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Frequency of police officers' problems and the sources of counselling most preferred by police officers Mackoff, Randy 1988

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FREQUENCY OF POLICE OFFICERS' PROBLEMS AND THE SOURCES OF COUNSELLING MOST PREFERRED BY POLICE OFFICERS By RANDY MACKOFF B.A., The Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1984 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Counselling Psychology) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January 1988 © Randy Mackoff In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of ( C V t O f t - ^ J O M y The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mal l Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6(3/81) i i ABSTRACT The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t o e s t a b l i s h t h e f r e q u e n c y o f p r o b l e m s t h a t members o f P o l i c e F o r c e X e x p e r i e n c e o r have e x p e r i e n c e d , and t o d e t e r m i n e w h i c h s o u r c e o f c o u n s e l l i n g t h e members o f P o l i c e F o r c e X w o u l d p r e f e r most f o r e a c h p r o b l e m . A s i n g l e s t a g e sample d e s i g n was u s e d f o r t h i s s t u d y . Two h u n d r e d n o n - c o m m i s s i o n e d p o l i c e o f f i c e r s were r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d and were m a i l e d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h r o u g h t h e p o l i c e d e p a r t m e n t ' s i n - h o u s e m a i l s y s t e m . One h u n d r e d and f i f t e e n p o l i c e o f f i c e r s r e t u r n e d c o m p l e t e d and u s a b l e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f an u n d e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f f e m a l e p o l i c e o f f i c e r s , t h e s ample was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . The a n a l y s i s o f d a t a showed t h a t t h e f i v e most f r e q u e n t p r o b l e m s r e p o r t e d by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s were a n x i e t y t h a t i n t e r f e r e s w i t h t h e en joyment o f l i f e , a l c o h o l a b u s e , d e p r e s s i o n , f i n a n c i a l p r o b l e m s , m a r i t a l p r o b l e m s and s l e e p d i s t u r b a n c e ( t h e s e p r o b l e m s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r , and n o t i n o r d e r o f f r e q u e n c y ) . F u r t h e r , f o r t h i r t e e n o f f i f t e e n p r e s e n t e d p r o b l e m s t h e m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s s e l e c t e d o u t s i d e p s y c h i a t r i s t o r p s y c h o l o g i s t as t h e most p r e f e r r e d s o u r c e o f c o u n s e l l i n g . F o r t h e p r o b l e m o f boredom and a l i e n a t i o n members were equal ly d i v i d e d between outs ide p s y c h i a t r i s t or psycholog is t and peer c o u n s e l l i n g as the most pre ferred source of c o u n s e l l i n g . The study concluded with a d i s cus s ion of p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s and recommendations for fur ther research were presented. TABLE OF CONTENT ABSTRACT i i L I S T OF TABLES v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION . . . . 1 P o l i c e O f f i c e r P r o b l e m s 1 C o u n s e l l i n g F o r P o l i c e O f f i c e r s 2 R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s 2 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 3 CHAPTER 2 : REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 5 P o l i c e Work S t r e s s o r s 5 P o l i c e P r o b l e m s . . . 6 C o u n s e l l i n g I n t e r v e n t i o n 7 M e n t a l H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n a l s ' C o u n s e l l i n g P o l i c e O f f i c e r s 11 P e e r C o u n s e l l i n g 14 Summary o f L i t e r a t u r e R e v i e w 26 CHAPTER 3 : METHODOLOGY . . • 28 P o p u l a t i o n 28 Sample 29 I n s t r u m e n t 30 P r o c e d u r e 3 3 A n a l y s i s o f D a t a 34 CHAPTER 4 : RESULTS 37 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e Sample 37 B i o - d e m o g r a p h i c s 38 C o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e Needs A s s e s s m e n t 43 P r e f e r r e d S o u r c e s o f C o u n s e l l i n g 45 P e e r C o u n s e l l i n g S e l e c t i o n 47 Summary o f R e s u l t s 48 CHAPTER 5 : DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY 49 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f Members ' P r o b l e m s 49 P r e f e r e n c e f o r S o u r c e o f C o u n s e l l i n g . . . . 53 P r a c t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s 56 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y 58 S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 60 Summary 61 REFERENCES 62 A p p e n d i x A 73 A p p e n d i x B 84 V LIST OF TABLES Table 1: C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Sample 38 Table 2 : Percentage and Mean Ranking for Problem Type 40 Table 3: Mean Number of Colleagues by Problem Type 41 Table 4: Frequency and Percent of Members S e l f -repor t ing S p e c i f i c Problems 42 Table 5: Consistency Amongst Perspect ives . . . . 44 Table 6: Source of Counse l l ing 46 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to thank Dr. Robert Tolsma and Dr. Todd Rogers for t h e i r inva luable support , encouragement, and ass i s tance . They are t r u l y i d e a l pro fe s sors . In a d d i t i o n I would l i k e to thank my wife G a i l Frydenlund. G a i l has provided me with un l imi ted support and l o v e , which has enabled me to carry on. 1 Chapter I INTRODUCTION P o l i c e O f f i c e r Problems In general, p o l i c e o f f i c e r s at the beginning of t h e i r career are emotionally more stable than the general population (Blackmore, 1978, Stratton, 1977). However, many o f f i c e r s experience psychological and p h y s i o l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s that are a t t r i b u t a b l e to the pressures of p o l i c i n g (Stratton, 1977; Alkus & Padesky, 1983; Donahue, 1977; Blackmore, 1978). Some of the psychological and p h y s i o l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s that p o l i c e o f f i c e r s may experience include m a r i t a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , alcohol abuse, uncalled-for aggression, backaches, migraine headaches, and heart disease (Blackmore, 1978; Somodevilla, 1978; Shook, 1978; Klyver, 1983). However, the i n t e n s i t y and frequency of psychological problems that p o l i c e o f f i c e r s experience i s d i f f i c u l t to determine because p o l i c e o f f i c e r s are reluctant to report psychological problems and p o l i c e departments tend to keep secret those problems that are psychological i n nature (Blackmore, 1978). 2 Counselling For P o l i c e O f f i c e r s P o l i c e o f f i c e r s could benefit greatly by receiving some form of counselling (Stratton, 1977; Shev, 1977; Blackmore, 1978; Alkus & Padesky, 1983). According to Depue (1979) most p o l i c e o f f i c e r s do not require intensive psychotherapy, but do require some counselling for successful r e s o l u t i o n of personal problems. There are a va r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t counselling methods a v a i l a b l e to p o l i c e o f f i c e r s . The providers of these counselling services include p s y c h i a t r i s t s , psychologists, r e l i g i o u s leaders, and p o l i c e peer counsellors. Of these counselling services, i t appears that peer counselling i s most preferred (Donahue, 1977). P o l i c e o f f i c e r s appear to r e j e c t p r o f e s s i o n a l services because of t h e i r basic d i s t r u s t for mental health professionals (Alkus & Padesky, 1983). Research Questions While Donahue (1977) has conjectured that p o l i c e o f f i c e r s prefer peer counselling over any other sources of counselling, there i s no empirical evidence to support t h i s p o s i t i o n . Therefore, to increase the effectiveness and e f f i c i e n c y of a counselling service of a p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c e force, i t i s prudent to survey the members to e s t a b l i s h the problems that members 3 experience, and the sources of counselling they prefer to address those problems. I t was toward these two issues that the present research was di r e c t e d . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , a survey of a random sample of members of a large metropolitan p o l i c e force was completed to obtain answers to the following questions: 1) What problems do members of P o l i c e Force X perceive as being important to them? 2) To what extent do the members believe the problems e x i s t i n P o l i c e Force X? 3) For each problem, which source of counselling do members of P o l i c e Force X prefer? 4) To what extent do members of Po l i c e Force X prefer peer counselling? Definition of Terms Terms used i n t h i s study are defined as follows: 1) P o l i c e Force X: This i s a s p e c i f i c p o l i c e force situated i n Canada. To ensure c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y , as requested by the cooperating p o l i c e force, the name of the p o l i c e force i s not di s c l o s e d . 2) P o l i c e Force Member or Member: A member of the cooperating p o l i c e force who i s equal to or lower i n rank than a S t a f f Sergeant. 4 3) Peer Counsellor: A fellow p o l i c e o f f i c e r trained i n counselling who v o l u n t a r i l y responds to a request for counselling by a colleague. Peer counsellors have approximately 100 hours of counsellor t r a i n i n g , but do not hold a degree beyond the Masters l e v e l i n counselling or a r e l a t e d f i e l d . 4) Mental Health Pr o f e s s i o n a l : A person who holds a Doctorate i n Counselling or C l i n i c a l Psychology, or a Medical Degree with a s p e c i a l t y i n Psychiatry. 5 Chapter I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE P o l i c e Work Stressors P o l i c e o f f i c e r s ' stress i s generated from a myriad of d i f f e r e n t areas. Loo (1985) suggests that stressors for p o l i c e o f f i c e r s can be grouped into the following four categories: 1) p o l i c e organization and p o l i c i e s , 2) nature of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y involved i n p o l i c e work, 3) u n s a t i s f a c t o r y c r i m i n a l j u s t i c e system, and 4) p u b l i c and media a t t i t u d e s . According to Depue (1979), p o l i c e o f f i c e r s experience psychological discomfort r e s u l t i n g from r o l e c o n f l i c t , u n r e a l i s t i c media image, development of p o l i c e subculture, s i t u a t i o n a l c r i s i s , p u b l ic apathy, poor equipment and f r u s t r a t i o n and boredom with assignments. Donahue (1977) states, "physical and emotional violence, the i s o l a t i o n of the p o l i c e o f f i c e r , the unconventional work hours, a l l a f f e c t o f f i c e r s i n d i f f e r i n g ways" (p.23). When a person f i r s t enters p o l i c i n g he or she i s above average i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and emotionally, but eventually experiences psychological problems a r i s i n g from s i t u a t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s (Stratton, 1977). Alkus and Padesky (1983) agree with Stratton. They believe 6 that i t i s myth that "disturbed persons become p o l i c e o f f i c e r s . Rather, p o l i c e undergo extreme stress i n t h e i r jobs which can cause problems for them i n d i v i d u a l l y and with t h e i r f a m i l i e s " (p.62). According to Donahue (1977) no p o l i c e o f f i c e r can navigate a career unscathed from psychological damage. P o l i c e Problems Compared to other occupations, p o l i c e work i s a high stres s occupation (Kroes, Margolis & H u r r e l l , 1974). Unlike many other occupations, p o l i c e work "has a potent adverse e f f e c t on the t o t a l l i f e of the worker" (Kroes, Margolis & H u r r e l l , 1974, p.155). Psychologists who e x c l u s i v e l y counsel p o l i c e o f f i c e r s report that the most common presenting problems of p o l i c e o f f i c e r s are (these are i n random order, not order of most prevalent) marital problems, sexual problems, family problems, alcohol problems, displacement of aggression, psychosomatic problems, headaches, g a s t r o i n t e s t i n a l problems and parenting problems (Somodevilla, 1978). Alkus and Padesky (1983) c i t e Blackmore's (1978) findings from a survey of 2300 p o l i c e o f f i c e r s across twenty-nine p o l i c e forces that t h i r t y seven percent had serious marital problems, t h i r t y - s i x percent serious health problems, twenty-three percent serious alcohol problems, twenty percent 7 serious problems with t h e i r c h i l d r e n and ten percent with serious drug problems. Shook (1978) states, "Alcoholism, inappropriate job behavior, divorce and mental i l l n e s s are included with the ' p i t f a l l s i n p o l i c i n g ' that are being reported i n ever increasing numbers within the p o l i c e s e r v i c e " (p.8). Craig (1979) c i t e s a National I n s t i t u t e of Health and Occupational Safety report that the p o l i c e profession has the highest degree of stress induced i l l n e s s e s . Counselling Intervention While the s i t u a t i o n concerning the psychological well being of p o l i c e o f f i c e r s r a ises concerns, some solutions are being sought. Among these solutions i s the prospect of providing o f f i c e r s with counselling s e r v i c e s . According to Alkus and Padesky (1983) p o l i c e o f f i c e r s may benefit a great deal from re c e i v i n g counselling. Talking with another person can be extremely b e n e f i c i a l i n helping to resolve the psychological problems that many p o l i c e o f f i c e r s encounter (Stratton, 1977). According to Shev (1977) approximately s i x t y percent of a l l p o l i c e o f f i c e r s require some form of counselling to help overcome the adverse e f f e c t s from the pressures of p o l i c e work. Undoubtedly, some p o l i c e o f f i c e r s do receive counselling. I t i s indicated from t h i s review of the 8 l i t e r a t u r e of p o l i c e problems, that counselling services f o r p o l i c e o f f i c e r s are a v a i l a b l e from r e l i g i o u s leaders, p s y c h i a t r i s t s , psychologists and p o l i c e peer counsellors (Stratton, 1977; Depue, 1979; Reiser, 1986; Klyver, 1983). A d e s c r i p t i o n of these d i f f e r e n t sources of counselling i s as follows: A. Pastoral Counselling Both lay people and clergy are involved i n p a s t o r a l counselling (Fosket, 1985). Pastoral counselling d i f f e r s from that of secular psychotherapy (Bo l l i n g e r , 1985). Pastoral counselling stands "for something recognisably but not o f f e n s i v e l y r e l i g i o u s -that i s , r e l i g i o u s i n a broad and p h i l o s o p h i c a l sense" (Fosket, 1985, p.100). Pastoral counselling i s concerned with education, prevention and s o c i e t a l change (Fosket, 1985). Pastoral counsellors use a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t counselling paradigms ranging from cli e n t - c e n t e r e d to psychoanalytic (Fosket, 1985; F u l l e r , 1984). However, regardless of the psychological paradigm, the pastoral counsellor does not abandon the r e l i g i o u s perspective, but includes i t i n the counselling process ((Bo l l i n g e r , 1985). H i s t o r i c a l l y , one of the f i r s t attempts to help p o l i c e o f f i c e r s deal with t h e i r psychological problems was conducted by the p o l i c e chaplain (Depue, 1979). 9 However, r e s u l t i n g from the range of problems experienced by p o l i c e o f f i c e r s , and p o l i c e o f f i c e r s preferences f o r a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t counselling methods, a d d i t i o n a l methods of counselling were required (Depue, 1979). B. Psychiatric Counselling P s y c h i a t r i s t s hold a medical degree and have undergone s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g i n psychiatry (Davison & Neale, 1986). While p s y c h i a t r i s t s may conduct ph y s i c a l examinations, most do not, but instead p r a c t i c e psychotherapy and prescribe psychoactive drugs (Davison & Neale, 1986) . In Canada, p s y c h i a t r i s t s are included within the Medical Health Plan. Therefore, a person with a p s y c h i a t r i c , psychological or emotional problem may attend a general p r a c t i t i o n e r and receive a r e f e r r a l to a p s y c h i a t r i s t . With a r e f e r r a l a patient does not pay the p s y c h i a t r i s t , the p s y c h i a t r i s t receives payment from the Health Plan. C. Psychological Counselling To q u a l i f y as a psychologist one usually requires a Ph.D. i n Counselling or C l i n i c a l Psychology (Davison & Neale, 1986). Psychologists are trained i n diagnosing mental disorder and providing psychotherapy, but cannot prescribe medication (Davison & Neale, 1986). Under some company and medical plans psychologists' services are covered, however, when a person does not have coverage he or she may attend a psychologist, with or without a medical r e f e r r a l , and pay the psychologist d i r e c t l y . D. Peer Counselling "Peer counselling i s the use of active l i s t e n i n g and problem-solving s k i l l s , along with the knowledge about human growth and mental health, to counsel peopl who are our peers" (D'Andrea Si Salovey, 198 3, p. 3 ) . The philosophy behind peer counselling i s that given the chance people are capable of solv i n g many of t h e i r own problems associated with d a i l y l i v i n g (D'Andrea & Salovey, 1983). The peer counsellor does not solve the counsellee's problems, but a s s i s t s the counsellee to f i n d h is or her own solutions (D'Andrea Salovey, 1983). The Los Angeles P o l i c e Department was the f i r s t p o l i c e department i n North America to "develop and implement an integrated and f u l l y department-supported peer counseling program using regularly employed o f f i c e r s " (Klyver, 1983, p.66). The Los Angeles P o l i c e Department started t h e i r peer counselling program i n 1981. A f t e r being selected, peer counsellors (police o f f i c e r s ) were trained by a .psychologist i n a three day workshop. The peer counsellors were trained i n c r i s i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , c r i s i s i ntervention and counselling, l i s t e n i n g s k i l l s , assessment s k i l l s , s u i c i d e assessment and counselling members experiencing alcohol and substance abuse. Since the Los Angeles P o l i c e Departments i n i t i a t i o n of p o l i c e peer counselling, many other p o l i c e departments i n North America are using peer counsellors as a source of counselling for t h e i r p o l i c e members (N. Klyver, personal communication, September, 16, 1987). Mental Health Professionals' Counselling P o l i c e  O f f i c e r s Some mental health professionals ( P s y c h i a t r i c and Psychological counsellors) see themselves as the a n t i t h e s i s of p o l i c e o f f i c e r s (Stratton, 1977). Furthermore, most mental health professionals who work outside the p o l i c e s e t t i n g (outside mental health professional) are not well prepared to counsel p o l i c e o f f i c e r s (Kroes, 1976). While outside mental health professionals are of some help to the troubled p o l i c e o f f i c e r , they are incapable of being f u l l y e f f e c t i v e because of t h e i r lack of understanding of the pressures of p o l i c e work (Kroes, 1976). As well, outside mental health professionals may have bias concerning p o l i c e which may i n t e r f e r e with the therapeutic outcome (Kroes, 1976). Somodevilla (1978) has found that not only the lack of p o l i c e knowledge hinders the outside mental health professional's counselling, but they may experience d i f f i c u l t y i n dealing with the straightforwardness of many p o l i c e o f f i c e r s . Many p o l i c e o f f i c e r s are more l i k e l y to seek help from a mental health p r o f e s s i o n a l who i s in-house with a p o l i c e department than an outside mental health p r o f e s s i o n a l (Kroes, 1976). Stratton (1977) finds that the antagonism that frequently e x i s t s between p o l i c e o f f i c e r s as c l i e n t s and mental health professionals as counsellors, decreases when the mental health p r o f e s s i o n a l i s in-house. Even so, p o l i c e o f f i c e r s i n i t i a l l y have d i s t r u s t of in-house mental health professionals (Somodevilla, 1978). In-order for in-house mental health professionals to gain the t r u s t of p o l i c e o f f i c e r s , Stratton and Knowles (1978) suggest they go for ride-alongs, attend emergencies, and informally t a l k with p o l i c e members. Stratton (1977) believes that i n order for mental health professionals to be successful i n a p o l i c e s e t t i n g , there must be voluntary p a r t i c i p a t i o n for counselling, c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y must be maintained and the mental health professional must have f l e x i b l e hours. Moreover, i f the mental health p r o f e s s i o n a l i s i n -house, he or she must have autonomy from the p o l i c e department (Stratton, 1977). Somodevilla (1978) points out that an in-house mental health p r o f e s s i o n a l has l e s s opportunity to f u l f i l l these conditions than does an outside mental health p r o f e s s i o n a l . In-house mental health professionals have l e s s freedom than outside mental health professionals, for the in-house mental health p r o f e s s i o n a l i s not only responsible to the c l i e n t but i s also responsible to the management of the p o l i c e department (Somodevilla, 1978). However, while outside mental health professionals may have greater freedom than in-house mental health p r o f e s s i o n a l s , Depue (1979) c i t e s the following four reasons explaining why p o l i c e o f f i c e r s tend to r e j e c t psychological help from outsiders. 1) Peer pressure discourages p o l i c e o f f i c e r s from seeking outside help. 2) P o l i c e o f f i c e r s are concerned with d e f l a t i n g t h e i r masculine image by admitting weaknesses to an outsider. 3) P o l i c e o f f i c e r s fear that the mental health p r o f e s s i o n a l may be involved i n crime, or that i f involved i n group counselling one of the group members may be a c r i m i n a l . 14 4) P o l i c e o f f i c e r s have a basic d i s t r u s t of mental health p r o f e s s i o n a l s . Peer Counselling Loo (1984) believes that peer counsellors act as a good compliment to mental health p r o f e s s i o n a l s . However, some mental health professionals believe that p o l i c e peers are too close to the problem to deal with the problems o b j e c t i v e l y and e f f e c t i v e l y (Blackmore, 1978). Those who favour p o l i c e peer counselling contend that no matter how well trained mental health professionals are, t h e i r sophisticated t r a i n i n g i s of no value i f few p o l i c e o f f i c e r s w i l l v o l u n t a r i l y attend f o r counselling (Blackmore, 1978). When p o l i c e forces o f f e r both in-house mental health professionals and p o l i c e peer counselling, as i n De t r o i t , Michigan and New York C i t y , most p o l i c e o f f i c e r s s e l e c t the peer counsellors (Blackmore, 1978). P o l i c e have a great deal of d i s t r u s t toward mental health professionals (Alkus & Padesky, 1983). This d i s t r u s t i s understandable i n that few mental health professionals understand the "unique environmental pressures leading to a p o l i c e o f f i c e r ' s f r u s t r a t i o n , anxiety, and d e n i a l " (Alkus & Padesky, 1983, p.55). P o l i c e o f f i c e r s tend not to communicate to those outside the p o l i c e community. Correctly or i n c o r r e c t l y , p o l i c e o f f i c e r s are concerned about harmful press coverage and public c r i t i c i s m (Donahue, 1977). Therefore, p o l i c e o f f i c e r s tend to r e l y on t h e i r peers f o r support. P o l i c e o f f i c e r s have found that only other p o l i c e o f f i c e r s can t r u l y understand t h e i r f e e l i n g s and experiences (Donahue, 1977). P o l i c e o f f i c e r s believe there i s a stigma attached to seeking help from a mental health p r o f e s s i o n a l . Peer counselling reduces the stigmatization associated with seeking professional psychological help (Reiser, 1986) . Peer counselling can be extremely e f f e c t i v e . With a small amount of t r a i n i n g the non-professional counsellor can work e f f e c t i v e l y with many d i f f e r e n t types of problems (Reiser, 1986). Yet, from the p o l i c e community there i s v i r t u a l l y no l i t e r a t u r e that e m p i r i c a l l y supports t h i s claim. According to Stratton (1980) p o l i c e peer counselling i s appropriate i n areas where the counsellor has had personal experiences s i m i l a r to that of the counsellee, i e . alcoholism, traumatic events and retirement. However, as Donahue (1977) points out, t h i s type of peer counselling i s remedial and i s only implemented when the symptoms are so overt that they can no longer be ignored. However, peer counselling may have a more d i v e r s i f i e d r o l e than suggested by Stratton. Johnston (1975) found that the peer counselling program implemented by p i l o t s i n the United States, allows for earl y i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and early intervention of personal problems experienced by p i l o t s . In order to determine i f peer counselling i s a legit i m a t e a l t e r n a t i v e to mental health p r o f e s s i o n a l s , i t i s necessary to examine the l i t e r a t u r e on peer counselling that i s outside the p o l i c e community. Luborsky, Averbach, Chandler and Cohen (1971) investigated some of the factors that influence the outcome of psychotherapy. They found that therapist's empathy i s a strong determinant i n f a c i l i t a t i n g p o s i t i v e c l i e n t change. Furthermore, Luborsky, Averbach, Chandler and Cohen (1971) also found that a s i m i l a r i t y between ther a p i s t and c l i e n t i n " s o c i a l c l a s s , i n t e r e s t s , values and compatibility of o r i e n t a t i o n to interpersonal r e l a t i o n s " (p.153) enhances the therapeutic outcome. This study also demonstrates that i t i s not necessary for the ther a p i s t to have experienced the same d i f f i c u l t y as the c l i e n t i n order to achieve a successful outcome. Devol (1976) suggests that l e v e l of t r a i n i n g i s not related to the effectiveness of c r i s i s i ntervention c o u n s e l l i n g . Devol believes that l i f e experience of a counsellor who has a s i m i l a r c u l t u r a l background to the c l i e n t would " o f f s e t the value of formal educational achievement" (p.31). In Devol's study (1976) counselling effectiveness was investigated using Tucker's Client-Post Rating  Scale Revised as an outcome measure. Counselling was l i m i t e d to a maximum of three months. The presenting problems of the c l i e n t s were symptoms of disorganization, depression and acute anxiety i n response to a s i t u a t i o n a l c r i s i s . Devol's (1976) study compares pr o f e s s i o n a l educated counsellors with non-educated counsellors. Devol reported a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of 0.00 between l e v e l of counsellor education and Tucker's  Clien t - P o s t Rating Scale Revised. This indicates there i s l i t t l e i f any correspondence between the educational l e v e l of the counsellor and how well the c l i e n t rates his or her therapy experience with the counsellor. Durlak (1979) reviewed 42 studies that compare prof e s s i o n a l counsellors to paraprofessional counsellors as they e f f e c t therapeutic outcome. Paraprofessionals achieve equal or s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher 18 r e s u l t s than professionals. Durlak (1979) states "professional mental health education, t r a i n i n g and experience do not appear necessary p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r an e f f e c t i v e helping person" (p.85). Durlak (1973) found that of 300 references he reviewed that p e r t a i n to " s e l e c t i o n , t r a i n i n g and functioning of nonprofessional mental health personnel" (p.30), only 6 references report negative r e s u l t s concerning nonprofessional mental health p r o f e s s i o n a l s . According to Durlak (1973) there i s no support that the non-professional counsellor w i l l hurt t h e i r c l i e n t s therapeutic outcome more frequently than pr o f e s s i o n a l counsellors. Durlak (1973) c i t e s Carkhuff & Truax, 1965; Ludwig & Max, 1969; Rioch, Elkes, F l i n t , Usdansky, Newman & S i l b e r , 1963, who found that 3 c l i e n t s out of 151 treated by non-professionals exhibited negative changes following treatment. Durlak •» • (1973) has found no studies that show lay persons have been " s i g n i f i c a n t l y " i n f e r i o r to professionals. He also reports that with a small amount of t r a i n i n g , non-professionals can acquire high l e v e l s of empathy, warmth and genuineness. Therapist's empathy, unconditional p o s i t i v e regard and genuineness are good ind i c a t o r s of therapeutic outcome (Rogers, 1957; Truax & L i s t e r , 1970). Carkhuff and Truax (1965) report that lay counsellors can acquire high l e v e l s of empathy, unconditional p o s i t i v e regard and genuineness i n l e s s than 100 hours of t r a i n i n g . In C a r k h u f f s and Truax's (1965) study they used lay counsellors to lead group sessions. The lay counsellors received l e s s than 100 hours of t r a i n i n g i n empathy, unconditional p o s i t i v e regard and genuineness. The c l i e n t s that comprised the groups, a l l c l i e n t s were i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d , suffered from manic-depression, schizophrenia, psychoneurotic anxiety reaction, sociopathic personality disturbances, passive aggression and transient adult s i t u a t i o n a l p e r s o n a l i t y . At the conclusion of C a r k h u f f s and Truax's (1965) study, i t was found that a l l patients treated by lay counsellors had improved s i g n i f i c a n t l y compared to the c o n t r o l group. According to Carkhuff (1968) lay counsellors function equal to or better than professionals i n providing p o s i t i v e c l i e n t change. He believes lay counsellors can help c l i e n t s improve s i g n i f i c a n t l y even i f they are "normals, s i t u a t i o n a l l y distressed or otherwise" (p.119). Carkhuff (1968) c i t e s the following s i x reasons as to why he believes lay counsellors have advantage over professional counsellors: 20 a) The increased a b i l i t y to enter the mi l i e u of the dis t r e s s e d . b) The a b i l i t y to e s t a b l i s h a p e e r - l i k e r e l a t i o n s h i p with the needy. c) the a b i l i t i e s to take an active part i n the c l i e n t ' s t o t a l l i f e s i t u a t i o n . d) the a b i l i t y to empathize more e f f e c t i v e l y with the c l i e n t ' s s t y l e of l i f e . e) the a b i l i t i e s to teach the c l i e n t , from within the c l i e n t s form of reference, more successful actions, and f) the a b i l i t y to provide c l i e n t s with more e f f e c t i v e l e v e l s of functioning within the s o c i a l system (p.121-122). Carkhuff (1968) argues that t r a i n i n g i n h i b i t s , the pro f e s s i o n a l from exe r c i s i n g the above s i x points. Carkhuff c a l l s into question the inten t i o n of the "prospective professional helper" compared to that of the l a y counsellor. The studies referred to so far make many statements that are i n favour of peer counselling. However, none of these studies discuss s p e c i f i c c ounselling interventions that may be necessary for s p e c i f i c problems. The following l i t e r a t u r e i s reviewed to examine t h i s issue. R u s s e l l and Wise's (1976) study, i n part, examines the effectiveness of professionals and paraprofessionals using cue co n t r o l l e d r e l a x a t i o n to t r e a t speech anxiety. The three professionals were Ph.D. psychologists who were compared to three undergraduates (paraprofessionals) with no counselling experience. Russel l and Wise (1976) trained the professionals and paraprofessionals i n the use of systematic d e s e n s i t i z a t i o n and cue co n t r o l l e d r e l a x a t i o n . R u s s e l l and Wise (1976) found that the paraprofessionals were as e f f e c t i v e as professionals i n reducing the speech anxiety. The paraprofessionals proved equally e f f e c t i v e as the professionals i n systematic d e s e n s i t i z a t i o n and cue c o n t r o l l e d r e l a x a t i o n . D e s e n s i t i z a t i o n i s used for t r e a t i n g a v a r i e t y of psychological problems. Therefore, Russell's and Wise's (1976) study has f a r reaching implications about the use of paraprofessionals who are trained i n such procedures. Lick and H e f f l e r (1977) investigated which of two rel a x a t i o n methods was most e f f e c t i v e i n t r e a t i n g severe insomniacs. 1 The two relaxation methods used i n the study were muscle relaxation and muscle relax a t i o n accompanied by a tape. These two methods were compared to a placebo and no treatment group. The two rel a x a t i o n methods proved superior to the placebo and co n t r o l group. Lick and H e f f l e r (1977) also found that 22 r e l a x a t i o n t r a i n i n g was an e f f e c t i v e method of t r e a t i n g most aspects of insomnia. However, of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n Lick's and H e f f l e r ' s (1977) study i s that the t h e r a p i s t was an undergraduate student trained i n teaching r e l a x a t i o n . The undergraduate,, a non-professional, proved e f f e c t i v e i n t h i s study. Peer counsellors have also proven to be e f f e c t i v e i n c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n s and while working with s u i c i d e prone people. Tucker and Canton (1975) found that peer counsellors can be empathic and non-judgmental with s u i c i d e attempters and therefore "provide a non-threatening therapeutic experience" (p.428). Getz, F u j i t a and A l l e n (1975) examined the effectiveness of paraprofessionals performing s i n g l e session counselling i n an emergency room of a h o s p i t a l . Eighty-one percent of the c l i e n t s who experienced depression, anxiety, family discord or s u i c i d e proneness, described the paraprofessional counsellors as h e l p f u l or very h e l p f u l . However, only thirty-one percent of those with psychosis or drug abuse described the paraprofessional as h e l p f u l . Follow-up i n q u i r i e s showed long l a s t i n g p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s on the c l i e n t s who received paraprofessional counselling (Getz, F u j i t a and A l l e n , 1975). Getz, F u j i t a and A l l e n (1975) suggest that t h e i r study indicates that paraprofessional c r i s i s c o u n selling at the correct time may have p o s i t i v e long l a s t i n g e f f e c t s on problems such as depression, anxiety, family discord and s u i c i d a l problems. Furthermore, Getz, F u j i t a and A l l e n (1975) found that paraprofessional counsellors accurately assessed the s e v e r i t y of problems. When necessary, paraprofessional counsellors made r e f e r r a l s to the most appropriate agency or person (Getz, F u j i t a and A l l e n , 1975). Aside from making proper and precise r e f e r r a l s , Zwiberman and Hinrichsen (1977) found that peer counsellors r e a l i z e t h e i r own l i m i t a t i o n s and tend not to counsel i n areas where they do not have adequate knowledge. Zwiberman and Hinrichsen (1977) observed that peer counsellors who had received s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n human sexuality problems referred c l i e n t s who presented problems that did not involve human sex u a l i t y . Non-professional counsellors work e f f e c t i v e l y i n the f i e l d of marriage counselling (Harvey, 1964). Harvey (1964) reports that i n A u s t r a l i a , New Zealand and Great B r i t a i n , marriage counselling services are s t a f f e d by lay counsellors. As well as peer counsellors helping t h e i r c l i e n t s resolve problems, i t would appear the peer counsellors may also receive benefit from the counselling process (Kahn & Pua, 1985). Kahn & Pua (1985), i n a study examining alcohol counselling by peers, found that the counsellors also received therapeutic value by helping t h e i r peers. Kahn & Fua (1985) c i t e Kahn and Stephen (1981) who found i n a study of American a l c o h o l i c s , that peer counsellors had continued sobriety, improved interpersonal s k i l l s and improved career functioning. In studies by Kahn & Fua (1985) and Kahn and Stephen (1981), the peer counsellors reported increases i n self-esteem and sense of adequacy. Peer counsellors are frequently more accepted by c l i e n t s than are mental health professionals (Tucker and Canton, 1975). Tucker and Canton (1975) c i t e Mechanick et a l . (1969) who found that peer counsellors are more approachable than professional counsellors. People who f e l t t h e i r concerns were t r i v i a l were f a r l e s s reluctant to approach peer counsellors than pr o f e s s i o n a l counsellors (Tucker and Canton, 1975). An i m p l i c a t i o n from Tucker and Canton's (1975) study i s that peer counselling has the p o s s i b i l i t y of being preventative rather then remedial. Lamb and Clack (1974) found that college students, during o r i e n t a t i o n , were equally impressed with peer and p r o f e s s i o n a l counsellors. However, a disproportionately high number of c l i e n t s who were i n i t i a l l y exposed to the peer counsellors, sought further counselling from the peers (Lamb & Clack, 1974). I t would be i r r e s p o n s i b l e to conclude that peer counsellors can handle a l l problems and that p r o f e s s i o n a l counsellors are not required. Professional counsellors are required f o r counselling d i f f i c u l t cases, and for teaching peer counsellors s p e c i f i c s k i l l s . However, even when the pro f e s s i o n a l counsellor i s required, t h i s does not mean the peer counsellor i s not required. Gruver (1971) c i t e s R e i f f , 1967; Pearl and Riessman, 1965 who believe that non-professionals make a valuable l i n k between the c l i e n t and the p r o f e s s i o n a l . Gruver (1971) states, "To be an e f f e c t i v e bridge the non-professional must be indigenous of the target population and speak the vernacular of both the target population and the pr o f e s s i o n a l " ( p . i l l ) . 26 Summary of L i t e r a t u r e Review P o l i c e o f f i c e r s experience a v a r i e t y of psychological problems (Somodevilla, 1978; Alkus & Padesky, 1983). Those providing p o l i c e o f f i c e r s with counselling services include pastoral counsellors, p s y c h i a t r i s t s , psychologists and peer counsellors (Stratton, 1977; Depue, 1979; Reiser, 1986; Klyver, 1983). Pastoral counselling was the f i r s t formal counselling service offered to p o l i c e o f f i c e r s (Depue, 1979). However, p o l i c e o f f i c e r s required other sources of counselling to meet t h e i r needs (Depue, 1979). P o l i c e o f f i c e r s prefer to use in-house mental health professionals as opposed to outside mental health professionals (Kroes, 1976). I t i s indicated i n the l i t e r a t u r e that p o l i c e o f f i c e r s t r u s t in-house mental health professionals more than they t r u s t outside mental health professionals (Kroes, 1976). In-house mental health professionals are more s e n s i t i z e d to p o l i c e issues and problems, and therefore are more e f f e c t i v e than t h e i r counterparts outside the p o l i c e department (Kroes, 1976). I t i s indicated i n the l i t e r a t u r e that p o l i c e o f f i c e r s prefer peer counselling over any other source of counselling (Blackmore, 1978). As well, there i s l i t e r a t u r e , outside the p o l i c e m i l i e u , i n which peer counselling i s reported to be an e f f e c t i v e method of counselling (Durlak, 1979). The premise that p o l i c e o f f i c e r s prefer peer counselling over any other source of counselling i s based l a r g e l y on the b e l i e f that p o l i c e o f f i c e r s d i s t r u s t mental health professionals (Alkus & Padesky, 1983). However,, no previous studies were located i n which t h i s premise was empi r i c a l l y tested. This study i s designed to add information about the following four points: 1) whether the problems experienced by members of P o l i c e Force X are s i m i l a r to those c i t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e about United States p o l i c e force members. 2) the extent to which those problems e x i s t i n P o l i c e Force X. 3) the sources of counselling preferred by the members of P o l i c e Force X for each problem. 4) the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of peers as a source of counselling for the problems i d e n t i f i e d . Chapter III 28 METHODOLOGY This chapter describes the population, sample, instrument, procedure and analysis of data used i n t h i s study. Population P o l i c e Force X i s responsible for a l l p o l i c e duties within a geographical area of approximately 120 square kilometers, populated by approximately 500,000 people. The population includes a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t ethnic, and socio-economic groups. The rank structure of P o l i c e Force X, which includes approximately 1000 p o l i c e o f f i c e r s , i s h i e r a r c h i a l : the lowest rank i s Constable, followed i n ascending order by supervisors holding the rank of Corporal (the rank of Detective i s on par with Corporal), Sergeant, S t a f f Sergeant, Inspector, Superintendent, Deputy Chief Constable and Chief Constable. P o l i c e o f f i c e r s holding the rank of Inspector or higher are commissioned (approximately 4% of the f o r c e ) ; the remainder are non-commissioned. Approximately 66% of the members hold the rank of Constable, approximately 30% of the members hold the rank of Corporal, Detective, Sergeant or S t a f f Sergeant. Six percent of the members of P o l i c e Force X are female; of which one and one h a l f percent are supervisors. There are no females who hold the rank of Inspector or above. The request f o r the study was received from the Union of P o l i c e Force X. I t was the desire of the union that the study only involve i t s members. Therefore, respecting t h i s request, the population was r e s t r i c t e d to include only the noncommissioned o f f i c e r s of the force. Further, to protect the anonymity of P o l i c e Force X, exact numbers describing the force are not mentioned. Sample A s i n g l e stage sample design was used i n which 200 non-commissioned p o l i c e o f f i c e r s were randomly selected from the approximate 900 non-commissioned o f f i c e r s comprising the force. Each non-commissioned o f f i c e r was assigned a number and then t'he s e l e c t i o n s were made using a prepared table of random numbers (Shavelson, 1981, pp.637-638). The target sample s i z e was 100 members (approximately 10% of the population). However, based on response rates for mail surveys s i m i l a r to the present one, the population was oversampled so that 200 non-commissioned p o l i c e o f f i c e r s were actually selected. 30 Instrument A questionnaire (Appendix A) was constructed to i d e n t i f y the problems experienced by members and the r e l a t i v e frequency of occurrence of those problems, and to e s t a b l i s h the preferred source of counselling assistance f o r each problem. The questionnaire was divided into four parts. Part I involved a needs assessment i n which o f f i c e r s were asked to i n d i c a t e the prevalence of a l i s t of 15 problems from each of three d i f f e r e n t perspectives -o f f i c e r s i n general, t h e i r ten c l o s e s t o f f i c e r friends and then themselves. The 15 problems supplied i n the needs assessment were i d e n t i f i e d from a review of l i t e r a t u r e . The f i r s t perspective (see page 2, Appendix A) i s concerned with the frequency of problems based on the member's o v e r a l l impression of p o l i c e o f f i c e r s . Members were asked to rank i n order the 15 problems i d e n t i f i e d . The most frequent problem was ranked number 1 ands the l e a s t frequent problem was ranked 15. For the second perspective (see page 3, Appendix A) of the needs assessment, respondents were asked to specify how many of t h e i r ten c l o s e s t colleagues on the p o l i c e force were experiencing or had experienced each of these 15 problems. F i n a l l y i n the t h i r d perspective (see page 4, Appendix A) respondents were asked to ind i c a t e i f they personally were experiencing or had experienced each of the 15 problems. The three perspectives of the needs assessment were included to provide a c r o s s - v a l i d a t i o n of the accuracy of reporting by respondents. Since the supplied l i s t of problems may not have been comprehensive and exhaustive for each respondent, an open ended question (see bottom of page 4, Appendix A) was added i n which respondents were i n v i t e d to l i s t any a d d i t i o n a l problems that they have experienced themselves or that they knew other members to have experienced. Part II of the questionnaire (see page 5 and 6, Appendix A) was concerned with the o f f i c e r s ' preference for source of counselling. Five sources, outside p s y c h i a t r i s t and psychologist, in-house psychologist, psychologist on retainer, r e l i g i o u s leader, and peer counsellor were i d e n t i f i e d from the review of l i t e r a t u r e . P r i o r to the respondents s e l e c t i n g a source of counselling they were provided with a d e s c r i p t i o n of the counselling sources (see page 5, Appendix A). Respondents were asked to s e l e c t the source of counselling they most preferred for each of the 15 problems presented i n Part I. This part concluded with an open ended question (see page 7, Appendix A) to allow respondents to l i s t a d d i t i o n a l counselling sources not included i n the o r i g i n a l l i s t of f i v e . The t h i r d part of the questionnaire (see page 8, Appendix A) was directed toward preliminary considerations preparatory to the implementation of a peer counselling program. Those questions were developed by union o f f i c i a l s (executives) and were included upon t h e i r request. The union o f f i c i a l s believed that, as suggested i n the l i t e r a t u r e , peer counselling would be the most preferred source of counselling by p o l i c e o f f i c e r s . Given t h i s b e l i e f , the union requested information about each respondent 1s willingness to be a peer counsellor, and at which rank (eg. higher, lower, same or does not matter, i n r e l a t i o n to the respondent) each member preferred peer counsellors to be. In Part IV (see page 9, Appendix A) of the questionnaire respondents were asked to i n d i c a t e t h e i r gender, age, rank (supervisor or not), years of service and m a r i t a l status, At the request of the Union further bio-demographic information was not requested ( i . e . socio-economic status and number of c h i l d r e n per respondent). Procedure Packages containing a cover l e t t e r , questionnaire and an addressed return envelope were mailed to each selected o f f i c e r using the p o l i c e force's in-house mail system. The cover l e t t e r (see Appendix A), signed by the Chairman of the Health and Safety Committee of the union of P o l i c e Force X, explained the purpose of the study and asked the selected members to complete and return the enclosed questionnaire i n the envelope provided. In the introduction to the questionnaire (see Appendix A), the purpose of the study was b r i e f l y described and respondents were asked to return the questionnaire i n the supplied self-addressed envelope to the Union O f f i c e v i a the in-house mail system. Within two weeks of the administration of the questionnaire, 97 completed questionnaires were returned. Since the union of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g force requested that a l l members receiving questionnaires remain anonymous, i t was not possible to keep track of the o f f i c e r s who had or had not returned the questionnaire. Therefore, i n d i v i d u a l follow-up was not pos s i b l e . Instead, at the end of the second week following the i n i t i a l administration of the questionnaire, a follow up l e t t e r (Appendix B) was sent through the in-house mail system to each member i n the o r i g i n a l sample. In t h i s follow-up l e t t e r , signed by the Union Chairman of Health and Safety, each member was asked to answer the questionnaire and return i t completed to the Union O f f i c e i f they had not already done so. Further, the l e t t e r advised members that i f they had misplaced or l o s t the questionnaire, another copy could be picked up at the Union O f f i c e . Within ten days of the follow-up l e t t e r being mailed, eighteen a d d i t i o n a l completed questionnaires were returned. Thus, altogether 115 completed questionnaires were received. Analysis o f Data Each questionnaire was examined to ensure that i t was f i l l e d i n completely and c o r r e c t l y , and to check fo r responses to each of the two open-ended questions. Of the 115 returned questionnaires, three respondents did not completely answer the f i r s t section of Part I (see pages 2, Appendix A); a l l other questions were answered completed. Therefore, for the f i r s t section of Part I, analysis was based upon the information of 112 respondents; the remaining sections analysis was based upon the information of 115 respondents. Examination of the f i r s t of the two open ended questions led to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a 16th problem. The 16th problem was c l a s s i f i e d as 'poor r e l a t i o n s h i p with peers'. A-common response to the second open ended section was that a f i n a n c i a l counsellor would be b e n e f i c i a l f o r members who experience f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . The data from the questionnaires were entered onto Fortran Coding Forms, and then entered into a computer f i l e . The complete f i l e was then checked f o r accuracy against the o r i g i n a l questionnaires. Four errors (0.051%) were found and corrected. The Condescriptive command of the S t a t i s t i c a l Package For the S o c i a l Sciences (S.P.S.S.) ( L a i , 1986) was used to obtain summary s t a t i s t i c s . Frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations were used to describe the frequency of problems i n the three perspectives of the needs assessment. To t e s t the consistency found i n the three perspectives of Part I, the items of each perspective were re-ranked and Spearman's rho was calculated for each p a i r of perspectives. In the case of the o v e r a l l impressions and ten c l o s e s t p o l i c e colleagues ( f i r s t and second perspective) the mean rank was used as the item score from which new ranks were assigned, while for the t h i r d perspective the aff i r m a t i v e response was used as the item score from which new ranks were assigned. Frequencies, percentages and modes were 36 obtained to descr ibe the pre ferred sources of c o u n s e l l i n g , as we l l as to descr ibe Part I I I which d e a l t with cons iderat ions for implementation of peer c o u n s e l l i n g . Frequencies , percentages, and means were used to summarize the demographic data obtained from Part IV of the ques t ionnaire . A l l analyses were completed us ing the Amdahl 470/V8 computer located at the UBC Computer Sciences Centre . 37 Chapter IV RESULTS The r e s u l t s are presented i n four parts. The f i r s t part describes the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sample. In the second part the r e s u l t s of the needs assessment, are presented including o v e r a l l impressions, ten c l o s e t p o l i c e colleagues and s e l f report (see pages 2, 3, 4, Appendix A). The r e s u l t s of the respondents preference for sources of counselling are presented i n part three. F i n a l l y , i n the fourth part i s described the respondents' willingness to be a peer counsellor, and at which rank members preferred peer counsellors to be. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Sample Response Rate Two hundred questionnaires were mailed to the o f f i c e r s through the in-house mail system, 115 of these were returned. This represents a 57.5% return rate. A l l of the 115 returned questionnaires were usable, however, three respondents f a i l e d to complete the f i r s t question. Bio-demographics The bio-demographics of the sample are l i s t e d i n Table 1. 38 Table 1 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Sample Respondents' gender: 112 males To t a l number of respondents: 115 19-24 25-30 31-36 37-42 43-48 49-54 No. of respondents 1 22 38 35 9 8 55 years or over 3 females % of respondents .9 19.1 33.0 30.4 7.8 7.0 1.7 Supervisor: No = 74 (64.3%) Yes = 41 (35.7%) Years of Service No. of respondents Less than 3.5 yrs 3.5- 6.4 6.5- 9.4 9.5-12.4 12.5-15.4 15.5-18.4 18.5-21.4 More than 21.4 yrs 6 5 22 19 24 19 6 14 % of respondents 5.2 4.3 19.1 16.5 20.9 16 .5 5.2 12.2 % of respondents 10.4 67.0 4.3 3.5 13.9 .9 M a r i t a l Status: No. of respondents Single 12 Married 77 Separated 5 Divorced 4 Remarried 16 Widower 1 As shown i n Table l three (2.6%) of the 115 respondents were female. The under representation of female o f f i c e r s i s ascribed to a low response rate by female o f f i c e r s . The l a r g e s t number of respondents (38 respondents or 33.0%) were between 31 and 36 years of age and had between 12.50 and 15.4 (24 of the respondents or 20.9%) years of ser v i c e . Seventy four (64.3%) of the respondents were constables and forty-one (35.7%) of the respondents were supervisors. This i s approximately the same r a t i o of constables to supervisors as found i n the population. F i n a l l y , as shown i n Table l , the l a r g e s t number of respondents (77 respondents or 67.0%) were married. Needs Assessment As discussed i n the previous chapter, needs assessment was established from three perspectives; these perspectives were t i t l e d , ' o v e r a l l impression 1, 'ten c l o s e s t p o l i c e colleagues' and ' s e l f report'. The data f o r 'overall impression* (see page 2, Appendix A) are presented i n Table 2. 40 Table 2 Percentage and Mean Ranking for Problem Type Ranking Problems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Mean S.D. Alcohol Abuse 42.9 16.1 9.8 7.1 5.4 5.4 3.6 3.6 2.7 1.8 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.9 0.0 3.107 2.794 Anxiety 14.3 15.2 13.4 8.9 7.1 8.0 5.4- 6.3 6.3 2.7 2.7 3.6 3.6 0.9 1.8 4.973 3.794 Boredom 0.0 3.6 7.1 11.6 11.6 8.0 5.4 8.9 8.9 1.8 4.5 8.0 10.7 5.4 5.4 8.214 3.986 Depression 0.9 7.1 10.7 8.9 11.6 8.9 8.9 8.0 8.9 5.4 8.9 2.7 4.5 3.6 0.9 7.250 3.497 Drugs (II legal) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 4.5 3.6 6.3 10.7 19.6 51.8 13.767 3.497 Drugs (prescribed) 0.0 0.0 0.9 4.5 3.6 1.8 0.9 2.7 5.4 5.4 6.3 12.5 15.2 35.7 5.4 11.750 1.855 Al lenat lon 6.3 4.5 5.4 11.6 11.6 10.7 10.7 5.4 7.1 9.8 8.9 5.4 2.7 0.0 0.0 6.776 3.293 Financial 5.4 1.8 15.2 9.8 8.9 6.3 9.8 11.6 8.9 7.1 3.6 8.0 0.0 3.6 0.0 6.750 3.405 Freq. Headaches 0.0 3.6 1.8 3.6 5.4 2.7 2.7 5.4 7.1 17.0 14.3 17.0 12.5 3.6 3.6 9.919 3.199 Mari ta l 19.6 33.9 9.8 7.1 6.3 3.6 4.5 8.0 0.9 0.0 2.7 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 3.857 3.157 Parenting 0.9 10.0 1.9 5.4 6.3 8.0 9.8 7.1 8.0 12.5 11.6 12.5 7.1 4.5 4.5 9.303 3.213 Sexual Dysfunction 0.0 0.9 0.9 1.7 1.7 6.1 4.5 2.7 6.3 5.4 8.0 8.9 20.5 11.6 20.5 11.616 3.269 Sleep 4.5 7.1 6.3 8.9 3.6 11.6 10.7 10.7 10.7 12.5 1.8 4.5 3.6 2.7 0.9 7.133 3.431 Stomach 2.7 2.7 8.0 4.5 2.7 8.0 13.4 11.6 11.6 5.4 11.6 7.1 4.5 5.4 0.9 8.160 3.432 Aggression 0.9 2.7 8.9 6.3 15.2 9.8 8.9 8.0 7.1 8.9 10.7 4.5 2.7 2.7 2.7 7.571 3.384 N = 112 Note. The percentage of members for each ranking of a problem i s presented i n Table 2. Number l ranking i s most frequent problem and Number 15 i s l e a s t frequent problem. 41 As shown i n Table 2, f i v e of the f i f t e e n problems (alcohol abuse, ma r i t a l problems, anxiety, f i n a n c i a l problems and fe e l i n g s of alienation) received a mean rank of 6.77 or l e s s making them the most frequent problems c i t e d . The f i v e l e a s t frequent problems c i t e d ( i l l e g a l drug abuse, drug abuse of prescribed drugs, sexual dysfunction, frequent headaches and problems with parenting s k i l l s ) received a mean rank of 9.30 to 13.76. The data for 'ten. c l o s e s t p o l i c e colleagues' (see page 3, Appendix A) are presented i n Table 3. Table 3 Mean, Number of Colleagues by Problem Type 1 Problems X number of Colleagues S.D. Alcohol Abuse 3.409 2.376 Anxiety 3.087 2.634 Boredom 2.704 2. 388 Depression 2.557 2.542 Drugs ( I l l e g a l ) 0.043 0.308 Drugs (Prescribed) 0.400 1.007 A l i e n a t i o n 2.470 2.624 F i n a n c i a l 3.487 2.604 Freq. Headaches- 1.313 1.651 M a r i t a l 4. 322 2.716 Parenting 1.513 2.378 Sexual Dysfunction 0 .661 1.622 Sleep 3.026 3.004 Stomach 2.513 2.486 Aggression 2.374 2.206 N = 115 •^Number of Colleagues out of 10 who have experienced or are experiencing problems. 42 Four of the most frequent problems (marital problems, f i n a n c i a l problems, alcohol abuse and anxiety) are the same as the four most frequent problems found i n the f i r s t perspective. Further, the f i v e l e a s t frequent problems ( i l l e g a l drug abuse, drug abuse of prescribed drugs, sexual dysfunction, frequent headaches and problems with parenting s k i l l s ) are the same as the f i v e l e a s t frequent problems found i n the f i r s t perspective. L a s t l y , the data f o r ' s e l f report' (see page 4, Appendix A) are presented i n Table 4. Table 4 "Self Report Frequency and Percent of Members s e l f - r e p o r t i n g S p e c i f i c Problems (N=115) Problems # Resp. YES % Yes a # Resp. NO % No Alcohol Abuse 35 30 .4 8 80 69 .6 Anxiety 78 67.8 1 37 32.2 Boredom 55 47.8 4 60 52.2 Depression 56 48.7 3 59 51. 3 Drugs ( I l l e g a l ) 1 0.9 15 114 99.1 Drugs (Prescribed) 3 2.6 14 112 97 .4 A l i e n a t i o n 46 40.0 6 69 60.0 F i n a n c i a l 53 46.1 5 62 53.9 Freq. Headaches 30 26.1 10 85 73.9 M a r i t a l 55 47.8 4 60 52.2 Parenting 12 10 .4 13 103 89 .6 Sexual Dysfunction 13 11. 3 12 102 88.7 Sleep 66 57 .4 2 49 42.6 Stomach 45 39.1 7 70 60.9 Aggression 34 29.6 9 70 70.4 Peer Problems 16 13.9 11 99 86.1 a - P o s i t i o n Ranked Note: Percentage of members who have or currently are experiencing the problems l i s t e d . As shown i n Table 4 the four most frequent problems respondents report experiencing or having experienced were anxiety, sleep disturbances, depression and m a r i t a l problems and boredom. M a r i t a l problems and problems of boredom attracted the same number of responses. A s i x t h problem, f i n a n c i a l problems also was c i t e d by over one-half of the members surveyed (53%). Of the four most frequent problems found i n t h i s perspective, only anxiety and m a r i t a l problems correspond with the four most frequent problems i n the f i r s t and second perspective. The two l e a s t frequent problems that members report experiencing or having experienced are i l l e g a l drug abuse and drug abuse of prescribed drugs. These correspond with the l e a s t frequent problems found i n the f i r s t and second perspective of the needs assessment. Consistency of the Needs Assessment To examine the consistency amongst the three perspectives of the needs assessment, the data was re-ranked as described i n previous chapter. That i s the means of perspectives one and two ( o v e r a l l impression and ten c l o s e s t p o l i c e colleagues) were reranked as were the a f f i r m a t i v e responses of perspective three 44 Table 5 Consistency Amongst Perspectives Perspectives 1 and 2 A J B H G M D O N C K I L F E Spearman "Rho = .91 J H A" B M C D N G 0 K I Ti F E Perspectives 2 and 3 J H A B M C D N G 0 K I L ] ? E / B M D J C H G 1 A ( I L K ] ? E Spearman 'Rho = .81 B M i5 J C H G N A" 5^  I L K Spearman Rho = .74 where: A => Alcohol Abuse B = Anxiety C = Boredom 0 = Depression E = Drug Abuse (iI legal) F = Drug Abuse (prescribed) G = FeelIngs of Alienatlon H = Financial Problems I = Freq. Headaches J = Marital Problems K = Problems with Parenting Ski I Is L = Sexual dysfunction M = Sleep disturbances N = Stomach Problems 0 = Uncalled for aggression Perspective 1 i s : Overall Impression 2 i s : Ten Closest P o l i c e Colleagues 3 i s : S e l f Report *p < .05 45 ( s e l f report) and a Spearman rank c o r r e l a t i o n (Shavelson, 1981, p.208) was calculated f o r each p a i r . Table 5 g r a p h i c a l l y shows the r e l a t i o n s h i p amongst the three perspectives. As well, Spearman rank c o e f f i c i e n t s are provided i n Table 5. As shown i n Table 5 the Spearman rank c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was high for the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between perspectives. Thus, there was a high degree of consistency across the three perspectives. Between perspective one and two (rho=.91) agreement was p a r t i c u l a r l y high between the four most frequent problems and the f i v e l e a s t frequent problems. As f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p between perspectives one and three (rho=.74) the agreement was high between the f i v e l e a s t frequent problems. F i n a l l y , as shown i n Table 5 the agreement between perspectives 2 and 3 (rho=.81) was p a r t i c u l a r l y high between the s i x l e a s t frequent problems. Preferred Sources of Counselling Shown i n Table 6 are the sources of counselling members preferred most for each of the f i f t e e n problems are presented. The sources of counselling from which the members could s e l e c t were outside p s y c h i a t r i s t or psychologist, in-house psychologist, psychologist on r e t a i n e r , r e l i g i o u s leader and peer counsellor. Table 6  Source of Counselling Percent of Members Preference f o r Counselling Source According to Problem Problems A B C D E Alcohol Abuse 51.3 12.2 7.8 0.9 27.8 Anxiety 47.8 20.9 11.3 5.2 14.8 Boredom 35.7 13.0 10 .4 2.6 38. 3 Depression 59.1 15.7 11.3 6.1 7.8 Drugs ( I l l e g a l ) 67.8 12.2 5.2 4.3 10.4 Drugs (Prescribed) 68.7 12.2 5.2 3.5 10.4 A l i e n a t i o n 40.0 8.7 8.7 5.2 37 .4 F i n a n c i a l 41.7 15.7 10 .4 0.9 31.3 Freq. Headaches 73.0 14.8 7.8 0.0 4.3 M a r i t a l 58.3 16.5 11.3 7.0 9.6 Parenting 59.1 18.3 6.1 7.0 9.6 Sexual Dysfunction 87.0 7.8 2.6 0.9 1.7 Sleep 67.0 20.0 8.7 0.0 4.3 Stomach 69.6 19.1 8.7 0.0 2.6 Aggression 42.8 13.9 13.9 1.7 22.6 where: A = Outside P s y c h i a t r i s t or Psychologist B = In-House Psychologist C = Psychologist on Retainer D = Religious Leader E = Peer Counselling As shown i n Table 6, with the exception of Boredom and a l i e n a t i o n the majority of members for each problem selected outside p s y c h i a t r i s t or psychologist as the source of counselling they most preferred. The problems of Boredom and a l i e n a t i o n were equally divided between outside p s y c h i a t r i s t or psychologist and peer counselling as the source of counselling they preferred most. Peer Counselling S e l e c t i o n Respondents were asked i f they were w i l l i n g to be peer counsellors, and at which rank i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r own they preferred peer counsellors to be (see page 8, Appendix A). Of the 115 respondents, the majority of the respondents 93 (80.9%) answered that they were w i l l i n g to act as peer counsellors. The remaining (22 or 19.1%) respondents answered that they were not w i l l i n g to be peer counsellors. Seventy two (62.6%) respondents answered that i f they were to receive peer counselling i t would not matter which rank the peer counsellor held. T h i r t y f i v e (30.4%) respondents answered that i f they were to receive peer counselling, they would prefer the peer counsellor to be the same rank as themselves. 48 Summary of Results In summary, three main findings have been found i n the r e s u l t s . F i r s t l y , i n perspectives one and two (o v e r a l l impression and ten c l o s e s t p o l i c e colleagues) alcohol abuse, m a r i t a l problems, anxiety that i n t e r f e r e s with the enjoyment of l i f e , and f i n a n c i a l problems were reported by the respondents as the four most frequent problems. In perspective three ( s e l f report) anxiety that i n t e r f e r e s with the enjoyment of l i f e , sleep disturbances, depression, m a r i t a l problems, and problems of boredom were reported by the respondents as the f i v e most frequent problems. In perspective three m a r i t a l problems and problems of boredom attracted the same number of responses. Secondly, the majority of members c i t e d outside p s y c h i a t r i s t or psychologist as the preferred source of counselling f o r 13 of the 15 problems l i s t e d . As f o r the problems of boredom and a l i e n a t i o n , the members were equally divided between outside p s y c h i a t r i s t or psychologist and peer counselling as the preferred source of counselling. F i n a l l y , the majority of members are w i l l i n g to be peer counsellors and i f they were to receive peer counselling the rank of the counsellor would not matter. 49 Chapter V DISCUSSION AND SUMMARY The questionnaire described i n Chapter III was designed to gather information that a f t e r analysis would provide answers to the following research questions: 1) What problems do members of P o l i c e Force X perceive as being important to them? 2) To what extent do the members believe the problems e x i s t i n P o l i c e Force X? 3) For each problem, which source of counselling do members of P o l i c e Force X prefer? 4) To what extent do members of P o l i c e Force X prefer peer counselling? I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Members' Problems Perspectives one and two ( o v e r a l l impression and 10 c l o s e s t p o l i c e colleagues) of the needs assessment showed that respondents were i n high agreement about which of the 15 presented problems were the four most frequent and the f i v e l e a s t frequent. The four most frequent problems reported by the respondents who answered perspectives one and two were alcohol abuse, 50 anxiety that i n t e r f e r e s with the enjoyment of l i f e , f i n a n c i a l problems and mari t a l problems. Si m i l a r to Blackmore's (1978) findings, alcohol and m a r i t a l problems were rated as being frequent problems. However, contrary to Somodevilla's (1978) opinion, uncalled f o r aggression and headaches did not fi g u r e prominently i n perspectives one and two. The f i v e most frequent problems reported by respondents i n the s e l f report perspective of the needs assessment were anxiety that i n t e r f e r e s with the enjoyment of l i f e , sleep disturbances, depression, m a r i t a l problems and boredom. As- suggested by Somodevilla (1978) members did report, i n the s e l f report perspective, that m a r i t a l problems were frequent. However, contrary to Somodevilla's (1978) opinion, o f f i c e r s did not report displacement of aggression, headaches, g a s t r o i n t e s t i n a l problems, sexual problems, parenting problems or psychosomatic problems as occurring frequently.. While alcohol abuse did not place within the f i v e most frequent problems i n the s e l f report perspective, 35 (30.4%) respondents did report that they do or did have a problem with alcohol abuse. The percentage (30.4%) of members who reported problems with alcohol 51 abuse i s seven percent higher than reported i n Blackmore's (1978) findings (23%) i n v o l v i n g /American p o l i c e o f f i c e r s . Further, the problem of poor r e l a t i o n s h i p with peers was i d e n t i f i e d as a problem by 16 (13.9%) respondents. This problem has not been i d e n t i f i e d i n any of the l i t e r a t u r e that was reviewed. Hence, based on s e l f report, respondents reported that anxiety that i n t e r f e r e s with the enjoyment of l i f e , sleep disturbance, depression, m a r i t a l problems and boredom were the f i v e most important problems. Whereas based on respondents o v e r a l l impressions and 10 c l o s e s t p o l i c e colleagues, respondents reported that alcohol abuse, marital problems, anxiety that i n t e r f e r e s with the enjoyment of l i f e and f i n a n c i a l problems were the most prevalent problems that e x i s t i n P o l i c e Force X. From the three perspectives of the needs assessment one can see that perspectives one and two included alcohol abuse, marital problems, anxiety that i n t e r f e r e s with the enjoyment of l i f e and f i n a n c i a l problems as the four most frequent problems. Perspective three overlaps with anxiety and m a r i t a l problems, but d i f f e r s with sleep disturbances and depression. Beyond suspicion, i t cannot be determined which perspective supplies the most accurate information. However, only speculative answers can be hypothesized explaining why the four most frequent problems i n perspectives one and two d i f f e r e d from perspective three. Members may have generalized t h e i r knowledge of t h e i r c l o s e s t colleagues problems to include o v e r a l l impressions of p o l i c e o f f i c e r s ; thus accounting for the high agreement between perspectives one and two. However, sleep disturbances, depression and boredom may be too personal to reveal to f r i e n d s , therefore, while these appeared as frequent problems i n s e l f report (perspective three), because they have been kept p r i v a t e they did not appear with high frequency i n perspectives one and two ( o v e r a l l impressions and ten c l o s e s t p o l i c e colleagues). I t i s possible that members perceive that these problems show signs of weakness i n t h e i r masculine image ( i . e . not able to cope well with s h i f t work or being s u i c i d a l ) . According to Depue (1979) a masculine image i s important to many p o l i c e o f f i c e r s , therefore, i t i s possib l e that members keep privat e those problems that they believe could r e f l e c t poorly upon t h e i r masculine image. 53 Preference f o r Source of Counselling The majority of respondents (80.9%) reported that a f t e r adequate s e l e c t i o n and t r a i n i n g they were w i l l i n g to be peer counsellors. However, the majority of respondents f o r 13 of the 15 presented problems reported that i f they were to receive counselling, they would most prefer to receive counselling from a p s y c h i a t r i s t or psychologist who was outside the p o l i c e department. For Boredom and a l i e n a t i o n , members were equally divided between outside p s y c h i a t r i s t or psychologist and peer counselling as the preferred source of counselling. These r e s u l t s do not support the opinions of Blackmore (1978), Alkus and Padesky (1983), Depue (1979) and Donahue (1977) who proposed that American •» p o l i c e o f f i c e r s d i s t r u s t mental health professionals and prefer to speak with one another. Without knowing the d e t a i l s which form the basis fo r Blackmore's (1978) et a l . opinion, there are at l e a s t nine explanations as to why the r e s u l t s regarding preference f o r source of counselling do not support the opinions of Blackmore (1978) et a l . F i r s t , members may not wish to d i s c l o s e problems to fellow members whom they may eventually have to compete against f o r promotion. Second, members may fear that peer counselling or any other counselling connected to the p o l i c e department may lack c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . Third, members may f e e l more comfortable with a mental health p r o f e s s i o n a l whom they know i s trained to help and who, out of pro f e s s i o n a l duty, w i l l not betray c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . Fourth, examination of Blackmore's (1978) et a l . p u b l i c a t i o n dates reveals that they are f i v e to ten years o l d . I t i s p o s s i b l e that p o l i c e o f f i c e r s ' a ttitudes towards mental health professionals have changed since the wr i t i n g of those pu b l i c a t i o n s . F i f t h , the problem of poor r e l a t i o n s with peers was i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s study, which i s not a problem mentioned i n the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed. Thus, with t h i s problem i d e n t i f i e d within P o l i c e Force X, i t i s not su r p r i s i n g that the majority of members did not se l e c t peer counselling as the preferred source of counselling. Sixth, a f t e r an extensive search of the l i t e r a t u r e , a questionnaire concerning preference from source of counselling could not be found. Hence, i t i s possible that the opinions of Blackmore (1978) et a l . do not accurately represent 55 the b e l i e f s of American p o l i c e o f f i c e r s ; or members of P o l i c e Force X have d i f f e r e n t preference for source of counselling than those o f f i c e r s that had expressed t h e i r preference to Blackmore (1978) et a l . Seventh, as shown i n Tables 2 and 3 respondents perceive t h e i r colleagues to be experiencing a va r i e t y of problems. Therefore, i t may be that members are reluctant to receive counselling from peers because they may i n t u i t i v e l y d i s b e l i e v e that a peer experiencing problems can be of assistance. Perhaps a f t e r a large percentage of members resolve manifested problems ( i . e . , alcohol abuse) peer counselling w i l l become more a t t r a c t i v e to members of P o l i c e Force X. The eighth point i s that American p o l i c e o f f i c e r s can receive peer counselling free of charge, whereas p s y c h i a t r i c and psychological counselling can prove to be a f i n a n c i a l burden. However, i n Canada p s y c h i a t r i c and psychological counselling does not cost the c l i e n t money and therefore i t i s not a f i n a n c i a l advantage for members of P o l i c e Force X to use peer counselling. F i n a l l y , i t i s possible that Blackmore et a l . received a p o s i t i v e response to peer counselling because the members who expressed these fee l i n g s had a p o s i t i v e experience with an established peer counselling program. I t i s possible that i f a peer program had been established i n P o l i c e Force X a more favourable response would have occurred. P r a c t i c a l Implications Although no d e f i n i t i v e conclusions can be drawn from t h i s exploratory research study, several p r a c t i c a l implications may be considered. Members have indicated that they experience psychological problems and that i f they were to receive counselling the majority of members would prefer to use a p s y c h i a t r i s t or psychologist who i s outside the p o l i c e department. To increase the l i k e l i h o o d of members seeking psychological assistance, P o l i c e Force X may wish to consider publishing a manual that gives i n s t r u c t i o n s to the members on how to access the services of mental health p r o f e s s i o n a l s . The manual may also include a l i s t of p s y c h i a t r i s t s and psychologists who have expertise i n counselling c e r t a i n problems and are f a m i l i a r with the idiosyncrasies of p o l i c e work. I t may be desireable to approach p s y c h i a t r i s t s and psychologists who have s p e c i a l knowledge i n counselling people who experience the most common problems presented by the members of P o l i c e Force X. while maintaining t h e i r autonomy, these p s y c h i a t r i s t s and psychologists could be f a m i l i a r i z e d with the nature of p o l i c e work. Therefore, i f P o l i c e Force X or the union decided to f a m i l i a r i z e p s y c h i a t r i s t s and psychologists with p o l i c i n g , they should s e l e c t p s y c h i a t r i s t s and psychologists who are w i l l i n g and knowledgeable to work with p o l i c e o f f i c e r s who experience ma r i t a l problems, alcohol abuse, anxiety that i n t e r f e r e s with the enjoyment of l i f e , depression, sleep disturbances and f i n a n c i a l problems. I t must be made c l e a r to the members that those p s y c h i a t r i s t s and psychologists i d e n t i f i e d are autonomous and i t i s not necessary to access t h e i r help through the p o l i c e department. Not a l l respondents selected outside p s y c h i a t r i s t or psychologists as the preferred source of counselling. Therefore, implementation of peer counselling should not be abandoned. As indicated e a r l i e r , peer counselling i s an e f f e c t i v e method of counselling (Reiser, 1986). As well, when required, peer counsellors can act as a bridge between the organization and mental health p r o f e s s i o n a l (Gruver, 1971). Therefore, e s t a b l i s h i n g a small peer counselling group may prove worthwhile. For the peer counsellors to be accepted, as i s the case f o r any 58 counselling s e r v i c e , c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y must be paramount (Stratton, 1977). However, members who seek counselling should be e x p l i c i t l y advised as to the l i m i t a t i o n s of c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y i . e . where "clear and imminent danger to physical safety" of others e x i s t s , the counsellor must inform others (Eberlein, 1987, p.2). Therefore, peer counsellors should be selected who are trusted by the members, w i l l maintain c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y and yet w i l l adhere to e t h i c a l r u l e s , without P o l i c e Force X holding a competition f o r the p o s i t i o n of peer counsellor, the board of d i r e c t o r s for the union may be the best candidates. F i n a l l y , i t i s possible that i f members receive counselling from outside mental health professionals who are s e n s i t i v e to p o l i c e o f f i c e r s ' needs, and peer counselling becomes accepted, many of the members' psychological problems may be reduced. Reduction of psychological problems would have a p o s i t i v e impact on the members, P o l i c e Force X and the p u b l i c . L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study There are four l i m i t a t i o n s with t h i s study. F i r s t , the problems l i s t e d i n the questionnaire are subject to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by each respondent. Therefore, the r e s u l t s that deal with problems should be interpreted cautiously. For example, 30.4% of the respondents stated they have experienced problems with alcohol abuse. This should not be interpreted that 30.4% of the respondents are a l c o h o l i c s . Each respondent l i k e l y has a d i f f e r e n t operational d e f i n i t i o n f o r each problem. Second, the i n t e n s i t y of the problems have not been addressed by t h i s research. Therefore, the re s u l t s that deal with problems should be interpreted cautiously. For example, depression has many d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of i n t e n s i t y , ranging from mild discomfort or sadness to s e l f destructive behavior. This study does not d i s t i n g u i s h these differences that are found within each problem.. Third, F i n a n c i a l Consultant was not included i n the l i s t of counselling sources. I t i s l i k e l y the majority of respondents would have selected F i n a n c i a l Consultant as the preferred source of counselling f o r f i n a n c i a l problems. >• F i n a l l y , the re s u l t s of t h i s study only apply to the members of P o l i c e Force X. These r e s u l t s should not be generalized to include p o l i c e o f f i c e r s who are members of a d i f f e r e n t force. 60 Suggestions f o r Further Research Further research should e s t a b l i s h the problems experienced by female p o l i c e o f f i c e r s . As w e l l , the e t i o l o g y and i n t e n s i t y of problems experienced by both male and female p o l i c e o f f i c e r s should be studied. Learning the etiology of problems may provide answers as to how best resolve or prevent the problems. P o l i c e o f f i c e r s who have received counselling from d i f f e r e n t sources should be surveyed to e s t a b l i s h t h e i r preference f o r source of counselling and how they ar r i v e d at that d e c i s i o n . This information could then be used t o s t r e n g t h e n e x i s t i n g counselling programs. Blackmore (1978), Stratton (1977), and Alkus and Padesky (1983) argue that p o l i c e o f f i c e r s ' psychological and p h y s i o l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s are often a t t r i b u t a b l e to p o l i c i n g . Research should be conducted to e m p i r i c a l l y t e s t t h i s p o s i t i o n , f o r other factors ( i . e . p o l i c e o f f i c e r s tend to be i n t h e i r early 20's when they begin t h e i r career, and therefore may experience problems that r e s u l t from developmental issues) may be impacting on the psychological and p h y s i o l o g i c a l health of p o l i c e o f f i c e r s . F i n a l l y , c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s between Canadian and American p o l i c e o f f i c e r s should be explored. I t i s possib l e that p o l i c e o f f i c e r s ' attitudes towards psychological problems, counselling, r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and work may be c u l t u r a l l y determined. Summary P o l i c e o f f i c e r s from P o l i c e Force X experience a va r i e t y of psychological problems, some of which are the same as those reported by Blackmore (1978). The majority of respondents indicated that i f they were to receive counselling t h e i r preferred source would be an outside p s y c h i a t r i s t or psychologist. This f i n d i n g d i f f e r s from the opinion held by Blackmore (1978) who reported that American p o l i c e o f f i c e r s prefer peer counselling over any other source of counselling. 62 REFERENCES Alkus, S., & Padesky, C. (1983) Special Problems of P o l i c e O f f i c e r s . Counseling Psychologist, 2_, 5 5 -6 4 . 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In order to i d e n t i f y the most appropriate assistance program the following questionnaire has been designed by one of our members i n cooperation with the Department of Graduate Studies, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. ' The questionnaire i s t o t a l l y c o n f i d e n t i a l and voluntary. The administering of t h i s questionnaire has been sanctioned by the department. I would ask that you t r u t h f u l l y respond to the questions and add any suggestions/criticisms you may have. C l e a r l y your support i n t h i s matter w i l l ensure that a t r u l y b e n e f i c i a l and v i t a l program w i l l be established for you. Your input counts. Once again, thank you for your help. Yours t r u l y , Chairman Health & Safety Committee Union Introduction 75 The p u r p o s e o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n about the nature of p o s s i b l e concerns and problems which p o l i c e o f f i c e r s may encounter and the types of c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s they b e l i e v e would be us e f u l to members experiencing such problems. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s have been sent to 200 members randomly selected so as to represent the P o l i c e Department. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s questionnaire i s s t r i c t l y voluntary. Please do not enter your name or number on the questionnaire or r e t u r n envelope; anonymity i s guaranteed. Only group r e s u l t s w i l l be reported. The questionnaire requires approximately 20 minutes to answer. Ple a s e use the in-house m a i l t o r e t u r n your questionnaire i n the supplied envelope. Part I Concerns and Problems 1. Many s t u d i e s have been conducted t h a t show p o l i c e o f f i c e r s may experience p e r s o n a l problems and concerns. Most of these s t u d i e s have been conducted i n the United States. Therefore they may or may not be applicable to t h i s P o l i c e Department. The concerns t h a t have been reported most frequently are presented below i n alphabetical order. Based on your o v e r a l l impression o f p o l i c e o f f i c e r s , please rank order these problems i n terms of t h e i r frequency o f occurrence. Give the rank of 1 to the most frequent problem, followed by 2, with l e a s t being ranked as 15. Rank (a) Alcohol Abuse (b) Anxiety that i n t e r f e r e s with the enjoyment of l i f e (c) Boredom (d) Depression (e) Drug Abuse ( i l l e g a l drugs) (f) Drug Abuse (prescribed drugs) (g) Feelings of A l i e n a t i o n (alone, no one there for emotional support) (h) F i n a n c i a l problems (i) Frequent headaches (j) M a r i t a l problems (k) Problems with Parenting S k i l l s (1) Sexual dysfunction (m) Sleep disturbances (ie.. insomnia) (n) Stomach problems (e.g. stomach aches, u l c e r s , constipation) (o) uncalled for aggression 77 2. Think of 10 s p e c i f i c p o l i c e colleagues whom you f e e l you are' c l o s e s t to, or with whom you are most f a m i l i a r . Of those 10 colleagues please l i s t how many you believe have e x p e r i e n c e d or a r e c u r r e n t l y e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s w ith the f o l l o w i n g ; (note: your answer w i l l range from 0 to 10 f o r each problem depending on how many o f y o u r c o l l e a g u e s a r e e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t y . ) Number of colleagues experiencing (a) Alcohol Abuse (b) Anxiety that i n t e r f e r e s with the enjoyment of l i f e (c) Boredom (d) Depression (e) Drug Abuse ( i l l e g a l drugs) (f) Drug Abuse (prescribed drugs) (g) Feelings of A l i e n a t i o n (alone, no one there for emotional support) (h) F i n a n c i a l problems (i) Frequent headaches* (j) M a r i t a l problems (k) Problems with Parenting S k i l l s (1) Sexual dysfunction (m) Sleep disturbances ( i e . insomnia) (n) Stomach problems (e.g. stomach aches, u l c e r s , constipation) (o) Uncalled for aggression 78 3. P l e a s e i n d i c a t e w i t h a check ( ) which o f the f o l l o w i n g problems [ a n d / o r ] c o n c e r n s you have experienced [and/or] are experiencing. Check (a) Alcohol Abuse (b) Anxiety that i n t e r f e r e s with the enjoyment of l i f e (c) Boredom (d) Depression (e) Drug Abuse ( i l l e g a l drugs) (f) Drug Abuse (prescribed drugs) (g) Feelings of A l i e n a t i o n (alone, no. one there fo r emotional support) (h) F i n a n c i a l problems (i) Frequent headaches (j) M a r i t a l problems (k) Problems with Parenting S k i l l s (1) Sexual dysfunction (m) Sleep disturbances ( i e . insomnia) (n) Stomach problems (e.g. stomach aches, u l c e r s , constipation) (o) Uncalled for aggression P l e a s e w r i t e down any p r o b l e m s t h a t you have experienced [and/or] you know other o f f i c e r s have experienced,, which are not included i n the above l i s t . (Use as much space as required, i f necessary use space on the back of t h i s page). A. B. C. 79 Part I I Counselling Services The f o l l o w i n g a r e a number o f d i f f e r e n t methods of Counselling. In each instance c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y i s assured. (A) Outside P s y c h i a t r i s t or Psychologist You meet with your family physician who r e f e r s you to a p s y c h i a t r i s t or psychologist. (B) In House Psychologist You meet w i t h a p s y c h o l o g i s t employed i n the Department. (C) Psychologist on Retainer You meet with a psychologist to whom you have been referred by a member of the Department. (D) Religious Leader or Church Elder You meet and speak with a r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r or church elder of your choice. (E) Peer Counselling You meet with a fellow p o l i c e o f f i c e r trained i n counselling and a v a i l a b l e to help upon request. 1. Which of the above methods of counselling would you prefer to use f o r each of the problems and concerns l i s t e d on the next page. Please s e l e c t one method of counselling per problem [and/or] concern. Indicate the method by p l a c i n g the l e t t e r for that method i n the blank; e.g. I f you s e l e c t r e l i g i o u s l e a d e r f o r a problem, p l a c e the l e t t e r "D" i n the corresponding answer space. 8 0 Method of Counselling: (A) O u t s i d e P s y c h i a t r i s t o r P s y c h o l o g i s t , (B) I n H o u s e P s y c h o l o g i s t , (C) Psychologist on Retainer, (D) R e l i g i o u s Leader, (E) Peer Counselling. Method of Counselling Preferred (a. (b (c (d (e (f (g (h ( i (D (k (1 (m (n (o Alcohol Abuse Anxiety that i n t e r f e r e s with the enjoyment of l i f e Boredom Depression Drug Abuse ( i l l e g a l drugs) Drug Abuse (prescribed drugs) Feelings of A l i e n a t i o n (alone, no one there fo r emotional support) F i n a n c i a l problems Frequent headaches M a r i t a l problems Problems with Parenting S k i l l s Sexual dysfunction Sleep disturbances ( i e . insomnia) Stomach problems (e.g. stomach aches, u l c e r s , constipation) Uncalled f o r aggression 81 Please l i s t any method of counselling that you believe would be more b e n e f i c i a l f o r the member's than those methods a l r e a d y l i s t e d . (Methods already l i s t e d are (A) Outside P s y c h i a t r i s t or Psychologist, (B) In House P s y c h o l o g i s t , (C) P s y c h o l o g i s t on R e t a i n e r , (D) Religious Leader, (E) Peer Counselling) A. B. 82 Part I I I Peer Counselling D i r e c t i o n s : P lease c i r c l e the l e t t e r c o r r e s p o n d i n g to your choice. 1. I f you were to go to a peer counsellor f o r counselling, would you prefer a peer counsellor was (A) of higher rank than yourself (B) of lower rank than yourself (C) of same rank as yourself (D) Does not matter 2. A f t e r adequate s e l e c t i o n and t r a i n i n g would you be w i l l i n g to be a peer counsellor? [A] Yes [B] No 83 Part IV Basic Data Di r e c t i o n s : Please c i r c l e the l e t t e r that i s appropriate for each item 1. Sex: [A] male [B] female 2. Age: [A] 19-24 [B] 25-30 [C] 31-36 [D] 37-42 [E] 43-48 [F] 49-54 [G] 55 years or over 3. Are you a s u p e r v i s o r ? (Includes C p l , Det, Sgt and S/Sgt) 4. Years of Service: [A] Less than 3.5 years [B] 3.5 - 6. 4 [C] 6.5 - 9. 4 m 9.5 - 12. 4 [EI 12.5 - 15. 4 [F] 15.5 - 18. 4 [G] 18.5 - 21. 4 [H] More than 21.4 years 5. M a r i t a l Status [A] Single [B] Married (includes common law) [C] Separated [D] Divorced [E] Remarried [F] Widow(er) [A] Yes [B] No THANK YOU FOR YOUR COOPERATION Appendix B Follow-up l e t t e r 85 Follow-up L e t t e r to Members of Po l i c e Force X RE: CONFIDENTIAL MEMBERS ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Dear Member: Approximately two weeks ago a Questionnaire was sent out regarding the Assistance Program. S i n c e i t i s t o t a l l y anonymous the responses cannot be t r a c e d , as such we have had t o send t h i s e n q u i r y t o everybody. I f you have already responded, I would l i k e to thank you for your time and e f f o r t s . I f you have not completed i t , I would appreciate i t i f you would complete i t as soon as possible so that we can s t a r t analyzing the data. I f you cannot locate the Questionnaire, copies are available at our o f f i c e . Should you not wish to a s s i s t i t would be a p p r e c i a t e d i f you could r e t u r n the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and p o s s i b l y add a short note as to why you chose n ot t o p a r t i c i p a t e . Once again thank you for your assistance, i t w i l l help set up a worthwhile program. Yours t r u l y , Chairman, Health & Safety Committee Union 

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