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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Self-directed retirement learning by female teachers Curry, Avita Marie 1981

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SELF-DIRECTED RETIREMENT LEARNING BY FEMALE TEACHERS by AVITA MARIE CURRY .A., The University of Notre Dame, Indiana, 19 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Adult Education Division Department of Administrative, Adult and Higher Education We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1981 @ Avita Marie Curry, 1981 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It i s understood that copying or pu b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Adm-ir,-! g * r . a * - j _ f t > A d u l t a n d Highm- Education The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 D a t e Auaust 31, 1981 DE-6 ( 2 / 7 9 ) i i ABSTRACT The s i t u a t i o n o f p e o p l e i n t h e i r r e t i r e m e n t y e a r s i s becoming an i s s u e of b r o a d s o c i a l c o n c e r n . I f r e t i r e m e n t i s t o be w o r t h l o o k i n g f o r w a r d t o and w o r t h h a v i n g , i t must be p l a n n e d . A d u l t s may become t h e i r own t e a c h e r s i n r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g o r t u r n o v e r t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o a n o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l , g r o u p , o r m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e . The a p p r o a c h t a k e n by Tough (1971) and o t h e r s i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e b e h a v i o r o f p e o p l e who d e s i g n t h e i r own l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e taxonomic a p p r o a c h common t o t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e i n f e r r e d from t h e way t e a c h e r s t e a c h . The p r e s e n t s t u d y adds t o t h e knowledge o f t h e s e l f - p l a n n e d i n q u i r y o f a d u l t s o f v a r i o u s age groups and s t a g e s i n t h e i r c a r e e r s . The p u r p o s e s of t h i s s t u d y were: 1) t o d e t e r m i n e t h e n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f t e a c h e r s ' r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s ; 2) t o compare t h e n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f t h e p r o j e c t s u n d e r t a k e n by p r e - r e t i r e d and r e t i r e d t e a c h e r s . F o r t h i s s t u d y , two groups o f f e m a l e t e a c h e r s were s e l e c t e d from t h e Vancouver S c h o o l D i s t r i c t i n B r i t i s h C o l u mbia. Group One c o n s i s t e d o f t e n t e a c h e r s between t h e ages o f s i x t y and s i x t y - f o u r who were a c t i v e l y engaged i n t e a c h i n g a t t h e t i m e of t h e s t u d y . Group Two c o n s i s t e d o f t e n r e t i r e d t e a c h e r s between t h e ages o f s i x t y - f i v e and s i x t y - n i n e . D a t a were c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h i n d e p t h i n t e r v i e w s u s i n g a s u r v e y i n s t r u m e n t adapted from t h o s e o r i g i n a l l y d e v e l o p e d by Tough a t t h e O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n . The a v e r a g e number of r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s c o n d u c t e d was t e n . There was no s i g n i f i c a n t a s s o c i a t i o n between t h e number of l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s u n d e r t a k e n and p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f age, m a r i t a l s t a t u s and edu-c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t . i i i Most l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s o c c u r r e d i n r e s p o n s e t o p e r c e i v e d needs i n r e t i r e m e n t . These needs i n c l u d e d : f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y , work o r s e r v i c e , s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , h e a l t h m a i n t e n a n c e , change o r improvement i n r e s i d e n c e . Over s i x t y p e r c e n t of t h e p r o j e c t s were s e l f - p l a n n e d . T e a c h e r s most f r e q u e n t l y approached p e o p l e and used p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l as t h e major r e s o u r c e s f o r t h e i r l e a r n i n g . L e a r n i n g f o r c r e d i t r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y t w e l v e p e r c e n t o f th e 200 l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s c o n d u c t e d . F o r t h e 200 l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s r e p o r t e d t h e ave r a g e number of l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s each t e a c h e r e n c o u n t e r e d was 6 . 3 5 . The t h r e e most common d i f f i c u l t i e s were: 1) f i n d i n g and a r r a n g i n g t i m e f o r l e a r n i n g ; 2) b e i n g a b l e t o r e a d a l l t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e ; 3) k e e p i n g o t h e r c o n c e r n s from i n t e r -r u p t i n g t h e l e a r n i n g . T e a c h e r s s u g g e s t e d many ways i n w h i c h t h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n and s o c i e t y c o u l d be changed t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r l e a r n i n g e f f o r t s . The i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r th e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n and s o c i e t y s h o u l d be pu r s u e d r e l a t i v e t o t h e needs, r e s o u r c e s and l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s t h e s e p r o f e s s i o n a l s e x p e r i e n c e d i n s e l f -d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g p e r t a i n i n g t o r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g . iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I INTRODUCTION 1 Problem Statement 2 Purpose of the Study 3 Research Questions 4 Definitions and Limitation 5 Plan of the Study 8 : II REVIEW OF LITERATURE 1 0 The Demographic Structure of the 65+ Population . . 10 B.C. Teachers as a Representative Group of Professionals 12 Retirement Learning Needs 16 Pre-Retirement Learning Needs 22 Summary 24 III METHODOLOGY 26 Sample Selection . 26 Survey Instrument . . . . 28 Data Collection 29 Data Analysis 31 IV PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS 32 Characteristics of Sample 32 Extent of Retirement Learning Activity 34 Content Areas for Retirement Learning Projects. . . 35 Factors Influencing Teachers to Conduct Retirement Learning Projects . . . 39 Major Planners for Learning Projects 41 Sources of Information or Assistance 44 Learning for Credit 46 Extent of Contribution to Retirement Living . . . . 46 Amount Learned '46 Benefit of Learning for Others 48 Learning D i f f i c u l t i e s 50 Suggested Changes Within the Teaching Profession. . 52 Suggested Changes in Society 52 Learning to be Undertaken in the Next Year V SUMMARY, DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 58 Purpose and Methodology of the Study 58 Summary of Major Findings 59 Discussion 61 Conclusions 64 C h a p t e r v Page BIBLIOGRAPHY 6 6 APPENDIX A. Sample o f I n t r o d u c t o r y L e t t e r Sent t o T e a c h e r s • 73 APPENDIX B. Survey I n s t r u m e n t 7 5 APPENDIX C. V i v i a n McCoy T y p o l o g y 9 3 APPENDIX D. Case Study A b s t r a c t s 9 5 v i LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 Population Over 65 Years 10 2. Projected Population in 100's . U 3. The One Important Problem that Senior Citizens Face in Life 17 4. Percentage Distribution of Active and Retired Teachers-by Martial Status . 33 5. Percentage Distribution of Active and Retired Teachers by Post-Bachelor Degree -Education 34 6. Number of Retirement Learning Projects Conducted by Teachers 36 7. Content Areas in Which Teachers Conducted Retirement Learning Projects 38 8. Factors Influencing Teachers to Conduct Retirement Learning Projects . . . . 40 9. Major Planners for Retirement Learning Projects . . . 43 10. Major Sources of Information or Assistance Used in Retirement Learning Projects 45 11. Perceptions of Contribution to Professional Development ; 47 12. Perceptions of Learning 47 13. Perceptions of Benefit of Learning for Others . . . . 49 14. Learning D i f f i c u l t i e s as Cited by Teachers 51 15. Suggested Changes Within the Teaching Profession . . . 54 16. Suggested Changes in Society 56 17. Learning to be Undertaken in the Next Year 57 v i i LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e Page 1 Age a t R e t i r e m e n t H 2 E x p e c t e d and A c t u a l Reason f o r R e t i r e m e n t . . . . . . 13 3 Maslow's H i e r a r c h y o f Needs ^0 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author gratefully acknowledges the valuable assistance received from her committee chairman, Dr. Gary Dickinson. Special thanks are extended to Dr. James E. Thornton for his encouragement and advice as a committee member. For their co-operation and participation in providing the data for this research, I am indebted to each of the twenty unidentified participants. Appreciation i s extended to Bonnie Jean McGregor, a doctoral candidate, for suggesting the research topic and to Dr. Allen Tough for granting an interview in June, 1979, to discuss research topics. For his assistance and encouragement throughout the two years of graduate work, the author is deeply grateful to her father, Thomas W. Curry. 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Empirical findings increasingly indicate that adults often take the i n i t i a t i v e in devising major learning projects for themselves in an effort to modify their behavior in the face of changing circumstances. The timing of educational efforts parallels the actual achievement of a certain task. When the individual is ready to achieve a certain task, or society requires i t , a teachable moment has come. That there is a best time to learn about adjustment to retirement from one's job can be v e r i -fied by studying human development and finding out when conditions are most favorable for learning this task (Havighurst 1952; McCoy 1977). Other findings suggest that an adult may accidentally realize a need for new knowledge or s k i l l and then deliberately set about structuring a learning effort to meet this need. The next two decades w i l l see a large increase in the population aged 65 and over (Auerback and Gerber, 1974; Statistics Canada, 1974; Brown, 1975). Many of these people w i l l be retired. It is generally true that a time arrives when an individual has to cease, voluntarily or otherwise, from an active working l i f e . In most instances either the law, declining health, or physical disability forces retirement. In the case of teachers, compulsory retirement dictates the particular year that a teacher must retire. As the year for retirement draws near, the teacher may consider the question: "Society has spent seventeen years (on the average) educating me for my professional career; who is going to educate me out of i t ? " This i s a valid question in a work-oriented society: i t becomes even more important when retirement is legislated. If retirement 2 is to be worth looking forward to and worth having, i t must be planned. Adults may become their own teachers or turn over the responsibility of directing a learning effort to another individual, group, or material resource. Recent research indicates that a large segment of the popu-lation uses many approaches to learning other than traditional ones such as enrolling in a course or attending an educational program designed for a group (Houle 1961; Johnson and Rivera 1965; Tough 1971; Knowles 1973; Penland 1979). Self-planned learning seems to be an extensive activity. Penland found an inverse relationship between enrollment in structured courses and participation in self- i n i t i a t e d learning projects. Academic enrollment declined while participation in self-planned learning projects increased almost to the point of being able to describe America as a learning society. A considerable amount of work has already been done in the area of self-planned learning. Tough (1971) and his associates investigated the behavior of people who design and conduct their own learning projects in contrast to the taxonomic approach so common to the instructional enterprise inferred from the way teachers teach. Problem Statement The present study adds to knowledge about the self-planned inquiry of adults of various age groups and stages in their careers by focusing on learning related to retirement. Research in the area of continuing education of adult learners has been mainly concerned with adults who participate in formal instructional settings. The focus of inquiry is changing and expanding through the growing volume of research into the learning attempted by adults outside the formal situation. When the inquiry relates to a particular group of 3 a d u l t l e a r n e r s and t o an i s s u e o f b r o a d n a t i o n a l c o n c e r n , t h e a u d i e n c e base widens t o i n c l u d e n o t o n l y a d u l t e d u c a t o r s , but o t h e r groups o f p e o p l e who might be i n t e r e s t e d i n o r .have use f o r t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h . T h i s s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e s e l f - i n i t i a t e d l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s o f t e a c h e r s i n r e t i r e m e n t r e l a t e d i s s u e s . One sample o f t e n t e a c h e r s drawn from among p r e - r e t i r e d t e a c h e r s between t h e ages of s i x t y and s i x t y - f o u r was c o n t r a s t e d w i t h a second sample of r e t i r e d t e a c h e r s between t h e ages o f s i x t y - f i v e and s i x t y - n i n e . A d u l t e d u c a t o r s , s o c i a l p l a n n e r s , t e a c h e r s ' p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and p e r s o n s o r groups who s e r v e as f a c i l i t a t o r s o f l e a r n i n g have l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e s e l f - p l a n n e d l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s o f t e a c h e r s i n r e t i r e m e n t r e l a t e d i s s u e s , namely, how much t i m e i s sp e n t i n l e a r n i n g , what i s l e a r n e d , why such p r o j e c t s a r e u n d e r t a k e n , what t y p e o f r e s o u r c e s a r e u s e d , what d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e h e l p - s e e k i n g p r o c e s s , and what a s s i s t a n c e i s needed i n l e a r n i n g . The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s r e s e a r c h a r e p r o b a b l y t h e f i r s t r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s on s e l f - p l a n n e d l e a r n i n g p e r t a i n i n g t o r e t i r e m e n t . T h i s s t a t e m e n t i s s u p p o r t e d by Lynch (1979) who re p o r t e d t h a t t h e r e had been no r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n mode o f r e t i r e m e n t e d u c a t i o n . P u r p o s e o f t h e Study The p u r p o s e o f t h i s r e s e a r c h was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s p e r t a i n i n g t o r e t i r e m e n t l i v i n g u n d e r t a k e n by a sample o f p r e - r e t i r e d and r e t i r e d f e m a l e t e a c h e r s i n t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t o f Vancouver, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e pu r p o s e s o f t h e r e s e a r c h were 1. t o d e t e r m i n e t h e n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f t h e r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g engaged i n by a sample o f f e m a l e t e a c h e r s ; 4 2. to contrast the nature and extent of the projects undertaken by teachers before and during the retirement years. Research Questions The following questions were adapted from those used by Kelly (1976) who sought to determine the nature and extent of teachers' learning projects' ; the adaptations that have been made direct attention specifically to retirement education for teachers. 1. How many projects in learning for retirement were conducted by the teachers? 2. What specific knowledge and s k i l l s were the teachers attempting to learn in their projects? 3. What factors influenced a teacher's decision to begin a learning project? 4. Who or what were the major planners for the learning projects? 5. What was the major source of assistance or information used in the learning projects? 6. What was the extent of learning projects undertaken for credit? 7. How important did teachers feel each project was in contributing to their retirement living? 8. How much did teachers feel they had learned in their projects? 9. To what extent did teachers believe that their retirement learning projects provided some benefit to others? 10. What did teachers identify as d i f f i c u l t i e s they had in attempting their learning projects? 11. What changes within their profession did teachers identify as potentially useful to them in their efforts to learn about retirement? 5 12. What societal changes did teachers identify as potentially useful to them in their efforts to learn about retirement? 13. What additional learning projects would teachers like to undertake in the next year in retirement related issues? Definitions and Limitations For the purpose of this study, the following definitions apply. Self-planned Learning: Self-planned learning comprises a person's deliberate effort to learn specific knowledge or s k i l l where the learner assumes primary responsibility for planning not only the why, but also the what, how, when and where to learn. One may obtain the knowledge or s k i l l from a variety of individuals, books, and programs. That person may attend a course as part of the total learning effort, but in doing so, the learner retains control of and responsibility for deciding what resources and activities to use each time (Tough 1975; Penland 1977). Learning Project: The learning project has been defined by Tough (1971) as "a series of related episodes, adding up to at least seven hours. In each episode, more than half of the person's total motivation is to gain and retain certain f a i r l y clear knowledge and s k i l l , or to produce some other lasting change in himself." These restrictions have been initiated in order to exclude scattered and unrelated learning efforts from being classified as a learning project. A learning project must be active for at least seven hours during a consecutive six-month period, but this does not exclude the continuation of the learning project beyond this period. This definition has been used in a number of studies (Tough 1971; Armstrong 1971; McCatty 1973; Fair 1973; Penland 1977). 6 Episode: The basic unit around which the development of the learning project is constructed is an episode. Tough (1971) defined a learning episode as "a well-defined period of time that is held together by the similarity in intent, activity, or place of the thoughts and actions that occur during i t . The episode has a definite beginning and ending, and i t i s not interrupted for more than two or three minutes by some other activity or purpose." Episodes correspond to actual "chunks" of time and activity into which most adults appear to divide their working hours. The attention span may be as brief as ten minutes or last more than one hour. Three c r i t e r i a are applied in determining a learning episode. 1. The learner has in mind certain knowledge and s k i l l to be gained which is f a i r l y clear and definite. This excludes episodes of activity which lack clear learning goals, such as, unfocused reading of a magazine, non-directed browsing in a library. Non-deliberate i n c i -dental learning i s also excluded. 2. The person's intention to learn i s expected to constitute at least 51 percent of the total conscious motivation when beginning a learning episode. A relatively brief segment of time is classified as a learning episode when the learner's intention to learn is more dominant than the sum of a l l other immediate reasons for engaging in that activity. 3. Activities are not classified as learning episodes unless they are part of a larger learning effort. A learning project i s excluded when more than half of the learner's total motivation is to obtain credit towards a certificate or diploma. Pre-Retired Teacher: A pre-retired teacher in this study is a female teacher who was teaching school on a full-time basis at the time of the 7 r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and was between t h e ages o f s i x t y and s i x t y - f o u r . R e t i r e d T e a c h e r : F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y , a r e t i r e d t e a c h e r i s a female t e a c h e r who was r e t i r e d from t e a c h i n g a t t h e t i m e of t h e r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t i o n and was between t h e ages o f s i x t y - f i v e and s i x t y - n i n e . P l a n n e r : The l a b e l " p l a n n e r " was adopted by Tough (1971) t o t h e p e r s o n -or group o r t h i n g t h a t d i d more t h a n h a l f o f t h e d e t a i l e d d a y - t o - d a y p l a n n i n g i n t h e s e l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s . The p l a n n e r makes t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e d e c i s i o n s about what t o l e a r n ( t h e d e t a i l e d knowledge and s k i l l ) i n each l e a r n i n g e p i s o d e , and about how t o l e a r n ( t h e d e t a i l e d s t r a t e g y , a c t i v i t i e s , and r e s o u r c e s ) . The p l a n n e r may a l s o d e c i d e when t o b e g i n each l e a r n i n g e p i s o d e , and t h e pace a t w h i c h t o p r o c e e d . T h i s c o n c e p t of p l a n n e r i s needed i n o r d e r t o c l a s s i f y t h e s o u r c e o f t h e p l a n s and d e c i s i o n s . The concept o f p l a n n e r does n o t encompass t h e m o t i v a t i o n o r r e s o u r c e s used t o o b t a i n s u b j e c t m a t t e r . S u b j e c t M a t t e r R e s o u r c e s : The major s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t t h e a d u l t employs i n l e a r n i n g a r e known as t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r r e s o u r c e s . The two c a t e g o r i e s used i n t h i s s u r v e y a r e 1. Human - T h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s a l l a s s i s t a n c e and g u i d a n c e p e r f o r m e d by p e o p l e : f r i e n d s , r e l a t i v e s , t e a c h e r s , s t u d e n t s , and e x p e r t s . 2. M a t e r i a l - M a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s i n c l u d e : (a) p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s such as b o o k s , p a m p h l e t s , m a g a z i n e s , newspapers, and programmed i n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s ; (b) e l e c t r o n i c r e s o u r c e s such as t e l e v i s i o n , r a d i o and f i l m s ; o (c) e x h i b i t s , d i s p l a y s , t r i p s and v i s i t s . 8 Also combinations of human and material resources are considered part of this category when no resource predominates. Limitation of the Study: This research has limited external validity as i t is restricted to a sample of 20 teachers from a single school d i s t r i c t in British Columbia. Drawing implications for other teachers must occur with caution. Plan of the Study In order to research self-directed learning pertaining to retirement, in-depth interviews were conducted using a survey instrument adapted from one originally developed by Tough (1970). Specifically, the questions, probes, and learning methods l i s t s were adapted to investigate the retire-ment learning of female teachers liv i n g in Vancouver. For this purpose, the literature highlights the over 65-year-old population in Canada, describes British Columbia teachers as a representative group of professionals in Canadian society, examines retirement learning needs and pre-retirement attitudinal needs. Data collected in the interviews provided the substance for the case study abstracts and by descriptive summary analysis responses were formulated for each of the 13 research questions. The conclusions in the f i n a l chapter are directed to f a c i l i t a t i n g self-directed learning as the process applies to teachers and retirement learning. Unfortunately, the teachers' professional organizations did not permit access to l i s t s of teachers who would form the population and therefore i t was impossible to obtain a random sample. Operating within this constraint, a snowball technique was used in selecting the 20 teachers whereby a few known teachers who met the c r i t e r i a established for the sample identified 9 o t h e r p o t e n t i a l s u b j e c t s . W h i l e t h i s r e s e a r c h i n t o r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g s u p p o r t s t h e e a r l i e r f i n d i n g s o f Tough and a s s o c i a t e s t h a t s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g i s an e x t e n s i v e a c t i v i t y , i t i s recommended t h a t t h e s t u d y be r e p l i c a t e d t o t e s t i t s e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y . 10 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This chapter focuses on four areas of inquiry relevant to the present study: (1) the demographic structure of the over 65-year old population in Canada, (2) British Columbia teachers as a representative group of professionals in society, (3) research which identifies retire-ment learning needs, (4) literature which investigates pre-retirement attitudinal learning needs. Demographic Structure of the 65+ Population Clearly any research on retirement must include an examination of the demographic situation as i t is now and as i t w i l l be in the remaining decades of this century. The changing structure of the Canadian popu-lation has been the subject of a number of studies, and the facts about the changing structure are a matter of concern to social planners. The number of Canadians over 65 years has been growing and w i l l continue to increase both absolutely and in proportion to the total Canadian population (Table 1). Table 1: POPULATION OVER 65 YEARS Year Population over 65 1931 1871 1901 135,000 271,000 576,000 1981 2001 1971 1,744,000 2,201,000 3,103,000 Auerbach and Gerber, 1974 11 Statistics Canada published Population Projections for Canada and  the Provinces 1972-2001 (Ottawa, 1974). Those projections representing proportions of the total population are presented in Table 2. Table 2: PROJECTED POPULATION IN 100's Age 1975 N % 1985 N % 2001 N % 73-79 205.4 .9 279.9 1.0 437.8 1.2 80-84 132.4 .6 181.2 .7 288.3 .8 85-89 67.4 .3 94.2 .3 167.9 .5 90 and over 28.9 .1 44.4 .2 89.3 .3 Total population a l l ages 22,732.1 27,213.8 35,611.4 Statistics Canada, 1974 According to both sources, the next two decades w i l l see a large increase in the population aged 65 and over. By the year 2000, the ratio of women to men over the age of seventy-five w i l l l i k e l y be 2 : 1. The reason for this imbalance is that women are living longer and the d i f f e r -ential in longevity is growing. The National Institute on Aging and the National Institute of Mental Health Workshop (1979) reports that by the year 2050, a 65-year old woman can expect to live to age 85.7, or 5.7 years longer than her male counterpart, versus 4.3 years today. This w i l l place a formidable task on social planners to improve and expand f a c i l i t i e s and services for people living in retirement. One question, stated at i t s worst, is how to avoid free time becoming empty time, and at i t s best, how to gain the maximum satisfaction from retirement. Many retired people w i l l want to 12 contribute to the well-being of their community. Society cannot afford to waste the talents, s k i l l s , and experience of the retired. Several responses can be made by educational institutions to the changing structure of the Canadian population, for example, professional preparation programs for those who w i l l be working with older people (law, medicine, social work, home economics, and education). Appropriate materials and methods about a l l aspects of aging must be developed and introduced in the curricula designed by educational institutions. More attention should be given to workshops, institutes, and inservice edu-cation for those who now work with older adults. Presumably, many people anticipating retirement or already in retirement are engaging in self-directed learning related to retirement in the expectation that such learning efforts w i l l result in a smoother transition from a work-oriented to a leisure-oriented l i f e s t y l e . Their expectations are supported by research which indicates that retirees who plan for their retirement report higher levels of l i f e , satisfaction than retirees who had not planned (Ash, 1966; Pyron and Manion, 1968; Streib and Schneider, 1971). B.C. Teachers as a Representative Group of Professionals Teachers form a particularly large group of professionals affected by policies on retirement so i t seems appropriate to select them as a representative group in society. An indication of the size of the teacher population within the province of British Columbia is revealed by the fact that, the Teachers' Pension Act covers approximately 28,000 active teachers in British Columbia and about 4,000 retired teachers or beneficiaries. In May, 1979, The British Columbia Teachers' Federation published a Survey 13 and A n a l y s i s o f E x p e n d i t u r e s , Incomes and P e r c e p t i o n s o f A c t i v e and  R e t i r e d T e a c h e r s i n B r i t i s h C o l umbia ( P a t e r s o n , Cook L i m i t e d , 1979). The sample c o n t a i n e d 286 a c t i v e t e a c h e r s between ages 50 and 65, and 249 r e t i r e d t e a c h e r s . S u p p o r t i n g t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was an e x h i b i t showing t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f ages a t wh i c h t e a c h e r s r e t i r e ( F i g u r e 1). % l O O — i 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0.4% .. ,-Figure 1 AGE AT RETIREMENT R e t i r e d (249) 52.2% 20.1% 2.0% _L 25.3% Under 45 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 AGE 65 o r o v e r P a t e r s o n , Cook L i m i t e d , 1979 W h i l e l e s s t h a n o n e - q u a r t e r o f t h e t e a c h e r s r e t i r e d b e f o r e age 60, o v e r o n e - h a l f r e t i r e d between 60 and 64. The r e m a i n i n g q u a r t e r r e t i r e d a t age 65 o r o v e r . The P u b l i c S c h o o l s A c t o f B r i t i s h C o l umbia s t a t e s t h e l e g i s l a t i v e g u i d e l i n e s c o n c e r n i n g r e t i r e m e n t age and e x c e p t i o n s , as f o l l o w s : D i v i s i o n ( 5 ) .— R e t i r e m e n t and Re-engagement R e t i r e m e n t 151. No t e a c h e r s h a l l be engaged o r r e g u l a r l y employed age and as a t e a c h e r i n any p u b l i c s c h o o l i n t h e P r o v i n c e beyond e x c e p t i o n s . t h e end o f t h e s c h o o l - y e a r d u r i n g w h i c h he a t t a i n s t h e 14 age of sixty-five years, save that, where by reason of experience and need for his services i t is deemed by the Minister to be in the interest of education to re-engage after retirement or to defer the retire-ment of any person as a teacher, (a) the Minister may, on the request of a Board, authorize the re-engagement after retirement or the deferment of retirement of any person as a teacher for a period not exceeding one year, and successive re-engagements or defer-ments, each of one year, may be authorized by the Minister, but no re-engagement or defer-ment may extend beyond the school-year in which the person attains the age of seventy years; (b) a request by a Board for the re-engagement of a person who has been retired as a teacher may be considered after the t h i r t y - f i r s t day of May in the year in which the person concerned attains the age of sixty-five years. Requests for successive re-engagements or deferments may be considered by the Minister after the thirty-f i r s t day of May in any succeeding year. 1958, c. 42, s. 151; 1971, c. 47, s. 50. Everyone reaches a point in l i f e when work is no longer possible or no longer desirable. In the case of teachers, legislation dictates the age at which teachers must retire. And some teachers voluntarily retire for personal motives such as declining health, or physical d i s a b i l i t i e s . In other instances, retirement is deliberately chosen and entered into by the individual. An exhibit in the British Columbia Teachers' Federation survey referred to above showed the expected and actual reasons for retirement (Figure 2). As might be expected, reaching retirement age was one of the main reasons indicated by 30.4% of the retired teachers and was also indicated by 29.0% of the active teachers as the expected reason for retirement. The exhibit indicates that more teachers actually retired F i g u r e 2 EXPECTED ANO ACTUAL REASON FOR RETIREMENT 90 80 70 H 60 50 40 30 20 10 29.0* 30.4* 82 75 24.7* 10.6* 30 61 Act. Ret. Act. Ret. Compulsory Poor h e a l t h Changed jobs Spouse r e - Other reason age or com- or poor or changed t i r e d or + combination pulsory age health + jobs + other spouse re- reasons with + other other reason. reason. t i r e d • other other, reason. reason. Expected reason for retirement Is shown for a c t i v e teachers and actual reason f o r retirement Is shown for r e t i r e d teachers. Respondents were allowed to choose up to two responses, therefore, there are more responses than respondents. 16.3* 46 A c t i v e —-\— 323 reasons f o r retirement 283 respondents . 3 non-responses -85" Retired — T — 268 reasons f o r retirement 247 respondents 48.1* 2 non-responses I4T 10.2* 1L_ _ _ , 6 79 5.7* 14 136 Act. 45.3* 112 Ret. Act. Ret. Act. Ret. I. 2. Source: Peterson, Cook Limited, Survey and Analysis of Expenditures, Incomes and Perceptions of Active  and Retired Teachers ln British Columbia, p. 71. 16 f o r h e a l t h r e a s o n s t h a n i s e x p e c t e d by a c t i v e t e a c h e r s (24.7% v e r s u s 1 0 . 6 % ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of a c t i v e t e a c h e r s e x p e c t t o r e t i r e because t h e y w i l l be c h a n g i n g j o b s o r because t h e i r spouse has r e t i r e d . R e t i r e m e n t L e a r n i n g Needs E n v i r o n i c s R e s e a r c h Group L i m i t e d (1974) s u r v e y e d t h e media h a b i t s , p r e f e r e n c e s and needs of s e n i o r c i t i z e n s i n T o r o n t o . One a r e a o f i n v e s t i -g a t i o n c e n t e r e d on what t h e r e s p o n d e n t s p e r c e i v e d t o be t h e "one most i m p o r t a n t p r o b l e m t h a t s e n i o r c i t i z e n s f a c e i n l i f e . " T h i s q u e s t i o n may have opened t h e way f o r s t e r o t y p e v i e w s o f t h e e l d e r l y t h e m s e l v e s because i t f o c u s e d on t h e l o t o f a l l s e n i o r c i t i z e n s , and n o t n e c e s s a r i l y on t h e s i t u a t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n d e n t . Aware o f t h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n , one can see i n T a b l e 3 t h a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e f i c i e n c i e s r a n k e d h i g h e s t , w i t h l o n e l i n e s s and t h e need f o r companionship c i t e d by 34% o f t h e e n t i r e sample and f o r 45% o f i t s f e m a l e segment. I r r i t a n t s o f a p s y c h o l o g i c a l n a t u r e were g i v e n more emphasis o v e r a l l t h a n t h o s e e i t h e r of economic o r p h y s i o -l o g i c a l o r i g i n . I n a d d i t i o n t o l o n e l i n e s s , 9% c o n s i d e r e d i n a c t i v i t y , boredom, o r t h e need f o r some hobby o r i n t e r e s t t o be a major d i s s a t i s f i e r ; and 5% f e l t t h a t o l d e r a d u l t s were most a f f l i c t e d by t h e n e g l e c t o r p a t r o n i -z a t i o n o f o t h e r s . Economic d e f i c i e n c i e s were r a n k e d second i n g r a v i t y by t h e s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ; 25% f e l t t h a t t h e l a c k o f money i s t h e most s e r i o u s p r o b l e m , w h i l e a f u r t h e r 5% s p e c i f i c a l l y i n d i c a t e d t h e h i g h c o s t o f l i v i n g . Poor o r f a i l i n g h e a l t h was s t a t e d by 12% of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s as t h e most d i s r u p t i v e f a c t o r . O t h e r r e s p o n s e s , none o f w h i c h were g i v e n by more t h a n . 3% o f t h e sample, a c c o u n t e d f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g 10% o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . Thus, l o n e l i n e s s was p e r c e i v e d by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h i s T o r o n t o s u r v e y , and p a r -t i c u l a r l y by t h e women, as t h e most a c u t e p r o b l e m f a c e d by s e n i o r c i t i z e n s . 17 Table 3: THE ONE MOST IMPORTANT PROBLEM THAT SENIOR CITIZENS FACE IN LIFE Problem Percent Psychological: Loneliness 34% Inactivity or boredom; need for a hobby or interest 9 Feeling unwanted or patronized by others 5 Economic: Lack of money 25 High cost of living/ of food 5 Physiological: Poor or fa i l i n g health 12 Environics Research Group Ltd., 1974 The Third Career Research Society (1976) conducted research into retirement in Alberta and indicated that pre-retirees were not r e a l i s t i -cally aware of the gravity of dissatisfaction caused by il l - h e a l t h in retirement, and that the financial problems retired people actually face in retirement are over-emphasized. Four sample groups were involved in the total 1,089 Albertans who were interviewed. Half of these people were retired, and the other half over the age of 45 were working. The four sample groups were pre-retired and retired people in urban and rural settings. The content of the interviews involved some 225 questions cover-ing key areas such as personality, planning for retirement, morale, finances, health, friendships, accommodation, leisure a c t i v i t i e s , personal needs, pre-retirement training, retirement satisfaction, and problems in retirement. 18 The r e p o r t p r e s e n t e d a summary o f t h e s o u r c e s o f r e t i r e m e n t s a t i s f a c t i o n and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r v i e w s . Among t h e s a t i s -f i e r s were such i t e m s as h o b b i e s , i n t e r e s t s , and a c t i v i t i e s ; p o s i t i v e p e r s o n a l a t t i t u d e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; freedom and re d u c e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; and f r i e n d s h i p and s o c i a b i l i t y . D i s s a t i s f i e r s i n c l u d e d poor h e a l t h , i n -adequate f i n a n c e s , poor p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s , and i n a d e -q u a te p l a n n i n g f o r r e t i r e m e n t . Brown's s t u d y (1975) c o n d u c t e d f o r t h e Canadian C o u n c i l on S o c i a l Development d i s c u s s e d t h e needs f o r community a c t i v i t y and l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y . I t n o t e d two f u r t h e r needs: t h e need f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l s t i m u l a t i o n t h r o u g h new l e a r n i n g ; and t h e problems c r e a t e d by t h e i n c r e a s i n g i s o l a t i o n o f t h e r e t i r e d t h r o u g h t h e s e v e r a n c e o f l a b o r f o r c e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h e d e a t h o f o l d f r i e n d s , t h e n e c e s s i t y o f moving t o a new d i s t r i c t t o a c h i e v e more s a t i s f a c t o r y h o u s i n g , a l e s s h a r s h c l i m a t e , o r o t h e r l i k e f a c t o r s . R e t i r e m e n t S e r v i c e s I n c o r p o r a t e d (1975) p r o v i d e d from t h e i r r e s e a r c h a framework t o use i n a s s e s s i n g l e a r n i n g needs p r i o r t o and i n r e t i r e m e n t . They t o o k a m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y a p p roach i n s e l e c t i n g m a t e r i a l s , and i n t r o -duced t h e o r i e s and c o n c e p t s from t h e f i e l d s of g e r o n t o l o g y , p s y c h o l o g y , s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y , b i o l o g y and h e a l t h , s o c i o l o g y and b u s i n e s s management. One n o t a b l e example of t h i s i s t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f Maslow's b a s i c c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n s o f needs t o r e t i r e m e n t needs. The l a t e Abraham Maslow b e l i e v e d t h a t man has an a c t i v e w i l l toward h e a l t h , an i m p u l s e toward a c t u a l i z a t i o n o f human p o t e n t i a l i t i e s . He espoused t h a t man's b a s i c needs a r e good o r n e u t r a l r a t h e r t h a n e v i l and a r e a r r a n g e d i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l o r d e r so t h a t some a r e p r e p o t e n t o v e r o t h e r s . The appearance o f one need u s u a l l y r e s t s upon t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f a n o t h e r , more p r e s s i n g need. Among t h e b a s i c 19 needs a r e hunger, a f f e c t i o n , s e c u r i t y and s e l f - e s t e e m . I n o r d e r t o more c l e a r l y u n d e r s t a n d man's needs and w a n t s , Maslow s u g g e s t e d t h a t m o t i v a -t i o n s can be c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r g o a l s . He c l a s s i f i e d t h e s e g o a l s as s a t i s f y i n g b a s i c p h y s i o l o g i c a l , s a f e t y , esteem, and s e l f - f u l f i l l -ment needs. I n a d a p t i n g Maslow's h i e r a r c h y o f needs t o r e t i r e m e n t needs as shown i n F i g u r e 3, each l e v e l o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f needs was b r o k e n down f u r t h e r . P h y s i o l o g i c a l needs i n r e t i r e m e n t i n c l u d e p e r i o d i c p h y s i c a l c h e c k - u p s ; p a r t i c u l a r n u t r i t i o n , c h e m i c a l , m i n e r a l hormone and v i t a m i n needs; and h e a l t h c a r e and p r e v e n t i v e m a i n t e n a n c e . S a f e t y needs i n c l u d e f i n a n c i a l p l a n n i n g i n t h e form o f s a v i n g s and i n s u r a n c e , a s e c u r e community i n w h i c h t o l i v e , and o r d e r and s t a b i l i t y i n l i f e . S o c i a l needs i n c l u d e i n t h e absence o r l o s s o f spouse, o r c h i l d r e n , o r f r i e n d s , a need f o r a f f e c t i o n a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p e o p l e i n g e n e r a l , f o r a p l a c e i n h i s group. Esteem needs a r e n o r m a l l y s a t i s f i e d i f t h e p e r s o n has been s u c c e s s f u l i n a c t u a l -i z i n g h i s s o c i a l , m o r a l and p r o d u c t i v e p o t e n t i a l o v e r h i s l i f e t i m e . I n re t i r e m e n t - , p l a n n e d s o c i a l and p r o d u c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s p r o v i d e t h e o c c a s i o n s f o r f o s t e r i n g t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e s e needs. S e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t needs c h a l l e n g e a p e r s o n t o r e i n f o r c e p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s , t o d e v e l o p p l a n s and p o l i c i e s t o e n r i c h r e t i r e m e n t l i v i n g , and t o encourage t h e growth i n power o f t h e i n n e r p e r s o n . The a d a p t a t i o n by R e t i r e m e n t S e r v i c e s I n c o r p o r a t e d make a d i s t i n c t i o n between p l a n s and p o l i c i e s . The u n d e r s t a n d i n g conveyed i s t h a t p r e - r e t i r e -ment p l a n n i n g i s n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e l o w e r - l e v e l needs, b u t t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f h i g h e r - l e v e l needs r e q u i r e s each i n d i v i d u a l t o i d e n t i f y what t h o s e needs a r e and t o e s t a b l i s h p o l i c i e s w h i c h have t h e g r e a t e s t p e r s o n a l meaning. 20 F i g u r e 3. Maslow's H i e r a r c h y o f Needs SELF-'• FULFILLMENT, Wist a person 'can be he oust be^ ESTEEM HEEDS Self-Respect: Strength, Achieve-ment, Confidence, Independence, Freedom Respect of Others: Reputation, Prestige, Recognition, Appreciation SOCIAL NEEDS Love: Wife, Children, Family Affection: Friends Belonging: Groups, Community SAFETY NEEDS Economic: Security, Savings, Insurance Physical: Safety, Protection Psychological: Order,Stability.Known Versus Unknown PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS Basic: Hunger Gratification Nutritional: Chemical, mineral. Hormone,' Vitamin Source:Retirement Services Inc.,1977. o 21 I n g e n e r a l , R e t i r e m e n t S e r v i c e s I n c o r p o r a t e d c o n s i d e r e d needs a t two l e v e l s , u s i n g Maslow's h i e r a r c h y and emphasized t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f h i g h e r l e v e l needs. These h i g h e r l e v e l needs a r e i d e n t i f i e d as t h e es s e n c e o f r e t i r e m e n t . The t h e o r y b e h i n d t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a r needs i n r e t i r e m e n t i s t h a t needs i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s a b a s i s f o r p l a n n i n g and l e a r n i n g . E d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h has i d e n t i f i e d needs o f a d u l t s i n t h e i r l a t e r y e a r s and i n some c a s e s s u g g e s t e d program r e s p o n s e s . McCoy (1977) o u t l i n e d a d u l t l i f e c y c l e t a s k s and a d u l t c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n r e s p o n s e s i n d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s . The McCoy t y p o l o g y was based on t h e r e s e a r c h o f t h r e e contemporary l i f e c y c l e s c h o l a r s : G o u l d o f U.C.L.A., L e v i n s o n o f Y a l e , and V a i l l a n t o f H a r v a r d . McCoy f o c u s e d on the l a s t two l i f e s t a g e s o f a d u l t h o o d (see Appendix C ) . The t a s k s r e p r e s e n t t h e needs o f p e o p l e a n t i c i p a t i n g r e t i r e m e n t and a l r e a d y i n r e t i r e m e n t . Because t h e r e s p o n s e s p e r t a i n t o s p e c i f i c t a s k s , t h e r e i s no a p p a r e n t o v e r -a l l s t r u c t u r e t o t h e r e s p o n s e s . R e s e a r c h l i t e r a t u r e i n t o t h e l e a r n i n g needs o f o l d e r a d u l t s , p r i o r t o t h e Women's Movement, p a i d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o i s s u e s s p e c i f i c t o women. A l t h o u g h r e s e a r c h i n t e r e s t i n younger women, t h e i r work, t h e i r l i f e s t y l e s , and t h e i r economic and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s has i n c r e a s e d , o l d e r women have r e c e i v e d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n . I n r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h i s gap, The N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e on A g i n g and t h e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e on M e n t a l H e a l t h h e l d a workshop on "The O l d e r Woman: C o n t i n u i t i e s and D i s c o n t i n u i t i e s " , 1978. D i r e c t i n g t h e f u l l f o r c e o f t h e r e s o u r c e s a t t h e workshop t o q u e s t i o n s and c o n c e r n s c u r r e n t l y r e l e v a n t t o t h e l i v e s of o l d e r women, t h e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e f o c u s e d on i s s u e s p e r t i n e n t t o r e t i r e m e n t e d u c a t i o n . 22 The r e p o r t o f t h e I n s t i t u t e i d e n t i f i e d c o n c e r n s o f o l d e r women: f a m i l y r o l e s and s o c i a l n e t w o r k s i n l a t e r l i f e ; e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h l o n e l i -n e s s and bereavement; new r o l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; and adequacy o f l i v i n g accommodations. The r e s e a r c h showed t h a t good p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l h e a l t h a r e r e l a t e d t o adequate income, a sense o f r e l a t e d n e s s t o o t h e r p e o p l e and t o s o c i e t y , and i n t i m a t e p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . R e f e r r e d t o as t h e " k i n k e e p e r s " women's e m o t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p a r e n t s , s i b l i n g s , c h i l d r e n , and f r i e n d s a r e a major s o u r c e o f c o n t i n u i t y i n t h e i r l i v e s (as i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r housework). R e s e a r c h p r e s e n t e d a t t h e workshop found t h a t o l d e r women s o c i a l i z e w i t h f r i e n d s , but o b t a i n most s e r v i c e s from c h i l d r e n and n e i g h b o r s . The r e s e a r c h d i d n o t i n v e s t i g a t e t o what e x t e n t s o c i a l n e t w o r k s o f f r i e n d s and n e i g h b o r s made t h r o u g h work, c h u r c h and o t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s c o u l d be o r g a n i z e d t o s u b s t i t u t e f o r k i n s h i p s u p p o r t . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h p r e s e n t a t i o n s on widowhood i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e i s a t i m e when p e r s o n a l n e t w o r k s f a i l , when m a r r i e d c h i l d r e n and f r i e n d s r e t u r n t o t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s , and t h e widow i s l e f t a l o n e w i t h h e r pr o b l e m s . The I n s t i t u t e i d e n t i f i e d t h a t r e s e a r c h i s needed a l s o on how macroeconomic v a r i a b l e s , such as i n f l a t i o n , impact on t h e l i v e s o f o l d e r women. P r e - R e t i r e m e n t L e a r n i n g Needs The l i t e r a t u r e on p r e - r e t i r e m e n t s u g g e s t s t h e need f o r l e a r n i n g w h i c h w i l l s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r p r e c o n c e p t i o n s o f and a t t i t u d e s t o l a t e r l i f e . P r e c o n c e p t i o n s a r e b e l i e f s about p e o p l e , t h i n g s and i d e a s and as such m e d i a t e o u r a t t i t u d e s and f e e l i n g s . F o r an i n d i v i d u a l t o e n t e r t h e l a t e r y e a r s o f l i f e w i t h n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s about l i f e and one's s e l f i s t o i n v i t e u n h a p p i n e s s and poor a d j u s t m e n t . There i s an o b v i o u s and g r e a t need f o r l e a r n i n g endeavours t h a t i n f l u e n c e i n d i v i d u a l a t t i t u d e s toward a g i n g and r e t i r e m e n t . 23 An individual's preconception of and attitude to retirement appears to be a crucial determiner of retirement satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the potential to counter the impact of voluntary or compulsory retirement (Seltzer, 1977; Thompson, Streib, and Cosa, 1976). They found that those who had unfavorable pre-retirement attitudes but retired willingly were more likely to become discontent in retirement than those who had favorable pre-retirement attitudes but were constrained by policy or legislation to retire. Thompson (1958) related differences in adjustment to retirement to differences in anticipation before retirement. The anticipatory factors he studied were preconception of retirement, pre-retirement attitude toward retirement, and having personal plans for retirement. The three indices he used to measure adjustment were length of time required to get used to retirement, d i f f i c u l t y in keeping busy, and dissatisfaction with retirement. Thompson found that a l l these factors were both interrelated and related to successful retirement. He found that planning for one's retirement seemed to be important only when the individual had a favorable pre-retirement attitude and an accurate preconception. If the opposite were true, then planning did not increase his chances of making a favor-able adjustment. One may conclude from Thompson's study that the develop-ment of favorable attitudes and accurate preconceptions should form an integral part of the individual's retirement learning. Thompson's research appears to be unique and significant to the present study because i t stresses the individual formulation of plans. The rationale behind this need i s obvious. Planned activities for retirement can be anti-dotes for idleness, loneliness, and boredom. The d i f f i c u l t y is in the 24 failure of many people to conceptualize creatively and imaginatively innovative activities and l i f e styles for the later years, of their lives. Summary Demographic projections for Canada indicate that by 1986 Canadians aged 65 and over w i l l number 2,600,000 - that is 9.8 percent of the population (Statistics Canada, 1976). With average l i f e expectancy increasing as a result of improved socio-economic conditions and advances in health care, there emerges the idea of a distinct l a t e - l i f e period in the l i f e cycle. Increasing numbers of older people w i l l necessitate increased planning for an effective, satisfying retirement l i f e - s t y l e . Teachers form a particularly large group of professionals within society. In British. Columbia, the Teachers' Pension Act covers approximately 28,000 active teachers and about 4,000 retired teachers or beneficiaries. Reaching compulsory retirement age was one of the main reasons indicated by 30% of the retired teachers in British Columbia and, similarly, was given by 29% of active teachers as the expected reason for retirement. Leaving formal career work and approaching a new period in the l i f e cycle causes needs to arise that require the acquisition of information, understandings, and appreciations. Numerous cultural, social and individual factors influence the scope and nature of retirement learning needs. Available literature suggests some tasks and potential concerns in retirement: financial planning; housing options; avocational and second career education, health care, need for companionship, personal development, intellectual stimulation, leisure a c t i v i t i e s , adjusting to bereavement; and, pre-retirement attitude. Retirement education is based on the premise that people approaching late midclle-age need to consider the many issues represented by the retirement transition, and to acquire information, understandings, and appreciations for 25 r e t i r e m e n t . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e , p e r s o n s who p l a n f o r t h e i r r e t i r e m e n t r e p o r t h i g h e r l e v e l s o f l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a n r e t i r e e s who had n o t p l a n n e d . 26 •CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s t h e methodology o f t h e s t u d y . Sample p a r t i c i -p a n t s f o r t h e s e l f - d i r e c t e d r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g s t u d y a r e t e a c h e r s who met t h e age-sex s t a t u s r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e s t u d y . The sample s i z e o f twenty t e a c h e r s was chosen i n e x p e c t a t i o n o f l e n g t h y i n t e r v i e w s and t h e c o m p i l a t i o n o f c a s e s t u d y a b s t r a c t s . The i n - d e p t h i n t e r v i e w i n s t r u m e n t d e s i g n e d by Tough (1970) was m o d i f i e d t o y i e l d a wide range o f i n f o r m a t i o n about r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g and t h e p r e - and p o s t - r e t i r e m e n t l i v e s and a t t i t u d e s o f t h e sample p a r t i c i p a n t s . P r i o r t e s t i n g o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t on t h r e e s u b j e c t s was c a r r i e d o u t , and m i n o r changes implemented. The d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f t h e d a t a from the i n t e r v i e w s - c o d i n g , t r a n s f e r r i n g t o t a b l e s , d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s , and e d i t i n g f o r t h e c a s e s t u d y a b s t r a c t s - was a l s o c a r r i e d o u t by the r e s e a r c h e r . Sample S e l e c t i o n The p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f two groups o f t e n f e m a l e t e a c h e r s s e l e c t e d p u r p o s i v e l y from t h e Vancouver S c h o o l D i s t r i c t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The p r e - r e t i r e m e n t group was s e l e c t e d from t e a c h e r s between t h e ages o f s i x t y and s i x t y - f o u r who were a c t i v e l y engaged i n t e a c h i n g a t t h e tim e o f the r e s e a r c h and who were w i l l i n g t o be i n t e r v i e w e d . The p o s t - r e t i r e m e n t group was s e l e c t e d f r o m r e t i r e d t e a c h e r s between t h e ages o f s i x t y - f i v e and s i x t y - n i n e who were w i l l i n g t o be i n t e r v i e w e d . There were t h r e e r e f u s a l s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e sample were t h e age r e s t r i c t i o n s , t h e t e a c h e r s ' p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s as a p p l i c a b l e t o each group and t e a c h e r s ' w i l l i n g n e s s t o be i n t e r v i e w e d . 27 Several factors led to the choice of these particular groups. The focus of inquiry was retirement learning. Retired teachers and teachers nearing retirement should have a vested interest in retirement learning and hence would be more receptive to participation in the research project. Financial constraints made i t necessary to choose nearby case study sites. Also, a school d i s t r i c t had to employ a sufficient number of teachers from which to sample. The Vancouver School District selected met this need, and required minimum travel time. An age range from sixty to sixty-nine corresponds to the life-stage or time period in which retirement needs are salient. It is an age-linked period of transition and an appropriate time for what Carl Rogers (1969) calls "significant learning". Teachers at this l i f e stage realize "now is the time", and may display an internal readiness for learning experiences that would f a c i l i t a t e the retirement learning. Twenty case studies, ten teachers pre- and ten teachers post-retire-ment constituted the study sample. This number was thought to be manageable within the time limits set, and adequate for discovering and describing teachers' retirement learning projects. The National Institute on Aging and the National Institute on Mental Health, 1978 (cited in the preceding chapter) recognized that women relate specifically to certain retirement concerns: family roles and social networks in later l i f e ; experiences with loneliness and bereavement; new roles and relationships; and adequacy of living accommodations. It was assumed that limiting the study to female teachers.only would contribute to precision in the identification and exploration of retirement learning. And, in recognition that older women have received l i t t l e attention in the research literature, this study was directed to female teachers only. A l l interviews were conducted by the 28 author. Because the external validity of the study applies to a particular population, i t is suggested that further studies be done to determine i f the findings can be generalized. Personnel from the Vancouver branch of the British Columbia Teachers' Federation and the British Columbia Retired Teachers' Association were consulted to obtain information for selecting the sample. The purposes of the study were discussed. Their response to the study was encouraging but l i s t s of names were not provided as a matter of policy. The author knew a few female retired teachers with whom the purposes of the research were discussed. These teachers identified other teachers who were either retired or nearing retirement. A snowball approach to securing participants in the sample was decided upon. Survey Instrument The instrument used to collect data for the case studies and the teachers' self-directed projects in retirement learning was a semi-structured interview employing in-depth questioning and probing techniques. The case study approach highlights people's learning interests as embedded in their l i f e histories, in what they can do and what to do at a particular l i f e stage or age-linked period of their lives (Weatherby 1978:19). Many of the authors cited by McCoy (1977) such as Levinson, Gould, Neugarten, Erikson, Havighurst and Schaie, and Sheehy conclude that there is a pattern in our lives, a pattern of adult developmental stages which once recognized can be managed. Life styles have been described as age-linked periods of s t a b i l i t y and transition embedded in our experience of living during which time certain concerns are salient. For example, during the pre-retirement years, concern focuses on retirement l i v i n g . During actual retirement there are certain adaptive tasks. 29 Both situations provide learning opportunities. Case studies frequently u t i l i z e such data-gathering instruments as interviews, questionnaires, check l i s t s and rating scales (Good, Scates 1954) . For the case studies here, a semi-structured interview served as the device for data collection and assisted the teachers in recalling a l l their r e t i r e -ment learning projects in detail. The questions, probes and learning methods l i s t s were developed from those used by Tough (1970), Fair (1973) , Coolican (1973) and Kelly (1976). These were adapted to retirement learning and to the particular adult population under study. The interview schedule, designed to yield a wide range of information about retirement learning and the pre-and post-retirement lives and attitudes of the sample participants, is divided into 15 sections: (1) number of learning projects; (2) specific knowledge or s k i l l the subject attempted to learn; (3) evaluation of the project; (4) day-to-day planner; (5) decision to undertake learning; (6) source of information or assistance; (7) credit or non-credit activity; (8) spouse's attitude towards subject's learning; (9) importance of contri-bution to retirement living; (10) amount of learning; (11) benefit to other people; (12) learning d i f f i c u l t i e s ; (13) desired changes within teachers' professional organization; (14) desired changes within society; (15) identi-fication of future retirement learning projects. The item-specific response rate was 100 percent. A l l of the instruments are shown in Appendix B. Data Collection Data were collected through interviews conducted by the author. To arrange for the interviews, letters of introduction were mailed to six teachers in each group including the three known teachers who had assisted 30 i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p o t e n t i a l s u b j e c t s . The l e t t e r i n t r o d u c e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r and o u t l i n e d t h e p u r p o s e and method of t h e r e s e a r c h . The l e t t e r n o t e d t h a t t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r would t e l e p h o n e t h e t e a c h e r t o a r r a n g e f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w s h o u l d t h e t e a c h e r a g r e e t o p a r t i c i p a t e . A copy o f t h e i n t r o -d u c t o r y l e t t e r i s i n c l u d e d i n A p p e n d i x A. A f t e r s e v e r a l d a y s , each t e a c h e r was t e l e p h o n e d and asked t o p a r t i c i -p a t e i n t h e s t u d y . T e a c h e r s were t h e n asked i f t h e y met t h e c r i t e r i a f o r i n c l u s i o n . I f t h e p e r s o n met t h e c r i t e r i a and was w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e , a c o n v e n i e n t t i m e and p l a c e was a r r a n g e d f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w . There were t h r e e r e s p o n d e n t r e f u s a l s . I n t h e c a s e of r e f u s a l s t o p a r t i c i p a t e , t h e p r o c e d u r e was r e p e a t e d u n t i l t e n p a r t i c i p a n t s i n each group were i d e n t i f i e d . F u r t h e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s u b j e c t s was f a c i l i t a t e d t h r o u g h new c o n t a c t s w i t h t e a c h e r s . The i n t e r v i e w i t s e l f f o l l o w e d a s e t p a t t e r n . A f t e r i n t r o d u c t i o n s , t h e a u t h o r e x p l a i n e d t h e p u r p o s e and p r o c e d u r e of t h e i n t e r v i e w . T e a c h e r s were a s s u r e d t h a t t h e r e s u l t s were s t r i c t l y f o r t h e p u r p o s e of t h e r e s e a r c h and t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s would r e m a i n anonymous. T h i s . p r o c e d u r e i s d e t a i l e d i n A p p e n d i x B. The r e s e a r c h e r made e v e r y e f f o r t t o e s t a b l i s h a non-t h r e a t e n i n g r e l a x e d atmosphere and r a p p o r t w i t h t h e t e a c h e r . The c o n c e p t o f a l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t was c l a r i f i e d and probe s h e e t s l i s t i n g c o n t e n t and methods f o r r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g p r o v i d e d f u r t h e r a s s i s -t a n c e f o r t e a c h e r s i n r e c a l l i n g a l l of t h e i r p r o j e c t s i n r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g . The t e a c h e r s were asked t o d e s c r i b e each l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t i d e n t i -f i e d , and s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s were, asked r e g a r d i n g .each l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t . These q u e s t i o n s a r e c o n t a i n e d i n A p p e n d i x B. These r e s p o n s e s were r e c o r d e d on t h e l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t d a t a s h e e t s (see A p p e n d i x B ) . Responses c o n c e r n i n g t h e p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e sample were r e c o r d e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l 31 teachers, themselves on the demographic sheets. The average time required to conduct an interview was three hours. Following the. interview, the researcher reviewed a l l data sheets- to ensure that the information was complete. The learning project and demographic data sheets were numerically precoded to f a c i l i t a t e the process with the exception of three open-ended inquiries: (1) suggested changes within the teachers' professional organization; (2) suggested changes in society; (3) additional learning projects. Responses- to open-ended questions were categorized by the author following complete data collection. Based on previous studies, categories were established for a l l questions in the interview schedule. Data Analysis Descriptive summary measures were employed in the data analysis. The mean, median, mode and range were computed for the number of learning projects. The mean was: computed for the number of projects conducted for each type of planner and for the number of learning d i f f i c u l t i e s identified. Frequency counts and cross tabulations were used to describe the remaining 10 data tables: ( l j marital status:; (2) percentage distribution by advanced degrees; (3)1 content areas; (41 factors Influencing teachers to conduct retirement learning projects; (5) major planners; (6) major sources of infor-mation or assistance; (7J contribution to retirement li v i n g ; (8) perceptions of learning; 0)1 perceptions of benefit to other people; (10) learning d i f f i c u l t i e s . Comparisons between active and retired teachers were, made in the analysis: of a l l this- data with the exception of learning d i f f i c u l t i e s which are presented in order of frequency of mention. Suggested changes within the teaching profession are grouped and categorized into areas of concern. Suggested changes in society are similarly grouped and categorized. Responses to the f i n a l inquiry on anticipated retirement learning are grouped and categorized into areas of interest. 32 CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION AND-DISCUSSION- OF THE FINDINGS The results of the case studies of the twenty teachers are presented here. Demographic data pertaining to the teachers i s presented f i r s t to provide an overview description of the sample. The analysis i s presented in sections corresponding to each of the research questions posed in Chapter One. This analysis includes the detailed data concerning the nature and extent of the learning projects conducted by the teachers. It identifies the major human and material resources such as people, materials, and f a c i l i t i e s available as well as an identification of the f a c i l i t a t i n g and hindering factors that influence the learning process. Finally, the findings pertaining to learning to be undertaken in the next year are reported. The case study abstracts are contained in Appendix D. For the purpose of this study, each case described deals with a sufficiently limited aspect of the teacher's role in promoting learning directed to satisfaction in retirement living. The principal subject in each instance i s identified by use of an alphabetical letter, and reference to viewpoints on pri o r i t i e s and solutions are included. Characteristics of the Sample The sample consisted of two groups of ten teachers each. The selected age group of active teachers was 60 to 64, and of retired teachers was 65 to 69. The two groups differed with respect to the teachers' total number of years of teaching experience. The active teachers had from nine to 45 years of teaching experience and the median was 24.5 years. Four: 33 t e a c h e r s had t a u g h t i n t h e range o f 32 t o 42 y e a r s , f i v e t e a c h e r s had 20 t o 29 y e a r s o f . t e a c h i n g s e r v i c e , and one t e a c h e r had t a u g h t f o r n i n e y e a r s . The range o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r t h e r e t i r e d t e a c h e r s were f o u r t e e n t o 45 y e a r s and t h e median, was 3 3 . 5 . S i x t e a c h e r s h a d ' 3 5 t o 45 y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e , and t h e r e m a i n i n g f o u r t e a c h e r s were i n t h e range o f f o u r t e e n t o 22 y e a r s . Two groups d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y on spo u s e s ' a t t i t u d e towards s u b j e c t s l e a r n i n g . Spouses were d e s c r i b e d as s u p p o r t i v e o f l e a r n i n g by seven o f t h e m a r r i e d t e a c h e r s . One m a r r i e d t e a c h e r c i t e d h e r spouse's a t t i t u d e towards h e r l e a r n i n g as n a t u r a l . Seven o f t h e twenty t e a c h e r s i n t h e sample were m a r r i e d . T a b l e 4 summarizes t h e p e r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t e d t o a c t i v e and r e t i r e d t e a c h e r s by m a r i t a l s t a t u s . TABLE 4 - PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ACTIVE AND RETIRED TEACHERS BY MARITAL STATUS M a r i t a l S t a t u s T o t a l N Sample .% N A c t i v e % R e t i r e d :.; N % S i n g l e 9 4 5 . 0 3 3 0 . 0 6 6 0 . 0 M a r r i e d 7 3 5 . 0 4 4 0 . 0 3 3 0 . 0 S e p a r a t e d o r D i v o r c e d 1 5 . 0 1 1 0 . 0 - -Widowed 3 1 5 . 0 2 2 0 . 0 1 1 0 . 0 TOTAL 20 1 0 0 . 0 1 0 1 0 0 . 0 10 1 0 0 . 0 E d u c a t i o n a l achievement beyond t h e b a c h e l o r ' s degree i s summarized i n T a b l e 5 . N i n e t e a c h e r s o r 45 p e r c e n t o f t h e sample had n o t p u r s u e d t h e i r e d u c a t i o n beyond t h e b a c h e l o r ' s degree. Two a c t i v e t e a c h e r s had p u r s u e d f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n beyond a m a s t e r ' s d e g r e e e , b u t no one had earned a Ph.D. 34 TABLE 5 - PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ACTIVE AND RETIRED TEACHERS BY POST - BACHELOR DEGREE EDUCATION Total Sample Active Retired Education Achieved .N . % N % N % None 9 45.0 5 50.0 4 40.0. Less than 30 graduate credits 2 10.0 1 10.0 1 10.0 30 or more graduate credits 4 20.0 2 20.0 2 20.0 Master's Degree 3 15.0 2 20.0 1 10.0 Master's Degree plus credits 2 10.0 - - 2 20.0 TOTAL 20 100.0 10 100.0 10 100.0 Extent of Retirement Learning Activity Indepth probing helped stimulate recall of retirement learning projects. Teachers were presented two probe sheets l i s t i n g content areas and methods of learning (see Appendix A). They were requested to identify and describe a l l learning projects contributing to their retirement l i v i n g . To be included in the study, projects had to be identified as deliberate efforts to gain certain f a i r l y clear knowledge or s k i l l . With these efforts there also had to be the intent to direct the particular knowledge or s k i l l to some aspect of retirement l i v i n g . Each learning project had to be active for at least seven hours during a consecutive six-month period, but could be continued beyond this time. Providing these c r i t e r i a were met, the projects could be ones which were currently 35 i n p r o g r e s s ; c o m p l e t e d ; t e m p o r a r i l y i n a c t i v e ; o r , dropped b e f o r e c o m p l e t i o n . Each t e a c h e r i d e n t i f i e d a t l e a s t t h r e e r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s w h i c h she had u n d e r t a k e n . The t o t a l number o f l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s u n d e r t a k e n by t h e combined groups of t e a c h e r s ranged from t h r e e t o e i g h t e e n . The a v e r a g e s u b j e c t c o n d u c t e d t e n l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o h e r r e t i r e m e n t l i v i n g and t h e median was n i n e , (see T a b l e 6) These d a t a d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t e a c h e r s u n d e r t a k e e x t e n s i v e , d e l i b e r a t e l e a r n i n g e f f o r t s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e i r r e t i r e m e n t l i v i n g . C o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s was i n d i c a t e d by t h e f i n d i n g t h a t t e a c h e r s c o n d u c t e d an a v e r a g e o f t e n r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s . The c a s e s t u d y a b s t r a c t s i n d i c a t e t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e number of y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e d i d n o t a c c o u n t f o r s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n i n t h e amount o f r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y . S e v e r a l f a c t o r s may have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e s e r e s u l t s . Many s o c i e t a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l based f a c t o r s w h i c h a r e n o t l i n k e d t o y e a r s o f e x p e r i e n c e a r e c u r r e n t l y e x e r t i n g p r e s s u r e on t e a c h e r s t o p r e p a r e f o r t h e i r r e t i r e m e n t . T e a c h e r s may f e e l i t n e c e s s a r y t o engage i n r e t i r e m e n t p r e p a r a t i o n because o f t h e f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s : t h e i n c r e a s e d volume o f r e t i r e m e n t l i t e r a t u r e by b o t h t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l and s e c u l a r p r e s s ; awareness o f t h e upward c u r v e o f t h e age demographic i n C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y ; t h e t h r e a t o f i n f l a t i o n and t h e f l u c t u a t i o n s i n t h e monetary system; and, t h e mandatory r e t i r e m e n t age. C o n t e n t A r e a s of R e t i r e m e n t L e a r n i n g P r o j e c t s T h i s s t u d y has grouped t h e l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s i n t o s i x t e e n c a t e g o r i e s r e p r e s e n t i n g d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of c o n t e n t a r e a s f o r r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g . P r o j e c t s were c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e c o n t e n t a r e a o f t h e l e a r n i n g r e l a t i v e t o t h e s p e c i f i c p u r p o s e and/or use f o r t h a t l e a r n i n g . 36 TABLE 6 - NUMBER OF RETIREMENT LEARNING PROJECTS CONDUCTED BY TEACHERS Number of Proj ects Conducted Total Sample Active Retired Teachers Projects teachers Projects Teachers Projects 3 4 1 3 _ — 1 3 5 6 1 6 — — 1 6 7 2 14 1 7 1 7 8 4 32 -4 32 -9 2 18 - - 2 18 10 3 30 3 30 - -11 1 11 - - 1 11 12 1 12 1 12 - -13 1 13 - - 1 13 14 2 28 1 14 1 14 15 1 15 - - 1 15 16 - - - - - -17 - - - - - -18 1 18 _ 1 18 TOTAL 20 200 Mean 10.0 Median 9 Mode 8.0 Range 3-18 10 95 10 105 9.5 10.5 9 10 ' 8.0 9.0 7-14 3-18 37 The projects were categorized from the responses to the following two questions: "What knowledge or s k i l l did you deliberately attempt to learn from this project?"; "In what way(s) does this project contribute to your actual (or "anticipated", in the case of active teachers) retirement living?". Two examples ill u s t r a t e the application of this classification scheme. A retired art teacher continues to work f u l l time in her studio as an ar t i s t . She undertook additional study in pottery to increase her s k i l l . Her project was included in continuing education. An active teacher conducted a similar project to learn macrame. She pursued this project for recreational purposes;; the project was classified in the hobbies and leisure activities category. As a guide in constructing an appropriate classification scheme, the author referred to the retirement literature, particularly that of Lynch and Riddell (1979) who identified some potential concerns in retirement: a sound financial planning base, housing options, preventive health care, relationships with family and friends, and new l i f e s t y l e patterns. As Indicated in Table 7, the greatest number of learning projects (19 percent) were in the personal development and continuing education category. In this category, eighteen projects were conducted by the retired teachers and seventeen projects were conducted by the active teachers. The second highest number of projects, 12 percent, were in the hobbies and leisure activities category. The career and avocation develop-ment category represented the third highest number of projects, 11 percent. These three categories account for 71 of the learning projects or 35.5 percent of the total. 38 TABLE 7 - CONTENT AREAS IN WHICH TEACHERS CONDUCTED RETIREMENT LEARNING PROJECTS. Content Areas Number of Projects Conducted Total Sample Active Retired N N % N % Financial planning Health care Hobbies/1ei sure ac t i v i t i e s Participation/ active sports Career, avocation development Expenditure management Home management/ maintenance Alternate liv i n g accommodations Personal development/ continuing education Church activities P o l i t i c s / c i t i z e n -ship/ community Fine Arrts/cultural pursuits Family/social relationships Care of the elderly Death/dying Travel TOTAL 18 9.0 11 5.5 24 12.0 18 9.0 22 11.0 7 3.5 6 3.0 7 3.5 35 17.5 . 8 4.0 8 17 12 2 1 4 200 4.0 8.5 6.0 1.0 .5 2.0 100.0 10 8 10 10 18 5 10.5 8 8.4 3 10.5 14 10.5 8 8.4 14 2.1 5 2.1 4 4.2 3 18.9 17 5.3 3 4.2 4 6.3 8.4 95 99.8 11 4 2 1 4 105 7.6 2.9 13.3 7.6 13.3 4.8 3.8 2.9 16.2 2.9 3.8 10.5 3.8 1.9 .9 3.8 100.0 39 Concern for financial Blatters, is. indicated by the 15 percent of learning projects that were in three related content areas;: financial planning, expenditure management, and home management and maintenance. As indicated by the number of projects reported in the three categories identified above (personal development and continuing education,; career and avocation development, and hobbies and leisure activities) i t would appear that teachers see retirement as a time for continued personal growth, service within society, and personal refreshment through hobbies and leisure a c t i v i t i e s . A number of teachers in Group One indicated.a need for developing or exploring new career potential for use upon retirement from teaching. In Group Two, although the majority of teachers, 60 percent, were engaged in volunteer and service-oriented act i v i t i e s , only one retired teacher was earning an income from her work. Factors Influencing Teachers to Conduct  Retirement Learning Projects A decision to conduct a learning project may be helped or influenced by someone or something. For each project, teachers were asked to describe the factor(s) which Influenced their decisions to begin that particular learning effort. Six categories emerged from the data. These categories incorporate a l l the factors which influenced teachers to i n i t i a t e retirement learning projects. As indicated in Table 8, the greatest number of projects, 65 percent or 130, were initiated in response to a perceived need or desire for: financial security, work or service, social interaction, health maintenance, and change or improvement in residence. In many instances, teachers described an anticipated use or application for the learning as a factor contributing to their belief in the importance of that learning. TABLE 8 - FACTORS INFLUENCING TEACHERS TO CONDUCT-RETIREMENT LEARNING PROJECTS Number of Projects Influencing Factors T o t a l S a m p l e Active Retired N % N % 'N Perceived needs Financial security Work/service Social interaction Health maintenance Change/improvement in residence Enjoyment of process of learning Influence of people Increase in unobligated time Inflation Bereavement TOTAL 130 65.0 66 69.5 66 60.9 29 17 16 7 1 200 (18) (44) (35) (20) (13) 14.5 8.5 8.0 3.5 .5 100.0 (9.0) (22.0) (17.5) (10.0) (6.5) (10) (19) (18) (13) (6) 18 (10.5) (20.0) (18.9) (13.7) (6.3) 18.9 9.5 95 2.1 100.0 (8) (25) (17) (7) (7) 11 8 16 5 1 105 (7.6) (23.6) (16.2) (6.7) (6.7) 10.5 7.6 15.2 4.8 .9 99.9 41 A greater number of projects were begun in response to a perceived need related to work or service by the retired teachers than by the active teachers (25:19). Conversely, active teachers indicated a broader perception of health maintenance needs. •(•13: 7) An enjoyment of the process of learning motivated teachers to begin 14.5 percent of a l l the projects conducted. This influence was eight percent higher among active teachers than among the retired teachers. The influence of other persons accounted for the motivation to begin about nine percent of the projects. Personal acquaintances, relatives, colleagues and spouses were particular people identified as influential. Group or social pressures and the stimulus from a conference or course were also mentioned. An increase In unobligated time motivated retired teachers to begin about 15 percent of their retirement learning projects. No active teacher cited this as an influencing factor. Recognition of the effects and influence of inflation on the economy and one's personal l i f e style motivated teachers to begin about four percent of the projects. Bereavement was cited as the influence in beginning one learning project on death and dying. In summary, teachers conduct retirement learning projects in response to a perceived need or an anticipated benefit to be derived from the effort. Major Planners for Learning Projects Tough defines a planner as the person(s) or thing that assumes responsibility for. the major day-to-day decisions concerning the content, methods and progression of the learning (1971:77) IN some learning projects 42 t h e l e a r n e r may d e c i d e t o a t t e n d a group and l e t t h e group o r i t s l e a d e r d e c i d e how and wha't he l e a r n s ; d u r i n g each, s e s s i o n . I n o t h e r l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s , t h e p l a n n i n g and d e c i d i n g o f what t o l e a r n and i n what o r d e r i s : h a n d l e d by one p e r s o n who h e l p s t h e l e a r n e r i n a one - t o - one s i t u a t i o n . I n some l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s , t h e m a j o r p a r t o f t h e d e t a i l e d d i r e c t i o n c o n c e r n i n g what t o l e a r n and what t o do a t each s e s s i o n r e s i d e s i n some o b j e c t — some nonhuman r e s o u r c e . A t o t h e r t i m e s , t h e l e a r n e r h i m s e l f r e t a i n s t h e m a j o r (51%) r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e day - t o - day p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - making. A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of each of t h e f o u r p l a n n e r t y p e s d e s c r i b e d by Tough i s i n d i c a t e d on t h e probe s h e e t c o n t a i n e d i n A p p e n d i x B. The p r o j e c t s were c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f o u r t y p e s of p l a n n e r s on t h e s h e e t . To examine t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e t e a c h e r s ' l e a r n i n g e f f o r t s , each i n t e r v i e w e e was handed t h e probe s h e e t and asked t o i d e n t i f y t h e major t y p e o f p l a n n e r used f o r each l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t . T a b l e 9 summarizes t h e f r e q u e n c y of use f o r each t y p e of p l a n n e r . S e l f - p l a n n e d l e a r n i n g was by f a r t h e most common, a c c o u n t i n g f o r al m o s t 63 p e r c e n t of t h e p r o j e c t s . F o r each group o f t e a c h e r s , 60 p e r c e n t o r more of t h e p r o j e c t s were s e l f - p l a n n e d . F o r each s e l f - p l a n n e d p r o j e c t t e a c h e r s were asked i f t h e y w o u l d have l i k e d a d d i t i o n a l h e l p o r a s s i s t a n c e w i t h t h a t l e a r n i n g . T e a c h e r s responded a f f i r m a t i v e l y f o r o v e r 50 p e r c e n t of th e p r o j e c t s . Tough found t h a t a d u l t s i n h i s s t u d y assumed major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p l a n n i n g 68 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r p r o j e c t (N = 538). K e l l y f ound a s i m i l a r r e s u l t i n h e r s t u d y I n w h i c h s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s assumed 68 p e r c e n t o f t h e major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p l a n n i n g t h e i r p r o j e c t s (N = 315). The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y show t h a t a l m o s t 63 p e r c e n t o f t h e p r o j e c t s were s e l f - p l a n n e d . These r e s u l t s a r e i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h of Tough and K e l l y . .TABLE 9 - MAJOR PLANNERS FOR RETIREMENT LEARNING PROJECTS Types of Planners Self Group with instructor self-formed Number of Learning Projects Total Samples N 125 32 7 39 % 62.5 16.0 3.5 19.5 Active 65 12 _2 14 68.4 12.6 2.1 14.7 Retired N 60 20 __5 25 57.1 19.0 4.8 23.8 Individuals in one-to-one relationship with learner intimate, nonexpert Colleague paid expert non-paid expert 13 6 3 22 6.5 3.0 1.5 11.0 2 _1 7 4.2 2.1 1.0 7.4 4 2 15 11.4 3.8 1.9 14.3 Material Resource Mixed TOTAL 14 200 7.0 100.0 9 95 9.5 100.0 5 105 4.8 100.0 44 Group p l a n n e d l e a r n i n g a c c o u n t e d f o r a l m o s t 20 p e r c e n t o f a l l t h e p r o j e c t s c o n d u c t e d . Most of t h e s e p r o j e c t s i n v o l v e d a s t r u c t u r e d group s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e group and/or i n s t r u c t o r assumed t h e m a j o r r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y f o r p l a n n i n g t h e l e a r n i n g . A g r e a t e r number o f p r o j e c t s w h i c h i n v o l v e d t h i s t y p e o f p l a n n e r were c o n d u c t e d by r e t i r e d t e a c h e r s t h a n by a c t i v e t e a c h e r s . I n d i v i d u a l s i n a one-to-one r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e l e a r n e r were p r o j e c t p l a n n e r s f o r 11 p e r c e n t of a l l t h e p r o j e c t s c o n d u c t e d . I n t i m a t e o r n o n - e x p e r t i n d i v i d u a l s were most o f t e n c i t e d . The m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e was n o t c i t e d as t h e major p l a n n e r i n any r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t . The r e s i d u a l o r mixed c a t e g o r y was used when no one p l a n n e r was c l e a r l y dominant. The p r o j e c t s p l a c e d i n t h i s c a t e g o r y a c c o u n t e d f o r seven p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l sample. S o u r c e s o f I r i f o r i i i a t i d n o r A s s i s t a n c e Someone o r som e t h i n g becomes t h e m a j o r s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n o r a s s i s t a n c e i n most l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s . F o r each p r o j e c t , t e a c h e r s were a s k e d t h i s q u e s t i o n : " I n t h i s p r o j e c t , who o r what was t h e p r i m a r y s o u r c e o f c o n t e n t o r h e l p ; t h a t i s , w h i c h one was of t h e g r e a t e s t a s s i s t a n c e t o you?" The o r i g i n a l c a t e g o r i e s as l i s t e d i n t h e L e a r n i n g P r o j e c t D a t a S h e e t , Appendix B were a l t e r e d t o r e f l e c t t h e a c t u a l r e s p o n s e s from t h i s q u e s t i o n . T a b l e 10 p r e s e n t s t h e d e t a i l e d d a t a . One i n d i v i d u a l s and p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s were used most f r e q u e n t l y as major s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e . The c o m b i n a t i o n of p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l and p e o p l e p r o v i d e d t h e main c o n t e n t and a s s i s t a n c e f o r r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g i n about 22 p e r c e n t of t h e p r o j e c t s . A c t i v e t e a c h e r s were t h e more 45 TABLE 10 - MAJOR SOURCES OF INFORMATION OR ASSISTANCE USED IN RETIREMENT LEARNING PROJECT Number of Learning Proj ects Source Total Sample Active Retired N % N % N % Group or group instructor 28 14.0 12 12.6 16 15.2 Group, self-formed 8 4.0 3 3.2 5 4.8 Individual, friend or relative (other than spouse 13 6.5 5 5.3 8 7.6 Spouse 15 7.5 7 7.4 8 7.6 Paid expert 5 2.5 2 2.1 3 2.8 Colleague(s) 4 2.0 2 2.1 2 1.9 Books, reference materials 26 13.0 11 11.6 15 14.3 Magazines, newspapers, newsletters 15 7.5 10 10.5 5 4.8 A-V resource 1 .5 - - 1 .9 Visits to historical sites, museums 3 21.5 24 25.3 19 18.1 Combination printed material*, people 43 21.5 24 25.3 19 18.1 Combination printed material*, group event 22 11.0 9 9.5 13 12.4 Combination of individuals 17 8.5 10 10.5 7 6.7 TOTAL 200 100.0 95 100.1 105 99.9 * and/or A-V resources 46 frequent users of this, source of information or assistance. The sources of information or assistance leas:t used b.y both, active and r e t i r e d teachers were the self-formed group, paid expert, colleague(s), A-V resource, and, v i s i t s to h i s t o r i c a l s i t e s or museums. Each of these accounted f o r less than 5% of the t o t a l sample. The l a t t e r two sources were not used at a l l by the act i v e teachers i n t h i s sample. Learning f o r Credit To determine the extent of learning undertaken f o r c r e d i t , teachers- were asked i f the retirement learning project was undertaken f o r cr e d i t and the projects were c l a s s i f i e d as eit h e r a c r e d i t or a noncredit a c t i v i t y . Learning f o r c r e d i t represented only 2.9 percent of a l l projects -undertaken by r e t i r e d teachers while 9.5 percent o f the_. .proj ects~ by pre-retir.ed teachers-.were f o r c r e d i t . Extent of Contribution to Retirement L i v i n g Teachers were asked how important each project was i n con-t r i b u t i n g to t h e i r retirement l i v i n g . As indicated i n Table 11, the majority or 66 percent of the learning projects were perceived to be extremely important for retirement l i v i n g . Uncertain value was attached to f i v e learning projects. In each instance, the learning a c t i v i t y was a part of a comprehensive retirement planning experience. Amount Learned Each teacher was asked how much, she f e l t had been learned through each learning project. To a s s i s t i n deciding the degree of learning, a ra t i n g scale indicated three choices: a great deal, a moderate amount, 47 TABLE 11 - PERCEPTIONS OF CONTRIBUTION TO RETIREMENT LIVING Extent'of Contribution Number of Projects Total Sample Active Retired % N % N %, N Extremely important Moderately important Of l i t t l e importance Uncertain TOTAL 132 66.7 63 66.3 69 65.7 61 30.5 28 29.5 33 31.4 2 1.0 - - 2 1.9 5 2.5 4 4.2 1 .9 200 100.0 95 100.0 105 99.9 TABLE 12 - PERCEPTIONS OF LEARNING Number Amount Learned Total Sample N % of Active N % Projects Retired N % Great deal Moderate amount A l i t t l e TOTAL 102 79 19 200 51.0 39.4 9.5 100.0 44 38 13 95 46.3 40.0 13.7 100.0 58 41 6 105 55.2 39.0 5.7 99.9 48 and a l i t t l e . There was p r o v i s i o n f o r t h r e e degrees, o f p e r c e p t i o n w i t h i n each g r o u p i n g (see A ppendix B l . The t e a c h e r s , p e r c e i v e d t h a t a g r e a t amount had been l e a r n e d from t h e p r o j e c t s " . The two groups d i f f e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y on t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f the e x t e n t o f l e a r n i n g f r o m t h e p r o j e c t s . T a b l e 12 shows t h a t a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e of l e a r n i n g was p e r c e i v e d by t h e r e t i r e d t e a c h e r s . B e n e f i t of L e a r n i n g f o r O t h e r s To i n v e s t i g a t e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s were p e r c e i v e d t o be of b e n e f i t t o o t h e r p e o p l e , t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n was a s k e d : "To what e x t e n t d i d t h e knowledge o r s k i l l you g a i n e d p r o v i d e some b e n e f i t t o o t h e r s ? " Three c a t e g o r i e s ( t o a f a i r l y l a r g e e x t e n t , t o a moderate e x t e n t , o n l y t o a s m a l l e x t e n t o r p r o b a b l y n o t a t a l l ) were p r o v i d e d t o a s s i s t t h e s u b j e c t I n r e s p o n d i n g t o t h i s q u e s t i o n s . Each c a t e g o r y had a t h r e e p o i n t range (see A p p e n d i x B ) . T a b l e 13 shows t h a t o v e r h a l f o f t h e p r o j e c t s C57.1 p e r c e n t ) were c l a s s i f i e d as b e n e f i t i n g o t h e r s t o a f a i r l y l a r g e o r moderate e x t e n t . This: may show a s o c i a l awareness on t h e p a r t of t e a c h e r s I n t h e ways t h e y p e r c e i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between t h e i r r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g and t h e impact t h i s has: u l t i m a t e l y on s o c i e t y and t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n s o c i e t y . 49 TABLE 13 - PERCEPTIONS OF BENEFIT OF LEARNING FOR OTHERS Extent of Benefit Number of Projects to Others Total Sample Active Retired - N % N % N % Fairly large extent 60 31.4 30 33.7 30 29.4 Moderate extent 49 25.7 23 25.8 26 25.5 Small extent 21 10.9 11 12.4 10 9.8 Not at a l l 61 31.9 25 28.1 26 35.3 TOTAL 191* 99.9 89 100.0 102 100.0 * Nine projects were identified as ones which were of uncertain benefit to others. 50 L e a r n i n g D i f f i c u l t i e s . To i d e n t i f y problems- e n c o u n t e r e d by teachers- i n t h e i r r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g , s u b j e c t s were asked t o s e l e c t from a l i s t o f t h i r t y - t w o l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s t h o s e w h i c h were m a j o r c o n c e r n s f o r them i n t h e i r l e a r n i n g e f f o r t s . Two l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s f rom K e l l y ' s , ( 1 9 7 6 ) l i s t were d e l e t e d and seven were added. These seven r e l a t e t o c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e o l d e r a d u l t ' s l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e r e l a t i v e t o t h e age o f t h e a d u l t l e a r n e r s . F o r example, I f t h e major p l a n n e r o f t h e l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t i s an e x p e r t o r a p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n , what i s t h e p l a n n e r ' s a t t i t u d e t o t h e o l d e r a d u l t l e a r n e r ? I f t h e l e a r n i n g s i t e i s l o c a t e d a t some d i s t a n c e from t h e o l d e r a d u l t ' s home base, how a c c e s s a b l e i s I t t o t h e l e a r n e r s and i s t h e r e adequate t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a v a i l a b l e ? I f m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s a r e used i n v o l v i n g f o r m a l c o u r s e r e q u i r e m e n t s , w i l l t h e a d u l t l e a r n e r have problems w i t h t h e f o r m a t and t h e mechanics o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s ? I n s e a r c h i n g f o r m a t e r i a l s , w i l l t h e r e be d i f f i c u l t i e s - r e l a t e d t o t h e e f f i c i e n t use of u n i v e r s i t y l i b r a r i e s ? I s t h e s c h e d u l e d t i m e o f t h e d e s i r e d l e a r n i n g a d i f f i c u l t y f o r t h e o l d e r a d u l t ? T a b l e 14 i d e n t i f i e s t h e l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s as c i t e d by t h e t e a c h e r s , and t h e f r e q u e n c y o f t h e r e s p o n s e s . F i n d i n g and a r r a n g i n g t i m e f o r l e a r n i n g , b e i n g a b l e t o r e a d a l l t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e , and k e e p i n g o t h e r concerns- from i n t e r r u p t i n g t h e l e a r n i n g were t h e t h r e e most f r e q u e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . T e a c h e r s i n b o t h g r o u p s e x p e r i e n c e d d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h e s e a r e a s . O b t a i n i n g money f o r t h e p r o j e c t , f i n d i n g an i n t e r e s t e d p e r s o n , g e t t i n g h e l p f r o m o t h e r t e a c h e r s , and m a i n t a i n i n g an i n t e r e s t i n t h e l e a r n i n g p r e s e n t e d no d i f f i c u l t y t o t h e t e a c h e r s i n t h i s sample. 51 TABLE 14 - LEARNING DIFFICULTIES AS CITED BY TEACHERS Number of Teachers Total Sample N % Finding and arranging time forlearning 13 65 Being able to read a l l that i s available 10 50 Keeping other concerns from interrupting the learning 9 45 Securing the materials 7 35 Being confused by contradictory information 7 35 Deciding how to begin 6 30 Knowing where and what materials were available 6 30 Finding someone who was an authority in area 6 30 Dealing with doubts about success 5 25 Contacting someone who could give specific help 5 25 Knowing what had been written on the subject 5 25 Identifying what to learn 4 20 Planning the learning 4 20 Assessing how much you know 4 20 Assessing your progress 4 20 Dealing with d i f f i c u l t i e s in understanding 4 20 some part(s) Setting goals 4 20 Deciding how much you wanted to know 4 20 Deciding which of the materials were most appropriate 3 15 Use of university libraries 3 15 Inadequate transportation 3 15 Accessibility of the learning site 2 10 Deciding whether to begin 2 10 Age factor in professional attitude to learner 2 10 Problems with format and mechanics of 2 10 formal course requirements Locating an appropriate course in the area 1 5 Deciding what methods and techniques to use 1 5 Scheduled time of the desired learning event 1 5 Obtaining money for the project Finding someone who was interested in you and your project Getting other teachers to help you Maintaining your interest in the learning 52 Suggested Changes Within the Teaching Profession To gain insight into the ways which teachers might be assisted with their deliberate learning efforts in retirement act i v i t i e s , the teachers were asked to suggest specific changes within the teaching profession which could f a c i l i t a t e their learning efforts. Of the total sample (N = 20) 40 percent commended the teachers' professional organizations, for their positive service in retirement education. Eighteen suggestions were made by the teachers and six areas of concern emerged from these suggestions (see Table 15). Financial concerns and concerns related to image and esteem elicit e d eleven of the eighteen suggestions. In suggesting that .the teachers' professional organizations investigate ways that the knowledge and experience of retired teachers can be shared, reference was made to positions such as consultants and in-service leaders. Suggested Changes in Society Teachers were asked to suggest specific changes in society which could f a c i l i t a t e their retirement learning efforts. Fourteen changes in society were suggested and four areas of concern emerged from these suggestions: personal development, financial assistance, image and esteem needs, and retirement education programs (see Table 16). Of these four areas, personal development was the major concern, followed by concern for financial assistance and image/esteem needs. The need for retirement education programs was the fi n a l suggestion. The teachers in this sample want f a c i l i t i e s such as community centers, learning centers, and self-fulfillment centers where they can continue to learn, to develop s k i l l s , and to share experiences. They want society to recognize the role of the family in society and to promote concern for the extended family. 53 Learning to be "Undertaken iri the Next Year At the conclusion of the interviews, teachers were asked what new or related retirement projects they would like to conduct in the next year. The response was not high and indicated that teachers did not wish to probe very extensively into what new learning projects would be undertaken. One retired teacher expressed the philosophical view that one is always learning in retirement l i v i n g . She added that new projects are not easily identifiable as they are undertaken usually in response to some new need or to requests by other people. The findings of the study regarding the factors influencing teachers to conduct learning projects support this viewpoint. The greatest number of projects, 65 percent or 130, were initiated in response to a perceived need. Table 17 categorizes the anticipated retirement learning projects into five areas of interest: volunteer work, leisure activity, financial interest, housing and second career. i 54 TABLE 15 - SUGGESTED CHANGES WITHIN THE TEACHING PROFESSION A r e a o f Concern S u g g e s t i o n s F i n a n c i a l A s s i s t a n c e S t r e n g t h e n t h e R e t i r e d T e a c h e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n t h r o u g h a d d i t i o n a l f u n d i n g I n c r e a s e i n s t r u c t i o n and g u i d a n c e i n f i n a n c i a l m a t t e r s P r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o i n f l a t i o n P u b l i c i z e t h e s e r v i c e s o f t h e T e a c h e r s ' C r e d i t U n i o n P r o v i d e i n v e s t m e n t a d v i c e A s s e s s t h e f e e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e t e a c h e r s ' f e d e r a t i o n Mandate l i f e i n s u r a n c e Image/Esteem Needs Do what can be done t o improve t e a c h e r s ' image i n s o c i e t y R e c o g n i z e t h a t t e a c h e r s need esteem from p e e r s w i t h i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n and from s o c i e t y Promote a p o s i t i v e image of t e a c h e r s i n s o c i e t y P r o v i d e f o r p e r s o n a l i t y development s e m i n a r s and work shops L e i s u r e Time Management P r o v i d e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s i n l e i s u r e t i m e management P r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o d e v e l o p t h e p o t e n t i a l of t e a c h e r s i n new ways I n v e s t i g a t e ways t h a t t h e knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e o f r e t i r e d t e a c h e r s can be s h a r e d R e t i r e m e n t R e s e a r c h Support r e s e a r c h and development p r o j e c t s by a c t i v e t e a c h e r s who use e x p e r t s as r e q u i r e d P r o v i d e f i n a n c i a l and m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s f o r r e s e a r c h and development p r o j e c t s on r e t i r e m e n t 55 TABLE 15 - Contd. A r e a o f Concern S u g g e s t i o n s C o n d i t i o n s o f R e t i r e m e n t C h o i c e o f e a r l i e r r e t i r e m e n t Widowhood P r o v i d e l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s r e l a t e d t o widowhood 56 TABLE 16 - SUGGESTED CHANGES IN SOCIETY A r e a o f Concern S u g g e s t i o n s P e r s o n a l Development Community c e n t e r s t o p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the development o f l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s and s k i l l s L e a r n i n g c e n t e r s f o r t e a c h e r s t o s h a r e e x p e r i e n c e s and exchange i d e a s about r e t i r e m e n t l i v i n g S e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t c e n t e r s t h a t encourage c r e a t i v i t y ; p l a c e s where p e o p l e w o u l d f i n d s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h e i r a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s O p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n c r e a s e d e x p o s u r e t o a r t and m u s i c F i n a n c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Image/Esteem Needs Encouragement and o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e v e l o p i n t e r e s t s and g i v e s e r v i c e F i n a n c i a l i n c e n t i v e f o r r e t i r e d t e a c h e r s t o work as e d u c a t i o n c o n s u l t a n t s , t u t o r s , o r s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s R e a l i s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n on i n f l a t i o n t h r o u g h a p p r o p r i a t e community r e s o u r c e s and the media I n s t r u c t i o n and g u i d a n c e i n f i n a n c i a l management f o r r e t i r e d p e o p l e by e x p e r t s i n the community P r o d u c t p r i c e c o n t r o l on e s s e n t i a l f o o d s w i t h s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n s f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s Improvement i n t h e media c o v e r a g e o f r e t i r e m e n t i s s u e s and t h e image p o r t r a y e d b y the media o f o l d e r a d u l t s . R e t i r e m e n t E d u c a t i o n Programs P r o m o t i o n o f c o n c e r n f o r t h e ext e n d e d f a m i l y R e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f t h e f a m i l y i n s o c i e t y and t h e s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f f a m i l y t i e s Improvement o f t h e s t a t u s o f t e a c h e r s i n s o c i e t y : t e a c h e r s t e n d t o be u n d e r r a t e d by s o c i e t y P r o v i s i o n o f r e t i r e m e n t e d u c a t i o n programs o f f e r e d by r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n t h e community a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s t o a l l o w f o r d i v e r s e t e a c h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s TABLE 17 - LEARNING TO BE UNDERTAKEN IN THE NEXT YEAR A r e a s o f I n t e r e s t A n t i c i p a t e d L e a r n i n g P r o j e c t s V o l u n t e e r Work L o c a l community and c h u r c h work L e i s u r e A c t i v i t y F i n a n c i a l I n t e r e s t H o u s i n g Second C a r e e r V o l u n t e e r h o s p i t a l work w i t h p a t i e n t s from o u t s i d e t h e c i t y S e r v i c e s t o s h u t - i n s S t u d y i n g gemology; t a k i n g o r g a n l e s s o n s ; t a k i n g t e n n i s l e s s o n s ; l e a r n i n g a second l a n g u a g e ; r e a d i n g r e l a t e d t o s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t a r e a ; t a k i n g a u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e L e a r n i n g c o n c e r n i n g i n h e r i t a n c e I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f new l i v i n g accommodations W r i t i n g c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a t u r e ; c o r r e s p o n d e n c e l e a r n i n g Note: Some of t h e p r o j e c t s i d e n t i f i e d as "new l e a r n i n g " a r e e s s e n t i a l l y o n - g o i n g p r o j e c t s , and "new" i n t h e sense o f new knowledge o r new s k i l l t h a t w i l l be a c q u i r e d . 58 CHAPTER y SUMMARY, DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Ch a p t e r V r e v i e w s t h e p u r p o s e and m e t h o d o l o g y of t h e s t u d y . A second s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s t h e f i n d i n g s and i n c l u d e s s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . The c o n c l u d i n g recommendations p e r t a i n t o ways t h a t a d u l t e d u c a t o r s , community l e a d e r s , community o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and t e a c h e r s ' p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s can f a c i l i t a t e t h e p r o c e s s o f s e l f - d i r e c t e d r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g and t h u s promote l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h e l a t e r y e a r s . P u r p o s e and M ethodology of t h e Study U n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e l e a r n i n g b e h a v i o r and needs of t e a c h e r s as t h e y assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g may s u g g e s t ways t o f u r t h e r s u p p o r t and exhance t e a c h e r s ' l e a r n i n g e f f o r t s . T h i s i s t h e f i r s t s t u d y o f r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s o f t e a c h e r s . A s u r v e y and a n a l y s i s o f B r i t i s h C o l umbia t e a c h e r s was c o n d u c t e d i n 1979. The main o b j e c t i v e o f t h e s u r v e y and a n a l y s i s c o n d u c t e d by P a t e r s o n and Cook (1979) was t o o b t a i n f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e income, s a v i n g and e x p e n d i t u r e p a t t e r n s o f r e t i r e d t e a c h e r s and t e a c h e r s a p p r o a c h i n g r e t i r e m e n t . The s t u d y d i d n o t r e s e a r c h t h e r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s of t h e s e two groups of t e a c h e r s . R e c o g n i z i n g t h e l a c k of d a t a and a l s o t h e need f o r such d a t a , t h e a u t h o r chose t o examine and compare s e l e c t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s o f r e t i r e d t e a c h e r s and t e a c h e r s n e a r i n g r e t i r e m e n t . The s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e n a t u r e and e x t e n t of t e a c h e r s ' r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s and t o compare t h e n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f t h e p r o j e c t s u n d e r t a k e n by p r e - r e t i r e d and r e t i r e d t e a c h e r s . The p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f two groups o f t e n t e a c h e r s each, s e l e c t e d from t h e Vancouver S c h o o l D i s t r i c t , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Group One i n c l u d e d t e n f e m a l e t e a c h e r s between t h e ages o f s i x t y t o s i x t y - f o u r who were p r e r e t i r e d and were w i l l i n g t o be i n t e r v i e w e d . The t e n f e m a l e t e a c h e r s i n 59 Group Two were between t h e ages o f s i x t y - f i v e t o s i x t y - n i n e who were r e t i r e d and were w i l l i n g t o be i n t e r v i e w e d . Case d e s c r i p t i o n s were assembled and d a t a were c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h i n d e p t h i n t e r v i e w s c o n d u c t e d by the•„author" d u r i n g . J a n u a r y sand. .; F e b r u a r y of 1980. The i n t e r v i e w s f o c u s e d on t e a c h e r s ' d e l i b e r a t e r e t i r e m e n t r e l a t e d l e a r n i n g e f f o r t s . Q u e s t i o n s were asked c o n c e r n i n g what, how and why t e a c h e r s l e a r n and t h e major d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d i n l e a r n i n g . Summary of M a j o r F i n d i n g s The r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t e a c h e r s a r e e x t e n s i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n d e l i b e r a t e l e a r n i n g e f f o r t s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e t o r e a l o r a n t i c i p a t e d r e t i r e m e n t . The ma j o r f i n d i n g s t h a t i d e n t i f y t h e n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f t h e t e a c h e r s ' r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g e f f o r t s a r e summarized. T e a c h e r s c o n d u c t e d an a v e r a g e o f t e n r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s . D i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e number of y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , age, m a r i t a l s t a t u s and e d u c a t i o n a l achievement d i d n o t a c c o u n t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e number of l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s c o n d u c t e d . Teachers p e r c e i v e d the m a j o r i t y o f the r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s as e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t t o t h e i r r e t i r e m e n t l i v i n g , as e f f o r t s i n w h i c h a g r e a t d e a l had been l e a r n e d and w h i c h were t o a f a i r l y l a r g e e x t e n d b e n e f i c i a l t o o t h e r p e o p l e . Over 30 p e r c e n t o f the r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s were d i r e c t e d t o p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n and development, second c a r e e r and s e r v i c e r e l a t e d l e a r n i n g . T e a c h e r s were m o t i v a t e d t o b e g i n the m a j o r i t y o f the l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s i n r e s p o n s e t o p e r c e i v e d needs: f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y , work o r s e r v i c e , s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , h e a l t h maintenance:, and change o r improvement i n r e s i d e n c e . A c t i v e t e a c h e r s d e s c r i b e d an a n t i c i p a t e d use o r a p p l i c a t i o n f o r t h a t l e a r n i n g as a f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h a t l e a r n i n g 60 effort. Learning for credit represented only six percent of a l l the retirement learning projects conducted. Active teachers were more involved in learning for credit than were retired. In the total sample teachers were primarily responsible for planning their own learning. Self-planned projects accounted for 62.5 percent of the projects reported. Each, teacher conducted an average of 6.3 self-planned projects. Teachers- also Indicated a desire for additional assistance with about 50 percent of their self-planned projects. The most commonly used major source of content and assistance for learning was a combination of printed materials and people. The group or group instructor was the second major source. These findings are in accord with the research of Tough (1967, 1968) and Kelly (1976) who found that adults assumed the major responsibility for planning their projects. Spouses were highly supportive of the learning endeavours of the married teachers. They participated in retirement programs, the development of leisure activities, financial planning, and home maintenance and improvement. On the average teachers cited 6.4 learning d i f f i c u l t i e s . The difference between the groups in the number of learning d i f f i c u l t i e s cited was small. The most frequent learning d i f f i c u l t i e s were finding and arranging time for learning, being able to read a l l that is available, and keeping other concerns from interrupting the learning. Teachers in both groups commended their professional organizations, the British. Columbia Teachers' Federation, and the British Columbia Retired Teachers' Association for their work in retirement education. Teachers cited 32 recommendations for changes in society and in certain aspects of the teaching profession. 61 D i s c u s s i o n The r e s e a r c h , r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t b o t h a c t i v e and r e t i r e d t e a c h e r s were e x t e n s i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n d e l i b e r a t e l e a r n i n g e f f o r t s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d o r w o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o s a t i s f a c t i o n i n r e t i r e m e n t l i v i n g . I n t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e i n t e r v i e w s many a c t i v e t e a c h e r s commented t h a t somehow t h e y d i d n o t t h i n k t h e y c o u l d p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n of v a l u e t o t h e s t u d y . I n c o n t r a s t t o t h i s r e s p o n s e , a few r e t i r e d t e a c h e r s began v e r y q u i c k l y t o d i s c u s s d e l i b e r a t e l e a r n i n g e f f o r t s . A l s o , a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s , t h e t e a c h e r s e x p r e s s e d s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e a c h i e v e d l e a r n i n g . They commented on t h e advantages o f t h e p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e i n a s s i s t i n g r e c a l l of f a c t u a l d e t a i l s . The above o b s e r v a t i o n poses q u e s t i o n s t h a t f u t u r e r e s e a r c h m i g h t examine. F o r example, t o what e x t e n t a r e t e a c h e r s a c t u a l l y aware of t h e i r own l e a r n i n g b e h a v i o r , s p e c i f i c a l l y how much, why, what and how t h e y d e l i b e r a t e l y a t t e m p t t o l e a r n , as w e l l as t h e l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s t h e y e n c o u n t e r ? To what e x t e n t w ould such awareness l e a d them t o p u r s u e r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g i n more d e p t h and i n a r e a s t h a t have been i n a d e q u a t e l y c o n s i d e r e d ? How does a t e a c h e r ' s awareness of h e r l e a r n i n g b e h a v i o r i n one a r e a of l i f e a f f e c t o r r e f l e c t h e r o t h e r l e a r n i n g b e h a v i o r ? The v a r i a b l e s of m a r i t a l s t a t u s and e d u c a t i o n a l achievement were no t found t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e e x t e n t o f t e a c h e r s ' r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g e f f o r t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , because t h i s s t u d y f o c u s e d on r e t i r e m e n t r e l a t e d l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s r e l a t e d t o t h e r e t i r e m e n t s t a g e of the l i f e c ycle_ were u n i v e r s a l l y r e f l e c t e d i n t h e l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s 62 c o n d u c t e d . R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e number o f y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , t e a c h e r s i n t h i s age group, s i x t y t o s i x t y - n i n e , r e c o g n i z e d t h e need t o p r e p a r e f o r r e t i r e m e n t l i v i n g . L e a r n i n g f o r c r e d i t r e p r e s e n t e d a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l l e a r n i n g e f f o r t s of t e a c h e r s i n t h i s s t u d y . These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g i s s e l f - m o t i v a t e d as a r e s p o n s e t o d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s r e l a t e d t o one's p e r s o n a l r e t i r e m e n t . Because t h e s e f i n d i n g s were based on a s m a l l sample, n o t randomly s e l e c t e d , r e s e a r c h w i t h l a r g e r samples o f t e a c h e r s i s needed t o examine f u r t h e r t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r r e s u l t s . One t e a c h e r i n t h i s s t u d y commented t h a t she l e a r n s from t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t e a c h i n g . A n o t h e r t e a c h e r made a s i m i l a r comment t h a t she l e a r n e d t h r o u g h h e r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e i n a v o l u n t e e r work s i t u a t i o n . Such l e a r n i n g was n o t i n c l u d e d i n the s t u d y . T h i s s t u d y has c o n s i d e r e d f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e t e a c h e r s t o b e g i n r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s . The a r e a s w h i c h t e a c h e r s b e l i e v e a r e i m p o r t a n t have a l s o been i d e n t i f i e d . P e r h a p s t h i s c o u l d be of v a l u e t o r e t i r e m e n t program p l a n n e r s i n t h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t and c o n c e r n t o t e a c h e r s . I n t h i s s t u d y t h e t e a c h e r s i n d i v i d u a l l y assumed p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p l a n n i n g o v e r 62 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s . I t may be t h a t t h e y c o n s i d e r r e t i r e m e n t p r e p a r a t i o n t o be a s i n g u l a r l y i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Y e t t h e f a c t t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f p r o j e c t s were s e l f - p l a n n e d r a t h e r t h a n p l a n n e d by a c o n s u l t a n t and/or o r g a n i z e d group r a i s e s q u e s t i o n s . I t may be t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l l y o r g a n i z e d r e t i r e m e n t e d u c a t i o n f a i l s t o r e a c h t h e p r e - r e t i r e d a t t h e t i m e s t h e y f e e l t h e need t o l e a r n . T h i s s t u d y found t h a t t h o s e who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n r e t i r e m e n t e d u c a t i o n programs e x p r e s s e d g r e a t s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e programs. I n each i n s t a n c e , t h e t e a c h e r was m o t i v a t e d 63 t o be more a c t i v e i n h e r p e r s o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r r e t i r e m e n t . A l t h o u g h t e a c h e r s i n t h i s s t u d y assumed p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p l a n n i n g t h e i r own r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s , t h e y used a v a r i e t y o f human and m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s . They e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e f o r a d d i t i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e w i t h t h e i r l e a r n i n g e f f o r t s . They a l s o e n c o u n t e r e d d i f f i c u l t i e s . I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t e a c h e r s need a s s i s t a n c e p e r f o r m i n g v a r i o u s t a s k s : i n r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g . R e t i r e m e n t c o n s u l t a n t s may have an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n a l l e v i a t i n g some of t h e s e needs. T e a c h e r s who used t h e r e s o u r c e s made a v a i l a b l e by t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s commented f a v o r a b l y on t h e a s s i s t a n c e t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r o v i d e . F u t u r e r e s e a r c h e x a m i n i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f v a r i o u s t e c h n i q u e s f o r a s s i s t i n g t e a c h e r s w i t h t h e i r r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g would be u s e f u l . 64 Recommeridations The f o l l o w i n g l i s t o f recommendations emerged-from t h e f i n d i n g s of t h e s t u d y and a r e a d d r e s s e d t o a d u l t e d u c a t o r s , community l e a d e r s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and t e a c h e r s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n s : 1. That a d u l t e d u c a t o r s p l a n and implement programs o r a p proaches f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g t e a c h e r ' s r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g w h i c h a d e q u a t e l y r e f l e c t i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r ' s needs, i n t e r e s t s and l e a r n i n g s t y l e s . 2. That r e t i r e m e n t e d u c a t i o n s p o n s o r e d by t h e t e a c h e r ' o r g a n i z a t i o n s ' p r o v i d e d i v e r s e e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h i n p r e - r e t i r e m e n t t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n f o r t e a c h e r s t o p l a n and d i r e c t r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s . 3. That t h e t e a c h e r s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h a v a r i e t y o f r e s o u r c e s e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o t e a c h e r s and r e l e v a n t t o t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g needs. 4. That community l e a d e r s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f f e r a d d i t i o n a l s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r r e t i r e m e n t e d u c a t i o n . 5.. That o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e community p r o v i d e a w i d e r c i r c u l a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n on a v a i l a b l e r e t i r e m e n t e d u c a t i o n programs i n t h e community w h i c h a r e e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o t e a c h e r s . 6. That a s t a f f o f r e t i r e m e n t c o n s u l t a n t s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e t e a c h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s and t h e c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n departments o f t h e l o c a l u n i -v e r s i t i e s be formed t o p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e and f e e d b a c k t o i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s i n d e s i g n i n g and i m p l e m e n t i n g r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s . 7. That p e r s o n s competent i n c o n d u c t i n g s u r v e y s do a d d i t i o n a l s u r v e y s i n t h e community o f t h e r e t i r e m e n t needs and i n t e r e s t s o f o t h e r groups o f a d u l t s i n t h e development o f r e s o u r c e s f o r r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g . 8. That r e t i r e m e n t e d u c a t i o n programs s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f t h e B.C. T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n be expanded i f e v a l u a t i o n of t h e program i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s be w a r r a n t e d . 65 Retirement education is concerned with the quality of lives of individuals and the interdependence of people. Achieving a supportive environment facilitates the on-going task of self-directed retirement learning. 66 BIBLIOGRAPHY Ash, P. "Pre-retirement Counseling." Gerontologist, 6, 1966. Auerbach, L. and Gerber, A. Implications of the Changing Age Structure  of the Canadian Population: Source Book for a Working Party. 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"Employment, Retirement and Morale among Older Women." Journal  of Gerontology. 1976, 31. Johnstone, John W. C. and Rivera, Ramon,J. Volunteers for Learning: A  Study of the Educational Pursuits of American Adults. Chicago: Aldine Press, 1965. Kelley, Nancy Elizabeth. "A Comparative Study of Profe'ssionally Related  Learning Projects of Secondary School Teachers." M.Sc. thesis, Cornell University, 1976. Knowles, Malcolm. The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species. Houston: Gulf Publising Company, 1973. Knowles, Malcolm S. Self-Directed Learning: A Guide for Learners and  Teachers. New York: Association Press, 1975. Knox, Alan B. Adult Development and Learning. San Francisco: Jossey -Bass, 1977. Knox, Alan B. "Lifelong Self-Directed Education." University of I l l i n o i s , 1973. ED 073 346. Lumsden, Barry D. "Educational Implications of Research on Retirement", Educational Gerontology, 1978, Vol. 3, No. 4. Lynch, James H. and Riddell, D. Gail. Pre-Retirement Education: A Multi  Group Discussion Approach. Vancouver, British Columbia: Centre for Continuing Education, University of British Columbia, 1979. 69 Lynch, James H. Two Models for Pre-Retirement Education. Center of Gerontology, Eugene, Oregon: University of Oregon, 1978. Marion, H. V., Owen, C. S., and Lynch, J. H. Plan Now For Your Retirement. Eugene, Oregon: Retirement Services Inc., 1977. Maslow, A.H. Towards a Psychology of Being. New York: D. Van Nostrand Co., 1962. McCoy, Vivian Rogers, "Adult Life Cycle Changes." Lifelong Learning:  The Adult Years, October, 1977. Palmore, CB. "The Effects of Aging on Activities and Attitudes." The  Gerontologist, 1968, 8, 4. Paterson, Cook Limited. British Columbia Teachers' Federation. Survey and Analysis of Expenditures, Incomes and Perceptions of Active  and Retired Teachers in British Columbia. May, 1979. Penland, Patrick R. Self-Planned Learning in America. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Bookstore, 1977. Pyron, H.»C. and Manion, H. V. "The Company, the individual and the Decision to Retire." Journal of Industrial Gerontology, 4, 1970. Report of the National Institute on Aging and the National Institute of Mental Health Workshop. The Older Woman: Continuities and  Discontinuities. Washington: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1979. Sarvis, R. Educational Needs of the Elderly. Washington: Edmonds Community College, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, March 1973. Education Resources Information Center microfiche number ED 075 717. Seltzer, M. M. "Differential Impact on Various Experiences on Breaking Down Old Stereotypes." Educational Gerontology, 1977, 2. Shanus, E. et a l . Old People in Three Industrial Societies, New York: Atherton Press, 1968. 70 Statistics Canada. Canada's Elderly. One of a series from the 1976 census of Canada. Ottawa: Information Canada, 1979. Statistics Canada. Population Projections for Canada and the Provinces, 1972 - 2001. Ottawa: Information Canada, 1974. Streib, G. F. and Schneider, C. J. Retirement in American Society. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1971. Third Career Research Society. Retirement in Alberta: Consumer Report. Edmonton, Alberta: Alberta Department of Advanced Education and Manpower, 1976. Thompson, W. E. "Pre-retirement Anticipation and Adjustment in Retirement." Journal of Social Issues, 1958, 14. Thompson, W. E., Streib, G. F. and Kosa, J. "The Effects of Retirement on Personal Adjustment: A Panel Analysis." Journal of Gerontology, 1960, 15. Tough, Allen. Learning Without a Teacher: A Study of Tasks and Assistance  During Adult Self-Teaching Projects. Toronto: The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, 1967. Tough, Allen. The Adult's Learning Projects: A Fresh Approach to Theory  and Practice in Adult Learning. 2nd ed. Toronto: The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, 1979. Tough, Allen. Why Adults Learn: A Study of the Major Reasons for Beginning and Continuing a Learning Project. Toronto: The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, 1968. Videbeck, R. and Know, A. B. "Alternative Participatory Responses to Aging." In Rose, A. M. and Peterson, W. A. (ed.) Older People and Their Social World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1965, 71 W h i t e House C o n f e r e n c e on A g i n g . W a s h i n g t o n : Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e , 1971. Z i e g l e r , Warren L. The F u t u r e o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and L e a r n i n g i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ( F i n a l r e p o r t under p r o j e c t g r a n t no. OEG-O-73-5232, p r e p a r e d f o r U.S. O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n , D i v i s i o n o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n ) . S y r a c u s e : E d u c a t i o n P o l i c y R e s e a r c h C e n t e r , S y r a c u s e R e s e a r c h C o r p o r a t i o n , 1977. C o n f e r e n c e Tough, A l l e n . O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n , T o r o n t o , O n t a r i o . C o n f e r e n c e , June 21, 1979. 72 APPENDIX A SAMPLE OF INTRODUCTORY LETTER SENT TO TEACHERS 73 The University of British Columbia i Adult Education Department 5760 Toronto Road Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1L2 Dear In the hope of better understanding and assisting teachers in. their self-planned learning ac t i v i t i e s in retirement issues, I am con-ducting a research project involving persons like yourself. As part of the project, I plan to interview a sample of active and retired female teachers in the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t . At this time I am writing to ask i f you would consent to an interview in the interests of retiring teachers. , I think you w i l l find the interview interesting and personally beneficial. It w i l l take approximately 90 minutes. Within the next few days, I ' l l contact you to ask i f you would be willing to be interviewed, and i f so, to arrange a mutually convenient time. We could talk during a day, an evening, sometime on a weekend, or immediately after school. I am prepared to meet at any place convenient to you. The data collected in the interviews w i l l assist teachers in their retirement learning projects, as well as adult educators, social planners, teachers' professional organizations, and persons or groups who serve as f a c i l i t a t o r s of learning. At the present time there is very l i t t l e information available about self-planned retirement learning of teachers: how much time is spent in learning, what is learned, why such projects are undertaken, what types of resources are used, what d i f f i c u l t i e s are encountered in the help-seeking process, and what assistance is needed in learning. Your participation w i l l represent an important contribution in the collective study. The data collected in the interviews w i l l be held in confidence and w i l l not be associated with you personally. You are free to withdraw, without prejudice, at any time during the interview process. This research has been approved by the Adult Education Depart-ment at the University of British Columbia. However, your approval and co-operation is what is important to me and I hope that we can arrange to meet. I look forward to meeting you and talking with you in the near future. Sincerely, Avita M. Curry Graduate Student 74 APPENDIX B SURVEY INSTRUMENT 75 INTERVIEW SCHEDULE* Introduction: Avita Curry Graduate Student, University of B r i t i s h Columbia (Establish a relaxed, trusting atmosphere before beginning the interview. It i s especially important for the interviewee to understand that: l ) I am not an evaluator but a person who has a sincere interest i n education, 2) information i s not personal i n nature, 3) participants w i l l not be identified by name.) I'm conducting a study of the deliberate learning efforts of active and retired school teachers. My research i s about the things teachers t r y to learn concerning retirement, and how they go about their learning. Everyone learns, but different people learn different things and i n different ways. I'm interested i n l i s t i n g the things which you fee l have contributed to your retirement preparation or to your satisfaction i n retirement l i v i n g that you have tr i e d to learn. When I say "learn" I don't just mean learning the sorts of things that people learn i n schools and colleges. I mean any sort of deliberate effort at a l l to learn something or how to do something that relates to retirement l i v i n g . I'm interested i n your attempts to get some information or knowledge, or to gain new s k i l l s or improve your old ones, or to increase your se n s i t i v i t y or understanding or appreciation. I've set up two guidelines to help me decide whether or not I i n c l -uded the things you mention: a. The f i r s t guideline i s that I ' l l only write down those projects which you fee l helped you prepare more effectively or l i v e your retirement years more s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . Anything you attempted to learn to become better prepared as well as anything you have learned which resulted i n or w i l l result i n some contribution to your retirement l i v i n g . b. Finally, I ' l l only write down the learning projects where you made some sort of deliberate effort to learn something or how to do something. A l l of us learn things as a result of such things as casual conversation, watching television or recreational reading. This i s an important kind of learn-ing too, but I did have to set some l i m i t s . This i s why I decided to count only those things that you made a deliberate effort to learn about retirement. ^Adapted from interview schedules used by Allen Tough, James Fair, P a t r i c i a Coolican and Nancy Kelly. 76 1. LIST I..K.AHN3NG PROJECTS a. I w i l l write down the learning projects as you r e c a l l them ... then I have a few questions to ask about each one. b. Can you think of any ef f o r t s to learn that you have made? (Li s t as many learning projects as the teacher can r e c a l l . Write each project on a separate sheet. Use the Learning Project Data Sheet.) c. Probe for the episodes involved i n each project and l i s t them. (Might ask . . . "How did you go about leaning t h i s ? " "V.'hat did you do to pursue t h i s learning?") d. Probes: 1) General Probe: I'm interested i n any deliberate e f f o r t you made to learn something related to retirement l i v i n g . Anything at a l l can be included, regardless of whether i t was easy or hard, big or l i t t l e , important or t r i v i a l , serious or fun, positive or negative as long as i t con-tributed i n some way to your anticipation of retirement or actual l i v i n g experience i n retirement. It doesn't matter when your e f f o r t started, as long as you have spent at least a few hours at i t . Projects which you may have started but not completed for some reason may also be included. I f you can state reason(s) why projects have been discontinued, i t would be helpful to the study. Can you r e c a l l any other e f f o r t s to learn something? 2) Chronological Probe: Think of events i n your l i f e during the past year which may help you r e c a l l learning projects . . . the school year, new career r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , home or family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Or think i n terms of changes i n professional l i f e brought on by personal retirement, or retirement of friends. Perhaps some motivation was received as a result of having an annual physical check-up, completing income tax returns or monthly and yearly budgetary concerns. Or think i n terms of decisions you may have taken to write your w i l l , to change your l i v i n g accommodations or to plan for l e i s u r e and holiday a c t i v i t i e s . 3) Category Probe: In case you have had some learning projects which we may have missed, I ' l l show you a l i s t of some of the things adults learn which may contribute to t h e i r retirement l i v i n g . Please read the sheets through c a r e f u l l y , the items may remind you of other learning projects. (Hand interviewee blue sheet). 77 4 ) Method Trobe; Here is a l i s t of some of the learning resources and methods that adults may sometimes use in their learning. No one would use a l l of these, but in reading the l i s t you may be reminded of some learning projects you have not yet mentioned. (Hand interviewee yellow sheet) 5) Probe Ideas: a) Whenever interviewee mentions some activity or area of her l i f e that you think might have produced other learning projects, ask about this possibility. b) I f interviewee uses something from probe sheets, try to get her to put i t in her own words. c ) Try to be precise about just what the person was trying to learn . . . use 10-15 words to describe the learning project. Also l i s t as many of the episodes as you go along as possible. e. Descriptive Questions: If doubtful about learning activities listed, check criteria: 1) In this activity, was your desire to gain certain definite knowledge and s k i l l . 2) How many hours did you spend on each project? f. O.K., that gives us a f a i r l y complete l i s t . If you think of any other projects while we are talking, be sure to mention them. Now I would like to ask you some questions about each of the learning projects you've mentioned. The questions are the same for each, so after we do the f i r s t one, i t w i l l move along quite rapidly. Note: Shuffle the Learning Project Data Sheets, putting the more concrete ones f i r s t . Put ones you question at the end . . . by the time you get to them, interviewee w i l l recognize whether or not these are deliberate learning projects. Let's begin with your efforts to learn . KNOWLEDGE OR SKILL (EPISODES) For this project, what specific knowledge or s k i l l did you deliber-ately attempt to learn? What did you do to learn this? Did you read anything about _? Did you talk to anyone about _? 78 (Describe the -pacific knowledge or s k i l l und l i s t the details for each learning episode related to this project) 3. EVALUATE THE PROJECT Did you feel project was successful. List reasons. 4. DAY-TO-DAY PLANNER Another aspect of your learning project that I'd like to consider is who or what assumed the major (51$) responsibility for planning your day-to-day learning? That i s , who or what was primarily responsible for the decisions on the sequence and progression of your learning and what activity you would undertake in order to learn most effectively? (Hand interviewee pink sheet. Be sure she understands each type of planner.) What person, group or thing did the deciding regarding your learn-• ing activities and strategies? If no one source.was clearly dominant, just say so. Classify the project according to the four types on the sheet. Additional question for self-planned projects only: Would you have liked more help with this particular project? 5 . DECISION TO UNDERTAKE LEARNING In some projects someone or something helps you decide to begin or to undertake the learning. In this project, who or what helped or made you decide to begin the project? (record specific details) 6 . SOURCE OF INFORMATION OR ASSISTANCE In most learning projects, someone or something becomes the main • source of information or assistance. In this project, who or what was the main source of content or help? or Of a l l the resources that you used in this project, which one was of the greatest assistance to you? 7. CREDIT OR NON-CREDIT Was i t a credit activity? 0 79 8. What is your spouse's attitude toward your learning? (where applicable) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Accepting, Neutral or Negative, supportive indifferent opposition 9. IMPORTANCE OF CONTRIBUTION TO RETIREMENT LIVING I'd like to get an indication of how important you felt this learning project was in contributing to your retirement living, either anticipated or experienced. Would you say that altogether this learning project was: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 extremely moderately of l i t t l e important important importance 10. AMOUNT OF LEARNING How much do you feel you have learned through this learning project? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 a great deal a moderate a l i t t l e amount 11. BENEFIT TO OTHER PEOPLE Let's set aside your own benefits for a moment and look at any benefits for other people. Your new knowledge or s k i l l might have been of some benefit to your spouse, your family, your friends and relatives, or your professional f i e l d . To what extent did the knowledge or s k i l l you gained provide some benefit to people other than yourself? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 to a f a i r l y to a moderate only to a small large extent extent extent; probably not at a l l ( i f so, check 9) 12. LEARNING DIFFICULTIES Now I want to ask you a few questions about your learning in general. 80 In previous research teachers described di f f i c u l t i e s they had in certain learning projects. Here i s a l i s t of d i f f i c u l t i e s that have been recorded from this research. (Hand interviewee purple sheet) Please read through each of the items and t e l l me i f any were major concerns for you in attempting your learning projects. If, in reading the l i s t , you are reminded of other d i f f i c u l t i e s you experienced with your learning, please t e l l me as I'd like as complete a l i s t as possible. CHANGES WITHIN TEACHERS' PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATION What changes within your professional organization d o y° u identify as potentially useful to you in your efforts to learn about retirement? 14. CHANGES WITHIN SOCIETY Now, suppose we were completely free to change society, the people and resources on i t , and indeed the whole system and the way people operate within i t , in any way we wanted to, what specific changes would be most useful to you in your learning efforts' 15. What additional learning projects would you like to undertake in the next year i n retirement related issues? (List) 81 LEARNING CONTENT PROBE SHEET (Blue Sheet) The following l i s t includes some of the things which adults may learn which may contribute to t h e i r retirement l i v i n g . Please read each item c a r e f u l l y as i t might remind you of things about which you have t r i e d to l e a r n . - pension plans; government-sponsored plans, Teachers' Pension Plan - new subject matter; s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t area - self-awareness; s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n - s o c i a l s k i l l s ; e f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; leadership - values c l a r i f i c a t i o n - p o l i t i c s - f i n a n c i a l management - community c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s e r v i c e s , government - c i t i z e n s h i p - teacher's a s s o c i a t i o n - current events; changes i n s o c i e t y ; the future - c u l t u r a l events; t r a v e l ; hobbies - r e l a t i o n s h i p s with spouse, colleagues, family, f r i e n d s - l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s such as g o l f , bridge, swimming - personal development - second career i n t e r e s t s - a l t e r n a t e l i v i n g arrangements - household s k i l l s - entertainment s k i l l s - i n t e l l e c t u a l p u r s u i t s - making a w i l l - community and volunteer s e r v i c e - hobbies: use of camera, p a i n t i n g , w r i t i n g , carpentry, upholstering, home decorating - health care 82 LEARNING METHODS PROBE SHEET (Yellow Sheet) The f o l l o w i n g l i s t includes resources and methods which adults sometimes use i n t h e i r own l e a r n i n g . Please consider each item c a r e f u l l y and t e l l me i f you have used any of these resources or methods f o r your l e a r n i n g i n the past 12 months. Have you d e l i b e r a t e l y learned about something by using: - books; tea c h e r s ' guides; reference books; p e r i o d i c a l s ; newspapers - T.V. documentaries; ' s p e c i a l s ' ; news; e d u c a t i o n a l T.V.; c l o s e d c i r c u i t T.V. - video t a p i n g ; f i l m s ; f i l m s t r i p s ; s l i d e s ; audio tapes; multi-media packages; phonograph records - museum; a r t g a l l e r y ; h i s t o r i c s i t e ; t h eatre - resource c e n t e r ; l i b r a r y ; l a boratory - computer; programmed i n s t r u c t i o n - observations: teachers, schools, community groups, d i f f e r e n t programs - a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ; colleagues; c o n s u l t a n t s ; s p e c i a l i s t s ; doctor, nurse; p s y c h o l o g i s t ; s o c i a l worker; guidance counselor; government or p r o f e s s i o n a l personnel - c l o s e f r i e n d ; r e l a t i v e ; neighbor; spouse - u n i v e r s i t y ; community dollege; department of education; government agency - conferences; s t a f f meetings; committees; 'informal group meetings - encounter groups; s e n s i t i v i t y t r a i n i n g ; T-group; church group - p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s - course of study; workshops; seminars; summer or evening course; correspondence course - graduate work; research 83 LEARNING PROJECT PLANNERS ( P i n k S h e e t ) I ' d l i k e y o u now t o c o n s i d e r each o f y o u r l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s i n terms o f who made t h e d e t a i l e d d a y - t o - d a y d e c i s i o n s a b o u t what y o u s h o u l d l e a r n , what methods y o u s h o u l d emp loy , what m a t e r i a l s o r r e s o u r c e s to use i n each l e a r n i n g e p i s o d e ? 1. Group P l a n n e d L e a r n i n g P r o j e c t s In some l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s , t h e l e a r n e r may d e c i d e t o a t t e n d a g roup and l e t t h e g roup o r i t s l e a d e r d e c i d e what and how he l e a r n s d u r i n g each s e s s i o n . A g roup may be o f any s i z e , w i t h a minimum o f t h r e e p e r -s o n s . Examples w o u l d be w o r k s h o p s , s e m i n a r s , s t u d y g r o u p s , s t a f f m e e t -i n g s , l e c t u r e s , s m a l l i n f o r m a l g r o u p s o f c o l l e a g u e s , autonomous g r o u p s , as w e l l as c o n f e r e n c e s and p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t i e s . 2. One- to -One L e a r n i n g In some l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s , t h e p l a n n i n g and d e c i d i n g o f what t o l e a r n and i n what o r d e r i s h a n d l e d by one p e r s o n who h e l p s t h e l e a r n e r i n a o n e - t o - o n e s i t u a t i o n . The i n t e r a c t i o n i s u s u a l l y f a c e - t o - f a c e a l t h o u g h i t c o u l d be by t e l e p h o n e , o r by c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . Examp les o f t h i s type wou ld be p r i v a t e i n s t r u c t i o n o f some t y p e g i v e n by a n o t h e r t e a c h e r , t h e v i c e - p r i n c i p a l o r p r i n c i p a l , a c o n s u l t a n t , m a s t e r t e a c h e r o r some o t h e r e x p e r t . 3. Med ia P Ianned L e a r n i n g In t h e s e l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s , t h e ma jo r p a r t o f t h e d e t a i l e d d i r e c -t i o n c o n c e r n i n g what t o l e a r n and-'tohat t o do a t e a c h s e s s i o n r e s i d e s i n some o b j e c t — s o m e nonhuman r e s o u r c e . A programmed i n s t r u c t i o n b o o k , a s e t o f t ape r e c o r d i n g s , o r a s e r i e s o f t e l e v i s i o n p rog rams may be t h e s o u r c e o f d i r e c t i o n . The l e a r n e r f o l l o w s t h e p rog rams o r m a t e r i a l s and t hey t e l l him v/hat t o do n e x t . 4. S e l f - P l a n n e d L e a r n i n g In o t h e r l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s , t h e l e a r n e r h i m s e l f r e t a i n s t h e m a j o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e d a y - t o - d a y p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . He may g e t a d v i c e f rom v a r i o u s p e o p l e and use a v a r i e t y o f m a t e r i a l s and r e s o u r c e s bu t he r e t a i n s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e c i d i n g what a c t i v i t i e s t o t r y n e x t , what t o r e a d , and what know ledge and s k i l l s h o u l d be n e x t i n the s e q u e n c e . I n s t e a d o f t u r n i n g t h e j o b o f p l a n n i n g o v e r t o someone e l s e , he makes t h e s e d a y - t o - d a y d e c i s i o n s h i m s e l f . 84 LEARNING DIFFICULTIES (Purple Sheet) The following is a l i s t of difficulties which some teachers have in attempting certain learning projects. Did you experience any of these difficulties with any of your projects? 1. identifying what to learn; 2. deciding whether to begin; 3. deciding how to begin; 4. obtaining money for the project; 5« setting goals; 6. planning the learning; 7. finding and arranging time for learning; 8. deciding what methods and techniques to use; 9. knowing what had been written on the subject; 10. knowing where and what materials were available; 11. deciding which of the materials were most appropriate; 12. securing the materials; 13. being confused by contradictory information; 14. being able to read a l l that i s available; 15. finding someone who was an authority in the area; 16. contacting someone who could give specific help; 17. finding someone who was interested in you and your project; 18. age factor in professional attitude to learner; 19. getting other teachers to help you; 20. accessibility of the learning site; 21. assessing how much you know; 22. dealing with doubts about your success; 23. deciding how much you wanted to know; 24. dealing with difficulty in understanding some part(s); 25. keeping other concerns from interrupting the learning; 26. locating an appropriate course in the area; 27. inadequate transportation; 28. assessing your progress; . 29. maintaining your interest in the learning; 30. problems with format and mechanics of formal course requirements; 31. use of university libraries; 32. scheduled time of the desired learning event. 85 DEMOGRAPHIC DATA* Group and Interview number Card No. 1 Total number learning projects reported Time interview started a.m. p.m. ended a.m. p.m. 1. 2. 6. 7. length of interview i n minutes Age of respondent at l a s t birthday P r i o r to t h i s school year, how many years have you taught? How many years have you been r e t i r e d from active teaching? What grade are you presently teaching: (Applies to active teachers only) M a r i t a l status: 1. Married 2. Single 3. Widow k. Divorced/Separated Beyond your bachelor's degree, what i s your highest university degree completed? 0. None 1. Less than 30 graduate c r e d i t s 2. 30 or more graduate c r e d i t s 3. Master's degree k. Master's degree plus c r e d i t s 5. Doctorate Currently, do you: 1. Rent 2. Own 3. Other Your: 1-2-3 _ **-5 _ 6-7 _ 8-9-10 11-12 13-1^ 15-16 17 18-19 20 21-22 1. Single family dwelling 2. M u l t i p l e family dwelling 3. Other (Specify) (Specify) •Adapted from demographic questionnaire used by P a t r i c i a C o l l i c a n 86 8. This question applies to active teachers only. A f t e r retirement do you plan to: Your: 1. Rent 2. Own 3. Other 23-2'r 1. Single family dwelling 2. M u l t i p l e family dwelling 3. Other (Specify) (Specify) This question applies to r e t i r e d teachers only. P r i o r to retirement, d i d you: 25-26 Your: 1. Rent 2. Own 3. . Other 1. Single family dwelling 2. M u l t i p l e family dwelling 3. Other (Specify) (Specify) 10. What new retirement learning projects would you l i k e to undertake i n the next year? 87 L E A R N I N G P R O J E C T DATA SHEET Group and I n t e r v i e w N u m b e r C a r d I . T o t a l number l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s r e p o r t e d 1. D e s i r e d K n o w l e d g e o r S k i l l : ( C a t e g o r i z e l a t e r ) 1-2-3 4-5 6-7 8-9 E p i s o d e s ; 2. C o n t r i b u t i o n t o Retirement L i v i n g : ( C a t e g o r i z e 1 a t&r) 10-11 3. D a y - t o - D a y P l a n n e r : G r o u p : I n s t r u c t o r " S e l f - f o r m e d g r o u p J n d i v i d u a l : R e l a t i o n s h i p _ E x p e r t : Y e s No _ M a t e r i a l R e s o u r c e M e d i u m _ L e a r n e r M i x e d 1. G r o u p : l e a d e r 2. G r o u p : s e l f -f o r m e d 3. I n d i v i d u a l , c o l l e a g u e 4 . I n d i v i d u a l ; r e l a t i v e , f r i e n d . 5. I n d i v i d u a l , e x p e r t 6. P a i d e x p e r t 7. M a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e __8. S e l f 9. M i x e d 12 88 Interview number 4. Decision to Undertake l e a r n i n g : 13-14 (Categorize l a t e r ) 5. A d d i t i o n a l Help f o r Self-planned Projects Only; 15 0. Not self-planned " l . Yes 2. No 6. Source of Information or Assistance; 16—17 _0. Couldn't determine _1. Group or group I n s t r u c t o r 2. Group: self-formed _3. Knowledgeable i n d i v i d u a l (other than those l i s t e d ) _4. P a i d expert 5. Colleague 6. Administrator _7. L i b r a r i a n 8. Books, pamphlets, magazines, newspaper _9« Programmed materials 10. T.V. and radi o __11. F i l m 12. Recordings 13. Mixed 14. Other 7. C r e d i t : 1. Yes 2. No 8. Spouse's A t t i t u d e Towards Learning: 19 0. Not ap p l i c a b l e 1-2-3. Accepting, supportive .4-5-6. N e u t r a l or i n d i f f e r e n t 7-8-9. Negative, opposition 89 Interview number 9. Importance of Contribution to Retirement  Living,: 0 . Uncertain 1-2-3. Extremely important 4-5-6. Moderately important 7-8-9. Of l i t t l e importance 1 0 . Amount of Learning; 0 . Uncertain 1-2-3. A great deal 4-5-6. A moderate amount 7-8-9. A l i t t l e 1 1 . Benefit to People: 0 . Uncertain 1-2-3. To a fairly large extent 4-5-6. To a moderate extent _. 7-8. Only to a small extent; 9« Probably not at a l l 90 Group and Interview number 1-2-3 Card No. 2 Total number learning projects reported 6-7 12. Learning Difficulties; Total number identified 8-9 1. identifying what to learn 10 2. deciding whether to begin 11 3» deciding how to begin 12 4. obtaining money for the project 13 5. setting goals 14 6. planning the learning 15 , 7. finding and arranging time for learning 16 8. deciding what methods and techniques to use 17 9. knowing what had been written on the subject 18 10. knowing where and what materials were available 19 11. deciding which of the materials were most appropriate 20 12. securing the materials 21 13. being confused by contradictory information 22 14. being able to read a l l that i s available 23 __15. finding someone who was an authority i n the area 24 16. contacting someone who could give specific help 25 • 17. finding someone who was interested in you and your project 26 18. age factor i n professional attitude to learner 27 19. getting other teachers to help you 28 20. accessibility of the learning site 29 21. assessing how much you know 36 22. dealing with doubts about your success 31 23. deciding how much you wanted to know 32 24. dealing with d i f f i c u l t y in understanding some part(s) 33 25. keeping other concerns from interrupting the learning 34 26. locating an appropriate course in the area 35 27. inadequate transportation 36 28. assessing your progress 37 . 29. maintaining your interest in the learning 38 30* problems with format and mechanics of formal course requirements 39 31. use of university libraries 40 32. scheduled time of the desired learning event 41 91 I n t e r v i e w number . 13. Changes Within Teachers' Professional Organization: (Categorize later) h- Changes In Society: (Categorize later) «HrHj^nn « T _ T^arning Projects in Retireme, • . — 1 I 92 APPENDIX C VIVIAN McCOY TYPOLOGY 93 RETIREMENT, AGE 65+ * Tasks: 1. Disengage from paid work. 2. Reassess finances. 3. Be concerned with personal health care. 4. Search for new achievement outlets. 5. Manage leisure time. 6. Adjust to more constant marriage companion. 7. Search for meaning. 8. Adjust to single state. 9. Be reconciled to death. 10. Problem solve. 11. Manage stress accompanying change. Program Response: I, 4,5,6. Workshops on retirement, volunteering, aging; conferences on public issues affecting aged. 2. Financial management training. 3. Health care programs. 7. Religious exploration. 8. Workshops on aloneness and loneliness. 9. Death and dying workshops. 10. Creative problem solving workshops. II. Stress management, biofeedback, relaxation, TM workshops. Outcomes Sought: I, 4,5,6. Creative, active retirement; successful coping with l i f e disengagement; public policies responsive to needs of aged. 2. Freedom from financial fears. 3. Appropriate health care. 7. Help in search for l i f e ' s meaning, values of past l i f e . 8. F u l f i l l e d single state. 9. Philosophic acceptance of death, help in caring for dying and handling of grief. 10. Successful problem solving. II. Successful stress management, personal growth. * Source: Vivian McCoy, 1977. 94 APPENDIX D CASE STUDY ABSTRACTS 95 Case Study Abstracts CASE A. Miss A. i s a 68-year old retired teacher currently involved in community and professional service. She expressed reservations about discussing learning specifically related to retirement satisfaction as she regards her retirement living style a natural extension of her personal history wherein a l l things simply dove-tail after 35 years of teaching service, the satisfaction she experiences now is principally related to the service orientation of her l i f e - s t y l e wherein she makes use of her administrative s k i l l s . Her volunteer work promotes professional and social contacts. Her retirement attitude i s to be of service to society. Three learning projects of a participatory nature were discussed. Each of these contributed to professional competency. The primary resource in each instance has been Miss A. herself, and the secondary resource has been the administrative groups with whom she works. Factors such as good health, a comfortable home, and planned financial security also contribute to her present satisfaction in retirement livin g . CASE B. Miss B. age 69, taught school for thirty-nine years and has been retired from active teaching for five years. She has a life-threatening illness which limits her satisfaction in retirement l i v i n g . Despite this dissatisfier, her l i f e - s t y l e and attitude towards retirement living are positive. Nine learning projects contributing to satisfaction in retire-ment living were identified and discussed. Miss B. regarded the approach of retirement as a transitional stage and accordingly did careful planning. Prior to retirement, she sold her home and purchased an apartment in an area that offered the advantages she was seeking; namely, convenience of shopping, bus transportation, and nearness to relatives. She did not want 96 t o l i v e i n a h i g h - r i s e apartment and she wanted one t h a t had a p r i v a t e e n t r a n c e o p e n i n g t o t h e o u t - o f - d o o r s . F i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y was p l a n n e d . Her p r i n c i p a l r e s o u r c e s were two p e r s o n s w i t h e x p e r t i s e i n f i n a n c i a l p l a n -n i n g ; one was a f r i e n d and t h e o t h e r a bank manager. She a l s o c o n s u l t e d w i t h p e r s o n n e l a t t h e B.C. T e a c h e r s C r e d i t U n i o n . Some of t h e l e a r n i n g e p i s o d e s r e l a t e d t o l e g a l q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g a s s e t s , t a x laws p e r t i n e n t t o h e r w i l l , and b a s i c monetary u n d e r s t a n d i n g s p e r t a i n i n g t o c a s h , t a x e s , l i f e i n s u r a n c e , t y p e s o f i n v e s t m e n t s , b u d g e t i n g , and s t r a t e g i e s t o o f f s e t i n f l a t i o n . The r e d u c t i o n o f expenses i n c u r r e d i n t h e p u r c h a s e o f h e r apartment p r i o r t o r e t i r e m e n t were p a r t of t h e p l a n t o c u t down on major expenses a f t e r r e t i r e m e n t . Her l i f e - s t y l e p r o v i d e s f o r t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n of s o c i a l c o n t a c t s w i t h f a m i l y and f r i e n d s t h r o u g h home e n t e r t a i n m e n t and b r i d g e a t B r o c k House, w h i c h i s a c e n t e r f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s . The r e s o u r c e s i n i m p r o v i n g h e r b r i d g e s k i l l s have been l e s s o n s a t t h e c e n t e r and l i t e r a t u r e on b r i d g e . R e a d i n g i s a l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t f o r h e r b e s i d e s h a v i n g a r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e . She has a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l s and b e l o n g s t o a Book o f t h e Month C l u b . She m a i n t a i n s h e r l e a r n i n g r e g a r d i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e r e t i r e d t e a c h e r s p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t h r o u g h r e a d i n g t h e l i t e r a t u r e and by a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h f o r m e r c o l l e a g u e s . CASE C. M i s s C , age 60, has been an a c t i v e t e a c h e r f o r t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s . T e a c h i n g I s a second c a r e e r f o r h e r , as she s e r v e d s e v e r a l y e a r s w i t h t h e armed f o r c e s . She has alw a y s been a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n p r o -f e s s i o n a l and community c i r c l e s . F o u r t e e n l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s w h i c h s h o u l d promote s a t i s f a c t i o n i n r e t i r e m e n t l i v i n g were i d e n t i f i e d and d i s c u s s e d . Four p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t s a r e a s were i d e n t i f i e d : t h e community, t h e government, p e r s o n a l development, and f i n a n c i a l p l a n n i n g . Her o r i e n t a t i o n towards r e t i r e m e n t l i v i n g i s t o rem a i n u s e f u l t o t h e e d u c a t i o n a l system and t o c o n t r i b u t e t o l o c a l community work. Her a t t i t u d e i s e x p r e s s e d i n th e p h r a s e " t h e h a p p i e s t days a r e t h e days something u s e f u l has been a c c o m p l i s h e d " . M i s s C. i s c o n s i d e r i n g a t h i r d c a r e e r i n c r i m i n o l o g y , and has s t a r t e d a c o r r e s p o n d e n c e c o u r s e i n t h i s f i e l d . As a f u t u r e l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t , she would a l s o l i k e t o r e s e a r c h what she d e s c r i b e d as t h e o v e r -use o f t h e b u r e a u c r a t i c modes. CASE D. Mrs. D., age 65, has an a r t s t u d i o on h e r home p r o p e r t y . Here i n w e l l - l i g h t e d ample space she spends whole w o r k i n g days amid p o t t e r y , p a i n t i n g , macrame, b a t i k , and c a l l i g r a p h y . E v e r y t h i n g d i s p l a y e d i n t h e s t u d i o i s h e r han d i w o r k . A f t e r t h i r t y - t w o y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g s e r v i c e , she r e t i r e d f rom a c t i v e t e a c h i n g s i x y e a r s ago b u t tod a y s c h e d u l e s a h o l i d a y much, t h e same as when she was an a c t i v e t e a c h e r . There a r e l a r g e windows •the s t u d i o and on n i c e days t h e room i s s u n - f i l l e d . W h i l e she wo r k s , she l i s t e n s t o music and o b v i o u s l y h e r work i s a d e l i g h t t o h e r . Some o f h e r a r t i s t i c work i s d i s p l a y e d i n g a l l e r i e s and s o l d . She a l s o t e a c h e s n i g h t c l a s s e s . She l o o k s back w i t h a sense o f s a t i s f a c t i o n on h e r a c t i v e t e a c h i n g c a r e e r , and c l a i m s t h a t a r t i s b a s i c . She i s as i n v o l v e d i n h e r l o v e and p u r s u i t o f e x c e l l e n c e i n a r t as she was i n h e r t e a c h i n g c a r e e r . Now she. has added t i m e f o r c r e a t i v e work. Mrs. D. i d e n t i f i e d s e v e n l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s r e l a t e d t o s a t i s f a c t i o n i n r e t i r e m e n t l i v i n g . Her c u r r e n t l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s i n a r t and mu s i c can be d e s c r i b e d as b o t h m aintenance l e a r n i n g and p a r t i c i p a t o r y l e a r n i n g ( L y n c h , 1978). L e a r n i n g r e l a t e d t o f i n a n c i a l p l a n n i n g was s h a r e d i n by h e r husband. 98 CASE E. Miss E., age 67, was an active teacher for thirty-nine years. It has been three years since her retirement. Prior to retirement she purchased the apartment in which she currently lives. She has daily engagements and maintains professional and social relationships. She sees the latter as being particularly important for satisfaction in retirement l i v i n g . She. has adequate financial security and good health. She pursues both Intellectual and aesthetic interests. Nine self-directed learning projects were identified. She has membership in a number of clubs and a church auxiliary group which alternately provides musical programs-, lectures, discussion sessions, slide shows, and motivation for Independent study. Miss E. is enjoying her retirement. CASE F. Miss F., age 67, has been retired for five years and is sharing a self-owned apartment with her sister. Her interests reflect good taste and an appreciation of beauty. Miss F. attends selected university lectures, concerts, symphonies, and has membership in special interest clubs- and groups such, as the Vancouver Opera Club, and a camera club. Both she and her sister enjoy travelling. Primarily, travel has been a learning experience for them through deliberate study prior to travel. Six retirement learning projects were identified. She enjoys the social and group orientation of her learning. CASE G. Miss G., age 69, was an active teacher for forty-five years. Her accomplishments evidence a marvellous enthusiasm for life-long 99 l e a r n i n g . M i s s G. has h a n d - w r i t t e n s e v e n books on music and l i t e r a t u r e a p p r e c i a t i o n . Her l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s have i n c r e a s e d h e r knowledge and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f Japanese and O r i e n t a l a r t and l i t e r a t u r e . She has p r e -p a r e d w r i t t e n and i l l u s t r a t e d c o l l e c t i o n s o f t h e c u l t u r e and a c h i e v e m e n t s o f n i n e A s i a n c o u n t r i e s . A l l o f t h i s w r i t i n g and c o l l e c t i n g has been s e l f -m o t i v a t e d , and g r e a t l y enhances h e r r e t i r e m e n t l i v i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n . She r e g u l a r l y a t t e n d s c u l t u r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l e v e n t s . She i s a v i b r a n t woman and n a t u r a l l y h o s p i t a b l e . E i g h t e e n l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s were i d e n t i f i e d . CASE H. Mrs. H., age 60, has been a c t i v e l y engaged i n t e a c h i n g f o r t h i r t y - o n e y e a r s . The seven l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s she i d e n t i f i e d d e m o n s t r a t e s e l f - d i r e c t e d p l a n n i n g f o r t h e maintenance o f h e a l t h , and f o r t h e s o c i a l , f i n a n c i a l , and c o n t r i b u t o r y a s p e c t s o f r e t i r e m e n t . F o r example, she d e v e l o p e d an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e and' d i e t a r y program. P l a n n i n g f o r f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y was j o i n t l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n by Mrs. H. and h e r husband. A number o f Mrs. H.'s p r o f e s s i o n a l and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s w i l l c a r r y on i n t o r e t i r e m e n t l i v i n g . However, i f she d e s i r e s , t h e f o r m a l s t u d y she has engaged i n o v e r t h e p a s t s e v e r a l y e a r s can be r e - d i r e c t e d toward a second c a r e e r . CASE I . M i s s I . , age 60, who was an a c t i v e t e a c h e r f o r t h i r t y - s e v e n y e a r s , has been r e t i r e d f o r t h r e e y e a r s . She i s l i v i n g i n t h e f a m i l y house where she has t h e c a r e o f an a g e i n g and a i l i n g p a r e n t . Up t o t h e t i m e o f M i s s I's r e t i r e m e n t , h e r mother d i d n o t r e q u i r e a l i v e - i n companion. Both th e c i r c u m s t a n c e o f l i v i n g i n h e r own home and c a r i n g f o r an a i l i n g mother have m o t i v a t e d l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s . E l e v e n p r o j e c t s were i d e n t i f i e d . She 100 i s r e m o d e l l i n g t h e basement t o i n c r e a s e t h e s a l e v a l u e o f t h e house a t a l a t e r d a t e . She has a l s o u n d e r t a k e n d e l i b e r a t e l e a r n i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e e m o t i o n a l and p r a c t i c a l a d j u s t m e n t s she has had t o make i n r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e u n a n t i c i p a t e d t u r n of e v e n t s r e l a t e d t o t h e c a r e o f h e r mother. She r e c o g n i z e s a need f o r freedom i n a s p e c t s of h e r l i f e t h a t she f i n d s n e c e s s a r y and f u l f i l l i n g . N i n e o t h e r s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s were i d e n t i f i e d t h a t d e m o n s t r a t e r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s i n h e r p a r t i c u l a r l i f e s i t u a t i o n . She a t t e n d s u n i v e r s i t y l e c t u r e s , and p a r t i c i p a t e s i n yoga and swimming l e s s o n s . She has t a k e n a c o r r e s p o n d e n c e c o u r s e i n an i n t e r e s t a r e a t h a t m ight l e a d t o a second c a r e e r . C u r r e n t measures t o c o u n t e r a c t i n f l a t i o n i n c l u d e c o m p a r a t i v e s h o p p i n g , u s i n g t h e c i t y b u s - s e r v i c e i n s t e a d o f h e r c a r , b u d g e t i n g , r e m o d e l l i n g c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s o f h e r house w i t h a v i e w to f u t u r e r e n t a l o r s a l e , and k e e p i n g an i n v e n t o r y of p e r s o n a l and h o u s e h o l d expenses. CASE J . Miss- J . , an a c t i v e t e a c h e r , age 62, was one o f two s u b j e c t s I n t h i s s t u d y who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a four-week r e t i r e m e n t p l a n n i n g program s p o n s o r e d by t h e Vancouver S c h o o l B o a r d . She has n i n e y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e and a f t e r t a k i n g t h e program she became a r e t i r e m e n t c o n s u l t a n t . T h i s meant a c o n t i n u a t i o n of s t u d y o f r e t i r e m e n t i s s u e s . Ten l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s were i d e n t i f i e d . She w o u l d l i k e t o become more i n v o l v e d w i t h t h i s work a f t e r h e r r e t i r e m e n t . She would a l s o l i k e t o t e a c h c h i n a p a i n t -i n g , a s k i l l she r e q u i r e d from h e r mother and has d e v e l o p e d on h e r own. As a widow, she went t h r o u g h bereavement and r e a d j u s t m e n t . She t h i n k s i t i s i m p o r t a n t f o r c o u p l e s t o c o n s i d e r t h i s e v e n t u a l i t y as t h e y p r o g r e s s i n age, and t o p r e p a r e t h e m s e l v e s b o t h a t t i t u d i n a l l y and p r a c t i c a l l y . 101 CASE K. Mrs. K., age 60, has been a c t i v e l y engaged i n t e a c h i n g f o r t w e n t y - f o u r y e a r s . Through l o n g - t e r m p l a n n i n g , she and h e r husband have been p r e p a r i n g f o r t h e i r r e t i r e m e n t l i v i n g . E a r l y i n t h e i r m a r r i a g e t h i s c o u p l e began t o t a k e s t e p s t o s e c u r e t h e i r f i n a n c i a l f u t u r e . T h i s n e c e s s i t a t e d l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s s u c h as i n v e s t i g a t i n g how t o buy and s e l l homes. I n a d d i t i o n , M r s . K. has t a k e n c o u r s e s a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y t o i n c r e a s e h e r l i c e n c e and p e n s i o n b e n e f i t s upon r e t i r e m e n t . More r e c e n t l y t h e y have p u r c h a s e d l a n d and a r e b u i l d i n g a home on t h e p r o p e r t y . The c h o i c e o f t h e p r o p e r t y and t h e t y p e o f house d e c i d e d upon f o l l o w e d upon m u t u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e r e a s o n s each p e r s o n i d e n t i f i e d . I n r e s p e c t t o t h e p r o p e r t y a r e a , some o f t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were: t h e community; c l o s e n e s s t o f a m i l y and f r i e n d s ; a c c e s s t o p r e f e r r e d s h o p p i n g a r e a s , h e a l t h s e r v i c e s , and c h u r c h ; ease o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ; and, s u i t a b i l i t y o f t h e a r e a f o r w a l k i n g and b i k i n g . They p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e B.C. Tea c h e r s F e d e r a t i o n r e t i r e m e n t p l a n n i n g program o v e r s e v e r a l weeks. T h i s m o t i v a t e d e i g h t l e a r n -i n g p r o j e c t s i n r e t i r e m e n t i s s u e s . Three f u t u r e l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s i d e n t i f i e d by Mrs. K. were t o t a k e o r g a n l e s s i o n s f o r p l e a s u r e , t o s t u d y gemmology out of i n t e r e s t , and t o t a k e t e n n i s l e s s o n s w i t h h e r husband. .'CASE L. Mrs. L., age 60, i s i n h e r t h i r t y - f i f t h y e a r o f t e a c h i n g . She p l a n s t o r e t i r e a t t h e c l o s e o f t h e p r e s e n t s c h o o l y e a r , and i s l o o k i n g f o r w a r d t o i n c r e a s e d i n v o l v e m e n t i n c u r r e n t community and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . C o n s i d e r a t i o n i s b e i n g g i v e n t o new p o s s i b i l i t i e s w h e r e i n she can b e s t f u l f i l l h e r i n t e r e s t and be o f s e r v i c e t o o t h e r s . One o f t h e s e i s c h u r c h r e l a t e d y o u t h work. Her m o t i v a t i o n i s t h a t she w i l l be r e t i r i n g b e f o r e 102 • • h e r husband and does n o t want t o spend a l l h e r t i m e a t home. She and h e r husband have a c q u i r e d knowledge and s k i l l t h r o u g h l e s s o n s w i t h e x p e r t s and by p r a c t i c e i n a c t i v i t i e s t h e y e n j o y t o g e t h e r s u c h as g o l f and b r i d g e . They have p l a n n e d f o r t h e i r f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y and a r e i n good h e a l t h . E i g h t l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s t h a t s h o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o s a t i s f a c t i o n i n r e t i r e m e n t l i v i n g were i d e n t i f i e d by Mrs. L. and t h e s e were c o n c e r n e d w i t h l e a d e r s h i p s k i l l s , h e a l t h c a r e , c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s , e n t e r t a i n m e n t s k i l l s , community and v o l u n t e e r s e r v i c e , and r e c r e a t i o n s k i l l s . CASE M. Mrs. M., age 60, has been t e a c h i n g f o r t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s . She i d e n t i f i e d e i g h t r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s . Among t h e s e were f i n a n c i a l p l a n n i n g , c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n , change i n l i v i n g accommodation, h e a l t h c a r e , and c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . S e v e r a l e p i s o d e s p e r t a i n i n g t o each p r o j e c t were l i s t e d . F o r example i n h e r t r a v e l e x p e r i e n c e s , she h a b i t u a l l y r e s e a r c h e s t h e p l a c e o r c o u n t r y where she has p l a n n e d t o t r a v e l , has c o n s i d e r e d t h e l i m i t s and adequacy o f t h e f i n a n c i a l i n v e s t m e n t , and has sometimes had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o expand h e r i n f o r m a t i o n by group m e e t i n g s p r i o r t o t r a v e l . She e n j o y s t r a v e l l i n g and would l i k e t o c o n t i n u e t o t a k e an a n n u a l h o l i d a y a f t e r r e t i r e m e n t . To t h i s end t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f f i n a n -ces has been f u t u r e - o r i e n t e d . Mrs. M. i d e n t i f i e d two l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s she a n t i c i p a t e s i n h e r f i r s t y e a r f o l l o w i n g r e t i r e m e n t . One i s t o e n r o l l I n a f i n e a r t s c o u r s e as m u s i c i s one df h e r h o b b i e s . The o t h e r i s t o t a k e a second language program; t h e l i k e l y c h o i c e w i l l be S p a n i s h . She . c u r r e n t l y e v i d e n c e s e n t h u s i a s m and p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m i n h e r work, and l o o k s f o r w a r d w i t h a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t o t h e enjoyment o f a v o c a t i o n a l and l e i s u r e uses o f t i m e i n r e t i r e m e n t . 103 CASE N. Mrs. N., age 60, has been t e a c h i n g f o r twenty y e a r s . Her w i l l i n g -n e ss t o be c o - o p e r a t i v e and r e s p o n s i v e t o t h e i n t e r v i e w on l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s r e l a t e d t o r e t i r e m e n t c o n t a i n e d a measure of h e s i t a t i o n . The e x p r e s s e d r e a s o n s were a l o v e f o r t e a c h i n g and an i n t e n t i o n t o c o n t i n u e i n h e r c a r e e r as l o n g as age r e s t r a i n t s a l l o w e d . A c o n c e r n t h a t changes i n h e r income a f t e r r e t i r e m e n t would l i m i t h e r t o o s e v e r e l y , and t h e a p p r e h e n s i o n t h a t h e r c o n t r i b u t i n g r o l e i n s o c i e t y would be s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d c o n t r i b u t e d t o a n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e towards r e t i r e m e n t . Aware o f t h e s e f a c t o r s , Mrs. N. has been r e s o u r c e f u l l y i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e community as an environment f o r new p u r s u i t s . Each Sunday she has been c o n t r i b u t i n g t h r e e h o u r s o f h e r t i m e t o v o l u n t e e r work i n a h o s p i t a l emergency ward. Twelve l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s were d i s c u s s e d . Her husband has been s u p p o r t i v e o f h e r c o n c e r n s and l e a r n i n g e n d e a v o u r s . CASE 0. Mrs . 0., age 68, has been r e t i r e d f o r t h r e e y e a r s a f t e r t e a c h i n g f o r s e v e n t e e n y e a r s . T h i r t e e n r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s were i d e n t i f i e d and d i s c u s s e d . Two o f t h e s e , f i n a n c i a l p l a n n i n g and h y d r o p o n i c s , were j o i n t l y s h a r e d i n by h e r husband. S i n c e r e t i r e m e n t Mrs. 0. has been p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a q u a e x e r c i s e w i t h a group d i r e c t e d by an e x p e r t , and t h i s i n c l u d e s swimming and d i v i n g l e s s o n s . She i s a l s o s t u d y i n g B r a i l l e w i t h t h e h e l p o f an e x p e r t and t h i s a s s i s t s h e r i n h e r t u t o r i n g s e r v i c e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g a w i f e and homemaker, t u t o r i n g i s h e r a v o c a t i o n . She keeps h e r knowledge c u r r e n t by r e a d i n g new l i t e r a t u r e and by s h a r i n g knowledge w i t h c o l l e a g u e s . She f e e l s she i s as busy as she was as an a c t i v e t e a c h e r but w i t h an i n c r e a s e d sense o f p e r s o n a l freedom. 104 CASE P. Mrs. P., age 63, has been a s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r f o r t w e n t y -t h r e e y e a r s . She has undertaken- t e n l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s r e l a t e d t o s a t i s -f a c t i o n i n r e t i r e m e n t l i v i n g . A f t e r t h e d e a t h o f h e r husband, she d e c i d e d on a l t e r n a t e l i v i n g a r r angements. T h i s meant t h e s a l e o f h e r home and t h e p u r c h a s e o f a condominium. The d e c i s i o n on t h e l o c a t i o n was c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d . Mrs. P. wanted t o l i v e i n a s a f e n e i g h b o r h o o d , t o be n e a r h e r c h u r c h and p r e f e r r e d s h o p p i n g a r e a s , and t o have t h e c o n v e n i e n c e o f bus s e r v i c e . She wanted a ground f l o o r apartment w i t h y a r d s p a c e , so t h a t she c o u l d c o n t i n u e g a r d e n i n g . A l l o f t h e s e f a c t o r s were dependent upon h e r f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s . I t was a major i n v e s t m e n t t h a t she wanted t o have c o m p l e t e l y p a i d f o r b e f o r e r e t i r e m e n t . T h i s has been a c c o m p l i s h e d . A n o t h e r major l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t demanding a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f h e r a v a i l a b l e t i m e has .been h e r c h u r c h a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h i n c l u d e l e c t u r e s , d i s c u s s i o n g r o u p s , r e a d i n g s , and works o f c h a r i t y . She knows t h i s w i l l c o n t i n u e as a ma j o r i n t e r e s t i n t o r e t i r e m e n t . She has p u r c h a s e d an o r g a n and has t a k e n l e s s o n s . A f t e r r e t i r e m e n t , she i n t e n d s t o c o n t i n u e w i t h , t h e l e s s o n s . She i s a l s o t a k i n g yoga l e s s o n s , and hopes: t o c o n t i n u e w i t h group l e s s o n s o r c l u b membership a f t e r r e t i r e m e n t . I n h e r r e t i r e m e n t y e a r s , she would l i k e t o do v o l u n t e e r s e r v i c e w i t h c h i l d r e n h a v i n g m o t o r - p e r c e p t i o n h a n d i c a p s . I n t h i s way she would s t i l l be u s i n g h e r t e a c h i n g s p e c i a l i t y . CASE Q. Mrs. Q., age 60, has been r e t i r e d f rom t e a c h i n g f o r seven y e a r s . T e a c h i n g was a s e c o n d a r y c a r e e r t o t h a t o f w i f e , mother, and homemaker. As h e r c h i l d r e n Became l e s s dependent on h e r i n t h e home she r e t u r n e d t o u n i v e r s i t y as a mature s t u d e n t and s u b s e q u e n t l y began h e r t e a c h i n g c a r e e r . 105 She has a l w a y s k e p t up s o c i a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l and l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , and now h a v i n g r e t i r e d f rom t e a c h i n g would n o t c a l l h e r p r e s e n t l i f e - s t y l e r e t i r e m e n t l i v i n g . She v i e w s h e r a d u l t l i f e as a whole w i t h i n w h i c h t h e r e has been development and f o r w a r d movement b u t has d i f f i c u l t y i n a c c e p t i n g t h e n o t i o n o f a r e t i r e m e n t l i f e s t a g e . F i f t e e n l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s were i d e n t i f i e d as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o h e r p r e s e n t l i f e s a t i s f a c t i o n as a n o n - a c t i v e t e a c h e r . On t h e s o c i a l and community l e v e l s , she works i n a h e a l t h c e n t e r f o r c h i l d r e n and t o be more e f f e c t i v e , she has r e c e n t l y s t u d i e d s i g n l a n g u a g e . Her work i s w i t h c h i l d r e n who n e i t h e r speak n o r h e a r . Through h e r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a women's group, she does v o l u n t e e r work w i t h t h e e l d e r l y and has t h r o u g h s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g i n c r e a s e d h e r knowledge of g e r i a t r i c c a r e . She l i k e s t o e n t e r t a i n f a m i l y members and f r i e n d s , and c o n s e q u e n t l y makes a hobby o f c o l l e c t i n g and t r y i n g new r e c i p e s and i n v e s t i g a t i n g home d e c o r a t i n g . She a t t e n d s i n s t i t u t e l e c t u r e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and r e a d s t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o h e r s p e c i a l i t y i n e d u c a t i o n . Her l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e swimming, g a r d e n i n g , and p h o t o g r a p h y . CASE R. M i s s R., age 63, has been an a c t i v e t e a c h e r f o r f o r t y - f o u r y e a r s . R e c e n t l y she went t h r o u g h bereavement f o l l o w i n g t h e d e a t h o f h e r mother who had a l o n g m e d i c a l h i s t o r y o f c a n c e r , and t o whom she had g i v e n many y e a r s o f d e v o t e d c a r e . She d i d c o n s i d e r a l t e r n a t e l i v i n g a c c o m o d a t i o n s but d e c i d e d t o c o n t i n u e l i v i n g i n t h e f a m i l y home. E i g h t r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s were i d e n t i f i e d and d i s c u s s e d . One o f t h e s e d e v e l o p e d from h e r i n t e r e s t i n p h o t o g r a p h y . She b e l o n g s t o a p h o t o graphy c l u b and e n t e r s h e r s l i d e s i n c o m p e t i t i o n . The j u d g e s sometimes t u r n t h e e v e n t i n t o a l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e w i t h l e c t u r e s and s l i d e shows. She has done c o n s i d e r a b l e s t u d y i n p h o t o g r a p h y and m ight i n v e s t i g a t e w o r k i n g i n a p h o t o - f i n i s h i n g l a b as 106 a second c a r e e r . A n o t h e r m a j o r i n t e r e s t i s c h u r c h work w h i c h has c r e a t e d a number of l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s and where t h e r e s o u r c e s have been mixed. These r e s o u r c e s ' i n c l u d e ' g r o u p s d i s c u s s i o n s , f i l m s , speakers--and' " • l i t e r a t u r e . H o u s e h o l d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s have been a s o u r c e o f l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s f o r h e r p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e r e n o v a t i n g and r e d e c o r a t i n g t h a t she has done. I n t h i s way, some major expenses have been l o o k e d a f t e r b e f o r e r e t i r e m e n t . These home improvements have r e q u i r e d c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h k n o w l e d g e a b l e p e o p l e and r e a d i n g . R e a d i n g i s a r e c r e a t i o n a l and l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e f o r h e r as h e r i n t e r e s t s i n c l u d e b i o g r a p h i e s , a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s , geography, and n a t i o n a l h i s t o r y . A sewing c o u r s e has been t a k e n i n t h e p a s t y e a r and she has p u r c h a s e d a new sewing machine. M i n d f u l o f t h e h i g h p r i c e t a g on c l o t h i n g , she has d e c i d e d t o do h e r own s e w i n g . She has a t t e n d e d l e c t u r e s by t h e B.C. R e t i r e d T e a c h e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , and t h e B.C. Te a c h e r s F e d e r a t i o n on r e t i r e m e n t i s s u e s . CASE S. Miss: S., age 60, has been t e a c h i n g f o r t h e p a s t t w e n t y - f o u r y e a r s . P r i o r t o t h i s she had a c a r e e r i n n u r s i n g . Ten l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s r e l a t e d t o r e t i r e m e n t l i v i n g were i d e n t i f i e d and d i s c u s s e d . An u n u s u a l i n v e s t m e n t w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s an o n - g o i n g l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t f o r h e r and fr o m w h i c h she hopes t o g a r n e r f i n a n c i a l r e t u r n , has been t h e p u r c h a s e o f a s t a l l i o n , a s t u d h o r s e w h i c h has s i r e d p r o m i s i n g f o a l s . M i s s S. has membership i n t h e B.C. Thoroughbred S o c i e t y and r e a d s t h e l i t e r a t u r e . She has had a l o t t o l e a r n about t h e c a r e and mai n t e n a n c e o f h e r h o r s e . O t h e r f i n a n c i a l p l a n n i n g e p i s o d e s s u c h as i n v e s t i g a t i o n and Investment i n p e n s i o n s , apartment and p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y i n s u r a n c e , t h e R e g i s t e r e d R e t i r e m e n t P l a n , bonds, and term d e p o s i t s have been l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s and w i l l p r o v i d e f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y i n r e t i r e m e n t . She has t a k e n a memory dynamics c o u r s e 107 w h i c h may h e l p t o c o u n t e r b a l a n c e memory l o s s as age i n c r e a s e s . She e n j o y s e v e n t s s u c h as b a l l e t , o p e r a , and c o n c e r t s . I n a d d i t i o n , she has done c o n s i d e r a b l e s t u d y i n t h e a r t s . F u t u r e l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s i n c l u d e a s t u d y o f C h i n e s e a r t and p o s s i b l y a r e f r e s h e r c o u r s e i n n u r s i n g and a r e t u r n t o t h i s t y p e of employment. CASE T. Mrs. T., age 66, was an a c t i v e t e a c h e r f o r f i f t e e n y e a r s , and i s i n h e r f i r s t y e a r o f r e t i r e m e n t . T h i s p a s t y e a r she went t h r o u g h t h e d i f f i c u l t p e r s o n a l s t r u g g l e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h bereavement i n t h e l o s s o f h e r husband. Her many ac c o m p l i s h m e n t s and i n t e r e s t s , a few o f w h i c h w i l l be c a p s u l i z e d h e r e , e v i d e n c e h e r i n n e r s t r e n g t h and r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s . Now she r e c o g n i z e s a renewed i n n e r freedom. F o u r t e e n l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s were i d e n t i f i e d and d i s c u s s e d . A few o f t h e s e a r e compound l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s , such as have r e s u l t e d from h e r work as a v o l u n t e e r docent a t t h e Vancouver C e n t e n n i a l Museum. T o u r s , e x h i b i t s , s l i d e shows, r e a d i n g s , and l e c t u r e s p e r t a i n i n g t o a r c h a e o l o g y , h i s t o r y , l a n g u a g e , e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t i n V ancouver, have been p a r t o f t h i s e x p e r i e n c e . V o l u n t e e r work w i t h t h e Out-of-Door S c h o o l under t h e a u s p i c e s o f t h e Vancouver S c h o o l Board has a l s o been t h e s o u r c e o f m u l t i p l e l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s . F o r example, a weekend t r i p w i t h a group o f young s t u d e n t s and a n o t h e r t e a c h e r t o Pemberton Meadows i n c l u d e d snowshoeing, t r a c k i n g , f a r m i n g , new c o o k i n g e x p e r i e n c e s , and b u i l d i n g a f i r e on snow w i t h one match. Mrs. T. t a k e s swimming l e s s o n s t w i c e a week, r i d e s a 10-speed b i k e , goes snowshoeing, and u n t i l a r e c e n t l e g i n j u r y b e l o n g e d t o a s k a t i n g c l u b . She r e a d s p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y and p l a n s a t r i p t o Ottawa t o do r e s e a r c h on t h e p a r l i a m e n t b u i l d i n g s . T h i s y e a r she t o o k F r e n c h c l a s s e s t w i c e a week a t t h e A l l i a n c e F r a n c a i s e , and i n t h e f u t u r e p l a n s t o s t u d y German and I t a l i a n . When she needs h e l p i n a p a r t i c u l a r 108 l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t w h i c h she c a n n o t meet on h e r own r e s o u r c e s , she c o n s u l t s an e x p e r t . R e c e n t l y , h a v i n g a p r o b l e m w i t h t r e e r o o t s i n h e r y a r d , she c o n s u l t e d an a r b o r i s t , and t h e n f o l l o w e d h i s a d v i c e . M r s . T. s a y s t h a t freedom i s t h e g r e a t e s t s i n g l e a d v a n t a g e i n r e t i r e m e n t l i v i n g . Her a t t i t u d e towards r e t i r e m e n t i s t h a t i t i s an a c h i e v e m e n t , i n h e r words "a g r a d u a t i o n " . 

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