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Self-directed retirement learning by female teachers Curry, Avita Marie 1981

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SELF-DIRECTED RETIREMENT LEARNING BY FEMALE TEACHERS  by  AVITA MARIE CURRY .A., The University of Notre Dame, Indiana, 19  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Adult Education D i v i s i o n Department of Administrative, Adult and Higher Education  We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1981  @  Avita Marie Curry, 1981  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make  it  and study.  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  Iti s  understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l n o t be allowed without my  permission.  Department o f  Adm-ir,-! g * r . a * - j _  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  D a t  DE-6  (2/79)  e  Auaust 31, 1981  f t >  Adult  and  Columbia  Highm- Education  written  ii  ABSTRACT  The  s i t u a t i o n of people  i s s u e of broad forward own  social  t o and w o r t h  concern.  individual,  Tough ( 1 9 7 1 ) and t h e i r own  h a v i n g , i t m u s t be p l a n n e d .  A d u l t s may  others investigated  present  The  from  purposes  g r o u p s and  of t h i s  stages  study were:  extent of the p r o j e c t s undertaken s t u d y , two  Vancouver School D i s t r i c t  teachers  1) t o d e t e r m i n e  design common  teach.  Columbia.  the nature  and  G r o u p One  s i x t y - f o u r who G r o u p Two  t e a c h e r s b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f s i x t y - f i v e and  those o r i g i n a l l y  retired  and nature  teachers. the  c o n s i s t e d of were  actively  c o n s i s t e d of  sixty-nine.  indepth i n t e r v i e w s using a survey developed  of  t e a c h e r s were s e l e c t e d from  engaged i n t e a c h i n g a t t h e t i m e of t h e s t u d y .  through  by  2) t o c o m p a r e t h e  by p r e - r e t i r e d  t e n t e a c h e r s b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f s i x t y and  were c o l l e c t e d  to  i n their careers.  groups of female in British  their  taken  s t u d y adds t o the knowledge of t h e s e l f - p l a n n e d i n q u i r y  For t h i s  from  approach  t h e way  extent of teachers' retirement l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s ;  retired  become  l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s i n c o n t r a s t to the taxonomic approach  a d u l t s o f v a r i o u s age  and  looking  t h e b e h a v i o r o f p e o p l e who  enterprise inferred  an  this responsibility  group, or m a t e r i a l resource.  to the i n s t r u c t i o n a l  The  i s becoming  I f r e t i r e m e n t i s t o be w o r t h  teachers i n retirement l e a r n i n g or t u r n over  another  The  i n t h e i r retirement years  ten  Data  instrument  by Tough a t t h e O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e  adapted  for  Studies i n Education. The  a v e r a g e number o f r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s c o n d u c t e d  T h e r e was  no  undertaken cational  significant  and  ten.  a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e number o f l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s  p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of age,  achievement.  was  m a r i t a l s t a t u s and  edu-  i i i  Most l e a r n i n g retirement. social  projects  occurred i n response t o perceived  These needs i n c l u d e d :  interaction, health  their  the  200 l e a r n i n g  learning.  projects  1)  able t o read a l l that  reported  the  f i n d i n g and a r r a n g i n g  twelve percent of  The t h r e e m o s t  time f o r l e a r n i n g ;  common 2)  i s a v a i l a b l e ; 3) k e e p i n g o t h e r c o n c e r n s f r o m  being inter-  the learning.  be changed t o f a c i l i t a t e  teaching  profession  r e s o u r c e s and l e a r n i n g directed  resources  t h e a v e r a g e number o f l e a r n i n g  T e a c h e r s s u g g e s t e d many ways i n w h i c h t h e t e a c h i n g could  as t h e major  conducted.  e a c h t e a c h e r e n c o u n t e r e d was 6 . 3 5 .  d i f f i c u l t i e s were:  T e a c h e r s most  Learning f o rc r e d i t represented only  t h e 200 l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s  difficulties  rupting  were s e l f - p l a n n e d .  approached p e o p l e and used p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l  for  For  s e c u r i t y , work o r s e r v i c e ,  m a i n t e n a n c e , change o r improvement i n r e s i d e n c e .  Over s i x t y p e r c e n t o f t h e p r o j e c t s frequently  financial  needs i n  learning  their  and s o c i e t y difficulties  pertaining  learning  efforts.  profession  and s o c i e t y  The i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r  s h o u l d be pursued r e l a t i v e t o t h e needs, these professionals  to retirement  learning.  experienced i n s e l f -  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I  Page INTRODUCTION  1  Problem Statement Purpose of the Study Research Questions Definitions and Limitation Plan of the Study : II  2 3 4 5 8  REVIEW OF LITERATURE  1  The Demographic Structure of the 65+ Population . . B.C. Teachers as a Representative Group of Professionals Retirement Learning Needs Pre-Retirement Learning Needs Summary III  METHODOLOGY Sample Selection Survey Instrument . . . . Data C o l l e c t i o n Data Analysis  IV  10 12 16 22 24 26  .  PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS Characteristics of Sample Extent of Retirement Learning A c t i v i t y Content Areas for Retirement Learning Projects. . . Factors Influencing Teachers to Conduct Retirement Learning Projects . . . Major Planners for Learning Projects Sources of Information or Assistance Learning for Credit Extent of Contribution to Retirement Living . . . . Amount Learned Benefit of Learning for Others Learning D i f f i c u l t i e s Suggested Changes Within the Teaching Profession. . Suggested Changes i n Society Learning to be Undertaken i n the Next Year  V  0  SUMMARY, DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Purpose and Methodology of the Study Summary of Major Findings Discussion Conclusions  26 28 29 31 32 32 34 35 39 41 44 46 46 '46 48 50 52 52 58 58 59 61 64  v Page  Chapter  BIBLIOGRAPHY  6  Sent t o Teachers  •  6  APPENDIX A.  Sample o f I n t r o d u c t o r y L e t t e r  73  APPENDIX B.  Survey Instrument  7  5  APPENDIX C.  V i v i a n McCoy T y p o l o g y  9  3  APPENDIX D.  Case Study A b s t r a c t s  9  5  vi LIST OF TABLES Table  Page  1  Population Over 65 Years  2.  Projected Population i n 100's  3.  The One Important Problem that Senior Citizens Face in Life  17  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Active and Retired Teachers by Martial Status .  33  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Active and Retired Teachers by Post-Bachelor Degree -Education  34  Number of Retirement Learning Projects Conducted by Teachers  36  Content Areas i n Which Teachers Conducted Retirement Learning Projects  38  4.  10 .  U  -  5. 6. 7. 8.  Factors Influencing Teachers to Conduct Retirement Learning Projects  ....  40  9.  Major Planners for Retirement Learning Projects . . .  43  10.  Major Sources of Information or Assistance Used i n Retirement Learning Projects Perceptions of Contribution to Professional  45  11.  Development  ;  47  12.  Perceptions of Learning  47  13.  Perceptions of Benefit of Learning for Others  14.  Learning D i f f i c u l t i e s as Cited by Teachers  51  15.  Suggested Changes Within the Teaching Profession . . .  54  16.  Suggested Changes i n Society  56  17.  Learning to be Undertaken i n the Next Year  57  ....  49  vii L I S T OF FIGURES Figure  Page  1  Age a t R e t i r e m e n t  2  E x p e c t e d and A c t u a l Reason f o r R e t i r e m e n t  3  Maslow's H i e r a r c h y o f Needs  H . . . . . .  13 ^0  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The author g r a t e f u l l y acknowledges the valuable assistance received from her committee chairman, Dr. Gary Dickinson.  Special thanks are extended to Dr. James E.  Thornton for h i s encouragement and advice as a committee member. For t h e i r co-operation and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n providing the data for this research, I am indebted to each of the twenty unidentified participants. Appreciation i s extended to Bonnie Jean McGregor, a doctoral candidate, for suggesting the research topic and to Dr. A l l e n Tough for granting an interview i n June,  1979,  to discuss research topics. For his assistance and encouragement throughout the two years of graduate work, the author i s deeply grateful to her father, Thomas W.  Curry.  1  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION Empirical findings increasingly indicate that adults often take the i n i t i a t i v e i n devising major learning projects for themselves i n an e f f o r t to modify their behavior i n the face of changing  circumstances.  The timing of educational e f f o r t s p a r a l l e l s the actual achievement of a certain task.  When the i n d i v i d u a l i s ready to achieve a certain task,  or society requires i t , a teachable moment has come.  That there i s a best  time to learn about adjustment to retirement from one's job can be v e r i f i e d by studying human development and finding out when conditions are most favorable for learning this task (Havighurst 1952; Other findings suggest that an adult may  McCoy 1977).  accidentally r e a l i z e a need for  new knowledge or s k i l l and then deliberately set about structuring a learning e f f o r t to meet this need. The next two decades w i l l see a large increase i n the population aged 65 and over (Auerback and Gerber, 1974; Brown, 1975).  S t a t i s t i c s Canada,  Many of these people w i l l be r e t i r e d .  1974;  It i s generally  true that a time arrives when an i n d i v i d u a l has to cease, v o l u n t a r i l y or otherwise, from an active working l i f e .  In most instances either the law,  declining health, or physical d i s a b i l i t y forces retirement. of  teachers, compulsory retirement dictates the p a r t i c u l a r year that a  teacher must r e t i r e . may  In the case  As the year for retirement draws near, the teacher  consider the question:  "Society has spent seventeen years (on the  average) educating me for my professional career; who  i s going to educate  me out of i t ? " This i s a v a l i d question i n a work-oriented  society: i t  becomes even more important when retirement i s l e g i s l a t e d .  If retirement  2  i s to be worth looking forward to and worth having, i t must be planned. Adults may become t h e i r own teachers or turn over the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of directing a learning e f f o r t to another i n d i v i d u a l , group, or material resource.  Recent research indicates that a large segment of the popu-  l a t i o n uses many approaches to learning other than t r a d i t i o n a l ones such as e n r o l l i n g i n a course or attending an educational program designed for a group (Houle 1961; Penland 1979).  Johnson and Rivera 1965;  Tough 1971;  Knowles 1973;  Self-planned learning seems to be an extensive a c t i v i t y .  Penland found an inverse relationship between enrollment i n structured courses and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s e l f - i n i t i a t e d learning projects. Academic enrollment declined while p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n self-planned learning projects increased almost to the point of being able to describe America as a learning society. A considerable amount of work has already been done i n the area of s e l f planned  learning.  Tough (1971) and his associates investigated the behavior  of people who design and conduct their own learning projects i n contrast to the taxonomic approach so common to the i n s t r u c t i o n a l enterprise inferred from the way teachers teach.  Problem Statement The present study adds to knowledge about the self-planned inquiry of adults of various age groups and stages i n their careers by focusing on learning related to retirement. Research i n the area of continuing education of adult learners has been mainly concerned with adults who p a r t i c i p a t e i n formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l settings.  The focus of inquiry i s changing and expanding through the  growing volume of research into the learning attempted by adults outside the formal s i t u a t i o n .  When the inquiry relates to a p a r t i c u l a r group of  3  adult  l e a r n e r s and t o an i s s u e o f b r o a d n a t i o n a l c o n c e r n ,  base widens t o i n c l u d e not o n l y a d u l t educators, people  but other  the audience groups o f  who m i g h t b e i n t e r e s t e d i n o r .have u s e f o r t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s  research. This study teachers  investigated the s e l f - i n i t i a t e d  i n retirement  related  f r o m among p r e - r e t i r e d  issues.  teachers  One s a m p l e o f t e n t e a c h e r s  teachers  Adult educators,  between t h e ages  social planners,  p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a n d p e r s o n s o r g r o u p s who s e r v e a s of l e a r n i n g have l i t t l e of teachers  process,  i n retirement  related  i s s u e s , n a m e l y , how much t i m e  a r e u s e d , what d i f f i c u l t i e s  the f i r s t  pertaining to retirement.  This  research  i s spent i n  what t y p e o f  The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s  f i n d i n g s on s e l f - p l a n n e d l e a r n i n g  statement i s supported  r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e r e h a d b e e n no r e s e a r c h retirement  facilitators  a r e encountered i n the help-seeking  and what a s s i s t a n c e i s needed i n l e a r n i n g .  research are probably  teachers'  i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e s e l f - p l a n n e d l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s  l e a r n i n g , w h a t i s l e a r n e d , why s u c h p r o j e c t s a r e u n d e r t a k e n , resources  drawn  between t h e ages o f s i x t y and s i x t y - f o u r  was c o n t r a s t e d w i t h a s e c o n d s a m p l e o f r e t i r e d of s i x t y - f i v e and s i x t y - n i n e .  learning a c t i v i t i e s of  into  by Lynch  ( 1 9 7 9 ) who  t h e s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n mode o f  education.  Purpose o f t h e Study The  purpose of t h i s  pertaining to retirement retired  female teachers  Specifically, 1.  r e s e a r c h was t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e  learning projects  l i v i n g u n d e r t a k e n by a sample o f p r e - r e t i r e d and i n the school d i s t r i c t  the purposes of the research  to determine the nature  engaged i n by a sample o f f e m a l e  and e x t e n t teachers;  of Vancouver, B r i t i s h  Columbia.  were of the retirement learning  4  2.  to contrast the nature and extent of the projects undertaken  by teachers before and during the retirement years. Research Questions The following questions were adapted from those used by Kelly (1976) who sought to determine the nature and extent of teachers'  learning  projects' ; the adaptations that have been made direct attention s p e c i f i c a l l y to retirement education for teachers. 1.  How many  projects  i n learning for retirement were conducted  by the teachers? 2.  What s p e c i f i c knowledge and s k i l l s were the teachers attempting  to learn i n their projects? 3.  What factors influenced a teacher's decision to begin a learning  project? 4.  Who or what were the major planners for the learning projects?  5.  What was the major source of assistance or information used i n  the learning projects? 6.  What was the extent of learning projects undertaken for credit?  7.  How important did teachers f e e l each project was i n contributing  to their retirement l i v i n g ? 8.  How much did teachers f e e l they had learned i n t h e i r projects?  9.  To what extent did teachers believe that their retirement  learning projects provided some benefit to others? 10.  What did teachers i d e n t i f y as d i f f i c u l t i e s they had i n attempting  their learning projects? 11.  What changes within their profession did teachers i d e n t i f y as  p o t e n t i a l l y useful to them i n their e f f o r t s to learn about retirement?  5  12.  What s o c i e t a l changes did teachers i d e n t i f y as p o t e n t i a l l y  useful to them i n their e f f o r t s to learn about retirement? 13.  What additional learning projects would teachers l i k e to undertake  i n the next year i n retirement  related issues?  Definitions and  Limitations  For the purpose of this study, the following d e f i n i t i o n s apply. Self-planned  Learning:  Self-planned  learning comprises a person's deliberate  e f f o r t to learn s p e c i f i c knowledge or s k i l l where the learner assumes primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for planning not only the why, and where to learn.  One may  but also the what, how,  when  obtain the knowledge or s k i l l from a variety of  individuals, books, and programs.  That person may  attend a course as part  of the t o t a l learning e f f o r t , but i n doing so, the learner retains control of and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for deciding what resources and a c t i v i t i e s to use each time (Tough 1975; Learning Project:  Penland 1977). The learning project has been defined by Tough (1971) as  "a series of related episodes, adding up to at least seven hours. episode, more than half of the person's t o t a l motivation  In each  i s to gain  and  r e t a i n certain f a i r l y clear knowledge and s k i l l , or to produce some other l a s t i n g change i n himself."  These r e s t r i c t i o n s have been i n i t i a t e d i n order  to exclude scattered and unrelated as a learning project.  learning e f f o r t s from being c l a s s i f i e d  A learning project must be active for at least seven  hours during a consecutive  six-month period, but t h i s does not exclude the  continuation of the learning project beyond this period. has been used i n a number of studies (Tough 1971; Fair 1973;  Penland 1977).  This d e f i n i t i o n  Armstrong 1971;  McCatty  1973;  6  Episode:  The basic unit around which the development of the learning  project i s constructed  i s an episode.  episode as "a well-defined  Tough (1971) defined a learning  period of time that i s held together by the  s i m i l a r i t y i n intent, a c t i v i t y , or place of the thoughts and actions that occur during i t . The episode has a d e f i n i t e beginning and ending, and i t i s not interrupted for more than two or three minutes by some other a c t i v i t y or purpose."  Episodes correspond to actual "chunks" of  time and a c t i v i t y into which most adults appear to divide t h e i r working hours.  The attention span may be as b r i e f as ten minutes or last more  than one hour.  Three c r i t e r i a are applied i n determining a learning  episode. 1.  The learner has i n mind certain knowledge and s k i l l to be  gained which i s f a i r l y clear and d e f i n i t e .  This excludes episodes of  a c t i v i t y which lack clear learning goals, such as, unfocused reading of a magazine, non-directed browsing i n a l i b r a r y .  Non-deliberate i n c i -  dental learning i s also excluded. 2.  The person's intention to learn i s expected to constitute at  least 51 percent of the t o t a l conscious motivation when beginning a learning episode.  A r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f segment of time i s c l a s s i f i e d as  a learning episode when the learner's intention to learn i s more dominant than the sum of a l l other immediate reasons for engaging i n that a c t i v i t y . 3.  A c t i v i t i e s are not c l a s s i f i e d as learning episodes unless they  are part of a larger learning e f f o r t .  A learning project i s excluded when  more than half of the learner's t o t a l motivation i s to obtain credit towards a c e r t i f i c a t e or diploma. Pre-Retired  Teacher:  A pre-retired teacher i n this study i s a female  teacher who was teaching  school on a f u l l - t i m e basis at the time of the  7  r e s e a r c h i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and was R e t i r e d Teacher: female  For the purpose of t h i s  t e a c h e r who  was  i n v e s t i g a t i o n and was Planner: or  The  b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f s i x t y and  retired  from  between t h e ages of s i x t y - f i v e  l a b e l " p l a n n e r " was  adopted  planning i n these l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s . t h e d e c i s i o n s about what t o l e a r n e a c h l e a r n i n g e p i s o d e , and and  e a c h l e a r n i n g e p i s o d e , and of  The  The  The  concept  The  day-to-day  to l e a r n  p l a n n e r may  two  a l s o d e c i d e when t o to proceed.  This  1. performed 2.  begin  and  encompass t h e m o t i v a t i o n o r  matter. of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t  survey  the  resources.  are  Human - T h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s a l l a s s i s t a n c e and by p e o p l e :  friends, relatives,  guidance  t e a c h e r s , s t u d e n t s , and  experts.  Material - Material resources include: (a) p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s such n e w s p a p e r s , and (b) e l e c t r o n i c  as b o o k s , p a m p h l e t s ,  magazines,  programmed i n s t r u c t i o n m a t e r i a l s ;  r e s o u r c e s such  as t e l e v i s i o n ,  films; o  (c)  exhibits, displays,  in  concept  the source of the plans  major sources  c a t e g o r i e s used i n t h i s  skill)  (the d e t a i l e d s t r a t e g y ,  a d u l t e m p l o y s i n l e a r n i n g a r e known a s t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r The  -  p l a n n e r makes t h e m a j o r i t y o f  o f p l a n n e r does not  Subject Matter Resources:  research  sixty-nine.  of the d e t a i l e d  the pace a t which  r e s o u r c e s used to o b t a i n s u b j e c t  is a  by Tough (1971) t o t h e p e r s o n  p l a n n e r i s needed i n o r d e r t o c l a s s i f y  decisions.  and  ( t h e d e t a i l e d k n o w l e d g e and  a b o u t how  resources).  teacher  t e a c h i n g at the time of the  g r o u p o r t h i n g t h a t d i d more t h a n h a l f  activities,  study, a r e t i r e d  sixty-four.  t r i p s and  visits.  radio  and  8 Also combinations of human and material resources are considered part of this category when no resource predominates. Limitation of the Study:  This research has limited external v a l i d i t y as  i t i s r e s t r i c t e d to a sample of 20 teachers from a single school d i s t r i c t i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Drawing implications f o r other teachers must occur  with caution. Plan of the Study In order to research s e l f - d i r e c t e d learning pertaining to retirement, in-depth interviews were conducted using a survey instrument one o r i g i n a l l y developed  by Tough (1970).  adapted from  S p e c i f i c a l l y , the questions,  probes, and learning methods l i s t s were adapted to investigate the r e t i r e ment learning of female teachers l i v i n g i n Vancouver.  For this purpose,  the l i t e r a t u r e highlights the over 65-year-old population i n Canada, describes B r i t i s h Columbia teachers as a representative group of professionals i n Canadian society, examines retirement learning needs and pre-retirement a t t i t u d i n a l needs. for  Data collected i n the interviews provided the substance  the case study abstracts and by descriptive summary analysis responses  were formulated for each of the 13 research questions.  The conclusions i n  the f i n a l chapter are directed to f a c i l i t a t i n g s e l f - d i r e c t e d learning as the process applies to teachers and retirement learning. Unfortunately, the teachers' professional organizations did not permit access to l i s t s of teachers who would form the population and therefore i t was impossible to obtain a random sample. a snowball  Operating within this constraint,  technique was used i n selecting the 20 teachers whereby a few  known teachers who met the c r i t e r i a established f o r the sample i d e n t i f i e d  9  other  potential subjects.  supports the e a r l i e r  research  into retirement  f i n d i n g s o f Tough and a s s o c i a t e s  l e a r n i n g i s an e x t e n s i v e replicated  While t h i s  activity,  to test i t s external  learning  that s e l f - d i r e c t e d  i t i s recommended t h a t t h e s t u d y  validity.  be  10  CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE  This chapter focuses on four areas of inquiry relevant to the present study:  (1) the demographic structure of the over 65-year old  population i n Canada, (2) B r i t i s h Columbia teachers as a representative group of professionals i n society, (3) research which i d e n t i f i e s r e t i r e ment learning needs, (4) l i t e r a t u r e which investigates pre-retirement a t t i t u d i n a l learning needs. Demographic Structure of the 65+ Population Clearly any research on retirement must include an examination of the demographic s i t u a t i o n as i t i s now and as i t w i l l be i n the remaining decades of this century.  The changing structure of the Canadian popu-  l a t i o n has been the subject of a number of studies, and the facts about the changing structure are a matter of concern to s o c i a l planners.  The  number of Canadians over 65 years has been growing and w i l l continue to increase both absolutely and i n proportion to the t o t a l Canadian population  (Table 1).  Table 1:  Year  POPULATION OVER 65 YEARS Population over 65  1871  135,000  1901  271,000  1931  576,000  1971  1,744,000  1981  2,201,000  2001  3,103,000 Auerbach and Gerber, 1974  11  S t a t i s t i c s Canada published Population Projections for Canada and the Provinces 1972-2001 (Ottawa, 1974).  Those projections representing  proportions of the t o t a l population are presented i n Table 2. Table 2: PROJECTED POPULATION IN 100's  N  2001  1985  1975  Age  %  N  %  N  %  1.0  437.8  1.2  73-79  205.4  .9  279.9  80-84  132.4  .6  181.2  .7  288.3  .8  85-89  67.4  .3  94.2  .3  167.9  .5  90 and over  28.9  .1  44.4  .2  89.3  .3  Total population a l l ages  22,732.1  27,213.8  35,611.4 S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1974  According to both sources, the next two decades w i l l see a large increase i n the population aged 65 and over.  By the year 2000, the r a t i o  of women to men over the age of seventy-five w i l l l i k e l y be 2 : 1. The reason for this imbalance i s that women are l i v i n g longer and the d i f f e r e n t i a l i n longevity i s growing.  The National Institute on Aging and the  National Institute of Mental Health Workshop (1979) reports that by the year 2050, a 65-year old woman can expect to l i v e to age 85.7, longer than her male counterpart, versus 4.3 years today.  or 5.7 years  This w i l l place  a formidable task on s o c i a l planners to improve and expand f a c i l i t i e s and services for people l i v i n g i n retirement.  One question, stated at i t s worst,  i s how to avoid free time becoming empty time, and at i t s best, how to gain the maximum s a t i s f a c t i o n from retirement.  Many r e t i r e d people w i l l want to  12  contribute to the well-being of their community.  Society cannot afford  to waste the t a l e n t s , s k i l l s , and experience of the r e t i r e d . Several responses can be made by educational i n s t i t u t i o n s to the changing structure of the Canadian population, for example, professional preparation programs for those who w i l l be working with older people (law, medicine, s o c i a l work, home economics, and education).  Appropriate  materials and methods about a l l aspects of aging must be developed and introduced i n the c u r r i c u l a designed by educational i n s t i t u t i o n s .  More  attention should be given to workshops, i n s t i t u t e s , and inservice education for those who now work with older adults. Presumably, many people a n t i c i p a t i n g retirement or already i n retirement are engaging i n s e l f - d i r e c t e d learning related to retirement in the expectation that such learning e f f o r t s w i l l result i n a smoother t r a n s i t i o n from a work-oriented  to a leisure-oriented l i f e s t y l e .  Their  expectations are supported by research which indicates that r e t i r e e s who plan for their retirement report higher levels of l i f e , s a t i s f a c t i o n than retirees who had not planned (Ash, 1966; Pyron and Manion, 1968; Streib and Schneider, B.C.  1971).  Teachers as a Representative Group of Professionals Teachers form a p a r t i c u l a r l y large group of professionals affected  by p o l i c i e s on retirement so i t seems appropriate to select them as a representative group i n society.  An indication of the size of the teacher  population within the province of B r i t i s h Columbia i s revealed by the fact that, the Teachers' Pension Act covers approximately  28,000 active teachers  i n B r i t i s h Columbia and about 4,000 r e t i r e d teachers or b e n e f i c i a r i e s . May,  1979, The B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation published a Survey  In  13  and A n a l y s i s o f E x p e n d i t u r e s , I n c o m e s a n d P e r c e p t i o n s o f A c t i v e a n d R e t i r e d Teachers The  i nBritish  Columbia  ( P a t e r s o n , Cook L i m i t e d , 1979).  s a m p l e c o n t a i n e d 286 a c t i v e t e a c h e r s b e t w e e n a g e s 50 a n d 65, a n d  249 r e t i r e d  teachers.  Supporting t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f demographic  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was a n e x h i b i t which  teachers r e t i r e  showing t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f ages a t  ( F i g u r e 1).  %  AGE  .. ,-Figure 1 AT RETIREMENT  lOO—i  90  Retired  (249)  80 70  52.2%  60 50 40  25.3%  20.1%  30 20 10  2.0%  0.4% _L  0  45-49  Under  50-54  45 AGE  While  l e s s than one-quarter  over one-half age  legislative  The P u b l i c  The r e m a i n i n g  Schools A c t of B r i t i s h  quarter retired at  Columbia s t a t e s t h e  g u i d e l i n e s c o n c e r n i n g r e t i r e m e n t age and e x c e p t i o n s , as f o l l o w s : Division  Retirement age a n d exceptions.  o f t h e t e a c h e r s r e t i r e d b e f o r e a g e 60,  r e t i r e d b e t w e e n 60 a n d 64.  65 o r o v e r .  65 o r over P a t e r s o n , Cook L i m i t e d , 1979 60-64  55-59  ( 5 ) . — R e t i r e m e n t and Re-engagement  151. No t e a c h e r s h a l l b e e n g a g e d o r r e g u l a r l y e m p l o y e d as a t e a c h e r i n any p u b l i c s c h o o l i n t h e P r o v i n c e beyond t h e end o f t h e s c h o o l - y e a r d u r i n g w h i c h he a t t a i n s t h e  14  age of s i x t y - f i v e years, save that, where by reason of experience and need for his services i t i s deemed by the Minister to be i n the interest of education to re-engage after retirement or to defer the r e t i r e ment of any person as a teacher, (a) the Minister may, on the request of a Board, authorize the re-engagement after retirement or the deferment of retirement of any person as a teacher for a period not exceeding one year, and successive re-engagements or deferments, each of one year, may be authorized by the Minister, but no re-engagement or deferment may extend beyond the school-year i n which the person attains the age of seventy years; (b) a request by a Board for the re-engagement of a person who has been r e t i r e d as a teacher may be considered after the t h i r t y - f i r s t day of May i n the year i n which the person concerned attains the age of s i x t y - f i v e years. Requests for successive re-engagements or deferments may be considered by the Minister after the t h i r t y f i r s t day of May i n any succeeding year. 1958, c. 42, s. 151; 1971, c. 47, s. 50. Everyone reaches a point i n l i f e when work i s no longer possible or no longer desirable.  In the case of teachers, l e g i s l a t i o n dictates the  age at which teachers must r e t i r e . for  And some teachers v o l u n t a r i l y r e t i r e  personal motives such as declining health, or physical d i s a b i l i t i e s .  In other instances, retirement i s deliberately chosen and entered into by the i n d i v i d u a l . An exhibit i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation survey referred to above showed the expected and actual reasons for retirement (Figure 2). the main  As might be expected, reaching retirement age was one of  reasons indicated by 30.4% of the r e t i r e d teachers and was also  indicated by 29.0% of the active teachers as the expected reason for retirement.  The exhibit indicates that more teachers actually r e t i r e d  Figure 2  EXPECTED ANO ACTUAL REASON FOR RETIREMENT  90  Active  —-\— 323  80  70  reasons f o r r e t i r e m e n t  283 respondents . 3 non-responses  H  -85"  Retired  60  —T— 268  50  reasons f o r r e t i r e m e n t  2472 respondents non-responses  I4T  48.1*  45.3*  40  30  29.0*  30.4* 24.7*  20 16.3* 10.6*  10 82  Act.  75 Ret.  Compulsory age o r comp u l s o r y age + other reason. I. 2.  30 Act.  10.2*  61  Ret.  Poor h e a l t h o r poor health + o t h e r reason.  46  Act.  1L___,6 Ret.  Changed j o b s o r changed jobs + other reason.  5.7* 79 Act.  14  Ret.  Spouse r e tired or spouse r e t i r e d • other reason.  136  Act.  112  Ret.  Other reason + combination reasons w i t h other,  Expected reason f o r r e t i r e m e n t Is shown f o r a c t i v e t e a c h e r s and a c t u a l reason f o r r e t i r e m e n t Is shown f o r r e t i r e d t e a c h e r s . Respondents were a l l o w e d t o choose up t o two responses, t h e r e f o r e , t h e r e a r e more responses than respondents.  Source: Peterson, Cook Limited, Survey and Analysis of Expenditures, Incomes and Perceptions of Active and Retired Teachers l n B r i t i s h Columbia, p. 71.  16 f o r h e a l t h r e a s o n s t h a n i s e x p e c t e d by a c t i v e t e a c h e r s (24.7% v e r s u s 10.6%).  Furthermore, a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of a c t i v e t e a c h e r s expect  r e t i r e because  they w i l l  be c h a n g i n g j o b s o r b e c a u s e  their  spouse  to  has  retired. R e t i r e m e n t L e a r n i n g Needs E n v i r o n i c s R e s e a r c h Group L i m i t e d  (1974)  p r e f e r e n c e s and n e e d s o f s e n i o r c i t i z e n s  surveyed the media  i n Toronto.  One  area of  g a t i o n c e n t e r e d on w h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t s p e r c e i v e d t o be t h e "one important problem  that senior c i t i z e n s  h a v e o p e n e d t h e way it  face i n l i f e . "  s i t u a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l respondent.  investimost  T h i s q u e s t i o n may  f o r s t e r o t y p e views of the e l d e r l y  f o c u s e d on t h e l o t o f a l l s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ,  habits,  themselves  because  and n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  on  Aware o f t h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n ,  can see i n T a b l e 3 t h a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l d e f i c i e n c i e s ranked h i g h e s t , l o n e l i n e s s and and  t h e need f o r companionship  f o r 45% o f i t s f e m a l e s e g m e n t .  w e r e g i v e n more e m p h a s i s logical  overall  c i t e d by  Irritants  t h a n t h o s e e i t h e r of economic  z a t i o n of others.  25%  felt  h e a l t h was  3% o f t h e s a m p l e , l o n e l i n e s s was by  sample  nature  or physio-  dissatisfier;  the n e g l e c t or  s t a t e d b y 12%  indicated  patroni-  i n gravity  t h a t t h e l a c k o f money i s t h e m o s t  p r o b l e m , w h i l e a f u r t h e r 5% s p e c i f i c a l l y  disruptive factor.  by  Economic d e f i c i e n c i e s were ranked second  the s e n i o r c i t i z e n s ;  ticularly  t o be a m a j o r  t h a t o l d e r a d u l t s were most a f f l i c t e d  Poor o r f a i l i n g  with  I n a d d i t i o n t o l o n e l i n e s s , 9% c o n s i d e r e d i n a c t i v i t y ,  origin.  5% f e l t  one  34% o f t h e e n t i r e  of a p s y c h o l o g i c a l  b o r e d o m , o r t h e n e e d f o r some h o b b y o r i n t e r e s t and  the  by  serious  the high cost of  living.  of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s as t h e most  O t h e r r e s p o n s e s , n o n e o f w h i c h w e r e g i v e n b y more t h a n . accounted  f o r t h e r e m a i n i n g 10% o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n .  p e r c e i v e d by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s  i n t h i s Toronto  t h e women, a s t h e m o s t a c u t e p r o b l e m  Thus,  s u r v e y , and  f a c e d by s e n i o r  par-  citizens.  17  Table 3:  THE ONE MOST IMPORTANT PROBLEM THAT SENIOR CITIZENS FACE IN LIFE  Problem  Percent  Psychological: Loneliness  34%  I n a c t i v i t y or boredom; need for a hobby or interest  9  Feeling unwanted or patronized by others  5  Economic: Lack of money  25  High cost of l i v i n g / of food  5  Physiological: Poor or f a i l i n g health  12 Environics Research Group Ltd., 1974  The Third Career Research Society (1976) conducted research into retirement i n Alberta and indicated that pre-retirees were not r e a l i s t i c a l l y aware of the gravity of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n caused by i l l - h e a l t h i n retirement, and that the f i n a n c i a l problems r e t i r e d people actually face in retirement are over-emphasized.  Four sample groups were involved i n  the t o t a l 1,089 Albertans who were interviewed.  Half of these people  were r e t i r e d , and the other half over the age of 45 were working.  The  four sample groups were pre-retired and r e t i r e d people i n urban and r u r a l settings.  The content of the interviews involved some 225 questions cover-  ing key areas such as personality, planning for retirement, morale, finances, health, friendships, accommodation, leisure a c t i v i t i e s , personal needs, preretirement t r a i n i n g , retirement s a t i s f a c t i o n , and problems i n retirement.  18  The  report  p r e s e n t e d a summary o f t h e s o u r c e s o f r e t i r e m e n t  and  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n obtained  through the interviews.  satisfaction  Among t h e s a t i s -  f i e r s were s u c h i t e m s as h o b b i e s , i n t e r e s t s , and a c t i v i t i e s ; personal and  a t t i t u d e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; f r e e d o m and r e d u c e d  f r i e n d s h i p and s o c i a b i l i t y .  adequate f i n a n c e s , quate planning  poor personal  Dissatisfiers  included  positive responsibility;  poor h e a l t h , i n -  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s , and  inade-  f o r retirement.  Brown's s t u d y  (1975) c o n d u c t e d f o r t h e C a n a d i a n C o u n c i l  Development d i s c u s s e d  t h e needs f o r community a c t i v i t y  I t n o t e d two f u r t h e r n e e d s :  t h e need f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l  on S o c i a l  and l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y . stimulation  through  new l e a r n i n g ; a n d t h e p r o b l e m s c r e a t e d  by t h e i n c r e a s i n g i s o l a t i o n o f t h e  retired  force r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the death of  old  through the severance of labor  f r i e n d s , the necessity  o f m o v i n g t o a new d i s t r i c t  s a t i s f a c t o r y housing, a l e s s harsh climate, or other Retirement Services  Incorporated  a framework t o use i n a s s e s s i n g  (1975) p r o v i d e d  t o a c h i e v e more  like  factors.  from t h e i r  research  l e a r n i n g needs p r i o r t o and i n r e t i r e m e n t .  They t o o k a m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y a p p r o a c h i n s e l e c t i n g m a t e r i a l s , a n d duced t h e o r i e s and c o n c e p t s from t h e f i e l d s s o c i a l psychology, biology One n o t a b l e  and h e a l t h , s o c i o l o g y  example o f t h i s  i s the adaptation  f i c a t i o n s o f needs t o r e t i r e m e n t t h a t man h a s a n a c t i v e w i l l o f human p o t e n t i a l i t i e s . neutral rather  than e v i l  of gerontology,  needs.  intro-  psychology,  a n d b u s i n e s s management.  o f Maslow's b a s i c  The l a t e A b r a h a m M a s l o w  classibelieved  toward h e a l t h , an i m p u l s e toward a c t u a l i z a t i o n  He e s p o u s e d t h a t man's b a s i c n e e d s a r e g o o d o r and a r e a r r a n g e d i n a h i e r a r c h i c a l o r d e r  some a r e p r e p o t e n t o v e r o t h e r s .  so t h a t  The a p p e a r a n c e o f o n e n e e d u s u a l l y  u p o n t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f a n o t h e r , more p r e s s i n g  need.  rests  Among t h e b a s i c  19  needs a r e hunger, a f f e c t i o n , c l e a r l y understand  s e c u r i t y and s e l f - e s t e e m .  In order  man's n e e d s a n d w a n t s , M a s l o w s u g g e s t e d  t i o n s c a n be c l a s s i f i e d  according  to their  goals.  that  motiva-  He c l a s s i f i e d  g o a l s as s a t i s f y i n g b a s i c p h y s i o l o g i c a l , s a f e t y , esteem, and  t o more  these  self-fulfill-  ment n e e d s . In in  a d a p t i n g M a s l o w ' s h i e r a r c h y o f n e e d s t o r e t i r e m e n t n e e d s a s shown  F i g u r e 3, e a c h l e v e l o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f n e e d s was b r o k e n down f u r t h e r .  P h y s i o l o g i c a l needs i n r e t i r e m e n t particular nutrition,  i n c l u d e p e r i o d i c p h y s i c a l check-ups;  c h e m i c a l , m i n e r a l hormone and v i t a m i n n e e d s ; and  h e a l t h c a r e and p r e v e n t i v e m a i n t e n a n c e . planning  i n the form o f savings  to  and o r d e r and s t a b i l i t y  live,  S a f e t y needs i n c l u d e  and i n s u r a n c e , a s e c u r e i n life.  financial  community i n w h i c h  S o c i a l needs i n c l u d e i n t h e  absence o r l o s s o f spouse, o r c h i l d r e n , o r f r i e n d s , a need f o r a f f e c t i o n a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h people needs a r e n o r m a l l y  i n g e n e r a l , f o r a p l a c e i n h i s group.  satisfied  i f t h e person has been s u c c e s s f u l i n a c t u a l -  i z i n g h i s s o c i a l , m o r a l and p r o d u c t i v e p o t e n t i a l over retirement-, planned for  fostering  s o c i a l and p r o d u c t i v e a c t i v i t i e s  t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f these needs.  to enrich retirement  of the inner The  living,  hislifetime. provide  t o develop  between p l a n s  and p o l i c i e s .  ment p l a n n i n g  i s necessary  p l a n s and  and t o e n c o u r a g e t h e g r o w t h i n power  Services Incorporated  The u n d e r s t a n d i n g to provide  make a d i s t i n c t i o n  conveyed i s t h a t  pre-retire-  f o r t h e l o w e r - l e v e l needs, but t h e  s a t i s f a c t i o n o f h i g h e r - l e v e l needs r e q u i r e s each i n d i v i d u a l  personal  needs  person.  a d a p t a t i o n by R e t i r e m e n t  what t h o s e  In  the occasions  Self-fulfillment  challenge a person t o r e i n f o r c e p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s , policies  Esteem  to identify  needs a r e and t o e s t a b l i s h p o l i c i e s w h i c h have t h e g r e a t e s t  meaning.  20  F i g u r e 3.  Maslow's H i e r a r c h y o f Needs  SELF'• FULFILLMENT  ,  Wist a person 'can be he oust be^  ESTEEM HEEDS Self-Respect: Strength, Achievement, Confidence, Independence, Freedom Respect of Others: Reputation, Prestige, Recognition, Appreciation  SOCIAL NEEDS Love:  Wife, Children, Family  Affection:  Friends  Belonging:  Groups, Community  SAFETY NEEDS Economic:  Security, Savings, Insurance  Physical:  Safety, Protection  Psychological:  Order,Stability.Known Versus Unknown  PHYSIOLOGICAL NEEDS Basic:  Hunger G r a t i f i c a t i o n  Nutritional:  Chemical, mineral. Hormone,' Vitamin Source:Retirement  o  Services Inc.,1977.  21  In general, two  Retirement Services  l e v e l s , u s i n g Maslow's h i e r a r c h y  higher  l e v e l needs.  These h i g h e r  essence o f retirement. needs i n r e t i r e m e n t and  Incorporated  and emphasized t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f  l e v e l needs a r e i d e n t i f i e d  The t h e o r y  as t h e  behind the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of p a r t i c u l a r  i s t h a t needs i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s a b a s i s f o r p l a n n i n g  research  has i d e n t i f i e d needs o f a d u l t s i n t h e i r  y e a r s a n d i n some c a s e s s u g g e s t e d p r o g r a m McCoy education  (1977) o u t l i n e d a d u l t  life  cycle tasks  responses i n developmental stages. of three  o f U.C.L.A., L e v i n s o n  o f Y a l e , and V a i l l a n t  last  two l i f e  stages  and a d u l t  Because t h e responses p e r t a i n t o s p e c i f i c  was  cycle scholars:  of Harvard.  and a l r e a d y  tasks, there  Gould  McCoy f o c u s e d  (see Appendix C ) .  the needs o f people a n t i c i p a t i n g r e t i r e m e n t  continuing  The McCoy t y p o l o g y  contemporary l i f e  of adulthood  The t a s k s  represent  i s no a p p a r e n t  over-  structure t o the responses.  t o t h e Women's M o v e m e n t , p a i d Although research their  received  little  attention to issues specific  i n t e r e s t i n y o u n g e r women, t h e i r w o r k , t h e i r  economic and s o c i a l l i t t l e attention.  c o n d i t i o n s has i n c r e a s e d ,  I n recognition of this  w o r k s h o p o n "The O l d e r Woman: Directing  the f u l l  Institute  focused  t o women.  lifestyles,  g a p , The N a t i o n a l held a  C o n t i n u i t i e s and D i s c o n t i n u i t i e s " , 1978.  force of the resources  concerns c u r r e n t l y relevant  prior  o l d e r women h a v e  I n s t i t u t e on A g i n g and t h e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e on M e n t a l H e a l t h  and  on  i n retirement.  Research l i t e r a t u r e i n t o t h e l e a r n i n g needs o f o l d e r a d u l t s ,  and  later  responses.  based on t h e r e s e a r c h  all  needs a t  learning. Educational  the  considered  to the lives  a t t h e workshop t o q u e s t i o n s  o f o l d e r women, t h e N a t i o n a l  on i s s u e s p e r t i n e n t t o r e t i r e m e n t  education.  22 The  report of the I n s t i t u t e i d e n t i f i e d  f a m i l y r o l e s and s o c i a l n e t w o r k s i n l a t e r  concerns  life;  o f o l d e r women:  experiences  with  loneli-  n e s s a n d b e r e a v e m e n t ; new r o l e s a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; a n d a d e q u a c y o f l i v i n g accommodations. are r e l a t e d and  T h e r e s e a r c h showed t h a t g o o d p h y s i c a l a n d m e n t a l h e a l t h  t o adequate income, a sense o f r e l a t e d n e s s t o o t h e r  t o s o c i e t y , and i n t i m a t e p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  " k i n k e e p e r s " women's e m o t i o n a l  is  responsibility  found  f o r housework).  extent  Research  presented  o t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s c o u l d be o r g a n i z e d  to substitute  Institute  variables,  lives,  identified  such  Pre-Retirement The  impact  on t h e l i v e s  f o rkinship that  there  c h i l d r e n and f r i e n d s alone w i t h h e r problems.  o f o l d e r women.  Needs  s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r preconceptions are beliefs  about p e o p l e ,  mediate o u r a t t i t u d e s and f e e l i n g s .  t h e need f o r l e a r n i n g w h i c h  o f and a t t i t u d e s  F o r an i n d i v i d u a l  i n v i t e u n h a p p i n e s s and poor a d j u s t m e n t .  to later  life.  t h i n g s and i d e a s and as such  o f l i f e w i t h n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s about l i f e  to enter the l a t e r  and one's s e l f  There i s an obvious  i s to  and g r e a t  need f o r l e a r n i n g endeavours t h a t i n f l u e n c e i n d i v i d u a l a t t i t u d e s a g i n g and r e t i r e m e n t .  church  t h a t r e s e a r c h i s n e e d e d a l s o o n how m a c r o e c o n o m i c  as i n f l a t i o n ,  Learning  and t h e widow i s l e f t  l i t e r a t u r e on p r e - r e t i r e m e n t suggests  Preconceptions  years  work,  F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h p r e s e n t a t i o n s on widowhood i n d i c a t e d  return to their daily  will  l i v e s (as  a t t h e workshop  made t h r o u g h  a t i m e when p e r s o n a l n e t w o r k s f a i l , when m a r r i e d  The  i n their  The r e s e a r c h d i d n o t i n v e s t i g a t e t o w h a t  s o c i a l n e t w o r k s o f f r i e n d s and n e i g h b o r s  support. is  of continuity  siblings,  t h a t o l d e r women s o c i a l i z e w i t h f r i e n d s , b u t o b t a i n m o s t s e r v i c e s  from c h i l d r e n and n e i g h b o r s .  and  Referred t o as the  relationships with parents,  c h i l d r e n , and f r i e n d s a r e a major source  people  toward  23  An individual's preconception of and attitude to retirement appears to be a c r u c i a l determiner  of retirement s a t i s f a c t i o n or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  with the potential to counter the impact of voluntary or compulsory retirement (Seltzer, 1977; Thompson, Streib, and Cosa, 1976).  They found  that those who had unfavorable pre-retirement attitudes but r e t i r e d w i l l i n g l y were more l i k e l y to become discontent i n retirement than those who had favorable pre-retirement attitudes but were constrained by policy or l e g i s l a t i o n to r e t i r e . Thompson (1958) related differences i n adjustment to retirement to differences i n a n t i c i p a t i o n before retirement.  The anticipatory factors  he studied were preconception of retirement, pre-retirement attitude toward retirement, and having personal plans for retirement.  The three  indices he used to measure adjustment were length of time required to get used to retirement, d i f f i c u l t y i n keeping busy, and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with retirement.  Thompson found that a l l these factors were both interrelated  and related to successful retirement. retirement seemed to be important  He found that planning f o r one's  only when the i n d i v i d u a l had a favorable  pre-retirement attitude and an accurate preconception.  If the opposite  were true, then planning did not increase h i s chances of making a favorable adjustment.  One may conclude from Thompson's study that the develop-  ment of favorable attitudes and accurate preconceptions  should form an  i n t e g r a l part of the individual's retirement learning. Thompson's research appears to be unique and s i g n i f i c a n t to the present study because i t stresses the individual formulation of plans. behind this need i s obvious.  The rationale  Planned a c t i v i t i e s f o r retirement can be a n t i -  dotes for idleness, loneliness, and boredom.  The d i f f i c u l t y i s i n the  24 f a i l u r e of many people to conceptualize creatively and imaginatively innovative a c t i v i t i e s and l i f e styles for the l a t e r years, of their l i v e s .  Summary Demographic projections for Canada indicate that by 1986  Canadians aged  65 and over w i l l number 2,600,000 - that i s 9.8 percent of the population ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1976).  With average l i f e expectancy increasing as a  result of improved socio-economic conditions and advances i n health care, there emerges the idea of a d i s t i n c t l a t e - l i f e period i n the l i f e cycle. Increasing numbers of older people w i l l necessitate increased planning for an e f f e c t i v e , s a t i s f y i n g retirement  life-style.  Teachers form a p a r t i c u l a r l y large group of professionals within society.  In British. Columbia, the Teachers' Pension Act covers  approximately  28,000 active teachers and about 4,000 r e t i r e d teachers or b e n e f i c i a r i e s . Reaching compulsory retirement age was  one of the main reasons indicated by  30% of the r e t i r e d teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia and, s i m i l a r l y , was  given by  29% of active teachers as the expected reason for retirement. Leaving formal career work and approaching a new period i n the l i f e cycle causes needs to arise that require the acquisition of information, and appreciations.  understandings,  Numerous c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l and i n d i v i d u a l factors influence  the scope and nature of retirement learning needs. Available l i t e r a t u r e suggests some tasks and p o t e n t i a l concerns i n retirement: f i n a n c i a l planning;  housing  options; avocational and second career education, health care, need for companionship, personal development, i n t e l l e c t u a l stimulation, l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s , adjusting to bereavement; and, pre-retirement a t t i t u d e . Retirement education i s based on the premise that people approaching late midclle-age need to consider the many issues represented by the retirement t r a n s i t i o n , and to acquire information, understandings,  and appreciations for  25  retirement. retirement had  not  According  to the  report higher  planned.  l i t e r a t u r e , p e r s o n s who  levels  of l i f e  satisfaction  plan for  their  than r e t i r e e s  who  26 •CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY  This chapter  presents  t h e methodology of t h e study.  pants f o r the s e l f - d i r e c t e d met  f o r the study.  The s a m p l e s i z e o f  t w e n t y t e a c h e r s was c h o s e n i n e x p e c t a t i o n o f l e n g t h y  designed  abstracts.  b y T o u g h ( 1 9 7 0 ) was m o d i f i e d  The i n - d e p t h  i n t e r v i e w s and t h e  interview  a t t i t u d e s o f t h e sample p a r t i c i p a n t s . t h r e e s u b j e c t s was c a r r i e d  Prior  study  l i v e s and  t e s t i n g of the instrument  out, and minor changes implemented.  data c o l l e c t i o n and t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f t h e data transferring  instrument  t o y i e l d a wide range o f i n f o r m a t i o n  about r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g and t h e p r e - and p o s t - r e t i r e m e n t  on  partici-  r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g s t u d y a r e t e a c h e r s who  t h e age-sex s t a t u s requirements  c o m p i l a t i o n of case study  Sample  The  from the i n t e r v i e w s - coding,  t o t a b l e s , d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s , and e d i t i n g  f o r the case  a b s t r a c t s - was a l s o c a r r i e d o u t b y t h e r e s e a r c h e r .  Sample S e l e c t i o n The  p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f two g r o u p s o f t e n f e m a l e  s e l e c t e d p u r p o s i v e l y from t h e Vancouver School D i s t r i c t The  pre-retirement  i nB r i t i s h  Columbia.  g r o u p was s e l e c t e d f r o m t e a c h e r s b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f  s i x t y a n d s i x t y - f o u r who w e r e a c t i v e l y t h e r e s e a r c h a n d who w e r e w i l l i n g g r o u p was s e l e c t e d f r o m r e t i r e d s i x t y - n i n e who w e r e w i l l i n g Specifically,  teachers  engaged i n t e a c h i n g a t t h e time o f  t o be i n t e r v i e w e d .  teachers between t h e ages o f s i x t y - f i v e and  t o be i n t e r v i e w e d .  t h e requirements  The p o s t - r e t i r e m e n t  There were t h r e e  refusals.  o f t h e sample were t h e age r e s t r i c t i o n s , t h e  t e a c h e r s ' p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s as a p p l i c a b l e t o each group and t e a c h e r s ' willingness  t o be interviewed.  27  Several factors led to the choice of these p a r t i c u l a r groups. The focus of inquiry was retirement learning.  Retired teachers and teachers  nearing retirement should have a vested interest i n retirement learning and hence would be more receptive to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the research project. Financial constraints made i t necessary to choose nearby case study s i t e s . Also, a school d i s t r i c t had to employ a s u f f i c i e n t number of teachers from which to sample.  The Vancouver School D i s t r i c t selected met this need,  and required minimum travel time. An age range from sixty to sixty-nine corresponds or time period i n which retirement needs are s a l i e n t .  to the l i f e - s t a g e I t i s an age-linked  period of t r a n s i t i o n and an appropriate time for what Carl Rogers (1969) c a l l s " s i g n i f i c a n t learning".  Teachers at this l i f e stage r e a l i z e "now i s  the time", and may display an i n t e r n a l readiness for learning experiences that would f a c i l i t a t e the retirement learning. Twenty case studies, ten teachers pre- and ten teachers p o s t - r e t i r e ment constituted the study sample.  This number was thought to be manageable  within the time l i m i t s set, and adequate for discovering and describing teachers' retirement learning projects.  The National Institute on Aging  and the National Institute on Mental Health, 1978 (cited i n the preceding chapter) recognized that women relate s p e c i f i c a l l y to certain retirement concerns:  family roles and s o c i a l networks i n l a t e r l i f e ; experiences with  loneliness and bereavement; new roles and relationships; and adequacy of l i v i n g accommodations.  It was assumed that l i m i t i n g the study to female  teachers.only would contribute to precision i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and exploration of retirement learning. And, i n recognition that older women have received l i t t l e attention i n the research l i t e r a t u r e , this study was directed to female teachers only.  A l l interviews were conducted  by the  28 author.  Because the external v a l i d i t y of the study applies to a p a r t i c u l a r  population, i t i s suggested  that further studies be done to determine i f the  findings can be generalized. Personnel from the Vancouver branch of the B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation and the B r i t i s h Columbia Retired Teachers' Association were consulted to obtain information for selecting the sample.  The purposes of  the study were discussed.  encouraging  Their response to the study was  l i s t s of names were not provided as a matter of policy.  but  The author knew  a few female r e t i r e d teachers with whom the purposes of the research were discussed. These teachers i d e n t i f i e d other teachers who were either r e t i r e d or nearing retirement.  A snowball approach to securing p a r t i c i p a n t s i n  the sample was decided upon. Survey Instrument The instrument used to c o l l e c t data for the case studies and the teachers' s e l f - d i r e c t e d projects i n retirement learning was interview employing in-depth questioning and probing  a semi-structured  techniques.  The case study approach highlights people's learning interests as embedded in their l i f e h i s t o r i e s , i n what they can do and what to do at a p a r t i c u l a r l i f e stage or age-linked period of their l i v e s (Weatherby 1978:19). Many of the authors cited by McCoy (1977) such as Levinson, Gould, Neugarten, Erikson, Havighurst and Schaie, and Sheehy conclude that there i s a pattern i n our l i v e s , a pattern of adult developmental stages which once recognized can be managed.  L i f e styles have been described as  age-linked periods of s t a b i l i t y  and t r a n s i t i o n embedded i n our experience of l i v i n g during which time certain concerns are s a l i e n t . For example, during the pre-retirement years,  concern  focuses on retirement l i v i n g . During actual retirement there are c e r t a i n adaptive tasks.  29  Both situations provide learning opportunities. Case studies frequently u t i l i z e such data-gathering instruments as interviews, questionnaires,  check l i s t s and rating scales (Good, Scates 1954) .  For the case studies here, a semi-structured for  interview served as the  device  data c o l l e c t i o n and assisted the teachers i n r e c a l l i n g a l l their r e t i r e -  ment learning projects i n d e t a i l .  The questions,  probes and learning methods  l i s t s were developed from those used by Tough (1970), F a i r (1973) , Coolican (1973) and Kelly (1976).  These were adapted to retirement  the p a r t i c u l a r adult population under study. to y i e l d a wide range of information and post-retirement  learning and  to  The interview schedule, designed  about retirement  learning and the pre-  l i v e s and attitudes of the sample p a r t i c i p a n t s , i s  divided into 15 sections:  (1) number of learning projects; (2) s p e c i f i c  knowledge or s k i l l the subject attempted to learn; (3) evaluation of the project; (4) day-to-day planner; (5) decision to undertake learning; source of information or assistance;  (7) credit or non-credit  (6)  activity;  (8) spouse's attitude towards subject's learning; (9) importance of c o n t r i bution to retirement  living;  (10) amount of learning; (11) benefit to other  people; (12) learning d i f f i c u l t i e s ; professional organization;  teachers'  (14) desired changes within society; (15)  f i c a t i o n of future retirement response rate was  (13) desired changes within  100 percent.  learning projects.  identi-  The item-specific  A l l of the instruments are shown i n  Appendix B. Data C o l l e c t i o n Data were collected through interviews conducted by the author.  To  arrange for the interviews, l e t t e r s of introduction were mailed to six teachers i n each group including the three known teachers who  had assisted  30 in  the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of p o t e n t i a l s u b j e c t s .  r e s e a r c h e r and noted  outlined  t h e p u r p o s e and  The  letter  method of t h e r e s e a r c h .  that the i n v e s t i g a t o r would telephone  the teacher  i n t e r v i e w should the teacher agree to p a r t i c i p a t e . ductory l e t t e r After pate  i s i n c l u d e d i n Appendix  s e v e r a l days,  i n the study.  inclusion. a convenient  t i m e and  p l a c e was  three respondent r e f u s a l s . procedure  was  repeated  the  criteria  arranged  In the case  until  with  letter  for  the  intro-  and  and  was  asked  to  f o r the i n t e r v i e w .  There were  to p a r t i c i p a t e ,  through  for  participate,  i n each group were  facilitated  partici-  the c r i t e r i a  willing  of r e f u s a l s  to  new  the  identified.  contacts  teachers. The  author  interview itself  followed a set pattern.  e x p l a i n e d t h e p u r p o s e and  were a s s u r e d and  to arrange  i f t h e y met  ten p a r t i c i p a n t s  F u r t h e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f s u b j e c t s was  The  A copy of the  telephoned  Teachers were then asked met  the  A.  e a c h t e a c h e r was  I f the person  introduced  procedure  of the i n t e r v i e w .  t h a t the r e s u l t s were s t r i c t l y  The  r e s e a r c h e r made e v e r y  t h r e a t e n i n g r e l a x e d a t m o s p h e r e and The listing tance  concept content  for teachers  learning. fied,  and  and  The  effort  in recalling  to e s t a b l i s h a teacher.  clarified  and  probe  sheets  further assis-  to d e s c r i b e each l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t  identi-  r e g a r d i n g .each l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t .  i n A p p e n d i x B.  on t h e l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t d a t a s h e e t s the personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  non-  a l l of t h e i r p r o j e c t s i n r e t i r e m e n t  q u e s t i o n s were, a s k e d  These q u e s t i o n s are c o n t a i n e d  research  i s detailed  methods f o r r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g p r o v i d e d  t e a c h e r s were asked  specific  This.procedure  rapport w i t h the  o f a l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t was  Teachers  f o r the purpose of the  t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s w o u l d r e m a i n anonymous.  i n A p p e n d i x B.  A f t e r i n t r o d u c t i o n s , the  These responses  (see Appendix B ) .  were  Responses  of the sample were r e c o r d e d  by  the  recorded  concerning individual  31 teachers, themselves on the demographic sheets. to conduct an interview was researcher  three hours.  The average time required  Following  the. interview,  the  reviewed a l l data sheets to ensure that the information  was  -  complete. The learning project and demographic data sheets were numerically precoded to f a c i l i t a t e the process with the exception  of three open-ended  i n q u i r i e s : (1) suggested changes within the teachers'  professional  organization; projects.  (2) suggested changes i n society; (3) additional learning  Responses- to open-ended questions were categorized by the author  following complete data c o l l e c t i o n .  Based on previous studies,  categories  were established for a l l questions i n the interview schedule.  Data Analysis Descriptive summary measures were employed i n the data analysis. The mean, median, mode and range were computed for the number of learning projects.  The mean was: computed for the number of projects conducted for  each type of planner and for the number of learning d i f f i c u l t i e s  identified.  Frequency counts and cross tabulations were used to describe the remaining 10 data tables: ( l j m a r i t a l status:; (2) percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n by advanced degrees; (3)1 retirement  content areas; (41  learning projects; (5)  mation or assistance; of learning; 0)1 difficulties.  factors Influencing teachers to conduct major planners;  (6) major sources of i n f o r -  (7J contribution to retirement  perceptions  living;  of benefit to other people; (10)  perceptions  learning  Comparisons between active and r e t i r e d teachers were, made i n  the analysis: of a l l this- data with the exception of learning which are presented i n order of frequency of mention.  difficulties  Suggested changes  within the teaching profession are grouped and categorized concern.  (8)  into areas of  Suggested changes i n society are s i m i l a r l y grouped and  Responses to the f i n a l inquiry on anticipated retirement grouped and categorized  into areas of interest.  categorized.  learning are  32 CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION AND-DISCUSSION- OF THE FINDINGS The results of the case studies of the twenty teachers are presented here.  Demographic data pertaining to the teachers i s presented  f i r s t to provide an overview description of the sample.  The analysis i s  presented i n sections corresponding to each of the research questions posed i n Chapter One.  This analysis includes the detailed data concerning the  nature and extent of the learning projects conducted by the teachers. I t i d e n t i f i e s the major human and material resources such as people, materials, and f a c i l i t i e s available as well as an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the f a c i l i t a t i n g and hindering factors that influence the learning process.  F i n a l l y , the  findings pertaining to learning to be undertaken i n the next year are reported. The case study abstracts are contained i n Appendix D.  For the  purpose of this study, each case described deals with a s u f f i c i e n t l y limited aspect of the teacher's role i n promoting i n retirement l i v i n g .  learning directed to s a t i s f a c t i o n  The p r i n c i p a l subject i n each instance i s i d e n t i f i e d  by use of an alphabetical l e t t e r , and reference to viewpoints on p r i o r i t i e s and solutions are included.  Characteristics of the Sample  The sample consisted of two groups of ten teachers each. The selected age group of active teachers was 60 to 64, and of r e t i r e d teachers was 65 to 69. The two groups d i f f e r e d with respect to the teachers' t o t a l number of years of teaching experience.  The active teachers had from nine  to 45 years of teaching experience and the median was 24.5 years. Four:  33  t e a c h e r s had taught t o 29 y e a r s The  i n t h e r a n g e o f 32 t o 42 y e a r s , f i v e t e a c h e r s h a d 20  o f . t e a c h i n g s e r v i c e , and one t e a c h e r h a d t a u g h t  range o f teaching experience  45 y e a r s  t o 22  and t h e r e m a i n i n g  years.  f o r t h e r e t i r e d t e a c h e r s were f o u r t e e n t o  a n d t h e m e d i a n , was 3 3 . 5 .  experience,  f o rnine  S i x t e a c h e r s h a d ' 3 5 t o 45 y e a r s o f  f o u r t e a c h e r s were i n t h e range o f f o u r t e e n  years. Two g r o u p s d i d n o t d i f f e r  towards s u b j e c t s l e a r n i n g .  significantly  teachers.  spouse's a t t i t u d e towards h e r l e a r n i n g Seven o f t h e twenty t e a c h e r s  marital  attitude  Spouses were d e s c r i b e d as s u p p o r t i v e o f  l e a r n i n g by seven o f t h e m a r r i e d  summarizes t h e percentage  on spouses'  One m a r r i e d  teacher  cited her  as n a t u r a l . i n t h e sample were m a r r i e d .  4  Table  d i s t r i b u t e d t o a c t i v e and r e t i r e d t e a c h e r s by  status.  TABLE 4 - PERCENTAGE D I S T R I B U T I O N OF A C T I V E AND RETIRED TEACHERS BY MARITAL STATUS  Total Marital  Active  Sample  Retired  Status N  .%  N  %  Single  9  45.0  3  30.0  6  60.0  Married  7  35.0  4  40.0  3  30.0  Separated o r Divorced  1  5.0  1  10.0  -  -  Widowed  3  15.0  2  20.0  1  10.0  20  100.0  10  100.0  10  100.0  TOTAL  :.; N  %  E d u c a t i o n a l achievement beyond t h e b a c h e l o r ' s degree i s summarized i n Table  5.  N i n e t e a c h e r s o r 45 p e r c e n t  e d u c a t i o n beyond t h e b a c h e l o r ' s degree.  o f t h e sample had n o t pursued Two a c t i v e  their  teachers had pursued  e d u c a t i o n b e y o n d a m a s t e r ' s d e g r e e e , b u t no o n e h a d e a r n e d  a Ph.D.  formal  34 TABLE 5 - PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF ACTIVE AND BY POST - BACHELOR DEGREE EDUCATION  RETIRED TEACHERS  Education Achieved  Retired  Active  Total Sample .N .  %  N  %  N  %  None  9  45.0  5  50.0  4  40.0.  Less than 30 graduate credits  2  10.0  1  10.0  1  10.0  30 or more graduate credits  4  20.0  2  20.0  2  20.0  Master's Degree  3  15.0  2  20.0  1  10.0  Master's Degree plus credits  2  10.0  -  -  2  20.0  20  100.0  10  10  100.0  TOTAL  100.0  Extent of Retirement Learning A c t i v i t y Indepth probing helped stimulate r e c a l l of retirement learning projects.  Teachers were presented two probe sheets l i s t i n g content areas  and methods of learning (see Appendix A).  They were requested to i d e n t i f y  and describe a l l learning projects contributing to their retirement l i v i n g . To be included i n the study, projects had to be i d e n t i f i e d as deliberate e f f o r t s to gain certain f a i r l y clear knowledge or s k i l l . With these e f f o r t s there also had to be the intent to direct the p a r t i c u l a r knowledge or s k i l l to some aspect of retirement l i v i n g .  Each learning  project had to be active for at least seven hours during a consecutive six-month period, but could be continued beyond this time. these c r i t e r i a were met,  Providing  the projects could be ones which were currently  35 i n progress; completed; temporarily Each teacher i d e n t i f i e d p r o j e c t s w h i c h she u n d e r t a k e n by The  the  had  living  at l e a s t three  undertaken.  The  combined groups of  average subject  retirement  i n a c t i v e ; or,  conducted ten  and  learning e f f o r t s which contribute  t e a c h e r s c o n d u c t e d an The  of y e a r s of  nine,  in  the  on  average of  indicate that  increased secular  volume of r e t i r e m e n t  press;  awareness of  the of  living.  because of  l i t e r a t u r e by  m o n e t a r y s y s t e m ; and,  the mandatory retirement  learning.  P r o j e c t s were c l a s s i f i e d  l e a r n i n g r e l a t i v e to the  finding  projects. i n the  number  the  the  pressure  f e e l i t necessary  age  fluctuations in  the  and  demographic  in  the  age.  Projects  into  sixteen  content areas f o r  according  factors  professional  learning projects  d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of  have  following factors:  Content Areas of R e t i r e m e n t L e a r n i n g  representing  the  currently exerting  both the  i n f l a t i o n and  categories  deliberate  p r o f e s s i o n a l based  the  upward c u r v e of  grouped the  her  f a c t o r s may  T e a c h e r s may  threat  s t u d y has  eighteen.  Considerable  learning  Several  experience are  Canadian s o c i e t y ; the  This  to  6)  differences  Many s o c i e t a l and  preparation  projects  account f o r s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n  teachers to prepare f o r t h e i r retirement.  t o engage i n r e t i r e m e n t  learning  i n d i c a t e d by  ten retirement  learning activity.  l i n k e d to years of  learning  teachers undertake extensive,  experience d i d not  to these r e s u l t s .  which are not  Table  l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s was  amount o f r e t i r e m e n t  contributed  (see  completion.  c o n t r i b u t i n g to  to t h e i r retirement  case study a b s t r a c t s  teaching  t o t a l number o f  learning projects  These d a t a demonstrate t h a t  that  retirement  teachers ranged from three  t h e m e d i a n was  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n retirement  dropped b e f o r e  to the  s p e c i f i c purpose and/or use  retirement  content a r e a of for that  the  learning.  36  TABLE 6 - NUMBER OF RETIREMENT LEARNING PROJECTS CONDUCTED BY TEACHERS  Number of Proj ects Conducted 3  Teachers  Projects  1  Retired  Active  Total Sample  teachers  Projects  3  4  _  —  5  —  —  Teachers  Projects  1  3  1  6  1  7  6  1  6  7  2  14  1  7  8  4  32  -4  32  9  2  18  -  -  2  18  10  3  30  3  30  -  -  11  1  11  -  -  1  11  12  1  12  1  12  -  -  13  1  13  -  -  1  13  14  2  28  1  14  1  14  15  1  15  -  -  1  15  16  -  -  -  -  -  -  17  -  -  -  -  -  -  18  1  18  _  1  18  20  200  10  105  TOTAL Mean  10.0  10  95 9.5  -  10.5  Median  9  9  10 '  Mode  8.0  8.0  9.0  Range  3-18  7-14  3-18  37 The projects were categorized from the responses to the following two questions: "What knowledge or s k i l l did you deliberately attempt to learn from this project?"; "In what way(s) does this project contribute to your actual (or "anticipated", i n the case of active teachers) retirement living?". Two examples i l l u s t r a t e the application of this c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme.  A r e t i r e d art teacher continues to work f u l l time i n her studio  as an a r t i s t . skill.  She undertook additional study i n pottery to increase her  Her project was included i n continuing education.  conducted a similar project to learn macrame. for  An active teacher  She pursued this project  recreational purposes;; the project was c l a s s i f i e d i n the hobbies and l e i s u r e  activities  category. As a guide i n constructing an appropriate c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme,  the author referred to the retirement l i t e r a t u r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y that of Lynch and R i d d e l l (1979) who i d e n t i f i e d some potential concerns i n retirement: a sound f i n a n c i a l planning base, housing options, preventive health care, relationships with family and friends, and  new l i f e s t y l e  patterns. As Indicated i n Table 7, the greatest number of learning projects (19 percent) were i n the personal development and continuing education category.  In this category, eighteen projects were conducted by the r e t i r e d  teachers and seventeen projects were conducted by the active teachers. The second highest number of projects, 12 percent, were i n the hobbies and l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s category. The career and  avocation develop-  ment category represented the t h i r d highest number of projects, 11 percent. These three categories account f o r 71 of the learning projects or 35.5 percent of the t o t a l .  38 TABLE 7 - CONTENT AREAS IN WHICH TEACHERS CONDUCTED RETIREMENT LEARNING PROJECTS.  Content Areas  Number of Projects Conducted  N  N  Retired  Active  Total Sample  %  N  %  F i n a n c i a l planning  18  9.0  10  10.5  8  7.6  Health care  11  5.5  8  8.4  3  2.9  Hobbies/1ei sure activities  24  12.0  10  10.5  14  13.3  Participation/ active sports  18  9.0  10  10.5  8  7.6  Career, avocation development  22  11.0  8.4  14  13.3  Expenditure management  7  3.5  2.1  5  4.8  Home management/ maintenance  6  3.0  2.1  4  3.8  Alternate l i v i n g accommodations  7  3.5  4.2  3  2.9  Personal development/ continuing education  35  17.5  18  18.9  17  16.2  Church a c t i v i t i e s  .8  4.0  5  5.3  3  2.9  Politics/citizenship/ community  8  4.0  4.2  4  3.8  Fine A r r t s / c u l t u r a l pursuits  17  8.5  6.3  11  10.5  Family/social relationships  12  6.0  8.4  4  3.8  Care of the e l d e r l y  2  1.0  2  1.9  Death/dying  1  .5  1  .9  Travel  4  2.0  4  3.8  200  100.0  105  100.0  TOTAL  95  99.8  39 Concern for f i n a n c i a l Blatters, is. indicated by the 15 percent of learning projects that were i n three related content areas;: f i n a n c i a l planning, expenditure management, and  home management and maintenance.  As indicated by the number of projects reported i n the three categories i d e n t i f i e d above (personal development and continuing education,; career and avocation development, and hobbies and l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s ) i t would appear that teachers see retirement as a time for continued personal growth, service within society, and personal refreshment and l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s .  through  hobbies  A number of teachers i n Group One indicated.a need  for developing or exploring new from teaching. In Group Two,  career potential for use upon retirement  although the majority of teachers, 60 percent,  were engaged i n volunteer and service-oriented a c t i v i t i e s , only one r e t i r e d teacher was earning an income from her work.  Factors Influencing Teachers to Conduct Retirement Learning Projects A decision to conduct a learning project may be helped or influenced by someone or something.  For each project, teachers were asked  to describe the factor(s) which Influenced their decisions to begin that p a r t i c u l a r learning e f f o r t .  Six categories emerged from the data. These  categories incorporate a l l the factors which influenced teachers to i n i t i a t e retirement learning projects. As indicated i n Table 8, the greatest number of projects, 65 percent or 130, were i n i t i a t e d i n response to a perceived need or desire for: f i n a n c i a l security, work or service, s o c i a l interaction, health maintenance, and  change or improvement i n residence.  In many instances,  teachers described an anticipated use or application for the learning as a factor contributing to their b e l i e f i n the importance of that learning.  TABLE 8 - FACTORS INFLUENCING TEACHERS TO CONDUCTRETIREMENT LEARNING PROJECTS  Number Influencing Factors  T  o  t  a  l  S  a  m  p  l  Projects  Active  e  N  %  Perceived needs F i n a n c i a l security Work/service Social i n t e r a c t i o n Health maintenance Change/improvement i n residence  130  65.0  Enjoyment of process of learning  29  14.5  Influence of people  17  8.5  Increase i n unobligated time  16  8.0  Inflation  7  3.5  Bereavement  1  .5  200  100.0  TOTAL  of  N 66  %  'N  69.5  66  18  (7.6) (23.6) (16.2) (6.7) (6.7)  18.9  11  10.5  9.5  8  7.6  16  15.2  5  4.8  1  .9  105  99.9  2.1  95  60.9 (8) (25) (17) (7) (7)  (10.5) (20.0) (18.9) (13.7) (6.3)  (10) (19) (18) (13) (6)  (9.0) (22.0) (17.5) (10.0) (6.5)  (18) (44) (35) (20) (13)  Retired  100.0  41 A greater number of projects were begun i n response to a perceived need related to work or service by the r e t i r e d teachers than by the active teachers (25:19).  Conversely, active teachers indicated a broader perception  of health maintenance needs. •(•13: 7) An enjoyment of the process of learning motivated teachers to begin 14.5 percent of a l l the projects conducted.  This influence was eight  percent higher among active teachers than among the r e t i r e d teachers. The influence of other persons accounted  for the motivation to  begin about nine percent of the projects. Personal acquaintances,  relatives,  colleagues and spouses were p a r t i c u l a r people i d e n t i f i e d as i n f l u e n t i a l . Group or s o c i a l pressures and the stimulus from a conference or course were also mentioned.  An increase In unobligated time motivated r e t i r e d teachers to begin about 15 percent of their retirement learning projects. No active teacher cited this as an influencing factor.  Recognition of the effects and  influence of i n f l a t i o n on the economy and one's personal l i f e s t y l e motivated teachers to begin about four percent of the projects. Bereavement was  cited  as the influence i n beginning one learning project on death and dying. In summary, teachers conduct retirement learning projects i n response to a perceived need or an anticipated benefit to be derived from the effort. Major Planners for Learning Projects  Tough defines a planner as the person(s) or thing that assumes r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for. the major day-to-day decisions concerning the content, methods and progression of the learning (1971:77)  IN some learning projects  42 t h e l e a r n e r may d e c i d e t o a t t e n d a g r o u p a n d l e t t h e g r o u p o r i t s l e a d e r d e c i d e how a n d wha't h e l e a r n s ; d u r i n g each, s e s s i o n .  In other learning projects, the  p l a n n i n g and d e c i d i n g o f what t o l e a r n and i n what o r d e r i s : h a n d l e d p e r s o n who h e l p s t h e l e a r n e r i n a one - t o - one s i t u a t i o n . projects,  s e s s i o n r e s i d e s i n some o b j e c t —  At other times, the learner himself r e t a i n s  responsibility  indicated  classified  some nonhuman the major  (51%)  f o r t h e day - t o - day p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . A  d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of each is  I n some l e a r n i n g  t h e m a j o r p a r t o f t h e d e t a i l e d d i r e c t i o n c o n c e r n i n g what t o l e a r n  a n d w h a t t o do a t e a c h resource.  by one  o f t h e f o u r p l a n n e r t y p e s d e s c r i b e d by Tough  on t h e p r o b e s h e e t  contained i n Appendix  B.  The p r o j e c t s  were  a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f o u r t y p e s o f p l a n n e r s on t h e s h e e t . To e x a m i n e t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e t e a c h e r s ' l e a r n i n g e f f o r t s ,  i n t e r v i e w e e was h a n d e d t h e p r o b e s h e e t a n d a s k e d of p l a n n e r used  f o r each  learning project.  of use f o r each  type of planner.  to identify  each  the major  type  T a b l e 9 summarizes t h e f r e q u e n c y  S e l f - p l a n n e d l e a r n i n g was b y f a r t h e m o s t common, a c c o u n t i n g f o r almost  63 p e r c e n t o f t h e p r o j e c t s .  F o r e a c h g r o u p o f t e a c h e r s , 60  o r more o f t h e p r o j e c t s were s e l f - p l a n n e d . t e a c h e r s were asked  i f they would have l i k e d  with that learning. the  Teachers  responded  F o r each  percent  self-planned project  additional help or assistance  affirmatively  f o r o v e r 50 p e r c e n t o f  projects. Tough found  t h a t a d u l t s i n h i s s t u d y assumed m a j o r  f o r p l a n n i n g 68 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r p r o j e c t r e s u l t i n her study I n which the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  secondary  (N = 538).  found  a  similar  s c h o o l t e a c h e r s a s s u m e d 68 p e r c e n t o f  f o r planning their projects  o f t h i s s t u d y show t h a t a l m o s t  Kelly  responsibility  (N = 315).  The  results  63 p e r c e n t o f t h e p r o j e c t s w e r e s e l f - p l a n n e d .  These r e s u l t s a r e i n a c c o r d w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h o f Tough and K e l l y .  .TABLE 9 - MAJOR PLANNERS FOR RETIREMENT LEARNING PROJECTS  Number  Types of Planners  of  Self Group with instructor self-formed Individuals i n one-to-one relationship with learner intimate, nonexpert Colleague paid expert non-paid expert  Projects Retired  Active  Total Samples N  Learning  N  % 62.5  65  68.4  60  57.1  32 7 39  16.0 3.5 19.5  12 _2 14  12.6 2.1 14.7  20 __5 25  19.0 4.8 23.8  13  6.5  6 3 22  3.0 1.5 11.0  2 _1 7  2.1 1.0 7.4  4 2 15  3.8 1.9 14.3  14  7.0  9  9.5  5  4.8  125  11.4  4.2  Material Resource Mixed TOTAL  200  100.0  95  100.0  105  100.0  44  G r o u p p l a n n e d l e a r n i n g a c c o u n t e d f o r a l m o s t 20 p e r c e n t o f a l l the p r o j e c t s situation  conducted. Most of these p r o j e c t s i n v o l v e d  i n w h i c h t h e group a n d / o r i n s t r u c t o r assumed t h e m a j o r  sibility  f o r planning  involved  this  active  a structured  the learning.  A greater  teachers  which t h a n by  teachers. I n d i v i d u a l s i n a one-to-one r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h  the learner  p r o j e c t p l a n n e r s f o r 11 p e r c e n t o f a l l t h e p r o j e c t s c o n d u c t e d . n o n - e x p e r t i n d i v i d u a l s were most o f t e n c i t e d . cited  respon-  number o f p r o j e c t s  t y p e o f p l a n n e r were c o n d u c t e d by r e t i r e d  group  as t h e m a j o r p l a n n e r i n any r e t i r e m e n t  i n this  Intimate  The m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e  learning project.  o r m i x e d c a t e g o r y was u s e d when no one p l a n n e r was c l e a r l y projects placed  were or  was n o t  The r e s i d u a l  dominant.  The  category accounted f o r seven percent of the t o t a l  sample.  Sources of Iriforiiiatidn or  Assistance  Someone o r s o m e t h i n g b e c o m e s t h e m a j o r s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n assistance  i n most l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s .  this question:  " I n t h i s p r o j e c t , who  content or help; The o r i g i n a l  as l i s t e d  Appendix B were a l t e r e d t o r e f l e c t the d e t a i l e d  i n the Learning  assistance  P r o j e c t Data  m a t e r i a l and p e o p l e p r o v i d e d  t o you?"  Sheet,  the a c t u a l responses from t h i s  question.  data.  One i n d i v i d u a l s a n d p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s w e r e u s e d m o s t as m a j o r s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n  were asked  o r w h a t was t h e p r i m a r y s o u r c e o f  t h a t i s , w h i c h one was o f t h e g r e a t e s t  categories  T a b l e 10 p r e s e n t s  F o r each p r o j e c t , teachers  or  and a s s i s t a n c e .  The c o m b i n a t i o n o f p r i n t e d  t h e m a i n c o n t e n t and a s s i s t a n c e  l e a r n i n g i n a b o u t 22 p e r c e n t o f t h e p r o j e c t s .  frequently  f o r retirement  A c t i v e teachers  w e r e t h e more  45 TABLE 10 - MAJOR SOURCES OF INFORMATION OR ASSISTANCE USED IN RETIREMENT LEARNING PROJECT  Number Source  Learning  of  Proj ects Retired  Active  Total Sample %  N  %  N  %  28  14.0  12  12.6  16  15.2  8  4.0  3  3.2  5  4.8  Individual, friend or r e l a t i v e (other than spouse  13  6.5  5  5.3  8  7.6  Spouse  15  7.5  7  7.4  8  7.6  Paid expert  5  2.5  2  2.1  3  2.8  Colleague(s)  4  2.0  2  2.1  2  1.9  Books, reference materials  26  13.0  11  11.6  15  14.3  Magazines, newspapers, newsletters  15  7.5  10  10.5  5  4.8  1  .5  -  -  1  .9  3  21.5  24  25.3  19  18.1  Combination printed material*, people  43  21.5  24  25.3  19  18.1  Combination printed material*, group event  22  11.0  9  9.5  13  12.4  17  8.5  10  10.5  7  6.7  95  100.1  105  99.9  N Group or group instructor Group, self-formed  A-V  resource  V i s i t s to h i s t o r i c a l s i t e s , museums  Combination of individuals TOTAL  * and/or A-V resources  200  100.0  46 f r e q u e n t u s e r s o f this, source o f i n f o r m a t i o n o r a s s i s t a n c e . The sources of i n f o r m a t i o n or a s s i s t a n c e leas:t used b.y both, a c t i v e and r e t i r e d  t e a c h e r s were  the s e l f - f o r m e d group, p a i d e x p e r t , c o l l e a g u e ( s ) , A-V r e s o u r c e , and, v i s i t s t o h i s t o r i c a l s i t e s or museums. Each of these accounted t o t a l sample.  f o r l e s s than 5% o f t h e  The l a t t e r two sources were not used a t a l l by t h e a c t i v e  teachers i n t h i s  sample.  Learning f o r Credit  To determine the e x t e n t of l e a r n i n g undertaken f o r c r e d i t , teachers- were asked  i f the r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t was undertaken f o r  c r e d i t and the p r o j e c t s were c l a s s i f i e d as e i t h e r a c r e d i t o r a n o n c r e d i t activity.  L e a r n i n g f o r c r e d i t r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y 2.9 p e r c e n t o f a l l p r o j e c t s  -undertaken by r e t i r e d  t e a c h e r s w h i l e 9.5 p e r c e n t o f the_. .proj ects~ by  p r e - r e t i r . e d teachers-.were  for credit.  Extent o f C o n t r i b u t i o n t o Retirement  Teachers  were asked how important  t r i b u t i n g to t h e i r retirement l i v i n g .  Living  each p r o j e c t was i n con-  As i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 11, t h e  m a j o r i t y o r 66 p e r c e n t of the l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s were p e r c e i v e d to be extremely  important  f o r retirement l i v i n g .  to f i v e l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s .  U n c e r t a i n v a l u e was a t t a c h e d  I n each i n s t a n c e , t h e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y was  a p a r t o f a comprehensive r e t i r e m e n t p l a n n i n g  Amount  experience.  Learned  Each t e a c h e r was asked how much, she f e l t had been l e a r n e d each l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t .  through  To a s s i s t i n d e c i d i n g the degree o f l e a r n i n g , a  r a t i n g s c a l e i n d i c a t e d t h r e e c h o i c e s : a g r e a t d e a l , a moderate amount,  47 TABLE 11 - PERCEPTIONS OF CONTRIBUTION TO RETIREMENT LIVING  Extent'of Contribution  Number Total Sample %  N  of Projects Active N  %  Retired N  %,  Extremely important  132  66.7  63  66.3  69  65.7  Moderately important  61  30.5  28  29.5  33  31.4  2  1.0  -  -  2  1.9  Uncertain  5  2.5  4  4.2  1  .9  TOTAL  200  100.0  95  100.0  105  99.9  Of l i t t l e  importance  TABLE 12 - PERCEPTIONS OF LEARNING  Great deal Moderate amount A little TOTAL  Total Sample N %  Projects  of  Number Amount Learned  Active N %  Retired N %  102  51.0  44  46.3  58  55.2  79  39.4  38  40.0  41  39.0  19  9.5  13  13.7  6  5.7  200  100.0  95  100.0  105  99.9  48 and  a little.  each grouping  T h e r e was  p r o v i s i o n f o r t h r e e degrees, o f p e r c e p t i o n w i t h i n  ( s e e A p p e n d i x B l . The  been l e a r n e d from the projects".  The  t e a c h e r s , p e r c e i v e d t h a t a g r e a t amount two  groups d i f f e r e d  considerably  t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f the e x t e n t of l e a r n i n g from the p r o j e c t s . shows t h a t a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e  o f l e a r n i n g was  p e r c e i v e d by  the  Table  had  on 12  retired  teachers.  B e n e f i t of L e a r n i n g  To  i n v e s t i g a t e the extent  p e r c e i v e d t o be "To  of b e n e f i t to o t h e r people,  Three c a t e g o r i e s (to a f a i r l y  only to a s m a l l extent or probably not subject In responding  C57.1  13  you  T h i s : may  gained  Each c a t e g o r y had  to a s s i s t  extent, the  a three point  shows t h a t o v e r h a l f o f t h e p r o j e c t s others to a f a i r l y  show a s o c i a l a w a r e n e s s o n  t h e ways t h e y p e r c e i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e i r  the impact  asked:  p r o v i d e some b e n e f i t  l a r g e e x t e n t , to a moderate  p e r c e n t ) were c l a s s i f i e d as b e n e f i t i n g  moderate e x t e n t . In  Table  t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n was  a t a l l ) were p r o v i d e d  to this questions.  range (see Appendix B ) .  Others  to which l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s were  what e x t e n t d i d t h e knowledge o r s k i l l  to o t h e r s ? "  for  t h i s has: u l t i m a t e l y on s o c i e t y and  large or  the p a r t of  teachers  r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g and  the i n d i v i d u a l s i n s o c i e t y .  49  TABLE 13 - PERCEPTIONS OF BENEFIT OF LEARNING FOR OTHERS  Extent of Benefit to Others  of  Number  Projects Retired  Active  Total Sample  %  N  %  30  33.7  30  29.4  25.7  23  25.8  26  25.5  21  10.9  11  12.4  10  9.8  Not at a l l  61  31.9  25  28.1  26  35.3  TOTAL  191*  99.9  89  100.0  102  100.0  N  %  F a i r l y large extent  60  31.4  Moderate extent  49  Small extent  -  *  N  Nine projects were i d e n t i f i e d as ones which were of uncertain benefit to others.  50 Learning  Difficulties.  To i d e n t i f y p r o b l e m s - e n c o u n t e r e d b y t e a c h e r s learning, subjects difficulties efforts.  retirement  of thirty-two  Two l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s  from K e l l y ' s , ( 1 9 7 6 ) l i s t were d e l e t e d  l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e r e l a t i v e t o t h e age o f t h e a d u l t  learners. For  i s an e x p e r t o r a  p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n , what i s t h e p l a n n e r ' s a t t i t u d e t o t h e o l d e r the learning s i t e  i s located  a t some d i s t a n c e  home b a s e , how a c c e s s a b l e i s I t t o t h e l e a r n e r s transportation available?  I f material  course requirements, w i l l the adult and  from t h e o l d e r and i s t h e r e  In searching  formal  the format  f o rmaterials,  use of u n i v e r s i t y  learning a d i f f i c u l t y  learner?  adult's  r e s o u r c e s a r e used i n v o l v i n g  be d i f f i c u l t i e s - r e l a t e d t o t h e e f f i c i e n t  Is the scheduled time of the d e s i r e d  adult  adequate  l e a r n e r have problems w i t h  the mechanics of the requirements?  there  and  These seven r e l a t e t o c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e o l d e r  example, I f t h e major p l a n n e r o f t h e l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t  If  learning  t h o s e w h i c h w e r e m a j o r c o n c e r n s f o r them i n t h e i r l e a r n i n g  seven were added. adult's  were asked t o s e l e c t from a l i s t  i n their  will  libraries?  f o r the older  adult? T a b l e 14 i d e n t i f i e s teachers, for  and t h e frequency o f t h e responses. F i n d i n g  learning, being able  to read a l l that  concerns- from i n t e r r u p t i n g identified  the learning d i f f i c u l t i e s  difficulties  i n these areas.  i s a v a i l a b l e , and  keeping  most  Teachers i n both groups  Obtaining  interested person, getting help  time other  frequently  experienced  money f o r t h e p r o j e c t , f i n d i n g a n  from other teachers,  i n t e r e s t i n t h e l e a r n i n g p r e s e n t e d no d i f f i c u l t y sample.  and a r r a n g i n g  t h e l e a r n i n g were t h e t h r e e  learning d i f f i c u l t i e s .  as c i t e d by t h e  and m a i n t a i n i n g  an  to the teachers i n this  51 TABLE 14 - LEARNING DIFFICULTIES AS CITED BY TEACHERS  Number of Teachers Total Sample N % Finding and arranging time forlearning Being able to read a l l that i s available Keeping other concerns from interrupting the learning Securing the materials Being confused by contradictory information Deciding how to begin Knowing where and what materials were available Finding someone who was an authority i n area Dealing with doubts about success Contacting someone who could give s p e c i f i c help Knowing what had been written on the subject Identifying what to learn Planning the learning Assessing how much you know Assessing your progress Dealing with d i f f i c u l t i e s i n understanding some part(s) Setting goals Deciding how much you wanted to know Deciding which of the materials were most appropriate Use of university l i b r a r i e s Inadequate transportation A c c e s s i b i l i t y of the learning s i t e Deciding whether to begin Age factor i n professional attitude to learner Problems with format and mechanics of formal course requirements Locating an appropriate course i n the area Deciding what methods and techniques to use Scheduled time of the desired learning event Obtaining money f o r the project Finding someone who was interested i n you and your project Getting other teachers to help you Maintaining your interest i n the learning  13 10 9 7 7 6 6 6 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4  65 50 45 35 35 30 30 30 25 25 25 20 20 20 20 20  4 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 2  20 20 15 15 15 10 10 10 10  1 1 1  5 5 5  52 Suggested Changes Within the Teaching Profession To gain insight into the ways which teachers might be assisted with their deliberate learning e f f o r t s i n retirement a c t i v i t i e s , the teachers were asked to suggest s p e c i f i c changes within the teaching profession which could f a c i l i t a t e their learning e f f o r t s .  Of the t o t a l sample (N  = 20) 40 percent  commended the teachers' professional organizations, for their p o s i t i v e service i n retirement education. Eighteen suggestions were made by the teachers and six areas of concern emerged from these suggestions (see Table 15).  Financial  concerns  and concerns related to image and esteem e l i c i t e d eleven of the eighteen suggestions.  In suggesting that .the teachers' professional organizations  investigate ways that the knowledge and experience of r e t i r e d teachers can be shared, reference was made to positions such as consultants and in-service leaders. Suggested Changes i n Society Teachers were asked to suggest s p e c i f i c changes i n society which could f a c i l i t a t e their retirement learning e f f o r t s .  Fourteen changes i n  society were suggested and four areas of concern emerged from these suggestions: personal development, f i n a n c i a l assistance, image and esteem needs, and retirement education programs (see Table 16). Of these four areas, personal development was the major concern, followed by concern for f i n a n c i a l assistance and image/esteem needs. The need f i n a l suggestion.  for retirement education programs was the  The teachers i n this sample want f a c i l i t i e s such as  community centers, learning centers, and s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t centers where they can continue to learn, to develop s k i l l s , and to share experiences.  They want  society to recognize the role of the family i n society and to promote concern for the extended family.  53 Learning to be "Undertaken iri the Next Year  At the conclusion of the interviews, teachers were asked what new or related retirement  projects they would l i k e to conduct i n the next year.  The response was not high and indicated that teachers did not wish to probe very extensively into what new learning projects would be undertaken.  One  r e t i r e d teacher expressed the philosophical view that one i s always learning i n retirement  living.  She added that new projects are not e a s i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e  as they are undertaken usually i n response to some new need or to requests by other people.  The findings of the study regarding  the factors influencing  teachers to conduct learning projects support this viewpoint.  The greatest  number of projects, 65 percent or 130, were i n i t i a t e d i n response to a perceived need.  Table 17 categorizes the anticipated retirement  learning projects  into f i v e areas of i n t e r e s t : volunteer work, l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y , f i n a n c i a l interest, housing and second career. i  54  TABLE 15 - SUGGESTED CHANGES WITHIN THE TEACHING  Area of Concern  Financial Assistance  PROFESSION  Suggestions  Strengthen the Retired Teachers' through a d d i t i o n a l funding  Association  I n c r e a s e i n s t r u c t i o n and guidance i n f i n a n c i a l matters Provide  education r e l a t i v e to i n f l a t i o n  P u b l i c i z e the services of the Teachers' Credit Union Provide  investment  advice  Assess the fee structure of the federation Mandate l i f e Image/Esteem Needs  teachers'  insurance  Do w h a t c a n b e done t o i m p r o v e image i n s o c i e t y  teachers'  R e c o g n i z e t h a t t e a c h e r s need esteem from p e e r s w i t h i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n and from s o c i e t y Promote a p o s i t i v e image o f t e a c h e r s i n society P r o v i d e f o r p e r s o n a l i t y development s e m i n a r s and work shops Leisure  T i m e Management  Provide l e a r n i n g experiences i n l e i s u r e time management Provide opportunities to develop the p o t e n t i a l o f t e a c h e r s i n new w a y s I n v e s t i g a t e ways t h a t experience of r e t i r e d  Retirement Research  t h e knowledge and t e a c h e r s c a n be s h a r e d  Support r e s e a r c h and development p r o j e c t s b y a c t i v e t e a c h e r s who u s e e x p e r t s a s required P r o v i d e f i n a n c i a l and m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s f o r r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t p r o j e c t s on retirement  55 TABLE 15 -  Contd.  Area of Concern  Suggestions  Conditions of Retirement  Choice of e a r l i e r  retirement  Widowhood  Provide learning projects t o widowhood  related  56  TABLE 16 - SUGGESTED CHANGES I N SOCIETY  Area of Concern  Personal  Development  Suggestions  Community c e n t e r s t o p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the development o f l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s and skills Learning centers f o r teachers t o share e x p e r i e n c e s and exchange i d e a s about r e t i r e m e n t living S e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t c e n t e r s t h a t encourage c r e a t i v i t y ; p l a c e s where people would f i n d s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h e i r accomplishments Opportunities f o rincreased exposure t o a r t and m u s i c Encouragement and o p p o r t u n i t y i n t e r e s t s and g i v e s e r v i c e  Financial  Assistance  t o develop  F i n a n c i a l i n c e n t i v e f o rr e t i r e d teachers t o work a s e d u c a t i o n c o n s u l t a n t s , t u t o r s , o r s p e c i a l education teachers R e a l i s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n on i n f l a t i o n through a p p r o p r i a t e community r e s o u r c e s and t h e media I n s t r u c t i o n and guidance i n f i n a n c i a l management f o r r e t i r e d p e o p l e b y e x p e r t s i n the community Product p r i c e c o n t r o l on e s s e n t i a l foods special provisions for senior citizens  Image/Esteem Needs  with  Improvement i n t h e media c o v e r a g e o f r e t i r e m e n t i s s u e s and t h e image p o r t r a y e d b y the media o f o l d e r a d u l t s . Promotion of concern  f o r the extended  family  Recognition of the r o l e of the family i n s o c i e t y and t h e s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f f a m i l y t i e s Improvement o f t h e s t a t u s o f t e a c h e r s i n s o c i e t y : teachers tend t o be underrated by society Retirement Programs  Education  P r o v i s i o n o f r e t i r e m e n t e d u c a t i o n programs o f f e r e d b y r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n t h e community at d i f f e r e n t times t o a l l o w f o r d i v e r s e teacher r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  TABLE 17 - LEARNING TO BE UNDERTAKEN  Areas of I n t e r e s t  V o l u n t e e r Work  I N THE NEXT YEAR  Anticipated Learning  Local  Projects  community and c h u r c h work  V o l u n t e e r h o s p i t a l work w i t h outside the c i t y Services Leisure  Activity  Financial  Interest  to  from  shut-ins  S t u d y i n g gemology; t a k i n g organ l e s s o n s ; t a k i n g t e n n i s l e s s o n s ; l e a r n i n g a second language; reading r e l a t e d to s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t area; taking a u n i v e r s i t y course Learning concerning  inheritance  Housing  I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f new l i v i n g  Second C a r e e r  Writing children's learning  Note:  patients  accommodations  literature;correspondence  Some o f t h e p r o j e c t s i d e n t i f i e d a s "new l e a r n i n g " a r e e s s e n t i a l l y o n - g o i n g p r o j e c t s , a n d "new" i n t h e s e n s e o f new k n o w l e d g e o r new s k i l l t h a t w i l l be a c q u i r e d .  58  CHAPTER y SUMMARY, DISCUSSION AND Chapter V reviews  t h e p u r p o s e and m e t h o d o l o g y o f t h e s t u d y .  s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s t h e f i n d i n g s and The  includes suggestions  community o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and  facilitate  the process  Understanding responsibility  retirement  l e a r n i n g and  the l e a r n i n g behavior  and  study  a n a l y s i s of B r i t i s h  main o b j e c t i v e of the survey  research  teachers  and  teachers  l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s of  assume and  t h e i n c o m e , s a v i n g and  approaching  retirement. two  teachers.  c o n d u c t e d i n 1979.  a n a l y s i s c o n d u c t e d by P a t e r s o n  and  Cook  expenditure  The  study  groups of  a l s o the need f o r such d a t a ,  teachers  and  teachers and  t o compare t h e n a t u r e  p r e - r e t i r e d and  retired  nearing  did  The (1979) patterns not  teachers.  the author  and  were w i l l i n g  chose  was  retirement learning by  teachers. groups of ten teachers  between the ages of s i x t y t o be  study  extent of the p r o j e c t s undertaken  p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f two  female teachers  r e t i r e m e n t . The  extent of t e a c h e r s '  from the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t , B r i t i s h  and  they  s u g g e s t ways t o f u r t h e r s u p p o r t  l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s of these  to determine the nature  The  as  compare s e l e c t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g  projects of r e t i r e d  p r o j e c t s and  Study  needs of t e a c h e r s  C o l u m b i a t e a c h e r s was  t h e l a c k o f d a t a and  t o examine and  designed  and  the retirement  Recognizing  and  of retirement  t o o b t a i n f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n on  of r e t i r e d  promote  learning efforts.  This i s the f i r s t A survey  thus  can  years.  f o r r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g may  exhance t e a c h e r s '  community  teachers' p r o f e s s i o n a l organizations  of s e l f - d i r e c t e d  s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the l a t e r  second  for further research.  P u r p o s e and M e t h o d o l o g y o f t h e  was  A  c o n c l u d i n g recommendations p e r t a i n t o ways t h a t a d u l t e d u c a t o r s ,  leaders,  life  CONCLUSIONS  i n t e r v i e w e d . The  C o l u m b i a . G r o u p One  t o s i x t y - f o u r who  ten female teachers  were in  each, s e l e c t e d included  ten  preretired  59 G r o u p Two w e r e b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f s i x t y - f i v e and  were w i l l i n g  t o be  t o s i x t y - n i n e who w e r e  retired  interviewed.  Case d e s c r i p t i o n s were assembled and d a t a were c o l l e c t e d through indepth  interviews  F e b r u a r y o f 1980. related  c o n d u c t e d b y the•„author" d u r i n g . J a n u a r y a n d . .; s  The i n t e r v i e w s  learning efforts.  f o c u s e d on t e a c h e r s '  Summary o f M a j o r research  in deliberate retirement. teachers'  encountered i n l e a r n i n g .  Findings  r e s u l t s indicate that  teachers are extensively  l e a r n i n g e f f o r t s which contribute The m a j o r f i n d i n g s  retirement  that  status  i d e n t i f y t h e n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f t h e  l e a r n i n g e f f o r t s a r e summarized.  i n t h e number o f y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g  and e d u c a t i o n a l  Teachers perceived  the majority  d e a l had been l e a r n e d  l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s were d i r e c t e d  of the retirement living,  social  O v e r 30 p e r c e n t o f t h e  large  retirement  learning. of the learning  needs: f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y , work o r s e r v i c e ,  i n t e r a c t i o n , h e a l t h maintenance:, a n d change o r improvement i n  residence. for  as e f f o r t s  t o p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n and d e v e l o p m e n t ,  and s e r v i c e r e l a t e d  i n response to perceived  learning  and which were t o a f a i r l y  Teachers were m o t i v a t e d t o b e g i n t h e m a j o r i t y projects  i nthe  conducted.  extend b e n e f i c i a l to other people.  second career  projects.  experience, age, m a r i t a l  as extremely important t o t h e i r retirement  i n which a great  learning  achievement d i d n o t account f o r d i f f e r e n c e s  number o f l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s  projects  involved  to r e a l or anticipated  Teachers conducted an average o f t e n retirement Differences  retirement  Q u e s t i o n s w e r e a s k e d c o n c e r n i n g w h a t , how a n d why  t e a c h e r s l e a r n and t h e major d i f f i c u l t i e s  The  deliberate  that  Active  teachers described  an a n t i c i p a t e d use o r a p p l i c a t i o n  l e a r n i n g as a f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g  to the importance of that  learning  60  effort.  Learning for credit represented only six percent of a l l the  learning projects conducted.  retirement  Active teachers were more involved i n learning for  credit than were r e t i r e d . In the t o t a l sample teachers were primarily responsible for planning their own  learning.  projects reported. projects.  Self-planned  projects accounted for 62.5  Each, teacher conducted an average of 6.3  percent of the self-planned  Teachers- also Indicated a desire for additional assistance with  about 50 percent of t h e i r self-planned projects.  The most commonly used major  source of content and assistance for learning was  a combination of printed  materials and people.  The group or group instructor was  the second major source.  These findings are i n accord with the research of Tough (1967, 1968) (1976) who  and K e l l y  found that adults assumed the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for planning  their projects. Spouses were highly supportive teachers.  of the learning endeavours of the married  They participated i n retirement  activities,  f i n a n c i a l planning,  programs, the development of l e i s u r e  and home maintenance and improvement.  On the average teachers c i t e d 6.4  learning d i f f i c u l t i e s .  The  difference between the groups i n the number of learning d i f f i c u l t i e s c i t e d was small.  The most frequent  learning d i f f i c u l t i e s were finding and arranging  time  for learning, being able to read a l l that i s available, and keeping other concerns from interrupting the learning. Teachers i n both groups commended their professional the British. Columbia Teachers' Federation,  organizations,  and the B r i t i s h Columbia Retired  Teachers' Association for their work i n retirement  education.  Teachers c i t e d  32 recommendations for changes i n society and i n certain aspects of the teaching  profession.  61 Discussion  The teachers  r e s e a r c h , r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t b o t h a c t i v e and  were e x t e n s i v e l y i n v o l v e d  contributed  or would c o n t r i b u t e  In the beginning  of  the  somehow t h e y d i d n o t study.  In contrast  q u i c k l y to discuss the  interviews,  i n t e r v i e w s many a c t i v e t e a c h e r s  t h i n k they could  teachers  T h e y commented on  above o b s e r v a t i o n  example, to what e x t e n t  behavior,  provide  information  retired  s p e c i f i c a l l y how  t o l e a r n , as w e l l as  the  the  Also,  other  learning  The f o u n d t o be  stage of  began  at the  the  very  conclusion  of  r e a l i z a t i o n of  advantages of the p e r s o n a l  poses questions  are  teachers  much, why,  that future research  a c t u a l l y aware of  w h a t and  learning d i f f i c u l t i e s  l e a r n i n g b e h a v i o r i n one  how  the  interview  t h e i r own  they encounter?  a r e a of  might  examine.  learning  they d e l i b e r a t e l y attempt To  what  extent  l e a r n i n g i n more d e p t h  considered?  v a r i a b l e s o f m a r i t a l s t a t u s and associated  with  How  life  does a  teacher's  a f f e c t or r e f l e c t  her  achievement were  not  life  educational  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the extent  of  teachers'  F u r t h e r m o r e , b e c a u s e t h i s s t u d y f o c u s e d on  l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s , the the  to  behavior?  learning efforts. related  that  of f a c t u a l d e t a i l s .  i n a r e a s t h a t have been i n a d e q u a t e l y  awareness of her  of v a l u e  teachers  w o u l d s u c h a w a r e n e s s l e a d them t o p u r s u e r e t i r e m e n t and  living.  commented  expressed s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the  technique i n a s s i s t i n g r e c a l l  For  to s a t i s f a c t i o n i n retirement  deliberate learning efforts.  achieved learning.  The  i n deliberate learning e f f o r t s which  t o t h i s r e s p o n s e , a few  the  retired  developmental tasks  retirement  r e l a t e d to the  cycle_ were u n i v e r s a l l y r e f l e c t e d i n the  retirement  learning  retirement projects  62  conducted.  Regardless  i n t h i s age  group, s i x t y  retirement l i v i n g . total  o f t h e number o f y e a r s to s i x t y - n i n e ,  Learning  for credit  l e a r n i n g e f f o r t s of teachers  of teaching experience,  recognized  the need t o p r e p a r e  represented  i n t h i s study.  teachers  a small percentage  tasks related  t o one's p e r s o n a l r e t i r e m e n t .  f i n d i n g s w e r e b a s e d on a s m a l l s a m p l e , n o t  of  the  T h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s seem  t o i n d i c a t e t h a t r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g i s s e l f - m o t i v a t e d as a r e s p o n s e developmental  for  Because  to these  randomly s e l e c t e d , r e s e a r c h  l a r g e r samples of t e a c h e r s i s needed t o examine f u r t h e r t h e s e  with  particular  results.  One  teacher i n t h i s study  of teaching.  A n o t h e r t e a c h e r made a s i m i l a r  her  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h other people  was  not  i n c l u d e d i n the  T h i s s t u d y has  considered  have a l s o been i d e n t i f i e d . i n their  l e a r n s from the  comment t h a t s h e  experience  learned  through  i n a v o l u n t e e r work s i t u a t i o n .  Such l e a r n i n g  factors  to  study.  retirement learning projects.  planners  commented t h a t s h e  The  that influence teachers  areas which teachers b e l i e v e are  Perhaps t h i s  c o u l d be  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of l e a r n i n g areas  of v a l u e  begin important  to retirement  o f i n t e r e s t and  concern  program to  teachers.  In this  study  f o r p l a n n i n g over  the teachers  62 p e r c e n t  individually  Yet  r a t h e r than planned I t may  be  the f a c t by  t h a t t h o s e who  a singularly  individual  a c o n s u l t a n t and/or o r g a n i z e d group r a i s e s  at the times participated  be  t h a t the m a j o r i t y of p r o j e c t s were s e l f - p l a n n e d  that professionally organized  the p r e - r e t i r e d  responsibility  o f t h e i r r e t i r e m e n t l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s . I t may  t h a t t h e y c o n s i d e r r e t i r e m e n t p r e p a r a t i o n t o be responsibility.  assumed p r i m a r y  they  retirement education  f e e l the need t o l e a r n .  fails  questions. to  reach  This study  found  i n r e t i r e m e n t e d u c a t i o n programs expressed  s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e p r o g r a m s . I n e a c h i n s t a n c e , t h e t e a c h e r was  great  motivated  63 to  b e more a c t i v e i n h e r Although  planning  retirement  study  some o f  a v a i l a b l e by  They e x p r e s s e d  these  a desire for additional  They a l s o e n c o u n t e r e d  T e a c h e r s who  organizations provide.  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of v a r i o u s techniques l e a r n i n g w o u l d be u s e f u l .  for  used a v a r i e t y of  need a s s i s t a n c e p e r f o r m i n g  needs.  responsibility  have an  various  difficulties. tasks: i n  important  role  used the resources  Future  research  examining  f o r a s s i s t i n g teachers  with  in  made  t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s commented f a v o r a b l y on  a s s i s t a n c e these  retirement  assumed p r i m a r y  l e a r n i n g . R e t i r e m e n t c o n s u l t a n t s may  alleviating  retirement.  l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s , they  their learning efforts.  i s apparent that teachers  retirement  preparation for  i n this  material resources.  assistance with It  teachers  t h e i r own  human a n d  personal  the  the  their  64  Recommeridations The t h e s t u d y and  following l i s t are addressed  o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and 1. for  to adult educators,  individual  teacher's  teacher's  3.  education  4.  That the t e a c h e r s '  and  relevant to t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l  T h a t c o m m u n i t y l e a d e r s and  resources  organizations offer additional  programs i n the  the c o n t i n u i n g education  feedback to  a d u l t s i n the development of resources  t h a t t h i s be  warranted.  teacher uni-  individual  implementing retirement l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s .  That persons competent i n c o n d u c t i n g  T e a c h e r s ' F e d e r a t i o n be  community  departments of the l o c a l  f o r m e d t o p r o v i d e a s s i s t a n c e and  That retirement  circulation  teachers.  That a s t a f f of r e t i r e m e n t c o n s u l t a n t s r e p r e s e n t i n g the  i n d e s i g n i n g and  sources  education.  t h e c o m m u n i t y o f t h e r e t i r e m e n t n e e d s and  8.  for  retirement  That o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h i n the community p r o v i d e a w i d e r  v e r s i t i e s be  in  education  needs.  o r g a n i z a t i o n s and  7.  teacher  o r g a n i z a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h a v a r i e t y of  which are e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e to  teachers  the teacher' o r g a n i z a t i o n s '  learning projects.  o f i n f o r m a t i o n on a v a i l a b l e r e t i r e m e n t e d u c a t i o n  6.  reflect  learning styles.  s p o n s o r e d by  direct retirement  of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r r e t i r e m e n t 5..  and  approaches  l e a r n i n g which adequately  w i t h i n pre-retirement  e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e to teachers learning  implement programs or  n e e d s , i n t e r e s t s and  That retirement  t o p l a n and  p l a n and  retirement  provide diverse experiences teachers  community l e a d e r s  teachers' organizations:  That a d u l t educators  facilitating  2.  of recommendations emerged-from the f i n d i n g s of  education  surveys  do  additional  surveys  i n t e r e s t s of other groups  of  for retirement learning.  programs s i m i l a r  to those  of the  B.C.  expanded i f e v a l u a t i o n of the program i n d i c a t e s  65  Retirement education i s concerned with the quality of lives of individuals and the interdependence of people. 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The Adult Learner:  A Neglected Species.  Houston:  Gulf Publising Company, 1973. Knowles, Malcolm S. Teachers. Knox, Alan B.  Self-Directed Learning:  New York:  A Guide f o r Learners and  Association Press, 1975.  Adult Development and Learning.  San Francisco:  Jossey -  Bass, 1977. Knox, Alan B. 1973.  ED  "Lifelong Self-Directed Education."  University of I l l i n o i s ,  073 346.  Lumsden, Barry D.  "Educational Implications of Research on Retirement",  Educational Gerontology, 1978, Vol. 3, No. 4. Lynch, James H. and R i d d e l l , D. G a i l . Group Discussion Approach.  Pre-Retirement Education:  Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia:  A Multi  Centre f o r  Continuing Education, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1979.  69  Lynch, James H. Two Models for Pre-Retirement Education. Gerontology,  Eugene, Oregon:  Center of  University of Oregon, 1978.  Marion, H. V., Owen, C. S., and Lynch, J . H.  Plan Now For Your Retirement.  Eugene, Oregon: Retirement Services Inc., 1977. Maslow, A.H. Towards a Psychology of Being.  New York: D. Van Nostrand  Co., 1962. McCoy, Vivian Rogers,  "Adult L i f e Cycle Changes."  Lifelong Learning:  The Adult Years, October, 1977. Palmore, C B .  "The E f f e c t s of Aging on A c t i v i t i e s and Attitudes."  The  Gerontologist, 1968, 8, 4. Paterson, Cook Limited.  B r i t i s h Columbia Teachers' Federation. Survey  and Analysis of Expenditures, Incomes and Perceptions of Active and Retired Teachers i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Penland, Patrick R.  Self-Planned Learning i n America.  May, 1979. Pittsburgh:  University of Pittsburgh Bookstore, 1977. Pyron, H.»C. and Manion, H. V.  "The Company, the i n d i v i d u a l and the  Decision to Retire."  Journal of Industrial Gerontology, 4, 1970.  Report of the National I n s t i t u t e on Aging and the National I n s t i t u t e of Mental Health Workshop. The Older Woman: Continuities and Discontinuities.  Washington: U.S. Department of Health, Education,  and Welfare, 1979. Sarvis, R.  Educational Needs of the E l d e r l y . Washington: Edmonds Community College, U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, March 1973. Education Resources Information Center microfiche number ED 075 717.  Seltzer, M. M. " D i f f e r e n t i a l Impact on Various Experiences on Breaking Down Old Stereotypes." Educational Gerontology, 1977, 2. Shanus, E. et a l . Old People i n Three I n d u s t r i a l Societies, New York: Atherton Press, 1968.  70 S t a t i s t i c s Canada.  Canada's E l d e r l y .  census of Canada. S t a t i s t i c s Canada. 1972  - 2001.  Ottawa:  1976  Information Canada, 1979.  Population Projections for Canada and the Provinces, Ottawa:  Information Canada,  Streib, G. F. and Schneider, C. J . Ithaca, New  One of a series from the  York:  Retirement  1974. i n American Society.  Cornell University Press,  Third Career Research Society. Edmonton, Alberta:  Retirement  1971.  i n Alberta:  Consumer Report.  Alberta Department of Advanced Education  and Manpower, 1976. Thompson, W. E.  "Pre-retirement A n t i c i p a t i o n and Adjustment i n Retirement."  Journal of Social Issues, 1958,  14.  Thompson, W. E., Streib, G. F. and Kosa, J. on Personal Adjustment: 1960,  "The Effects of  A Panel Analysis."  Gerontology,  15.  Tough, A l l e n .  Learning Without a Teacher:  During Adult Self-Teaching Projects. for Studies i n Education, Tough, A l l e n .  Toronto:  The Adult's Learning Projects: 2nd ed.  Institute for Studies i n Education, Tough, A l l e n .  A Study of Tasks and Assistance  Why  Adults Learn:  A Fresh Approach to Theory Toronto:  A Study of the Major Reasons for  I n s t i t u t e for Studies i n Education,  Aging."  Toronto:  The Ontario  1968.  "Alternative Participatory Responses to  In Rose, A. M. and Peterson, W. A. (ed.)  Their Social World.  The Ontario  1979.  Beginning and Continuing a Learning Project.  Videbeck, R. and Know, A. B.  The Ontario I n s t i t u t e  1967.  and Practice i n Adult Learning.  1965,  Journal of  Retirement  Chicago:  Older People and  University of Chicago Press,  71  W h i t e House C o n f e r e n c e E d u c a t i o n and  Ziegler,  W a r r e n L.  United  States  prepared Syracuse:  on A g i n g .  Welfare,  The  Department of H e a l t h ,  1971.  F u t u r e o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and  ( F i n a l r e p o r t under p r o j e c t  f o r U.S.  Office  Research  Learning i n the  g r a n t no.  of Education, D i v i s i o n  Education Policy  Corporation,  Washington:  Center,  OEG-O-73-5232,  of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n ) .  Syracuse  Research  for Studies i n Education,  Toronto,  1977.  Conference Tough, A l l e n . Ontario.  Ontario I n s t i t u t e Conference,  June 21,  1979.  72  APPENDIX A  SAMPLE  OF  SENT  INTRODUCTORY LETTER  TO TEACHERS  73 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Adult Education Department 5760 Toronto Road Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1L2  i  Dear In the hope of better understanding and a s s i s t i n g teachers i n . their self-planned learning a c t i v i t i e s i n retirement issues, I am conducting a research project involving persons l i k e yourself. As part of the project, I plan to interview a sample of active and r e t i r e d female teachers i n the Vancouver School D i s t r i c t . At this time I am writing to ask i f you would consent to an interview i n the interests of r e t i r i n g teachers. , I think you w i l l find the interview interesting and personally b e n e f i c i a l . It w i l l take approximately 90 minutes. Within the next few days, I ' l l contact you to ask i f you would be w i l l i n g to be interviewed, and i f so, to arrange a mutually convenient time. We could talk during a day, an evening, sometime on a weekend, or immediately a f t e r school. I am prepared to meet at any place convenient to you. The data collected i n the interviews w i l l a s s i s t teachers i n their retirement learning projects, as well as adult educators, s o c i a l planners, teachers' professional organizations, and persons or groups who serve as f a c i l i t a t o r s of learning. At the present time there i s very l i t t l e information available about self-planned retirement learning of teachers: how much time i s spent i n learning, what i s learned, why such projects are undertaken, what types of resources are used, what d i f f i c u l t i e s are encountered i n the help-seeking process, and what assistance i s needed i n learning. Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l represent an important contribution i n the c o l l e c t i v e study. The data collected i n the interviews w i l l be held i n confidence and w i l l not be associated with you personally. You are free to withdraw, without prejudice, at any time during the interview process. This research has been approved by the Adult Education Department at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. However, your approval and co-operation i s what i s important to me and I hope that we can arrange to meet. I look forward to meeting you and talking with you i n the near future. Sincerely,  Avita M. Curry Graduate Student  74  APPENDIX B SURVEY INSTRUMENT  75 INTERVIEW SCHEDULE* Introduction:  A v i t a Curry Graduate Student, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia  ( E s t a b l i s h a relaxed, t r u s t i n g atmosphere before beginning the interview. I t i s e s p e c i a l l y important f o r the interviewee t o understand that: l) I am not an evaluator but a person who has a sincere i n t e r e s t i n education, 2) information i s not personal i n nature, 3) p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l not be i d e n t i f i e d by name.) I'm conducting a study of the d e l i b e r a t e l e a r n i n g e f f o r t s o f a c t i v e and r e t i r e d school teachers. My research i s about the things teachers t r y t o l e a r n concerning retirement, and how they go about t h e i r l e a r n i n g . Everyone learns, but d i f f e r e n t people l e a r n d i f f e r e n t things and i n d i f f e r e n t ways. I'm i n t e r e s t e d i n l i s t i n g the things which you f e e l have contributed t o your retirement preparation or t o your s a t i s f a c t i o n i n retirement l i v i n g that you have t r i e d t o learn. When I say " l e a r n " I don't just mean l e a r n i n g the sorts of things that people learn i n schools and c o l l e g e s . I mean any sort o f d e l i b e r a t e e f f o r t at a l l to l e a r n something or how t o do something that r e l a t e s t o retirement l i v i n g . I'm i n t e r e s t e d i n your attempts t o get some information or knowledge, or t o gain new s k i l l s or improve your o l d ones, or t o increase your s e n s i t i v i t y or understanding or appreciation. I've set up two guidelines t o help me decide whether or not I i n c l uded the things you mention: a.  The f i r s t guideline i s that I ' l l only write down those projects which you f e e l helped you prepare more e f f e c t i v e l y or l i v e your retirement years more s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . Anything you attempted t o l e a r n t o become b e t t e r prepared as w e l l as anything you have learned which r e s u l t e d i n or w i l l r e s u l t i n some c o n t r i b u t i o n t o your retirement l i v i n g .  b.  F i n a l l y , I ' l l only write down the l e a r n i n g projects where you made some sort o f d e l i b e r a t e e f f o r t t o l e a r n something or how t o do something. A l l of us l e a r n things as a r e s u l t of such things as casual conversation, watching t e l e v i s i o n or r e c r e a t i o n a l reading. This i s an important kind o f l e a r n i n g too, but I d i d have t o set some l i m i t s . This i s why I decided t o count only those things that you made a d e l i b e r a t e e f f o r t t o l e a r n about retirement.  ^Adapted from interview schedules used by A l l e n Tough, James F a i r , P a t r i c i a Coolican and Nancy K e l l y .  76  1.  LIST I..K.AHN3NG PROJECTS a.  I w i l l w r i t e down the l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s as you r e c a l l them ... then I have a few questions t o ask about each one.  b.  Can you t h i n k o f any e f f o r t s t o l e a r n that you have made? ( L i s t as many l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s as the teacher can r e c a l l . Write each p r o j e c t on a separate sheet. Use the Learning P r o j e c t Data Sheet.)  c.  Probe f o r the episodes i n v o l v e d i n each p r o j e c t and l i s t them. (Might ask . . . "How d i d you go about l e a n i n g t h i s ? " "V.'hat d i d you do t o pursue t h i s l e a r n i n g ? " )  d.  Probes: 1)  General Probe: I'm i n t e r e s t e d i n any d e l i b e r a t e e f f o r t you made t o l e a r n something r e l a t e d t o retirement l i v i n g . Anything a t a l l can be i n c l u d e d , r e g a r d l e s s o f whether i t was easy o r hard, b i g or l i t t l e , important or t r i v i a l , s e r i o u s o r fun, p o s i t i v e or negative as long as i t cont r i b u t e d i n some way t o your a n t i c i p a t i o n o f retirement or a c t u a l l i v i n g experience i n r e t i r e m e n t . I t doesn't matter when your e f f o r t s t a r t e d , as long as you have spent at l e a s t a few hours a t i t . P r o j e c t s which you may have s t a r t e d but not completed f o r some reason may a l s o be i n c l u d e d . I f you can s t a t e reason(s) why p r o j e c t s have been d i s c o n t i n u e d , i t would be h e l p f u l t o the study. Can you r e c a l l any other e f f o r t s t o l e a r n something?  2)  C h r o n o l o g i c a l Probe: Think o f events i n your l i f e during the past year which may help you r e c a l l l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s . . . the s c h o o l year, new c a r e e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , home or f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Or t h i n k i n terms o f changes i n p r o f e s s i o n a l l i f e brought on by p e r s o n a l retirement, or r e t i r e m e n t o f f r i e n d s . Perhaps some motivation was r e c e i v e d as a r e s u l t o f having an annual p h y s i c a l check-up, completing income t a x returns o r monthly and y e a r l y budgetary concerns. Or t h i n k i n terms o f d e c i s i o n s you may have taken t o w r i t e your w i l l , t o change your l i v i n g accommodations or t o p l a n f o r l e i s u r e and h o l i d a y activities.  3)  Category Probe: I n case you have had some l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s which we may have missed, I ' l l show you a l i s t of some o f t h e t h i n g s a d u l t s l e a r n which may c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e i r retirement l i v i n g . P l e a s e read the sheets through c a r e f u l l y , the items may remind you o f other learning projects. (Hand interviewee blue s h e e t ) .  77 4)  Method Trobe; Here i s a l i s t of some of the learning resources and methods that adults may sometimes use i n t h e i r learning. No one would use a l l of these, but in reading the l i s t you may be reminded of some learning projects you have not yet mentioned. (Hand interviewee yellow sheet)  5)  e.  f.  Probe Ideas: a)  Whenever interviewee mentions some a c t i v i t y or area of her l i f e that you think might have produced other learning projects, ask about this p o s s i b i l i t y .  b)  I f interviewee uses something from probe sheets, try to get her to put i t i n her own words.  c)  Try t o be precise about just what the person was trying to learn . . . use 10-15 words to describe the learning project. Also l i s t as many of the episodes as you go along as possible.  Descriptive Questions: I f doubtful about learning a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d , check c r i t e r i a : 1)  In t h i s a c t i v i t y , was your desire to gain certain definite knowledge and s k i l l .  2)  How many hours did you spend on each project?  O.K., that gives us a f a i r l y complete l i s t . I f you think of any other projects while we are talking, be sure t o mention them. Now I would l i k e to ask you some questions about each of the learning projects you've mentioned. The questions are the same for each, so after we do the f i r s t one, i t w i l l move along quite rapidly. Note: Shuffle the Learning Project Data Sheets, putting the more concrete ones f i r s t . Put ones you question at the end . . . by the time you get to them, interviewee w i l l recognize whether or not these are deliberate learning projects. Let's begin with your efforts to learn .  KNOWLEDGE OR SKILL (EPISODES) For this project, what specific knowledge or s k i l l did you deliberately attempt t o learn? What did you do to learn this? Did you read anything about Did you t a l k t o anyone about  _? _?  78  (Describe the -pacific knowledge or s k i l l und l i s t the details for each learning episode related to this project) 3.  EVALUATE THE PROJECT Did you f e e l project was  4.  successful.  L i s t reasons.  DAY-TO-DAY PLANNER Another aspect of your learning project that I'd l i k e to consider i s who or what assumed the major (51$) r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for planning your day-to-day learning? That i s , who or what was primarily responsible for the decisions on the sequence and progression of your learning and what a c t i v i t y you would undertake i n order to learn most e f f e c t i v e l y ? (Hand interviewee of planner.)  pink sheet.  Be sure she understands each type  What person, group or thing did the deciding regarding your learn• ing a c t i v i t i e s and strategies? I f no one source.was clearly dominant, just say so. C l a s s i f y the project according to the four types on the sheet. Additional question for self-planned projects only: Would you have liked more help with t h i s particular project? 5.  DECISION TO UNDERTAKE LEARNING In some projects someone or something helps you decide to begin or to undertake the learning. In this project, who or what helped or made you decide to begin the project? (record specific details)  6.  SOURCE OF INFORMATION OR ASSISTANCE In most learning projects, someone or something becomes the main • source of information or assistance. In this project, who or what was the main source of content or help? or Of a l l the resources that you used i n t h i s project, which one was of the greatest assistance to you?  7.  CREDIT OR NON-CREDIT Was  i t a credit a c t i v i t y ? 0  79  8.  What i s your spouse's attitude toward your learning? applicable)  1  2  3  Accepting, supportive 9.  4  5  6  Neutral or indifferent  (where  7  8  Negative, opposition  IMPORTANCE OF CONTRIBUTION TO RETIREMENT LIVING I'd l i k e to get an indication of how important you f e l t this learning project was i n contributing to your retirement l i v i n g , either anticipated or experienced. Would you say that altogether this learning project was:  1  2  3  4  extremely important 10.  5  6  moderately important  7  8  9  of l i t t l e importance  AMOUNT OF LEARNING How much do you feel you have learned through this learning project?  1  2  3  4  a great deal  11.  5  6  a moderate amount  7  8  a little  BENEFIT TO OTHER PEOPLE Let's set aside your own benefits for a moment and look at any benefits f o r other people. Your new knowledge or s k i l l might have been of some benefit to your spouse, your family, your friends and relatives, or your professional f i e l d . To what extent did the knowledge or s k i l l you gained provide some benefit to people other than yourself?  1  2  3  to a f a i r l y large extent  12.  4  5  6  to a moderate extent  7  8  9  only to a small extent; probably not at a l l ( i f so, check 9)  LEARNING DIFFICULTIES Now I want to ask you a few questions about your learning i n general.  80  In previous research teachers described di f f i c u l t i e s they had in certain learning projects. Here i s a l i s t of d i f f i c u l t i e s that have been recorded from this research. (Hand interviewee purple sheet) Please read through each of the items and t e l l me i f any were major concerns for you i n attempting your learning projects. If, i n reading the l i s t , you are reminded of other d i f f i c u l t i e s you experienced with your learning, please t e l l me as I'd l i k e as complete a l i s t as possible. CHANGES WITHIN TEACHERS' PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATION What changes within your professional organization y° identify as p o t e n t i a l l y useful to you i n your efforts to learn about retirement? d o  14.  u  CHANGES WITHIN SOCIETY Now, suppose we were completely free to change society, the people and resources on i t , and indeed the whole system and the way people operate within i t , i n any way we wanted to, what s p e c i f i c changes would be most useful to you i n your learning e f f o r t s '  15.  What additional learning projects would you l i k e to undertake i n the next year i n retirement related issues? ( L i s t )  81 LEARNING CONTENT PROBE SHEET (Blue  Sheet)  The f o l l o w i n g l i s t i n c l u d e s some o f t h e t h i n g s which a d u l t s may l e a r n which may c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e i r r e t i r e m e n t l i v i n g . P l e a s e read each i t e m c a r e f u l l y as i t might remind you o f t h i n g s about w h i c h y o u have t r i e d t o l e a r n . - pension Pension  p l a n s ; government-sponsored p l a n s , Plan  - new s u b j e c t m a t t e r ; s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t - self-awareness; - social s k i l l s ; - values -  Teachers'  area  self-actualization effective  relationships; leadership  clarification  politics  - f i n a n c i a l management - community c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s e r v i c e s , government -  citizenship  - teacher's  association  - current events; - c u l t u r a l events;  changes i n s o c i e t y ; t h e f u t u r e travel;  hobbies  - relationships with  spouse, c o l l e a g u e s ,  - leisure a c t i v i t i e s  such as g o l f , b r i d g e ,  - personal  family, friends swimming  development  - second c a r e e r i n t e r e s t s - alternate l i v i n g - household  arrangements  skills  - entertainment  skills  - intellectual pursuits - making a w i l l - community and v o l u n t e e r - hobbies:  service  use o f camera, p a i n t i n g , w r i t i n g ,  u p h o l s t e r i n g , home d e c o r a t i n g - health  care  carpentry,  82 LEARNING METHODS PROBE SHEET (Yellow  Sheet)  The f o l l o w i n g l i s t i n c l u d e s r e s o u r c e s and a d u l t s sometimes use i n t h e i r own l e a r n i n g .  methods w h i c h  P l e a s e c o n s i d e r e a c h i t e m c a r e f u l l y and t e l l me i f you have used any o f t h e s e r e s o u r c e s or methods f o r y o u r l e a r n i n g i n the p a s t 12 months. Have you  deliberately  l e a r n e d about s o m e t h i n g by  - books; t e a c h e r s ' g u i d e s ; newspapers - T.V. d o c u m e n t a r i e s ; closed c i r c u i t T.V.  r e f e r e n c e books;  - museum; a r t g a l l e r y ; h i s t o r i c s i t e ; center;  library;  - computer; programmed  periodicals;  ' s p e c i a l s ' ; news; e d u c a t i o n a l  - video taping; f i l m s ; f i l m s t r i p s ; s l i d e s ; m u l t i - m e d i a p a c k a g e s ; phonograph r e c o r d s  - resource  using:  audio  T.V.;  tapes;  theatre  laboratory  instruction  - observations: t e a c h e r s , s c h o o l s , community d i f f e r e n t programs  groups,  - administrators; colleagues; consultants; s p e c i a l i s t s ; d o c t o r , nurse; p s y c h o l o g i s t ; s o c i a l worker; guidance c o u n s e l o r ; government o r p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l - close friend;  relative;  neighbor;  spouse  - u n i v e r s i t y ; community d o l l e g e ; d e p a r t m e n t o f government agency - conferences; meetings  education;  s t a f f m e e t i n g s ; c o m m i t t e e s ; ' i n f o r m a l group  - encounter groups; s e n s i t i v i t y group  t r a i n i n g ; T-group;  church  - professional associations - c o u r s e o f s t u d y ; workshops; s e m i n a r s ; summer o r course; correspondence course - g r a d u a t e work;  research  evening  83  LEARNING PROJECT PLANNERS (Pink  Sheet)  I ' d l i k e y o u now t o c o n s i d e r e a c h o f y o u r l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s i n terms o f who made t h e d e t a i l e d d a y - t o - d a y d e c i s i o n s a b o u t w h a t y o u s h o u l d l e a r n , what methods y o u s h o u l d employ, what m a t e r i a l s o r r e s o u r c e s t o use i n e a c h l e a r n i n g e p i s o d e ?  1.  Group P l a n n e d L e a r n i n g  Projects  In some l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s , t h e l e a r n e r may d e c i d e t o a t t e n d a g r o u p and l e t t h e g r o u p o r i t s l e a d e r d e c i d e what and how he l e a r n s d u r i n g each s e s s i o n . A g r o u p may be o f any s i z e , w i t h a minimum o f t h r e e p e r sons. Examples w o u l d be w o r k s h o p s , s e m i n a r s , s t u d y g r o u p s , s t a f f m e e t i n g s , l e c t u r e s , s m a l l i n f o r m a l groups o f c o l l e a g u e s , autonomous g r o u p s , as w e l l as c o n f e r e n c e s a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t i e s . 2. O n e - t o - O n e L e a r n i n g I n some l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s , t h e p l a n n i n g a n d d e c i d i n g o f w h a t t o l e a r n and i n w h a t o r d e r i s h a n d l e d by one p e r s o n who h e l p s t h e l e a r n e r in a one-to-one s i t u a t i o n . The i n t e r a c t i o n i s u s u a l l y f a c e - t o - f a c e a l t h o u g h i t c o u l d be by t e l e p h o n e , o r by c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . Examples o f t h i s t y p e w o u l d be p r i v a t e i n s t r u c t i o n o f some t y p e g i v e n by a n o t h e r t e a c h e r , the v i c e - p r i n c i p a l o r p r i n c i p a l , a c o n s u l t a n t , master t e a c h e r o r some o t h e r e x p e r t . 3. M e d i a P I a n n e d  Learning  In t h e s e l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s , t h e m a j o r p a r t o f t h e d e t a i l e d d i r e c t i o n c o n c e r n i n g w h a t t o l e a r n and-'tohat t o do a t e a c h s e s s i o n r e s i d e s i n some o b j e c t — s o m e nonhuman r e s o u r c e . A programmed i n s t r u c t i o n b o o k , a s e t o f t a p e r e c o r d i n g s , o r a s e r i e s o f t e l e v i s i o n p r o g r a m s may be t h e source of d i r e c t i o n . The l e a r n e r f o l l o w s t h e p r o g r a m s o r m a t e r i a l s and t h e y t e l l him v/hat t o do n e x t . 4. S e l f - P l a n n e d L e a r n i n g In o t h e r l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s , t h e l e a r n e r h i m s e l f r e t a i n s t h e m a j o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e d a y - t o - d a y p l a n n i n g and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . He may g e t a d v i c e from v a r i o u s p e o p l e and use a v a r i e t y o f m a t e r i a l s and r e s o u r c e s b u t he r e t a i n s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e c i d i n g w h a t a c t i v i t i e s to t r y n e x t , what t o r e a d , and what knowledge and s k i l l s h o u l d be n e x t i n the sequence. I n s t e a d o f t u r n i n g t h e j o b o f p l a n n i n g o v e r t o someone e l s e , he makes t h e s e d a y - t o - d a y d e c i s i o n s h i m s e l f .  84 LEARNING DIFFICULTIES (Purple Sheet) The following i s a l i s t of d i f f i c u l t i e s which some teachers have i n attempting certain learning projects. Did you experience any of these d i f f i c u l t i e s with any of your projects? 1. identifying what to learn; 2. deciding whether to begin; 3. deciding how to begin; 4. obtaining money for the project; 5« setting goals; 6. planning the learning; 7. finding and arranging time f o r learning; 8. deciding what methods and techniques to use; 9. knowing what had been written on the subject; 10. knowing where and what materials were available; 11. deciding which of the materials were most appropriate; 12. securing the materials; 13. being confused by contradictory information; 14. being able to read a l l that i s available; 15. finding someone who was an authority i n the area; 16. contacting someone who could give specific help; 17. finding someone who was interested i n you and your project; 18. age factor i n professional attitude to learner; 19. getting other teachers to help you; 20. accessibility of the learning site; 21. assessing how much you know; 22. dealing with doubts about your success; 23. deciding how much you wanted to know; 24. dealing with d i f f i c u l t y i n understanding some part(s); 25. keeping other concerns from interrupting the learning; 26. locating an appropriate course i n the area; 27. inadequate transportation; 28. assessing your progress; . 29. maintaining your interest i n the learning; 30. problems with format and mechanics of formal course 31. use of university l i b r a r i e s ; 32. scheduled time of the desired learning event.  requirements;  85 DEMOGRAPHIC DATA*  1-2-3 _  Group and Interview number Card No. 1 T o t a l number l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s reported Time i n t e r v i e w s t a r t e d a.m. p.m. ended a.m. p.m. l e n g t h o f i n t e r v i e w i n minutes  **-5 _  6-7 _ 8-9-10  1.  Age o f respondent a t l a s t b i r t h d a y  11-12  2.  P r i o r t o t h i s school y e a r , how many years have you taught?  13-1^  How many years have you been r e t i r e d from a c t i v e teaching?  15-16 17  What grade a r e you p r e s e n t l y teaching: ( A p p l i e s t o a c t i v e teachers o n l y )  18-19  M a r i t a l status: 1. M a r r i e d 2. S i n g l e 3. Widow k. Divorced/Separated  6.  Beyond your bachelor's degree, what i s your highest u n i v e r s i t y degree completed? 0. 1. 2. 3. k. 5.  7.  20  None Less than 30 graduate c r e d i t s 30 o r more graduate c r e d i t s Master's degree Master's degree p l u s c r e d i t s Doctorate  C u r r e n t l y , do you:  21-22  Your:  1.  Rent  1.  2.  Own  2.  3.  Other  3.  (Specify)  Single family dwelling M u l t i p l e family dwelling Other (Specify)  •Adapted from demographic questionnaire used by P a t r i c i a C o l l i c a n  86 8.  This question a p p l i e s t o a c t i v e teachers A f t e r retirement do you p l a n t o : Your: 1. Rent  only. 23-2'r 1.  2.  Own  2.  3.  Other  3.  Single family dwelling M u l t i p l e family dwelling Other  (Specify)  (Specify)  This question a p p l i e s t o r e t i r e d teachers  only.  25-26  P r i o r t o retirement, d i d you: Your: 1.  Rent  1.  2.  Own  2.  3. . Other (Specify) 10.  3.  Single family dwelling Multiple family dwelling Other (Specify)  What new retirement l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s would you l i k e t o undertake i n the next year?  87 LEARNING  PROJECT  Group and I n t e r v i e w Number Card I . T o t a l number l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s 1.  Desired Knowledge  or  DATA  SHEET  1-2-3 4-5 6-7  reported  Skill:  (Categorize  later)  8-9  Episodes;  2. C o n t r i b u t i o n t o R e t i r e m e n t (Categorize  3.  Day-to-Day  1a  12  Planner:  Group:  Instructor "Self-formed  group  1. 2. 3.  Jndividual: Relationship Expert:  4.  _  Yes  No 5.  _Material Medium  Resource  6. 7. __8. 9.  _Learner Mixed  10-11  Living:  t&r)  Group: Group:  leader selfformed Individual, colleague Individual; relative, friend. Individual, expert Paid expert Material resource Self Mixed  88  Interview number  4.  D e c i s i o n t o Undertake l e a r n i n g : (Categorize l a t e r )  5.  A d d i t i o n a l H e l p f o r S e l f - p l a n n e d P r o j e c t s Only;  13-14  15  0. Not s e l f - p l a n n e d " l . Yes 2. No 6.  Source o f I n f o r m a t i o n o r A s s i s t a n c e ;  _0. _1. 2. _3. _4. 5. 6. _7. 8. _9« 10. __11. 12. 13. 14. 7.  16—17  Couldn't determine Group o r group I n s t r u c t o r Group: s e l f - f o r m e d Knowledgeable i n d i v i d u a l ( o t h e r t h a n those l i s t e d ) P a i d expert Colleague Administrator Librarian Books, pamphlets, magazines, newspaper Programmed m a t e r i a l s T.V. and r a d i o Film Recordings Mixed Other  Credit:  1. Yes 2. No 8.  Spouse's A t t i t u d e Towards L e a r n i n g : 0. Not a p p l i c a b l e 1-2-3. A c c e p t i n g , s u p p o r t i v e  .4-5-6. N e u t r a l o r i n d i f f e r e n t  7-8-9. N e g a t i v e , o p p o s i t i o n  19  89 Interview number 9.  Importance of Contribution to Retirement Living,: 0 . Uncertain 1-2-3. Extremely important 4-5-6. Moderately important 7-8-9. Of l i t t l e importance  10.  Amount of Learning; 0 . Uncertain 1-2-3. A great deal 4-5-6. A moderate amount 7-8-9. A l i t t l e  11.  Benefit to People: 0. 1-2-3. 4-5-6. _. 7-8. 9«  Uncertain To a f a i r l y large extent To a moderate extent Only to a small extent; Probably not at a l l  90 Group and Interview number Card No. 2 Total number learning projects reported 12.  1-2-3 6-7  Learning D i f f i c u l t i e s ;  Total number i d e n t i f i e d 1. 2. 3» 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. __15. 16. • 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30* 31. 32.  identifying what t o learn deciding whether to begin deciding how t o begin obtaining money f o r the project setting goals planning the learning finding and arranging time f o r learning deciding what methods and techniques to use knowing what had been written on the subject knowing where and what materials were available deciding which of the materials were most appropriate securing the materials being confused by contradictory information being able t o read a l l that i s available finding someone who was an authority i n the area contacting someone who could give specific help finding someone who was interested i n you and your project age factor i n professional attitude t o learner getting other teachers t o help you a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the learning site assessing how much you know dealing with doubts about your success deciding how much you wanted to know dealing with d i f f i c u l t y i n understanding some part(s) keeping other concerns from interrupting the learning locating an appropriate course i n the area inadequate transportation assessing your progress maintaining your interest i n the learning problems with format and mechanics of formal course requirements use of university l i b r a r i e s scheduled time of the desired learning event  8-9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16  ,  17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 36 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41  .  91 I n t e r v i e w number  13.  h  .  Changes Within Teachers' Professional Organization: (Categorize l a t e r )  -  Changes In Society:  «HrHj^nn«T_T^arning •  .  —  1  I  (Categorize l a t e r )  Projects i n Retireme,  92  APPENDIX  C  V I V I A N McCOY TYPOLOGY  93 RETIREMENT, AGE 65+ *  Tasks: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.  Disengage from paid work. Reassess finances. Be concerned with personal health care. Search for new achievement outlets. Manage leisure time. Adjust to more constant marriage companion. Search for meaning. Adjust to single state. Be reconciled to death. Problem solve. Manage stress accompanying change.  Program Response: I, 4,5,6. Workshops on retirement, volunteering, aging; conferences on public issues affecting aged. 2. F i n a n c i a l management t r a i n i n g . 3. Health care programs. 7. Religious exploration. 8. Workshops on aloneness and loneliness. 9. Death and dying workshops. 10. Creative problem solving workshops. I I . Stress management, biofeedback, relaxation, TM workshops. Outcomes Sought: I, 4,5,6. Creative, active retirement; successful coping with l i f e disengagement; public p o l i c i e s responsive to needs of aged. 2. Freedom from f i n a n c i a l fears. 3. Appropriate health care. 7. Help i n search f o r l i f e ' s meaning, values of past l i f e . 8. F u l f i l l e d single state. 9. Philosophic acceptance of death, help i n caring f o r dying and handling of g r i e f . 10. Successful problem solving. II. Successful stress management, personal growth. * Source: Vivian McCoy, 1977.  94  APPENDIX D CASE STUDY ABSTRACTS  95 Case Study Abstracts CASE A. Miss A. i s a 68-year old r e t i r e d teacher currently involved i n community and professional service.  She expressed reservations  about  discussing learning s p e c i f i c a l l y related to retirement s a t i s f a c t i o n as she regards her retirement l i v i n g s t y l e a natural extension of her personal history wherein a l l things simply dove-tail after 35 years of teaching service, the s a t i s f a c t i o n she experiences now i s p r i n c i p a l l y related to the service orientation of her l i f e - s t y l e wherein she makes use of her administrative contacts.  skills.  Her volunteer work promotes professional and s o c i a l  Her retirement attitude i s to be of service to society.  learning projects of a participatory nature were discussed. contributed  to professional competency.  instance has been Miss A. the administrative  Three  Each of these  The primary resource i n each  h e r s e l f , and the secondary resource has been  groups with whom she works. Factors such as good health,  a comfortable home, and planned f i n a n c i a l security also contribute to her present s a t i s f a c t i o n i n retirement l i v i n g . CASE B. Miss B. age 69, taught school for thirty-nine years and has been r e t i r e d from active teaching  for f i v e years.  She has a life-threatening  i l l n e s s which l i m i t s her s a t i s f a c t i o n i n retirement l i v i n g .  Despite t h i s  d i s s a t i s f i e r , her l i f e - s t y l e and attitude towards retirement l i v i n g are p o s i t i v e . Nine learning projects contributing to s a t i s f a c t i o n i n r e t i r e ment l i v i n g were i d e n t i f i e d and discussed.  Miss B. regarded the approach  of retirement as a t r a n s i t i o n a l stage and accordingly  did careful planning.  P r i o r to retirement, she sold her home and purchased an apartment i n an area that offered the advantages she was seeking; namely, convenience of shopping, bus transportation, and nearness to r e l a t i v e s .  She did not want  96 to l i v e  i n a h i g h - r i s e a p a r t m e n t a n d s h e w a n t e d one t h a t h a d a p r i v a t e  entrance Her  opening t o the out-of-doors.  F i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y was  p r i n c i p a l r e s o u r c e s were two p e r s o n s w i t h e x p e r t i s e i n f i n a n c i a l  n i n g ; o n e was a f r i e n d a n d t h e o t h e r a b a n k m a n a g e r . with personnel episodes  a t t h e B.C. T e a c h e r s C r e d i t U n i o n .  related  to h e r w i l l , life  to legal questions  consulted  Some o f t h e l e a r n i n g  types o f investments,  p e r t a i n i n g t o cash,  budgeting,  and s t r a t e g i e s t o o f f s e t  t o r e t i r e m e n t w e r e p a r t o f t h e p l a n t o c u t down o n m a j o r  expenses a f t e r r e t i r e m e n t .  Her l i f e - s t y l e  provides  of s o c i a l c o n t a c t s w i t h f a m i l y and f r i e n d s through  for the continuation home  entertainment  b r i d g e a t B r o c k House, w h i c h i s a c e n t e r f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s .  resources  i n improving  her bridge  l i t e r a t u r e on b r i d g e .  Reading i s a l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t f o r h e r besides  a recreational value.  novels  and b e l o n g s t o a Book o f t h e Month C l u b .  through  the activities  reading  The  s k i l l s have been l e s s o n s a t t h e c e n t e r  having  regarding  taxes,  The r e d u c t i o n o f expenses i n c u r r e d i n t h e p u r c h a s e o f h e r  apartment p r i o r  and  She a l s o  plan-  r e g a r d i n g a s s e t s , t a x laws p e r t i n e n t  and b a s i c monetary u n d e r s t a n d i n g s  insurance,  inflation.  and  planned.  She h a s a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t  of the retired  i n historical  She m a i n t a i n s  teachers  her learning  professional organization  t h e l i t e r a t u r e and by a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h former  colleagues.  CASE C. Miss years. Teaching  C,  age 60, has been an a c t i v e t e a c h e r  I s a second c a r e e r f o r her,  w i t h t h e armed f o r c e s .  as she served  She h a s a l w a y s b e e n a c t i v e l y  f e s s i o n a l and community c i r c l e s .  Fourteen  f o r twenty-five  l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s which  i n t e r e s t s areas were i d e n t i f i e d :  years  involved i n pro-  promote s a t i s f a c t i o n i n r e t i r e m e n t l i v i n g were i d e n t i f i e d Four primary  several  should  and d i s c u s s e d .  t h e community, t h e  government, p e r s o n a l development, and f i n a n c i a l p l a n n i n g . Her o r i e n t a t i o n towards r e t i r e m e n t  living  i s t o remain u s e f u l t o the e d u c a t i o n a l  system  and  t o c o n t r i b u t e t o l o c a l community work.  the phrase "the happiest  Her a t t i t u d e i s expressed i n  days a r e t h e days something u s e f u l has been  accomplished". M i s s C. i s c o n s i d e r i n g a t h i r d s t a r t e d a correspondence course i n t h i s project, use  she would a l s o l i k e  of the bureaucratic  to research  career field.  i n criminology,  and has  As a f u t u r e l e a r n i n g  what s h e d e s c r i b e d  as t h e over-  modes.  CASE D.  Mrs.  D., a g e 6 5 , h a s a n a r t s t u d i o o n h e r home p r o p e r t y .  i n w e l l - l i g h t e d ample space she spends whole w o r k i n g days amid p a i n t i n g , macrame, b a t i k , a n d c a l l i g r a p h y . studio i s h e r handiwork. retired  Everything  from a c t i v e teaching  s e r v i c e , she  There a r e l a r g e windows  •the s t u d i o a n d o n n i c e d a y s t h e room i s s u n - f i l l e d .  While she works, she  t o music and o b v i o u s l y h e r work i s a d e l i g h t t o h e r .  a r t i s t i c work i s d i s p l a y e d  i n the  s i x y e a r s ago b u t t o d a y s c h e d u l e s a h o l i d a y  much, t h e same a s when s h e was a n a c t i v e t e a c h e r .  listens  pottery,  displayed  A f t e r thirty-two years of teaching  Here  i n g a l l e r i e s and s o l d .  Some o f h e r  She a l s o t e a c h e s  classes.  She l o o k s b a c k w i t h a s e n s e o f s a t i s f a c t i o n on h e r a c t i v e  teaching  c a r e e r , and claims  that a r ti sbasic.  l o v e and p u r s u i t o f e x c e l l e n c e  She i s a s i n v o l v e d i n h e r  i n a r t a s s h e was i n h e r t e a c h i n g  Now she. h a s a d d e d t i m e f o r c r e a t i v e w o r k .  M r s . D. i d e n t i f i e d  learning projects related to s a t i s f a c t i o n i n retirement current  to f i n a n c i a l planning  Her  as both  1978).  was s h a r e d i n b y h e r h u s b a n d .  career.  seven  living.  l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s i n a r t and music c a n be d e s c r i b e d  maintenance l e a r n i n g and p a r t i c i p a t o r y l e a r n i n g (Lynch, related  night  Learning  98 CASE E.  Miss E., age 67, was  an active teacher for thirty-nine years.  It has been three years since her retirement.  P r i o r to retirement  she  purchased the apartment i n which she currently l i v e s . She has d a i l y engagements and maintains professional and s o c i a l relationships.  She  sees the l a t t e r as being p a r t i c u l a r l y important for s a t i s f a c t i o n i n retirement l i v i n g .  She. has adequate f i n a n c i a l security and good health.  She pursues both I n t e l l e c t u a l and aesthetic i n t e r e s t s . directed learning projects were i d e n t i f i e d .  Nine s e l f -  She has membership i n a  number of clubs and a church a u x i l i a r y group which alternately provides musical programs-,  lectures, discussion sessions, s l i d e shows, and  motivation for Independent study.  Miss E. i s enjoying her retirement.  CASE F. Miss F., age 67, has been r e t i r e d for f i v e years and i s sharing a self-owned apartment w i t h her s i s t e r . taste and an appreciation of beauty. lectures, concerts,  Her interests r e f l e c t good  Miss F. attends selected university  symphonies, and has membership i n s p e c i a l interest  clubs- and groups such, as the Vancouver Opera Club, and a camera club. Both she and her s i s t e r enjoy t r a v e l l i n g . Primarily, t r a v e l has been a learning experience for them through deliberate study p r i o r to t r a v e l . Six retirement learning projects were i d e n t i f i e d . group orientation of her  She enjoys the s o c i a l and  learning.  CASE G. Miss G.,  age 69, was  an active teacher for f o r t y - f i v e years.  Her accomplishments evidence a marvellous enthusiasm for l i f e - l o n g  99  learning.  M i s s G. h a s h a n d - w r i t t e n s e v e n b o o k s o n m u s i c a n d l i t e r a t u r e  appreciation. appreciation  Her l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s have i n c r e a s e d  h e r knowledge and  o f Japanese and O r i e n t a l a r t and l i t e r a t u r e .  pared w r i t t e n and i l l u s t r a t e d of n i n e A s i a n  countries.  She h a s p r e -  c o l l e c t i o n s o f t h e c u l t u r e and a c h i e v e m e n t s  A l l o f t h i s w r i t i n g and c o l l e c t i n g has been  m o t i v a t e d , and g r e a t l y enhances h e r r e t i r e m e n t r e g u l a r l y a t t e n d s c u l t u r a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l woman a n d n a t u r a l l y h o s p i t a b l e .  living  events.  self-  satisfaction.  She  She i s a v i b r a n t  E i g h t e e n l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s were  identified.  CASE H. Mrs.  H., a g e 6 0 , h a s b e e n a c t i v e l y e n g a g e d i n t e a c h i n g f o r  thirty-one years.  The s e v e n l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s  s e l f - d i r e c t e d planning financial,  f o r t h e maintenance o f h e a l t h ,  and c o n t r i b u t o r y  aspects of retirement.  developed an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d p h y s i c a l e x e r c i s e for financial  she i d e n t i f i e d  s e c u r i t y was j o i n t l y  and f o r t h e s o c i a l ,  F o r example, she  and' d i e t a r y p r o g r a m .  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n by Mrs.  living.  However, i f s h e d e s i r e s ,  the formal  i n o v e r t h e p a s t s e v e r a l y e a r s c a n be r e - d i r e c t e d  Planning  H. a n d h e r h u s b a n d .  A number o f M r s . H.'s p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s w i l l retirement  demonstrate  carry  on i n t o  s t u d y she has engaged  toward  a second  career.  CASE I .  M i s s I . , a g e 6 0 , who was a n a c t i v e t e a c h e r f o r t h i r t y - s e v e n has  been r e t i r e d  f o r three  she  has t h e c a r e o f an a g e i n g and a i l i n g p a r e n t .  Miss I's retirement, the  years.  She i s l i v i n g  h e r mother d i d n o t r e q u i r e  circumstance of l i v i n g  i n t h e f a m i l y house where Up t o t h e t i m e o f a live-in  i n h e r own home a n d c a r i n g  have m o t i v a t e d l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s .  years,  companion.  f o r an a i l i n g  E l e v e n p r o j e c t s were i d e n t i f i e d .  Both  mother She  100 is  r e m o d e l l i n g t h e basement t o i n c r e a s e the s a l e v a l u e o f t h e house a t  a l a t e r date.  She  has  also undertaken  d e l i b e r a t e learning to  t h e e m o t i o n a l and p r a c t i c a l a d j u s t m e n t s to  she has had  the u n a n t i c i p a t e d t u r n of events r e l a t e d  She  t o make i n r e s p o n d i n g  to the care of her  r e c o g n i z e s a need f o r freedom i n a s p e c t s of her l i f e  n e c e s s a r y and identified She  fulfilling.  Nine  t h a t demonstrate  attends university  l e s s o n s . She  has  l e a d to a second comparative  other s e l f - d i r e c t e d  t h a t she  finds  l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s were life  p a r t i c i p a t e s i n y o g a and  taken a correspondence  shopping,  mother.  resourcefulness i n her p a r t i c u l a r  l e c t u r e s , and  career.  understand  situation.  swimming  c o u r s e i n an i n t e r e s t a r e a t h a t m i g h t  C u r r e n t measures t o c o u n t e r a c t i n f l a t i o n i n c l u d e  using the c i t y b u s - s e r v i c e i n s t e a d  of  her c a r , b u d g e t i n g , r e m o d e l l i n g c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s of her house w i t h a to  f u t u r e r e n t a l o r s a l e , and k e e p i n g an i n v e n t o r y o f p e r s o n a l  household  view  and  expenses.  CASE J .  M i s s - J . , a n a c t i v e t e a c h e r , age In  t h i s s t u d y who  sponsored  by  participated  one  o f two  She  has n i n e y e a r s of t e a c h i n g  a f t e r t a k i n g t h e p r o g r a m s h e became a r e t i r e m e n t c o n s u l t a n t .  T h i s meant a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f s t u d y o f r e t i r e m e n t i s s u e s . T e n p r o j e c t s were i d e n t i f i e d .  She w o u l d l i k e  t h i s work a f t e r h e r r e t i r e m e n t . ing,  a skill  learning  t o become m o r e i n v o l v e d w i t h  She w o u l d a l s o l i k e  s h e r e q u i r e d f r o m h e r m o t h e r and h a s  As a w i d o w , s h e w e n t t h r o u g h b e r e a v e m e n t and is  subjects  i n a four-week r e t i r e m e n t p l a n n i n g program  the Vancouver School Board.  e x p e r i e n c e and  6 2 , was  to teach china p a i n t -  developed  readjustment.  on h e r She  own.  thinks i t  i m p o r t a n t f o r c o u p l e s t o c o n s i d e r t h i s e v e n t u a l i t y as they p r o g r e s s i n  age,  and  to prepare  themselves  b o t h a t t i t u d i n a l l y and  practically.  101 CASE K. Mrs.  K., a g e 6 0 , h a s b e e n a c t i v e l y  twenty-four years.  Through long-term p l a n n i n g , she and h e r husband  have been p r e p a r i n g f o r t h e i r this  engaged i n t e a c h i n g f o r  couple began t o take  retirement l i v i n g .  steps t o secure t h e i r  Early i n their  marriage  financial future.  This  n e c e s s i t a t e d l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s s u c h a s i n v e s t i g a t i n g how t o b u y a n d s e l l homes.  I n a d d i t i o n , M r s . K. h a s t a k e n c o u r s e s  at the university to  i n c r e a s e h e r l i c e n c e and p e n s i o n b e n e f i t s upon r e t i r e m e n t . recently  they have purchased  More  l a n d a n d a r e b u i l d i n g a home o n t h e p r o p e r t y .  The c h o i c e o f t h e p r o p e r t y a n d t h e t y p e o f h o u s e d e c i d e d u p o n f o l l o w e d upon m u t u a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e r e a s o n s respect  each person  identified.  In  t o t h e p r o p e r t y a r e a , some o f t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w e r e : t h e c o m m u n i t y ;  c l o s e n e s s t o f a m i l y and f r i e n d s ; s e r v i c e s , and c h u r c h ;  access  They p a r t i c i p a t e d  r e t i r e m e n t p l a n n i n g program over  t o take organ  of the area  i n t h e B.C. T e a c h e r s  s e v e r a l weeks.  ing projects i n retirement issues.  of i n t e r e s t ,  areas, health  ease of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ; and, s u i t a b i l i t y  f o r w a l k i n g and b i k i n g .  b y M r s . K. w e r e  t o p r e f e r r e d shopping  This motivated  Federation eight  learn-  Three f u t u r e l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s i d e n t i f i e d  lessions  f o r p l e a s u r e , t o s t u d y gemmology o u t  and t o take t e n n i s l e s s o n s w i t h h e r husband.  .'CASE L .  Mrs.  L., age 60, i s i n h e r t h i r t y - f i f t h y e a r o f t e a c h i n g .  She  p l a n s t o r e t i r e a t t h e c l o s e o f t h e p r e s e n t s c h o o l y e a r , and i s l o o k i n g forward  t o increased involvement  i n c u r r e n t community and s o c i a l  C o n s i d e r a t i o n i s b e i n g g i v e n t o new p o s s i b i l i t i e s w h e r e i n fulfill  her interest  r e l a t e d y o u t h work.  and be o f s e r v i c e t o o t h e r s .  activities.  she can best  One o f t h e s e i s c h u r c h  Her m o t i v a t i o n i s t h a t she w i l l  be r e t i r i n g  before  102  •  h e r h u s b a n d a n d d o e s n o t w a n t t o s p e n d a l l h e r t i m e a t home. husband have a c q u i r e d by  knowledge and s k i l l  practice i n activities  they  enjoy  •  She a n d h e r  t h r o u g h l e s s o n s w i t h e x p e r t s and  together  such as g o l f and b r i d g e .  have p l a n n e d f o r t h e i r f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y and a r e i n good h e a l t h . l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s that should  Eight  contribute to s a t i s f a c t i o n i n retirement  were i d e n t i f i e d by M r s . L. and t h e s e were c o n c e r n e d w i t h l e a d e r s h i p h e a l t h care, c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s , entertainment s e r v i c e , and r e c r e a t i o n  They  skills,  living  skills,  community and v o l u n t e e r  skills.  CASE M. Mrs. identified planning, and  M., a g e 6 0 , h a s b e e n t e a c h i n g  eight retirement  learning projects.  continuing education,  Among t h e s e w e r e  Several episodes  the place or country  considered  t h e l i m i t s and adequacy o f t h e f i n a n c i a l investment,  to travel.  She e n j o y s  where she has p l a n n e d t o t r a v e l , has  she  anticipates i n her f i r s t  In a f i n e a r t s course  t r a v e l l i n g and would l i k e  year  forward  to continue  t o take  To t h i s e n d t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f f i n a n -  M r s . M. i d e n t i f i e d  two l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s  following retirement.  a s m u s i c i s one d f h e r h o b b i e s .  a second language program; t h e l i k e l y c u r r e n t l y evidences  and h a s  t o expand h e r i n f o r m a t i o n by group m e e t i n g s  an a n n u a l h o l i d a y a f t e r r e t i r e m e n t . ces has been f u t u r e - o r i e n t e d .  care,  she h a b i t u a l l y  researches  prior  financial  p e r t a i n i n g t o each  F o r example i n h e r t r a v e l e x p e r i e n c e s ,  sometimes had t h e o p p o r t u n i t y  She  change i n l i v i n g accommodation, h e a l t h  c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s .  p r o j e c t were l i s t e d .  f o rt h i r t y - f i v e years.  One i s t o e n r o l l The o t h e r  choice w i l l be Spanish.  i s t o take  She .  enthusiasm and p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m i n h e r work, and l o o k s  w i t h a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t o t h e enjoyment o f a v o c a t i o n a l and  l e i s u r e uses of time i n r e t i r e m e n t .  103 CASE  Mrs. n e s s t o be related  N.,  age  60, has  c o - o p e r a t i v e and  to retirement  N.  been t e a c h i n g f o r twenty y e a r s .  responsive  contained  a measure of h e s i t a t i o n .  r e a s o n s w e r e a l o v e f o r t e a c h i n g and a s l o n g as age  t o t h e i n t e r v i e w on  restraints allowed.  a f t e r r e t i r e m e n t would l i m i t her  an  c o n t r i b u t i n g r o l e i n s o c i e t y w o u l d be a negative  pursuits.  E a c h Sunday s h e h a s  Her  altered  Aware o f t h e s e  t h e c o m m u n i t y as a n  i n her  career  income that  husband has  her  contributed to  f a c t o r s , Mrs.  N.  environment f o r  been c o n t r i b u t i n g t h r e e hours of her  t o v o l u n t e e r work i n a h o s p i t a l emergency ward. were d i s c u s s e d .  expressed  the apprehension  significantly  a t t i t u d e towards r e t i r e m e n t .  been r e s o u r c e f u l l y i n v e s t i g a t i n g  The  t h a t changes i n her  t o o s e v e r e l y , and  willing-  learning projects  i n t e n t i o n to continue  A concern  Her  has  new time  Twelve l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s  been s u p p o r t i v e of her  c o n c e r n s and  learning  endeavours. CASE Mrs.  0.,  age  f o r seventeen years. and  discussed.  jointly  shared  participating  Two  68,  has  0.  been r e t i r e d  Thirteen retirement of these,  w i t h a g r o u p d i r e c t e d by  diving lessons.  She  h e l p o f an e x p e r t  t h i s a s s i s t s her  i n her  to being  a w i f e and  k n o w l e d g e c u r r e n t by colleagues. w i t h an  She  feels  she  i n c r e a s e d sense of p e r s o n a l  been  e x p e r t , and  tutoring services. avocation.  l i t e r a t u r e and  i s as busy as  were  this  i s also studying B r a i l l e with  homemaker, t u t o r i n g i s h e r r e a d i n g new  an  0. h a s  teaching identified  hydroponics,  Since r e t i r e m e n t Mrs.  i n c l u d e s swimming and and  after  l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s were  f i n a n c i a l p l a n n i n g and  i n by h e r h u s b a n d . i n aquaexercise  f o r three years  s h e was  freedom.  by  She  the  In a d d i t i o n  keeps  her  s h a r i n g knowledge w i t h  as a n a c t i v e t e a c h e r  but  104 CASE P.  Mrs. three years.  P., a g e 6 3 , h a s b e e n a s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n She h a s u n d e r t a k e n -  faction i n retirement l i v i n g . alternate living  arrangements.  p u r c h a s e o f a condominium. considered. church  ten learning projects related  A f t e r t h e death  o f h e r husband, she decided  completely  areas,  and  t o have t h e convenience o f bus  A l l o f these  retirement.  space, so t h a t she  f a c t o r s were dependent upon h e r  I t was a m a j o r i n v e s t m e n t  paid for before  on  i n a s a f e n e i g h b o r h o o d , t o be near h e r  She w a n t e d a g r o u n d f l o o r a p a r t m e n t w i t h y a r d  f i n a n c i a l resources.  to satis-  T h i s meant t h e s a l e o f h e r home a n d t h e  M r s . P. w a n t e d t o l i v e  could continue gardening.  f o r twenty-  The d e c i s i o n o n t h e l o c a t i o n was c a r e f u l l y  and p r e f e r r e d shopping  service.  teacher  t h a t she wanted t o have  T h i s has been accomplished.  Another  m a j o r l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t d e m a n d i n g a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f h e r a v a i l a b l e t i m e h a s .been her church a c t i v i t i e s which i n c l u d e l e c t u r e s , d i s c u s s i o n groups, and w o r k s o f c h a r i t y . into retirement.  S h e knows t h i s w i l l  continue  as a major  She h a s p u r c h a s e d a n o r g a n and h a s t a k e n  retirement, she intends t o continue with, t h e l e s s o n s .  readings,  interest  lessons.  After  She i s a l s o t a k i n g  y o g a l e s s o n s , a n d hopes: t o c o n t i n u e w i t h g r o u p l e s s o n s o r c l u b m e m b e r s h i p after retirement.  I n h e r retirement years, she would l i k e  service with c h i l d r e n having motor-perception would s t i l l  be u s i n g h e r t e a c h i n g  handicaps.  t o do v o l u n t e e r I n t h i s way s h e  speciality.  CASE Q.  Mrs. Teaching her  Q., a g e 6 0 , h a s b e e n r e t i r e d  from teaching f o r seven  years.  was a s e c o n d a r y c a r e e r t o t h a t o f w i f e , m o t h e r , a n d homemaker. A s  c h i l d r e n Became l e s s d e p e n d e n t o n h e r i n t h e home s h e r e t u r n e d t o  u n i v e r s i t y as a mature student  and s u b s e q u e n t l y  began h e r t e a c h i n g  career.  105  She  has  having  always kept retired  living.  She  up  social,  from t e a c h i n g would not  views her  d e v e l o p m e n t and  forward  of a retirement  life  adult l i f e  stage.  and is  w i t h c h i l d r e n who  a women's g r o u p , s h e self-directed to  life  attends  and  Recently had  R.,  f r i e n d s , and  r e c i p e s and  63, has  she went t h r o u g h a long medical  to continue  living  p r o j e c t s were i d e n t i f i e d interest  i n photography.  i n competition.  experience  She  to her  The  w i t h l e c t u r e s and  p h o t o g r a p h y and  speciality and  On  Her  work  has  through  care.  She  likes  makes a h o b b y  of She  reads  i n education.  Her  photography.  R.  been an a c t i v e t e a c h e r  of cancer,  i n the  and  for forty-four years.  One  of her  t o whom s h e h a d  f a m i l y home.  discussed.  She  teacher.  C o l u m b i a , and  did consider alternate l i v i n g  and  as  i n v e s t i g a t i n g home d e c o r a t i n g .  bereavement f o l l o w i n g the death  history  of devoted care.  decided  in  consequently  i n c l u d e swimming, g a r d e n i n g ,  age  notion  association with  d o e s v o l u n t e e r w o r k w i t h t h e e l d e r l y and  CASE  slides  Through her  i n s t i t u t e l e c t u r e s a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  Miss  the  r e c e n t l y s t u d i e d s i g n language.  n e i t h e r speak nor hear.  t r y i n g new  been  she works i n a h e a l t h c e n t e r f o r c h i l d r e n  l e a r n i n g i n c r e a s e d her knowledge of g e r i a t r i c  leisure activities  years  i n accepting  s a t i s f a c t i o n as a n o n - a c t i v e  the p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d  who  difficulty  now  retirement  as a w h o l e w i t h i n w h i c h t h e r e h a s  she has  e n t e r t a i n f a m i l y members and  collecting  life-style  and  F i f t e e n l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s were i d e n t i f i e d  community l e v e l s ,  t o be more e f f e c t i v e ,  leisure activities,  c a l l her present  movement b u t h a s  c o n t r i b u t i n g to her present t h e s o c i a l and  i n t e l l e c t u a l and  mother  g i v e n many  accomodations  but  Eight retirement learning  of these  developed  b e l o n g s t o a p h o t o g r a p h y c l u b and  from  her  enters  her  judges sometimes t u r n the event i n t o a l e a r n i n g slide  shows.  might i n v e s t i g a t e  She  working  has  done c o n s i d e r a b l e  study  i n a photo-finishing lab  as  106 a second c a r e e r .  Another major i n t e r e s t  a number o f l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s  i s church work which has c r e a t e d  and where t h e r e s o u r c e s  These resources' include'groups d i s c u s s i o n s , f i l m s , •literature.  done.  i n t h e r e n o v a t i n g and r e d e c o r a t i n g t h a t s h e  and r e a d i n g .  before  Reading i s a r e c r e a t i o n a l and l e a r n i n g  f o r h e r as h e r i n t e r e s t s i n c l u d e b i o g r a p h i e s ,  geography, and n a t i o n a l h i s t o r y . past year  after  T h e s e home i m p r o v e m e n t s h a v e r e q u i r e d c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h  knowledgeable people experience  "  of learning  I n t h i s way, some m a j o r e x p e n s e s h a v e b e e n l o o k e d  retirement.  A sewing course  autobiographies,  has been taken  a n d s h e h a s p u r c h a s e d a new s e w i n g m a c h i n e .  p r i c e t a g on c l o t h i n g , she has d e c i d e d attended  speakers--and'  Household r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s have been a source  projects f o r her p a r t i c u l a r l y has  have been mixed.  i n the  Mindful of the high  t o do h e r own s e w i n g .  She h a s  l e c t u r e s b y t h e B.C. R e t i r e d T e a c h e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , a n d t h e B.C.  T e a c h e r s F e d e r a t i o n on r e t i r e m e n t i s s u e s .  CASE S.  M i s s : S., a g e 6 0 , h a s b e e n t e a c h i n g f o r t h e p a s t Prior  t o t h i s she had a career i n n u r s i n g .  to r e t i r e m e n t l i v i n g were i d e n t i f i e d which represents hopes t o garner stud horse B.C.  years.  Ten l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s r e l a t e d  and d i s c u s s e d .  An u n u s u a l  investment  an on-going l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t f o r h e r and from w h i c h she f i n a n c i a l r e t u r n , has been t h e purchase o f a s t a l l i o n ,  which has s i r e d promising  Thoroughbred S o c i e t y and reads  foals.  Miss  episodes  a  S. h a s m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e  the literature.  l e a r n about t h e c a r e and maintenance o f h e r h o r s e . planning  twenty-four  She h a s h a d a l o t t o Other  financial  such as i n v e s t i g a t i o n and Investment i n p e n s i o n s ,  apartment and p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y  insurance,  the Registered Retirement  bonds, and term d e p o s i t s have been l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s and w i l l f i n a n c i a l security i n retirement.  Plan,  provide  She h a s t a k e n a memory d y n a m i c s  course  107 w h i c h may enjoys  help  events  to counterbalance such  as b a l l e t ,  done c o n s i d e r a b l e s t u d y study  of Chinese  return to this  opera,  i n her  T.,  f i r s t year  concerts.  Future  increases.  She  In a d d i t i o n ,  she  has  learning projects include a  p o s s i b l y a r e f r e s h e r course  i n n u r s i n g and  a  employment. CASE  Mrs.  and  i n the a r t s .  a r t and  type of  memory l o s s as age  age  66, was  T.  an a c t i v e t e a c h e r  of r e t i r e m e n t .  This past year  f o r f i f t e e n y e a r s , and she went t h r o u g h  the  difficult  p e r s o n a l s t r u g g l e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h bereavement i n the l o s s of  husband.  Her  many a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s a n d  capsulized here,  evidence  her  i n n e r s t r e n g t h and  r e c o g n i z e s a renewed i n n e r freedom. identified such  and  discussed.  as h a v e r e s u l t e d  C e n t e n n i a l Museum.  A few  Fourteen  Tours,  have been p a r t of t h i s  exhibits,  snowshoeing, t r a c k i n g , o n snow w i t h one  language,  early settlement  V o l u n t e e r work w i t h the  to  do  She  i n Vancouver,  Out-of-Door  Board has  a l s o been  the  F o r example, a weekend t r i p w i t h  a  f a r m i n g , new  cooking  experiences,  Mrs.  T.  reads  German a n d  and  building a  t a k e s s w i m m i n g l e s s o n s t w i c e a week,  political  until  a recent l e g i n j u r y  h i s t o r y and  buildings.  Italian.  plans a t r i p  This year  t w i c e a week a t t h e A l l i a n c e F r a n c a i s e ,  to study  lectures  t o P e m b e r t o n Meadows i n c l u d e d  r e s e a r c h on t h e p a r l i a m e n t  classes  Vancouver  teacher  a 1 0 - s p e e d b i k e , g o e s s n o w s h o e i n g , and a skating club.  she  another  match.  to  Now  l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s were  s l i d e s h o w s , r e a d i n g s , and  history,  experience.  and  be  o f t h e s e a r e compound l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s ,  of m u l t i p l e l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t s .  group of young s t u d e n t s  plans  resourcefulness.  under the auspices of the Vancouver School  source  her  of which w i l l  f r o m h e r w o r k as a v o l u n t e e r d o c e n t a t t h e  p e r t a i n i n g to archaeology,  School  i n t e r e s t s , a few  is  and  she  took  i n the  When s h e n e e d s h e l p i n a  fire  rides  belonged to  Ottawa  French  future particular  108  l e a r n i n g p r o j e c t w h i c h s h e c a n n o t meet o n h e r own c o n s u l t s an e x p e r t . her yard, M r s . T. living.  Recently, having a problem with  she c o n s u l t e d an a r b o r i s t ,  says t h a t freedom Her a t t i t u d e  i n h e r w o r d s "a  resources,  and  tree roots i n  then followed h i s advice.  i s the g r e a t e s t s i n g l e advantage  towards r e t i r e m e n t  graduation".  she  i s t h a t i t i s an  i n retirement achievement,  

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