Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The Effects of learning and instructional style congruence in an adult education learning environment Rubidge, Nicholas Andrew 1979

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Notice for Google Chrome users:
If you are having trouble viewing or searching the PDF with Google Chrome, please download it here instead.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1980_A2 R83.pdf [ 6.43MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0055925.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0055925-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0055925-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0055925-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0055925-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0055925-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0055925-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0055925-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0055925.ris

Full Text

THE E F F E C T S OF L E A R N I N G AND I N S T R U C T I O N A L S T Y L E CONGRUENCE I N AN A D U L T E D U C A T I O N L E A R N I N G ENVIRONMENT \ / N I C H O L A S ANDREW R U B I D G E B . S c , L o n d o n U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 8 , M . S c , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 7 1 . A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE R EQUIREMENTS FOR T H E D E G R E E OF THE F A C U L T Y OF GRADUATE S T U D I E S ( D e p a r t m e n t o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A u g u s t , 1 9 7 9 © N i c h o l a s A n d r e w R u b i d g e , 1 9 7 9 b y DOCTOR OF E D U C A T I O N i n In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , I ag ree that t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s tudy . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 Date 79 11 20 i i ABSTRACT I n r e c e n t y e a r s t h e r e h a s b e e n a s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d away f r o m ' i n s t r u c t o r - c e n t r e d ' and t o w a r d s ' s t u d e n t - c e n t r e d ' i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e s . W h i l e t h e r e - e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f an i n s t r u c t o r h as c a u s e d c o n t r o v e r s y i n t h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s -s i o r i j r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e been u n a b l e t o p r o v i d e c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e as t o t h e e f f e c t o f d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e s . T h i s l a c k o f c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e p r o b a b l y r e s u l t s f r o m i n t e r -a c t i o n s b etween v a r i o u s l e a r n e r and i n s t r u c t o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t i n f l u e n c e l e a r n e r o u t c o m e s . T h i s s t u d y was d e v e l o p e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e w h e t h e r c o n g r u e n c e between t h e i n s t r u c t o r and a d u l t l e a r n e r s ' a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n was r e l a t e d t o l e a r n e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e , and w i t h t h e i n s t r u c t o r ' s e v a l u a t i o n o f l e a r n e r p e r f o r m a n c e . The t h r e e h y p o t h e s e s d e v e l o p e d were t h a t : 1. D i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s b etween i n s t r u c t o r and l e a r n e r ' s a t t i f e u d e t o w a r d s l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l be n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n . 2. D i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s between i n s t r u c t o r and l e a r n e r ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l be n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h l e a r n e r p e r s i s t e n c e . 3. D i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s between i n s t r u c t o r and l e a r n e r ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s l e a r n i n g a n d i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l be n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e i n s t r u c t o r ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f l e a r n e r ' s l e a r n i n g a c h i e v e m e n t . i i i No i n s t r u m e n t s were a v a i l a b l e t h a t w o u l d measure l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e o r l e a r n e r ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n t h e r e f o r e two m e a s u r e s were d e v e l o p e d . T h e s e m e a s u r e s were d e v e l o p e d i n c o n c e r t w i t h a number o f e x p e r t j u d g e s , who c h e c k e d t h e i n s t r u m e n t s f o r c l a r i t y o f e x p r e s s i o n and c o n t e n t c o n s i s t e n c y . A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s was p e r f o r m e d p r i o r t o a n d d u r i n g t h e s t u d y . A l l i t e m s l o a d e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y and i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n o n t h e f i r s t u n r o t a t e d f a c t o r . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t b o t h i n d i c e s were u n i d i m e n s i o n a l . A r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t was d e s i g n e d t o c o l l e c t p a r t i c i p a n t and i n s t r u c t o r s o c i o -e c o n o m i c d a t a ; t h i s i n s t r u m e n t i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e two i n d i c e s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e . The r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e e n t i r e i n s t r u m e n t was c h e c k e d t h r o u g h a t e s t - r e t e s t d e s i g n by r e p e a t e d a p p l i c a -t i o n s o n t h e same p o p u l a t i o n . U n r e l i a b l e i t e m s were d e l e t e d . The d a t a r e q u i r e d t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s e s were c o l l e c t e d a t two a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c e n t r e s o p e r a t e d by V a n c o u v e r Community C o l l e g e . The sample c o n s i s t e d o f 38 c l a s s e s w i t h 638 p a r t i c i p a n t s s e l e c t e d a t random f r o m a t o t a l o f 84 c l a s s e s o f f e r e d a t t h e L a n g a r a and E r i c Hamber c e n t r e s o f V a n c o u v e r Community C o l l e g e . None o f t h e t h r e e h y p o t h e s e s were c o n f i r m e d . The d i s c r e p a n c y between i n s t r u c t o r ' s and l e a r n e r ' s a t t i -t u d e s t o w a r d s l e a r n i n g a n d i n s t r u c t i o n a p p e a r e d t o be l e s s i m p o r t a n t t h a n t h e a t t i t u d e o f e i t h e r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t o r t h e i n s t r u c t o r t o w a r d s l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n . I n p a r -t i c u l a r t h e r e were s t r o n g p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n and b o t h l e a r n e r and i n s t r u c t o r L e a r n i n g and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e Index s c o r e s c o n s i d e r e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y iv o f each o t h e r , but when co n s i d e r e d as d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s , the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the c o r r e l a t i o n was g r e a t l y d i m i n i s h e d . S i m i l a r l y , i t appeared t h a t l e a r n e r p e r s i s t e n c e was r e l a t e d to the l e a r n e r ' s and the i n s t r u e t o r ' s a t t i t u d e toward l e a r n i n g and not to the d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e between them. The hyp o t h e s i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e a r n e r achievement and l e a r n e r - i n s t r u c t o r l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e congruence was r e j e c t e d . How-ever, i t would appear t h a t these v a r i a b l e s were c o r r e l a t e d and th a t the c a l c u l a t i o n o f the measure o f congruence d i s g u i s e d the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . Regression equations were generated to i d e n t i f y v a r i a b l e s t h a t p r e d i c t l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e , l e a r n e r p e r s i s t e n c e , and l e a r n e r achievement. V a r i a b l e s t h a t r e l a t e d to the i n s t r u c t o r ' s socio-economic s t a t u s and v a r i o u s measures o f i n s t r u c t o r and l e a r n e r p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l experience were the most powerful p r e d i c t o r s o f l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e , l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n , l e a r n e r p e r s i s t e n c e , and l e a r n e r achievement. The method through which the measure o f i n s t r u c t o r -l e a r n e r congruence was d e r i v e d may d i s g u i s e an otherwise s i g n i -f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n . In t h i s study, both a c t u a l ( a r i t h m e t i c ) and d i s c r e p a n c y d i f f e r e n c e s were recorded. As a r e s u l t , i t was p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y some i n s t r u c t o r - l e a r n e r congruence r e l a t i o n s h i p s which otherwise would not have been observed. These e f f e c t s may have confounded the work o f p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s who used o n l y one measure of congruence and a s t a t i s t i c a l procedure t h a t r e q u i r e d a l i n e a r s o l u t i o n . Future V s t u d i e s which attempt to f u r t h e r u nravel the complex l e a r n e r -i n s t r u c t o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s u s i n g the n o t i o n o f congruence should a n t i c i p a t e and seek to i d e n t i f y these c u r v i - l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . vi TABLE OF CONTENTS Page TABLE OF CONTENTS v i LIST OF TABLES . . i s LIST OF FIGURES . x ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xi CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION . 1 CONGRUENCE 3 PURPOSES OF THE PRESENT STUDY 6 PLAN OF THE STUDY 7 CHAPTER TWO SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE 9 ADULT EDUCATION IN THE CONTEXT OF LIFELONG LEARNING 10 INSTRUCTION OF ADULTS 15 CONGRUENCE 20 CONGRUENCE AND EDUCATION 22 PRESENT STUDY 30 HYPOTHESES 3 2 CHAPTER THREE INSTRUMENTATION 34 SOCIO-ECONOMIC DATA 34 LEARNER SATISFACTION INDEX 3 5 Learner S a t i s f a c t i o n Index R e l i a b i l i t y . . . 38 Learner S a t i s f a c t i o n Index V a l i d i t y . . . . 39 LEARNING AND INSTRUCTIONAL STYLE INDEX ° 4 2 Le a r n i n g and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e Index R e l i a b i l i t y 46 Lear n i n g and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e Index V a l i d i t y ' 4 6 v i i Page CHAPTER FOUR STUDY DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT 5Q POPULATION 5.0 SAMPLE 52 EMPIRICAL INDICATORS 53 DATA COLLECTION 54 DATA CODING 58 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 59 CHAPTER FIVE RESULTS 60 DATA ANALYSIS PHASE ONE 60 C a l c u l a t i o n o f L e a r n i n g and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e Index Scores 61 C a l c u l a t i o n o f Learner S a t i s f a c t i o n Index Scores 64 C a l c u l a t i o n of Congruence I n d i c a t o r s . . . . 64 DATA ANALYSIS PHASE TWO 67 Socio-Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f I n s t r u c t o r s 67 Socio-Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f P a r t i c i p a n t s 70 P a r t i c i p a n t - I n s t r u c t o r Incongruence . . . . 74 DATA ANALYSIS PHASE THREE 78 Learner S a t i s f a c t i o n and L e a r n i n g and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e Incongruence 7 8 Learner Persistence: and L e a r n i n g and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e Incongruence 84 Le a r n i n g Achievement and L e a r n i n g and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e Incongruence 88 CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS- AND SUMMARY 9 2 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 92 Instrumentation 9 2 Page Learner S a t i s f a c t i o n 94 Learner P e r s i s t e n c e 9 6 Learner Achievement 9 8 INFLUENCE"OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS • • 9 9 P r e d i c t o r s o f LISI Scores 99 P r e d i c t o r s o f Learner S a t i s f a c t i o n Index Score • • 100 P r e d i c t o r s o f Learner P e r s i s t e n c e 101 P r e d i c t o r s o f L e a r n i n g Achievement 101 SUMMARY 104 REFERENCES 108 APPENDIXES A - L e t t e r from Centre A d m i n i s t r a t o r s 117 B - L e t t e r from Researcher 118 C - B l i s h e n Codes of A t y p i c a l Job T i t l e s . . . . U 9 D - Research Instrument ( I n s t r u c t o r ' s v e r s i o n ) . . 121 E - Research Instrument (Learner's v e r s i o n ) . . . 127 ix L I S T OF TABLES Page 1. U n r o t a t e d F a c t o r L o a d i n g s and T e s t R e - T e s t R e l i a b i l i t y o f L e a r n e r S a t i s f a c t i o n Index . . . . 40 2. U n r o t a t e d F a c t o r L o a d i n g s and T e s t R e - T e s t R e l i a b i l i t y o f L e a r n i n g and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e I n dex ( L I S I ) 4 7 3. C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e U n r o t a t e d F a c t o r L o a d i n g s O b s e r v e d d u r i n g t h e D e v e l o p m e n t and F i n a l A p p l i c a t i o n o f L e a r n i n g a n d I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e I n dex ( L I S I ) . . . 4. C o m p a r i s o n o f U n r o t a t e d F a c t o r L o a d i n g s O b s e r v e d d u r i n g t h e D e v e l o p m e n t and F i n a l A p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e L e a r n e r ' S a t i s f a c t i o n I ndex - -5. C o m p a r i s o n o f A c t u a l Mean D i f f e r e n c e s and D i s c r e p a n c y S c o r e Means bet w e e n P a r t i c i p a n t s and t h e i r I n s t r u c t o r s 77 6. P e a r s o n ' s C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s : I n s t r u c t o r , L e a r n e r , a n d D i s c r e p a n c y L I S I S c o r e s and L e a r n e r S a t i s f a c t i o n Index 8 0 7. Summary o f R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s t o P r e d i c t L e a r n e r s P r e f e r r e d L e a r n i n g and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e - L I S I S c o r e Dependent V a r i a b l e 81 8. Summary o f R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s : . L I S I D i s c r e p a n c y S c o r e D e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e 8 2 9. Summary o f R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s : L e a r n e r S a t i s -f a c t i o n Index S c o r e D ependent V a r i a b l e 83 10. P e a r s o n ' s C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s : A t t e n d a n c e S c o r e w i t h I n s t r u c t o r , L e a r n e r a n d D i s c r e p a n c y L I S I S c o r e s 86 11. Summary o f R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s : A t t e n d a n c e S c o r e D e pendent V a r i a b l e 87 12. P e a r s o n ' s C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s : L e a r n i n g S c o r e w i t h L e a r n e r , I n s t r u c t o r and D i s c r e p a n c y L I S I S c o r e s 89 13. Summary o f R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s : L e a r n i n g S c o r e D e p e n d e n t V a r i a b l e 9 0 63 65 X L I S T OF FIGURES Page 1. A C o m p a r i s o n o f A s s u m p t i o n s and P r o c e s s e s o f Pedagogy and A n d r a g o g y 17 2. M o d e l t o E x p l a i n D r o p o u t f r o m A d u l t E d u c a t i o n I n s t i t u t i o n s 25 3. V a r i a b l e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 28 4. S t u d y D a t a C o l l e c t i o n and O r g a n i z a t i o n C h a r t . . 57 xi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS There i s i n s u f f i c i e n t space f o r me to r e c o g n i z e and thank a l l those who helped and encouraged me to complete t h i s study. I owe an enormous debt o f thanks to my committee, i n p a r t i c u l a r , the Chairman Dr. Boshier whose i n t e r e s t and enthusiasm was a continuous source o f encouragement. In a d d i -t i o n , Drs. G. D i c k i n s o n and C. Verner d i r e c t e d t h i s r e s e a r c h a t v a r i o u s stages o f i t s development and implementation and t h e i r a d v i c e d u r i n g the formative phase proved to be i n v a l u a b l e . Thanks are a l s o due to Dr. D. R u s n e l l who i n a d d i t i o n to s e r v i n g on the committee a s s i s t e d i n the t e s t i n g o f the research instrument's r e l i a b i l i t y . As an employed student I would l i k e to thank my s u p e r v i s o r , Dr. Ron F a r i s , who gave me encourage-ment, support and more s i g n i f i c a n t l y , time o f f ! In a d d i t i o n I would l i k e to thank the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and s t a f f o f the Vancouver Community C o l l e g e Community Education Program, i n p a r t i c u l a r Mr. A l f Glenesk, P r i n c i p a l , and Drs. Lawrence F a s t and Thomas K e l l y who admi n i s t e r e d the Langara and Hamber programs. These i n d i v i d u a l s c h e e r f u l l y allowed me to i n t e r r u p t t h e i r busy schedules d u r i n g t h e i r h e c t i c r e g i s t r a t i o n p e r i o d and a s s i s t e d w i t h the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n and data c o l l e c t i o n . Without t h e i r h e l p I would not have been a b l e to manage the data c o l l e c t i o n p rocess. I a l s o owe a debt o f thanks to the 38 i n s t r u c t o r s and t h e i r 638 p a r t i c i p a n t s who completed the r e s e a r c h instrument. XXX In a d d i t i o n t o t h o s e m e n t i o n e d above, I s h o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k M r s . Pamela W i d d i f i e l d who t y p e d and r e - t y p e d t h i s m a n u s c r i p t w i t h o u t e v e r a d m i t t i n g t h a t i t b o r e d h e r t o t e a r s . L a s t b u t by no means l e a s t , I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k my w i f e Pamela, w i t h o u t h e r e n c o u r a g e m e n t I w o u l d n e v e r h a v e s t a r t e d t h i s s t u d y and w i t h o u t h e r p a t i e n c e and o n - g o i n g s u p p o r t , I w o u l d n e v e r have f i n i s h e d i t . To t h e s e and t o a g r e a t many o t h e r s , I owe a d e b t o f t h a n k s t h a t I c a n n e v e r r e p a y . 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION In 1919 the B r i t i s h Ministry of Re-Construction Report (Waller, 1956) c i t e d the need f o r education to be univer sal and l i f e l o n g . Despite the fervour of the authors of t h i s report the notion of l i f e l o n g education remained dormant u n t i l revived at UNESCO's Second World Conference on Adult Education (Montreal, 1960). I t has since been vociferously endorsed at other world conferences (Tokyo, 1972; Nairobi, 1976) and has emerged as the 'master concept' guiding the transformation of education systems throughout the world. Central to the con-cept of l i f e l o n g education are the notions that: education does not terminate at the end of formal schooling but continues throughout an indiv i d u a l ' s l i f e ; education encompasses a l l f o r -mal and informal patterns of learning and therefore should be t o t a l l y integrated; as l i f e l o n g learning i s universal i n nature i t represents the democratization of education (Dave, 1975) . The i n f l u e n t i a l Faure Report (1972, p. 181) noted that for the concept of l i f e l o n g education to be translated into formal operations, b a r r i e r s impeding access to i n s t i t u -tions must be dismantled. The report recommended that "educa-ti o n i n s t i t u t i o n s and means must be m u l t i p l i e d (and) made 2 more a c c e s s i b l e " . A c c o r d i n g to Faure (1972, p. 185) "educa-t i o n s hould be dispensed and a c q u i r e d through a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f means". As c l a r i f i e d a t the Second World Conference on A d u l t E d u c a t i o n (Montreal, 19 60) and c o n c e p t u a l l y developed by Faure (1972), and O.E.C.D. (1973, 1975) and o t h e r s , d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n r e q u i r e s the e r o s i o n o f b a r r i e r s which impede p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( p a r t i c u l a r l y by people i n the lower socio-economic groups) and the involvement o f l e a r n e r s i n the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n process. C l i e n t e l e surveys and p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e s e a r c h (e.g. Boshier, 1971; D i c k i n s o n , 1969; Hanna, 1965; Johnstone and R i v e r a , 1965; London, 19 63; Verner and Newberry, 19 58) a l l show t h a t , a t present, i n s t i t u t i o n a l forms o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n l a r g e l y a t t r a c t an e l i t e . The f i r s t element of d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n r e q u i r e s t h i s s i t u a t i o n to be remedied; socio-economic d i s p a r i t i e s i n p a r t i -c i p a t i o n must be removed. The second element of democratiza-t i o n c a l l s f o r the involvement o f l e a r n e r s i n the programme pl a n n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s . A c c o r d i n g to Knowles (1970) a d u l t s are s e l f - d i r e c t e d , have a broad e x p e r i e n t i a l base, are problem-oriented and l e a r n i n response to the pre-sence o f immediate needs and. problems. A d u l t s cannot be t r e a t e d as "empty v e s s e l s " ; t h e i r experience c o n s t i t u t e s an important resource f o r p l a n n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n . When t r a n s l a t e d i n t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s , demands f o r d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n have become a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c a l l s f o r d e - i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n ( I l l i c h , 1970) and the d e s i r e to c r e a t e e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s congruent w i t h the l i f e 3 circumstances of p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s . The Faure Report, major overseas i n v e s t i g a t i o n s concerning a d u l t e d u c a t i o n (e.g. R u s s e l l , 1973; Simmonds, 1972) as w e l l as p r o v i n c i a l s t u d i e s i n Canada (e.g. A l b e r t a , 1972; B r i t i s h Columbia, 1974; On t a r i o , 1972) a l l speak o f the need to c r e a t e f l e x i b l e and d i v e r s e l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a d u l t s congruent with t h e i r l i f e circumstances and needs. The focus o f t h i s study i s on i n s t r u c t i o n , the second major step i n the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o c e s s . As a p p l i e d to i n s t r u c t i o n , d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n r e q u i r e s the c r e a t i o n o f " a d u l t - o r i e n t e d " environments w i t h i n which the i n s t r u c t o r w i l l behave i n a manner congruent w i t h the needs and e x p e c t a t i o n s of l e a r n e r s . CONGRUENCE The need to c r e a t e "congruent" l e a r n i n g environments i s a xiomatic and i m p l i e d i n contemporary and h i s t o r i c a l l i t e r a -t u r e d e s c r i b i n g fundamental concepts of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n (Bryson, 1936; Knowles, 1970; Lindeman, 1926). In a d u l t edu-c a t i o n r e s e a r c h i t i s a p p l i e d to programme p l a n n i n g (Peters and B o s h i e r , 1976), and the de s i g n and management of i n s t r u c -t i o n (Knowles, 1970) and the study o f dropout (Boshier, 1973). The n o t i o n o f congruence has been employed to f a c i l -i t a t e understanding, p r e d i c t i o n and c o n t r o l of a broad range o f phenomena. Notable a p p l i c a t i o n s o f congruence theory have 4 o c c u r r e d i n t h e s t u d y o f p e r s o n a l i t y and p s y c h o t h e r a p y ( R o g e r s , 1959), a t t i t u d e - c h a n g e ( M c G u i r e , 1968; Simons, et al, 19 7 0 ) , c o g n i t i v e d i s s o n a n c e ( F e s t i n g e r , 1957) and i n t e r - p e r s o n a l a t t r a c t i o n ( L o t t a n d L o t t , 1965; S e c o r d and Backman, 1 9 6 4 ) . I t has b e e n a p p l i e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s t o e x p l a i n l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n ( e . g . P e r v i n , 1960) a n d d r o p o u t ( B o s h i e r , 1 9 7 3 ) . B a s i c t o t h e n o t i o n o f c o n g r u e n c e i s t h e f a c t t h a t human b e i n g s b e h a v e i n ways t h a t m a x i m i z e p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a b i l i t y and m i n i m i z e i n s t a b i l i t y . Thus, i n L e c k y ' s (1945) p e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r y i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e human o r g a n i s m i s f a c e d w i t h t h e n e e d t o keep i n t e r n a l p e r c e p t i o n s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h e x p e r i -e n c e ; i n R o g e r s (1959) t h e o r y c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p o r t a n c e i s a s -c r i b e d t o t h e human p e n c h a n t f o r i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y . I t i s c o n t e n d e d t h a t t h e s e l f / o t h e r a n d s e l f / i d e a l - s e l f c o n g r u e n c e i s a measure o f a d j u s t m e n t ; t h e g r e a t e r t h e c o n g r u e n c e t h e b e t t e r t h e a d j u s t m e n t . A t t i t u d e c h a n g e r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e demon-s t r a t e d t h a t a w i l l i n g n e s s t o change a t t i t u d e s v a r i e s w i t h t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e i n f o r m a t i o n ' s o u r c e ' i s c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e ^ r e c e i v e r ' . S i m i l a r l y , i n M u r r a y ' s (1938) p e r s o n a l i t y t h e o r y , a d j u s t m e n t i s p o r t r a y e d a s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e d e g r e e o f c o n s o n -a n c e between 'needs' and ' e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r e s s ' . A d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n o f c o n g r u e n c e t h e o r y t o a n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o b l e m was r e p o r t e d by B o s h i e r (1971) and a m p l i f i e d l a t e r ( B o s h i e r , 1977; 1 9 7 8 ) . B o s h i e r has v a r i o u s l y a r g u e d t h a t n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n o c c u r s b e c a u s e o f ' i n c o n g r u e n c e s ' between i n s t i t u t i o n s and p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s . D r o p o u t , he a r g u e s , o c c u r s b e c a u s e some p a r t i c i p a n t s f e e l 5 incongruent i n some i n s t i t u t i o n s . Incongruence makes p a r t i c i -pants v u l n e r a b l e to the e f f e c t s of 'mediating' v a r i a b l e s (e.g. t r a n s p o r t or weather d i f f i c u l t i e s ) which ' t r i g g e r ' dropout. The hypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n v e s t i g a t e d by B o s h i e r were n e a t l y captured by Cronbach (19 57) who suggested t h a t f o r each person there i s an o p t i m a l environment and f o r each e n v i r o n -ment an o p t i m a l person. B o s h i e r suggested there were b a s i c a l l y f o u r congru-ence s t a t e s which have p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e i n l e a r n e r p e r s i s -tence or dropout behaviours; i n t r a - s e l f , s e l f - o t h e r student, s e l f - l e c t u r e r or s e l f - o t h e r congruence. P a r t i c i p a n t - e n v i r o n -ment matching i s supposed to reduce incongruence and i n c o n g r u -ence induced dropout. T h e r e f o r e , an i n s t r u c t o r should adopt a ' s t y l e ' congruent w i t h the l e a r n e r ' s p r e f e r r e d l e a r n i n g s t y l e . However most i n s t r u c t o r s adopt an i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e based on t h e i r own development h i s t o r y and experience both as a l e a r n e r and i n s t r u c t o r (Oswald, 1971), so 'chance* congru-ence may be r e f l e c t e d i n l e a r n e r behaviours such as attendance, s a t i s f a c t i o n and l e a r n i n g achievement. Congruence has a l s o been used by Quastel (1979) to e x p l a i n an apparent c o r r e l a t i o n between job s a t i s f a c t i o n and the presence or absence of t r a i n i n g needs. Quastel showed t h a t community mental h e a l t h workers w i t h 'high' needs f o r t r a i n i n g were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r jobs than those with 'low' needs f o r t r a i n i n g . She argued t h a t mental h e a l t h workers w i t h h i g h t r a i n i n g needs f e l t i ncongruent i n t h e i r work s i t u a t i o n s and were thus ... 6 d i s s a t i s f i e d . In Quastel's study, "congruence' was not measured d i r e c t l y ; i t was merely a h y p o t h e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t invoked to account f o r a c o r r e l a t i o n between t r a i n i n g need and job s a t i s f a c t i o n . PURPOSES OF THE PRESENT STUDY Despite the work o f B o s h i e r (1973) and the l a r g e number o f authors whose c o n t r i b u t i o n s were reviewed by Verner and Davis (1964) dropout from a d u l t e d u c a t i o n remains an i n t r a n s i g e n t problem. Furthermore, there i s l i t t l e i n p r e v i o u s work which r e v e a l s r e l a t i o n s h i p s between congruence s t a t e s , as v a r i o u s l y d e f i n e d , and o t h e r c r u c i a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n v a r i -a b l e s such as l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n and achievement. Congru-ence has powerful e f f e c t s on a t t i t u d e change, p e r s o n a l i t y , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l behaviour and p e r c e p t i o n but i t s impact on im-p o r t a n t a d u l t e d u c a t i o n processes remains l a r g e l y unexplored. The task of t h i s study i s to b u i l d on e a r l i e r work l i n k i n g congruence to a d u l t e d u c a t i o n dropout, l e a r n e r s a t i s -f a c t i o n and l e a r n e r achievement, and concerns the e f f e c t s o f congruence as they operate d u r i n g the i n s t r u c t i o n a l phase of the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o c e s s . The study concerns the e x t e n t to which congruence between i n s t r u c t o r and l e a r n e r a t t i t u d e s towards l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n i s r e l a t e d to l e a r n e r p e r s i s -tence, l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n and the i n s t r u c t o r ' s e v a l u a t i o n of the l e a r n e r achievement. 7 I t i s assumed t h a t L e v i n ' s (1935) f o r m u l a t i o n con-c e r n i n g person — environment i n t e r a c t i o n s i s c o r r e c t . Lewin (1935) suggested t h a t behaviour was a f u n c t i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t y and the environment or B = f ( p . E ) . The model proposed f o r t h i s study i s b a s i c a l l y an e x t e n s i o n of Lewin's and can be s t a t e d as: p e r s i s t e n c e behaviour (P), l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n (S) or l e a r n e r achievement (A) w i l l be a f u n c t i o n of p e r s o n a l -i t y congruence (P^); t h a t i s , i n t r a - s e l f (Cg_g), s e l f - o t h e r l e a r n e r ( C S _ Q ) , and s e l f - i n s t r u c t o r ( c s _ j ) / congruence; and congruence between i n s t r u c t o r s (Tj) and l e a r n e r s (T L) a t t i t u d e s towards l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n (E). Expressed as an equation, the model suggests t h a t : P or S or A = T h i s view of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of congruence g i v e s r i s e to a number of t h e o r e t i c a l u n i t s and p r o p o s i t i o n s des-c r i b i n g v a r i a b l e i n t e r a c t i o n s some o f which c o n s t i t u t e d the b a s i s of t h i s study. PLAN OF THE STUDY The work conducted f o r t h i s study i s r e p o r t e d i n f i v e c h a p t e r s . In Chapter 2 the l i t e r a t u r e survey and hypo-theses are r e p o r t e d . The development of the r e s e a r c h i n s t r u -ment i s d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter 3. The p o p u l a t i o n s e l e c t e d , sampling procedures, data c o l l e c t i o n and r e s e a r c h d e s i g n 8 adopted are d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter 4. The data a n a l y s i s and r e s u l t s are r e p o r t e d i n Chapter 5., F i n a l l y , the c o n c l u s i o n s are presented and the study i s summarized i n Chapter 6. The immediate task i s to review l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t to the problem. 9 CHAPTER TWO SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE T h i s r e v i e w was r e d u c e d t o m a n a g e a b l e p r o p o r t i o n s , t h r o u g h t h e f o l l o w i n g s t r a t e g i e s : a) c o m p u t e r - a s s i s t e d s e a r c h e s o f t h e ERIC I n f o r m a t i o n System were c o n d u c t e d w i t h 200 i t e m s i d e n t i f i e d a s m e e t i n g t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e Key-word m a t r i x ; b) a computer a s s i s t e d s e a r c h o f t h e b i b l i o g r a -p h i c d a t a b a s e s h e l d by t h e I n s t i t u t e f o r B e h a v i o u r a l R e s e a r c h a t New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y , w h i c h i n c l u d e d P s y c h o l o g i c a l A b s t r a c t s f r o m 1970 t o 1975 and S o c i a l S c i e n c e J o u r n a l s f r o m 1968; some 150 i t e m s were i d e n t i f i e d ; c) r e c e n t and r e l e v a n t r e v i e w s o f th e l i t e r a t u r e were s o u g h t ; d) m a j o r c o n t r i b u t o r s t o t h e a r e a o f s t u d y were o t h e r e n t r y p o i n t s t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e ; a nd e) s t u d i e s b a s e d o n p r e - a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n s were l a r g e l y i g n o r e d . L i t e r a t u r e i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s was r e v i e w e d . A d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n t h e c o n t e x t o f l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g , where t h e need f o r expanded l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a d u l t s i s n o t e d ; t h e i n s t r u c t i o n o f a d u l t s , i n w h i c h t h e l i t e r a t u r e on i n s t r u c t i o n a l and l e a r n i n g s t y l e s i s d i s c u s s e d ; c o n g r u e n c e , i n w h i c h t h e r e v e l a n c e o f c o n g r u e n c e i n a t t i t u d e c h a n ge, o p i n -i o n l e a d e r s h i p and c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s n o t e d ; t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e n o t i o n o f c o n g r u e n c e a s a p p l i e d t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e s e c t i o n t i t l e d c o n g r u e n c e and e d u c a t i o n ; 10 f i n a l l y t h e h y p o t h e s e s s e l e c t e d f o r t h e s t u d y a r e p r e s e n t e d . ADULT EDUCATION IN THE CONTEXT OF LIFELONG EDUCATION The r a t e o f change i n c o n t e m p o r a r y s o c i e t y a p p e a r s t o be a c c e l e r a t i n g . W h i l e f u t u r i s t s may have d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a -t i o n s o f what i s t o come, t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be a g r e e m e n t t h a t a l l I n d i v i d u a l s w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o l e a r n a h o s t o f new s k i l l s ( T o f f l e r , 1971, 1 9 7 2 ) . F u r t h e r , w h a t e v e r t h e f u t u r e h o l d s , i t i s c l e a r t h a t a t p r e s e n t s o c i e t y i s e x p e r i e n c i n g an ' i n f o r m a t i o n e x p l o s i o n ' . Kahn and W i e n e r (1967) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e was a b o u t 100 t i m e s a s much t o know i n 1967 a s was a v a i l a b l e i n t h e y e a r 1900, and t h a t by t h e end o f t h i s c e n t u r y , t h e r e w i l l be 1,000 t i m e s as much. The t r a d i t i o n a l c h r o n o l o g i c a l s e p a r a t i o n b e tween t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f k n owledge i n s c h o o l and a d u l t h o o d i s no l o n g e r v a l i d , as more and more a d u l t s d i s c o v e r t h e y n e e d t o be l e a r n i n g c o n t i n u o u s l y t o u p g r a d e p r e s e n t s k i l l s o r t o d e v e l o p new o n e s . The F a u r e R e p o r t " L e a r n i n g To Be" r e c o g n i z e d t h a t a d u l t s w i l l r e q u i r e i n c r e a s e d a c c e s s t o l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s and s u g g e s t e d t h a t a s : " e d u c a t i o n i s and w i l l be more and more a p r i -m o r d i a l n e e d f o r e a c h i n d i v i d u a l , t h e n n o t o n l y must we d e v e l o p , e n r i c h a n d m u l t i p l y t h e s c h o o l and t h e u n i v e r s i t y , we must a l s o t r a n -s c e n t i t by b r o a d e n i n g t h e e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s t o t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f s o c i e t y as a w h o l e " (1972, p. 1 6 1 ) . A ' l e a r n i n g s o c i e t y ' has b e e n t o u t e d as a s t a t e t h a t 11 w i l l be achieved when p r i n c i p l e s o f l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g (or edu-c a t i o n ) are f u l l y implemented. Although the l i t e r a t u r e i s confused i t appears t h a t l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g r e p r e s e n t s a s e t of p h i l o s o p h i c a l b e l i e f s o r p r i n c i p l e s w h i l e l i f e l o n g o r r e c u r r e n t education (or ed u c a t i o n permanente) l a b e l machinery employed to ensure the ed u c a t i o n o f people from c r a d l e to grave. A l l edu-c a t i o n i n v o l v e s l e a r n i n g but not a l l l e a r n i n g i n v o l v e s education. In l i t e r a t u r e emanating from UNESCO (e.g. Dave, 1975, 1976) and the O.E.C.D. (1973, 1975) a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s p o r t r a y e d as o n l y one element o f a l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n system. However, d e s p i t e semantic and conceptual d i f f i c u l t i e s n e a r l y a l l w r i t e r s agree t h a t e d u c a t i o n should be spread out over an i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e -time and not con c e n t r a t e d i n t o the f i r s t 25 ye a r s . Each a d u l t l i v e s under d i f f e r e n t circumstances so a v a r i e t y o f e d u c a t i o n a l approaches may be r e q u i r e d to ensure t h a t p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s are not denied access to l e a r n i n g by reason o f t h e i r geographic l o c a t i o n , work c y c l e , c o s t o r pr e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l . Recently UNESCO member s t a t e s r e i n f o r c e d t h e i r commitment to an e g a l i t a t i a n and p l u r a l i s t i c approach to l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g by emphasising t h a t a d u l t education: "should be adapted to the a c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s o f everyday l i f e and work and take i n t o account the p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a d u l t l e a r n e r s , t h e i r age, f a m i l y , s o c i a l , o c c u p a t i o n a l o r r e s i d e n t i a l background and the way i n which these i n t e r r e l a t e " (1976 Recommendation 3.e). In the past a d u l t e d u c a t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d a marginal e d u c a t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e (Clark, 1958) i n comparison w i t h the educat i o n o f c h i l d r e n . This may e x p l a i n the p a u c i t y o f 12 r e s e a r c h p e r t a i n i n g to the educa t i o n o f a d u l t s d e s p i t e s i g n i f i -c ant p a r t i c i p a n t p o p u l a t i o n s , which f o r i n s t a n c e i n B r i t i s h Columbia, may be a t l e a s t as l a r g e as the grade s c h o o l p opula-t i o n and probably c o n s i d e r a b l y l a r g e r ^Dickinson, et at, (1973), pp. 13 — 263,-;. I f UNESCO's recommendations p e r t a i n i n g to l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n are to be implemented, and e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n c r e a s e d and d i v e r s i f i e d , more r e s e a r c h w i l l be r e q u i r e d to ensure the e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n o f re s o u r c e s a l l o c a t e d f o r the edu c a t i o n o f a d u l t s . A d u l t s l e a r n through a v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s and i n d i v e r s e s e t t i n g s . L i t t l e suggests t h a t a d u l t l e a r n i n g o c c u r s i n f o u r b a s i c s i t u a t i o n s . An a d u l t : "may l e a r n spontaneously as a chance event occurs i n h i s environment ( f o r t u i t i o u s l e a r n -ing) ; he may wish to l e a r n and pursue t h i s d e s i r e ( i n t e n t i o n a l l e a r n i n g ) ; he may system-a t i c a l l y d e s i g n and manage h i s own l e a r n i n g (education by s e l f ) ; o r he may c a l l upon the s e r v i c e s o f a person o r i n s t i t u t i o n to d e s i g n and manage the l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n f o r him (education d i r e c t e d by o t h e r s ) " (1978, p. 4). A d u l t s thus l e a r n i n the n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l and the formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g (Jensen, 1964). L e a r n i n g i n the n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g may occur through r e a d i n g , t e l e v i s i o n , c o n v e r s a t i o n o r such l i k e . While these everyday a c t i v i t i e s may pr o v i d e e x c e l l e n t l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s , few a d u l t s l e a r n enough i n such a s e t t i n g to s a t i s f y i n d i v i d u a l o r s o c i e t a l . needs f o r continuous l e a r n i n g . Much l e a r n i n g i n the n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g occurs as a r e s u l t o f chance. The formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g comes i n t o being when an e d u c a t i o n a l 13 agent designs a sequence o f events to h e l p a d u l t s l e a r n . Verner and Booth (1964), D i c k i n s o n (1973a) and Boshier (197 8) a l l note t h a t a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n v o l v e s two major pr o c e s s e s : program p l a n n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n ( e v a l u a t i o n i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t c o f b o t h ) . During the program p l a n n i n g phase needs are diagnosed, program, goals developed and methods chosen. Knowles (1970) and Houle (1972) do not make a major d i s t i n c t i o n between program p l a n n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n but the w r i t e r s c i t e d above argue t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e sign begins when program goals are t r a n s l a t e d i n t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . For f o l l o w e r s of Gagne (1965) the next step i s to analyse i n s t r u c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s i n t o t h e i r component l e a r n i n g t a s k s . The i n s t r u c t o r w i l l subsequently s e l e c t techniques s u i t a b l e f o r the e x e c u t i o n o f the l e a r n i n g t a s k s . As most e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s have more o r l e s s s p e c i f i c terms o f r e f e r e n c e , a d u l t educators can o n l y respond to a d e f i n e d spectrum o f l e a r n e r needs. Methods (Verner, 1959) adopted to o r g a n i z e l e a r n e r s may a l s o be i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y p r e s c r i b e d . Therefore, u n l e s s a d u l t l e a r n e r s are a b l e to i d e n t i f y programs congruent w i t h t h e i r l i f e circumstances, they w i l l be denied access to l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Even though a s u i t a b l e program can be i d e n t i f i e d the l e a r n i n g t a s k s , i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques, or t e a c h i n g ' s t y l e ' adopted may not be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the l e a r n e r . The Task F o r c e on the Com-munity C o l l e g e i n B r i t i s h Columbia appeared to acknowledge t h a t no one t e a c h i n g s t y l e was a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a l l a d u l t l e a r n e r s and recommended t h a t : 14 "Community C o l l e g e s should encourage and f o s t e r a wide v a r i e t y o f t e a c h i n g s t y l e s and i n s t r u c t -i o n a l methods so t h a t .the t r a d i t i o n a l and out-moded m a s t e r - p u p i l concept o f l e a r n i n g may be r e p l a c e d by a more c o o p e r a t i v e , more democratic approach " (1974, p. 11). A d u l t e d u c a t i o n has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been more f l e x i b l e and i n v o l v e d i n the d i a g n o s i s o f learner-needs than has p r e -a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . Indeed, the s t r e s s on needs d i a g n o s i s and a concern f o r the democratic arrangement o f e d u c a t i o n a l e n v i r o n -ments i s e v i d e n t i n e a r l y (Bryson, 1936; Lindeman, 1926) and contemporary a d u l t e d u c a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e (Boyle and Jahns, 1970; Kidd, 1973). Although much remains to be done the "democra-. . t i z a t i o n " o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a t the programme p l a n n i n g l e v e l has been accomplished (at l e a s t c o n c e p t u a l l y ) but there i s sc a n t evidence o f i t s a d o p t i o n a t the i n s t r u c t i o n a l l e v e l . Indeed, c a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n suggests t h a t much a d u l t i n s t r u c t s i o n resembles the 'teaching' o f c h i l d r e n . Much s o - c a l l e d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s l i t t l e more than youth e d u c a t i o n f o r a d u l t s because the i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques employed and the te a c h i n g s t y l e s chosen are c h i l d - o r i e n t e d . P r i n c i p l e s o f a d u l t educa-t i o n are wid e l y a p p l i e d d u r i n g the program p l a n n i n g process but not u n i v e r s a l l y adhered to d u r i n g the i n s t r u c t i o n o f a d u l t s . I t was t h i s k i n d o f s i t u a t i o n which, Stock bemoaned when n o t i n g t h a t : "Researchers making a p o s i t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n to the gen e r a l theory of t e a c h i n g have been few and f a r between. T h i s p a r t l y has been due to the i n c o n c l u s i v e nature o f many of the s t u d i e s , and p a r t l y due to the d e n i g r a t i o n o f 'teaching' as compared to the n o t i o n o f ' l e a r n -i n g ' " (1974, p. 115). 15 A d u l t educators have been slow to develop i n s t r u c t -i o n a l theory indigenous to t h e i r f i e l d . Thus s c h o l a r s w r i t i n g on the s u b j e c t o f a d u l t " l e a r n i n g " or " i n s t r u c t i o n " (e.g. Kidd, 1973) o f t e n r e s o r t to a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e o r i e s developed to f a c i l i t a t e understanding' o f c h i l d e d ucation. I f a d u l t educa-t i o n i s to occur w i t h i n the context o f l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n i t w i l l be necessary to c o n s t r u c t conceptual and o p e r a t i o n a l b r i d g e s which l i n k l e a r n i n g and I n s t r u c t i o n a l theory. D i f f i -c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with t r a n s l a t i n g l e a r n i n g theory i n t o I n s t r u c t i o n a l procedures l e d Snelbecker (1974) to c o i n the term p s y c h o - e d u c a t i o n a l design and p a r t i a l l y account f o r the f a c t a d u l t i n s t r u c t i o n o f t e n resembles c h i l d e d ucation. Thus i t i s necessary to examine l i t e r a t u r e concerning assumptions which have p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e to the i n s t r u c t i o n of a d u l t s . INSTRUCTION OF ADULTS Although there are i n s t r u c t i o n a l t h e o r i e s p e c u l i a r l y r e l e v a n t to a d u l t e d u c a t i o n (e.g. Gagne and B r i g g s , 19 74) these are not w i d e l y employed i n the f i e l d . However, as K r e i t l o w (1972) and o t h e r s note t h e r e has been a p e r s i s t e n t s t r e s s on the need to c r e a t e an optimal i n t e r - p e r s o n a l " c l i m a t e " i n a d u l t i n s t r u c t i o n s e t t i n g s . Indeed, d u r i n g the t h i r d epoch o f the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n movement i d e n t i f i e d by Cotton (19 68) 'group dynamics' and 'adult education" were-almost synonymous. The 16 e m p h a s i s on g r o u p d y n a m i c s gave r i s e t o c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o -v e r s y w i t h i n t h e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n movement b u t t o d a y a r a p p r o c h e -ment i s s t i l l e v i d e n t . The n e e d t o t r e a t p a r t i c i p a n t s as a d u l t s i s p r o b a b l y most e x p l i c i t i n t h e work o f Knowles (1970) who has l i s t e d m a j o r ' t e c h n o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s ' f o r a d u l t i n s t r u c -t i o n w h i c h stem f r o m t h e f o u r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e a d u l t l e a r n e r . Knowles .(1970) a d o p t e d t h e E u r o p e a n t e r m a n d r a g o g y t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e " a r t a n d s c i e n c e o f h e l p i n g a d u l t s l e a r n " f r o m pedagogy "which i s t h e s c i e n c e o f t e a c h i n g " . Knowles s u g g e s t s t h a t a n d r a g o g i c a l b e h a v i o u r s a r e . p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o -p r i a t e f o r i n s t r u c t o r s o f a d u l t s . He i d e n t i f i e d a number o f b e h a v i o u r s w h i c h , when e x h i b i t e d b y i n s t r u c t o r s , a r e l i k e l y t o r e f l e c t t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s p a r t i c i p a n t s and i n s t r u c t i o n . The a n d r a g o g i c a l i n s t r u c t o r a c t s p r i m a r i l y a s a f a c i l i t a t o r and r e s o u r c e manager, a s s i s t i n g t h e a d u l t l e a r n e r t h r o u g h t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s (see F i g . 1 ) . T h e r e f o r e , K n owles' a n d r a g o -g i c a l i n s t r u c t o r r e s e m b l e s L i p p i t t and W h i t e ' s (1943) 'demo-c r a t i c ' , o r L i v e r i g h t ' s (1959) ' g r o u p - o r i e n t e d ' l e a d e r , a n d h i s p e d a g o g i c a l i n s t r u c t o r p a r a l l e l s t h e i r ' a u t o c r a t i c ' o r ' c o n t e n t - o r i e n t e d ' l e a d e r s . I n s t r u c t o r s w i t h t h e s e d i f f e r e n t l e a d e r s h i p s t y l e s a r e l i k e l y t o b e h a v e d i f f e r e n t l y i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . The a n d r a g o g i c a l , d e m o c r a t i c o r g r o u p - c e n t r e d i n s t r u c t o r ' s b e h a v i o u r i s l i k e l y t o e m p h a s i z e s t u d e n t p a r t i c i -p a t i o n , s t u d e n t - s t u d e n t i n t e r a c t i o n , i n s t r u c t o r warmth and a c c e p t a n c e , and g r o u p d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f g o a l s - a s t y l e w h i c h has been c l a s s i f i e d by v a r i o u s a u t h o r s a s s t u d e n t - c e n t r e d , 17 F i g . 1 A COMPARISON OF ASSUMPTIONS AND PROCESSES OF PEDAGOGY AND ANDRAGOGY Assumptions Process Elements Pedagogy Andragogy Pedagogy Andragogy S e l f -concept Dependency Increasing s e l f - d i r e c t i v e -ness Climate A u t h o r i t y -o r i e n t e d Formal Competitive Mu t u a l i t y Respectful C o l l a b o r a t i v e Informal Experience Of l i t t l e worth Learners are a r i c h resource f o r l e a r n i n g Planning By teacher Mechanism f o r mutual planning Readiness B i o l o g i c a l development S o c i a l Pressure Developmental tasks of s o c i a l r o l e s Diagnosis of needs By teacher Mutual s e l f -d i agnosis Orientatior to l e a r n -ing Subject centered Problem centered Design Logic of the subject matter Content u n i t s Sequenced i n terms of r e a d i -ness Problem u n i t s A c t i v i t i e s T r a n s m i t t a l techniques E x p e r i e n t i a l techniques (inquiry) Evaluation By teacher Mutual re-diag-nosis of needs Mutual measure-ment o f program Source: Knowles (1973), p. 45. i n d i r e c t , i n t e g r a t i v e , i n c l u s i v e , democratic, p e r m i s s i v e o r p a r t i c i p a t i v e (Solomon, Bezdek and Rosenberg, 1963). The peda g o g i c a l , a u t o c r a t i c , c o n t e n t - o r i e n t e d i n s t r u c t o r ' s be-haviour i s l i k e l y to emphasize i n s t r u c t o r t a l k , i n t e r a c t i o n between i n s t r u c t o r and students, i n s t r u c t o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f goa l s , r e s t r i c t e d t o p i c - r e l e v a n t d i s c u s s i o n s - a s t y l e c l a s s i -f i e d as i n s t r u c t o r - c e n t r e d , d i r e c t , dominative, p r e c l u s i v e o r a u t o c r a t i c . 1 8 Although A d u l t E d u c a t i o n has p u b l i s h e d an i n -c r e a s i n g number of experimental r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s (Dickinson and R u s n e l l , 1 9 7 1 ) t h e r e has been a l a c k of s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a -t i n g the impact of v a r i o u s ' i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e s ' on p a r t i c i -pant behaviour. Researchers concerned w i t h p r e - a d u l t educa-t i o n p o p u l a t i o n s have made more determined e f f o r t s to a s c e r -t a i n the impact of 'style'" but even i n h i g h l y - c o n t r o l l e d c h i l d -o r i e n t e d environments the r e s u l t s are i n c o n c l u s i v e . Thus i n a l i t e r a t u r e review, Solomon, Bezdek and Rosenberg ( 1 9 63) note t h a t the r e s u l t s of experimental comparisions of i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e have been i n c o n s i s t e n t ; some s t u d i e s favour student-c e n t r e d ( F l a n d e r s , 1 9 60) and o t h e r s favour i n s t r u c t o r - c e n t r e d (Gvetzkow, K e l l y and McKeachie, 1 9 5 4 ) s t y l e s as r e f l e c t e d by i n c r e a s e s i n student knowledge. D e s p i t e a g r e a t d e a l o f r e -search no s i n g l e approach has been i d e n t i f i e d as the b e s t means to o p t i m i z e l e a r n i n g . Indeed, i f a study can be found t h a t a cclaims a 'teaching s t y l e or technique', another can u s u a l l y be found t h a t denounces i t (Heath and N i e l s o n , 1 9 7 4 ) . Much c o n f u s i o n can be a t t r i b u t e d to r e s e a r c h methodologies employed as most experimental s t u d i e s demand an a r t i f i c a l l y c r e a t e d environment designed s p e c i f i c a l l y to meet the needs o f the experiment. T h i s environment i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t o r i m p o s s i b l e to reproduce i n the f i e l d . Heath and N i e l s o n ( 1 9 7 4 ) conclude t h a t the c u r r e n t s t a t e o f r e s e a r c h on the r e l a t i o n between behaviour and student achievement can not o f f e r an e m p i r i c a l b a s i s f o r teacher t r a i n i n g because o f s t e r i l e opera-t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s of both t e a c h i n g and achievement and weak 19 r e s e a r c h designs. F u r t h e r , they suggest t h a t t e a c h i n g s t y l e e f f e c t s are l i k e l y to be t r i v i a l i n comparison with w e l l documented, s t r o n g a s s o c i a t i o n s between achievement and s o c i o -economic s t a t u s . Heath and N i e l s o n p e s s i m i s t i c a l l y conclude t h a t f u t u r e r e s e a r c h would c o n s t i t u t e an i n a p p r o p r i a t e a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s as the major determinant o f student performance i s socio-economic s t a t u s and t h a t can not be mani-p u l a t e d very e a s i l y by an educator. In another review o f r e s e a r c h s t r a t e g i e s with p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on the p a r t - t i m e teacher o f a d u l t s , Stock (1974) laments the i n c o n c l u s i v e nature of r e s e a r c h on t e a c h i n g s t y l e s and l e a r n i n g but says more work Is mandatory. In these reviews and elsewhere, r e s e a r c h e r s have expressed d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h c o n f l i c t i n g c o n c l u s i o n s d e r i v e d from i n a p p r o p r i a t e o r incomplete theory. G e t z e l s and Thelen (I9 60) suggested t h a t one important and l i t t l e under-stood area o f i n s t r u c t i o n was the i n t e r a c t i o n between the I n s t r u c t o r and l e a r n e r p e r s o n a l i t i e s and t h a t t h i s ' i d i o g r a p h i c dimension 1 should be c o n s i d e r e d i n any i n s t r u c t i o n a l e n v i r o n -ment. Many s t u d i e s o f t e a c h i n g s t y l e s have r e s u l t e d i n c o n t r a d i c t o r y c o n c l u s i o n s (Lamke, 1951; Schmid, 1950; Singh, 19 65). However i t i s l i k e l y t h a t many s t u d i e s were c o n t r a -d i c t o r y because they p o r t r a y e d ' s t y l e * v a r i a b l e s as having separate e f f e c t s d i v o r c e d from those o f environmental v a r i a b l e s . The explanatory power o f v a r i a b l e s i n v e s t i g a t e d might have been enhanced i f r e s e a r c h e r s had more re g a r d to p e r s o n / e n v i r o n m e n t and p e r s o n / p e r s o n i n t e r a c t i o n s . T h i s need f o r an i n t e r a c t i v e a p p r o a c h i s i m p l i c i t i n v i e w s p r o m u l g a t e d by w r i t e r s s u c h a s Hunt (1971; 1 9 7 5 ) . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t e a c h i n d i v i d u a l has a l e a r n i n g s t y l e d e t e r m i n e d by p a s t e x p e r i e n c e , m o t i v e s f o r l e a r n i n g , p e r s o n a l i t y and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . A n d r a g o g y embodies a s s u m p t i o n s and p r o c e s s e s t h a t a r e s u p p o s e d t o be good f o r a l l a d u l t s . However, t h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t h a t a l l a d u l t s have t h e same l e a r n i n g o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e p r e f e r e n c e s . R a t h e r , t h e n o t i o n o f c o n g r u e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t l e a r n e r s w i l l be most s a t i s f i e d w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n a l a r r a n g e -ments c o m p a t i b l e w i t h l e a r n i n g s t y l e p r e f e r e n c e s . The most s a t i s f i e d l e a r n e r s ( l e a s t l i k e l y t o d r o p - o u t ) s h o u l d be t h o s e who h a ve f o u n d a n i n s t r u c t o r who " f i t s " t h e i r p r e f e r r e d l e a r n -i n g s t y l e . In t h i s s i t u a t i o n what i s d e s i r e d i s a ' g o o d - f i t ' b e tween l e a r n e r s and i n s t r u c t o r s . The p a r t i c i p a n t ' s l e a r n i n g s t y l e and t h e i n s t r u c t o r ' s .'..teaching' s t y l e s h o u l d be c o n -g r u e n t . CONGRUENCE The n o t i o n o f c o n g r u e n c e has b een u s e d t o e x p l a i n and p r e d i c t a t t i t u d e c h ange and i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r e n c e . Terms s u c h as b a l a n c e , e q u i l i b r i u m , c o n s i s t e n c y o r d i s s o n a n c e d e s -c r i b e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f c o n g r u e n t o r i n c o n g r u e n t s y s t e m s . C r o n b a c h (1957) s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e was an i d e a l e n v i r o n m e n t f o r e a c h i n d i v i d u a l , so i t w o u l d be r e a s o n a b l e t o e x p e c t t h a t 21 i f i n d i v i d u a l s were not l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e i r i d e a l environment, they would be uncomfortable and attempt to r e s o l v e o r reduce d i s c o m f o r t . P h y s i c a l , emotional or p s y c h o l o g i c a l environments may be c r u c i a l to an i n d i v i d u a l ' s w e l l b e i n g . F e s t i n g e r (1957) showed t h a t when i n d i v i d u a l s experience an incongruent p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e ( ' c o g n i t i v e dissonance') they a r e uncom-f o r t a b l e and w i l l attempt to a v o i d or r e s o l v e the s i t u a t i o n as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . Osgood and Tannenbaum (1967, p. 302) c o n s i d e r i n g a t t i t u d e change, noted t h a t "changes i n e v a l u a -t i o n ( a t t i t u d e ) are always i n the d i r e c t i o n of i n c r e a s e d con-g r u i t y w i t h the e x i s t i n g frame o f r e f e r e n c e " . F u r t h e r , they r e c o g n i z e d t h a t d u r i n g any communication process between i n -d i v i d u a l s , t h e r e i s a "complex s e r i e s o f i n t e r a c t i o n s among the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the source and the r e c e i v e r as w e l l as between the r e c e i v e r and the message". When c o n s i d e r i n g f a c t o r s t h a t e f f e c t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c r e d i b i l i t y and p e r s u a s i v e n e s s , Simons, Berkowitz and Moyer. suggest t h a t : "from s t u d i e s of o p i n i o n l e a d e r s i t would appear t h a t the ' i d e a l ' communicator i s b a s i c a l l y s i m i -l a r to h i s audience, the d i f f e r e n c e s tending i n the d i r e c t i o n o f g r e a t e r c r e d i b i l i t y " (1970, p. I D . Relevant s i m i l a r i t i e s are more e f f e c t i v e i n f a c i l i t a t i n g a t t i t u d e change than ' i r r e l e v a n t s i m i l a r i t i e s ' . D i s s i m i l a r -i t y between source and r e c e i v e r can enhance change i f the d i s s i m i l a r i t y emphasizes the c r e d i b i l i t y of the course, such as h i g h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s . S i m i l a r c o n c l u s i o n s were reached by T r a v e r s (1970) when c o n s i d e r i n g human i n f o r m a t i o n 22 p r o c e s s i n g . He c o n s i d e r e d t h e c a p a c i t y o f an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t u a l s y s t e m t o p r o c e s s i n f o r m a t i o n . He s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s c a p a c i t y was d e t e r m i n e d by t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l and p h y s i o -l o g i c a l l i m i t s w i t h i n e a c h i n d i v i d u a l and t h e e n v i r o n m e n t and n o t e d t h a t where t h e r e i s a h i g h d e g r e e o f c o n g r u e n c e between i n d i v i d u a l s , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s w i l l be e n h a n c e d . CONGRUENCE AND EDUCATION I t has b e e n shown t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s I n a b r o a d a r r a y o f s e t t i n g s s t r i v e t o m a i n t a i n i n t e r n a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a b i l i t y . The human p e n c h a n t f o r s e l f - c o n s i s t e n c y , c o n g r u e n c e , c o n s o n a n c e , s t a b i l i t y , b a l a n c e , e q u i l i b r i u m o r h o m e o s t a t s i s has b e en t h o r -o u g h l y i n v e s t i g a t e d . R o g e r s (1959) n o t e d t h e p r e s e n c e o f i n t r a - s e l f c o n g r u e n c e (harmony w i t h i n o n e s e l f ) and s e l f / o t h e r c o n g r u e n c e (harmony between o n e s e l f and o t h e r s ) . A d u l t e d u c a t i o n o c c u r r i n g i n t h e f o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g i n v o l v e s i n t e r a c t i o n s between an i n s t r u c t o r and a l e a r n e r . Knowles (1970) has h i g h l i g h t e d t h e n eed t o c r e a t e an a d u l t ' c l i m a t e ' and Gagne (1965) has e m p h a s i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f o p t i m a l ' c o n d i t i o n s ' f o r a d u l t l e a r n i n g . Thus V e r n e r an d D a v i s o n (1971), when d i s c u s s i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s c i t e a s p e c t s o f t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t and ' e m o t i o n a l a t m o s p h e r e ' as d e t e r m i n a n t s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l o u t c o m e s . However, u n t i l t h e l a t e 19 60's most d i s c u s s i o n f o c u s s e d on t h e e f f e c t s o f s i n g l e v a r i a b l e s . R e c e n t l y t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p e r s o n / e n v i r o n -ment and person/person i n t e r a c t i o n s i n a d u l t i n s t r u c t i o n has been r e c o g n i z e d . Much of t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n flowed from 1 i n t e r -a c t i o n i s t 1 ' views which changed the shape o f psychology through-out the 1960's and 1970's (Cronbach, 1957; Heider, 1961; Hunt, 1971; 1975; McKeachie, 1974; Proshansky, et al, 1967; Rogers-Warren and Warren, 1977; S t e r n , 1970). T y p i c a l o f a p r e - a d u l t education study stemming from person/person i n t e r a c t i o n s was t h a t o f Solomon, Bezdek and Rosenberg (19 63) who i n v e s t i g a t e d ways i n which teacher behaviour i n t e r a c t w i t h student charac-t e r i s t i c s to i n f l u e n c e l e a r n e r outcomes. C l a s s s i z e , age, sex and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s were shown to i n t e r a c t to v a r y i n g de-grees w i t h v a r i o u s i n s t r u c t o r - s t y l e f a c t o r s . They recommended t h a t f u r t h e r s t u d i e s be conducted w i t h p e r s o n a l i t y measures to extend the range o f v a r i a b l e s l i k e l y to i n t e r a c t w i t h teacher behaviour. They a p p a r e n t l y f a i l e d to r e c o g n i z e t h a t the d i f -f e r e n c e s between i n s t r u c t o r and l e a r n e r may have been c o n t r i -b u t i n g to t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n r a t h e r than i n s t r u c t o r o r l e a r n e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s alone. However, ten years l a t e r , when Rand-hawa and Fu (1973) a l s o c o n s i d e r e d the e f f e c t s o f classroom environment on l e a r n i n g , they r e c o g n i z e d the importance o f l e a r n e r / i n s t r u c t o r i n t e r a c t i o n . They suggested t h a t the d e v e l -opmental h i s t o r y of c l a s s members, t h e i r sex, p e r s o n a l i t y , socio-economic s t a t u s , p r e v i o u s knowledge l e v e l and o t h e r v a r i a b l e s would i n t e r a c t with the classroom environment and a f f e c t l e a r n i n g outcomes. In c o n c l u s i o n , they recommended t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g process should c o n s i d e r i n t e r a c t i o n s between p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and 24 environmental v a r i a b l e s . Secord and Backman (19 65) noted t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s attempt to m a i n t a i n congruence between themselves, t h e i r p e r c e i v e d s e l v e s , and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s . Incongruent i n d i v i d u a l s are u n l i k e l y to be se-l e c t e d as f r i e n d s , and l e s s l i k e l y than congruent i n d i v i d u a l s to be a b l e to b r i n g about a change i n the a t t i t u d e or behav-i o u r of an i n d i v i d u a l e s p e c i a l l y i f the change i s a l s o p er-c e i v e d as being incongruent. T h e r e f o r e incongruence between i n s t r u c t o r and. l e a r n e r should a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t l e a r n i n g out-comes . Stud i e s t h a t simply seek to i d e n t i f y l e a r n e r and i n s t r u c t o r behaviours or socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , which c o r r e l a t e w i t h v a r i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n a l outcomes are l i k e l y to r e s u l t i n t r i v i a l o r c o n f l i c t i n g c o n c l u s i o n s , unless the e x t e n t to which there i s congruence between the i n s t r u c t o r and the l e a r n e r i s c o n s i d e r e d . The congruence n o t i o n was a p p l i e d to a d u l t e d u c a t i o n by B o s h i e r (1973; 1977) who t r i e d to e x p l a i n p a r t i c i p a t i o n and dropout behaviour. B o s h i e r suggested t h a t i n t r a - s e l f and s e l f / o t h e r congruence s t a t e s i n t e r a c t w i t h motives f o r p a r t i -c i p a t i o n and "mediating" v a r i a b l e s to determine dropout from a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s o c c u r r i n g i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . His model ( F i g . 2) suggested t h a t d e f i c i e n c y - m o t i v a t e d £in Maslow's (19 54) sense] p a r t i c i p a n t s were more l i k e l y to mani-f e s t i n t r a - s e l f incongruence and h i g h e r l e v e l s o f incongruence between themselves and o t h e r c r u c i a l people (such as the o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s and the i n s t r u c t o r ) than were growth motivated p a r t i c i p a n t s . B o s h i e r p o r t r a y e d c o n g r u e n c e as a p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t a t e o f i m b a l a n c e which makes t h e p a r t i c i p a n t v u l n e r a b l e t o t h e e f f e c t s o f " m e d i a t i n g " v a r i a b l e s s u c h as a d v e r s e w e a t h e r and t r a n s p o r t d i f f i c u l t i e s . I t i s t h e s e m e d i a t i n g v a r i a b l e s w h i c h t r i g g e r t h e i n c o n g r u e n c e s t a t e s w h i c h i m p e l p e o p l e t o d r o p o u t . B o s h i e r (1978) h a s a r g u e d t h a t n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e s u l t s f r o m a p e r c e i v e d i n c o n g r u e n c e between p o t e n t i a l p a r t i -c i p a n t s and a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n s . He e x p l a i n s t h e n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n b e h a v i o u r o f p e o p l e f r o m t h e l o w e r s o c i o -e c o n o m i c g r o u p s by o b s e r v i n g t h a t most a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n s t i -t u t i o n s a r e c o n s c i o u s l y m i d d l e - c l a s s and employ p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t s w i d e l y d i s c r e p a n t w i t h t h e p r e f e r -e n c e s and e x p e r i e n c e s o f ' l o w e r - c l a s s ' p a r t i c i p a n t s . F i g . 2 MODEL TO EXPLAIN DROPOUT FROM ADULT EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS | - ^ " D e f i c i e n c y " m o t i v a t i o n -_ — "Growth" raotivation-- ^ I n t r a - s e l f Incongruence +-I n t r a - a e l f congruence p t S e l f / s t u d e n t Incongruence S e l f / l e c t u r e r Incongruence S e l f / ? incongruence S e l f / s t u d e n t congruence S e l f / l e c t u r e r congruence U S e l f / ? congruence -PERSISTENCE Model d e t a i l i n g hypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p s between motive f o r attendance, congruence, mediating v a r i a b l e s and dropout from a d u l t education. 26 Socio-economic and p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s among p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r a re sources o f Bo s h i e r ' s s e l f - s t u d e n t and s e l f - l e c t u r e incongruence. As noted e a r l i e r , incongruent i n d i v i d u a l s are u n l i k e l y to be s e l e c t e d as f r i e n d s , and are not as e f f e c t i v e as congruent i n d i v i d u a l s i n e f f e c t i n g a t t l t u d i n a l o r b e h a v i o u r a l changes (Secord and Backman, 1965). Alam and Wright (1968) i n a study of n i g h t school dropouts noted t h a t the ext e n t to which p a r t i c i p a n t s ' f e l t a t home i n the c l a s s ' o r 'got to know' o t h e r students d i s c r i m i n a t e d b e t -ween dropouts and p e r s i s t e r s , w i t h s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer dropouts r e p o r t i n g they 'got on w e l l with the i n s t r u c t o r ' o r w i t h o t h e r s t u d e n t s . S i m i l a r l y B o s h i e r (1973), when c o n s i d e r i n g both i n t r a - and i n t e r - p e r s o n a l congruence, noted t h a t dropping-out was s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d with s t u d e n t / e d u c a t i o n a l environment incongruence. The p h y s i c a l s e t t i n g i n which e d u c a t i o n o c c u r s i s u s u a l l y f i x e d . Apart from v o i c i n g o b j e c t i o n s there i s l i t t l e the i n s t r u c t o r can do to b r i n g about change. S i m i l a r l y once the i n s t r u c t o r has been h i r e d and students r e g i s t e r e d , there i s l i t t l e t h a t can be done to i n f l u e n c e the ext e n t to which congruence o c c u r s between i n s t r u c t o r and l e a r n e r w i t h r e s p e c t t o . t h e i r socio-economic o r p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . However, i n s t r u c t o r s may e x e r c i s e some c o n t r o l over v a r i a b l e s i n f l u e n c i n g the i n s t r u e t o r / l e a r n e r i n t e r a c t i o n . H a l l (197 0) conducted a study on a c o l l e g e p o p u l a t i o n to ex-p l o r e the e f f e c t s o f tea c h e r / s t u d e n t congruence on student l e a r n i n g and noted t h a t the o v e r a l l d i s c r e p a n c y scores were i n v e r s e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h l e a r n i n g which suggested t h a t congru-ence between the l e a r n e r ' s l e a r n i n g s t y l e and the i n s t r u c t o r ' s t e a c h i n g s t y l e should enhance l e a r n i n g . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t congruence between the i n s t r u c t o r ' s t e a c h i n g s t y l e and the l e a r n e r ' s l e a r n i n g s t y l e would r e s u l t i n f a v o u r a b l e l e a r n i n g outcomes as r e f l e c t e d i n l e a r n e r attendance, expressed s a t i s -f a c t i o n w i t h the course and i n l e a r n i n g achievement. Where the i n s t r u c t o r adopts an i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e congruent w i t h the l e a r n e r ' s p r e f e r r e d l e a r n i n g s t y l e , the l e a r n e r i s l i k e l y to f e e l s a t i s f i e d and secure w i t h i n the l e a r n i n g environment and t h e r e f o r e a t t e n d r e g u l a r l y . However i f the i n s t r u c t i o n a l and l e a r n i n g s t y l e s are incongruent, the l e a r n e r would f e e l l e s s s a t i s f i e d and secure and would be more l i k e l y to dropout. S i m i l a r l y where l e a r n i n g s t y l e s are congruent w i t h the i n -s t r u c t o r ' s t e a c h i n g s t y l e l e a r n e r s w i l l adopt r o l e s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h i n s t r u c t o r e x p e c t a t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e the i n s t r u c t o r i s l i k e l y to e v a l u a t e t h e i r l e a r n i n g achievement more p o s i t i v e l y than would be the case should t h e i r l e a r n i n g s t y l e be i n c o n -s i s t e n t w i t h the i n s t r u c t o r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s of a l e a r n e r . Casual o b s e r v a t i o n o f a d u l t i n s t r u c t i o n and the f o r e g o i n g r e -view o f l i t e r a t u r e suggest i t i s p o s s i b l e to c l a s s i f y c r u c i a l v a r i a b l e s ( i n f l u e n c i n g l e a r n e r outcomes) w i t h i n the four quad-r a n t s d i s p l a y e d i n F i g . 3. S t a t i c v a r i a b l e s are those which are ' f i x e d ' and there i s l i t t l e t h a t can be done by the a d u l t educator to change an i n d i v i d u a l ' s 'score'. On the o t h e r hand dynamic v a r i a b l e s are those v a r i a b l e s which may change i f the 28 F i g . 3 VARIABLE CLASSIFICATION S t a t i c Dynamic Variables Variables Single 1. e.g. Age 2. e.g. Learners Preferred variables Sex Learning Style Years previous Instructors Education Teaching Style Occupation Income Double 3. e.g. Discrepancy 4. e.g. Discrepancy betweer variables between Learner/Instructor (congruence) Learner/Instructor " s t y l e " preference -"goodness - Age of f i t " - Years previous Education - Occupation - Income • r i n d i v i d u a l i s exposed.to a p p r o p r i a t e environments. Dynamic v a r i a b l e s are l i k e l y to be 'learned responses' and r e f l e c t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e s o r values.. Each i n d i v i d u a l ' s responses may be c o n s i d e r e d alone i n any a n a l y s i s (as ' s i n g l e ' v a r i a b l e s ) o r may be compared w i t h other i n d i v i d u a l s ' responses and the d i f f e r e n c e (double or congruence v a r i a b l e s ) i n . response be c o n s i d e r e d as a v a r i a b l e i n subsequent a n a l y s e s . Quadrant 1 c o n t a i n s s i n g l e r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e v a r i -a b l e s known to i n f l u e n c e l e a r n e r outcomes. The e f f e c t s o f these v a r i a b l e s are h a b i t u a l l y i n v e s t i g a t e d i n c l i e n t e l e s u r -veys (e. g. Johnstone and R i v e r a , 1965) and are known to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h I n s t r u c t i o n a l outcomes. Quadrant 2 c o n t a i n s "dynamic" s i n g l e v a r i a b l e s . T h e s e v a r i a b l e s may be c h a n g e d t h o u g h e x p e r i e n c e , t r a i n i n g o r p e e r g r o u p p r e s s u r e . I r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e g o o d n e s s - o f - f i t b e t -ween l e a r n e r and i n s t r u c t o r , l e a r n e r ' s p r e f e r e n c e s and i n s t r u c -t o r ' s p r e f e r e n c e s a r e l i k e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n a l o u t - c o m e s . Whether o r n o t t h e s e s i n g l e v a r i a b l e s have g r e a t e r o r l e s s p r e d i c t i v e u t i l i t y t h a n " c o n g r u e n c e " v a r i a b l e s r e m a i n s t o be s e e n . Q u a d r a n t 3 c o n t a i n s s t a t i c d o u b l e - v a r i a b l e s ( c o n g r u -e n ce) . T h e s e a r e : d e r i v e d b y d e t e r m i n i n g t h e e x t e n t o f d i f f e r -e n c e between t h e i n s t r u c t o r and l e a r n e r f o r e a c h s t a t i c and s i n g l e v a r i a b l e . Q u a d r a n t 4 c o n t a i n s dynamic d o u b l e - v a r i a b l e s ( c o n g r u -ence) . T h e s e a l s o r e s u l t f r o m m e a s u r i n g t h e d i f f e r e n c e between i n s t r u c t o r and l e a r n e r w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r s c o r e s o n t h e d y n a m i c , s i n g l e v a r i a b l e . A l t h o u g h c o n g r u e n c e has p o t e n t i a l l y p o w e r f u l e f f e c t s on t h e i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s t h e r e i s s c a n t l i t e r a t u r e w h i c h r e v e a l s t h e r e l a t i v e power o f t h e s t a t i c o r dynamic v a r i a b l e s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e . I f s t a t i c v a r i a b l e s ( e . g . age, s e x , y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g , o c c u p a t i o n , income) a c c o u n t f o r most o f t h e v a r i a n c e i n l e a r n i n g outcomes (which i n t h i s s t u d y were l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n , p e r s i s t e n c e and l e a r n e r a c h i e v e m e n t ) t h e n a d u l t e d u c a t o r s m i g h t n e e d t o u s e t h e s e v a r i a b l e s t o 'match' l e a r n e r s w i t h i n s t r u c t o r s . However, i f ' s t a t i c ' c o n -g r u e n c e s a c c o u n t f o r l e s s v a r i a n c e t h a n t h e 'dynamic' c o n -g r u e n c e s t a t e s i t may be n e c e s s a r y t o 'match' l e a r n e r s and i n s t r u c t o r s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r p r e f e r r e d s t y l e s . I f b o t h 30 t y p e s o f c o n g r u e n c e s t a t e s a c c o u n t f o r s i m i l a r amounts o f v a r i a n c e t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s become d i f f i c u l t . PRESENT STUDY The p r e s e n t s t u d y was p r i m a r i l y s t r u c t u r e d t o e x a -mine t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween l e a r n e r / i n s t r u c t o r c o n g r u e n c e (as m a n i f e s t e d by a d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e i n d e x i n g a d i f f e r e n c e i n ' p r e f e r r e d ' s t y l e ) and t h r e e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s : l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n , l e a r n e r p e r s i s t e n c e and l e a r n e r a c h i e v e m e n t . F o r m a l h y p o t h e s e s d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e s t u d y c o n c e r n r e l a t i o n -s h i p s b etween l e a r n e r / i n s t r u c t o r c o n g r u e n c e and t h e s e t h r e e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . The n o t i o n o f ' m a t c h i n g ' l e a r n e r s and i n s t r u c t o r s (on t h e b a s i s o f s t a t i c o r dynamic v a r i a b l e s ) r e q u i r e s t h a t v a r i a b l e s d e t e r m i n i n g l e a r n i n g s t y l e p r e f e r e n c e a l s o be r e -v e a l e d . L i t e r a t u r e s u c h as t h a t p r o v i d e d by Knowles (19 70) s u g g e s t s t h a t a l l l e a r n e r s p r e f e r a n d r a g o g i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t s ; t h i s b e l i e f may or: may n o t be c o r r e c t , b u t i n . t h i s s t u d y w i l l be i n v e s t i g a t e d t h r o u g h g e n e r a t i n g a r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n . I n t h i s e q u a t i o n p r e f e r r e d l e a r n i n g s t y l e w i l l be t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e ; a l l o t h e r a v a i l a b l e v a r i a b l e s ( i n c l u d i n g l e a r n e r / i n s t r u c t o r d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s ) w i l l be i n d e p e n d e n t . An e f f o r t w i l l a l s o be made t o f u r t h e r c l a r i f y t h e a n t e c e d e n t s o f l e a r n e r / i n s t r u c t o r c o n g r u e n c e s t a t e s . T h i s w i l l a l s o be a c -c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . The t h r e e h y p o t h e s e s 31 concern purported r e l a t i o n s h i p s between l e a r n e r / i n s t r u c t o r d i s c r e p a n c i e s and three dependent v a r i a b l e s . I f b i - v a r i a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between d i s c r e p a n c y scores and l e a r n e r s a t i s -f a c t i o n , p e r s i s t e n c e or achievement are i n s i g n i f i c a n t or account f o r s m a l l amounts o f v a r i a n c e f u r t h e r r e g r e s s i o n a nalyses w i l l be conducted. These w i l l c l a r i f y the nature o f v a r i a b l e s i n t e r a c t i o n s and the p l a c e of l e a r n e r / i n s t r u e t o r d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n those . i n t e r a c t i o n s which e x p l a i n the depend-ent v a r i a b l e s - l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n , p e r s i s t e n c e and a c h i e v e -ment. The a n a l y s i s w i l l be s t r u c t u r e d so as to compare the . r e l a t i v e impact of s t a t i c and dynamic congruence s t a t e s on l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n , p e r s i s t e n c e and achievement. 32 HYPOTHESES As noted, congruence between l e a r n e r s 1 l e a r n i n g s t y l e and t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r ' s i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e should be p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h l e a r n i n g , achievement, l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n and l e a r n e r p e r s i s t e n c e . T h e r e f o r e the depend-ent v a r i a b l e s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s study was a measure of congru-ence between the i n s t r u c t o r ' s and l e a r n e r ' s a t t i t u d e towards l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n . Congruence was c a l c u l a t e d as the di s c r e p a n c y between i n s t r u c t o r and l e a r n e r scores on the same s c a l e . A h i g h d i s c r e p a n c y score would i n d i c a t e h i g h i n -congruence, w h i l e a zero d i s c r e p a n c y score would i n d i c a t e congruence. For hypotheses t e s t i n g purposes independent v a r i -a b l e s were p a r t i c i p a n t scores on a l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n i n -dex, l e a r n e r p e r s i s t e n c e (as i n d i c a t e d by t h e i r attendance record) and the grade awarded the l e a r n e r (as an i n d i c a t i o n of the i n s t r u c t o r ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f each p a r t i c i p a n t ' s l e a r n i n g achievement). The hypotheses developed f o r t h i s study were as f o l l o w s : 1. Discrepancy scores between i n s t r u c t o r and l e a r n e r ' s a t t i t u d e towards l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c -t i o n w i l l be n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n . 2. Discrepancy scores between i n s t r u c t o r and l e a r n e r ' s a t t i t u d e towards l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l be n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h l e a r n e r p e r s i s t e n c e . Discrepancy scores between i n s t r u c t o r and l e a r n e r ' s a t t i t u d e towards l e a r n i n g and i n -s t r u c t i o n w i l l be n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the i n s t r u c t o r ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f l e a r n e r ' s l e a r n i n g achievement. 34 CHAPTER THREE INSTRUMENTATION O p e r a t i o n a l measures of " l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n " and " l e a r n i n g and I n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e " were r e q u i r e d to t e s t the hypotheses developed f o r t h i s study. Instruments designed f o r t h i s study were composed o f three d i s c r e t e components. One instrument p r o v i d e d f o r the c o l l e c t i o n o f b a s i c socio-economic data, another c o n s i s t e d o f an index to measure l e a r n e r s a t i s -f a c t i o n with the c l a s s , and the remaining s e c t i o n was an index to measure the respondent's p r e f e r r e d l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n -a l s t y l e . SOCIO-ECONOMIC DATA The instrument designed to c o l l e c t i n s t r u c t o r (Appendix D) and student (Appendix E) socio-economic data was developed w i t h r e f e r e n c e to o t h e r s t u d i e s , i n c l u d i n g Census o f Canada i n f o r m a t i o n . Sample Questions and coding c a t e g o r i e s were presented to a panel o f s i x expert judges a t the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Research Centre a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Column b i a . The judges were e i t h e r f a c u l t y members o r graduate students i n the department. The judges examined the instrument for c l a r i t y of expression and ease of completion. The questions were revised and again c i r c u l a t e d among the judges u n t i l i t was agreed that information to be co l l e c t e d and the s t y l e of question would provide data that could be used to test the study's hypotheses. The t o t a l instrument was completed twice with an i n t e r v a l of one week between applications by an under-graduate class so an indicati o n of the instrument's r e l i a b i l i t y could be obtained. The r e l i a b i l i t y of the instrument was mea-sured by comparing the res u l t s of each application of the instrument, to i d e n t i f y whether or not the res u l t s d i f f e r e d . A student's t - t e s t was performed on each pair of items using the correlated pairs formulas of student's t. If the scores on an item d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y , the item was considered unreliable and deleted from the instrument. The class was most concerned that the information be c o n f i d e n t i a l . To ensure t h i s , the students themselves created th e i r own i d e n t i f i c a t i o n numbers which they used on both instruments. Twenty-two students completed the instrument twice. However, only six completed the socio-economic data twice, but these did provide i d e n t i c a l information on both occasions. LEARNER SATISFACTION INDEX It was hypothesized that congruence between learners and instructors would be p o s i t i v e l y correlated with learner s a t i s f a c t i o n . Evaluative instruments are common i n the l i t e r a t u r e b u t m o s t a r e c o n s t r u c t e d f o r a p a r t i c u l a r p r o g r a m o r c o n t e n t a r e a . S o m e d e v e l o p e d f o r i n s t r u c t o r e v a l u a t i o n a p p e a r t o b e v a l i d a n d r e l i a b l e . T h e y a r e g e n e r a l l y d e v e l o p e d t o e v a l u a t e f u l l - t i m e s c h o o l o r c o l l e g e p r o g r a m s a n d u n l i k e l y t o b e o f m u c h u s e f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f c l a s s e s f o r p a r t - t i m e a d u l t l e a r n e r s . M o s t p r o g r a m s e v a l u a t e d u s e s o m e f o r m o f " h a p p i n e s s i n d e x " c o n s t r u c t e d b y t h e e v a l u a t o r o n a n ad hoe b a s i s a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y h a v e l i t t l e r e l i a b i l i t y o r v a l i d i t y . F o r t h i s s t u d y a L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e w a s c o n s t r u c t e d u s i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e s . 1. A g r o u p o f g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s a n d f a c u l t y m e m b e r s i n t h e A d u l t E d u c a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a s u g g e s t e d a p o o l o f i t e m s t h a t i n d i c a t e d w h e t h e r t h e r e s p o n d e n t ' l i k e d ' o r w a s ' s a t i s f i e d ' w i t h t h e p r e p a r a t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n a n d w i t h t h e i n s t r u c t o r . 2. T h i r t y - s e v e n s t a t e m e n t s w e r e d e v e l o p e d f o l l o w i n g a n e d i t i n g o f t h e s e i t e m s . 3. A p a n e l o f g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s a n d f a c u l t y m e m b e r s j u d g e d t h e s t a t e m e n t s f o r c l a r i t y a n d l a c k o f a m b i g u i t y t o e n s u r e t h a t e a c h s t a t e m e n t c l e a r l y r e p r e s e n t e d a s i n g l e c o n c e p t . 4. A f i r s t d r a f t o f t h e . i n d e x w a s d e v e l o p e d . T h e s c a l i n g f o r m a t r e q u i r e d p a r t i c i p a n t s t o r e s p o n d t o e a c h s t a t e m e n t a n d i n d i c a t e b y c i r c l i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n u m b e r o f a 9 p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e 37 the e x t e n t to,which, they agreed or d i s a g r e e d with the statement Strongly Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree e.g. C l a s s Time i s . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 o f t e n wasted. A 9 p o i n t s c a l e was s e l e c t e d f o r the instrument as i t was c o n s i d e r e d t h a t n e i t h e r a f i v e nor -seven p o i n t s c a l e would a l l o w s u f f i c i e n t v a r i -ance among responses. As i t was p o s s i b l e t h a t respondents c o u l d be ambivalent towards some statements, an odd number s c a l e was s e l e c t e d to all o w a n e u t r a l response. The index was t e s t e d on a sample p o p u l a t i o n o f summer sc h o o l students i n the Department o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a d u l t educa-t i o n c l a s s e s a t Vancouver T e c h n i c a l School, a n i g h t s c h o o l c e n t r e operated j o i n t l y by Vancouver School Board and Vancouver Community C o l l e g e . These respondents were asked not to i d e n t i f y themselves. The instruments were ad m i n i s t e r e d by someone o t h e r than the r e g u l a r c l a s s i n s t r u c t -o r s i n an attempt to m a i n t a i n c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . The t o t a l sample c o n s i s t e d o f 139 p a r t i c i p a n t s o f whom 132 p r o v i d e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y completed instruments and 7 e i t h e r f a i l e d to understand the i n s t r u c t i o n s o r missed the second page. These were excluded from the a n a l y s e s . 38 5. The data were f a c t o r analysed. So t h a t an estimate of t o t a l s c a l e s c o r e can be computed by simply summing ;a respondent's item-scores, a l l items should l o a d i n the same d i r e c t i o n on the f i r s t u n r o t a t e d f a c t o r . T herefore, those items which f a i l e d to l o a d s i g n i f i c a n t l y on the f i r s t u n r o t a t e d f a c t o r were d i s c a r d e d . In t o t a l , s i x t e e n items were d i s c a r d e d . The remaining 21 were s c r u t i n i z e d to ensure they r e p r e s e n t e d s i n g l e concept statements. To ensure a balance between p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e statements, the f i n a l v e r s i o n o f the instrument i n c l u d e d ten n e g a t i v e l y worded statements (agreement with which i n d i c a t e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the l e a r n -i n g event) w h i l e agreement wi t h the remaining e l e v e n i n d i c a t e d a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards the event. The order i n which statements appeared was randomized w i t h the a i d o f a t a b l e of random numbers. Learner S a t i s f a c t i o n Index R e l i a b i l i t y As d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r , the f u l l r e s e a r c h instrument was completed on two o c c a s i o n s by 22 p a r t i c i p a n t s i n an under-graduate c l a s s . The d i f f e r e n c e s between responses on the two a p p l i c a t i o n s of the t e s t were c a l c u l a t e d and t v a l u e s computed u s i n g the p a i r e d comparison formula f o r student's t which takes 39 i n t o a c c o u n t t h e c o r r e l a t i o n b etween t h e p a i r s o f s c o r e s . I f t h e t e s t i t e m s were r e l i a b l e , i t was assumed t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two i n s t r u m e n t a p p l i -c a t i o n s o f a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e s p o n s e s t o e a c h s t a t e m e n t . T h e r e -f o r e t h e t t e s t s h o u l d n o t i n d i c a t e a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . A .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was s e l e c t e d , so t h e t - v a l u e had t o be g r e a t e r t h a n 2.08 t o i n d i c a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on a ' t w o - t a i l e d ' t e s t . I t was c o n s i d e r e d t h a t one week between a p p l i c a t i o n s s h o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t t i m e f o r t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t o f o r g e t t h e i r p r e v i o u s r e s p o n s e s b u t i n s u f f i c i e n t t i m e f o r t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o have c h a n g e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y . N e v e r -t h e l e s s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some h i s t o r i c a l e r r o r was i n t r o -d u c e d , w h i c h w o u l d a c c o u n t f o r a n i n d e t e r m i n a b l e amount o f v a r i a n c e . As c a n be s e e n f r o m T a b l e 1, t h e r e were no s i g n i -f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between s c o r e s o n e a c h a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t f o r a l l s t a t e m e n t s e x c e p t #9 'The c o u r s e i s t o o s u p e r f i c i a l * a nd #12 ' I t h i n k t h e i n s t r u c t o r h a s a comprehen-s i v e k n owledge o f t h e s u b j e c t ' . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n s c o r e s between a p p l i c a t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h o s e two c a s e s and so t h e i t e m s were c o n s i d e r e d u n r e l i a b l e a n d d i s c a r d e d . The f i n a l v e r s i o n o f t h e i n d e x t o measure l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n : c o n s i s t e d o f n i n e t e e n s t a t e m e n t s c a s t on a 9 p o i n t L i k e r t S c a l e ( see A p p e n d i x E ) . L e a r n e r S a t i s f a c t i o n Index V a l i d i t y I t was d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e T A B L E 1 UNROTATED F A C T O R L O A D I N G S AND T E S T R E - T E S T R E L I A B I L I T Y OF L E A R N E R S A T I S F A C T I O N INDEX Unrotated Statement Factor t t Loadina Value prob 1. df--The i n s t r u c t o r i s seldom well pre-pared f o r c l a s s =131 . 66 1.51 df=22 .14 2. The i n s t r u c t o r i s en t h u s i a s t i c .66 0.33 .75 3. I am rather disappointed with t h i s course .56 0.72 .47 4. This i s one of the poorest courses I have taken .72 -1.27 .22 5. I am not lea r n i n g anything new .44 -1.31 .21 6. This course i s helping me per-s o n a l l y .55 -1.11 .28 7. The i n s t r u c t o r created a bad l e a r n i n g environment .77 0.00 1.00 8. The i n s t r u c t o r cares about my progress i n the courses .78 0.00 .95 9. The course i s too s u p e r f i c i a l .45 -2.49 . 02 10. Class time i s often wasted .52 0.87 .40 11. I think the i n s t r u c t o r enjoys teaching .72 1.36 .30 12. I think the i n s t r u c t o r has a compre-hensive knowledge of the subject .63 2.63 . 02 13. The i n s t r u c t o r established good rapport with everybody i n the c l a s s .63 1.65 .11 14. I think the i n s t r u c t o r has t r i e d to teach me what I wanted to l e a r n .52 -0.37 .72 15. The i n s t r u c t o r i s h e l p f u l .78 -0. 65 . 52 16. I have no respect f o r the i n s t r u c t o r 78 -0.00 1. 00 17. The i n s t r u c t o r never has time to help i n d i v i d u a l s 47 0.79 0.44 .18. I think we a l l had a chance to c o n t r i - . bute to the s e l e c t i o n of ob j e c t i v e s f o r t h i s course 47 -0.21 0. 84 19. The i n s t r u c t o r encourages people to express t h e i r ideas 59 0.53 0. 63 20. I r e g r e t taking t h i s course 70 1.10 0.28 21. O v e r a l l I would rate t h i s course as very good 70 -1.16 0.26 2.08, p<-05 L e a r n e r S a t i s f a c t i o n Index. As no v a l i d and r e l i a b l e compar-a b l e i n d i c e s f o r u s e w i t h a d u l t p a r t i c i p a n t s were a v a i l a b l e , i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n an e s t i m a t e o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t ' s c o n c u r r e n t v a l i d i t y ( D i c k and H a g e r t y , 1 9 7 1 ) p r i o r t o t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e s t u d y . T h e r e f o r e , i t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e L e a r n e r S a t i s f a c t i o n I n d e x w o u l d have t o be s o u g h t d u r i n g t h e c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a . An a t t e m p t was made t o i d e n t i f y o b s e r -v a b l e b e h a v i o u r w h i c h w o u l d i n d i c a t e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e p a r t i c i p a n t was s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e l e a r n i n g e v e n t . A t t e n d a n c e i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s i s o p t i o n a l , and many c l a s s e s i n t h e s t u d y were n o n - c r e d i t , t h u s i t seemed r e a s o n a b l e t o e x p e c t a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between a l e a r n e r ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h a c l a s s and a t t e n d a n c e . The o b s e r v e d c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e L e a r n e r S a t i s f a c t i o n I n d e x s c o r e s and a t t e n d a n c e d u r i n g t h e s t u d y was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ( r = . 1 1 , df- 5 1 9 , p < . 0 0 6 ) . F u r t h e r , t r a i n e r s o f a d u l t e d u c a t o r s m i g h t hope t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e amount o f t r a i n i n g i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n r e c e i v e d by an i n s t r u c t o r and t h e r e s u l t a n t l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h an e v e n t t a u g h t by t h e i n s t r u c t o r . The c o r r e l a t i o n o b s e r v e d i n t h i s s t u d y b e t -ween w h e t h e r o r n o t an i n s t r u c t o r had r e c e i v e d any i n s t r u c t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s L e a r n e r S a t i s f a c t i o n I n d e x was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (r= . 1 6 , df= 5 9 2 , p < . 0 0 1 ) . I t was a l s o c o n t e n d e d t h a t t h e m e t h o d o l o g y o f t h e t e s t d e v e l o p -ment i t s e l f w o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e f a c e v a l i d i t y o f t h e r e s u l t a n t i n d e x . The p a n e l o f e x p e r t s j u d g e d e a c h i t e m f o r 42 c l a r i t y o f e x p r e s s i o n and content i n an attempt to ensure i t would i n d i c a t e the respondent's s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h a l e a r n i n g event. While these i n d i c a t o r s are not exhaustive measures o f v a l i d i t y , i t would appear from the s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the observed c o r r e l a t i o n s t h a t the Learner S a t i s f a c t i o n Index scores may be c o n s i d e r e d to p r o v i d e a measure o f l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h a l e a r n i n g event. LEARNING AND INSTRUCTIONAL STYLE INDEX (LISI) A number of s t u d i e s have t e s t e d whether p a r t i c u l a r l e a r n i n g environments are a p p r o p r i a t e f o r p a r t i c u l a r person-a l i t y types o r conceptual l e v e l s (e.g. Ampene, 19 73; Borger, 1969; Crew, 1968; G i l l , 1973; H i l l , 1969; Hunt, 1971; Leuder, 1972; Murphy, 1969, P r o c a c c i n i , 1971; Santmire, 1970). Instruments developed f o r t h i s type of study were not considered a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a d u l t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n p a r t - t i m e l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . For t h i s study, an instrument was r e q u i r e d t h a t c o u l d measure the e x t e n t to which p a r t - t i m e a d u l t p a r t i c i p a n t s p r e f e r r e d t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r s to assume a 'student-centred' or ' i n s t r u c t o r - c e n t r e d ' approach to i n s t r u c t i o n . T herefore, a L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e was c o n s t r u c t e d u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g 1 I t should be noted Drs. B o s h i e r and F i e l d i n g c o n t r i b u t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the development of L I S I . 43 procedures. 1. Seventy-four items representing 'andragogical', or 'pedagogical' attitudes towards learning and in s t r u c t i o n were generated through 'brainstorm-ing', reference to the l i t e r a t u r e and other scales. 2. Four f a c u l t y members and graduate students of adult education checked the statements for c l a r i t y and lack of ambiguity to ensure that each statement was c l e a r l y and simply worded. 3. Each statement was typed on a separate 3 x 5 card. A group of seventeen.'judges was con-scripted from the faculty and graduate students i n adult education. Each judge independently sorted the statements into the following f i v e groups; those where agreement with the statement would indicate a 'Highly Andragogical", 'Andra-gogical', 'Pedagogical' or 'Highly Pedagogical' attitude towards i n s t r u c t i o n and learning. Those items which they were unable to sort into any one of these categories were considered neutral. Items which some judges sorted as pedagogical and others as andragogical were discarded, as were those judged to be neutral. In a l l , 64 statements remained following this sorting processes. These were examined and edited by the judges for c l a r i t y of expression. The f i r s t d r a f t o f t h e i n d e x was c o m p l e t e d by 20 5 n i g h t s c h o o l p a r t i c i p a n t s a t V a n c o u v e r " t e c h n i c a l S c h o o l , V a n c o u v e r V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e , p a r t i c i p a n t s i n Weekend S e m i n a r s and i n U.B.C. summer s c h o o l p r o g r a m s . D a t a were a n a l y z e d as f o l l o w s : a) Means, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n and f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d f o r e a c h i t e m . Some i t e m s d i s c a r d e d had n e a r l y a l l r e s p o n s e s a t e i t h e r end o f t h e s c a l e ; i t a p p e a r e d t h e y r e p r e s e n t e d 'motherhood' s t a t e m e n t s and were t h e r e f o r e n o t l i k e l y t o d i s c r i m i n a t e among r e s p o n d e n t s h o l d i n g d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s l e a r n i n g a n d i n s t r u c t i o n . b) D a t a were f a c t o r a n a l y z e d i n an a t t e m p t t o f u r t h e r r e d u c e t h e number o f i t e m s . Items w h i c h d i d n o t l o a d s i g n i f i c a n t l y o n t h e f i r s t u n r o t a t e d f a c t o r were d i s c a r d e d . Items l o a d i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y o n more t h a n one f a c t o r were a l s o d i s c a r d e d . Twenty-two i t e m s were i n i t i a l l y d i s c a r d e d and t h e d a t a were t h e n r e - f a c t o r e d . A f u r t h e r c y c l e was c o m p l e t e d d u r i n g w h i c h a n o t h e r t e n i t e m s were d i s c a r d e d , l e a v i n g t w e n t y i t e m s f o r t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n o f t h e i n d e x ( s e e A p p e n d i x E ) . S e v e r a l i t e m s were r e t a i n e d e v e n t h o u g h t h e y d i d n o t l o a d a bove .3 b e c a u s e i n t h e v i e w o f t h e j u d g e s , t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s s h o u l d b e ' g o o d i n d i c a t i o n s ' o f l e a r n i n g o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e . T o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e L e a r n i n g a n d I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e I n d e x c o u l d b e c o m p l e t e d b y a p o p u l a t i o n s i m i l a r t o t h e . t a r g e t g r o u p a n d t h e a c c o m p a n y i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s u n d e r s t o o d , i t w a s t e s t e d o n a f u r -t h e r 75 p a r t i c i p a n t s i n c l a s s e s a t V a n c o u v e r T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l a n d V a n c o u v e r V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i -t u t e . C a r e w a s t a k e n t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e s e p a r t i -c i p a n t s h a d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e e a r l i e r s t a g e s o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t d e v e l o p m e n t . S i x t y - f i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s c o m p l e t e d a l l i t e m s . R e s p o n d e n t s u n a b l e t o c o m p l e t e t h e i n s t r u m e n t w e r e l a r g e l y n o n - E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g s t u d e n t s i n a v o c a t i o n a l u p g r a d i n g c l a s s . T h e r e w a s n o e v i d e n c e o n t h o s e f o r m s t h a t w e r e c o m p l e t e d t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t s h a d d i f f i c u l t y u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s o r t h e p h r a s i n g o f t h e s t a t e m e n t s , p r o v i d i n g t h a t t h e r - e s p o n d e n t - s w e r e p r o f i c i e n t i n E n g l i s h . T h e i n s t r u c t o r s ' v e r s i o n o f t h e t e s t w a s c o n -s t r u c t e d u s i n g t h e s a m e s t a t e m e n t s r e - w r i t t e n i n t h e f i r s t p e r s o n r a t h e r t h a n t h i r d p e r s o n . I t w a s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h i s c h a n g e w o u l d n o t a l t e r t h e f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e o f t h e m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n ( s e e A p p e n d i x D ) . 46 L e a r n i n g and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e Index R e l i a b i l i t y As d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r , the complete r e s e a r c h i n s t r u -ment was completed on two o c c a s i o n s by the same 22 students e n r o l l e d i n an undergraduate c l a s s . Student's t-tests were computed on the d i f f e r e n c e s between the responses on each a p p l i c a t i o n o f the t e s t . The p a i r e d comparison formula f o r Student's t was used which takes i n t o account the c o r r e l a t i o n s between the p a i r s o f s c o r e s . There were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between scores on each a p p l i c a t i o n o f the instrument except f o r #2 'Allows q u e s t i o n s o n l y a t the end o f c l a s s ' , #5 'Changes l e s s o n plans to meet the needs o f i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s ' , #16 'Never admits making a mistake i n f r o n t o f the whole c l a s s ' , and #19 'Covers a l l the m a t e r i a l i n a course c u r r i c u l u m ' . The o b t a i n e d t v a l u e s f o r these f o u r statements i n d i c a t e d t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n s c o r e s between a p p l i c a t i o n s of the instrument were s i g n i f i -cant i n these f o u r cases. These f o u r u n r e l i a b l e items were d i s c a r d e d . The f i n a l v e r s i o n o f the index c o n s i s t e d o f s i x -teen statements c a s t on a 9 p o i n t L i k e r t S c a l e (see Appendix E ) . L e a r n i n g and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e Index V a l i d i t y I n d i c a t o r s o f Learner and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e Index (LISI) v a l i d i t y were not easy to s e l e c t . The index development methodology was designed to ensure t h e r e were a number of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the seventeen expert judges to make s u b j e c t -i v e e v a l u a t i o n s o f the instrument's f a c e v a l i d i t y . As no T A B L E 2 UNROTATED F A C T O R L O A D I N G S AND T E S T R E - T E S T R E L I A B I L I T Y OF L E A R N I N G AND I N S T R U C T I O N A L S T Y L E INDEX ( L I S I ) A good In s t r u c t o r : Unrotated Factor Loading <f/=204 t Value t Prob. df =21 10 11 12 Creates a formal classroom atmosphere Allows questions only at the end of c l a s s Lets p a r t i c i p a n t s .set t h e i r own o b j e c t i v e s Discourages adult students from using his/her f i r s t name Changes lesson plans to meet the needs of i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s Is the absolute authority on course content Sets d e f i n i t e standards of behaviour i n his/her c l a s s Discourages questions because they can lead the c l a s s o f f the topic Conducts c l a s s around the needs and s k i l l s of each p a r t i c i p a n t . Make i t c l e a r he/she i s the a u t h o r i t y i n the c l a s s . Discourages p a r t i c i p a n t s from c h a t t i n g during c l a s s time . Develops an informal classroom atmosphere 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Lets students s e t course goals Preserves law and order i n the classroom Is the only subject expert i n the classroom Never admits making a mistake i n f r o n t of the whole c l a s s Lets the p a r t i c i p a n t s decide what they want to learn Encourages general c l a s s discussions Covers a l l the m a t e r i a l i n a course curriculum Uses p a r t i c i p a n t s as 'contact experts' whenever p o s s i b l e .57 .43 .13 .39 .52 '.63 .48 .32 .11 .62 .37 .68 .21 .46 .52 .54 .52 .32 .39 .52 1.0 2.55 1.14 0.55 2.4 1.39 0.70 1.16 1.56 0.15 0.25 0.15 0.24 1.94 1.6 2.88 0.27 0.93 4.31 0.49 . 32 . 03 .26 .59 .02 ' .17 .49 .87 .13 .88 .80 .88 .81 .06-.12 .01 .78 .36 -01 .6.2 t > 2.08 P < -05 48 comparable v a l i d and r e l i a b l e i n d i c e s were a v a i l a b l e , i t was not p o s s i b l e to o b t a i n measures o f LISI v a l i d i t y p r i o r to the data c o l l e c t i o n phase o f the study. I t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i n d i c a t i o n s o f the Learner and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e Index v a l i d i t y would be sought d u r i n g the implementation o f the study. P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h suggested t h a t there would be a n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between a respondent's age and LISI score because o l d e r a d u l t s f e e l more comfortable i n s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g environments. In t h i s study there was a s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between LISI and age, suggesting t h a t o l d e r respondents p r e f e r r e d more s t r u c t u r e o r t e a c h e r - c e n t r e d a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e i r ' p r e f e r r e d l e a r n i n g environments' than d i d t h e i r younger peers {r= -.29, df = 627, p<.001). I t might a l s o be hyp o t h e s i z e d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h a g r e a t d e a l of post-secondary e d u c a t i o n a l experience would be more w i l l i n g to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r l e a r n i n g , and would t h e r e -f o r e p r e f e r a s t u d e n t - c e n t r e d environment and so g a i n h i g h LISI scores w h i l e those respondents w i t h l e s s p r e v i o u s l e a r n -i n g e x p e r i e n c e would p r e f e r more s t r u c t u r e d environments and t h e r e f o r e have lower LISI s c o r e s . T h i s hypothesized p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between h i g h e s t e d u c a t i o n a l achievement and LISI score was observed to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n . t h e same p o p u l a t i o n ( r = .17, df = 634, p<.001). These i n d i c a t o r s o f c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y are not ex h a u s t i v e but the l a c k o f o t h e r instruments p r e c l u d e d any c r o s s - s c a l e r e l i a b i l i t y o r v a l i d i t y checks with o t h e r measures-o f l e a r n i n g s t y l e . N e v e r t h e l e s s the f a c e v a l i d i t y and c o r r e l a t i o n s between LISI and age and years of post-secondary e d u c a t i o n and the t e s t , r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y were c o n s i d e r e d to be s u f f i c i e n t to i n d i c a t e t h a t LISI would p r o v i d e a v a l i d and r e l i a b l e measure of a l e a r n e r ' s p r e f e r r e d l e a r n i n g s t y l e . 50 CHAPTER FOUR STUDY DESIGN AND MANAGEMENT The h y p o t h e s e s were t e s t e d u s i n g d a t a c o l l e c t e d f r o m r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d p a r t i c i p a n t s and i n s t r u c t o r s i n two V a n c o u v e r Community C o l l e g e n i g h t s c h o o l c e n t r e s d u r i n g t h e 1975 f a l l t e r m . As t h e i n t e n t o f t h i s s t u d y was t o i d e n t i f y w h e t h e r o r n o t c o n g r u e n c e i n n o r m a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c l a s s r o o m i s a s s o c -i a t e d w i t h l e a r n e r p e r s i s t e n c e , l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n and i n s t r u c t o r e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e l e a r n e r , a c o r r e l a t i o n a l d e s i g n was s e l e c t e d . I n t h i s c h a p t e r , t h e d e s i g n , o r g a n i z a t i o n , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y a r e d e s c r i b e d . POPULATION The s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n was drawn f r o m a community c o l l e g e c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m w h i c h i n c l u d e d c l a s s e s i n v o c a t i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l and a c a d e m i c s u b j e c t s as w e l l as g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t c o u r s e s . T h i s s t u d y i n v o l v e d g e n e r a l i n t e r -e s t and b u s i n e s s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n c l a s s e s i n t h e n i g h t s c h o o l p r o g r a m a d m i n i s t e r e d by V a n c o u v e r Community C o l l e g e , Community E d u c a t i o n S e r v i c e s , a t t h e L a n g a r a a n d E r i c Hamber C e n t r e s i n t h e f a l l t e r m i n 1975. The t o t a l e n rollment i n g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t courses a t Langara Campus was 6,081 i n 184 courses d u r i n g the 1975/76 year, of which 1,762 r e g i s t r a t i o n s were r e c e i v e d i n 48 g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t courses f o r an average c l a s s e n r o l l m e n t of 36 p a r t i c i -pants d u r i n g the f a l l term. The Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n pro-gram a t E r i c Hamber had a t o t a l of 2,7 61 enrollments i n 129 courses i n the 1975/76 year w i t h 1,114 r e g i s t r a t i o n s i n 45 courses f o r an average c l a s s e n r o l l m e n t o f 24 d u r i n g the f a l l term."*" The Langara program i n c l u d e d s h o r t c l a s s e s w i t h v e r y h i g h e n r o l l m e n t s , such as f i l m evenings, which account f o r the h i g h e r average c l a s s s i z e i n the Langara program. As some p a r t i c i p a n t s may have r e g i s t e r e d i n more than one course, the e n r o l l m e n t t o t a l i s l i k e l y to exceed the t o t a l number of i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s . In a d d i t i o n , the courses v a r i e d i n l e n g t h from one to f i f t y s e s s i o n s . I t was c o n s i d e r e d t h a t the e f f e c t s o f incongruence would not be i d e n t i f i e d i n c l a s s e s w i t h fewer than ten s e s s i o n s . F u r t h e r , there i s a n o t i c e a b l e drop i n attendance a f t e r the Christmas v a c a t i o n i n c l a s s e s t h a t c ontinue over both f a l l and w i n t e r terms. T h i s p o s t - v a c a t i o n dropout may or may not be i n d i c a t i v e of i n c o n -gruence. N e v e r t h e l e s s , to reduce the i n f l u e n c e o f ' h i s t o r i c a l e r r o r ' and to s i m p l i f y the management of the study, the s p e c i -f i c p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h i s study was d e f i n e d as: I n s t r u c t o r s and p a r t i c i p a n t s i n g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t and Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n courses of between En r o l l m e n t S t a t i s t i c s o b t a i n e d through p e r s o n a l c o r r e s p o n -dence w i t h V.C.C. 52 20 a n d 40 h o u r s d u r a t i o n o f f e r e d a t t h e L a n g a r a and E r i c Hamber Campuses by V a n c o u v e r Community C o l l e g e d u r i n g t h e f a l l t e r m o f 1975. SAMPLE A random sample was drawn f r o m t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . To e n s u r e randomness, a l l 39 c l a s s e s a t L a n g a r a and 45 c l a s s e s a t Hamber t h a t met t h e c r i t e r i a f o r i n c l u s i o n i n ' t h e p o p u l a -t i o n were a s s i g n e d a number and 44 were drawn w i t h o u t r e p l a c e -ment u s i n g a t a b l e o f random numbers. As a r e s u l t , 23 c l a s s e s were drawn f r o m L a n g a r a an d 21 f r o m Hamber. T h r e e L a n g a r a i n s t r u c t o r s r e f u s e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y , so t h e f i n a l s ample o f g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t c l a s s e s a t L a n g a r a c o n s i s t e d o f 20 c l a s s e s and 255 p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h an a v e r a g e c l a s s e n r o l l m e n t o f 12.7 p e r c l a s s , o r s l i g h t l y more t h a n 50 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . Of t h e 21 c l a s s e s s e l e c t e d f r o m t h e Hamber program, two c l a s s e s were c a n c e l l e d a n d one i n s t r u c t o r r e f u s e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e . A n o t h e r i n s t r u c t o r p e r m i t t e d h i s c l a s s t o p a r t i -c i p a t e b u t r e f u s e d t o do so h i m s e l f , so d a t a on t h i s c l a s s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e d e s c r i p t i v e s e c t i o n s o f t h e a n a l y s i s o n l y . The f i n a l sample f r o m E r i c Hamber c o n s i s t e d o f e i g h t e e n c l a s s e s and i n s t r u c t o r s and 385 p a r t i c i p a n t s , f o r an a v e r a g e c l a s s e n r o l l m e n t o f 21.3 p a r t i c i p a n t s p e r c l a s s . The d i f f e r -e n c e between t h e sample a v e r a g e c l a s s e n r o l l m e n t s and t h e r e p o r t e d a v e r a g e c l a s s e n r o l l m e n t s , i n p a r t i c u l a r f o r t h e L a n g a r a program, i s a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e r e p o r t i n g p r o c e d u r e 53 a d o p t e d a t b o t h L a n g a r a a n d H a m b e r . A s e r i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s e m i n a r s o r . f i l m s e s s i o n s a r e s c h e d u l e d a s a ' c l a s s ' . R e g i s -t r a t i o n s i n e a c h s e s s i o n w e r e s u m m e d t o c a l c u l a t e t h e t o t a l c l a s s e n r o l l m e n t . T h u s a s e r i e s o f t e n s e m i n a r s , w i t h t e n p a r t i c i p a n t s e n r o l l e d i n e a c h s e m i n a r , w o u l d b e r e c o r d e d a s o n e c l a s s w i t h 100 p a r t i c i p a n t s , t h u s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r a i s i n g t h e ' a v e r a g e ' c l a s s s i z e . T h e s e ' c l a s s e s ' w e r e e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e p o p u l a t i o n s a m p l e d f o r t h i s s t u d y . E M P I R I C A L I N D I C A T O R S T h e f o l l o w i n g i n d i c a t o r s w e r e u s e d t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s e s d e v e l o p e d f o r t h i s s t u d y . L e a r n e r p e r s i s t e n c e w a s d e f i n e d a s t h e n u m b e r o f h o u r s o f c l a s s a t t e n d e d b y t h e p a r t i c i p a n t a s a p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f a v a i l a b l e h o u r s o f i n s t r u c t i o n . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n w a s o b t a i n e d f r o m c l a s s r e g i s t e r s . T o c h e c k t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e s e r e g i s t e r s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r c o n d u c t e d u n o b t r u s i v e h e a d c o u n t s o n r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d c l a s s e s a t r a n d o m t i m e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t u d y p e r i o d . T h e s e w e r e l a t e r c o m p a r e d w i t h r e g i s t e r e n t r i e s . N o d i s c r e p a n c i e s w e r e n o t e d . C o n g r u e n c y b e t w e e n I n s t r u c t o r a n d P a r t i c i p a n t A t t i t u d e s  t o w a r d s I n s t r u c t i o n w a s m e a s u r e d w i t h t h e L e a r n i n g a n d I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e I n d e x ( L I S I ) . A t o t a l i n d e x 54 s c o r e was c a l c u l a t e d f o r each respondent by summing i n d i v i d u a l item scores and d i v i d i n g by the number of items completed. Congruency between i n s t r u c t o r s and each p a r t i c i p a n t was i n d i c a t e d by the e x t e n t to which t h e r e was agreement between t h e i r t o t a l L I S I s c o r e s . P a r t i c i p a n t S a t i s f a c t i o n was measured on the Learner's S a t i s -f a c t i o n Index (L S I ) . A t o t a l index score was c a l -c u l a t e d by summing i n d i v i d u a l item scores and d i v i d i n g by the number of items completed. I n s t r u c t o r ' s ' p e r c e p t i o n of Learner's L e a r n i n g Achievement. A t the c o n c l u s i o n o f the course, the i n s t r u c t o r s were asked to e v a l u a t e and rank each student's ' l e a r n i n g achievement' i n the c l a s s . Rank i n c l a s s was used as the measure of the i n s t r u c t o r ' s p er-c e p t i o n of the Learner's L e a r n i n g Achievement. DATA COLLECTION Once c l a s s e s to be i n c l u d e d had been i d e n t i f i e d , t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r s r e c e i v e d a- l e t t e r from the c e n t r e adminis-t r a t o r i n t r o d u c i n g and endorsing the study (Appendix A ) . A t the second c l a s s a l l i n s t r u c t o r s r e c e i v e d a l e t t e r from the r e s e a r c h e r e n l i s t i n g c o o p e r a t i o n and d e t a i l i n g the e x t e n t to w h i c h p a r t i c i p a t i o n w o u l d i n v o l v e e x t r a r e c o r d - k e e p i n g ( A p p e n d i x B ) . I n s t r u c t o r s w e r e r e q u i r e d t o i n d i c a t e w h e t h e r t h e y w e r e w i l l i n g t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y b y c o m p l e t i n g a n d r e t u r n i n g a s i g n e d c o p y o f t h e l e t t e r a s i t w a s f e l t t h a t t h e i n s t r u c t o r s w o u l d b e m o r e , l i k e l y t o f u l f i l t h e i r c o m m i t -m e n t t o t h e s t u d y i f t h e y a g r e e d i n a q u a s i - f o r m a l m a n n e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e s e a r c h e r m e t e a c h i n s t r u c t o r a n d o u t l i n e d i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y w o u l d b e r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e a n d t o e x p l a i n s t e p s t a k e n t o e n s u r e c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . O n e i n s t r u c t o r i n t h e L a n g a r a g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t p r o -g r a m d i d n o t a g r e e t o p a r t i c i p a t e s i n c e h e f e l t h i s c l a s s w o u l d . b e u n s u i t a b l e f o r t h e s t u d y ; a n o t h e r t e a c h i n g t w o c l a s s e s d i d n o t w i s h t o p a r t i c i p a t e f o r p e r s o n a l r e a s o n s . A t E r i c H a m b e r , t w o i n s t r u c t o r s e x p r e s s e d r e s e r v a t i o n s , o n e r e f u s e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e a n d t h e o t h e r a l l o w e d h i s c l a s s t o p a r t i c i p a t e b u t r e f u s e d t o d o s o h i m s e l f . A l l o t h e r i n s t r u c -t o r s (n= 37) a t b o t h c e n t r e s e x p r e s s e d t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s t o p a r t i c i p a t e . I n s t r u c t o r s r e c e i v e d a n i n f o r m a l n o t e d u r i n g t h e t h i r d c l a s s s e s s i o n a s k i n g t h e m t o i n d i c a t e t o t h e i r s t u d e n t s t h a t t h e n e x t c l a s s s e s s i o n w o u l d b e i n t e r r u p t e d w h i l e t h e r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t s w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d . I t w a s f e l t t h a t a d u l t p a r t i c i p a n t s w o u l d b e m o r e l i k e l y t o c o o p e r a t e i f t h e y h a d b e e n f o r e w a r n e d . D u r i n g t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t t h e r e w e r e n o o v e r t d i s p l a y s o f d i s p l e a s u r e , a n d a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s c o m p l e t e d t h e i n s t r u m e n t . M i s s i n g d a t a w a s e x c l u d e d ' p a i r w i s e ' f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s . 56 A t V a n c o u v e r Community C o l l e g e v e r y few r e g i s t r a t i o n s f o r Community E d u c a t i o n S e r v i c e s c l a s s e s a r e a c c e p t e d a f t e r t h e t h i r d c l a s s s e s s i o n . A f t e r t h e t h i r d s e s s i o n s t u d e n t r e g i s t r a t i o n f o r m s and c l a s s r e g i s t e r s were c o l l e c t e d f o r e a c h c l a s s i n t h e sample a n d a l i s t made o f a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . E a c h name i n t h e . l i s t was a l l o c a t e d a f o u r p a r t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n number, i n d i c a t i n g t h e c e n t r e , : n i g h t o f c l a s s , c l a s s number and s t u d e n t number. C l a s s s e t s o f t h e r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t were p r e p a r e d . E a c h one was p e r s o n a l i z e d w i t h t h e p a r t i c i p a n t ' s name on t h e i n s t r u c t i o n page and i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e c o d e number on t h e i n s t r u m e n t i t s e l f . I n s t r u c t o r i n s t r u m e n t s were i d e n t i f i e d i n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n . The r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t s were c o m p l e t e d d u r i n g t h e f o u r t h c l a s s s e s s i o n . The r e s e a r c h e r p e r s o n a l l y a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n a t t h e L a n g a r a c e n t r e f o r t h e g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t c l a s s e s , w h i l e t h e Head T e a c h e r a t t h e E r i c Hamber c e n t r e s u p e r v i s e d t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . f r o m t h e sample o f B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n c l a s s e s . As p a r t i c i p a n t s r e c e i v e d t h e i r i n s t r u m e n t s , t h e y were a s k e d t o remove t h e i n s t r u c t i o n page, w h i c h was i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e i r name, and t o n o t e t h a t t h e i r name d i d n o t a p p e a r on t h e i n s t r u m e n t i t s e l f . T h e r e were 407 p a r t i c i p a n t s r e g i s t e r e d i n t h e t w e n t y c l a s s e s i n t h e g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t sample o f whom 255 were p r e -s e n t on d a t a c o l l e c t i o n n i g h t s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e were 529 r e g i s t e r e d p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e sample o f e i g h t e e n B u s i n e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n c l a s s e s , 3 85 were p r e s e n t t o c o m p l e t e t h e i n s t r u m e n t . T h i s a p p a r e n t h i g h r a t e o f a b s e n t i s m (31%) by t h e 57 f o u r t h w e e k o f c l a s s e s i s p r o b a b l y d u e t o c l a s s t r a n s f e r s o r w i t h d r a w a l s n o t y e t r e f l e c t e d b y c h a n g e s i n t h e r e g i s t r a t i o n c a r d s . A s c o u r s e g o a l s b e c o m e a p p a r e n t d u r i n g t h e f i r s t f e w c l a s s e s , p a r t i c i p a n t s t e n d t o s o r t t h e m s e l v e s i n t o a c l a s s t h a t a p p e a r s c o n g r u e n t w i t h t h e i r n e e d s a n d i n t e r e s t s . I t w a s f e l t t h a t t h i s s o r t i n g o u t p r o c e s s d i d n o t i n d i c a t e p e r s o n a l i t y o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e i n c o n g r u e n c e , b u t r e f l e c t e d t h e c l a s s s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s a t V . C . C . w h e r e r e g i s t r a t i o n w a s d o n e o n t h e f i r s t n i g h t o f c l a s s w i t h v e r y l i t t l e c o u n s e l l i n g a s s i s t a n c e . F i g . 4 S T U D Y D A T A C O L L E C T I O N A N D O R G A N I Z A T I O N - C H A R T 1 month p r i o r to c l a s s commencement 1 week p r i o r to s t a r t of cl a s s Second c l a s s session Third c l a s s session Fourth c l a s s session A l l remaining classes F i n a l c l a s s session ACTIVITY I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Population I Sample Selection — — J-A l l i n s t r u c t o r s receive a l e t t e r from — -centre administrator e n l i s t i n g support for the study I A l l i n s t r u c t o r s receive l e t t e r from Researcher meets researcher o u t l i n i n g the study and with i n s t r u c t o r t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to discuss study I Instructors return 'agreement to p a r t i c i p a t e ' Instructors re-ceive informal reminder Students complete research instrument Class observations Instructor evaluations and c l a s s r e g i s t e r s c o l l e c t e d 58 A t t e n d a n c e p a t t e r n s w e r e n o t e d f o r a l l c l a s s e s a t r a n d o m t o c h e c k t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f a t t e n d a n c e r e c o r d s m a i n -t a i n e d b y t h e i n s t r u c t o r s . A t t h e e n d o f t h e c l a s s , i n s t r u c t o r s p r o v i d e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r w i t h a t t e n d a n c e r e c o r d s a n d t h e i r s u b j e c t i v e r a n k i n g o f e a c h p a r t i c i p a n t ' s l e a r n i n g a c h i e v e m e n t . A l l b u t o n e i n s t r u c t o r i n t h e B u s i n e s s A d m i n i -s t r a t i o n p r o g r a m a t E r i c H a m b e r p r o v i d e d u s a b l e d a t a . S i x i n s t r u c t o r s i n t h e g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t c o u r s e s a t L a n g a r a d i d n o t p r o v i d e a l l t h e d a t a r e q u i r e d . D a t a f o r t h e s e c l a s s e s a r e i n c l u d e d w h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e i n . . t h e a n a l y s i s . D A T A C O D I N G A l l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d f o r t h e s t u d y w a s r e c o r d e d w h e r e p o s s i b l e b o t h a s r a w s c o r e a n d c o d e d d a t a , a n d k e y p u n c h e d a t t h e U . B . C . C o m p u t i n g C e n t r e . A s i m p l e t a b u l a t i o n o f e a c h v a r i a b l e w a s c o n d u c t e d t o c h e c k f o r o b v i o u s k e y p u n c h i n g e r r o r s . T h e B l i s h e n S o c i o - E c o n o m i c I n d e x o f o c c u p a t i o n s w a s u s e d t o r e c o r d t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n o r p r e v i o u s o c c u p a t i o n i f t h e y w e r e p r e s e n t l y u n e m p l o y e d o r h a d r e t i r e d a n d t h e o c c u p a t i o n o f t h e s p o u s e . S o m e r e s p o n d e n t s g a v e o c c u p a t i o n s o r d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n w h i c h d i d n o t a p p e a r i n . t h e B l i s h e n i n d e x . T h e y w e r e c o n s i d e r e d b y t w o j u d g e s a n d a w a r d e d t h e B l i s h e n c o d e c o n s i d e r e d t o r e f l e c t m o r e a c c u r a t e l y t h e d u t i e s a n d r e s p o n -s i b i l i t i e s o f t h e p o s i t i o n d e s c r i b e d . T h e s e c o d i n g d e c i s i o n s 59 a r e shown i n A p p e n d i x C. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY In any f i e l d o f s t u d y t h e r e a r e p r o b l e m s r e s u l t i n g f r o m a l a c k o f c o n t r o l , w h i c h may i n c r e a s e t h e v a r i a n c e due t o e r r o r and t h e r e b y r e d u c e t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f i d e n t i f y i n g s i g n i -f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The p o p u l a t i o n i d e n t i f i e d f o r t h e s t u d y was r e s t r i c t e d t o p a r t i c i p a n t s i n n i g h t s c h o o l p r o g r a m s o f between 20 and 40 h o u r s d u r a t i o n i n an u r b a n a r e a a t a p a r t i c u l a r p o i n t i n t i m e . The p r o p o s i t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d f o r t h i s s t u d y c o u l d be t e s t e d t h r o u g h t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a g r e a t many e m p i r i c a l i n d i c a t o r s . T h i s s t u d y i s r e s t r i c t e d t o a l i m i t e d number o f t h o s e i n d i c a t o r s and t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e s t u d y ' s r e s u l t s i s d e p e n d e n t upon t h e i n s t r u m e n t s u s e d t o measure t h e c o n s t r u c t s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e r e s u l t s a r e g e n e r a l i z a b l e o n l y t o t h e sample p o p u l a t i o n and o n l y f o r the.i i n s t r u m e n t u s e d . F u r t h e r , a number o f h y p o t h e s i z e d c o n g r u e n c e e f f e c t s were n o t v e r i f i e d . I t may be wrong t o c o n c l u d e t h a t c o n g r u e n c e i s o f no s i g n i f i -c a n c e , s i n c e an a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s w o u l d be t h a t t h e i n s t r u m e n t s s e l e c t e d were i n a p p r o p r i a t e o r i n s u f f i c i e n t l y p r e c i s e and so were u n a b l e t o i d e n t i f y e x i s t i n g s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . W h i l e t h e s e p r o b l e m s a r e t r u e o f a l l s t u d i e s , a t t e n t i o n i s drawn t o t h e s e i s s u e s t o e n s u r e t h a t f u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r s a r e c o g n i z a n t o f t h i s s t u d y ' s l i m i t a t i o n s . 60 C H A P T E R F I V E R E S U L T S T h e p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y w a s t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r c o n g r u e n c e b e t w e e n t h e l e a r n e r ' s p r e f e r r e d l e a r n i n g s t y l e a n d i n s t r u c t o r ' s t e a c h i n g s t y l e i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n , p e r s i s t e n c e a n d l e a r n i n g a c h i e v e m e n t . P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h o n c o n g r u e n c e h a s i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n t e r p e r -s o n a l i n c o n g r u e n c e m a y a l s o i n f l u e n c e v a r i o u s o u t c o m e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n . T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s r e s u l t s o f t h e ; d a t a a n a l y s i s . T h e r e w e r e t h r e e p h a s e s t o t h e a n a l y s i s . T h e f i r s t i n v o l v e d t h e c o m p u t a t i o n o f t h e L e a r n e r a n d I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e I n d e x ( L I S I ) s c o r e s , L e a r n e r s S a t i s f a c t i o n I n d e x s c o r e s , a n d d i s c r e -p a n c y s c o r e s . T h e s e c o n d w a s t h e a n a l y s i s o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d a t a c o l l e c t e d t o c o m p a r e a n d c o n t r a s t t h e H a m b e r a n d L a n g a r a p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h e h y p o t h e s e s w e r e t h e n t e s t e d a n d a s e r i e s o f r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s g e n e r a t e d t o e x a m i n e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h s i n g l e a n d d o u b l e ( c o n g r u e n c e ) v a r i a b l e s p r e d i c t l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n , p e r s i s t e n c e a n d a c h i e v e m e n t . D A T A A N A L Y S I S P H A S E O N E T h e i n i t i a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e t w o i n d i c e s c o n s t r u c t e d 61 f o r t h i s study was d e s c r i b e d i n an e a r l i e r s e c t i o n . These i n d i c e s were re-examined and r e t e s t e d w i t h the data c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g the study to determine whether or not a s i m i l a r f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e c o u l d s t i l l be observed. LISI and Learner S a t i s -f a c t i o n Index scores were then computed. To t e s t the hypo-theses t h a t congruency between the i n s t r u c t o r s and t h e i r students would be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h ' r a t i n g of p a r t i c i p a n t achievement', 'attendance', and 'student s a t i s f a c t i o n ' , a measure o f 'congruence' was r e q u i r e d . The measure o f congruence adopted was the d i f f e r e n c e between the i n s t r u c t o r and l e a r n e r scores f o r each v a r i a b l e , so the g r e a t e r the d i f f e r e n c e between these s c o r e s , the g r e a t e r the incongruence between the l e a r n e r and i n s t r u c t o r . In Phase One o f the data a n a l y s i s L e a r n i n g and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e Index, Learner S a t i s f a c t i o n Index and d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d . The process and the : r e s u l t s are r e p o r t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . C a l c u l a t i o n o f L e a r n i n g and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e Index Scores A measure of the l e a r n e r ' s p r e f e r r e d l e a r n i n g s t y l e was o b t a i n e d through t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of the L e a r n i n g and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e Index (LISI) completed by 638 p a r t i c i p a n t s . The L e a r n i n g and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e Index was designed so t h a t once the p o s i t i v e l y and n e g a t i v e l y scored statements were a l l coded i n the same d i r e c t i o n , a respondent's t o t a l score c o u l d be o b t a i n e d by summing across a l l items. The r e s u l t a n t t o t a l score would be v a l i d o n l y i f the index proved to be u n i d i m e n s i o n a l w i t h a l l items l o a d i n g i n the same d i r e c t i o n on 62 t h e f i r s t u n r o t a t e d f a c t o r . T h i s h a d b e e n t h e c a s e d u r i n g d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e L e a r n i n g a n d I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e I n d e x . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e i n s t r u m e n t w a s a g a i n f a c t o r a n a l y s e d t o c h e c k w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e o b s e r v e d d u r i n g t h e i n s t r u m e n t ' s d e v e l o p m e n t r e m a i n e d i n e f f e c t w i t h t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p h a s e o f t h i s s t u d y . A s c a n b e s e e n f r o m T a b l e . 3, t h e f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e o b s e r v e d d u r i n g t h e i n s t r u m e n t ' s d e v e l o p m e n t w a s r e p e a t e d w i t h a l l i t e m s l o a d i n g s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e s a m e d i r e c t i o n o n t h e f i r s t u n r o t a t e d f a c t o r (n= 638). T h e r e f o r e , a r e s p o n d e n t ' s L e a r n i n g a n d I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e I n d e x s c o r e w a s d e r i v e d b y c a l c u l a t i n g t h e m e a n v a l u e o f t h e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e i t e m s . T h e m e a n r a t h e r t h a n t h e s u m o f s c o r e s w a s u s e d a s s e v e r a l r e s p o n d -e n t s d i d n o t r e s p o n d t o a l l t h e i t e m s o n t h e i n s t r u m e n t s . S u m -m i n g t h e s c o r e s w o u l d t h e r e f o r e b i a s t h e d a t a i n f a v o u r o f t h o s e w h o r e s p o n d e d t o e v e r y i t e m . F o r e x a m p l e , c o n s i d e r t w o r e s -p o n d e n t s b o t h i n d i c a t i n g s t r o n g p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d a l l t h e i t e m s t o w h i c h t h e y r e s p o n d o n t h e i n d e x . H o w e v e r o n e r e s p o n d e n t m i s s e d t w o i t e m s , a n d t h e r e f o r e h a s a l o w e r t o t a l i t e m s c o r e t h a n t h e o t h e r . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e c a n n o t b e a t t r i b u t e d t o a d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e a n d s o w o u l d i n c r e a s e t h e v a r i a n c e d u e t o e r r o r i n a n y s u b s e q u e n t a n a l y s i s . H o w e v e r , i f e a c h t o t a l s c o r e w e r e d i v i d e d b y t h e n u m b e r o f i t e m s t h a t e a c h r e s -p o n d e n t h a d c o m p l e t e d , b o t h w o u l d h a v e t h e s a m e i n d e x s c o r e , a n d t h i s s o u r c e o f e r r o r i s r e m o v e d . I t w a s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t u s i n g t h e m e a n w o u l d b e p r e f e r a b l e t o d e l e t i n g r e s p o n d e n t s w h o d i d n o t r e s p o n d t o e v e r y i t e m f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s . T h e r e s u l t a n t T A B L E 3 C O M P A R I S O N O F T H E U N R O T A T E D F A C T O R L O A D I N G S O B S E R V E D D U R I N G T H E D E V E L O P M E N T A N D F I N A L A P P L I C A T I O N O F L E A R N I N G A N D I N S T R U C T I O N A L S T Y L E I N D E X ( L I S I ) A Good Instructor: " p f n 5 ? t e d F a c t o r loading P i n a l Instrument A p p l i c a t i o n Development d / ~ 6 3 7 <f/=204 2. Creates a formal classroom atmosphere Lets p a r t i c i p a n t s set t h e i r own obj e c t i v e s 3. Discourages adult students from using his/her f i r s t name 4. Is the absolute authority on course content 5. Sets d e f i n i t e standards of behaviour i n his/her c l a s s 6. Discourages questions because they can lead the c l a s s o f f the topic 7. Conducts the c l a s s around the needs and s k i l l s of each p a r t i c i p a n t 8. Makes i t c l e a r he/she i s the authority i n the c l a s s 9. Discourages p a r t i c i p a n t s from chatting during c l a s s time 10. Develops an informal classroom atmos-phere 11. Lets students set course goals 12. Preserves law and order i n the c l a s s -room 13. 14. classroom1" 6 X p e " « the they* wlVtT& t S d 6 C i d e 15. Encourages general c l a s * * i ' c i a s s discussions 16. Uses p a r t i c i p a n t s a= • whenever possible c o n t e " t experts' Eigenvalue Percentage variance accounted f o r 2 47. .45 '.29 .37 .45 . 50 .43 .21 . 55 .33 .38 .38 .48 .47 .31 .26 .20 60 1% .57 .13 .39 .63 .43 .32 .11 .62 .37 .68 .21 .46 .52 .52 .32 . 52 3.66 20.40% 64 LISI s c o r e s had a mean o f 6.02 and a standard d e v i a t i o n of 0.94. C a l c u l a t i o n of Learner S a t i s f a c t i o n Index Scores In a l l , 635 p a r t i c i p a n t s completed the Learner S a t i s f a c t i o n Index. As w i t h the L e a r n i n g and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e Index, the Learner S a t i s f a c t i o n Index was developed so t h a t when p o s i t i v e l y and n e g a t i v e l y phrased items were coded i n the same d i r e c t i o n , a respondent's Learner S a t i s f a c t i o n Index sco r e c o u l d be c a l c u l a t e d by summing item responses. Responses to t h i s index were f a c t o r analysed to check the f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e r e v e a l e d d u r i n g the instrument's development. A l l items loaded s i g n i f i c a n t l y on the- f i r s t u n r o t a t e d f a c t o r . T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the s c a l e was u n i d i m e n s i o n a l , and a t o t a l s c o r e c o u l d be o b t a i n e d by summing items. As s e v e r a l respond-ents had not responded to a l l items on the index, summing the item scores without compensating f o r m i s s i n g responses would not p r o v i d e an a p p r o p r i a t e t o t a l Learner S a t i s f a c t i o n Index sc o r e . T h e r e f o r e , the Learner S a t i s f a c t i o n Index score o f each respondent was computed as the mean score o f the items completed. The r e s u l t a n t Learner S a t i s f a c t i o n Index s c o r e s had a mean of 7.43 and a standard d e v i a t i o n of 0.98. C a l c u l a t i o n o f Congruence I n d i c a t o r s I n s t r u c t o r - p a r t i c i p a n t congruence scores were c a l -c u l a t e d as the a b s o l u t e d i f f e r e n c e or d i s c r e p a n c y between the i n s t r u c t o r ' s score and the student's score on the same T A B L E 4 C O M P A R I S O N O F U N R O T A T E D F A C T O R L O A D I N G S O B S E R V E D D U R I N G T H E D E V E L O P M E N T A N D F I N A L A P P L I C A T I O N O F T H E . L E A R N E R S A T I S F A C T I O N I N D E X 2 . 3 . 4 . 5 . 6 . 7 . 8 . 9 . 1 0 . 1 1 . 1 2 . 1 3 . 1 4 . 1 5 . 1 6 . 1 7 . 1 8 . 1 9 . The i n s t r u c t o r i s seldom w e l l prepared fo r c l a s s The i n s t r u c t o r i s e n t h u s i a s t i c I am rather disappointed with t h i s course This i s one of the poorest courses I have taken I am not learning anything new This course i s helping me personally The i n s t r u c t o r created a bad l e a r n i n g environment The i n s t r u c t o r cares about my progress i n the course Classtime i s often wasted m I think the i n s t r u c t o r enjoys teaching The i n s t r u c t o r established good rapport with everybody i n the c l a s s I think the i n s t r u c t o r has t r i e d to teach me what I wanted to learn The i n s t r u c t o r i s h e l p f u l I have no respect f o r t h i s i n s t r u c t o r The i n s t r u c t o r never has time to help i n d i v i d u a l s I think we a l l had a chance to c o n t r i -bute to the s e l e c t i o n of o b j e c t i v e s for t h i s course The i n s t r u c t o r encourages people to express t h e i r ideas I regret taking t h i s course Ove r a l l I would rate t h i s course as very good unrotatea Factor Loading' F i n a l Instrument A p p l i c a t i o n Development df=635 df=131 . 2 9 . 4 2 . 7 1 . 6 3 . 5 1 . 3 5 . 4 8 . 4 3 . 5 2 . 5 6 . 6 4 . 7 0 . 7 4 . 5 7 . 4 5 . 2 6 . 4 5 . 5 2 . 6 0 . 6 6 . 6 0 . 5 6 . 7 2 . 4 3 . 5 5 . 7 7 . 7 8 . 5 5 • . 7 2 . 6 3 . 5 2 . 7 8 . 7 8 . 4 7 . 4 7 . 5 9 . 7 0 . 7 0 Eigenvalue Percentage of the variance accounted for 5 . 3 3 1 2 . 3 6 6 7 . 9 % 3 3 . 4 % 66 v a r i a b l e . For example the d i s c r e p a n c y score f o r age between a 25 year o l d p a r t i c i p a n t and h i s 47 year o l d i n s t r u c t o r would be 25 — 47 = 22; t h a t i s , there i s a d i f f e r e n c e , or a d i s c r e p a n c y o f 22 between the i n s t r u c t o r ' s and the student's responses to the v a r i a b l e 'age'. Discrepancy scores were c a l c u l a t e d f o r the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s : age, years of h i g h s c h o o l , h i g h e s t e d u c a t i o n a l achievement, sex, number o f c h i l d r e n , years o f f u l l - t i m e and p a r t - t i m e post-secondary e d u c a t i o n , B l i s h e n r a t i n g o f p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n , income, t o t a l f a m i l y income, and Learner and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e Index s c o r e . I f e i t h e r the p a r t i c i p a n t o r the i n s t r u c t o r had f a i l e d to respond to the v a r i a b l e i n q u e s t i o n , the d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e was not c a l c u l a t e d and the response recorded as m i s s i n g data. These d i s c r e p a n c y scores i n d i c a t e the magnitude of the incongruence and not the d i r e c -t i o n i n which the incongruence o c c u r s . T h i s method o f i n d i -c a t i n g congruence between i n s t r u c t o r and p a r t i c i p a n t s cores was s e l e c t e d s i n c e a c c o r d i n g to the study's hypotheses, i t i s the magnitude of the incongruence i t s e l f t h a t should d i c t a t e observed behaviours. I f the d i s c r e p a n c y scores were shown as a c t u a l a r i t h m e t i c d i f f e r e n c e s , i n c l u d i n g p o s i t i v e s or n e g a t i v e s to show the d i r e c t i o n of the incongruence, the c a l c u l a t i o n of the means would be m i s l e a d i n g . For example, the mean of a +10 and -10 a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e score would be zero, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t o v e r a l l responses were congruent w i t h those o f the i n s t r u c t o r . In f a c t there was incongruence as the mean of the magnitude of the d i s c r e p a n c y between these two p a r t i c i p a n t s 67 a n d t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r i s '10'. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e ' d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e ' v a l u e f o r e a c h v a r i a b l e , t h e a c t u a l ( o r a r i t h m e t i c ) d i f f e r e n c e w a s a l s o c a l c u l a t e d a n d r e c o r d e d t o a s s i s t i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s . D A T A A N A L Y S I S P H A S E T W O I n t h i s s e c t i o n t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d a t a i s p r e s e n t e d t o c o m p a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f i n s t r u c t o r s a n d p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e E r i c H a m b e r a n d L a n g a r a s a m p l e s . T h e s e d a t a a r e p r o v i d e d t o a s s i s t i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n g r o u p s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e c o n g r u e n c e e f f e c t s d i s c u s s e d i n l a t e r s e c t i o n s o f t h i s c h a p t e r . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s e d a t a w e r e i n c l u d e d a s i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s i n r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e s e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s c o u l d p r e d i c t l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n , l e a r n e r p e r s i s t e n c e , a n d i n s t r u c t o r e v a l u a t i o n o f s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e . T o s i m p l i f y t h e r e p o r t i n g p r o c e d u r e , t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e i n s t r u c t o r s i s p r e s e n t e d s e p a r a t e l y f r o m t h a t o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . S o c i o - E c o n o m i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f I n s t r u c t o r s O f t h e t w e n t y i n s t r u c t o r s a t L a n g a r a a n d n i n e t e e n a t E r i c H a m b e r w h o e x p r e s s e d a w i l l i n g n e s s t o c o o p e r a t e i n t h e s t u d y , n i n e t e e n a t L a n g a r a a n d e i g h t e e n a t E r i c H a m b e r 68 completed the socio-economic s e c t i o n o f the r e s e a r c h i n s t r u -ment. The average age o f the Hamber i n s t r u c t o r s was 47.3 years and t h e i r ages ranged from 26 to 67 ye a r s . A l l Hamber i n s t r u c t o r s were male, w h i l e eleven o f the"21 Langara i n s t r u c -t o r s were female. The Langara i n s t r u c t o r s tended to be younger than t h e i r Hamber c o u n t e r p a r t s as t h e i r ages ranged from 23 to 53 years w i t h a mean of 37.7 years o l d . These d i f f e r e n c e s are not unexpected as the Hamber program p r o v i d e s i n s t r u c t i o n i n managerial or p r o f e s s i o n a l s u b j e c t areas. The f a c u l t y are r e c r u i t e d from s u c c e s s f u l and experienced p r a c -t i t i o n e r s i n the busi n e s s community, which i s male dominated. While those who teach g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t programs a t Langara o f f e r i n s t r u c t i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l o r s u b j e c t area i n which they are knowledgeable, t h e i r e x p e r t i s e i s not neces-s a r i l y age or sex b i a s e d . There would appear to be some d i f f e r e n c e s between the i n s t r u c t o r s o f the two samples w i t h regard to t h e i r p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l e xperience. The h i g h e s t e d u c a t i o n a l achievement ranged from one Langara i n s t r u c t o r who r e p o r t e d completing l e s s than grade ten, to s i x a t Langara and seven a t Hamber who had completed a u n i v e r s i t y degree as w e l l as some o t h e r t e r t i a r y q u a l i f i c a t i o n . Two Hamber i n s t r u c t o r s o n l y completed e i g h t years i n h i g h s c h o o l , w h i l e the o t h e r s had completed a t l e a s t 12 years o f s c h o o l . In a d d i t i o n , seven had received.some f u l l - t i m e post-secondary t r a i n i n g , t hree of whom had s t u d i e d f u l l - t i m e f o r more than f i v e y e a r s . As might 69 b e e x p e c t e d o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l o r m a n a g e r i a l o c c u p a t i o n s , t h e m a j o r i t y ( 7 2 p e r c e n t ) h a d m a d e a s i g n i f i c a n t c o m m i t m e n t t o p a r t - t i m e t r a i n i n g . . F i v e h a d s t u d i e d p a r t - t i m e f o r m o r e t h a n f i v e y e a r s , s i x f o r f o u r y e a r s a n d t h e r e m a i n d e r h a d s t u d i e d p a r t - t i m e f o r t h r e e y e a r s . T h e L a n g a r a i n s t r u c t o r s h a d a s t r o n g e r a n d m o r e t r a d i t i o n a l a c a d e m i c t r a i n i n g . E l e v e n ( 6 1 p e r c e n t ) h a d c o m p l e t e d a t l e a s t t w o y e a r s f u l l - t i m e , s e v e n o f whom h a d s t u d i e d f u l l - t i m e f o r a t l e a s t f i v e y e a r s . T e n h a d s t u d i e d p a r t - t i m e , a n d f i v e o f t h e s e h a d d o n e s o f o r a t l e a s t f i v e y e a r s . T h e d i f f e r e n c e i n e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d s r e f l e c t s t h e i r w o r k i n g m i l i e u . I n s t r u c t o r s i n t h e H a m b e r p r o -g r a m i n b u s i n e s s , w h e r e e x p e r i e n c e p l u s p a r t - t i m e l e a r n i n g h a s b e e n a n a c c e p t e d m o d e l f o r p e r s o n a l a d v a n c e m e n t i n i n d u s t r y , h a v e l e s s t r a d i t i o n a l f u l l - t i m e e d u c a t i o n a n d m o r e p a r t - t i m e t r a i n i n g ' o n t h e j o b ' , w h i l e i n s t r u c t o r s a t L a n g a r a d o n o t r e f l e c t t h e s a m e m a n a g e m e n t d e v e l o p m e n t p a t t e r n o f t r a i n i n g . T h e r e w e r e s o m e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e s e g r o u p s o f i n s t r u c t o r s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s a s m e a s u r e d b y t h e B l i s h e n i n d e x ; 76 p e r c e n t o f t h e H a m b e r i n s t r u c t o r s w h o r e p o r t e d t h e i r p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n s w e r e r a t e d 6 0 . 0 0 o r a b o v e o n t h e B l i s h e n i n d e x , w h i l e o n l y 22 p e r c e n t o f t h e L a n g a r a i n s t r u c t o r s h a d o c c u p a t i o n s o f s i m i l a r s t a t u s . T h e s p o u s e s o f e i g h t L a n g a r a i i n s t r u c t o r s h a d o c c u p a t i o n s r a t e d 7 0 . 0 0 o r o v e r c o m p a r e d w i t h o n l y t w o H a m b e r s p o u s e s . T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e m o s t l i k e l y d u e t o t h e f a c t t h a t a l l t h e H a m b e r i n s t r u c t o r s w e r e m a l e w i t h m a n a g e r i a l o r p r o f e s s i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s , w h i l e m o r e t h a n h a l f o f t h e L a n g a r a i n s t r u c t o r s 70 were* female. T h i s sex b i a s among the i n s t r u c t o r s should be compensated f o r when the v a r i a b l e 'Gross Family Income' i s examined. Hamber i n s t r u c t o r s ' Gross Family Incomes were s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than t h e i r Lanagara c o u n t e r p a r t s . F o r t y -three per cent of the Langara i n s t r u c t o r s r e p o r t e d gross f a m i l y incomes of l e s s than $17,000, and o n l y three r e p o r t e d gross f a m i l y incomes i n excess of $25,000, w h i l e h a l f the Hamber i n s t r u c t o r s r e p o r t e d gross f a m i l y incomes i n excess o f $25,000 and none o f them r e c e i v e d l e s s than $17,000. O v e r a l l i t appeared t h a t the Langara f a c u l t y had more formal, t r a i n i n g i n i n s t r u c t i o n than the Hamber f a c u l t y as f i v e Langara i n s t r u c t o r s had t e a c h i n g c e r t i f i c a t e s and seven had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n some t r a i n i n g i n the t e a c h i n g of a d u l t s , two of whom had r e c e i v e d diplomas o r had completed a c e r t i f i c a t e program. None o f the Hamber f a c u l t y had any formal teacher t r a i n i n g , and o n l y f i v e r e p o r t e d p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n any courses on t e a c h i n g a d u l t s , none of which were p a r t o f a c r e d i t program. Socio-Economic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of P a r t i c i p a n t s There were 2 54 a d u l t s e n r o l l e d i n twenty c l a s s e s h e l d a t Langara and 384 i n n i n e t e e n c l a s s e s a t the E r i c Hamber c e n t r e . In t h i s s e c t i o n the socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of these p a r t i c i p a n t s are d e s c r i b e d and compared so as to a s s i s t i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the congruency e f f e c t s noted i n the l a t e r s e c t i o n s o f t h i s c h a pter. Only those v a r i a b l e s where the d i f f e r e n c e s , i n d i s t r i b u t i o n were s t a t i s t i c a l l y 7 1 s i g n i f i c a n t are d i s c u s s e d . Of the 634 p a r t i c i p a n t s who completed the s o c i o -economic s e c t i o n o f the r e s e a r c h instrument, 34 8 (54.9 per cent) were male and 286 (45.1 per cent) female. There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f 2 p a r t i c i p a n t s by sex and program c e n t r e (x =49.9, df - 633, £)<.0001). N e a r l y two-thirds of those e n r o l l e d a t Langara were women (62.4 per cent) w h i l e t w o - t h i r d s (66.4 per cent) o f those e n r o l l e d a t E r i c Hamber were men. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e was expected as the program emphasis a t each c e n t r e d i f f e r s . The Hamber program p r o v i d e s t r a i n i n g i n Managerial S k i l l s and t h e r e f o r e a t t r a c t s i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h managerial a s p i r a t i o n s , the m a j o r i t y o f whom are male, while women are the most u s u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a ge n e r a l i n t e r e s t program such as t h a t o f f e r e d a t Langara. Four p a r t i c i p a n t s a t Langara were s i x -teen years o l d and two were 73, and the mean age f o r Langara p a r t i c i p a n t s was 34.9 and the median was 29.5. The youngest p a r t i c i p a n t i n the Hamber program was seventeen and the o l d -e s t 61 years o l d . The mean age f o r Hamber p a r t i c i p a n t s was 3 2.1 years and median 30.2 years o l d . Once again these d i f f e r e n c e s can be a s c r i b e d to the d i f f e r e n c e s i n program type, with the Hamber program a p p e a l i n g to a narrower age range o f i n d i v i d u a l s a t the s t a r t o f t h e i r managerial c a r e e r s . These were a l s o s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -ences between p a r t i c i p a n t s a t Hamber and Langara w i t h r e s p e c t to t h e i r " h i g h e s t e d u c a t i o n a l achievement", and the number of years completed o f f u l l - t i m e and p a r t - t i m e post-secondary t r a i n i n g . A t both c e n t r e s , the h i g h e s t e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e -ment r e p o r t e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s ranged from no formal s c h o o l i n g to those w i t h a u n i v e r s i t y degree plu s some o t h e r t e r t i a r y q u a l i f i c a t i o n . However i t would seem t h a t the ge n e r a l l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n was high e r f o r students e n r o l l e d i n the Langara program as more than 60 per cent o f the Langara p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d they had completed more than grade 12, compared w i t h 47 per cent o f those e n r o l l e d i n the Hamber program (p<.0001). Of the 99 p a r t i c i p a n t s a t Langara who had some f u l l - t i m e p o s t -secondary t r a i n i n g , 2 9.3 per cent had completed o n l y one year and 20.2 per cent r e p o r t e d completing more than f i v e years o f f u l l - t i m e post-secondary e d u c a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , 75 Langara p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d r e c e i v i n g some post-secondary t r a i n i n g on a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s , w i t h 3 5 completing one o r two ye a r s p a r t - t i m e and 31 completing f o u r o r more years o f p a r t - t i m e t r a i n i n g . There were 111 p a r t i c i p a n t s a t E r i c Hamber who re p o r t e d completing some f u l l - t i m e post-secondary t r a i n i n g , 63 o f whom had completed one or two years and 35 had completed f o u r years o r more. In a d d i t i o n , a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the Hamber program were e n r o l l e d i n a p a r t - t i m e c e r t i f i c a t e program, and 143 had completed a t l e a s t one year o f p a r t - t i m e p o s t -secondary study, 3 6 o f whom had completed more than f o u r years of p a r t - t i m e study. . Occupations r e p o r t e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s were coded a c c o r d i n g to the B l i s h e n o c c u p a t i o n a l index and those r a t i n g s ranged from Labourers, T r a n s p o r t a t i o n except Railway (index 7 3 #27.72) to P r o f e s s o r s and C o l l e g e P r i n c i p a l s (index #76.01). As would be expected there was.a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a -t i o n (r = .32, df= 505, p<.001) between h i g h e s t e d u c a t i o n a l achievement and the B l i s h e n index r a t i n g of the respondent's p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e as p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the Langara program had more formal post-secondary t r a i n i n g i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t they s c o r e d higher r a t i n g s on the 'Blishen index. The mean B l i s h e n s c o r e f o r Langara p a r t i c i p a n t s was 4 9.40 (median = 49.56) compared with a mean o f 47.27 and a median o f 4 6.95 f o r Hamber p a r t i c i p a n t s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between h i g h e s t e d u c a t i o n a l achievement and p e r s o n a l income ( r= .13,df = 595, p<.001) and gross f a m i l y income ( *= .01, df = 568,p< .03). However t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n was not s t r o n g enough to d i s c r i m i n a t e between the Hamber and Langara p o p u l a t i o n s . Langara p a r t i c i p a n t s tended to be younger than t h e i r Hamber c o u n t e r p a r t s , t h e r e f o r e i t seems l i k e l y . t h a t they would be a t an e a r l i e r stage i n t h e i r c a r e e r paths and would not be e n j o y i n g the maximum emoluments f o r the p o s i t i o n s they h o l d . The Hamber p a r t i c i p a n t s were o l d e r , would be expected to have lo n g e r employment h i s t o r i e s , and t h e r e f o r e more l i k e l y to r e c e i v e h i g h e r s a l a r i e s . Therefore, d e s p i t e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f -f e rences between the two groups w i t h r e s p e c t to r a t i n g s on the B l i s h e n Index, and obvious c o r r e l a t i o n s between the B l i s h e n r a t i n g s and income l e v e l s , as the Langara p a r t i c i p a n t s had not y e t maximized t h e i r e a r n i n g p o t e n t i a l , t h e i r a c t u a l income l e v e l s d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from t h e i r Hamber 74 c o u n t e r p a r t s . P a r t i c 1 pa n't- I n s t r u e t o r I n c o n g r u e n c e R e c a l l t h a t i n F i g . 3 a d i s t i n c t i o n was drawn between t h e e f f e c t s o f s i n g l e and d o u b l e ( c o n g r u e n c e ) v a r i a b l e s w h i c h were c l a s s i f i e d a s b e i n g s t a t i c ( e . g . age) o r dynamic ( e . g . p r e f e r r e d " s t y l e " ) . V a r i a b l e s c l a s s i f i e d i n q u a d r a n t s 3 and 4 o f F i g . 3 r e q u i r e d t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s . T h e r e were c a l c u l a t e d t o p r o v i d e a measure o f m a g n i t u d e o f t h e i n c o n g r u e n c e between p a r t i c i p a n t s and t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r s . The l a r g e r t h e d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e t h e g r e a t e r t h e d e g r e e o f i n c o n -g r u e n c e . T h e s e s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d by s u b t r a c t i n g t h e i n s t r u c t o r ' s s c o r e f r o m t h e p a r t i c i p a n t ' s s c o r e , t h e r e f o r e , when i n t e r p r e t i n g a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s , a n e g a t i v e number i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e I n s t r u c t o r had a h i g h e r s c o r e t h a n t h e s t u d e n t f o r t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . The s i t u a t i o n c a n be i l l u s t r a t e d a s f o l l o w s : I n s t r u c t o r J o n e s was 63 y e a r s o l d . P a r t i c i p a n t S m i t h was 4 0 y e a r s o l d . Thus t h e a g e - d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e , w h i c h has no r e g a r d t o s i g n ( i . e . w h e t h e r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t o r t h e i n s t r u c t o r i s o l d e r o r y o u n g e r ) was 23. The " a c t u a l - d i f f e r e n c e " s c o r e , w h i c h has r e g a r d t o t h e s i g n ( i . e . t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e ) was -23 i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e i n s t r u c t o r was 23 y e a r s o l d e r t h a n p a r t i c i p a n t J o n e s . 75 DISCREPANCY ACTUAL ("CONGRUENCE") DIFFERENCE SCORE SCORE 63 y r s . 40 y r s . 23 yrs:. -23 y r s . Table 5 prese n t s d i s c r e p a n c y scores f o r v a r i a b l e s shown i n quadrant 3 of F i g . 3. A l s o shown are L e a r n i n g and I n s t r u c -t i o n a l S t y l e Index d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s c l a s s i f i e d i n quadrant 4 of F i g . 3. I n s t r u c t o r s tended to be o l d e r than the p a r t i c i p a n t s , but the age d i f f e r e n c e s ranged c o n s i d e r a b l y . Two p a r t i c i p a n t s were 4 7 years younger than t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r s , and one p a r t i c i -pant was 50 years o l d e r . The a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e mean was -10.39 years w i t h a standard d e v i a t i o n o f 16.93, w h i l e the d i s c r e p a n c y score mean was 16.25. In g e n e r a l , the i n s t r u c t o r s had more e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s than t h e i r p a r t i c i p a n t s . A c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s ranged from -7 to 5 wit h a mean o f -1.73 (S.D. 1.89), w h i l e the d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e mean was 2.11 on the o r d i n a l s c a l e o f h i g h e s t e d u c a t i o n a l achievement. T h i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the average of the a b s o l u t e d i f f e r e n c e between p a r t i c i p a n t ' s and t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r ' s scores o f e d u c a t i o n a l achievement was 2.11 on the s c a l e . I n s t r u c t o r s tended to have hi g h e r 'highest e d u c a t i o n a l achievement 1 s c o r e s and thus more years o f f u l l - t i m e and p a r t - t i m e t r a i n i n g than the p a r t i c i p a n t s . However, there was c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a n c e i n these s c o r e s , from 114 cases where the i n s t r u c t o r had a t l e a s t f i v e years more f u l l - t i m e post-secondary t r a i n i n g than d i d the p a r t i c i p a n t , AGE I n s t r u c t o r P a r t i c i p a n t Jones Smith to ten p a r t i c i p a n t s who had f i v e years more than t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r . The a c t u a l mean was -1.59, which i n d i c a t e s t h a t on average the i n s t r u c t o r s had r e c e i v e d 1.59 more years of f u l l - t i m e t r a i n i n g than t h e i r students, w h i l e the average o f d i s c r e p a n c y scores was 2.11. There was a s i m i l a r range r e -por t e d f o r years of p a r t - t i m e post-secondary t r a i n i n g , w i t h 93 p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t i n g a t l e a s t f i v e years t r a i n i n g l e s s than t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r and nine p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d f i v e y ears more p a r t - t i m e t r a i n i n g than d i d t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r . The a c t u a l mean d i f f e r e n c e i n number of years p a r t - t i m e p o s t -secondary t r a i n i n g was -1.99 years w h i l e the mean d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e was 2.56 ye a r s . As the i n s t r u c t o r s tended to be o l d e r and had more education, they a l s o tended to achieve h i g h e r B l i s h e n r a t i n g s o f t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s . The d i f f e r e n c e i n B l i s h e n r a t i n g s ranged from -45.98 to 25.86 w i t h an a c t u a l mean d i s c r e p a n c y score o f 14.30. There was a s i m i l a r t r e n d noted w i t h r e s p e c t to the d i f f e r e n c e s i n income l e v e l s . One p a r t i c i p a n t r e p o r t e d e a r n i n g $25,000 l e s s than the i n s t r u c t o r , and one r e p o r t e d e a r n i n g between $20,000 and $25,000 more than the i n s t r u c t o r . The a c t u a l mean d i f f e r e n c e was -2.31 p o i n t s on the s c a l e which would i n d i c a t e t h a t on average the i n s t r u c -t o r s earned about $4,000 more than the p a r t i c i p a n t s . The mean d i s c r e p a n c y score was 3.71, which i n d i c a t e s t h a t the average t o t a l d i s c r e p a n c y among i n s t r u c t o r s and p a r t i c i p a n t s was 3.71 p o i n t s on the s c a l e , or between $6,000 and $8,000. The e x t e n t to which there was congruence between the i n s t r u c t o r ' s and p a r t i c i p a n t ' s a t t i t u d e s towards l e a r n i n g ^ 77 TABLE 5 COMPARISON OF ACTUAL MEAN DIFFERENCES AND DISCREPANCY SCORE MEANS BETWEEN PARTICIPANTS AND THEIR INSTRUCTORS Discrepancy Actual .Score Variable n Range Mean Mean Age 594 -47 to 50 -10. 39 16. 23 Highest Educational Achievement 602 - 7 to 5 - 1. 73 2. 11 Number of Children 554 - 5 to 7 - 0. 92 1. 79 Yrs. Full-Time Post-Secondary 441 - 5 to 5 - 1. 59 2. 40 Yrs. Part-Time Post-Secondary 469 - 5 to 5 - 1. 99 2. 56 Blishen Rating of Occupation 455 -45.98 to 25. 86 -12. 95 14. 30 Personal Income 567 -12 to 11 - 2. 31 3. 71 Total Family Income 508 -12 to 10 - 3. 20 4. 32 LISI 605 -1.24 to 3. 29 - 0. 42 1. 12 and i n s t r u c t i o n was defined as the discrepancy between instr u c t o r and pa r t i c i p a n t LISI scores. These differences ranged from -4.24 to 3.29. The mean difference was -.43, which indicates that the instructors achieved higher scores on LISI than did th e i r p a r t i c i p a n t s . The mean discrepancy score was 1.12, which indicates that on average the magnitude of difference among participant's and the i r instructor's LISI scores was 1.12 points, on the 9 point LISI scale. These data suggest that instructors reported a s l i g h t l y greater preference for student-centred i n s t r u c t i o n a l styles than did 78 t h e i r p a r t i c i p a n t s . DATA ANALYSIS PHASE THREE T h e r e were t h r e e h y p o t h e s e s p r o p o s e d f o r t h i s s t u d y and t h e s e a r e examined i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s ; L e a r n e r S a t i s f a c t i o n and L e a r n i n g and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e I n c o n g r u e n c e , L e a r n e r P e r s i s t e n c e and L e a r n i n g and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e I n c o n g r u e n c e , L e a r n i n g A c h i e v e m e n t and L e a r n i n g and I n s t r u c -t i o n a l S t y l e I n c o n g r u e n c e . L e a r n e r S a t i s f a c t i o n and L e a r n i n g and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e I n c o n g r u ehc e The f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t : " D i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s between i n s t r u c t o r and l e a r n e r a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l be n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n " . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was i n v e s t i g a t e d by c o r r e l a t i n g L I S I d i s c r e -p a n c y s c o r e s w i t h L e a r n e r S a t i s f a c t i o n I n d ex s c o r e s . A l t h o u g h a s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n was e x p e c t e d none r e s u l t e d so t h e h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d . The c o r r e l a t i o n ( P e a r s o n product-moment) between L I S I d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s and L e a r n e r S a t i s f a c t i o n I n d ex s c o r e s was .04 w h i c h was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . T h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n L e a r n e r S a t i s f a c t i o n Index s c o r e s and b o t h t h e I n s t r u c t o r ' s (r= .13, df~ 601, p< .001) a n d p a r t i c i p a n t ' s ( r = .11, df= 634, p< .003) L I S I s c o r e s . T h u s i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t h i g h L I S I s c o r e s b y e i t h e r i n s t r u c t o r s o r p a r t i c i p a n t s , w h i c h w o u l d i n d i c a t e p r e f e r e n c e s f o r s t u d e n t - c e n t r e d t e a c h i n g s t y l e s , a r e p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e c l a s s . A s i n -s t r u c t o r s t e n d e d t o h a v e h i g h e r L I S I s c o r e s t h a n t h e i r s t u d e n t s w h e n d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s w e r e c a l c u l a t e d , p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h h i g h L I S I s c o r e s w o u l d h a v e l o w e r d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s . T h i s n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n l e a r n e r s L I S I s c o r e s a n d t h e L I S I d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s w a s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (r= -0.249, df= 604, p<.001). T h u s l e a r n e r s w i t h h i g h L I S I s c o r e s h a v e l o w d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s ( a n d a r e w e l l s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e ) w h i l e t h o s e w i t h l o w L I S I s c o r e s h a v e l a r g e r d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s ( a n d a r e l e s s s a t i s f i e d ) . T h e r e w a s a l s o a n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n L e a r n e r S a t i s -f a c t i o n I n d e x a n d L I S I a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e s . W h i l e t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w a s n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , i t m i g h t s u g g e s t t h a t l e a r n e r s w h o r e c o r d e d h i g h e r L I S I s c o r e s t h a n t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r s w e r e l e s s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e l e a r n i n g e x p e r -i e n c e t h a n w e r e p a r t i c i p a n t s w h o a c h i e v e d l o w e r L I S I s c o r e s t h a n t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r . T h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t c o n g r u e n c e b e t w e e n t h e l e a r n e r ' s p r e f e r r e d l e a r n i n g s t y l e a n d t h e i n s t r u c t o r ' s t e a c h i n g s t y l e w o u l d r e s u l t i n i n c r e a s e d L e a r n e r S a t i s f a c t i o n w a s n o t c o n f i r m e d . C l e a r l y t h e r e w e r e a n u m b e r o f f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g a n d c o n f o u n d i n g t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h e c o r r e l a -t i o n s s u g g e s t t h a t l e a r n e r s w h o p r e f e r s t u d e n t - c e n t r e d 80 TABLE 6 PEARSON'S CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS: INSTRUCTOR, LEARNER, AND DISCREPANCY L I S I SCORES AND LEARNER-SATISFACTION INDEX Learners I n s t r u c t o r s LISI LSI LISI LISI Discrepancy Learners LISI .11*** I n s t r u c t o r s L I S I .13** -0.04* LISI Discrepancy .04* -0.25** 0.22** LISI A c t u a l .02* 0.73** -0.72** -0.33** D i f f e r e n c e * df = 60 2, p> .1 ** df = 602, p<.001 *** df = 635, p<.003 environments are not l i k e l y to enjoy an a u t h o r i t a r i a n i n s t r u c -t o r , w h i l e l e a r n e r s who i n d i c a t e they p r e f e r an i n s t r u c t o r -c e n t r e d environment may be w e l l s a t i s f i e d by a s t u d e n t - c e n t r e d i n s t r u c t o r . The c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x produced d u r i n g the t e s t of Hypothesis One r e v e a l e d a l a r g e number of c o r r e l a t i o n s • between Learner S a t i s f a c t i o n Index scores and v a r i a b l e s shown i n a l l quadrants of F i g . 3. The matrix a l s o c o n t a i n e d a l a r g e number of a p p a r e n t l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n s so i t was not c l e a r i f v a r i a b l e s (other than LISI scores) had m u l t i p l e or p a r t i a l e f f e c t s on l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n . In an e f f o r t to u n r a v e l the complex v a r i a b l e i n t e r a c t i o n s which e x p l a i n l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n i t was d e c i d e d to employ a r e g r e s s i o n equation w i t h Learner S a t i s f a c t i o n Index scores as the depend-ent and a l l other a v a i l a b l e measures (quadrant 1-4) as i n d e -pendent v a r i a b l e s . In a d d i t i o n , o t h e r r e g r e s s i o n analyses 81 were performed i n order to i d e n t i f y whether or not socio-economic congruence or incongruence between Learner and Instructor could also be confounding the hypothesized r e l a t i o n -ship between Learning and Instructional Style discrepancy scores and Learner S a t i s f a c t i o n . F i r s t a stepwise regression analysis was conducted with learners LISI score (quadrant 2) as the dependent variable and a l l the learners socio-economic variables inde-pendent (quadrant 1). The following four variables: highest educational achievement, age, attendance and years high school completed, were selected during the f i r s t four steps and to-gether produced an v of .412, while a l l the socio-economic 2 variables considered together increased the v value by only TABLE 7 SUMMARY OF REGRESSION ANALYSIS TO PREDICT LEARNERS PREFERRED LEARNING AND INSTRUCTIONAL -STYLE - LISI SCORE DEPENDENT VARIABLE V 2 r Beta Highest Educational Achievement 0. 25 0. .063 0 . 22 Age 0. 34 0 . 112 -0 .19 Attendance 0. 37 0 . 149 -0 .16 Years High School Completed 0. 41 0. .170 0 .15 Analysis of Variance: Regression Against Residual F = 6.28, p < .001 82 0.0189 f o r a t o t a l r2 v a l u e o f 0.1885. T a b l e 7 s h o w s t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t p r e f e r e n c e f o r s t u d e n t - c e n t r e d l e a r n i n g a n d i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e s h a d h i g h e r l e v e l s o f e d u c a -t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t , w e r e y o u n g e r , a t t e n d e d l e s s , a n d h a d c o m -p l e t e d m o r e y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g t h a n p a r t i c i p a n t s w h o p r e f e r r e d m o r e i n s t r u c t o r - c e n t r e d l e a r n i n g a n d i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e s . T h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s w i t h L I S I d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s ( q u a d r a n t 4) a s t h e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e a n d a l l v a r i a b l e s i n q u a d r a n t s 1-3 r e s u l t e d i n a s i m i l a r s e t o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s b e i n g I d e n t i f i e d a s p r e d i c t o r s o f L I S I d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s ( T a b l e 8 ) . I n s t r u c t o r ' s i n c o m e , h i g h e s t e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s , i n s t r u c t o r ' s a g e , y e a r s f u l l -t i m e p o s t - s e c o n d a r y t r a i n i n g a n d i n c o m e d i s c r e p a n c y w e r e t h e T A B L E 8 S U M M A R Y O F R E G R E S S I O N A N A L Y S I S : L I S I D I S C R E P A N C Y S C O R E D E P E N D E N T V A R I A B L E Q u a d r a n t M u l t i p l e T. 2 T. B e t a I n s t r u c t o r ' s P e r s o n a l I n c o m e 1 0.33 0. 108 -0.35 H i g h e s t E d u c a t i o n a l A c h i e v e m e n t D i s c r e p a n c y S c o r e 3 0.43 0. 188 0.37 I n s t r u c t o r ' s A g e 1 0.47 0. 222 -0.30 Y e a r s F u l l - T i m e P o s t - S e c . T r a i n i n g 1 0.49 0. 241 0.17 P e r s o n a l I n c o m e D i s c r e p a n c y . . 3 0.51 .0. 261 0.15 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e : R e g r e s s i o n A g a i n s t R e s i d u a l F - 8.62, p < .001 83 v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d d u r i n g the f i r s t f i v e steps of the a n a l y -2 s i s . Together they produce an r o f 0.51 (r = 0.26). Learners S a t i s f a c t i o n Index sco r e was not i n c l u d e d i n the equation u n t i l s t e p 29. I t would seem t h a t these socio-economic c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s (quadrant 1) and d i f f e r e n c e s (quadrant 3) are more powerful p r e d i c t o r s o f LISI and LISI d i s c r e p a n c y scores than i s Learner S a t i s f a c t i o n s c o r e . As i t seemed l i k e l y t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may a l s o p r e d i c t Learner S a t i s f a c t i o n Index s c o r e s , another r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was conducted w i t h Learner S a t i s f a c t i o n Index score as the dependent v a r i a b l e . The 33 v a r i a b l e s produced a m u l t i p l e r of .61 and accounted TABLE 9 SUMMARY OF REGRESSION ANALYSIS: LEARNER SATISFACTION INDEX SCORE DEPENDENT VARIABLE Quadrant M u l t i p l e V 2 V Beta Instructors Total Personal Income 1 .17 .03 1.42 Attendance Score 1 . 26 .06 .07 Years Full-Time Post-Sec. Training 1 .31 .09 -0.09 Years Part-Time Post-Sec. Training 1 .35 . 13 .19 Instructors Occupation 1 .38 .14 -1.87 Instructors LISI Score 3 .41 .17 1.99 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e : Regression A g a i n s t R e s i d u a l F = 4.05, p<.001 84 f o r 37 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e o n L e a r n e r S a t i s f a c t i o n I n d e x s c o r e s . T h e i n s t r u c t o r v a r i a b l e s o f p e r s o n a l i n c o m e , o c c u p a t i o n a n d L I S I s c o r e , w i t h l e a r n e r v a r i a b l e s o f a t t e n d a n c e , y e a r s f u l l - t i m e a n d y e a r s p a r t - t i m e p o s t - s e c o n d a r y t r a i n i n g p r o d u c e d a m u l t i p l e v. o f . 4 1 a n d a c c o u n t e d f o r 17 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e i n L e a r n e r S a t i s f a c t i o n I n d e x s c o r e s . W h i l e v a r i o u s i n s t r u c t o r a n d l e a r n e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w e r e m o d e r a t e l y p o w e r f u l p r e d i c t o r s o f b o t h L I S I a n d L e a r n e r S a t i s -f a c t i o n I n d e x s c o r e s , L e a r n e r S a t i s f a c t i o n I n d e x s c o r e s d i d n o t a p p e a r t o p r e d i c t L I S I i n c o n g r u e n c e t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t c o u l d b e e x p e c t e d f r o m p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h . L e a r n e r P e r s i s t e n c e a n d L e a r n i n g a n d I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e I n c o n g r u e ' n c e T h e s e c o n d h y p o t h e s i s p r o p o s e d t h a t : " D i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s b e t w e e n i n s t r u c t o r a n d l e a r n e r a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s l e a r n i n g a n d i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l b e n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h l e a r n e r p e r s i s t e n c e " . A s s o m e c l a s s e s w e r e t e n a n d o t h e r s t h i r t e e n s e s s i o n s l o n g , a t t e n d a n c e s c o r e w a s e x p r e s s e d a s t h e n u m b e r o f c l a s s e s a t t e n d e d a s a p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f c l a s s e s . T h e h y p o -t h e s i z e d n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n L I S I d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s a n d a t t e n d a n c e w a s o b s e r v e d (r= - . 0 6 , df= 4 9 0 , . 0 5 < p < . 10) . S i g n i f i c a n c e a t t h e . 0 5 l e v e l w a s n o t o b t a i n e d s o t h e h y p o -t h e s i s w a s r e j e c t e d . H o w e v e r i t c o u l d a l s o h a v e b e e n h y p o t h -e s i z e d t h a t ' i n a s t u d e n t - c e n t r e d l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t t h e r e w o u l d b e l e s s e m p h a s i s a n d i m p o r t a n c e a t t r i b u t e d t o 85 a t t e n d a n c e i n c l a s s , and t h e r e f o r e t h e r e w o u l d be a n ' e g a t i k e r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t e n d a n c e and p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s s t u d e n t - c e n t r e d l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t . A s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i -f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n was o b s e r v e d between a t t e n d a n c e s c o r e s a n d b o t h l e a r n e r s L I S I s c o r e ( r= -.12, n = 521, p < . 003) and i n s t r u c t o r s L I S I s c o r e s ( r = -.16, n= 490, p ^ . O O l ) . T h e r e f o r e , l e a r n e r s who i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y p r e f e r r e d a s t u d e n t - c e n t r e d l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a t t e n d e d c l a s s l e s s t h a n t h o s e s t u d e n t s who o b t a i n e d low L I S I s c o r e s . F u r t h e r , i t w o u l d seem t h a t l e a r n e r s e n r o l l e d i n c l a s s e s t a u g h t by i n s t r u c t o r s who c r e a t e d an i n s t r u c t o r - c e n t r e d l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t , a t t e n d e d more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n p a r t i c i p a n t s e n r o l l e d i n c l a s s e s t a u g h t b y i n s t r u c t o r s w i t h h i g h L I S I s c o r e s . However, as t h e s e s t a t i s -t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were n o t o b s e r v e d t o t h e same d e g r e e when t h e L I S I d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d , i t w o u l d seem t h a t t h e f o r m u l a u s e d t o measure t h e c o n g r u e n c e between i n s t r u c t o r a n d s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e i n t r o d u c e d e r r o r t h a t d e c r e a s e d t h e s i g n i -f i c a n c e o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n any one c l a s s i t w o u l d be e x p e c t e d t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h h i g h L I S I s c o r e s w o u l d a t t e n d l e s s r e g u l a r l y t h a n w o u l d p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h low L I S I s c o r e s . F u r t h e r , p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h h i g h L I S I s c o r e s e n r o l l e d i n a c l a s s t a u g h t by an i n s t r u c t o r w i t h low L I S I s c o r e s w o u l d have h i g h d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s and low a t t e n d a n c e . W h i l e s t u d e n t s w i t h h i g h L I S I s c o r e s e n r o l l e d i n a c l a s s t a u g h t by an i n s t r u c t o r w i t h h i g h L I S I s c o r e s w o u l d have low d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s (and low a t t e n d a n c e ) a n d v i c e v e r s a . I t 86 was the i n t e n t df t h i s study to i d e n t i f y whether or not con-gruence pep se between i n s t r u c t o r s and l e a r n e r s would e f f e c t attendance. While a ne g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p was observed, i n c o n -gruence between l e a r n e r s and t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r w i t h r e s p e c t to l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e was l e s s r e l a t e d to attendance than t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l p r e f e r e n c e s w i t h r e s p e c t to l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e . To i d e n t i f y the socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t may a s s i s t i n p r e d i c t i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' attendance i n c l a s s , a r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was conducted w i t h attendance score the dependent v a r i a b l e , and the student, i n s t r u c t o r and d i s c r e p a n c y socio-economic v a r i a b l e s independent (quadrants 1-4). As can be seen i n Table 11, i n s t r u c t o r s ' r a t i n g o f p a r t i c i p a n t s ' l e a r n i n g achievement, i n s t r u c t o r ' s income, years of hig h s c h o o l completed and d i s c r e p a n c y i n age, together accounted f o r 57 per cen t o f the v a r i a n c e i n attendance s c o r e w i t h the i n s t r u c t o r s r a t i n g o f p a r t i c i p a n t s ' l e a r n i n g achievement alone TABLE 10 PEARSON'S CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS: ATTENDANCE SCORE WITH INSTRUCTOR, LEARNER AND DISCREPANCY LISI SCORES Learner I n s t r u c t o r LISI LISI A c t u a l LISI LISI Discrepancy D i f f e r e n c e Attendance Score -.12* -.16** -.06*** .01*** * df = 521, p< .003; **df = 490, * * * p<.001; n o t s i g n i f i c a n t 87 T A B L E 11 S U M M A R Y O F R E G R E S S I O N A N A L Y S I S : A T T E N D A N C E S C O R E D E P E N D E N T V A R I A B L E M u l t i p l e Q u a d r a n t r B e t a R a t i n g o f S t u d e n t A c h i e v e m e n t 2 I n s t r u c t o r s P e r s o n a l I n c o m e 1 Y e a r s H i g h S c h o o l C o m p l e t e d 1 A g e D i s c r e p a n c y S c o r e 3 64 69 ,73 .75 . 41 .48 . 53 . 57 .51 .48 - . 2 1 . 24 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e : R e g r e s s i o n A g a i n s t R e s i d u a l V a r i a n c e F = 4 0 . 1 4 , p < . 0 0 0 1 a c c o u n t i n g f o r 4 1 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t l e a r n e r s w h o a t t e n d c l a s s e s f r e q u e n t l y a r e m o r e f a v o u r -a b l y e v a l u a t e d b y t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r t h a n a r e t h o s e w h o d o n o t . I n s t r u c t o r s w o u l d a p p e a r t o h a v e f a v o u r e d t h o s e p a r t i c i p a n t s t h e y s a w m o s t f r e q u e n t l y , o r t h a t a t t e n d a n c e i n c l a s s c o n t r i -b u t e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e ' m a r k s ' a w a r d e d . T h e o t h e r v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n ; i n s t r u c t o r ' s p e r s o n a l i n c o m e , y e a r s h i g h s c h o o l c o m p l e t e d a n d a g e d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e m a y b e r e l a t e d t o t h e d e g r e e o f c o n g r u e n c e b e t w e e n t h e l e a r n e r a n d i n s t r u c t o r . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n s t r u c t o r s ' i n c o m e w a s i n c l u d e d d u r i n g t h e s e c o n d s t e p o f t h e r e g r e s s i o n . P a r t i c i p a n t s a t t e n d e d c l a s s m o r e r e g u l a r l y w h e n t a u g h t b y a h i g h i n c o m e i n s t r u c t o r , p e r h a p s b e c a u s e i n c o m e p r o v i d e d a n i n d i c a t i o n o f s t a t u s w h i c h t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s r e s p e c t . T h i s f i n d i n g w a s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h o s e o f S i m o n s , B e r k o w i t z a n d M o y e r ( 1 9 7 0 ) w h o n o t e d t h a t r e l e v a n t d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s t h a t e n h a n c e t h e 88 ' c r e d i b i l i t y of the source such as professional status' would f a c i l i t a t e attitude change. It i s int e r e s t i n g to,note that LISI discrepancy score was included i n the regression equation during step s i x (multiple r .78) and Learner Sa t i s -f a c t i o n Index score on step nine (multiple r .81). Learning Achievement and Learning and Instructional Style Incongruence The t h i r d hypothesis suggested that: "Discrepancy scores between instructor and learner attitudes towards learning and i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l be negatively correlated with the instructor's perception of the learner's learning achievement". Therefore LISI discrepancy scores should be negatively corre-lated with the mark awarded the student by the ins t r u c t o r , expressed as a percentage and referred to as 'learning score'. It should be noted that learning score was a subjective measure derived by requesting instructors to evaluate and rank each participant's learning achievement, and may not accurately r e f l e c t the participant's actual achievement. The c o r r e l a t i o n between LISI discrepancy and the instructor's evaluation of the student was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (v - -.005, df - 4 94, p<.49) and therefore t h i s hypothesis was not con-firmed. This hypothesis should not be rejected altogether as there was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t negative c o r r e l a t i o n between learning score and LISI actual difference socres ( r = -.12,. d f — 494, p<.003). This would suggest that when 89 t h e p a r t i c i p a n t L I S I s c o r e s were h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e i n s t r u c t o r , t h e i n s t r u c t o r d i d n o t award a h i g h l e a r n i n g s c o r e , w h i l e when t h e i n s t r u c t o r ' s L I S I s c o r e was h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t , p a r t i c i p a n t s were awarded h i g h l e a r n i n g s c o r e s . T h e r e f o r e i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e i n c o n g r u e n c e and n o t j u s t t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e i n c o n g r u e n c e i n L I S I s c o r e s may be an a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i n s t r u c t o r ' s a p p r a i s a l o f l e a r n e r ' s p e r f o r m a n c e . F u r t h e r , t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p o b s e r v e d between t h e l e a r n e r ' s L I S I and l e a r n i n g s c o r e s ( r-= -.02, df= 525, p < .33) so i t w o u l d seem t h a t a l e a r n e r ' s p r e f e r r e d l e a r n i n g s t y l e was n o t r e l a t e d t o t h e i n s t r u c t o r ' s e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e l e a r n e r . However, t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n b e tween i n s t r u c t o r s ' L I S I s c o r e s and l e a r n i n g s c o r e s ( r- .17, n = 495, p<.001), w h i c h w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t s t u d e n t - c e n t r e d i n s t r u c t o r s t e n d e d t o r a t e t h e i r p a r t i c i p a n t s more f a v o u r a b l y t h a n d i d t h e i r more t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h e r - c e n t r e d c o l l e a g u e s . TABLE 12 PEARSON'S CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS: . LEARNING ,SCORE WITH LEARNER, INSTRUCTOR AND DISCREPANCY L I S I SCORES L e a r n e r I n s t r u c t o r D i s c r e p a n c y L I S I A c t u a l L I S I L I S I L I S I D i f f e r e n c e L e a r n i n g S c o r e 0.02* .17*** -.00* -.12** •k ~k ~k "k "k ~k n o t s i g n i f i c a n t ; df = 495, p<.003; df = 495, p< .001 90 TABLE 13 SUMMARY OF REGRESSION ANALYSIS: LEARNING SCORE DEPENDENT VARIABLE Q u a d r a n t M u l t i p l e T 2 r B e t a Attendance Score 1 . 64 .41 .73 Age Discrepancy 3 .67 .44 -.29 Years Part-Time Post-Sec. Discrepancy 3 .68 .47 .08 Years High School Completed 1 . 70 . 49 .13 Highest Educational Achievement Discrepancy 3 .71 . 51 -.13 A n a l y s i s o f V a r i a n c e : R e g r e s s i o n A g a i n s t R e s i d u a l F = 25.36, pC.001 I t was a l s o n o t e d t h a t i n s t r u c t o r s f a v o u r a b l y r a t e t h o s e l e a r n e r s who a t t e n d c l a s s most r e g u l a r l y , as t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between a t t e n d a n c e and l e a r n i n g s c o r e (r= .49, n = 503, p < . 0 0 1 ) . S a t i s f i e d s t u d e n t s ( h i g h e r L e a r n e r S a t i s f a c t i o n I n d e x s c o r e s ) were t h e m s e l v e s r a t e d f a v o u r a b l y by t h e i n s t r u c t o r ( r> = .20, df= 524, p { .001). As i t seemed t h a t i n s t r u c t o r - l e a r n e r c o n g r u e n c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e was n o t t h e o n l y f a c t o r w h i c h d e t e r m i n e d i n s t r u c t o r ' s r a t i n g o f s t u d e n t a c h i e v e -ment a r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was c o n d u c t e d t o i d e n t i f y v a r i a b l e s p r e d i c t i n g l e a r n i n g s c o r e ( T a b l e 1 3 ) . A t t e n d a n c e s c o r e , age, and y e a r s o f p a r t - t i m e p o s t - s e c o n d a r y t r a i n i n g d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s , y e a r s h i g h s c h o o l c o m p l e t e d , a n d h i g h e s t e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e a c c o u n t e d f o r 51 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e ( m u l t i p l e v .71), o f w h i c h a t t e n d a n c e s c o r e a l o n e a c c o u n t e d f o r 41 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e . I t i s n o t a b l e t h a t t h e r e w a s a s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n a g e d i s -c r e p a n c y a n d l e a r n i n g s c o r e ( r = -.15, df = 486, p<.001), b u t n o s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e i n a g e s a n d l e a r n i n g s c o r e ( r = .05, df= 486, pK.,12)'. T h u s i n s t r u c t o r s r a t e d l e a r n e r s w h o w e r e t h e s a m e a g e a s t h e m s e l v e s m o r e f a v o u r a b l y t h a n t h o s e w h o w e r e e i t h e r y o u n g e r o r o l d e r . 92 CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUMMARY Thi s c o n c l u d i n g chapter Is d i v i d e d i n t o two major s e c t i o n s : 1) Conclusions and Recommendations, and 2) Summary. In the f i r s t s e c t i o n the c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t can be drawn from t h i s study are presented and d i s c u s s e d , as are the i m p l i c a t i o n s and recommendations f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . In the second s e c t i o n the purpose, methodology and r e s u l t s are b r i e f l y r e i t e r a t e d . CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS The f i r s t c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t are presented concern i n -struments developed f o r t h i s study. The second s e t of conclusions presented concern the i n f l u e n c e o f l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e congruence on l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n , l e a r n e r p e r s i s t e n c e and l e a r n e r achievement. Ins trumenta t i o n . There were three components to„the r e s e a r c h instrument developed to c o l l e c t the data f o r t h i s study; l e a r n e r s a t i s -f a c t i o n index, l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e index, and a socio-economic q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The procedure adopted to develop the Learner S a t i s f a c t i o n Index and the L e a r n i n g and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S t y l e Index (LISI) was designed to ensure the face v a l i d i t y o f these i n d i c e s as a number of expert judges c o n t r i b u t e d to the s e l e c t i o n and p h r a s i n g of the items. Both these L i k e r t - t y p e instruments appeared to be u n i d i m e n s i o n a l with r e s p e c t to the f i r s t u n r o t a t e d f a c t o r (see Tables 1, 2, 3, 4), t h e r e f o r e , i t was concluded t h a t a t o t a l index score c o u l d be o b t a i n e d by summing the scores on the i n d i v i d u a l items. Other i n d i c a t o r s of the v a l i d i t y of these instruments were sought d u r i n g the data c o l l e c t i o n phase o f the study. The s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a -t i o n between Learner's S a t i s f a c t i o n Index and Learner Attendance (r= .11, df= 519, p< .006) i s o f f e r e d as an i n d i c a t i o n o f the v a l i d i t y o f the Learner's S a t i s f a c t i o n Index, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t u n s a t i s f i e d a d u l t s w i l l a t t e n d c l a s s l e s s f r e q u e n t l y than those who are p l e a s e d w i t h t h e i r l e a r n i n g experience. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between L I S I and Learner's age ( v = .29, df = 627, p<.001), and between LISI and h i g h e s t e d u c a t i o n a l achievement (v = .17, df" 634, p<.001). Both these r e l a t i o n s h i p s p r o v i d e p o s i t i v e i n d i c a t i o n s o f LISI v a l i d i t y . The r e l i a b i l i t y o f both i n d i c e s and the s o c i o -economic s e c t i o n o f the r e s e a r c h instrument was checked by the t e s t - r e t e s t method on a sample from another p o p u l a t i o n p r i o r to implementation of the study. A l l u n r e l i a b l e items were d e l e t e d . The procedures adopted d u r i n g the development of the r e s e a r c h instrument to ensure i t s v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y and 94 the subsequent o b s e r v a t i o n s are by no means exhaustive; never-t h e l e s s , i t was concluded t h a t the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f the instrument and the two i n d i c e s t h e r e i n was s u f f i c i e n t to t e s t the hypotheses developed f o r t h i s study. There are few v a l i d and r e l i a b l e r e s e a r c h instruments i n the f i e l d o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and the development o f such instruments should be a r e s e a r c h p r i o r i t y . In p a r t i c u l a r , an instrument t h a t can measure an i n s t r u c t o r ' s t e a c h i n g s t y l e w ithout r e q u i r i n g time consuming classroom o b s e r v a t i o n would be most u s e f u l , both f o r r e s e a r c h e r s and program a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . The l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e index should be developed f u r t h e r and more evidence sought as to i t s v a l i d i t y and r e l i -a b i l i t y to determine whether i n s t r u c t o r t e a c h i n g s t y l e can be p r e d i c t e d from L I S I s c o r e . Learner S a t i s f a c t i o n The f i r s t h ypothesis s t a t e d t h a t : "Discrepancy s c o r e between i n s t r u c t o r and l e a r n e r ' s a t t i t u d e towards l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l be n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d with l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n " . This hypothesis was r e j e c t e d . I t seems l i k e l y t h a t t h i s h ypothesis was not confirmed as a r e s u l t of i n t e r a c t i o n s b e t -ween L I S I scores and l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n . There were s i g n i -f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n and both l e a r n e r ' s and i n s t r u c t o r ' s L I S I s c o r e s . T h i s would suggest t h a t l e a r n e r s who p r e f e r s t u d e n t - c e n t r e d environments r a t e d t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r s more f a v o u r a b l y than those who p r e f e r to be d i r e c t e d by the i n s t r u c t o r . I n s t r u c t o r s w i t h h i g h L I S I scores (which i n d i c a t e t h a t they have a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward s t u d e n t - c e n t r e d i n s t r u c t i o n ) g e n e r a l l y had more s a t i s -f i e d p a r t i c i p a n t s than d i d i n s t r u c t o r s who assumed a more t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l r o l e as i n d i c a t e d by low LISI s c o r e s . I t i s l i k e l y t h a t the method adopted to measure congruence (discrepancy score) between i n s t r u c t o r ' s and l e a r n e r ' s LISI scores confounded these i n d i v i d u a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . F o r i n s t a n c e , c o n s i d e r the e f f e c t s o f the f o l l o w i n g l e a r n e r -i n s t r u c t o r p a i r s w i t h an i n s t r u c t o r who has a h i g h L I S I : a l e a r n e r w i t h a high LISI score, which i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n , would have a low measure of i n s t r u c t o r -l e a r n e r incongruence; w h i l e a l e a r n e r w i t h a low L I S I s c o r e , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h low l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n , would have a h i g h measure of i n s t r u c t o r - l e a r n e r incongruence. However, i f the i n s t r u c t o r had a low LISI s c o r e , the s i t u a t i o n i s r e v e r s e d ; the l e a r n e r w i t h h i g h L I S I , which i s s t i l l a s s o c i a t e d with h i g h s a t i s f a c t i o n s c o r e s , now has a h i g h measure of l e a r n e r -i n s t r u c t o r LISI incongruence w h i l e the low LISI s c o r i n g l e a r n e r has low Incongruence, but s t i l l has a low measure of l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n . I t would seem t h a t the hypothesis t h a t there should be a simple r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n s t r u c t o r - l e a r n e r LISI con-gruence and l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n i s a p p r o p r i a t e l y r e j e c t e d ; however, i t may be wrong to conclude t h a t t h e r e i s no r e l a t i o n -s h i p between l e a r n e r ' s LISI s c o r e s , i n s t r u c t o r s ' L I SI scores and the magnitude of the incongruence between these s c o r e s and the e x t e n t to which l e a r n e r s express t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h 96 t h e l e a r n i n g e v e n t . F u t u r e s t u d i e s o f t h e e f f e c t s o f i n s t r u c -t o r s t u d e n t l e a r n i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e c o n g r u e n c e o n l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n s h o u l d a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e r e i s a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i v e e f f e c t t h a t c o n f o u n d e d t h e a n a l y s i s a n d w h e t h e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e i n c o n g r u e n c e i s a f a c t o r t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e r e j e c t i o n o f t h e f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n i n s t r u c t o r L I S I s c o r e s a n d l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n d e s e r v e s f u r -t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r i n s t r u c t o r s L I S I s c o r e s c a n b e u s e d t o p r e d i c t l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n . I f t h i s i s t h e c a s e , t h i s i n d e x w o u l d p r o v e u s e f u l i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o f i n s t r u c t o r s . L e a r n e r P e r s i s t e n c e T h e s e c o n d h y p o t h e s i s s t a t e d t h a t : " D i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s b e t w e e n i n s t r u c t o r a n d l e a r n e r ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s l e a r n i n g a n d i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l b e n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h l e a r n e r p e r s i s t e n c e " . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s w a s r e j e c t e d . I t w o u l d s e e m t h a t f o r a n a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n w i t h a c o m p a r a t i v e l y s h o r t t e r m c o m m i t m e n t t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , e i t h e r t h e i n s t r u c t o r ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e r o l e o f i n s t r u c t i o n o r t h e l e a r n e r ' s p r e f e r r e d l e a r n i n g s t y l e i s m o r e l i k e l y t o b e r e f l e c t e d i n a t t e n d a n c e o r p e r -s i s t e n c e p a t t e r n s , t h a n t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n i n s t r u c t o r s a n d l e a r n e r s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e a v e r a g e l e n g t h o f t h e s e c o u r s e s w a s i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h e e f f e c t s o f i n c o n g r u e n c e b e -t w e e n t h e i n s t r u c t o r a n d t h e l e a r n e r t o b e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e l e a r n e r ' s a t t e n d a n c e . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t a s i m i l a r s e t o f c o n f o u n d i n g f a c t o r s e x i s t s f o r t h i s h y p o t h e s i s a s w a s d e s c r i b e d f o r t h e f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s . B o t h t h e l e a r n e r s ' a n d i n s t r u c t o r s ' L I S I s c o r e s w e r e n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a t t e n d a n c e s c o r e s . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t l e a r n e r s w h o i n d i c a t e a p r e f e r e n c e f o r l e a r n e r - c e n t r e d e n v i r o n m e n t s o r a r e p r e p a r e d t o a c c e p t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r o w n l e a r n i n g , p l a c e l e s s e m p h a s i s o n c l a s s r o o m l e a r n i n g a n d a r e t h e r e f o r e l e s s l i k e l y t o a t t e n d c l a s s r e g u l a r l y . S i m i l a r l y , i n s t r u c t o r s w h o a d o p t a l e a r n e r - c e n t r e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e p l a c e l e s s e m p h a s i s o n c l a s s a t t e n d a n c e t h a n i n s t r u c t o r s w h o p e r c e i v e t h e i n s t r u c -t i o n a l r o l e i n a m o r e t r a d i t i o n a l m a n n e r a n d e x p e c t p a r t i c i -p a n t s t o a t t e n d c l a s s r e g u l a r l y . H o w e v e r , f o r e a c h i n s t r u c t o r t h e r e w i l l b e a r a n g e o f l e a r n e r L I S I s c o r e s , s o w h e r e a n i n s t r u c t o r h a s a h i g h L I S I s c o r e , s t u d e n t s w i t h h i g h L I S I s c o r e s w i l l h a v e l o w i n c o n g r u e n c e a n d l o w a t t e n d a n c e s c o r e s • \ .'. w h i l e i f t h e i n s t r u c t o r h a d a l o w L I S I s c o r e f o r t h e s a m e l e a r n e r L I S I s c o r e , t h e r e w o u l d b e a h i g h m e a s u r e o f i n c o n g r u -e n c e a n d l o w a t t e n d a n c e . A s t h i s h y p o t h e s i s w a s n o t v e r i f i e d , f u t u r e s t u d i e s s h o u l d b e c o n d u c t e d t o i d e n t i f y w h e t h e r t h e l e n g t h o f t h e c o u r s e i s a f a c t o r i n i n f l u e n c i n g t h e p e r s i s t e n c e d e c i -s i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c i n g i n c o n g r u e n c e . C o n g r u e n c e b e t w e e n l e a r n e r a n d i n s t r u c t o r L I S I s c o r e s d i d n o t a c c o u n t f o r v a r i a t i o n s i n l e a r n e r a t t e n d a n c e a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s i n d i v i d u a l L I S I s c o r e s . F u t u r e s t u d i e s s h o u l d e x a m i n e w h e t h e r t h e l e n g t h o f t h e c o u r s e i s a f a c t o r i n i n f l u e n c i n g t h e p e r s i s t e n c e d e c i -s i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c i n g i n c o n g r u e n c e o r w h e t h e r t h e r e a r e v a r i o u s i n t e r a c t i v e e f f e c t s s u c h a s t h e d i r e c t i o n 98 o f t h e . , i n c o n g r u e n c e c o n f o u n d i n g t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p b e t w e e n t h e m e a s u r e o f l e a r n e r - i n s t r u e t o r i n c o n g r u e n c e a n d l e a r n e r a t t e n d a n c e . L e a r n e r A c h i e v e m e n t T h e t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s s t a t e d t h a t : " D i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s b e t w e e n i n s t r u c t o r a n d l e a r n e r ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s l e a r n i n g a n d i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l b e n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e i n s t r u c t o r ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f l e a r n e r ' s l e a r n i n g a c h i e v e m e n t " . W h e n i n s t r u c t o r - l e a r n e r i n c o n g r u e n c e w a s c a l c u l a t e d a s t h e d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n t h e i r L I S I s c o r e s , t h e r e w a s n o s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h l e a r n i n g s c o r e a n d t h e h y p o t h e s i s w a s r e j e c t e d . H o w e v e r , w h e n t h e i n c o n g r u e n c e w a s m e a s u r e d a s t h e a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n l e a r n e r s ' a n d i n s t r u c t o r s ' L I S I s c o r e s t h e r e w a s a s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n b e -t w e e n t h i s m e a s u r e o f c o n g r u e n c e a n d l e a r n i n g s c o r e . T h e r e f o r e i t c a n b e c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e i n c o n g r u e n c e b e t w e e n l e a r n e r s ' a n d i n s t r u c t o r s ' L I S I s c o r e s p e r s e w a s n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e i n s t r u c t o r ' s s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t ' s l e a r n i n g a c h i e v e m e n t . H o w e v e r t h e i n s t r u c t o r ' s r a t i n g o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t w a s s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e L I S I i n c o n g r u e n c e b e t w e e n t h e m . I n s t r u c t o r s r a t e d t h e l e a r n i n g o f l e a r n e r s w i t h l o w e r L I S I s c o r e s t h a n t h e m s e l v e s h i g h e r t h a n t h e y r a t e d t h e l e a r n -i n g a c h i e v e m e n t o f l e a r n e r s w i t h h i g h e r L I S I s c o r e s t h a n t h e m -s e l v e s . T h i s c o u l d b e a s a r e s u l t o f t h e f a c t t h a t i n s t r u c t o r s r a t e d m o s t f a v o u r a b l y t h o s e l e a r n e r s w h o a t t e n d c l a s s m o s t r e g u l a r l y a n d a s w a s n o t e d , L I S I s c o r e a n d a t t e n d a n c e w e r e i n v e r s e l y c o r r e l a t e d . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e i n s t r u c t o r i n r a t i n g m o r e f a v o u r a b l y t h o s e s t u d e n t s w h o h a v e l o w e r L I S I m a y b e r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e f a c t t h a t l e a r n e r s w i t h a p r e f e r e n c e f o r i n s t r u c t o r - c e n t r e d l e a r n i n g a r e l i k e l y t o b e m o r e r e s p e c t -f u l o f t h e i n s t r u c t o r ( o r s e r v i l e ) t h a n l e a r n e r s w h o p r e f e r t o a c c e p t m o r e o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r l e a r n i n g . T h i s s t u d y h a s s h o w n t h a t t h e r e w a s a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e i n s t r u c t o r ' s r a t i n g o f s t u d e n t a c h i e v e m e n t a n d i n s t r u c t o r - l e a r n e r i n c o n g r u e n c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o l e a r n i n g a n d i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e . H o w e v e r a s w a s i n d i c a t e d a b o v e , t h e r e r e m a i n o t h e r h y p o t h e s e s t h a t n e e d t o b e e x a m i n e d b e f o r e t h e n a t u r e o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p c a n b e t o t a l l y r e v e a l e d . I N F L U E N C E O F S O C I O - E C O N O M I C C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S R e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s w e r e g e n e r a t e d t o i d e n t i f y v a r i a b l e s t h a t p r e d i c t L I S I s c o r e s , l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n , l e a r n e r p e r s i s t e n c e , a n d l e a r n e r a c h i e v e m e n t s . T h e c o n c l u s i o n s d r a w n f r o m t h e s e a n a l y s e s w e r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s ; p r e d i c t o r s o f L I S I s c o r e , p r e d i c t o r s o f l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n i n d e x s c o r e , p r e d i c t o r s o f l e a r n e r p e r s i s t e n c e , a n d p r e d i c t o r s o f l e a r n e r a c h i e v e m e n t . P r e d i c t o r s o f L I S I s c o r e s T h e v a r i a b l e s i d e n t i f i e d t h r o u g h t h e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s a s p r e d i c t o r s o f l e a r n e r ' s L I S I s c o r e w i t h a l l 100 l e a r n e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( F i g . 3, q u a d r a n t s 1,3) i n d e p e n d e n t w e r e : h i g h e s t e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t , a g e , a t t e n d a n c e , a n d y e a r s h i g h s c h o o l c o m p l e t e d ( s e e T a b l e 7). I n d i v i d u a l s w h o w e r e e x p e r i e n c e d l e a r n e r s w e r e p r e p a r e d t o a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r o w n l e a r n i n g s o w o u l d , n o t f e e l t h e n e e d t o a t t e n d f r e q u e n t l y a n d p r e f e r r e d s t u d e n t - c e n t r e d e n v i r o n m e n t s . T h e s e a t t i t u d e s w e r e a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h y o u n g e r l e a r n e r s . S i m i l a r l y w h e n L I S I d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e ( F i g . . 3, q u a d r a n t 4) w a s d e p e n d e n t ( s e e T a b l e 8), t h e i n s t r u c t o r v a r i a b l e s o f i n c o m e a n d a g e , l e a r n e r ' s f u l l - t i m e p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e x p e r i e n c e a n d t w o m e a s u r e s o f l e a r n e r - i n s t r u c t o r c o n g r u e n c e ( h i g h e s t e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t a n d i n c o m e ) w e r e s e l e c t e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t f i v e s t e p s o f t h e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n . T h u s y o u t h a n d p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , e s p e c i a l l y a t t h e p o s t - s e c o n d a r y l e v e l i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h L I S I s c o r e s w h i c h i n d i c a t e s a p r e f e r e n c e f o r l e a r n e r - c e n t r e d e n v i r o n m e n t s . H o w c a n , . a d u l t e d u c a t o r s m i n i m i z e l e a r n e r - i n s t r u c t o r i n c o n g r u e n c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o l e a r n i n g a n d i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e ? O n e p o s s i b i l i t y m i g h t i n v o l v e m a t c h i n g i n d i v i d u a l s w h o s e e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d s a n d a g e s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e i r l e a r n e r s . I n s t r u c t o r s m i g h t a l s o b e c o m e c o n v e r s a n t w i t h a v a r i e t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e s a n d a d o p t a n a p p r o p r i a t e s t y l e f o r a n y p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p o f l e a r n e r s . H o w e v e r , t h e s e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e t e n t a t i v e a n d t e n u o u s " - a n d . n e e d t o b e i n v e s t i g a t e d i n s u b s e q u e n t r e s e a r c h . 101 Predictors of Learner S a t i s f a c t i o n Index Score Socio-economic variables were i d e n t i f i e d through the regression equation as predictors of learner s a t i s f a c t i o n with the addition of instructor's LISI score (see Table 9). Variables related to the socio-economic status of the instructor (Income, occupation) were included. Predictors of Learner Persistence Learner achievement alone accounted f o r 41 per cent of the variance i n attendance. Learner achievement with the single variables, instructors income and years of high school completed, and the double (congruence) variable age discrepancy, accounted for 7 5 per cent of the variance i n persistence (see Table 11). The instructor's income and age appear to be related to learner persistence. As noted e a r l i e r , older instructors (and therefore more highly paid) preferred instructor-centred environments i n which regular attendance i s usually required. The regression analysis supports t h i s view. Predictors of Learning Achievement The previous regression analysis i d e n t i f i e d the most powerful predictor of attendance as learner achievement (learning score). So conversely, when predicting learner achievement, i t would be expected that attendance score would be i t s most powerful predictor. This was the case. 102 A t t e n d a n c e a c c o u n t e d f o r 64 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e i n l e a r n i n g s c o r e s . The s i n g l e v a r i a b l e , y e a r s h i g h s c h o o l c o m p l e t e d , and t h e d o u b l e ( c o n g r u e n c e ) v a r i a b l e s age, y e a r s p a r t - t i m e p o s t - s e c o n d a r y t r a i n i n g , and h i g h e s t e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s t o g e t h e r w i t h a t t e n d a n c e a c c o u n t e d f o r 71 p e r c e n t o f t h e v a r i a n c e i n l e a r n i n g s c o r e (see T a b l e 1 3 ) . T e n t a t i v e l y , i t a p p e a r s t h a t a l e a r n e r who w i s h e s t o be awarded a h i g h g r a d e m i g h t c o n s i d e r s e l e c t i n g a c l a s s t a u g h t by an i n s t r u c t o r whose age and h i g h e s t e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t i s s i m i l a r t o h i s own, b u t whose e x p e r i e n c e w i t h r e s p e c t t o p a r t - t i m e l e a r n i n g i s d i f f e r e n t . Once s u c h an i n s t r u c t o r has b e e n i d e n t i f i e d , o f c o u r s e , t h e l e a r n e r must a t t e n d c l a s s a t e v e r y o p p o r t u n i t y . W h i l e l e a r n e r - i n s t r u c t o r c o n g r u e n c e was n o t r e l a t e d t o l e a r n e r p e r s i s t e n c e o r s a t i s f a c t i o n t o t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t e d , l e a r n e r - i n s t r u c t o r c o n g r u e n c e d o e s a p p e a r t o e f f e c t t h e i n s t r u c t o r ' s r a t i n g o f l e a r n e r a c h i e v e -ment. A l l p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s w h i c h r e l i e d o n one m e asure o f c o n g r u e n c e may have f a i l e d t o i d e n t i f y s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n -s h i p s w h i c h were d i s g u i s e d by t h e method o f m e a s u r i n g c o n -g r u e n c e . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n s t r u c t o r ' s r a t i n g o f l e a r n e r ' s l e a r n i n g a c h i e v e m e n t and t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e i n age was n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t when t h e a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e i n age was c o r r e l a t e d w i t h l e a r n e r ' s s c o r e (r= .05, df = 486, p < . 1 2 ) . However t h e c o r r e l a t i o n b etween l e a r n i n g 1 0 3 score and age discrepancy was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ( p = - . 1 5 , df= 4 8 6 , p < . 0 0 1 ) . This would suggest that there i s a e u r v i - l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between instructor's r a t i n g of learner achievement and learner-instructor congruence with respect to age. Instructors rated learners who were the same age as themselves more favourably than those learners who were either younger or older than themselves. Another example of the confounding e f f e c t introduced when measuring congruence i s observed i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the instructor's rating of learner achievement (learning score) and learning and i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e congruence. The hypothesized r e l a t i o n s h i p between learning score and LISI discrepancy was not observed ( r= - . 0 0 5 , df= 4 9 4 , p < . 4 9 ) . However, the actual difference in learner and instructor scores on LISI was negatively cor-related with learner achievement (v = - . 1 2 , df= 4 9 4 , p < . 0 0 3 ) . Thus learners with lower LISI scores than t h e i r instructor received more recognition for t h e i r .learning achievement than did learners whose LISI scores exceeded those of t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r s . It i s l i k e l y that previous researchers who r e l i e d s o l e l y on either the discrepancy score correlations or actual difference score correlations may have f a i l e d to i d e n t i f y s i g n i f i c a n t relationships and erroneously rejected,or confirmed hypotheses on the basis of Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n procedures. I t would seem that i n future research on interpersonal con-gruency e f f e c t s , researchers must recognize that the method of c a l c u l a t i n g incongruence may disguise s i g n i f i c a n t correlations 104 and so s h o u l d c o n s i d e r s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s t h a t w i l l a l l o w t h e s e c u r v i - l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t o be e x p o s e d . SUMMARY In r e c e n t y e a r s t h e r e has b e e n a s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d away f r o m " i n s t r u c t o r - c e n t r e d " a n d t o w a r d s " s t u d e n t - c e n t r e d " i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e s . W h i l e t h e r e - e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f an i n s t r u c t o r has c a u s e d c o n t r o v e r s y i n t h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s -s i o n , ' r e s e a r c h e r s have b e e n u n a b l e t o p r o v i d e c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e a s t o t h e e f f e c t o f d i f f e r e n t i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e s . T h i s l a c k o f c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e p r o b a b l y r e s u l t s f r o m i n t e r -a c t i o n s between v a r i o u s l e a r n e r and i n s t r u c t o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t i n f l u e n c e l e a r n e r o u t c o m e s . R e s e a r c h e r s h a ve a t t e m p t e d t o i d e n t i f y p e r s o n a l i t y and e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s t h a t may a f f e c t l e a r n i n g o u t c o m e s . T h i s s t u d y was d e v e l o p e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e w h e t h e r c o n g r u e n c e between t h e i n s t r u c t o r and a d u l t l e a r n e r s ' a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n was r e l a t e d t o l e a r n e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e , and w i t h t h e i n s t r u c t o r ' s e v a l u a t i o n o f s t u d e n t p e r f o r m a n c e . The t h r e e h y p o t h e s e s d e v e l o p e d were t h a t : 1. D i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s between i n s t r u c t o r and l e a r n e r ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l be n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d 105 w i t h l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n . 2. D i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s b e t w e e n i n s t r u c t o r a n d l e a r n e r ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s l e a r n i n g a n d i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l b e n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h l e a r n e r p e r s i s t e n c e . 3. D i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s b e t w e e n i n s t r u c t o r a n d l e a r n e r ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s l e a r n i n g a n d i n s t r u c t i o n w i l l b e n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e i n s t r u c t o r ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f l e a r n e r ' s l e a r n i n g a c h i e v e m e n t . T h e r e w e r e n o i n s t r u m e n t s a v a i l a b l e t h a t w o u l d m e a s u r e l e a r n i n g a n d i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e o r l e a r n e r ' s s a t i s -f a c t i o n t h e r e f o r e t w o m e a s u r e s w e r e d e v e l o p e d . B o t h o f t h e s e m e a s u r e s w e r e d e v e l o p e d i n c o n c e r t w i t h a n u m b e r o f e x p e r t j u d g e s , w h o c h e c k e d t h e i n s t r u m e n t s f o r c l a r i t y o f e x p r e s s i o n a n d c o n t e n t c o n s i s t e n c y . A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s w a s p e r f o r m e d p r i o r t o a n d d u r i n g t h e s t u d y . A l l i t e m s l o a d e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y a n d i n t h e s a m e d i r e c t i o n o n t h e f i r s t u n r o t a t e d f a c t o r . I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t b o t h i n d i c e s w e r e u n i d i m e n s i o n a l . A r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t w a s d e s i g n e d t o c o l l e c t p a r t i c i p a n t a n d i n s t r u c t o r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d a t a ; t h i s i n s t r u m e n t i n c o r p o r a t e d t h e t w o i n d i c e s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e . T h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e e n t i r e i n s t r u m e n t w a s c h e c k e d t h r o u g h a t e s t - r e t e s t d e s i g n b y . r e p e a t e d a p p l i c a t i o n s o n t h e s a m e p o p u l a t i o n . U n r e l i a b l e i t e m s w e r e d e l e t e d . T h e d a t a r e q u i r e d t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s e s w e r e c o l l e c t e d a t t w o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c e n t r e s o p e r a t e d b y V a n c o u v e r 1 0 6 Community C o l l e g e . The sample c o n s i s t e d o f 3 8 c l a s s e s w i t h 6 3 8 p a r t i c i p a n t s s e l e c t e d a t random from a t o t a l o f 8 4 c l a s s e s o f f e r e d a t the Langara and E r i c Hamber c e n t r e s of Vancouver Community C o l l e g e d u r i n g the f a l l term i n 1975. None of the th r e e hypotheses were confirmed. The di s c r e p a n c y between i n s t r u c t o r ' s and l e a r n e r a t t i t u d e s towards l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n appears to be l e s s important than the a t t i t u d e o f e i t h e r the p a r t i c i p a n t or the i n s t r u c t o r towards l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n . In p a r t i c u l a r there were stro n g p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n and both l e a r n e r and i n s t r u c t o r LISI scores c o n s i d e r e d independ-e n t l y of each o t h e r , but when c o n s i d e r e d as d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s , the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the c o r r e l a t i o n was. g r e a t l y d i m i n i s h e d . S i m i l a r l y , i t appeared t h a t l e a r n e r p e r s i s t e n c e was r e l a t e d to the l e a r n e r ' s and the i n s t r u c t o r ' s a t t i t u d e toward l e a r n i n g and not to the d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t i t u d e between them. The hypo t h e s i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e a r n e r achievement and l e a r n e r - i n s t r u c t o r l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e congruence was r e j e c t e d . However, i t would appear t h a t these v a r i a b l e s were c o r r e l a t e d and t h a t the c a l c u l a t i o n o f the measure of congruence d i s g u i s e d the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . Regression equations were generated to i d e n t i f y v a r i a b l e s t h a t p r e d i c t l e a r n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e , l e a r n e r p e r s i s t e n c e , and l e a r n e r achievement. V a r i a b l e s t h a t r e l a t e d to the i n s t r u c t o r ' s socio-economic s t a t u s and v a r i o u s measures o f i n s t r u c t o r and l e a r n e r p r e v i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l experience were the most powerful p r e d i c t o r s o f l e a r n i n g and 107 i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t y l e , l e a r n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n , l e a r n e r p e r s i s t e n c e , a n d l e a r n e r a c h i e v e m e n t . T h e m e t h o d t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e m e a s u r e o f i n s t r u c t o r -l e a r n e r c o n g r u e n c e w a s d e r i v e d m a y d i s g u i s e a n o t h e r w i s e s i g n i -f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n . I n t h i s s t u d y , b o t h a c t u a l ( a r i t h m e t i c ) a n d d i s c r e p a n c y d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e r e c o r d e d . A s a r e s u l t , i t w a s p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y s o m e i n s t r u c t o r - l e a r n e r c o n g r u e n c e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h w o u l d n o t o t h e r w i s e h a v e b e e n o b s e r v e d . T h e s e e f f e c t s m a y h a v e c o n f o u n d e d t h e w o r k o f p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s w h o u s e d o n l y o n e m e a s u r e o f c o n g r u e n c e a n d a s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e t h a t r e q u i r e d a l i n e a r s o l u t i o n . F u t u r e s t u d i e s w h i c h a t t e m p t t o f u r t h e r u n r a v e l t h e c o m p l e x l e a r n e r -i n s t r u c t o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s u s i n g t h e n o t i o n o f c o n g r u e n c e s h o u l d e x p e c t a n d s e e k t o i d e n t i f y t h e s e c u r v i - l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 108 REFERENCES Alam, M., and E . N. W r i g h t . A S t u d y o f N i g h t S c h o o l D r o p o u t . A S c h e d u l e 10 P r o j e c t . T o r o n t o : B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n P r e s s , 1968. A l b e r t a . A F u t u r e o f C h o i c e s . A C h o i c e o f F u t u r e s . Edmonton: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1972. Ampene, E. R. " T e a c h i n g S t y l e s i n A d u l t B a s i c E d u c a t i o n . " i n G r i f f i t h , e d . L i t e r a c y D i s c u s s i o n . A d u l t B a s i c E d u c a t i o n  11. I n t e r n a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e f o r A d u l t L i t e r a c y Methods, September 1973, V o l . 3, No. 3, pp. 191-205. B o r g e r , V. "The P r e d i c t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n Between t h e E g o - S t a g e and G r o u p - R e v e l a n t A s p e c t s o f P e r s o n a l i t y and L e a r n e r S a t i s f a c t i o n and L e a r n e r A c h i e v e m e n t on t h e B a s i s o f t h e D e g r e e o f C o n g r u e n c e i n T e a c h e r - S t u d e n t Dyads i n A d u l t L e a r n i n g G r o u p s . " U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D.. d i s s e r t a t i o n , W i s c o n -s i n U n i v e r s i t y , 1969. B o s h i e r , R. "An I n s t r u m e n t and C o n c e p t u a l Model f o r t h e P r e -d i c t i o n and D i a g n o s i s o f D r o p o u t f r o m E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u -t i o n s . " W e l l i n g t o n : D e p a r t m e n t o f U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n , V i c t o r i a U n i v e r s i t y o f W e l l i n g t o n , 1971. . "A P s y c h o l o g i c a l S t u d y o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a -t i o n and D r o p o u t . " U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , V i c - , t o r i a U n i v e r s i t y o f W e l l i n g t o n , New Z e a l a n d , 1973a. . " E d u c a t i o n a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n and D r o p o u t : A T h e o r e t i -c a l M o d e l . " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . Summer, 1973b, V o l . 23, No. 4, pp. 255-283. " M o t i v a t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n s R e - v i s i t e d : L i f e - S p a c e M o t i v e s a n d t h e E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e . " A d u l t  E d u c a t i o n . 1977, V o l . 17, No. 2, pp. 89-115. "A C o n c e p t u a l and M e t h o d o l o g i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e C o n c e r n -i n g R e s e a r c h o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . " Un-p u b l i s h e d monograph b a s e d on a s p e e c h g i v e n t o t h e G r a d u -a t e C o l l o q u i u m , D e p a r t m e n t o f S e c o n d a r y and A d u l t E d u c a -t i o n , N o r t h e r n I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y , D e K a l b , I l l i n o i s , M a r c h 17, 1978. B o y l e , P. G., and I . R. J a h n s . "Program D e v e l o p m e n t and E v a l u -a t i o n . " i n R.. M. S m i t h , G. F . A k e r , and J . R. K i d d , e d s . Handbook o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . New Y o r k : M a c M i l l a n , 1970, . pp. 59-74. 1 0 9 B r i t i s h Columbia. Towards the Learning Society. Report on the Task Force on the Community College i n B r i t i s h Columbia. V i c t o r i a : (Research and Development Divis i o n , Department of Education) Queen's Printer, August, 1974. Bryson, L. Adult Education. New York: American Book Company, 1936. Clark, B. The Marginality of Adult Education. Chicago: Center for the L i b e r a l Education for Adults, 19 58. Cotton, W. E. On Behalf of Adult Education. A H i s t o r i c a l Examination of the Supporting L i t e r a t u r e . Boston: Center for the Study of L i b e r a l Education for Adults, 1968. Crew, J . L. "An Investigation of Personality P r o f i l e Congru-ence Between Pupils and Teacher as a Predictor of Course Achievement." Unpublished Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of Maryland, 19 68. Cronbach, L. J. "The Two D i s c i p l i n e s of S c i e n t i f i c Psychology." American Psychologist. 1957, No. 12, pp. 671-684. Dave, R. H. Lif e l o n g Education and School Curriculum. U. I. E. No. 1. Hamburg: UNESCO - Institute for Education, 1973. Dave, R. H„, ed. Reflections on Lifelong Education and the School. U. I. E.. No. 3, Hamburg: UNESCO - Institute for Education, 1975. . Foundations of Lifelong Education. Oxford: Perga-mon Press, 197 6. Dick, Walter, and Nancy Hagerty. Topics i n Measurement: Re-l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y . New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971. Dickinson. G., ed. Adult Education i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Vancouver: Adult Education Research Centre, Faculty of Education, University of British^Columbia, 1973. Teaching Adults, A Handbook for Instructors. Toronto: New Press, 1973a. Dickinson, G., and D. Rusnell. "A Content Analysis of Adult Education." Adult Education. 1971, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 177-185. Dickinson, G., and C. Verner. Community Structure and P a r t i c i -pation i n Adult. Education. Vancouver: Faculty of Educa-tion, University of British:Columbia, 19 69. Dubin, R. Theory Building. New York: Free Press, 19 69. 110 Duncan, S., and D. W. F i s k e . F a c t - t o - F a c t I n t e r a c t i o n : Research, Methods and Theory. H i l l s d a l e , New J e r s e y : Lawrence Erlbaum A s s o c i a t e s , 197 7. Faure, E. (Chairman). L e a r n i n g To Be, the World o f Education  Today and Tomorrow. The Report o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Commission on the Development o f Education: P a r i s , UNESCO, 1972. F e s t i n g e r , L. A Theory o f C o g n i t i v e Dissonance. Evanston, I l l i n o i s : Row, Peterson, 1957. F l a n d e r s , N. A. Teacher I n f l u e n c e , P u p i l A t t i t u d e s and A c h i e v e -ment. F i n a l Report. Minnesota: Cooperative R e s i d e n t i a l P r o j e c t No. 397, U n i v e r s i t y o f Minnesota, 1960. Gagne, R. M. The C o n d i t i o n s o f L e a r n i n g . New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, 19 65. Gagne, R. M., and L. J . B r i g g s . P r i n c i p l e s of I n s t r u c t i o n a l Design. New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t and Winston, 1974. G e t z e l s , J . W., and H. A. Thelen. "The Classroom Group as a Unique S o c i a l System." i n B. Nelson, ed. The F i f t y - N i n t h  Yearbook of the N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r the Study of Educa-t i o n , Chicago"! Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1960, pp. 53-83. G e t z e l s , J . W., and E. G. Guba. " P e r s o n a l i t y and Teacher E f f e c t i v e n e s s : A Problem i n T h e o r e t i c a l Research." J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology. 1955, No. 3, pp. 336-344 . G i l l , K. F. "An I n v e s t i g a t i o n of Congruent and Incongruent Value Systems Between C o l l e g e Students and Teachers as i t A f f e c t s Student E v a l u a t i o n . " Unpublished Ed.D. d i s s e r t a -t i o n , Northern I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y , 1973. G i l l , M. P. R e l a t i o n s h i p Between P a t t e r n of Achievement and  S e l f - I d e a l Congruence. U.S., E d u c a t i o n a l Resources Information Center, ERIC Document ED 047 329, February 1971. G l a s e r , B. G., and A. S t r a u s s . The D i s c o v e r y o f Grounded Theory: S t r a t e g i e s f o r Q u a l i t a t i v e Research. Chicago: A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g , 1967. Gordon, I. J . , ed. C r i t e r i a f o r Theories o f I n s t r u c t i o n . Washington, D.C.: A s s o c i a t i o n f o r S u p e r v i s i o n and C u r r i c u l u m Development, 19 68. Gvetzhow, H., E. L. K e l l y , and W. McKeachie. "An Experimental Comparison o f R e c i t a t i o n D i s c u s s i o n and T u t o r i a l Methods I l l i n C o l l e g e T e a c h i n g . " J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y . 19 5 4 , V o l . 4 5 , p p . 1 9 3 - 2 0 9 . H a l l , D . T . " T h e E f f e c t o f T e a c h e r - S t u d e n t C o n g r u e n c e U p o n S t u d e n t L e a r n i n g i n C o l l e g e C l a s s e s . " J o u r n a l o f E d u c a -t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y . 1 9 7 0 , V o l . 6 1 , p p . 2 0 5 - 2 1 3 . H a n n a , I . " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n S t u d e n t s . " R e w l e y H o u s e P a p e r s ,  O x f o r d D e l e g a c y f o r E x t r a M u r a l S t u d i e s , 1 9 6 5 - 1 9 6 6 , p p . 1 4 - 4 3 . H e a t h , R . W . , a n d M . A . N i e l s o n . " T h e R e v i e w B a s i s f o r P e r f o r -m a n c e - B a s e d T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n . " R e v i e w o f E d u c a t i o n a l  R e s e a r c h . F a l l 1 9 7 4 , V o l . 4 4 , N o . 4 , p p . 4 6 3 - 4 8 4 . H e i d e r , F . T h e P s y c h o l o g y o f I n t e r p e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s . N e w Y o r k : W i l e y a n d S o n s , 1 9 6 1 . H i l l , L . E . " A S t u d y o f L e v e l s o f C o n c e p t u a l F u n c t i o n i n g a n d t h e i r R e l a t i o n s h i p t o S t u d e n t A c h i e v e m e n t a n d S t u d e n t P e r c e p t i o n o f T e a c h e r s . " U n p u b l i s h e d E d . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 9 . H o u l e , C . 0 . T h e D e s i g n o f E d u c a t i o n . S a n F r a n c i s c o : J o s s e y -B a s s , 1 9 7 2 . H u n t , D . E . M a t c h i n g M o d e l s i n E d u c a t i o n : T h e C o o r d i n a t i o n o f T e a c h i n g M e t h o d s w i t h S t u d e n t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T o r o n t o : T h e O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e o f S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 7 1 . " T h e B - F - E P a r a d i g m f o r T h e o r y , R e s e a r c h a n d P r a c t i c e . " C a n a d i a n P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e v i e w . J u l y 19 7 5 , V o l . 1 6 , N o . 3 , p p . 18 5 - 1 9 7 . I l l i c h , I . D e - S c h o o l i n g S o c i e t y . N e w Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d R o w , 1 9 7 0 . J e n s e n , G . " H o w A d u l t E d u c a t i o n B o r r o w s a n d R e f o r m u l a t e s K n o w l e d g e o f o t h e r D i s c i p l i n e s . " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n : O u t -l i n e s o f a n E m e r g i n g F i e l d o f U n i v e r s i t y S t u d y . E d i t e d b y G . J e n s e n , A . A . L i v e r i g h t a n d W . C . H a l l e n b e c k . W a s h i n g -t o n , D . C . : A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e U . S . A . , 1 9 6 4 , p p . 1 0 5 - 1 1 1 . J o h n s t o n e , J . W . C . , a n d R . J . R i v e r a . V o l u n t e e r s f o r L e a r n i n g . A S t u d y o f t h e E d u c a t i o n a l P u r s u i t s - o f A m e r i c a n - A d u l t s . C h i c a g o : A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g , 1 9 6 5 . K a h n , H . , a n d A . J . W i e n e r . T h e Y e a r 2 00 0 , A F r a m e w o r k f o r  S p e c u l a t i o n o n t h e n e x t T h i r t y - T h r e e Y e a r s . N e w Y o r k : M a c M i l l a n , 1 9 6 7 . K i d d , J . R . H o w A d u l t s L e a r n . N e w Y o r k : A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , 1 9 7 3 . 112 Learning and Society. Toronto: Canadian Association for Adult Education, 1963. Knowles, M. S. The Modern Practice of Adult Education: Andra-gogy Versus Pedagogy. New York: Association Press, 1970. . "Issues i n Adult Learning Psychology." Prasar. October 19 73, Vol. 1, No. 5. Jaipur, India: Department of Adult Education, University of Rajasthan. Kreitlow, B. W. "Theories of Adult Learning." i n C. Klevins, ed. Materials and Methods i n Adult Education. New York: Klevens Publications Inc., 1972, pp. 233-240. Lamke, T. A. "Personality and Teaching Success." Journal of Experimental Education. 1951, Vol. 20, pp. 217-259. Lecky, P. Self Consistency: A Theory of Personality. New York: Island Press, 1945. Leuder, E. J. A Study of the Predictive Association Between  Congruency Measures Based on Work-Emotionality Theory  and the Achievement and S a t i s f a c t i o n i n Adult Instruction-a l Groups. U.S., Educational Resources Information Center, ERIC Document ED 060 4 24, A p r i l 197 2. Levine, M. A Cognitive Theory of Learning. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1975. Lewln, K. A Dynamic Theory of Personality. New York: McGraw-H i l l , 1935. Lindeman, E. The Meaning of Adult Education. New York: New Republic Inc., 19 26 (Republished in Montreal by Harvest House Ltd., 1961). L i p p i t t , R., and R. K. White. "The 'Social Climate' of C h i l d -ren's Groups." i n R. G. Barker, J. S. Kounin, . and.H.. F. Wright, eds. Child Behaviour and Development. New York: McGraw-Hill, 194 3, pp. 48 5-508. L i t t l e , D. "Adult Learning and Education: A Conceptual Model." A Paper presented to the Adult Education Research Conference, San Antonio, Texas, A p r i l 1978. Liveright, A. A. Strategies of Leadership in Conducting Adult  Education Programs. New York: Harper and Row, 19 59. London, J., R. Wenkert, and W. 0. Hagstrom. Attitudes Towards  Adult Education by Social Class. Report on Project #1017. Berkeley: Survey Research Center, University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, December 19 63. 113 L o t t , J . A.., and B. E . L o t t . "Group C o h e s i v e n e s s as I n t e r -p e r s o n a l A t t r a c t i o n : A Review o f R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h A n t e c e d e n t and C o n s e q u e n t V a r i a b l e s . " P s y c h o 1 o g i c a 1  B u l l e t i n . 1965, V o l . 64, No. 4, pp. 259-309. M c G u i r e , W. J . "The N a t u r e o f A t t i t u d e s a n d A t t i t u d e Change." i n G. L i n d z e y , and E. A r o n s o n , e d s . The Handbook o f  S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . R e a d i n g , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : A d d i s o n -Wesley, 1968, V o l . 3, pp. 136-314. M c K e a c h i e , W. J . " I n s t r u c t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y . " A n n u a l Review o f  P s y c h o l o g y . 1974, V o l . 25, pp. 161-194. Maslow, A. H. M o t i v a t i o n a n d P e r s o n a l i t y . New Y o r k : H a r p e r and Row, 19 54. Murphy, P. D. " C o n c e p t u a l Systems a n d . T e a c h i n g S t y l e s . " U n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a , 1969. M u r r a y , H. A. E x p l o r a t i o n s i n P e r s o n a l i t y . New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1938. N i e , N. H. , C. H. H a l l , J . G. J e n k i n s , K.. S t e i n b r e n n e r , and D. H. B r e n t . S t a t i s t i c a l P a c k a g e f o r t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e . 2d. ed. New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 19 75. O. E . C D . R e c u r r e n t E d u c a t i o n : A S t r a t e g y f o r L i f e l o n g L e a r n i n g ^ P a r i s : O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r E c o n o m i c C o o p e r a t i o n and D evelopment, 1973. O. E. C. D. R e c u r r e n t E d u c a t i o n : T r e n d s a n d I s s u e s . P a r i s : O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Economic C o o p e r a t i o n and D evelopment, 1975. O n t a r i o . The L e a r n i n g S o c i e t y . R e p o r t o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n on P o s t - S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n i n O n t a r i o . T o r o n t o : M i n i s t r y o f Government S e r v i c e s , 1972. Osgood, C. E . , and P. H. Tannenbaum. "The P r i n c i p l e o f Con-g r u i t y i n t h e P r e d i c t i o n o f A t t i t u d e Change." i n M. F i s h b e i n , ed. R e a d i n g s i n A t t i t u d e T h e o r y and M e a s u r e -ment. New Y o r k : W i l e y a n d Sons, 1967, pp. 301-311. Oswald, R. C. " C o n c e p t u a l L e v e l as a D e t e r m i n a n t o f T e a c h e r B e h a v i o u r and A t t i t u d e s i n a N o n - S t r u c t u r e d Type o f L e a r n i n g A c t i v i t y . " U n p u b l i s h e d Ed.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , S y r a c u s e U n i v e r s i t y , 1971. P e r y i n , L. A. " P e r f o r m a n c e and S a t i s f a c t i o n as a F u n c t i o n o f I n d i v i d u a l E n v i r o n m e n t F i t . " P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n . 1960, V o l . 57, pp. 403-415. 114 Peters, J. M., and R. Boshier. "Adult Needs, Interests and Motives." i n C. KIevens, ed. Materials and Methods i n Continuing Education. New York: Klevens Publications, 1976, pp. 197-212. Procaccini, J. "A Study of the Relationship of the Congru-ence of Ideological Systems of Teachers and Pr i n c i p l e s and Teacher Ratings of P r i n c i p a l s ' Effectiveness." Unpublished Ph.D. di s s e r t a t i o n , The Catholic University of America, 1971. Proshansky, H. M., W. H. Ittelson, and L. G„ R i v l i n , eds. Environmental Psychology: Man and His Physical Setting. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967. Quastel, L. "Need For Training and Job S a t i s f a c t i o n i n Com-munity Mental Health Workers." Unpublished M.A. thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1979. Randhawa, B. S., and L. L. W. Fu. "Assessment and E f f e c t of Some Classroom Environment Variables." Review of Educa-t i o n a l Research. 1973, Vol. 43, No. 3, pp. 303-321. Rogers, C. R. "A Theory of Therapy, Personality, and Inter-personal Relationships, as Developed i n the C l i e n t -Centered Framework," i n S. Koch, ed. Psychology: A  Study of Science. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1959, pp. 184-2 Rogers-Warren, A., and S. F. Warren, eds. Ecological Perspec-tives i n Behaviour Analysis. Baltimore: University Park Press, 1977. Russell, S i r Lionel (Chairman)... Adult Education: A Plan f o r  Development. Great B r i t a i n : Secretary of State f o r Edu-cation and Science, 1973. Santmire, T. E. "An Investigation of the Role of Student Con-ceptual Level and Teacher Radiated Environment i n Achieve-ment. " Unpublished Ed.D. di s s e r t a t i o n , University of Rochester, 1970. Schmid, J. "Factor Analysis of Prospective Teacher's D i f f e r -ences." Journal of Experimental Education.. 1950, Vol. 18 pp. 287-320. Secord, P. F., and C. F. Backman. "An Interpersonal Approach to Personality." i n Maher, ed. Progress i n Experimental Personality Research. 197 0, Vol. 2, pp. 91-125. Slmmonds, E. J . (Chairman). L i f e l o n g Education. Wellington: New Zealand National Commission for UNESCO, October, 1972. Simons, H. W., N. N. Berkowitz, and R. J. Moyer. " S i m i l a r i t y C r e d i b i l i t y , and Attitude Change: A Review and a Theory." Psychological B u l l e t i n . 1979, Vol. 73, No. 1, pp. 1-16. 115 Singh, A. H. "Interests, Values and Personality T r a i t s of Students S p e c i a l i z i n g i n Dif f e r e n t F i e l d s of Study i n University." Unpublished M. A. thesis, University of London, England, 1965. Snelbecker, G. E. Learning Theory, Instructional Theory, and  Psycho educational Design. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1974. Solomon, D., and H. L. M i l l e r . : Exploration i n Teaching Styles.  Report of Preliminary Investigations and Development of  Categories. Chicago: Center for the Study of Li b e r a l Education for Adults, 19 61. Solomon, D., William E. Bezdek, and Larry Rosenberg. Teaching Styles and Learning. Chicago: Center for the Study of Lib e r a l Education for Adults, 19 63. Stern, G. G. People i n Context. New York: Wiley, 1970. Stock, A. K. "Teaching Styles and Learning-Research Strategies and Models, with Special Reference to the Part-Time Teacher of Adults." Studies i n Adult Education. October 1974, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 115-124. T o f f l e r , A. Future Shock. New York: Bantam, 1971. . Learning for Tomorrow., The Role of the Future i n Education. New York: Random House, 1972. Travers, Robert M. W. Man's Information System. Scranton, Pennsylvania: . Chandler, 1970. UNESCO. World Conference on Adult Education, Montreal, August 21-31, 19 60: F i n a l Report. Paris: UNESCO, 1960. Third World Conference on Adult Education, Tokyo,  1972: F i n a l Report. Paris: UNESCO, 197 2. Recommendation on the Development of Adult Educa-tio n . Adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO at i t s 19th Session, Nairobi, October 26 - November 30, 1976. Paris: UNESCO, 1976. Verner, C. "A Conceptual Scheme for the I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Processes.'.' Adult Education Theory and  MethodWashington: Adult Education Association, February, 1959. Verner, C , and A. BoOth. Adult Education. New York: Centre for Applied Research In Education, T 9 6 4 . Verner, C , and G. S. Davis, Jr. "Completions and Drop-Outs: A Review of Research." Adu11 Educa110n. Spring 1964, Vol. 14, pp. 157-176. 116 Verner, C , and C. V.. Davison., Psychological Factors i n Adult Learning and Instruction. F l o r i d a : Research Information Processing Center, Department of Adult Education, F l o r i d a State University, 1971. Verner, C , and J . S. Newberry, Jr.. "The Nature of Adult P a r t i c i p a t i o n . " Adult Education. Summer 1958, Vol. 7, pp. 208-222. Waller, R. D. A Design For Democracy. New York: Association Press, 1956. Whaley, R. W. "Pressures from Exponential Increases i n Know-ledge." i n G. Kerry Smith, ed. Current Issues i n Higher  Education 19 65. Washington, D. C : Association of Higher Education, 1965, pp. 107-111. A p p e n d i x C 1 1 9 B l i s h e n Codes o f A t y p i c a l J o b T i t l e s R e s p o n d e n t s D e s c r i p t i o n o f J o b s B l i s h e n O c c u p a t i o n C a t e g o r y — Index # O p e r a t i o n s Manager S e r v i c e s t o B u s i n e s s Management 67. 28 " A s s i s t a n t " p r i n t i n g shop, H a n d l e A c c o u n t i n g , v a r i o u s o t h e r d u t i e s , some computer work C l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s 42. 98 P a y r o l l c l e r k - B.C. L o n g -shoremen C l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s 42. 98 S e c r e t a r y / T r a n s l a t o r : E n g l i s h / F r e n c h C l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s 42. 98 S o i l s T e c h n i c i a n & D r a f t s m a n D r a f t s m a n 57. 82 Swimming I n s t r u c t o r -p a r t - t i m e ( p r e v i o u s j o b coded) n o t c o d e d D e n t a l A s s i s t a n t N u r s i n g A s s i s t a n t s o r A i d e s 32. 14 Temporary S e c r e t a r y C l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s 42. 98 F u l l - t i m e Manager & Owner o f L o g S c a l i n g B u s i n e s s w i t h 12 emp l o y e e s Owners & Managers F o r e s t r y & L o g g i n g 44. 00 S e n i o r C l e r k , A c c o u n t i n g C l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s 42. 98 Manager o f Tow O p e r a t i o n i n c h a r g e o f 7 s t a f f - Inbound & Outbound t r a f f i c O f f i c e Manager 60. 42 T e c h n i c i a n f o r B.C. T e l M i c r o w a v e D e p a r t m e n t R a d i o & T e l e v i s i o n E q u i p -ment O p e r a t o r s 51. 51 S e c r e t a r y t o 2 men: Manager & A s s . Manager, C r e d i t U n i o n S t e n o g r a p h e r 51. 96 P r e s i d e n t o f H o l d i n g Company Owners & Man a g e r s , M i s c e l -l a n e o u s M a n u f a c t u r i n g Com-p a n i e s 58. 29 .120 Labourer - involved i n Welding, Sawing, D r i l l i n g and general assembly of aluminium doors for commercial i n s t i t u t i o n s Metalworking occupations 30. 60 Bank T e l l e r Bookkeeper & Cashier 49. 55 !Community Worker Soci a l Welfare Worker 55. 62 Scaler - sort parcels i n Warehouse Warehousemen & Freight Handlers 29. 18 Yardmen/Trainmen with C.N.R. Labourers Railway Transport 28. 03 Manager & Supervision of 8 f l o o r o f f i c e block, respon-s i b l e for heat, maintenance, cleaning & h i r i n g of cleaning s t a f f , leasing, etc. Owners & Managers Miscellaneous Services 45. 48 In t r a i n i n g as Cytotechnolo-g i s t s with Cancer control agency of B.C. Medical & Dental Technic-ian 48. 74 C l i n i c a l Laboratory Technician Medical & Dental Technic-ian 48. 74 Appendix D Research Instrument (Instructor's version) Scores on negative LSI and LISI items, marked with an asterix (*), are reversed when ca l c u l a t i n g t o t a l index score, that i s a 9 score on item one i s recorded as a 1. 122-DO NOT WRITE YOUR NAME OF THIS SHEET , Category No. What i s your i n s t r u c t i o n a l style? We a l l teach i n a d i f f e r e n t way so there are no r i g h t or wrong answers! Please examine each statement and c i r c l e the number that most nearly represents your AGREEMENT or DISAGREEMENT with the statement. Strongly Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree 1. I create a formal classroom atmosphere 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 2. I l e t participants set t h e i r own objectives 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3. I discourage adult students from using my f i r s t name 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 4... I am the absolute authority on course content 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 5t I set d e f i n i t e standards of behaviour i n my class 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 6. I discourage questions because, they can lead the class o f f the topic 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 7. I conduct classes around the needs and s k i l l s of each p a r t i c i p a n t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 8. I make i t clear I am the authority i n the cl a s s 1 2 3 4. 5 6 7 8 9 * v 9 . I discourage participants from chatting during class time 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 10. I develop an informal classroom atmosphere 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 1 . I l e t students set course goals 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12. I preserve 'Law and Order' i n the classroom . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 13.. I am the only subject expert i n the c l a s s -room 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 14 . I l e t the p a r t i c i p a n t s decide what they wane to learn 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 15:. I encourage general class discussions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 16. I use participants as 'content experts' whenever possible ' 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 123 REMEMBER THAT YOUR RESPONSES ARE CONFIDENTIAL 1. What i s your sex [ ' ] Male [ | Female 2. What i s your age? f | Years 3. Number of children | | (Write none i f you do not have any children). 4. What i s the highest education q u a l i f i c a t i o n you hold? (Check one box only)• f | No formal education. | | Completed elementary school only. [ j Completed Grade 10 or 11 (but not 12). | | Grade 12 or foreign equivalent. [ ( Post secondary or trade q u a l i f i c a t i o n only, (e.g. Vocational School Diploma, Journeymans q u a l i f i c a t i o n , Business Diploma, etc.) j | Part of University degree or diploma. | | University degree or diploma only. | | University degree or diplomai and some other t e r t i a r y q u a l i f i c a t i o n (e.g. B.A. and Journeymans c e r t i f i c a t e ) . 5. L i s t here a l l the formal educational q u a l i f i -cations you have. (Please write them out i n f u l l as i n i t i a l s are hard to i d e n t i f y ) . 1. 2. 3. For O f f i c e use only. 4. 124 6* Check below the t o t a l number of years of formal education you have completed. HIGH SCHOOL OR EQUIVALENT | | 8 years [ | 9 years f~~jlO years f [ l l years f"~|l2 years f~"]l3 years POST SECONDARY SCHOOLING OR TRAINING Write here the name of the i n s t i -F u l l Time Part Time tution(s) where you received post secondary educatiorj • • 1 year • • 2 years • • 3 years • 4 years • • 5 years or more If you are working for a salary or wages exactly what kind of work do you do? (Please be s p e c i f i c as to your work and status i n the organization, e.g. Foreman supervising 13 men i n a trucking firm: Sales assistant i n a small hard-ware store: Executive Secretary to the President of a manufacturing company with 50 0 employees). If you are r e t i r e d , involved in household duties or are not working please write N.A. (not applicable) and go on to the next question. 8. If you are NOT currently working for salary or wages please note here the kind of work you did prior to your marriage, retirement, etc. (Please be very s p e c i f i c as to your work and status i n the organization.) 125 9j If your spouse i s working for salary or wage what kind of work does he/she do.( (Please be very s p e c i f i c ) . 10. In the box below write the l e t t e r which represents your  gross (personal) income category. Do not count your spouses' income or income earner by other members of your family. A N i l A B $5000 or under B C $5001 - 7000 C D $7001 - 9000 D E $9001 - 11,000 E F $11,001 - 13,000 F G $13,001 - 15,000 G H $15,001 - 17,000 H I $17,001 - 19,000 I J $19,001 - 21,000 J K $21,001 - 23,000 K L $23,001 - 25,000 L M Over 25, 000 . M Category 11. In the box below write the l e t t e r which represents your gross family income ( i . e . your income and your spouses income). If you are the only person i n your family working for wages or salary your answers to thi s guestion w i l l be the same as your answer to the previous guestion. A N i l A B $5000 or under B C $5001 - 7000 C D $7001 - 9000 D E $9001 - 11,000 E F $11,001 - 13,000 F G $13,001 - 15,000 G H $15,001 - 17,000 H I $17,001 - 19,000 I J $19,001 - 21,000 J K $21,001 - 23,000 K L $23,001 - 25,000 L M •over 25, 000 M Category 126 REMEMBER YOUR N7AME IS NOT REQUIRED ON THIS QUESTIONNAIRE 12. Do you have a teaching c e r t i f i c a t e ? If rYES r, please give d e t a i l s 13. Have you ever taken courses on teaching adults? If 'YES', please f i v e d e t a i l s : Date T i t l e I n s t i t u t i o n Offering' -Course F u l l or Part-Time No. of Training Days Qu a l i f i c a t i o n issued i f any Appendix E Research Instrument (Learner's version) Scores on negative LSI and LISI items, marked with an as t e r i s (*), are reversed when ca l c u l a t i n g t o t a l index score, that i s a 9 score on item one i s recorded as a 1 128 DO NOT WRITE YOUR NAME ON THIS SHEET Category No. This section w i l l attempt to i d e n t i f y your " i d e a l " instructor, and the type of .learning 'environment' you prefer. There are no r i g h t or wrong answers! Please examine each statement and c i r c l e the number that most nearly represents your AGREEMENT or DISAGREEMENT with the statement. Strongly Strongly A GOOD INSTRUCTOR: Disagree Neutral Agree 1. Creates a formal classroom atmosphere 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9* 2. Lets participants set th e i r own objectives 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3. Discourages adult students from using his/her f i r s t name 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 4. Is the absolute authority on course contentl 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 5. Sets d e f i n i t e standards of behaviour i n his/her class 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 6. Discourages questions because they can lead the class o f f the topic 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9* 7. Conducts classes around the needs and s k i l l s of each participant 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 8. Makes i t clear he i s the authority i n the class 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9* 9. Discourages participants from chatting during class time 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9* 10. Develops an informal classroom atmosphere 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11. Lets students set course goals 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12. Preserves 'Law and Order' i n the classroom 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9* 13. Is the only subject expert i n the c l a s s -room 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9* 14. Lets the participants decide what they want to learn 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 15. Encourages general class discussions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 16. Uses participants as 'content experts' whenever possible 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 HOW SATISFIED ARE YOU WITH THIS CLASS? 1-2.9 Please examine each statement and c i r c l e the number that most nearly represents your AGREEMENT or DISAGREEMENT with the statement. Remember thi s information i s for research purposes only; and w i l l .not be made available to either the college administration or instructors. PLEASE BE HONEST Strongly Strongly Statement Disagree Neutral Agree 1. The instructor i s seldom well prepared 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * for class 2. The instr u c t o r i s enthusiastic 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3. I am rather disappointed with t h i s course 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 4. This i s one of the poorest courses I have taken 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 5. I am not learning anything new 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 6. This course i s helping me personally 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 7. The instructor created a bad learning environment 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 8. The instructor cares about my progress i n the course 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9. Class time i s often wasted 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 10. I think the instructor enjoys teaching 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11. The instructor has established good rapport with everybody i n the class 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12. I think the instructor has t r i e d to teach me what I wanted to learn 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 13. The instructor i s help f u l 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 14. I have no respect for th i s instructor 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 15. The instructor never has time to help ...\ -,.;_ individuals 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 16. I think we a l l have a chance to contribute to the selection of the objectives for t h i s course 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 17. The instructor encourages people to express the i r ideas 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 18. I regret taking t h i s course 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 * 19. Over a l l I would rate this course as very good 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 13 0 v REMEMBER THAT YOUR RESPONSES ARE CONFIDENTIAL For O f f i c e use only. 1 . What i s your sex 2 . What Is your age? 3. Number of children 1 ) Male | | Female f "j Years (Write none i f you do not have any chil d r e n ) . 4. What i s the highest education q u a l i f i c a t i o n you hold? (Check one box only). [ ( No formal e d u c a t i o n . ) \ Completed elementary school only. [ 1 Completed Grade 1 0 or 1 1 (but not 1 2 ) . | j Grade 1 2 or foreign equivalent. [ [ Post secondary or trade q u a l i f i c a t i o n only, (e.g. Vocational School Diploma, Journeymans q u a l i f i c a t i o n , Business Diploma, etc.) | | Part of University degree or diploma. [~^ | University degree or diploma only. | | University degree or diploma and some other t e r t i a r y q u a l i f i c a t i o n (e.g. B.A. and Journeymans c e r t i f i c a t e ) . 5. L i s t here a l l the formal educational q u a l i f i -cations you have. (Please write them out i n f u l l as i n i t i a l s are hard to i d e n t i f y ) . 1 . ' ; 2 . ; ; \ 3. • ^ 4 . 131 Check below the t o t a l number of years of formal education you have completed. HIGH SCHOOL OR EQUIVALENT | | 8 years [~| 9 years f (lO years [ {ll years P*]l2 years [ |l3 years POST SECONDARY SCHOOLING OR TRAINING Write here the name o f the i n s t i -F u l l Time Part Time tution(s) where you received post secondary education 1 • • 1 year • • 2 years • • 3 years D • "4 years • • 5 years or more. If you are working for a salary or wages exactly what kind of work do you do? (Please be s p e c i f i c as to your work and status i n the organization, e.g. Foreman supervising 13 men i n a trucking firm: Sales assistant i n a small hard-ware store: Executive Secretary to the President of a manufacturing company with 50 0 employees). If you are r e t i r e d , involved i n household duties or are not working please write N.A. (not applicable) and go on to the next guestion. If you are NOT currently working for salary or wages please note here the~kind of work you did prior to your marriage, retirement, etc. (Please be very s p e c i f i c as to your work and status i n the organization.) 132 If your spouse i s working for salary or wage what kind of work does he/she do. , (Please be very s p e c i f i c ) . In the box below write the l e t t e r which represents your  gross (personal) income category. Do not count your spouses' income or income earner by other members of your family. A N i l A B $5000 or under B C $5001 - 7000 C D $7001 - 900 0 D E $9001 - 11,000 E F $11,001 - 13,000 F G $13,001 - 15,000 G H $15,001 - 17,000 H I $17,001 - 19,000 I J $19,001 - 21,000 J K $21,001 - 23,000 K L $23,001 - 25,000 L M Over 25 ,000 M In the box below write the Category gross family income ( i . e . your income and your spouses income). If you are the only person i n your family working for wage or salary your answers to t h i s question w i l l be the same as your answer to the previous guestion. A N i l A B $5000 or under B C $5001 - 7000 C D $7001 - 90 00 D E $9001 - 11,000 E F $11,001 - 13,000 F G $13,001 - 15,000 G H $15,001 - 17,000 H I $17,001 - 19,000 I J $19,001 - 21,000 J K $21,001 - 23,000 K L $23,001 - 25,000 L •M over 25 ,0 00 M Category 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            data-media="{[{embed.selectedMedia}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
https://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0055925/manifest

Comment

Related Items