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A taxonomic framework for adult education practices in North America McCreary, Elaine Kathryn 1980

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A TAXONOMIC FRAMEWORK FOR ADULT EDUCATION PRACTICES IN NORTH AMERICA by ELAINE KATHRYN McCREARY Bachelor of Arts (Andragogy) Concordia University, Montreal, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS • in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Adult Education) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1980 © Elaine Kathryn McCreary, 1980 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives*, it is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date ii ABSTRACT As a domain of social scientific research adult education is plagued by-several methodological problems. Chief among these are: l) the inability to conceptually integrate several lines of research which currently examine isolated dimensions of this complex social practice; 2) the inability to com pare concrete cases in their infinite detail; 3) "the inability to make explicit the influence of values on the choices which are made regarding practice; and 4) the inability to interpret the significance of historical shifts in the field of practice. These methodological difficulties are all attributable to a single major gap in theory - the lack of a comprehensive framework for analyzing variations in the field of practice. The problem undertaken in this thesis is how to assemble a framework of basic types of practice none of which will reduce into the terms of another, and which represent the minimum array of types that taken in combination can accomodate all variations of practice evidenced in the field. Based on the assumption that adult education is a normative field, helping adults to change in directions which epitomize certain values, four types of practice are defined in accord with the values implicit in their educational goals. These directions of adult development build on the "social functions" literature. Two techniques of social scientific methodology are employed to develop these four types. The "articulation of a domain of inquiry" as described by Abraham Kaplan (1964) is appropriate for use where a simple definition of a domain will not suffice. Articulation creates a matrix with observational categories ranged across a set of theoretical classifications. These classifi cations are created through the use of McKinney's (1966) procedural guidelines ill for implementing the technique of "constructive typology". The data which complete the matrix are drawn from semi-analytic treatments of five observa tional dimensions which remain when the goal dimension is used as the basis for defining the types. Those observational dimensions include program content, educational methodology, basis of evaluation, clientele characteristics, and delivery location. The extensive literature on these dimensions of practice is analyzed for those variables which are unique to one type of practice and therefore serve as discriminators between types, and those variables which are virtually pervasive of all types of practice. The results consist of four fundamentally distinct types of practice and a set of core characteristics which pervade all varieties of adult education. The relationships inherent in the framework are presented in a formal scientific model. It is argued that the framework and model together represent significant methodological advance over previous attempts to analyze the field such as uni-dimensional scales. Uni-dimensional scales merge the observational and theoretical axes and attempt to range all practices between polarities such as reactionary and revolutionary, or liberal and vocational. The framework may be readily adapted as an instrument to provide detailed "profiles" of empirical cases and used to test hypotheses regarding the contemporary and historical field of practice. The formal model provides a set of structural relationships which integrates a large volume of literature concerning adult education functions and practices, and goes beyond consolida tion to suggest hypotheses for empirical test that can systematically advance this field of social research.. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Illustrations iv List of Tables ..... v Acknowledgements .' vi Chapter I. INTRODUCTION 1 Nature of the Problem 1 Methodological obstacles in the study of adult education.... 1 Source of the problem: a single major gap in theory 4 Inadequacy of previous attempts to solve the/problem 5 Purpose of the Study: To Produce a Comprehensive Framework for the Domain 7 Definition of terms . 7 Criteria for an adequate framework 8 Usefulness of a framework to disciplinarians • and to practitioners ,'. 9 Plan of the Study Ii II. LITERATURE REVIEW 13 Procedural Matters 1^-Terminology in the literature 14-Selection guidelines....... 15 Presentation of Summarized Statements 16 Juxtaposition of terms 2Critique of the Literature.. 8 Degree of consensusConclusion 29 III. METHODOLOGY 30 Explanation of Constructive Typology - 30 Misapplied definitions and functions 3^ Uses of constructed types - 37 Application of Constructive Typology to the Domain of Adult Education Practices ^0 V IV. FINDINGS PART A: ANALYSIS OF THE TYPES AND THE DIMENSIONS 48 Definition of the Types by Goal, Function, and Domain 48 Technical education. 49 . Interpersonal education 51 Self-actualizing education 2 Social activist education....' 4 Simplification of the Attribute Space 57 The content dimension. 59 The methodology dimension 63 The evaluation dimension. 8 The clientele dimension 72 The location dimensionA Model of Formal Relationships between Elements: The Types, the Dimensions, the Core 83 V. FINDINGS PART B: SYNTHESIS OF THE VARIABLES WITHIN EACH TYPE 88 Presentation of the Taxonomic Matrix 89 Tentative Explanatory Accounting for each Type 93 Technical education 9Interpersonal education 108 Self-actualizing education , 123 Social activist education 13Common Characteristics in all Adult Education Practices........ 158, VI. CONCLUSIONS 159 Summary of the Study 15Conclusions • 160 Regarding the four constructed types 161 Regarding the taxonomic frumework i.. 162 Regarding the model of the domain....... 164 Regarding applications for the practitioner. 166 Regarding applications for the disciplinarian ... 169 Implications for Further Research 173 Appendices ; 17185 References. vi - LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure 1. Three Uses of the Term "Contents" in Education 60 2. Sponsors of Adult Education ;.. 73 3. Procedural Skills as Educational Outcomes 79 4. Varieties of Intellectual Skills 102 5. Schematic Summary of the Interpersonal Gap 110 . 6. Transformations Across the Interpersonal Gap 110 7. An Interaction Diagram of a Club Group 121 8. The Community Problem-Solving Process 146 Diagram 1. One Dimension of Practice at the Core of Adult Education 85, 174 2. Six Dimensions of Practice at the Core of Adult Education 85, 1?4 3« One Dimension of a Branch of Practice showing Core and Unique Variables 86, 175 4. One Dimension of Practice as it Varies Across the Field 86, 1?5 5. One Dimension of a Branch of Practice showing Unique Variables Only 87, 176 6. All Six Dimensions of a Branch of Practice including their Core and Unique Variables 87, 176 vii — LIST OF TABLES 1. Juxtaposition of Roughly Similar Terms Regarding the Goals and Functions of Adult Education 27 2. Major Categories of Educational Design Situations . 65 3. A Taxonomic Framework for Adult Education Practices in North America 92 4-. Features of instructional Planning for Courses and Topics, for Five Types of Expected Outcomes 96 .5* Possible Prerequisite Relationships in the Design of Courses and Topics 98 6. Types of Training and Their Goals 115 7. Common Characteristics of all Adult Education Practices 158 viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to acknowledge with thanks the inspiration and encouragement offered by Wm. P. McCreary. He never once said.it wasn't worth doing. The author also acknowledges with gratitude the financial support provided for two years' work through a University of British Columbia Graduate Fellowship* 1 CHAPTER I "'INTRODUCTION Nature of the Problem Methodological obstacles In the study of adult education The systematic study of adult education practices is beset with method ological obstacles each of which inhibits the further development of theory and insight. Because of the complexity of adult education practices as a social phenomenon researchers have attempted to extricate one dimension at a time for examination. Consequently there are separate bodies of literature on clienteles, methods and techniques, content areas, evaluation procedures and delivery locations as though these dimensions operated independently. In fact with all highly complex phenomena the dimensions are mutually interactive. So, for example, the nature of a technique will limit the range of content which may be taught using it, and the nature of a content area will limit the range of techniques by which it can successfully be taught. The practice of adult education thus refers to the conducting of programs and activities in which six dimensions are in interaction: .educational goal, content, methods and techniques, evaluation of achievement, clientele characteristics, and location of delivery. Practice is thus a somewhat abstract term used to embrace the whole domain, as one would speak of "the practice of medicine" in general terms. However, in studying particular cases, one is looking at specific empirical instances, as for example "practices in Ontario at the turn of the century." Concrete 2 practices then are characterized by particular variants of each of the six dimensions. Empirical case studies present six-dimensional configurations while systematic literature deals with only one or perhaps two dimensions at a time. One major methological problem then is how to integrate the dimensions of practice conceptually, so that those conceptual configurations will aid in the analysis and understanding of empirical configurations. Another major methodological obstacle is how to analyze historical changes in practice. Analysis involves the two operations of description and interpre tation. Description refers to the reporting of data in the terms of empirical observation. Interpretation refers to the assessment of meaning in terms of some point or points of reference. That there are fewer people in a program this year than last is simple description. Whether this is to be interpreted as an improvement or a decline can only be determined with reference to the criteria which define quality for that program. Description of historical changes in practice is possible through reporting the variation between a given condition and a previous one or even the original condition of a program or institution. Over time new forms of practice are created and older forms are abandoned. Yet how can these historical developments be placed into the con text of the field as a whole so that the significance of these changes for the field can be understood? By what points of reference can trends be interpreted? Is it possible to compare an innovative program with the very different ones which preceded it? The degree of detail in concrete cases is infinite and their comparison virtually impossible. So a second major methodological problem is to find some reliable points of reference, transcending empirical cases, against which changes in practice may be measured in order to assess their-meaning and significance. A third methodological obstacle involved in the study of adult edueation practices is how to make explicit the influence of values. A value is a quality 3 which one cherishes, prefers, or is committed to. It is seldom experienced directly". Rather it is experienced indirectly within some phenomenon. Values underlie attitude which are said to be a combination of belief, emotion, and behavioral tendency. Thus one believes certain persons, places, and events to be desirable to the extent that some preferred value is experienced through them. One experiences emotions of attraction or aversion in accord with those beliefs; and one tends to seek out or avoid experiences according to the values inherent in them. Adult educators can be observed to exhibit attitudes toward their professional practice in the form of preferences for certain formats, techniques, evaluation procedures, sponsoring agencies, and so on. While attitudes may be imputed to rest on values held by educators, those values are usually implicit rather than explicit, assumed rather than examined. Whether taken for granted or examined the values held by educators will strongly in fluence the way they practice adult education. Gale Jensen wrote: "The truth of the matter is that we always educate in some direction; ...In this we have no choice; but we do have choice as to the kind of behavior we believe we should develop. We can make these choices consciously and intelligently in the sense that we [can be] aware of the ways by which we arrive at them " (Jensen, I960: 88). In order for educators to make decisions consciously and intelligently there arises the methodological problem of making explicit the value implica tions, the subtle differences in direction of learner development, which are implied in the practical alternatives between which educators must choose. Systematic analysis of practices in North America should therefore provide not only a description of practices found in the field but an interpretation of these findings in terms of the values they promote. A fourth methodological problem confounding the systematic study of adult education practices is how to make comparisons between specific empirical cases. This places in a contemporary context the same difficulty which was . t. encountered in historical, time-series comparisons. Not only is the degree of detail infinite in empirical instances but also it is constantly changing. Rational comparison of cases therefore requires the establishment of something which can act as a standard of measurement among cases, something which unlike empirical cases has abstracted a limited number of key characteristics and which holds them constant. Empirical cases could then be compared not directly to each other in all their shifting detail, but indirectly by the degree to which they resemble or differ from the conceptualization which is acting as a, standard of measurement. Systematic study of adult education practices, whether programs or whole institutions sponsoring a particular kind of program, has not moved much beyond description toward this type of conceptualization. So the problem of comparing concrete cases remains unsolved. Source of the problem: a single ma.jor gap in theory Briefly, the four methodological problems encountered by theoreticians are: i - the inability to integrate conceptually the various dimensions of practice; ii - the inability to assess the meaning of various historical shifts in practice; iii - the inability to make explicit the influence of values on decisions, regard ing practice; and iv - the inability to compare empirical cases. Close examination of these four methodological problems reveals that they are largely attributable to a single major gap in theory: there is no comprehensive framework of the domain of inquiry which mirrors the concrete field of practice specifying both its external .boundaries with other forms of social practice, and its internal boundaries which distinguish between basic variations in practice. External and internal boundaries to the domain of inquiry supply the limits which are necessary to all systematic theory. They specify the "universe of discourse". At different times the practice of adult education resembles religion, social . activism, psychotherapy, work, social service, and recreation among other forms of social activity. A framework of the domain should in the first place provide a clear specification of where educational practices for adults end and other similar but non-educational practices begin. Secondly, a framework of the domain should articulate that which sets apart distinctive "fields" within the domain. According to the social science method-ologist Abraham Kaplan (i960:94) every law-like statement has field, range and scope dimensions which limit the applicability of its content. Specifying the "field" to which a law applies constitutes a solution to the locus problem, that is the problem of selecting the ultimate subject-matter of an inquiry (op. cit.: ?8). The literature of adult education is plagued with statements, theoretical assumptions, and conclusions of unspecified applicability. Statements couched in general terms imply they will generalize throughout the whole domain, while evidently excluding large sub-sections within the domain. Adult education prac tices are clearly not a homogenous domain and yet sub-sections of the domain (which will be called types of practice), have never been defined in a compre hensive framework. Without theoretically sound "types" it is not possible to examine concrete cases effectively for the purpose of finding either contemp orary "branches of practice" or historical "traditions of practice". Inadequacy of previous attempts to fill the gap Many of the descriptive studies of content areas, methods and techniques, evaluation procedures, clienteles and locations used in adult education, although they attempt to provide a comprehensive overview of the domain, add up to not much more than annotated inventories - lists of possible observations in each dimension of practice. Variants from within each of the dimensions of practice are not grouped into configurations which resemble actual practice. Dimensions are treated as though they were separable elements and not interactive components 6 of a composite phenomenon. For example, Schroeder's (1970) typology of institu tions, McCoy's (1977) linkage of lifespan stages and content interests, Bergevin Morris-and Smith's excellent handbook on techniques (1963), Walberg's (1974) book on evaluation, while fine.examples of work in these lines, are evidence of the isolated treatments which are made of interactive dimensions. Alternatives such as the Canadian study "Coming of Age"(Kidd & Selman,1978) do present com posite case studies, and report on most of the dimensions of practice in prag matic configurations under the section "Programs and Experiences". Unfortunately these tend to be highly idiographic rather than conceptualized toward social scientific generalization. Analyzing phenomena of practice requires having some means for interpreting configurations of characteristics so as to understand their place within the domain. Descriptive observation without some points of refer ence, some conceptual structure, cannot be interpreted. The converse of the problem of description without interpretation is found in the problem of conceptualization without illustration. Conceptual studies which examine the role of values in guiding practice can offer only limited in sight if the analyses are kept separate from empirical illustration. For example, the notion of a succession of values proposed by Webster Cotton who described three eras of "idealism", "disillusion", and "rising professionalism" among adult educators, does not substantiate how these differences in conviction may have changed the content, methods, or clientele of the adult education practices of each era. Similarly, the notion of competition among values offers several simple alternatives to adult educators, claiming they must choose between~the values of social preservation versus social reconstruction, or between person-oriented versus society-oriented practice, or again between spiritual arid professional com mitment ±0 a aoicial...fflovemerit versus the value-free application of learning tech nology. But these polarities are never fully extended into empirical indicators of the concepts to determine whether the analyses encompass the whole range of 7 adult education practices or only a portion of it. Conceptual analyses discon nected from empirical indicators within the field are thus as non-productive as empirical findings devoid of theoretical interpretation. Purpose of the Study: To Produce a Comprehensive Framework for the Domain The purpose of this study is to produce a comprehensive framework that articulates the domain of adult education practices - a framework which incor porates six dimensions of practice including the value-laden goal dimension, and provides both an external boundary with other similar but non-educational practices, and the internal boundaries which identify distinctive sub-sections within the domain. The first proposition of the thesis regarding relationships at work in the domain is that constructive typology will reveal a small number of sets of characteristics none of which will reduce into the terms of another. Secondly that these sets in combination will accomodate all. variations of prac tice in the field. Thirdly, -these sets of characteristics can be shown to have a common core which binds them to a common social practice. The second proposi tion of the thesis, regarding sequences, is that the framework if based on suf ficiently undated and non-localized types will prove to be a means of detailed taxonomic description of cases so that accurate time-series comparisons will be possible. Definition of terms The basic set of theoretical, and methodological terms used throughout this study are introduced in chapter one. Each term-is underlined the first time it is employed and its usage is explained. Because this inquiry focuses on the creation of methodological tools to study empirical phenomena it employs as a 8 rule abstract, theoretical entities which are based on concrete, empirical entities. Two sets of parallel terms thus emerge, and it will be helpful to the reader to bear in mind the following critical distinctions: Abstract „ rac^jLCe» "domain of "sub-sections of the domain" Terms: prac ice inquiry" "types of practice" Concrete „ ,. „ "field of "branches of practice" (contemporary) Terms: practice" "traditions of practice" (historical) Criteria for an adequate framework Abraham Kaplan explains that articulation of a domain of inquiry depends upon having something which will throw the simple inventory of observational terms into relief - and that something is an independent conceptual structure. The conceptual structure provides points of reference against which to interpret empirical findings. Effective articulation of a complex domain like that of adult education practices also depends upon having the operations of description and interpretation occur at the same time but through the use of two independent axes. This is accomplished by using in addition to the conceptual structure an attribute space which is a series of categories for observational terms that is displayed vertically. In this study there is one category for each of the follow ing dijne__y__]__c_i__3ra^ methodology, evaluation, clientele, and location. In each category many possible variations can be reported in observa tional terms. A listing of all such terms provides an inventory of possible observations. The conceptual structure is a series of classifications defined in theoretical terms and is displayed horizontally. The purpose of this study is to produce a framework for the domain which will propose five such classifications: one for each of four types of practice, and one for those definitive character istics which are essential or pervasive in all variations of adult education practice. A framework or matrix of terms results when observational terms from the vertical axis are assigned a place along the horizontal axis according to the 9 headings provided by the conceptual structure. Types of practice refers to in ternally consistent combinations of observational terms listed vertically under each of the classifications in the conceptual structure. As such they denote theoretical entities but they serve to demarcate basic variations of practice found in the field. When the taxonomic framework is applied to a particular practice the display of characteristics which results is referred to as a profile of that particular practice. If profiles were produced on an appropriate sampling of practices within historic and geographic limits they would constitute an analysis' of the field of practice during that time; they would together provide a detailed articulation of the domain. It should be noted that attempts have been made to analyze the domain of adult education practices by combining the two operations of description and interpretation into a one-dimensional scale rather than leaving them separate in a matrix. But any such one-dimensional scale results in a spectrum which is ambiguous in its apparent presentation of empirical information, and deceptive in its obscuring of the values by which it is judging phenomena. The only way the social scientist can claim the integrity of objective articulation of a domain is by separating terms against which they are evaluated. Usefulness of a framework to disciplinarians and to practioners Disciplinarians will find a taxonomic framework for the field has several productive uses. The following poin-te are modelled after H.H. Hyman who wrote on . uses of middle-range theory (1971:42-43) and showed that a taxonomic framework: 1. Encourages the consolidation of findings because it is comprehensive rather than partial. It can accommodate all variations among cases rather than discount some on an ideological basis. 2. Improves upon the simple consolidation of findings into dimensions of 10 practice because it lends an internal order to each dimension. That order comes from identifying variations as belonging to one or another of the branches of practice or to those essential characteristics which pervade the whole field of practice. 3. Increases the chance of uncovering empirical anomalies to such law like statements as exist because it identifies appropriate studies for close comparison. Under scrutiny these cases which appeared to conform to the same explanation may be discovered to have inexplicable differ ences. Such unexplained variations can spark new lines of research. 4. Assists in the conceptualizing of tests of theory because it defines four essentially different contents of practice in which particular theories of learning, educational design, participation and so on, may, or may not, apply. 5. Stimulates theorizing because it maintains a continuous dialogue between observation and theory — asking the theoretical significance of em pirical findings, and seeking-the empirical indicators of theoretical entities. Practitioners will also find a taxonomic framework for the field useful when they engage in tasks that address the field as a whole, rather than tasks focused within their own particular segment. Tasks which may cause practitioners to : .Ii.1: relate'-to the field as a whole include: 1. Engaging in pre-service or in-service training; 2. Drawing on basic research, and innovations in practice from across . the field; 3. Conceptualizing the most appropriate sorts of professional associations; and 4. Seeking guidelines for the making of educational policy at the national, regional, provincial and district levels. il Plan of the Study-In chapter one four methodological problems related to the study of adult education were described and attributed to a single major gap in theory, the lack of a comprehensive framework of practices which integrates dimensions of practice and makes explicit the influence of values on practical decisions. Such a framework would have taxonomic applications: to analyze and compare empirical cases, and to-assess the significance of historical changes in practice in the field. The inadequacy of previous attempts at a depiction of the field is attri buted to their disjunction of conceptual and empirical elements. Conceptual studies of educational values have not been given empirical indicators, nor have descriptive studies of dimensions of practice been placed in a theoretical struc ture . The criteria for adequate articulation of this domain of educational prac tices are taken to be the concurrent and independent use of an attribute space of observational categories and a conceptual structure of theoretical classifica tions. These two operate as axes that form a matrix of terms. The superiority of the matrix over a unidimensional'scale which blends observational and inter pretive terms was explained. Because adult education is a normative practice always educating in some direction it was determined that prime organizing concepts of the field of prac tice would indicate the range of directions in which it educates. In chapter two the results of a literature search on the social functions of adult education are presented. Examination of this literature reveals a sufficient degree of consen sus on the goals pursued and functions fulfilled that these rough uniformities are taken as the basis for the conceptual structure of.the taxonomy. In chapter three constructive typology is introduced as the methodology suited to turning the four groups of goal-function statements into a set of classifications of types of practice. The contributions of Max Weber(l904), Howard Becker(l950)» and John C. McKinney(l966) to the development of this 12 methodology for the social sciences are included. The procedural stages for applying constructive typology to the domain of adult education practices are described. In chapter four, the analysis phase of findings, four basic types of prac tice are defined from the elements of educational goal, domain, and function. Observations from the five remaining dimensions of practice are simplified into those points of observation which act as discriminators between the types and those points of observation which are uniform throughout the field. The rela tions formed between divergent and common elements in all dimensions of practice (including the goal-function dimension) comprise a formal model of practice. The model is illustrated in a set of diagrams that concludes the analysis phase. In chapter five, the synthesis phase of findings, the discriminating vari ables in each observational category are arrayed across the conceptual structure to form a matrix of terms. The terms to be found under each heading of the con ceptual structure are then read as a whole configuration, or a constructed type of practice. A tentative explanatory.account is given of each of the four basic types of practice and of the fifth configuration of terms which forms a set of definitive characteristics of. adult education practice. In chapter six a brief review is made of the procedural sequence of the study. Conclusions are drawn regarding the progress which has been made toward producing constructed types of practice, a model of the domain, and a taxonomic framework for analyzing practices which operationalizes for the first time the basically different types of practice foreshadowed by the social functions literature. Several direct applications of the framework for the practitioner and for the disciplinarian are described, and implications for further research are suggested. *3 Chapter II LITERATURE REVIEW In this chapter a justification is presented for treating goal and function statements together as prime organizers for subsections of the domain. Guidelines are given by which the authors writing on social functions were selected. Four general themes which emerged from a preliminary examination of the literature are introduced, and as each author's work is reviewed the terms used in it for educational goals are examined for similarity to one of the four themes. Terms which do not approximate one of the four themes are noted and summarized. In table 1 all terms found to be roughly similar to one of the four themes are grouped together, and each group is then examined for the degree of consensus it displays. Each original theme is elaborated upon, on the basis of the various terms contributed to it by the 12 authors examined. The conclu sion drawn is that these terms are predominantly empirical and constitute an inductive approach to determining the goals of adult education. While construc tive typology is not intended in this case to provide a deductive approach to defining goals, it is proposed to use this methodology to improve the level of conceptualization of goals so that they become predominantly theoretical in nature and can lead further production of systematic theory regarding the practice of adult education. 14 Procedural Matters Terminology in the literature Since education is a normative practice, assisting people to change in some purposive direction, it follows that basic subsections of the domain would be primarily identified by distinctive directions of learner development. Review ing the literature of purposive statements turned up several terms which refer to the "direction" of adult education activities. Among them were "aim", "objec tive", "goal", "function", and "purpose". In this study the term "purpose" has been reserved to indicate some value which is presumed to lie in the human in dividual or human collectivity beyond, but served by, the achievement of an educational goal. While one "takes an aim", "sets an objective" and "pursues a goal", aims, objectives, and goals are reasonably interchangeable as referring to targets of educational activities. "Functions" has more of a procedural sense, a sense of "getting there" than the previous terms which define "there" directly. However, since the fulfilment of an educational function implies the achievement of some concommitant goal, statements of both kinds were examined and juxtaposed for further analysis. The literature on "social functions" of adult education is that which makes the most comprehensive statements regarding the range of goals pursued in adult education. In fact, "social functions" were usually couched in terms of indi vidual development rather than societal development. However this does not seem to have been a matter of psychological reductionism, treating societal develop ment as nothing more than the sum of development in individuals; instead "social functions" seems to have connoted the range of functions fulfilled across society rather than functions fulfilled within society as a system. 15 Selection guidelines The selection of literature for review followed three general guidelines. Authors were selected from among Canadian and U.S. educators since in this cen tury these two societies had absorbed similar economic cycles and similar impacts from the two world wars. Consequently the services required from adult educators were similar, with some cultural variations in emphasis reflecting economic expansion in the United States and cultural development in Canada. In Europe, by way of contrast, the basic societal fabric and the impacts of economic and wartime experiences had been quite different. As a corollary the roles of adult education in its societies had formed along somewhat different lines. Among North American educators, authors were selected whose apparent inten tion was to make a complete accounting of the range of purposes fulfilled in the field as opposed to merely some familiar or preferred portion of it. Their efforts to provide a summary of the goals of observed practices were sometimes written as a "state of the art" report to fellow practitioners. Consequently many statements have been drawn from "Handbooks" (or reviews of research) written in the United States and from Canadian anthologies. . Timing of publications was also a consideration in selecting statements. One writer in Canada and one in the United States were selected from each of the 1930's, 19^0's, and 1950's in an attempt to draw on the depression, wartime and reconstruction eras. Two statements were taken from each country during the 1960's and one each from the 1970's. As it happens J.R. Kidd edited both the 1950 and 1963 Canadian anthologies and was responsible for the remarks on goals and func tions. Diversified goal-function statements could not be found from the idealistic reconstruction period following World War I. Instead, strongly worded statements were the common mode describing transcendent human and societal purposes which would be served by adult education. 16 In a paper entitled, "The Common Purpose in Four Traditions of Adult Educa tion" (McCreary, 1979) statements on the goals of adult education and their transcendent purposes in the context of human development were sampled from as early as 1798 and as far afield as England, Tanzania, and Latin America. In that study four general aspects of adult personality were at times addressed by educators: the adult as skilled worker, the adult as inter-personal bonder, the adult as seeker-believer, and the adult as citizen. Consequently these aspects of adult personality were restated as the following developmental goals of adult education: improving useful skills; enhancing the capacity for relationship; enlivening the search for fulfilment; and enacting political and economic self-determination. The present literature search focused on North American-educa tors of the twentieth'century, and a preliminary examination of their writings prompted a slight rephrasing of those four goals to include education for: a) material utility; b) psychological health; c) some intrinsic value; and d) citizenship. In the remainder of this chapter as each author's statement is examined his terms for educational goals are identified, where possible, as approximating one of these four general themes. Criteria for inclusion are left quite open to enable the formation of four groups of terms which are roughly similar. After these are displayed in Table i each group is. examined more closely to determine the degree of consensus and the basis of their commonality. Presentation of Summarized Statements Peter Sandiford, then Director of Educational Research at the Ontario College of Education in 1935i conducted a nation-wide survey of adult education activities in Canada in which he reported finding the topics of "economics", "current events", "politics", and "vocational information" as being of considerable importance. The . 17 i last topic classifies easily under the theme of material utility. The first three topics might have been treated as general interest programs, but given the social conviction of educators active in the Prairies and Maritimes during the depression, and given Kidd's comment that only later did interest arise in international affairs (Kidd,1950:16), it is more likely that programs in current events, politics, and economics were of local relevance and promoted citizen activities thereby coming under the theme of citizenship. While professor-at Teachers College, Columbia University^•Lyman Bryson wrote "Adult Education" which he referred to as "a textbook in a new field" (l936:iii). In it he stated that adult education in the United States had five functions which could be titled: remedial, occupational, relational, liberal, and political. For Bryson remedial adult education meant that education aimed at bringing an adult's "educational equipment up to the minimum that is necessary for life in an American community" (30). This would include the ability to read and to write, to speak English, and to understand American citizenship, as well as to carry on elementary homemaking, child care, health and "civilized behavior". Bryson's latter four categories match up well with the four themes already identified. Occupational education included education which helps an adult to advance on the job, to change jobs, to compensate for displacement by machinery, and to choose or adjust to an occupation. Relational education included parent education and all study regarding emotions, attitudes, and psychological habits (ibid). Liberal education was a term used to signify activities undertaken for their own sake and not because they were instrumental to any results beyond the satisfaction of achievement. In this sense liberal education involved a recreational element and "the sheer enjoyment of pleasant effort" (31)• Political education include all studies and experiences by which adults would undertake to make themselves "better members of the commonwealth". While this sounds like the harmless contemplation of politics, Bryson specifically included "all forms of training for political 18 action" (31). In 1948, John Muir, then President of the Canadian Association for Adult Education, wrote a booklet entitled "Questions and Answers About Adult Education in Canada". Although bordering on transcendent purposes his goal statements approximated the themes of intrinsic pleasure from learning, material utility, and family psychology, with special emphasis on citizenship. He stated that adult education was a manner of stimulating enquiring minds through art, music, drama, handicrafts, and other interests; a way of helping people get on in the world through technical, vocational and commercial courses that helped them earn a better living, and home building skills and other courses that helped them improve family life; and thirdly, a plan "whereby people learn to take a hand in the life-and-death decisions of their government" (5,6). In fact, seven of the eight items he listed as the objectives of adult education in Canada were . focused on the individual's experience of community: to stimulate a genuine spirit of democracy; to broaden our spirit of tolerance; to give us the feeling of belonging; to aid in establishing a culture for everyone not just for the elite; to give to young adults the hope and to older adults the confidence that have been shaken by world disorganization; to restore the sense of community to people who live in an age of specialization and isolation (6,7)-In 1948 the American Association for Adult Education published its "Handbook of Adult Education in the IhS.", edited by Mary L. Ely, who had also been editor of the 1936 work "Adult Education in Action". The handbook listed six broad areas of activity in adult education. "Vocational efficiency" and responsibility" seem to approximate social-psychological health. And "personal growth and self-realization" approximate intrinsic subjective pleasures of learn ing and growing. The unmatched category "special group interests" were actually special curriculum packages for particular clientele groups. They therefore pursued roughly the same four basic goals as had already been mentioned but used .19 treatments geared to special clientele groups. In discussing developments and trends in adult education in Canada in 1950 as measured against the earlier survey by Peter Sandiford, J.R. Kidd, Associate Director of the Canadian Association for Adult Education,(C.A.A.E.) reported in the citizenship theme there seemed to be a de-emphasis on economic topics, a continuation of interest in national social issues, and an increase in interest in Canada's international role following the war. Natural science was still a rare topic except in relation to its material utility in improving agriculture. General interest topics included resource conservation and the atomic bomb. Community art societies sponsored the touring of art collections into towns where no exhibition had ever been seen before, and national programmes of awards for film and radio productions were instituted. Human relations was a growing area of adult programming including the topics of marital problems, child welfare, causes and prevention of emotional ill-health, and worker-employer relationships in industry (Kidd,1950:16,17). Burton R. Clark in his 195^ doctoral dissertation at the University of Cal if ornia(Berkley), reported on the objectives of adult education as formulated by the California State Department of Education. . These included: to make adults aware of their civic responsibilities to one another and to the community (citi zenship theme); to make them economically more efficient (material utility theme); to develop an understanding of the attitudes and personal adjustments required for successful home.life and family relationship (psychological health theme); to provide for the development of avocational interests through opportunities for self-expression, to promote health and physical fitness, and to provide an oppor tunity for cultural development (intrinsic interest theme); and to supplement and broaden educational background (remediation theme). For the i960 A.E.A. Handbook, Wilbur C. Hallenbeck, Professor Emeritus, Teachers College, Columbia University, defined five functions of adult education 20 s which were "required" by the American culture. He linked these to qualities of the individual which needed attention, and inferred from those qualities general objectives toward which adult education should work. The first of the functions was to expand communication'skills such as the abilities to read, to listen, to write, and to speak effectively (36)(remediation theme). The second was to develop vocational flexibility with the incumbent changes In knowledge and skill, and perhaps changes in locale, ideas, and patterns of living (material utility theme with touches of psychological adjustment). The third function defined was the improvement of human relations, in family life, industry, interracial, and intergroup relations (psychological health theme). The fourth function was to facilitate participation in organizations, politics, and the improvement of com munities (citizenship theme). While acknowledging citizenship education,this i960 publication attributed lack of participation to people's "refusing" or "forgetting" to play their parts in the co-operative life of the communities in which they live. That sort of explanation predates a later widespread conviction that the disenfranchised of society had never been enabled to learn the role of active citizenship, or had been actively prevented from exercising the role. The fifth of Hallenbeck's functions of adult education was to expedite personal growth and fulfil the interests of curious people. But in this regard he quoted Lyman Bryson as saying that "Most people do not know what there is to be interes ted in" (37) • Hallenbeck felt adult education was as responsible for helping people discover the desire for this kind of learning, as it was for providing the learning opportunity itself. The Canadian publication "Learning and Society" edited by J.R. Kidd, formerly Director of the C.A.A.E, included a section on transcendent ideas and goals re lated to adult education. The editor remarked that while "many of the ideas here examined are not, of course, unique to adult education... notions of free will, free exploration of ideas, free speech and association, and of action 21 guided by study, are central. So is concern about the relevance of beauty in education and life" (1963:108). Clearly the chapter was assembled from writings on the broad cultural purposes of education and the values cherished within . individuals and Canadian society. Only at the beginning of Section III on the "Organization and Institutions" of adult education was brief reference made to the functions served by this field of practice and they were listed as: remedial, vocational and technical, liberal and humane, and social and political (165-I66). Harry L. Miller, Assistant Director of the Center for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults, in a chapter entitled "Adult Education Objectives" (1964) contended that in a static traditional society, presuming there were adequate facilities to socialize children, adult education would be redundant (222). There fore the starting point of all adult education was the multitude of changes experienced by adults in American society due to geographical mobility, social mobility, and technological innovation. He thus found that the central dilemma of formulating the aims of adult education was the overwhelming diversity of particular purposes produced by the broad task of "resocializing" adults (224). Looking to proponents of a central core curriculum for adults he found uncon vincing the arguments for a liberal arts curriculum structured by the academic disciplines (which he designated: basic sciences, humanities, and social sciences). Instead he preferred a curriculum based on analysis of the conditions of adult life. Such a curriculum might contain great ideas of the Western tradition, skills and attitudes of democratic community, and interpersonal relations. In fact, since the relatively stable behavioral changes required by adult life mirror the definition of learning itself, he suggested that adult education should be concentrating on simply teaching adults how to learn (225). '• In Miller's view curricula for the young are usually based on either the developmental tasks of the young or the systematic bodies of knowledge. By con trast he stated that "although a good deal of adult education consists of filling 22 in gaps of knowledge, this is essentially a remedial function peripheral to the central purpose of the field" (232). Since he viewed the central purpose of adult education as adaption to change, its proper subject matter therefore would arise from the "experience worlds" of adults which he designated: the world of work, the social world, the world of form, and the world of nature. The world of work, he claimed, provides those problems which dominate adult education as they do culture in general, problems which are reducible to training objectives, the verbal skills prerequisite to them, and as a recently developing objective, the management skills of human relations. This last goal is better matched with his "social world" under the theme of psychological well-being. Miller's other role objectives for the social world included the personal psychological develop ments of marriage, parenthood, self-understanding and a permeable belief system. It also included citizenship objectives like community participation and the particular moral obligations of living in the United States as a dominant world power (235)» What Miller called the world of form dealt with esthetic experience and response. It could include self-expression, the skills of esthetic judgment, or simply familiarity with art history (237). The world of nature as it is known through the- sciences, he concluded, was of least interest to adult learners despite the fact that its excessively rapid change was threatening the welfare of the social order. In his own exceptionally literate way Miller claimed that development of the scientific attitude and understanding of the scientific method were remedial activities for adult education as they should have been developed by the initial education of youth (238). In their 1964 book Coolie Verner and Alan Booth of Florida State University claimed to base their formulation of the functions of adult education on "social forces and factors that create the need for continuous learning" (9). However the exposition of their categories does not support the claim. They seemed to presume that education* in youth solely prepared people for vocational or 23 professional competence, and only later as the roles of spouse, parent, or citizen develop is an "expansional function" necessary to provide competence in an ex panded range of social role responsibilities. The term "expansion function" thus presumes some fixed chronology of learning, and does not differentiate between the knowledge or skill aspects of new roles, and the attitudinal or affective aspects of new roles. The "participational function" prepared adults for citizenship through providing knowledge and the opportunity to practice the skills of participation. This function alone resembles the functions fulfilled across society described by other authors. Verner and Eooth also perceived a function of adult education they called "integrational", which referred to mak ing new applications of knowledge already possessed to problems encountered, identifying needs for new learning, and integrating new learning to previous ex perience. This "integration function" like the "expansion" function seems to be cast strictly in terms of how an individual experiences learning, rather than specifying what he learns, as it would be identified in society. For example, "integration" might imply integrating new occupational learning, new citizenship learning or new parental learning. Their "personal" function of adult education might appear to identify a socially significant category of learning as the "participation" function did. But while the personal function was said to free the individual "from ignorance, obsolete attitudes and values, and from irrational or immature behavior" (10), it cannot be identified further as to whether this maturity refers to interactions of a psychological, esthetic, philosophical or political sort. Verner and Booth's functions therefore seem to be imbedded in some implicit theory of the psychology of learning rather than in an empirical overview of adult education practices throughout society, and therefore despite first appearances their terms do not fit with other writings on the social functions of adult education. In 1966 the Canadian Association for Adult Education (CAAE), produced their 24 "White Paper on the Education of Adults in Canada". The White Paper summarized proposals for nation-wide development, and principles upon which such a develop ment should be based. The proposals included references to educational goals of adult education of which adult basic education, health, manpower development, technical and vocational programs, and professional education support the material utility theme; community development and training for citizenship support the citizenship theme; and pre-university science and humanities for adults support the theme of studies of intrinsic value if they were not intended to be pre-professional. The authors did emphasize a need "above all to make sure that the technical-vocational bias of the private system is balanced by the humane and liberal opportunities to be found in the public system (5). For the 1970Adult Education Association (bVS.A.) Handbook, Wayne Schroeder of Florida State University, wrote.a chapter intended to define and describe adult education in which he treated the question of goals. His chapter makes a useful distinction between deriving goals deductively in a normative sort of process, and deriving them inductively through empirical generalizations. He cites as an illustration of goal statements which have been derived inductively, the work of A.A. Liveright that sets as four major goals of adult education "occupational, vocational, and/or professional competence; personal and family living competence; social and civic responsibility; and self-fulfilment". With the previous exception of Hallenbeck (i960) it is summaries of this inductive kind which are being considered in this chapter. What Schroeder calls "deductive" goal statements are those derived from value axioms which often run aground on value conflicts like "individual needs vs. societal needs" (Schroeder, 1970:33)• He offers the following illustration of these two positions: "Words and phrases commonly used by those who emphasize individual needs are: skills and knowledge necessary to make judgements about social change; self-actualization; self-fulfilment; liberal education; self expression; realization of potential; 25 creative arts and leisure education" (ibid). The first goal in this list em phasizes the integrity of individual citizens with regard to the drift of their society, and thus classifies within the theme of citizenship. The other goals classify within the theme of education for its intrinsic rather than instrumental value. Those who emphasize social needs in their deduction of goals use words and phrases such as "social roles, developmental tasks, institutional need, adjustment to change, and transmission of the cultural heritage" (j&). The first two goals, social roles and developmental tasks may be subsumed as interpersonal competencies under the theme of psychological well-being. The third goal, insti tutional needs, may refer to the material utility theme of occupational competence. But axiomatic goal statements like "adjustment to change" and "transmission of the cultural heritage" are somewhat sinister in their ambiguity. Does "adjust ment" operationalize as passive adaptation to change rather than management of it? Does "transmission" operationalize as further promotion of the dominant culture only? What becomes apparent as was indicated in chapter one is that until goal statements are operationalized into the terms of the empirical prac tices in which they can be observed the concepts remain unprofitably ambiguous. Since these last two phrases are ambiguous, they are not used to weight further .any one theme. In 1978, J.R. Kidd of the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education and Gordon Selman of the University of British Columbia edited an anthology of Canadian writings on adult education entitled "Coming of Age". In the introduction Selman referred to educational responses to the pressures of the times grouping them under manpower training (material utility), social and economic community de velopment, and social consciousness of women (citizenship), education for leisure (intrinsic value), and the area of human relations and individual growth and development (psychological health) (3-5)' 26 Juxtaposition of terms In table 1 all terms which have been found to be roughly similar to one of the four themes are grouped together. For the most part these terms have been presented as inductively derived goals of observed practices. While both Hallenbeck (i960) and Schroeder (l9?0) have used procedures which appear to be deductive to develop their terms, in fact neither author identifies any goal as having been left unaddressed by practices in the field. So, in effect their goal statements may also be understood as representing a summary of goals present in the domain — as the inductive approaches did. "Remedial education" has been a problematic term meaning at times that which closes the gap between what a learner already has and almost any standard imagin able . For example, Miller's reference to development of the scientific attitude and understanding of the scientific method as remedial activities for adult education was perhaps a bit rarified. The most common definition of "remedial" is that education which closes the gap between what an adult learner already has and that level of accomplishment which is expected of the average learner com pleting the compulsory 10 or 12 years of schooling. As such it precedes the functions and goals of adult education per se, bringing learners up to that "take off" point from which they can engage in fwcther.-learning. In this sense remedi ation also refers to the acquisition of those basic skills which are prerequisite for most types of employment and as such it is often phrased with occupational training. But the term cannot simply be subsumed under the theme of material utility. The citizenship schools of the American south-east in the 1960's linked literacy directly with voter registration and so tied those basic skills not to changing the learners' economic status but to changing their civil status. Similar linkages might be contrived to tie remedial learning to competent human relations, or to learning for its own sake. So analysis of "remedial" leads to the conclusion that it is not an alternate educational direction to the four already identified, 27 YEAR AUTHOR j EDUCATION FOR: Material Psychological Some instrinsic Utility Health VaW Citizenship 1935 CAN. Peter Sandiford vocational information economics current events politics 1936 U.S. Lyman Bryson# occupational relational liberal political 1948 CAN. John Muir earn a better living home building skills family life art, music, drama, handicrafts life and death decisions of government 1948 U.S. Mary S. Ely vocational efficiency economic understanding better human relations community improvement personal growth, self-realization civic participation & responsibility 1950 CAN. J.R. Kidd agriculture marital problems child welfare emotional health worker-emplover atom bomb conservation films & radio touring exhibits national social issues international role 1956 U.S. Burton Clark# economically more efficient, educational background home life, 4 family relations health, cultural devel., avocational interests civic responsibility I960 U.S. W. Hallenbeck^ vocational flexibility communic. skills read/write/speak improve human relations expedite personal growth facilitate participation 1963 CAN. J.R. Kidd^ vocational & technical liberal & humane social & political 1964 U.S. Harry "Killer^ world of work: occupational social world: industrial rel., family life, & self-understand. world of form: esthetics self-expression science & societj social world: community participation 1966 CAN. C.A.A.E. White Paper health & basic skills, manpower tech-vocational professional science, & humanities community development training for citizenship 1970 U.S. W.L. Schroeder Institutional needs social roles self-actualization individual judgement about social change 1978 G.R. Selman basic skills occupational vocational human relations leisure personal growth human potentials movement social & econ. ed community devel. social conscious--ness of women Table 1 1 Juxtaposition of Roughly Similar Terms Regarding the Goals and Functions of Adult Education * Authors who »ention remediation 28 but rather closes the gap between a stagnant condition and active engagement with one of those goals. Critique of the Literature Degree of consensus The four sets of terms displayed in Figure 1 are each roughly similar to a thematic title identifying a goal-function direction. But each set has its own internal order. The first set refers to materially practical knowledge and skill and includes terms which have an element of income-earning advantage (vocational, technical, occupational, professional), or income-disposal (home-building, economic understanding),- or are ambiguous with regard to income (agriculture, general education background, reading, writing, and speaking skills). The second set of terms refers to psychological health both within the in dividual and demonstrated through satisfactory interpersonal'and intergroup transactions. The terms in this grouping include: family life, marital problems, child welfare, self-understanding, human relations, emotional health, worker-employer relations, and community improvement when used in the context of inter group relations and the lessening of prejudice. The terms in the third set show the greatest disparity of all four groups. They indicate educative experiences undertaken for their intrinsic value rather than their instrumentality, and speak in general terms of leisure opportunities, and the development of avocational interests. More specifically, they include personal growth, self-realization, self-fulfilment and the human potentials move ment; art, music, drama, science and the humanities, liberal and humane studies, and cultural development. The fourth set of terms regarding the goals of adult education refer to citizenship and include: civic participation, civic responsibility, training for 29 citizenship in a world power. Conclusion What this literature review has achieved is the identification of major re current themes in the range of functions which adult education is perceived to fulfil in society. Such descriptive material is not capable in itself of either predictive or explanatory power. To develop that kind of theory-building potential requires transforming these inductively derived generalizations into a set of precise classifications which can be used in conjunction with hypotheses to develop and test systematic theory regarding the field of practice. The pro cedure which can produce precise classifications from roughly similar empirical abstractions is the methodology of constructed types. Constructive typology is widely used in an unconscious and unsystematic way by social scientists including researchers from adult education. But well developed guidelines do exist for its systematic implementation. In chapter three, both the general characteristics of constructive typology and the way in which it is applied in this study to practices of adult education are described. 30 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY In this chapter an exposition is given of the scientific technique of con structive typology including an explanation of the nature of constructed types, misapplied definitions and functions, and appropriate uses of constructed types. The application of constructive typology to adult education practices as it has been carried out in this study is also described. Explanation of Constructive Typology According to John C. McKinney (1966)^ one of the three main contributors to the development of constructive typology as a tool of twentieth century- science, all typologies are created to aid in the analysis of specific bodies of data, to establish "uniformities of explanatory value", and thus contribute to the solution of some problem in regard to that data(op.cit.:20l). Scientific work Is founded on the pragmatic assumption that the world is intelligible in the sense that uniformities may be stated, and explicable in the sense that those uniformities will stand the test of further experience, that they will in a word, recur (op.cit.:2). Scientific work is directed toward demonstrating uniformities in a conceptual order that eliminates the unique and the irrelevant with respect to a problem. In this way the repetitive and interrelated aspects of phenomena are revealed, not as absolute uniformities but as regularities which can be expressed in probability terms in the form of predictive statements (op.cit.:2,3)• Predic tion is made possible by the intentional construction of order out of diversity, 31 general out of unique, and recurrent out of occurrent. Scientific work proceeds by observations directed by a problem, interest or concern. That problem dictates the limits of what may be considered a recurrent instance, since no phenomena actually recur in their concrete wholeness. The construction of types to facilitate prediction of recurrent instances is a methodological approach applicable to the data of any science. It may be effectively argued that the scientist "typically constructs the units with which he operates" (op.cit.:3)« In social science that constructed entity may be a type of social conduct, social organization, or even personality (Becker, 1968:105). The sociologist refers to conduct such as competition, conflict, accomodation, assimilation, and socialization. The historian utilizes constructed types of social organization such as the Greek city-state, the feudal system, the manorial system, early Protestantism, and the medieval Papacy (McKinney,1966:4). The historian may cast personality types in terms such as Whig, Jacobite, Calvinist, Highland clansman, or "Nazi-era passive German intellectual" (Becker, 1968 : 95)f or the economist refer to a hypothetical "economic man" (McKinney, 1966:4-). These types are constructed for the purposes of social science; not one of them conforms exactly to any specific historical instance. This procedure of creating useful fictions is not confined to the social sciences. It is apparent in the physical sciences where constructs abound such as the perfect lever, frictionless motion, the perfect vacuum, perfect surfaces and straight-sided cylinders (ibid). While constructed types are common in all sciences they are perhaps more necessary to the conduct of social science since the social world does not provide such well-delineated objects as those from which the natural sciences start. Paul .Lazars-feld (1955) philosopher and methodologist of social science, described the two ideals of social scientific research as vision and precision -(1966). Precise . instruments are necessary to the development of testable propositions; but in social science vision is required to discern the very objects about which 32 propositions are to be developed. In effect it is necessary to create the objects of social analysis (Lazarsfeld,1966:xi). With constructed types one creates the objects of social analysis through two interwoven operations: generalization and simplification. Generalization reducesrthe number of objects by conceiving of them as being identical. This has the further benefit of reducing the number of relations to be examined. To be able to conclude that in regard to some problem two objects may be considered identical requires having applied some partially developed theory-in-use to the available data. In the complementary operation one simplifies the object descrip tion by selecting only its theoretically significant attributes thus forcing the way toward a more explicit statement of the theory-in-use. By generalization and simplification the constructed type is used to reduce the diversities and complexi ties of phenomena to a generally coherent level (op.cit.:5)« To accomplish this goal requires relinquishing the goal of describing any particular phenomenon in its uniqueness. Types are created from facts and cannot escape being thrown back on facts "if empty speculation is not to replace sound generalization"(Becker,I968J 113)• McKinney agreed that a type could not usefully be drawn as only a logical fiction. Unless the unified conceptualization had been drawn from approximations among empirical cases it would not be of use later as a standard for comparison of empirical cases - it would not be possible to relate the type to actual cases to solve empirical problems (1966:14). Thus, despite its fictional nature, the constructed type offers no sanctuary for wishful thinking. Via the constructed type one creates a unit of social analysis by describing an objectively probable phenomenon strictly in terms of theoretically significant attributes. The constructed type relates to factual empirical cases in a way that the ordinary stereotype does. not. A stereotype often lacks an empirical referent and is an unplanned, affectual exaggeration. 33 In contrast, "the constructed type is a purposive, planned, selection,-abstraction, combination and (sometimes) accentuation of a set of criteria with empirical referents that serves as a basis for comparison of empirical cases" (op.cit.:l6). The special features of combination and accentuation of attributes also distin guish constructed types from ordinary concepts. "Ordinary concepts are given precision as constructs through selection and limitation; constructed types are given precision through selection, limitation, combination and accentuation.' The constructed type organizes experience in a somewhat different fashion from the ordinary concept in that it forms a series of attributes into a configuration that is not necessarily directly experienced and accentuates one or more of the attributes for theoretical purposes (op. cit.:ll;. Besides combination and accentuation of characteristics the type is also distinguished by consistancy among all its attributes and the constancy of their relations to each other. McKinney called the configuration of attributes an internally consistent "system of characteristics, made up of abstracted elements and formed into a unified conceptual pattern" (op. cit.:5)» Relations among the characteristics are arbitrarily held constant by the researcher for heuristic purposes. Since the relations between these characteristics are between con ceptual elements they always remain hypothetical relations and therefore"may be held constant in any configuration considered by the researcher to be of utility with respect to the inquiry being conducted. The role of the constructed type in the testing of theories develops out of the constant relations it dis plays between selected and unified attributes. Because the type focuses on uni formity its use leads to the development of hypotheses about variations or devi ations (op. cit.:6). 34 Misapplied definitions and functions. During his tenure as editor of the social science periodical Archiv, Max Weber (1904) made a policy statement in which he argued that several dysfunctional definitions were often carelessly applied to the constructed type in social scien tific writings. Weber argued that the constructed type can not stand for an empirical reality in the infinite fullness of the unique, so careful attention should be paid to its usage lest it become reified. Casually defined types such as the learning society, the learning project, the folkschool, the social process of community development — even if constructed by methodologically sound procedures — do not constitute "real" things, but conceptual touchstones by means of which it is possible to describe, compare and contrast actual happenings in the world of experience. Weber also argued that the constructed type does not present the average or any other central tendancy of a class of phenomena. Becker agreed that while the type potentially could be constructed to correspond to a statistical mean or mode to do so would diminish its utility (1968:127). This is a thought-provoking judgement since so much education research has been of the survey type drawing conclusions from central tendencies. McKinney added that all central tendencies are just as unreal as the constructed type in the degree to which they "exaggerate the empirical referent that they supposedly represent" (1966:16). Furthermore, any central tende.ncy gives a representation of the extreme items that is neces sarily quite unreal. The type is a deliberately formulated limiting case from y-which the degree of deviancy of any item in a distribution is potentially measur able (ibid). The tasks of the average and constructed types are simply different, and their contributions to research not distinguishable on the basis of unreality. Thirdly, Weber pointed out that the predictive value of a constructed type is not a matter of its literally forcasting an event to come about under some future circumstance. It is not a hypothesis which is verifiable through its 35 indicators. "The reason [that] a type cannot be found in 'external nature' resides in the fact that it has been modified by the investigator in accordance with his special background and scientific purpose" (Becker,1968:107). If the type ever did correspond exactly to any unique event it would be of no comparative value when another event was to be examined - the abstracted concept would have fallen back into the realm of empirical experience. Therefore to find concrete exceptions to the type does not invalidate it; Becker asserts "you can never expect anything other than exceptions. If construct and 'reality' exactly correspond you are in the morass of the particular" (op. cit.:120). Fourthly, Weber pointed out that there is a danger of attributing to types a metaphysical imperative, especially with constructed types of developmental! sequence such as urbanization, socialization, or class struggle. Weber illus trated the point this way, "...all specifically Marxian 'laws' and developmental constructs...are ideal types. [Their] heuristic significance ..when they are used for the assessment of reality is known to everyone who has ever employed Marxian concepts and hypotheses. Similarly, their perniciousness, as soon as they are thought of as empirically valid or as real (i.e., truly metaphysical) 'effective forces', 'tendencies', etc. is likewise known to those who have used them" (1904: 409). Adult educators are currently exploring the usefulness of constructed types regarding the developmental sequence of the adult lifespan. Without scientific rigor,"life cycle tasks" could come to be thought of as having "effective force" or as being metaphysical human "tendencies". Becker agreed with Weber that "generalizations in constructive typology are not True, if by this is meant the controlling, ultimate, ineffable Capital T. All that the social scientist can mean by truth is some amount, however slight, of predictive power" (19681 124). Weber called the limiting case "an ideal-typical" by which he meant to convey a pure or unified conceptual entity. However this was often mistaken 36 as an ideal in the sense of moral worth inviting emulation. Modern usage of typology has simply dropped the use of the term "ideal" because of the confusion which it engendered. Finally, McKinney added to Weber's list of misapplied definitions, the assertion that a constructed type is not a homogenous universe. While it has classificatory significance it is not equivalent to the zoological "class" because the type "has a configurational significance totally lacking in the class as a homogenous universe" (1966:15). This significance may be attributed to the free dom the inquirer has to select and to accentuate certain traits for examination, and particularly to shape all other traits into unified systems according to vari ation in the prime trait. Not only inaccurate definitions but also inappropriate functions are some times ascribed to constructed types. For example, despite ideas to the contrary, types are not always for use in domains of equal generality. They may range from quite dated and localized "quasi-historical" types to undated, non-localized highly abstracted types. The exact level of generality would be set by the parti cular question guiding the research. For purposes of short term explanation or prediction the researcher might use a type like "the American Middle Western state university". For a problem of greater spatial scope and temporal range a type like "the Euro-American university" could be constructed. McKinney explained the advantages of varying the level of generality this way, "The more general a type is the greater the simplification of the empirical attributes; the more specific a type is, the greater the number of general characteristics obscured by the mass of ideographic detail" (1966:26). Furthermore, it is not possible to transfer the constructed type from one field of research to another, any more than from one problem level to another within the same field. Types are substantive entities drawn from the empirical domain relevant to a particular problem and thus are not interchangeable 37 with other sciences (op. cit.:5)« Finally, the type cannot fulfil the purposes of the monographic historian whose task is description of the unique (Becker,1968 :95) • While historical types of conduct, social organization, or personal character may be used to set the context of an event, its unique character is conveyed through idiosyncratic detail. Uses of constructed types Constructive typology can be applied to data to fulfil many tasks: to generalize, individualize, survey, compare, predict, quantify, and test hypotheses. To generalize is to treat certain individual entities as virtually identical with respect to a particular problem. Because they share traits that are problem-relevant those entities are "bracketed" together (bp. cit.:100). The traits may be qualities or behaviours that draw together phenomena which otherwise widely differ. The generalized type provides a means for extracting its approxi mations from different cultural contexts (McKirtney,1966:19)• To individualize is to create the object of social analysis by drawing from empirical cases only those attributes relevant to the problem under consideration. In this way "bureaucracy", "mass society", "modern capitalism", "mediaeval . feudalism", and "early Christianity" are constructs of social organization which have been patterned from criteria with empirical referents. Perceiving where the outlines of these entities may usefully be drawn requires a high degree of scientific creativity. Paul Lazarsfeld has said, "the originators of these ideas belong properly among the heroes of our intellectual heritage: (l966:xi). What qualifies typology as a pioneering act is its potential to handle "complicated, simultaneous interrelations among a relatively large number of variables in a preliminary way" (McKinney,1966:216). It can do this by subdividing an integrated complexity of data into separate configurations which each account for some portion 38 of the range of variation. To survey a domain of inquiry is to engage in the initial selection of data relevant to a problem area (op. cit.:6). The typology "is constructed along lines sufficiently general so that it can be set down on this or that portion of the given terrain without tipping over, so to speak, and it then becomes possible to survey that territory" (Becker,1968 : 107). Typology offers an initial line of advance upon many large-scale problems ordering phenomena into groups which facilitate research. McKinney concludes, "The construction of a type or a series of types helps us to know more precisely what mechanisms or structural relations are being postulated with respect to a problem area" . (McKinney,1966:216). As a sensitizing device its use thus "allows social scientists cognitively to map broad areas of social phenomena" (ibid). Typologies describe unique phenomena in terms which make it possible " to compare them to each other. This act of translation into common terms provides a considerable advance over descriptions which reflect the idiosyncra tic nature of each case. By the same token each type is not an end in itself ; its reason for being is for comparison with empirical cases, for the "continuing observation of actual behaviours in terms of the type" (op. cit.:18). The type provides a basis for interpreting particular situations, a "general standard by which a concrete occurrence is comprehended" (op. cit.:19). Becker asserts .that the constructed type is an indispensable tool of comparison and analysis when dealing with time-series, cross-section, or relatively undated phenomena (1968 : 119). When the constructed type is used in conjunction with an appropriate hypo thesis it will have some power to predict. The type also predicts by implication; in a sense it predicts by definition, in that the definition will contain criteria which imply a predictive schema.. McKinney illuststrates this with the concept of the rational man. He writes, "...the concept of rational man implies the . :, 39 adaptation of means to ends...There is an expectancy of man when he is viewed as rational man that is only partially met by any given man....A comparison of the extent to which actual men meet the expectancy serves as the basis for ex plaining differences in their behaviour" (1966:13). Similar predictive schema are implied by all constructed types such as the feudal system, scientific man, charismatic leader, or the absolute vacuum, sphere, or plane. Beyond the pre dictive schema, the type has a probability element. "Certain types of social conduct recur IF AND WHEN certain conditions are given..." (Becker,1968: 102). In examining an empirical case the type is able to indicate the degree of prevalence of the typical factors, and thereby indicate the degree of prob ability of occurrence of the typical consquences. A third element in the nature of prediction via constructed types is that the prediction can be either retro spective or prospective. The unified type may be drawn from the data of history and used to compare historical cases to its predictive schema, just as easily as it may be drawn from contemporary or projected cases (McKinney,1966:7)• Finally, like a lens opening to include a large field or focusing down on a specific por tion, the quality of prediction of a constructed type varies with its level of generality. The more generalized a type becomes in space and time, like the generalized type "the Euro-American university" the less detailed can be the predictions based upon it. The more specific the type such as "the mid-western state university" the greater the degree of specificity possible in short term prediction, and the greater the degree of error to be expected even with the con ditional proviso, because the degree of detail is approaching too close to the unique. Procedures to quantify phenomena develop naturally out of the construction of types. The functions of enumeration (frequency of occurence), measurement (degree of deviation/from the unified type), and prediction (probability of recur rence) are inherent in the comparison of empirical cases to types. Quantitative 40 procedures in turn are a beneficial adjunct to constructive typology enhancing precision and thus improving the predictive power of the constructed type as a theoretical device (op. cit.:6). Constructive typology may be used to test hypotheses. As a middle-ground conceptual device extracted from empirical data by theory-guided selectivity, constructive typology can be used to re-examine data for inconsistencies between what the data show and what the explanatory theories predicted. These inconsis tencies then lead to refinement or even replacement of theories. Application of Constructive Typology to the Domain of Adult Education Practices The character of constructed types produced during an inquiry is determined by the problem addressed, its predictive range, the hypotheses proposed, and the verification procedure used. In this study the problem was to describe in detail the diversity of North American adult education practices in contemporary cross-section and in historical time-series. The theoretical assumption was made that underlying the range of variations are four basic types of practice informed by four goal-function developmental directions, each of which accounts for some por tion of that variation. Since the predictive range was set retrospectively to cover almost a century, and prospectively to be indeterminate, the types construc ted were general in character, relatively undated and non-localized in terms of educational history, although in terms of sociology or anthropology these would be relatively datei and localized constructs, being limited to a single century and specific to North America. The propositions regarding relationships at work in the domain are firstly, that constructive typology will reveal a small number of sets of characteristics none of which will reduce into the terms of another. Secondly, that the sets in 41. combination will accomodate all variations to be found in the field. ..Thirdly, that these sets of characteristics can be shown to have a common core which . . binds them to a common social practice. Regarding sequences at work in the domain it is proposed that a taxonomic framework based on sufficiently undated and non-localized types will prove to be a means of detailed taxonomic descrip tion of cases so that accurate time-series comparisons will be possible. Verification of the types would require turning the taxonomic matrix into an instrument'fori, the examination of cases from the field,, an operation which is outlined . in procedural stage seven of the technique of constructive typology. McKinney (1966) outlined eight procedural stages common in all applications of constructive typology, describing the sequence from initial setting of the research problem to final interpretation of the constructed type's empirical verification. The way in which constructive typology was applied to adult edu cation practices in this study is reported now, stage by stage. . Stage one: Delineation of the Problem Background reading in the history of adult education led to recognition of several unresolved theoretical issues such as the controversy over whether or not there could be a value-free practice, the seeming irrelevance of some method ologies and eccentricity of some locations of program delivery, the implicit rank-ordering of some program contents as more significant than others, and the recurrent dilemma of appropriate evaluation and accountability for educational practice. Conflicting opinions on these issues seemed to stem from varying per spectives on what the field is, or should be. But these perspectives could not be resolved while several methodological problems remained. The methodological problems included how to integrate conceptually the several dimensions of prac tice so that complex cases could be compared and changes in practice could be 42 analyzed. Methodological problems were traced to a single major gap in theory - the absence of a comprehensive framework for the domain of inquiry. So the problem was delineated as the conceptual task of depicting the diversity of adult education practices in North America since 1900 — accommodate the full range of cases with the minimum array of types. The rationale of a taxonomic framework as solution to the problem, and the potential usefulness of a field framework to academic disciplinarians and practitioners of adult education were included in chapter one. Stage two: Familiarization with the relevant available data Two kinds of material on the field were examined. The first kind was hist orical and included case studies of programs like the Antigonish co-operative movement and the "Human Enterprise" program of the University of Illinois, case studies of institutions like Frontier College, Camp Laquemac, and Highlander Folkschool, and biographical accounts from practititioners (Corbett,195?) and from adult learners (McKenna,1963)• The second kind of material on the field was semi-analytic treatments of each of the aspects of practice including program contents, methods and techniques of delivery, clientele characteristics, assess ment of achievement, and locations of delivery. These treatments are called semi-analytic because they lack a conceptual structure to identify their rele vance to the range of practices in the field, but each separate treatment has some degree of internal order. Stage three: Derivation of hypotheses about relationships and sequences In order to develop some, perception of the relationships and sequences at work in the field of adult education practices, study was undertaken in the philo sophy and methodology of social science to discover how other academic disciplines organize their domains of inquiry. . Abraham Kaplan's (1964:74) description of 43 the standards for "articulation of a field", begins with a set of empiri-cal discriminations about the field, and emphasizes the criterion of separation of the conceptual structure from the attribute space. When this standard was applied to the field of adult education practices it became evident that what was confounding assumptions about the field was the failure to perceive that it could not be reduced to the terms of just one of its competing interpretations. It seemed in fact to be composed of distinguishable sets of features directed toward different developmental goals, and it also seemed that each of these goal-function types operated in distinctive and mutually complementary ways. Regarding sequences, the proposition emerged that if types were defined at a sufficiently undated and non-localized level then it would be possible to draw comparisons between incidents as early as the turn of the century. Errors of presentism could be avoided by using the matrix of descriptive elements to render a sensitive profile of each case, displaying its unique character in accur ate detail•rather than assigning the whole case to a basket category.- Regarding relations and sequences: anticipating a small number of sets of characteristics, and anticipating the capacity for time-series comparisons constituted the results of McKinney's stage three of constructive typology., and were re ported in chapter one under "Purpose of the Study". Stage four: Delineation of empirical uniformities; and pragmatic reduction to type In this study it was necessary to divide McKinney's stage four of constuc-tive typology into its two parts and execute each part separately. The litera ture search on social functions of adult education produced a sample of twelve authors whose writings were examined for similarities to four themes of broadly stated goals derived from an earlier study. This examination produced only one recurrent exception to those four Jfchemes and that was the theme of adult educa tion as remediation for basic education missed earlier in life. When this concept 44 was analyzed it was found not to constitute an alternate direction to the four developmental directions already identified. Rather it represented an extension of those functions to engage adults at their actual level of competence rather than at the normative level expected of those who complete compulsory schooling. Each of the groups of goal-function terms resulting from the literature search was examined for its internal order and the degree of uniformity it exhibited. To this point no alteration had been made to the original terms except to extract and group them. Stage four continued: Pragmatic reduction to type Following the exposition of constructive typology in chapter three it becomes possible to proceed towards interpretation of the rough uniformities resulting from the literature search. "Reduction to type" amounts to defining each type according to its essential, elements. From each set of goal-function terms the following three elements are combined to produce a unified definition: "This type of educational practice i) fulfils the function of by , in order to achieve ii) a general objective which is _______ in iii) a developmental learning domain which is ." This formula when completed from each set of terms constitutes a pragmatic reduction of the set to a defined type. The definition of each type is reported in the opening section of chapter four. Stage five: Simplification of the type with regard to the attribute space As detailed in chapter four, five observational categories were developed from those of Knowles - topical content, methodology for learning, basis for evaluation of achievement, educative location, and characteristics of clienteles. Each of these categories had an extensive inventory of possible observations. e 45 These inventories were reduced by extracting from them variables which virtually pervade the field, and assembling these into a set of characteristics definitive of the field as a whole. The remaining variables jfere^, examined for discriminators - those which characterize one type of practice almost exclusively - setting apart that type from the other three. These two operations were aimed at either field-pervasive characteristics or type-discriminating characteristics. The study did not treat variables which might characterize more than one, but not all of the constructed types. This would have involved hypothesized points of similarity between the types and much more elaborate treatment of variables than is productive in the first generation of research to develop types. The observational, categories of methodology and evaluation were so complex that their variables were sub-divided into a number of critical points for com parison. Within methodology those points of omparison were: i) a descriptive title of the methodology, ii) obstacles to learning, iii) structuring principles for ordering learning tasks, and iv) distinctive techniques. Within evaluation the points of comparison were: i) basis in objective or subjective measures, ii) focus of the evaluation, iii) outcomes evaluated, and iv) instruments used. Chapter four includes a review of each of the five observational categories of practice seeking in particular those variables which discriminate among types. It concludes with a series of diagrams illustrating the relations formed, among elements of the domain. These illustrations of the domain and its subsections constitute, according to Kaplan's criteria, a formal model of the domain. Stage six: Tentative explanatory accounting of the types An explanatory accounting is intended to read as a whole the set of observ able characteristics attributed to a type, and to relate the configuration to available principles and theories. The accounting remains tentative since It is relating new units of observation to old explanatory principles; the units will 46 undoubtedly stimulate new hypotheses and may eventually modify explanatory principles. A more rigorous examination of the rationale and role of each type of practice might stimulate hypotheses about why a particular clientele group espouses one type of practice vigorously and other groups do not, or why one type of practice is emphasized during some historical period and not another. In chapter five each constructed type of practice is looked at as a whole to elaborate upon its rationale and to clarify its role. Stage seven; Empirical verification of types, and Stage eight: Interpretation of the results Together these comprise the quantitative application of types to a body of data, and a phase of implementation beyond the scope of this study. Adult ed ucation practices it would mean using the techniques of content analysis on descriptive historical texts to identify terms which could be regarded as equi valents of terms in the matrix. In this way a taxonomic profile could be devel oped for each case study. The empirical verification stage is potentially ex tensive and could sample widely from the phenomenal universe under consideration to determine the rate of phenomenal approximation to a type. Interpretation of the results returns the focus of attention from the field to the methodology being used to explore it. Interpretation re-examines the constructed types and may determine for example, that a number of clear-cut scale types have been iso lated representing degrees of approximation to the pure type. It could happen that a recurring phenomenon in the field is a hybrid of two pure types. Numer ous types can be formed and frequently have to be formed in connection with a particular problem. For example, the citizenship theme of educational practices for adults, on closer examination might reveal several distinctive variations over time so that sub-types are formed such as "the 30's-type citizenship"(economic "the 50's-type citizenship"(ideological), and "the 70's-rtype citizenship'' 47 (consumer accountability) education. Conversely a single type could be found to be relevant to a whole series of problems. For example "technical instruction" as a form of practice might improve the efficiency of hobby, manpower, and pro fessional skill-learning alike. But second and third generation research on types is beyond the scope of this thesis which aims only to identify the first generation minimum array of types which will account for the range of variations evidenced in the field. 48 CHAPTER IV • FINDINGS PART A: ANALYSIS OF THE TYPES AND THE DIMENSIONS In this chapter the conceptual structure is defined which will provide a horizontal axis for the taxonomic framework of practices. Then the bodies of research associated with each empirical category of the vertical axis are exam ined for variables distinctive to each classification and for variables common to all adult education practices. Stage five of the methodology description explained why only characteristics which are either discriminators between types, or fieId-pervasive are sought. The relations formed between distinctive and common elements through the six dimensions of practice are illustrated with a series of diagrams that concludes the analysis phase of findings. Definition of the Types by Goal, Function and Domain The four types of practice forming the conceptual structure are defined by selection, abstraction, combination and accentuation of qualities, to give the highest degree of contrast among types. Pragmatic reduction of the rough goal--function uniformities to defined types is undertaken now by re-examining those sets of goal-function terms for the leading characteristics by which they may most effectively be distinguished from each other. These characteristics are considered to be leading in the sense that they form an essential defining set of concepts which guides the subsequent selection of a complementary set of observational terms from the five remaining categories of variables of practice. 49 The essential concepts which will be used to differentiate and specify the types of practice are: the general aim or goal as agreed upon by learners and agent; the function fulfilled in terms of the learner's development in order to achieve the educational goal; and the domain of developmental activity cultivated ty the agent. In addition a few words are included regarding the nature of the learner's experience with respect to the educational goal. Here again the pur pose is to define the types in their most divergent terms to heighten their con trast with each other. Both interpersonal and self-actualizing education may keep learners temporarily unaware of the potential outcome of an experience so that their reactions will be unbiased;, but this similarity is de-emphasized so that the..distinctive nature of those two types of education can be accentuated. The discriminating question put to the learner by speculation was: What do you feel is being addressed in your learning transaction? - To which the learner replied in the form: "I feel this learning is taking place between and ". Technical education The first inductively derived function was referred to as education for material utility and included terms of an income-earning, income-disposal, or income-prerequisite nature. The goal of this type might have been described as the development of "instrumental" skills since they aim at achieving some goals beyond the educative activity; but this term could as well have included the " skills of successful interpersonal transactions or of effective citizenship. "Skills" was not quite satisfactory to name the goal of the type because skills are contrasted with knowledge and attitudes as educational outcomes, arid simple knowledge of an information-recall sort had to be included. So "skills" was replaced with "abilities" because this would accomodate the ability to recall information. Now if "instrumental" is.replaced by "material", as in "education for material utility" then the resulting term "material ability" has the 50 unfortunate connotation of money-making ability and this constructed type can more usefully be cast as broader than that. All precisely defined abilities and competencies do not necessarily make money but they can be developed by a similar educational treatment. Since "technique" refers to any methodical process or means which enables the efficient accomplishment of a task of any sort it thus evolved that the goal of this type of practice came to be titled, "To develop technical abilities". Such abilities would include accurate information recall, intellectual skill, psycho-motor skill and "procedural" skills which combine judgement about tasks with sequences of a psycho-motor sort. The function fulfilled by all technical education is the building of com petencies, moving the client from an entry level of knowledge or skill to a target level. It is technical not in the sense of being pragmatic application of the sciences, but in the generic sense of technical in which all methodical procedures having to do with the exact or mechanical part of any art or science may be said to be technical. In this sense to build competencies is to build reliable tech niques "for rendering details in the performance of any art or of any process involving special knowledge or skill" (Winston Dictionary; 1020.) • The domain of activity may be either cognitive or psychomotor, and is cultivated by the agent according to the principles appropriate to each. The cog-nitive domain of learning activity generally proceeds from tasks which are con crete to those which are abstract. Both domains could be expected to follow a progression of tasks from the simple to the complex and it is primarily because of this essential commonality that they are grouped, together. "Technical" educa tional goals all involve methodical, systematic ways of doing things whether, that implies remembering, solving, or manipulating such that tasks can be sequenced according to their increasing degree of complexity. This principle both guides the design and management of instruction related to these goals, and points to the inherent organization which exists for evaluating degrees of mastery or 51 achievement in relation to such learning objectives. The learner engaged with objectives related to this type of educational goal experiences a "Me and It" kind of relationship in which the personal level of accomplishment can be measured more or less objectively against a hierarchical standard of complexity. In this situation the learner looks to the agent as a trainer who can assist him to achieve the desired level of competence. Interpersonal education The second inductively derived function was referred to as education for psychological health and included terms of a personal, interpersonal, intra-group and intergroup nature. The goal of this type was clearly tied to the notion of "relations" since even personal mental health inevitably included re lations with parents or with significant others. "Relations" could include the dyads of marriage, friendship or counselling and management interviewing) the small group interactions experienced in committees, task forces, management groups and so on; and the large group interactions occurring between racial, religious and ethnic communities. "Human" relations was considered but sounded too similar to "public relations" and "human" connoted "human potential" and "humanism". So the description selected for the goal of this type of education has been termed "To improve interpersonal relations". The function fulfilled by interpersonal education is the developing of attitudes and behaviours that produce more satisfying interactions by enabling the learner to practice perceiving himself and others more accurately, expressing himself authentically, and responding to the expressions of others in a mutually beneficial way. Along with these basics may be developed the skills of group participation,'personnel management, and various helping relationships. The domain of activity cultivated by the agent is primarily emotional. /Since behaviours originate in emotionally-weighted attitudes it is by practice 52 in this domain that habitual behaviours can be changed, rather than by cognitive change alone. Situations are therefore established in which the learner may immediately experience and experiment with habitual and alternate ways of per ceiving, responding and expressing himself to others. This principle of immed iate experience and guided experiment structures the design and management of this kind of learning and points to the consquent dual basis for evaluation since both a subjective assessment of attitude change and an objective assess ment of behavioural change contribute to the overall evaluation of achievement in relation to this type of learning goal. The learner engaged in tasks related to this type of educational goal experiences a "You and Me" kind of relationship since activities are cast in the present tense with other individuals either acting as themselves or playing a prescribed role. In this situation the learner looks to the agent to be a role model who can demonstrate desireable attitudes and behaviours rather than merely a trainer. The agent's ability to demonstrate clearly the superiority of one attitude or response over another is crucial not only to the credibility of the agent as knowing whereof he speaks, but to the credibility of the solution that is proposed for an interpersonal problem and that is undertaken as an educational objective. Self-actualizing education The third inductively derived function was referred to as education for its intrinsic value and included terms which spoke of satisfactions and fulfilments of an esthetic, intellectual, philosophic or spiritual sort. One of the main problems in defining the goal of this kind of education for its intrinsic value was whether to phrase it in terms of the person or society. It could be called education for personal fulfilment in the search for something precious and sig nificant in life. It could equally be called "cultural transmission" as in the 53 amusing phrase of one rural Canadian teacher who spoke of "carrying the torch of civilization"; but also cultural transmission as in the expansive phrase of Maxine Greene who saw in the study of history the possibility of "extending hor izons, and understanding what it has been like to survive, to leave traces in the causal forces through which humankind has moved" (19?9J634). It was tempting to consider recycling the notion of education for liberation from everything objectionable be it boredom, narrowness, or mortality itself. But liberal edu cation has most frequently been identified with the humanities and has not en larged to include the physical and social sciences and their impact on human ex perience . Furthermore neither religious experience nor secular activity that harmonizes body and mind is confortably subsumed under the term liberal education although both contribute learning opportunities that are self-actualizing. The common element in all these activities seems to be the "self" of the learner, for it is not society which experiences the catharsis of mental trans-cendance, but the individual. But "self-fulfilment" connoted satisfactory inter personal relations; and "self-enrichment" connoted acquiring something from the outside whereas the culmination of this kind of education is an appreciation which develops because it brings to light something inherent in the learner himself. Therefore, despite its liabilities, the only term which seemed appropriate was "education for self-actualization" because this alone can denote the sort of exploratory learning, the testing of esthetic or religious experiences in:.which one engages to find that which will call forth something of significant value from within the self. The function fulfilled by self-actualizing education is the encouraging of value judgements in regard to esthetic and philosophic choices. It offers the opportunity to explore and adopt for oneself a standard for what is beautiful, what is true, and what is good in terms of piety, justice, and excellence in human experience. 54 The domain of activity is either aesthetic or philosphic and is cultivated by the agent according to the principles appropriate to each. More or less ob jective standards may be set for judging the technical merit of an artistic genre, and standards of logic may be set for judging the technical merit of philosophic expositions. But what these areas of learning have in common that sets them apart from strictly technical learning is their affective element, the progressive internalization of values which is taken as the essential educational goal. In this study the affective educational objectives itemized by Krathwol, Bloom, and Masia (1964) and presented as a single hierarchy, are applied as two similar but separate hierarchies, one which leads to interpersonal learning goals, and one with a similar hierarchy of stages which leads to self-actualizing learning goals. Within the self-actualizing type of education the learner engaged in explor atory learning of either an aesthetic or philosophic sort experiences an "I-Thou" relationship in his.^leaming in the following manner. When he finds he loves something which is discovered to exist far away in the universe or long ago in the past, he finds part of himself that has been waiting for discovery. Finding part of himself here and there he comes to realize he is immersed in the universal, so he becomes more directly curious about the full nature of the universal. At some level then he begins to question it in terms of Thou. In this situation the learner looks to the agent as consultant rather than trainer or role model. Only in very esoteric settings does one human individual train, or model for another the full-blown, perfected liberation of consciousness from mortality and finitude, and these settings belong to religious practice not to adult education practice as it has been defined here. Social activist education The fourth inductively derived function was referred to as education for citizenship and included two clusters of terms, one which denoted an action 55 (participation, involvement, development, responsibility) and one which denoted that in regard to which the action was taking place (civic life, society, politics, economics, community). In seeking to define the goal of this type of education the modifier "social" seemed to be the most comprehensive. But while "social" issues may be as drastic as race riots, man-made environmental disasters and police-enforced language policy, the terms "social participation" or "social involvement" seem mild by comparison. "Civic" life has long since become out moded as an emotive symbol. "Community" posed the problem of denoting a common ality which is elusive in our cosmopolitan nations, or which may only apply to particular interest'groups such as "the ecumenical community", "the environmental community", "the espionage community", or to ethnic and religious groups such as "the Greek community", "the Sikh community", "the Jewish community". That left only the prosaic terms "political" and "economic", but these seem to denote the kinds of action which are fundamental to shaping the society that is shared by all. Political and economic decision-making also indicate where education must focus for the adult who wishes to learn how to engage effectively in the decision making which affects him. As for an appropriate action term., "involvement" and "development" were discarded as too vague. "Participation" alone as a term was unsatisfactory because its prevalence in the literature of the 1950's emphasized too heavily the absorption of new people into the old system however inappropriate it might be. History has overtaken that definition of participation as a satis factory political and economic ideal; the contemporary ideal seems to be controlled but extensive reform. Therefore the goal statement for this type of education needed to include the possibility not only of influencing particular decisions but even of influencing the nature of the decision-making procedure itself. The rather lengthy goal statement which resulted, "To enable active participation in socio economic decision-making" is shortened in references to 'education for social activism". 56 The function fulfilled by education for social activism is the forming of a realistic awareness of society. This awareness is accomplished through a cyclical process of raising the quality of critical thought about the social environment, alternated with raising the level of active influence on political and economic decision-making. The quality of critical thought is determined by the degree to which self-determination is a predominant value within a social being. Self-determination as a value opposes both the passivity of superficial confidence and the passivity of despair regarding the decision makers of society. The action phase of the cyclical process pragmatically takes whatever resources are at hand and in a considered social experiment uses those resources to in fluence the problem situation. The domain of activity cultivated by the agent is primarily social experi ment. As with affective learning of the interpersonal, aesthetic, or philosophic sort where the activity must involve "a feeling tone" or an element of "acceptance or rejection" to be valid, with this social activism type of learning the educa tive activity must involve considered social experiment to be valid, rather than remain in a strictly cognitive mode. The converse of no action occurs if circumstances are perceived as very pressing} in this case the learners may be tempted to take precipitative action. The agent's role is thus a dual one of "animator" when learning is circumventing the immediate issue, and "decelerator" when impulsive action threatens the learning opportunity. Adults engaged in this type of learning experience an "Us and Them" kind of relationship. This remains so even when the learner is engaged in relatively isolated action such as telephoning a provincial Member of the Legislative Assembly, or writing a letter to the editor, because at these times the learner is identifying himself with all others who might share his opinion in contrast with those who don't. 57 Simplification of the Attribute Space The next procedural stage in constructive typology following a pragmatic reduction to type of empirical uniformities is a simplification of the attribute space. The attribute space in this case has five categories, one for each of the dimensions of practice under consideration. Knowles identified five dimen sions of the field in which adult education operates (1964) and called them the institutional, content, geographical, personnel and morphological dimensions. For this study both the geographical and personnel elements were excluded since in seeking out appropriate categories for the attribute space the criterion employed is the degree of theoretical significance of the attribute. Theoretical significance, in turn, rests upon the ability of an attribute category to further discriminate between the basic types of practice being developed. Neither the geographical nor the personnel elements would alter the basic range of goals in principle, or the types of educational practice which serve those goals. The "morphological dimension" (form of activity) was retained as the "methodology dimension" in which methods, techniques, obstacles to learning,-and structuring principles all contribute to shaping the final form of the activity. The con tent dimension was also retained in much the same form as Knowles defined it. The institutional dimension he judged to be the most highly developed at the time (1964:41) and the foundation upon which the field was then organized in the United States. The evolving rationale for institutional typologies is examined in the location dimension of this study and quite a different focus eventually is taken from the one on which Knowles location dimension was based. Two dimensions are added which Knowles did not single out: the evaluation and clientele dimensions. Three constructed.types.of education were developed around developmental goals which stand in contrast to the technical goals of conventional 58 instruction. Therefore it was necessary to search out principles and instruments for evaluating achievement of those goals beyond the technically exact observable indicators associated with behavioural objectives. As for clientele characteris tics, Knowles had subsumed learners and facilitators together under a personnel dimension. Agent roles were excluded from the domain of this study in part be cause of the prohibitive size of the task, and in part because agent roles are accessory to fundamental types of education which are distinguished from each other on the basis of inherent qualities and characteristics of learner develop ment. The theoretical significance of learner characteristics made it necessary to look for those which were type-discriminating and those which were field-pervasive . The five categories then which comprise the attribute space of this study are: program contents, educational methodologies, evaluation procedures, clientele characteristics, and delivery locations. For each category several statements were sought from handbooks and compen dia of research which would be comprehensive of the range of practices in the field. Where these were not available a large number of specialized studies were examined in an attempt to represent adequately the full range of possibili ties in that category. It was apparent in advance that descriptive inventories, arranged in alphabetical order, or according to some other internal rationale, would not offer clues to the selection of variables into types. It was there- .. fore necessary in each category to seek out guidelines for the selection of variables from that category which combine appropriately with variables from the other dimensions of practice. 59 The content dimension of adult education practices Over a period of almost 4-0 years descriptive studies of the content dimen sion of adult education programs have alternated between generalized critiques of large programming areas, and descriptive reports of specific programs. For example the 1978 Canadian anthology, "Coming of Age" (Kidd & Selman) described 20 particular programs. The 1970 A.E.A. Handbook (Smith, Aker, & Kidd) critiqued eight large programming areas. Johnstone and Rivera's 1965 study reported on participation in courses with 6l different types of subject matter. The i960 A.E.A. Handbook (Knowles) discussed fourteen broad programming areas, while the 1948 Handbook (Ely) listed 32 specific program descriptions. But neither the short-list nor long-list approach to depicting the range of programming content has been wholly successful because of methodological weak ness. This weakness stemmed not from the fluctuation.of focus between descrip tions at a generalized and at a specific level, but from ambiguities in the terms used to guide selection of data. In the 1970 A.E.A. Handbook for example, one chapter entitled "Curriculum and Content" in fact compared and contrasted not these two terms, but the terms curriculum and program (Axford: 397»398) leaving unresolved the several uses of the term "content". Careful analysis of the content range available to an adult learner requires terminology on at least three levels of generality: the activity level, the insti tutional level, and the community level. Dickinson (1979) suggests that if "program" and "course" are used to signify non-credentialling and credentialling activities respectively^ then "curriculum" may be used at the institutional level to signify the full range of educational offerings of that institution including both its programs and courses. In accordance with these distinctions, "course content" refers to a credentialling process in which the range of what is learned will be more or less obligatory in order to standardize the signifi cance of the certification; by the same token "program content" refers to a less 60 formalized educational activity not aimed at certification in which the range of what is learned is more or less optional and dependent upon negotiation between the agent and learning group. "Content area" may also denote a portion of knowledge systematically stored in the disciplines, which changes only as fast as the arts and sciences themselves are restructured. In marked contrast both "course content" and "program content" refer to particular configurations of knowledge drawn together for educational purposes around a theme, issue or problem, and these may change very rapidly in response to changing course or program goals. What remains to be clarified are the relations among these three uses of the term "content": i) the content dimension of purified types of education; ii) content areas of academic disciplines; and iii) the curriculum content of actual programs and courses. These relationships are illustrated in Figure 1 which illustrates how a program of local history is being developed. "PURIFIED TYPES" OF .EDUCATIONAL CONTENT 1. Technical 2. Interpersonal 3. Self-actualizing 4. Social activist ACTUAL PROGRAMMING . CONTENTS Goal; To stimulate awareness of the historical signi ficance of local bldgs. Objectives: i - to develop a sense of local identity ii -iii - to stimulate willingness to pressure gov'ts to , preserve heritage bldgs. iv-Learning tasks: 7- larger historical context of local events DISCIPLINE . CONTENTS Arts: Sciences:. Physical: Social: , -Historyl Fig.l : Three Uses of the Term "Contents"zin Education 61 The general goal shown in the illustration is to stimulate awareness of the historical significance of local buildings. So the background information will come from history. But how this information is to be handled depends on the intended educational outcomes. Program participants are not going to use the information to pass a citizenship test so it is not the information recall of technical practice that is intended. The general goal of "awareness" is a first level outcome of the affective domain of objectives developed by Krathwol, Bloom and Masia (1964). The specific objective "to develop a sense of local identity" as an affective objective belongs to the self-actualizing type of practice dev eloped in this taxonomy because it deals in personally significant meanings of aesthetic objects. Yet a further course objective "to develop a willingness to pressure governments for action" would classify as a higher level outcome of the affective domain and belongs in the "social activist " type of practice of the taxonomy because it seeks to influence decisions which have been made in the past-(in this case to neglect historical buildings), to reverse that decision and instead to get some appropriate action from the government bodies concerned.' The significance for the curriculum developer is.that because these objectives belong to different types of practice they will necessitate significantly dif ferent methodologies. "Awareness" requires only a mild interest from the learner and supports what is essentially a cognitive objective; "willingness to pressure governments" requires commitment and persistence and these only arise in a group when it becomes united by a conviction that something which matters to them is not going to happen unless they act together. In that sense the latter object ive is a community development objective. It becomes evident then that the knowledge systematized in academic disciplines and the content dimension of types of practice are both drawn upon to weave the particular contents of actual programs and courses. The disciplines systematize knowledge areas and their methodologies for discovery and verification; the types of practice 62 systematize educational goals of adults and the methodologies both for moving toward those goals, and for evaluating the degree of achievement attained. Just as there may exist both direct, simple relations between the contents of academic disciplines and course contents, or tangential, compound relations betwen them, so too there are several possible relations between the "purified types" of content (those variables of the content dimension which characterize each type of practice) and the actual contents of particular programs. Firstly, there may exist a simple 1:1 relation between the actual content of a given program and the form of practice used to develop it. For example, pro--grams in mathematics, grammar, darkroom photography, square dance, typing and tele vision repair,-may all be treated as straight technical competencies',' and devel oped by instructional techniques. Parent effectiveness training, marriage enrich ment, and sensitivity training for nurses may all be treated as straight inter personal relations and developed by interpersonal laboratory methods. Amateur theatre, music appreciation, the democratic tradition, medical ethics, architec ture for human communities, and the pagan religions of Europe may all be treated as education for intrinsic enjoyment and developed by the complementary methods of impression-reflection. And programs in community health resources, services for the elderly, parent volunteers in school, and starting your own food co-operative may all emerge from unsatisfactory local conditions and lead to expansion of citi zen influence in local institutions as is typical of social activist education. Secondly, program contents may combine two or more of the four basic types of practice. For example, consumer education may combine technical and activist education. Adult basic education may combine technical and interpersonal educa tion. Management training may combine technical and interpersonal education. Women's studies may combine technical, interpersonal and social activist education. Programs on aging may combine interpersonal, self-actualizing and recently, social activist education. When these combinations occur, distinguishing between the 63 various goals as typical of .one or the other type of practice is useful as a guide to.selecting appropriate methods and techniques. Lastly, programs with the same name may be treated as either one type of practice or another depending upon the educational purposes that the sponsor ing institution espouses. For example, home and family life education may be treated as technical (household skills) or interpersonal (child care) education. Higher education may be treated as technical (credentialling), or self-actualizing (pleasure), or social activist (environmental studies) education. Intercultural education may be self-actualizing (personal enrichment) or interpersonal (pre judice reduction) education. Thus content combinations as they are assembled for actual programs may draw on purified types of content in three different ways. The latest A.E.A.-U.S.A. Handbook to deal with adult education contents (Boone, Shearon, White, and Associates,1980) is based on actual program contents as they have been arranged for special groupings of adult learners. Boone says of this approach that it produces "five thematic categories...[which] are not tidy, exhaustive, or mutually exclusive" (4). In contrast, the purified types of content are simple, precise, comprehensive, mutually exclusive; and it is these which are arrayed in the taxonomic matrix to represent the content dimension of practice. The next dimension of practice to be examined is the largest and most com plex — that of educational methodology. The methodology dimension of adult education practices This dimension includes the selection of methods, a decision central to program planning, and the selection of techniques, a decision central to the structuring of learning activities. By implication it also includes some refer ence to the facilitator's involvement in the learning activity —. ibut from the outset of this study explicit treatment of agent activities, such as 64 i) counselling, ii) administration, iii) program planning, iv) designing , v) managing, or vi) evaluating of activities, has had to be excluded or it would expand each type of practice by at least six different agent roles. The method ology category also excludes specific reference to adaptation of media devices and materials since these are dependent upon the particular goals, contents, techniques, and learners involved; and are decided upon by the designer manager of the learning activity. The problem of shopping list descriptions that was evident in reviews of program contents arises again in the how-to descriptions of planning programs and designing managing learning groups - which represent the agency and activity levels of adult education respectively. The main elements of the program plan ning sequence, which are: 1) needs analysis of a constituency, 2) goal setting, 3) program design including method selection and selection of complementary administrative components, 4) program management, and 5) program evaluation, are generally treated as though the process is universally applicable. Cyril Houle (1972:47) proposes seven stages of a "fundamental system" for educational planning which he illustrates with widely disparate cases. While it may be possible that he has identified the prototypical elements of educational planning and that his system can be stretched to accomodate even the eccentric phenomena of social activist education, so that it comprises the whole field of practice — this very comprehensiveness presents a new problem. The problem is how to differentiate the methodologies employed in basic types of practice with a state ment so generalized that it subsumes all types of practice. Houle himself says of his fundamental system that its very breadth and comprehensiveness may make it too elaborate for easy and ready use (op. cit.: 224). Its usefulness in charac terizing the field as a whole will be discussed following the four types, under "Common Characteristics in all Adult Education Practices". Apps (1979) denies that Houle's system represents the field,: classing this . 65 approach with Tyler as a special form of educational engineering which moves by-steps toward behavioral objectives based on learners' needs. Apps contrasts this approach both with Freire's social revolutionary approach to planning education, and with the humanity-enhancing processes of liberal education as an approach to educational planning. This study recognizes all these three — the instructional approach, the social experiment, and the liberal values-clarification approach to education — and also acknowledges a fourth basic methodology in the interpersonal laboratory approach. These four approaches to the selection of methods and techniques are recognized as discriminators between types, while Houle's funda mental system of planning is treated as more or less common to all types of educational practice. Houle also provided a set| of eleven social situations (shown in Table 2) in which educational programs may be planned. While these give some indication of the variety of social dynamics which may be at work in the planning situation, and thereby suggest some agent functions in each, the categories do not in any way influence the essential dependence of technique and method selection upon the type MAJOR CATEGORIES OF EDUCATIONAL DESIGN SITUATIONS INDIVIDUAL C-l An individual designs an activity for himself C-2 An individual or a group designs an activity for another in dividual GROUP C-3 A group (with or without a continuing leader) designs an activity for itself C-4 A teacher or group of teachers designs an activity for, and > often with, a group of students C-5 A committee designs an acuvity for a larger group C-6 Two or more groups design an activity which will enhance their combined programs of service INSTITUTION C-7 A new institution is designed C-8 An institution designs an activity in a new format C-9 An institution designs a new activity in an established format C-10 Two or more institutions design an acuvity which will en hance their combined programs of service MASS C-l 1 An individual, group, or institution designs an activity for a .mass audience :—' — '• of learning outcome being planned for particular- learners^"Table 2: (Houle, 1972:44) Essentially methods are institutional formats for contacting learners. 66 They mediate between clients, general goals, and resources; whereas techniques, being structured activities for engaging the learner with a learning task, medi ate between clients, specific objectives, and particular contents. Methods were described by Verner and Booth in 1964 as the ways in which the learners are organized in order to conduct the educational activities. They were joined by other writers in classifying correspondence, apprenticeship and programmed instruction as "individual methods", and courses, discussion groups, workshops, clinics, and conferences as "group methods". But they were virtually the only "-biles to define a third category of methods in which community devel opment is the only item. Whereas individual and group methods are ways in which learners are organized to conduct educational activities, to say so of community development would be to use the goal to reach the means. Community development is a process in which educational activity intersects with the poli tical, cultural and economic activity of a society. Such adult programming is a means to an end which lies beyond the educational event itself in both place and time. So community development is not categorized in this study as an educational method, but a goal of human community toward which educational practices contribute. However, even reviewing only those adult education methods for individuals and for groups is still a matter of trying to intuit the layout of the forest by reading a list of the names of each tree. There is no conceptual structure by which one may array methods with contents, with techniques, with clienteles, with purposes. No overview brings them all together in order to understand the field as a whole and in its subfields. Techniques have sometimes been classified like methods by the social unit of application. Bagford, Jones, and Wallen (1976) divided techniques into stra tegies for individualization, for small groups and for large groups, but still found it necessary to include a category of "special use" strategies. The 6? "special use" category seems to be an indirect reference to learning outcomes which Verner and Booth used to distinguish-between techniques for acquiring' knowledge or skills, and techniques for applying knowledge. But some element of knowledge is pervasive in all learning so it does not distinguish sub-fields, and "skills" is such a heterogeneous category it can subsume parenting, car repair, and successful financial investment, the learning of which would clearly necessitate different sorts of techniques. To compare techniques in detail Verner 'and---Booth used a passive-active contrast Similar to the acquisition-application dichotomy)arrayed against degrees of abstraction. But of the 25 categories thus created structurally, only 13 held examples; and of the 12 remaining, five were designated "logically impossible" (Verner,1962:22). A taxon omy with classifications which are logically impossible would seem to be very awkwardly structured and of limited utility. However lacking this sort of classification may be, some authors knowledg-able on the subject of educational techniques attempted no organization of them at all beyond alphabetical ordering. Bergevin, Morris, and Smith (19^3) for example list fourteen techniques this way discussing each authoritatively including in its description a checklist of questions for deciding whether or not to use it, and an evaluation instrument to follow its implementation. The instruments help tie the techniques to intended outcomes and to evaluation practices. But since no structure of either outcomes or evaluation practices is offered there is little advance in systematization. Knowles (1970:292,293) prepared one bibliography on techniques which he attempted to arrange in a typology apparently drawn up according to the various management abilities required of the agent-facilitator. The 40 tech niques listed were grouped under the classifications of: presentation techniques, audience participation techniques for large groups, discussion techniques for small groups, simulation techniques, T-group sensitivity training, non-verbal 68 exercises, and skill-practice exercises, drill, and coaching. .While this list communicates the scope of techniques it does not identify their place in rela tion to other dimensions of practice. Knowles did create (1970:294) a useful inventory of techniques aligned with six types of behavioural outcome: know ledge, understanding, skills, attitudes, values, and interests. At the level of micro-instructional outcomes this matching of appropriate techniques has some practical value. But since learning outcomes like knowledge, skill, and attitude often appear together in programs of very different types like garden ing, renaissance vocal music, and civil liberties activism, an array of techni ques by micro-learning outcomes is not practical for the task of identifying complex types of adult education practice. The key to analyzing the methodology dimension is that methods and techni ques of learning align with basic kinds of learning outcomes—and since these have been conceptualized already through the goal-function definitions and the unified types of content, selections can be made from this methodology dimen sion to align appropriately with each type of practice. Methods and techniques i can be and often are applied unsuccessfully toward goals for which they are inef fectual. But a matrix headed with a conceptual structure of highly differen tiated types can separate methods and techniques into groups according to a cri terion of appropriateness with regard to the essential educational goal of the type of practice. Closely allied to the methodology dimension is the basis of evaluation of educational experiences. This dimension is examined next. The evaluation dimension of adult education practices There is a considerable body of literature on activities such as-: testing, estimating, predicting, assessing achievement, evaluating, judging, and decision making. These activities are undertaken with an eye to criteria like objecti vity, practicality, reliability, validity and accountability. In the last 20 69 years this dimension of educational practice has developed at an unprecedented rate. It should not be surprising therefore that conceptual consolidation of this area is incomplete and that practitioner application of the skills involved is still less than might be desirable. This present investigation will not deal with data collection which is used to test hypotheses. That is the function of research, performed by the academic researcher. Instead, it explores the function of data collection before, during and following an educational activity, which is done for decision-making regard ing future priorities and guidelines, and for accountability on the part of the practitioner with respect to the criteria previously established for a program just completed. Any conceptual framework.of. evaluation . is likely to include eight elements Evaluation may focus at the level of individuals, programs or institutions, on such objects as personnel, learners, materials, climates, techniques, ideas, facilities, and on the evaluations themselves. Its temporal perspective may be anticipatory, formative, summative, or follow-up. Its purpose may be for deci sion-making or for accountability. Evaluation may take place in a natural or controlled-stimuli setting. The agents who conduct the evaluation may be inter nal to the educational activity under consideration, or external to it. They may collect descriptive , and judgmental data, and even at the program or in stitution level use norm-referenced and relative standards,, or criterion-referenced, absolute standards. There are many versions of the procedural sequence which evaluation involve Stuffiebeam (1975:11) divides the sequence into "three basic stages" for 1) delineating, 2) obtaining, and 3) applying evaluative data. These can be enlarged upon with a nine-step sequence that details the procedure. ..For example the first basic stage of delineating the kind of data to be sought can be viewed as involving the following three stepsj 70 1. Translate values into goals: Decisions are not inherent in data; decisions are taken about data on the basis of some point of reference which stands outside the data. For educators those points of reference are values they hold regarding people/learning/society/life/death/ and the universe, values which impinge on educational practice and in some sense become goals either as learning outcomes for the student, or as process guidelines for the teacher. 2. Operationalize goals into objectives: How will the learner know he under stands the concept of evolution, or how will the teacher know he is provid ing freedom to learn unless the general goals are analyzed into observable indicators? Objectives are a way of stating those externally observable indicators. 3« Set achievement standards for objectives: Kibler's "behavioral objectives" include standards as part of -their definition. Dickinson(l973s5l) however .: points out that for some purposes an "information objective" which contains • only the action verb and the product is sufficient. Standards will specify which attributes are necessary for the action or product to be necessary for the action or product to be considered as fulfilling the objective. The second basic-phase of obtaining data, which is dominated by technical considerations, can be subdivided into the following three steps: 4: Develop an instrument: An instrument is a written set of observation points or items which have been constructed to provide valid and reliable evidence of the degree to which the objective has been met. Instruments include con tent tests, interview schedules, questionnaires, opinionaires, and observa tion sheets for rating motor skills, interpersonal skills, or procedural simulations. 5• Collect data: Timing is important since there may be observation points such as expectations prior to entry, pre-test on objectives prior to treat-merit-, retention two days later, or transfer six weeks later, which must be tested on a precise date. Of course, no data can be collected without get ting access to the subject population by gaining clearance from administra tors, instructors and the participants themselves. Completion of the evalua tion instruments may also hinge on adeguate instructions to the participants, or training for observers or interviewers. 6. Analyze data: A collection of bits of information must be systematized or organized into summary statements or formulations before it can conveniently be used in making judgments. Data may be "eyeballed" or surveyed at a glance for central tendencies, distributions and deviations. With normative achieve ment evaluations the data may be statistically analyzed to determine mean, median and modal scores or ratings, the standard deviation, or the standard score and then reported in terms of rank, percentile standing or stanines. The final analyzing phase may involve all three of the following steps. ?. Interpret results: This is where the "valuing" takes place, where the res ults of data analysis are judged, and decisions are made regarding the stan dards, expectations or criteria which will be set for; future programs. This is also the phase where accountability is made with respect to criteria which were already set. ; 8. Report the conclusions: Appropriate reporting may include superiors or those who commissioned the evaluation, fellow staff, participant learners, poten tial participants, the general public. 9. . Audit the evaluation: This is sometimes called the meta-evaluation, or judgment made about the process of the primary evaluation, and completes a common procedural sequence which typifies adult education generally. "The three main levels of evaluation are the individual, the program, and the institution. Since the procedural sequence-provides no discriminators between types of practice it may be that the levels of aggregation at which evaluation 72 takes place will offer some clue to distinguishing between types. It is possible to run an affect assessment on institutions to evaluate the impact that they are having on clients' attitudes and values with regard to learning. The gen eral approach would seem to apply throughout the field, and any special adapta tions which may develop between types of practice are not yet in evidence. So this level does not seem to offer type discriminators. Similarly with program evaluation, where Stufflebeam (1975) offered an excellent model that brought formative and summative perspectives to bear on four key variables of program: goal, design, process and product outcomes. The approach is so successful as a comprehensive statement that once again what results are principles which seem to be field-pervasive rather than type-discriminators. A great advance was made in the evaluation of individual achievement through the development of behavioural or performance objectives. But they are best suited to expressing closed, precisely defined,, externally observable changes in behav iour; not all learning is captured by their "objective" indicators. In the cases of interpersonal, self-actualizing, and social activist outcomes, the subjective sense of having changed may be at least as significant as objective measures of change. Therefore discriminating among types of educational practice through the evaluation dimension involves primarily examining the relative emphasis that is placed on objective and subjective measures of learner achievement. In the clientele dimension which follows discriminators are sought among learner charac teristics which lead to understanding of learner selection of type-goals. The clientele dimension of adult education practices Discriminating among types of educational practice through the clientele dimension should reveal what kind of learner characteristics will lead learners to select one type of developmental direction rather than another. Literature on the adult learner tends to cluster into themes which overlap. Forced apart 73 these clusters.would be: a) general theories of adult personality; b) psycho social theories of aging; c) theories of adult learning; and d) research related to participation in educational activities. General theories of adult personality: Among the psychologists most frequently quoted by adult educators are: Allport (1955). Erikson (l950|1968), Maslow (I954jl968), and Rogers (1951>1961). While the works of these authors may tell us something about the general dyna mics of the adult personality, the developments they describe seem to occur in highly idiosyncratic patterns and at best offer educators a back-drop to other elements more significant for educational planning and design. Some other personality researchers focus on behavioral motivators. Murray (1953), Atkinson (1966), and McClelland (1968) have explored the need for achievement and contrasted it with a need for affiliation. However, these and other motiv ators like prestige, power, and curiousity probably tell us at least as much about job-related and social or community-related activity as they do about educational activity. Where such generalized motivators most productively overlap with education research is more likely to be in the area of learning behaviours and the front-line view from the classroom, than in the long perspective needed to see this field of practice as a whole domain and in its subfields. Therefore as a key to field overview of the clienteles of adult education, personality theory is not very useful. 74 Psycho-social theories of aging: Psycho-social lifespan research begun in 1935 with the work of Charlotte Buhler has been contributed to through the creative or consolidative works of Overstreet (1949), Peck (1956), McClusky (1964), Neugarten (I968jl976), Havighurst (1972), Ilevinson (1974), Knox (1977). and McCoy(l977) among others. Undoubtedly lifespan theory has the potential to guide many aspects of social practice, but It becomes most useful to educators as suggested by Huberman (1973) when the rough outlines of developmental stages spin-off well defined developmental tasks which are amenable to an educational response. This translation into educational terms of reference rarely takes place, with the notable exception of Vivian McCoy's (1977) work which is included in Appendix A . Beyond these particular implications the educator is left to make sketchy assumptions about the impact of lifespan theory on the clientele component of his field of practice. Theories of adult learning: The work of learning theorists like Hull (1943), Hebb (1949), Skinner (1953; 1958), Brunner (l96l), Gagne (1965)1 Bandura (1965), and Ausubel (1968) is largely regarded as telling us more about how to proceed toward certain kinds of learning outcomes than how to engage with adult learners as people. Those who emphasize the human relationship in learning, Rogers (196?),. and Knowles (19?0;1973)» in particular, do not seem to see sub-types among adult learners and therefore dp not offer any guide to differentiations in the array of clienteles in the field. The concepts of "fluid" and "crystalizedM intelligence have given some insight into the learning behaviours of younger and older adults respectively (Horn .&. Cattell,1967) • A second distinction between adult learners on the basis of their motivations for learning, and therefore one would infer in the learning behaviours, was made by Cyril Houle inl96l. He claimed that very active adult learners seemed to have motivations with an emphasis on either external goals, or social activity, or 75 love of learning. A subsequent line of research was developed by Sheffield (1964) and Burgess (l97l)« Boshier (1971;1973;1977)experimented with the range of motivational orientations as six, then regrouped them into a life-space/ life-chance dichotomy after the more general deficiency/growth dichotomy devel oped by Maslow(l954). Not only do dichotomies of this sort seem to have predic tive power for the kinds of external reward or internal satisfaction to which learners respond in class, they also have been used to explain two phenomena of participation in adult education. Participation research in adult education: Patterns of participation can be studied at four different levels (the personal, institutional, community, or societal levels)^ and in two different ways (either in terms of rate or direction of participation). Rate of partici pation considers three phenomena: "either-or" (Does X participate or not, and in either case, why?); "lifespan consistency" (Does X participate more or less con tinuously or only sporadically, and in either case, why?); and "completion/ drop-out" phenomena. Direction of participation refers to the types of subject matter and methods of relating to educative assistance for which people express a preference. Verner and Neylan (1966) established that extended duration of a course can contribute to drop-out. But Boshier's research with life-space/life-chance educational motivations provides a more complete picture when it suggests that life-chancers are more susceptible to a condition of "incongruence" within themselves and with their educational environment and consequently tend more to drop-out in the short run of a single course than life-spacers. Life-chancers also seek a condition of "homeostasis" or reduction of external stress and there fore over a lifetime participate sporadically only as external conditions re quire them to. Life-spacers in contrast experience congruence and tend to com plete in the short run; and over a lifespan seek "heterostasis" or the unusual 76. and stimulating so they participate in new activities on a regular basis. While participation rate studies examine differences between repeater-completer participants and sporadic-dropout participants, they do not compare participants with non-participants (McKinnon,1977:6). Furthermore, treatments of the "elther-or" phenomena include both those factors which provide an impetus toward participation and those which pose a barrier to it. Pattyson (1961) noted the potential for the timing of a course by day-of-the-week to pose a barrier to participation, while Anderson and Niemi (1969) identified inappropriate (ies impersonal) forms of information communication to the lower-lower socio-economic group of clientele as a significant barrier to participation. Johnson and Rivera's exceptional 1965 survey which gathered data on nearly 25»000 adults provldedrigreat deal of impetus and barrier information and processed it by means of 214 tables of bi#variate analysis. They reported that ZZ% of those Americans polled participated in at least one educational activity that year, that age and schooling were the most significant independent variables, and that the av erage participant was as likely to be female as male, was under 40, had hlghschool completion or better, an above average income, was married and had children, and was probably living in a suburb. They also reported that the most significant barriers identified were insufficient time, money and energy. But the study did not bring client variables together frithother variables of practice in complete oonfIgurations. Killer (1967) accomodated both the impetus and barrier aspects -in his force field analysis of participation, and McKinnon's advocacy of applying the adoption-of-innovations model to participation in adult education offers at least the possibility of bringing impetus and barrier factors together in a com prehensive formula with real predictive power. None of the rate phenomena in themselves provide the kind of field over view sought in this study unless they are tied to the directional component of participation mentioned earlier, i .e. j subject matter studied and method of 77 learning preferred. Johnstone and Rivera (1965) correlated each of seven factors separately with the type of subject matter studied: methods (56)1 institutions (64); sex, age, education level (80); life cycle stage (94); and reasons or motives for participation (146). But at most only two factors at a time (eg. levels of education and types of community) were brought into correlation statements with a reduced array of subject matter (113). Johnstone and Rivera also presented evidence that younger persons* studies are more job-related and older persons' studies are less utilitarian. Educational gerontology continues to pursue Jthe details of educational interests over the lifespan as illustrated by McCoy's table of life cycle tasks and continuing education responses which is shown in Appendix A . All such life span studies match the range of practices as dependent variable to learner life span as the independent variable. But to understand basic types of practice requires seeing learner characteristics as dependent variables which align with some type of practice as independent Variable because of its inherent develop mental goal. It is evident that large numbers df North Americans are engaged in educa tional activities and that central tendencies of this population are known. The driving and restraining forces at work on non-participants are also partially understood, and these forces have implications for the outreach service that is required to enable participation. However this present study is interested in clientele factors which will indicate a successful match between the learner and the developmental direction facilitated by a type of educational practice. Complex correlations of participants' demographic/socio-economic/ecological/ personal/and situational characteristics with type of education have not been made. Johnstone and Rivera (1965) for example, brought one socio-economic factor (level of education) and one ecological factor (type of community) into correlation statements with an array of subject matters studied. But highly complex 78 correlations nay not be necessary. It may prove that situational characteristics are a more reliable indicator of goodness of fit to educational direction than any other kind of clientele factor including the personal factors on which many parti cipation studies have been based. This study assumes that since education is a purposive, directional activity the essential variable in educational activity is goals - the broadly stated learning outcomes being pursued. This study also assumes that technical, interpersonal, self-actualizing, and social activist goals will be chosen by people not primarily because of their age, income, or place of residence, but according to situational characteristics which make that type of goal a developmental priority for that learner at that time. It is felt that contingency orientations, not personal orientations, will affort reliable guide lines to the practitioner for structuring educational environments that help 1 learners reach appropriate goals. Some support for this assumption that specific circumstances have a stronger correlation to actions than generalized personal orientations is found in the research of Apel (1966) where educators' attitudes were found to be more dependent upon their expectations regarding the effect of a specific change than upon any predisposition toward change in general (op. cit: 124). The location dimension of adult education In 1947 a line of research and analysis was initiated by Cyril Houle into the grouping of agencies in which adult education activities take place. His four categories were based upon an examination of the original purposes for which the agencies had been created. These were adapted slightly and reported by Edmund de S. Brunner (1959t123) as shown in Figure 2 . 79 1. Agencies developed primarily for the education of adults such as university and agricultural extension and correspondence schools. 2. Agencies developed for the education of children and  youth, such as public schools, which out of a sense of the need have developed programs of adult education& this includes parent-teacher associations and colleges. 3. Institutions developed to serve the the whole community in specific ways which have expanded their original pro grams to include adult education,such as libraries, museums, and social settlements. 4. Agencies and institutions founded for noneducational  purposes that have undertaken adult education in order to strengthen their major programs and to do their job better. Among these are labor unions, churches, coopera tives, business organizations and the agencies of health, welfare and recreation. Figure 2 : Sponsors of adult education (Brunner,1959:123) Knowles (,1964) deleted universities from adult agencies and added proprietary schools, and independent and residential centres. To "whole community" agencies he added government agencies, and health and welfare agencies. To "noneducational" agencies he added the mass media and voluntary associations. Although these three authors seem to preserve four categories as recognizably the same, the criteria for categorization are never clearly established. If T-III is to serve the whole community one would expect it to be contrasted by T-IV serving a spe cial segment as the contrast of a library and a labour union would suggest (ignoring for the moment that only a small fraction of a community makes use of its library). If T-III serves the whole community then why didn't Knowles place mass media there? If T-III is educational to contrast T-IV as noneducational they why did Houle place social settlements in T-III? Moving away from the indicator of original purpose, three typologies of institutional sponsors were developed on the basis of dominance of the adult edu cation purpose. It is possible that "institutional clout" was the essential 80 ingredient in the original-purpose typologies; at any rate, dominance of the adult education function became the explicit indicator. Verner and Booth (1962) spoke of adult education as: i) the primary function, ii) an extension of the primary function, and iii) a means to achieve some noneducational function. In effect they collapsed the old T-III (whole community institutions) and T-TV (other goals) into this third category — noneducational functions. Schroeder (1970) retained four categories based on the dominance of the adult education function in the sponsoring institution suggesting that it could be: l) the central function, 2) the secondary function, 3) an allied function, or 4) a subordinate function. In 1970, Griffith reported a new typology by Houle which used both the dominance indicator and the educational-noneducational distinction. This set of classifications considered that in institutions which were primarily edu cational adult education could be the dominant, coordinate or subordinate func tion; and that in institutions which were only partly educational it could only be a coordinate or subordinate function. Thus there were in all six well-known . classifications of institutional sponsors based on the nature of the institutional purpose: Houle's (1947), Brunner's (1959), Knowles' (1964), Verner and Booth's (1962), Schroeder's (1970) and Houle's (Griffith,1970). Another approach entirely from the cross-sectional classification approach was taken by Griffith (1963) with a five-stage growth model for adult education institutions. But the study of institutions at different points in their develop ment did not seem to lead to productive influence over their educative function any more than the classification by purpose had. Griffith reported, "Even though it is possible to classify an institution of adult education on the basis of the relative importance of adult education in the priority listing of educational objectives or on the basis of its stage of development, neither of the approaches affords any appreciable power of prediction" (1970:176). 81 If predictive power is lacking in the results of these examinations the question arises why were they undertaken in the first place. Why distinguish institutions on the basis of either the temporal or functional primacy of adult education within them? The answer seems to be that primacy means institutional influence over policy, funding and other forms of internal decision making — all of which would be useful for the administrators who are involved to under stand. But the primacy of function does not indicate a thing about the type of adult education practiced in those locations, only about the administrative support to practice. Perhaps the focus on institutions as such is not quite the right one to take if the purpose is to use the location dimension to gain either insight or predictive control over the educational practice that takes place. To focus on the host agency which sponsors activities submerges the characteristics of adult education practices as phenomena in their own right. It obscures the de finition of this particular field and foregoes a distinction between agencies on the basis of their place within branches of adult education, in order to calibrate degrees in the margin between this activity and other activities of the sponsor ing agency. Perhaps this is misplaced effort. Surely those engaged in other social practices will tell us how marginal we are to them; what we need to know is where do they fit into our purposes. Schroeder's 1980 typology shifted the focus from host institutions which sponsor adult education activities (perhaps a financial emphasis), to providers of adult education in the sense of managing its delivery. His typology of pro viders had a traditional grouping of institutional agencies (autonomous adult education agencies, youth education agencies, community service agencies, special interest agencies), as well as voluntary agencies (pressure groups, service clubs, mutual benefit societies, professional associations) and two kinds of individual 82 agents (entrepreneurial and volunteer). Again the question can be asked, why-are these distinctions being made? If the location of an activity is a special interest agency what does it matter to the nature of practice if it's an insti tutional agency" or a "voluntary agency"? What difference does it make if the provider is an agent under contract to an agency or an agent working for himself? Perhaps,>'in the way that institutional influence may have been the essential factor in the goal-primacy typologies, agent-learner interactions may be the essential factor in the broader-cast providers typology. If type-of-provider affects the kind of agent-learner negotiations which are possible, this would very much influence the resulting educational practice. Schroeder evidently thought the nature of the social system in effect was influential enough to merit defining 16 different "patterns of decision control-orientation" looking at combinations of agent and client control over macro and micro-decisions. However sixteen separate formulas for social systems is an unwieldy number to work with when it hasn't yet been established that this is the critical element of the location dimension to examine. For a third time the question can be asked why bother to examine where the educational activity takes place at all? And the answer seems to be that where the educational activity takes place determines the environment — in its physical social and psychological aspects •— which can either promote or obstruct the achievement of educational goals. Some research has been undertaken on the physical (Becker:196o), social (Boshier,1973,1977} and Clarke,1980) and administrative (Schroeder, 1980) aspects of the learning environment. But in comparison to methodology for example, which has received a good deal of atten tion, the educative environment has yet to come under scrutiny proportionate to its potential to make or break an adult's learning success. 83 A Model of Formal Relationships between Elements: the Types, the Dimensions, the Core The set of six diagrams which follows provides a visual representation of the four types of practice, denoting both the common characteristics and the variations of each of the five aspects of practice. Each diagram simply em phasizes a different way of using the model to focus on some limited section of the field of practice at a time. But the diagrams do provide more than an illus trated review of the taxonomic matrix because the matrix is limited by its two dimensions. In evoking three dimensions the diagrams are able to demonstrate r.<v certain structural relations among the various observational categories and con ceptual classifications.. This set of structural relations constitutes a model of adult education practice which illustrates both those definitive character istics which establish the boundaries between this domain and other forms of social practice, and those particular sets of characteristics which distinguish within the domain four types of practice operating in distinctive and complemen tary ways. These four types of practice are formal, constructed types but they bear certain qualities in common with Cyril Houle' sinformally constructed types of learner orientations to learning. Houle based his types on an examination of those learners who exhibited certain qualities "to the highest degree" (1972x10). The four types of practice defined in this study are based on an examination of programs, institutions and careers which evidenced the "most highly differentiated cases" of adult education practice, looking for the most eccentric features, as though the incidents of practice had been subjected to centrifugal forces of analysis. At the same time those most essential or central features of practice were being sought as though cases were being subjected to centripetal forces of analysis. Houle selected the features of his three types of orientation from 64 the most "conspicuous cases" (op. cit.sl3), those which seemed to be "exemplars", to epitomize distinctive qualities. He reported two ways by which he identified these conspicuous cases. The first way was to examine those that were "perceived by others" as exhibiting distinctive characteristics (op. cit:15). In this present study practitioner disclaimers about some goals, curriculum contents, techniques, or modes of evaluation were taken as valuable indicators of a dis tinctive type of practice, because they were being disowned by practitioners who epitomized another type of practice. The second way Houle used to identify "conspicuous cases" was to rely on the self-perception of learners who felt "they had the same basic ways of thinking about the process in which they were engaged" (op. cit.:15). In this study two types of self-perception have been used speculatively to identify types of practice. The first is practitioner self-perception: what do evidently dissimilar practitioners say to themselves regarding the goal of adult education, the way one should relate to adult learners, structure their learning experiences and evaluate their progress? These practitioner self-perceptions were matched with learner self-perceptions focused on what various learning situations feel like to the learner. Non-negotiable technical objectives produce a "me and it" kind of relationship between the learner and the learning with which he is engaged; interpersonal learning produces a unique "you and I" kind of relationship; self-actualizing education that reaches to limitless horizons produces an "I and Thou.' kind of relationship; and social activist learning, where the values of a primary group are found to be in conflict with the values of another group,results in an "us and them" kind of learning experience which them seeks out a larger sense of "we". Houle warned that adult educators would not find a single neat interpreta tion of the adult learner (op. cit.:53)« This present study is also based on the conviction that trying to find a single neat interpretation of the field through central tendencies only produces indeterminate general statements about each of 85 the dimensions of practice and provides no clear depiction of the field for its personnel. Rather, in specification of the major variations of practice lies hope of advances in understanding of adult education. The diagrams which follow depict subsections of the domain and provide for greater rigor in the consolida tion and planning of further research than exists when boundaries on a domain are left unspecified. Diag.l provides a view of the central characteristics of one dimension of : practice. It could for example, be the clientele dimension. Certain aspects of personality theory, lifespan theory, forcefield analysis of participation and so on have uniform application in all four types of practice. As such they provide no discrimination between types of clientele but rather they provide a conceptual base for all adult clienteles. Diag.i : One dimension of practice at the core of adult education Diag-2 : Six dimensions of practice at the core of aduit education Diag. 2 illustrates the central character of adult education practices. It shows that each of the six dimensions have some characteristics which are uniform throughout the field and thus may be con-' sidered-the core, definitive ones. Taken together these central characteristics provide the basis for the ethic and ethos of a single profession. This particular configuration is an abstraction and is never found embodied in concrete prac tices as the four types are. But it does provide a stable conceptual centre from which each of the four types of practice builds a variation. 1 86 Diag . 4 : One dimension of practice as it varies across the field Diag. 3 shows one dimension of a branch of practice-including both its unique characteristics and those it draws from the core. If for example, this were the methodology dimension of social activist practice it would be found that field trips and group discussion techniques which are also used in other types of practice have their application here as well. These core variables provide the centripetal force to counteract the di vergence of types of practice toward separate professions. Unique variables of a branch are discussed in Diag,. 3. Diag.4 shows one dimension of practice in its full range of variations across the field. If it were the goal dimen sion this would demonstrate that there are four distinct developmental direc tions attributed to adult education, but despite their dissimilarities they are all anchored in certain developmental principles that may be considered common goals. For example, no type of practice would espouse the goal of making the learner more dependent on the agent. This focus is one way to plan the devel opment of professional competencies — eg. specializing in all types of evalu ation. 87 Diag- 5 : One dimension of a branch of practice showing unique variables only Diag. 5 emphasizes the variables of a dimension which are unique to one branch of practice only. For example, in the social activist type, in the methodology dimension "creation of a larger nucleus" is a valuable technique which is critical to this branch of practice and unheard of in others. In the location dimension of this branch, unlike any other, inconvenient and un comfortable locations may be the most appropriate. Diag . 6 : All six dimensions of a branch of practice including their core and unique variables Diag • 6 shows the complete configuration of a branch of practice including its core and unique variables in all six di mensions of practice. A graduate school course on "social activist education" or "interpersonal education" would give a comprehensive treatment to all dimen sions which form that complex practice. Treating them as a whole and distinct entity makes it possible to convey the ethic and ethos of a branch of practice, and prepare the practitioner to give specialized service by an immersion study of this branch alone. 88 CHAPTER V FINDINGS PART II: SYNTHESIS OF THE VARIABLES WITHIN EACH TYPE In the synthesis phase of findings the results of analyzing sets of goal— function statements for their essential qualities are brought together with selected variables from the remaining five dimensions of practice. The defini tion of each type guided the selection of variables from each of the dimensions to form a coherent, internally unified configuration of attributes of a type of practice, making it as highly differentiated from the other three types as possible. In the process some variables were identified which appeared to be pervasive of the field. In a few instances these variables were concrete speci fics - as with "public schools" which may act as a providing location for any one or all four of the types of practice. More frequently the definitive character istics were principles or criteria derived from each category of the attribute space, and from the goal-function definitions. In this chapter the taxonomic matrix is presented which itemizes variables selected from each category of the attribute space and aligns them with a defined goal-function. Then each configuration of items so aligned is reviewed in turn with a more in-depth examination of the rationale which unifies the type. The chapter concludes with a brief look at the common characteristics which were found to be present in virtually all adult education practices. 89 Presentation of the Taxonomic Matrix After the definition of type classifications according to their goal and functions, the attribute space of five dimensions of practice was examined to determine which of the known characteristics were field-pervasive and which could be used as discriminators among the four type classifications. The  content dimension was simplified to accord with the learning domain of the type: for technical learning, the cognitive and psychomotor domains; for interpersonal learning, the affective, emotional domain of personality; for self-actualizing learning, the affective, valuing domain of artistic and moral experience; for social activist learning a domain of human capability as yet undeveloped in educational research - a domain which comprises affective and cognitive outcomes but which focuses on the skills of human collective life. The methodology dimension was simplified via several discriminators. Four discrete approaches to educational methodology were distinguished and iden tified as : instruction, interpersonal laboratory, impression-reflection, and social experiment. These approaches seem to have developed in response to a focus on different types of learning obstacles. Obstacles thus provided another point of discrimination among methodologies. The rationale of the instructional approach was based on overcoming the quantity and complexity of material involved in technical education; the rationale of the interpersonal laboratory approach was based on overcoming the various ego-defense mechanisms which human beings contrive to rationalize inappropriate and ineffective behaviours; the rationale of the impression-reflection approach was based on overcoming the fear or dis affection which repels people from new sights, sounds, and thoughts, and keeps them subsisting below their own level of aesthetic and spiritual fulfilment; the rationale of the social experiment approach was based on overcoming the passive submission which results when people have become conditioned to believe 90 they are helpless to direct the socio-economic events of their existence. Pur suing these assumptions about basic approaches to learning, and basic obstacles to learning revealed distinctive principles for structuring learning environ ments: instruction follows a sequence from concrete to abstract, or simple to complex, for example; interpersonal labs structure from less to more stressful interactions, from revealing past feelings to revealing present feelings, for example; impression-reflection may structure explorations around the basic disciplines, around social roles, or around essential human issues - but one dictum which reverses the instructional approach is to sequence from the least familiar to the most familiar in order to gain insight into one's own social norms by contrast; social experiment follows a cycle from group introspective learning to common goal setting, and then from situation-specific learning to experimental action. Social experiment requires of the learner all the learning outcomes articulated in the other three types of practice, but it also requires demonstration of skills not demanded by the other types of learning. Approach, obstacles, structuring principles, and finally distinctive techniques provided discriminators of methodological differences among the four types of practice. The dimension of evaluation had certain principles of implementation which recur across all four types, like the purposes of decision-making and accounts1 ability. But the basis of judging achievement varied, and the emphasis on obj ective or subjective measures varied. Evaluation in technical education mea sures learner achievement of technical capabilities and requires strictly an objective, external perspective. Evaluation in interpersonal education provides feedback to the learner regarding his effect on other persons and combines ob jective and subjective perspectives with an emphasis on externally observable skills. Evaluation in self-actualizing education assesses the degree to which new values have been internalized but emphasizes the subjective perspective on whether or not the learning has reached the depth of meaning and significance 91 that the learner wished to achieve. Social activist education again emphasizes objective measures: of learner attitude change from anomie toward autonomy; of concrete environmental change; and of social systemic change from non-responsive to responsive decision-making. Examination of the clientele dimension revealed that neither general theories of personality, nor psycho-social theories of the lifespan, nor gener al theories of how adults learn, nor most participation studies based on per sonal, demographic or ecological characteristics reveal clusterings of clienteles according to the four types of practice. Instead, the discriminator proved to be situational characteristics which motivate the learner to seek the types of goal-outcomes around which each distinctive type of practice is unified. Special characteristics of the location dimension were sought in the research available on sponsoring institutions of adult education. It was found that existing typologies all looked inward to the internal dynamics of admini stration. And while this may or may not provide enlightenment regarding admin istrative decision-making it does not at all engage the substantive nature of the practice being sponsored. The approaches used so far do not ask which special features of the location (of the physical plant, the social climate, and the institutional character) are consistent with the basic variations of practice which have been distinguished. Consequently, the matrix shows only some elementary distinctions among locations in which adult education takes place. ; 92 \ A TAXONOMIC FRAMEWORK' FOB ADULT EDUCATION PRACTICES IN NORTH AMERICA t using constructed types consistent with four fundamental goals 1. TECHNICAL EDUCATION 1 i 1 2. INTERPERSONAL EDUCATION : 3. SELF-ACTUALIZING EDUCATION k. SOCIAL ACTIVIST EDUCATION GENERAL GOAL TO DEVELOP TECHNICAL ABILITIES TO IMPROVE INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS TO INTENSIFY SELF-ACTUALIZATION TO ENABLE ACTIVE PARTICIPATION IN SOCIO-ECONOMIC DECISION-MAKING DOMAIN • primarily cognitive or psychomotor primarily affective (emotional) primarily affective (aesthetic/philosophic) primarily social experiment FUNCTION: BUILDING COMPETENCIES BY training the client from an entry level • of knowledge or skill to a target level DEVELOPING EFFECTIVE ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOURS .. BY guiding the practice of perceiving, expres sing and responding to others, and contribut ing to the qualitative growth of groupsi ENCOURAGING VALUE CHOICES. BY providing opportunities to critically assess experiences that significantly affect persons privately and as creators of society FORMING A REALISTIC AWARENESS OF SOCIETY BY raising the quality of critical thought about the social environment, and raising the level of active influence on decision-making TOPICAL CONTENT Any subject matter which can be treated as: i-Knbwledge recall: concrete specifics, abstractions and universals, conventions of knowledge organisation ii-Intellectual skills: manipulating information iii-Psycho-motor skills: industrial, sportive, -artistic iv-Procedural skills: occupational, vocational household, professional i-General personal growth in human relations: in dyads, triads, and small groups 1 ii-Family life: marriage, parenting, aging i ^ v ili-Helping professions: education, health -.——L-1-^ services, social services, ministry ; iv-Interfacing communities: racial, religious, ethnic, linguistic | i-Liberal education: fine, literary, and per forming arts; history; philosophy ii-Adult higher education: humanistic implica tions in all social sciences, life sciences and physical sciences Kiii-Religlous education: morality, ethics, theology, treated in a sectarian, comparative or ecumenical manner iv-Health education: physical and mental i-Community development ii-Cooperative economic management iii-Civil liberties iv-Cultural self-determination v-Environmental protection vi-Union building METHODOLOGY FOR LEARNING INSTRUCTION - may be individualized or for groups OBSTACLES: complexity, volume, memory,1 transfer STRUCTURING PRINCIPLES: simple to complex, concrete to abstract, distributed practice, known to unknown DISTINCTIVE TECHNIQUES: (cognitive) programmed text, lecture, seminar multi-media modules, computer, symposium (motor)demonstration, skill practice, coaching (procedural) physical and social simulations field placement, apprenticeship. LABORATORY - must be with others in presenl-l'ocus work on components of effective relatirg ^-OBSTACLES: defense mechanisms, rationalization . STRUCTURING PRINCIPLES: least to most stressful DISTINCTIVE TECHNIQUES: case studies: as in-basket exercises, a; role plays, as interview texts, as film simulation as transactional analysis '( clinical training; unstructured T-groupi^oii^-)--^"-" structured interpersonal labsj critical inci dent; behaviour logs; non-verbal exercises IMPRESSION-REFLECTION - may be solitary or group .OBSTACLES: disaffection, overwork, stagnation STRUCTURING PRINCIPLES: by disciplines; by social roles; by central issues DISTINCTIVE TECHNIQUES FOR: Impression:(direct)exhibits, concerts, travel (indirect) modeling, biographies, interviews Reflection: diary, artistic creativity,debate satire, pantomime, group improvisation Both: reading/viewing/listening & discussion special interest societies; cultural exchange SOCIAL EXPERIMENT - as a growing community OBSTACLES: anomie, paternalism, bitterness STRUCTURING PRINCIPLES: 1. recognizing tension: taking responsibility 2. studying problem: setting an objective 3. exploring situation: planning action h. taking action: assessing results DISTINCTIVE TECHNIQUES FOR: Citizens: outreach, conscientization, nucleus Environment: inventory, reconnaissance Intervention: petition, lobby, larger nucleus BASIS FOR EVALUATION OBJECTIVE ASSESSMENT OF LEVEL OF ACHIEVEMENT Outcomes evaluated: may be criterion-based, sequential mastery, or norm-based ranking Using: psychomotor rating scales, content tests, behavioural objectives based on task analysis OBJECTIVE/ SUBJECTIVE 1 FEEDBACK REGARDING ONE'S EFFECT ON OTHERS ' Outcomes evaluated: perception, expression and* response; group contribution; group growth: Using: interview content analysis, subjective Islf assessment; peer evaluation; observation j SUBJECTIVE/OBJECTIVE APPRAISAL OF THE DEGREE OF INTERNALIZATION Outcomes evaluated: awareness, response, valuing, value sets, characterization Using: subjective self-appraisal, attitude scales, follow-up studies OBJECTIVE ESTIMATION OF THE DEGREE OF SELF-DETERMINATION Outcomes evaluated: personal change from anomie to autonomy; environmental change; change from non-responsive to responsive decision-making Using: attitude scales; social indicators; CLIENTELE ORIENTATIONS GOAL ORIENTED (sometimes: activity) Persons - seeking employment - seeking vocational advancement - seeking craft,, sport & recreation skill - seeking home-centred skill - seeking professional development GOAL ORIENTED .Persons - who wish to improve some aspect of their human relations - "in good touch with reality"; not seeking therapy, or remedial intervention \.-i ( ' \ LEARNING ORIENTED (sometimes: activity) Persons - more deeply curious and less instrumen tal about learning than the average - whose self-concept is high - who are seeking renewal, and transcend ence of daily preoccupations GOAL ORIENTED Persons - directly affected by a particular unresolved social issue - who wish to understand an issue as prelude to taking action - who have some developed sense of the common, good SPECIAL LOCATIONS . trades schools and polytechnics . computer and information facilities . studios, labs and workshops of all kinds . gymnasia, pools, tracks and sporting arenas . sites with specialized tools and equipment . retreat-type environments: hotels, resorts, church-owned retreats special institutes ' | . churches, synagogues, mosques, temples . museums, auditoriums, planetariums . galleries, theatres, libraries . conservatories, observatories, laboratories . in the street . in boardrooms . at city hall . in shareholders . on the picketline meetings . on the phone . in the courts i I 93 Tentative Explanatory Accounting for each Type: In stage six of constructive typology the theoretician examines the set of variables which is found aligned with each defined type, and seeks its uni fying rationale from the principles, theories and conventions which exist. Technical Education Goal, function and typical contents The goal of all technical education is to develop in the learner some tech nical abilities "having to do with the exact or mechanical part of any art or science"(Winston,1948:1020). Technical education subsumes all goals which are technical in the generic sense of involving some "methodical" process or means which enables the ^efficient" accomplishment of a task. These terms methodical and efficient imply more than merely systematic approach to a learning goal since all educational practices endeavor to be systematic. They imply that there is some shortest route to a goal which therefore must be clearly identifiable and defineable. Technical goals are so precisely definable that learner performances can be designated simply correct-incorrect, or right-wrong, so only here is it pos sible to say that "learning is aided if the adult finds out immediately after practice whether or not his response was correct" (Dickinson, 1973*13)• Technical education approaches such' learning goals through the function of building competencies in the learner. It develops proficiency at tasks such as remembering some particular kind of knowledge, or demonstrating some parti cular skill. Building competencies is a matter of gradually refining perform ance, "shaping" it (perhaps via rewards administered by a teacher) through successive approximations, to exactly match the desired performance (Shuell & Lee, 1976:27). 94 Technical education encompasses broad content areas which are amenable to a common methodology. Interpersonal education, self-actualizing education and social activist education all clearly imply some special content to which they are restricted. Technical education by contrast subsumes virtually all precision competencies in the cognitive and psychomotor domains — examples of which as suggested by Gagne (1974:68) areeincluded in Appendix B . So the content of technical education may be thought of as any subject matter which can be treated as "knowledge recall" (of concrete specifics, abstractions and universals, or conventions of knowledge organization), as "intellectual skills" (manipulating information), as "psycho-motor skills" (industrial, sportive or artistic), or as "procedural skills" —~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~———————-which combine decis sions and actions (occupational, voca-j tional, household, or professional). One example of how procedural skills combine intellectual] and psycho-motor ones is given by Gagne with his anal ysis shown in Fig.3. PROCEDURE: COMPONENT RULES: Executing the procedure of parallel parking Positioning car in starting position CONCEPTS: I I Approaching curb by backing at angle Identifying alignment with other car MOTOR SKILLS: Moving front of car into position near curb Identifying sof Positioning vehicle in designate place Straightening wheels to parallel curb Identifying position for maximum wheel turn Backing at low speed in a designated direction Identifying parallel position of car from turn Moving front of car to the right while backing Turning wheels straight from turn Fig. 3 1 Procedural skills as educational outcomes (R.M. Gagne,1977«215) Block specified (1971«65) that subject contents were most amenable to pre cise mastery approaches a) when they require I minimal prior learning, or when the students all possess the prerequisites; b) when subjects are of a kind sequentially learned and its units are cumulative; and c) when the subjects are "closed", that is they emphasize convergent rather than divergent thinking. 95 Methodology geared to nature of the goal The goal of this type of practice is to lead each learner from his level of performance on entry into the educative environment to the criterion level of performance by the most efficient route. When these performances build on each other in a cumulative sequence towards some more complex terminal peformance the elements are present for "mastery learning" on the part of the student and "competency-based instruction" on the part of the teacher. Competency-based instruction (CBl) contrasts with traditional instruction at three points: With traditional instruction time per unit covered is held constant for all learners and their achievements vary; with CBI personalized pacing is used so the level of achievement is held constant (in that each learner eventually achieves it) but the time which that learning takes will vary from student to student. With traditional instruction entrance requirements are the focus of attention, while with CBI exit requirements are the critical student performance. And finally, with traditional instruction what is expected of the student may be only vaguely communicated, or even only vaguely conceptualized in the instruc tor's mind, so students are reduced to second guessingj while in CBI expectations regarding student performance at exit are made explicit in the instructional design and are clearly communicated to students. It is essential that the environment which learners enter focus their atten tion on the component tasks that lead to the criterion performance, and eliminate as completely as possible extraneous stimuli that would distract from the learn ing task. Shuell and Lee claim that instruction takes place "in any situation structuring the environment in such a way that the learner will learn some de sired objective" (op. cit.:6). The basic task of the teacher becomes to arrange the learning environment, or as Gagne would say, to provide optimum external conditions. External conditions vary to suit the category of learning outcome. 96 Some key conditions for the five categories of learning outcomes are summarized by Gagne in Table 4 shown at right. In simplified form the key con dition for a knowledge/in-formation outcome is a larger ..meaningful context in which to place it for understanding and retrieval This meaningful context or may be established "by pre senting material that is similar to something that is already known, and by organizing new material in a pattern that the learner can perceive" (Dickinson, 1973s11)• For an Intel-Features of Instructional Planning for Courses and Topics, for Five Types of Expected Outcomes Type of Expected Outcome Instructional Features Outcome Question Verbal Information Meaningful context; sug gested coding schemes, includ ing, tables and diagrams Will the student be able to state the desired information? Intellectual Skill Prior learning and recall of prerequisite skills Will the student be able to demonstrate the application of the skill? Cognitive Strategy Occasions for novel problem solving Will the student be able to originate new problems and their solutions? Attitude Experience of success follow ing the choice of a personal action; or obser vation of these events in a human model Will the student choose the intended personal action? Motor Skill Learning of executive routine; practice with informative feedback Will the student be able to execute the motor performance? Table 4: (Gagne, 197^: 102) lectual skill it is the provision of opportunities to transfer the skill to a different context of application. For cognitive strategies the key condition is a unique, challenging problem. For a motor skill outcome the key condition is practice of part-skills and the integrating skill (Gagne & Briggs,1979:95)• The conditions suggested for attitude change conform in the first instance to behaviourist learning theory, and in the second instance to social learning theory. This study differentiates between attitudes which are auxiliary to other learning outcomes and those which are themselves the focus of.learning efforts, and 97 considers attitude change as such not to be amenable to the direct instructional approach. Those tasks which have a meaningful unity, and a means for informing the learner of how well he is doing, encourage him to engage, to strive, and to ex cel his previous performance. This is the essence of instruction as the method ology of all technical education. Bruner was convinced that the intrinsic satis faction of repeated successes which is possible with clear, specific learning tasks, provides the only reliable momentum for long term learning. "External reinforcement (like high grades and other such rewards) may indeed get a parti cular act going and may even lead to its repetition, but it does not nourish, reliably, the long course of learning..." (1966-128). Obstacles to developing technical abilities With the learning of technical contents complexity and quantity are the primary obstacles, so it is toward simplification and reduction that the instruc tional environment is arranged. Several other factors may interfere with succes-instruction. Lack of interest occurs *hen the attention is repelled from an ob ject rather than attracted, and it necessitates greater effort or work from the learner to accomplish the same amount of learning. Interest tends to be raised by something which is incomplete or unfinished so that the mind becomes engaged in seeking closure. Poor attitude may also undermine learning. In contrast to the more vital-istic attraction-repulsion of'interest",'attitude" involves valuing and judgment. Judging some procedure to be useless does not encourage learning related to it . no matter how superficially interesting it may be. A third obstacle to technical learning is lack of acceptance of a learning task, a phrase used by Shuell and Lee (19?6:7'5) which may combine interest and attitude with other factors like fatlque or poor presentation, although they do 98 not specify this. If the objectives of an instructional unit are not accepted by students they may psychologically remove themselves from the instructional process. A fourth factor which may interfere with successful instruction is lack of pre  requisite learning upon which to build. Gagne offers Table 5 as a summary of possible prerequisite learn ing for each of five types of instructional outcome. A fifth factor which may obstruct technical learning is Inadequate memory, lacking either "recall" which occurs j Possible Prerequisite Relationships in the Design of Courses and Topics Type of Expected Possible Prerequisite Learning • Outcome Verbal Information Referent meanings of words, i.e., con (Knowledge) cepts Intellectual Skill ' Component simpler skills Information specific to the application examples Cognitive Strategy Intellectual skills involved in problem solution Information involved in problem solution Masses of organized knowledge Attitude Prior success experience following choice of desired personal action Identification with human model Information and skills involved in the personal action Motor Skill Executive routine controlling perform ance Part-skills or motor chains Table 5 : (Gagne, 1974:104) when previous learning is reproduced on cue, or even "recognition" which occurs when material previously learned is identified when encountered again (Dickin son, 1973^14)• Some learning is potentially "available" because it was actually learned in the first place and is "in there somewhere", however the preferable case is previous learning which is actually "accessible" and can be recalled on cue (Shuell & Lee, 1976:6l). Successful instruction uses mnemonic procedures based upon the principle of reduction of the amount of information to be remem bered. Mnemonics accomplishes reduction by coding, or by organizing the new information into familiar or higher order units. Further obstacles to successful technical education occur with transfer both from past to present so that learning can be cumulative, and from the pre sent instructional setting in which learning takes place to some future 99 setting in which it will be applied (Shuell & Lee,1976:73)• It may improve transfer to maximize similarity between the present learning environment and situations to which transfer is desired (eg.: practicing with equipment in the geographic and climatic conditions in which it will be used). Instead of one exact physical simulation it may improve transfer more to provide a variety of different experiences or approaches to the material being learned, such as practicing driving on a variety of cars, or studying a variety of accounts describ ing an historic event (op. cit. :7l)» Some accounts suggest that nothing trans fers and generalizes so well as good abstractions, such as principles, generali zations, conceptual schemata, and problem-attack strategies. A final factor in technical education which many authors see as obstructing successful learning is the administrative practice of norm-referenced, competi tive, limited-reward evaluation systems. James H. Block sees this not just as a practical deterrent to learning but as a fundamental injustice. "As long as it is assumed that almost all cannot learn well or that some can learn better than others, the major problem is to sort the capable from the incapable students ....In a system of few rewards (e.g. high grades) a student may not be rewarded no matter how well he learns so long as others learn betterAs far as the learning effort is concerned this amounts to punishment for success, not to mention the distortion of peer relations which it engenders from colleague to competitor (Block, 1971:65). Structuring principles for technical education A very general sort of structuring principle is found in the usual course of intellectual development which moves from "enactive" understanding (a set of actions), to "iconic" understanding (images that summarize the set of actions) to "symbolic" understanding (propositions within a symbolic system). A learner with a well developed symbolic system can by-pass the first two stages, and 100 conversely one who does not work well at the symbolic level may benefit from learning tasks which are arranged first at the iconic or even at the enactive level. Another principle which guides instructional design for this type of learn ing is to keep sessions aimed at psychomotor and lower cognitive outcomes rela tively "closed" with the instructor dominant, controlling every aspect of the learning situation; designs aimed at higher cognitive and affective outcomes are comparatively "open", giving learners more acti/e control (Dickinson,1973*78). Within these general structural parameters a lesson or instructional session may be planned. An instructional strategy will incorporate five major components: i) preinstructional activity, ii) information presentation, iii) student parti cipation, iv) testing, and v) follow-through (Dick & Carey,1978:106). Prein-struotional activity includes motivation or gaining the learner's attention, transmitting awareness of the objectives or outcomes to be achieved with the unit being presented, and an assessment of the degree to which learners possess the necessary prerequisite knowledge, ii) Information presentation requires the instructor to make decisions about sequencing, size of the content chunk, manner of presentation and illustrative examples, iii) Student participation involves planning opportunities to practice the new skill or rehearse the new knowledge, and receive feedback about adequacy of performance, iv) Testing may be done through from observation of entry behaviours, to pretest for approximation of performance on the unit objective, to testing embedded into the practice period, to the unit post test (Dick & Carey,1978:110). v) Follow-through activities are decided upon according to the quality of terminal performance, and are activities either of a remedial or enrichment nature. The apparent universality of these five components is deceptive. In social activist education for example these components are quite unrecognizable. For social activist learning early agent input is counterproductive. Many sessions 101 may occur in which guided learner participation is the only recognizable element; there is no agent presentation of information; there is no testing in the formal sense or individualized follow-through toward the same knowledge and skill for everyone. There is not even likely to be pre-activity identification of out comes to be achieved since that kind of agent closure on the session is precisely what must not happen. The other types are' less polarized with instruction but still do not conform to its pattern exactly. Impression-reflection experiences such as exposure to a concert, biographical film, or art exhibit may offer a minimal introduction, individual learner experience, group reflection on the . experience and only later the presentation of some non-subjective information about the experience by the agent. The instructional sequence is not primarily designed to facilitate discovery, even of a cognitive sort, let alone a valuing sort. The instructional sequence is designed to facilitate absorption of pre determined units by the learner. Finally, the interpersonal lab while it may be sequenced in the order of instruction, may also reverse information and par ticipation if the specific exercise is intended to facilitate self-observation and discovery rather than skill practice. Even when it does follow the sequence of instruction, the interpersonal lab must emphasize learner participation due to the stubborn nature of emotions and attitudes, rather than emphasize informa tion presentation as instruction does. Among the decisions made by the instructor in structuring the learning event is how to sequence learning tasks which lead to the performance objective, how to sequence objectives within a topic, and how to sequence topics within a course. Gagne and Briggs illustrated four different levels of the problem of instructional sequence as shown in Appendix:B . Some guidelines for sequencing Include the maxims of general to specific, concrete to abstract, familiar to unknown, most to least frequent, simple to complex, as well as following the order dictated by logic, and interspersing interesting tasks among the routine 102 ones (Dickinson, 19731:54,55). Gagne tended to emphasize the maxim of simple to complex in sequencing. This ordering he referred to as learning  hierarchies and could apply to complex psychomotor operations as well as cognitive operations. Figure 4 indicates the hierarchy of cognitive outcomes. Structuring principles for technical education include how to use student practice appropriately. For example: using "massed practice" only with capable and ex perienced learners, and "distributed prac tice" interspersed with short rest periods of alternate activity for less capable or less experienced learners. Practice is also structured to include the whole operation if HIGHER-ORDER RULES require as prerequisites RULES require as prerequisites CONCEPTS require as prerequisites DISCRIMINATIONS require as prerequisites (simple types of learning) Varieties of intellectual skills, arranged (bottom to top) in order of increasing complexity Fig. 4: (Gagne,1974:56) it will be needed as a whole, or one part at a time if the operation is difficult or not very meaningful (Dickinson, 1973:11*12). For the learner an important element of learning hierarchies and practice of the components is having an accurate sense of whether or not his responses to cues for performance are correct. This structuring principle of feedback on performance is only•possible through working with explicit behavioural objectives with specific standards built in, against which to measure the learner performance. Knowledge of results including both a judgment and report to the learner, enables him to modify his performance toward the desired level of skill. 103 At the micro-level of a highly specific learning task it may be useful and necessary to structure the environment to maximize learning via a sequence of external "instructional events" which some authors feel parallel discrete internal phases of learning. The nine instructional events which toward one specific learning task are: gaining attention; informing learner of objective; stimulating recall of prerequisites; presenting the stimulus material; providing learning guidance; eliciting the performance; providing feedback; assessing . performance; and enhancing retention and transfer. Examples of this sequence of instructional events as it would be varied to promote five types of learned capabilities are offered by Gagne and Briggs (I974il66). Distinctive techniques for building technical competencies Most knowledge acquisition techniques are quite familiar, so much so that their particular details may be overlooked. The class for instance, is basic ally a collection of individuals with each person learning on his own. Only occasionally does a class become a real social group in which group processes become a major influence on learning (Dickinson, 1973*71)• It is therefore peculiarly suited to only one of the four basic types of educational practice, not to interpersonal learning, values exploration or community development. An other indispensable and too familiar technique is the lecture. It is uniquely suited to giving very current information or to raise interest in a subject which will subsequently be explored by other techniques. It can introduce, analyze, stimulate and even inspire (Bergevin, Morris, & Smith,1963:157)• The panel is "a group of people having a purposeful discussion on an assigned topic" (op. cit.: 117) in order to examine, illustrate and clarify, not debate. Question periods may be used in- combination with any information giving technique to give audience members an opportunity to request further information or explanation of some point. Questioning may also be turned around and used by the presenter to check 104 audience comprehension. The seminar is a technique for allowing several parti cipants to make short informative presentations which then become the basis of a general discussion by the group. The seminar is used for specialized study which may be quite advanced, and is directed by a recognized authority (op. cit.:l47). The foregoing traditional information-disseminating techniques could potentially be used in combination with techniques peculiar to the other types of practice. But it is important to remember that these techniques do not serve the other three goal-function outcomes. They are appropriately co-opted into other types of practice only to the extent that technical knowledge and skill objectives are mixed into the program. There have recently been developed the efficient, highly focused materials known as programmed instruction. These provide an individualized method "char acterized by an orderly presentation of- material in small steps with immediate knowledge of results provided at each step" (Dickinson,1973!70). However because these are "closed" instructional materials the student is not able to make ad justments beyond the branching of tasks which is written into the program, and consequently may arrive at the terminal point unsatisfied or unclear about some parts of the objective. Block urges (1971:7l) that a variety of "learning cor rectives" be used in combination with programmed instruction or mastery learning materials, including a stock of supplementary and alternative learning materials which the learner can turn to individually, peer group sessions to deal with learning problems, individual tutoring, and even reteaching of some basic skills. At higher levels of continuing education brief intensive methods may be used such as the modern symposium (a series of related speeches), the institute (designed to offer authoritative instruction on some body of knowledge, skill or unresolved issue), or the clinic (for diagnosing and analyzing situations of realistic complexity). Motor skills and procedural skills are taught through demonstration, 105 practice, and coaching. It is useful to use simulations to develop motor and procedural skills when the circumstances into which the skill is to be trans ferred occurs only rarely, as in space travel and deep sea exploration, or when the risks involved in the real situation are high as with rescue operations, first aid, or air traffic control. For complex situations like environmental disasters — a chlorine gas leak, for example— physical, social- and computer simulations may be used concurrently. All of the foregoing techniques are engineered to move the learner as quickly as possible to a precise cognitive or psychomotor objective. They do not address emotional or valuation change, and they do not lift citizens from apathy to par ticipation. They do replace ignorance with information, and certain kinds of incompetence with skill. • Outcomes and instruments: assessing the level of achievement With education designed to build technical competencies in the learner there is a basic administrative choice between taking norm-referenced measures of success or criterion-referenced measures of success. Norm-referenced measures are designed to differentiate among learners, to rank them against each other in terms of their performance ability at a given time. Where competition between learners is desired or required because of limited rewards (eg. few high grades, or few jobs) then norm-referenced testing is employed to determine at a given moment which competitor has the best performance. In such a relative grading system learner performance and reward may have little relationship. Criterion-referenced testing is even more pervasively competitive but in a radically differ ent manner. Here the learner is in competition with his own previous performance. In order to institute this systematic learner striving,, it is necessary from the outset to design instruction around behavioural objectives for the learner. This sort of evaluation is employed where it is desirable to have the maximum number 106 of learners reach competence with regard to the criterion performance, and where administrative practices are adapted to give each learner the amount of time he needs to attain mastery of a given learning task. In such an "absolute" grading system,to use Block's terminology, performance and reward are integrally related. There are potentially four phases of achievement evaluation: i) the entry behaviour assessment, or pretest prior to instruction; ii) in-progress measures, also called embedded tests, or formative evaluation; iii) summative evaluation, terminal assessment or exit behaviour; and iv) follow-up, transfer assessment or longitudinal studies. For norm-referenced evaluation the focus is on entry behaviour because it determines the degree of learner readiness for the instruc tion which is about to be administered. Formative evaluation guides teacher behaviour toward the group, keeping in mind the normal distribution curve, seeking to pass the majority with a few high achievers. Terminal evaluation occurs according to a set time period at term's end or week's end and students are graded according to their performance at that deadline. Follow-up studies may be done to determine the relation between in-class performance and transfer performance, or as long-range predictors of success. With criterion-referenced evaluation the focus is on exit behaviour because it is dependent upon the learner's achievement of competence in regard to the behavioural objectives and his ability to demonstrate the criterion performance. Entry behaviour assessments check specifically for competencies prerequisite to the instructional unit and from the outset help to individualize instructional treatment. In-progress measures are learner, not teacher-oriented and must relate results back immediately to the learner so he can adjust his performance. Dickinson (1°73J 13) suggests that in-progress,measures should be kept ..brief, and are.intended to be diagnostic, giving a detailed, in-depth profile of learner performance, to guide supplementary activities. They are not meant to 107 be graded as this would detract from their value for the learner. Clientele orientation characteristics Goal orientation predominates in building technical competencies because clearly these capabilities are useful for something. The client may be seeking employment,' seeking vocational advancement, seeking home-centred skills, or seeking to keep up with professional advancements. In some cases the compe tencies being sought are crafts, sport and recreational skills in which case an activity orientation may not only motivate the type of educational situation the learner chooses to engage in, but also motivate the transfer of what is learned into the natural setting. Locations for technical education Technical education requires props. When it is psychomotor or procedural it may involve trades schools and polytechnics, studios, labs- and workshops of all kinds, gymnasia, pools and sporting arenas. When technical education is mainly cognitive, demanding knowledge mastery and intellectual skills, it may require computer facilities, information sources, and display media. In other words, locations associated with technical education are sites which have specialized tools and equipment to aid the development of competencies. 108 Interpersonal Education Goal, function, and typical contents In general terms the overall goal of interpersonal education is the attain ment of better understanding of other persons. Henry C. Smith, author of the 1973 text "Sensitivity Training", defines several kinds of understanding of others which may be achieved: rationalistic, artistic, practical, and empirical (3-9)• Rationalistic understanding embraces subjective impressions as a source of knowledge superior to, and independent of, empirical facts. Rationalistic understanding is the degree to which a person feels close to, sympathetic with, and understanding of another person. Because it stresses inner realities, "the only measure of this kind of understanding is subjective, i.e., we understand a person when we feel we understand him" (op. cit.:5). Artistic understanding . is also a subjective, non-scientific understanding, but one which stresses outer realities. In contrast to the scientist who abstracts for the purpose of pre diction, the artist compresses for the purpose of intensifying the immediate visual reality. Artistic understanding is the degree to which a person is aware of and responsive to the visual, audible, and tangible descriptors of another person. Practical understanding is objective rather than subjective, emphasizing the degree to which one person can influence another to behave in a way that the first person desires. It is specifically manipulative rather than generally predictive as empirical understanding is. Where practical understanding is unconscious, unsystematic and incomplete, empirical understanding is conscious, systematic and complete. Empirical understanding in human relations is the degree to which one person can predict another person's feelings, thoughts and behaviour under future conditions from.what is known about them in the present. Interpersonal education does not lead to empirical understanding •. It may improve 109 demonstrably artistic and practical understanding of other persons. But its greatest appeal is the deepening of a sense of rationalistic understanding of others. The goal of interpersonal education is the improvement of interpersonal relations. Towards that end it fulfils the function of developing attitudes and "behaviours that lead to mutually satisfying personal interactions. It accomplishes this by guiding learners in the practice of more effective perception, self-expression, and response to others; and in the practice of contributing to the qualitative growth of groups, skills which are useful in all aspects of social life. For this reason curriculum content is is found to range from general per sonal growth in the component skills of human relations, to the particular re lations of marriage, parenting and the aging cycle encountered in family life, to the professional responsibilities encountered in management, health sciences, teaching and social work, and to the amelioration of community life which takes place when estranged racial, ethnic, or religious groups improve their mutual respect and involvement. Typical contents of interpersonal education programs are likely to include one or several major skills of interpersonal communication. The North-West Regional Educational Laboratory(NWKEL), Portland, Oregon, developed the following illustration of the gap inherent in interpersonal communications revealing the principle of partial information. Interpersonal communication includes attempts by the sender to convey a message, whether or not it is received, as well as actions that the receiver responds to as messages, whether or not those actions were intended as messages. The nature of human individuality does not allow a guarantee that the message sent will be' the message received. Figure 5 offers a schematic summary of the interpersonal gap. 110 Fig. 5 '' Schematic summary of the interpersonal gap (N-W.R.E.L.,1970,Unit 8, Handout 3) The interpersonal gap contains two transformations. These steps are re ferred to as coding and decoding operations. Each of us sees his own actions in the light of his own intentions, but we see the other's actions in the light of the effect they have on us. This is the principle of partial informa tion: each party to an interaction has different and partial information about the interpersonal gap. It is now possible to draw a more complete picture of the interpersonal gap as follows: A's Intentions A's Actions Effect on D ( Private, \ j. known to j— \ A only J 1 / Public, \ -/ observable V \ by anybody / Private, known to B only 1 1 System of encoding • • System of decoding Must be inferred by B Must be inferred by A Fig. 6 : Transformations across the interpersonal gap (N-W.R.E.L.,1970,Unit 8,Handout 3) It is this principle of partial Information, creating an essential interpersonal gap.which is so problematic in human relations and is the source of learning tasks directed toward building major component skills of human relations including more sensitive perception, authentic self-expression, and constructive response or intervention. Contents may also be arranged to focus on group interactions rather than simply dyadic interactions, in which case a whole new set of skills Ill are added. The skill of sensitive perception has broken down into several component parts aimed at breaking the grip of expectations which place halos around some persons and stigmas on others, both of which obscure accurate perceptions (N-W. R. E.L.,1970,Unit 7|Handout 4). Smith has analyzed perception into four kinds: observational, theoretical, idiographic, and nomothetic (sensitivity to group characteristics) (197309). He also lists the development of self-insight and awareness of group processes (1973:30) among' sensitivity objectives. A second major interpersonal skill, authentic self-expression, similarly acts as a general program objective. This skill is not as simple a matter as trying to be honest or sincere, due to the potential for misinterpretation inherent in the interpersonal gap. Within the gap, words or actions used to express oneself may not even minimally convey what was intended. Due to the gap three principles of action accrue: i) Different intentions may be expressed by the same action; ii) The same action may lead to different effects; iii) Different actions may lead to the same effect. Unfortunately it is just as easy to misrepresent oneself verbally as it is to make faulty expression of oneself through actions. Consequently it is necessary to practice expressing accurately what one experiences or perceives. A third major skill of human relations is responding or intervening con  structively . George M. Gazda et al have identified eight dimensions of construc tive response. The eight are: empathy, respect, warmth, concreteness, genuine ness, self-disclosure, confrontation, and immediacy. "Empathy" is demonstrated by a respondent who not only accurately reflects the expressed emotions of the speaker but who makes an "additive response" that conveys understanding of under lying, unexpressed and perhaps unconscious feelings of the speaker (Gazda et al, 1973:55)• "Respect" as used in this context refers to belief in the worth and 112 potential of another person. "Warmth" is a term used to identify the non-verbal responses of the observer which convey attention and interest to the speaker and arouse in him the sense of being accepted and significant to the observer. "Con-creteness", being specific, is especially important in the early phases of help ing to thouroughly explore problems and in the final phase of helping the client to formulate specific plans. "Genuineness" denotes responses which are clear, honest, authentic depictions of the observer's reactions, and thus are congruent external expressions of his internal state. "Self-disclosure" is'considered another aspect of constructively responding to others. When self-disclosure is used appropriately to reveal personal information that demonstrates similarity and closeness it can encourage the speaker in his own self-exploration. A more problematic dimension of the helpful constructive response is "confrontation". In confrontation the respondent informs the speaker of a discrepancy between the content and affect of what he is saying, or of a discrepancy between.things he has been saying about himself and things he has been doing. "Immediacy" is one of the more difficult dimensions of response as it deals with the response itself, or with what is transpiring between the conversants. This is where the agent's capacity to model facilitative attitudes and initiating behaviours is most apparent (op. cit.:55-59) • A fourth major skill of interpersonal relations providing a further source of learning tasks is the capacity for contribution to the qualitiative growth  of groups. Hedley Dimock of McGill University has identified several dimensions to the quality of group interactions (1970:2-4). The first of these-is "emotional climate" or the degree of security, trust and especially acceptance which members feel. The second dimension is "group involvement" or the extent to which members feel occupied, attracted, or absorbed with the group. "Interaction" refers to the frequency with which members relate to each other, and the equitable distribution of those interactions. "Cohesion", the fourth 11.3 major dimension of group growth, indicates the solidarity or unity of feeling, both in the strength of understanding relationships among members, and in the degree of feeling they have of the group as theirs. Finally, "group productiv ity" or its capacity to set goals, make decisions and accomplish its intended tasks is seen as a major dimension of group maturing and significant for the degree of members' satisfaction with the group. What the learner seeks to acquire are behaviours which help a collection of individuals develop a sense of group belonging and a task effectiveness as a group. Behaviours he may adopt which are effective for the group, and those which are self-serving and counter productive for the group are illustrated in Appendix C. Learning tasks may be designed to develop constructive behaviours that contribute to the qualitative growth of groups in these ways. The basic skills of interpersonal relations may be combined with many more elaborately developed theories of the human condition depending upon the learner's particular purpose in developing interpersonal skills. Persons interested in family relations or education could draw on lifespan theories such as the sequence of stages which was prepared by Vivian R. McCoy for adult educators (1977:16) illustrated in Appendix A. Persons interested in the helping profes sions .could combine interpersonal skills with the phases of the helping relation ship which move from l) self-exploration on the part of the client, through 2) better self-understanding, to 3) more appropriate direction and action. These phases of the helping relationship are. each amenable to constructive intervention from the helper, as described by Gazda et al$."973:24) . For persons in management or marketing, the basic skills of human relations have been combined with study of the broader communications styles co-workers may display in order to enable effective team-building and collaboration. Community workers may combine the basic skills of human relations with study of the developmental phases in groups, authority issues which may arise in groups, the group as a system, methods for 114 rigorous observation of time, role, and task boundaries in groups, and other related skills. So it can be seen that beyond the basic skills of pair and group relations, the content of interpersonal education practices may take many variations depending upon the anticipated areas of application. Methodology geared to nature of the goal Because the content of this branch encompasses goals which are more ex plicitly emotional than any other branch of practice, including the affective outcomes of the self-actualizing branch, its methods are geared to emotional outcomes and distinguish it clearly from other types of adult education practice. Perhaps with some latitude of application the term "laboratory" has been chosen to describe the particular methodology employed by this branch of practice. The interpersonal laboratory method may be seen as having several key characteristics: it must be conducted with other persons actively involved; it tends to be an intensive, extended, and sometimes isolated experience which removes the learner from his habitual environment; it focuses on the analysis of present behaviours and their alteration if necessary; and it deals selectively with the component skills of human relations. In regard to sensitive perception, Henry Smith describes four types of sensitivity sequenced in what he concludes is the most likely order of acquisi tion (1973: pp.24-27). Observational sensitivity is the ability to look at and listen to another person and remember what he looked like and said. Theoretical sensitivity is the ability to select and use theories to make more accurate predictions about what others are likely to feel, say, and do. Nomothetic sensi tivity to the characteristics of a given type is the ability to use this knowledge in making more accurate predictions about individuals who in some aspect of their person partake of that given type. Idiographic sensitivity combines intuitive impressions into patterns that render an accuracy of prediction from knowledge of 115 the ways in which an individual differs from his group type. Smith also matches these types of sensitivity as learning goals with several methods for learning and judges the appropriateness of each to help the learner achieve each type of goal, as reported in Table 6 (Smith, 1973:28). Since cognitive outcomes are not a major focus of this type of practice, theoretical and nomo- . thetic sensitivity are de-emphasized in favor of observa tional and idiographic sensitivit ies which prepare one for concrete experience and interaction with Types of Training and Their Goals Coals of Training T-Group Participation Psychology Instruction Clinical Training Observational Sensitivity No Theoretical Sensitivity No Yes Yes Nomothetic Sensitivity No Yes Yes Idiographic Sensitivity Q No other individuals. Table 6 Table 6: (Smith, 1>73:28) illustrates the appropriateness of T-Group participation and clinical training to the development of these latter kinds of sensitivity. The cognitive outcomes produced by psychology instruction are typical of the first type of adult educa tion practice which was defined. T-Group participation which requires intense personal involvement of the learner in exploring himself, and clinical training which involves him in the exploration of other persons and their situations, are subsumed here with other modes of learning under the broad term "interpersonal laboratory method". This is done since even the clinical training is likely to be simulations only or highly supervised in order to give the learner, (the agent-in-training) opportunity to experiment with new skills of perception, ex pression, response, and intervention. Obstacles to improving interpersonal relations Whichever methods and techniques are employed to reach the educational objec tives set, there are inevitably obstacles to this type of emotional learning as 116 there are obstacles to overcome in cognitive and psychomotor learning. George Gazda and his co-authors identified five such obstacles (Gazda et al, 1973:40-44). The first of these, "selective perception", is the tendency to perceive only that which favors one's preferred (i.e., habitual or comfortably familiar) frame of reference, and to deny realities which are incongruent by refusing to perceive them. Thus one generally perceives himself as-functioning in ways that make sense to him whatever their disruptive effect on others. "Identification" is a second obstacle to learning those truths about one's self which are prerequisite for positive change. Identification involves anxiety reduction through ascribing to one's self the accomplishments and other valued characteristics of another person such as one's spouse, group such as one's profession, or object such as one's car or home. "Rationalization" is a process in which a person gives socially acceptable reasons for behaviour that was motivated by socially unacceptable im pulses . "Compensation" blocks self-perception by justifying the acceptance and development of a less preferred (but more attainable) activity, for a more pre ferred (but less attainable) activity. It is also often characterized by extreme preoccupation with that activity. "Projection" involves attributing one's own motives and characteristics to others, especially when these motives are a source of great anxiety. Thus the agent who undertakes to assist people in achieving attitudinal and behavioural improvement needs, as a skill especially relevant to this branch of practice, the ability to recognize these obstacles when they arise, and the ability, to help learners diminish their interference with learning. Structuring principles for interpersonal education Given the subtlety of the learning outcomes sought by interpersonal practice, and the many obstacles to its achievement, Smith has offered five guides to program development (1973*37-42): (1) formulate realistic goals that are specific and explicit components of the desired outcomes; (2) sequence the goals, alternating 117 complementary instructional and clinical periods; (3) reduce defensiveness through sequencing tasks from least stressful towards the more stressful tasks, and through rating success of mastery rather than ranking participants against each other; (4) fit the method to the goal rather than trying to accomplish all things with one method such as the T-Group; and (5) evaluate the success of training. The role of evaluation for learner outcomes and. for program account ability will be reviewed after a closer look at the learning techniques. Distinctive techniques for developing effective  interpersonal attitudes and behaviours Several kinds of techniques have been developed for learning tasks aimed at change in emotion-charged attitudes and behaviours. There are many varieties of the case study used such as group discussion of written accounts, programmed interview texts, response sheets for filmed interviews of either a simulated nature or a silhouetted actual interview. All of these afford the learner a sense of immediate involvement. More direct participation is possible with role-playing interactions, and with group improvisation of a social simulation. Behaviour logs sensitize the learner to perception of his own feelings, behav iours, and habits in natural rather than controlled settings. And structured  interpersonal labs enable the learner to practice micro-skills of perception, expression and response components of interacting with others. For example, one technique for practicing accurate self-expression is behaviour description which involves reporting specific, observable actions without imputing motives attitudes or personality traits (N-W.R.T.L.,1970,Unit 3i'Handout 2). .Another technique for accurate self-expression is direct description of feelings rather than labeling the other person judgmentally as an indirect way of expressing one's own feelings. Both of these skills markedly improve self-expression. A technique which can improve skill'in responding to others is mirroring what the 7118 other has conveyed both in content and in affect. This is of course a conven ient perception check for the listener, but can also have a very supportive effect on the first speaker. It gives the speaker a gratifying sense of having been heard. Furthermore it educates the speaker to more effective self-expression so that the message he intends actually gets conveyed. As well as these interview skills several types of group activities are appropriate for these personal and emotional educational outcomes. Singer et al.(l975) have distinguished six kinds of small group events which focus group activity on either learning or behavioural change tasks, at either a group, interpersonal or intrapersonal level. Three of these techniques,'the interpersonal learning- group, the group process learning group, and the personal growth group are appropriate to this type of practice. Outcomes and instruments: providing  feedback on personal and group behaviour Assessment can be made of both personal growth in the ability to interact well with others, and group development toward cohesion and efficiency. Personal development in sensitivity of perception can be assessed through (a) objective measures which test for predictive power, (b) subjective measures of the learner's self-assessment, and (c) subjective measures of other participants' perception of the learner's behaviour. Smith (1973:30-31) cited five investigations using objective measures of the power of T-Group experience to improve the perceptive ability of participants in predicting others' feelings and behaviours. The re sults seemed to establish the marginal or even counterproductive effect of this method in improving objectively verifiable sensitivity. However, subjective assessments made by participants of themselves after T-Group experience report "that their self-perceptions, sensitivity and interpersonal effectiveness were changed in highly beneficial ways" (Smith,1973:32). What these people report accomplishing, in effect, is rationalistic understanding not empirical U9 understanding. They experience "...a sense of spontaneous giving of the self, the free expression of self in interaction with others without calculation of cost or gain to either the giver or receiver..." Smith concludes,"...rational istic understanding seems more real to us, is more deeply desired, and is prob ably more important to our personal survival and well-being than is empirical understanding (Smith, 1973:32). Subjective measures may also be taken of how other participants perceive the learner's behaviour. The assessment is given to the learner so that he can in corporate it either as confirmation of present behaviours or as an indication of which behaviours might be more effective. This is the cybernetic principle of feedback applied consciously and discretely to interpersonal relations. Smith defines feedback simply as knowledge of the results or effects of one's be haviour toward others, and emphasizes the reinforecement or reward this implies when that behaviour has been supportive or facilitative to the other. He also cautions that successful feedback should lead trainees to set new goals for them selves, even encourage them to set hard goals for themselves; it should motivate • the learner to improve his sensitivity, reveal any discrepancy between where he is and where he wants to be or thinks he is, and inform him of his progress towards those desired capabilities (1973:36-37). Nylen,Mitchel, and Stout defined feedback as "communication which gives back to another individual•information about how he has affected us, and how he stands with us in relation to his goals or intentions" (1967:75). Evaluation can also be made of the behaviours of persons in groups, and of the group's state of development as a cohesive, effective entity. The small group interaction diagram which follows was used to record two observation periods of five minutes each, taken during an hour's meeting, to give a reasonably accurate picture of who spoke to whom with what frequency (Dimock,1971»Book 11:23). Arrows generally indicate the participant to whom the communication was addressed. Arrows 120 to the centre indicate a general comment not directed at any one member. Bars on any line indicate the second and subsequent communications in the same direction. Fig. 7 : An interaction diagram of a club group based two samples of five minutes each. (Dimock,1971»Bk.II:23) This, of course, gives only a quantitative measure of the interactions, identifies frequent participants and relatively isolated members. The quality of a member's contributions is more clearly represented in an interaction analysis schedule, one version of which is included in Appendix G • In the interaction analysis schedule each member's behaviours are registered against categories which iden tify them as either facilitative or obstructive of the group's activity. Schedules give a more detailed description of the group session than does the interaction diagram alone. 121 It is possible to see a group develop over time and assess whether or not it is maturing as a group by comparing several ratings taken on a group develop ment survey schedule at intervals of a week or more. An example of group development survey questions is included in Appendix G . These do not identify which members are contributing what, but rather whether or not qualities essential to group effectiveness are in evidence. These group qualities include unity (cohesion), self-direction (the groups' own motive power), group climate (free dom to be spontaneous), distribution of leadership, distribution of responsi bility, problem solving (group effectiveness at utilizing all member's contri butions and acting creatively to solve its problems), method of resolving dis agreements within group, extent to which group meets members* needs (security, recognition, belonging), variety of group activities, and finally depth of group activities (extent to which members can contribute'their full potentialities, skills and creativity). Finally, as well as assessing individual development of interpersonal skills, or group development of cohesion and effectiveness, the agent in this type of adult education may want to evaluate the degree of influence the training he pro vided had on these developments. Smith suggests four general types of designs to evaluate training: l) measures after training without a control group, 2) measures before and after training without a control group, 3) measures after training with a control group, and 4) measures before and after training with a control group -(1973*4l). The first of these designs is the most often used but the poorest; the last is the least often used but the best. Smith acknowledges the extra procedural stages involved in the design that uses measures before and after training with a control group but adds that it has these advantages: - Matching experimental and control groups on the before-training measures avoids the danger that the groups may not be comparable at the beginning. - Taking the difference between before-and-after measures in the trained 122 group indicates what changes took place during the training period. - Comparing these changes with the changes that took place in the un trained control group during the training period isolates the changes caused by the training itself. - Overall, the exactness of this design has the advantage that confident conclusions can be drawn from a study based on a small number of trainees. Clientele orientation characteristics Because of the degree of personal commitment and involvement in both inter personal and group process learning, it seems unlikely that learners would be motivated by either generalized love of learning or for recreational activity. Interpersonal learning involves changes in perception and behaviour that bring with them some degree of stress and therefore it is most likely that these learners have some external stimulus in their personal, professional or community life that motivates them to engage in interpersonal education. Reading alone must not have proved to be effective enough for them, and therapy is apparently a more drastic intervention than is required. Gazda et al (1973J23) describe -these persons as being "in good touch with reality" and seeking through inter personal education to improve some aspect of their human relations. Locations for interpersonal education Because interpersonal learning outcomes are attitudinal and deeply imbedded in habitual patterns of living the learning process is facilitated by disruption of the habitual environment. Removing the learner to a residential centre such as a hotel, resort, church-owned retreat, or special institute not only provides him a new physical space, and social environment, but also a daily schedule which focuses on his learning. These locations are most likely to have the 123 special adaptations of a comfortable, pleasant, and flexible physical environ ment that is most suited to this kind of learning. The location can thus pro vide for an extended, isolated, and intensive personal learning experience. Self-actualizing. Education Goal, function, and typical content The goal of self-actualizing education is to enrich as far as possible personal fulfilment in the search for something precious and significant in life. While no educational program is able, or should try, to satiate that desire for fulfilment, what it can do is introduce adults'to some rich fields for exploration in the worlds of art, history, science, and philosophy. Of course the goal.is to do more than merely stimulate curiosity about what lies within those phenomenal and noumenal worlds. Indiscriminate consumption of art, • history, philosophy, or science'can lead nowhere but to confusion and cynicism. Therefore self-actualizing education would be doing the learner a disservice if it did not also equip him to examine critically the riches opening up to him. The function of self-actualizing education is thus to train into the learner the habit of questioning the value of whatever he encounters against his own standards. At first those standards may be only an instinct for what is beauti ful, what is good, and what is true. But the habit of questioning, once adopted, can be turned on those standards as well. Thus rather than acquiring or consum ing examples of what may be beauty, the function of this sort of education is to teach the learner how to question what beauty really is. In this way he moves towards knowing, or internalizing what beauty is, expanding within himself a sense of the significance of things. 124 There is a very long tradition of education for this purpose. The search for meaning and significance has often been cited as the distinguishing quality of humanity itself. But educators have been at odds as to which sorts of ed ucational content would provide the most self-actualizing experiences for learners. Liberal education is a familiar term but one which over the centuries has indicated many different sorts of content. In Cicero's time (l06-^3B.C.) "artes liberalis" meant all the skills and arts possessed by the educated free man. In the fifth century A.D. and for the duration of the Dark Ages, educators had all they could manage to keep alive a "trivium" of communication arts (i.e., logic, grammar, and rhetoric), and a "quadrivium" of systematic disciplines (i.e., geometry, arithmetic, astronomy and music With the rise of universities in the 12th and 13th centuries the newly rediscovered "Three Philosophies of Aristotle" (mental philosophy, moral philosophy, and natural philosophy) were added (Cowley, 1956:377) • During the renaissance sons of the squirarchy and nobility who came to be educated not as priests but as "gentlemen" studied an ever-expanding field of mathematics and the increasingly respected vernacular languages. Greek and Latin were kept on as worthy areas of study and came to be referred to as the "classical languages". When European culture moved into the colonies of North America the original institutions of further learning were called "literary seminaries" indicating the emphasis placed on the study of classical languages in order to form character (Cowley,1956:379)• Following the.American revolution the demands of building an independent nation required the colleges to include train ing in experimental science and what Benjamin Franklin called "useful knowledge". The recurring issue of the 19th and 20th centuries regarding content appro priate for liberal education has been whether or not to include the sciences. Some like John Stuart Mill in I867 argued that everyone's education would benefit from studying through the Methods of science "the modes of which the human intel lect proceeds from the known to the unknown" (Cowley,1956:386). Others of the 125 same period saw the sciences as too narrow and career-directed to be of general benefit. This view seemed to predominate and education which was for personal enrichment alone gradually centred on those studies which looked to humanity's subjective life. The "Humanities" always included literature, philosophy, music, and fine art; often but not always included religion and history; and sometimes included modern or classical languages with their literatures in the original form. In 196° the Center for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults down played the physical and biological sciences as less than relevant studies for adults because these areas were"difficult if not impossible to handle in a mean ingful fashion" (Whipple,Haygood,Goldman,Siegle,1969:14). A decade later this statement seems unconscionable. Problems of medical ethics, industrial diseases, nuclear contamination, species extinction, agricultural politics, dependence on non-renewable sources of energy, controversies at every turn have made the sciences essential to the study of man and "the good life". The quality of ur ban life, the deteriorating effects of extensive career and geographic mobility, the dissatisfactions of consumerism, and the response of individual conscience to government actions, these and other questions regarding what is desirable a society, were contributed by the social sciences to man's search for fulfilment. In sum, the history of education for personal understanding and fulfilment has been long and vigorous. The modern consensus on content seems to be that it can properly include the arts and philosophy, the humanistic implications of all sciences, and the study of religious perspectives on man. Even this exten sive content range would be incomplete without including a unique contribution of the 20th century. Early inventories of adult education program contents (eg. Ely,1936) recognized "recreation" as a major area of activity. The key to recreation in the scope of adult education seems to be the notion of health. The disruptions and pressures of 20th century life combined with unenlightened consumption have led to phenomena of mental breakdown, marital breakdown, 126 and physical breakdown in a host of stress-related diseases. These developments have raised public interest in the promotion of health to an unprecedented de gree . Educational outcomes related to health are tied to self-actualizing education partially by their dependence on affective attitude development rather than on simple cognition. Health values are also clearly integrated with reli gious values and life philosophies. The Black Muslims, Hebrew Orthodoxy, Seventh Day Adventists, and Hindu communities all promote explicit dietary-practices as part of their system of values of the good life. Secular practices such as the medical use of biofeedback, government fitness programs, environ mental movements, and personal stress-reduction programs emphasize the close association of mental and physical health and promote values such as outdoor activity, careful diet, exercise'and drug-free sleep. The proliferation of such activities emphasizes that the search for mental and physical health, through consciously developed habits of life, must now be included among educational practices for personal fulfilment and self-actualization. Methodology geared to type of goal The goal of self-actualizing education is to discover within oneself a sense of beauty, goodness and truth which recognizes when experiences embody those qualities. Such a sense of significance inherent in the learner, instinctive at first, may be continually refined as a standard for testing and judging ex perience . This is not education for the acquisition of external standards. It is educational exploration for the purpose of discovering personally meaningful and satisfying values. It thus falls squarely within the affective domain of educational outcomes as described by Krathwol, Bloom and Masia (1964). Because these are affective outcomes of an esthetic or philosophic sort they cannot be acquired through instruction alone. Affective values have to be encountered and experienced, then consciously or unconsciously judged and 127 accepted or rejected. These two phases of affective learning, the experiential and judgmental, give rise to what seems to be the distinctive impression-reflection methodology of education for self-actualization. Developing new interests, new voluntary activities; seems to require their being made very readily available, and testable without much inconvenience, commitment or threat The initial phase is thus a matter of exposure to new possibilities and the op portunity to try them out, while the complementary phase is the musing on and appraising of the experience with reference to other values one holds. The reflective phase needs prompting, means, of self-expression and non-evaluative recognition from the agent to encourage the learner's exploration of new values. Obstacles to learning for self-actualization Learning just for the pleasure of it is not sustained by the same outside incentives that practical, interpersonal or social activist learning is. Learn ing for personal fulfilment is more susceptible to the learner's disaffection with the worth of learning itself, and with his own self-worth. Glenn Jensen says that ' the chief negating factor which keeps one from becoming all that he can seems to be ''something that prohibits a person from considering himself a worthwhile representative of the human race" (Jensen,1970:517)• Jensen felt that two ways of life which result from this lack of fulfilment are the "worka holic" and the underemployed who fills off-hours 'with stultifying activities. Those who try too hard are seeking recognition and significance as contributing persons; those who don't try hard enough are seeking escape from the drabness of "simply going through the motions of existing"(ibid). Both lose out on the ex perience of learning as a simple, personal joy. Jensen goes on to say that the fully-functioning self, presumably one that can learn for self-actualization, "must have the opportunity to live the good life and have a reason to be"(op.cit.:522). Without these the person is likely 128 to become a closed self, fearful of new tasks, anticipating failure, and gener ally avoiding new experiences. The most damaging guality which may develop in Jensen's opinion is alienation, the loss of pride and commitment when the adult feels his own efforts have little to do with the good or bad fortune that befalls him (op. cit.:523). This line of analysis would seem to say that unless there is material well-being and civil dignity first, there is no possibility of ar tistic and philosophic or religious perspectives taking hold, But that conclu sion would only make sense if art/and philosophy and'religion are nothing more than decorations on a well-developed material and civil order, something to come later when there is time, when the real work is done, rather than their being, the very life-blood of material and civil revolution and self-determination. It must be asked where the courage, vision, commitment and-sense of self-worth are to come from to break the grip of dismal material and civil circumstances. In North America the power of artistic and ethical perspectives to raise the capacity in people to actualize what might be is illustrated with the examples of Myles Horton's Highlander Folkschool (where topical songs were used to help union build ing), and with Moses Goady's re-creation of economic history for the workers of Nova Scotia in his parable "The Great Default of the People". The revival of major art forms like the carving of totems cannot be disassociated from the rediscovery of tribal ethics and the reassertion of the right to self-determination being made by North America's native peoples. Art and philosophy do not always awaken social consciousness, they may transform very personal self-consciousness. But disaffection and alienation only bar the learner's way to appreciating someone else's art and philosophy. Disaf fection and alienation are dissolved in the discovery of some artistic form that expresses the learner's own condition, and some philosophic perspective that expresses his life experience. 129 Structuring principles for self-actualizing education Three quite different approaches have been used to structure values clari fication education for adults. Roughly speaking these approaches are themaiic-ally arranged around a) disciplines of knowledge, b) adult social roles, or c) central problems of life. The first of these structural alternatives, the disciplines, is a formal curriculum approach that has been praised as truly and effectively general, but which requires a full-time, systematic schooling to do it justice. Pull-time schooling is well beyond the means and possibly beyond the taste of most adults (Broudy,1959:3)• The disciplines approach does have the potential to give insight into the relationships among items of knowledge (Miller,I960:25). It also enables the learner to grasp the methods man uses to design solutions to problems and to formulate standards by which to test those solutions (Hutchins, 195^:29). The main problem with the formal disciplines approach especially evi dent when it is described as "keeping up with new knowledge in all major fields" (University of Oklahoma, 1970:49) is that It seems to be an abstract exercise too far removed from the world experienced by the adult learner. The social roles approach structures broad,self-actualizing education around the family, career and societal roles of adults. The University of Oklahoma chose this approach for its adult higher education program because it seemed the most useful and attractive way to draw together what is known about human individuals and changing human institutions such as the family, government, public education and the military (University of Oklahoma,1970:50)• However, although this was a program concerned with value choices it clearly emphasized values which impinge on society as evidenced by the title of the program, "Continuing Education for Public Responsibility". This societal perspective on values has sometimes been adopted as though it were broad enough to include all human value questions, but the social roles approach does not inherently 130 deal with questions of identity, aging, mortality, transcendance, the possib ility of personal salvation or justification, and other questions focused on the meaning of human individuality. Broudy (1959) presented a strong criticism of the social roles theme in adult liberal education. He wrote, "The very-serious limitation of the social roles approach to adult education, or any other kind of education for that matter, is that it locates the center of gravity in institutional primacy; and it is almost inevitable that the evils of the 'other directed' sort of life will be its consequence" (op. cit.:5)» Despite its initial appeal, the problem with the social roles approach is that it deals less with significant values of human experience than it does with the individual's instrumental value to society. The third structural alternative for self-actualizing education is based on the theme of central issues of human experience. Broudy contributed the notion that there are various types or categories of experience which have a value dimension, among them would be economic, recreational,..assoeiational,..intellectual, moral, religious and aesthetic types of experience. He also noted that within each of these categories, it is possible to distinguish discrete levels to the quality of the experience, and that the degree of understanding one has within a category of value-experience is exhibited in the quality of preferred experi ence (1959*9)• Arranging one's life with limited resources of time and money is only further complicated by a multitude of alternatives unless one has made the effort to decide what values will guide his preferences. How to earn a living, what to spend free time on, whom to associate with, what to believe in, what to take comfort in, are recurring questions in everyone's life. Hutchin's promotion of "Great Books" was based on his conviction that con temporary problems facing the individual and society are a manifestation or recombination of fundamental problems. He felt there exists a set of basic value conflicts, and that in "treating the most difficult subjects of human thought, 131 great books represent the clearest and simplest expression of the best thinking that can be done on these subjects" (1954:2). Miller cited the Great Books ex periment as an example of education for the "skills of the free man" or renais sance man, the skills of analysis, criticism, and judgement. Particularly, Miller wanted to see the non-specialist equipped by a sense of value implications to interpret and judge the work of experts, "to judge the beauty of a work of art, the credibility of the results of scientific research, or the desirability of social and political institutions" (1960:28). An interesting claim was made for the preferability of this third values clarification approach over the formal disciplines or social roles approach. Broudy proposed that only the values clarification or quality of life approach nurtures in the learner a feeling of obligation to maximize his and everyone else's positive value experiences, that it alone evokes a sense of duty which makes a moral claim upon the adult from within his own nature regarding self-improvement. Further, that unless education for private and community life based itself on this compelling obligation it would remain "an ad hoc, morally toothless arrangement" (I959sl0). Distinctive techniques for encouraging value choices It has been earlier stated in general terms that this form of practice employs a distinctive methodology combination here called "impression-reflection". Impression implies that the learner will be exposed to an effectively planned new experience of an aesthetic, philosophic, physical or spiritual nature — perhaps "new" because it is being experienced with new skill or from a new per spective — but for it to be learning the impression will be something more than a mere repetition of previous impressions. Reflection implies that the learning experience will be planned to include an appraisal phase in which the learner assesses the new experience and judges it in terms of an emerging set of criteria. 132 This personal, subjective assessment of the meaning and value of an experience may require prompting from the consulting educator. It also requires that the learner possess or acquire some means for expression of the reflective phase — perhaps through free discussion, perhaps through music, photography, satirical . skits or creative writing. Any mode of expression may be useful in integrating the new experience with previous ones, or prior attitudes. But some expression of the new judgement allows the learner to engage with others in an examination of the newly adopted position. The consulting educator may suggest criteria for testing and judging the emerging opinion, but may most effectively encourage the. learner's value exploration by simply honouring It with non-evaluative recognition. Of the several techniques most directly identified with self-actualizing education some facilitate the impression phase, some the reflection phase and some accomodate both. Techniques which emphasize new impressions almost exclu sively would include museum exhibits, art displays, lecture series like "The Human Enterprise" a science and humanities series for adults at Northern Illinois University, and the various television extravaganzas like Kenneth Clark's "Civilization" series, Yehudi Menhuin's "The Music of Man", Joseph Bronowski's "The Ascent of Man",, and John Kenneth Galbraith's series on economics. All of the foregoing techniques present new impressions directly to the learner, but impressions may also be presented indirectly through identification with another person who is reacting to events, demonstrating value convictions, or being reacted to. Bandura (1965) refers to this as social learning, or that learning which takes place as a result of observing behaviour and attitude modelling on the part of another human being. C. Wright Mills (1954) emphasized human modelling as a crucial element for the development of human community. His concern was for the drift away from many natural "publics" in society as the distillers of public will, toward the "mass" distribution of opinion by a few powerful and manipulative opinion makers. 133 His hope lay with the natural leaders of a community who speak out against pre-digested mass opinion and become the "radiant points, the foci" of primary publics, or face to face natural publics. Then addressing adult educators he said that in order to attract these natural community leaders to programs on socially significant themes "you must surround your students with models of straightforward conduct, clarified character, and open reasonableness, for I believe it is in the hope of seeing such models that many serious people go to lectures rather than more conveniently reading books....In the end, all talk of liberal education...is nonsense if you do not have such men and women on your faculties. For in the end liberal education is the result of the liberating and .self-sustaining touch of such people" (Mills,1954:15)• Techniques which accomodate, both new impressions and personal reflections would include all the various artistic experiences which are combined with dis cussion groups, such as the systematic reading of literature, immersion in music, or exploration of sculpture and art exhibits. Some special interest societies such as medievalists, choral groups and travel societies sponsor the acquisition of new knowledge, skills, and appreciations. Some sponsor philo- . sophic debates for their members, such as the "Controversial Club" begun by a young businessman in a small Illinois city following the First World War (Houle,1961:78), or the Thomas More Institute in Montreal, Quebec, which spon sors short discussion series on philosophic themes. To the aesthetic discussion groups and philosophic discussion groups may be added community building dis cussion groups such as those which were sponsored by the Laquemac program in Quebec. Laquemac was a residential camp housing groups of 100 adults for 10 days at a time, sponsored by the Universite de Laval, the Ministry of Education of Quebec, and Macdonald College. It was a totally bilingual, training and discovery experience for adult educators responsible for community programs around Quebec. By bringing together two founding peoples of Canadian society • 134 in an isolated campsite, to elect a council for self-government and a committee of instructors for the educational program, it became a social laboratory, reminiscent of interpersonal education. To the extent that it focused on regional economic, political, cultural and social issues it was reminiscent of . social activist education. But Laquemac participants formed a temporary community not intended to take action as a group. Rather the participants returned to their leadership roles in their respective communities to live out what had been learned from their values clarification experience. This feature of a deep personal search for common cultural values is what placed the Laquemac pro gram squarely within education for self-actualization when that self is under stood to be the confluence of many individuals seeking humanity community. Laquemac was described as the expression of a hope "that the concept of a people's culture become firmly fixed as a fundamental goal for those who work in the field of adult education" in Canada (Kidd,1950:168). Other techniques which combine exposure to new impressions with conscious reflection upon them were suggested especially for developing the value of human community as "international interdependence" — a concept which under current global pressures seems to be replacing previous value emphasis on "national independence" (Compton,1978:30-33)• Compton proposed anew the benefit to be gained from such forms of discovery and expression as learning foreign languages, taking part in exchange programs, international cultural festivals, international universities, international publications, councils and task forces on policy development for alleviating global problems. Finally, whether the focus for values clarification is on the human indivi dual or human community, there are some techniques which facilitate primarily the reflective, evaluative phase of self-actualizing education. These techniques offer the learner an opportunity to make personally expressive statements about the current state of self-creation, of the weaving together of intersupportive 135 values. They prompt synthesizing statements without burdening the learner with yet more new impressions. Such techniques include all forms of artistic crea tivity from blank verse, to wall murals, to pantomime. Group forms of reflec tive expression would include both those discussions where the participants speak as themselves, and improvisations where they portray characters who represent given values or attitudes. Because the dramatic representation gives expression to human convictions it is possible for theatre to serve the learner in the audience as an indirect form of self-expression as well as its more com mon function of being a source of new impressions. Perhaps the development of what has been called "taste" for a given artistic form (when it is a genuine and not an.affected preference) is nothing more than the discovery of that which most nearly expresses one's self. Outcomes and instruments for appraising the degree of internalization The Krathwol, Bloom and Masia taxonomy (1964) of affective educational out comes has a hierarchical structure based on the principle of internalization. Internalization acknowledges five major stages of adoption of a new value, from l) the most superficial awareness of it, to 2) a passive compliance or response to it, to 3) an active valuing of it, to 4) conceptualizing it within a larger value set, to 5) integration of one's whole life, identification of one's whole character with that value. This hierarchy helps to distinguish between some of the stages of adoption of new personal values. It is not universally accepted, and was never intended by its creators to be the final word on testing of affec tive outcomes. Still, because it provides guidelines for test items which . distinguish between externally-enforced, passive compliance to a value, and internally-preferred, voluntary choice of a value it may be useful for evalu ating some aspects of socialization, for example, as this would require objective measures. 136 But beyond critical aspects of socialization why would objective measures of value-preference outcomes be necessary? Surely in the case of self-actualizing education, evaluation is anchored in the self of the learner, and focused not on the learner's achievements of externally set goals, but on the program's effectiveness in helping the learner achieve his desired goals. Did it meet the learner's expectations and enable him to liberate himself from a degree of ignorance, prejudice, foolishness, narrowness, and bline habit? Did it provide a channel for spiritual renewal and release from boredom, alienation and meaninglessness? Did it bring the learner closer to that form of profound literacy which Maxine Green said "enables persons to disclose who they are... to- tell their stories, to invent-themselves...to make clear the role of vantage point even as it illuminates the shapes of the common world" (1979:634). This type of program more than any other takes its cue for success or otherwise from the judgment of learners. With the other three types of education'objective evaluation of the learn er's achievement dominates as an indicator of program success. A technical pro gram is successful if learners demonstrate the criterion performance. An interpersonal program is successful if the experimental design establishes via pre- and post-test that the treatment group developed skills the control group did not. A social activist program is considered successful if the participants move on an attitude scale from anomie toward autonomy. But how can a program for self-actualization set the criterion behaviour for evaluation? Of all four types of education this one reverses the primacy of objective  measures, and asks not did the learner achieve the program's objectives, but did the program meet the learner's expectations? Program success may hinge then on the learner's sense of having passed through a significant experience. This is undoubtedly an exceptional challenge for educators to take on, but it is the essence of education to honour the integrity of the learner and serve the 137 unfoldment of his consciousness. Evaluation of self-actualizing education is one place where this relationship is defined in explicit and uncomprpmised terms. Clientele orientation characteristics This type of education can offer little external reward; its main attrac tion is the enchantment of finding life more rich and varied than it appeared. It will therefore draw clients who are essentially learning oriented, and whose self-concept is high. They may be less instrumental because they are older, or they may be insatiably curious so that they simply desire to have more science, art, and philosophy in their lives. They may be seeking renewal, and something refreshing to help them transcend the preoccupations of daily life. In this respect they may be activity oriented like clients who study technical contents for non-instrumental reasons. The disaffected will seize with enthusiasm any medium which expresses their vision — as has been demonstrated with inner-city build ing murals, political street theatre, and the steel bands of the Caribbean. Those with a low self-concept can be won over to new joy if the skills.for self-actualization are brought by the agent to a level they can reach. This has been demonstrated in geriatric hospitals where even patients in the palliative care wards respond to the chance to use percussion musical instruments. It has been evidenced in prisons where tending a small garden patch or caring for a pet has noticeably modified prisoner behaviour. Locations for self-actualizing education There is some evidence that effective values clarifying education can take place close to home — in the village institute, the local library or a church hall, even quite successfully in the home as seen with the "Living Room Learning" program in British Columbia .(Kidd and Selman,1978:235)• 138 However field trips can usefully supplement the value clarifications which go on in discussion groups, and at the same time make use of society's cultural storehouses which include: museums, auditoriums, planetariums, galleries, theatres, libraries, conservatories, observatories, laboratories, churches, synagogues, mosques and temples. Regarding these examples of cultural capital there is some interplay between the developments which take place through values clarifying education and social activist education, since only through wielding political influence successfully do minority groups and aboriginal peoples obtain the resources to establish museums, galleries of photographic history, or language institutes. SOCIAL ACTIVIST EDUCATION Goal, function and typical content Social activist education directs personal learning towards improving the quality of life experienced in human communities. In the past its goal has been to bring about pragmatic improvements that were usually evidenced in a more equi table distribution of material resources; but in the last decade emphasis has shifted onto the goal of improving understanding and capability with regard to the successful management of further changes in the community. Since it seems unlikely that either individual or mass actions can be sustained successfully as educative experiences without the support of small group involvement, the follow ing treatment will speak of face-to-face primary groups, neighbours, and people in a community as the central forum of social activist learning. The function of community developing education is to seek growth in compe tence, more than the alleviation of misery (Biddle & Biddle,1965:221) . But its function is often confused with that of several other forms of social practice. 139 "Social welfare" services for example, while struggling to get upstream at the causes of problems are primarily dedicated to relieving the symptoms. "Economic development", the rallying cry of the 1960's, has come to be judged as often misguided and essentially missing the mark of human development. Similarly, "community organization" presuming that "community" already exists proceeds to systematize relations among existing institutions and leaders, thus achieving a minor degree of efficiency, while missing a major opportunity to develop emerging leaders and more vital institutions. "Social planning" though it sub sumes welfare services, economic development, and better community organization fails in principle and consequently in fact when it delivers ill-fitting solu tions to people who have not been assisted to articulate the problems they experience. Similarly, both "information-communication" (from social planners to the people who are about to be subjected to a change), and "education of the public" (propaganda from a sector which is seeking change), have more in common with publicity than education. The prototype of community developing education is neither a classroom nor a publicity campaign but "a small group of friends who are devoted to the local good" (op. cit.: 248). The content of social activist education has three major elements in inter action: firstly, people as citizens and neighbours who are acting on their own behalf in real rather than simulated events of human community; secondly, some immediate problematic situation which is actual rather than contrived for educa tional purposes; and thirdly, the socioeconomic institutions through which people work to alleviate problems and bring about a better life. In fact, the longer range activity is largely "oriented toward the design of socioeconomic institutions" (Blakely,1979il8) so that in future situations they can more effectively close the gap between human aspirations and available resources. But the emphasis is always with the people who are learning to be citizens, to become "competent to live and gain some control over a frustrating and changing 140 world" (Biddle & Biddle,1965:78). Methodology geared to nature of the goal Since the content is comprised of problematic local situations, and the learning outcomes sought are the ability of local people to "perceive their own needs and manage their own destiny in a manner beneficial to themselves" (Blakely,1979:22), the educational methodology used will be a judicious combin ation of critical thinking, social action, and more critical thinking. The emphasis on probing, testing, prudent action directed toward desired social change is the source of the term "social experiment" to describe the distinctive methodology of social activist education. Without action there is philosophic rather than citizenship education, but without critical thought of potential consequences and comparison of actual with anticipated consequences any social action will not produce an educative experience. The methodology of social activist education initiates a process in people that begins with their own perceptions of their needs. It does not presume community exists. "It recognizes the necessity for the discovering or creating of community, in a process that will utilize the existing social structures, but that will help create new organizations and institutions when needed" (Biddle & Biddle,1965:224). Starting with the people where they are, helping them uncover commonalities with their neighbours, encouraging them to become "more competent to serve an expanding neighbourly good" (op. cit.:248) is the basic momentum of community development. A sense of community, of being together in experience and cooperative action is thus the first significant outcome of their guided exploration of the local situation. The community building educators of Highlander folkschool also came to value this sense of common purpose as the first step in community development. "Historically education in America, more often than not, has taught people that 141 when the conflict between themselves and a problem lessens or disappears, the problem is solved. Critical conscious thought about the causes of the problem, or who else may be affected by it, often stops at this point...Highlander sought to educate people away from the dead end of individualism and into the freedom that grows from cooperation and collective solutions" (Adams,1975s208). The Antigonish cooperative movement carried on in the Atlantic provinces of Canada taught the same ethical principle, that selfish, competitive individualism was in the end self-defeating. "No matter how capable and skilled the individual is, he soon learns that there are forces in society over which he has no personal control, and which influence the lives of all individuals irrespective of their genius...Against these forces individual action is useless. They must be met with group action" (laidlaw,196l:107)• At the same time some authors cautioned that hatred of a common enemy would not make as good a basis for the community . building process as the latent good will in a population to seek improvement in the quality of life. Similarly, an immediate crisis was not as good a basis on which to begin the community process as the many frustrations and hopes accumu lated from crises of the past (Biddle & Biddle,1965:274). The methodology of social activist education is a subtle balance of respect for the hopes, experience, despair and will of the people, and recognition of the present limits on their capacity for self-help. Of these two qualities the more essential to human dignity is genuine respect of people. My les Horton, founder of the Appalachian folkschool, "Highlander", concluded from his observations of local people and outsiders that "this unacknowledged dialogue of non-equals that so many people are carrying on with mountain people must come to an end" (Adams, 1975s183). He was convinced that effective "teaching must learn to work inside the experiences of those being taught" (op. cit.:47). Horton became convinced that the people, no matter how poor or untutored, would know what they needed to learn, if he could only learn to listen to them and to translate what he heard 142-into an educational program (op. cit.:24). James Draper introduced the book "Citizen Participation: Canada" with a proverb on the same theme;(1971:intro): Go to the people Live among them Learn' from them Love them Serve them Plan with them Start with what they know Build on what they have The community developer is thus a midwife of citizens, the helper of a natural instinctive process, in this case the adult desire to manage one's own destiny. He is "an expert in expediting a process that works only if the participants take the initiative from him" (Biddle & Biddle,1965:266). In this way social activist education is seen to begin by bringing people together to reflect upon events in order to learn from them (op. cit.:88). ' Out of this joint exploring of the local situation and its causes grows self-confidence to converse with the powerful. Self-assurance grows "when citizens have studied and discussed enough to know that they know what they are talking about" (op. cit.:150). Obstacles to social activist education Moses Coady gave great impetus to social activist education in the Atlantic provinces of Canada with a parable "The Great Default of the People". In this parable he fused the minutiae of history into a powerful myth about the growth of economic institutions and how the ordinary people lost control of them. The myth would apply equally well to political and other social institutions, where for the sake of convenience citizens give up their working knowledge of an institution to become instead only consumers of its services. They pay for this service both by giving up some financial resources, and by giving up the control that direct involvement had afforded them. With time institutions tend to become overlaid with greater formality and a convolution of "channels" which 143 -prevent people further from influencing or even learning about influencing the instruments of their own society. Some people are born with privileged access to socioeconomic institutions; they develop a higher degree of understanding and influence regarding these institutions. Father James Tompkins who inspired • Coady's work was most deeply critical not of those persons born to privilege but those who through higher education were able to rise above their disadvantaged peers and then simply left them behind. Both these groups of influential citi zens tend to deny that a large segment of society is not empowered to partici pate in the socioeconomic decisions which shape it. So the first obstacle to effective activist education is denial on the part of potential providers that people are powerless or lacking the skills of self-determination. This denial communicates to the powerless as a sense of inevitability about their social situation, and tends to deepen their apathy. The second traditional obstacle to social activist education has been the tendency of governments to,do things for the people, or to them, instead of with them. From this philanthropic approach stem social welfare projects which over step the vague and hopeful mandates which the governed give through election procedures. Social welfare projects, using large bureaucracies and moving large amounts of tax dollars, make isolated administrative decisions aimed at physical and economic conditions. Despite any material improvement which results, people are weakened further when such projects by-pass the people's decision-making function. Blakely maintains that growth in community develops only as people "are totally involved in all of the frustrations as well as successes in arriving at the objective"(l979sl9)• Decisions made by absentee bureaucrats run the risk of failure even in their limited objectives because the bureaucrats' distance from the scene virtually guarantees that they will be "overlooking.some of the total system", the living community they are trying to serve (op. cit.:22). Other writers have similarly argued that it is not possible to create a people's Ui4 society for them, or to purchase a way into utopia. Utopia is something human beings struggle for and grow towards, and those persons who are restricted to • a passive status in relation to their own society are prevented from such growth. This error can be committed as easily as appointing a citizens' committee from an autocratic distance rather than letting the opinion-leading members of a community emerge and grow into active participatory leadership (Biddle & Biddle, 1965,vii). Thus denial of the powerlessness of citizens by those who have socioeconomic influence, and philanthropic social projects which relegate citizens to a passive relationship to their own society are obstacles which may preclude social activ ist learning. Biddle and Biddle have identified five other obstacles as often arising in the learning process once local people begin to come to grips with their situation. The first is apathy shown either as active resistance to com munity building initiatives, or as an equally dysfunctional polite acquiescence — an indifference so deep it doesn't even resist (op. cit.:lC4). The second potential obstacle to learning is group catharsis or the tendancy to get bogged down in bitter complaint about the seriousness of local problems and about those who are seen as being to blame. This may come about in the early days of forming a primary group or "nucleus" as the Biddle's call it, or when the deeper study of problems begins, or when nuclei of differing backgrounds come together into a larger nucleus. The third potential obstacle to further learning is "the slump" when all community activity ceases for weeks or months especially after a suc cessful project. This is most likely fatigue brought on by the excitement and effort which the active period has required. Usually fresh interest is aroused when a new idea or objective arises to "galvanize people into renewed activity" (op. cit.:105). The fourth potential obstacle to citizen participation educa tion is the loss of some key participants, some good members who either drop out 145 or are forced out by other members of the group. This regretable loss leaves open the opportunity to assist the newly emergent leaders. On occasion the loss may become serious enough to qualify as obstacle five, which is the actual "disintegration of a nucleus" through poor leadership, unwise decisions, or factionalism. The agent then becomes a conciliator, so that the healing of wounds of misunderstanding will be a learning phase forwarding the community development process. Structuring principles for social activist learning One way of looking at the complementary and somewhat cyclical phases of this kind of learning is to describe it as comprising a diagnostic phase in which needs are assessed, and an action phase in which the social policy result ing from the diagnostic phase gets translated into actions as projects and pro grams carried out in the community. The diagnosis, referred to as "community research" by Blakely "instead of being purely descriptive of the how and why of human behaviour is aimed at change in a predetermined value-set direction" (Blakely,1979:1?)• In other words it is not seeking social scientific explana tion which is by nature abstracted and generalized; it is seeking some pragmatic strategy to be employed in a concrete individual situation. Structuring principles which do exist tend to be neither a how-to formula nor a simple solution equally applicable to all situations. Available principles for structuring the events of social activist education are not to be confused with a recipe of prescribed and sequenced steps. Structural guides are rather the outline of a process for seeking together, a process for citizen partici pants to evolve their own problem-resolving formulas. While it is by nature modifiable, the basic pattern of events must be there to draw out citizen ini- . tiative which has not occurred on an unplanned basis. "If the achievement of responsible freedom is to be expedited the expediting follows a design that 146 invites participation, an outline that depends upon the flexibility of group choosing" (Biddle & Biddle,1965:88). With this flexibility the sequence of identifiable phases may be rearranged, some stages skipped altogether, or several occur simultaneously (op. cit.:106). Hayden Roberts of the Univer sity of Alberta proposed a generic set of phases to social activist learning (1979 •• 36) which combined elements from two previous analyses of the community problem-solving process. .The sequence he proposes is illustrated in Figure 8, the spatial relations among the six stages altered slightly to accentu ate their cyclical nature. The cycle moves from a phase of individually felt tension and dissatisfaction, to a joint explora tion or "familiarization" learning in-group to know oneself, the basis of commonality, and the dimensions I; Tension (i.e., problem, goal) Learning Knowledge of -self - group - environment Skills in - communication - group discussion Attitudes toward -self - others - things Learning Skills in - organization - planning - administration Fig. 8: The Community Problem-Solving Process (Roberts, 1979:36) of the problem situation in much more depth and clarity than is possible at the stage of simple disconfort. Out of this assessment phase of learning will be produced some formulation of objectives for the group. Then begines a second phase of learning which is "strategic" rather than situation familiarization. Here people gain the skills and insights necessary to put some plan of action into effect. The final phase of the cycle is evaluation of the outcomes of the action taken, and an assessment of any discrepancies and tensions which may lead 14? to a new round of learning, goal-setting, more learning, and action. Distinctive techniques related to social activist learning Techniques aimed at increasing the learner's capacity to participate in social planning seem to group as tactics into three broad strategies. There are a) those aimed at animation of citizens, stimulating, them to get involved; b) those aimed at analyzing the situational environment for both its assets and problems; and c) those tactics which aim at intervention in existing institu tions or invention of new, more effective institutions and processes. Within the strategy for citizen animation the earliest techniques must be aimed at overcoming isolation.- Their purpose is to give, alienated and apathetic persons .the opportunity to learn that their situation is not unique — many potential allies are having similar difficulties. Subsequent techniques encom pass devices for catalyzing citizen awareness of the extent,and if possible, the source of local problems. Tom Lovett(l975) used 15 minute radio tapes made by local people in Liverpool. Paulo Freire used hand-sketched drawings ( 1970). Myles Horton used songs written by his wife to tell the tale of local events (Adams, 1975)* Moses Coady used his dramatic parable about the default of the people to awaken a sense of urgency about the control of society (1939). Coady also used kitchen meetings and study circles as a way for people to air their grievances and explore the potential in their situation. Exploration of the will of citizens-could include direct techniques like town meetings or parish meetings, and indirect techniques like telephone surveys, newspaper main-ins, and other forms of opinion or attitude surveys developed, for this purpose. Eventually the learners involved will reach the stage of creating a "nucleus" (Biddle & Biddle, 1965:89). This is a group of people who have a commitment to the common good as they understand it in their local setting. Their dual purpose becomes to inform themselves better of the facts of their situation and to 148 explore together their values and hopes for their community's development. Group discussion techniques are appropriate for use in a group of this sort. Throughout the use of all these techniques designed to stimulate citizen participation, it is productive to maintain a running group process record which includes observations regarding where the group started in its assumptions, capa bilities, and dynamics, stages it progressed through, and results (both intended and incidental) of the actions taken by the group (Blakely,1979:22). Two examples of record keeping schedules are offered by Biddle and Biddle: The first is for encounters with individual people who may or may not develop into active community contacts. The second is for meetings with groups of people a,nd it: gathers Information about both the formal agenda and informal transactions which have some significance. The second major strategy related to social activist learning, and one which is complementary to animating citizen participation, uses techniques to analyze the environment. These information-gathering techniques seek base-line data both economic and otherwise on current resources, obstructions and history of the local situation. Such techniques include the Community Inventory Tech nique which employs a checklist or inventory document and may be used by citizens to assess their own community without using expert help . The social environment may also be analyzed using a "reconnaissance technique" to obtain information from key citizens or a small smaple of persons from interest groups. Even the Delphi method of obtaining written, indirect consensus, or other "nominal group" techniques may be used. These lack the synergistic effect of group deliberations, but also avoid potential destructive effects of face-to-face interactions. Whichever techniques are used to explore the facts and values at work in a complex community situation three guiding principles influence their success: It is essential to incorporate the contributions of those key people 149 who enact the current situation and who will implement the action plan to be developed; it is essential to incorporate those people in defining the problem which is to be acted upon who will live with the consequences of future action; and the analj^sis which results must go as far as making recommendations for action (Voth,1979:?3). Among learning techniques related to social activist education the third-general strategy is community mobilization for intervention, or if necessary, invention. To the extent that local people learn to make themselves heard and to work with existing institutions and procedures their action is "inter vention"; to the extent that they must create new institutions or procedures it is "invention". Intervention can have unfortunate results unless a thorough values clarification has been undertaken by the nucleus in the early "situation familiarization" stage of learning. This values clarification must examine especially the issues of blame, conflict, and alienation, looking for the high est possible definition of "common good" and "community" that the situation will allow. A thorough option-research at the "strategic" stage of learning can help reveal the potential range of consequences to various action alternatives, such as what would result from using publicity, obstruction or petition. One of the techniques suggested here for finding appropriate action plans to match goals is a kind of force field analysis (Roberts,1979:148). The concept is attributed generally to Kurt Lewin and deals with the social field or life space as the sum of relevant physical entities and social forces in the sur roundings. The technique analyzes a situation in terms of "driving forces" which support movement toward a goal, and "restraining forces" which tend to impede such movement. The technique may be implemented through a series of questions such as : a) "What forces, if any, must be dealt with before change can occur?" b) "Are there some forces whose direction can be reversed?" c) "Which restraining forces can be reduced with the least effort?" d) "Which 150 driving forces can be increased?" (Jenkins,1964:23)• Part of the intervention/ invention strategy may call for the creation of a larger nucleus. This happens at the point where it seems advisable to seek collaboration with other small nuclei of citizens. • The larger nucleus will of necessity have a more encom passing definition of the common good in order to attract the- joint efforts of smaller nuclei which have more focused, partisan interests. This is a stage of joint problem acknowledgement aptly described by Richard Feringer of Western Washington University (1980). " In this stage all parties are defined as co-victims to some extent of an undesirable situation — which makes it in the best interests of all to alleviate the situation. Sometimes this point must be brought home to an exploiting party in terms of• the possible consequences for them of doing nothing to improve the situation. It is not always possible to reach this stage of joint problem recognition face-to-face. One ingenious technique for bridging the gap between sub-group nuclei is introductions via videotape used with considerable success by the "Challenge For Change" program using the technical assistance of the National Film Board to enable conflicting factions to view each other's deliberations (JQdd and Selman, 1978:229-233) • Some traditional adult education techniques are well suited for helping adults learn from experts when as citizens their problem-solving requires con sulting experts. One is the "colloquy" where a panel of experts is matched by a reaction panel from the audience. This has the advantage over the open forum of giving articulate spokesmen of the audience equal standing with the experts in the physical arrangement of the meeting (Bergevin, Morris, & Smith,1962:42). Another technique is the "listening team" (Knowles,1970:293) whose mission is to ensure that jargon which is used by the panel of experts will be clarified into commonly understood terms. They do this through sanctioned interjections asking for clarification during each expert's presentation. Among adult educators; perhaps the most controversial technique of social 151 activist education is "integrative action research". Tradition separates the functions of teaching, research, and action, although these turn back on each other in the world of experience. Integrative action research maintains these three functions simultaneously. In part the rationale for integration is . strictly pragmatic(so that there will be agreement on a practical solution); in part humanistic (respecting the persons who live with the problem); and in'part anchored in a commitment (to enhance the problem-solving capabilities of citi zens).- The rationale for integration of three functions is ultimately "existential" because it does not engage citizens in order to co-opt their support, or to educate them, "but to place responsibility for decision-making squarely on them" (Voth,1979:?6). Educators dedicated to this type of practice and especially this integrative approach will probably win greater support from their colleagues by calling it "integrative action-investigation" or some such term — leaving "research" to describe those activities which emphasize rigorous design and systematic execution. Outcomes and instruments for estimating self-determination Just as techniques of social activist education can be subsumed under three broad strategies aimed at a) animating participants, b) analyzing the environ ment, and c) intervening in institutions, so there are three lines of evalua tion with social activist education. The degree of personal change can be estimated through attitude scales. Environmental change may be measured directly through a nominal scale inventory which includes, for example, improvements like a better park, a day-care centre, a desegregated restaurant,.bus system or school. Environmental change may also be measured indirectly through other social indicators: number of local children admitted to higher education, decreased incidence of child neglect, decreased incidence of vandalism to pub lic buildings and so on. Finally, the existence of systemic change in 152 socioeconomic institutions from non-responsive to responsive decision-making may be tested through methods of organizational research. However Voth cautions (1979:156,157) that several difficult problems plague the evaluation of community development education. In the first place there are conceptual problems including the ambiguity of goals and the absence of consensus on a model of community development. Although concrete physical objectives are easy enough to state, process objectives like the ability of a community to solve its problems and make decisions collectively resist being formulated into clear operational definitions (op. cit.:158). In the second place there are technical problems such as the. inability of the researcher to control which learners will be exposed to which educational treatments. He is not in a position to randomize participation (op. cit.:l6l). Furthermore there-may be weak immediate effects however high the later multiplier effect. There are crude measures only, of the distribution of influence or power in community decision-making, and the quality of life in a community. Technically there is the problem of small samples making it difficult to get beyond idiographic description (op. cit.:l67). Finally there are political variables which con found evaluation. For political reasons goals will be ambitious, very general, acceptable to all. They are symbols which are almost certain to be vague and abstract, where the evaluators^objectives must be precise and observable (op. cit.:l68). Further political consequences arise with the relationship between evaluation findings and aspects of program administration such as finance. Whether he is engaged in an "impact evaluation" comparing the effects of differ ent programs on similar problems, or in a "strategy evaluation" comparing alter nate techniques or approaches that could be taken by an agency or group, there is always the danger that the evaluator may be used for some partisan purpose. Hayden Roberts urges that the search for effective evaluation go forward 153 despite its many difficulties, feeling that in a field that lacks objective standards of achievement no learning can take place. There can be no certainty that movement is going forward or backward, no criteria to evaluate the relation between effort and achievement, nothing to prevent wrong conclusions (1979:154). But here as with the methodology itself, the participation of the citizens affected must be recruited. What is needed are "sensitive attempts to find appropriate measures of whatever it is we are aiming at. And in community dev elopment an important aim must be to enable the people involved to take part in establishing these measures and using them" (op. cit.:155)« Clientele orientation characteristics Adults engaged in education for participation are most likely to be persons who are directly affected by a particular unresolved social issue. That issue to act as a basis of community must be something more than a purely personal complaint (Biddle & Biddle,1965:274). Therefore adults who seek this kind of learning opportunity also have some sense of the common good which is inherent in the issue that they are concerned about. Furthermore, these adults are evidently willing to invest time in understanding the situation because social activist education does not encourage them to hasty action. Finally, although these learners are clearly goal-oriented and have a direct, immediate relation ship to the subject of their learning they may be passive or defeatist about the potential for either learning or action to accomplish anything. Therefore this negative affect must also be included in the initial stages of managing the learning group. More than any other clientele, including those drawn into ABE or ESL classes, these learners are likely to have arrived in a learning group not through self-selection but through active recruitment on the part of an agent with strong convictions about the usefulness of this education for the learner. That conviction about learning has to be absorbed by the client, along 154 with a sense of hope about the possibility of community change, in order for successful learning to come about. Locations for social activist education The guiding principle of social activist locations goes beyond the normal one of convenience of access, or adaption of the physical environment to enhance technical, interpersonal, or self-actualizing learning. The social activist location may be both inconvenient and uncomfortable but it will be appropriate because it will be where the action of community change is taking place. That may be: in the street, at city hall, on the picketline, in shareholders' meetings, on the phone, in boardrooms, in the courts, or in the case of advocacy it can even be through the mails with newsletters and letters of protest to members of parliament. Social activist locations are the places where people rally to express their convictions. They may do their planning in church basements, at community centres, or in kitchens, but the action which moves "social experiment" methodology beyond speculation must take the learning process to the social locations where decisions are made. Common Characteristics in all Adult Education Practices The general goal of all adult education is anchored in the learner's understanding, in making it easier for him to' improve his understanding of what he experiences. That experience which most distinguishes human conscious ness from animal is future experience or rather anticipation of future experi ence. Human beings live with a sense of the future and often an anxiety about it. They express a capacity and aneed to prepare for the future. Because of this, "anticipatory learning" is not so much a fad as an essential element of 155 adult learning characteristics. It has not until recently been as emphasized as learning for present experience, since it has been known for some time that adults usually have some immediate use for the learning they choose to engage in. Past experience is also essential to the development of understanding. It is recognized that accumulated experience- can impede or facilitate learning but cannot be ignored, and in fact is in a constant state of re-evaluation and transformation until the end of life. So the general goal of adult education is to enable a better understanding of future, present and past experience, both through the systematic presentation of information and through guided activities which enable the learner to gain some insight into what he knows. Because the dignity of human adults lies in their free will and respons ibility for their own destiny, the function of adult education is essentially an auxiliary activity supporting their initiatives to develop themselves and their communities. But because human beings are capable of underutilizing their free will and responsibility, adult education as with all other human services, has scope for militant action - for taking the initiative to stir adults to awareness of their possibilities. Whether adult educators should respond or initiate seems to be a fundamental quandry which can only be re solved by the individual practitioner in the course of his work and not collec- . tively or formally for the profession as a whole. In either case adult educa tors facilitate learning through provision of technical assistance to individuals and groups.( which constitutes the ethic or technical competence of the profes sion), and through provision of moral support for the urge to learn, recognition of its worth and the worth of adults who make that effort ( which constitutes the ethos or heart and soul of the profession). While the content of adult education programs is broad and varied, certain principles recur throughout. For example all educative content endeavours to 156 instil in the passive individual the confidence to engage actively with his life experience to his own benefit. It is designed to equip the learner to create, to rearrange his environment to his own benefit rather than to help lessly adapt to whatever events are imposed on him. This principle applies all the way from learning to cook so one can survive without mother, to learn ing to interact with other persons without offending and hurting them, to learning how to take strength from beautiful things, to learning how to influence and mold one's socioeconomic environment. All educative content aims to supplant ignorance and its consequences with insight and its benefits. The methodology of adult learning whatever the specifics of practice incorporates several basic elements. In some form it will use methods or formats for contacting learners and relating to them individually or in groups, at a distance or face-to-face. These methods are partly determined by the type of goal being pursued, partly by the nature of the clientele, and partly by the resources the practitioner has at his disposal. Within a general method there will be several techniques, some form of structured activities for engaging the learner with learning tasks. These techniques are partly determined by the objectives or type of learning outcomes intended, partly by the capacities of the clientele, and partly by the specific content being dealt with. Media devices, that is all means of preserving, reformulating, and distributing inform ation, will be used in some form in all types of practice, though they may vary a great deal. Information devices mediate between a content and a particular clientele and their variation results from the interaction of these two elements. The evaluation dimension of educational practices varies according to its level of aggregation, focus, purpose, setting, agents,, kind of data, and standards, but one relationship is common throughout. Evaluation brings inform ation together with preferences. The two are independent of each other and out 157 of their combination comes a judgement either about satisfaction with past events or intentions regarding future events. The clientele dimension encompasses a large data base of ecological, demographic and personal characteristics which offer a nomothetic understanding of clienteles across the field. That is, group indicators like "the paraplegic", "the exceptionally gifted", "the recently divorced", "the Albertan", will offer a certain degree of prediction about the educational preferences and performance of that client, whatever branch of practice they are found in. Certain even more general characteristics may also be attributed generally to the adult learner such as the lack of margin for learning the immediate application of learning, and an independent self-concept, but which of these and other attributes are distinctive to the adult learner and exclude the. younger learner have yet to be firmly established. The location dimension of adult education was described by Houle (1972) as having one pervading purpose for the adult learner and that is to provide an "enclave" of social support for continued learning. It is something of a fresh idea to consider that because the adult learner is often under peer and social pressure to discontinue, what the special location must offer the learner more than physical comfort, information resources, and expert consultation, is the moral encouragement to carry on. The foregoing characteristics which are considered to be common to all adult education practices are summarized in Table 7« i58 COMMON CHARACTERISTICS IN-ALL ADULT EDUCATION PRACTICES GENERAL GOAL TO ENABLE A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF FUTURE, PRESENT, and PAST EXPERIENCE THROUGH INFORMATION and INSIGHT FUNCTION FACILITATING THE EFFORTS OF ADULTS TO DEVELOP THEMSELVES AND THEIR COMMUNITIES, BY providing technical assistance (professional ethic) to learning projects, programs & courses & BY providing moral support (professional ethos) for the urge to learn TYPICAL CONTENT All educative content endeavours to supplant ignorance ajid passive adaptation with insight and active creation of one's environment and life events, including learning events Adult education contents: -endeavour to take into account the adult's experiential base (accumulated); -are often geared toward resolution of real-life dilemmas (present); and -include the adult's desire to anticipate and modify the shaping of events (future). METHODOLOGY FOR LEARNING METHODS: All institutional formats for contacting learners -mediate: clients/goals/resources TECHNIQUES: All structures activities for engaging the learner with a learning task -mediate: clients/objectives/content MEDIA DEVICES: All means of preserving, reformu lating and distributing information -mediate: content/clients INHERENT OBSTACLES, and STRUCTURING PRINCIPLES vary with the type of goal-function BASIS FOR . EVALUATION May evaluate individuals, groups, programs, institutions, communities May use descriptive and judgmental data May be for decision-making or accountability May be anticipatory, formative, summative or follow-up CLIENTELE DESCRIPTORS Categories of participant information Ecological: geographic location, population density Demographic: socio-economic, age, sex, race, religion, language, citizenship Personal: physical, biographical.psychological Situational: life span, incidental SPECIAL LOCATIONS Enclaves of social support for continued learning . public schools, colleges, universities . social agencies . government departments . private entrepreneurs 159 CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS In this chapter the procedure of the study is briefly summarized and con clusions are drawn regarding the degree to which goals of the study have been achieved. Immediate applications of the framework to the interests of both practitioners and disciplinarians are outlined, and implications of the types, the model, and the framework for future research are suggested. Summary of the Study Out of an examination of descriptive historical materials on programs, institutions and individual careers grew the theoretical assumption that the wide variation in adult education practices might cluster into a small number of types of practice. These types would have distinctive combinations of vari ables from six categories of observable dimensions of practice: educational goal, content, methodology, evaluation., clienteles, and delivery locations. Educa tional goals were taken as the critical variable in what is essentially a norma tive practice. The full variety of goals pursued in the field of adult education was sought out in the literature of social functions. Over a forty year period this literature reiterated several themes but lacked complete consensus on them, and lacked precise criteria for classifying practices as serving one goal rather than another. The methodology of constructed types was applied to the rough uniformities displayed by sets of social function statements. Four constructed  types were defined on the basis of an internally consistent system of goal, 16o domain, and function. The goals were defined on the basis of developmental directions each containing implicit values, and it is these values which have the force to unify all other aspects of practice. The function fulfilled by a form of practice develops some positive human capacity which is treated in this study as a developmental domain. The types once constructed provided a conceptual structure against which an attribute space of five aspects of practice could be arrayed. It was first necessary to simplify the attribute space by finding only those variables in each category which are discriminators among the classifications. The resulting sets of variables which align in each classification were displayed in a taxonomic framework of terms. The framework could be used to analyze any ac tual case and provide a detailed "profile" of its characteristics. Comparing the profiles of cases would reveal the similarities and dissimilarities between them. The matrix also includes a set of variables which virtually pervade all educational practices and these are taken to be the core characteristics. Dia grammatic display of these findings specifies structural relationships among the six dimensions of practice, the core of common characteristics, and the four major types of practice, and thus constitutes a formal model of the professional field of practice of adult education. Conclusions-. Ifour conclusions may be drawn from this study: a) Applying the social science research methodology of constructive typology to the literature on social functions of adult education produces four constructed types of adult education according to goal, domain, and function. b) These constructed types may be used as a conceptual structure in the 161 manner proposed by Kaplan to cull categories of observational terms for I clusters which are internally consistent. Where the domain of inquiry is too complex for a simple, rigid definition this procedure will offer an "articulation of meaning". In this case the domain of inquiry was adult education practices in North America in the last hundred years; what was articulated was a framework of terms which assembled observa tions into four distinct configurations. The framework may be used to produce a detailed taxonomic description of cases and in combination with appropriate hypotheses be used for time-series comparisons. c) According to the criteria offered by Kaplan the various diagramatic illustrations which display the constituent domains of data, are in fact 'a formal model specifying structural relations among the elements of the domain. d) A contemporary typology of practices in the field has not been produced. This would require preparing profiles of each case, comparing them for similarities and dissimilarities and on the basis of an analysis of variance to produce a typology of the contemporary field much closer to concrete reality than the set of unified constructed types. Regarding the four constructed types of practice The types were constructed around the leading characteristics of goal, domain.of learning, and function. The goals were: to develop technical abili ties; to improve interpersonal relations; to intensify self-actualization; and to enable active participation in political and economic decision-making. The domains of learning were matched to these distinctive goals at a more concrete level than the traditional set of highly abstracted domains: cognitive, affec tive and psychomotor. The domains of learning used in this study are more concrete than the traditional three in that these developmental directions 162 are defined to more closely resemble observable educational practices. The psychomotor and cognitive domains were both felt to be amenable to the type of practice which develops technical abilities; the affective domain was split into those emotional experiences through which the learner is enabled to im prove interpersonal relations, and into those aesthetic and philosophic exper iences through which the learner enlivens his own search for fulfilment, and intensifies his own coming-into-being, or self-actualization; and finally a domain of learning activity was identified which subsumes cognitive, inter personal, and philosophic elements into an effort to create appropriate human communities through premedi'bated action, and this domain was called social experiment. .The functions fulfilled in each domain respectively were: building competencies from an entry level to a target level; developing attitudes and behaviours that lead to mutually satisfying interactions; evolving value pre ferences; and forming a realistic awareness of society. Thus goals, domains and educative functions are seen to be virtually inseparable elements of the compound phenomenon of learning, where a particular developmental function takes place within some domain toward a culminating goal. None of the four constructed types of education will subsume or, reduce into the terms of another. They provide the smallest number of basic types which individually or in combination explain all variations of adult edu cation practice in North America. They act somewhat like prime colours which together account for all idiosyncratic variations. Regarding the taxonomic framework By using the goal aspect of practice as the leading aspect, it was possible to find some variables in each of the other five dimensions of practice which were "discriminators",(e.g.:obstacles to learning, or structuring principles) that is to say: in order to be consistent'with each goal these variables would 163 have to take noticeably different forms. Other variables (e.g.many teaching techniques, or the program planning elements) were to be found to take virtually the same form across the four classifications. By this procedure of culling categories of observational terms for clusters which are internally consistent it is possible to bring all six selected aspects of educational practice into a single framework. This framework reveals four distinct configurations and a fifth collection of variables which can be pervasive and therfore are taken to be the essential and definitive characteristics of this professional field of practice. The framework has been constructed to accomodate the complete range of observations which may be found.within the cultural and historical limits set for the study. The taxonomic framework stands as an alternative to all uni-dimensional scales for explaining the diversity of practices to be found. A uni-dimensional scale is any continuum whether personal (like remedial-maintenance-expansive) or social (like reactionary-maintenance-revisionist-revolutionary). The advantages of the taxonomic framework approach to research over the ambiguities of a uni-dimensional scale are many. In the first place this conceptual scheme allows the researcher to look at the field in its totality through four alternative value-biased windows instead of one. Secondly, it treats these value perspectives as distinct and complementary rather than competitive approximations of each other. Thirdly, the framework approach endeavors to be comprehensive of all cases, where a uni-dimensional scheme discards as irrelevant any cases not embodying its values. One of the most problematic uni-dimensional approaches is to be found in scales which try to array all educational practices on a political continuum from reactionary to revolutionary. North American adult education must acknow ledge the crucial role of social activist education — this principle is not at issue. What is radically questioned by this study is the effectiveness of 164 trying to explain the complexities of educational practices with any uni-dimensional scale. It would seem to he a major logical error to say that be cause every act can be measured as more or less politically revolutionary it is therefore best measured and valued in terms of its political valence. If the purpose of an examination of the field is to promote social scientific under standing rather than some ideology, then it is dysfunctional to say to the automechanics instructor and the curator of Renaissance musical instruments: "Your cases are irrelevant to real education because all education is political*. Those educators who value highly spiritual transcendence would rank obsess ively political education as low a priority as culturally-adaptive worker training because both are largely devoid of transcendence. Similarly, the tech nical educator has been known to scorn all "soft" contents whether psychological, cultural, or political as less than "real education". The multi-valent nature of the field cannot be captured in a description which scales as more or less present only one of the fundamental values at work. , Regarding the model of adult education practice The model presented is a conceptual abstraction not a survey or represen tation of the actual field today. It shows a core to the five dimensions of practice that unifies the field but does not itself have an independent exists ence. It also shows four distinct and complementary branches. The core char acteristics penetrate the four variations and bind them into a single field of practice. The model thus provides a view of general and specific assumptions which do not yet constitute hypotheses. For example the symmetry of the branches is not a claim about either the relative incidence, or the relative importance of cases from the field which resemble each constructed type of practice. Similarly, the core -characteristics which penetrate the four branches of practice can only be alluded to viaDiags. 1 and 2, and^suggested in 3,4,and,6. 165 Abraham Kaplan provides some basis for thinking that the set of diagrams in chapter IV constitute a MODEL of the domain. He says "System A is a model of system B if the study of A is useful for the understanding of B, without regard to any causal connection between A and B" (1964:263). Furthermore a model must successfully represent the arrangement of elements, in his words: "The model is conceived as a structure of symbols....Relations among the symbols are presumed to exhibit corresponding relations.among the elements of the subject-matter" (op. cit.:264). There are clearly theoretical assumptions informing the model but "not all theories are in fact models: we learn something about the subject-matter from, the theory but not by investigating properties of the theory" (ibid). "The theory states that the subject matter has a certain structure, but the theory does not therefore necessarily exhibit that structure in itself. All theories make abstractions, in the sense of treating as irrelevant some proper ties of their subject-matter. But not all of them abstract to the point of treating as relevant only the structural properties" (op. cit.:265). The formal model is designed at a level of such extreme generality that a variety of matters may be so structured as to exhibit the identical form. Thus the transmission of ideas may reveal the same pattern as the spread of an epidemic (op. cit.:264). The model of practice presented here illustrates the potential for high degrees of differentiation into four major types. It also illustrates the manner in which the different types of practice partake of common character istics. It facilitates the consideration of questions within a sector at a time • of the total complexity of educational practices. 166 Applications for the practitioner In chapter one it was claimed that a taxonomic framework for the whole professional field of practice would be useful for practitioners when they en gage in tasks that address the field as a whole rather than tasks focused with in their own particular situation. One of the most obvious of those tasks is graduate study, pre-service or in-service. Narrow, specialized programs are not desirable because graduate study affords the most favorable opportunity in a career to lift one's sights as a practitioner from the particular situations within which one is working in order to view the rest of the field. Further more it is not practical in a volatile, growing profession to train so narrowly that one cannot adapt to a wide variety of job descriptions. Without systematic analysis of the goals and attributes of practices across the field, an orderly familiarization process is not possible, so that graduate students may be heard to complain of "chaos" in the literature. With a framework of types the graduate student can consider in an orderly way what various professional roles would require when adapted to educational goals of a particular type. To some degree this facilitates the practitioner as graduate student in making an appropriate transfer back into practice. Furthermore practitioners can consider building towards professional mobility either by acquiring several competencies within one branch of practice, or by developing one competency, such as evaluation or inform ation management across all branches of practice. A second task which requires the practitioner to relate to the field as a whole is the utilization of basic research or reports of innovations in practice. To the degree that information dissemination includes an adequate description of the context in which the basic or applied research took place, and to the extent page 167 does not exist 168 that the practitioner because of an adequate framework can place that original context in some perspective, to that extent he can judge how well these insights and innovations will transfer into the context in which he works. A third macroscopic task of the practitioner is the forming of professional associations. There are already numerous associations with micro-contextual bases according to media (eg. broadcasging), or subject matter (eg. nutrition), or institution (eg. penal system). The taxonomic framework will not provide the basis for yet another set of fragmentary associations. The four types of practice are internally consistent abstractions; human beings are not. So practitioners would not be expected to classify themselves as exclusively be longing to one type of practice or another. Instead the taxonomy can be used for -seeing in perspective value preferences other than their own, and appreciating the essential complementarity of four different types of practice. Exploration of the principle of complementarity can contribute to mutual respect among practitioners of divergent styles, and lead to an increasing esprit de corps throughout the field. , A fourth and final profession-wide task of the practitioner to be considered here is that of policy formation at the national, regional, provincial and district levels. Using the taxonomic framework to analyze proposals would make it possible to clarify the nature of services within and among sponsors towards the end of alleviating duplication or competition. It would reveal oversights in the types of education offered and make it possible to system atically examine the potential educational outcomes of financing proposed programs. It is also possible for the practitioner to make use of the taxonomic frame work to clarify his own educational values and to co-ordinate all aspects of his practice so that they reinforce rather than detract from each other. For the practitioner it is essential to apply the principle that teaching is 169 directed toward type-outcomes not subject-matter as such. In the terminology of the taxonomic framework, content does not unify practice, values inherent in goals (the intended outcomes) unify practice. Clearly, any implicit, un specified conflict in teacher-learner goal intentions will naturally lead to some degree of conflict and dissatisfaction with the learning process. One cannot be sure with an art history program for example that the learners and teachers will enter with corresponding or even compatible intentions despite the fact that the content is clear. A program which describes the Byzantine style and encourages learners to adopt externally supplied criteria for judging the quality of a work is offering the learner knowledge acquisition and skill development. But a program which enables learners to discover "BLUE" through Moslem mosaic blues, classical Chinese blues, and Picasso's blue period is offering expansion of the capacity to enjoy — Richard McKenna called "new eyes for old" (1963)• The methods appropriate to each type of outcome cannot be guaranteed to satisfy learners seeking the other type of outcome. Even the seemingly most rigid content area can be turned to several very dif ferent goals and type-outcomes. Languages for example may lead to marketable vocational skills; but just a few words may help lower the barriers in an ethnically divided community; and in another, instance a few exquisite words from another language may enrich the learner's self-actualization; if the language is a native one in danger of extinction, its study may be intimately tied to the goals of social activist education. Applications for the disciplinarian In chapter one it was claimed that a taxonomic framework would offer power ful advantages to the researcher over the many partial schema which have pre viously analyzed single aspects of practice in isolation from each other. One major advantage would be the opportunity to consolidate what is already 170 known about the past and present of this field of practice. The constructed types of practice are conceptual abstractions only; those programs and in stitutions operating in the field today which are approximations of each type constitute "branches" of practice in the field. Historical cases which are approximations of each constructed type constitute "traditions" of practice. It has already been pointed out that the taxonomic framework accomodates all cases evidenced in the field of practice whereas a uni-dimensional analysis discounts some proportion of cases and so gives only a partial picture. Uni-dimensional schemes are also by nature judgmental according to the degree of some value .displayed, whereas the taxonomic framework is descriptive asking only which value is displayed. The taxonomic framework also profiles cases in detail whereas uni-dimensional schemes offer only "basket categories" where a case is either in or out. Use of the taxonomic framework to classify variables as specific to a branch of practice or pervasive of the field, en ables appropriate conclusions to be drawn about the significance of those variables to the field. Consolidating what is known by systematic re-examination using the frame work may lead researchers to resolve certain dichotomies which have existed in adult education. For example the issue of whether adult educational con tent should be instrumental or expressive may be revealed as a false dichotomy when operationalized in terms of the framework's four goals. There technical and social activist outcomes may prove to be instrumental and self-actualizing and interpersonal outcomes expressive. The issue of whether adult learning should be adaptive (i.e.: helping people respond to life changes) or whether it should be creative (i.e.: initiating changes) may also cease to be a dichot omy and be absorbed into the four basic goals. This would occur if "adaptive learning" proves to be constituted by developmental tasks that require new knowledge and skills, and social role adjustments which can be met with new 171 interpersonal attitudes and behaviours; and if "creative" proves to be con stituted by personal initiatives towards self-actualization and group initia tives toward responsible social decision-making. A third dichotomy which might successfully be resolved into complementary elements is the question of whether the professional agenda should be to serve society or serve the individual. Both society and individuals may be served through the training of persons in technical skills; and both society and individuals are served through an exploration of values and ideals related to human community. But the fallacy of an educational role which modifies personal attitudes towards some values chosen by society (or social planners) is revealed by reference to the core characteristics. This is where the distinctions are drawn between "educative" practice and all other forms of social practice be they therapy, religion, health services, recreation, or propaganda. Successful propaganda for example engenders compliance and an uncritical perception; successful education engen ders engagement and critical perception. Consolidating what is known by systematic re-examination using the frame work may also lead researchers to articulate the mixed messages contained in certain ambiguous phrases we currently use to describe the goals of adult edu cation. For example, does Hallenbeck's "mature personality" refer to highly developed interpersonal capabilities, or to a highly integrated personality "characterized" as Krathwol, Bloom and Masia would say by a predominant value set, a beautifully "actualized" self? Although these are complementary goals they are reached by different means. Another example of the ambiguous goal-phrase is John Lowe's "nation building" (l975)« Does this mean developing the technical expertise to deal with national contingencies? or raising critical consciousness to claim a participant's role ^or reaching into the cultural values of traditionally competing factions to weave a new national ethos? 1?2 Again the educational implications are divergent. When does Mezirow's "perspec tive transformation" mean emotional trauma and recovery, when discovery of a value transcending those previously held, and when political conscientization? Using the taxonomic framework to articulate one's meaning enables the researcher to disentangle such ambiguities. While consolidation of findings is a major advantage in itself it also opens the way to uncovering empirical anomalies — that is cases which are at odds with conventional wisdom or'what is held to be theory concerning the field. This is more likely to occur during consolidation of findings because of the close scrutiny given to cases which are identified as similar. Empirical anom alies, cases which do not fit accepted explanations are a key to new lines of research. The framework can also be applied by researchers to the conceptualization of tests of theory because it sets out four essentially different forms of practice which, provide unique contexts in which to establish theories of learning, educa tional design, participation and so on. Finally the taxonomic framework, as a middle-range device is capable of stimulating more and better theorizing since constructed types are theory-oriented abstractions while its sets of descrip tive terms are observation-oriented and quite amenable to operationalization. It is neither so bound to the concrete as to obstruct the process of comparison nor so abstracted toward the level of general theory as for example Webster Cotton's (1968) conjecture about a succession of values seems to be that It defies substantiation. These various advantages of the taxonomic framework approach to research amply fulfil the expectations of authors like Welsh who emphasize that social science requires information to be "effectively organized and viewed through meaningful frameworks for analysis" (1974$22). "The taxonomic framework and model together make explicit so many relationships among the elements of practice 173 that whole series of empirical, historical and experimental research could be planned from them. This sort of research strategy is known to have a cumulative effect exceeding a simple addition of individual efforts which may in fact produce no new insights. Some scientists are convinced that individual sorties across the research frontiers produce additions to the body of knowledge so rarely that they urge researchers to make their intellectual investment into integrated series of research activities, or as it is usually termed, programme research. Accordingly, the model of practice and the detailed taxonomic frame work developed in this thesis have addressed the problem of providing a context in which to consolidate isolated lines of research, and to capitalize on prac titioner insights. This theoretical context makes it possible to systematize the body of knowledge which currently exists, and to resolve, the four methodol ogical problems identified in chapter I: to integrate dimensions of practice; to make explicit the influence of value; to compare empirical cases; and to assess the meaning of various historical shifts in practice. Implications for further research The model and taxonomic framework together* make explicit a great many relationships which could serve as points of departure for programme research. The model deals in abstract structural relationships and the framework in more substantive details, so implications of the model will be examined first. Where as the model as a whole portrays the domain of adult education practices, each of the six figures focuses on some conceptual portion of the domain. Each of these has some criterion for inclusion of variables in it, and this criterion offers a clue to the sorts of research questions which develop concerning that portion of the domain. 174 \ \ II i.., J > - 4-\ \ \ \ Diag. 1 : One dimension of practice at the core of adult education Diag .2 : Six dimensions of practice at the core of adult education The selection question for Diag. 1 is, What makes this set of variables cen tral to all variations of practice? So research questions could be set such as the following concerning purpose: What basic values and common goals unite all practitioners? Concerning content: What qualifies any content as educative? Concerning clienteles: What personal, demographic, and ecolo gical characteristics influence adults as learners in all branches of practice? Concerning locations: What should all educative locations offer the client in physical plant, social climate, and institutional character? Diag.2 contains the core, definitive set of qualities which define the pro fession both because they unify its variations, and because they set it apart from other forms of social prac tice. From these variables one could seek answers to such questions as: What makes it education? What makes it specific to adults? What binding ethos and ethic does it have to compare to those of medicine and law? What 175 Diag. 4 i One dimension of practice as it varies across the field adjustments in social-economic-cultural policy does the core ethos imply? Diag.3 shows a dimension of practice as it would be treated in one special branch of practice. The criterion question which sets it apart from Fig. 5 is: What common elements are drawn upon that binds this to the profession of adult education•? When all four treatments of a dimension are shown at once as in Diag.4 the cri terion question about the dimension becomes: What causes the divergence of this dimension into four variables? For example, concerning content: What is it about the learning activity domains of the other three types of practice that sets them apart from the strictly cogni tive contents of technical education? Concerning methodology: How do learning theories, learning projects, or the help-seeking process for example, vary throughout the four types of practice? 176 Diag' 5 : One dimension of a branch of practice showing unique variables only Diag . 6 s All six dimensions of a branch of practice including their core and unique variables Diag.5 shows a dimension of practice within one special branch of practice, but the criterion question here is: What exclusive, unique variables are in evidence? For example, what special adaptations are there to the educative location? What special qualities characterize these learners? What special methods apply only here? What special principles and instruments of evaluation are appropriate?. Diag. 6 is' possibly the most significant one for professional development programs since it presents the full configuration of characteristics of one basic type of practice. Each of these four con figurations signifies a distinctive variation of practice within the field. The guiding question is: What are the distinctive ethos, ethic, and policy implications of this type of practice within the spectrum of the profession as a whole? 177 The taxonomic framework can be used to conduct more empirically oriented research than the model. Content analysis can be carried out at the program or institution level to "profile" the type of practice and its idiosyncracies which is being carried out there. Profiles of a sample population can then be compared to test hypotheses about the field. For example, the observation that over time new forms are created and older forms abandoned mentioned in chapter one could lead to a search for significant similarities among several institu tions created at the same time; or, significant similarities among several insti tutions fading at the same time; or, marking the beginning and end of an era of practice according to the rise or decline of particular variables in practice. Profile comparisons could also lead to a rationale for grouping contemporary institutions into a typology for the practitioner's purposes, not the administra tor's. By comparison of profiles it would be possible to test the hypotheses that the purpose or goal aspect holds those significant values (as independent vari ables) which draw other aspects of education into consistent configurations. If substantiated, this principle re-emphasizes ends not means, so that excessive attention to media and methodology can be replaced by a serious reconsideration of what outcomes are desirable. Programme research using the taxonomic matrix could be used for comparative studies beyond North America. For example, one could use it to ask: Does a comparative study with Europe show a greater emphasis on technical skills and vocational preparation to correct for errors in the more stringent selection process applied to children there? If adult basic education in North America is found to be essentially a combination of technical and interpersonal relations does this suggest that it is adaptive to the industrial nature of society? 178 Does Adult Basic Education in developing countries join technical skills and social activism, or technical skills and values clarification for a new national ethos? Do comparative studies eliminate some North American types of practice altogether, or call for some completely new ones to "be created? Developing tools like the taxonomic matrix to depict our own range of practices is at least a step in the direction of consolidating and coordinating research efforts at home and abroad. 179 Appendix A: Clientele Characteristics By Age ADULT LIFE CYCLE TASKS/ADUL T CONTINUING EDUCATION PROGRAM RESPONSE Developmental Stages Tasks Program Response Outcomes Sought Leaving Home 18-22 1. Break psychological ties. 2. Choose careers. 3. Enter work. 4. Handle peer relationships. 5. Manage home. 6. Manage time. 7. Adjust to life on own. B. Problem solve. 9. Manage stress accompanying change. 1. Personal development, assertive training workshops. 2. Career workshops, values clarification, occupational information. 3. Education/career preparation. 4. Human relations groups. 5. Consumer education/homemaking skills. 6. Time/leisure use workshop. 7. Living alone; successful singles workshops. 8. Creative problem solving workshops. 9. Stress management, biofeedback, relaxation, TM workshops. 1. Strengthened autonomy. 2. Appropriate career decisions. 3. Successful education/career entry. 4. Effective social interaction. 5. Informed consumer, healthy homelife. 6. Wise use of time. 7. Fulfilled single state, autonomy. 8. Successful problem solving. 9. Successfulstress management, personal growth. Becoming Adult 23-28 1. Select mate. 2. Settle in work, begin career ladder. 3. Parent. 4. Become involved in community. 5. Consume wisely. 6. Homeown. 7. Socially interact. 8. Achieve autonomy. 9. Problem solve. 10. Manage stress accompanying change. 1. Marriage workshops. 2. Management, advancement training. 3. Parenting workshops. 4. Civic educationjvolunteer training. 5. Consumer education, financial - management training. 6. Homeowning, maintenance workshops. 7. Human relations groups, TA. 8. Living alone, divorce workshops. 9. Creative problem solving workshops. 10. Stress management, biofeedback, relaxation, TM workshops. 1. Successful marriage. 2. Career satisfaction and advancement. 3. Effective parents; healthy offspring. 4. Informed, participating citizen. 5. Sound consumer behavior. 6. Satisfying home environment. 7. Social skills. 8. Fulfilled single state, autonomy. 9. Successful problem solving. 10. Successful stress management, personal growth. Catch-30 29-34 1. Search for personal values. 2. Reappraise relationships. 3. Progress in career. 4. Accept growing children. ' 5. Put down roots, achieve "permanent" home. 6. Problem solve. 7. Manage stress accompanying change. 1. Values clarification. 2. Marriage counseling and communication workshops; human relations groups; creative divorce workshops. 3. Career advancement training, job redesign workshops. 4. Parent-child relationship workshops. 5. Consumer education. 6. Creative problem solving workshops. 7. Stress management, biofeedback, relaxation, TM workshops. 1. Examined and owned values. 2. Authentic personal relationships. 3. Career satisfaction, economic reward, a sense of competence and achievement. 4. Growth producing parent-child relationship. 5. Sound consumer behavior. 6. Successful problem solving. 7. Successful streu management, personal growth. 180 Appendix A: Clientele Characteristics By Age concluded Midlife Reexamination 35-43 1. Search for meaning. 2. Reassess marriage. 3. Reexamine work. 4. Relate to teenage children. 5. 'Relate to aging parents. 6. Reassess personal priorities and values. 7. Adjust to single life, 8. Problem solve. 9. Manage stress accompanying change. 1. Search for meaning workshops. 2. Marriage workshops. 3. Mid-career workshops. 4. Parenting: focus on raising teen-age *luldren. *• 'ltinf t0 ,8in8 parents workshops. 6. Value clarification; goalsetting workshops. 7. Living alone, divorce workshops. 8. Creative problem solving workshops. 9. Stress management, biofeedback, relaxation', TM workshops. 1. Coping with existential anxiety. 2. Satisfying marriages. 3. Appropriate career decisions. 4. Improved parent-child relation^. 5. ImprovetTchiJa'-parent relations. 6. Autonomous behavior. 7. Fulfilled single state. 8. Successful problem solving. 9. Successful stress management, personal growth. Restabilization 44-55 1. Adjust to realities of work. 2. Launch children. 3. Adjust to empty nest. 4. Become more deeply Invohred In social We-5. Participate actively In community concerns. 6. Handle increased demands of older parents. 7. Manage leisure time. 8. Manage budget to support college-age children ana ailing parents. 9. Adjust to single state. 10. Problem solve. 11. Manage stress accompanying change. 1. Personal, vocational counseling, career workshops. 2. Parenting education. 3. Marriage, personal counseling workshops. 4. Human relations groups. 5. Civic and social issues education. 6. Gerontology workshops. 7. Leisure use workshops. 8. Financial management workshops. 9. 'Workshops on loneliness and aloneness. 10. Creative problem solving workshops. 11. Stress management, biofeedback, relaxation, TM workshops. 1. Job adjustment. 2. Civil letting go parental authority. 3. Exploring new sources of satisfaction. 4. Effective social relations. 5. Effective citirenship. 6. Better personal and soda! adjustment of elderly. 7. Creative use of leisure. 8. Sound consumer behavior. 9. Fulfilled single state. 10. Successful problem solving. 11. Successful stress management, personal growth. Preparation for Retirement 56-64 1. Adjust to health problems. 2. Deepen personal relations. - 3. Prepare lor retirement. 4. Expand avocational intelests. 5. Finance new leisure. 6. Adjust to loss of mate. 7. Problem solving. 8. Manage stress accompanying change. 1. Programs about nutrition, health. 2. Human relations groups. 3. Preretirement workshops. 4. Art, writing, music courses In performing and appreciation;sponsored educational travel. 5. Money management training. 6. Workshops on aloneness and loneliness, death ana dying. 7. Creative problem solving workshops. 8. Stress management, biofeedback, relaxation, TM workshops. 1. Healthier individuals. 2. Effective social skills. 3. Wise retirement planning. 4. Satisfaction of aesthetic urge; broadening of knowledge; enjoyment of travel. 5. Sound consumer behavior. 6. Adjustment to loss, fulfilled single state. 7. Successful problem solving. 8. Successful stress management, personal growth. Retirement 65+ 1. Disengage from paid work. 2. Reassess finances. 3. De concerned with personal health care. 4. Search for new achievement outlets. 5. Manage leisure time. 6. Adjust to more constant marriage companion. 7. Search for meaning. 8. Adjust to single state. 9. Be reconciled to death. 10. Problem solve. 11. Manage stress accompanying change. 1. 4, 5, 6. Workshops on retirement, volunteering, aging; conferences on public issues affecting aged. 2. Financial management training. 3. Health care programs. 7. Religious exploration. 8. Workshops on aloneness and loneliness. 9. Death and dying workshops. 10. Creative problem solving workshops. 11. Stress management, biofeedback, .relaxation, TM workshops. li 4, 5, 6. Creative, active retirement; successful coping with life disengagement; public policies responsive to needs of aged. 2. Freedom from financial fears. 3. Appropriate health care. 7. Help in search for life's meaning, values of past life. , 8. Fulfilled single state. 9. Philosophic acceptance of death, help in caring for dying and handling of grief. 10. Successful problem solving. 11. Successful stress management, personal growth. Rogers McCoy, Director, Adult Life Resource Center, Division of Continuing Ed 181 Appendix B: Technical Education Five Major Categories of Human Capabilities, Representing the Outcomes of Learning with Examples of Each Learning Outcome Example of Human Performance Made Possible by the Capability Verbal Information Stating the provisions of the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution Intellectual Skill Showing how to do the following: Discrimination Distinguishing printed b's from d's Concrete Concept Identifying the spatial relation "be low" Defined Concept Classifying a "city" by using a defini tion Rule Demonstrating that water changes state at 100° C. Higher-Order Rule Generating a rule for predicting rain fall, given conditions of location and terrain Cognitive Strategy Originating a novel plan for disposing of fallen leaves Attitude Choosing swimming as a preferred exercise Motor Skill Executing the performance of planing the edge of a board • (Gagne, 1974: 68) Four Different Levels of the Problem of Instructional Sequence Unit Example ' Sequence Question Level 1 Course or Course Sequence Essay Composition How shall the topics of "achieving unity," "paragraph arrangement," "writing the paragraph," "summarizing," etc., be ar Level 2 Topic Writing the Paragraph ranged in sequence? How shall the sub-topics of "topic sen tence," "arranging ideas for emphasis," Level 3 -Level 4 Lesson Lesson Component Composing a topic sentence Constructing a complex sentence "expressing a single idea," etc., be ar ranged in sequence? How shall the subordinate skills in com posing a topic sentence be presented for learning in sequence? How shall the communications and other events in the learner's environment be arranged in a sequence resulting in learn-ing of the desired single capability? (Gagne & Briggs, 1977:100) INTERACTION PROCESS ANALYSIS BALES, INTERACTION PROCESS ANALYSIS, 1950 GROUP. DATE. BEHAVIOR KEY SHOWS SOLID ARIT Y RAISES OTHERS STATUS, GIVES HELP, REWARD ADVISOR . MEMBERS SHOWS TENSION RELEASF JOKES LAUGHS, SHOWS SATISFACTION. AGREES, SHOWS PASSIVE ACCEPTANCE UNDERSTANDS. CONCURS, COMPLIES. ' GIVES SUGGESTION. DIRECTION IMPLY* ING AUTONOMY FOR OTHERS. GIVES OPINION. EVALUATION, ANALY-SIS, EX PRESS FEE LINGS, WISH. GIVES ORIENTATION INFORMATION REPEATS. CLARIFIES, CONFIRMS. ASKS FOR ORIENTATION, INFORMATION REPETITION, CONFIRMATION. ASKS FOR OPINION, EVAI lllTins ANALYSIS, EXPRESSION OF FEELING. ASKS FOR SUGGESTIONS. DIRECTION POSSIBLE WAYS OF ACTION. 10.. DISAGREEJ, SHOWS PASSIVE REJECTION FORMALITY, WITHOLDS HELP. I I. SHOWS TENSION, A-.*.. F«-,p HFI r WITH. DRAWS OUT OF FIELD. "2. SHOWS ANTAGONISM, DEFLATES OTHERS STATUS, DEFE NDS OR ASSERTS SELF. PROBLEMS OF ORIENTATION PROBLEMS OF EVALUATION TOTALS C. PROBLEMS OF CONTROL" D. PROBLEMS OF DECISION TOTALS E. PROBLEMS OF TENSION MANAGEMENT F. PROBLEMS OF INTEGRATION . 183 Appendix C: Interpersonal Education cont'd SURVEY OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT For each area, place an X In the box which most nearly describes the group. 1. UNITY (Degree of unity, cohesion or 1lwe-ness") •Group is just a colleciton of individuals or sub-groups; little group feeling. •Some group feeling. Unity stems more from external factors than from real friendship. • Group is very close and there is little room or felt need for other, contacts and experience. • Strong common purpose and spirit based on real friendships. Group usually sticks together. 2. SELF-DIRECTION (The group's own motive power) | |Little drive from anywhere, either from members or advisors. | |Group has some self-propulsion but needs considerable push from advisor. | [Domination from a strong single member, a clique, or the advisor. I I Initiation, planning, executing, and evaluating comes from total group. 3. GROUP CLIMATE (The extent to which members feel free to be themselves) •Climate inhibits good fun, behaviour and expression of desire, fears and opinions. j J Members express themselves but without observing interests of total group. • Members freely express needs and desires; joke, tease and argue to the detriment of the group. •Members feel free to express themselves but limit expression to total group welfare. 4. DISTRIBUTION OF LEADERSHIP (Extent to which leadership roles are distributed among members) J |A few members always take leader roles. Rest are passive. | | Some of the members take leader roles but many remain passive followers. f*~|Many members take leadership but one or two are continually followers. | |Leadership is shared by all members of the group. 5. DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONSIBILITY (Extent to which responsibility is shared among members) | [Everyone tries to get out of jobs. | ] Responsibility carried by a few members. | |Many members accept responsibilities, but do not carry them out. • Responsibilities are distributed among and carried out by nearly all members. (Dimock, 1971, Book 'II.: 24,25) 184 Appendix C: Interpersonal Education concluded 6. PROBLEM SOLVING (Group's ability to think straight, make use of everyone's ideas and decide creatively about its problems) •Not much thinking as a group. Decisions made hastily, or group lets member-leader or advosor do most of the thinking. •Some cooperative thinking but group gets tangled up in pet ideas or prejudices of a few. Confused movement toward good solutions. . | j Some thinking as a group but not yet an orderly process. •Good pooling of ideas and orderly thought. Everyone's ideas are used to reach final plan. 7. METHOD OF RESOLVING DISAGREEMENTS WITHIN GROUP • Group follows lead of member-leader or waits for advisor to resolve disagreements. [ [strongest sub-group dominates through a vote and majority rule. 1 |Compromises are effected by each sub-group giving up something. •Group as a whole arrives at a solution that satisfies all members and that is better than any single suggestion. 8. MEETS BASIC NEEDS (Extent to which group gives a sense of security, achieve ment, approval, recognition and belonging) | |Group experience adds little to the meeting of most member's needs. •Group experience contributes to some degree to basic needs of most members. | [Group experience contributes substantially to basic needs of most members. [ [Group contributes substantially to basic needs of all members. 9. VARIETY OF ACTIVITIES | [Little variety in activities - sticks to same things. [ |Some variety in activities. [ [considerable variety in activities. Tries out new activities. | [Great variety in activities. Continually trying out new ones. 10. DEPTH OF ACTIVITIES (Extent to which activities are gone into in such a way that members can use full potentialities, skills, creativity) 1 |Little depth in activities - just scratching the surface. | |Some depth but members are not increasing their skills. • Considerable depth in activities. Members able to utilize some of their ability. •Great depth in activities. Members find each a challenge to develop their abilities. (Dimock, 1971, Book II: 25,26) 185 REFERENCES Adams, Frank. "Unearthing Seeds of Fire: The Idea of Highlander" Winston-Salem, J.F. Blair Pub., 1975. Allport, Gordon W. "Becoming" New Haven Conn.: Yale University Press, 1955-Anderson, Darrel V. and Nieml, John. 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