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Effects of a shoplifters counselling program on hardiness, depression and self-concept Ciccone, Cristina Maria 1989

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EFFECTS OF A SHOPLIFTERS COUNSELLING PROGRAM ON HARDINESS, DEPRESSION AND SELF-CONCEPT by CRISTINA MARIA CICCONE "' B.A., University of British Columbia, 1983 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Counselling Psychology We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 1989 ° Cristina Maria Ciccone, 1989 In presenting this thesis in part ia l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at The Univers i ty of Br i t i sh Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes m a y be granted by the Head of my Department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shal l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Counselling Psychology The Univers i ty of Br i t i sh Columbia 2075 Wesbrook Place Vancouver, Canada V 6 T 1W5 Date: A p r i l 1989 i i A b s t r a c t T h i s s t u d y was c o n c e r n e d w i t h e v a l u a t i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e S h o p l i f t e r s C o u n s e l l i n g P r o g r a m (SCP) o p e r a t e d by t h e E l i z a b e t h F r y S o c i e t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The c o n c e p t o f h a r d i n e s s was u s e d a s a t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k w i t h w h i c h t o a s s e s s t r e a t m e n t o u t c o m e . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e SCP w o u l d be more e f f e c t i v e i n r e d u c i n g d e p r e s s i o n , and i n i n c r e a s i n g s e l f - c o n c e p t , commitment and i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l , f r o m p r e - t o p o s t t r e a t m e n t , f o r f i r s t o f f e n d e r s (FO) c o m p a r e d t o r e p e a t o f f e n d e r s ( R O ) . S u b j e c t s were 42 f e m a l e s a n d 7 m a l e s , a g e d 19-77 (M-39.1) r e f e r r e d t o t h e SCP f o r t r e a t m e n t and a s k e d t o v o l u n t e e r a s p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e r e s e a r c h . T r e a t m e n t c o n s i s t e d o f 6 w e e k l y 2-hour s e s s i o n s . P r i o r t o t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n s u b j e c t s were a s s e s s e d on m e a s u r e s o f s e l f - c o n c e p t , d e p r e s s i o n , c o m m i t m e n t , and c o n t r o l . P a r t i c i p a n t s were a s s e s s e d a g a i n a t p o s t - t r e a t m e n t a n d a t 6-week f o l l o w - u p . R e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s , m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e , w i t h p r e p l a n n e d c o n t r a s t s , i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e FO a n d RO g r o u p s c h a n g e d d i f f e r e n t i a l l y f r o m p r e - t o p o s t - t r e a t m e n t on m e a s u r e s o f d e p r e s s i o n ( F ( 1 , 2 4 ) = 7 . 6 4 , 2 < . 0 1 ) , b u t n o t on m e a s u r e s o f s e l f - c o n c e p t , c o m m i t m e n t , and c o n t r o l . From p o s t t e s t t o f o l l o w - u p , r e g a r d l e s s of t h e number o f p r i o r o f f e n c e s , s u b j e c t s h a d s i g n i f i c a n t l y c h a n g e d on a l l d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s . R e s u l t s s u g g e s t t h a t , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f d e p r e s s i o n s c o r e s , t h e SCP i s e q u a l l y i i i e f f e c t i v e f o r F O ' s a n d R O ' s i n a c h i e v i n g t h e d e s i r e d c h a n g e s . D u e t o t h e f a c t t h a t o n l y 2 m e n r e m a i n e d i n t h e s t u d y a t f o l l o w - u p , g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f r e s u l t s i s l i m i t e d t o w o m e n . I m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e r e s u l t s a n d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s f o r f u t u r e s t u d i e s a r e d i s c u s s e d . i v T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s Page ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v L I S T OF TABLES v i i L I S T OF FIGURES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i x INTRODUCTION 1 MODIFICATIONS I N DESIGN 9 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 11 The E t i o l o g y o f S h o p l i f t i n g 11 P r e v e n t i o n a n d D e t e r r e n c e 14 T r e a t m e n t P r o g r a m s 16 H a r d i n e s s , S t r e s s , a n d C o p i n g 24 The H a r d i n e s s M e a s u r e (PVS) 31 Summary 33 METHOD 35 S u b j e c t s 35 D e s i g n 36 D e p e n d e n t M e a s u r e s 37 P e r s o n a l V i e w s S u r v e y 37 B e c k D e p r e s s i o n I n v e n t o r y 38 The T e n n e s s e e S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e 39 A n c i l l a r y M e a s u r e s 40 T r e a t m e n t 41 P r o c e d u r e 42 D a t a A n a l y s i s 43 V RESULTS. 45 Group C o m p a r a b i l i t y on D e m o g r a p h i c s 45 S u b j e c t A t t r i t i o n 45 P r e t r e a t m e n t D e p e n d e n t and A n c i l l a r y M e a s u r e s : D e s c r i p t i v e D a t a 47 C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x 52 P r e t r e a t m e n t D i f f e r e n c e s on D e p e n d e n t and A n c i l l a r y M e a s u r e s 52 T r e a t m e n t E f f e c t s . . 54 T r e a t m e n t v s . R e p l i c a t i o n G r o u p 54 F i r s t O f f e n d e r v s . R e p e a t O f f e n d e r G r o u p 58 A n c i l l a r y M e a s u r e s 63 P o s t t r e a t m e n t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s 63 DISCUSSION 64 G r o u p D i f f e r e n c e s f o r F i r s t a n d R e p e a t O f f e n d e r s 64 P r o g r a m E v a l u a t i o n s 71 R e c i d i v i s m 72 C o n c l u s i o n s L i m i t a t i o n s a nd R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s 74 REFERENCES 77 APPENDIX A 86 C o m p a r i s o n G r o u p C o n s e n t Form 87 APPENDIX B 88 T r e a t m e n t a n d R e p l i c a t i o n G r o u p s by S u b j e c t s 89 APPENDIX C 90 E x p e c t a n c y f o r Change S c a l e 91 v i APPENDIX D 92 I n t a k e Form 93 C o u n s e l l i n g C o n t r a c t 94 S u b j e c t I n f o r m e d C o n s e n t Form 95 APPENDIX E 96 S e l f - e v a l u a t i o n 97 P r o g r a m E v a l u a t i o n 100 Anonymous R e c i d i v i s m R a t e R e c o r d 102 S o c i a l S u p p o r t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 103 APPENDIX F 104 C l i n i c a l S i g n i f i c a n c e f o r BDI S c o r e s 105 C l i n i c a l S i g n i f i c a n c e f o r TSCS s c o r e s 106 v i i L i s t o f T a b l e s T a b l e Page 1. S u b j e c t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 46 2. Summary o f A t t r i t i o n b y G r o u p s 48 3. P r e t e s t Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f Outcome a n d A n c i l l a r y M e a s u r e s b y D r o p o u t and R e t a i n e d S u b j e c t s 49 4. P r e t e s t Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f Outcome and A n c i l l a r y M e a s u r e s b y G r o u p s 50 5. I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s B e t w e e n Age and Outcome M e a s u r e s P r e -and P o s t t e s t 53 6. Summary o f M u l t i v a r i a t e a n d U n i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s f o r Outcome M e a s u r e s b y T r e a t m e n t and R e p l i c a t i o n G r o u p 56 7. Means a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f Outcome M e a s u r e s b y T r e a t m e n t a nd R e p l i c a t i o n g r o u p 57 8. Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f Outcome M e a s u r e s b y F i r s t O f f e n d e r a n d R e p e a t O f f e n d e r G r o u p 59 9. Summary o f M u l t i v a r i a t e a n d U n i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s f o r Outcome M e a s u r e s by F i r s t O f f e n d e r a nd R e p e a t O f f e n d e r G r o u p 62 v i i i L i s t o f F i g u r e s F i g u r e Page 1. P r e , p o s t a n d f o l l o w - u p means f o r t h e B e c k D e p r e s s i o n I n v e n t o r y 60 2. P r e , p o s t and f o l l o w - u p means f o r t h e T e n n e s s e e S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e 61 A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s S e v e r a l p e o p l e must be a c k n o w l e d g e d f o r t h e i r v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o w a r d s t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . F i r s t , I owe my d e e p e s t g r a t i t u d e t o D r . B o n i t a L o n g , who I a d m i r e a n d r e s p e c t g r e a t l y . T h r o u g h o u t t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t D r . L o n g was my m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e , g u i d i n g , s u p p o r t i n g a n d e n c o u r a g i n g me a l o n g t h e o f t e n l o n e l y r o a d . I am most t h a n k f u l f o r h e r u n e n d i n g commitment t o me a n d my p r o j e c t and I know t h a t I w i l l n e v e r be c a p a b l e o f t r u l y e x p r e s s i n g t h e d e p t h o f my a p p r e c i a t i o n . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k my o t h e r c o m m i t t e e members, D r . L y n n A l d e n , D e p a r t m e n t o f P s y c h o l o g y (UBC) and D r . Doug C o u s i n e a u , S c h o o l o f C r i m i n o l o g y (SFU) f o r t h e i r v a l u a b l e i n p u t a t t h e p r o p o s a l s t a g e and f o r t h e i r i n s i g h t s a n d c o n t r i b u t i o n s on t h e m a n u s c r i p t . I w o u l d l i k e t o e x t e n d my g r a t i t u d e t o t h e E l i z a b e t h F r y S o c i e t y a n d t o t h e s t a f f a n d c l i e n t s o f t h e S h o p l i f t e r s C o u n s e l l i n g P r o g r a m f o r t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s p r o j e c t . F i n a l l y , I want t o t h a n k my f a m i l y a n d f r i e n d s f o r t h e i r c o n t i n u e d s u p p o r t , i n t e r e s t , a n d p a t i e n c e o v e r t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s p r o j e c t . 1 I n t r o d u c t i o n Research s u p p o r t i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of offe n d e r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programs such as i n d i v i d u a l psychotherapy, group c o u n s e l l i n g and i n t e n s i v e s u p e r v i s i o n has i n c r e a s e d over the years, p r o v i d i n g a v a l i d counter-argument f o r the no t i o n that "nothing works" (Gendreau & Ross, i n pr e s s ; Martinson & Wilks, 1977). The notable i n c r e a s e i n crimes such as s h o p l i f t i n g has l e d to a more concert e d e f f o r t to develop and implement s t r a t e g i e s that w i l l be most e f f e c t i v e i n d e t e r r i n g and p r e v e n t i n g the recurrence of such crimes. The purpose of t h i s study i s to ev a l u a t e and compare the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of two i n t e r v e n t i o n s , Group C o u n s e l l i n g and Community Work S e r v i c e , w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c t h e o r e t i c a l framework. Researchers support the n o t i o n that the m a j o r i t y of s h o p l i f t e r s are not p r o f e s s i o n a l c r i m i n a l s , but i n d i v i d u a l s d e a l i n g with a v a r i e t y of p s y c h o l o g i c a l and emotional s t r e s s o r s ( A r b o l e d a - F l o r e z , D u r i e , & C o s t e l l o , 1977; Bradford & Balmaceda, 1983; Moore, 1983, 1984). Within the s t r e s s l i t e r a t u r e , the p e r s o n a l i t y c o n s t r u c t , h a r d i n e s s , has emerged. Given that h a r d i n e s s i s r e l a t e d to an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y to e f f e c t i v e l y cope with s t r e s s f u l s i t u a t i o n s (Kobasa, Maddi, & Kahn, 1982), i t was used i n t h i s study as a framework with which to compare the two i n t e r v e n t i o n programs. The q u e s t i o n of p r e v e n t i o n of crimes such as s h o p l i f t i n g has been approached and analyzed from many 2 d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s . Some h a v e c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e r o l e o f t h e mass m e d i a i n d e v e l o p i n g a n t i - s h o p l i f t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n p r o g r a m s ( S a c c o , 1 9 8 5 ) . O t h e r s h a v e f o c u s e d on t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e s t o r e k e e p e r s ( t h e d i r e c t v i c t i m s ) who c a n r e d u c e t h e number o f s h o p l i f t i n g i n c i d e n t s by i n c r e a s i n g s e c u r i t y ( K a l l i s & V a n i e r , 1985 ) a n d c h a n g i n g t h e a c t u a l f o r m a t o f t h e s t o r e f r o m s e l f - s e r v i c e t o c o u n t e r - s e r v i c e ( W a l s h , 1 9 7 8 ) . I t i s a s s u m e d t h a t i f t h e v i c t i m i s l e s s v u l n e r a b l e t h e r e w i l l be f e w e r o b s t a c l e s t o b l o c k t h e " r a t i o n a l " p r o c e s s by w h i c h a n i n d i v i d u a l p e r f o r m s t h e c r i m i n a l a c t o f s h o p l i f t i n g . H o w e v e r , t h e s e a u t h o r s i g n o r e t h e f a c t t h a t n o t a l l s h o p l i f t e r s make a r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n t o s t e a l b a s e d on t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e m e r c h a n d i s e , o r t h e e x i s t a n c e o f a " f o o l p r o o f " means o f e s c a p i n g f r o m t h e s t o r e . Many s h o p l i f t e r s do n o t t a k e t h e t i m e t o c o n s i d e r w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y " a p p e a r " l i k e o b v i o u s t h i e v e s , o r w h e t h e r a n y t h i n g c o u l d " l i n k " t hem t o t h e t h e f t a f t e r i t h a s o c c u r r e d ( A r b o l e d a - F l o r e z e t a l . , 1 9 7 7 ; C u p c h i k & A t c h e s o n , 1 9 8 3 ; M o o r e , 1 9 8 4 ; Y a t e s , 1 9 8 6 ) . I n c r e a s i n g t h e number o f s t a f f a n d s e c u r i t y g u a r d s , i n t r o d u c i n g s o p h i s t i c a t e d e l e c t r o n i c d e v i c e s , s e c u r i n g m e r c h a n d i s e b e h i n d l o c k e d c a b i n e t s a n d m o u n t i n g a n t i - s h o p l i f t i n g c a m p a i g n s a r e u s e f u l s t r a t e g i e s t o d e t e r some p e o p l e f r o m s t e a l i n g . H o w e v e r , wha t i s p r o p o s e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e l i t e r a t u r e i s t h a t r e a s o n s o t h e r t h a n c r i m i n a l i n t e n t p l a y a p o w e r f u l r o l e i n m o t i v a t i n g s h o p l i f t i n g b e h a v i o r 3 ( A r b o l e d a - F l o r e z et a l . , 1977; B r a d f o r d _ Balmaceda, 1983; Cupchik _ Atcheson, 1983; Moore, 1983, 1 984). P s y c h o s o c i a l s t r e s s has been i d e n t i f i e d by a number of r e s e a r c h e r s as one such m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r . Moore (1984) found that the most frequent s t r e s s o r s were a r e s u l t of f a m i l y f a c t o r s , such as c h i l d abuse, ne g l e c t and a l c o h o l i c p a r e n t s , and from i n t e r p e r s o n a l problems, i n c l u d i n g d i v o r c e and s e p a r a t i o n . Other s t r e s s o r s a s s o c i a t e d with a major i l l n e s s or f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s were found among some s h o p l i f t e r s ( A r b o l e d a - F l o r e z et a l . , 1977; Moore, 1983,1984). Bradford and Balmaceda (1983) concluded that 78% of t h e i r sample of s h o p l i f t e r s experienced m i l d to severe l e v e l s of p s y c h o s o c i a l s t r e s s p r i o r to the t h e f t inc i d e n t . E x p e r i e n c i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t p e r s o n a l l o s s , be i t the l o s s of a person through death, d i v o r c e or s e p a r a t i o n , or l o s s of a job, country or home, has a l s o been a s s o c i a t e d with s h o p l i f t i n g (Cupchik & Atcheson, 1983; Moore, 1984; Ordway, 1962). Cupchik and Atcheson (1983) p o s t u l a t e d a h y p o t h e s i s they d e f i n e as " l o s s - s u b s t i t u t i o n - b y - s h o p l i f t i n g " , which s t a t e s that people may t r y to r e p l a c e or s u b s t i t u t e a s i g n i f i c a n t l o s s by u n f a i r l y t a k i n g another o b j e c t . Other f a c t o r s r e p e a t e d l y found to be a s s o c i a t e d with a sub-group of s h o p l i f t e r s were d e p r e s s i o n (Bradford _ Balmaceda, 1983; Cupchik & Atcheson, 1983; Moore, 1984; Ordway, 1962; Ray, Solomon, Doncaster, & M e l i n a , 1983) and low s e l f - e s t e e m (Beers, 1974; Ray et a l . , 1983; Solomon & 4 Ray, 1 9 8 4 ) . G i v e n t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e c o n s i s t e n t l y f o u n d t h a t a l a r g e s u b - g r o u p o f s h o p l i f t e r s a r e a f f l i c t e d by a s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l o f s t r e s s , i t was i m p o r t a n t t o s u p p o r t t h i s s t u d y w i t h i n a " s t r e s s " t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k . F o r s e v e r a l y e a r s , r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e been i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n l i f e s t r e s s , h e a l t h a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l a d j u s t m e n t ( J o h n s o n & S a r a s o n , 1 9 7 9 ) . A p e r s o n a l i t y c o n s t r u c t , h a r d i n e s s , h a s e v o l v e d f r o m t h i s l i t e r a t u r e ( K o b a s a , 1979; K o b a s a e t a l . , 1 9 8 2 ) . S p e c i f i c a l l y , h a r d y i n d i v i d u a l s a r e d e s c r i b e d a s p o s s e s s i n g t h r e e g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . F i r s t , t h e y b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y c a n " c o n t r o l " o r i n f l u e n c e t h e e v e n t s o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e . S e c o n d , t h e y a r e a b l e t o f e e l d e e p l y i n v o l v e d i n o r " c o m m i t t e d " t o t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e i r l i v e s a n d t o t h e m s e l v e s . L a s t l y , t h e y v i e w • c h a n g e a s an e x c i t i n g " c h a l l e n g e " , r a t h e r t h a n a s a t h r e a t t o t h e i r own s e n s e o f s e c u r i t y . I n e a r l y r e s e a r c h , K o b a s a a n d o t h e r s ( G a n e l l e n & B l a n e y , 1984; K o b a s a , 1979; K o b a s a e t a l . , 1982; K o b a s a , M a d d i , & P u c c e t t i , 1982) f o u n d t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s h i g h i n h a r d i n e s s were b e t t e r a b l e t o c o p e w i t h s t r e s s a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d f e w e r c a s e s o f p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s . T h e s e r e s u l t s seem t o s u g g e s t t h a t h a r d i n e s s p l a y s a " b u f f e r i n g " r o l e , r e d u c i n g t h e i l l n e s s - r e l a t e d e f f e c t s o f s t r e s s , a n d t h a t h a r d i n e s s i s a good p r e d i c t o r o f h e a l t h . 5 The t h e o r y , r e s e a r c h m e t h o d s and i n s t r u m e n t d e v e l o p e d t o m e a s u r e h a r d i n e s s h a v e a l l r e c e i v e d r e c e n t c r i t i c i s m (Funk & H o u s t o n , 1987; H u l l , Van T r e u r e n , & P r o p s o m , 1988; H u l l , Van T r e u r e n , _ V i r n e l l i , 1 9 8 7 ) . F i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t , a l t h o u g h h a r d i n e s s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o w e r l e v e l s o f i l l n e s s , i t d o e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y b u f f e r t h e e f f e c t s o f s t r e s s f u l l i f e e v e n t s (Funk & H o u s t o n , 1987; S c h m i e d & L a u l e r , 1 9 8 6 ) . More r e l e v a n t t o t h i s s t u d y , a u t h o r s a l s o f o u n d t h a t h a r d i n e s s i s more s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h c o m p a r e d t o p h y s i c a l h e a l t h . F u r t h e r m o r e , H u l l e t a l . ( 1 9 8 7 ) c o n c l u d e d t h a t h a r d i n e s s i s n o t a u n i d i m e n s i o n a l c o n s t r u c t a n d t h a t i t i s b e s t c o n c e p t u a l i z e d a s t h r e e s e p a r a t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : c o m mitment, c o n t r o l and c h a l l e n g e . I t h a s been s t r o n g l y recommended t h a t t h e s u b - s c a l e s o f t h e h a r d i n e s s s c a l e be u s e d s e p a r a t e l y (Funk _ H o u s t o n , 1987; H u l l e t a l . , 1987; H u l l e t a l . , 1 9 8 8 ) , a n d s p e c i f i c a l l y , t h a t r e s e a r c h e r s s h o u l d i n v e s t i g a t e t h e i n d e p e n d e n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f commitment an d c o n t r o l o n l y . C h a l l e n g e was r e p e a t e d l y f o u n d t o be u n r e l a t e d t o b o t h p h y s i o l o g i c a l a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h o u t c o m e s ( H u l l e t a l . , 1 9 8 7 ) . D e s p i t e t h e s e c r i t i c i s m s , t h e commitment a n d c o n t r o l c o m p o n e n t s were f o u n d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o s u c h v a r i a b l e s a s d e p r e s s i o n , s e l f - e s t e e m , b u r n o u t a n d g e n e r a l m a l a d j u s t m e n t (Funk _ H o u s t o n , 1987; G a n e l l e n _ B l a n e y , 1984; H o l t , F i n e , & T o l l e f s o n , 1987; H u l l e t a l . , 1987, 1988; M c C r a n i e , L a m b e r t , & L a m b e r t , 1 9 8 7 ) . T h e s e f i n d i n g s were b a s e d on s a m p l e s 6 of males and females, students and employed. T h i s i m p l i e s that i n d i v i d u a l s who have a strong sense of commitment to s e l f and an i n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l are l e s s depressed, have higher s e l f - e s t e e m and are more s o c i a b l e and o p t i m i s t i c . I t i s t h e r e f o r e p o s s i b l e to suggest that the c o n t r o l and commitment components of the h a r d i n e s s c o n s t r u c t can be r e l a t e d to the group of s h o p l i f t e r s who are a f f l i c t e d by high l e v e l s of p s y c h o s o c i a l s t r e s s , and who are depressed and low i n s e l f - e s t e e m . I n t e r v e n t i o n s designed to i n c r e a s e self-commitment, i n t e r n a l l o c u s of c o n t r o l and s e l f - e s t e e m , while d e c r e a s i n g symptoms of d e p r e s s i o n may, t h e r e f o r e , be e f f e c t i v e i n d e a l i n g with s h o p l i f t e r s . A number of s t u d i e s have attempted to e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of group c o u n s e l l i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s f o r s h o p l i f t e r s on such v a r i a b l e s as ego s t r e n g t h (Edwards & Roundtree, 1981), i r r a t i o n a l b e l i e f s (Ray et a l . , 1983; Solomon & Ray, 1984), s e l f - c o n c e p t (Ray et a l . , 1983; Semchuk, 1981; Solomon & Ray, 1984), s e l f - i m a g e , coping a b i l i t y and d e p r e s s i o n ( R u s s e l l , 1976), ego s t r e n g t h and r e c i d i v i s m (Edwards & Roundtree, 1981; Ordway, 1962). Although most of these s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d p o s i t i v e changes i n the abovementioned v a r i a b l e s , c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s i n design should be mentioned. These i n c l u d e lack of (a) comparison groups, (b) pre-and post measures, and (c) v a l i d and r e l i a b l e instuments to measure change. Furthermore, most <_ i n t e r v e n t i o n s were designed to t r e a t f i r s t o f f e n d e r s 7 only (Edwards & Roundtree, 1982; Ray et a l . , 1983; Solomon & Ray, 1984). In 1972, the E l i z a b e t h Fry S o c i e t y of B r i t i s h Columbia implemented a c o u n s e l l i n g program s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to h e l p those i n d i v i d u a l s who s h o p l i f t as a r e a c t i o n to p s y c h o l o g i c a l and emotional s t r e s s . Over the past 15 years, the S h o p l i f t e r s C o u n s e l l i n g Program (SCP) has o f f e r e d group, i n d i v i d u a l , m a r i t a l and f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g to people of a l l ages and socioeconomic backgrounds ac r o s s the Vancouver lower mainland. Approximately 90% of the c l i e n t s assessed as s u i t a b l e f o r the SCP are r e f e r r e d to the group c o u n s e l l i n g s e t t i n g . A 6-week, 12-hour group program was designed i n 1987 to meet s p e c i f i c g o a l s : (a) to i n c r e a s e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' understanding of t h e i r c r i m i n a l behavior ( i . e . , what are the u n d e r l y i n g i s s u e s l i n k e d to or m o t i v a t i n g the b e h a v i o r ) , (b) to decrease symptoms of d e p r e s s i o n , (c) to i n c r e a s e p a r t i c i p a n t s ' l e v e l of s e l f - e s t e e m and commitment to s e l f , and (d) to s t i m u l a t e a stronger sense of i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l . The program operates on the premise that i n meeting these g o a l s p a r t i c i p a n t s w i l l begin to d e a l with l i f e ' s s t r e s s o r s and problems i n a more p r o d u c t i v e manner, thus d e c r e a s i n g the l i k e l i h o o d that they w i l l r e o f f e n d . The purpose of t h i s study was to eva l u a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the SCP compared to another form of i n t e r v e n t i o n adopted by the c o u r t s , Community Work S e r v i c e (CWS). I t was expected that SCP p a r t i c i p a n t s 8 w o u l d c h a n g e s i g n i f i c a n t l y o v e r a 6-week p r o g r a m c o m p a r e d t o t h e CWS g r o u p , a nd t h a t t h e c h a n g e s w o u l d be m a i n t a i n e d a t a 6-week f o l l o w - u p a s s e s s m e n t . T h a t i s , t h e y w o u l d show l e s s d e p r e s s i o n , a n d g r e a t e r s e l f - e s t e e m , commitment t o s e l f , a n d i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l . 9 M o d i f i c a t i o n s i n D e s i g n F o l l o w i n g t h e p r o p o s e d r e s e a r c h d e s i g n , a c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p was t o be g e n e r a t e d c o n s i s t i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l s who were o r d e r e d by t h e c o u r t s t o r e p o r t t o a p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r , a n d who were s u b s e q u e n t l y o r d e r e d t o p e r f o r m a s p e c i f i e d number o f Community Work S e r v i c e (CWS) h o u r s . O v e r a 6-month p e r i o d r e p e a t e d a t t e m p t s were made t o g e n e r a t e a s a m p l e o f s u b j e c t s f o r t h e c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p . The r e s e a r c h e r r e c e i v e d w r i t t e n c o n s e n t f r o m t h e o f f i c e o f The A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l t o s o l i c i t a i d f r o m any a n d a l l p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e s i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . F o u r s u c h o f f i c e s were a p p r o a c h e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r a n d on e a c h o c c a s i o n a p r e s e n t a t i o n was made a t a s t a f f m e e t i n g o u t l i n i n g t h e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t a n d t h e r o l e o f t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r i n r e f e r r i n g s u b j e c t s . A t o t a l o f 80 C o n s e n t Forms ( s e e A p p e n d i x A) were d i s t r i b u t e d . P r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s w ere t o i n f o r m t h e i r c l i e n t s o f t h e s t u d y a n d a s k f o r v o l u n t e e r s . T h o s e i n t e r e s t e d i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g were t o s i g n t h e c o n s e n t f o r m a n d c o n t a c t t h e r e s e a r c h e r t o s e t a t i m e f o r an a s s e s s m e n t i n t e r v i e w . The r e s e a r c h e r r e c e i v e d no r e s p o n s e w h a t s o e v e r , a n d t h e r e f o r e was u n a b l e t o g e n e r a t e a c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p . Upon c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h i n d i v i d u a l c o m m i t t e e members c h a n g e s i n t h e p r o p o s e d r e s e a r c h d e s i g n were made. I t was d e c i d e d t o r e p l i c a t e t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p a n d t o u s e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n t h e g r o u p s t o c o m p a r e a n d e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t r e a t m e n t . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e s h o r t - t e r m t r e a t m e n t w o u l d be 10 more e f f e c t i v e f o r s u b j e c t s with only one o f f e n c e compared to those with two or more o f f e n c e s , i n s i g n i f i c a n t l y d e c r e a s i n g d e p r e s s i v e symptoms, and i n enhancing s e l f - c o n c e p t , sense of p e r s o n a l commitment and i n t e r n a l locus of c o n t r o l . I t was expected that s i n c e the former group had been processed through the C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e System r e p e a t e d l y , the impact of t h i s c y c l e would only i n c r e a s e t h e i r r e s i s t a n c e to change. Although d i f f i c u l t to conf i r m , one c o u l d f u r t h e r s p e c u l a t e that a f i r s t o f f e n d e r i s l e s s l i k e l y to be a h a b i t u a l s h o p l i f t e r than a repeat o f f e n d e r . The negative behavior would t h e r e f o r e be a l e s s i n t e g r a l p a r t of h i s or her coping mechanism. 11 L i t e r a t u r e R e v i e w I n t h e p r e s e n t c h a p t e r , t h e body o f l i t e r a t u r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p r e v e n t i o n a n d d e t e r r e n c e o f s h o p l i f t i n g w i l l be e x a m i n e d . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t a r e t h e r e l a t i v e l y few s t u d i e s t h a t e v a l u a t e t h e outcome o f i n t e r v e n t i o n p r o g r a m s f o r a g r o u p o f n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s h o p l i f t e r s . The r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e c o n c e p t o f h a r d i n e s s a nd s t r e s s , w i l l be e x a m i n e d a n d c o n c e p t u a l l y l i n k e d t o t h e g r o u p o f s h o p l i f t e r s s t u d i e d . The E t i o l o g y o f S h o p l i f t i n g C r i m e p r e v e n t i o n a n d d e t e r r e n c e h a s been a p p r o a c h e d on. a number o f d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s : t h r o u g h p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n , s e c u r i t y m e a s u r e s , p u n i s h m e n t a n d r e h a b i l i t a t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n s . R e s e a r c h e r s h a v e l o n g been i n t e r e s t e d i n e v a l u a t i n g t h e p o l i c i e s a n d p r o g r a m s a d v o c a t e d by v a r i o u s g o v e r n m e n t a n d c o m m u n i t y g r o u p s . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i s t h e body o f l i t e r a t u r e t h a t f o c u s e s on t h e e t i o l o g y a n d p r e v e n t i o n o f s h o p l i f t i n g , an o f f e n c e l a b e l l e d u n d e r t h e C r i m i n a l Code o f Canada a s T h e f t U n d e r $ 1 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 . A c c o r d i n g t o S t a t i s t i c s C a n a d a , 792,626 " a c t u a l " a r r e s t s were r e c o r d e d f o r t h e f t u n d e r o f f e n c e s i n 1987, a n d o f t h o s e , 103,652 were f o r s h o p l i f t i n g . C o n v e n t i o n a l e s t i m a t e s s t a t e t h a t o n l y 1 i n 35 s h o p l i f t e r s a r e e v e r c a u g h t ( O w c z a r , p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n , J a n u a r y , 1 9 8 9 ) . T h i s means t h a t o v e r 3.5 m i l l i o n i n c i d e n t s o f s h o p l i f t i n g a r e l i k e l y t o h a v e o c c u r r e d i n t h a t y e a r . I n C a n a d a , t h e s t a n d a r d l o s s r e p o r t e d f o r s h o p l i f t i n g i s o f 12 $1,000,000.00 p e r day ( B r a d f o r d & B a l m a c e d a , 1 9 8 3 ) . E v e n t h i s f i g u r e i s l i k e l y l o w , s i n c e i t was c i t e d i n a 1978 r e p o r t o f t h e S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l o f Canada ( R a w l i n s , 1 9 7 8 ) . A l t h o u g h s t a t i s t i c s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e c o s t a n d o c c u r r e n c e o f s h o p l i f t i n g a r e n o t c o m p l e t e l y r e l i a b l e , t h e c u m u l a t i v e e f f e c t o f what i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d a " p e t t y " c r i m e i s e n o r m o u s . I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h e n t h a t t h e p r e s s u r e t o c l e a r l y d e f i n e t h e n a t u r e o f s h o p l i f t i n g a n d i n t u r n e s t a b l i s h e f f e c t i v e means o f d e t e r r i n g i t i s e v e r i n c r e a s i n g ( B r a d f o r d & B a l m a c e d a , 1 9 8 3 ) . Our k n o w l e d g e o f who s h o p l i f t s a n d why h a s c e r t a i n l y b r o a d e n e d . The t y p i c a l s h o p l i f t e r i s no l o n g e r d e s c r i b e d a s a m i d d l e - a g e d , d e p r e s s e d woman a t t e m p t i n g , f o r i n s t a n c e , t o s y m b o l i c a l l y r e p l a c e t h e l o s t r o l e o f m o t h e r o r w i f e ( C u p c h i k . & A t c h e s o n , 1 9 8 3 ) . I n f a c t , i t h a s become i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o c r e a t e a p r o f i l e o f a t y p i c a l s h o p l i f t e r . On d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s s u c h a s a g e , g e n d e r , e d u c a t i o n l e v e l , e mployment a n d m a r i t a l s t a t u s t h e r e a r e more s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n s h o p l i f t e r s a n d o t h e r c r i m i n a l s t h a n b e t w e e n s h o p l i f t e r s a n d t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n ( A r b o l e d a - F l o r e z e t a l . , 1977; B r a d f o r d & B a l m a c e d a , 1983; S o h i e r , 1 9 6 9 ) . A r b o l e d a - F l o r e z e t a l . ( 1 9 7 7 ) s u g g e s t t h a t t h e p r o b l e m o f w i d e l y d i f f e r i n g e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r s h o p l i f t i n g s t e m s f r o m t h e p a r a d o x t h a t i t i s s u c h an " o r d i n a r y " c r i m e c o m m i t t e d by p e o p l e o f a l l a g e s a n d 13 socioeconomic backgrounds. S i m i l a r l y , Ray (1987) says that s h o p l i f t i n g i s best viewed as a crime that anyone can commit f o r a v a r i e t y of reasons. She suggests that i n order to gain a b e t t e r p e r s p e c t i v e on the problem, we should c o n s i d e r the s o c i a l , economic and s o c i e t a l v a r i a b l e s as w e l l as the i n d i v i d u a l f a c t o r s t h a t are i n v o l v e d . From h i s sample of 78 c o l l e g e students who had been charged with s h o p l i f t i n g , Moore (1983) c h a l l e n g e d p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s (Beck & M c l n t y r e , 1977) that l a b e l l e d c h r o n i c s h o p l i f t e r s as a n t i - s o c i a l and psychopathic, as measured by the MMPI. Using the same s c a l e , he found that s h o p l i f t e r s scored high on p a s s i v e - a g g r e s s i v e n e s s . He suggests that s h o p l i f t i n g i s a r e s u l t of t h i s c h a r a c t e r d i s o r d e r coupled with the experience of s i t u a t i o n a l s t r e s s . These r e s u l t s are c o n s i s t e n t with those of A r b o l e d - F l o r e z et a l . (1977) whose sample was more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , c o n s i s t i n g of men and women between the ages of 16-68, from d i f f e r e n t backgrounds. In t h e i r 1983 study, Cupchik and Atcheson c l a s s i f i e d the psychodynamics of s h o p l i f t i n g based on a sample of 24 s h o p l i f t e r s r e f e r r e d to a f o r e n s i c s e r v i c e f o r p s y c h i a t r i c e v a l u a t i o n . They concluded that s h o p l i f t i n g can be motivated by e i t h e r one or a combination of the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s : (a) a r e a c t i o n to p s y c h o s o c i a l s t r e s s , ( b ) a r e g r e s s i v e , symbolic a c t , (c) an unconscious r e t r i b u t i o n , (d) e i t h e r a c o n s c i o u s or unconscious manipulation ( i . e . , to e f f e c t some change; a c r y f o r h e l p ) , (e) a response to a c t u a l , a n t i c i p a t e d 14 or p e r c e i v e d l o s s , and ( f ) a r e a c t i o n to the occurrence of carcinoma. In g e n e r a l , d e s p i t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n l a b e l l i n g and c l a s s i f y i n g the m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s of s h o p l i f t i n g , the l i t e r a t u r e s t r o n g l y supports the idea that a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of s h o p l i f t e r s are not simply p r o f e s s i o n a l t h i e v e s who s t e a l f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n . Researchers who have s t u d i e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e samples of s h o p l i f t e r s have re p e a t e d l y found common p r e s e n t i n g f a c t o r s . Most frequent are the presence of d e p r e s s i v e symptoms and low s e l f - e s t e e m ( A r b o l e d a - F l o r e z et a l . , 1977; B r a d f o r d & Balmaceda, 1983; Cupchik & Atcheson, 1983; Gibbens, 1981; Moore, 1984; P r a t t , 1988; Ray, 1987; Ray et a l . , 1983; R u s s e l l , 1976; Townsend, 1972; Yates, 1986). A l s o h i g h l y represented i s the presence of p s y c h o s o c i a l s t r e s s due to (a) m a r i t a l , r e l a t i o n s h i p and f a m i l y c o n f l i c t ( A r b o l e d a - F l o r e z et a l . , 1977; Moore 1984; Ray, 1987; R u s s e l l , 1976; Yates, 1986), (b) f i n a n c i a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s ( A r b o l e d a - F l o r e z et a l . , 1977; Ray, 1987; Yates, 1986), (c) the a n t i c i p a t i o n or experience of a s i g n i f i c a n t l o s s of person, p l a c e or o b j e c t (Cupchik & Atcheson, 1983; Ordway, 1962), and (d) medical problems ( A r b o l e d a - F l o r e z et a l . , 1977; Gibbens, 1981; Yates, 1986). Pre v e n t i o n and Deterrence What then i s the approach that would best prevent and deter people from s h o p l i f t i n g ? Sacco (1985) reviewed the e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h r e l e v a n t to the f e a s i b i l i t y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a n t i - s h o p l i f t i n g 15 i n f o r m a t i o n programming. He concludes by s t a t i n g that "mass media i s not a magic b u l l e t . . . I t i s . . . a c o s t l y and d i f f i c u l t s o c i a l undertaking which has l i m i t e d a p p l i c a b i l i t y and only a moderate c a p a c i t y f o r problem a m e l i o r a t i o n " (pp. 26-27). T h i s , he adds i s p a r t i c u l a r l y p e r t i n e n t to the communication i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s designed to reduce i n c i d e n t s of s h o p l i f t i n g . With regard to p u n i t i v e measures, although Gibbens (1981) and Sohier (1969) f e e l that a simple system of " d e t e r r e n t f i n e s " , as f o r t r a f f i c v i o l a t i o n s , would be s u f f i c i e n t i n e l i m i n a t i n g the problem of r e c i d i v i s m , Walsh (1978) f e e l s that f i n i n g only reduces the r e a c t i o n to s h o p l i f t i n g to a monetary i s s u e . He advocates i n c r e a s i n g measures of s e c u r i t y , and p l a c e s most of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r crime p r e v e n t i o n on the d i r e c t v i c t i m , the merchant. The process that seems to emerge then i s one of s h i f t i n g the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y from the g e n e r a l p u b l i c , to the c o u r t s , to the merchant and so on. Education programs do e x i s t , high t e c h s e c u r i t y i s implemented, m i l d to severe sentences are passed (from minor f i n e s to i n c a r c e r a t i o n ) and yet the r a t e of s h o p l i f t i n g i s not d e c r e a s i n g . I n t e r v e n t i o n s designed to d e a l d i r e c t l y with the i n d i v i d u a l s who s h o p l i f t , and "convert them i n t o honest consumers" (Conner, 1981) are a l s o s t r o n g l y advocated (Cupchik & Atcheson, 1983; Gibbens, 1981; Moore, 1984; Yates, 1986). Based on her assessment of 101 s h o p l i f t e r s , Yates (1986) suggests that treatment 16 p r o g r a m s t h a t a d d r e s s t h e i s s u e o f s t r e s s a n d d e p r e s s i o n management a n d a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d . Moore ( 1 9 8 4 ) p r o p o s e d a t w o - p h a s e d t r e a t m e n t p l a n . F i r s t , he s e e s t h e n e e d f o r s h o r t - t e r m c r i s i s i n t e r v e n t i o n t o a s s i s t o f f e n d e r s i n c o p i n g t h r o u g h p r o s e c u t i o n a n d s e n t e n c i n g . S e c o n d , o p e r a t i n g on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t s h o p l i f t e r s t e n d t o m i n i m i z e t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e i r c r i m e , he s u g g e s t s t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f an e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m t h a t i s " f i r m c o n f r o n t a t i o n a l a n d r e a l i t y - o r i e n t e d " i n o r d e r t o c h a n g e t h e o f f e n d e r ' s " d i s t o r t e d " v i e w o f s h o p l i f t i n g . M o ore d o e s a d d , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h i s t y p e o f p r o g r a m s h o u l d n o t be a s u b s t i t u t e f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l p s y c h o t h e r a p y . G i b b e n s (1981) a l s o s e e s an o b v i o u s n e e d f o r p s y c h i a t r i c o r s o c i a l t r e a t m e n t , b u t f e e l s t h a t b e h a v i o r a l , a n d n o t p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t r e a t m e n t w o u l d be more e f f e c t i v e . The l a t t e r , he s t a t e s , may o n l y " r e v e a l t h e p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y w i t h o u t e f f e c t i n g a c u r e " ( p . 3 4 7 ) . T r e a t m e n t P r o g r a m s O n l y a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number o f t r e a t m e n t s t u d i e s h a v e been d o c u m e n t e d . A c c o r d i n g t o K u r l y c h e k & M o r g a n s t e r n ( 1 9 7 8 ) , t h e b e h a v i o r a l l i t e r a t u r e h a s p r o v i d e d few t r e a t m e n t s u g g e s t i o n s f o r t h e management o f c o m p u l s i v e s h o p l i f t i n g . They a l s o s e e l i m i t a t i o n s i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s w h i c h r e l y on p u n i s h m e n t ( e l e c t r i c s h o c k , b r e a t h o l d i n g , r e s p o n s e c o s t ) a s t h e o n l y o r m a j o r t h e r a p e u t i c t e c h n i q u e ( K e l l a m , 1969; K e u t z e r , 17 1972; K r a f t , 1 9 7 0 ) . K u r l y c h e k a n d M o r g a n s t e r n ( 1 978) o f f e r a " m u l t i m o d a l " p r o g r a m b a s e d on a number o f b e h a v i o r a l s e l f - c o n t r o l p r i n c i p l e s . T h e i r s t u d y , h o w e v e r , r e l i e s on a s i n g l e c a s e h i s t o r y . A l t h o u g h t h e y i n c o r p o r a t e a s y s t e m o f p o s i t i v e r e i n f o r c e m e n t a s w e l l a s p u n i s h m e n t i n t h e t r e a t m e n t p l a n , t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f e i t h e r "good" o r " b a d " b e h a v i o r seem f a r f r o m l o g i c a l o r m e a n i n g f u l . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e s u b j e c t was t o r e w a r d p o s i t i v e b e h a v i o r ( n o t s h o p l i f t i n g , c a r r y i n g a s m a l l h a n d b a g , e t c . ) by p u r c h a s i n g a m a g a z i n e . N e g a t i v e b e h a v i o r was t o be p u n i s h e d by d o n a t i n g $1.00 t o an o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t t h e s u b j e c t f o u n d " e x t r e m e l y a v e r s i v e " . What i s l i m i t i n g i n t h i s p u r e l y b e h a v i o r a l i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t h a t t h e s h o p l i f t i n g i s removed f r o m i t s g e n e r a l c o n t e x t . What becomes i m p o r t a n t i s t h e f e a r o f l o s i n g $1.00 o r t h e a n t i c i p a t i o n o f r e c e i v i n g a m a g a z i n e . The much b r o a d e r i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e c r i m i n a l a c t , b o t h f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d s o c i e t y a s a w h o l e , a r e f o r g o t t e n o r i g n o r e d . O t h e r s h a v e f e l t t h e ne e d t o i m p l e m e n t p r o g r a m s d e s i g n e d t o " e d u c a t e " t h e o f f e n d e r a b o u t s h o p l i f t i n g a n d i t s c o n s e q u e n c e s . D a v i s ( 1 9 8 3 ) r e p o r t s on one s u c h p r o g r a m w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f 5 l e s s o n s i n a c l a s s r o o m e n v i r o n m e n t , w i t h a f i n a l exam on "Why do I s h o p l i f t ? " . The l e s s o n s r e v i e w t h e s h o p l i f t i n g p r o b l e m f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e v i c t i m a n d t h e c o m m u n i t y , o f f e r s i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e e x i s t i n g s t a t u t e s a g a i n s t s h o p l i f t i n g a n d d i s c u s s e s t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e 18 c r i m i n a l a c t . S i m i l a r l y , C o n n e r (1981) d e v i s e d a p r o g r a m w h i c h e v e n o f f e r s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p a r t i c u l a r l y " g i f t e d s t u d e n t s " t o t a k e t h e c o u r s e by c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ! T h i s f o r m o f i n t e r v e n t i o n i s e v i d e n t l y l i m i t e d by t h e b e l i e f t h a t o n c e o f f e n d e r s a r e i n f o r m e d o f t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e i r b e h a v i o r t h e y w i l l p r o m p t l y c e a s e t o engage i n t h i s a n t i - s o c i a l a c t . Solom o n a n d Ray ( 1 9 8 4 ) go one s t e p f u r t h e r i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a nd e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e S h o p l i f t e r O f f e n d e r P r o g r a m ( S O P ) . The SOP i s an 8-hour p s y c h o e d u c a t i o n a l g r o u p c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m b a s e d on t h e c o n c e p t s a n d t h e o r y o f R a t i o n a l - E m o t i v e T h e r a p y (RET; E l l i s , 1 9 6 2 ) . The g o a l s a r e t o t e a c h t h e A-B-C's o f RET i n o r d e r t o c h a n g e i r r a t i o n a l b e l i e f s , p r e v e n t f u r t h e r s h o p l i f t i n g b e h a v i o r a n d p r o v i d e a " b a s i c t o o l " f o r l e a r n i n g t o e f f e c t l i f e - s t y l e c h a n g e s . S u b j e c t s f o r t h e s t u d y c o n s i s t e d o f 94 c o u r t - o r d e r e d f i r s t o f f e n d e r s h o p l i f t e r s . S e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e s a m p l e were women, a n d t h e mean age f o r b o t h men and women was 25.7 ( S D - 9 . 3 ) . I n t e s t i n g t h e 94 p a r t i c i p a n t s o f t h e SOP, t h e r e s e a r c h e r s f o u n d t h a t s h o p l i f t e r s d i d n o t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y on i r r a t i o n a l b e l i e f s , a s m e a s u r e d by t h e I r r a t i o n a l B e l i e f s T e s t ( I B T ; Ray & Bak, 1980) f r o m t h e n o r m a l p o p u l a t i o n . I n t u r n , t h e y d e v e l o p e d a 2 0 - i t e m S h o p l i f t e r s I r r a t i o n a l B e l i e f s S c a l e ( S I B S ) w h i c h h a s n o t , h o w e v e r , been s t a t i s t i c a l l y v a l i d a t e d . F u r t h e r , t h e r e a r e l i m i t a t i o n s b o t h i n t h e p r o g r a m i t s e l f a n d i n t h e m e thod o f e v a l u a t i n g i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . F i r s t , t h e a u t h o r s recommend t h a t f u t u r e t r e a t m e n t a d d r e s s n o t 19 o n l y c o g n i t i v e a s p e c t s o f s h o p l i f t e r s ' b e h a v i o r , b u t t h a t i t a l s o pay a t t e n t i o n t o t h e a f f e c t i v e a s p e c t s . T h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s s t e m f r o m t h e MMPI a n d s e l f - c o n c e p t s c o r e s t h e y d e r i v e d f r o m t h e i r s a m p l e w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s h o p l i f t e r s were h i g h i n d e p r e s s i o n a n d a n x i e t y a n d l o w i n s e l f - e s t e e m (Ray e t a l . , 1 9 8 3 ) . S e c o n d , t h e r e s e a r c h e r s a s s u m e d t h a t t r e a t m e n t was s u c c e s s f u l b e c a u s e o n l y one r e o f f e n c e was r e c o r d e d , a n d b e c a u s e "97.37% o f t h e SOP p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e A-B-C m o d e l a n d t h e RET a p p r o a c h [ h a d ] b een h e l p f u l " ( p . 1 0 7 7 ) . G i v e n t h a t a r r e s t s t a t i s t i c s a r e n o t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e a c t u a l c r i m e r a t e , a n d t h a t s e l f - r e p o r t s a r e s u b j e c t t o v a r i o u s b i a s e s , t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e s e r e s u l t s r e m a i n s q u e s t i o n a b l e . The s h o p l i f t e r ' s c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m d e v e l o p e d a n d o p e r a t e d by t h e E l i z a b e t h F r y S o c i e t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a s been t h e s u b j e c t o f two s e p a r a t e e v a l u a t i o n s ( R u s s e l l , 1976; Semchuk, 1 9 8 1 ) . A t t h e t i m e o f R u s s e l l ' s ( 1 9 7 6 ) s t u d y , t h e p r o g r a m was d e s i g n e d f o r m i d d l e - a g e d , d e p r e s s e d , n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s h o p l i f t e r s . The c l i e n t s met on a w e e k l y b a s i s , i n a g r o u p s e t t i n g , f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y , s i x m o n t h s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e a u t h o r , t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n b e t w e e n g r o u p s i n t e r m s o f f o c u s a n d c o n t e n t . The common g o a l s o f t r e a t m e n t , h o w e v e r , were t o i m p r o v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n and a s s e r t i v e n e s s s k i l l s , a n d t o m o t i v a t e c l i e n t s t o w a r d d i r e c t a n d p o s i t i v e a c t i o n . Two m e t h o d s were u s e d t o e v a l u a t e t h e g r o u p s ' o u t c o m e . F i r s t t h e 20 r e s e a r c h e r r e v i e w e d t h e f i l e s o f 47 women, who h a d c o m p l e t e d t h e 6-month p r o g r a m . The women r a n g e d i n age f r o m t h e i r e a r l y t w e n t i e s t o m i d - s e v e n t i e s , a n d 53% were f i r s t o f f e n d e r s . The g r o u p c o u n s e l l o r s a s s e s s e d t h e i r c l i e n t s ' p r o g r e s s a l o n g t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s : ( a ) c h a n g e i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n , ( b) c h a n g e i n s e l f - i m a g e , a n d ( c ) c h a n g e i n c o p i n g a b i l i t y . B a s e d on t h e c o u n s e l l o r s ' c a s e n o t e s a n d s u m m a r i e s , t h e r e s e a r c h e r e s t i m a t e d t h a t 8 0 % o f t h e s u b j e c t s h a d made " p o s i t i v e g a i n s " a l o n g e a c h o f t h e d i m e n s i o n s , a n d no one was s e e n a s h a v i n g r e g r e s s e d . S e c o n d , 14 women who h a d c o m p l e t e d t h e p r o g r a m a g r e e d t o a f o l l o w - u p i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h e r . A l l t h e s u b j e c t s r a t e d t h e e x p e r i e n c e a s " h i g h l y b e n e f i c i a l " . T h r e e a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o g r a m were r e p o r t e d a s h a v i n g h a d t h e most p o s i t i v e i m p a c t : ( a ) t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o o p e n l y c o m m u n i c a t e t h e i r f e e l i n g s a b o u t t h e s h o p l i f t i n g e x p e r i e n c e , (b) t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o s h a r e i d e a s a n d s u g g e s t i o n s , a n d d i s c u s s a l t e r n a t e c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n , a n d ( c ) t h e s e n s e o f b e l o n g i n g t o an e m p a t h e t i c a n d s u p p o r t i v e g r o u p . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d i n c r e a s e d f e e l i n g s o f s e l f - c o n t r o l a n d d e c r e a s e d f e e l i n g s o f d e p r e s s i o n f o l l o w i n g t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n g r o u p . The a u t h o r a d m i t s t h a t t h e s e methods o f a s s e s s m e n t a r e h i g h l y s u b j e c t i v e , a n d t h e r e f o r e " o n l y b e g i n t o s e r v e a s an i n d i c a t i o n o f g r o u p e f f e c t i v e n e s s " ( p . 9 ) . D e s p i t e t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s , h o w e v e r , t h e a u t h o r f e e l s t h a t t h e r e s u l t s w a r r a n t a t t e n t i o n , a n d recommends t h a t more o b j e c t i v e d a t a be g e n e r a t e d 21 through the use of s t a n d a r d i z e d pre- and posttreatment measures i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s . Semchuk (1981 ) a l s o e v a l u a t e d the E l i z a b e t h Fry S o c i e t y ' s c o u n s e l l i n g program f o r s h o p l i f t e r s , at that time known as the Court R e f e r r a l Program. Demographic data were compiled from a sample of 80 cases r e f e r r e d to the program. The average age was 38.2 years, ranging from 17 to 76 y e a r s . Females made up 92.5% of t h i s sample. Based on scores of the Tennessee S e l f Concept S c a l e (TSCS), 55.4% were s e l e c t e d f o r i n t e n s i v e c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e . A t o t a l of 39 c l i e n t s were monitored from i n i t i a l i n t a k e to program completion. Type of treatment v a r i e d , where s u b j e c t s were i n v o l v e d i n e i t h e r group or i n d i v i d u a l s e s s i o n s (69% and 23%, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , or a combination of both (59%). The average l e n g t h of treatment was 21 weeks, ranging from 5 to 63 weeks. Pre- and p o s t t e s t scores on the TSCS were the only s t a n d a r d i z e d outcome measures. Other measures used were s u b j e c t i v e r e p o r t s from c o u n s e l l o r s , c l i e n t s , judges and p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s . The TSCS y i e l d s 11 separate s c o r e s , from a T o t a l P o s i t i v e score to a General Maladjustment index. Ten of the 11 measures showed s i g n i f i c a n t change i n a p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n . Although the r e s e a r c h e r s f e l t that these r e s u l t s were "remarkable" and pr o v i d e d " c o n s i d e r a b l e and s u b s t a n t i v e evidence of the b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s of treatment" (p. 69), s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s i n design must be noted. F i r s t , the f a c t t h a t l e n g t h and type of 22 t r e a t m e n t d i f f e r e d f r o m one s u b j e c t t o t h e n e x t , makes i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o a t t r i b u t e p o s i t i v e c h a n g e t o t r e a t m e n t a l o n e . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e c o n t e n t o f t r e a t m e n t i s n o t d e s c r i b e d . The r e s e a r c h e r o u t l i n e s t h e m a i n o b j e c t i v e o f t h e g r o u p p r o g r a m ; s p e c i f i c a l l y , " t o a s s i s t p a r t i c i p a t i n g c l i e n t s i n i m p r o v i n g t h e i r p e r s o n a l / s o c i a l s e n s e o f w e l l - b e i n g and a c t u a l b e h a v i o r a l f u n c t i o n i n g , i n c l u d i n g r e d u c i n g t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f a r e p e t i t i o n o f c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e s " ( p . 5 3 ) . H o w e v e r , t h e r e i s no c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n a s t o what t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s were e x p o s e d t o d u r i n g t h e i r c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n s i n o r d e r t o a c h i e v e t h i s o b j e c t i v e . F i n a l l y , t h e r e s e a r c h e r a l s o n o t e s t h a t t h e l a c k o f a c o m p a r i s o n o r c o n t r o l g r o u p f u r t h e r l i m i t s t h e c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t ca.n be d rawn f r o m s u c h p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s . E d w a r d s a n d R o u n d t r e e ( 1 9 8 1 ) e v a l u a t e d a s h o r t - t e r m t r e a t m e n t p r o g r a m f o r f i r s t o f f e n d e r s h o p l i f t e r s u s i n g a c o n t r o l g r o u p , p r e - a n d p o s t t e s t o utcome m e a s u r e s , a n d a s t a n d a r d i z e d i n s t r u m e n t t o m e a s u r e c h a n g e . They h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t ( a ) t h e r e w o u l d be s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e s h o p l i f t e r s who r e c e i v e d t r e a t m e n t a n d t h e w a i t i n g l i s t c o n t r o l g r o u p on p r e t o p o s t s c o r e s o f t h e ego s t r e n g t h s c a l e o f t h e MMPI, a n d (b) t h e r e w o u l d be s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h o s e two g r o u p s on r e - a r r e s t s t a t i s t i c s , g a t h e r e d by l o c a l p o l i c e d e p a r t m e n t s , a t a 90-day f o l l o w - u p . T r e a t m e n t c o n s i s t e d o f 8 w e e k l y 1 a n d 1/2 h o u r s e s s i o n s t h a t c o v e r e d i n f o r m a t i o n on p e r s o n a l i t y 2 3 a n d c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s f r o m r e a l i t y t h e r a p y , t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s , p a r e n t e f f e c t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g , g e s t a l t , b e h a v i o r m o d i f i c a t i o n a n d a s s e r t i v e n e s s t r a i n i n g . B o t h h y p o t h e s e s were r e j e c t e d . N e i t h e r g r o u p c h a n g e d o v e r t i m e on m e a s u r e s o f ego s t r e n g t h , a n d no i n c i d e n t s o f r e - a r r e s t were r e c o r d e d f o r e i t h e r g r o u p . The r e s e a r c h e r s a t t r i b u t e t h e l a t t e r f i n d i n g s t o t h e f a c t t h a t a l l s u b j e c t s were c o u r t - o r d e r e d , a n d t h e r e f o r e r e a c t i n g t o " l e g a l p r e s s u r e " . The a u t h o r s , h o w e v e r , do n o t o f f e r a n y e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e f i r s t f i n d i n g . One c o u l d s p e c u l a t e t h a t t h e s e n o n s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s a r e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e MMPI d o e s n o t a c c u r a t e l y m e a s u r e t h e c h a n g e s t h a t t r e a t m e n t i s a t t e m p t i n g t o e f f e c t , o r , t h a t t r e a t m e n t i t s e l f , w i t h i t s v a r i e t y o f s k i l l s a n d t h e r a p e u t i c o r i e n t a t i o n s , i s n o t e f f e c t i v e i n i n c r e a s i n g ego s t r e n g t h . The g o a l s o f t r e a t m e n t must be c l e a r l y d e f i n e d b e f o r e c h o o s i n g an i n s t r u m e n t t h a t w i l l m e a s u r e t h o s e c h a n g e s due t o t r e a t m e n t . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s e g o a l s must be b a s e d on an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r e s e n t i n g p r o b l e m , i n t h i s c a s e s h o p l i f t i n g , a n d o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s s e e k i n g t r e a t m e n t . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e p r i m a r y g o a l o f an i n t e r v e n t i o n p r o g r a m f o r s h o p l i f t e r s i s t o r e d u c e t h e r e c i d i v i s m r a t e . O f f i c i a l a r r e s t s t a t i s t i c s , a s s t a t e d e a r l i e r , a r e n o t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e a c t u a l i n c i d e n t s of s h o p l i f t i n g . S e l f - r e p o r t s o f r e - o f f e n c e s a r e e q u a l l y u n r e l i a b l e . T h e r e a r e , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , s e c o n d a r y g o a l s o f t r e a t m e n t w h i c h a r e j u s t a s i m p o r t a n t a n d i n s t r u m e n t a l i n a t t a i n i n g t h e 24 f i r s t . By m e a s u r i n g t h e outcome o f t h e s e s e c o n d a r y g o a l s we c a n make f u r t h e r i n f e r e n c e s on t h e s u c c e s s , o r f a i l u r e o f t h e f i r s t . H a r d i n e s s , S t r e s s , a n d C o p i n g The t a s k o f i d e n t i f y i n g a t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t a n d r e l i a b l e i n s t r u m e n t t h a t m a t c h t h e s e c o n d a r y g o a l s o f t h e SCP s t u d i e d h e r e , h a s l e d t h i s r e s e a r c h e r t o e x a m i n e t h e l i t e r a t u r e on s t r e s s a n d c o p i n g , s i n c e , a s m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , a p a r t i c u l a r s u b g r o u p o f s h o p l i f t e r s i s a f f l i c t e d by h i g h l e v e l s o f s t r e s s . I n a f u r t h e r a t t e m p t t o s t u d y t h e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n h i g h l y s t r e s s e d s u b j e c t s who r e m a i n h e a l t h y ( a d a p t i v e c o p i n g a b i l i t y ) a n d t h o s e who show i l l n e s s a l o n g w i t h h i g h s t r e s s ( m a l a d a p t i v e c o p i n g a b i l i t y ) , K o b a s a ( 1 9 7 9 ) i d e n t i f i e d a s p e c i f i c p e r s o n a l i t y c o n s t r u c t s he t e r m e d h a r d i n e s s . H a r d y p e o p l e a r e d e s c r i b e d a s p o s s e s s i n g t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : c o m m i t m e n t , c o n t r o l , a n d c h a l l e n g e . F i r s t , t h e y t e n d t o be c o m m i t t e d t o o r i n v o l v e d i n t h e many a s p e c t s o f t h e i r l i v e s , a n d h a v e a g e n e r a l s e n s e o f p u r p o s e a n d s e l f - a w a r e n e s s w h i c h a l l o w s them t o f i n d m e a n i n g a n d v a l u e i n who t h e y a r e a n d what t h e y d o. S e c o n d , t h e y t e n d t o b e l i e v e a n d be h a v e a s i f t h e y h a v e c o n t r o l o r i n f l u e n c e o v e r e v e n t s a n d o u t c o m e s t h r o u g h t h e i r u s e o f p e r s o n a l c h o i c e , k n o w l e d g e a n d s k i l l . F i n a l l y , h a r d y i n d i v i d u a l s v i e w c h a n g e a s a c h a l l e n g e a n d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r g r o w t h r a t h e r t h a n a s a t h r e a t t o t h e i r own s e n s e o f s e c u r i t y . The c o n c e p t o f h a r d i n e s s , a n d i n p a r t i c u l a r commitment an d c o n t r o l , seemed t o be t h e o r e t i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h 25 t h e s h o p l i f t e r s t h a t were t o be s t u d i e d . I n e a r l y r e s e a r c h , t h e n e e d f o r a l a r g e a n d h i g h l y s t r e s s e d p o o l o f s u b j e c t s l e d K o b a s a and o t h e r s ( K o b a s a , 1979; K o b a s a , M a d d i , & K h a n , 1982; K o b a s a , M a d d i , & P u c c e t t i , 1982) t o b a s e t h e i r f i n d i n g s e x c l u s i v e l y on a s a m p l e o f m i d d l e a n d u p p e r management m a l e s w o r k i n g f o r a l a r g e p u b l i c u t i l i t y company. They h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t among t h e s u b j e c t s t h a t r e p o r t e d e x p e r i e n c i n g h i g h l e v e l s o f s t r e s s , t h o s e who h a d i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l , a s e n s e o f c o m m i t m e n t , and v i e w e d c h a n g e a s a c h a l l e n g e w o u l d r e p o r t f e w e r a n d l e s s s e r i o u s c a s e s o f i l l n e s s t h a n t h o s e who h a d e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l , a s e n s e o f a l i e n a t i o n , a n d saw c h a n g e a s a t h r e a t . F i r s t , K o b a s a ( 1 9 7 9 ) f o u n d a weak, b u t s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n , .24 (2<«025), b e t w e e n s t r e s s a n d i l l n e s s . S e c o n d , u s i n g a d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n a n a l y s i s on 16 p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s u s e d t o m e a s u r e h a r d i n e s s , r e s u l t s showed t h a t h i g h s t r e s s / l o w i l l n e s s e x e c u t i v e s c o u l d i n f a c t be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m h i g h s t r e s s / h i g h i l l n e s s e x e c u t i v e s . T h a t i s , t h e f i r s t g r o u p was f o u n d t o be more i n c o n t r o l , more c o m m i t t e d and more o r i e n t e d t o w a r d c h a l l e n g e c o m p a r e d t o t h e s e c o n d g r o u p . From t h e s e r e s u l t s K o b a s a i n f e r r e d t h a t h a r d i n e s s c a n a c t a s " i n s u l a t i o n " o r a " b u f f e r " a g a i n s t i l l n e s s . C e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s a r e e v i d e n t i n t h e manner i n w h i c h h a r d i n e s s h a s been m e a s u r e d . From t h e i n i t i a l 16 s c a l e s t h a t were t h e o r e t i c a l l y b e l i e v e d t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h one o f t h e t h r e e h a r d i n e s s 26 s u b c o m p o n e n t s ( c o n t r o l , c h a l l e n g e , a n d c o m m i t m e n t ) , o n l y s i x were f o u n d t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n g r o u p s ( f o r c o n t r o l , t h e P o w e r l e s s n e s s , N i h i l i s m a n d E x t e r n a l L o c u s o f C o n t r o l s c a l e s ; f o r c h a l l e n g e , t h e V e g e t a t i v e n e s s a n d A d v e n t u r o u s n e s s s c a l e s ; a n d f o r commitment, t h e A l i e n a t i o n f r o m S e l f s c a l e ) . C o n f u s i o n a r i s e s i n l a t e r r e s e a r c h when K o b a s a a n d h e r c o l l e a g u e s ( K o b a s a , M a d d i , & C o u r i n g t o n , 1981; K o b a s a , M a d d i , & P u c c e t t i , 1982; K o b a s a & P u c c e t t i , 1983) a d o p t a d i f f e r e n t method f o r m e a s u r i n g h a r d i n e s s a n d i t s s u b c o m p o n e n t s . The A l i e n a t i o n f r o m S e l f a n d A l i e n a t i o n f r o m Work s c a l e s were u s e d t o m e a s u r e c o m m i t m e n t , t h e P o w e r l e s s n e s s a n d E x t e r n a l L o c u s o f C o n t r o l s c a l e s f o r c o n t r o l , a n d t h e S e c u r i t y s c a l e f o r c h a l l e n g e . The s c o r e s on t h e s e 5 s c a l e s a r e c o m b i n e d t o f o r m a c o m p o s i t e h a r d i n e s s s c o r e . H o w e v e r , o n l y 3 o f t h e s e s c a l e s h a d p r e v i o u s l y b een f o u n d t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n h i g h a n d l o w i l l n e s s s u b j e c t s , a n d o f t h e s e , t h e P o w e r l e s s n e s s s c a l e h a d y i e l d e d a s m a l l d i s c r i m i n a n t c o e f f i c i e n t . To a d d t o t h e c o n f u s i o n , K o b a s a ' s (1982) s t u d y on commitment and s t r e s s r e s i s t a n c e u s e d t h e P o w e r l e s s n e s s a n d V e g e t a t i v e n e s s s c a l e s t o m e a s u r e commitment, a l t h o u g h t h e y h a d p r e v i o u s l y b een i d e n t i f i e d a s m e a s u r e s o f c o n t r o l a n d c h a l l e n g e , r e s p e c t i v e l y . D e s p i t e t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s a n d i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s , t h e c o n c e p t o f h a r d i n e s s a s a h e a l t h y c o p i n g a t t r i b u t e h a s i n t e r e s t e d many r e s e a r c h e r s . R e c e n t s t u d i e s h a v e b r o a d e n e d t h e s a m p l e p o o l o f p r e d o m i n a n t l y m a l e 27 e x e c u t i v e s a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l s u s e d by K o b a s a a n d h e r c o l l e g u e s , t o i n c l u d e m a l e s a n d f e m a l e s , a d o l e s c e n t s (Hannah & M o r r i s s e y , 1 9 8 7 ) , u n i v e r s i t y u n d e r g r a d u a t e s ( F u n k & H o u s t o n , 1987; G a n e l l e n & B l a n e y , 1984; H u l l e t a l . , 1 9 8 7 , 1988; R h o d e w a l t & A g u s t s d o t t i r , 1984; Wiebe & M c C a l l u m , 1 9 8 6 ) , u n i v e r s i t y p o s t - g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s ( P a r k e s & R e n d a l l , 1 9 8 8 ) , t e a c h e r s ( H o l t e t a l . , 1 9 8 7 ) , n u r s e s ( M c C r a i n e e t a l . , 1 9 8 7 ) , a n d s e c r e t a r i e s ( S c h m i e d & L a w l e r , 1 9 8 6 ) . The h a r d i n e s s m e a s u r e h a s a l s o r e c e i v e d a t t e n t i o n a nd c r i t i c i s m (Funk & H o u s t o n , 1987; H u l l e t a l . , 1987; Okun, Z a u t r a , & R o b i n s o n , 1988; P a r k e s & R e n d a l l , 1988) w h i c h h a s u n d o u b t e d l y e n c o u r a g e d t h e o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h e r s t o r e f i n e a n d s t a n d a r d i z e t h e i r i n s t r u m e n t (The H a r d i n e s s I n s t i t u t e , I n c . , 1 9 8 5 ) . F i n a l l y , i n a d d i t i o n t o p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s , t h e e f f e c t s o f h a r d i n e s s h a v e been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m e a s u r e s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g i n c l u d i n g l o w e r l e v e l s o f b u r n o u t ( H o l t e t a l . , 1987; M c C r a i n e e t a l . , 1 9 8 7 ) , o f d e p r e s s i o n (Funk & H o u s t o n , 1987; G a n e l l e n & B l a n e y , 1984; H u l l e t a l . , 1 9 8 7 ) , and h i g h e r s e l f - e s t e e m ( H u l l e t a l . , 1 9 8 7 ) . T h e s e p o i n t s a r e o f p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h , s i n c e t h e E l i z a b e t h F r y p r o g r a m p a r t i c i p a n t s i n c l u d e men a n d women o f v a r y i n g a g e s a n d e m ployment s t a t u s , a n d s i n c e i n d i c e s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g , d e p r e s s i o n and s e l f - e s t e e m , a r e i m p o r t a n t o u t c o m e s o f t r e a t m e n t . T h u s , t h e b r o a d e r s c o p e t a k e n by r e c e n t r e s e a r c h e r s i n s t u d y i n g h a r d i n e s s , w i l l a l l o w f o r g r e a t e r g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f r e s u l t s . 28 In an attempt to study the r e l a t i o n s h i p of h a r d i n e s s and s o c i a l support and t h e i r r o l e i n moderating the e f f e c t s of l i f e s t r e s s , Ganellen and Blaney (1984) conducted a c r o s s s e c t i o n a l study using 83 female undergraduate s t u d e n t s . As expected, they found that those who repo r t e d g r e a t e r l e v e l s of s o c i a l support were a l s o higher i n h a r d i n e s s . Given that • these two f a c t o r s were c o r r e l a t e d , the r e s e a r c h e r s addressed a second q u e s t i o n : whether h a r d i n e s s and s o c i a l support a ct as b u f f e r s i n l i f e s t r e s s . A s e r i e s of 3-way ( S o c i a l Support by Hardiness by S t r e s s ) ANOVA's were computed using scores on the Beck Depression Inventory as the dependent v a r i a b l e . S i g n i f i c a n t main e f f e c t s were obtained f o r s t r e s s , s o c i a l support and two of the s i x measures of ha r d i n e s s , A l i e n a t i o n from s e l f (commitment) and Ve g e t a t i v e n e s s ( c h a l l e n g e ) . These r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that i n d i v i d u a l s low i n s t r e s s , high i n s o c i a l support, commitment, and c h a l l e n g e , are l e a s t l i k e l y to be depressed. Concerning the b u f f e r i n g e f f e c t of s o c i a l support and h a r d i n e s s , the onl y s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n found was between s t r e s s and commitment. S o c i a l support and other aspects of hard i n e s s were not found to have a b u f f e r i n g e f f e c t f o r s t r e s s . Funk and Houston (1987) c h a l l e n g e d p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h e r s , i n c l u d i n g G a n ellen and Blaney (1984), f o r r e l y i n g on a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e (ANOVA), and a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e (ANCOVA) designs to study the e f f e c t s of h a r d i n e s s , s t r e s s and other concepts such as s o c i a l 29 s u p p o r t a n d e x e r c i s e on h e a l t h a n d i l l n e s s . S i n c e h a r d i n e s s h a s been f o u n d t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e w i t h t h e s e v a r i a b l e s , u s i n g ANOVA " v i o l a t e s t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f i n d e p e n d e n c e among f a c t o r s a n d d i m e n s i o n s " ( p . 5 7 4 ) . They s u g g e s t t h e u s e o f m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n b e c a u s e t h i s t e c h n i q u e a s s e s s e s " t h e e f f e c t s o f e a c h f a c t o r w h i l e c o n t r o l l i n g f o r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f o t h e r s " ( p . 5 7 4 ) . I n t h e i r d e s i g n , Funk a n d H o u s t o n compare f i n d i n g s f r o m b o t h r e t r o s p e c t i v e a n d p r o s p e c t i v e a n a l y s e s u s i n g ANOVA and ANCOVA, a n d r e p e a t t h e a n a l y s e s f o r r e t r o s p e c t i v e a n d p r o s p e c t i v e d a t a u s i n g m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n . T h e i r s a m p l e was made up o f .120 m a l e u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s . One m e a s u r e o f p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s a n d one o f d e p r e s s i o n were u s e d a s d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s . T h e i r r e s u l t s show t h a t t h e m a i n e f f e c t s o f h a r d i n e s s on p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s a n d d e p r e s s i o n , f o u n d when r e t r o s p e c t i v e d a t a were a n a l y z e d w i t h ANOVA a n d ANCOVA, were n o t r e p r o d u c e d when d a t a were r e a n a l y z e d by m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n . F o r t h e p r o s p e c t i v e d a t a , t h e m a i n e f f e c t s o f h a r d i n e s s on d e p r e s s i o n a l o n e were o b t a i n e d by b o t h s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s . The a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t h a r d i n e s s i s more s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o d e p r e s s i o n t h a n t o p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s , a n d s u g g e s t t h a t f u t u r e s t u d i e s p l a c e more e m p h a s i s on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n h a r d i n e s s a n d d e p r e s s i o n r a t h e r t h a n p h y s i c a l symptoms. I n t h e i r 1987 s t u d y , M c C r a i n e e t a l . e x a m i n e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n h a r d i n e s s , j o b s t r e s s a n d b u r n o u t among r e g i s t e r e d s t a f f n u r s e s . The s a m p l e c o n s i s t e d o f 30 9 5 % f e m a l e s w i t h an a v e r a g e age o f 30.3 (SD=6.9). B u r n o u t was m e a s u r e d by t h e T e d i u m S c a l e ( P i n e s & A r o n s o n , 1981) w h i c h i n t u r n m e a s u r e s t h r e e c o m p o n e n t s o f b u r n o u t s y n d r o m e : ( a ) p h y s i c a l e x h a u s t i o n , ( b ) e m o t i o n a l e x h a u s t i o n ( e . g . d e p r e s s i o n ) , a n d ( c ) m e n t a l e x h a u s t i o n ( e . g . , low s e l f - e s t e e m ) . A s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n was f o u n d b e t w e e n c o m p o s i t e h a r d i n e s s and b u r n o u t . I n o r d e r t o t e s t t h e m o d e r a t i n g e f f e c t s o f h a r d i n e s s on s t r e s s a n d b u r n o u t , t h e r e s e a r c h e r s u s e d a h i e r a r c h i c a l m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . C o n t r a r y t o f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d by K o b a s a and h e r c o l l e g u e s ( K o b a s a , 1979; K o b a s a e t a l . , 1981, 1982) no m o d e r a t i n g e f f e c t s f o r h a r d i n e s s were o b s e r v e d . P e r c e i v e d j o b s t r e s s a n d l e v e l s o f h a r d i n e s s were f o u n d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t " a d d i t i v e " r a t h e r t h a n " i n t e r a c t i v e " p r e d i c t o r s o f b u r n o u t . A l t h o u g h h a r d i n e s s was s e e n a s h a v i n g b e n e f i c i a l m a i n e f f e c t s on r e d u c i n g b u r n o u t , i t d i d n o t a p p e a r t o p r e v e n t h i g h s t r e s s l e v e l s f r o m l e a d i n g t o h i g h b u r n o u t . A n o t h e r s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t i n g h a r d i n e s s and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o s t r e s s a n d b u r n o u t was c o n d u c t e d by H o l t e t a l . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . T h e i r s a m p l e o f 192 e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s , 70% o f w h i c h were a t l e a s t 31 y e a r s o l d , c o m p l e t e d a s t r e s s i n v e n t o r y , a b u r n o u t i n v e n t o r y y i e l d i n g a s c o r e o f e m o t i o n a l e x h a u s t i o n , a n d two s c a l e s t o m e a s u r e h a r d i n e s s c o m p o n e n t s , commitment a n d c o n t r o l ( A l i e n a t i o n T e s t and L o c u s o f C o n t r o l , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The a u t h o r s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t e a c h e r s i n t h e h i g h s t r e s s / h i g h b u r n o u t g r o u p w o u l d be more 31 a l i e n a t e d ( l e s s c o m m i t t e d ) a nd h a v e e x t e r n a l v e r s u s i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l c o m p a r e d t o t h o s e i n t h e h i g h s t r e s s / l o w b u r n o u t g r o u p . R e s u l t s o f F - t e s t s showed t h a t mean s c o r e s f o r commitment a n d c o n t r o l were i n t h e p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n . H o wever, s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d f o r commitment s c o r e s ( F ( 1 , 6 3 ) = 5 . 5 8 , p_<.05) and n o t f o r l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . A l t h o u g h b o t h s t u d i e s a r e l i m i t e d by t h e i r r e t r o s p e c t i v e n a t u r e , i n t h a t l o w l e v e l s o f h a r d i n e s s c o u l d be a c o n s e q u e n c e o f b u r n o u t r a t h e r t h a n a c a u s e , t h e y do l e n d s t r e n g t h t o t h e a r g u m e n t t h a t c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f h a r d i n e s s a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h . H u l l e t a l . ( 1 9 8 7) c o n t r i b u t e t o t h i s a r g u m e n t i n t h e i r s t u d y w h i c h e x a m i n e s t h e p s y c h o m e t r i c p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e h a r d i n e s s m e a s u r e a nd i t s s u b c o m p o n e n t s . R e s u l t s o f c o n v e r g e n t v a l i d a t i o n show t h a t c o m p o s i t e h a r d i n e s s s c o r e s , a n d co m m i t m e n t , a n d c o n t r o l s u b s c a l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d (2<«01) t o d e p r e s s i o n a n d s e l f - e s t e e m . C h a l l e n g e was f o u n d t o be u n r e l a t e d t o t h e s e two m e a s u r e s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h . The H a r d i n e s s M e a s u r e (PVS) I n 1984, The H a r d i n e s s I n s t i t u t e , I n c . , d e v e l o p e d t h e t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n H a r d i n e s s T e s t , o r , The P e r s o n a l V i e w s S u r v e y ( P V S ) . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e f a c t s h e e t d i s t r i b u t e d by t h e I n s t i t u t e , t h e new i n s t r u m e n t h a s been c a r e f u l l y c o n s t r u c t e d b o t h c o n c e p t u a l l y a n d e m p i r i c a l l y . I t e m a n d f a c t o r a n a l y s e s have l e d t o d i s c a r d i n g o r r e v i s i n g c e r t a i n i t e m s . The f i n a l r e s u l t 32 i s a s t a b l e and r e l i a b l e r a t i n g s c a l e , y i e l d i n g high Alpha c o e f f i c i e n t s ( i n the .90s f o r composite h a r d i n e s s , and .70s f o r i t s s u b s c a l e s ) , suggesting strong i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y . The t e s t was s t a n d a r d i z e d on a p o p u l a t i o n of 223 women and 1511 men, p r o f e s s i o n a l s , n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s and stud e n t s . Two s t u d i e s that u t i l i z e the PVS have r e c e n t l y been r e p o r t e d . Parkes and Rend a l l (1988) examined the PVS's psychometric p r o p e r t i e s u s i n g a sample of 87 post-graduate students, averaging 23.7 years i n age (SD=3.5), 67.8% of whom were female. As there were no s i g n i f i c a n t gender d i f f e r e n c e s on ha r d i n e s s s c o r e s , the two groups were combined to measure the instrument's r e l i a b i l i t y . Alpha v a l u e s f o r h a r d i n e s s , c h a l l e n g e , commitment, and c o n t r o l were i n the moderate to high range (.89, .76, .85, .68, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . Composite h a r d i n e s s , and i n p a r t i c u l a r commitment, were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to age, i n that younger s u b j e c t s had higher o v e r a l l h a r d i n e s s scores than o l d e r ones. The authors do o u t l i n e some l i m i t a t i o n s of the PVS. The assumption that the respondents are married and employed i s evident through the wording of c e r t a i n items. In t h i s r e s p e c t , the PVS may not be " w e l l - s u i t e d " f o r s t u d i e s on s t r e s s and i l l n e s s w i t h i n the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . Moreover, the predominance of n e g a t i v e l y keyed items may i n f l u e n c e scores f o r c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s . T h i s imbalance may r e s u l t i n lower h a r d i n e s s scores for people with "acquiescent response t e n d e n c i e s " . The authors suggest that minor r e v i s i o n s 33 o f w o r d i n g , a n d a b a l a n c e b e t w e e n p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e i t e m s w o u l d i n c r e a s e t h e v a l u e a n d a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e PVS w i t h i n r e s e a r c h . Okun e t a l . ( 1 9 8 8 ) u s e d t h e PVS t o m e a s u r e h a r d i n e s s a n d i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o b j e c t i v e a n d p e r c e i v e d h e a l t h among 33 women w i t h r h e u m a t o i d a r t h r i t i s ( R A ) . S u b j e c t s were t e s t e d a t t h r e e m o n t h l y i n t e r v a l s . The a u t h o r s p r e d i c t e d t h a t f i r s t , h a r d i n e s s w o u l d be p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o o b j e c t i v e h e a l t h , a n d s e c o n d , t h a t RA p a t i e n t s h i g h i n h a r d i n e s s w o u l d p e r c e i v e t h e m s e l v e s a s h e a l t h i e r t h a n w o u l d RA p a t i e n t s l o w i n h a r d i n e s s , i n r e l a t i o n t o same age p e e r s a n d c o m p a r e d t o t h e p r e v i o u s month. R e s u l t s showed t h a t (a) o n l y t h e c o n t r o l component o f h a r d i n e s s was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d t o o b j e c t i v e h e a l t h , a n d ( b ) h a r d i n e s s , c o n t r o l a n d commitment were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o p e r c e i v e d h e a l t h when c o m p a r e d t o same age p e e r s , b u t n o t i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e p a s t month. C o n s i s t a n t w i t h p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s ( H u l l e t a l . , 1 9 8 7 ) , c h a l l e n g e was n o t f o u n d t o be r e l a t e d t o m e a s u r e s o f h e a l t h . P e r h a p s , e v e n i n t h e l a t e s t v e r s i o n o f t h e H a r d i n e s s T e s t , t h e c h a l l e n g e s u b s c a l e w a r r a n t s r e v i s i o n . Summary I n c o n c l u s i o n , a f t e r h a v i n g r e v i e w e d t h e r e l e v a n t r e s e a r c h on s h o p l i f t i n g , i t h a s become a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e r e i s s t i l l a n e e d f o r r e s e a r c h e r s t o s y s t e m a t i c a l l y e v a l u a t e t r e a t m e n t p r o g r a m s . The e x i s t i n g i n t e r v e n t i o n s t u d i e s a r e g e n e r a l l y b a s e d on a p o o r c o n c e p t u a l 34 f r a m e w o r k . A s a r e s u l t , t h e c o n c e p t o f h a r d i n e s s , a n d i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o s t r e s s a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h , h a s b e e n e x p l o r e d a n d a d o p t e d a s t h e t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k f r o m w h i c h t o a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m f o r a g r o u p o f s h o p l i f t e r s who a r e a f f l i c t e d by h i g h l e v e l s o f p s y c h o s o c i a l s t r e s s . D e s p i t e t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t d e s i g n e d t o m e a s u r e h a r d i n e s s , a t l e a s t two o f i t s s u b s c a l e s , c o m m i t m e n t a n d c o n t r o l , h a v e b e e n f o u n d t o be b o t h r e l i a b l e a n d v a l i d m e a s u r e s , w o r t h y o f f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . 3 5 M e t h o d S u b j e c t s T h e o r i g i n a l s u b j e c t s a m p l e c o n s i s t e d o f 4 9 i n d i v i d u a l s ( 4 2 w o m e n a n d 7 m e n ) w h o h a d b e e n c h a r g e d w i t h a T h e f t U n d e r $ 1 0 0 0 . 0 0 o f f e n s e ( s h o p l i f t i n g ) , a n d r e f e r r e d t o t h e E l i z a b e t h F r y S o c i e t y ' s S C P f o r t r e a t m e n t . C l i e n t s h a d b e e n r e f e r r e d t o t h e S C P b y a J u d g e o r a p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r a s a c o n d i t i o n o f p r o b a t i o n o r a s a D i v e r s i o n a g r e e m e n t ( n o n - v o l u n t a r y c l i e n t s ) , o r , h a d b e e n r e f e r r e d b y a n u m b e r o f s o u r c e s , i n c l u d i n g d e f e n c e c o u n s e l , s o c i a l w o r k e r s , c o u r t w o r k e r s , p s y c h i a t r i s t s , p h y s i c i a n s a n d s e l f ( v o l u n t a r y c l i e n t s ) . B y t h e s t a r t o f t h e S C P , o r s h o r t l y a f t e r i t s c o m m e n c e m e n t , a l l s u b j e c t s h a d e i t h e r r e c e i v e d a s e n t e n c e i n c o u r t o r h a d a g r e e d t o a d i v e r s i o n c o n t r a c t , b o t h o f w h i c h i n c l u d e d m a n d i t o r y c o m p l e t i o n o f S C P , a n d t h e r e f o r e h a d b e c o m e n o n - v o l u n t a r y c l i e n t s . S p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a f o r a c c e p t a n c e t o t h e S C P a r e a s f o l l o w s : ( a ) a d m i t g u i l t t o c r i m i n a l o f f e n s e , ( b ) d e m o n s t r a t e f u n c t i o n a l r e a d i n g a n d o r a l c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f t h e E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e , ( c ) p r e s e n t n o s i g n s o f s e v e r e p s y c h i a t r i c d i s o r d e r s , ( d ) p r e s e n t n o s i g n s o f m e n t a l h a n d i c a p , ( e ) n o t p r e s e n t l y s u b s t a n c e a b u s e r s , a n d ( f ) b e 18 y e a r s o f a g e o r o v e r . I n d i v i d u a l s w h o d o n o t m e e t a l l o f t h e a b o v e c r i t e r i a a r e n o t a c c e p t e d i n t o t h e S C P a n d a r e r e f e r r e d t o a n a p p r o p r i a t e s e r v i c e i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . O f t h e 1 2 0 c l i e n t s w h o w e r e a s s e s s e d d u r i n g t h e m o n t h s o f N o v e m b e r , 1 9 8 7 t o A p r i l , 1 9 8 8 a n d J u n e t o 36 S e p t e m b e r , 1988, 93 met t h e a b o v e c r i t e r i a a n d were a c c e p t e d i n t o t h e g r o u p SCP. Of t h o s e , 49 a g r e e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e r e s e a r c h a n d c o m p l e t e d t h e p r e t e s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . F o u r t y - t w o c o m p l e t e s e t s o f d a t a were c o l l e c t e d a t p o s t t e s t (1 s u b j e c t was i n c a r c e r a t e d , 2 d r o p p e d o u t o f SCP, 2 were n o t p r e s e n t f o r t e s t i n g , a n d 2 s e t s o f d a t a were i n c o m p l e t e ) , a n d 26 s u b j e c t s were a v a i l a b l e f o r t e s t i n g a t f o l l o w - u p (1 a d d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t was i n c a r c e r a t e d , 5 were n o t p r e s e n t f o r t e s t i n g , a n d 10 f a i l e d t o r e t u r n c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ) . The s a m p l e was p r e d o m i n a n t l y f e m a l e ( 8 5 . 7 % ) , b o t h m a l e a n d f e m a l e s u b j e c t s r a n g e d i n age f r o m 19 t o 77 (M-39.1, SD=15.1). F i r s t o f f e n d e r s made up f o r 45% o f t h e s a m p l e , w h i l e 5 5% were r e p e a t o f f e n d e r s , w i t h a c r i m i n a l r e c o r d r a n g i n g f r o m 1 t o 5 p r e v i o u s o f f e n c e s . Of t h e t o t a l s a m p l e , 35% were m a r r i e d o r l i v i n g common-law, a n d t h e r e m a i n i n g 6 5 % were n o t m a r r i e d , a n d were e i t h e r s e p a r a t e d , d i v o r c e d , w i d owed o r s i n g l e . F i f t y - f i v e p e r c e n t were e m p l o y e d a t some l e v e l ( f u l l o r p a r t t i m e ) , a n d 4 5 % were n o t e m p l o y e d ( u n e m p l o y e d , r e t i r e d , s t u d e n t s , h o u s e w i v e s ) . D e s i g n A t o t a l o f 10 SCP g r o u p s were c o m p l e t e d (6 g r o u p s i n t h e s p r i n g a n d 4 i n t h e f a l l ) . The s i z e o f t h e g r o u p s r a n g e d f r o m 4 t o 9 members, a n d t h e number o f s u b j e c t s i n e a c h g r o u p r a n g e d f r o m 3 t o 7. F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f a n a l y s i s , g r o u p s 1 t o 6 (n=26) a r e t r e a t e d a s t h e T r e a t m e n t G r o u p ( S p r i n g g r o u p ) , a n d g r o u p s 7 t o 37 10 (n=23) a r e t r e a t e d a s t h e R e p l i c a t i o n G r o u p ( F a l l g r o u p ) . F o r f u r t h e r b r e a k d o w n o f i n d i v i d u a l g r o u p s s e e A p p e n d i x B. F i v e g r o u p s were l e d by an SCP c o n t r a c t c o u n s e l l o r who r e c e i v e d i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g i n g r o u p c o u n s e l l i n g t h r o u g h t h e E l i z a b e t h F r y S o c i e t y . The r e m a i n i n g f i v e g r o u p s were l e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r , who i s an SCP s t a f f c o u n s e l l o r t r a i n e d a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y g r a d u a t e l e v e l i n C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y . A l l s u b j e c t s were a s s e s s e d a t t h r e e t i m e i n t e r v a l s : p r e - i n t e r v e n t i o n , 6-week p o s t t e s t , a n d 6-week f o l l o w - u p . D e p e n d e n t M e a s u r e s The P e r s o n a l V i e w s S u r v e y (PVS; The H a r d i n e s s I n s t i t u t e , I n c . , 1985) w h i c h m e a s u r e s K o b a s a ' s c o n s t r u c t , h a r d i n e s s , i s a 5 0 - i t e m q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n i n g t h r e e s u b s c a l e s : c o m m i t m e n t , c o n t r o l , a n d c h a l l e n g e . F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y , o n l y t h e f i r s t two s c a l e s were u s e d t o m e a s u r e ( a ) s u b j e c t s ' l e v e l o f commitment t o s e l f , o r , t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e y p o s s e s s a g e n e r a l s e n s e o f m e a n i n g f u l n e s s a n d p u r p o s e i n l i f e , a n d become a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n l i f e e v e n t s r a t h e r t h a n r e m a i n i n g p a s s i v e l y u n i n v o l v e d ; (b) s u b j e c t s ' l o c u s o f c o n t r o l , where i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h an i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l d i s p o s i t i o n f e e l a n d b e h a v e a s t h o u g h t h e y a r e i n f l u e n c i a l , a n d n o t h e l p l e s s o v e r t h e e v e n t s o f t h e i r l i v e s . The commitment s c a l e c o n s i s t s o f 16 i t e m s , 12 o f w h i c h a r e n e g a t i v e l y k e y e d f o r h a r d i n e s s . The c o n t r o l s c a l e c o n s i s t s o f 17 i t e m s , 14 o f w h i c h a r e n e g a t i v e l y k e y e d f o r h a r d i n e s s . P a r t i c i p a n t s were t o 38 i n d i c a t e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h e a c h s t a t e m e n t was t r u e f o r them on a 4 - p o i n t L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e r a n g i n g f r o m " n o t a t a l l " ( 0 ) , t o " c o m p l e t e l y t r u e " ( 3 ) . S c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d i n t e r m s o f t h e mean i t e m s c o r e s f o r t h e commitment a n d c o n t r o l s c a l e s ( r a n g e 0 t o 3 ) . H i g h s c o r e s r e p r e s e n t l o w l e v e l s o f commitment a n d c o n t r o l . R e c e n t s u p p o r t f o r c o n v e r g e n t a n d d i s c r i m i n a n t v a l i d i t y a n d a d e q u a t e i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y h a s been r e p o r t e d . A l p h a v a l u e s f o r i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e Commitment an d C o n t r o l s c a l e s r a n g e f r o m .70 t o .85, and .68 t o .72, r e s p e c t i v e l y ( H u l l e t a l . , 1987; Okun e t a l . , 1988; P a r k e s & R e n d a l l , 1 9 8 8 ) . The Beck D e p r e s s i o n I n v e n t o r y ( B D I ; B e c k , R u s h , Shaw, & Emery, 1979) h a s b een i d e n t i f i e d a s an e f f e c t i v e m e a s u r e o f d e p r e s s i o n s y m p t o m o l o g y ( K e n d a l l , H o l l o n , B e c k , Hammen, & I n g r a m , 1987; S h a e f e r e t a l . , 1985) a n d i s one o f t h e w i d e l y a c c e p t e d i n s t r u m e n t s f o r m e a s u r i n g c h a n g e s i n d e p r e s s i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p s y c h o t h e r a p y ( S t e e r , B e c k , R i s k i n d , & Brown, 1 9 8 7 ) . The a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e t h a t i f a t h e r a p i s t i s u s i n g c o g n i t i v e t h e r a p y t o "change s e t s o f d y s f u n c t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s a n d b e l i e f s , t h e n t h e B D I , w i t h i t s more r e f i n e d c o g n i t i v e d i m e n s i o n , m i g h t be t h e i n s t r u m e n t o f c h o i c e " ( S t e e r e t a l . , 1987, p. 3 3 8 ) . The BDI i s a s e l f - r e p o r t m e a s u r e w i t h 20 i t e m s c o m posed o f f o u r a l t e r n a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s t h a t r a t e t h e s e v e r i t y o f d e p r e s s i v e symptoms ( e . g . , s a d n e s s , p e s s i m i s m , s e n s e o f f a i l u r e , d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , g u i l t , e t c . ) . T o t a l s c o r e s r a n g e f r o m 0 t o 63. A c c o r d i n g t o 39 K e n d a l l e t a l . ' s ( 1 9 8 7) c u t o f f s c o r e c r i t e r i a , t h e r a n g e o f s c o r e s f r o m 0-9 c a n be s e e n a s " n o r m a l " , 10-16 a s " m i l d " d e p r e s s i o n , 17-30 a s more " m o d e r a t e " d e p r e s s i o n a n d s c o r e s g r e a t e r t h a n 30 a s " s e v e r e " d e p r e s s i o n . R e c e n t s t u d i e s ( S c h a e f e r e t a l . , 1985; S t e e r e t a l . , 1987) h a v e r e p o r t e d e v i d e n c e f o r s t r o n g i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y ( C h r o n b a c h A l p h a s = . 9 4 a n d . 8 7 ) . The T e n n e s s e e S e l f C o n c e p t S c a l e (TSCS; F i t t s , 1965) i s one o f t h e most w i d e l y u s e d s c a l e s t o m e a s u r e s e l f - c o n c e p t a n d s e l f - e s t e e m . The i n s t r u m e n t y i e l d s a " T o t a l P o s i t i v e " s c o r e r a n g i n g f r o m 0 t o 450 w h i c h r e f l e c t s t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s o v e r a l l l e v e l o f s e l f - e s t e e m ( F i t t s , 1 9 6 5 ) . The " C l i n i c a l a n d R e s e a r c h " f o r m was u s e d f o r t h i s s t u d y , a n d c o n t a i n s 100 i t e m s t h a t m easure a p e r s o n s s e l f p e r c e p t i o n on f i v e d i m e n s i o n s : t h e p h y s i c a l , m o r a l / e t h i c a l , p e r s o n a l , f a m i l y a n d s o c i a l s e l f . I n d i v i d u a l s r a t e d t h e m s e l v e s a c c o r d i n g t o how t h e y a r e ( i d e n t i t y ) , how t h e y a c c e p t t h e m s e l v e s ( s e l f - s a t i s f a c t i o n ) , a nd how t h e y a c t ( b e h a v i o r ) i n r e l a t i o n t o t h o s e f i v e d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e s e l f . The m e a sure o f s e l f - c o n c e p t was c h o s e n b e c a u s e i t i s w e l l s t a n d a r d i z e d a n d m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l i n i t s d e s c r i p t i o n o f s e l f - c o n c e p t . F u r t h e r m o r e , a p r e v i o u s s t u d y (Semchuk, 1981) e v a l u a t i n g t h e SCP a l s o made u s e o f t h e TSCS a s an outcome m e a s u r e , a n d r e p o r t e d t h a t 84% o f s u b j e c t s (n=31) r e g i s t e r e d a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n " T o t a l P o s i t i v e " s c o r e s (p_<.0l) a f t e r c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m . As i n Semchuk's (1981) s t u d y , o n l y t h e " T o t a l P o s i t i v e " s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d i n t h e 40 p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h . A n c i l l a r y M e a s u r e s E x p e c t a n c y f o r Change ( s e e A p p e n d i x C ) . I n o r d e r t o i n t e r p r e t t h e s p e c i f i c e f f e c t s o f t r e a t m e n t more a c c u r a t e l y i t was e s s e n t i a l t o a s s e s s f o r n o n - s p e c i f i c t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t s s u c h a s t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s g e n e r a t i n g d i f f e r e n t demand c o n d i t i o n s ( K a z d i n , 1 9 8 0 ) . The m e a s u r e u s e d i s a s e l f - r e p o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o m p r i s e d o f 3 i t e m s a s k i n g s u b j e c t s t o r a t e t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e y f e e l t r e a t m e n t a p p e a r s t o be l o g i c a l , w i l l be s u c c e s s f u l a n d w o u l d be recommended t o o t h e r s on a 7 - p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e . The s c a l e y i e l d s one s c o r e r a n g i n g f r o m 0 t o 2 1 . The L i f e E x p e r i e n c e S u r v e y ( L E S ; J o h n s o n & S a r a s o n , 1979) i s a s e l f - r e p o r t m e a s u r e o f l i f e c h a n g e s d e s i g n e d t o a s s e s s ( a ) t h e " d e s i r a b i l i t y " ( p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e ) o f e v e n t s e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r , and (b) t h e p e r c e i v e d " i m p a c t " o f t h e s e e v e n t s ( r a t e d on a 7 - p o i n t i n t e r v a l s c a l e r a n g i n g f r o m e x t r e m e l y p o s i t i v e , +3, t o e x t r e m e l y n e g a t i v e , - 3 ) . The s c a l e y i e l d s b o t h a p o s i t i v e a n d a n e g a t i v e c h a n g e s c o r e . A s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n LES n e g a t i v e s c o r e s , d e p r e s s i o n ( a s m e a s u r e d by t h e BDI) a n d e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l ( a s m e a s u r e d by t h e I-E L o c u s o f C o n t r o l S c a l e ) h a s been r e p o r t e d ( J o h n s o n & S a r a s o n , 1 9 7 9 ) . I n d i v i d u a l s who r e p o r t e d e x p e r i e n c i n g h i g h l e v e l s o f n e g a t i v e c h a n g e d i s p l a y e d more d e p r e s s i v e symptoms a n d a p p e a r e d t o be more e x t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d . F o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y t h e f r e q u e n c y o f e v e n t s a n d t h e 41 sum o f n e g a t i v e s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d a n d u s e d f o r d e s c r i p t i v e p u r p o s e s . T r e a t m e n t The SCP i s a 6-week, 12 - h o u r p s y c h o e d u c a t i o n a l g r o u p c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m d e s i g n e d t o i n c r e a s e s e l f - a w a r e n e s s , s e l f - e s t e e m , i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l a n d a s e n s e o f commitment t o s e l f . C l i e n t s were p r e s e n t e d w i t h a t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k f r o m w h i c h t h e y c o u l d b e g i n t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p o s s i b l e f a c t o r s m o t i v a t i n g t h e c r i m i n a l b e h a v i o r . The s h o p l i f t i n g i s s e e n a s an u n p r o d u c t i v e a t t e m p t t o t a k e c o n t r o l o f l i f e when d e a l i n g w i t h u n r e s o l v e d e m o t i o n a l i s s u e s a n d s t r e s s f u l l i f e e v e n t s , a n d a way o f s a t i s f y i n g some b a s i c p s y c h o l o g i c a l need ( i . e . , l o v e , p o wer, f r e e d o m , f u n ) . S e s s i o n s were two h o u r s i n l e n g t h a n d were s t r u c t u r e d w i t h d i d a c t i c c o m p o n e n t s , g r o u p d i s c u s s i o n , e x p e r i e n t i a l a c t i v i t i e s a n d p a p e r p e n c i l e x e r c i s e s ( a d e t a i l e d t r e a t m e n t M a n u a l i s a v a i l a b l e upon r e q u e s t ) . A t t h e end o f t h e 6-week SCP, c l i e n t s i n t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p were g i v e n t h e o p t i o n o f e i t h e r t e r m i n a t i n g c o u n s e l l i n g o r c o n t i n u i n g w i t h t h e t h e r a p y c o m p o n e n t , an u n s t r u c t u r e d 6-week, 12-hour g r o u p c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m . H o w e v e r , c l i e n t s i n t h e r e p l i c a t i o n g r o u p were n o t g i v e n t h e same o p t i o n . As a r e s u l t o f c h a n g e s i n a g e n c y p o l i c y , t h e 6-week p s y c h o e d u c a t i o n a l component a n d t h e 6-week t h e r a p y component were c o m b i n e d t o f o r m one 12-week g r o u p p r o g r a m w h i c h a l l s u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d t o a t t e n d . The v a r i o u s e f f e c t s a n d i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s d i f f e r e n c e 42 w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . P r o c e d u r e A o n e - h o u r p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w was c o n d u c t e d w i t h a l l c l i e n t s r e f e r r e d t o t h e E l i z a b e t h F r y S o c i e t y ' s SCP. A s t a n d a r d i n t a k e f o r m was u s e d ( s e e A p p e n d i x D) t o g a t h e r d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a . An u n s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w f o l l o w e d w h e r e : ( a ) c l i e n t s were a s k e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e p a r t i c u l a r s o f t h e c r i m i n a l i n c i d e n t , (b) c l i e n t s ' e m o t i o n a l a n d c o g n i t i v e s t a t e a t t h e t i m e o f t h e i n c i d e n t was e x a m i n e d , ( c ) c l i e n t s d i s c l o s e d i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e i r f a m i l y , e m p l o y m e n t , f i n a n c i a l , m e d i c a l a n d s o c i a l h i s t o r y . H a v i n g deemed t h e c l i e n t a s s u i t a b l e f o r t h e SCP, t h e c o u n s e l l o r drew up a c o n t r a c t ( s e e A p p e n d i x D) w h i c h s p e c i f i e d d a t e s , t i m e s a n d f e e s o f g r o u p s e s s i o n s . C l i e n t s were t h e n i n f o r m e d o f t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t a n d a s k e d t o v o l u n t e e r a s p a r t i c i p a n t s . H a v i n g a g r e e d t o be a s u b j e c t i n t h e s t u d y , t h e c l i e n t s i g n e d t h e c o n s e n t f o r m ( s e e A p p e n d i x D ) . The LES was t h e n a d m i n i s t e r e d . P a r t i c i p a n t s were a s k e d t o a p p e a r one h o u r p r i o r t o t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e f i r s t g r o u p f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f c o m p l e t i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s : ( a ) TSCS, (b) PVS, and ( c ) B D I . A t t h e e n d o f t h e f i r s t s e s s i o n t h e y c o m p l e t e d t h e E x p e c t a n c y f o r Change S c a l e . A t t h e end o f t h e 6-week SCP, p a r t i c i p a n t s c o m p l e t e d ( a ) a s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n f o r m ( s e e A p p e n d i x E ) , (b) a p r o g r a m e v a l u a t i o n ( s e e A p p e n d i x E ) , ( c ) t h e TSCS, (d) t h e PVS, (e) t h e BDI, ( f ) t h e E x p e c t a n c y f o r 43 Change S c a l e , a n d (g) an anonymous r e c i d i v i s m r a t e r e c o r d ( s e e A p p e n d i x E ) . T h i s r e q u i r e d an a d d i t i o n a l 1-1 1/2 h o u r s . T h o s e who d i d n o t c h o o s e t o c o n t i n u e w i t h t h e 6-week t h e r a p y g r o u p were a s k e d t o s i g n up f o r a 6-week f o l l o w - u p m e e t i n g . The f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d t o e a c h p a r t i c i p a n t , e i t h e r a t t h e end o f t h e 6-week t h e r a p y g r o u p o r a t t h e s c h e d u l e d 6-week f o l l o w - u p m e e t i n g : ( a ) TSCS, (b) PVS, ( c ) B D I , a n d (d) r e c i d i v i s m r a t e r e c o r d . P a r t i c i p a n t s were t h a n k e d a n d i n f o r m e d t h a t r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s w o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e t o them upon w r i t t e n r e q u e s t . D a t a A n a l y s i s A one-way m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (MANOVA) was u s e d t o t e s t f o r p r e t r e a t m e n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e T r e a t m e n t (T) and R e p l i c a t i o n (R) g r o u p s on t h e f o u r d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s a n d LES s c o r e s . A two-way ( G r o u p x T i m e ) MANOVA w i t h two p r e p l a n n e d n o n o r t h o g o n a l c o n t r a s t s u s i n g Dunn's t e s t f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e a t .025 ( p r e - t o p o s t t e s t ; p o s t t e s t t o f o l l o w - u p ) was p e r f o r m e d f o r a l l d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s ( c o m m i t m e n t , c o n t r o l , d e p r e s s i o n a n d s e l f - c o n c e p t ) t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s e s . A two-way r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s ANOVA was c a l c u l a t e d f o r p r e -and p o s t m e a s u r e s on e x p e c t a n c y f o r c h a n g e . T and R g r o u p s were c o l l a p s e d a n d a 2-way ( G r o u p X Time) MANOVA w i t h two p r e - p l a n n e d n o n o r t h o g o n a l c o n t r a s t s u s i n g Dunn's t e s t f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e a t .025 was p e r f o r m e d t o e x a m i n e t h e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s on a l l d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s f o r T and R g r o u p s : F i r s t O f f e n d e r (FO, n=22) and R e p e a t O f f e n d e r (RO, n=27) g r o u p . C h i - s q u a r e s were 44 c a l c u l a t e d i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e how s i m i l a r t h e two g r o u p s were on s u c h v a r i a b l e s a s a g e , g e n d e r , e d u c a t i o n , c r i m i n a l r e c o r d , m a r i t a l a n d employment s t a t u s . D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s i n c l u d i n g a P e a r s o n p r o d u c t - m o m e n t c o r r e l a t i o n were a l s o c a l c u l a t e d . 45 R e s u l t s G r o u p C o m p a r a b i l i t y on D e m o g r a p h i c s C h i - s q u a r e t e s t s o f i n d e p e n d e n c e were c o m p u t e d t o t e s t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e T r e a t m e n t (T) a n d R e p l i c a t i o n (R) g r o u p s (n=26, n=23, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , a n d b e t w e e n t h e F i r s t O f f e n d e r (FO) a n d R e p e a t O f f e n d e r (RO) g r o u p s (n=22, n=27, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d on t h e d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s o f employment s t a t u s , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , e d u c a t i o n , a n d c r i m i n a l r e c o r d f o r any o f t h e g r o u p s . H o w e v e r , d i f f e r e n c e s i n age a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e ( C h i - s q u a r e ( 2 , N=49)= 5.81, 2<«06) f ° r t h e T a n d R g r o u p s , w h e r e 6 8.8% o f s u b j e c t s b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f 31. and 50 were i n t h e T g r o u p , and 6 8 . 4 % o f s u b j e c t s u n d e r 30 y e a r s o f age were i n t h e R g r o u p . T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t f o u n d f o r t h e FO and RO g r o u p s . S i n c e t h e c o r r e l a t i o n . b e t w e e n age a n d a l l t h e d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s d i d n o t e x c e e d .30, i t i s n o t l i k e l y t h a t t h i s b e t w e e n g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e w o u l d i n f l u e n c e t h e e f f e c t s o f t r e a t m e n t . A l t h o u g h t h e r e were more women t h a n men i n t h e t o t a l s a m p l e (n= 42, n=7, r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , t h i s d i s p r o p o r t i o n i s s i m i l a r t o o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s t u d i e s o f s h o p l i f t e r s (Semchuk, 1981; Solomon & Ray, 1 9 8 3 ) . A summary o f s u b j e c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1. S u b j e c t A t t r i t i o n Of t h e o r i g i n a l 49 s u b j e c t s , 7 were l o s t a t p o s t t e s t ( d r o p o u t s ) . Two d r o p p e d o u t o f t h e SCP, one T a b l e 1 S u b j e c t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s — D e m o g r a p h i c s (N = 49) 46 Age (mean, r a n g e ) 39 19-77 Gender F e m a l e s 86% M a l e s 14% M a r i t a l S t a t u s M a r r i e d / C o m m o n - l a w 3 5 % S i n g l e / D i v o r c e d / W i d o w e d 6 5% D e p e n d e n t s None 57% 1 o r more 4 3 % E d u c a t i o n L e s s t h a n H i g h S c h o o l 3 3 % H i g h S c h o o l 4 5% P o s t S e c o n d a r y 2 2 % Employment S t a t u s E m p l o y e d 55% Not E m p l o y e d 45% P l a c e o f B i r t h C anada 78% O t h e r 2 2 % C r i m i n a l R e c o r d 1 O f f e n c e 45% 2 o r more 5 5 % 47 was i n c a r c e r a t e d , two were n o t p r e s e n t f o r t e s t i n g , and two s e t s o f d a t a were i n c o m p l e t e . A f u r t h e r 16 s u b j e c t s were l o s t a t f o l l o w - u p ( d r o p o u t s ) . One o t h e r s u b j e c t was i n c a r c e r a t e d , 5 were n o t p r e s e n t f o r t e s t i n g , a n d 10 f a i l e d t o r e t u r n c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ( s e e T a b l e 2 f o r summary o f a t t r i t i o n by g r o u p s ) . A one-way m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e (MANOVA) was u s e d t o t e s t f o r p r e t r e a t m e n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e d r o p o u t g r o u p (n=23) a n d t h o s e who r e m a i n e d i n t r e a t m e n t o r were a v a i l a b l e f o r t e s t i n g (n=26) on t h e d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s o f s e l f - c o n c e p t , d e p r e s s i o n , c o m m itment, a n d c o n t r o l , and on t h e a n c i l l a r y m e a s u r e s o f s t r e s s and e x p e c t a n c y f o r c h a n g e . The o v e r a l l MANOVA f o r t h e g r o u p e f f e c t was n o n s i g n i f i c a n t , F<1 . H owever, an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e means ( s e e T a b l e 3) i n d i c a t e s t h a t , p r i o r t o t r e a t m e n t , t h e d r o p o u t s t e n d e d t o h a v e a h i g h e r s e l f - c o n c e p t , were more c o m m i t t e d , f e l t more i n c o n t r o l , l e s s d e p r e s s e d and r e p o r t e d e x p e r i e n c i n g s l i g h t l y f e w e r a n d l e s s s t r e s s f u l l i f e e v e n t s . A t t r i t i o n was s i m i l a r f o r t h e FO a n d RO g r o u p s i n t h a t 10 were l o s t i n t h e f i r s t a n d 13 i n t h e l a t t e r . P r e t r e a t m e n t D e p e n d e n t a n d A n c i l l a r y M e a s u r e s :  D e s c r i p t i v e D a t a P r i o r t o t r e a t m e n t , s u b j e c t s i n t h e FO a n d RO g r o u p s c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d a s " m o d e r a t e l y " d e p r e s s e d , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e BDI c u t o f f s c o r e c r i t e r i a r e p o r t e d by K e n d a l l e t a l . ( 1 9 8 7 ) ( s e e T a b l e 4 f o r means an d 48 T a b l e 2 Summary o f A t t r i t i o n by G r o u p s Time G r o u p s T r e a t m e n t R e p l i c a t i o n P r e t e s t P o s t t e s t F o l l o w - u p 26 20 14 23 22 12 F i r s t O f f e n d e r R e p e a t O f f e n d e r P r e t e s t P o s t t e s t F o l l o w - u p 22 19 12 27 23 14 T a b l e 3 P r e t e s t Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f Outcome and A n c i l l a r y - M e a s u r e s b y D r o p o u t and R e t a i n e d S u b j e c t s G r o u p s D r o p o u t (n=23) R e t a i n e d (n = 26) M S_D M SJ3 TSCS 325.7 36.8 306.9 33.6 BDI 14.0 9.0 19.2 10.8 COMM .80 . 4 1.0 .5 CONT .90 . 4 1 .1 .4 LES 13.0 11.2 14.4 11.5 EXPT 18.4 2.2 18.5 3.0 N o t e . TSCS=Tennessee S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e , BDI=Beck D e p r e s s i o n I n v e n t o r y , COMM=Commitment, C O N T = C o n t r o l , L E S = L i f e E x p e r i e n c e S u r v e y , E X P T = E x p e c t a n c y f o r Change. The h i g h e r t h e s c o r e t h e h i g h e r t h e s e l f - c o n c e p t , s t r e s s , a n d e x p e c t a n c y . The l o w e r t h e s c o r e , t h e l o w e r t h e d e p r e s s i o n , and t h e h i g h e r t h e commitment and c o n t r o l . . 50 T a b l e 4 P r e t e s t Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f Outcome and A n c i l l a r y  M e a s u r e s b y G r o u p s b G r o u p s a M e a s u r e s T 26) R (n = 23) FO (n = 22) RO (n= 27) M __ M S_D M __ M S_D TSCS 314 .2 39.6 317.4 32.4 316.5 38.0 315.1 35.1 BDI 17 .5 9.7 16.0 11.0 16.8 10.6 16.7 10 .1 COMM .80 .5 .90 . 4 .90 . 4 .90 .5 CONT .90 . 4 1.2 .4 .1.0 .3 1 .1 .5 LES 14 . 1 12.7 13.3 9.6 16.2 11.7 11 . 6 10 . 6 EXPT 18 .5 2.7 18.4 2.5 18.9 2.4 18.1 2.7 a See T a b l e 3 h T = t r e a t m e n t , R = r e p l i c a t i o n / F O = f i r s t o f f e n d e r , R O = repeat o f f e n d e r 51 s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s ) . S i m i l a r i l y , mean BDI s c o r e s f o r b o t h g r o u p s were c l o s e t o t h o s e t h a t S t e e r e t a l . ( 1 9 8 7 ) d e r i v e d f r o m a s a m p l e o f 300 o u t p a t i e n t s d i a g n o s e d w i t h DSM I I I m a j o r d e p r e s s i o n d i s o r d e r . F o r b o t h FO a n d RO g r o u p s , mean s e l f - c o n c e p t s c o r e s were one s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n b e l o w t h e n o r m a l p o p u l a t i o n ( F i t t s , 1 9 6 5 ) , b u t c o m p a r a b l e t o p r e t r e a t m e n t TSCS means d e r i v e d f r o m t h e g r o u p o f s h o p l i f t e r s i n Semchuk's (1981) s t u d y . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o r e l a t e mean commitment a n d c o n t r o l s c o r e s d i r e c t l y t o e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h on h a r d i n e s s , a s most s t u d i e s u s e d s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t v e r s i o n s o f t h e H a r d i n e s s t e s t . H o wever, i n t h e i r 1988 s t u d y , P a r k e s a n d K e n d a l l u s e d t h e PVS and o b t a i n e d means s i m i l a r t o t h o s e r e p o r t e d by K o b a s a i n a p e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n . I n c o m p a r i s o n t h e FO a n d RO p r e t r e a t m e n t means f o r commitment a n d c o n t r o l were s l i g h t l y h i g h e r , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e s h o p l i f t e r s were l e s s c o m m i t e d a nd f e l t l e s s i n c o n t r o l t h a n P a r k e s a n d K e n d a l l ' s s a m p l e o f g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s . F i n a l l y , w i t h r e s p e c t t o s t r e s s l e v e l s , Z u c k e r m a n , O l i v e r , H o l l i n g s w o r t h , a n d A u s t r i n ( 1 9 8 6 ) r e p o r t a mean LES s c o r e ( i . e . , mean number o f e v e n t s r e p o r t e d ) o f 4.46, b a s e d on a s a m p l e o f 250 a d u l t s who were s i m i l a r t o t h e s a m p l e o f s h o p l i f t e r s i n t h i s s t u d y on d e m o g r a p h i c v a r i a b l e s s u c h a s age (mean, r a n g e ) , g e n d e r , e d u c a t i o n l e v e l , a n d m a r i t a l a n d employment s t a t u s . Compared t o t h e i r s a m p l e , t h e s h o p l i f t e r s w e r e more h i g h l y s t r e s s e d , w i t h a mean LES f r e q u e n c y o f 8.71 (SD=5.40). 52 C o r r e l a t i o n M a t r i x An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s among t h e outcome m e a s u r e s ( s e e T a b l e 5) r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e two h a r d i n e s s s u b c o m p o n e n t s , commitment and c o n t r o l , were m o d e r a t e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h m e a s u r e s o f d e p r e s s i o n a n d s e l f - c o n c e p t , s u c h t h a t l o w commitment s c o r e s ( i . e . , s t r o n g s e n s e o f commitment) a n d low c o n t r o l s c o r e s ( i . e . , i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l ) were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f e w e r d e p r e s s i v e symptoms, a n d h i g h e r s e l f - c o n c e p t . F u r t h e r m o r e , a s e x p e c t e d , commitment and c o n t r o l were p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h e a c h o t h e r , w h i l e s e l f - c o n c e p t and d e p r e s s i o n y i e l d e d a s t r o n g n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n . T h e s e r e s u l t s a r e c o n s i s t a n t w i t h o t h e r s t u d i e s ( G a n e l l e n & B l a n e y , 1984; H u l l e t a l . , 1 9 8 7 ) . As m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , age d i d n o t c o r r e l a t e w i t h any o f t h e m e a s u r e s a b o v e .30. S t r e s s was m o d e r a t e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s e l f - c o n c e p t a n d d e p r e s s i o n on p r e t e s t s c o r e s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t h i g h e r l e v e l s o f s t r e s s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o w e r l e v e l s o f s e l f - c o n c e p t a n d h i g h e r d e p r e s s i o n . O n l y p o s t t e s t s c o r e s o f commitment and c o n t r o l y i e l d e d a m o d e r a t e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h s t r e s s , where h i g h e r s t r e s s was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a h i g h e r commitment a n d c o n t r o l s c o r e ( i . e . , g r e a t e r a l i e n a t i o n a n d e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l ) . P r e t r e a t m e n t D i f f e r e n c e s on D e p e n d e n t a n d A n c i l l a r y  M e a s u r e s A one-way MANOVA was u s e d t o t e s t f o r p r e t r e a t m e n t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e T a n d R g r o u p s , a n d b e t w e e n t h e FO a n d RO g r o u p s , on t h e d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s o f T a b l e 5 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s B e t w een Age and Outcome M e a s u r e s P r e - and  P o s t t e s t P r e t e s t a AGE LES TSCS BDI COMM M e a s u r e s AGE LES -.14 TSCS . 13 - .46 BDI .03 .51 -.76 COMM .16 .12 -.68 .62 CONT .18 .02 -.43 .35 P o s t t e s t AGE LES TSCS BDI COMM AGE LES -.15 TSCS .30 -.26 BDI .02 .14 -.60 COMM .16 .36 -.72 .60 CONT .18 .41 -.63 .49 a See T a b l e 3 54 s e l f - c o n c e p t , d e p r e s s i o n , commitment a nd c o n t r o l , a n d t h e a n c i l l a r y m e a s u r e s o f s t r e s s a n d e x p e c t a n c y f o r c h a n g e . The o v e r a l l MANOVA f o r t h e T a n d R g r o u p s was n o n s i g n i f i c a n t , F ( 6 , 4 2 ) = 1 . 9 4 , £<.10, a s was t h e o v e r a l l MANOVA f o r t h e FO and RO g r o u p s , F<1. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t p r i o r t o t r e a t m e n t , s u b j e c t s i n t h e T a n d R, a n d FO a n d RO g r o u p s were s i m i l a r i n l e v e l s o f s e l f - c o n c e p t , d e p r e s s i o n , c o m m i t m e n t , a n d c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s e g r o u p s d i d n o t d i f f e r i n t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e y r e p o r t e d s t r e s s f u l e v e n t s o f t h e p a s t y e a r a s h a v i n g h a d a n e g a t i v e i m p a c t on t h e i r l i v e s ; n o r d i d t h e y h a v e d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t r e a t m e n t . T h e r e f o r e , d i f f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t s c o u l d n o t be a t t r i b u t e d t o f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e i t h e r d e p e n d e n t o r a n c i l l a r y m e a s u r e s ( s e e T a b l e 4 f o r means a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s ) . T r e a t m e n t E f f e c t s Two-way ( g r o u p by t i m e ) MANOVA's w i t h two p r e p l a n n e d n o n o r t h o g o n a l c o n t r a s t s u s i n g Dunn's t e s t f o r s i g n i f i c a n c e a t .025 ( p r e t o p o s t ; p o s t t o f o l l o w - u p ) , were p e r f o r m e d on t h e d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s o f s e l f - c o n c e p t , d e p r e s s i o n , c o m m i t m e n t , a n d c o n t r o l . O n l y t h e p r e p l a n n e d c o n t r a s t s a r e p r e s e n t e d when d i s c u s s i n g t h e t i m e e f f e c t . T r e a t m e n t v s . r e p l i c a t i o n g r o u p . A r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s , 2 x 3 ( g r o u p by t i m e ) MANOVA w i t h p r e p l a n n e d c o n t r a s t s was p e r f o r m e d t o e v a l u a t e p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t r e a t m e n t f o r t h e T a n d R 55 g r o u p s , on t h e d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s : s e l f - c o n c e p t , d e p r e s s i o n , c o m m i t m e n t , a n d c o n t r o l . The o v e r a l l MANOVA g r o u p m a i n e f f e c t was n o n s i g n i f i c a n t , F< 1, a s was t h e t i m e ( p r e t o p o s t ) e f f e c t , F ( 4 , 2 1 ) = 1.94, p<.14. T h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p by t i m e i n t e r a c t i o n f o r t h e p r e - t o p o s t r e a t m e n t c o n t r a s t , F ( 4 , 2 1 ) = 1 . 9 2 , 2<.15, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e g r o u p s d i d n o t c h a n g e d i f f e r e n t i a l l y o v e r t i m e . To a s s e s s m a i n t a i n a n c e o f c h a n g e o v e r t h e 6-week f o l l o w - u p p e r i o d , a p o s t t o f o l l o w - u p c o n t r a s t was u s e d . The t i m e e f f e c t was s i g n i f i c a n t , F ( 4 , 2 1 ) = 5 . 6 0 , 2<.003, a n d a l l u n i v a r i a t e t e s t s were s i g n i f i c a n t ( s e l f - c o n c e p t , F ( 1 , 2 4 ) = 1 3 . 6 3 , 2 <»001, d e p r e s s i o n , F ( 1 , 2 4 ) = 2 0 . 2 6 , 2 < « 0 0 1 ' c o m m i t m e n t , F ( 1 , 2 4 ) = 8 . 9 5 , 2 < • 0 1 ' a n d c o n t r o l , F ( 1 , 2 4 ) = 1 0 . 9 8 , 2 < « 0 0 3 ) « T h e g r o u p by t i m e i n t e r a c t i o n was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t , F<1. F o r a summary o f t h e MANOVA a n d u n i v a r i a t e ANOVA's, s e e T a b l e 6. An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e means ( s e e T a b l e 7) i n d i c a t e d t h a t f r o m p o s t t o f o l l o w - u p a l l d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s c h a n g e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n t h e e x p e c t e d d i r e c t i o n ( i . e . , s e l f - c o n c e p t i n c r e a s e d , d e p r e s s i v e symptoms d e c r e a s e d , a n d commitment a n d i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l i n c r e a s e d ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e g r o u p s c h a n g e d d i f f e r e n t i a l l y f r o m p r e - t o p o s t t r e a t m e n t o r a t 6-week f o l l o w - u p . G i v e n t h e s e r e s u l t s , t h e T and R g r o u p s were c o l l a p s e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f e x a m i n i n g w i t h i n g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s : number o f o f f e n c e s . 56 T a b l e 6 Summary o f M u l t i v a r i a t e and U n i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s f o r Outcome  M e a s u r e s by T r e a t m e n t and R e p l i c a t i o n G r o u p M u l t i v a r i a t e U n i v a r i a t e (p<) E f f e c t s £ P- _ L TSCS BDI COMM CONT Time ( p r e t o p o s t ) 1 .94 .14 4,21 . 10 .03 .10 .31 Group by Time 1 .92 .16 4,21 .19 .38 .68 .07 Time ( p o s t t o f o i l - u p ) 5.60 .003 4,21 . 001 .001 .01 .003 Group by Time <1 .66 4,21 .16 .34 .70 .86 57 T a b l e 7 Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f Outcome M e a s u r e s by T r e a t m e n t and  R e p l i c a t i o n Group a M e a s u r e s G r o u p TSCS BDI COMM CONT M __ M SJ_ M __ M T r e a t m e n t (n=14) P r e t e s t 308 0 32. 8 18 .4 9 .8 .90 .5 .90 .4 P o s t t e s t 320 3 34. 9 13 4 7 .9 . 90 .6 .90 .5 F o l l o w - u p 331 1 35. 5 8 1 6 .8 .70 . 4 .80 .3 R e p l i c a t i o n (n=12) P r e t e s t 305 7 36. 1 20 2 12 .2 1.1 .5 1.3 .4 P o s t 307 2 39. 2 17 9 11 . 1 1 . 1 . 4 1.1 .3 F o l l o w - u p 332 2 40. 4 9 8 8 .8 . 80 . 4 .90 .3 a See T a b l e 3 58 F i r s t o f f e n d e r v s . r e p e a t o f f e n d e r . To e v a l u a t e d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t r e a t m e n t f o r FO and RO s u b j e c t s , a 2 x 3 ( g r o u p by t i m e ) r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s MANOVA was c o m p u t e d f o r t h e d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s : s e l f - c o n c e p t , d e p r e s s i o n , c o m mitment, a n d c o n t r o l . The t i m e ( p r e t o p o s t ) e f f e c t o n l y a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e , F (4 , 21 ) =2 . 57 ,p_<. 07 . The g r o u p by t i m e ( p r e t o p o s t ) i n t e r a c t i o n a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e , F ( 4 , 2 1 ) = 2.82, P/c.05. A l t h o u g h t h e u s u a l p r o c e d u r e i s t o e x a m i n e u n i v a r i a t e F s o n l y i f t h e m u l t i v a r i a t e F i s s i g n i f i c a n t , i n t h i s c a s e i t was f e l t t h a t an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e u n i v a r i a t e F s w o u l d be t h e o r e t i c a l l y r e l e v e n t a s r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a i s new a n d e x p l o r a t o r y . On t h e p r e - t o p o s t t r e a t m e n t c o n t r a s t t h e u n i v a r i a t e t e s t f o r d e p r e s s i o n was s i g n i f i c a n t , F ( 1 , 2 4 ) = 7 . 6 4 , p_<.0l, a n d t h e same t e s t f o r s e l f c o n c e p t a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e , F ( 1 , 2 4 ) = 2 . 5 1 , p<.12. Means on t h e s e two m e a s u r e s r e v e a l a d e c r e a s e i n d e p r e s s i o n a n d an i n c r e a s e i n s e l f c o n c e p t ( s e e T a b l e 8 ) . U n i v a r i a t e F's f o r commitment a n d c o n t r o l were n o n s i g n i f i c a n t From t h e s e a n a l y s e s a n d F i g u r e 1, i t a p p e a r s t h a t s u b j e c t s w i t h o n l y one o f f e n c e showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y more i m p r o v e m e n t f r o m p r e - t o p o s t t r e a t m e n t on m e a s u r e s o f d e p r e s s i o n c o m p a r e d t o s u b j e c t s w i t h two o r more o f f e n c e s . A l t h o u g h n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , t h e g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s on m e a s u r e s o f s e l f - c o n c e p t a l s o w a r r a n t a t t e n t i o n ( s e e F i g u r e 2 ) . F o r a summary o f t h e MANOVA and u n i v a r i a t e ANOVA's, s e e T a b l e 9. 59 T a b l e 8 Means and S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f Outcome M e a s u r e s by F i r s t  O f f e n d e r and R e p e a t O f f e n d e r Group a M e a s u r e s G r o u p s TSCS BDI COMM CONT M S_D M S_D M 22. M SB. F i r s t O f f e n d e r 12) P r e t e s t 307 . 9 37.6 19. 6 10.9 1 .0 .5 1.1 .4 P o s t t e s t 3 2 1 . 9 37.9 11 . 8 7.4 .90 .6 1.1 .5 F o l l o w - U p 336. 2 33.4 6. 0 4.8 .80 .4 . 90 .3 R e p e a t O f f e n d e r (n = 14) P r e t e s t 306. 1 31.3 18. 9 11.1 1 .0 .5 1.2 .4 P o s t t e s t 307 . 6 35.9 18. 6 10.4 1 . 1 .4 1.1 .3 F o l l o w - u p 327 . 8 40.9 11 . 4 8.9 .80 .4 .90 .3 a See T a b l e 3 Figure 1: Pre, post and follow-up means Beck Depression Inventory 1st o f f e n d e r s ~r~ repeat of f ende rs i pre post follow up TIME j Figure 2: Pre, post and follow-up means Tennessee Self Concept Scale 340 1st o f fender jpeat o f f end M E A N T S C S S C O R E S 330 320 310 300 pre post TIME follow up 62 T a b l e 9 Summary of Multivariate and Univariate Analysis for Outcome  Measures by F i r s t Offender and Repeat Offender Group Multivariate Univariate (p<) Effects F P-< TSCS BDI COMM CONT Time (pre to post) 2 .57 .07 4,21 .06 .01 .94 .44 Group by Time 2 .82 .05 4,21 .13 .01 .62 .31 Time (post to foil-up) 5 .09 .005 4,21 .002 .001 .01 .003 Group by Time <1 .87 4,21 .56 .67 .50 .91 63 To d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e s e c h a n g e s were m a i n t a i n e d o v e r t h e 6-week f o l l o w - u p , a p o s t t o f o l l o w - u p c o n t r a s t was u s e d . The o v e r a l l t i m e e f f e c t was s i g n i f i c a n t , F ( 4 , 2 1 ) = 5 . 0 9 , p_<.005, a s were t h e u n i v a r i a t e F s f o r t i m e ( s e l f - c o n c e p t , F (1 , 24) = 1 1 . 62 , p_<.002, d e p r e s s i o n , F(1 , 24 ) = 1 8 . 7 1 , p_<.001, c o m m i t m e n t , F ( 1 , 24) =8 . 57 , £< . 0 1 , c o n t r o l , F ( 1 , 2 4 ) = 1 0 . 9 3 , p < . 0 0 3 ) . No s i g n i f i c a n t g r o u p by t i m e i n t e r a c t i o n was f o u n d , F<1, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e number o f p r i o r o f f e n c e s , s u b j e c t s c o n t i n u e d t o c h a n g e s i m a l a r l y ( i . e . , i n c r e a s e s e l f - c o n c e p t , l e v e l o f commitment a n d i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l , a n d r e d u c e d e p r e s s i v e symptoms) f r o m p o s t t o f o l l o w - u p ( s e e T a b l e 9 f o r means a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s ) . A n c i l l a r y M e a s u r e s P o s t t r e a t m e n t q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I n r e s p o n s e t o t h e p o s t t r e a t m e n t q u e s t i o n "To what e x t e n t do y o u u n d e r s t a n d t h e r e a s o n s f o r y o u r s h o p l i f t i n g ? " , t h e a v e r a g e o v e r a l l r a t i n g on a s c a l e f r o m 1 t o 5 ( " v e r y c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g " t o "no u n d e r s t a n d i n g a t a l l " ) was 1.7 f o r t h e FO g r o u p and 2.4 f o r t h e RO g r o u p . I n r e s p o n s e t o t h e p o s t t r e a t m e n t s t a t e m e n t " O v e r a l l , I w o u l d r a t e t h e p r o g r a m a s p o o r , f a i r , g o o d , o r e x c e l l e n t " , none o f t h e 40 s u b j e c t s who r e s p o n d e d r a t e d t h e SCP a s p o o r , one r a t e d i t a s f a i r , 13 a s good a n d 26 f e l t t h e p r o g r a m was e x c e l l e n t . 64 D i s c u s s i o n The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a g r o u p c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m f o r s h o p l i f t e r s , i n d e c r e a s i n g d e p r e s s i v e symptoms, a n d i n i n c r e a s i n g s e l f - c o n c e p t , commitment t o s e l f , a n d i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l . I n g e n e r a l , i t c a n be c o n c l u d e d t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e p r o g r a m r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t a n d p o s i t i v e c h a n g e s on a l l t h e outcome m e a s u r e s o v e r t h e 12-week t e s t i n g p e r i o d . U n e x p e c t e d l y , t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s o c c u r r e d f r o m p o s t t e s t t o f o l l o w - u p , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s c o n t i n u e d t o b e n e f i t f r o m t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n f o l l o w i n g c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e 6-week c o u n s e l l i n g p r o g r a m . G r o u p D i f f e r e n c e s f o r FO and RO I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t r e a t m e n t w o u l d be more e f f e c t i v e i n e n h a n c i n g h a r d i n e s s , d e p r e s s i o n , a n d s e l f - c o n c e p t f o r t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h o n l y one o f f e n c e , c o m p a r e d t o t h o s e w i t h two o r more o f f e n c e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t f i r s t o f f e n d e r s w o u l d show a g r e a t e r i n c r e a s e i n l e v e l o f s e l f - c o n c e p t , s e n s e o f p e r s o n a l c o m m i t m e n t , a n d i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l , a n d a g r e a t e r d e c r e a s e i n d e p r e s s i v e symptoms, c o m p a r e d t o r e p e a t o f f e n d e r s , a f t e r h a v i n g p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e 6-week SCP. C o n t r a r y t o what was e x p e c t e d , t h e m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r p r e - t o p o s t t e s t m e a s u r e s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e f i r s t o f f e n d e r (FO) a n d r e p e a t o f f e n d e r (RO) g r o u p s d i d n o t c h a n g e d i f f e r e n t i a l l y o v e r t i m e . H o w e v e r , a n a l y s i s o f u n i v a r i a t e F's i n d i c a t e t h a t t r e a t m e n t was more 65 e f f e c t i v e f o r FO's, c o m p a r e d t o RO's, on p r e - t o p o s t t e s t m e a s u r e s o f d e p r e s s i o n . F o l l o w i n g s i x weeks o f c o u n s e l l i n g , s u b j e c t s w i t h o n l y one o f f e n c e r e p o r t e d e x p e r i e n c i n g f e w e r d e p r e s s i v e symptoms t h a n d i d t h o s e w i t h more t h a n one o f f e n c e . I n f a c t , t h e mean d e p r e s s i o n s c o r e f o r t h e RO g r o u p d i d n o t c h a n g e a t a l l o v e r t h e 6-week p e r i o d ( s e e T a b l e 8 ) . I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h K e n d a l l e t a l . ' s ( 1 9 8 7) c u t o f f s c o r e c r i t e r i a f o r t h e Beck D e p r e s s i o n I n v e n t o r y , b o t h t h e FO a n d RO g r o u p s i n i t i a t e d t r e a t m e n t w i t h a " m o d e r a t e " l e v e l o f d e p r e s s i o n ( M = l 7 - 3 0 ) . By p o s t t e s t , t h e FO g r o u p h a d d e c r e a s e d t h e i r l e v e l o f d e p r e s s i o n t o " m i l d " (M=10-16), w h i l e t h e RO g r o u p d i d n o t c h a n g e . A t f o l l o w - u p , t h e FO g r o u p f e l l w i t h i n t h e " n o r m a l " r a n g e (M=0-9), a n d t h e RO g r o u p h a d d r o p p e d t o " m i l d " d e p r e s s i o n . The u n i v a r i a t e F t e s t f o r g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s on m e a s u r e s o f s e l f - c o n c e p t a t p o s t t e s t d i d n o t r e a c h s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Compared t o n o r m a t i v e d a t a r e p o r t e d by F i t t s ( 1 9 6 5 ) , s u b j e c t s i n b o t h t h e RO a n d FO g r o u p s f e l l w e l l b e l o w n o r m a l (M=345.57, SD=30.70) p r i o r t o t r e a t m e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n . By f o l l o w - u p , t h e FO g r o u p d i s p l a y e d a l e v e l o f s e l f - c o n c e p t t h a t was c l o s e r t o t h e n o r m a l p o p u l a t i o n t h a n d i d t h e RO g r o u p . Semchuk (1981) r e p o r t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e mean T o t a l P o s i t i v e s c o r e s f r o m p r e - (M=313.3, SD=30.9) t o p o s t i n t e r v e n t i o n (M=335.3, SD=35.2) f o r a g r o u p o f s h o p l i f t e r s e x p o s e d t o an a v e r a g e o f 21 weeks o f g r o u p s c o u n s e l l i n g . Compared t o Semchuk's r e s u l t s , t h e FO's 66 a n d RO's were l o w e r i n s e l f - c o n c e p t . By f o l l o w - u p , t h e mean s e l f - c o n c e p t s c o r e s f o r FO's were c o m p a r a b l e t o Semchuk's p o s t t e s t means. W h i l e t h e RO's i m p r o v e d by f o l l o w - u p , t h e y s t i l l r e m a i n e d l o w e r i n s e l f - c o n c e p t . C a l c u l a t i o n s o f J a c o b s o n , F o l l e t t e , a n d R e v e n s t o r f ' s ( 1 9 8 4) c o n s e r v a t i v e t w o - f o l d c r i t e r i a f o r c l i n i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e r e v e a l e d t h a t a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e FO g r o u p i m p r o v e d on m e a s u r e s o f d e p r e s s i o n , c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e RO g r o u p ( 6 6 . 7 % v s . 4 2 . 9 % ) , f r o m p r e t e s t t o f o l l o w - u p . W i t h r e g a r d t o s e l f - c o n c e p t s c o r e s , no d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d f o r t h e RO a n d FO g r o u p s ( 2 6 . 8 % v s . 2 5 % , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . The u n i v a r i a t e F t e s t s f o r g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s f r o m p r e - t o p o s t t e s t on commitment a n d c o n t r o l d i d n o t r e a c h s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , t h u s t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t FO's w o u l d show g r e a t e r i m p r o v e m e n t on t h e s e two m e a s u r e s f r o m p r e - t o p o s t i n t e r v e n t i o n t h a n w o u l d t h e RO's was n o t s u p p o r t e d . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e RO a n d FO g r o u p s on p r e t r e a t m e n t commitment a n d c o n t r o l s c o r e s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t RO's were n o t l e s s h a r d y t h a n FO's. Compared t o P a r k e s a n d R e n d a l l ' s ( 1 9 8 8 ) r e s u l t s , b o t h g r o u p s (FO a n d RO) o f s h o p l i f t e r s d i s p l a y e d h i g h e r l e v e l s o f a l i e n a t i o n ( l e s s c o m m i t m e n t ) a n d a p p e a r e d t o be more e x t e r n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d t h a n a g r o u p o f u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s . By f o l l o w - u p , t h e mean commitment and c o n t r o l s c o r e s f o r b o t h g r o u p s were more c o m p a r a b l e t o t h o s e r e p o r t e d by P a r k e s a n d R e n d a l l ( 1 9 8 8 ) . T h i s u n e x p e c t e d s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e FO's a n d t h e RO's i s 67 c a u s e f o r s p e c u l a t i o n . One m i g h t q u e s t i o n , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r a f i r s t o f f e n d e r . I n o t h e r w o r d s , i s a s h o p l i f t e r w i t h o n l y one c r i m i n a l o f f e n c e t r u l y a f i r s t t i m e o f f e n d e r ? F o r some, t h i s i s c e r t a i n l y n o t t h e c a s e . However, w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f s e l f - r e p o r t s , t h e r e i s no r e l i a b l e m e t hod o f v e r i f y i n g o r c o n t r o l l i n g f o r t h i s v a r i a b l e . R e s e a r c h on h a r d i n e s s h a s f o c u s e d on t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a h a r d y p e r s o n a l i t y , t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f s t r e s s , a n d t h e p r e s e n c e o f i l l n e s s , b o t h p h y s i c a l a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l . S t u d i e s h a v e n o t i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t t h i s p e r s o n a l i t y c o n s t r u c t , and i t s t h r e e s u b c o m p o n e n t s , c o u l d c h a n g e a s a r e s u l t o f t r e a t m e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n . H o w e v e r , e v i d e n c e t h a t s h o r t - t e r m t r e a t m e n t c a n p r e c i p i t a t e p e r s o n a l i t y c h a n g e h a s been d o c u m e n t e d ( G o l d m e i e r , 1 9 7 6 ) . The p r e s e n t s t u d y f o u n d t h a t f r o m p r e - t o p o s t i n t e r v e n t i o n , n e i t h e r t h e FO n o r t h e RO g r o u p s c h a n g e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y on m e a s u r e s o f commitment a n d c o n t r o l . H o wever, b o t h g r o u p s d i d show a s i g n i f i c a n t d e c r e a s e on t h e two m e a s u r e s f r o m p o s t t e s t t o 6-week f o l l o w - u p . T h a t i s , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e number o f p r i o r o f f e n c e s , s u b j e c t s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d e c r e a s e d t h e i r l e v e l o f a l i e n a t i o n ( i . e . , i n c r e a s e d t h e i r s e n s e o f p e r s o n a l c o m mitment) an d e x t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l ( i . e . , i n c r e a s e d i n t e r n a l l o c u s o f c o n t r o l ) o v e r t h e 12-week p e r i o d f r o m p r e t e s t t o f o l l o w - u p . 68 The l a c k o f i n i t i a l c h a n g e on p r e t o p o s t m e a s u r e s o f h a r d i n e s s c o u l d p o s s i b l y be a t t r i b u t e d t o l i m i t a t i o n s i n t h e PVS. F o r e x a m p l e , t h e w o r d i n g o f c e r t a i n i t e m s makes an a s s u m p t i o n t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s a r e m a r r i e d a nd e m p l o y e d . Of t h e t o t a l s a m p l e o f s h o p l i f t e r s , . o n l y 35% were m a r r i e d a n d 55% were e m p l o y e d . C o n s i s t e n t w i t h p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s ( G a n e l l a n & B l a n e y , 1984; H u l l e t a l . 1 9 8 7 ) , commitment a n d c o n t r o l were shown t o be m o d e r a t e l y c o r r e l a t e d t o d e p r e s s i o n a n d s e l f - c o n c e p t . H owever, t h e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e h a r d i n e s s c o m p o n e n t s and s t r e s s , a s m e a s u r e d by t h e L E S , were l o w . P e r h a p s t h e LES d o e s n o t a c c u r a t e l y t a p t h e n o t i o n t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r s u b g r o u p o f s h o p l i f t e r s a r e h i g h l y s t r e s s e d . T h i s may be e x p l a i n e d i n p a r t by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e LES a s k s s u b j e c t s t o i d e n t i f y t h o s e e v e n t s w h i c h o c c u r e d o v e r t h e p a s t y e a r , a n d t o what e x t e n t t h o s e e v e n t s were p e r c e i v e d a s n e g a t i v e . The p s y c h o s o c i a l s t r e s s e x p e r i e n c e d by s h o p l i f t e r s i s o f t e n r e l a t e d t o p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s ( i . e . , f r o m c h i l d h o o d ) w h i c h h a v e l e d t o u n p r o d u c t i v e c o p i n g m e c h a n i s m s . I n t h i s c a s e , i t m i g h t be l i m i t i n g t o s i m p l y e x a m i n e a l i s t o f n e g a t i v e e v e n t s , r a t h e r t h a n f o c u s i n g on i n e f f e c t i v e c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s . A l t h o u g h o n l y one o f t h e h y p o t h e s e s was s u p p o r t e d — t h a t t r e a t m e n t was more e f f e c t i v e i n r e d u c i n g d e p r e s s i o n s c o r e s f o r FO's c o m p a r e d t o RO's — an i m p o r t a n t p a t t e r n was r e v e a l e d r e g a r d i n g t h e o v e r a l l b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s o f t r e a t m e n t . A l l s u b j e c t s , 69 r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r c r i m i n a l r e c o r d , showed s i g n i f i c a n t i m p r o v e m e n t on t h e f o u r v a r i a b l e s m e a s u r e d d u r i n g t h e p o s t t e s t t o f o l l o w - u p p e r i o d . One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t t h e e f f e c t s o f t r e a t m e n t h a d a d e l a y e d r e a c t i o n t i m e . A n o t h e r , more l i k e l y e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t , o f t h e 26 s u b j e c t s who were t e s t e d a t a l l t h r e e t i m e i n t e r v a l s , 19 were i n v o l v e d i n w e e k l y g r o u p t h e r a p y s e s s i o n s w i t h t h e E l i z a b e t h F r y ' s SCP d u r i n g t h e p o s t t o f o l l o w - u p p e r i o d . As s t a t e d e a r l i e r , u n l i k e s u b j e c t s i n t h e t r e a t m e n t (T) g r o u p , s u b j e c t s i n t h e r e p l i c a t i o n (R) g r o u p were n o t g i v e n t h e o p t i o n o f t e r m i n a t i n g c o u n s e l l i n g a f t e r t h e i n i t i a l 6-week p r o g r a m . A l l 12 were r e q u i r e d t o c o n t i n u e w i t h a f u r t h e r s i x weeks o f t h e r a p y . Of t h e 14 s u b j e c t s i n t h e T g r o u p , 7 c o n t i n u e d f o r an a d d i t i o n a l s i x weeks o f g r o u p t h e r a p y . G i v e n t h e s m a l l s a m p l e s i z e , i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o e v a l u a t e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s who were e x p o s e d t o 6 weeks o f c o u n s e l l i n g c o m p a r e d t o t h o s e who c o m p l e t e d 12 w e eks. One c a n o n l y s p e c u l a t e t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e 6-week SCP d i d , i n f a c t , h ave p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s on d e c r e a s i n g d e p r e s s i o n , t h e b e n e f i t s o f t h e p r o g r a m were g r e a t e r when p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n g r o u p was e x t e n d e d t o i n c l u d e an a d d i t i o n a l s i x weeks o f t h e r a p y . Some c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be g i v e n t o t h e h i g h d r o p o u t r a t e i n t h i s s t u d y . Of t h e t o t a l number o f c l i e n t s a c c e p t e d i n t o t h e SCP, o n l y 50% a g r e e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s t u d y , a n d o f t h o s e , 50% d r o p p e d o u t o f t h e r e s e a r c h by f o l l o w - u p . R e s u l t s w e r e , t h e r e f o r e 70 b a s e d on 2 5 % o f t h e t o t a l c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n . A l t h o u g h no s t a t i s t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s who d r o p p e d o u t a n d t h o s e who were a v a i l a b l e f o r t e s t i n g , t h e r e was some e v i d e n c e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e d r o p o u t s w e re more h i g h l y f u n c t i o n i n g i n i t i a l l y . One c o u l d s p e c u l a t e t h a t , i f s u b j e c t s who r e m a i n e d i n t h e s t u d y were a t e x t r e m e e n d s , a p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r im p r o v e m e n t on t h e d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s c o u l d be a r e g r e s s i o n t o t h e mean. The d i f f i c u l t y i n i n i t i a t i n g c l i e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e s e a r c h m i g h t be a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e h i g h l y s e n s i t i v e n a t u r e o f s h o p l i f t i n g . When j o b s , f a m i l y s t a b i l i t y a n d r e p u t a t i o n s a r e a t s t a k e , t h e i s s u e o f c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y i s o f m a j o r i m p o r t a n c e . F o r some, no amount o f a s s u r a n c e t h a t r e s u l t s w i l l be k e p t i n . t h e s t r i c t e s t c o n f i d e n c e seems t o s u f f i c e i n a l l e v i a t i n g t h e f e a r s . G i v e n t h a t r e s u l t s were b a s e d on s u c h a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , t h e r e i s a d e g r e e o f u n c e r t a i n t y a s t o t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h e r e s u l t s . I t i s w e l l d o c u m e n t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r g r o u p o f s h o p l i f t e r s i s h e t e r o g e n e o u s i n n a t u r e . A l t h o u g h t h e r e may be some t h e r a p e u t i c a d v a n t a g e s t o c r e a t i n g homogeneous g r o u p s where c l i e n t s a r e s i m i l a r on s u c h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s a g e , g e n d e r , s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , c r i m i n a l r e c o r d , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n d i s t i n c t b e n e f i t s t o t r e a t i n g s h o p l i f t e r s i n one h e t e r o g e n e o u s g r o u p . When p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e e x p o s e d t o a v a s t p o o l o f e x p e r i e n c e s , 71 t h i s a l l o w s f o r g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f t h e b e h a v i o r . A f i r s t o f f e n d e r c a n s e e t h e p o t e n t i a l a d d i c t i v e n a t u r e o f s h o p l i f t i n g , when c o n f r o n t e d w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f a h a b i t u a l , r e p e a t o f f e n d e r . The W e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t , o r u n e d u c a t e d , c a n r e a l i z e t h a t l o w i n c o m e , o r l a c k o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n , a r e n o t t h e s o l e m o t i v a t o r s f o r s t e a l i n g , when t h e w e a l t h y a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l s h a v e been c h a r g e d w i t h t h e same o f f e n c e . The 18 y e a r o l d s may be l e s s i n c l i n e d t o d i s m i s s t h e i r b e h a v i o r a s s i m p l y a s t a g e t h e y w i l l grow o u t o f , when t h e 70 y e a r o l d s h a v e been s e n t e n c e d by a J u d g e t o a t t e n d t h e same s h o p l i f t i n g p r o g r a m . P r o g r a m E v a l u a t i o n s From t h e s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n s c o m p l e t e d a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e 6-week SCP, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , s u b j e c t s g a i n e d a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e f a c t o r s m o t i v a t i n g t h e i r c r i m i n a l b e h a v i o r . Comments s u g g e s t t h a t many were a b l e t o r e c o g n i z e t h e i r s h o p l i f t i n g b e h a v i o r a s (a) an i n d i r e c t a n d d e s t r u c t i v e way o f c o p i n g w i t h a n d e x p r e s s i n g n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s ( e . g . , a n g e r , g u i l t , h e l p l e s s n e s s , l o w s e l f - e s t e e m , p o w e r l e s s n e s s ) , (b) an u n p r o d u c t i v e way o f m e e t i n g e m o t i o n a l a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l n e e d s s u c h a s l o v e ( s e n s e o f b e l o n g i n g , a c c e p t a n c e , c o m m u n i t y ) , f r e e d o m ( h a v i n g o p t i o n s , c h o i c e s , c o n t r o l ) , power (a s e n s e o f c o m p e t e n c e , a c c o m p l i s h m e n t , s e l f - e s t e e m ) , a n d f u n ( a b i l i t y t o e x p e r i e n c e p l e a s u r e , e x c i t e m e n t , e n j o y m e n t ) , ( c ) s i m i l a r i n n a t u r e t o o t h e r c o m p u l s i v e b e h a v i o r s t h e y e n g a g e d i n -- o v e r e a t i n g , d r u g / a l c o h o l 72 a b u s e , o v e r s p e n d i n g , s e x u a l p r o m i s c u i t y , e t c . , a n d (d) h a v i n g o r i g i n a t e d i n a d y s f u n c t i o n a l f a m i l y s y s t e m , where n e g a t i v e , o f t e n t r a u m a t i c i n c i d e n t s were e x p e r i e n c e d . S u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d h a v i n g l e a r n e d t o be more c o m p a s s i o n a t e t o w a r d s t h e m s e l v e s a nd o t h e r s , more a s s e r t i v e w i t h t h e i r n e e d s , a n d more d i r e c t i n e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r f e e l i n g s . The m a j o r i t y o f s u b j e c t s ( 9 7 . 5 % ) r a t e d t h e p r o g r a m as e i t h e r g o o d o r e x c e l l e n t . I n g e n e r a l , s u b j e c t s f e l t t h a t t h e g r o u p o f f e r e d a s a f e , s u p p o r t i v e , n o n - j u d g m e n t a l e n v i r o n m e n t , where a d e e p l e v e l o f s e l f - d i s c o v e r y a n d h o n e s t s h a r i n g c o u l d t a k e p l a c e . They were a p p r e c i a t i v e o f t h e c o u n s e l l o r s ' c a r i n g y e t d i r e c t a p p r o a c h t o c o n f r o n t a t i o n , a n d i n t h e i r a b i l i t y t o o f f e r g u i d a n c e w i t h o u t g i v i n g a d v i c e . S e v e r a l s u g g e s t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e m e n t were made: (a) t o i n c r e a s e t h e l e n g t h o f e a c h s e s s i o n by one o r two h o u r s , (b) t o i n c r e a s e t h e l e n g t h o f t h e p r o g r a m i t s e l f , ( c ) t o i n c l u d e o n e - t o - o n e c o u n s e l l i n g , (d) t o d e c r e a s e t h e s i z e o f g r o u p t o a maximum o f 5 o r 6 p a r t i c i p a n t s , a n d (e) t o o f f e r t h e p r o g r a m i n o t h e r a r e a s o f t h e V a n c o u v e r l o w e r m a i n l a n d . A s e l e c t i o n o f s u b j e c t s ' comments d e r i v e d f r o m t h e p r o g r a m e v a l u a t i o n s , c a n be f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x E. R e c i d i v i s m I n an a t t e m p t t o g e n e r a t e a m e a s u r e t h a t w o u l d most a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t t h e t r u e r e c i d i v i s m r a t e o f t h i s s a m p l e o f s h o p l i f t e r s , a l l SCP p a r t i c i p a n t s ( s u b j e c t s a n d n o n - s u b j e c t s ) were a s k e d t o r e s p o n d 73 a n o n y m o u s l y t o t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n , a t p o s t t e s t a n d f o l l o w - u p : "Over t h e p a s t s i x w e e k s , have y o u r e o f f e n d e d ? I f s o , how many t i m e s ? " . A t p o s t t e s t , 7 5 % (n=51) s t a t e d t h a t t h e y h ad n o t r e o f f e n d e d , a n d 2 5 % (n=17) a d m i t t e d t o h a v i n g s h o p l i f t e d b e t w e e n 1 a n d 10 t i m e s . The t o t a l s h o p l i f t i n g i n c i d e n t s were 50, a n d o n l y one r e s u l t e d i n an a r r e s t by t h e p o l i c e . By f o l l o w - u p , 8 8 . 4 % (n=38) s a i d t h e y h a d n o t r e o f f e n d e d , a n d 11.6% (n=5) r e p o r t e d h a v i n g s h o p l i f t e d b e t w e e n one an d f o u r t i m e s , w i t h a t o t a l o f 13 i n c i d e n t s . No r e - a r r e s t s were r e p o r t e d . Compared t o o t h e r t r e a t m e n t s t u d i e s w h i c h h a v e r e p o r t e d r e c i d i v i s m m e a s u r e s o f 0 t o 2.5% ( C o n n e r , 1981; E d w a r d s & R o u n d t r e e , 1982; Ordway, 1962; Semchuk, 1981; Solomon & Ray, 1984) t h e 11.6% r e c i d i v i s m r a t e r e p o r t e d a t f o l l o w - u p a p p e a r s d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y h i g h . I t must be n o t e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t a l l t h e s t u d i e s m e n t i o n e d h a v e r e l i e d s o l e l y on o f f i c i a l a r r e s t s t a t i s t i c s , w h i c h a r e n o t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e a c t u a l number o f s h o p l i f t i n g i n c i d e n t s ( G i b b e n s , 1981; K a l l i s & V a n i e r , 1985; K r a u t , 1976; Ray, 1 9 8 7 ) . A c o m p a r i s o n w i t h p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d f i n d i n g s i s , t h e r e f o r e , m i s l e a d i n g . What i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e i s t h e d e c l i n e i n r e o f f e n c e s f r o m p o s t t e s t t o f o l l o w - u p . G i v e n t h e anonymous n a t u r e o f t h e r e c i d i v i s m q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n t h e FO a n d RO g r o u p s on number o f r e o f f e n c e s . F u t u r e s t u d i e s m i g h t i n c l u d e an i t e m w h i c h a d d r e s s e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f p r i o r c o n v i c t i o n s . 74 C o n c l u s i o n s , L i m i t a t i o n s and R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s I n summary, t h e r e s u l t s showed t h a t t h e SCP was more e f f e c t i v e i n d e c r e a s i n g d e p r e s s i v e symptoms f o r i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h no p r i o r c r i m i n a l r e c o r d , c o m p a r e d t o t h o s e w i t h p r e v i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n f i r s t o f f e n d e r s a n d r e p e a t o f f e n d e r s was n o t f o u n d f o r i n c r e a s e d l e v e l s o f s e l f - c o n c e p t , c o m m i t m e n t , an d c o n t r o l . T h e s e m e a s u r e s c h a n g e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y , a n d i n t h e e x p e c t e d d i r e c t i o n , f o r b o t h g r o u p s f r o m p o s t t e s t t o f o l l o w - u p . T h e r e a r e l i m i t a t i o n s i n t h e a b i l i t y t o a t t r i b u t e t h e s e c h a n g e s t o t r e a t m e n t a l o n e . F u t u r e s t u d i e s s h o u l d i n c l u d e a c o n t r o l g r o u p r e c e i v i n g no f o r m o f i n t e r v e n t i o n , o r a c o m p a r i s o n g r o u p e x p o s e d t o a d i f f e r e n t f o r m o f i n t e r v e n t i o n . M o r e o v e r , t h e r e i s a n e e d t o c o n t r o l t h e l e n g t h o f t r e a t m e n t s u b j e c t s w i l l be e x p e c t e d t o c o m p l e t e . C e r t a i n l y , t h e r e a r e e t h i c a l i s s u e s w h i c h must be t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , n a m e l y , d e l a y i n g n e c e s s a r y t r e a t m e n t , a n d l i m i t i n g t h e e x t e n t o f c o u n s e l l i n g an i n d i v i d u a l c a n r e c e i v e . Two l i m i t a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e method o f c o l l e c t i n g d a t a , s h o u l d be m e n t i o n e d . F i r s t , a l l m e a s u r e s were o f a s e l f - r e p o r t n a t u r e . S e c o n d , t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s r o l e i n c l u d e d a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a n d c o n d u c t i n g h a l f o f t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s . T h i s d u a l r o l e c o u l d h a v e a f f e c t e d t h e way i n w h i c h s u b j e c t s r e s p o n d e d on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ( i . e . , t o a p p e a r b e t t e r / w o r s e , t o p l e a s e t h e r e s e a r c h e r , o r s a b o t a g e t h e r e s e a r c h ) . F u t u r e s t u d i e s s h o u l d c o n s i d e r u s i n g c o u n s e l l o r s who a r e n o t f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e s p e c i f i c 75 r e s e a r c h h y p o t h e s e s t o a d m i n i s t e r t r e a t m e n t . L i m i t a t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f r e s u l t s i n c l u d e t h e h i g h d r o p o u t r a t e a n d t h e r e l u c t a n c e shown by h a l f t h e c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e r e s e a r c h . G i v e n t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f c l i e n t s r e f e r r e d t o t h e SCP a r e women, g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t r e a t m e n t e f f e c t s t o men i s l i m i t e d . F u t u r e s t u d i e s s h o u l d g e n e r a t e a m a l e s a m p l e s i z e l a r g e e n o u g h t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e r e s p o n s e o f men t o t r e a t m e n t . I n a d d i t i o n t o c o n t r i b u t i n g k n o w l e d g e t o t h e s c a r c e body o f s t u d i e s on s h o p l i f t i n g , t h i s s t u d y h a s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e on h a r d i n e s s . A l t h o u g h p a s t r e s e a r c h e r s have i d e n t i f i e d s h o p l i f t e r s a s e x p e r i e n c i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e s t r e s s ( A r b o l e d a - F l o r e z e t a l , 1977; B r a d f o r d & B a l m a c e d a , 1983; M o o r e , 1983, 1 9 8 4 ) , t h e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n h a r d i n e s s a n d LES s c o r e s was u n e x p e c t e d l y l o w . F u t u r e s t u d i e s s h o u l d i n c l u d e m e a s u r e s o f c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s i n l i e u o f , o r i n a d d i t i o n t o m e a s u r e s o f s i t u a t i o n a l s t r e s s . F u r t h e r m o r e , a s s u g g e s t e d by P a r k e s and R e n d a l l ( 1 9 8 8 ) , m i n o r r e v i s i o n s i n w o r d i n g on t h e PVS w o u l d i n c r e a s e i t s v a l u e a n d a p p l i c a t i o n w i t h i n r e s e a r c h . D e s p i t e t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s , i t was shown t h a t t h e h a r d i n e s s c o n s t r u c t c a n c h a n g e o v e r t i m e f o l l o w i n g e x p o s u r e t o a t r e a t m e n t p r o g r a m . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r f o c u s , t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s k n o w l e d g e , i s u n i q u e w i t h i n t h e h a r d i n e s s 76 l i t e r a t u r e . F i n a l l y , the h a r d i n e s s c o n s t r u c t i s s t i l l v iewed as c o n c e p t u a l l y r e l a t e d t o a subgroup of s h o p l i f t e r s and worthy of f u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 77 R e f e r e n c e s A r b o l e d a - F l o r e z , J . , D u r i e , H., & C o s t e l l o , J . ( 1 9 7 7 ) . S h o p l i f t i n g - an o r d i n a r y c r i m e . I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f O f f e n d e r T h e r a p y a n d C o m p a r a t i v e C r i m i n o l o g y , 2 1 , 2 0 1 - 2 0 7 . B e c k , E.A., & M c l n t y r e , S.C. ( 1 9 7 7 ) . MMPI p a t t e r n s o f s h o p l i f t e r s w i t h i n t h e c o l l e g e p o p u l a t i o n . P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e p o r t s , 4 1 , 1035-1040. B e c k , A.T., R u s h , A . J . , Shaw, B.F., & Emery, G. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . C o g n i t i v e t h e r a p y o f d e p r e s s i o n . New Y o r k : G u i l d f o r d P r e s s . B e e r s , J . S . ( 1 9 7 4 ) . A c o m p a r i s o n o f s h o p l i f t e r s a n d n o n s h o p l i f t e r s : A s t u d y o f s t u d e n t s e l f - c o n c e p t . . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 3 4 ( 7 - B ) , 3455. B r a d f o r d , J . , & B a l m a c e d a , R. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . S h o p l i f t i n g : i s t h e r e a s p e c i f i c p s y c h i a t r i c s y n d r o m e . C a n a d i a n  J o u r n a l o f P s y c h i a t r y , 2 8 ( 4 ) , 2 4 8-254. C o n n e r , L.A. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . I m p a c t o f new e d u c a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s d e v e l o p e d t o c o n v e r t s h o p l i f t e r s i n t o  h o n e s t c o n s u m e r s . A s t o n , P a : S. A. I n t e r n a t i o n a l . C u p c h i k , W., & A t c h e s o n , J . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . S h o p l i f t i n g : An o c c a s i o n a l c r i m e o f t h e m o r a l m a j o r i t y . B u l l e t i n  o f t h e A m e r i c a n Academy o f P s y c h i a t r y a n d t h e Law, J J_(4), 3 4 3-354. C u r t i s , B. ( 1 9 7 1 ) . S e c u r i t y c o n t r o l : E x t e r n a l t h e f t . New Y o r k : C h a i n S t o r e Age B o o k s . 78 D a v i s , E.T. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . S h o p l i f t i n g ^ Not a Game b u t a P r o f i t D r a i n . Document. E d w a r d s , D.W., & R o u n d t r e e , G.A. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . A s s e s s m e n t of s h o r t - t e r m t r e a t m e n t g r o u p s w i t h a d j u d i c a t e d f i r s t o f f e n d e r s h o p l i f t e r s . J o u r n a l o f O f f e n d e r  C o u n s e l l i n g , S e r v i c e s and R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , 6 ( 1 - 2 ) , 8 9 - 1 0 2 . E l l i s , A. ( 1 9 6 2 ) . R e a s o n a n d e m o t i o n i n p s y c h o t h e r a p y . New Y o r k : L y l e S t u a r t . F i t t s , W.H. ( 1 9 6 5 ) . M a n u a l : T e n n e s s e e ( D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h ) S e l f - C o n c e p t S c a l e . T e n n e s s e e : C o u n s e l l o r R e c o r d i n g s and T e s t s . F u n k , S.C., & H o u s t o n , B.K. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . C r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e h a r d i n e s s s c a l e . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y a n d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 53, 5 7 2 - 5 7 8 . G a n e l l e n , R . J . , & B l a n e y , P.H. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . H a r d i n e s s a n d s o c i a l s u p p o r t a s m o d e r a t o r s o f t h e e f f e c t s o f l i f e s t r e s s . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y a n d Soc i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 47, 156-163. G a u t h i e r , J . , & P e l l e r i n , D. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . Management of c o m p u l s i v e s h o p l i f t i n g t h r o u g h c o v e r t s e n s i t i z a t i o n . J o u r n a l o f B e h a v i o r T h e r a p y a n d E x p e r i m a n t a l P s y c h i a t r y , J_3 ( 1 ) , 7 3 - 7 5 . G e n d r e a u , P., & R o s s , R.P. ( i n p r e s s ) . R e v i v i c a t i o n o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n : E v i d e n c e f r o m t h e 1 9 8 0 ' s . J u s t i c e Q u a r t e r l y . G i b b e n s , T.C. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . S h o p l i f t i n g . B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f P s y c h i a t r y , 138, 3 46-347. G o l d m e i r , J . ( 1 9 7 6 ) . S h o r t - t e r m m o d e l s i n l o n g - t e r m 79 t r e a t m e n t . S o c i a l Work, 2 J _ ( 5 ) , 3 5 0 - 3 5 5 . Hannah, T.E., & M o r r i s s e y , C. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . C o r r e l a t e s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l h a r d i n e s s i n C a n a d i a n a d o l e s c e n t s . J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 1 2 7 ( 4 ) , 3 3 9 - 3 4 4 . H a r d i n e s s I n s t i t u t e , I n c . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . P e r s o n a l v i e w s s u r v e y . C h i c a g o : The H a r d i n e s s I n s t i t u t e , I n c . H o l t , P., F i n e , M., & T o l l e f s o n , N. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . M e d i a t i n g s t r e s s : S u r v i v a l o f t h e h a r d y . P s y c h o l o g y i n t h e S c h o o l s , 24, 51-58. H u l l , J.G., V a n T r e u r e n , R., & P r o p s o m , P.M. ( 1 9 8 8 ) . A t t r i b u t i o n a l s t y l e s a n d t h e c o m p o n e n t s o f h a r d i n e s s . P e r s o n a l i t y a n d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y B u l l e t i n , _ 4 ( 3 ) , 5 0 5 - 5 1 3 . H u l l , J.G., V a n T r e u r e n , R., & V i r n e l l i , S. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . H a r d . i n e s s a n d h e a l t h : A c r i t i q u e a nd a l t e r n a t i v e a p p r o a c h . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y and Soc i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 53_(3), 5 1 8-530. J a c o b s o n , N., F o l l e t t e , W., _ R e v e n s t o r f , D. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . P s y c h o t h e r a p y outcome r e s e a r c h : M e t h o d s f o r r e p o r t i n g v a r i a b i l i t y a n d e v a l u a t i n g c l i n i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . B e h a v i o r T h e r a p y , 15, 3 3 6 - 3 5 2 . J o h n s o n , J . H . , & S a r a s o n , I.G. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . R e c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t s i n r e s e a r c h on l i f e s t r e s s . I n V. H a m i l t o n & D.W. W a r b u r t o n ( E d s . ) , Human s t r e s s a n d c o g n i t i o n : An I n f o r m a t i o n P r o c e s s i n g A p p r o a c h ( p p . 2 0 5 - 2 3 3 ) . L o n d o n : W i l e y . K a l l i s , M.J., & V a n i e r , D.J. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . Consumer s h o p l i f t i n g : O r i e n t a t i o n a n d d e t e r r e n t s . J o u r n a l o f C r i m i n a l J u s t i c e , J _ 5 ( 5 ) , 4 5 9 -473. 80 K a z d i n , A.E. ( 1 9 8 0 ) . R e s e a r c h d e s i g n i n c l i n i c a l p s y c h o l o g y . New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row. K e l l a m , A.M. ( 1 9 6 9 ) . S h o p l i f t i n g t r e a t e d by a v e r s i o n t o a f i l m . B e h a v i o r a l R e s e a r c h and T h e r a p y , 1_, 125-127. K e n d a l l , P.C., H o l l o n , S.D., B e c k , A.T., Hammen, C.L., & I n g r a m , R.E. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . I s s u e s and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g u s e o f t h e Beck D e p r e s s i o n I n v e n t o r y . C o g n i t i v e T h e r a p y a n d R e s e a r c h , _M_(3) r 2 8 9 - 2 9 9 . K e u t z e r , C.S. ( 1 9 7 2 ) . K l e p t o m a n i a : A d i r e c t a c t i o n a p p r o a c h t o t r e a t m e n t . B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f M e d i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 45, 158-163. K o b a s a , S.C. ( 1 9 7 9 ) . S t r e s s f u l l i f e e v e n t s , p e r s o n a l i t y and h e a l t h : An i n q u i r y i n t o h a r d i n e s s . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y a n d Soc i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 37, 1-11. K o b a s a , S.C. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . Commitment a n d c o p i n g i n s t r e s s r e s i s t a n c e among l a w y e r s . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y  a n d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 42, 7 0 7 - 7 1 7 . K o b a s a , S.C., M a d d i , S.R., & C o u r i n g t o n , S. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . P e r s o n a l i t y and c o n s t i t u t i o n a s m e d i a t o r s i n t h e s t r e s s - i l l n e s s r e l a t i o n s h i p . J o u r n a l o f H e a l t h a n d  S o c i a l B e h a v i o r , 22, 3 6 8 - 3 7 8 . K o b a s a , S . C , M a d d i , S.R., & K a h n , S. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . H a r d i n e s s and h e a l t h : A p r o s p e c t i v e s t u d y . J o u r n a l  o f P e r s o n a l i t y a n d Soc i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 42, 168-177. K o b a s a , S.C., M a d d i , S.R., & P u c c e t t i , M.C. ( 1 9 8 2 ) . P e r s o n a l i t y a n d e x e r c i s e a s b u f f e r s i n t h e s t r e s s - i l l n e s s r e l a t i o n s h i p . J o u r n a l o f B e h a v i o r a l 81 M e d i c i n e , 5 ( 4 ) , 391-404. K o b a s a , S.C., & P u c c e t t i , M.C. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . P e r s o n a l i t y a n d s o c i a l r e s o u r c e s i n s t r e s s r e s i s t a n c e . J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y a n d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 4 5 , 839-850. K r a f t , T. ( 1 9 7 0 ) . T r e a t m e n t o f c o m p u l s i v e s h o p l i f t i n g by a l t e r i n g s o c i a l . c o n t i n g e n c i e s . B e h a v i o r a l R e s e a r c h a n d T h e r a p y , 8, 393-394. K r a u t , R.E. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . D e t e r r e n t a n d d e f i n i t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e s on s h o p l i f t i n g . S o c i a l P r o b l e m s , 23, 358 - 3 6 8 . K u r l y c h e k , R.T., _ M o r g a n s t e r n , K. ( 1 9 7 8 ) . The use o f s e l f - c o n t r o l p r o c e d u r e s i n t h e t r e a t m e n t o f c h r o n i c s h o p l i f t i n g . C o r r e c t i v e a n d Soc i a l P s y c h i a t r y a n d  J o u r n a l o f B e h a v i o r T e c h n o l o g y , M e t h o d s a n d  T h e r a p y , 2 4 ( 2 ) , 8 6 - 87. M a r t i n s o n , R., _ W i l k s , J . ( 1 9 7 7 ) . Save p a r o l e s u p e r v i s i o n . F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n , 4 1 , 23-27. M o o r e , R.H. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . C o l l e g e s h o p l i f t e r s : R e b u t t a l o f Beck a n d M c l n t y r e . P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e p o r t s , 5 3 ( 3 ) , 1111-1116. M o o r e , R.H. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . S h o p l i f t i n g i n M i d d l e A m e r i c a : P a t t e r n s a n d m o t i v a t i o n a l c o r r e l a t e s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f Of f e n d e r T h e r a p y a n d  C o m p a r a t i v e C r i m i n o l o g y , 2 8 ( 1 ) , 53-64. M c C r a n i e , E.W., L a m b e r t , V.A., & L a m b e r t , C.E. ( 1 9 8 7 ) . Work s t r e s s , h a r d i n e s s , a n d b u r n o u t among h o s p i t a l s t a f f n u r s e s . N u r s i n g R e s e a r c h 3 6 ( 6 ) , 3 74-378. Okun, M.A., Z a u t r a , A . J . , _ R o b i n s o n , S.E. ( 1 9 8 8 ) . H a r d i n e s s a n d h e a l t h among women w i t h r h e u m a t o i d 82 a r t h r i t i s . P e r s o n a l i t y a n d I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s , 9 ( 1 ) , 101-107. Ordway, J.A. ( 1 9 6 2 ) . S u c c e s s f u l c o u r t t r e a t m e n t o f s h o p l i f t e r s . J o u r n a l o f C r i m i n a l Law, C r i m i n o l o g y a n d P o l i c e S c i e n c e , 5 4 ( 3 ) , 3 4 4 - 3 4 7 . O w c z a r , R. ( 1 9 8 9 , J a n u a r y ) . Woodwards L o s s P r e v e n t i o n . V a n c o u v e r , B.C. P a r k e s , K.R., & R e n d a l l , D. ( 1 9 8 8 ) . The h a r d y p e r s o n a l i t y a n d i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o e x t r a v e r s i o n a n d n e u r o t i c i s m . P e r s o n a l i t y a n d I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s , 9 ( 4 ) , 785-790. P i n e s , A.M., & A r o n s o n , E. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . B u r n o u t : From t e d i u m t o p e r s o n a l g r o w t h . New Y o r k : F r e e P r e s s . P r a t t , J . ( 1 9 8 8 , O c t o b e r ) . Women who s t e a l . New Woman. R a w l i n s , V., S / S g t . (1978) A n t i - S h o p l i f t i n g m a n u a l :  W o r k i n g t o g e t h e r . C a n a d i a n P o l i c e C o l l e g e , The C o m m u n i c a t i o n s D e p a r t m e n t , S o l i c i t o r G e n e r a l o f C a n a d a . Ray, J . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . E v e r y t w e l f t h s h o p p e r : Who s h o p l i f t s a n d why? S o c i a l C a s e w o r k , 6 8 ( 4 ) , 2 3 4 - 2 3 9 . Ray, J . B . , & Bak, J . S . ( 1 9 8 0 ) . C o m p a r i s o n a n d c r o s s - v a l i d a t i o n o f t h e I r r a t i o n a l B e l i e f s T e s t a n d t h e R a t i o n a l B e h a v i o r I n v e n t o r y . P s y c h o l o g i c a l  R e p o r t s , 46, 5 4 1 - 5 4 2 . Ray, J . , S o l o m o n , G., D o n c a s t e r , M., & M e l l i n a , R. ( 1 9 8 3 ) . F i r s t o f f e n d e r a d u l t s h o p l i f t e r s : A p r e l i m i n a r y P r o f i l e . J o u r n a l o f C l i n i c a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 3 9 ( 5 ) , 7 6 9 - 7 7 0 . 83 R h o d e w a l t , F., & A g u s t s d o t t i r , S. ( 1 9 8 4 ) . On t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f h a r d i n e s s t o t h e Type A b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n : P e r c e p t i o n s o f l i f e e v e n t s v e r s u s c o p i n g w i t h l i f e e v e n t s . J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n  P e r s o n a l i t y , 18, 2 1 2 - 2 2 3 . R o u n d t r e e , G.A., E d w a r d s , D.W., & P a r k e r , J . B . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . A s t u d y o f t h e p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p r o b a t i o n e r s a s r e l a t e d t o r e c i d i v i s m . J o u r n a l o f  O f f e n d e r C o u n s e l l i n g , S e r v i c e s a n d R e h a b i l i t a t i o n , 8 ( 3 ) , 5 3 - 6 1 . R u s s e l l , M. ( 1 9 7 6 ) . G r o u p s f o r Women who S h o p l i f t . U n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t . S a c c o , V. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . S h o p l i f t i n g p r e v e n t i o n : The r o l e o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n - b a s e d i n t e r v e n t i o n s t r a t e g i e s . C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f C r i m i n o l o g y , 27, 15-29. S c h a e f e r , A., Brown, J . , W a t s o n , C , P l e m e l , D., D e M o t t s , J . , Howard, M., P e t r i c k , N., & B a l l e w e g , B. ( 1 9 8 5 ) . C o m p a r i s o n o f t h e v a l i d i t i e s o f t h e B e c k , Zung, a nd MMPI d e p r e s s i o n s c a l e s . J o u r n a l o f  C o n s u l t i n g a n d C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 5 3 ( 3 ) , 4 1 5 - 4 1 8 . S c h m e i d , L.A., & L a w l e r , K.A. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . H a r d i n e s s , Type A b e h a v i o r , a n d t h e s t r e s s - i l l n e s s r e l a t i o n i n w o r k i n g women. J o u r n a l o f P e r s o n a l i t y a n d Soc i a l  P s y c h o l o g y , 5±, 1218-1223. Semchuk, E.E. ( 1 9 8 1 ) . S h o p l i f t i n g : A s t u d y o f c o r r e c t i o n s i n t e r v e n t i o n . U n p u b l i s h e d m a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B.C. S o h i e r , J . ( 1 9 6 9 ) . A r a t h e r o r d i n a r y c r i m e : 84 S h o p l i f t i n g . I n t e r n a t i o n a l C r i m i n a l P o l i c e R e v i e w , 299, 161-166. S o l o m o n , G.S., _ Ray, J . B . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . I r r a t i o n a l b e l i e f s o f s h o p l i f t e r s . J o u r n a l o f C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 40, 1075-1077. S t e e r , R.A., B e c k , A.T., R i s k i n d , J . H . , & Brown, G. ( 1 9 8 6) . D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f d e p r e s s i v e d i s o r d e r s f r o m g e n e r a l i z e d a n x i e t y by t h e Beck D e p r e s s i o n I n v e n t o r y . J o u r n a l o f C l i n i c a l P s y c h o l o g y , 4 2 ( 3 ) , 4 7 5-478. S t e e r , R.A., B e c k , A.T., R i s k i n d , J . H . , _ B r o w n , G. ( 1 9 8 7) . R e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e Beck D e p r e s s i o n I n v e n t o r y and t h e H a m i l t o n P s y c h i a t r i c R a t i n g S c a l e f o r D e p r e s s i o n i n d e p r e s s e d o u t p a t i e n t s . J o u r n a l  o f P s y c h o p a t h o l o g y a n d B e h a v i o r a l A s s e s s m e n t , 9 ( 3 ) , 3 2 7 -339. Townsend, M. ( 1 9 7 2 ) . S h o p l i f t i n g : A S t u d y . U n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t . E l i z a b e t h F r y S o c i e t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia. W a l s h , D.P. ( 1 9 7 8 ) S h o p l i f t i n g . C o n t r o l l i n g a M a j o r C r i m e . L o n d o n : The M a c M i l l a n P r e s s L t d . W i e b e , D . J . , & M c C a l l u m , D.M. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . H e a l t h p r a c t i c e s and h a r d i n e s s a s m e d i a t o r s i n t h e s t r e s s - i l l n e s s r e l a t i o n s h i p . H e a l t h P s y c h o l o g y , 5 ( 5 ) , 4 2 5 - 4 3 8 . Y a t e s , E. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . The i n f l u e n c e s o f p s y c h o - s o c i a l f a c t o r s on n o n - s e n s i c a l s h o p l i f t i n g . I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f O f f e n d e r T h e r a p y a n d C o m p a r a t i v e C r i m i n o l o g y , 3 0 ( 3 ) , 2 0 3 - 2 1 1 . 85 Z u c k e r m a n , L.A., O l i v e r , J.M., H o l l i n g s w o r t h , H.H., & A u s t r i n , H.R. ( 1 9 8 6 ) . A c o m p a r i s o n o f l i f e e v e n t s s c o r i n g methods a s p r e d i c t o r s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l s y m p t o m o l o g y . J o u r n a l o f Human S t r e s s , 1 2 ( 1 ) , 6 4 - 7 0 . 86 A P P E N D I X A Comparison Group Consent Form APPENDIX B T r e a t m e n t and R e p l i c a t i o n G r o u p s 89 T r e a t m e n t and R e p l i c a t i o n G r o u p s G r o u p s P a r t i c i p a n t s S u b j e c t s N o n - s u b j e c t s T r e a t m e n t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4 8 7 7 11 R e p l i c a t i o n 7 8 8 8 9 9 10 9 5 3 6 3 4 5 5 5 7 6 2 1 2 4 3 6 3 3 2 3 APPENDIX C E x p e c t a n c y f o r Change S c a l e 91 Code No. D a t e 1. "How c o n f i d e n t a r e y o u t h a t t h i s p r o g r a m w i l l be o r h a s been s u c c e s s f u l i n h e l p i n g y o u d e a l w i t h t h e s h o p l i f t i n g p r o b l e m ? " N o t a t a l l V e r y much 2. How l o g i c a l d o e s t h i s t y p e o f p r o g r a m seem t o y o u a s a way o f d e a l i n g w i t h a s h o p l i f t i n g p r o b l e m ? " N o t a t a l l V e r y much 3. How c o n f i d e n t a r e y o u i n r e c o m m e n d i n g t h i s p r o g r a m t o o t h e r s who a r e d e a l i n g w i t h t h e same p r o b l e m ?" N o t a t a l l V e r y much 92 APPENDIX D I n t a k e Form C o u n s e l l i n g C o n t r a c t S u b j e c t I n f o r m e d C o n s e n t Form SHOPLIFTERS COUNSELLING PROGRAM CONFIDENTIAL THE ELIZABETH FRY SOCIETY OF B.C. 2412 COLUMBIA STREET VANCOUVER V5Y 3E6 INTERVIEWED BY DATE NAME:. (PRINT SURNAME) BIRTHDATE (FIRST NAME) PERMANENT ADDRESS (OR NEAREST FRIEND OR FAMILY) PRESENT ADDRESS SOURCE OF CURRENT REFERRAL PLACE OF EMPLOYMENT OCCUPATION EDUCATION BIRTHPLACE MARITAL STATUS CITIZENSHIP PRIOR CONTACT WITH OUR AGENGY? PHONE . YES NO OK? POSTAL CODE PHONE POSTAL CODE PHONE _OK? NUMBER OF DEPENDENTS CURRENT CHARGE DATE AND COURT OF IMPENDING CHARGES SENTENCE(S) RECEIVED PREVIOUS RECORD AND DISPOSITION LAWYER PHONE POSTAL CODE ADDRESS PROBATION OFFICER ] PHONE POSTAL CODE ADDRESS OTHERS OTHER INFORMATION 2.86 COUNSELLING _C_Q1LTEACT Group C o u n s e l l i n g : R e g i s t r a t i o n Fee $ O r i e n t a t i o n S e s s i o n Fee $ Fee p e r G roup S e s s i o n S T o t a l G roup S e s s i o n s ( X $ ) $ T o t a l C o s t $ Workshop , $ I n d i v i d u a l C o u n s e l l i n g p e r s e s s i o n $ M a r i t a l / F a m i l y C o u n s e l l i n g : p e r c l i e n t p e r s e s s i o n $ p e r a d d i t i o n a l p e r s o n $ W r i t t e n R e p o r t s : A s s e s s m e n t $ P r o g r e s s $ * FEES ARE NON-REFUNDABLE « Payment o f t e e s must b e made w e e k l y b e f o r e t h e c o u n s e l l i n g s e s s i o n b e g i n s o r m o n t h l y i n a d v a n c e . A p l a c e i s K e p t f o r e a c h member u n t i l g r o u p c o m p l e t i o n . We do n o t a c c e p t new members t o f i l l a b s e n c e s . T h e r e f o r e , y o u r commitment t o a w e e k l y f e e i s e s s e n t i a l and a d j u s t m e n t s i n f e e s w i l l n o t De made. Gr o u p P a r t i c i p a n t s p l e a s e n o t e : R e g u l a r a t t e n d a n c e i s e s s e n t i a l i n o r d e r f o r an i n d i v i d u a l t o make good p r o g r e s s and f o r t h e g r o u p t o f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y . I t i s a l s o e s s e n t i a l t h a t g r o u p members b e on t i m e f o r e a c h s e s s i o n . ORIENTATION TIME: GROUP TIME: NUMBER OF GROUP SESSIONS: GROUP COUNSELLOR: I have r e v i e w e d t h i s c o n t r a c t and a g r e e t o t h e a b ove c o n d i t i o n s . C LIENT DATE COUNSELLOR DATE APPENDIX E S e l f - e v a l u a t i o n P r o g r a m E v a l u a t i o n Anonymous R e c i d i v i s m R a t e R e c o r d S o c i a l S u p p o r t Q u e s t i o n n a i r e THE ELIZABETH FRY SOCIETY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA VANCOUVER SELF-EVALUATION CODE it . DATE 1. What have I l e a r n e d a b o u t m y s e l f i n t h i s c o u n s e l l i n g p rogram? 2. What changes have I made? 3. What e f f e c t s d i d t h e s e c h a n g e s have on my f a m i l y / o t h e r s ? 4. D i d I meet my g o a l ? I f n o t , why n o t ? 5. To what e x t e n t do I u n d e r s t a n d t h e r e a s o n s f o r my s h o p l i f t i n g ? _1 2 3 4 5_ V e r y c l e a r somewhat no u n d e r s t a n d i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g a t a l l 6. To what e x t e n t i s i t l i k e l y t h a t I w i l l r e - o f f e n d ? _1 2 __3 4 5_ Not a t a l l somewhat V e r y l i k e l y l i k e l y 7. D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e program, what h a s my p r o g r e s s been? 1 2 3 4 5 No p r o g r e s s a t a l l somewhat V e r y h i g h d e g r e e o f p r o g r e s s 98 SELF-EVALUATION 1. What have I learned about myself i n t h i s c o u n s e l l i n g program? Frequency 23 i n c r e a s e d awareness of s e l f and f e e l i n g s (e.g., s e l f -c r i t i c a l , g u i l t , low self-esteem, h e l p l e s s n e s s , abandonment, low s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , anger) 18 r e c o g n i z i n g the need to take c o n t r o l and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n l i f e versus withdrawing, a v o i d i n g , being a v i c t i m 9 s h o p l i f t i n g i s one way of coping with n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s , problems, s t r e s s 5 s h o p l i f t i n g i s one way of meeting emotional and p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs 4 need f o r more self-awareness 3 s h o p l i f t i n g i s a symptom of emotional problems 2. What changes have I made? B e h a v i o r a l Frequency 9 more a s s e r t i v e with needs 8 i n c r e a s e d support system ( p r o f e s s i o n a l and non-p r o f e s s i o n a l ) 6 i n c r e a s e d meaningful a c t i v i t i e s 5 stopped s h o p l i f t i n g 4 i n c r e a s e d communication with others C o g n i t i v e 19 i n c r e a s e d s e l f - a c c e p t a n c e and understanding 11 t a k i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and c o n t r o l 6 changing n e g a t i v e / d e s t r u c t i v e s e l f - t a l k 4 no conscious changes 3. What e f f e c t s d i d these changes have on my f a m i l y and others? Frequency 15 none 10 more p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s 9 more s u p p o r t i v e a t t i t u d e 7 g r e a t e r acceptance, r e s p e c t , understanding 5 happier 2 more t e n s i o n , anger 1 l e s s dependent 4. Did I meet my goal? I f not, why not? F r e q u e n c y 99 2 no g o a l s s e t 18 no, s t i l l w o r k i n g on g o a l s - n e e d more t i m e Met N o t Met 5 1 c o n t r o l s h o p l i f t i n g 1 2 r e d u c e s t r e s s / g u i l t 5 3 l e s s d e p e n d e n t 100 #_ DATE T H E E L I Z A B E T H F R Y S O C I E T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A V A N C O U V E R C R O U P C O U N S E L L I N G P R O G R A M E V A L U A T I O N O V E R A L L . I W O U L D R A T E T H E P R O G R A M A S P O O R LJ F A I R • G O O D • E X C E L L E N T • D E S C R I B E T H E M O S T P O S I T I V E A S P E C T S O F T H E P R O G R A M . D E S C R I B E T H E M O S T N E G A T I V E A S P E C T S O F T H E P R O G R A M . H O W D I D Y O U F E E L A B O U T T H E C O U N S E L L O R / G R O U P L E A D E R ? S U G G E S T I O N S F O R I M P R O V E M E N T I N T E R M S O F P R O G R A M C O N T E N T A N D L E A D E R S H I P . OTHER COMMENTS 101 G r o u p P r o g r a m C o u n s e l l i n g E v a l u a t i o n 1. D e s c r i b e t h e most p o s i t i v e a s p e c t o f t h e p r o g r a m . F r e q u e n c y 23 s h a r i n g f e e l i n g s , h o n e s t y and t r u s t 21 s u p p o r t i v e , n o n - j u d g e m e n t a l g r o u p 13 i n c r e a s e d s e l f - a w a r e n e s s / r a i s e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s 10 f e e l i n g a c c e p t e d 7 u n d e r s t a n d i n g s h o p l i f t i n g b e h a v i o r 5 p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p 4 a l t e r n a t e c o p i n g s t r a t e g i e s 2. D e s c r i b e t h e most n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s o f t h e p r o g r a m . F r e q u e n c y 13 none 9 s t r u c t u r a l ( i . e . , t o o s h o r t , t o o l a r g e , t o o d i s t a n t ) 6 t a l k i n g a b o u t p e r s o n a l / p a i n f u l e x p e r i e n c e s 5 o t h e r g r o u p members ( i . e . , m o n o p o l i z e r s , d r o p - o u t s ) 3. How d i d you f e e l a b o u t t h e c o u n s e l l o r / g r o u p l e a d e r ? F r e q u e n c y 18 s u p p o r t i v e , e m p a t h e t i c , warm, u n d e r s t a n d i n g 12 s k i l l e d , p r o f e s s i o n a l ( e . g . , p r o b i n g , f e e d b a c k , i n s i g h t s , l i s t e n i n g , g u i d i n g y c l e a r ) 7 n o n - j u d g e m e n t a l , g e n u i n e 4 t o o p r o b i n g 4. S u g g e s t i o n s f o r i m p r o v e m e n t i n t e r m s o f p r o g r a m c o n t e n t a n d l e a d e r s h i p . F r e q u e n c y 23 none 5 more s e s s i o n s 3 l o n g e r s e s s i o n s 2 s m a l l e r g r o u p 2 f o l l o w - u p 2 more "homework", h a n d o u t m a t e r i a l 2 more " f u n " a c t i v i t i e s 2 more on s e l f - e s t e e m , g o a l s e t t i n g O v e r t h e p a s t s i x w e e k s , h a v e y o u r e - o f f e n d e d No Yes How many t i m e s ? Were y o u a p p r e h e n d e d ? No Yes How many t i m e s ? O v e r t h e p a s t s i x w e e k s , h a v e y o u r e - o f f e n d e d NO Y e s How many t i m e s ? Were y o u a p p r e h e n d e d ? No Y e s How many t i m e s ? CODE # DATE 1. Over t h e p a s t s i x weeks, t o what e x t e n t do you f e e l y o u have r e c e i v e d e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t f r o m : a) F a m i l y 1 2 3 4 5 n o t a t a l l somewhat v e r y much b) F r i e n d s 1 2 . :. 3 4 5 n o t a t a l l somewhat v e r y much c) C h u r c h 1 2 3 4 5 n o t a t a l l somewhat v e r y much d) O t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) 1 2 3 4 5 n o t a t a l l somewhat v e r y much Over t h e p a s t s i x weeks, how o f t e n h a v e y ou e n g a g e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g f o r m s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g ( e g . p s y c h i a t r i s t , p s y c h o l o g i s t , c o u n s e l l o r , s o c i a l w o r k e r ) : a) I n d i v i d u a l n e v e r l e s s t h a n o n c e a week o n c e a week "more t h a n o n c e a week b) M a r i t a l / R e l a t i o n s h i p n e v e r " l e s s t h a n o n c e a week o n c e a week more t h a n o n c e a week c) F a m i l y _ n e v e r l e s s t h a n o n c e a week "once a week "more t h a n o n c e a week d) Group n e v e r " l e s s t h a n o n c e a week "once a week more t h a n o n c e a week APPENDIX F C l i n i c a l S i g n i f i c a n c e f o r BDI S c o r e s C l i n i c a l S i g n i f i c a n c e f o r TSCS S c o r e s C l i n i c a l S i g n i f i c a n c e f o r BDI S c o r e s P r e - P o s t P o s t - F o l l o w - u p P r e - F o l l o w - u p FO RO FO RO FO RO f r e q % f r e q % f r e q % f r e q % f r e q % f r e q % I m p r o v e d 6 31.6 6 26.1 5 41.7 7 50.0 8 66.7 6 42.9 No Change 10 52.6 12 52.2 7 58.3 7 50.0 4 33.3 6 42.9 D e t e r i o r a t e d 3 15.8 5 21.7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 14.2 C l i n i c a l S i g n i f i c a n c e f o r TSCS S c o r e s P r e - P o s t P o s t - F o l l o w u p P r e - F o l l o w u p FO RO FO RO FO RO f r e q % f r e q % f r e q % f r e q % f r e q % f r e q % I m p r o v e d 2 10.5 2 8.7 3 25.0 4 28.6 3 25.0 4 28.6 No Change 15 79.0 20 87.0 9 75.0 10 71.4 9 75.0 10 71.4 D e t e r i o r a t e d 2 10.5 1 4.3 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 

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