the p a r t of the teacher. Competency-based i n s t r u c t i o n (CBl) c o n t r a s t s w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n a t three p o i n t s : With t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n time per u n i t covered i s h e l d constant f o r a l l l e a r n e r s and t h e i r achievements vary; w i t h CBI p e r s o n a l i z e d pacing i s used so the l e v e l o f achievement i s h e l d constant ( i n t h a t each l e a r n e r e v e n t u a l l y achieves i t ) but the time which that l e a r n i n g takes w i l l vary from student to student. With t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n entrance requirements are the focus of a t t e n t i o n , while w i t h CBI e x i t requirements are the c r i t i c a l student performance. And f i n a l l y , w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n what i s expected of the student may be only vaguely communicated, o r even only vaguely c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n the i n s t r u c - t o r ' s mind, so students are reduced to second guessingj while i n CBI expectations r e g a r d i n g student performance a t e x i t are made e x p l i c i t i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l design and are c l e a r l y communicated to students. I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t the environment which l e a r n e r s e n t e r focus t h e i r a t t e n - t i o n on the component tasks t h a t l e a d to the c r i t e r i o n performance, and e l i m i n a t e as completely as p o s s i b l e extraneous s t i m u l i t h a t would d i s t r a c t from the l e a r n - i n g t a s k . S h u e l l and Lee c l a i m t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n takes place " i n any s i t u a t i o n s t r u c t u r i n g the environment i n such a way t h a t the l e a r n e r w i l l l e a r n some de- s i r e d o b j e c t i v e " (op. c i t . : 6 ) . The b a s i c task o f the teacher becomes to arrange the l e a r n i n g environment, o r as Gagne would say, to provide optimum e x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s . E x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s vary to s u i t the category o f l e a r n i n g outcome. 96 Some key c o n d i t i o n s f o r the f i v e c a t e g o r i e s o f l e a r n i n g outcomes are summarized by Gagne i n Table 4 shown a t r i g h t . I n s i m p l i f i e d form the key con d i t i o n f o r a knowledge/in- formation outcome i s a l a r g e r ..meaningful context i n which to place i t f o r understanding and r e t r i e v a l T h i s meaningful context o r may be e s t a b l i s h e d "by pre- s e n t i n g m a t e r i a l t h a t i s s i m i l a r to something t h a t i s a l r e a d y known, and by o r g a n i z i n g new m a t e r i a l i n a p a t t e r n t h a t the l e a r n e r can p e r c e i v e " ( D i c k i n s o n , 1973s11)• For an I n t e l - Features of Instructional Planning for Courses and Topics, for Five Types of Expected Outcomes Type of Expected Outcome Instructional Features Outcome Question Verbal Information Meaningful context; sug- gested coding schemes, includ- ing, tables and diagrams Will the student be able to state the desired information? Intellectual Skill Prior learning and recall of prerequisite skills Will the student be able to demonstrate the application of the skill? Cognitive Strategy Occasions for novel problem solving Will the student be able to originate new problems and their solutions? Attitude Experience of success follow- ing the choice of a personal action; or obser- vation of these events in a human model Will the student choose the intended personal action? Motor Skill Learning of executive routine; practice with informative feedback Will the student be able to execute the motor performance? Table 4: (Gagne, 197^: 102) l e c t u a l s k i l l i t i s the p r o v i s i o n o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o t r a n s f e r the s k i l l t o a d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t o f a p p l i c a t i o n . F or c o g n i t i v e s t r a t e g i e s the key c o n d i t i o n i s a unique, c h a l l e n g i n g problem. For a motor s k i l l outcome the key c o n d i t i o n i s p r a c t i c e o f p a r t - s k i l l s and the i n t e g r a t i n g s k i l l (Gagne & Briggs,1979:95)• The c o n d i t i o n s suggested f o r a t t i t u d e change conform i n the f i r s t i n stance to be h a v i o u r i s t l e a r n i n g theory, and i n the second in s t a n c e t o s o c i a l l e a r n i n g theory. This study d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between a t t i t u d e s which are a u x i l i a r y t o other l e a r n i n g outcomes and those which are themselves the focus o f . l e a r n i n g e f f o r t s , and 97 c o n s i d e r s a t t i t u d e change as such not to be amenable to the d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n a l approach. Those tas k s which have a meaningful u n i t y , and a means f o r i n f o r m i n g the l e a r n e r of how w e l l he i s doing, encourage him to engage, to s t r i v e , and to ex- c e l h i s previous performance. This i s the essence o f i n s t r u c t i o n as the method- ology o f a l l t e c h n i c a l education. Bruner was convinced t h a t the i n t r i n s i c s a t i s - f a c t i o n of repeated successes which i s p o s s i b l e w i t h c l e a r , s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g t a s k s , provides the only r e l i a b l e momentum f o r l o n g term l e a r n i n g . " E x t e r n a l reinforcement ( l i k e h i g h grades and other such rewards) may indeed get a p a r t i - c u l a r a c t going and may even l e a d to i t s r e p e t i t i o n , but i t does not n o u r i s h , r e l i a b l y , the l o n g course o f l e a r n i n g . . . " (1966-128). Obstacles to developing t e c h n i c a l a b i l i t i e s With the l e a r n i n g o f t e c h n i c a l contents complexity and q u a n t i t y are the primary o b s t a c l e s , so i t i s toward s i m p l i f i c a t i o n and r e d u c t i o n t h a t the i n s t r u c - t i o n a l environment i s arranged. Se v e r a l other f a c t o r s may i n t e r f e r e w i t h succes- i n s t r u c t i o n . Lack o f i n t e r e s t occurs *hen the a t t e n t i o n i s r e p e l l e d from an ob- j e c t r a t h e r than a t t r a c t e d , and i t n e c e s s i t a t e s g r e a t e r e f f o r t o r work from the l e a r n e r t o accomplish the same amount of l e a r n i n g . I n t e r e s t tends to be r a i s e d by something which i s incomplete o r u n f i n i s h e d so t h a t the mind becomes engaged i n seeking c l o s u r e . Poor a t t i t u d e may a l s o undermine l e a r n i n g . In c o n t r a s t to the more v i t a l - i s t i c a t t r a c t i o n - r e p u l s i o n o f ' i n t e r e s t " , ' a t t i t u d e " i n v o l v e s v a l u i n g and judgment. Judging some procedure to be us e l e s s does not encourage l e a r n i n g r e l a t e d to i t . no matter how s u p e r f i c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g i t may be. A t h i r d o b s t a c l e to t e c h n i c a l l e a r n i n g i s l a c k of acceptance o f a l e a r n i n g t a s k , a phrase used by S h u e l l and Lee (19?6:7'5) which may combine i n t e r e s t and a t t i t u d e w i t h o t h e r f a c t o r s l i k e f a t l q u e o r poor p r e s e n t a t i o n , although they do 98 not specify this. If the objectives of an instructional unit are not accepted by students they may psychologically remove themselves from the instructional process. A fourth factor which may interfere with successful instruction i s lack of pre- requisite learning upon which to build. Gagne offers Table 5 as a summary of possible prerequisite learn- ing for each of five types of instructional outcome. A f i f t h factor which may obstruct technical learning i s Inadequate memory, lacking either " r e c a l l " which occurs j Possible Prerequisite Relationships in the Design of Courses and Topics Type of Expected Possible Prerequisite Learning • Outcome Verbal Information Referent meanings of words, i.e., con- (Knowledge) cepts Intellectual Skill ' Component simpler skills Information specific to the application examples Cognitive Strategy Intellectual skills involved in problem solution Information involved in problem solution Masses of organized knowledge Attitude Prior success experience following choice of desired personal action Identification with human model Information and skills involved in the personal action Motor Skill Executive routine controlling perform- ance Part-skills or motor chains Table 5 : (Gagne, 1974:104) when previous learning i s reproduced on cue, or even "recognition" which occurs when material previously learned i s identified when encountered again (Dickin- son, 1973^14)• Some learning i s potentially "available" because i t was actually learned i n the f i r s t place and i s "in there somewhere", however the preferable case i s previous learning which i s actually "accessible" and can be recalled on cue (Shuell & Lee, 1976:6l). Successful instruction uses mnemonic procedures based upon the principle of reduction of the amount of information to be remem- bered. Mnemonics accomplishes reduction by coding, or by organizing the new information into familiar or higher order units. Further obstacles to successful technical education occur with transfer both from past to present so that learning can be cumulative, and from the pre- sent instructional setting i n which learning takes place to some future 99 s e t t i n g i n which i t w i l l be a p p l i e d ( S h u e l l & Lee,1976:73)• I t may improve t r a n s f e r to maximize s i m i l a r i t y between the present l e a r n i n g environment and s i t u a t i o n s to which t r a n s f e r i s d e s i r e d (eg.: p r a c t i c i n g w i t h equipment i n the geographic and c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s i n which i t w i l l be used). Instead o f one exact p h y s i c a l s i m u l a t i o n i t may improve t r a n s f e r more to provide a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t experiences o r approaches t o the m a t e r i a l being l e a r n e d , such as p r a c t i c i n g d r i v i n g on a v a r i e t y o f c a r s , o r s t u d y i n g a v a r i e t y o f accounts d e s c r i b - i n g an h i s t o r i c event (op. c i t . : 7 l )» Some accounts suggest t h a t nothing t r a n s - f e r s and g e n e r a l i z e s so w e l l as good a b s t r a c t i o n s , such as p r i n c i p l e s , g e n e r a l i - z a t i o n s , conceptual schemata, and problem-attack s t r a t e g i e s . A f i n a l f a c t o r i n t e c h n i c a l education which many authors see as o b s t r u c t i n g s u c c e s s f u l l e a r n i n g i s the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e o f norm-referenced, competi- t i v e , l i m i t e d - r e w a r d e v a l u a t i o n systems. James H. Block sees t h i s not j u s t as a p r a c t i c a l d e t e r r e n t to l e a r n i n g but as a fundamental i n j u s t i c e . "As l o n g as i t i s assumed t h a t almost a l l cannot l e a r n w e l l o r t h a t some can l e a r n b e t t e r than others, the major problem i s to s o r t the capable from the incapable students ....In a system o f few rewards (e.g. h i g h grades) a student may not be rewarded no matter how w e l l he l e a r n s so l o n g as others l e a r n b e t t e r A s f a r as the l e a r n i n g e f f o r t i s concerned t h i s amounts to punishment f o r success, not t o mention the d i s t o r t i o n o f peer r e l a t i o n s which i t engenders from colleague t o competitor (Block, 1971:65). S t r u c t u r i n g p r i n c i p l e s f o r t e c h n i c a l education A very general s o r t o f s t r u c t u r i n g p r i n c i p l e i s found i n the u s u a l course of i n t e l l e c t u a l development which moves from " e n a c t i v e " understanding (a s e t o f a c t i o n s ) , t o " i c o n i c " understanding (images t h a t summarize the s e t o f a c t i o n s ) to "symbolic" understanding ( p r o p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n a symbolic system). A l e a r n e r w i t h a w e l l developed symbolic system can by-pass the f i r s t two stages, and 100 conversely one who does not work w e l l a t the symbolic l e v e l may b e n e f i t from l e a r n i n g t a s k s which are arranged f i r s t a t the i c o n i c o r even a t the e n a c t i v e l e v e l . Another p r i n c i p l e which guides i n s t r u c t i o n a l design f o r t h i s type of l e a r n - i n g i s to keep sessions aimed a t psychomotor and lower c o g n i t i v e outcomes r e l a - t i v e l y " c l o s e d " w i t h the i n s t r u c t o r dominant, c o n t r o l l i n g every aspect of the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n ; designs aimed a t h i g h e r c o g n i t i v e and a f f e c t i v e outcomes are comparatively "open", g i v i n g l e a r n e r s more a c t i / e c o n t r o l (Dickinson, 1 9 7 3 * 7 8 ) . W i t h i n these general s t r u c t u r a l parameters a l e s s o n or i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e s s i o n may be planned. An i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t r a t e g y w i l l i n c o r p o r a t e f i v e major components: i ) p r e i n s t r u c t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , i i ) i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t a t i o n , i i i ) student p a r t i - c i p a t i o n , i v ) t e s t i n g , and v) follow-through (Dick & Carey,1 9 7 8 : 1 0 6 ). P r e i n - s t r u o t i o n a l a c t i v i t y i n c l u d e s m o t i v a t i o n o r g a i n i n g the l e a r n e r ' s a t t e n t i o n , t r a n s m i t t i n g awareness o f the o b j e c t i v e s o r outcomes to be achieved w i t h the u n i t being presented, and an assessment o f the degree to which l e a r n e r s possess the necessary p r e r e q u i s i t e knowledge, i i ) Information p r e s e n t a t i o n r e q u i r e s the i n s t r u c t o r t o make d e c i s i o n s about sequencing, s i z e o f the content chunk, manner of p r e s e n t a t i o n and i l l u s t r a t i v e examples, i i i ) Student p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v o l v e s planning o p p o r t u n i t i e s to p r a c t i c e the new s k i l l o r rehearse the new knowledge, and r e c e i v e feedback about adequacy of performance, i v ) T e s t i n g may be done through from ob s e r v a t i o n o f e n t r y behaviours, to p r e t e s t f o r approximation o f performance on the u n i t o b j e c t i v e , to t e s t i n g embedded i n t o the p r a c t i c e p e r i o d , to the u n i t post t e s t (Dick & C a r e y , 1 9 7 8 : 1 1 0 ) . v) Follow-through a c t i v i t i e s are decided upon acc o r d i n g to the q u a l i t y o f t e r m i n a l performance, and are a c t i v i t i e s e i t h e r o f a remedial o r enrichment nature. The apparent u n i v e r s a l i t y o f these f i v e components i s d e c e p t i v e . In s o c i a l a c t i v i s t education f o r example these components are q u i t e unrecognizable. For s o c i a l a c t i v i s t l e a r n i n g e a r l y agent i n p u t i s c o u n t e r p r o d u c t i v e . Many s e s s i o n s 101 may occur i n which guided l e a r n e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s the only r e c o g n i z a b l e element; there i s no agent p r e s e n t a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n ; there i s no t e s t i n g i n the formal sense or i n d i v i d u a l i z e d follow-through toward the same knowledge and s k i l l f o r everyone. There i s not even l i k e l y t o be p r e - a c t i v i t y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f out- comes to be achieved since t h a t k i n d of agent c l o s u r e on the s e s s i o n i s p r e c i s e l y what must not happen. The other types are' l e s s p o l a r i z e d w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n but s t i l l do not conform to i t s p a t t e r n e x a c t l y . I m p r e s s i o n - r e f l e c t i o n experiences such as exposure to a concert, b i o g r a p h i c a l f i l m , o r a r t e x h i b i t may o f f e r a minimal i n t r o d u c t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n e r experience, group r e f l e c t i o n on the . experience and o n l y l a t e r the p r e s e n t a t i o n of some non-subjective i n f o r m a t i o n about the experience by the agent. The i n s t r u c t i o n a l sequence i s not p r i m a r i l y designed to f a c i l i t a t e d i s c o v e r y , even o f a c o g n i t i v e s o r t , l e t alone a v a l u i n g s o r t . The i n s t r u c t i o n a l sequence i s designed to f a c i l i t a t e a b s o r p t i o n of pre- determined u n i t s by the l e a r n e r . F i n a l l y , the i n t e r p e r s o n a l l a b while i t may be sequenced i n the order of i n s t r u c t i o n , may a l s o reverse i n f o r m a t i o n and par- t i c i p a t i o n i f the s p e c i f i c e x e r c i s e i s intended to f a c i l i t a t e s e l f - o b s e r v a t i o n and d i s c o v e r y r a t h e r than s k i l l p r a c t i c e . Even when i t does f o l l o w the sequence o f i n s t r u c t i o n , the i n t e r p e r s o n a l l a b must emphasize l e a r n e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n due t o the stubborn nature o f emotions and a t t i t u d e s , r a t h e r than emphasize informa- t i o n p r e s e n t a t i o n as i n s t r u c t i o n does. Among the d e c i s i o n s made by the i n s t r u c t o r i n s t r u c t u r i n g the l e a r n i n g event i s how to sequence l e a r n i n g t a s k s which l e a d to the performance o b j e c t i v e , how to sequence o b j e c t i v e s w i t h i n a t o p i c , and how t o sequence t o p i c s w i t h i n a course. Gagne and B r i g g s i l l u s t r a t e d f o u r d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of the problem o f instructional sequence as shown i n Appendix:B . Some g u i d e l i n e s f o r sequencing Include the maxims o f general to s p e c i f i c , concrete to a b s t r a c t , f a m i l i a r to unknown, most to l e a s t frequent, simple to complex, as w e l l as f o l l o w i n g the order d i c t a t e d by l o g i c , and i n t e r s p e r s i n g i n t e r e s t i n g t a s k s among the r o u t i n e 102 ones ( D i c k i n s o n , 19731:54,55). Gagne t e n d e d t o e m p h a s i z e t h e maxim o f s i m p l e t o c o m p l e x i n s e q u e n c i n g . T h i s o r d e r i n g he r e f e r r e d t o a s l e a r n i n g h i e r a r c h i e s a n d c o u l d a p p l y t o c o m p l e x p s y c h o m o t o r o p e r a t i o n s a s w e l l a s c o g n i t i v e o p e r a t i o n s . F i g u r e 4 i n d i c a t e s t h e h i e r a r c h y o f c o g n i t i v e o u t c o m e s . S t r u c t u r i n g p r i n c i p l e s f o r t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n c l u d e how t o use s t u d e n t p r a c t i c e a p p r o p r i a t e l y . F o r e x a m p l e : u s i n g " m a s s e d p r a c t i c e " o n l y w i t h c a p a b l e a n d e x - p e r i e n c e d l e a r n e r s , a n d " d i s t r i b u t e d p r a c - t i c e " i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h s h o r t r e s t p e r i o d s o f a l t e r n a t e a c t i v i t y f o r l e s s c a p a b l e o r l e s s e x p e r i e n c e d l e a r n e r s . P r a c t i c e i s a l s o s t r u c t u r e d t o i n c l u d e t h e w h o l e o p e r a t i o n i f HIGHER-ORDER RULES require as prerequisites RULES require as prerequisites CONCEPTS require as prerequisites DISCRIMINATIONS require as prerequisites (simple types of learning) Varieties of intellectual skills, arranged (bottom to top) in order of increasing complexity F i g . 4: (Gagne,1974:56) i t w i l l be n e e d e d a s a w h o l e , o r one p a r t a t a t i m e i f t h e o p e r a t i o n i s d i f f i c u l t o r n o t v e r y m e a n i n g f u l ( D i c k i n s o n , 1973:11*12). F o r t h e l e a r n e r a n i m p o r t a n t e l e m e n t o f l e a r n i n g h i e r a r c h i e s a n d p r a c t i c e o f t h e c o m p o n e n t s i s h a v i n g a n a c c u r a t e s e n s e o f w h e t h e r o r n o t h i s r e s p o n s e s t o c u e s f o r p e r f o r m a n c e a r e c o r r e c t . T h i s s t r u c t u r i n g p r i n c i p l e o f f e e d b a c k o n p e r f o r m a n c e i s o n l y • p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h w o r k i n g w i t h e x p l i c i t b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s w i t h s p e c i f i c s t a n d a r d s b u i l t i n , a g a i n s t w h i c h t o m e a s u r e t h e l e a r n e r p e r f o r m a n c e . K n o w l e d g e o f r e s u l t s i n c l u d i n g b o t h a j u d g m e n t a n d r e p o r t t o t h e l e a r n e r , e n a b l e s h i m t o m o d i f y h i s p e r f o r m a n c e t o w a r d t h e d e s i r e d l e v e l o f s k i l l . 1 0 3 At the m i c r o - l e v e l o f a h i g h l y s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g task i t may be u s e f u l and necessary t o s t r u c t u r e the environment to maximize l e a r n i n g v i a a sequence o f e x t e r n a l " i n s t r u c t i o n a l events" which some authors f e e l p a r a l l e l d i s c r e t e i n t e r n a l phases o f l e a r n i n g . The nine i n s t r u c t i o n a l events which toward one s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g t a s k a r e : g a i n i n g a t t e n t i o n ; i n f o r m i n g l e a r n e r o f o b j e c t i v e ; s t i m u l a t i n g r e c a l l o f p r e r e q u i s i t e s ; p r e s e n t i n g the s t i m u l u s m a t e r i a l ; p r o v i d i n g l e a r n i n g guidance; e l i c i t i n g the performance; p r o v i d i n g feedback; a s s e s s i n g . performance; and enhancing r e t e n t i o n and t r a n s f e r . Examples o f t h i s sequence of i n s t r u c t i o n a l events as i t would be v a r i e d to promote f i v e types o f l e a r n e d c a p a b i l i t i e s are o f f e r e d by Gagne and B r i g g s (I974il66). D i s t i n c t i v e techniques f o r b u i l d i n g t e c h n i c a l competencies Most knowledge a c q u i s i t i o n techniques are q u i t e f a m i l i a r , so much so t h a t t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r d e t a i l s may be overlooked. The c l a s s f o r i n s t a n c e , i s b a s i c - a l l y a c o l l e c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h each person l e a r n i n g on h i s own. Only o c c a s i o n a l l y does a c l a s s become a r e a l s o c i a l group i n which group processes become a major i n f l u e n c e on l e a r n i n g ( D i c k i n s o n , 1973*71)• I t i s t h e r e f o r e p e c u l i a r l y s u i t e d to on l y one o f the f o u r b a s i c types o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e , not t o i n t e r p e r s o n a l l e a r n i n g , v a l u e s e x p l o r a t i o n o r community development. An- oth e r i n d i s p e n s a b l e and too f a m i l i a r technique i s the l e c t u r e . I t i s u n i q u e l y s u i t e d to g i v i n g very c u r r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n o r t o r a i s e i n t e r e s t i n a s u b j e c t which w i l l subsequently be expl o r e d by ot h e r t e c h n i q u e s . I t can i n t r o d u c e , a n a l y z e , s t i m u l a t e and even i n s p i r e (Bergevin, M o r r i s , & Smith,1963:157)• The panel i s "a group of people having a p u r p o s e f u l d i s c u s s i o n on an ass i g n e d t o p i c " (op. c i t . : 117) i n or d e r t o examine, i l l u s t r a t e and c l a r i f y , not debate. Question p e r i o d s may be used in - combination w i t h any i n f o r m a t i o n g i v i n g technique t o g i v e audience members an op p o r t u n i t y t o request f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n o r e x p l a n a t i o n o f some p o i n t . Questioning may a l s o be tu r n e d around and used by the p r e s e n t e r t o check 104 a u d i e n c e c o m p r e h e n s i o n . The s e m i n a r i s a t e c h n i q u e f o r a l l o w i n g s e v e r a l p a r t i - c i p a n t s t o make s h o r t i n f o r m a t i v e p r e s e n t a t i o n s w h i c h t h e n become t h e b a s i s o f a g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n by t h e g r o u p . The s e m i n a r i s u s e d f o r s p e c i a l i z e d s t u d y w h i c h may be q u i t e a d v a n c e d , a n d i s d i r e c t e d by a r e c o g n i z e d a u t h o r i t y ( o p . c i t . : l 4 7 ) . The f o r e g o i n g t r a d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n - d i s s e m i n a t i n g t e c h n i q u e s c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y be u s e d i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h t e c h n i q u e s p e c u l i a r t o t h e o t h e r t y p e s o f p r a c t i c e . B u t i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o remember t h a t t h e s e t e c h n i q u e s do n o t s e r v e t h e o t h e r t h r e e g o a l - f u n c t i o n o u t c o m e s . They a r e a p p r o p r i a t e l y c o - o p t e d i n t o o t h e r t y p e s o f p r a c t i c e o n l y t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t e c h n i c a l k n o w l e d g e a n d s k i l l o b j e c t i v e s a r e m i x e d i n t o t h e p r o g r a m . T h e r e have r e c e n t l y b e e n d e v e l o p e d t h e e f f i c i e n t , h i g h l y f o c u s e d m a t e r i a l s known a s programmed i n s t r u c t i o n . These p r o v i d e a n i n d i v i d u a l i z e d method " c h a r - a c t e r i z e d by a n o r d e r l y p r e s e n t a t i o n of- m a t e r i a l i n s m a l l s t e p s w i t h i m m e d i a t e k n o w l e d g e o f r e s u l t s p r o v i d e d a t e a c h s t e p " ( D i c k i n s o n , 1 9 7 3 ! 7 0 ) . However b e c a u s e t h e s e a r e " c l o s e d " i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s t h e s t u d e n t i s n o t a b l e t o make a d - j u s t m e n t s b e y o n d t h e b r a n c h i n g o f t a s k s w h i c h i s w r i t t e n i n t o t h e p r o g r a m , a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y may a r r i v e a t t h e t e r m i n a l p o i n t u n s a t i s f i e d o r u n c l e a r a b o u t some p a r t s o f t h e o b j e c t i v e . B l o c k u r g e s ( 1 9 7 1 : 7 l ) t h a t a v a r i e t y o f " l e a r n i n g c o r - r e c t i v e s " be u s e d i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h programmed i n s t r u c t i o n o r m a s t e r y l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s , i n c l u d i n g a s t o c k o f s u p p l e m e n t a r y a n d a l t e r n a t i v e l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s w h i c h t h e l e a r n e r c a n t u r n t o i n d i v i d u a l l y , p e e r g r o u p s e s s i o n s t o d e a l w i t h l e a r n i n g p r o b l e m s , i n d i v i d u a l t u t o r i n g , a n d e v e n r e t e a c h i n g o f some b a s i c s k i l l s . A t h i g h e r l e v e l s o f c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n b r i e f i n t e n s i v e methods may be u s e d s u c h a s t h e modern sympos ium ( a s e r i e s o f r e l a t e d s p e e c h e s ) , t h e i n s t i t u t e ( d e s i g n e d t o o f f e r a u t h o r i t a t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n o n some body o f k n o w l e d g e , s k i l l o r u n r e s o l v e d i s s u e ) , o r t h e c l i n i c ( f o r d i a g n o s i n g a n d a n a l y z i n g s i t u a t i o n s o f r e a l i s t i c c o m p l e x i t y ) . M o t o r s k i l l s a n d p r o c e d u r a l s k i l l s a r e t a u g h t t h r o u g h d e m o n s t r a t i o n , 1 0 5 p r a c t i c e , a n d c o a c h i n g . I t i s u s e f u l t o u s e s i m u l a t i o n s t o d e v e l o p m o t o r a n d p r o c e d u r a l s k i l l s when t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n t o w h i c h t h e s k i l l i s t o be t r a n s - f e r r e d o c c u r s o n l y r a r e l y , a s i n space t r a v e l a n d d e e p s e a e x p l o r a t i o n , o r when t h e r i s k s i n v o l v e d i n t h e r e a l s i t u a t i o n a r e h i g h a s w i t h r e s c u e o p e r a t i o n s , f i r s t a i d , o r a i r t r a f f i c c o n t r o l . F o r c o m p l e x s i t u a t i o n s l i k e e n v i r o n m e n t a l d i s a s t e r s — a c h l o r i n e g a s l e a k , f o r e x a m p l e — p h y s i c a l , s o c i a l - a n d c o m p u t e r s i m u l a t i o n s may be u s e d c o n c u r r e n t l y . A l l o f t h e f o r e g o i n g t e c h n i q u e s a r e e n g i n e e r e d t o move t h e l e a r n e r a s q u i c k l y a s p o s s i b l e t o a p r e c i s e c o g n i t i v e o r p s y c h o m o t o r o b j e c t i v e . They do n o t a d d r e s s e m o t i o n a l o r v a l u a t i o n c h a n g e , a n d t h e y do n o t l i f t c i t i z e n s f r o m a p a t h y t o p a r - t i c i p a t i o n . They do r e p l a c e i g n o r a n c e w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d c e r t a i n k i n d s o f i n c o m p e t e n c e w i t h s k i l l . • Outcomes a n d i n s t r u m e n t s : a s s e s s i n g t h e l e v e l o f a c h i e v e m e n t W i t h e d u c a t i o n d e s i g n e d t o b u i l d t e c h n i c a l c o m p e t e n c i e s i n t h e l e a r n e r t h e r e i s a b a s i c a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c h o i c e be tween t a k i n g n o r m - r e f e r e n c e d m e a s u r e s o f s u c c e s s o r c r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d m e a s u r e s o f s u c c e s s . N o r m - r e f e r e n c e d m e a s u r e s a r e d e s i g n e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e among l e a r n e r s , t o r a n k them a g a i n s t e a c h o t h e r i n t e r m s o f t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e a b i l i t y a t a g i v e n t i m e . Where c o m p e t i t i o n b e t w e e n l e a r n e r s i s d e s i r e d o r r e q u i r e d b e c a u s e o f l i m i t e d r e w a r d s ( e g . few h i g h g r a d e s , o r f e w j o b s ) t h e n n o r m - r e f e r e n c e d t e s t i n g i s e m p l o y e d t o d e t e r m i n e a t a g i v e n moment w h i c h c o m p e t i t o r h a s t h e b e s t p e r f o r m a n c e . I n s u c h a r e l a t i v e g r a d i n g s y s t e m l e a r n e r p e r f o r m a n c e a n d r e w a r d may have l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p . C r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d t e s t i n g i s e v e n more p e r v a s i v e l y c o m p e t i t i v e b u t i n a r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r - e n t m a n n e r . H e r e t h e l e a r n e r i s i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h h i s own p r e v i o u s p e r f o r m a n c e . I n o r d e r t o i n s t i t u t e t h i s s y s t e m a t i c l e a r n e r s t r i v i n g , , i t i s n e c e s s a r y f r o m t h e o u t s e t t o d e s i g n i n s t r u c t i o n a r o u n d b e h a v i o u r a l o b j e c t i v e s f o r t h e l e a r n e r . T h i s s o r t o f e v a l u a t i o n i s e m p l o y e d where i t i s d e s i r a b l e t o h a v e t h e maximum number 1 0 6 of l e a r n e r s reach competence with regard to the c r i t e r i o n performance, and where a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s are adapted to give each l e a r n e r the amount of time he needs to a t t a i n mastery of a given l e a r n i n g t a s k . I n such an "absolute" grading system,to use Block's terminology, performance and reward are i n t e g r a l l y r e l a t e d . There are p o t e n t i a l l y f o u r phases of achievement e v a l u a t i o n : i ) the e n t r y behaviour assessment, or p r e t e s t p r i o r to i n s t r u c t i o n ; i i ) i n - p r o g r e s s measures, a l s o c a l l e d embedded t e s t s , o r formative e v a l u a t i o n ; i i i ) summative e v a l u a t i o n , t e r m i n a l assessment or e x i t behaviour; and i v ) fol l o w - u p , t r a n s f e r assessment or l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d i e s . For norm-referenced e v a l u a t i o n the focus i s on e n t r y behaviour because i t determines the degree of l e a r n e r readiness f o r the i n s t r u c - t i o n which i s about to be administered. Formative e v a l u a t i o n guides teacher behaviour toward the group, keeping i n mind the normal d i s t r i b u t i o n curve, seeking to pass the m a j o r i t y w i t h a few h i g h a c h i e v e r s . Terminal e v a l u a t i o n occurs according to a set time p e r i o d a t term's end or week's end and students are graded according to t h e i r performance a t t h a t d e a d l i n e . Follow-up s t u d i e s may be done to determine the r e l a t i o n between i n - c l a s s performance and t r a n s f e r performance, or as long-range p r e d i c t o r s o f success. With c r i t e r i o n - r e f e r e n c e d e v a l u a t i o n the focus i s on e x i t behaviour because i t i s dependent upon the l e a r n e r ' s achievement of competence i n regard to the behavioural o b j e c t i v e s and h i s a b i l i t y to demonstrate the c r i t e r i o n performance. Entry behaviour assessments check s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r competencies p r e r e q u i s i t e to the i n s t r u c t i o n a l u n i t and from the outset h e l p to i n d i v i d u a l i z e i n s t r u c t i o n a l treatment. In-progress measures are l e a r n e r , not t e a c h e r - o r i e n t e d and must r e l a t e r e s u l t s back immediately to the l e a r n e r so he can a d j u s t h i s performance. Dic k i n s o n (1°73J 13) suggests t h a t in-progress,measures should be kept ..brief, and are.intended to be d i a g n o s t i c , g i v i n g a d e t a i l e d , in-depth p r o f i l e o f l e a r n e r performance, to guide supplementary a c t i v i t i e s . They are not meant to 1 0 7 be graded as t h i s would d e t r a c t from t h e i r value f o r the l e a r n e r . C l i e n t e l e o r i e n t a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Goal o r i e n t a t i o n predominates i n b u i l d i n g t e c h n i c a l competencies because c l e a r l y these c a p a b i l i t i e s are u s e f u l f o r something. The c l i e n t may be seeking employment,' seeking v o c a t i o n a l advancement, seeking home-centred s k i l l s , or seeking to keep up wi t h p r o f e s s i o n a l advancements. In some cases the compe- t e n c i e s being sought are c r a f t s , sport and r e c r e a t i o n a l s k i l l s i n which case an a c t i v i t y o r i e n t a t i o n may not only motivate the type o f ed u c a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n the l e a r n e r chooses to engage i n , but a l s o motivate the t r a n s f e r of what i s learned i n t o the n a t u r a l s e t t i n g . Locations f o r t e c h n i c a l education Te c h n i c a l education r e q u i r e s props. When i t i s psychomotor o r procedural i t may i n v o l v e t r a d e s schools and p o l y t e c h n i c s , s t u d i o s , labs- and workshops o f a l l k i n d s , gymnasia, pools and s p o r t i n g arenas. When t e c h n i c a l education i s mainly c o g n i t i v e , demanding knowledge mastery and i n t e l l e c t u a l s k i l l s , i t may r e q u i r e computer f a c i l i t i e s , i n f o r m a t i o n sources, and d i s p l a y media. I n other words, l o c a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t e c h n i c a l education are s i t e s which have s p e c i a l i z e d t o o l s and equipment to a i d the development of competencies. 108 Interpersonal Education Goal, function, and t y p i c a l contents In general terms the o v e r a l l goal of interpersonal education i s the a t t a i n - ment of better understanding of other persons. Henry C. Smith, author of the 1973 text " S e n s i t i v i t y Training", defines several kinds of understanding of others which may be achieved: r a t i o n a l i s t i c , a r t i s t i c , p r a c t i c a l , and empirical (3-9)• R a t i o n a l i s t i c understanding embraces subjective impressions as a source of knowledge superior to, and independent of, empirical f a c t s . R a t i o n a l i s t i c understanding i s the degree to which a person f e e l s close to, sympathetic with, and understanding of another person. Because i t stresses inner r e a l i t i e s , "the only measure of t h i s kind of understanding i s subjective, i . e . , we understand a person when we f e e l we understand him" (op. c i t . : 5 ) . A r t i s t i c understanding . i s a l s o a subjective, n o n - s c i e n t i f i c understanding, but one which stresses outer r e a l i t i e s . In contrast to the s c i e n t i s t who abstracts f o r the purpose of pre- d i c t i o n , the a r t i s t compresses f o r the purpose of i n t e n s i f y i n g the immediate v i s u a l r e a l i t y . A r t i s t i c understanding i s the degree to which a person i s aware of and responsive to the v i s u a l , audible, and tangible descriptors of another person. P r a c t i c a l understanding i s objective rather than subjective, emphasizing the degree to which one person can influence another to behave i n a way that the f i r s t person d e s i r e s . I t i s s p e c i f i c a l l y manipulative rather than generally p r e d i c t i v e as empirical understanding i s . Where p r a c t i c a l understanding i s unconscious, unsystematic and incomplete, empirical understanding i s conscious, systematic and complete. Empirical understanding i n human r e l a t i o n s i s the degree to which one person can p r e d i c t another person's f e e l i n g s , thoughts and behaviour under future conditions from.what i s known about them i n the present. Interpersonal education does not lead to empirical understanding •. I t may improve 109 demonstrably a r t i s t i c and p r a c t i c a l understanding of other persons. But i t s g r e a t e s t appeal i s the deepening of a sense of r a t i o n a l i s t i c understanding of o t h e r s . The goal of i n t e r p e r s o n a l education i s the improvement of i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s . Towards th a t end i t f u l f i l s the f u n c t i o n of developing a t t i t u d e s and "behaviours t h a t l e a d to mutually s a t i s f y i n g personal i n t e r a c t i o n s . I t accomplishes t h i s by g u i d i n g l e a r n e r s i n the p r a c t i c e of more e f f e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n , s e l f - expression, and response to others; and i n the p r a c t i c e of c o n t r i b u t i n g to the q u a l i t a t i v e growth o f groups, s k i l l s which are u s e f u l i n a l l aspects o f s o c i a l l i f e . For t h i s reason c u r r i c u l u m content i s i s found to range from general per- sonal growth i n the component s k i l l s of human r e l a t i o n s , to the p a r t i c u l a r r e - l a t i o n s o f marriage, p a r e n t i n g and the aging c y c l e encountered i n f a m i l y l i f e , to the p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s encountered i n management, h e a l t h sciences, teaching and s o c i a l work, and to the a m e l i o r a t i o n of community l i f e which takes place when estranged r a c i a l , e t h n i c , o r r e l i g i o u s groups improve t h e i r mutual res p e c t and involvement. T y p i c a l contents of i n t e r p e r s o n a l education programs are l i k e l y to i n c l u d e one o r s e v e r a l major s k i l l s o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication. The North-West Regional E d u c a t i o n a l Laboratory(NWKEL), P o r t l a n d , Oregon, developed the f o l l o w i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the gap inherent i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l communications r e v e a l i n g the p r i n c i p l e o f p a r t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n . I n t e r p e r s o n a l communication i n c l u d e s attempts by the sender to convey a message, whether or not i t i s r e c e i v e d , as w e l l as a c t i o n s t h a t the r e c e i v e r responds to as messages, whether or not those a c t i o n s were intended as messages. The nature o f human i n d i v i d u a l i t y does not a l l o w a guarantee t h a t the message sent w i l l be' the message r e c e i v e d . Figure 5 o f f e r s a schematic summary of the i n t e r p e r s o n a l gap. 110 F i g . 5 '' Schematic summary o f the i n t e r p e r s o n a l gap (N-W.R.E.L.,1970,Unit 8, Handout 3) The i n t e r p e r s o n a l gap c o n t a i n s two t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . These ste p s are r e - f e r r e d to as coding and decoding o p e r a t i o n s . Each o f us sees h i s own a c t i o n s i n the l i g h t o f h i s own i n t e n t i o n s , but we see the o t h e r ' s a c t i o n s i n the l i g h t o f the e f f e c t they have on us. T h i s i s the p r i n c i p l e o f p a r t i a l informa- t i o n : each p a r t y to an i n t e r a c t i o n has d i f f e r e n t and p a r t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n about the i n t e r p e r s o n a l gap. I t i s now p o s s i b l e to draw a more complete p i c t u r e of the i n t e r p e r s o n a l gap as f o l l o w s : A's Intentions A's Actions Effect on D ( Private, \ j. known to j — \ A only J 1 / Public, \ -/ observable V \ by anybody / Private, known to B only 1 1 System of encoding • • System of decoding Must be inferred by B Must be inferred by A F i g . 6 : Transformations a c r o s s the i n t e r p e r s o n a l gap (N-W.R.E.L.,1970,Unit 8,Handout 3) I t i s t h i s p r i n c i p l e o f p a r t i a l I n f o r m a t i o n , c r e a t i n g an e s s e n t i a l i n t e r p e r s o n a l gap.which i s so problematic i n human r e l a t i o n s and i s the source o f l e a r n i n g t a s k s d i r e c t e d toward b u i l d i n g major component s k i l l s of human r e l a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g more s e n s i t i v e p e r c e p t i o n , a u t h e n t i c s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , and c o n s t r u c t i v e response o r i n t e r v e n t i o n . Contents may a l s o be arranged t o fo c u s on group i n t e r a c t i o n s r a t h e r than simply dyadic i n t e r a c t i o n s , i n which case a whole new s e t o f s k i l l s I l l are added. The s k i l l of s e n s i t i v e p e r c e p t i o n has broken down i n t o s e v e r a l component pa r t s aimed a t breaking the g r i p of expectations which place halos around some persons and stigmas on others, both of which obscure accurate perceptions (N-W. R. E.L.,1970,Unit 7|Handout 4) . Smith has analyzed p e r c e p t i o n i n t o f o u r k i n d s : o b s e r v a t i o n a l , t h e o r e t i c a l , i d i o g r a p h i c , and nomothetic ( s e n s i t i v i t y to group c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ) (197309). He a l s o l i s t s the development of s e l f - i n s i g h t and awareness of group processes (1973:30) among' s e n s i t i v i t y o b j e c t i v e s . A second major i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l , a u thentic s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , s i m i l a r l y a c t s as a general program o b j e c t i v e . This s k i l l i s not as simple a matter as t r y i n g to be honest o r s i n c e r e , due to the p o t e n t i a l f o r m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n inherent i n the i n t e r p e r s o n a l gap. W i t h i n the gap, words or a c t i o n s used to express o n e s e l f may not even m i n i m a l l y convey what was intended. Due to the gap three p r i n c i p l e s o f a c t i o n accrue: i ) D i f f e r e n t i n t e n t i o n s may be expressed by the same a c t i o n ; i i ) The same a c t i o n may l e a d to d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t s ; i i i ) D i f f e r e n t a c t i o n s may l e a d t o the same e f f e c t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y i t i s j u s t as easy to misrepresent o n e s e l f v e r b a l l y as i t i s to make f a u l t y expression of onese l f through a c t i o n s . Consequently i t i s necessary to p r a c t i c e expressing a c c u r a t e l y what one experiences o r p e r c e i v e s . A t h i r d major s k i l l o f human r e l a t i o n s i s responding o r i n t e r v e n i n g con- s t r u c t i v e l y . George M. Gazda et a l have i d e n t i f i e d e i g h t dimensions o f construc- t i v e response. The e i g h t are: empathy, r e s p e c t , warmth, concreteness, genuine- ness, s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e , c o n f r o n t a t i o n , and immediacy. "Empathy" i s demonstrated by a respondent who not only a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t s the expressed emotions o f the speaker but who makes an " a d d i t i v e response" t h a t conveys understanding o f under- l y i n g , unexpressed and perhaps unconscious f e e l i n g s o f the speaker (Gazda et a l , 1973:55)• "Respect" as used i n t h i s context r e f e r s to b e l i e f i n the worth and 112 p o t e n t i a l o f a n o t h e r p e r s o n . " W a r m t h " i s a t e r m u s e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e n o n - v e r b a l r e s p o n s e s o f t h e o b s e r v e r w h i c h c o n v e y a t t e n t i o n a n d i n t e r e s t t o t h e s p e a k e r a n d a r o u s e i n h i m t h e s e n s e o f b e i n g a c c e p t e d a n d s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h e o b s e r v e r . " C o n - c r e t e n e s s " , b e i n g s p e c i f i c , i s e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t i n t h e e a r l y p h a s e s o f h e l p - i n g t o t h o u r o u g h l y e x p l o r e p r o b l e m s a n d i n t h e f i n a l p h a s e o f h e l p i n g t h e c l i e n t t o f o r m u l a t e s p e c i f i c p l a n s . " G e n u i n e n e s s " d e n o t e s r e s p o n s e s w h i c h a r e c l e a r , h o n e s t , a u t h e n t i c d e p i c t i o n s o f t h e o b s e r v e r ' s r e a c t i o n s , a n d t h u s a r e c o n g r u e n t e x t e r n a l e x p r e s s i o n s o f h i s i n t e r n a l s t a t e . " S e l f - d i s c l o s u r e " i s ' c o n s i d e r e d a n o t h e r a s p e c t o f c o n s t r u c t i v e l y r e s p o n d i n g t o o t h e r s . When s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e i s u s e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y t o r e v e a l p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t d e m o n s t r a t e s s i m i l a r i t y a n d c l o s e n e s s i t c a n e n c o u r a g e t h e s p e a k e r i n h i s own s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n . A more p r o b l e m a t i c d i m e n s i o n o f t h e h e l p f u l c o n s t r u c t i v e r e s p o n s e i s " c o n f r o n t a t i o n " . I n c o n f r o n t a t i o n t h e r e s p o n d e n t i n f o r m s t h e s p e a k e r o f a d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n t h e c o n t e n t a n d a f f e c t o f what he i s s a y i n g , o r o f a d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n . t h i n g s he h a s b e e n s a y i n g a b o u t h i m s e l f a n d t h i n g s he h a s b e e n d o i n g . " I m m e d i a c y " i s one o f t h e more d i f f i c u l t d i m e n s i o n s o f r e s p o n s e a s i t d e a l s w i t h t h e r e s p o n s e i t s e l f , o r w i t h what i s t r a n s p i r i n g b e t w e e n t h e c o n v e r s a n t s . T h i s i s where t h e a g e n t ' s c a p a c i t y t o m o d e l f a c i l i t a t i v e a t t i t u d e s a n d i n i t i a t i n g b e h a v i o u r s i s most a p p a r e n t ( o p . c i t . :55-59) • A f o u r t h m a j o r s k i l l o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s p r o v i d i n g a f u r t h e r s o u r c e o f l e a r n i n g t a s k s i s t h e c a p a c i t y f o r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e q u a l i t i a t i v e g r o w t h o f g r o u p s . H e d l e y D i m o c k o f M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y h a s i d e n t i f i e d s e v e r a l d i m e n s i o n s t o t h e q u a l i t y o f g r o u p i n t e r a c t i o n s (1970:2-4). The f i r s t o f t h e s e - i s " e m o t i o n a l c l i m a t e " o r t h e d e g r e e o f s e c u r i t y , t r u s t a n d e s p e c i a l l y a c c e p t a n c e w h i c h members f e e l . The s e c o n d d i m e n s i o n i s " g r o u p i n v o l v e m e n t " o r t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h members f e e l o c c u p i e d , a t t r a c t e d , o r a b s o r b e d w i t h t h e g r o u p . " I n t e r a c t i o n " r e f e r s t o t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h members r e l a t e t o e a c h o t h e r , a n d t h e e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h o s e i n t e r a c t i o n s . " C o h e s i o n " , t h e f o u r t h 11.3 m a j o r d i m e n s i o n o f g r o u p g r o w t h , i n d i c a t e s t h e s o l i d a r i t y o r u n i t y o f f e e l i n g , b o t h i n t h e s t r e n g t h o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s among members , a n d i n t h e d e g r e e o f f e e l i n g t h e y h a v e o f t h e g r o u p a s t h e i r s . F i n a l l y , " g r o u p p r o d u c t i v - i t y " o r i t s c a p a c i t y t o s e t g o a l s , make d e c i s i o n s a n d a c c o m p l i s h i t s i n t e n d e d t a s k s i s s e e n a s a m a j o r d i m e n s i o n o f g r o u p m a t u r i n g a n d s i g n i f i c a n t f o r t h e d e g r e e o f members ' s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e g r o u p . What t h e l e a r n e r s e e k s t o a c q u i r e a r e b e h a v i o u r s w h i c h h e l p a c o l l e c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s d e v e l o p a s e n s e o f g r o u p b e l o n g i n g a n d a t a s k e f f e c t i v e n e s s a s a g r o u p . B e h a v i o u r s he may a d o p t w h i c h a r e e f f e c t i v e f o r t h e g r o u p , a n d t h o s e w h i c h a r e s e l f - s e r v i n g a n d c o u n t e r - p r o d u c t i v e f o r t h e g r o u p a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n A p p e n d i x C . L e a r n i n g t a s k s may be d e s i g n e d t o d e v e l o p c o n s t r u c t i v e b e h a v i o u r s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e q u a l i t a t i v e g r o w t h o f g r o u p s i n t h e s e w a y s . The b a s i c s k i l l s o f i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s may be c o m b i n e d w i t h many more e l a b o r a t e l y d e v e l o p e d t h e o r i e s o f t h e human c o n d i t i o n d e p e n d i n g u p o n t h e l e a r n e r ' s p a r t i c u l a r p u r p o s e i n d e v e l o p i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s . P e r s o n s i n t e r e s t e d i n f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s o r e d u c a t i o n c o u l d d raw on l i f e s p a n t h e o r i e s s u c h a s t h e sequence o f s t a g e s w h i c h was p r e p a r e d by V i v i a n R. McCoy f o r a d u l t e d u c a t o r s (1977:16) i l l u s t r a t e d i n A p p e n d i x A . P e r s o n s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e h e l p i n g p r o f e s - s i o n s . c o u l d combine i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s w i t h t h e p h a s e s o f t h e h e l p i n g r e l a t i o n - s h i p w h i c h move f r o m l ) s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e c l i e n t , t h r o u g h 2) b e t t e r s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t o 3) more a p p r o p r i a t e d i r e c t i o n a n d a c t i o n . These p h a s e s o f t h e h e l p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p a r e . e a c h a m e n a b l e t o c o n s t r u c t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n f r o m t h e h e l p e r , a s d e s c r i b e d b y Gazda e t al$."973:24) . F o r p e r s o n s i n management o r m a r k e t i n g , t h e b a s i c s k i l l s o f human r e l a t i o n s have b e e n c o m b i n e d w i t h s t u d y o f t h e b r o a d e r c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s t y l e s c o - w o r k e r s may d i s p l a y i n o r d e r t o e n a b l e e f f e c t i v e t e a m - b u i l d i n g a n d c o l l a b o r a t i o n . Community w o r k e r s may c o m b i n e t h e b a s i c s k i l l s o f human r e l a t i o n s w i t h s t u d y o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l p h a s e s i n g r o u p s , a u t h o r i t y i s s u e s w h i c h may a r i s e i n g r o u p s , t h e g r o u p a s a s y s t e m , m e t h o d s f o r 114 r i g o r o u s o b s e r v a t i o n of time, r o l e , and task boundaries i n groups, and other r e l a t e d s k i l l s . So i t can be seen t h a t beyond the b a s i c s k i l l s of p a i r and group r e l a t i o n s , the content of i n t e r p e r s o n a l education p r a c t i c e s may take many v a r i a t i o n s depending upon the a n t i c i p a t e d areas of a p p l i c a t i o n . Methodology geared to nature of the goal Because the content of t h i s branch encompasses goals which are more ex- p l i c i t l y emotional than any other branch of p r a c t i c e , i n c l u d i n g the a f f e c t i v e outcomes of the s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g branch, i t s methods are geared to emotional outcomes and d i s t i n g u i s h i t c l e a r l y from other types of a d u l t education p r a c t i c e . Perhaps w i t h some l a t i t u d e of a p p l i c a t i o n the term " l a b o r a t o r y " has been chosen to d e s c r i b e the p a r t i c u l a r methodology employed by t h i s branch o f p r a c t i c e . The i n t e r p e r s o n a l l a b o r a t o r y method may be seen as having s e v e r a l key c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : i t must be conducted w i t h other persons a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d ; i t tends to be an i n t e n s i v e , extended, and sometimes i s o l a t e d experience which removes the l e a r n e r from h i s h a b i t u a l environment; i t focuses on the a n a l y s i s of present behaviours and t h e i r a l t e r a t i o n i f necessary; and i t d e a l s s e l e c t i v e l y w i t h the component s k i l l s o f human r e l a t i o n s . In regard to s e n s i t i v e p e r c e p t i o n , Henry Smith d e s c r i b e s f o u r types of s e n s i t i v i t y sequenced i n what he concludes i s the most l i k e l y order o f a c q u i s i - t i o n (1973: pp.24-27). Observational s e n s i t i v i t y i s the a b i l i t y to l o o k a t and l i s t e n t o another person and remember what he looked l i k e and s a i d . T h e o r e t i c a l s e n s i t i v i t y i s the a b i l i t y to s e l e c t and use t h e o r i e s to make more accurate p r e d i c t i o n s about what others are l i k e l y to f e e l , say, and do. Nomothetic s e n s i - t i v i t y t o the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a given type i s the a b i l i t y to use t h i s knowledge i n making more accurate p r e d i c t i o n s about i n d i v i d u a l s who i n some aspect of t h e i r person partake o f t h a t given t y p e . I d i o g r a p h i c s e n s i t i v i t y combines i n t u i t i v e impressions i n t o p a t t e r n s t h a t render an accuracy of p r e d i c t i o n from knowledge of 1 1 5 t h e ways i n w h i c h a n i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r s f r o m h i s g r o u p t y p e . S m i t h a l s o m a t c h e s t h e s e t y p e s o f s e n s i t i v i t y a s l e a r n i n g g o a l s w i t h s e v e r a l methods f o r l e a r n i n g a n d j u d g e s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f e a c h t o h e l p t h e l e a r n e r a c h i e v e e a c h t y p e o f g o a l , a s r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 6 ( S m i t h , 1973:28). S i n c e c o g n i t i v e ou tcomes a r e n o t a m a j o r f o c u s o f t h i s t y p e o f p r a c t i c e , t h e o r e t i c a l a n d nomo- . t h e t i c s e n s i t i v i t y a r e d e - e m p h a s i z e d i n f a v o r o f o b s e r v a - t i o n a l a n d i d i o g r a p h i c s e n s i t i v i t - i e s w h i c h p r e p a r e one f o r c o n c r e t e e x p e r i e n c e a n d i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h Types of Training and Their Goals Coals of Training T-Group Participation Psychology Instruction Clinical Training Observational Sensitivity No Theoretical Sensitivity No Yes Yes Nomothetic Sensitivity No Yes Yes Idiographic Sensitivity Q No o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s . T a b l e 6 T a b l e 6 : ( S m i t h , 1>73:28) i l l u s t r a t e s t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f T - G r o u p p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d c l i n i c a l t r a i n i n g t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e s e l a t t e r k i n d s o f s e n s i t i v i t y . The c o g n i t i v e o u t c o m e s p r o d u c e d by p s y c h o l o g y i n s t r u c t i o n a r e t y p i c a l o f t h e f i r s t t y p e o f a d u l t e d u c a - t i o n p r a c t i c e w h i c h was d e f i n e d . T - G r o u p p a r t i c i p a t i o n w h i c h r e q u i r e s i n t e n s e p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e l e a r n e r i n e x p l o r i n g h i m s e l f , a n d c l i n i c a l t r a i n i n g w h i c h i n v o l v e s h i m i n t h e e x p l o r a t i o n o f o t h e r p e r s o n s a n d t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s , a r e subsumed h e r e w i t h o t h e r modes o f l e a r n i n g u n d e r t h e b r o a d t e r m " i n t e r p e r s o n a l l a b o r a t o r y m e t h o d " . T h i s i s done s i n c e e v e n t h e c l i n i c a l t r a i n i n g i s l i k e l y t o be s i m u l a t i o n s o n l y o r h i g h l y s u p e r v i s e d i n o r d e r t o g i v e t h e l e a r n e r , ( t h e a g e n t - i n - t r a i n i n g ) o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p e r i m e n t w i t h new s k i l l s o f p e r c e p t i o n , e x - p r e s s i o n , r e s p o n s e , a n d i n t e r v e n t i o n . O b s t a c l e s t o i m p r o v i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s W h i c h e v e r m e t h o d s a n d t e c h n i q u e s a r e e m p l o y e d t o r e a c h t h e e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c - t i v e s s e t , t h e r e a r e i n e v i t a b l y o b s t a c l e s t o t h i s t y p e o f e m o t i o n a l l e a r n i n g a s 116 t h e r e a r e o b s t a c l e s t o overcome i n c o g n i t i v e a n d p s y c h o m o t o r l e a r n i n g . George Gazda a n d h i s c o - a u t h o r s i d e n t i f i e d f i v e s u c h o b s t a c l e s ( G a z d a e t a l , 1973 :40-44) . The f i r s t o f t h e s e , " s e l e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n " , i s t h e t e n d e n c y t o p e r c e i v e o n l y t h a t w h i c h f a v o r s o n e ' s p r e f e r r e d ( i . e . , h a b i t u a l o r c o m f o r t a b l y f a m i l i a r ) f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e , a n d t o deny r e a l i t i e s w h i c h a r e i n c o n g r u e n t by r e f u s i n g t o p e r c e i v e t h e m . Thus one g e n e r a l l y p e r c e i v e s h i m s e l f a s - f u n c t i o n i n g i n ways t h a t make s e n s e t o h i m w h a t e v e r t h e i r d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t o n o t h e r s . " I d e n t i f i c a t i o n " i s a s e c o n d o b s t a c l e t o l e a r n i n g t h o s e t r u t h s a b o u t o n e ' s s e l f w h i c h a r e p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r p o s i t i v e c h a n g e . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n v o l v e s a n x i e t y r e d u c t i o n t h r o u g h a s c r i b i n g t o o n e ' s s e l f t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s and o t h e r v a l u e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a n o t h e r p e r s o n s u c h a s o n e ' s s p o u s e , g r o u p s u c h a s o n e ' s p r o f e s s i o n , o r o b j e c t s u c h a s o n e ' s c a r o r home. " R a t i o n a l i z a t i o n " i s a p r o c e s s i n w h i c h a p e r s o n g i v e s s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e r e a s o n s f o r b e h a v i o u r t h a t was m o t i v a t e d by s o c i a l l y u n a c c e p t a b l e i m - p u l s e s . " C o m p e n s a t i o n " b l o c k s s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n by j u s t i f y i n g t h e a c c e p t a n c e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f a l e s s p r e f e r r e d ( b u t more a t t a i n a b l e ) a c t i v i t y , f o r a more p r e - f e r r e d ( b u t l e s s a t t a i n a b l e ) a c t i v i t y . I t i s a l s o o f t e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e x t r e m e p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t h a t a c t i v i t y . " P r o j e c t i o n " i n v o l v e s a t t r i b u t i n g o n e ' s own m o t i v e s a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o o t h e r s , e s p e c i a l l y when t h e s e m o t i v e s a r e a s o u r c e o f g r e a t a n x i e t y . Thus t h e a g e n t who u n d e r t a k e s t o a s s i s t p e o p l e i n a c h i e v i n g a t t i t u d i n a l a n d b e h a v i o u r a l i m p r o v e m e n t n e e d s , a s a s k i l l e s p e c i a l l y r e l e v a n t t o t h i s b r a n c h o f p r a c t i c e , t h e a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e t h e s e o b s t a c l e s when t h e y a r i s e , a n d t h e a b i l i t y , t o h e l p l e a r n e r s d i m i n i s h t h e i r i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h l e a r n i n g . S t r u c t u r i n g p r i n c i p l e s f o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l e d u c a t i o n G i v e n t h e s u b t l e t y o f t h e l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s s o u g h t by i n t e r p e r s o n a l p r a c t i c e , a n d t h e many o b s t a c l e s t o i t s a c h i e v e m e n t , S m i t h h a s o f f e r e d f i v e g u i d e s t o p r o g r a m d e v e l o p m e n t (1973*37-42): (1) f o r m u l a t e r e a l i s t i c g o a l s t h a t a r e s p e c i f i c a n d e x p l i c i t c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e d e s i r e d o u t c o m e s ; ( 2 ) s e q u e n c e t h e g o a l s , a l t e r n a t i n g 117 c o m p l e m e n t a r y i n s t r u c t i o n a l a n d c l i n i c a l p e r i o d s ; (3) r e d u c e d e f e n s i v e n e s s t h r o u g h s e q u e n c i n g t a s k s f r o m l e a s t s t r e s s f u l t o w a r d s t h e more s t r e s s f u l t a s k s , a n d t h r o u g h r a t i n g s u c c e s s o f m a s t e r y r a t h e r t h a n r a n k i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s a g a i n s t e a c h o t h e r ; (4) f i t t h e method t o t h e g o a l r a t h e r t h a n t r y i n g t o a c c o m p l i s h a l l t h i n g s w i t h one m e t h o d s u c h a s t h e T - G r o u p ; a n d (5) e v a l u a t e t h e s u c c e s s o f t r a i n i n g . The r o l e o f e v a l u a t i o n f o r l e a r n e r ou tcomes a n d . f o r p r o g r a m a c c o u n t - a b i l i t y w i l l be r e v i e w e d a f t e r a c l o s e r l o o k a t t h e l e a r n i n g t e c h n i q u e s . D i s t i n c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s f o r d e v e l o p i n g e f f e c t i v e i n t e r p e r s o n a l a t t i t u d e s a n d b e h a v i o u r s S e v e r a l k i n d s o f t e c h n i q u e s have b e e n d e v e l o p e d f o r l e a r n i n g t a s k s a i m e d a t change i n e m o t i o n - c h a r g e d a t t i t u d e s a n d b e h a v i o u r s . T h e r e a r e many v a r i e t i e s o f t h e c a s e s t u d y u s e d s u c h a s g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n o f w r i t t e n a c c o u n t s , programmed i n t e r v i e w t e x t s , r e s p o n s e s h e e t s f o r f i l m e d i n t e r v i e w s o f e i t h e r a s i m u l a t e d n a t u r e o r a s i l h o u e t t e d a c t u a l i n t e r v i e w . A l l o f t h e s e a f f o r d t h e l e a r n e r a s e n s e o f i m m e d i a t e i n v o l v e m e n t . More d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e w i t h r o l e - p l a y i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s , a n d w i t h g r o u p i m p r o v i s a t i o n o f a s o c i a l s i m u l a t i o n . B e h a v i o u r l o g s s e n s i t i z e t h e l e a r n e r t o p e r c e p t i o n o f h i s own f e e l i n g s , b e h a v - i o u r s , a n d h a b i t s i n n a t u r a l r a t h e r t h a n c o n t r o l l e d s e t t i n g s . And s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r p e r s o n a l l a b s e n a b l e t h e l e a r n e r t o p r a c t i c e m i c r o - s k i l l s o f p e r c e p t i o n , e x p r e s s i o n and r e s p o n s e c o m p o n e n t s o f i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h o t h e r s . F o r e x a m p l e , one t e c h n i q u e f o r p r a c t i c i n g a c c u r a t e s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n i s b e h a v i o u r d e s c r i p t i o n w h i c h i n v o l v e s r e p o r t i n g s p e c i f i c , o b s e r v a b l e a c t i o n s w i t h o u t i m p u t i n g m o t i v e s a t t i t u d e s o r p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s ( N - W . R . T . L . , 1 9 7 0 , U n i t 3 i ' H a n d o u t 2 ) . . A n o t h e r t e c h n i q u e f o r a c c u r a t e s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n i s d i r e c t d e s c r i p t i o n o f f e e l i n g s r a t h e r t h a n l a b e l i n g t h e o t h e r p e r s o n j u d g m e n t a l l y a s a n i n d i r e c t way o f e x p r e s s i n g o n e ' s own f e e l i n g s . B o t h o f t h e s e s k i l l s m a r k e d l y i m p r o v e s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n . A t e c h n i q u e w h i c h c a n i m p r o v e s k i l l ' i n r e s p o n d i n g t o o t h e r s i s m i r r o r i n g what t h e 7 1 1 8 o t h e r has conveyed both i n content and i n a f f e c t . This i s of course a conven- i e n t p e r c e p t i o n check f o r the l i s t e n e r , but can a l s o have a very supportive e f f e c t on the f i r s t speaker. I t g i v e s the speaker a g r a t i f y i n g sense of having been heard. Furthermore i t educates the speaker to more e f f e c t i v e s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n so t h a t the message he intends a c t u a l l y gets conveyed. As w e l l as these i n t e r v i e w s k i l l s s e v e r a l types o f group a c t i v i t i e s are appropriate f o r these personal and emotional e d u c a t i o n a l outcomes. Singer et al . ( l975) have d i s t i n g u i s h e d s i x kinds of small group events which focus group a c t i v i t y on e i t h e r l e a r n i n g or behavioural change t a s k s , a t e i t h e r a group, i n t e r p e r s o n a l o r i n t r a p e r s o n a l l e v e l . Three of these techniques,'the i n t e r p e r s o n a l learning- group, the group process l e a r n i n g group, and the personal growth group are appropriate t o t h i s type o f p r a c t i c e . Outcomes and instruments: p r o v i d i n g feedback on personal and group behaviour Assessment can be made o f both personal growth i n the a b i l i t y to i n t e r a c t w e l l w i t h others, and group development toward cohesion and e f f i c i e n c y . P e r s o n a l development i n s e n s i t i v i t y o f p e r c e p t i o n can be assessed through (a) o b j e c t i v e measures which t e s t f o r p r e d i c t i v e power, (b) s u b j e c t i v e measures of the l e a r n e r ' s self-assessment, and (c) s u b j e c t i v e measures of other p a r t i c i p a n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n of the l e a r n e r ' s behaviour. Smith (1973:30-31) c i t e d f i v e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s u s i n g o b j e c t i v e measures of the power of T-Group experience to improve the p e r c e p t i v e a b i l i t y o f p a r t i c i p a n t s i n p r e d i c t i n g o t hers' f e e l i n g s and behaviours. The r e - s u l t s seemed to e s t a b l i s h the marginal or even counterproductive e f f e c t o f t h i s method i n improving o b j e c t i v e l y v e r i f i a b l e s e n s i t i v i t y . However, s u b j e c t i v e assessments made by p a r t i c i p a n t s of themselves a f t e r T-Group experience r e p o r t "that t h e i r s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s , s e n s i t i v i t y and i n t e r p e r s o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s were changed i n h i g h l y b e n e f i c i a l ways" (Smith,1973:32). What these people r e p o r t accomplishing, i n e f f e c t , i s r a t i o n a l i s t i c understanding not e m p i r i c a l U 9 u n d e r s t a n d i n g . They e x p e r i e n c e " . . . a s e n s e o f s p o n t a n e o u s g i v i n g o f t h e s e l f , t h e f r e e e x p r e s s i o n o f s e l f i n i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s w i t h o u t c a l c u l a t i o n o f c o s t o r g a i n t o e i t h e r t h e g i v e r o r r e c e i v e r . . . " S m i t h c o n c l u d e s , " . . . r a t i o n a l - i s t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g seems more r e a l t o u s , i s more d e e p l y d e s i r e d , a n d i s p r o b - a b l y more i m p o r t a n t t o o u r p e r s o n a l s u r v i v a l a n d w e l l - b e i n g t h a n i s e m p i r i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g ( S m i t h , 1973:32). S u b j e c t i v e m e a s u r e s may a l s o be t a k e n o f how o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s p e r c e i v e t h e l e a r n e r ' s b e h a v i o u r . The a s s e s s m e n t i s g i v e n t o t h e l e a r n e r so t h a t he c a n i n - c o r p o r a t e i t e i t h e r a s c o n f i r m a t i o n o f p r e s e n t b e h a v i o u r s o r a s a n i n d i c a t i o n o f w h i c h b e h a v i o u r s m i g h t be more e f f e c t i v e . T h i s i s t h e c y b e r n e t i c p r i n c i p l e o f f e e d b a c k a p p l i e d c o n s c i o u s l y a n d d i s c r e t e l y t o i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s . S m i t h d e f i n e s f e e d b a c k s i m p l y a s k n o w l e d g e o f t h e r e s u l t s o r e f f e c t s o f o n e ' s b e - h a v i o u r t o w a r d o t h e r s , and e m p h a s i z e s t h e r e i n f o r e c e m e n t o r r e w a r d t h i s i m p l i e s when t h a t b e h a v i o u r h a s b e e n s u p p o r t i v e o r f a c i l i t a t i v e t o t h e o t h e r . He a l s o c a u t i o n s t h a t s u c c e s s f u l f e e d b a c k s h o u l d l e a d t r a i n e e s t o s e t new g o a l s f o r t h e m - s e l v e s , e v e n e n c o u r a g e them t o s e t h a r d g o a l s f o r t h e m s e l v e s ; i t s h o u l d m o t i v a t e • t h e l e a r n e r t o i m p r o v e h i s s e n s i t i v i t y , r e v e a l a n y d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n where he i s a n d where he w a n t s t o be o r t h i n k s he i s , a n d i n f o r m h i m o f h i s p r o g r e s s t o w a r d s t h o s e d e s i r e d c a p a b i l i t i e s (1973:36-37). N y l e n , M i t c h e l , a n d S t o u t d e f i n e d f e e d b a c k a s " c o m m u n i c a t i o n w h i c h g i v e s b a c k t o a n o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l • i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t how he h a s a f f e c t e d u s , and how he s t a n d s w i t h u s i n r e l a t i o n t o h i s g o a l s o r i n t e n t i o n s " (1967:75). E v a l u a t i o n c a n a l s o be made o f t h e b e h a v i o u r s o f p e r s o n s i n g r o u p s , a n d o f t h e g r o u p ' s s t a t e o f d e v e l o p m e n t a s a c o h e s i v e , e f f e c t i v e e n t i t y . The s m a l l g r o u p i n t e r a c t i o n d i a g r a m w h i c h f o l l o w s was u s e d t o r e c o r d two o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d s o f f i v e m i n u t e s e a c h , t a k e n d u r i n g a n h o u r ' s m e e t i n g , t o g i v e a r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e o f who s p o k e t o whom w i t h what f r e q u e n c y (Dimock,1971 »Book 11:23). A r r o w s g e n e r a l l y i n d i c a t e t h e p a r t i c i p a n t t o whom t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n was a d d r e s s e d . A r r o w s 120 to the centre i n d i c a t e a general comment not d i r e c t e d a t any one member. Bars on any l i n e i n d i c a t e the second and subsequent communications i n the same d i r e c t i o n . F i g . 7 : An i n t e r a c t i o n diagram of a c l u b group based two samples o f f i v e minutes each. (Dimock,1971»Bk.II:23) T h i s , o f course, gi v e s only a q u a n t i t a t i v e measure o f the i n t e r a c t i o n s , i d e n t i f i e s frequent p a r t i c i p a n t s and r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d members. The q u a l i t y of a member's c o n t r i b u t i o n s i s more c l e a r l y represented i n an i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s schedule, one v e r s i o n o f which i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix G • I n the i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s schedule each member's behaviours are r e g i s t e r e d a g a i n s t c a t e g o r i e s which i d e n - t i f y them as e i t h e r f a c i l i t a t i v e o r o b s t r u c t i v e o f the group's a c t i v i t y . Schedules give a more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the group s e s s i o n than does the i n t e r a c t i o n diagram alone. 121 I t i s p o s s i b l e to see a group develop over time and assess whether or not i t i s maturing as a group by comparing s e v e r a l r a t i n g s taken on a group develop- ment survey schedule a t i n t e r v a l s o f a week or more. An example of group development survey questions i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix G . These do not i d e n t i f y which members are c o n t r i b u t i n g what, but r a t h e r whether or not q u a l i t i e s e s s e n t i a l to group e f f e c t i v e n e s s are i n evidence. These group q u a l i t i e s i n c l u d e u n i t y (cohesion), s e l f - d i r e c t i o n (the groups' own motive power), group c l i m a t e ( f r e e - dom to be spontaneous), d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l e a d e r s h i p , d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s p o n s i - b i l i t y , problem s o l v i n g (group e f f e c t i v e n e s s a t u t i l i z i n g a l l member's c o n t r i - butions and a c t i n g c r e a t i v e l y to solve i t s problems), method of r e s o l v i n g d i s - agreements w i t h i n group, extent to which group meets members* needs ( s e c u r i t y , r e c o g n i t i o n , belonging), v a r i e t y of group a c t i v i t i e s , and f i n a l l y depth of group a c t i v i t i e s (extent to which members can c o n t r i b u t e ' t h e i r f u l l p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , s k i l l s and c r e a t i v i t y ) . F i n a l l y , as w e l l as a s s e s s i n g i n d i v i d u a l development of i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s , or group development of cohesion and e f f e c t i v e n e s s , the agent i n t h i s type of a d u l t education may want to evaluate the degree of i n f l u e n c e the t r a i n i n g he pro- v i d e d had on these developments. Smith suggests f o u r general types of designs to evaluate t r a i n i n g : l ) measures a f t e r t r a i n i n g without a c o n t r o l group, 2) measures before and a f t e r t r a i n i n g without a c o n t r o l group, 3) measures a f t e r t r a i n i n g w i t h a c o n t r o l group, and 4) measures before and a f t e r t r a i n i n g w i t h a c o n t r o l group -(1973*4l). The f i r s t o f these designs i s the most o f t e n used but the poorest; the l a s t i s the l e a s t o f t e n used but the b e s t . Smith acknowledges the e x t r a procedural stages i n v o l v e d i n the design t h a t uses measures before and a f t e r t r a i n i n g w i t h a c o n t r o l group but adds t h a t i t has these advantages: - Matching experimental and c o n t r o l groups on the b e f o r e - t r a i n i n g measures avoids the danger t h a t the groups may not be comparable a t the beginning. - Taking the d i f f e r e n c e between before-and-after measures i n the t r a i n e d 122 group i n d i c a t e s what changes took place d u r i n g the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d . - Comparing these changes with the changes t h a t took place i n the un- t r a i n e d c o n t r o l group during the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d i s o l a t e s the changes caused by the t r a i n i n g i t s e l f . - O v e r a l l , the exactness of t h i s design has the advantage t h a t c o n f i d e n t c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn from a study based on a s m a l l number o f t r a i n e e s . C l i e n t e l e o r i e n t a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Because o f the degree of personal commitment and involvement i n both i n t e r - personal and group process l e a r n i n g , i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t l e a r n e r s would be motivated by e i t h e r g e n e r a l i z e d love of l e a r n i n g or f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y . I n t e r p e r s o n a l l e a r n i n g i n v o l v e s changes i n p e r c e p t i o n and behaviour t h a t b r i n g w i t h them some degree of s t r e s s and t h e r e f o r e i t i s most l i k e l y t h a t these l e a r n e r s have some e x t e r n a l stimulus i n t h e i r personal, p r o f e s s i o n a l or community l i f e t h a t motivates them to engage i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l education. Reading alone must not have proved to be e f f e c t i v e enough f o r them, and therapy i s apparently a more d r a s t i c i n t e r v e n t i o n than i s r e q u i r e d . Gazda et a l (1973J23) describe - these persons as being " i n good touch w i t h r e a l i t y " and seeking through i n t e r - personal education to improve some aspect o f t h e i r human r e l a t i o n s . L o c a t i o n s f o r i n t e r p e r s o n a l education Because i n t e r p e r s o n a l l e a r n i n g outcomes are a t t i t u d i n a l and deeply imbedded i n h a b i t u a l p a t t e r n s of l i v i n g the l e a r n i n g process i s f a c i l i t a t e d by d i s r u p t i o n of the h a b i t u a l environment. Removing the l e a r n e r to a r e s i d e n t i a l centre such as a h o t e l , r e s o r t , church-owned r e t r e a t , o r s p e c i a l i n s t i t u t e not o n l y provides him a new p h y s i c a l space, and s o c i a l environment, but a l s o a d a i l y schedule which focuses on h i s l e a r n i n g . These l o c a t i o n s are most l i k e l y to have the 123 s p e c i a l adaptations o f a comfortable, pleasant, and f l e x i b l e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n - ment t h a t i s most s u i t e d to t h i s k i n d of l e a r n i n g . The l o c a t i o n can thus pro- vide f o r an extended, i s o l a t e d , and i n t e n s i v e personal l e a r n i n g experience. S e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g . Education Goal, f u n c t i o n , and t y p i c a l content The goal of s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g education i s to e n r i c h as f a r as p o s s i b l e personal f u l f i l m e n t i n the search f o r something precious and s i g n i f i c a n t i n l i f e . While no e d u c a t i o n a l program i s a b l e , o r should t r y , to s a t i a t e t h a t d e s i r e f o r f u l f i l m e n t , what i t can do i s introduce a d u l t s ' t o some r i c h f i e l d s f o r e x p l o r a t i o n i n the worlds o f a r t , h i s t o r y , s c i e n c e , and philosophy. Of course the g o a l . i s t o do more than merely s t i m u l a t e c u r i o s i t y about what l i e s w i t h i n those phenomenal and noumenal worlds. I n d i s c r i m i n a t e consumption of a r t , • h i s t o r y , philosophy, o r science'can l e a d nowhere but to confusion and c y n i c i s m . Therefore s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g education would be doing the l e a r n e r a d i s s e r v i c e i f i t d i d not a l s o equip him to examine c r i t i c a l l y the r i c h e s opening up to him. The f u n c t i o n o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g education i s thus to t r a i n i n t o the l e a r n e r the h a b i t o f q u e s t i o n i n g the value o f whatever he encounters a g a i n s t h i s own standards. At f i r s t those standards may be only an i n s t i n c t f o r what i s b e a u t i - f u l , what i s good, and what i s t r u e . But the h a b i t o f q u e s t i o n i n g , once adopted, can be turned on those standards as w e l l . Thus r a t h e r than a c q u i r i n g o r consum- i n g examples of what may be beauty, the f u n c t i o n o f t h i s s o r t o f education i s to teach the l e a r n e r how to question what beauty r e a l l y i s . In t h i s way he moves towards knowing, o r i n t e r n a l i z i n g what beauty i s , expanding w i t h i n h i m s e l f a sense o f the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i n g s . 124 T h e r e i s a v e r y l o n g t r a d i t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . The s e a r c h f o r m e a n i n g a n d s i g n i f i c a n c e h a s o f t e n b e e n c i t e d a s t h e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g q u a l i t y o f h u m a n i t y i t s e l f . B u t e d u c a t o r s h a v e b e e n a t o d d s a s t o w h i c h s o r t s o f e d - u c a t i o n a l c o n t e n t w o u l d p r o v i d e t h e most s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g e x p e r i e n c e s f o r l e a r n e r s . L i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n i s a f a m i l i a r t e r m b u t one w h i c h o v e r t h e c e n t u r i e s h a s i n d i c a t e d many d i f f e r e n t s o r t s o f c o n t e n t . I n C i c e r o ' s t i m e ( l 0 6-^3B . C . ) " a r t e s l i b e r a l i s " meant a l l t h e s k i l l s a n d a r t s p o s s e s s e d by t h e e d u c a t e d f r e e m a n . I n t h e f i f t h c e n t u r y A . D . and f o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e D a r k A g e s , e d u c a t o r s h a d a l l t h e y c o u l d manage t o k e e p a l i v e a " t r i v i u m " o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n a r t s ( i . e . , l o g i c , g rammar , a n d r h e t o r i c ) , a n d a " q u a d r i v i u m " o f s y s t e m a t i c d i s c i p l i n e s ( i . e . , g e o m e t r y , a r i t h m e t i c , a s t r o n o m y and m u s i c W i t h t h e r i s e o f u n i v e r s i t i e s i n t h e 12th a n d 13th c e n t u r i e s t h e n e w l y r e d i s c o v e r e d " T h r e e P h i l o s o p h i e s o f A r i s t o t l e " ( m e n t a l p h i l o s o p h y , m o r a l p h i l o s o p h y , and n a t u r a l p h i l o s o p h y ) were a d d e d ( C o w l e y , 1956:377) • D u r i n g t h e r e n a i s s a n c e s o n s o f t h e s q u i r a r c h y a n d n o b i l i t y who came t o be e d u c a t e d n o t a s p r i e s t s b u t a s " g e n t l e m e n " s t u d i e d a n e v e r - e x p a n d i n g f i e l d o f m a t h e m a t i c s a n d t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y r e s p e c t e d v e r n a c u l a r l a n g u a g e s . G r e e k a n d L a t i n were k e p t o n a s w o r t h y a r e a s o f s t u d y a n d came t o be r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e " c l a s s i c a l l a n g u a g e s " . When E u r o p e a n c u l t u r e moved i n t o t h e c o l o n i e s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a t h e o r i g i n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f u r t h e r l e a r n i n g were c a l l e d " l i t e r a r y s e m i n a r i e s " i n d i c a t i n g t h e e m p h a s i s p l a c e d o n t h e s t u d y o f c l a s s i c a l l a n g u a g e s i n o r d e r t o f o r m c h a r a c t e r (Cowley ,1956:379)• F o l l o w i n g t h e . A m e r i c a n r e v o l u t i o n t h e demands o f b u i l d i n g a n i n d e p e n d e n t n a t i o n r e q u i r e d t h e c o l l e g e s t o i n c l u d e t r a i n - i n g i n e x p e r i m e n t a l s c i e n c e a n d what B e n j a m i n F r a n k l i n c a l l e d " u s e f u l k n o w l e d g e " . The r e c u r r i n g i s s u e o f t h e 19th a n d 20th c e n t u r i e s r e g a r d i n g c o n t e n t a p p r o - p r i a t e f o r l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n h a s b e e n w h e t h e r o r n o t t o i n c l u d e t h e s c i e n c e s . Some l i k e J o h n S t u a r t M i l l i n I867 a r g u e d t h a t e v e r y o n e ' s e d u c a t i o n w o u l d b e n e f i t f r o m s t u d y i n g t h r o u g h t h e M e t h o d s o f s c i e n c e " t h e modes o f w h i c h t h e human i n t e l - l e c t p r o c e e d s f r o m t h e known t o t h e unknown" (Cowley,1956:386) . O t h e r s o f t h e 125 same p e r i o d saw the sciences as too narrow and c a r e e r - d i r e c t e d to be of general b e n e f i t . This view seemed to predominate and education which was f o r personal enrichment alone g r a d u a l l y centred on those s t u d i e s which looked t o humanity's s u b j e c t i v e l i f e . The "Humanities" always i n c l u d e d l i t e r a t u r e , philosophy, music, and f i n e a r t ; o f t e n but not always i n c l u d e d r e l i g i o n and h i s t o r y ; and sometimes i n c l u d e d modern o r c l a s s i c a l languages w i t h t h e i r l i t e r a t u r e s i n the o r i g i n a l form. In 196° the Center f o r the Study o f L i b e r a l Education f o r A d u l t s down- played the p h y s i c a l and b i o l o g i c a l sciences as l e s s than r e l e v a n t s t u d i e s f o r a d u l t s because these areas w e r e " d i f f i c u l t i f not impossible to handle i n a mean- i n g f u l f a s h i o n " (Whipple,Haygood,Goldman,Siegle,1969:14). A decade l a t e r t h i s statement seems unconscionable. Problems o f medical e t h i c s , i n d u s t r i a l d i s e a s e s , nuclear contamination, species e x t i n c t i o n , a g r i c u l t u r a l p o l i t i c s , dependence on non-renewable sources of energy, c o n t r o v e r s i e s a t every t u r n have made the sciences e s s e n t i a l to the study o f man and "the good l i f e " . The q u a l i t y of u r - ban l i f e , the d e t e r i o r a t i n g e f f e c t s o f extensive c a r e e r and geographic m o b i l i t y , the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s o f consumerism, and the response o f i n d i v i d u a l conscience to government a c t i o n s , these and other questions r e g a r d i n g what i s d e s i r a b l e a s o c i e t y , were c o n t r i b u t e d by the s o c i a l s ciences to man's search f o r f u l f i l m e n t . In sum, the h i s t o r y of education f o r personal understanding and f u l f i l m e n t has been l o n g and vig o r o u s . The modern consensus on content seems to be t h a t i t can pro p e r l y i n c l u d e the a r t s and philosophy, the humanistic i m p l i c a t i o n s o f a l l s c i e n c e s , and the study of r e l i g i o u s p e r s p e c t i v e s on man. Even t h i s exten- s i v e content range would be incomplete without i n c l u d i n g a unique c o n t r i b u t i o n of the 20th century. E a r l y i n v e n t o r i e s of a d u l t education program contents (eg. Ely,1936) recognized " r e c r e a t i o n " as a major area of a c t i v i t y . The key to r e c r e a t i o n i n the scope of a d u l t education seems to be the n o t i o n o f h e a l t h . The d i s r u p t i o n s and pressures o f 20th century l i f e combined w i t h unenlightened consumption have l e d to phenomena o f mental breakdown, m a r i t a l breakdown, 1 2 6 and p h y s i c a l breakdown i n a host of s t r e s s - r e l a t e d d i s e a s e s . These developments have r a i s e d p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n the promotion o f h e a l t h to an unprecedented de- gree . E d u c a t i o n a l outcomes r e l a t e d to h e a l t h are t i e d to s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g education p a r t i a l l y by t h e i r dependence on a f f e c t i v e a t t i t u d e development r a t h e r than on simple c o g n i t i o n . Health values are a l s o c l e a r l y i n t e g r a t e d w i t h r e l i - gious values and l i f e p h i l o s o p h i e s . The Black Muslims, Hebrew Orthodoxy, Seventh Day A d v e n t i s t s , and Hindu communities a l l promote e x p l i c i t dietary- p r a c t i c e s as p a r t of t h e i r system of values of the good l i f e . S e cular p r a c t i c e s such as the medical use of biofeedback, government f i t n e s s programs, e n v i r o n - mental movements, and personal s t r e s s - r e d u c t i o n programs emphasize the c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n of mental and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h and promote values such as outdoor a c t i v i t y , c a r e f u l d i e t , exercise'and drug-free s l e e p . The p r o l i f e r a t i o n of such a c t i v i t i e s emphasizes t h a t the search f o r mental and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h , through c o n s c i o u s l y developed h a b i t s of l i f e , must now be i n c l u d e d among e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s f o r personal f u l f i l m e n t and s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . Methodology geared to type of goal The goal of s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g education i s to d i s c o v e r w i t h i n o n e s e l f a sense of beauty, goodness and t r u t h which recognizes when experiences embody those q u a l i t i e s . Such a sense o f s i g n i f i c a n c e i nherent i n the l e a r n e r , i n s t i n c t i v e a t f i r s t , may be c o n t i n u a l l y r e f i n e d as a standard f o r t e s t i n g and judging ex- perience . T his i s not education f o r the a c q u i s i t i o n of e x t e r n a l standards. I t i s e d u c a t i o n a l e x p l o r a t i o n f o r the purpose of d i s c o v e r i n g p e r s o n a l l y meaningful and s a t i s f y i n g v a l u e s . I t thus f a l l s squarely w i t h i n the a f f e c t i v e domain o f educational outcomes as described by Krathwol, Bloom and Masia (1964). Because these are a f f e c t i v e outcomes o f an e s t h e t i c or p h i l o s o p h i c s o r t they cannot be a c q u i r e d through i n s t r u c t i o n alone. A f f e c t i v e values have to be encountered and experienced, then c o n s c i o u s l y or unconsciously judged and 127 accepted o r r e j e c t e d . These two phases o f a f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g , the e x p e r i e n t i a l and judgmental, give r i s e to what seems to be the d i s t i n c t i v e impression- r e f l e c t i o n methodology o f education f o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n . Developing new i n t e r e s t s , new v o l u n t a r y a c t i v i t i e s ; seems to r e q u i r e t h e i r being made very r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , and t e s t a b l e without much inconvenience, commitment o r t h r e a t The i n i t i a l phase i s thus a matter o f exposure to new p o s s i b i l i t i e s and the op- p o r t u n i t y to t r y them out, while the complementary phase i s the musing on and a p p r a i s i n g o f the experience w i t h reference to other v a l u e s one h o l d s . The r e f l e c t i v e phase needs prompting, means, o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n and non-evaluative r e c o g n i t i o n from the agent to encourage the l e a r n e r ' s e x p l o r a t i o n o f new v a l u e s . Obstacles to l e a r n i n g f o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n Learning j u s t f o r the pleasure o f i t i s not s u s t a i n e d by the same outside i n c e n t i v e s t h a t p r a c t i c a l , i n t e r p e r s o n a l o r s o c i a l a c t i v i s t l e a r n i n g i s . Learn- i n g f o r personal f u l f i l m e n t i s more s u s c e p t i b l e to the l e a r n e r ' s d i s a f f e c t i o n w i t h the worth o f l e a r n i n g i t s e l f , and w i t h h i s own s e l f - w o r t h . Glenn Jensen says t h a t ' the c h i e f negating f a c t o r which keeps one from becoming a l l t h a t he can seems to be ''something t h a t p r o h i b i t s a person from c o n s i d e r i n g h i m s e l f a worthwhile r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the human r a c e " (Jensen,1970:517)• Jensen f e l t t h a t two ways o f l i f e which r e s u l t from t h i s l a c k o f f u l f i l m e n t are the "worka- h o l i c " and the underemployed who f i l l s o ff-hours 'with s t u l t i f y i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Those who t r y too hard are seeking r e c o g n i t i o n and s i g n i f i c a n c e as c o n t r i b u t i n g persons; those who don't t r y hard enough are seeking escape from the drabness o f "simply going through the motions o f e x i s t i n g " ( i b i d ) . Both l o s e out on the ex- perience o f l e a r n i n g as a simple, personal j o y . Jensen goes on t o say t h a t the f u l l y - f u n c t i o n i n g s e l f , presumably one t h a t can l e a r n f o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n , "must have the opportunity to l i v e the good l i f e and have a reason to be"(op.cit . : 5 2 2 ). Without these the person i s l i k e l y 128 to become a c l o s e d s e l f , f e a r f u l of new t a s k s , a n t i c i p a t i n g f a i l u r e , and gener- a l l y a v o i d i n g new experiences. The most damaging g u a l i t y which may develop i n Jensen's o p i n i o n i s a l i e n a t i o n , the l o s s of p r i d e and commitment when the a d u l t f e e l s h i s own e f f o r t s have l i t t l e to do w i t h the good or bad fortune t h a t b e f a l l s him (op. cit.:523). This l i n e of a n a l y s i s would seem to say t h a t unless there i s m a t e r i a l w e l l - b e i n g and c i v i l d i g n i t y f i r s t , there i s no p o s s i b i l i t y of a r - t i s t i c and p h i l o s o p h i c or r e l i g i o u s p e r s p e c t i v e s t a k i n g h o l d , But t h a t c o n c l u - s i o n would only make sense i f art/and philosophy a n d ' r e l i g i o n are nothing more than decorations on a well-developed m a t e r i a l and c i v i l order, something to come l a t e r when there i s time, when the r e a l work i s done, r a t h e r than t h e i r being, the very l i f e - b l o o d of m a t e r i a l and c i v i l r e v o l u t i o n and s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . I t must be asked where the courage, v i s i o n , commitment and-sense of s e l f - w o r t h are to come from to break the g r i p of dismal m a t e r i a l and c i v i l circumstances. I n North America the power of a r t i s t i c and e t h i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s to r a i s e the c a p a c i t y i n people to a c t u a l i z e what might be i s i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h the examples of Myles Horton's Highlander F o l k s c h o o l (where t o p i c a l songs were used to h e l p union b u i l d - i n g ) , and w i t h Moses Goady's r e - c r e a t i o n of economic h i s t o r y f o r the workers of Nova S c o t i a i n h i s parable "The Great D e f a u l t of the People". The r e v i v a l o f major a r t forms l i k e the c a r v i n g of totems cannot be d i s a s s o c i a t e d from the r e d i s c o v e r y of t r i b a l e t h i c s and the r e a s s e r t i o n of the r i g h t to s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n being made by North America's n a t i v e peoples. A r t and philosophy do not always awaken s o c i a l consciousness, they may transform very personal s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . But d i s a f f e c t i o n and a l i e n a t i o n only bar the l e a r n e r ' s way to a p p r e c i a t i n g someone e l s e ' s a r t and philosophy. D i s a f - f e c t i o n and a l i e n a t i o n are d i s s o l v e d i n the d i s c o v e r y of some a r t i s t i c form t h a t expresses the l e a r n e r ' s own c o n d i t i o n , and some p h i l o s o p h i c perspective t h a t expresses h i s l i f e experience. 129 S t r u c t u r i n g p r i n c i p l e s f o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g education Three qu i t e d i f f e r e n t approaches have been used to s t r u c t u r e values c l a r i - f i c a t i o n education f o r a d u l t s . Roughly speaking these approaches are themaiic- a l l y arranged around a) d i s c i p l i n e s o f knowledge, b) a d u l t s o c i a l r o l e s , o r c) c e n t r a l problems o f l i f e . The f i r s t of these s t r u c t u r a l a l t e r n a t i v e s , the d i s c i p l i n e s , i s a formal c u r r i c u l u m approach t h a t has been p r a i s e d as t r u l y and e f f e c t i v e l y general, but which r e q u i r e s a f u l l - t i m e , systematic s c h o o l i n g to do i t j u s t i c e . P u l l - t i m e s c h o o l i n g i s w e l l beyond the means and p o s s i b l y beyond the t a s t e o f most a d u l t s (Broudy,1959:3)• The d i s c i p l i n e s approach does have the p o t e n t i a l to give i n s i g h t i n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among items o f knowledge ( M i l l e r , I 9 6 0 : 2 5 ) . I t a l s o enables the l e a r n e r to grasp the methods man uses to design s o l u t i o n s to problems and to formulate standards by which to t e s t those s o l u t i o n s (Hutchins, 195^:29). The main problem w i t h the formal d i s c i p l i n e s approach e s p e c i a l l y e v i - dent when i t i s de s c r i b e d as "keeping up w i t h new knowledge i n a l l major f i e l d s " ( U n i v e r s i t y o f Oklahoma, 1970:49) i s t h a t I t seems t o be an a b s t r a c t e x e r c i s e too f a r removed from the world experienced by the a d u l t l e a r n e r . The s o c i a l r o l e s approach s t r u c t u r e s b r o a d , s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g education around the f a m i l y , c a r e e r and s o c i e t a l r o l e s o f a d u l t s . The U n i v e r s i t y o f Oklahoma chose t h i s approach f o r i t s a d u l t h i g h e r education program because i t seemed the most u s e f u l and a t t r a c t i v e way to draw together what i s known about human i n d i v i d u a l s and changing human i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the f a m i l y , government, p u b l i c education and the m i l i t a r y ( U n i v e r s i t y o f Oklahoma,1970:50)• However, although t h i s was a program concerned w i t h v a l u e choices i t c l e a r l y emphasized values which impinge on s o c i e t y as evidenced by the t i t l e o f the program, "Continuing Education f o r P u b l i c R e s p o n s i b i l i t y " . This s o c i e t a l p e r s p e c t i v e on values has sometimes been adopted as though i t were broad enough to in c l u d e a l l human value questions, but the s o c i a l r o l e s approach does not i n h e r e n t l y 1 3 0 d e a l w i t h questions o f i d e n t i t y , aging, m o r t a l i t y , transcendance, the pos s i b - i l i t y of personal s a l v a t i o n o r j u s t i f i c a t i o n , and other questions focused on the meaning of human i n d i v i d u a l i t y . Broudy (1959) presented a strong c r i t i c i s m of the s o c i a l r o l e s theme i n a d u l t l i b e r a l education. He wrote, "The very- s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n o f the s o c i a l r o l e s approach to a d u l t education, o r any other k i n d of education f o r t h a t matter, i s th a t i t l o c a t e s the center o f g r a v i t y i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l primacy; and i t i s almost i n e v i t a b l e t h a t the e v i l s o f the 'other d i r e c t e d ' s o r t of l i f e w i l l be i t s consequence" (op. c i t . : 5 ) » Despite i t s i n i t i a l appeal, the problem with the s o c i a l r o l e s approach i s t h a t i t deals l e s s w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t v a l u e s of human experience than i t does w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n s t r u m e n t a l value to s o c i e t y . The t h i r d s t r u c t u r a l a l t e r n a t i v e f o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g education i s based on the theme o f c e n t r a l i s s u e s of human experience. Broudy c o n t r i b u t e d the n o t i o n t h a t there are v a r i o u s types or c a t e g o r i e s of experience which have a value dimension, among them would be economic, r e c r e a t i o n a l , . . a s s o e i a t i o n a l , . . i n t e l l e c t u a l , moral, r e l i g i o u s and a e s t h e t i c types o f experience. He a l s o noted t h a t w i t h i n each of these c a t e g o r i e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e to d i s t i n g u i s h d i s c r e t e l e v e l s to the q u a l i t y of the experience, and that the degree of understanding one has w i t h i n a category of value-experience i s e x h i b i t e d i n the q u a l i t y o f p r e f e r r e d e x p e r i - ence (1959*9)• Arranging one's l i f e w i t h l i m i t e d resources of time and money i s only f u r t h e r complicated by a multitude of a l t e r n a t i v e s unless one has made the e f f o r t to decide what values w i l l guide h i s preferences. How to earn a l i v i n g , what to spend f r e e time on, whom to a s s o c i a t e w i t h , what to b e l i e v e i n , what to take comfort i n , are r e c u r r i n g questions i n everyone's l i f e . Hutchin's promotion o f "Great Books" was based on h i s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t con- temporary problems f a c i n g the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y are a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o r recombination of fundamental problems. He f e l t there e x i s t s a set o f b a s i c value c o n f l i c t s , and t h a t i n " t r e a t i n g the most d i f f i c u l t s u b j e c t s o f human thought, 1 3 1 great books represent the c l e a r e s t and s i m p l e s t expression of the best t h i n k i n g t h a t can be done on these s u b j e c t s " (1954:2). M i l l e r c i t e d the Great Books ex- periment as an example of education f o r the " s k i l l s of the f r e e man" o r r e n a i s - sance man, the s k i l l s of a n a l y s i s , c r i t i c i s m , and judgement. P a r t i c u l a r l y , M i l l e r wanted to see the n o n - s p e c i a l i s t equipped by a sense of value i m p l i c a t i o n s to i n t e r p r e t and judge the work o f experts, "to judge the beauty of a work of a r t , the c r e d i b i l i t y o f the r e s u l t s of s c i e n t i f i c r esearch, or the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s " (1960:28). An i n t e r e s t i n g c l a i m was made f o r the p r e f e r a b i l i t y of t h i s t h i r d v alues c l a r i f i c a t i o n approach over the formal d i s c i p l i n e s or s o c i a l r o l e s approach. Broudy proposed t h a t only the v a l u e s c l a r i f i c a t i o n or q u a l i t y of l i f e approach nurtures i n the l e a r n e r a f e e l i n g o f o b l i g a t i o n to maximize h i s and everyone e l s e ' s p o s i t i v e value experiences, that i t alone evokes a sense of duty which makes a moral c l a i m upon the a d u l t from w i t h i n h i s own nature r e g a r d i n g s e l f - improvement. Furth e r , t h a t unless education f o r p r i v a t e and community l i f e based i t s e l f on t h i s compelling o b l i g a t i o n i t would remain "an ad hoc, morally t o o t h l e s s arrangement" ( I959sl0) . D i s t i n c t i v e techniques f o r encouraging value choices I t has been e a r l i e r s t a t e d i n general terms t h a t t h i s form of p r a c t i c e employs a d i s t i n c t i v e methodology combination here c a l l e d " i m p r e s s i o n - r e f l e c t i o n " . Impression i m p l i e s t h a t the l e a r n e r w i l l be exposed to an e f f e c t i v e l y planned new experience of an a e s t h e t i c , p h i l o s o p h i c , p h y s i c a l or s p i r i t u a l nature — perhaps "new" because i t i s being experienced w i t h new s k i l l o r from a new per- s p e c t i v e — but f o r i t to be l e a r n i n g the impression w i l l be something more than a mere r e p e t i t i o n of previous impressions. R e f l e c t i o n i m p l i e s t h a t the l e a r n i n g experience w i l l be planned to inc l u d e an a p p r a i s a l phase i n which the l e a r n e r assesses the new experience and judges i t i n terms of an emerging s e t of c r i t e r i a . 1 3 2 This personal, s u b j e c t i v e assessment of the meaning and value of an experience may r e q u i r e prompting from the c o n s u l t i n g educator. I t a l s o r e q u i r e s that the l e a r n e r possess or acquire some means f o r expression of the r e f l e c t i v e phase — perhaps through f r e e d i s c u s s i o n , perhaps through music, photography, s a t i r i c a l . s k i t s o r c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g . Any mode of expression may be u s e f u l i n i n t e g r a t i n g the new experience w i t h previous ones, o r p r i o r a t t i t u d e s . But some expression of the new judgement allow s the l e a r n e r to engage w i t h others i n an examination of the newly adopted p o s i t i o n . The c o n s u l t i n g educator may suggest c r i t e r i a f o r t e s t i n g and judging the emerging o p i n i o n , but may most e f f e c t i v e l y encourage the. l e a r n e r ' s value e x p l o r a t i o n by simply honouring I t w i t h non-evaluative r e c o g n i t i o n . Of the s e v e r a l techniques most d i r e c t l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g education some f a c i l i t a t e the impression phase, some the r e f l e c t i o n phase and some accomodate both. Techniques which emphasize new impressions almost e x c l u - s i v e l y would i n c l u d e museum e x h i b i t s , a r t d i s p l a y s , l e c t u r e s e r i e s l i k e "The Human E n t e r p r i s e " a science and humanities s e r i e s f o r a d u l t s a t Northern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y , and the v a r i o u s t e l e v i s i o n extravaganzas l i k e Kenneth C l a r k ' s " C i v i l i z a t i o n " s e r i e s , Yehudi Menhuin's "The Music o f Man", Joseph Bronowski's "The Ascent o f Man",, and John Kenneth G a l b r a i t h ' s s e r i e s on economics. A l l o f the f o r e g o i n g techniques present new impressions d i r e c t l y to the l e a r n e r , but impressions may a l s o be presented i n d i r e c t l y through i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h another person who i s r e a c t i n g to events, demonstrating value c o n v i c t i o n s , o r being reacted t o . Bandura (1965) r e f e r s to t h i s as s o c i a l l e a r n i n g , o r t h a t l e a r n i n g which takes place as a r e s u l t o f observing behaviour and a t t i t u d e modelling on the p a r t of another human being. C. Wright M i l l s (1954) emphasized human modelling as a c r u c i a l element f o r the development o f human community. H i s concern was f o r the d r i f t away from many n a t u r a l " p u b l i c s " i n s o c i e t y as the d i s t i l l e r s o f p u b l i c w i l l , toward the "mass" d i s t r i b u t i o n of o p i n i o n by a few powerful and manipulative o p i n i o n makers. 1 3 3 His hope l a y w i t h the n a t u r a l l e a d e r s o f a community who speak out a g a i n s t pre-digested mass o p i n i o n and become the " r a d i a n t p o i n t s , the f o c i " o f primary p u b l i c s , or face to face n a t u r a l p u b l i c s . Then addressing a d u l t educators he s a i d t h a t i n order to a t t r a c t these n a t u r a l community l e a d e r s to programs on s o c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t themes "you must surround your students w i t h models of s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d conduct, c l a r i f i e d c h a r a c t e r , and open reasonableness, f o r I b e l i e v e i t i s i n the hope of seeing such models th a t many s e r i o u s people go to l e c t u r e s r a t h e r than more conveniently r e a d i n g books....In the end, a l l t a l k o f l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n . . . i s nonsense i f you do not have such men and women on your f a c u l t i e s . For i n the end l i b e r a l education i s the r e s u l t of the l i b e r a t i n g and . s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g touch o f such people" (Mills,1954:15)• Techniques which accomodate, both new impressions and personal r e f l e c t i o n s would i n c l u d e a l l the v a r i o u s a r t i s t i c experiences which are combined w i t h d i s - c u s s i o n groups, such as the systematic r e a d i n g of l i t e r a t u r e , immersion i n music, or e x p l o r a t i o n of s c u l p t u r e and a r t e x h i b i t s . Some s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s o c i e t i e s such as m e d i e v a l i s t s , c h o r a l groups and t r a v e l s o c i e t i e s sponsor the a c q u i s i t i o n of new knowledge, s k i l l s , and a p p r e c i a t i o n s . Some sponsor p h i l o - . sophic debates f o r t h e i r members, such as the " C o n t r o v e r s i a l Club" begun by a young businessman i n a small I l l i n o i s c i t y f o l l o w i n g the F i r s t World War (Houle,1961 :78), o r the Thomas More I n s t i t u t e i n Montreal, Quebec, which spon- sors short d i s c u s s i o n s e r i e s on p h i l o s o p h i c themes. To the a e s t h e t i c d i s c u s s i o n groups and p h i l o s o p h i c d i s c u s s i o n groups may be added community b u i l d i n g d i s - c u s s i o n groups such as those which were sponsored by the Laquemac program i n Quebec. Laquemac was a r e s i d e n t i a l camp housing groups of 100 a d u l t s f o r 10 days a t a time, sponsored by the U n i v e r s i t e de L a v a l , the M i n i s t r y of Education of Quebec, and Macdonald C o l l e g e . I t was a t o t a l l y b i l i n g u a l , t r a i n i n g and d i s c o v e r y experience f o r a d u l t educators r e s p o n s i b l e f o r community programs around Quebec. By b r i n g i n g together two founding peoples of Canadian s o c i e t y • 134 in an isolated campsite, to elect a council for self-government and a committee of instructors for the educational program, i t became a social laboratory, reminiscent of interpersonal education. To the extent that i t focused on regional economic, political, cultural and social issues i t was reminiscent of . social activist education. But Laquemac participants formed a temporary community not intended to take action as a group. Rather the participants returned to their leadership roles in their respective communities to live out what had been learned from their values clarification experience. This feature of a deep personal search for common cultural values is what placed the Laquemac pro- gram squarely within education for self-actualization when that self is under- stood to be the confluence of many individuals seeking humanity community. Laquemac was described as the expression of a hope "that the concept of a people's culture become firmly fixed as a fundamental goal for those who work in the field of adult education" in Canada (Kidd,1950:168). Other techniques which combine exposure to new impressions with conscious reflection upon them were suggested especially for developing the value of human community as "international interdependence" — a concept which under current global pressures seems to be replacing previous value emphasis on "national independence" (Compton,1978:30-33)• Compton proposed anew the benefit to be gained from such forms of discovery and expression as learning foreign languages, taking part in exchange programs, international cultural festivals, international universities, international publications, councils and task forces on policy development for alleviating global problems. Finally, whether the focus for values clarification is on the human indivi- dual or human community, there are some techniques which facilitate primarily the reflective, evaluative phase of self-actualizing education. These techniques offer the learner an opportunity to make personally expressive statements about the current state of self-creation, of the weaving together of intersupportive 135 v a l u e s . They prompt s y n t h e s i z i n g statements without burdening the l e a r n e r w i t h yet more new impressions. Such techniques i n c l u d e a l l forms o f a r t i s t i c c r e a - t i v i t y from blank verse, to w a l l murals, to pantomime. Group forms of r e f l e c - t i v e e x p r e s s i o n would i n c l u d e both those d i s c u s s i o n s where the p a r t i c i p a n t s speak as themselves, and i m p r o v i s a t i o n s where they p o r t r a y c h a r a c t e r s who represent given values or a t t i t u d e s . Because the dramatic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n g i v e s expression to human c o n v i c t i o n s i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r t h e a t r e to serve the l e a r n e r i n the audience as an i n d i r e c t form o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n as w e l l as i t s more com- mon f u n c t i o n of being a source of new impressions. Perhaps the development of what has been c a l l e d " t a s t e " f o r a given a r t i s t i c form (when i t i s a genuine and not a n . a f f e c t e d preference) i s nothing more than the d i s c o v e r y of t h a t which most n e a r l y expresses one's s e l f . Outcomes and instruments f o r a p p r a i s i n g the degree of i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n The Krathwol, Bloom and Masia taxonomy (1964) o f a f f e c t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l out- comes has a h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e based on the p r i n c i p l e of i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n . I n t e r n a l i z a t i o n acknowledges f i v e major stages o f adoption o f a new v a l u e , from l ) the most s u p e r f i c i a l awareness o f i t , to 2) a passive compliance or response to i t , to 3) an a c t i v e v a l u i n g of i t , to 4) c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g i t w i t h i n a l a r g e r value s e t , to 5) i n t e g r a t i o n of one's whole l i f e , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of one's whole c h a r a c t e r w i t h t h a t v a l u e . T h i s h i e r a r c h y helps to d i s t i n g u i s h between some o f the stages of adoption of new personal v a l u e s . I t i s not u n i v e r s a l l y accepted, and was never intended by i t s c r e a t o r s to be the f i n a l word on t e s t i n g o f a f f e c - t i v e outcomes. S t i l l , because i t provides g u i d e l i n e s f o r t e s t items which . d i s t i n g u i s h between e x t e r n a l l y - e n f o r c e d , passive compliance to a value, and i n t e r n a l l y - p r e f e r r e d , v o l u n t a r y choice o f a value i t may be u s e f u l f o r e v a l u - a t i n g some aspects of s o c i a l i z a t i o n , f o r example, as t h i s would r e q u i r e o b j e c t i v e measures. 136 But beyond c r i t i c a l aspects of s o c i a l i z a t i o n why would o b j e c t i v e measures of value-preference outcomes be necessary? Surely i n the case o f s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g education, e v a l u a t i o n i s anchored i n the s e l f of the l e a r n e r , and focused not on the l e a r n e r ' s achievements o f e x t e r n a l l y s et goals, but on the program's e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n h e l p i n g the l e a r n e r achieve h i s d e s i r e d g o a l s . Did i t meet the l e a r n e r ' s expectations and enable him to l i b e r a t e h i m s e l f from a degree of ignorance, p r e j u d i c e , f o o l i s h n e s s , narrowness, and b l i n e h a b i t ? Did i t provide a channel f o r s p i r i t u a l renewal and r e l e a s e from boredom, a l i e n a t i o n and meaninglessness? Did i t b r i n g the l e a r n e r c l o s e r to t h a t form o f profound l i t e r a c y which Maxine Green s a i d "enables persons to d i s c l o s e who they a r e . . . to- t e l l t h e i r s t o r i e s , to invent-themselves...to make c l e a r the r o l e o f vantage point even as i t i l l u m i n a t e s the shapes o f the common world" (1979:634). This type of program more than any other takes i t s cue f o r success o r otherwise from the judgment o f l e a r n e r s . With the other three types o f edu c a t i o n ' o b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f the l e a r n - er's achievement dominates as an i n d i c a t o r o f program success. A t e c h n i c a l pro- gram i s s u c c e s s f u l i f l e a r n e r s demonstrate the c r i t e r i o n performance. An i n t e r p e r s o n a l program i s s u c c e s s f u l i f the experimental design e s t a b l i s h e s v i a pre- and p o s t - t e s t t h a t the treatment group developed s k i l l s the c o n t r o l group d i d not. A s o c i a l a c t i v i s t program i s considered s u c c e s s f u l i f the p a r t i c i p a n t s move on an a t t i t u d e s c a l e from anomie toward autonomy. But how can a program f o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n s et the c r i t e r i o n behaviour f o r e v a l u a t i o n ? Of a l l f o u r types of education t h i s one reverses the primacy o f o b j e c t i v e measures, and asks not d i d the l e a r n e r achieve the program's o b j e c t i v e s , but d i d the program meet the l e a r n e r ' s expectations? Program success may hinge then on the l e a r n e r ' s sense of having passed through a s i g n i f i c a n t experience. This i s undoubtedly an e x c e p t i o n a l challenge f o r educators t o take on, but i t i s the essence o f education to honour the i n t e g r i t y of the l e a r n e r and serve the 137 unfoldment o f h i s consciousness. E v a l u a t i o n of s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g education i s one place where t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s d e f i n e d i n e x p l i c i t and uncomprpmised terms. C l i e n t e l e o r i e n t a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s T his type o f education can o f f e r l i t t l e e x t e r n a l reward; i t s main a t t r a c - t i o n i s the enchantment o f f i n d i n g l i f e more r i c h and v a r i e d than i t appeared. I t w i l l t h e r e f o r e draw c l i e n t s who are e s s e n t i a l l y l e a r n i n g o r i e n t e d , and whose se l f - c o n c e p t i s h i g h . They may be l e s s i n s t r u m e n t a l because they are o l d e r , o r they may be i n s a t i a b l y c u r i o u s so t h a t they simply d e s i r e to have more science, a r t , and philosophy i n t h e i r l i v e s . They may be seeking renewal, and something r e f r e s h i n g t o h e l p them transcend the preoccupations o f d a i l y l i f e . I n t h i s respect they may be a c t i v i t y o r i e n t e d l i k e c l i e n t s who study t e c h n i c a l contents f o r non-instrumental reasons. The d i s a f f e c t e d w i l l s e i z e w i t h enthusiasm any medium which expresses t h e i r v i s i o n — as has been demonstrated w i t h i n n e r - c i t y b u i l d - i n g murals, p o l i t i c a l s t r e e t t h e a t r e , and the s t e e l bands o f the Caribbean. Those w i t h a low s e l f - c o n c e p t can be won over t o new joy i f the s k i l l s . f o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n are brought by the agent to a l e v e l they can reach. This has been demonstrated i n g e r i a t r i c h o s p i t a l s where even p a t i e n t s i n the p a l l i a t i v e care wards respond to the chance to use percussion musical instruments. I t has been evidenced i n p r i s o n s where tending a small garden patch o r c a r i n g f o r a pet has n o t i c e a b l y m o d i f i e d p r i s o n e r behaviour. Locations f o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g education There i s some evidence t h a t e f f e c t i v e values c l a r i f y i n g education can take place c l o s e to home — i n the v i l l a g e i n s t i t u t e , the l o c a l l i b r a r y o r a church h a l l , even q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l l y i n the home as seen w i t h the " L i v i n g Room Le a r n i n g " program i n B r i t i s h Columbia .(Kidd and Selman,1978:235)• 138 However f i e l d t r i p s can u s e f u l l y supplement the value c l a r i f i c a t i o n s which go on i n d i s c u s s i o n groups, and a t the same time make use of s o c i e t y ' s c u l t u r a l storehouses which i n c l u d e : museums, auditoriums, planetariums, g a l l e r i e s , t h e a t r e s , l i b r a r i e s , c o n s e r v a t o r i e s , o b s e r v a t o r i e s , l a b o r a t o r i e s , churches, synagogues, mosques and temples. Regarding these examples o f c u l t u r a l c a p i t a l there i s some i n t e r p l a y between the developments which take place through v a l u e s c l a r i f y i n g education and s o c i a l a c t i v i s t education, since only through w i e l d i n g p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e s u c c e s s f u l l y do m i n o r i t y groups and a b o r i g i n a l peoples o b t a i n the resources to e s t a b l i s h museums, g a l l e r i e s o f photographic h i s t o r y , o r language i n s t i t u t e s . SOCIAL ACTIVIST EDUCATION Goal, f u n c t i o n and t y p i c a l content S o c i a l a c t i v i s t education d i r e c t s personal l e a r n i n g towards improving the q u a l i t y o f l i f e experienced i n human communities. In the past i t s goal has been to b r i n g about pragmatic improvements t h a t were u s u a l l y evidenced i n a more e q u i - t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f m a t e r i a l resources; but i n the l a s t decade emphasis has s h i f t e d onto the g o a l of improving understanding and c a p a b i l i t y w i t h regard to the s u c c e s s f u l management of f u r t h e r changes i n the community. Since i t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t e i t h e r i n d i v i d u a l o r mass a c t i o n s can be sustained s u c c e s s f u l l y as educative experiences without the support o f small group involvement, the f o l l o w - i n g treatment w i l l speak of fa c e - t o - f a c e primary groups, neighbours, and people i n a community as the c e n t r a l forum of s o c i a l a c t i v i s t l e a r n i n g . The f u n c t i o n o f community developing education i s to seek growth i n compe- tence, more than the a l l e v i a t i o n of misery (Biddle & Biddle,1965:221) . But i t s f u n c t i o n i s o f t e n confused w i t h t h a t o f s e v e r a l other forms o f s o c i a l p r a c t i c e . 139 " S o c i a l w e l f a r e " s e r v i c e s f o r example, while s t r u g g l i n g to get upstream a t the causes o f problems are p r i m a r i l y d e dicated to r e l i e v i n g the symptoms. "Economic development", the r a l l y i n g c r y of the 1960's, has come to be judged as o f t e n misguided and e s s e n t i a l l y m i s s i n g the mark o f human development. S i m i l a r l y , "community o r g a n i z a t i o n " presuming t h a t "community" a l r e a d y e x i s t s proceeds to systematize r e l a t i o n s among e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s and l e a d e r s , thus a c h i e v i n g a minor degree o f e f f i c i e n c y , while m i s s i n g a major o p p o r t u n i t y t o develop emerging l e a d e r s and more v i t a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . " S o c i a l p l a n ning" though i t sub- sumes welfare s e r v i c e s , economic development, and b e t t e r community o r g a n i z a t i o n f a i l s i n p r i n c i p l e and consequently i n f a c t when i t d e l i v e r s i l l - f i t t i n g s o l u - t i o n s to people who have not been a s s i s t e d to a r t i c u l a t e the problems they experience. S i m i l a r l y , both "information-communication" (from s o c i a l planners to the people who are about t o be subjected to a change), and "education of the p u b l i c " (propaganda from a s e c t o r which i s seeking change), have more i n common with p u b l i c i t y than education. The prototype of community developing education i s n e i t h e r a classroom nor a p u b l i c i t y campaign but "a small group o f f r i e n d s who are devoted to the l o c a l good" (op. c i t . : 248). The content o f s o c i a l a c t i v i s t education has three major elements i n i n t e r - a c t i o n : f i r s t l y , people as c i t i z e n s and neighbours who are a c t i n g on t h e i r own b e h a l f i n r e a l r a t h e r than simulated events o f human community; secondly, some immediate problematic s i t u a t i o n which i s a c t u a l r a t h e r than c o n t r i v e d f o r educa- t i o n a l purposes; and t h i r d l y , the socioeconomic i n s t i t u t i o n s through which people work t o a l l e v i a t e problems and b r i n g about a b e t t e r l i f e . I n f a c t , the lo n g e r range a c t i v i t y i s l a r g e l y " o r i e n t e d toward the design o f socioeconomic i n s t i t u t i o n s " ( Blakely , 1 9 7 9 i l 8 ) so th a t i n f u t u r e s i t u a t i o n s they can more e f f e c t i v e l y c l o s e the gap between human a s p i r a t i o n s and a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s . But the emphasis i s always w i t h the people who are l e a r n i n g to be c i t i z e n s , to become "competent t o l i v e and g a i n some c o n t r o l over a f r u s t r a t i n g and changing 140 w o r l d " ( B i d d l e & B idd le ,1965 :78) . M e t h o d o l o g y g e a r e d t o n a t u r e o f t h e g o a l S i n c e t h e c o n t e n t i s c o m p r i s e d o f p r o b l e m a t i c l o c a l s i t u a t i o n s , and t h e l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s s o u g h t a r e t h e a b i l i t y o f l o c a l p e o p l e t o " p e r c e i v e t h e i r own n e e d s a n d manage t h e i r own d e s t i n y i n a manner b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e m s e l v e s " ( B l a k e l y , 1 9 7 9 : 2 2 ) , t h e e d u c a t i o n a l m e t h o d o l o g y u s e d w i l l be a j u d i c i o u s c o m b i n - a t i o n o f c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , s o c i a l a c t i o n , a n d more c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g . The e m p h a s i s on p r o b i n g , t e s t i n g , p r u d e n t a c t i o n d i r e c t e d t o w a r d d e s i r e d s o c i a l change i s t h e s o u r c e o f t h e t e r m " s o c i a l e x p e r i m e n t " t o d e s c r i b e t h e d i s t i n c t i v e m e t h o d o l o g y o f s o c i a l a c t i v i s t e d u c a t i o n . W i t h o u t a c t i o n t h e r e i s p h i l o s o p h i c r a t h e r t h a n c i t i z e n s h i p e d u c a t i o n , b u t w i t h o u t c r i t i c a l t h o u g h t o f p o t e n t i a l c o n s e q u e n c e s a n d c o m p a r i s o n o f a c t u a l w i t h a n t i c i p a t e d c o n s e q u e n c e s a n y s o c i a l a c t i o n w i l l n o t p r o d u c e a n e d u c a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e . The m e t h o d o l o g y o f s o c i a l a c t i v i s t e d u c a t i o n i n i t i a t e s a p r o c e s s i n p e o p l e t h a t b e g i n s w i t h t h e i r own p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r n e e d s . I t d o e s n o t presume communi ty e x i s t s . " I t r e c o g n i z e s t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r t h e d i s c o v e r i n g o r c r e a t i n g o f c o m m u n i t y , i n a p r o c e s s t h a t w i l l u t i l i z e t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s , b u t t h a t w i l l h e l p c r e a t e new o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d i n s t i t u t i o n s when n e e d e d " ( B i d d l e & B i d d l e , 1 9 6 5 : 2 2 4 ) . S t a r t i n g w i t h t h e p e o p l e where t h e y a r e , h e l p i n g them u n c o v e r c o m m o n a l i t i e s w i t h t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s , e n c o u r a g i n g them t o become "more c o m p e t e n t t o s e r v e a n e x p a n d i n g n e i g h b o u r l y g o o d " ( o p . c i t . : 2 4 8 ) i s t h e b a s i c momentum o f communi t y d e v e l o p m e n t . A s e n s e o f c o m m u n i t y , o f b e i n g t o g e t h e r i n e x p e r i e n c e a n d c o o p e r a t i v e a c t i o n i s t h u s t h e f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t outcome o f t h e i r g u i d e d e x p l o r a t i o n o f t h e l o c a l s i t u a t i o n . The communi t y b u i l d i n g e d u c a t o r s o f H i g h l a n d e r f o l k s c h o o l a l s o came t o v a l u e t h i s s e n s e o f common p u r p o s e a s t h e f i r s t s t e p i n communi t y d e v e l o p m e n t . " H i s t o r i c a l l y e d u c a t i o n i n A m e r i c a , more o f t e n t h a n n o t , h a s t a u g h t p e o p l e t h a t 141 when the c o n f l i c t between themselves and a problem l e s s e n s o r disappears, the problem i s s o l v e d . C r i t i c a l conscious thought about the causes o f the problem, or who e l s e may be a f f e c t e d by i t , o f t e n stops a t t h i s point...Highlander sought to educate people away from the dead end of i n d i v i d u a l i s m and i n t o the freedom t h a t grows from cooperation and c o l l e c t i v e s o l u t i o n s " (Adams,1975s208). The A n t i g o n i s h cooperative movement c a r r i e d on i n the A t l a n t i c provinces of Canada taught the same e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e , t h a t s e l f i s h , competitive i n d i v i d u a l i s m was i n the end s e l f - d e f e a t i n g . "No matter how capable and s k i l l e d the i n d i v i d u a l i s , he soon l e a r n s t h a t there are f o r c e s i n s o c i e t y over which he has no personal c o n t r o l , and which i n f l u e n c e the l i v e s o f a l l i n d i v i d u a l s i r r e s p e c t i v e of t h e i r genius...Against these f o r c e s i n d i v i d u a l a c t i o n i s u s e l e s s . They must be met w i t h group a c t i o n " (laidlaw,196l:107)• A t the same time some authors cautioned t h a t hatred of a common enemy would not make as good a b a s i s f o r the community . b u i l d i n g process as the l a t e n t good w i l l i n a p o p u l a t i o n to seek improvement i n the q u a l i t y o f l i f e . S i m i l a r l y , an immediate c r i s i s was not as good a b a s i s on which to begin the community process as the many f r u s t r a t i o n s and hopes accumu- l a t e d from c r i s e s of the past (Biddle & Biddle,1965 :274) . The methodology of s o c i a l a c t i v i s t education i s a s u b t l e balance of respect f o r the hopes, experience, d e s p a i r and w i l l o f the people, and r e c o g n i t i o n o f the present l i m i t s on t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r s e l f - h e l p . Of these two q u a l i t i e s the more e s s e n t i a l to human d i g n i t y i s genuine r e s p e c t of people. My l e s Horton, founder o f the Appalachian f o l k s c h o o l , "Highlander", concluded from h i s observations o f l o c a l people and o u t s i d e r s t h a t " t h i s unacknowledged dialogue o f non-equals that so many people are c a r r y i n g on w i t h mountain people must come to an end" (Adams, 1 9 7 5 s 1 8 3 ) . He was convinced t h a t e f f e c t i v e "teaching must l e a r n to work i n s i d e the experiences of those being taught" (op. c i t . : 4 7 ) . Horton became convinced t h a t the people, no matter how poor o r untutored, would know what they needed to l e a r n , i f he c o u l d only l e a r n to l i s t e n t o them and to t r a n s l a t e what he heard 142- into an educational program (op. c i t . : 2 4 ) . James Draper introduced the book " C i t i z e n P a r t i c i p a t i o n : Canada" with a proverb on the same theme;(1971:intro): Go to the people Live among them Learn' from them Love them Serve them Plan with them Start with what they know Bu i l d on what they have The community developer i s thus a midwife of c i t i z e n s , the helper of a natural i n s t i n c t i v e process, i n t h i s case the adult desire to manage one's own destiny. He i s "an expert i n expediting a process that works only i f the p a r t i c i p a n t s take the i n i t i a t i v e from him" (Biddle & Biddle,1965:266). In t h i s way s o c i a l a c t i v i s t education i s seen to begin by bringing people together to r e f l e c t upon events i n order to l e a r n from them (op. c i t . : 8 8 ) . ' Out of t h i s j o i n t exploring of the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n and i t s causes grows self-confidence to converse with the powerful. Self-assurance grows "when c i t i z e n s have studied and discussed enough to know that they know what they are t a l k i n g about" (op. cit.:150). Obstacles to s o c i a l a c t i v i s t education Moses Coady gave great impetus to s o c i a l a c t i v i s t education i n the A t l a n t i c provinces of Canada with a parable "The Great Default of the People". In t h i s parable he fused the minutiae of h i s t o r y i n t o a powerful myth about the growth of economic i n s t i t u t i o n s and how the ordinary people l o s t c o n t r o l of them. The myth would apply equally well to p o l i t i c a l and other s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , where f o r the sake of convenience c i t i z e n s give up t h e i r working knowledge of an i n s t i t u t i o n to become instead only consumers of i t s s e r v i c e s . They pay f o r t h i s service both by g i v i n g up some f i n a n c i a l resources, and by g i v i n g up the co n t r o l that d i r e c t involvement had afforded them. With time i n s t i t u t i o n s tend to become o v e r l a i d with greater formality and a convolution of "channels" which 143 -prevent people f u r t h e r from i n f l u e n c i n g o r even l e a r n i n g about i n f l u e n c i n g the instruments of t h e i r own s o c i e t y . Some people are born w i t h p r i v i l e g e d access to socioeconomic i n s t i t u t i o n s ; they develop a h i g h e r degree o f understanding and i n f l u e n c e r e g a r d i n g these i n s t i t u t i o n s . Father James Tompkins who i n s p i r e d • Coady's work was most deeply c r i t i c a l not of those persons born to p r i v i l e g e but those who through higher education were able to r i s e above t h e i r disadvantaged peers and then simply l e f t them behind. Both these groups o f i n f l u e n t i a l c i t i - zens tend to deny t h a t a l a r g e segment o f s o c i e t y i s not empowered to p a r t i c i - pate i n the socioeconomic d e c i s i o n s which shape i t . So the f i r s t o b s t a c l e to e f f e c t i v e a c t i v i s t education i s d e n i a l on the par t o f p o t e n t i a l p r o v i d e r s t h a t people are powerless o r l a c k i n g the s k i l l s o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . T h i s d e n i a l communicates to the powerless as a sense of i n e v i t a b i l i t y about t h e i r s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n , and tends to deepen t h e i r apathy. The second t r a d i t i o n a l o b s t a c l e to s o c i a l a c t i v i s t education has been the tendency o f governments to,do t h i n g s f o r the people, o r to them, i n s t e a d o f w i t h them. From t h i s p h i l a n t h r o p i c approach stem s o c i a l welfare p r o j e c t s which over- step the vague and hopeful mandates which the governed give through e l e c t i o n procedures. S o c i a l welfare p r o j e c t s , u s i n g l a r g e bureaucracies and moving l a r g e amounts o f tax d o l l a r s , make i s o l a t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s aimed a t p h y s i c a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s . Despite any m a t e r i a l improvement which r e s u l t s , people are weakened f u r t h e r when such p r o j e c t s by-pass the people's decision-making f u n c t i o n . B l a k e l y maintains t h a t growth i n community develops only as people "are t o t a l l y i n v o l v e d i n a l l o f the f r u s t r a t i o n s as w e l l as successes i n a r r i v i n g a t the o b j e c t i v e " ( l 9 7 9 s l 9 ) • D e c i s i o n s made by absentee bureaucrats run the r i s k of f a i l u r e even i n t h e i r l i m i t e d o b j e c t i v e s because the bureaucrats' d i s t a n c e from the scene v i r t u a l l y guarantees t h a t they w i l l be "overlooking.some o f the t o t a l system", the l i v i n g community they are t r y i n g to serve (op. c i t . : 2 2 ) . Other w r i t e r s have s i m i l a r l y argued t h a t i t i s not p o s s i b l e to create a people's U i 4 s o c i e t y f o r them, or to purchase a way i n t o u t o p i a . Utopia i s something human beings s t r u g g l e f o r and grow towards, and those persons who are r e s t r i c t e d to • a passive s t a t u s i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r own s o c i e t y are prevented from such growth. This e r r o r can be committed as e a s i l y as a p p o i n t i n g a c i t i z e n s ' committee from an a u t o c r a t i c distance r a t h e r than l e t t i n g the o p i n i o n - l e a d i n g members of a community emerge and grow i n t o a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t o r y l e a d e r s h i p (Biddle & B i d d l e , 1 9 6 5 ,vii). Thus d e n i a l o f the powerlessness o f c i t i z e n s by those who have socioeconomic i n f l u e n c e , and p h i l a n t h r o p i c s o c i a l p r o j e c t s which r e l e g a t e c i t i z e n s to a passive r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h e i r own s o c i e t y are o b s t a c l e s which may preclude s o c i a l a c t i v - i s t l e a r n i n g . B i d d l e and B i d d l e have i d e n t i f i e d f i v e other o b s t a c l e s as o f t e n a r i s i n g i n the l e a r n i n g process once l o c a l people begin to come to g r i p s w i t h t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . The f i r s t i s apathy shown e i t h e r as a c t i v e r e s i s t a n c e to com- munity b u i l d i n g i n i t i a t i v e s , o r as an e q u a l l y d y s f u n c t i o n a l p o l i t e acquiescence — an i n d i f f e r e n c e so deep i t doesn't even r e s i s t (op. c i t . : l C 4 ) . The second p o t e n t i a l o b s t a c l e t o l e a r n i n g i s group c a t h a r s i s o r the tendancy to get bogged down i n b i t t e r complaint about the seriousness o f l o c a l problems and about those who are seen as being to blame. This may come about i n the e a r l y days o f forming a primary group o r "nucleus" as the B i d d l e ' s c a l l i t , o r when the deeper study o f problems begins, o r when n u c l e i o f d i f f e r i n g backgrounds come together i n t o a l a r g e r nucleus. The t h i r d p o t e n t i a l o b s t a c l e to f u r t h e r l e a r n i n g i s "the slump" when a l l community a c t i v i t y ceases f o r weeks or months e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r a suc- c e s s f u l p r o j e c t . This i s most l i k e l y f a t i g u e brought on by the excitement and e f f o r t which the a c t i v e p e r i o d has r e q u i r e d . U s u a l l y f r e s h i n t e r e s t i s aroused when a new id e a o r o b j e c t i v e a r i s e s to "g a l v a n i z e people i n t o renewed a c t i v i t y " (op. cit . : 1 0 5 ) . The f o u r t h p o t e n t i a l o b s t a c l e to c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n educa- t i o n i s the l o s s o f some key p a r t i c i p a n t s , some good members who e i t h e r drop out 145 o r a r e f o r c e d o u t by o t h e r members o f t h e g r o u p . T h i s r e g r e t a b l e l o s s l e a v e s open t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o a s s i s t t h e n e w l y e m e r g e n t l e a d e r s . On o c c a s i o n t h e l o s s may become s e r i o u s enough t o q u a l i f y a s o b s t a c l e f i v e , w h i c h i s t h e a c t u a l " d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f a n u c l e u s " t h r o u g h p o o r l e a d e r s h i p , u n w i s e d e c i s i o n s , o r f a c t i o n a l i s m . The a g e n t t h e n becomes a c o n c i l i a t o r , so t h a t t h e h e a l i n g o f wounds o f m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g w i l l be a l e a r n i n g phase f o r w a r d i n g t h e communi t y d e v e l o p m e n t p r o c e s s . S t r u c t u r i n g p r i n c i p l e s f o r s o c i a l a c t i v i s t l e a r n i n g One way o f l o o k i n g a t t h e c o m p l e m e n t a r y a n d somewhat c y c l i c a l p h a s e s o f t h i s k i n d o f l e a r n i n g i s t o d e s c r i b e i t a s c o m p r i s i n g a d i a g n o s t i c phase i n w h i c h n e e d s a r e a s s e s s e d , a n d a n a c t i o n p h a s e i n w h i c h t h e s o c i a l p o l i c y r e s u l t - i n g f r o m t h e d i a g n o s t i c phase g e t s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a c t i o n s a s p r o j e c t s a n d p r o - grams c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . The d i a g n o s i s , r e f e r r e d t o a s "communi ty r e s e a r c h " by B l a k e l y " i n s t e a d o f b e i n g p u r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e o f t h e how a n d why o f human b e h a v i o u r i s a i m e d a t c h a n g e i n a p r e d e t e r m i n e d v a l u e - s e t d i r e c t i o n " (Blakely,1979:1? )• I n o t h e r w o r d s i t i s n o t s e e k i n g s o c i a l s c i e n t i f i c e x p l a n a - t i o n w h i c h i s by n a t u r e a b s t r a c t e d a n d g e n e r a l i z e d ; i t i s s e e k i n g some p r a g m a t i c s t r a t e g y t o be e m p l o y e d i n a c o n c r e t e i n d i v i d u a l s i t u a t i o n . S t r u c t u r i n g p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h do e x i s t t e n d t o be n e i t h e r a h o w - t o f o r m u l a n o r a s i m p l e s o l u t i o n e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o a l l s i t u a t i o n s . A v a i l a b l e p r i n c i p l e s f o r s t r u c t u r i n g t h e e v e n t s o f s o c i a l a c t i v i s t e d u c a t i o n a r e n o t t o be c o n f u s e d w i t h a r e c i p e o f p r e s c r i b e d a n d s e q u e n c e d s t e p s . S t r u c t u r a l g u i d e s a r e r a t h e r t h e o u t l i n e o f a p r o c e s s f o r s e e k i n g t o g e t h e r , a p r o c e s s f o r c i t i z e n p a r t i c i - p a n t s t o e v o l v e t h e i r own p r o b l e m - r e s o l v i n g f o r m u l a s . W h i l e i t i s by n a t u r e m o d i f i a b l e , t h e b a s i c p a t t e r n o f e v e n t s must be t h e r e t o draw o u t c i t i z e n i n i - . t i a t i v e w h i c h h a s n o t o c c u r r e d on a n u n p l a n n e d b a s i s . " I f t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f r e s p o n s i b l e f r e e d o m i s t o be e x p e d i t e d t h e e x p e d i t i n g f o l l o w s a d e s i g n t h a t 146 i n v i t e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n , an o u t l i n e t h a t depends upon the f l e x i b i l i t y of group choosing" ( B i d d l e & Biddle,1965:88). With t h i s f l e x i b i l i t y the sequence of i d e n t i f i a b l e phases may be rearranged, some stages skipped a l t o g e t h e r , or s e v e r a l occur simultaneously (op. c i t . : 1 0 6 ) . Hayden Roberts of the Univer- s i t y of A l b e r t a proposed a generic set of phases to s o c i a l a c t i v i s t l e a r n i n g (1979 •  36) which combined elements from two previous analyses of the community problem-solving process. .The sequence he proposes i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 8, the s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s among the s i x stages a l t e r e d s l i g h t l y to accentu- ate t h e i r c y c l i c a l nature. The c y c l e moves from a phase of i n d i v i d u a l l y f e l t t e n s i o n and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , to a j o i n t explora- t i o n or " f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n " l e a r n i n g in-group to know on e s e l f , the b a s i s o f commonality, and the dimensions I; Tension (i.e., problem, goal) Learning Knowledge of -self - group - environment Skills in - communication - group discussion Attitudes toward -self - others - things Learning Skills in - organization - planning - administration F i g . 8: The Community Problem-Solving Process (Roberts, 1979:36) of the problem s i t u a t i o n i n much more depth and c l a r i t y than i s p o s s i b l e a t the stage o f simple d i s c o n f o r t . Out of t h i s assessment phase o f l e a r n i n g w i l l be produced some f o r m u l a t i o n o f o b j e c t i v e s f o r the group. Then begines a second phase o f l e a r n i n g which i s " s t r a t e g i c " r a t h e r than s i t u a t i o n f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n . Here people g a i n the s k i l l s and i n s i g h t s necessary to put some p l a n of a c t i o n i n t o e f f e c t . The f i n a l phase o f the c y c l e i s e v a l u a t i o n o f the outcomes of the a c t i o n taken, and an assessment o f any d i s c r e p a n c i e s and tensions which may l e a d 14? to a new round o f l e a r n i n g , g o a l - s e t t i n g , more l e a r n i n g , and a c t i o n . D i s t i n c t i v e techniques r e l a t e d to s o c i a l a c t i v i s t l e a r n i n g Techniques aimed a t i n c r e a s i n g the l e a r n e r ' s c a p a c i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n s o c i a l p lanning seem to group as t a c t i c s i n t o three broad s t r a t e g i e s . There are a) those aimed a t animation of c i t i z e n s , s t i m u l a t i n g , them to get i n v o l v e d ; b) those aimed a t a n a l y z i n g the s i t u a t i o n a l environment f o r both i t s a s s e t s and problems; and c) those t a c t i c s which aim a t i n t e r v e n t i o n i n e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u - t i o n s or i n v e n t i o n of new, more e f f e c t i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s and processes. Within the s t r a t e g y f o r c i t i z e n animation the e a r l i e s t techniques must be aimed a t overcoming i s o l a t i o n . - T h e i r purpose i s to give, a l i e n a t e d and a p a t h e t i c persons .the opportunity to l e a r n t h a t t h e i r s i t u a t i o n i s not unique — many p o t e n t i a l a l l i e s are having s i m i l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s . Subsequent techniques encom- pass devices f o r c a t a l y z i n g c i t i z e n awareness of the extent,and i f p o s s i b l e , the source o f l o c a l problems. Tom Lovett ( l975) used 15 minute r a d i o tapes made by l o c a l people i n L i v e r p o o l . P a u l o F r e i r e used hand-sketched drawings ( 1970). Myles Horton used songs w r i t t e n by h i s wife to t e l l the t a l e o f l o c a l events (Adams, 1975)* Moses Coady used h i s dramatic parable about the d e f a u l t of the people to awaken a sense o f urgency about the c o n t r o l of s o c i e t y (1939). Coady a l s o used k i t c h e n meetings and study c i r c l e s as a way f o r people to a i r t h e i r grievances and explore the p o t e n t i a l i n t h e i r s i t u a t i o n . E x p l o r a t i o n o f the w i l l of c i t i z e n s - c o u l d i n c l u d e d i r e c t techniques l i k e town meetings or p a r i s h meetings, and i n d i r e c t techniques l i k e telephone surveys, newspaper main-ins, and other forms o f o p i n i o n o r a t t i t u d e surveys developed, f o r t h i s purpose. E v e n t u a l l y the l e a r n e r s i n v o l v e d w i l l reach the stage of c r e a t i n g a "nucleus" (Biddle & B i d d l e , 1965:89). This i s a group of people who have a commitment to the common good as they understand i t i n t h e i r l o c a l s e t t i n g . T h e i r dual purpose becomes t o inform themselves b e t t e r of the f a c t s of t h e i r s i t u a t i o n and t o 148 explore together t h e i r values and hopes f o r t h e i r community's development. Group d i s c u s s i o n techniques are appropriate f o r use i n a group of t h i s s o r t . Throughout the use of a l l these techniques designed to s t i m u l a t e c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i t i s productive to maintain a running group process r e c o r d which i n c l u d e s observations regarding where the group s t a r t e d i n i t s assumptions, capa- b i l i t i e s , and dynamics, stages i t progressed through, and r e s u l t s (both intended and i n c i d e n t a l ) o f the a c t i o n s taken by the group (Blakely,1979:22). Two examples of r e c o r d keeping schedules are o f f e r e d by B i d d l e and B i d d l e : The f i r s t i s f o r encounters w i t h i n d i v i d u a l people who may or may not develop i n t o a c t i v e community c o n t a c t s . The second i s f o r meetings w i t h groups of people a,nd i t : gathers Information about both the formal agenda and i n f o r m a l t r a n s a c t i o n s which have some s i g n i f i c a n c e . The second major s t r a t e g y r e l a t e d to s o c i a l a c t i v i s t l e a r n i n g , and one which i s complementary to animating c i t i z e n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , uses techniques to analyze the environment. These i n f o r m a t i o n - g a t h e r i n g techniques seek b a s e - l i n e data both economic and otherwise on c u r r e n t resources, o b s t r u c t i o n s and h i s t o r y o f the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n . Such techniques i n c l u d e the Community Inventory Tech- nique which employs a c h e c k l i s t or inventory document and may be used by c i t i z e n s to assess t h e i r own community without u s i n g expert h e l p . The s o c i a l environment may a l s o be analyzed u s i n g a "reconnaissance technique" to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n from key c i t i z e n s or a small smaple of persons from i n t e r e s t groups. Even the Delphi method of o b t a i n i n g w r i t t e n , i n d i r e c t consensus, or other "nominal group" techniques may be used. These l a c k the s y n e r g i s t i c e f f e c t o f group d e l i b e r a t i o n s , but a l s o a v o i d p o t e n t i a l d e s t r u c t i v e e f f e c t s of f a c e - t o - f a c e i n t e r a c t i o n s . Whichever techniques are used to explore the f a c t s and values a t work i n a complex community s i t u a t i o n three g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e s i n f l u e n c e t h e i r success: I t i s e s s e n t i a l to incorporate the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of those key people 1 4 9 who e n a c t t h e c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n a n d who w i l l i m p l e m e n t t h e a c t i o n p l a n t o be d e v e l o p e d ; i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h o s e p e o p l e i n d e f i n i n g t h e p r o b l e m w h i c h i s t o be a c t e d u p o n who w i l l l i v e w i t h t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f f u t u r e a c t i o n ; a n d t h e a n a l j ^ s i s w h i c h r e s u l t s must go a s f a r a s m a k i n g r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r a c t i o n ( V o t h , 1 9 7 9 : ? 3 ) . Among l e a r n i n g t e c h n i q u e s r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l a c t i v i s t e d u c a t i o n t h e t h i r d - g e n e r a l s t r a t e g y i s communi t y m o b i l i z a t i o n f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n , o r i f n e c e s s a r y , i n v e n t i o n . To t h e e x t e n t t h a t l o c a l p e o p l e l e a r n t o make t h e m s e l v e s h e a r d a n d t o work w i t h e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d p r o c e d u r e s t h e i r a c t i o n i s " i n t e r - v e n t i o n " ; t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e y must c r e a t e new i n s t i t u t i o n s o r p r o c e d u r e s i t i s " i n v e n t i o n " . I n t e r v e n t i o n c a n h a v e u n f o r t u n a t e r e s u l t s u n l e s s a t h o r o u g h v a l u e s c l a r i f i c a t i o n h a s b e e n u n d e r t a k e n by t h e n u c l e u s i n t h e e a r l y " s i t u a t i o n f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n " s t a g e o f l e a r n i n g . T h i s v a l u e s c l a r i f i c a t i o n must examine e s p e c i a l l y t h e i s s u e s o f b l a m e , c o n f l i c t , a n d a l i e n a t i o n , l o o k i n g f o r t h e h i g h - e s t p o s s i b l e d e f i n i t i o n o f "common g o o d " a n d " c o m m u n i t y " t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n w i l l a l l o w . A t h o r o u g h o p t i o n - r e s e a r c h a t t h e " s t r a t e g i c " s t a g e o f l e a r n i n g c a n h e l p r e v e a l t h e p o t e n t i a l r a n g e o f c o n s e q u e n c e s t o v a r i o u s a c t i o n a l t e r n a t i v e s , s u c h a s what w o u l d r e s u l t f r o m u s i n g p u b l i c i t y , o b s t r u c t i o n o r p e t i t i o n . One o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s s u g g e s t e d h e r e f o r f i n d i n g a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n p l a n s t o m a t c h g o a l s i s a k i n d o f f o r c e f i e l d a n a l y s i s ( R o b e r t s , 1 9 7 9 : 1 4 8 ) . The c o n c e p t i s a t t r i b u t e d g e n e r a l l y t o K u r t L e w i n a n d d e a l s w i t h t h e s o c i a l f i e l d o r l i f e s p a c e a s t h e sum o f r e l e v a n t p h y s i c a l e n t i t i e s a n d s o c i a l f o r c e s i n t h e s u r - r o u n d i n g s . The t e c h n i q u e a n a l y z e s a s i t u a t i o n i n t e r m s o f " d r i v i n g f o r c e s " w h i c h s u p p o r t movement t o w a r d a g o a l , a n d " r e s t r a i n i n g f o r c e s " w h i c h t e n d t o impede s u c h movement . The t e c h n i q u e may be i m p l e m e n t e d t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s s u c h a s : a ) "What f o r c e s , i f a n y , must be d e a l t w i t h b e f o r e change c a n o c c u r ? " b ) " A r e t h e r e some f o r c e s whose d i r e c t i o n c a n be r e v e r s e d ? " c ) " W h i c h r e s t r a i n i n g f o r c e s c a n be r e d u c e d w i t h t h e l e a s t e f f o r t ? " d ) " W h i c h 150 d r i v i n g f o r c e s can be increased?" (Jenkins,1964:23)• P a r t o f the i n t e r v e n t i o n / i n v e n t i o n s t r a t e g y may c a l l f o r the c r e a t i o n o f a l a r g e r nucleus. This happens a t the p o i n t where i t seems ad v i s a b l e to seek c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h other small n u c l e i of c i t i z e n s . • The l a r g e r nucleus w i l l o f n e c e s s i t y have a more encom- passing d e f i n i t i o n o f the common good i n order to a t t r a c t the- j o i n t e f f o r t s o f sma l l e r n u c l e i which have more focused, p a r t i s a n i n t e r e s t s . This i s a stage o f j o i n t problem acknowledgement a p t l y d e s c r i b e d by Rich a r d F e r i n g e r o f Western Washington U n i v e r s i t y (1980). " In t h i s stage a l l p a r t i e s are de f i n e d as co- v i c t i m s t o some extent of an undes i r a b l e s i t u a t i o n — which makes i t i n the best i n t e r e s t s o f a l l to a l l e v i a t e the s i t u a t i o n . Sometimes t h i s p o i n t must be brought home to an e x p l o i t i n g party i n terms of• the p o s s i b l e consequences f o r them o f doing nothing to improve the s i t u a t i o n . I t i s not always p o s s i b l e to reach t h i s stage o f j o i n t problem r e c o g n i t i o n f a c e - t o - f a c e . One ingenious technique f o r b r i d g i n g the gap between sub-group n u c l e i i s i n t r o d u c t i o n s v i a videotape used w i t h considerable success by the "Challenge For Change" program u s i n g the t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e of the N a t i o n a l F i l m Board to enable c o n f l i c t i n g f a c t i o n s t o view each other's d e l i b e r a t i o n s (JQdd and Selman, 1978:229-233) • Some t r a d i t i o n a l a d u l t education techniques are w e l l s u i t e d f o r h e l p i n g a d u l t s l e a r n from experts when as c i t i z e n s t h e i r problem-solving r e q u i r e s con- s u l t i n g e x p e r t s . One i s the "c o l l o q u y " where a panel of experts i s matched by a r e a c t i o n panel from the audience. T h i s has the advantage over the open forum o f g i v i n g a r t i c u l a t e spokesmen o f the audience equal standing w i t h the experts i n the p h y s i c a l arrangement o f the meeting (Bergevin, M o r r i s , & Smith,1962:42). Another technique i s the " l i s t e n i n g team" (Knowles,1970:293) whose mission i s to ensure t h a t jargon which i s used by the panel o f experts w i l l be c l a r i f i e d i n t o commonly understood terms. They do t h i s through sanctioned i n t e r j e c t i o n s a s k i n g f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n d u r i n g each expert's p r e s e n t a t i o n . Among a d u l t educators; perhaps the most c o n t r o v e r s i a l technique o f s o c i a l 1 5 1 a c t i v i s t e d u c a t i o n i s " i n t e g r a t i v e a c t i o n r e s e a r c h " . T r a d i t i o n s e p a r a t e s t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t e a c h i n g , r e s e a r c h , and a c t i o n , a l t h o u g h t h e s e t u r n b a c k on e a c h o t h e r i n t h e w o r l d o f e x p e r i e n c e . I n t e g r a t i v e a c t i o n r e s e a r c h m a i n t a i n s t h e s e t h r e e f u n c t i o n s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . I n p a r t t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r i n t e g r a t i o n i s . s t r i c t l y p r a g m a t i c ( s o t h a t t h e r e w i l l be a g r e e m e n t o n a p r a c t i c a l s o l u t i o n ) ; i n p a r t h u m a n i s t i c ( r e s p e c t i n g t h e p e r s o n s who l i v e w i t h t h e p r o b l e m ) ; a n d i n ' p a r t a n c h o r e d i n a commitment ( t o enhance t h e p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s o f c i t i - z e n s ) . - The r a t i o n a l e f o r i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h r e e f u n c t i o n s i s u l t i m a t e l y " e x i s t e n t i a l " b e c a u s e i t d o e s n o t engage c i t i z e n s i n o r d e r t o c o - o p t t h e i r s u p p o r t , o r t o e d u c a t e t h e m , " b u t t o p l a c e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s q u a r e l y on t h e m " (Voth,1979:?6). E d u c a t o r s d e d i c a t e d t o t h i s t y p e o f p r a c t i c e and e s p e c i a l l y t h i s i n t e g r a t i v e a p p r o a c h w i l l p r o b a b l y w i n g r e a t e r s u p p o r t f r o m t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s by c a l l i n g i t " i n t e g r a t i v e a c t i o n - i n v e s t i g a t i o n " o r some s u c h t e r m — l e a v i n g " r e s e a r c h " t o d e s c r i b e t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h e m p h a s i z e r i g o r o u s d e s i g n a n d s y s t e m a t i c e x e c u t i o n . Outcomes a n d i n s t r u m e n t s f o r e s t i m a t i n g s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n J u s t a s t e c h n i q u e s o f s o c i a l a c t i v i s t e d u c a t i o n c a n be subsumed u n d e r t h r e e b r o a d s t r a t e g i e s a i m e d a t a ) a n i m a t i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s , b ) a n a l y z i n g t h e e n v i r o n - m e n t , and c ) i n t e r v e n i n g i n i n s t i t u t i o n s , so t h e r e a r e t h r e e l i n e s o f e v a l u a - t i o n w i t h s o c i a l a c t i v i s t e d u c a t i o n . The d e g r e e o f p e r s o n a l c h a n g e c a n be e s t i m a t e d t h r o u g h a t t i t u d e s c a l e s . E n v i r o n m e n t a l change may be m e a s u r e d d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h a n o m i n a l s c a l e i n v e n t o r y w h i c h i n c l u d e s , f o r e x a m p l e , i m p r o v e m e n t s l i k e a b e t t e r p a r k , a d a y - c a r e c e n t r e , a d e s e g r e g a t e d r e s t a u r a n t , . b u s s y s t e m o r s c h o o l . E n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a n g e may a l s o be m e a s u r e d i n d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h o t h e r s o c i a l i n d i c a t o r s : number o f l o c a l c h i l d r e n a d m i t t e d t o h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , d e c r e a s e d i n c i d e n c e o f c h i l d n e g l e c t , d e c r e a s e d i n c i d e n c e o f v a n d a l i s m t o p u b - l i c b u i l d i n g s a n d so o n . F i n a l l y , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f s y s t e m i c c h a n g e i n 1 5 2 s o c i o e c o n o m i c i n s t i t u t i o n s f r o m n o n - r e s p o n s i v e t o r e s p o n s i v e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g may be t e s t e d t h r o u g h methods o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h . However V o t h c a u t i o n s (1979:156,157) t h a t s e v e r a l d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m s p l a g u e t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f communi t y d e v e l o p m e n t e d u c a t i o n . I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e t h e r e a r e c o n c e p t u a l p r o b l e m s i n c l u d i n g t h e a m b i g u i t y o f g o a l s a n d t h e a b s e n c e o f c o n s e n s u s o n a m o d e l o f communi ty d e v e l o p m e n t . A l t h o u g h c o n c r e t e p h y s i c a l o b j e c t i v e s a r e e a s y enough t o s t a t e , p r o c e s s o b j e c t i v e s l i k e t h e a b i l i t y o f a c o m m u n i t y t o s o l v e i t s p r o b l e m s and make d e c i s i o n s c o l l e c t i v e l y r e s i s t b e i n g f o r m u l a t e d i n t o c l e a r o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s ( o p . c i t . : 1 5 8 ) . I n t h e s e c o n d p l a c e t h e r e a r e t e c h n i c a l p r o b l e m s s u c h a s the . i n a b i l i t y o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o c o n t r o l w h i c h l e a r n e r s w i l l be e x p o s e d t o w h i c h e d u c a t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t s . He i s n o t i n a p o s i t i o n t o r a n d o m i z e p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( o p . c i t . : l 6 l ) . F u r t h e r m o r e t h e r e - may be weak i m m e d i a t e e f f e c t s h o w e v e r h i g h t h e l a t e r m u l t i p l i e r e f f e c t . T h e r e a r e c r u d e m e a s u r e s o n l y , o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n f l u e n c e o r power i n communi ty d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , a n d t h e q u a l i t y o f l i f e i n a c o m m u n i t y . T e c h n i c a l l y t h e r e i s t h e p r o b l e m o f s m a l l s a m p l e s m a k i n g i t d i f f i c u l t t o g e t beyond i d i o g r a p h i c d e s c r i p t i o n ( o p . c i t . : l 6 7 ) . F i n a l l y t h e r e a r e p o l i t i c a l v a r i a b l e s w h i c h c o n - f o u n d e v a l u a t i o n . F o r p o l i t i c a l r e a s o n s g o a l s w i l l be a m b i t i o u s , v e r y g e n e r a l , a c c e p t a b l e t o a l l . They a r e s y m b o l s w h i c h a r e a l m o s t c e r t a i n t o be vague a n d a b s t r a c t , where t h e e v a l u a t o r s ^ o b j e c t i v e s must be p r e c i s e a n d o b s e r v a b l e ( o p . c i t . : l 6 8 ) . F u r t h e r p o l i t i c a l c o n s e q u e n c e s a r i s e w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n e v a l u a t i o n f i n d i n g s a n d a s p e c t s o f p r o g r a m a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s u c h a s f i n a n c e . W h e t h e r he i s e n g a g e d i n a n " i m p a c t e v a l u a t i o n " c o m p a r i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f d i f f e r - e n t p r o g r a m s o n s i m i l a r p r o b l e m s , o r i n a " s t r a t e g y e v a l u a t i o n " c o m p a r i n g a l t e r - n a t e t e c h n i q u e s o r a p p r o a c h e s t h a t c o u l d be t a k e n by a n a g e n c y o r g r o u p , t h e r e i s a l w a y s t h e d a n g e r t h a t t h e e v a l u a t o r may be u s e d f o r some p a r t i s a n p u r p o s e . H a y d e n R o b e r t s u r g e s t h a t t h e s e a r c h f o r e f f e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n go f o r w a r d 1 5 3 d e s p i t e i t s many d i f f i c u l t i e s , f e e l i n g t h a t i n a f i e l d t h a t l a c k s o b j e c t i v e s t a n d a r d s o f a c h i e v e m e n t no l e a r n i n g c a n t a k e p l a c e . T h e r e c a n be no c e r t a i n t y t h a t movement i s g o i n g f o r w a r d o r b a c k w a r d , no c r i t e r i a t o e v a l u a t e t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n e f f o r t a n d a c h i e v e m e n t , n o t h i n g t o p r e v e n t w r o n g c o n c l u s i o n s (1979:154). B u t h e r e a s w i t h t h e m e t h o d o l o g y i t s e l f , t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e c i t i z e n s a f f e c t e d must be r e c r u i t e d . What i s n e e d e d a r e " s e n s i t i v e a t t e m p t s t o f i n d a p p r o p r i a t e m e a s u r e s o f w h a t e v e r i t i s we a r e a i m i n g a t . And i n c o m m u n i t y d e v - e l o p m e n t a n i m p o r t a n t a i m must be t o e n a b l e t h e p e o p l e i n v o l v e d t o t a k e p a r t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e s e m e a s u r e s and u s i n g t h e m " ( o p . c i t . : 1 5 5 ) « C l i e n t e l e o r i e n t a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s A d u l t s engaged i n e d u c a t i o n f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e most l i k e l y t o be p e r s o n s who a r e d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by a p a r t i c u l a r u n r e s o l v e d s o c i a l i s s u e . T h a t i s s u e t o a c t a s a b a s i s o f communi ty must be s o m e t h i n g more t h a n a p u r e l y p e r s o n a l c o m p l a i n t ( B i d d l e & Biddle ,1965:274) . T h e r e f o r e a d u l t s who s e e k t h i s k i n d o f l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t y a l s o have some s e n s e o f t h e common good w h i c h i s i n h e r e n t i n t h e i s s u e t h a t t h e y a r e c o n c e r n e d a b o u t . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s e a d u l t s a r e e v i d e n t l y w i l l i n g t o i n v e s t t i m e i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n b e c a u s e s o c i a l a c t i v i s t e d u c a t i o n d o e s n o t e n c o u r a g e them t o h a s t y a c t i o n . F i n a l l y , a l t h o u g h t h e s e l e a r n e r s a r e c l e a r l y g o a l - o r i e n t e d and have a d i r e c t , i m m e d i a t e r e l a t i o n - s h i p t o t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e i r l e a r n i n g t h e y may be p a s s i v e o r d e f e a t i s t a b o u t t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r e i t h e r l e a r n i n g o r a c t i o n t o a c c o m p l i s h a n y t h i n g . T h e r e f o r e t h i s n e g a t i v e a f f e c t must a l s o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s o f m a n a g i n g t h e l e a r n i n g g r o u p . More t h a n a n y o t h e r c l i e n t e l e , i n c l u d i n g t h o s e d r a w n i n t o ABE o r E S L c l a s s e s , t h e s e l e a r n e r s a r e l i k e l y t o have a r r i v e d i n a l e a r n i n g g r o u p n o t t h r o u g h s e l f - s e l e c t i o n b u t t h r o u g h a c t i v e r e c r u i t m e n t o n t h e p a r t o f a n a g e n t w i t h s t r o n g c o n v i c t i o n s a b o u t t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h i s e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e l e a r n e r . T h a t c o n v i c t i o n a b o u t l e a r n i n g h a s t o be a b s o r b e d by t h e c l i e n t , a l o n g 1 5 4 w i t h a sense of hope about the p o s s i b i l i t y of community change, i n order f o r s u c c e s s f u l l e a r n i n g to come about. Locations f o r s o c i a l a c t i v i s t education The g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e of s o c i a l a c t i v i s t l o c a t i o n s goes beyond the normal one of convenience of access, o r adaption o f the p h y s i c a l environment to enhance t e c h n i c a l , i n t e r p e r s o n a l , o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z i n g l e a r n i n g . The s o c i a l a c t i v i s t l o c a t i o n may be both inconvenient and uncomfortable but i t w i l l be appropriate because i t w i l l be where the a c t i o n of community change i s t a k i n g p l a c e . That may be: i n the s t r e e t , a t c i t y h a l l , on the p i c k e t l i n e , i n shareholders' meetings, on the phone, i n boardrooms, i n the c o u r t s , o r i n the case o f advocacy i t can even be through the ma i l s w i t h n e w s l e t t e r s and l e t t e r s o f p r o t e s t to members of parliament. S o c i a l a c t i v i s t l o c a t i o n s are the places where people r a l l y to express t h e i r c o n v i c t i o n s . They may do t h e i r planning i n church basements, a t community centres, o r i n k i t c h e n s , but the a c t i o n which moves " s o c i a l experiment" methodology beyond s p e c u l a t i o n must take the l e a r n i n g process to the s o c i a l l o c a t i o n s where d e c i s i o n s are made. Common C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a l l A d u l t Education P r a c t i c e s The general g o a l o f a l l a d u l t education i s anchored i n the l e a r n e r ' s understanding, i n making i t e a s i e r f o r him to' improve h i s understanding o f what he experiences. That experience which most d i s t i n g u i s h e s human conscious- ness from animal i s f u t u r e experience o r r a t h e r a n t i c i p a t i o n o f f u t u r e e x p e r i - ence. Human beings l i v e w i t h a sense o f the f u t u r e and o f t e n an a n x i e t y about i t . They express a c a p a c i t y and aneed to prepare f o r the f u t u r e . Because o f t h i s , " a n t i c i p a t o r y l e a r n i n g " i s not so much a f a d as an e s s e n t i a l element o f 1 5 5 a d u l t l e a r n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I t has not u n t i l r e c e n t l y been as emphasized as l e a r n i n g f o r present experience, since i t has been known f o r some time t h a t a d u l t s u s u a l l y have some immediate use f o r the l e a r n i n g they choose to engage i n . Past experience i s a l s o e s s e n t i a l to the development o f understanding. I t i s recognized t h a t accumulated experience- can impede o r f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g but cannot be ignored, and i n f a c t i s i n a constant s t a t e o f r e - e v a l u a t i o n and tra n s f o r m a t i o n u n t i l the end of l i f e . So the general goal of a d u l t education i s to enable a b e t t e r understanding of f u t u r e , present and past experience, both through the systematic p r e s e n t a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n and through guided a c t i v i t i e s which enable the l e a r n e r to gain some i n s i g h t i n t o what he knows. Because the d i g n i t y of human a d u l t s l i e s i n t h e i r f r e e w i l l and respons- i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own d e s t i n y , the f u n c t i o n of a d u l t education i s e s s e n t i a l l y an a u x i l i a r y a c t i v i t y supporting t h e i r i n i t i a t i v e s to develop themselves and t h e i r communities. But because human beings are capable o f u n d e r u t i l i z i n g t h e i r f r e e w i l l and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , a d u l t education as w i t h a l l other human s e r v i c e s , has scope f o r m i l i t a n t a c t i o n - f o r t a k i n g the i n i t i a t i v e to s t i r a d u l t s to awareness o f t h e i r p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Whether a d u l t educators should respond o r i n i t i a t e seems to be a fundamental quandry which can only be r e - solved by the i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i t i o n e r i n the course of h i s work and not c o l l e c - . t i v e l y o r f o r m a l l y f o r the p r o f e s s i o n as a whole. I n e i t h e r case a d u l t educa- t o r s f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g through p r o v i s i o n o f t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e to i n d i v i d u a l s and groups.( which c o n s t i t u t e s the e t h i c o r t e c h n i c a l competence o f the pr o f e s - s i o n ) , and through p r o v i s i o n o f moral support f o r the urge to l e a r n , r e c o g n i t i o n of i t s worth and the worth of a d u l t s who make t h a t e f f o r t ( which c o n s t i t u t e s the ethos o r heart and s o u l of the p r o f e s s i o n ) . While the content of a d u l t education programs i s broad and v a r i e d , c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s r e c u r throughout. For example a l l educative content endeavours to 1 5 6 i n s t i l i n the passive i n d i v i d u a l the confidence t o engage a c t i v e l y w i t h h i s l i f e experience to h i s own b e n e f i t . I t i s designed to equip the l e a r n e r to c r e a t e , t o rearrange h i s environment to h i s own b e n e f i t r a t h e r than to hel p - l e s s l y adapt to whatever events are imposed on him. This p r i n c i p l e a p p l i e s a l l the way from l e a r n i n g to cook so one can su r v i v e without mother, t o l e a r n - i n g to i n t e r a c t w i t h other persons without o f f e n d i n g and h u r t i n g them, to l e a r n i n g how to take strength from b e a u t i f u l t h i n g s , to l e a r n i n g how to i n f l u e n c e and mold one's socioeconomic environment. A l l educative content aims to supplant ignorance and i t s consequences w i t h i n s i g h t and i t s b e n e f i t s . The methodology o f a d u l t l e a r n i n g whatever the s p e c i f i c s o f p r a c t i c e i n c o r p o r a t e s s e v e r a l b a s i c elements. In some form i t w i l l use methods or formats f o r c o n t a c t i n g l e a r n e r s and r e l a t i n g t o them i n d i v i d u a l l y o r i n groups, a t a d i s t a n c e o r f a c e - t o - f a c e . These methods are p a r t l y determined by the type o f goal being pursued, p a r t l y by the nature o f the c l i e n t e l e , and p a r t l y by the resources the p r a c t i t i o n e r has a t h i s d i s p o s a l . W i t h i n a general method there w i l l be s e v e r a l techniques, some form o f s t r u c t u r e d a c t i v i t i e s f o r engaging the l e a r n e r w i t h l e a r n i n g t a s k s . These techniques are p a r t l y determined by the o b j e c t i v e s o r type o f l e a r n i n g outcomes intended, p a r t l y by the c a p a c i t i e s o f the c l i e n t e l e , and p a r t l y by the s p e c i f i c content being d e a l t w i t h . Media dev i c e s , t h a t i s a l l means o f p r e s e r v i n g , r e f o r m u l a t i n g , and d i s t r i b u t i n g inform- a t i o n , w i l l be used i n some form i n a l l types o f p r a c t i c e , though they may vary a great d e a l . Information devices mediate between a content and a p a r t i c u l a r c l i e n t e l e and t h e i r v a r i a t i o n r e s u l t s from the i n t e r a c t i o n o f these two elements. The e v a l u a t i o n dimension o f ed u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g to i t s l e v e l o f aggregation, f o c u s , purpose, s e t t i n g , agents,, k i n d o f data, and standards, but one r e l a t i o n s h i p i s common throughout. E v a l u a t i o n b r i n g s inform- a t i o n together w i t h preferences. The two are independent o f each other and out 1 5 7 o f t h e i r c o m b i n a t i o n comes a judgement e i t h e r a b o u t s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h p a s t e v e n t s o r i n t e n t i o n s r e g a r d i n g f u t u r e e v e n t s . The c l i e n t e l e d i m e n s i o n e n c o m p a s s e s a l a r g e d a t a base o f e c o l o g i c a l , d e m o g r a p h i c a n d p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h o f f e r a n o m o t h e t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f c l i e n t e l e s a c r o s s t h e f i e l d . T h a t i s , g r o u p i n d i c a t o r s l i k e " t h e p a r a p l e g i c " , " t h e e x c e p t i o n a l l y g i f t e d " , " t h e r e c e n t l y d i v o r c e d " , " t h e A l b e r t a n " , w i l l o f f e r a c e r t a i n d e g r e e o f p r e d i c t i o n a b o u t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r e f e r e n c e s a n d p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h a t c l i e n t , w h a t e v e r b r a n c h o f p r a c t i c e t h e y a r e f o u n d i n . C e r t a i n e v e n more g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may a l s o be a t t r i b u t e d g e n e r a l l y t o t h e a d u l t l e a r n e r s u c h a s t h e l a c k o f m a r g i n f o r l e a r n i n g t h e i m m e d i a t e a p p l i c a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g , a n d a n i n d e p e n d e n t s e l f - c o n c e p t , b u t w h i c h o f t h e s e and o t h e r a t t r i b u t e s a r e d i s t i n c t i v e t o t h e a d u l t l e a r n e r a n d e x c l u d e t h e . y o u n g e r l e a r n e r h a v e y e t t o be f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d . The l o c a t i o n d i m e n s i o n o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n was d e s c r i b e d by H o u l e (1972) a s h a v i n g one p e r v a d i n g p u r p o s e f o r t h e a d u l t l e a r n e r a n d t h a t i s t o p r o v i d e a n " e n c l a v e " o f s o c i a l s u p p o r t f o r c o n t i n u e d l e a r n i n g . I t i s s o m e t h i n g o f a f r e s h i d e a t o c o n s i d e r t h a t b e c a u s e t h e a d u l t l e a r n e r i s o f t e n u n d e r p e e r a n d s o c i a l p r e s s u r e t o d i s c o n t i n u e , what t h e s p e c i a l l o c a t i o n must o f f e r t h e l e a r n e r more t h a n p h y s i c a l c o m f o r t , i n f o r m a t i o n r e s o u r c e s , a n d e x p e r t c o n s u l t a t i o n , i s t h e m o r a l e n c o u r a g e m e n t t o c a r r y o n . The f o r e g o i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be common t o a l l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e s a r e s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e 7 « i58 COMMON CHARACTERISTICS IN-ALL ADULT EDUCATION PRACTICES GENERAL GOAL TO ENABLE A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF FUTURE, PRESENT, and PAST EXPERIENCE THROUGH INFORMATION and INSIGHT FUNCTION FACILITATING THE EFFORTS OF ADULTS TO DEVELOP THEMSELVES AND THEIR COMMUNITIES, BY p r o v i d i n g t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e ( p r o f e s s i o n a l e t h i c ) to l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s , programs & courses & BY p r o v i d i n g moral support ( p r o f e s s i o n a l e thos) f o r the urge to l e a r n T Y PI C A L CO N TE N T A l l educat ive content endeavours to supplant ignorance ajid passive adapta t ion wi th i n s i g h t and a c t i v e c r e a t i o n o f one 's environment and l i f e events , i n c l u d i n g l e a r n i n g events A d u l t educat ion c o n t e n t s : -endeavour to take i n t o account the a d u l t ' s e x p e r i e n t i a l base (accumulated); - a r e o f t e n geared toward r e s o l u t i o n o f r e a l - l i f e dilemmas (present ) ; and - i n c l u d e the a d u l t ' s d e s i r e to a n t i c i p a t e and modify the shaping of events ( f u t u r e ) . M ET H O D O LO G Y FO R  LE A R N IN G  METHODS: A l l i n s t i t u t i o n a l formats f o r c o n t a c t i n g l e a r n e r s -mediate : c l i e n t s / g o a l s / r e s o u r c e s TECHNIQUES: A l l s t r u c t u r e s a c t i v i t i e s f o r engaging the l e a r n e r wi th a l e a r n i n g task -mediate : c l i e n t s / o b j e c t i v e s / c o n t e n t MEDIA DEVICES: A l l means o f p r e s e r v i n g , re formu- l a t i n g and d i s t r i b u t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n -media te : c o n t e n t / c l i e n t s INHERENT OBSTACLES, and STRUCTURING PRINCIPLES v a r y with the type o f g o a l - f u n c t i o n B A SI S FO R  . EV A LU A TI O N  May evaluate i n d i v i d u a l s , groups, programs, i n s t i t u t i o n s , communities May use d e s c r i p t i v e and judgmental data May be f o r dec is ion-making o r a c c o u n t a b i l i t y May be a n t i c i p a t o r y , f o r m a t i v e , summative o r f o l l o w - u p C LI EN T EL E D ES C R IP TO R S C a t e g o r i e s o f p a r t i c i p a n t i n f o r m a t i o n E c o l o g i c a l : geographic l o c a t i o n , p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y Demographic: socio-economic , age, sex, r a c e , r e l i g i o n , language, c i t i z e n s h i p P e r s o n a l : p h y s i c a l , b i o g r a p h i c a l . p s y c h o l o g i c a l S i t u a t i o n a l : l i f e span, i n c i d e n t a l SP EC IA L  LO CA TI ON S Enclaves o f s o c i a l support f o r cont inued l e a r n i n g . p u b l i c s c h o o l s , c o l l e g e s , u n i v e r s i t i e s . s o c i a l agencies . government departments . p r i v a t e entrepreneurs 1 5 9 CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS In t h i s chapter the procedure o f the study i s b r i e f l y summarized and con- c l u s i o n s are drawn r e g a r d i n g the degree to which goals o f the study have been achieved. Immediate a p p l i c a t i o n s o f the framework to the i n t e r e s t s o f both p r a c t i t i o n e r s and d i s c i p l i n a r i a n s are o u t l i n e d , and i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the types, the model, and the framework f o r f u t u r e research are suggested. Summary of the Study Out o f an examination of d e s c r i p t i v e h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l s on programs, i n s t i t u t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l careers grew the t h e o r e t i c a l assumption t h a t the wide v a r i a t i o n i n a d u l t education p r a c t i c e s might c l u s t e r i n t o a small number of types o f p r a c t i c e . These types would have d i s t i n c t i v e combinations o f v a r i - a b l e s from s i x c a t e g o r i e s o f observable dimensions of p r a c t i c e : e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l , content, methodology, evaluation., c l i e n t e l e s , and d e l i v e r y l o c a t i o n s . Educa- t i o n a l goals were taken as the c r i t i c a l v a r i a b l e i n what i s e s s e n t i a l l y a norma- t i v e p r a c t i c e . The f u l l v a r i e t y o f goals pursued i n the f i e l d o f a d u l t education was sought out i n the l i t e r a t u r e of s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s . Over a f o r t y year p e r i o d t h i s l i t e r a t u r e r e i t e r a t e d s e v e r a l themes but la c k e d complete consensus on them, and l a c k e d p r e c i s e c r i t e r i a f o r c l a s s i f y i n g p r a c t i c e s as s e r v i n g one goal r a t h e r than another. The methodology of constructed types was a p p l i e d to the rough u n i f o r m i t i e s d i s p l a y e d by s e t s o f s o c i a l f u n c t i o n statements. Four con s t r u c t e d types were d e f i n e d on the b a s i s o f an i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t system o f g o a l , 16o d o m a i n , a n d f u n c t i o n . The g o a l s were d e f i n e d on t h e b a s i s o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l d i r e c t i o n s e a c h c o n t a i n i n g i m p l i c i t v a l u e s , a n d i t i s t h e s e v a l u e s w h i c h have t h e f o r c e t o u n i f y a l l o t h e r a s p e c t s o f p r a c t i c e . The f u n c t i o n f u l f i l l e d by a f o r m o f p r a c t i c e d e v e l o p s some p o s i t i v e human c a p a c i t y w h i c h i s t r e a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y a s a d e v e l o p m e n t a l d o m a i n . The t y p e s once c o n s t r u c t e d p r o v i d e d a c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e a g a i n s t w h i c h a n a t t r i b u t e s p a c e o f f i v e a s p e c t s o f p r a c t i c e c o u l d be a r r a y e d . I t was f i r s t n e c e s s a r y t o s i m p l i f y t h e a t t r i b u t e s p a c e by f i n d i n g o n l y t h o s e v a r i a b l e s i n e a c h c a t e g o r y w h i c h a r e d i s c r i m i n a t o r s among t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . The r e s u l t i n g s e t s o f v a r i a b l e s w h i c h a l i g n i n e a c h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n were d i s p l a y e d i n a t a x o n o m i c f r a m e w o r k o f t e r m s . The f r a m e w o r k c o u l d be u s e d t o a n a l y z e a n y a c - t u a l c a s e a n d p r o v i d e a d e t a i l e d " p r o f i l e " o f i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . C o m p a r i n g t h e p r o f i l e s o f c a s e s w o u l d r e v e a l t h e s i m i l a r i t i e s a n d d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n t h e m . The m a t r i x a l s o i n c l u d e s a s e t o f v a r i a b l e s w h i c h v i r t u a l l y p e r v a d e a l l e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s a n d t h e s e a r e t a k e n t o be t h e c o r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . D i a - g r a m m a t i c d i s p l a y o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s s p e c i f i e s s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e s i x d i m e n s i o n s o f p r a c t i c e , t h e c o r e o f common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a n d t h e f o u r m a j o r t y p e s o f p r a c t i c e , a n d t h u s c o n s t i t u t e s a f o r m a l m o d e l o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . C o n c l u s i o n s - . I four c o n c l u s i o n s may be d rawn f r o m t h i s s t u d y : a ) A p p l y i n g t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y o f c o n s t r u c t i v e t y p o l o g y t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e o n s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o d u c e s f o u r c o n s t r u c t e d t y p e s o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o g o a l , d o m a i n , a n d f u n c t i o n . b ) These c o n s t r u c t e d t y p e s may be u s e d a s a c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e i n t h e 161 manner proposed by Kaplan to c u l l c a t e g o r i e s o f o b s e r v a t i o n a l terms f o r I c l u s t e r s which are i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t . Where the domain of i n q u i r y i s too complex f o r a simple, r i g i d d e f i n i t i o n t h i s procedure w i l l o f f e r an " a r t i c u l a t i o n of meaning". In t h i s case the domain o f i n q u i r y was a d u l t education p r a c t i c e s i n North America i n the l a s t hundred years; what was a r t i c u l a t e d was a framework o f terms which assembled observa- t i o n s i n t o f o u r d i s t i n c t c o n f i g u r a t i o n s . The framework may be used to produce a d e t a i l e d taxonomic d e s c r i p t i o n o f cases and i n combination w i t h appropriate hypotheses be used f o r t i m e - s e r i e s comparisons. c) According to the c r i t e r i a o f f e r e d by Kaplan the v a r i o u s diagramatic i l l u s t r a t i o n s which d i s p l a y the c o n s t i t u e n t domains o f data, are i n f a c t 'a formal model s p e c i f y i n g s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s among the elements of the domain. d) A contemporary typology o f p r a c t i c e s i n the f i e l d has not been produced. This would r e q u i r e p reparing p r o f i l e s o f each case, comparing them f o r s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s and on the b a s i s of an a n a l y s i s of variance to produce a typology of the contemporary f i e l d much c l o s e r to concrete r e a l i t y than the set of u n i f i e d c onstructed types. Regarding the f o u r constructed types of p r a c t i c e The types were constructed around the l e a d i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f g o a l , domain.of l e a r n i n g , and f u n c t i o n . The goals were: to develop t e c h n i c a l a b i l i - t i e s ; t o improve i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s ; t o i n t e n s i f y s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n ; and to enable a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o l i t i c a l and economic decision-making. The domains o f l e a r n i n g were matched to these d i s t i n c t i v e goals a t a more concrete l e v e l than the t r a d i t i o n a l s e t of h i g h l y a b s t r a c t e d domains: c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c - t i v e and psychomotor. The domains o f l e a r n i n g used i n t h i s study are more concrete than the t r a d i t i o n a l three i n t h a t these developmental d i r e c t i o n s 162 a r e d e f i n e d t o more c l o s e l y r e s e m b l e o b s e r v a b l e e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s . The p s y c h o m o t o r a n d c o g n i t i v e d o m a i n s were b o t h f e l t t o be a m e n a b l e t o t h e t y p e o f p r a c t i c e w h i c h d e v e l o p s t e c h n i c a l a b i l i t i e s ; t h e a f f e c t i v e d o m a i n was s p l i t i n t o t h o s e e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e l e a r n e r i s e n a b l e d t o i m - p r o v e i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , a n d i n t o t h o s e a e s t h e t i c a n d p h i l o s o p h i c e x p e r - i e n c e s t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e l e a r n e r e n l i v e n s h i s own s e a r c h f o r f u l f i l m e n t , a n d i n t e n s i f i e s h i s own c o m i n g - i n t o - b e i n g , o r s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n ; a n d f i n a l l y a d o m a i n o f l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y was i d e n t i f i e d w h i c h subsumes c o g n i t i v e , i n t e r - p e r s o n a l , a n d p h i l o s o p h i c e l e m e n t s i n t o a n e f f o r t t o c r e a t e a p p r o p r i a t e human c o m m u n i t i e s t h r o u g h p r e m e d i ' b a t e d a c t i o n , a n d t h i s d o m a i n was c a l l e d s o c i a l e x p e r i m e n t . .The f u n c t i o n s f u l f i l l e d i n e a c h d o m a i n r e s p e c t i v e l y w e r e : b u i l d i n g c o m p e t e n c i e s f r o m a n e n t r y l e v e l t o a t a r g e t l e v e l ; d e v e l o p i n g a t t i t u d e s a n d b e h a v i o u r s t h a t l e a d t o m u t u a l l y s a t i s f y i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s ; e v o l v i n g v a l u e p r e - f e r e n c e s ; a n d f o r m i n g a r e a l i s t i c a w a r e n e s s o f s o c i e t y . Thus g o a l s , d o m a i n s a n d e d u c a t i v e f u n c t i o n s a r e s e e n t o be v i r t u a l l y i n s e p a r a b l e e l e m e n t s o f t h e compound phenomenon o f l e a r n i n g , where a p a r t i c u l a r d e v e l o p m e n t a l f u n c t i o n t a k e s p l a c e w i t h i n some d o m a i n t o w a r d a c u l m i n a t i n g g o a l . None o f t h e f o u r c o n s t r u c t e d t y p e s o f e d u c a t i o n w i l l subsume or, r e d u c e i n t o t h e t e r m s o f a n o t h e r . They p r o v i d e t h e s m a l l e s t number o f b a s i c t y p e s w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l l y o r i n c o m b i n a t i o n e x p l a i n a l l v a r i a t i o n s o f a d u l t e d u - c a t i o n p r a c t i c e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . They a c t somewhat l i k e p r i m e c o l o u r s w h i c h t o g e t h e r a c c o u n t f o r a l l i d i o s y n c r a t i c v a r i a t i o n s . R e g a r d i n g t h e t a x o n o m i c f r a m e w o r k By u s i n g t h e g o a l a s p e c t o f p r a c t i c e a s t h e l e a d i n g a s p e c t , i t was p o s s i b l e t o f i n d some v a r i a b l e s i n e a c h o f t h e o t h e r f i v e d i m e n s i o n s o f p r a c t i c e w h i c h were " d i s c r i m i n a t o r s " , ( e . g . : o b s t a c l e s t o l e a r n i n g , o r s t r u c t u r i n g p r i n c i p l e s ) t h a t i s t o s a y : i n o r d e r t o be c o n s i s t e n t ' w i t h e a c h g o a l t h e s e v a r i a b l e s w o u l d 163 have t o take n o t i c e a b l y d i f f e r e n t forms. Other v a r i a b l e s (e.g.many t e a c h i n g techniques, o r the program p l a n n i n g elements) were t o be found t o take v i r t u a l l y the same form a c r o s s the f o u r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . By t h i s procedure o f c u l l i n g c a t e g o r i e s o f o b s e r v a t i o n a l terms f o r c l u s t e r s which are i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o b r i n g a l l s i x s e l e c t e d a s p e c t s o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e i n t o a s i n g l e framework. T h i s framework r e v e a l s f o u r d i s t i n c t c o n f i g u r a t i o n s and a f i f t h c o l l e c t i o n o f v a r i a b l e s which can be perv a s i v e and t h e r f o r e are taken t o be the e s s e n t i a l and d e f i n i t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e . The framework has been c o n s t r u c t e d t o accomodate the complete range o f o b s e r v a t i o n s which may be fo u n d . w i t h i n the c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l l i m i t s s et f o r the stu d y . The taxonomic framework stands as an a l t e r n a t i v e to a l l u n i - d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l e s f o r e x p l a i n i n g the d i v e r s i t y of p r a c t i c e s t o be found. A u n i - d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l e i s any continuum whether p e r s o n a l ( l i k e remedial-maintenance-expansive) o r s o c i a l ( l i k e r e a c t i o n a r y - m a i n t e n a n c e - r e v i s i o n i s t - r e v o l u t i o n a r y ) . The advantages of the taxonomic framework approach to r e s e a r c h over the a m b i g u i t i e s o f a u n i - dimensional s c a l e are many. I n the f i r s t p lace t h i s conceptual scheme a l l o w s the r e s e a r c h e r t o l o o k a t the f i e l d i n i t s t o t a l i t y through f o u r a l t e r n a t i v e v a l u e - b i a s e d windows i n s t e a d o f one. Secondly, i t t r e a t s these v a l u e p e r s p e c t i v e s as d i s t i n c t and complementary r a t h e r than c o m p e t i t i v e approximations o f each o t h e r . T h i r d l y , the framework approach endeavors t o be comprehensive o f a l l cases, where a u n i - d i m e n s i o n a l scheme d i s c a r d s as i r r e l e v a n t any cases not embodying i t s v a l u e s . One of the most problematic uni-dimensional approaches i s to be found i n s c a l e s which t r y t o a r r a y a l l e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s on a p o l i t i c a l continuum from r e a c t i o n a r y to r e v o l u t i o n a r y . North American a d u l t e d u c a t i o n must acknow- ledge the c r u c i a l r o l e o f s o c i a l a c t i v i s t e d u c a t i o n — t h i s p r i n c i p l e i s not a t i s s u e . What i s r a d i c a l l y questioned by t h i s study i s the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f 164 t r y i n g t o e x p l a i n t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s w i t h a n y u n i - d i m e n s i o n a l s c a l e . I t w o u l d seem t o he a m a j o r l o g i c a l e r r o r t o s a y t h a t b e - c a u s e e v e r y a c t c a n be m e a s u r e d a s more o r l e s s p o l i t i c a l l y r e v o l u t i o n a r y i t i s t h e r e f o r e b e s t m e a s u r e d a n d v a l u e d i n t e r m s o f i t s p o l i t i c a l v a l e n c e . I f t h e p u r p o s e o f a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e f i e l d i s t o p romote s o c i a l s c i e n t i f i c u n d e r - s t a n d i n g r a t h e r t h a n some i d e o l o g y , t h e n i t i s d y s f u n c t i o n a l t o s a y t o t h e a u t o m e c h a n i c s i n s t r u c t o r a n d t h e c u r a t o r o f R e n a i s s a n c e m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s : " Y o u r c a s e s a r e i r r e l e v a n t t o r e a l e d u c a t i o n b e c a u s e a l l e d u c a t i o n i s p o l i t i c a l * . Those e d u c a t o r s who v a l u e h i g h l y s p i r i t u a l t r a n s c e n d e n c e w o u l d r a n k o b s e s s - i v e l y p o l i t i c a l e d u c a t i o n a s l o w a p r i o r i t y a s c u l t u r a l l y - a d a p t i v e w o r k e r t r a i n i n g b e c a u s e b o t h a r e l a r g e l y d e v o i d o f t r a n s c e n d e n c e . S i m i l a r l y , t h e t e c h - n i c a l e d u c a t o r h a s b e e n known t o s c o r n a l l " s o f t " c o n t e n t s w h e t h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l , c u l t u r a l , o r p o l i t i c a l a s l e s s t h a n " r e a l e d u c a t i o n " . The m u l t i - v a l e n t n a t u r e o f t h e f i e l d c a n n o t be c a p t u r e d i n a d e s c r i p t i o n w h i c h s c a l e s a s more o r l e s s p r e s e n t o n l y one o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l v a l u e s a t w o r k . , R e g a r d i n g t h e m o d e l o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i c e The m o d e l p r e s e n t e d i s a c o n c e p t u a l a b s t r a c t i o n n o t a s u r v e y o r r e p r e s e n - t a t i o n o f t h e a c t u a l f i e l d t o d a y . I t shows a c o r e t o t h e f i v e d i m e n s i o n s o f p r a c t i c e t h a t u n i f i e s t h e f i e l d b u t d o e s n o t i t s e l f have a n i n d e p e n d e n t e x i s t s e n c e . I t a l s o shows f o u r d i s t i n c t and c o m p l e m e n t a r y b r a n c h e s . The c o r e c h a r - a c t e r i s t i c s p e n e t r a t e t h e f o u r v a r i a t i o n s a n d b i n d them i n t o a s i n g l e f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e . The m o d e l t h u s p r o v i d e s a v i e w o f g e n e r a l a n d s p e c i f i c a s s u m p t i o n s w h i c h do n o t y e t c o n s t i t u t e h y p o t h e s e s . F o r e x a m p l e t h e symmetry o f t h e b r a n c h e s i s n o t a c l a i m a b o u t e i t h e r t h e r e l a t i v e i n c i d e n c e , o r t h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f c a s e s f r o m t h e f i e l d w h i c h r e s e m b l e e a c h c o n s t r u c t e d t y p e o f p r a c t i c e . S i m i l a r l y , t h e c o r e - c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h p e n e t r a t e t h e f o u r b r a n c h e s o f p r a c t i c e c a n o n l y be a l l u d e d t o v i a D i a g s . 1 a n d 2, a n d ^ s u g g e s t e d i n 3 ,4 ,and,6. 165 Abraham Kaplan provides some b a s i s f o r t h i n k i n g t h a t the set of diagrams i n chapter IV c o n s t i t u t e a MODEL of the domain. He says "System A i s a model of system B i f the study of A i s u s e f u l f o r the understanding o f B, without regard to any ca u s a l connection between A and B" (1964:263). Furthermore a model must s u c c e s s f u l l y represent the arrangement o f elements, i n h i s words: "The model i s conceived as a s t r u c t u r e o f symbols....Relations among the symbols are presumed to e x h i b i t corresponding relations.among the elements of the s u b j e c t - matter" (op. cit.:2 6 4 ) . There are c l e a r l y t h e o r e t i c a l assumptions inf o r m i n g the model but "not a l l t h e o r i e s are i n f a c t models: we l e a r n something about the subject-matter from, the theory but not by i n v e s t i g a t i n g p r o p e r t i e s o f the theory" ( i b i d ) . "The theory s t a t e s t h a t the subj e c t matter has a c e r t a i n s t r u c t u r e , but the theory does not t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r i l y e x h i b i t t h a t s t r u c t u r e i n i t s e l f . A l l t h e o r i e s make a b s t r a c t i o n s , i n the sense of t r e a t i n g as i r r e l e v a n t some proper- t i e s of t h e i r subject-matter. But not a l l o f them a b s t r a c t to the p o i n t o f t r e a t i n g as r e l e v a n t only the s t r u c t u r a l p r o p e r t i e s " (op. c i t . : 2 6 5 ) . The formal model i s designed a t a l e v e l o f such extreme g e n e r a l i t y t h a t a v a r i e t y of matters may be so s t r u c t u r e d as to e x h i b i t the i d e n t i c a l form. Thus the tra n s m i s s i o n of ideas may r e v e a l the same p a t t e r n as the spread o f an epidemic (op. cit.:2 6 4 ) . The model o f p r a c t i c e presented here i l l u s t r a t e s the p o t e n t i a l f o r h i g h degrees o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n t o f o u r major types. I t a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s the manner i n which the d i f f e r e n t types o f p r a c t i c e partake o f common c h a r a c t e r - i s t i c s . I t f a c i l i t a t e s the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f questions w i t h i n a s e c t o r a t a time • of the t o t a l complexity of edu c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s . 166 A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r the p r a c t i t i o n e r I n chapter one i t was claimed t h a t a taxonomic framework f o r the whole p r o f e s s i o n a l f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e would be u s e f u l f o r p r a c t i t i o n e r s when they en- gage i n tasks t h a t address the f i e l d as a whole r a t h e r than ta s k s focused w i t h - i n t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n . One o f the most obvious of those ta s k s i s graduate study, p r e - s e r v i c e or i n - s e r v i c e . Narrow, s p e c i a l i z e d programs are not d e s i r a b l e because graduate study a f f o r d s the most f a v o r a b l e opportunity i n a c a r e e r to l i f t one's s i g h t s as a p r a c t i t i o n e r from the p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s w i t h i n which one i s working i n order t o view the r e s t o f the f i e l d . F u r t h e r - more i t i s not p r a c t i c a l i n a v o l a t i l e , growing p r o f e s s i o n to t r a i n so narrowly that one cannot adapt to a wide v a r i e t y of job d e s c r i p t i o n s . Without systematic a n a l y s i s of the goals and a t t r i b u t e s of p r a c t i c e s across the f i e l d , an o r d e r l y f a m i l i a r i z a t i o n process i s not p o s s i b l e , so t h a t graduate students may be heard to complain of "chaos" i n the l i t e r a t u r e . With a framework of types the graduate student can c o n s i d e r i n an o r d e r l y way what v a r i o u s p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e s would r e q u i r e when adapted to e d u c a t i o n a l goals o f a p a r t i c u l a r type. To some degree t h i s f a c i l i t a t e s the p r a c t i t i o n e r as graduate student i n making an appropriate t r a n s f e r back i n t o p r a c t i c e . Furthermore p r a c t i t i o n e r s can c o n s i d e r b u i l d i n g towards p r o f e s s i o n a l m o b i l i t y e i t h e r by a c q u i r i n g s e v e r a l competencies w i t h i n one branch o f p r a c t i c e , o r by developing one competency, such as e v a l u a t i o n o r inform- a t i o n management across a l l branches o f p r a c t i c e . A second task which r e q u i r e s the p r a c t i t i o n e r to r e l a t e to the f i e l d as a whole i s the u t i l i z a t i o n o f b a s i c research or r e p o r t s o f i n n o v a t i o n s i n p r a c t i c e . To the degree t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n d i s s e m i n a t i o n i n c l u d e s an adequate d e s c r i p t i o n of the context i n which the b a s i c o r a p p l i e d research took p l a c e , and to the extent page 167 does not e x i s t 168 t h a t the p r a c t i t i o n e r because o f an adequate framework can place t h a t o r i g i n a l context i n some p e r s p e c t i v e , to t h a t extent he can judge how w e l l these i n s i g h t s and i n n o v a t i o n s w i l l t r a n s f e r i n t o the context i n which he works. A t h i r d macroscopic task of the p r a c t i t i o n e r i s the forming of p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . There are already numerous a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h micro-contextual bases according to media (eg. broadcasging), or subject matter (eg. n u t r i t i o n ) , o r i n s t i t u t i o n (eg. penal system). The taxonomic framework w i l l not provide the b a s i s f o r y e t another s et of fragmentary a s s o c i a t i o n s . The f o u r types of p r a c t i c e are i n t e r n a l l y c o n s i s t e n t a b s t r a c t i o n s ; human beings are not. So p r a c t i t i o n e r s would not be expected to c l a s s i f y themselves as e x c l u s i v e l y be- l o n g i n g to one type o f p r a c t i c e o r another. Instead the taxonomy can be used f o r -seeing i n persp e c t i v e value preferences other than t h e i r own, and a p p r e c i a t i n g the e s s e n t i a l complementarity of f o u r d i f f e r e n t types of p r a c t i c e . E x p l o r a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e o f complementarity can c o n t r i b u t e to mutual r e s p e c t among p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f divergent s t y l e s , and l e a d to an i n c r e a s i n g e s p r i t de corps throughout the f i e l d . , A f o u r t h and f i n a l profession-wide t a s k o f the p r a c t i t i o n e r t o be considered here i s t h a t o f p o l i c y formation a t the n a t i o n a l , r e g i o n a l , p r o v i n c i a l and d i s t r i c t l e v e l s . Using the taxonomic framework to analyze proposals would make i t p o s s i b l e to c l a r i f y the nature o f s e r v i c e s w i t h i n and among sponsors towards the end of a l l e v i a t i n g d u p l i c a t i o n o r co m p e t i t i o n . I t would r e v e a l o v e r s i g h t s i n the types o f education o f f e r e d and make i t p o s s i b l e to system- a t i c a l l y examine the p o t e