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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Help-giving sources preferred by Chinese international students Friesen, Heather Jean 1983

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- 8 HELP-GIVING SOURCES PREFERRED BY CHINESE INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS by HEATHER JEAN FRIESEN B . S c . N . , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1979 A t h e s i s s u b m i t t e d i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e deg ree o f M a s t e r o f A r t s i n The F a c u l t y o f G r a d u a t e S t u d i e s Depar tment o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y T h i s t h e s i s i s a c c e p t e d as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d . The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r , B.C. September 1983 (c)Heather Friesen, 1983 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s m a y b e g r a n t e d b y t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f d p M^^OJLJLJL^ ^ ^ cj^ o l o ^ u , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 2 0 7 5 W e s b r o o k P l a c e V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a V 6 T 1W5 D a t e (tvW>U r H t r ? ^ DF-fi (7/19) i i A b s t r a c t F o r t y - s i x u n d e r g r a d u a t e and g r a d u a t e C h i n e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s w e r e a s k e d t o rank 14 h e l p - g i v e r s as t o t h e i r p e r c e i v e d p o t e n t i a l f o r h e l p g i v e n two p r ob l em t y p e s , a h y p o t h e t i c a l e m o t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l -v o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m . The d a t a was t r e a t e d as a 2 x 14 ( s e x s u b g r o u p i n g x h e l p - g i v i n g s o u r c e ) f i x e d e f f e c t s f u l l y c r o s s e d d e s i g n u s i n g a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r t h e two f a c t o r s w i t h r e p e a t e d measures on t h e s econd f a c t o r . C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d no Sex e f f e c t i n t h e r a n k i n g s o f h e l p - g i v e r s . A s i g n i f i c a n t P r ob l em Type e f f e c t , howeve r , d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t h e r a n k i n g s g i v e n h e l p - g i v e r s a t t h e 0.01 l e v e l . C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n s o f r e s p o n d e n t o r d e r w i t h h e l p - g i v i n g s o u r c e a l s o i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t F o l l o w - u p e f f e c t a t t h e 0.05 l e v e l w h i c h was n o n s i g n i f i c a n t when s e x was i n c l u d e d as a s u b g r o u p i n g f a c t o r . F o r ma l e and f e m a l e s u b j e c t s , t h e C h i n e s e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t was t h e p r e f e r r e d s o u r c e o f a s s i s t a n c e f o r t he e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m w i t h F a c u l t y A d v i s o r b e i n g p r e f e r r e d f o r t he e d u -c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m . Seconda r y s o u r c e s o f a s s i s t a n c e f o r t he e m o t i o n a l p r ob l em were P a r e n t s and NonnStudent F r i e n d f o r the ma les and R e l a t i v e and N o n - s t u d e n t F r i e n d f o r t h e f e m a l e s . S econda r y s o u r c e s o f a s s i s t a n c e f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l p r ob l em were P a r e n t s , C h i n e s e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t - and F a c u l t y Member f o r t h e males and R e l a t i v e and F a c u l t y Member-, f o r t he f e m a l e s . P s y c h i a t r i s t , Community L e a d e r and I n t e r n a t i o n a l House S t a f f Member were g i v e n d i s t i n c t l y low p r e f e r e n c e s a c r o s s p r o b l e m t y p e s . H e l p - g i v e r s w i t h r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n , i . e . , m i n i s t e r o r p r i e s t , p r e d o m i n a t e d as a s o u r c e o f a s s i s t a n c e n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h e l i s t o f h e l p - g i v e r s p r o v i d e d . The r a n k i n g s g i v e n h e l p - g i v e r s a c r o s s p r o b l e m t y p e s was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o f p r e v i o u s s t u d i i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . i v T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s Page CHAPTER ONE Scope and Focus o f t h e S t udy 1 Backg round o f t h e P r o b l e m 1 Pu rpose o f t h e S t u d y 3 R a t i o n a l e f o r t h e S t udy 3 A s s umpt i on s U n d e r l y i n g t h e Re sea r ch 5 S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r ob l em 6 D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms 6 R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s 8 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S t udy 8 CHAPTER TWO R e s e a r c h Rev iew 10 O v e r v i e w 10 H e l p - G i v i n g P r e f e r e n c e s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n S t u d e n t s . . . . 10 H e l p - G i v i n g P r e f e r e n c e s o f D i s t i n c t E t h n i c Groups . . . . 14 H e l p - G i v i n g P r e f e r e n c e s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s . . . . 17 U t i l i z a t i o n o f P r o f e s s i o n a l S e r v i c e s by I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s and C h i n e s e A m e r i c a n s , i n P a r t i c u l a r 22 Summary 24 CHAPTER THREE Me thodo l o g y 25 P o p u l a t i o n and S a m p l i n g P r o c e d u r e s 25 D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e M e a s u r i n g I n s t r u m e n t 27 S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s 28 V T r e a t m e n t o f D e f e c t i ve Data , 29 CHAPTER FOUR R e s u l t s 30 Form E f f e c t s 30 R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s 30 I n t e r a c t i o n E f f e c t s 34 F o l l o w - u p E f f e c t s 35 P r e f e r r e d O r d e r o f P o t e n t i a l H e l p - G i v e r s 35 O t h e r S ou r ce s o f A s s i s t a n c e 44 P l a c e o f R e s i d e n c e o f P a r e n t and R e l a t i v e and N a t u r e o f C o n t a c t 45 CHAPTER FIVE D i s c u s s i o n and C o n c l u s i o n s 47 D i s c u s s i o n o f R e s e a r c h F i n d i n g s 47 F i n d i n g s R e l a t e d t o Type E f f e c t s 47. A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f H e l p - G i v e r A c c o r d i n g t o P r ob l em Type . 48 P r i m a r y P r e f e r e n c e s f o r H e l p - G i v e r s 49 S e conda r y P r e f e r e n c e s f o r H e l p - G i v e r s 49 Low P r e f e r e n c e s f o r H e l p - G i v e r s 51 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r C o u n s e l l i n g P r a c t i c e 54 S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u t u r e Re sea r ch 56 R e f e r e n c e s 58 APPENDIX A : Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r P r e f e r e n c e s o f H e l p - G i v i n g Sou r ce s 63 APPENDIX B: C o v e r L e t t e r f o r F o l l o w - u p Respondent s 66 v i L i s t o f T a b l e s Page T a b l e 1: Sex and C o u n t r y o f O r i g i n f o r I n i t i a l and F o l l o w - u p Respondent s 26 T a b l e 2: D i f f e r e n c e Between E m o t i o n a l and E d u c a t i o n a l -V o c a t i o n a l Mean Rank i n g s f o r 14 H e l p - G i v e r s by Sex 32 T a b l e 3: Mean Rank i ng s f o r 14 H e l p - G i v e r s by Sex and P r o b l e m Type 37 T a b l e 4 : P l a c e o f R e s i d e n c e o f P a r e n t and R e l a t i v e and N a t u r e o f C o n t a c t by P r o b l e m Type 46 v i i L i s t o f F i g u r e s Page F i g u r e 1: Mean d i f f e r e n c e between t h e e m o t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l r a n k i n g s o f 14 h e l p -g i v e r s by sex 33 F i g u r e 2: Mean r a n k i n g s o f h e l p - g i v e r s f o r t h e e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m 42 F i g u r e 3 : Mean r a n k i n g s o f h e l p - g i v e r s f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n a l -v o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m 43 v i i i Acknowledgements I w o u l d l i k e t o thank Dr . Marv Westwood f o r s p a r k i n g my i n t e r e s t i n t h i s t h e s i s t o p i c . H i s g u i d a n c e and encouragement bo th t h r o u g h o u t my s t u d i e s and t h i s p r o j e c t have been p r o f e s s i o n a l l y and p e r s o n a l l y i n v a l -u a b l e . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o thank Dr . Todd Rogers and Bob P r o s s e r f o r many hour s s p e n t i n a s s i s t i n g me w i t h t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s and i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p r o j e c t . F i n a l l y , I w o u l d l i k e t o thank my husband K a r l who made many s a c r i f i c e s w i t h o u t r e s e r v a t i o n as I p u r s u e d my s t u d i e s . 1 CHAPTER ONE Scope and Focus o f t h e S tudy Backg round o f t h e P r ob l em C h i n e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e f r om Hong Kong and M a l a y s i a , r e p r e s e n t a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e - t h i r d o f t he i n c r e a s i n g num-b e r o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d a t Canad i an u n i v e r s i t i e s ( T i l l m a n & S u n d e r j i , 1982 , p. 1 ) . As a s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n , t h e y a r e un i que both i n terms o f numbers and need s . S e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s have documented t h e g r e a t e r number o f a d a p t a t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s r e p o r t e d by A s i a n s , e t h n i c C h i n e s e i n p a r t i c u l a r , when compared t o o t h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l s u b -g roups ( C o l l i n s , 1977 ; P e r k i n s , P e r k i n s , G u g l i e l m i n o & R e i f f , 1977; K l i n e b e r g & H u l l , 1979 ) . Sue and K i r k (1975) have a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t a cademic d i f f i c u l t i e s c r e a t e g r e a t e r c o n c e r n f o r t h e A s i a n t h a n f o r t he n o n - A s i a n g i v e n t h e tremendous p r e s s u r e t o e x c e l a c a d e m i c a l l y , t h e r e s t r i c t i o n i n v o c a t i o n a l o p t i o n s and t h e i r r e t a r d e d v e r b a l s k i l l s ( p . 8 5 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o Bourne ( 1 9 7 5 ) , e x i s t i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e compounded t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t f o r t h e C h i n e s e t h a n f o r t h e n o n - C h i n e s e c o n f r o n t i n g academic f a i l u r e ( p . 2 7 3 ) . I n d e e d , g i v e n t h e t remendous f e a r o f l o s s o f f a c e , i n v e s t i g a t o r s have r e c o g n i z e d t h a t a cademic f a i l u r e , w h e t h e r r e a l o r i m a g i n e d , may p r e c i p i t a t e a menta l breakdown ( A . C . H . A . , 1977; Huang, 1977; Y e h , 1 9 7 2 ) ; and even s u i c i d e ( S e i d e n , 1966 ) . A l e x a n d e r , K l e i n , Workneh.and M i l l e r (1981) i n s u m m a r i z i n g t h e a d a p t a t i o n a l s t r e s s e s c o n f r o n t i n g t h e A s i a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t , c o n -2 e l u d e t h a t t h e y a r e a t h i g h r i s k f o r bo th m e d i c a l and e m o t i o n a l p rob lems ( p . 2 3 5 ) . A s i a n s t u d e n t s , howeve r , t e n d t o m i n i m i z e p e r s o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n an a p p a r e n t e f f o r t t o p u r s u e t h e i r p r i m a r y g o a l , a cademic and p r o -f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g . I n t e r p e r s o n a l h a p p i n e s s and t h e d e s i r e f o r i n v o l v e -ment w i t h t h e h o s t c u l t u r e a r e o f s e c o n d a r y i m p o r t a n c e . A l l t i m e and ene r g y a r e d e v o t e d toward s a cadem i c e x c e l l e n c e ( A l e x a n d e r e t a l . , 1 981 ; K l e i n , M i l l e r & A l e x a n d e r , 1974; L e e , 1973 ; Yeh & Chu , 1974 ) . A s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g a d a p t a t i o n i s t h e w e l l documented s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n and movement o f A s i a n s t oward s a c o n a t i o n a l g roup ( H i g g i n b o t h a m , 1979; K l e i n , A l e x a n d e r , T s e n g , M i l l e r , Yeh & Chu , 1971 ; K l e i n e t a l . , 1974; K l i n e b e r g & H u l l , 1979; L e e , 1973; M i l l e r , Y e h , A l e x a n d e r , K l e i n , T s e n g , Workneh & Chu , 1971 ) . W h i l e t h e c o n a t i o n a l g roup p r o v i d e s a s u p p o r t i v e t r a d i t i o n a l ne twork w h i c h l e s s e n s a s en se o f l o s s and e s t r a n g e m e n t , c o n t a c t w i t h h o s t n a t i o n a l s i s r e s t r i c t e d and even a c t i v e l y d i s c o u r a g e d . ( K l e i n e t a l . , 1974; M i l l e r e t a l . , 1 971 ) . As a r e s u l t , t h e C h i n e s e s t u d e n t i s u n a b l e t o d e v e l o p r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h h o s t n a t i o n a l s , who c o u l d s e r v e as c u l t u r a l m e d i a t o r s and p r o v i d e r e a l i t y t e s t i n g t o t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f l i f e e v e n t s ( H i g g i n b o t h a m , 1979 ) . E x -changes between C h i n e s e subg roups may a l s o be l i m i t e d g i v e n t h a t t h e r e f e r e n c e g roup i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y l i m i t e d t o t h o s e o f s i m i l a r l a nguage and c o u n t r y o f o r i g i n , i . e . , M a i n l a n d C h i n e s e , Hong Kong C h i n e s e , e t c . ( K l e i n e t a l . , 1 971 ) . C e r t a i n l y , t h e C h i n e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t i s a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l r i s k i f he i s a l i e n a t e d f r o m t h e r e f e r e n c e group g i v e n t h e p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between measures o f p oo r menta l h e a l t h and i n d i c e s o f s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n and c u l t u r e shock ( Kuo , 1976 ) . 3 In summary, w h i l e C h i n e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s a r e u s u a l l y a b l e t o meet p a r e n t a l e x p e c t a t i o n s and a cadem i c demands ( B o u r n e , 1975 ; Yeh e t a l . , 1 9 7 4 ) , t h e y a r e a u n i q u e s t u d e n t g roup under c o n s i d e r a b l e a d a p t a -t i o n a l s t r e s s i n need o f c u l t u r a l l y r e l e v a n t p e r s o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l s u p p o r t s y s tems bo th w i t h i n and o u t s i d e o f t h e c o n a t i o n a l g r o u p . Pu rpo se o f t he S t udy In s p i t e o f t h e i n t e n s e a d a p t a t i o n a l and a cademic d i f f i c u l t i e s c o n f r o n t i n g t h e C h i n e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t , t h e r e i s an a l a r m i n g l a c k o f r e s e a r c h e x p l o r i n g who w o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as an a p p r o p r i a t e s o u r c e o f a s s i s t a n c e f o r an e d u c a t i o n a l o r p e r s o n a l c o n c e r n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , r e s e a r c h w h i c h i n v e s t i g a t e s t he h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y f a i l s t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between t h e p r e f e r -ences o f m a j o r e t h n i c s u b g r o u p s . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s as a g roup i s o f l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h v a l u e , g i v e n t h a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s a r e n o t a homogeneous group i n t h a t t h e y b r i n g t h e i r u n i q u e c u l t u r a l backg rounds as t h e y s t u d y o v e r s e a s . The pu rpo se o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e t he h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s o f a m a j o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l s u b g r o u p , t h e C h i n e s e , g i v e n a h y p o t h e t i c a l e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l and e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m . R a t i o n a l e f o r t h e S tudy B e f o r e u n i v e r s i t y and community s e r v i c e s can f u l f i l l t h e i r mo ra l o b l i g a t i o n t o p r o v i d e r e l e v a n t s e r v i c e s f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s , p r o -f e s s i o n a l s r e q u i r e i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s a r e p r e f e r r e d as h e l p - g i v e r s . G i v e n p r e s e n t e conom ic r e s t r a i n t s and p r o g r ammat i c c u t -4 b a c k s , i t becomes even more i m p e r a t i v e t o d e t e r m i n e who i s c o n s i d e r e d as an a p p r o p r i a t e s o u r c e o f a s s i s t a n c e (Webs te r & F r e t z , 1978 ) . D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s w o u l d be p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e -f u l t o m u l t i c u l t u r a l c e n t e r s , on campus and i n t h e commun i t y , i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way s : (1 ) I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s w h i c h c o u l d be u t i l i z e d p r i o r t o and d u r i n g t h e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s . (2 ) I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s / a g e n c i e s w i t h wh i ch t o d e v e l o p i n t e r a g e n c y a l l i a n c e s and ne twork s o f r e f e r r a l . Such i n f o r m a -t i o n w o u l d be p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l t o f o r e i g n s t u d e n t a d v i s o r s . (3) I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s who wou l d b e n e f i t f r o m t r a i n i n g i n b a s i c and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g s k i 1 I s . ( 4 ) I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t a r g e t s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p rog rams . T h i s c o u l d i n c l u d e e d u c a t i o n r e g a r d i n g an i n d i v i d u a l ' s h e l p - g i v i n g r o l e , e d u c a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e pu rpo se s o f c o u n s e l l i n g and t h e r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e , e d u c a t i o n r e g a r d i n g s i t u a t i o n s i n need o f p r o f e s s i o n a l r e f e r r a l , e t c . D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s o f C h i n e s e i n t e r -n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s w o u l d a l s o be o f a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l House s t a f f i n d e t e r m i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l and n o n p r o f e s s i o n -a l s e r v i c e s , b o t h on campus and w i t h i n t h e commun i ty , t o be i n c l u d e d d u r -i n g o r i e n t a t i o n o f t he s t u d e n t s . F i n a l l y , t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h i s o f a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h v a l u e i n t h a t t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s o f a m a j o r i n t e r -n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t subgroup p r o v i d e s an e m p i r i c a l base w i t h w h i c h t o com-5 p a r e o t h e r i n t e r n a t i o n a l s u b g r o u p s . A s sumpt i on s U n d e r l y i n g t h e Re sea r ch Arguments i n s u p p o r t o f t h e e d u c a t i o n , o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s w i t h i n Canad i an u n i v e r s i t i e s i n c l u d e t h e b e n e f i t s t o be g a i n e d t h r ough c r o s s - c u l t u r a l c o n t a c t bo th i n te rms o f r e s e a r c h c o n t r i b u t i o n s and t h e p r o m o t i o n o f f u t u r e b u s i n e s s and t e c h n o l o g i c a l e x c h a n g e s . E d u c a t i o n o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e f r o m T h i r d Wo r l d c o u n t r i e s , i s a l s o p r e s e n t e d as t h e mora l o b l i g a t i o n , o f Canada as a t e c h n o l o g i c a l -l y more advanced n a t i o n ( T i l l m a n & S u n d e r j i , 1982, p. 1 ) . P r o v i d i n g an e d u c a t i o n p re sumab l y i n c l u d e s p r o v i s i o n o f e d u c a - ' t i o n a l s u p p o r t s y s tems t o d e a l w i t h p e r s o n - s o c i a l , and e d u c a t i o n a l -v o c a t i o n a l a d j u s t m e n t s ( A l t s c h e r , 1 976 ) . A m a j o r a s s u m p t i o n u n d e r l y i n g t h i s r e s e a r c h i s t h a t an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s , C h i n e s e i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e deve l opment o f s u p p o r t s y s tems w h i c h a r e c u l t u r a l l y r e l e v a n t . H e l p -g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s a r e p re sumab l y d e t e r m i n e d by p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y and u t i l i t y o f t he s o u r c e ( C h r i s t e n s e n & Magoon, 1974 ) . A n o t h e r a s s u m p t i o n u n d e r l y i n g t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t l i t e r a t u r e d e -s c r i p t i v e o f A s i a n s i s r e l e v a n t t o C h i n e s e i n p a r t i c u l a r . W h i l e A s i a n s s h a r e common c u l t u r a l v a l u e s , i n v e s t i g a t o r s have c r i t i c i z e d r e s e a r c h t h a t does n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e between t h e un i que e x p e r i e n c e s and needs o f d i f f e r e n t A s i a n subg roups ( K i t a n o , 1969; K i t a n o & M a t s u s h i m a , 1981 ; Sue & F r a n k , 1973 ) . G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s have a l s o been made i n t h i s s t u d y f rom C h i n e s e A m e r i c a n s t o C h i n e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . P re sumab l y s h a r e d c u l t u r a l 6 v a l u e s c r e a t e s i m i l a r i t i e s i n a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and need s . Sue and K i r k (1972) h a v e , howeve r , s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e deg ree o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n i s a c o n f o u n d i n g v a r i a b l e i n r e s e a r c h r e l a t i n g t o C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s as norms and v a l u e s become more w e s t e r n i n n a t u r e as t h e s t u d e n t becomes a c c u l t u r a t e d . Bourne (1975) has a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t l i f e s t y l e and p s y c h i a t r i c p rob lems become more w e s t e r n i n n a t u r e w i t h a c c u l t u r a t i o n . The deg ree t o w h i c h A s i a n s i n g e n e r a l and C h i n e s e Amer i c an s r e p r e -s e n t C h i n e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s i n p a r t i c u l a r m u s t , t h e r e f o r e , be s u b s t a n t i a t e d t h r o u g h r e s e a r c h . S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r ob l em The r e s e a r c h p r ob l em t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d was s t a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w -i n g q u e s t i o n : "What a r e t h e h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s o f C h i n e s e i n t e r -n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s g i v e n two p r ob l em t y p e s , a h y p o t h e t i c a l e d u c a t i o n a l -v o c a t i o n a l and e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m ? " Tha t i s , do C h i n e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s p e r c e i v e a p a r t i c u l a r h e l p - g i v e r as more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a s p e c i f i c t y p e o f p rob lem? D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms C o n c e p t u a l and o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f te rms c r i t i c a l t o t h i s s t u d y a r e as f o l l o w s : (1 ) H e l p - G i v i n g P r e f e r e n c e s C o n c e p t u a l i z e d a s : p r e f e r r e d s o u r c e s o f a s s i s t a n c e w h i c h a r e p e r c e i v e d as a v a i l - a b l e and a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a g i v e n p r ob l em t h a t t h e s t u d e n t s have been u n a b l e t o r e s o l v e by t h e m s e l v e s . 7 O p e r a t i o n a l i z e d a s : s e l f - r e p o r t r a n k i n g s o f f o u r t e e n h e l p - g i v e r s i n c l u d i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g : C h i n e s e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t ; I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t ( O t h e r t h a n C h i n e s e ) ; Canad i an S t u d e n t ; R e l a t i v e ; P a r e n t ; N o n - s t u d e n t F r i e n d ; Ma le C o u n s e l l o r ; Female C o u n s e l l o r ; P h y s i c i a n ; F a c u l t y Member; P s y c h i a t r i s t ; F a c u l t y A d v i s o r ; I n t e r n a t i o n a l House S t a f f Member; and Ch i ne se Community L e a d e r . (2) V o c a t i o n a l - E d u c a t i o n a l P r ob l em C o n c e p t u a l i z e d a s : a h y p o t h e t i c a l p r o b l e m c o n c e r n i n g a f u t u r e j o b o r m a j o r e d u c a t i o n a l c o n c e r n w h i c h may i n v o l v e i n -f o r m a t i o n s e e k i n g , p r o b l e m s o l v i n g , d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g and c l a r i -f i c a t i o n o f s k i l l s , v a l u e s , i n t e r e s t s and p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s . O p e r a t i o n a l i z e d a s : a h y p o t h e t i c a l p r o b l e m p r e s e n t e d on a s e l f - r e p o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e a l i n g w i t h a f u t u r e j o b and/o r a m a j o r e d u c a t i o n a l c o n c e r n w h i c h has been u n s u c c e s s f u l l y r e -s o l v e d . (3) E m o t i o n a l P r ob l em C o n c e p t u a l i z e d a s : a h y p o t h e t i c a l e m o t i o n a l p r ob l em c h a r a c t e r i z e d by ne r vou sne s s w h i c h may be c e n t e r e d i n f e e l i n g s o f f e a r , a l o n e n e s s and d e p r e s s i o n stemming f rom a c a d e m i c , c u l t u r a l and p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n . O p e r a t i o n a l i z e d a s : a h y p o t h e t i c a l e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m p r e s e n t e d on a s e l f - r e p o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by n e r -vousnes s and u n s u c c e s s f u l r e s o l u t i o n . 8 Re sea r ch Q u e s t i o n s The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s were f o r m u l a t e d as f o l l o w s : (1) A r e t h e r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e h i e r a r c h i e s o f p o t e n t i a l h e l p - g i v e r s c o n s i d e r e d by C h i n e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u -den t s between t h e two p r ob l em t y p e s ? (2) A r e t h e r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e h i e r a r c h i e s o f p o t e n -t i a l h e l p - g i v e r s between ma le and f e m a l e C h i n e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s g i v e n two p r ob l em t y p e s ? F o r d e s c r i p t i v e p u r p o s e s , t h e r e s e a r c h a l s o s ough t t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t p o t e n t i a l h e l p - g i v e r s c o n s i d e r e d by C h i n e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t o c l e a r h i e r a r c h i e s f o r t h e two p r o b l e m t y p e s . L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e S tudy The l i m i t a t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n t h i s s t u d y a r e p r e s e n t e d i n p o i n t f o r m as f o l l o w s : (1) I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s o f e t h n i c C h i n e s e o n l y , w i t h t h e e x c l u s i o n o f o t h e r A s i a n and n o n - A s i a n i n t e r -n a t i o n a l subgroups s e r v i n g as c o u n t e r p a r t s . (2) C o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f v a r i a b l e s s uch as s ex and p r o b l e m t y p e , w i t h t h e e x c l u s i o n o f v a r i a b l e s such as s o c i o -economic s t a t u s , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , and p a s t c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e r -i e n c e . (3) As t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n was l i m i t e d t o s t u d e n t s who had l i v e d w i t h i n Canada f o r a t l e a s t s i x months , the. r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n ' a c c u l t u r a t i o n and h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s was .not 9 c o n s i d e r e d ' . / ' " (4 ) F i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s we:re l i m i t e d t o t h e C h i n e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s on t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a campus g i v e n t i m e and f i n a n c i a l r e s t r a i n t s w h i c h p r e -v e n t e d compa r i s on s t o o t h e r u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g s . (5) E x p l o r a t i o n o f h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s was r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l p rob lems o f n o n - c l i e n t s . G e n e r a l i z a t i o n s o f f i n d i n g s t o c l i e n t s w i t h a c t u a l p rob lems w i l l r e q u i r e r e s e a r c h s u b s t a n t i a t i o n . (6 ) H e l p - g i v i n g s o u r c e s d i d no t d i f f e r e n t i a t e between t y p e s o f c o u n s e l l o r s o r p s y c h o l o g i s t s , d i f f e r e n c e s wh i ch have been n o t e d t o i n f l u e n c e t h e p e r c e i v e d a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f a h e l p - g i v i n g s o u r c e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r p r ob l em by p r o s p e c t i v e c l i e n t s ( G e l s o & K a r l , 1974; G e s t i n g e r & G a r f i e l d , 1 976 ) . E x i s t e n c e o f d i f f e r e n t i a l p e r c e p t i o n s by C h i n e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s r e -q u i r e s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . (7) As h e l p - g i v i n g s o u r c e s a r e n o t i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a s p e c i f i c community o r campus a g e n c y , t h e p o t e n t i a l usage o f s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e s , i . e . , S t u d e n t C o u n s e l l i n g o f f i c e , Speak E a s y ; Womens 1 C o u n s e l l i n g o f f i c e , e t c . , was l e f t u n c o n s i d e r e d . (8 ) Responses on t h e s e l f - r e p o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e was l i m i t e d b o t h by t h e s u b j e c t i v e judgment o f t h e s u b j e c t and by t h e usage o f a c l o s e d l i s t o f h e l p - g i v e r s . The c a t e g o r y o f " o t h e r " was^ used t o imp rove t h e q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f r e s p o n s e s by e n -c o u r a g i n g f r e e r e s p o n s e . 10 CHAPTER TWO R e s e a r c h Rev iew O v e r v i e w The r e s e a r c h r e v i e w w i l l f o c u s on s t u d i e s e x p l o r i n g t h e h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s o f A m e r i c a n s t u d e n t s , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e t h n i c i t y and h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s and t he h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s o f i n t e r -n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . As an i n d i c a t o r o f h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s , i n f o r m a t i o n r e l e v a n t t o t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s by i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s and C h i n e s e A m e r i c a n s wi11 a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d . H e l p - g i v i n g P r e f e r e n c e s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n S t u d e n t s R e s e a r c h has i n d i c a t e d t h a t s t u d e n t s ' c h o i c e o f h e l p - g i v e r i s r e -l a t e d t o p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e h e l p - g i v i n g r o l e and t h e p e r c e i v e d a p p r o -p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d p r o b l e m ( G e l s o & K a r l , 1974; G e s t i n g e r & G a r f i e l d , 1976; R e s n i c k & G e l s o , 1 971 ; S t r o n g , Hender & B r a t t o n , 1 971 ; Warman, 1960 ) . The t y p e s o f p r ob l ems s t u d e n t s e n c o u n t e r and t h e h e l p -g i v i n g s o u r c e s u t i l i z e d ( Ru s t & D a v i e , 1961) o r p e r c e i v e d as a p p r o p r i a t e ( K o i l e & B i r d , 1956; K r amer , B e r g e r & M i l l e r , 1974) has a l s o been d e s c r i b e d . Of p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e t o t h i s r e s e a r c h a r e s t u d i e s i n v e s t i -g a t i n g t h e p e r c e i v e d h i e r a r c h y o f h e l p - g i v e r s f o r a v a r i e t y o f s t u d e n t p r o b l e m s . A r m s t r o n g (1969) compared 50 c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , i d e n t i f i e d as h i g h l y a n x i o u s and u t i l i z i n g campus c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s , w i t h 50 randomly s e l e c t e d u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s as t o t h e rank o r d e r i n g o f t h e f i r s t 11 t h r e e pe r s on s t h e y w o u l d seek g i v e n any t y p e o f p r o b l e m . The re were no d i f f e r e n c e s between g roups w i t h " i n t i m a t e f r i e n d " r e p o r t e d as f i r s t c h o i c e and " m o t h e r " and " f a t h e r " as s econd and t h i r d c h o i c e r e s p e c t i v e l y . S n y d e r , H i l l and De rk sen ( 1 9 7 2 ) , w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f a s s e s s i n g r ea son s f o r t h e • u r i d e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s a t t he S o u t h -e r n I l l i n o i s U n i v e r s i t y , a n a l y z e d t h e r e spon se s o f 181 u n d e r g r a d u a t e p s y c h o l o g y s t u d e n t s u s i n g a f o u r - p a r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d i n c l u d e d b i o g r a p h i c a l d a t a , a t t i t u d e s and knowledge t owa rd s c o u n s e l l i n g i n g e n e r a l and t h e u n i v e r s i t y c o u n s e l l i n g c e n t r e i n p a r t i c u l a r , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p r ob l em a r e a s and t h e r a n k i n g s o f f i r s t , s e cond and l a s t p r e f e r e n c e s o f s e ven h e l p - g i v e r s g i v e n 13 h y p o t h e t i c a l p r o b l e m s . S t u d e n t s r e p o r t e d t h a t f o r p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l p r o b l e m s , f r i e n d s were t h e f i r s t c h o i c e , c l o s e r e l a t i v e s t h e s e cond c h o i c e and f a c u l t y and p s y c h o l -o g i c a l s e r v i c e s t h e l a s t c h o i c e . F o r v o c a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l p r o b -l e m s , t h e p a t t e r n o f h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s was r e v e r s e d . C h r i s t e n s e n and Magoon (1974) n o t e t h a t A r m s t r o n g (1969) f a i l e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h between p r o b l e m t y p e s and c r i t i c i z e bo th A r m s t r o n g (1969) and S n y d e r e t a l . (1972) f o r n o t a s k i n g s t u d e n t s t o rank a l l h e l p - g i v e r s . The use o f i n t r o d u c t o r y p s y c h o l o g y s t u d e n t s who were g i v e n p o i n t s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s a l s o c r i t i c i z e d as a p o t e n t i a l s o u r c e o f b i a s i n t h e l a t t e r s t u d y . C h r i s t e n s e n and Magoon (1974) have made a more t ho r ough e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p e r c e i v e d h i e r a r c h y o f h e l p - g i v e r s u s i n g 168 c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M a r y l a n d . S t u d e n t s were a s ked t o rank f r o m f i r s t (Rank 1) t o l a s t (Rank 12) p r e f e r e n c e o f 12 h e l p - g i v e r s on a s e l f - r e p o r t 12 q u e s t i o n n a i r e g i v e n two p r o b l e m t y p e s , a h y p o t h e t i c a l e m o t i o n a l p r o b -lem c h a r a c t e r i z e d by ne r vou sne s s and a h y p o t h e t i c a l e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n -a l p r o b l e m r e l a t e d t o f u t u r e j o b and/o r c a r e e r c o n c e r n s , p rob lems w h i c h t h e y had t r i e d u n s u c c e s s f u l l y t o r e s o l v e on t h e i r own. The r e s u l t s i n -d i c a t e d t h a t f o r t h e e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m , s t u d e n t s r a n k e d " s t u d e n t f r i e n d " f i r s t , " o l d e r f r i e n d " s econd and " p a r e n t s " t h i r d . F o r t h e e d u c a t i o n a l -v o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m , s t u d e n t s i n d i c a t e d f i r s t , s e cond and t h i r d c h o i c e as " f a c u l t y a d v i s o r , " " f a c u l t y member" and " s t u d e n t f r i e n d " r e s p e c t i v e l y . C e r t a i n d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t e d i n t h e c h o i c e o f a ma le o r f e m a l e c o u n s e l o r ; w i t h a "ma l e c o u n s e l o r ! ' r a n k i n g s i x t h f o r an e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m and f i f t h f o r an e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m whereas " f e m a l e c o u n s e l o r " r a n k e d s e v e n t h f o r an e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m and s e v e n t h f o r an e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m . P r o b l e m t y p e , s ex o f t h e s t u d e n t and c o u n s e l l i n g a f t e r h i g h s c h o o l f a i l e d t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between t h e r a n k i n g s o f h e l p - g i v e r s . C o u n s e l -l i n g e x p e r i e n c e d u r i n g h i g h s c h o o l d i d , howeve r , s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i s c r i m -i n a t e r a n k i n g s o f h e l p - g i v e r s f o r t h e two p r ob l em t y p e s (p < . 0 5 ) . In an a t t e m p t t o examine w h e t h e r s t u d e n t s seek h e l p - g i v e r s as s p e c u l a t e d , C h r i s t e n s e n , B i r k , B rook s and S e d l a c e k (1976) examined t h e r a n k i n g s o f p r e c o u n s e l l i n g c o n t a c t s and e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e h e l p -f u l n e s s o f c o u n s e l l i n g o f 591 c l i e n t s f r om two u n i v e r s i t i e s ( U n i v e r s i t y o f M a r y l a n d , U n i v e r s i t y o f South C a r o l i n a ) . U s i n g a m o d i f i e d f o rm o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e v e l o p e d by C h r i s t e n s e n and Magoon ( 1 9 7 4 ) , s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d i n t h e r a n k i n g s o f c o n s u l t e d h e l p - g i v e r s by p r o b -lem t y p e b o t h between and w i t h i n c o u n s e l l i n g c e n t e r s (p < . 0 0 1 ) . S i g n i -13 f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were a l s o n o t e d between each c o u n s e l l i n g c e n t e r as t o t h e deg ree o f h e l p f u l n e s s e x p e c t e d f r om c o u n s e l l i n g . F o r a p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l p r o b l e m , t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M a r y l a n d subgroup n o t e d f i r s t p r e f e r e n c e s as " r e l a t i v e ( n o t p a r e n t ) , " " s t u d e n t f r i e n d " and " p a r e n t " r e s p e c t i v e l y whereas t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f South C a r o l i n a s u b -g roup i n d i c a t e d f i r s t p r e f e r e n c e s as " s t u d e n t f r i e n d , " " p a r e n t " and " n o n -s t u d e n t f r i e n d . " F o r an e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m , t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M a r y l a n d subgroup r e p o r t e d f i r s t c h o i c e as " c l e r g y , " s e cond c h o i c e as " p h y s i c i a n " and t h i r d c h o i c e as " p a r e n t s " whereas t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S ou th C a r o l i n a subgroup r e p o r t e d " s t u d e n t f r i e n d " a g a i n as f i r s t c h o i c e , " f a c u l t y member" as s e cond c h o i c e and " p a r e n t " as t h i r d c h o i c e . A c r o s s and between c e n t e r s and between p rob l em t y p e s , " s t u d e n t f r i e n d " was g i v e n a h i g h r a n k i n g w i t h " a d v i s o r s , " " m a l e c o u n s e l o r , " " f e m a l e c o u n s e l o r " 1 and " p s y c h i a t r i s t " b e i n g t h e l e a s t p r e f e r r e d s o u r c e s o f a s s i s t a n c e . The h i g h r a n k i n g o f " c l e r g y " and " p h y s i c i a n " by t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M a r y l a n d subg roup f o r e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l p rob lems i s no t a d d r e s s e d by t h e a u t h o r s o t h e r t h a n as an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e need f o r i n t e r a g e n c y a l l i a n c e s . C o n t r a r y t o t h e s e f i n d i n g s , t h e s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n o f Snyde r e t a l . (1972) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y w o u l d n e v e r c o n s i d e r a c l e r g y m a n as an a p p r o p r i a t e s o u r c e o f a s s i s t a n c e f o r p rob lems r e l a t e d t o f u t u r e s t u d i e s o r m a j o r . The c o m p a r a b i l i t y o f t h e 191 c l i e n t s f r o m t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Sou th C a r o l i n a and t h e 400 c l i e n t s f r om t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M a r y l a n d i s c a l l e d i n t o q u e s t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y as demog raph i c v a r i a b l e s a r e no t r e -p o r t e d . 14 The a u t h o r s , i n d i s c u s s i n g t h e f i n d i n g s , c h a l l e n g e t h e g e n e r a l i z -a b i l i t y o f t h e h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s o f n o n - c l i e n t s w i t h h y p o t h e t i c a l p rob lems t o t h e h e l p - g i v i n g c o n t a c t s o f c l i e n t s w i t h a c t u a l p r o b l e m s . H e l p - g i v i n g P r e f e r e n c e s o f D i s t i n c t E t h n i c Groups Of p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e t o t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s r e s e a r c h by Web s t e r and F r e t z (1978) w h i c h c o n s i d e r e d t h e v a r i a b l e o f e t h n i c i t y i n t he rank o r d e r i n g o f h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s . U s i n g a m o d i f i e d f o rm o f t he s e l f - r e p o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e v e l o p e d by C h r i s t e n s e n and Magoon ( 1 9 7 4 ) , 250 u n d e r g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s ( U n i v e r s i t y o f M a r y l a n d ) r e p r e s e n t i n g t h r e e e t h n i c g r o u p s ; A s i a n Amer i c an s ( 1 8 ) , B l a c k s t u d e n t s (116) and C a u c a s i a n s t u d e n t s ( 1 1 6 ) , were a s k e d t o rank 12 h e l p - g i v e r s , i n d i c a t i n g f i r s t t o l a s t p r e f e r e n c e , g i v e n a p o t e n t i a l e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m and a p o t e n t i a l e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m c h a r a c -t e r i z e d by n e r v o u s n e s s . F o r t h e A s i a n s u b g r o u p , t h e t h r e e most p r e f e r r e d s o u r c e s o f h e l p f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l p r ob l em were p a r e n t s , r e l a t i v e s and . f a c u l t y f o r males and p a r e n t s , f a c u l t y and u n i v e r s i t y c o u n s e l l i n g c e n t e r f o r . f e m a l e s . F o r t h e e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m , t h e most p r e f e r r e d s o u r c e s o f h e l p f o r t h e ma les were r e l a t i v e s , p a r e n t s and n o n - s t u d e n t f r i e n d s a n d , f o r t he f e m a l e s , r e l a t i v e s , n o n - s t u d e n t f r i e n d s , and p a r e n t s . L e a s t p r e f e r r e d s o u r c e s o f h e l p f o r bo th p r ob l em t y p e s i n c l u d e d t h e community m e n t a l h e a l t h s e r v i c e s , h e a l t h c e n t e r menta l h e a l t h s e r v i c e s and p r i v a t e p r a c t i c e p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t . 15 The a u t h o r s n o t e t h a t t h e r e a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r a n k i n g s o f h e l p - g i v e r s on t he b a s i s o f p r ob l em t y p e and e t h n i c i t y . T h e r e a p p e a r s , however , t o be a g r e a t e r r e l u c t a n c e on t h e p a r t o f A s i a n ma les t o u t i l i z e c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s when compared w i t h A s i a n f e m a l e s . The f i n d i n g s must be e v a l u a t e d i n l i g h t o f t h e s m a l l sample s i z e f o r A s i a n s t u d e n t s . I t i s n o t known i f t h e samp le s i z e i s a r e p r e s e n t a -t i v e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e number o f A s i a n s w i t h i n t h e t o t a l s t u d e n t p o p u l a -t i o n . C o n t r a r y t o t h e f i n d i n g s o f Web s t e r and F r e t z (1978) w h i c h f a i l e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e d i f f e r e n c e s between e t h n i c i t y and t h e h e l p - g i v i n g p r e -f e r e n c e s o f n o n - c l i e n t s , L i n and L i n (1978) i n a s t u d y o f 77 p s y c h i a t r i c p a t i e n t s , 24 C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n s , 20 European i m m i g r a n t s , 24 A n g l o - S a x o n C a n a d i a n s , and 9 N a t i v e C a n a d i a n I n d i a n s , f o u n d t h a t e t h n i c i t y was a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r (p < .00005) i n t h e h e l p - s e e k i n g b e h a v i o r s o f a c t u a l c l i e n t s . Th ree g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s were used i n t h e deve l opment o f a t y p o l o g y o f h e l p - s e e k i n g b e h a v i o r . The m a j o r i t y o f C h i n e s e (75 p e r c e n t ) were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by Type A w h i c h i n v o l v e d p e r s i s t e n t f a m i l y i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h e x t e n s i v e use o f t r a d i t i o n a l h e a l t h c a r e methods , such a s , d i e t e t i c s , he rb and f a i t h h e a l i n g . T r u s t e d community l e a d e r s were c o n s u l t e d w i t h t h e f a m i l y p h y s i c i a n b e i n g t h e f i n a l s o u r c e s o u g h t . The re was a marked r e l u c t a n c e t o a c c e p t p s y c h i a t r i c r e f e r r a l . The m a j o r i t y o f A n g l o - S a x o n Canad ian s (.75 p e r c e n t ) and 65 p e r c e n t o f t h e European i m m i g r a n t s were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by Type B w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d e a r l y r e f e r r a l by s e l f o r f a m i l y t o menta l h e a l t h , s o c i a l o r l e g a l c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s . The 16 N a t i v e Canad i an I n d i a n s (67 p e r c e n t ) were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by Type C w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d r e f e r r a l by an i n d i v i d u a l o t h e r t h a n a f a m i l y member, w i t h e a r l y s o c i a l o r l e g a l i n t e r v e n t i o n . L i n , I n u i , K l e i nman and Womack (1982) i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e i n f l u e n c e o f f o u r s o c i o c u l t u r a l v a r i a b l e s ( e t h n i c i t y , m o d e r n i t y , a l i e n a t i o n and p a r o c h i a l i s m ) on t h e p a t t e r n s o f h e l p - s e e k i n g b e h a v i o r s o f 48 p s y c h i a -t r i c p a t i e n t s , C a u c a s i a n s ( 1 8 ) , B l a c k s (15) and A s i a n s ( 1 5 ) . E th - . n i c i t y was f o u n d t o be h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p < .001) when c o r r e l a t e d w i t h h e l p - s e e k i n g b e h a v i o r s and l e n g t h o f d e l a y b e f o r e o n s e t o f symptoms and t r e a t m e n t . U s i n g t he t y p o l o g y d e v e l o p e d by L i n and L i n ( 1 9 7 8 ) , A s i a n s were most o f t e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by Type A (n = 8) o r Type B (n = 7 ) , C a u c a s i a n s by Type B (n = 12) o r Type C (n = 5) and B l a c k s by Type B (n = 7) o r Type C (n = 7 ) . In c o n t r a s t i n g t h e e t h n i c g r o u p s , i t i s o f n o t e t h a t o n l y one C a u c a s i a n and one B l a c k were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by Type A whereas no A s i a n s were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by Type C. A s i a n s showed t h e l a r g e s t d e l a y f r o m t h e o n s e t o f symptoms t o t r e a t m e n t w i t h C a u c a s i a n s show ing t h e l e a s t d e l a y . W h i l e d e l a y measures were a l s o no ted , t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h m o d e r n i t y and t h r e e i n d i c e s o f p a r o c h i a l -i s m , t h e y were t h o u g h t t o e x e r t an i n d e p e n d e n t i n f l u e n c e as no s i g n i f i -c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n was n o t e d between e t h n i c i t y , m o d e r n i t y and p a r o c h i a l i s m . W h i l e Type A was c o r r e l a t e d w i t h l o w e r m o d e r n i t y and a l i e n a t i o n s c o r e s and h i g h e r p a r o c h i a l i s m s c o r e s and Type C was c o r r e l a t e d w i t h h i g h e r a l i e n a t i o n and l o w e r p a r o c h i a l i s m , t h e d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . 17 H e l p - g i v i n g P r e f e r e n c e s o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s H a v i n g r e v i e w e d t h e h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s o f N o r t h Amer i c an s i n g e n e r a l and d i s t i n c t e t h n i c g r o u p s , r e s e a r c h r e l e v a n t t o t h e h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s o f t h e t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n , C h i n e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s , w i l l now be a d d r e s s e d . As l i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o t he h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s o f i n t e r -n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y f a i l s t o i n v e s t i g a t e d i f f e r e n c e s among m a j o r s u b g r o u p s , t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w w i l l , o u t o f n e c e s s i t y , f o c u s on f i n d i n g s r e l e v a n t t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s i n g e n e r a l . Lee (1973) u s i n g t h e s e l f - r e p o r t s o f 101 i n t e r n a t i o n a l g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f V i r g i n i a , i n v e s t i g a t e d t he r e l a -t i o n s h i p between t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s ' s e l f - c o n c e p t and i t s r e l a -t i o n s h i p t o academic and non - a cadem i c a d j u s t m e n t . P a r t s I and I I o f a t h r e e - p a r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u r v e y e d academic and non - a cadem i c a d j u s t m e n t and p e r c e p t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s t owa rd t h e c o u n s e l l i n g c e n t e r and I n t e r -n a t i o n a l C e n t r e . P a r t I I I o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t e d o f a m o d i f i e d fo rm o f O sgood ' s S e m a n t i c D i f f e r e n t i a l T e c h n i q u e t o measure t h e s t u d e n t s s e l f - c o n c e p t . As p a r t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , s t u d e n t s were a s ked t o rank o r d e r p r e f e r r e d s o u r c e s o f a s s i s t a n c e f o r a cademic and p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l p r o b -l e m s . F o r a c a d e m i c c o n c e r n s , 47 p e r c e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t s r a n k e d academic a d v i s o r as f i r s t c h o i c e , f a c u l t y member as s e cond c h o i c e and f a m i l y member as t h i r d c h o i c e . F o r p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l p r o b l e m s , 46 p e r c e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t s r a nked f a m i l y member as f i r s t c h o i c e , c o n a t i o n a l f r i e n d as s e cond c h o i c e and A m e r i c a n f r i e n d as t h i r d c h o i c e . I n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t 18 a d v i s o r s and c o u n s e l l o r s a t t h e c o u n s e l l i n g c e n t e r s were chosen by few s t u d e n t s ( u n d e r t e n p e r c e n t ) . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i t i s n o t c l e a r w h e t h e r t h e f a m i l y members chosen r e s i d e d w i t h i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o r t h e i r home c u l t u r e . Of i n t e r e s t i s t h e f i n d i n g t h a t 46 o f t h e s t u d e n t s were aware o f t h e c o u n s e l l i n g c e n t e r w i t h o n l y f o u r s t u d e n t s h a v i n g u t i l i z e d t h e p r o -f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e . When s t u d e n t s were a s ked i f t h e y w o u l d c o n s i d e r u t i l i z i n g t h e c o u n s e l l i n g c e n t e r , 44 p e r c e n t were a f f i r m a t i v e and 56 p e r c e n t n e g a t i v e . Of t h e 44 p e r c e n t who answered a f f i r m a t i v e l y , o n l y 24 p e r c e n t were e i t h e r w i l l i n g o r a b l e t o p r o v i d e i m p r e s s i o n s o f t h e pu rpo se o f t h e c o u n s e l l i n g c e n t e r . The p r i n c i p a l r e a s o n g i v e n f o r no t u t i l i z i n g t h e c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e was l a c k o f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t he p u r -pose o f c o u n s e l l i n g . The s t u d e n t s w e r e , howeve r , much more w i l l i n g t o c o n s i d e r t he c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e as an a p p r o p r i a t e s o u r c e o f a s s i s t a n c e f o r f r i e n d s w i t h p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s . Ranked s o u r c e s o f a s s i s t a n c e f o r f r i e n d s i n c l u d e d f a m i l y members as f i r s t c h o i c e , c o n a t i o n a l f r i e n d s as s e cond c h o i c e and c o u n s e l l o r s a t t h e c o u n s e l l i n g c e n t e r as t h i r d c h o i c e , w i t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t a d v i s o r s , A m e r i c a n f r i e n d s and academic a d v i s o r s f o l l o w i n g c l o s e l y . The a u t h o r a l s o r e p o r t s a s i g n i f i c a n t (p < .05) c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s s e l f - c o n c e p t and h i s n on - a cadem i c a d j u s t m e n t as w e l l as a s i g n i f i c a n t (p < .01) n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n between s e l f -c o n c e p t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s h e l d by A m e r i c a n s t u d e n t s . No c o r r e l a t i o n was n o t e d between s e l f - c o n c e p t and f r e q u e n c y o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n 19 i n a c t i v i t i e s h e l d by i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s and no c o r r e l a t i o n was n o t e d between s e l f - c o n c e p t and i n t e n t i o n o f u t i l i z i n g t h e c o u n s e l l i n g c e n t e r as a s o u r c e o f a s s i s t a n c e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e rank o r d e r i n g o f h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s , bo th f o r s e l f and f r i e n d s a r e n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y a n a l y z e d o t h e r t h a n as a f r e -quency t a b u l a t i o n u s i n g t h e mean r a n k i n g o f t h e s c o r e s . W h i l e t he p r o b l e m t y p e i s h e l d c o n s t a n t , t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l d i f f i c u l t y i s u n s p e c i f i e d . I n d i v i d u a l r e s pon se s may be con founded g i v e n t h e s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t a s t u -dent m i gh t seek d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s o f h e l p f o r d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s , i . e . , i n t e r p e r s o n a l and/o r i n t r a p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r a n k i n g o f h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s i s no t a n a l y z e d a c c o r d i n g t o e t h n i c b a ckg r ound o r g e o g r a p h i c o r i g i n . F u l l e r T o r r e y , Van Rheenan and K a t c h a d o u r i a n (1970) r e p o r t a s u r v e y o f 30 i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s i n w h i c h t h e y were a s ked t o rank n i n e s o u r c e s o f a s s i s t a n c e f o r p e r s o n a l p rob lems c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a n x i e t y o r d e p r e s s i o n . No i n f o r m a t i o n i s g i v e n r e g a r d i n g r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y . The a u t h o r s r e p o r t t h a t 85 p e r c e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t r a n k e d m e d i c a l o r p s y c h i a t r i c s e r v i c e s as s i x t h o r l o w e r . The I n t e r n a t i o n a l C e n t e r was cho sen as one o f t h e f i r s t t h r e e s o u r c e s o f a s s i s t a n c e f o r menta l h e a l t h p rob l ems by 25 p e r c e n t o f t h e s t u d e n t s . The a u t h o r s , b a s i n g s t a t e m e n t s on p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d i e s , s t a t e t h a t t h e most i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f a s s i s t -ance f o r m e n t a l h e a l t h p rob lems a r e c o n a t i o n a l s a n d , s e c o n d l y , w r i t t e n c o n t a c t w i t h f a m i l y members. O t h e r s o u r c e s o f a s s i s t a n c e i n c l u d e A m e r i c a n f r i e n d s , f a c u l t y members and a d v i s o r s . 20 C o n t r a r y t o t h e s e f i n d i n g s , Yeh ( 1 9 7 2 ) , i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e c l i n i c a l i m p r e s s i o n s o f 40 C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s who had p s y c h o t i c breakdowns w h i l e s t u d y i n g o v e r s e a s , s u g ge s t s t h a t s t u d e n t s r a r e l y w r i t e home i n t i m e s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s a n d , g i v e n t h e sense o f shame accompany ing p s y c h o -l o g i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , may even e x a g g e r a t e t h e i r p e r s o n a l h a p p i n e s s and a c h i e v e m e n t s . P e d e r s o n ; ( 1 9 7 5 a ) , b u i l d i n g on a p r e v i o u s s t u d y c o m p l e t e d t h r o u g h t h e Bu reau o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a , i n v e s t i g a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s between f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s who s ough t a c o u n t r y -man as a s o u r c e o f a s s i s t a n c e f o r a p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m f r o m t h o s e who d i d n o t . The r e spon se s o f 781 f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s t o a q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m i n -v e s t i g a t i n g p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s o l v i n g r e s o u r c e s were c r o s s - t a b u l a t e d w i t h o t h e r demog raph i c d a t a . Of t h e s e s u b j e c t s t he m a j o r i t y were f r o m A s i a (56 p e r c e n t ) f o l l o w e d by Europe (13 p e r c e n t ) ; L a t i n A m e r i c a (10 p e r c e n t ) ; A f r i c a (6 p e r c e n t ) and unknown (15 p e r c e n t ) . S u b j e c t s were p r e d o m i n a n t l y m a l e , s i n g l e and between t h e ages o f 25 and 29. The s t u d e n t s c hecked seven h e l p - g i v e r s as a p o t e n t i a l s o u r c e o f a s s i s t a n c e f o r a p e r s o n a l p r ob l em as f o l l o w s : I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t A d v i s o r s O f f i c e ( I . S . A . O . ) , (15 p e r c e n t ) ; F a c u l t y A d v i s o r (17 p e r c e n t ) ; b o y f r i e n d / g i r l f r i e n d (12 p e r c e n t ) ; f e l l o w count ryman (31 p e r c e n t ) ; h o s t f a m i l y (4 p e r c e n t ) ; A m e r i c a n b r o t h e r / s i s t e r (1 p e r c e n t ) o r o t h e r (20 p e r c e n t ) . C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d no d i f f e r e n c e s i n h e l p - g i v e r p r e f e r e n c e s between E n g l i s h and n o n - E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g c o u n t r i e s . S e v e r a l f a c t o r s , howeve r , r e s u l t e d i n a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r p r e f e r e n c e f o r h e l p - g i v e r s 21 o u t s i d e t h e c o n a t i o n a l g r o u p , t h e f a c u l t y a d v i s o r and I .S .A.O. i n p a r t i c u l a r . These i n c l u d e d i n v o l v e m e n t i n o r i e n t a t i o n programs p r i o r t o e n r o l l m e n t and i n v o l v e m e n t ' i n f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s e m i n a r s , p e r c e p t i o n s o f a h i g h l e v e l o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n t he u n i v e r s i t i e s ' a c t i v i t i e s and f a c u l t y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , t h e p r e s e n c e o f a l a r g e number o f f r i e n d s o u t s i d e t h e c o n a t i o n a l g roup and a l o n g e r p e r i o d o f r e s i d e n c e w i t h i n t h e h o s t c o u n t r y ( 4 - 5 y e a r s ) . S t u d e n t s were r e p o r t e d t o have a g r e a t e r p r e f e r e n c e f o r a c o u n t r y -man i f t h e y had a t t e n d e d t h e o r i e n t a t i o n program a f t e r coming t o t h e u n i v e r s i t y , were i n v o l v e d i n f o r e i g n s t u d e n t a c t i v i t i e s , p e r c e i v e d f a c u l t y as l a c k i n g i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g and had been i n r e s i -dence w i t h i n t h e h o s t c o u n t r y f o r two y e a r s . The ab sence o f f r i e n d s o u t s i d e t h e c o n a t i o n a l g roup was a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a g r e a t e r p r e f e r e n c e f o r " o t h e r " ( u n s p e c i f i e d ) . W h i l e c r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n h e l p - g i v e r p r e f e r e n c e s , t h e count ryman was i n v a r i a b l y t he f i r s t p r e f e r e n c e w i t h a d v i s o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y s e cond and I .S.A.O. t h i r d . The a u t h o r n o t e s t h a t , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e S t u d e n t C o u n s e l i n g Bureau and M e n t a l H e a l t h C l i n i c were n o t g i v e n as a l t e r n a t i v e s . The i d e n t i t y o f t h e p r e f e r r e d " o t h e r " i s a l s o u n s p e c i f i e d . In a d d i t i o n , t h e p r o b l e m t y p e i s n o t h e l d c o n s t a n t n o r a r e s t u d e n t s a s ked t o r ank h e l p -g i v e r s . 22 U t i l i z a t i o n o f P r o f e s s i o n a l S e r v i c e s by I n t e r n a t i o n a l  S t u d e n t s and C h i n e s e A m e r i c a n s , i n P a r t i c u l a r As an i n d i c a t o r o f h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s , r e s e a r c h and c l i n i c a l i m p r e s s i o n s r e l e v a n t t o t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s by i n -t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s and C h i n e s e A m e r i c a n s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , w i l l be a d d r e s s e d . I n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s , when s e e k i n g a s s i s t a n c e o u t s i d e o f t hem-s e l v e s , t e n d t o r e l y on f a m i l y members and c o n a t i o n a l s f o r p e r s o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s and f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s ( P e d e r s e n , 1975a , 1975b; L e e , 1973 ) . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e - u t i l i z a t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s , i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s t e n d t o o v e r u t i l i z e h e a l t h s e r v i c e s and u n d e r u t i l i z e p s y c h o l o g i c a l , c o u n s e l l i n g o r p s y c h i a t r i c s e r v i c e s ( A l e x a n d e r e t a l . , 1 9 8 1 ; Maha, 1964 ; R i c e , 1 964 ) . T h e r e a r e no s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s by C h i n e s e , a m a j o r subg roup w i t h i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n . In a s t u d y o f A s i a n A m e r i c a n s t u d e n t s , howeve r , Sue and K i r k (1975) have n o t e d t h a t p s y c h -i a t r i c s e r v i c e s a r e u n d e r u t i l i z e d and c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s a r e o v e r -u t i l i z e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y by C h i n e s e A m e r i c a n f e m a l e s . The a u t h o r s s u g g e s t t h a t c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s a r e r e g a r d e d as l e s s t h r e a t e n i n g i n te rms o f s o c i a l s t i g m a and a r e r e g a r d e d as d e a l i n g w i t h a b r o a d e r r ange o f d i f f i -c u l t i e s t h a n p s y c h i a t r i c s e r v i c e s . A s i a n Amer i c an s a r e a l s o n o t e d t o f r e q u e n t l y p r e s e n t e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l i s s u e s as a more a c c e p t a b l e e n t r a n c e t o d i s c u s s i n g p e r s o n a l - e m o t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . I n v e s t i g a t o r s have n o t e d t h a t t h o s e A s i a n Amer i c an s who do u t i l i z e p s y c h i a t r i c s e r v i c e s , bo th i n t h e community and on t he u n i v e r s i t y , campus, 23 t e n d t o e x h i b i t a g r e a t e r deg ree o f s o m a t i c c o m p l a i n t s and appea r t o be more s e v e r e l y d i s t u r b e d (Sue & McK i nney , 1975 ; Sue & Sue , 1974 ) . Reasons u n d e r l y i n g t h e o v e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s and t h e u n d e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y o r i e n t e d s e r v i c e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n p o i n t f o rm as f o l l o w s : (1) S o m a t i z a t i o n o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s ( A l e x a n d e r e t a l . , 1981 ; I c h i k a w a , 1966 ; F u l l e r T o r r e y e t a l . , 1 970 ) . (2 ) Lack o f i n f o r m a t i o n and f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e pu rpo se s o f c o u n s e l l i n g and p s y c h i a t r i c s e r v i c e s ( A l e x a n d e r e t a l . , 1 9 8 1 ; F u l l e r T o r r e y e t a l . , 1970 ; L e e , 1973 ) . ( 3 ) F e a r o f l o s s o f f a c e b e f o r e s e l f and o t h e r s ( A l e x a n d e r e t a l . , 1981 ; L e e , 1973 ) . ( 4 ) F e a r o f r e c o r d s and b r eache s i n c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y w h i c h c o u l d damage s t u d e n t s t a t u s and n a t i o n a l image ( A l e x a n d e r e t a l . , 1 981 ; F u l l e r T o r r e y e t a l . , 1 970 ) . (5 ) I n a p p r o p r i a t e usage o f w e s t e r n c o u n s e l l i n g app roache s c r e a t -i n g s o u r c e s o f c o n f l i c t and m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g ( A l e x a n d e r e t a l . , 1981 ; S ue , 1977; Sue & Sue , 1972; T o u p i n , 1980 ) . (6) F a i l u r e o f menta l h e a l t h s e r v i c e s t o r e spond t o t h e . u n i q u e v a l u e s and needs o f t h e A s i a n (Sue & M c K i n n e y , 1975 ) . (7 ) F a i l u r e o f u n i v e r s i t y s e r v i c e s t o s o l i c i t and accommodate t o . t h e un i que d i f f i c u l t i e s c o n f r o n t i n g t he i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t ( P e d e r s e n , 1975b ) . 24 Summary A r e v i e w o f t h e r e s e a r c h d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e l i m i t e d i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on t h e p r e f e r r e d h e l p - g i v i n g s o u r c e s o f bo t h A s i a n - A m e r i c a n s and i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . S t u d i e s e x p l o r i n g t h e h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r -ences o f A s i a n s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y f a i l s t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between A s i a n s u b g r o u p s . L i k e w i s e , s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y f a i l s t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e n o t o n l y between males and f e m a l e s b u t a l s o between m a j o r e t h n i c s u b g r o u p s . As s uch g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a r e o f l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h v a l u e , t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s o f a m a j o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s u b g r o u p , t h e C h i n e s e , w i t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n b e i n g g i v e n t o s ex as a v a r i a b l e . 25 CHAPTER THREE Me thodo l o g y P o p u l a t i o n and S a m p l i n g P r o c e d u r e s The s u b j e c t p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t e d o f g r a d u a t e and u n d e r g r a d u a t e C h i n e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s h o l d i n g a s t u d e n t v i s a a t t he U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( U . B . C . ) and l i v i n g w i t h i n t h e G r e a t e r Vancouve r Lower M a i n l a n d . P l a c e s o f o r i g i n were r e s t r i c t e d t o t he R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a , T a i w a n , Hong Kong, M a l a y s i a and S i n g a p o r e . F o r i n c l u s i o n w i t h i n t h e s t u d y , s t u d e n t s must have been i n r e s i d e n c e w i t h i n Canada f o r a t l e a s t s i x month s . A s u b j e c t s amp le o f 80 C h i n e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s we re cho sen randomly f r o m a l i s t o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h I n t e r -n a t i o n a l House a t U.B.C. They were t h e n m a i l e d a s e l f - r e p o r t q u e s t i o n -n a i r e t o d e t e r m i n e p r e f e r e n c e s f o r a v a r i e t y o f h e l p - g i v e r s g i v e n a h ypo -t h e t i c a l e m o t i o n a l and a h y p o t h e t i c a l e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m . N o n - r e s p o n d e n t s were m a i l e d a n o t h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e two weeks f o l l o w i n g t h e r e q u e s t e d d a t e o f r e t u r n . Of t h e 80 s u b j e c t s c h o s e n , t h e r e were 47 r e s p o n d e n t s , 33 m a l e , 13 f e m a l e and 1 unknown. One s u b j e c t was e x c l u d e d f rom the s t u d y as he had removed t h e code i d e n t i f y i n g s ex and had f a i l e d t o c o m p l e t e bo th s e c t i o n s o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T a b l e 1 p r e s e n t s d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a r e g a r d i n g s ex and p l a c e o f o r i g i n f o r i n i t i a l and f o l l o w - u p r e s p o n d e n t s . 26 T a b l e 1 Sex and C o u n t r y o f O r i g i n f o r I n i t i a l and F o l l o w - u p Respondents S e x * C o u n t r y o f O r i g i n R e p u b l i c M F Hong Kong S i n g a p o r e M a l a y s i a o f C h i n a Ta iwan I n i t i a l Respondents 26 F o l l o w - u p Respondent s 7 10 10 5 3 1 8 3 3 0 4 2 0 1 2 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 T o t a l 33 13 19 14 * The m a i l e d s amp le i n c l u d e d 55 males and 25 f e m a l e s w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e sex o f t he r e s p o n d e n t s was p r o p o r t i o n a t e t o t h e random samp le . .27. D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e M e a s u r i n g I n s t r u m e n t A s e l f - r e p o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e , based on a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n o f t h a t used by C h r i s t e n s e n and Magoon (1974) was used t o a s s e s s s t u d e n t s ' p r e -f e r e n c e s f o r h e l p - g i v i n g s o u r c e s . As d e s c r i b e d by t h e a u t h o r s , a s e r i e s o f d i s t i n c t i n d i v i d u a l s a r e p r e s e n t e d and t h e r e s p o n d e n t i s a s ked t o rank 12 h e l p - g i v e r s f r om f i r s t (Rank 1) t o l a s t (Rank 12) p r e f e r e n c e f o r two c a t e g o r i e s o f p r o b l e m s , a h y p o t h e t i c a l e m o t i o n a l and a h y p o t h e t i c a l e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m . The t h r e e page q u e s t i o n n a i r e used was d i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f C h r i s t e n s e n and Magoon (1974) i n t h a t r e f e r e n c e was made t o c o n s i d e r i n g r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n Canada and t h e l i s t o f h e l p - g i v e r s i n c l u d e d r e s o u r c e s s ough t by i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s and C h i n e s e Canad i an s on t h e b a s i s o f r e s e a r c h and c l i n i c a l i m p r e s s i o n s ( F u l l e r T o r r e y e t a l . , 1970; L e e , 1973; L i n & L i n , 1978; P e d e r s e n , 1975b ) . An examp le o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s p r o v i d e d i n A p p e n d i x A. Page one o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t e d o f a f a c e s h e e t w h i c h a d d r e s s e d t h e method o f s e l e c t i o n , t he pu rpo se o f t h e s t u d y , d i r e c t i o n s f o r c o m p l e t i o n and t h e i s s u e o f anonymous and v o l u n t a r y c o n s e n t . Sub-j e c t s were a l s o a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e i f t h e y were n o t o f C h i n e s e e t h n i c b a c k g r o u n d . P a r t i c i p a n t s were i d e n t i f i e d by a code number on t he back o f t h e f a c e s h e e t . Page t w o , S e c t i o n I, p r e s e n t e d a h y p o t h e t i c a l e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m c h a r a c t e r i z e d by ne r vou sne s s w h i c h t h e s u b j e c t had been u n s u c c e s s f u l i n r e s o l v i n g h i m / h e r s e l f . The s u b j e c t was t h e n a s k e d t o rank 14 h e l p - g i v e r s t h e y w o u l d go t o i n Canada , Rank 1 i n d i c a t i n g f i r s t c h o i c e and Rank 14 i n d i c a t i n g l a s t c h o i c e . The c a t e g o r y " o t h e r " was i n c l u d e d a t t he end o f 28 t h e l i s t o f h e l p - g i v e r s t o encou rage an open r e s p o n s e . S u b j e c t s were t h e n a s ked t o i n d i c a t e w h e t h e r p a r e n t s o r r e l a t i v e s c o n s i d e r e d r e s i d e d w i t h i n o r o u t s i d e o f Canada and t o i n d i c a t e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c o n t a c t , i . e . , by l e t t e r , t e l e p h o n e , i n p e r s o n . The t h i r d page , S e c t i o n I I , posed a h y p o t h e t i c a l p r o b l e m c o n c e r n -i n g a f u t u r e j o b and/o r m a j o r e d u c a t i o n a l c o n c e r n wh i ch t he s u b j e c t had been u n s u c c e s s f u l i n r e a c h i n g a s o l u t i o n by h i m / h e r s e l f . The same i n s t r u c t i o n s as i n S e c t i o n I were e m p l o y e d . In t h e f o l l o w - u p q u e s t i o n n a i r e , an a d d i t i o n a l l e t t e r was e n c l o s e d d e s c r i b i n g t h e r e a s o n u n d e r l y i n g t h e m a i l i n g o f a s econd q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The i m p o r t a n c e and pu rpose o f t h e s t u d y was s t r e s s e d and s u b j e c t s were g i v e n a t e l e p h o n e c o n t a c t i f t h e y d e s i r e d f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . As f i v e , s u b j e c t s were n o t e d t o have r a n k e d t h e " o t h e r " c a t e g o r y i n t h e p r e v i o u s m a i l i n g , a d d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n s t o n o t rank t h e " o t h e r " c a t e g o r y were i n c l u d e d i n S e c t i o n s I and I I . An examp le o f t h e f o l l o w - u p l e t t e r i s p r o v i d e d i n A p p e n d i x B. To c o n t r o l f o r o r d e r e f f e c t s , two fo rms o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were u s e d . Form A p r e s e n t e d S e c t i o n I on t h e s econd page and S e c t i o n I I on t h e t h i r d page and Form B r e v e r s e d t h e o r d e r . S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s F o r pu rpo se s o f a n a l y s i s , t h e d a t a was t r e a t e d as a 2 x 14 ( s e x s u b g r o u p i n g s x h e l p - g i v i n g s o u r c e ) f i x e d e f f e c t s f u l l y c r o s s e d d e s i g n u s i n g a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r t h e two f a c t o r s w i t h r epea ted^mea su re s on t h e s e cond f a c t o r ( F e r g u s o n , 1981 , pp . 3 2 6 - 3 2 8 ) . The a n a l y s i s was com-p l e t e d u s i n g t h e BMD:P2V compute r p rogram a v a i l a b l e t h r ough t h e 29, Comput ing C e n t r e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y . o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . To c r e a t e i ndependence w i t h i n t h e t r i a l f a c t o r , t h e d i f f e r e n c e b e -tween t h e e m o t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l mean r a n k i n g s was u t i l i z e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s . T h i s i s p r e s e n t e d s y m b o l i c a l l y as D. = ( E . - V - ) where J J J D = d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e mean r a n k i n g ; E = e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m t y p e ; V = v o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m t y p e ; j = h e l p - g i v e r i n c l u s i v e o f 1 t o 14. In a d d i t i o n t o d e t e r m i n i n g t y p e e f f e c t s ( r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n 1) and sex e f f e c t s ( r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n 2) u s i n g s ex ( s u b g r o u p i n g ) and h e l p - g i v i n g s o u r c e ( t r i a l f a c t o r ) , b o t h q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o rm and r e s p o n d e n t o r d e r were used as s u b g r o u p i n g s t o i n v e s t i g a t e p o s s i b l e f o r m o r f o l l o w - u p e f f e c t s . T r e a t m e n t o f D e f e c t i v e Data One f o l l o w - u p r e s p o n d e n t had removed t h e code i d e n t i f y i n g s ex and c o u n t r y o f o r i g i n and had f a i l e d t o rank t h e h e l p - g i v e r s o f one p r o b l e m t y p e . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e d a t a w a s , t h e r e f o r e , e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e a n a l y s i s . F i v e s u b j e c t s had l e f t one o r more h e l p - g i v e r s u n r a n k e d . Each u n -r anked h e l p - g i v e r was g i v e n a r a n k i n g o f 15 as t h e a s s u m p t i o n was made t h a t t h e h e l p - g i v e r was l e s s p r e f e r r e d t h a n rank 14. F i v e s u b j e c t s ( i n c l u d i n g one s u b j e c t who had l e f t one h e l p - g i v e r un ranked ) had a l s o r a n k e d t h e " o t h e r " c a t e g o r y . The h e l p - g i v e r s were r e - r a n k e d u s i n g t h e l e a s t t o most p r e f e r r e d r a n k i n g s p r o v i d e d by t he s u b j e c t w i t h t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e r a n k i n g g i v e n t o " o t h e r . " W h i l e n o t c o n s i d e r e d ^ be d e f e c t i v e f o r s t a t i s t i c a l p u r p o s e s , s i x s u b j e c t s gave i n c o r r e c t t i e d r a n k i n g s f o r h e l p - g i v e r s . The h e l p - g i v e r s were s i m p l y r e - r a n k e d c o r r e c t l y . 30 CHAPTER FOUR R e s u l t s The r e s u l t s o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a i n c l u d i n g f i n d i n g s r e l a t e d t o t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s , i . e . , T y p e , Sex and I n t e r a c t i e f f e c t s as w e l l as Form and F o l l o w - u p e f f e c t s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . I n f o r m a t i o n o f d e s c r i p t i v e i n t e r e s t t o t h i s s t u d y , i n c l u d i n g r a n k e d p r e f e r e n c e s f o r h e l p - g i v e r s , o t h e r p r e f e r r e d s o u r c e s o f a s s i s t -a n c e s , p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e o f p a r e n t s and r e l a t i v e s and t h e method o f c o n t a c t w i l l a l s o be d e s c r i b e d . The r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . Form E f f e c t s C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n s w i t h q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r m s u b g r o u p i n g and h e l p -g i v i n g s o u r c e were n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t ( d f = 1; MS = 175400 .950 ; F = 0 . 4 5 ; p = 0 .505 ) where d f = deg ree s o f f r e e d o m ; MS = mean s q u a r e ; F = F r a t i o ; p = o n e - t a i l p r o b a b i l i t y . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e were no q u e s t i o n -na i r e f o rm d i f f e r e n c e s . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s The r e s u l t s o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f t he d a t a w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d as f o l l o w s : Re sea r ch Q u e s t i o n 1 (Type E f f e c t s ) A r e t h e r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e h i e r a r c h i e s o f p o t e n t i a l h e l p - g i v e r s c o n s i d e r e d by C h i n e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s between t h e two p r o b l e m t y p e s ? C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n s between sex and h e l p - g i v i n g s o u r c e r e s u l t e d i n a s i g n i f i c a n t Type e f f e c t a t t h e 0.01 l e v e l . ( d f = 1 3 ; MS = 175 . 837 ; F = 1 3 . 2 0 ; p = 0 .0 u s i n g Greenhouse G e i s s e r P r o b a b i l i t y ( G . G . P . ) ) . A d d i t i o n a l c r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n s u s i n g t h i s d e s i g n bu t e x c l u d i n g d e f e c t i v e d a t a ( d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e ) c o n f i r m e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n t Type e f f e c t ( d f = 1 3 ; MS = 1 60 . 198 ; F = 1 3 . 4 ; p = 0.0 G . G . P . ) . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e h i e r a r c h i e s o f p o t e n t i a l h e l p - g i v e r s c o n s i d e r e d by C h i n e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s g i v e n t h e emo-t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m . T a b l e 2 p r e s e n t s t h e mean r a n k e d d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e e m o t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l p r ob l em t y p e f o r t h e 14 h e l p - g i v e r s f o r bo th s exe s w i t h F i g u r e 1 d i s p l a y i n g t h e d a t a g r a p h i c a l l y . As i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e d a t a r e v e a l e d a l a c k o f homogen i t y i n t h e v a r i a n c e , t h e G r e e n -house G e i s s e r P r o b a b i l i t y was used as a more c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e i n d e t e r m i n i n g s i g n i f i c a n c e . As t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e means i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t he degree o f c ong ruence between t h e means, a p o s i t i v e s c o r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e h e l p - g i v e r may be v i ewed as l e s s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e e m o t i o n a l t h a n f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m w i t h a r e v e r s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a p p l y i n g t o a n e g a t i v e s c o r e . A n e u t r a l s c o r e , o r 0 , i n d i c a t e s t h a t a h e l p - g i v e r i s p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g e q u a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r e i t h e r t h e e m o t i o n a l o r e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m . I t w o u l d a p p e a r , t h e r e -f o r e , t h a t f e m a l e s p e r c e i v e h e l p - g i v e r s 1 ( F a c u l t y A d v i s o r ) , 5 ( F a c u l t y Member), 12 ( P a r e n t s ) and 4 ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l House S t a f f Member) as more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m than f o r t he e m o t i o n a l T a b l e 2 D i f f e r e n c e Between E m o t i o n a l and E d u c a t i o n a l - V o c a t i o n a l Mean Rank ing s f o r 14 H e l p - G i v e r s by Sex H e l p - G i v e r * Sex 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Ma le (n=33) Mean 3.697 0.333 0.576 0.727 3.030 - 3 . 424 0.636 - 3 . 939 0.152 0.061 0 .606 0 .364 - 0 . 7 5 8 0 .788 Di f f e r e n c e Dr ( ErV V a r i a n c e 15.593 17.167 7.564 11.205 12.780 18.752 17.239 19.559 9.570 7.434 10.934 19.864 8.814 8.985 Female (n= l3 ) Mean 4 .000 0 . 5 3 8 - 1 . 0 7 7 1.615 3 . 4 6 2 - 3 . 6 1 5 - 1 . 7 6 9 - 4 . 0 7 7 0.231 0 . 5 3 8 - 0 . 1 5 4 2 . 8 4 6 - 2 . 5 3 8 0.154 D i f f e r e n c e Dr ( ErV V a r i a n c e 18.667 8.936 4 .244 9.923 21.769 14.256 5.359 14.910 12.692 14.936 17.308 23 .808 14.603 8.641 1 - F a c u l t y A d v i s o r 8 - P h y s i c i a n 2 - R e l a t i v e 9 - Ma le C o u n s e l l o r 3 - Female C o u n s e l l o r 10 - Canad ian S t u d e n t 4 - I n t e r n a t i o n a l House S t a f f Member 11 - I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t ( O t h e r Than C h i n e s e ) 5 - F a c u l t y Member 12 - P a r e n t s 6 - P s y c h i a t r i s t 13 - C h i n e s e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t 7 - N o n - s t u d e n t F r i e n d 14 - Ch i ne se Community L e a d e r CO IX) Mean D i f f e r e n c e 5 . 4 . 3 . 2 . 1 . 0 . -1 . - 2 . - 3 . - 4 . -5 . Ma le Female 10 11 12 13 14 * 1 - F a c u l t y A d v i s o r 2 - R e l a t i v e 3 - Female C o u n s e l l o r 4 - I n t e r n a t i o n a l House 5 - F a c u l t y Member 6 - P s y c h i a t r i s t 7 - N o n - s t u d e n t F r i e n d H e l p - G i v e r * 8 - P h y s i c i a n 9 - Ma le C o u n s e l l o r 10 - Canad i an S t u d e n t 11 - I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t ( N o n - C h i n e s e ) 12 - P a r e n t s 13 - C h i n e s e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t 14 - C h i n e s e Community L e a d e r F i g u r e 1. Mean d i f f e r e n c e between t h e e m o t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l r a n k i n g s o f 14 h e l p - g i v e r s by s ex . CO CO 34, p r o b l e m . H e l p - g i v e r s . 8 ( P h y s i c i a n ) , 6 ( P s y c h i a t r i s t ) , 13 ( C h i n e s e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t ) , 7 ( N o n - s t u d e n t F r i e n d ) and 3 (Female C o u n s e l l o r ) a p p e a r t o be p e r c e i v e d as more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t he e m o t i o n a l t h a n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m . Fo r m a l e s , t h e p a t t e r n i s l e s s s h a r p l y d e f i n e d w i t h h e l p - g i v e r s 1 ( F a c u l t y A d v i s o r ) and 5 ( F a c u l t y Member) b e i n g p e r c e i v e d as more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m t h a n f o r t he e m o t i o n a l and h e l p - g i v e r s 8 ( P h y s i c i a n ) and 6 ( P s y c h i a t r i s t ) as b e i n g more a p p r o -p r i a t e f o r t h e e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m . O t h e r h e l p - g i v e r s a ppea r t o be p e r -c e i v e d as e q u a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r e i t h e r p r o b l e m t y p e . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 2 (Sex E f f e c t s ) A r e t h e r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e h i e r a r c h i e s o f p o t e n t i a l h e l p - g i v e r s between ma le and f ema l e C h i n e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s g i v e n two p r o b l e m t y p e s ? Sex e f f e c t s d e t e r m i n e d by c r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n between sex and h e l p -g i v i n g s o u r c e w e r e n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t ( d f = 1 ; MS = 4 . 8 3 7 ; F = 0 . 3 6 ; p = 0 . 5 5 2 3 ) . A d d i t i o n a l a n a l y s i s u s i n g t h i s d e s i g n bu t e x c l u d i n g d e f e c t i v e d a t a c o n f i r m e d t h e n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t Sex e f f e c t ( d f = 1; MS = 0 . 0 0050 ; F = 0 . 0 1 ; p = 0 . 9 2 6 3 ) . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e a r e no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e r anked h i e r a r c h i e s o f p o t e n t i a l h e l p - g i v e r s c o n s i d e r e d by C h i n e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s on t h e b a s i s o f sex a l o n e . I n t e r a c t i o n E f f e c t s C r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n s w i t h s e x and h e l p - g i v i n g s o u r c e r e s u l t e d i n a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t bo th i n c l u s i v e o f d e f e c t i v e d a t a 35 ( d f = 1 3 ; MS = 1 4 . 1 4 1 ; F = 1 .06; p = 0.3889 G . G . P . J . a n d e x c l u s i v e ( d f = 1 3 ; MS = 1 2 . 6 2 5 ; F = 1 .06; p = 0 .3898 G . G . P . ) . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e was no i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t between sex and p r o b l e m t y p e . F o l l o w - u p E f f e c t s C r o s s - t a b u l a t i i o n s w i t h r e s p o n d e n t o r d e r s u b g r o u p i n g and h e l p - g i v i n g s o u r c e , were s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 0 .05 l e v e l ( d f = 1; MS = 5 2 . 8 9 9 ; . F = 4 . 2 7 ; p = 0 . 0448 . An a d d i t i o n a l a n a l y s i s between r e s p o n d e n t o r d e r and h e l p - g i v i n g s o u r c e was done w i t h t h e e x c l u s i o n o f d e f e c t i v e d a t a ( d e -s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r T h r e e ) . These f i n d i n g s c o n f i r m e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n t F o l l o w - u p e f f e c t ( d f = 1; MS = 0 . 2 4 0 ; F = 4 . 7 1 ; p = 0 . 0 3 6 8 ) . F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s c r o s s - t a b u l a t i n g sex and f o l l o w - u p w i t h h e l p - g i v i n g s o u r c e r e -s u l t e d i n a n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t F o l l o w - u p e f f e c t . ( d f = 1; MS = 0 . 2 1 0 ; • F = 3 . 8 9 ; p = 0 . 0 5 6 9 ) . The Type e f f e c t r ema i ned s i g n i f i c a n t ( d f = 1 3 ; MS = 113 .462 ; F = 9 . 8 8 ; p = 0.0 G . G . P . ) . I n t e r a c t i o n between s e x , f o l l o w -up and t y p e were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t . I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t w h i l e t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t F o l l o w - u p e f f e c t when sex was e x c l u d e d as a f a c t o r , i t d i d n o t i n t e r f e r e o r i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e ma in Type e f f e c t . G i v e n t h e s m a l l s amp le s i z e , t h e l a c k o f demograph i c v a r i a b l e s and s i g n i f i c a n c e be low t h e 0.01 l e v e l , no f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s was p e r f o r m e d t o e x p l o r e t h i s phenomena. P r e f e r r e d O r d e r o f P o t e n t i a l H e l p - g i v e r s T a b l e 3 p r e s e n t s t h e mean r a n k i n g s o f h e l p - g i v e r s f o r male and f ema l e s u b j e c t s g i v e n t h e two p r o b l e m t y p e s . W i th F i g u r e s 2 and 3 d i s -36 p l a y i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n g r a p h i c a l l y . G i v e n t h a t r ank 1 i s most p r e f e r r e d and rank 14 l e a s t p r e f e r r e d h e l p - g i v e r , t h e most p r e f e r r e d s o u r c e s o f a s s i s t a n c e f o r ma les g i v e n t h e e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m a r e C h i n e s e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t f o l l o w e d by Non-S t u d e n t F r i e n d o r P a r e n t s . F o r t h e f e m a l e s , C h i n e s e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s a r e a l s o most p r e -f e r r e d f o r t h e e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m , f o l l o w e d by R e l a t i v e o r N o n - s t u d e n t F r i e n d o r C a n a d i a n S t u d e n t . G i v e n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m , t h e most p r e f e r r e d s o u r c e s o f a s s i s t a n c e f o r t h e males a r e F a c u l t y A d v i s o r f o l l o w e d b y , w i t h e q u a l p r e f e r e n c e , F a c u l t y Member, N o n - s t u d e n t F r i e n d , P a r e n t s and C h i n e s e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t s . F o r f e m a l e s , t h e most p r e f e r r e d s o u r c e o f a s s i s t a n c e f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m was a l s o F a c u l t y A d v i s o r f o l l o w e d by R e l a t i v e o r F a c u l t y Member. Canad i an S t u d e n t , P a r e n t s and C h i n e s e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t f o l l o w e d c l o s e l y b e h i n d , b e i n g e q u i v a l e n t t o F a c u l t y Member when t h e s t a n d a r d e r r o r i s t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . L e a s t p r e f e r r e d s o u r c e s o f a s s i s t a n c e f o r bo th sexes f o r t h e e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m were C h i n e s e Community L e a d e r , I n t e r n a t i o n a l House S t a f f and P s y c h i a t r i s t . F o r t h e e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m , P s y c h i a t r i s t , P h y s i c i a n and C h i n e s e Community L e a d e r were l e a s t p r e f e r r e d s o u r c e s o f a s s i s t a n c e f o r b o t h s e x e s . T a b l e 3 Mean Rank ings f o r 14 H e l p - g i v e r s by Sex and P r o b l e m Type H e l p - G i v e r E m o t i o n a l P r ob l em E d u c a t i o n a l - V o c a t i o n a l P r ob l em Ma le Female Ma le Female 1. F a c u l t y A d v i s o r Mean Rank 6.533 7.615 3.250 3.615 V a r i a n c e 12.533 14.923 6.774 4 .590 S t a n d a r d E r r o r 0.646 1.071 0.460 0 .594 2. R e l a t i v e Mean Rank 6 .483 5.231 6.677 4 .692 V a r i a n c e 17.116 10.526 14.759 6.231 S t a n d a r d E r r o r 0 .768 0 .900 0.690 0.692 3. Female C o u n s e l l o r Mean Rank 7.828 7.000 7.433 8.077 V a r i ance 15.291 6 .667 13.220 5.077 S t a n d a r d E r r o r 0.726 0.716 0 .664 0.625 C o n t i n u e d . . . E m o t i o n a l P rob lem E d u c a t i o n a l - V o c a t i o n a l P r o b l e m H e l p - G i v e r Ma le Female Ma le Female I n t e r n a t i o n a l House S t a f f Member Mean Rank 9.60 V a r i a n c e 11.490 S t a n d a r d E r r o r 0.619 F a c u l t y Member Mean Rank 7.759 V a r i a n c e 7.690 S t a n d a r d E r r o r 0.515 P s y c h i a t r i s t Mean Rank 8.793 V a r i a n c e 21.741 S t a n d a r d E r r o r 0.866 10.769 4 .526 0.590 7.769 16.026 1.110 9.769 16.026 1.110 8.800 9 .890 0 .574 5.000 9.400 0.551 12.767 2.530 0 .290 9 .154 7.141 0.741 4 .308 5.397 0 .644 13.385 0.590 0 .213 C o n t i n u e d H e l p - G i v e r E m o t i o n a l P rob lem E d u c a t i o n a l - V o c a t i o n a l P r o b l e m Ma le Female Ma le Female 7. N o n - s t u d e n t F r i e n d Mean Rank 5.548 5.308 5.188 7.077 V a r i a n c e 17.456 15.564 8.802 11.244 S t a n d a r d E r r o r 0 .750 1.094 0.524 0 .930 8. P h y s i c i a n Mean Rank 7.367 8 .308 11.700 12.385 V a r i a n c e 16.309 12.731 5.183 3.090 S t a n d a r d E r r o r 0 .737 0 .990 0.416 0 .488 9. Ma le C o u n s e l l o r Mean Rank 6 .793 8.692 6.900 8.462 V a r i a n c e 12.099 10.231 11.334 8.269 S t a n d a r d E r r o r 0.646 0 .887 0.615 0 .798 C o n t i n u e d . . . H e l p - G i v e r Emo t i ona l P r ob l em E d u c a t i o n a l - V o c a t i o n a l P r ob l em Ma le Female Ma le Female 10. Canad i an S t u d e n t Mean Rank 6.867 5.846 7.065 5.308 V a r i a n c e 11.913 10.974 8.796 8.064 S t a n d a r d E r r o r 0.630 0.919 0 .533 0 .788 11 . I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t ( o t h e r t han C h i n e s e ) Mean Rank 7.968 6 .692 7.563 6.846 V a r i a n c e 12.499 19.564 9.609 14.141 S t a n d a r d E r r o r 0.635 1.227 0 .548 1.043 12. P a r e n t s Mean Rank 5.690 7.846 5.276 5.000 V a r i a n c e 15.865 20 .308 13.707 12.833 S t a n d a r d E r r o r 0 .740 1.250 0 .687 0 .994 C o n t i n u e d . . . H e l p - G i v e r Emo t i ona l P r ob l em E d u c a t i o n a l - V o c a t i o n a l P r ob l em Male Female Ma le Female 13. C h i n e s e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t Mean Rank 4.697 2.615 5.455 5.154 V a r i a n c e 15.343 3.923 14.943 16.474 S t a n d a r d E r r o r 0.682 0.549 0 .673 1.126 14. C h i n e s e Community Leade r Mean Rank 11.069 11.462 10.333 11.308 V a r i a n c e 10.638 6 .603 8 .713 3.731 S t a n d a r d E r r o r 0.606 0 .713 0.539 0.536 Mean Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 H e l p - G i v e r * 10 11 12 13 14 1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -Male Female F a c u l t y A d v i s o r R e l a t i v e Female C o u n s e l l o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l House F a c u l t y Member P s y c h i a t r i s t N o n - s t u d e n t F r i e n d P h y s i c i a n Ma le C o u n s e l l o r C a n a d i a n S t u d e n t I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t (Non-Ch i nese ) P a r e n t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l C h i n e s e S t u d e n t Ch i nese L e a d e r Community F i g u r e 2. Mean r a n k i n g s o f h e l p - g i v e r s f o r the e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m . Mean Rank Ma le - - Female * 1 _ F a c u l t y A d v i s o r 2 - R e l a t i v e 3 - Female C o u n s e l l o r 4 - I n t e r n a t i o n a l House 5 - F a c u l t y Member 6 - P s y c h i a t r i s t 7 - N o n - s t u d e n t F r i e n d 8 - P h y s i c i a n 9 - Male C o u n s e l l o r 10 - Canad i an S t u d e n t 11 - I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t ( N o n - C h i n e s e ) 12 - P a r e n t s 13 - C h i n e s e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t 14 - C h i n e s e Community L e a d e r 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 H e l p - G i v e r * F i g u r e 3. Mean r a n k i n g s o f h e l p - g i v e r s f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m . .44 O t h e r Sou r ce s o f A s s i s t a n c e I n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g o t h e r h e l p - g i v e r s p e r c e i v e d as a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e e m o t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m a r e summar i zed as f o l l o w s : E m o t i o n a l P r ob l em P r i e s t ( m e n t i o n e d t h r e e t i m e s ) God Chu rch Member W i f e Roommate C h i n e s e C a n a d i a n S t u d e n t C h i n e s e F r i e n d s i n Hong Kong "Good " o r " C l o s e " F r i e n d (men t i oned t w i c e ) V o c a t i o n a l P r o b l e m God (men t i oned t w i c e ) L o c a l Church Group Lawyer Manpower W i f e C h i n e s e Canad i an S t u d e n t F e l l o w D e p a r t m e n t a l S t u d e n t I r r e s p e c t i v e o f Race Good F r i e n d Of i n t e r e s t i s t h e p redominance o f h e l p - g i v e r s w i t h a r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n . I t i s n o t known why many o f t h e h e l p - g i v e r s , i . e . , w i f e , roommate, good o r c l o s e f r i e n d , f e l l o w d e p a r t m e n t a l s t u d e n t , a r e p e r -c e i v e d as no t b e l o n g i n g w i t h i n t h e l i s t o f h e l p - g i v e r s p r o v i d e d . 45 P l a c e o f R e s i d e n c e o f P a r e n t and  R e l a t i v e and N a t u r e o f C o n t a c t T a b l e 4 summar izes i n f o r m a t i o n r e p o r t e d by s u b j e c t s r e g a r d i n g w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e p a r e n t and r e l a t i v e c o n s i d e r e d as a p o t e n t i a l h e l p -g i v e r r e s i d e d w i t h i n o r o u t s i d e o f Canada and t h e presumed n a t u r e o f c o n t a c t . The i n f o r m a t i o n r e p o r t e d i s n o t e q u a l t o t h e number o f s u b j e c t s i n v o l v e d as n o t e v e r y s u b j e c t p r o v i d e d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n n o r d i d e v e r y s u b -j e c t r e p o r t t h e r e q u e s t e d i n f o r m a t i o n f o r bo th p r o b l e m t y p e s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d i n T a b l e 4 t h e m a j o r i t y o f p a r e n t s c o n s i d e r e d r e s i d e o u t s i d e Canada w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y o f r e l a t i v e s r e s i d i n g w i t h i n Canada. I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e n a t u r e o f c o n t a c t w i t h r e l a t i v e s i s more d i r e c t , i . e . , i n p e r s o n o r c o m b i n a t i o n i n p e r s o n / t e l e p h o n e , t h a n i s c o n t a c t w i t h p a r e n t s . T a b l e 4 P l a c e o f R e s i d e n c e o f P a r e n t and R e l a t i v e and N a t u r e o f C o n t a c t by P r o b l e m Type P r ob l em Type P l a c e o f R e s i d e n c e N a t u r e o f C o n t a c t I n s i d e Canada O u t s i d e Canada L e t t e r Phone L e t t e r / P h o n e In P e r s o n In Pe r son/Phone E m o t i o n a l P a r e n t 2 40 17 8 15 2 0 R e l a t i v e 23 19 12 5 8 10 6 E d u c a t i o n a l -V o c a t i o n a l P a r e n t 2 41 20 6 15 2 0 R e l a t i v e 22 22 13 6 7 11 5 CT-47 CHAPTER FIVE D i s c u s s i o n and C o n c l u s i o n s T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l d i s c u s s t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d i n C h a p t e r F ou r . In a d d i t i o n , i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o u n s e l l i n g p r a c t i c e and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h stemming f r o m t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y w i l l be e x p l o r e d . D i s c u s s i o n o f Re sea r ch F i n d i n g s T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l e x p l o r e d i f f e r e n c e s between p r e s e n t and p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h w i t h r e s p e c t t o f i n d i n g s o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n t Type e f f e c t s and f i n d i n g s r e l a t i n g t o t h e p e r c e i v e d a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f h e l p - g i v e r s a c c o r d i n g t o p r o b l e m t y p e . P r i m a r y , s e c o n d a r y and l e a s t p r e f e r r e d s o u r c e s o f a s s i s t a n c e i n d i c a t e d i n t h e r a n k i n g o f h e l p - g i v e r s w i l l a l s o be e x p l o r e d . F i n d i n g s R e l a t e d t o Type E f f e c t s The p r e s e n t s t u d y c o n c l u d e d t h a t h i e r a r c h i e s o f 14 p o t e n t i a l h e l p -g i v e r s c o n s i d e r e d by C h i n e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s v a r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y a c c o r d i n g t o p r o b l e m t y p e w i t h no d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t i n g between s e x e s . W h i l e t h e n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t Sex e f f e c t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t i n g h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e , t h e s i g n i f i c a n t Type e f f e c t i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y . ( C h r i s t e n s e n & Magoon, 1974; Webs te r & F r e t z , 1978 ) . T h i s i n c o n s i s t e n t r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g may be r e l a t e d t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e samples used o r may be due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s . The A s i a n A m e r i c a n samp le u sed by Webs te r and F r e t z (1978) was f a i r l y s m a l l . 48 c o n s i s t i n g o f o n l y 8 ma les and 10 f e m a l e s . C h r i s t e n s e n and Magoon (1974) and Web s t e r and F r e t z (1978) bo th u sed t h e K r u s k a l - W a l l i s o n e -way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r i n d e p e n d e n t samples t o i n v e s t i g a t e s ex d i f f e r e n c e s and t h e F r i edman two-way a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r r e l a t e d samp le s t o i n v e s t i g a t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r o b l e m t y p e . The use o f t h e med ian r a t h e r t h a n t h e mean (Webs te r & F r e t z , 1978) and n o n - p a r a m e t r i c r a t h e r t h a n p a r a m e t r i c s t a t i s t i c s w o u l d appea r t o be l e s s p o w e r f u l methods o f s t a t i s t i c a l l y i n v e s t i g a t i n g r a n k i n g s a t t r i b u t e d h e l p - g i v e r s . One m u s t , h oweve r , be w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t " r a n k i n g s " as " w e i g h t s . " A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f H e l p - G i v e r A c c o r d i n g t o P r ob l em Type A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e use o f p a r a m e t r i c s t a t i s t i c s i n c l u d e d a measure o f t h e p e r c e i v e d a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f a g i v e n h e l p - g i v e r a c c o r d i n g t o p r o b l e m t y p e . As d e m o n s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 1, bo t h ma le and f e m a l e s u b j e c t s a p p e a r t o p e r c e i v e F a c u l t y A d v i s o r and F a c u l t y Member as more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l p r o b -lem and P h y s i c i a n and P s y c h i a t r i s t as more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m . F i n d i n g s r e l a t i n g t o t he p e r c e i v e d a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f c o u n s e l -l o r s a c c o r d i n g t o p r o b l e m t y p e a r e d i s s i m i l a r t o p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s s u g g e s t -i n g t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s a r e v i e w e d as a more a p p r o p r i a t e s o u r c e o f a s s i s t -ance f o r e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l c o n c e r n s t h a n f o r e m o t i o n a l c o n c e r n s ( R e s n i c k & G e l s o , 1 971 ; S t r o n g , Hender & B r a t t o n , 1970; Warman, 1960; Web s t e r & F r e t z , 1 978 ) . Such f i n d i n g s c o u l d be due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n m e t h o d o l o g y . A c c o r d i n g t o c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s , Ma le C o u n s e l -l o r i s v i e w e d as e q u a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r bo th p rob lems by t he ma le s u b j e c t s w i t h f e m a l e s u b j e c t s r e g a r d i n g Female C o u n s e l l o r as more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m . A measure o f p e r c e i v e d a p p r o -49 p r i a t e n e s s i s n o t , however , n e c e s s a r i l y p r e d i c t i v e o f t h e o r d e r o f p r e -f e r e n c e s f o r h e l p - g i v e r s . P r i m a r y P r e f e r e n c e s f o r H e l p - G i v e r s I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e mean r a n k i n g s o f h e l p - g i v e r s f o r t h e two p r o b l e m t y p e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t ma le and f e m a l e s u b j e c t s p r e f e r C h i n e s e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t f o r t h e e m o t i o n a l p r ob l em and F a c u l t y A d v i s o r f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m . These f i n d i n g s a r e s i m i l a r t o t h e r e p o r t e d h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s i n g e n e r a l ( F u l l e r T o r r e y e t a l . , 1970; L e e , 1973 ; P e d e r s e n , 1975a , 1975b ) . D i f f e r e n c e s between t he r a n k i n g s g i v e n f a m i l y members i n t he p r e -s e n t s t u d y and t h a t o f Webs te r & F r e t z (1978) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e c o n a t i o n a l g roup becomes t h e p r i m a r y r e f e r e n c e g roup when f a m i l y members a r e l e s s a c c e s s i b l e . These f i n d i n g s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e documented r e p l a c e -ment o f t h e A s i a n e x t e n d e d f a m i l y by t h e c o n a t i o n a l g roup ( H i g g i n b o t h a m , 1979; K l e i n e t a l . , 1971 ; K l e i n e t a l . , 1974; K l i n e b e r g & H u l l , 1979; L e e , 1973 ; M i l l e r e t a l . , 1 971 ) . S e conda r y P r e f e r e n c e s f o r H e l p - G i v e r s Of i n t e r e s t , i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , a r e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t he r a n k i n g s g i v e n t o f a m i l y members, i . e . , P a r e n t s and R e l a t i v e , a c r o s s p r o b l e m t y p e s and s e x . F o r t h e e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m , ma les r a n k e d P a r e n t s and N o n - s t u d e n t F r i e n d as s e c o n d a r y p r e f e r e n c e s w i t h R e l a t i v e , F a c u l t y A d v l i s o r , Ma l e C o u n s e l l o r and Canad i an S t u d e n t f o l l o w i n g w i t h equa l p r e -f e r e n c e . P a r e n t s were a l s o a s e c o n d a r y p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e v o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m , as was C h i n e s e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t and F a c u l t y Member. 50 F e m a l e s , howeve r , r a nked R e l a t i v e and N o n - s t u d e n t F r i e n d as s e c o n d a r y p r e f e r e n c e s f o r t h e e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m , f o l l o w e d by Canad i an S t u d e n t and P a r e n t s . F o r t he e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m , R e l a t i v e s and F a c u l t y Members were r e p o r t e d as s e c o n d a r y p r e f e r e n c e s w i t h Canad i an S t u d e n t , P a r e n t s and C h i n e s e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t f o l l o w i n g w i t h e q u a l p r e f e r e n c e . These f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t male s u b j e c t s a r e more l i k e l y t o seek a s s i s t a n c e f r o m p a r e n t s and l e s s l i k e l y t o seek a s s i s t a n c e f r o m r e l a t i v e s t h a n a r e f e m a l e s f o r e i t h e r p r o b l e m t y p e . E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e raw d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t w h i l e 9 o f 13 f e m a l e s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e c o n s i d e r e d r e s i d e d w i t h i n Canada , o n l y 15 o f 33 male s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d l i k e w i s e . Female s u b j e c t s may, t h e r e f o r e , be more l i k e l y t o seek a s s i s t a n c e f r o m a r e l a t i v e as t h e y a r e more a c c e s s i b l e . Of t he two s u b -j e c t s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t p a r e n t s r e s i d e d w i t h i n Canada , bo th were m a l e s . I t may a l s o be t h a t f e m a l e s a r e more r e l u c t a n t t o i n f o r m p a r e n t s o f p e r -s o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s as t h e y s t u d y o v e r s e a s . Such r e l u c t a n c e c o u l d r e f l e c t t h e g r e a t e r deg ree o f p r o t e c t i v e n e s s and c o n c e r n e x t e n d e d by C h i n e s e p a r e n t s t owa rd s d a u g h t e r s s t u d y i n g o v e r s e a s t h a n t o sons i n t h e same s i t u a t i o n . Whether p a r e n t s , r e l a t i v e s o r n o n - s t u d e n t f r i e n d s have t he n e c e -s s a r y knowledge and r e s o u r c e s t o a s s i s t s t u d e n t s i s q u e s t i o n a b l e . P a r e n t s , t h e m a j o r i t y o f whom l i v e o u t s i d e o f Canada , may be u n f a m i l i a r w i t h a w e s t e r n e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m and s o c i e t y and may a l s o be unsympa-t h e t i c t o p e r s o n a l and a cadem i c d i f f i c u l t i e s w h i c h c o u l d r e s u l t i n a l o s s o f f a c e f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l and d i s h o n o u r t o t h e f a m i l y name. The A s i a n r e s e r v e i n d i s c l o s i n g p e r s o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s and t he f a c t t h a t 51 c o m m u n i c a t i o n , t r a d i t i o n a l l y one -way , must be done t h r o u g h l e t t e r and t e l e p h o n e w o u l d seem t o i n c r e a s e t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g t o o c c u r . G i v e n t h e t remendous s o c i a l and f i n a n c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s f e l t by t h e s t u d e n t , t h e p r e s s u r e t o p u r s u e p a r e n t a l g u i d a n c e , w h e t h e r m i s -d i r e c t e d o r n o t , may a l s o be g r e a t . Low P r e f e r e n c e s f o r H e l p - G i v e r s W h i l e low p r e f e r e n c e i s g i v e n t o h e l p - g i v e r s o f f e r i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e r v i c e s , F a c u l t y A d v i s o r and Ma le C o u n s e l l o r a r e t h e p r e f e r r e d p r o -f e s s i o n a l h e l p - g i v e r s c o n s i d e r e d by ma le s u b j e c t s f o r t h e e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m w i t h f e m a l e s u b j e c t s p r e f e r r i n g Female C o u n s e l l o r . The p r e s e n t f i n d i n g s d i f f e r w i t h t h e h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s o f A s i a n Amer i c an s (Web s t e r & F r e t z , 1978) g i v e n t h a t t h e Ma l e C o u n s e l l o r i s p r e f e r r e d t o t h e R e l a t i v e by ma le s u b j e c t s f o r bo th p r o b l e m t y p e s and f e m a l e s u b j e c t s p r e f e r a Female C o u n s e l l o r t o P a r e n t s f o r t h e e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m . The p r e s e n t s t u d y a l s o d i f f e r s f r om t h a t o f Webs te r and F r e t z (1978) i n t h a t c o u n s e l l o r s i n t h e l a t t e r s t u d y a r e more h i g h l y p r e f e r r e d a c r o s s p r o b -lem t y p e s w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e v o c a t i o n a l p r ob l em f o r m a l e s . T h e r e a r e a l s o a number o f h e l p - g i v e r s g i v e n a r a n k i n g e q u a l t o t h a t o f c o u n s e l l o r i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . Such d i f f e r e n c e s m i g h t r e f l e c t bo th t h e g r e a t e r a v a i l a b i l i t y o f f a m i l y members and t he g r e a t e r deg ree o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n p r e s e n t w i t h i n an A s i a n A m e r i c a n sample as compared t o a C h i n e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s a m p l e . These r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s s u g g e s t t h a t c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s a r e more r e a d i l y u t i l i z e d by A s i a n A m e r i c a n s t u d e n t s t h a n by C h i n e s e s t u -den t s s t u d y i n g o v e r s e a s . The h i g h e r p r e f e r e n c e g i v e n c o u n s e l l o r s may 52 a l s o i n d i c a t e a g r e a t e r awareness o f t h e pu rpo se and a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s by A s i a n A m e r i c a n s . F a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o a c c u l t u r a -t i o n may a l s o c o n t r i b u t e t o g r e a t e r a c c e p t a n c e o f c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s . The l ow r a n k i n g g i v e n P s y c h i a t r i s t a c r o s s p r ob l em t y p e s , e m o t i o n a l i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s c o n g r u e n t w i t h d a t a r e f l e c t i n g t h e h e l p - g i v i n g p r e -f e r e n c e s o f A s i a n Amer i c an s (Webs te r & F r e t z , 1978) and A m e r i c a n c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s i n g e n e r a l ( C h r i s t e n s e n & Magoon, 1974; S n y d e r , H i l l & D e r k s e n , 1 972 ) . T h i s f i n d i n g i s a l s o c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e r e p o r t e d u n d e r u t i l i z a -t i o n o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l , c o u n s e l l i n g and p s y c h i a t r i c s e r v i c e s by non -Wes te rn i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s ( A l e x a n d e r e t a l . , 1981) and p s y c h i a t r i c s e r v i c e s by A s i a n A m e r i c a n s t u d e n t s (Sue & K i r k , 1975 ) . As s u g g e s t e d by Sue and K i r k ( 1 9 7 5 ) , t h e g r e a t e r p r e f e r e n c e g i v e n c o u n s e l l o r s may r e -f l e c t a p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s as b e i n g l e s s t h r e a t e n -i n g i n te rms o f s o c i a l s t i g m a and as d e a l i n g w i t h a b r o a d e r range o f d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a n p s y c h i a t r i c s e r v i c e s . The low p r e f e r e n c e t o u t i l i z e P h y s i c i a n appea r s t o be i n c o n s i s t - » e n t w i t h t h e r e p o r t e d o v e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f h e a l t h s e r v i c e s by i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s ( A l e x a n d e r e t a l . , 1 981 ; Maha, 1964; R i c e , 1964 ) . These f i n d -i n g s a l s o d i f f e r w i t h t h o s e o f Webs te r and F r e t z (1978) who r e p o r t t h a t A s i a n A m e r i c a n s t u d e n t s p r e f e r P h y s i c i a n as a p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t a c t (Rank 4) f o r t h e e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m f o l l o w e d by t h e C o u n s e l i n g C e n t e r . G i v e n t h e t endency o f A s i a n s t o s o m a t i c i z e p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s ( A l e x a n d e r e t a l . , 1 981 ; I c h i k a w a , 1966 ; F u l l e r T o r r e y e t a l . , 1 9 7 0 ) , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t an A s i a n s t u d e n t w o u l d l o o k f o r a p h y s i o l o g i c a l b a s i s t o a p r o b l e m g i v e n t h e absence o f an e x t e r n a l e v a l u a t i o n o f t he p r o b l e m as " e m o t i o n a l . " As a r e s u l t , P h y s i c i a n m i g h t be a more p r e f e r r e d s o u r c e 53 o f a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n an a c t u a l , r a t h e r t h a n h y p o t h e t i c a l p r o b l e m . The low p r e f e r e n c e t o u t i l i z e I n t e r n a t i o n a l House S t a f f Member i s , p e r h a p s , n o t s u r p r i s i n g g i v e n t h e ab sence o f a f o r e i g n s t u d e n t a d -v i s o r who m i g h t be i d e n t i f i e d as a s o u r c e o f a s s i s t a n c e f o r t he two p r o b l e m t y p e s . The l ow p r e f e r e n c e t o seek a s s i s t a n c e f r om I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t ( O t h e r Than C h i n e s e ) and h i g h e r p r e f e r e n c e t o u t i l i z e C a n a d i a n S t u d e n t s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e C h i n e s e c o n a t i o n a l g roup i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y i s o l a t e d f rom o t h e r c o n a t i o n a l g roups so t h a t a s s i s t a n c e i s s o u g h t f r om members o f t h e h o s t c o u n t r y r a t h e r t h a n f r om i n d i v i d u a l s who s h a r e i n t h e e x -p e r i e n c e o f s t u d y i n g o v e r s e a s . S e e k i n g a s s i s t a n c e f r om a Canad i an s t u -d e n t f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m m i g h t a l s o be t h e more l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f t h e s t u d e n t i s f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e u n i v e r s i t y s y s t e m and i s w i t h i n t h e same deg ree p rog ram. I t i s a l s o n o t known i f t h e C a n a d i a n p r e f e r r e d i s o f C h i n e s e e t h n i c b a c k g r o u n d . The l ow r a n k i n g g i v e n C h i n e s e Community L e a d e r a c r o s s p r o b l e m t y p e s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e t e r m i s amb iguous . G i v e n t h e h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h a r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n i n d i c a t e d as " o t h e r " s o u r c e s o f a s s i s t a n c e , t h e c a t e g o r y o f m i n i s t e r / p r i e s t w o u l d have been more a p p r o p r i a t e . G i v e n t h i s o m i s s i o n , t h e r e s u l t s must be i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h c a u t i o n as t h e y may be skewed. Responses w i t h i n t h e " o t h e r " c a t e g o r y a l s o s u g g e s t p o s s i b l e c o n -f u s i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e r a n k i n g s o f h e l p - g i v e r s . F o r e x a m p l e , i t i s n o t c e r t a i n how a r e s p o n s e i n d i c a t i n g " g o o d " o r " c l o s e " f r i e n d wou l d d i f f e r f r o m t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f s t u d e n t / f r i e n d p r o v i d e d . .54 I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r C o u n s e l l i n g P r a c t i c e G i v e n t h a t t h e c o n a t i o n a l g roup i s t h e p r e f e r r e d s o u r c e o f a s s i s t -ance f o r t h e e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m , i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s , C h i n e s e i n p a r t i c u l a r , need t o be i n f o r m e d o f t h e i r r o l e as h e l p - g i v e r s . S e v e r a l a u t h o r s have a d v o c a t e d t h e deve l opment o f p e e r c o u n s e l l i n g programs b o t h f o r m i n o r i t y s t u d e n t s ( S ue , 1973) and i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s ( H i g g i n b o t h a m , 1979 ; P e d e r s e n , 1 9 7 5 a ) . Such an app r oach w o u l d n o t o n l y imp rove t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t g i v e n t o t h e i n t e r -n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t b u t w o u l d a l s o l i n k t h e s t u d e n t s p r i m a r y r e f e r e n c e g roup t o p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r s who c o u l d s e r v e as c o n s u l t a n t s . A c c o r d i n g t o Lee ( 1 9 7 3 ) , t h e p r i m a r y r e a s o n g i v e n f o r t h e l a c k o f u t i l i z a t i o n o f c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s by i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s i s a l a c k o f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e pu rpo se o f c o u n s e l l i n g . D u r i n g t h e o r i e n t a -t i o n program o f f e r e d t o s t u d e n t s , t h e pu rpo se s and a v a i l a b i l i t y o f c o u n s e l l i n g r e s o u r c e s on campus and w i t h i n t h e community s h o u l d be s t r e s s e d . G i v e n t h a t A s i a n A m e r i c a n s a r e more r e s p o n s i v e t o menta l h e a l t h s e r v i c e s s p e c i f i c a l l y d e s i g n e d f o r A s i a n s (Sue & M c K i n n e y , 1975) and appea r t o r e g a r d A s i a n c o u n s e l l o r s as more c r e d i b l e and a p p r o a c h a b l e t h a n C a u c a s i a n c o u n s e l l o r s ( A t k i n s o n , Maruyama, M a t s u i , 1 9 7 8 ) , i n f o r m a -t i o n s h o u l d a l s o be made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e s t u d e n t s as t o t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e r a p i s t s who a r e , i d e a l l y , b i l i n g u a l , and a l s o s e n s i t i v e t o A s i a n c u l t u r e and t h e u n i q u e needs o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . I d e a l l y , t h e o r i e n t a t i o n p rog ram s h o u l d be open t o i n d i v i d u a l s i n -c l u d e d w i t h i n t h e s t u d e n t s s u p p o r t i v e n e t w o o r k , i n c l u d i n g n o n - s t u d e n t f r i e n d s and f a m i l y members. The n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e g i v e n t h e s e 55 s t u d e n t s w o u l d be f u r t h e r s a f e g u a r d e d i n t h a t e d u c a t i o n c o u l d be p r o -v i d e d r e g a r d i n g r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e and t h e need f o r r e f e r r a l when a p p r o p r i a t e . Such an app r oach m i g h t a l s o s e r v e t o d e c r e a s e t he r e l u c -t a n c e t o s eek p r o f e s s i o n a l h e l p when needed i f i t i s done w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l and encouragement . o f s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s . The p r e f e r e n c e I t o u t i l i z e f a c u l t y a d v i s o r s and f a c u l t y members g i v e n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m i n d i c a t e s a need f o r i n t e r a g e n c y a l l i a n c e s between t h e c o u n s e l l i n g o f f i c e s and t h e d i f f e r e n t f a c u l t y depa r tmen t s on campus ( C h r i s t e n s e n & Magoon, 1974 ) . F a c u l t y a d v i s o r s and f a c u l t y members must a l s o be made aware o f t h e i r h e l p - g i v i n g r o l e and t h e e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e . S t u d e n t s , i n t u r n , must be made aware t h a t f a c u l t y members may n o t be e q u i p p e d t o a s s i s t them i n p rob lems w h i c h a r e e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l i n n a t u r e (Webs te r & F r e t z , 1978 ) . G i v e n t h a t t h e a d v i s o r i s p e r c e i v e d by male C h i n e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s as a s o u r c e o f a s s i s t a n c e f o r bo th t h e e m o t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l -v o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m , t h e p l a c e m e n t o f a f o r e i g n s t u d e n t a d v i s o r w i t h a p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g backg round w o u l d seem t o be a l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h . Such an i n d i v i d u a l w o u l d p re sumab l y be p e r c e i v e d as more s e n s i t i v e t o t h e u n i q u e needs o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s a n d , t h e r e f o r e , more a c t i v e l y s ough t f o r a s s i s t a n c e w i t h p e r s o n a l p rob lems ( P e d e r s e n , 1975a ) . I n t e -g r a t e d s e r v i c e s f o r t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t w o u l d a l s o r e s u l t ( P e d e r s e n , 1 975b ) . B a r i n g t h e p l a c e m e n t o f a f o r e i g n s t u d e n t a d v i s o r , P e d e r s e n (1975a) s u g g e s t s t h a t a d v i s o r s be g i v e n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l t r a i n i n g t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . 56 G i v e n t h e l a c k o f knowledge r e p o r t e d by i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s c o n -c e r n i n g t h e pu rpo se o f c o u n s e l l i n g ( L e e , 1 9 7 3 ) , c o u n s e l l o r s may need t o p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s when w o r k i n g w i t h t h i s s t u d e n t g r oup . As t h e r e i s a t e n d e n c y f o r C h i n e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s t o p r e f e r same sex c o u n s e l l o r s , d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f c o u n s e l l o r p r e f e r e n c e s s h o u l d be made on r e f e r r a l . F i n a l l y , c o u n s e l l o r s must be made aware t h a t C h i n e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s may seek p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e a f t e r p e r s o n a l r e s o u r c e s have been e x h a u s t e d . In c a se s where t h e s t u d e n t has become a l i e n a t e d f rom t h e c o n a t i o n a l g r o u p , t h e c o u n s e l l o r may p l a y a r o l e i n r e s t r e n g t h e n i n g community t i e s . S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u t u r e Re sea r ch F u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s o f i n t e r -n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s s h o u l d i n c l u d e t h e c a t e g o r y o f M i n i s t e r / P r i e s t w i t h t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e more ambiguous c a t e g o r y o f an e t h n i c community l e a d e r . I t w o u l d a l s o be o f i n t e r e s t t o e x p l o r e p r e f e r e n c e s t oward s c o u n s e l l o r s o f t h e same e t h n i c b a c k g r o u n d . The i n c l u s i o n o f v a r i o u s demograph i c v a r i a b l e s , such as a g e , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , deg ree p r o g r am, y e a r s i n Canada , p r e v i o u s c o u n s e l l i n g e x p e r i e n c e , e t c . , w o u l d a l s o a s s i s t i n e x p l o r i n g a p p a r e n t d i f f e r e n c e s between i n i t i a l and f o l l o w - u p r e -s p o n d e n t s . I t w o u l d a l s o be o f i n t e r e s t t o compare t he h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r -ences o f C h i n e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s t o t h o s e o f o t h e r A s i a n and n o n -A s i a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l s u b g r o u p s . G i v e n t h e l i m i t e d r e s e a r c h and s m a l l s amp le s i z e s u sed i n e x p l o r i n g t h e h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s o f Canad i an 5.7. and A m e r i c a n e t h n i c g r o u p s , t h e r e must a l s o be c o n t i n u e d r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a i n o r d e r t o v a l i d a t e r e p o r t e d f i n d i n g s . D i f f i c u l t i e s r e l a t i n g t o o b t a i n i n g an adequa te sample s i z e c o u l d be overcome by t h e i n c l u s i o n o f i m m i g r a n t and v i s a s t u d e n t s w i t h c o n -s i d e r a t i o n b e i n g g i v e n t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a c c u l t u r a t i o n . B a r i n g f i n a n c i a l o b s t a c l e s , a l a r g e r samp le c o u l d a l s o be o b t a i n e d by compa r i n g t h e h e l p - g i v i n g p r e f e r e n c e s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s on v a r i o u s u n i -v e r s i t y campuses . 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A t y p o l o g i c a l app roach t o t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t u d y o f C h i n e s e and J a p a n e s e A m e r i c a n c o l l e g e m a l e s . J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l  I s s u e s , 1973, 2 9 , 129 -148 . S ue , D., & K i r k , B. P s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f C h i n e s e - A m e r i c a n s t u d e n t s . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1972, 471 -478 . S ue , D., & Sue , S. C o u n s e l i n g C h i n e s e - A m e r i c a n s . P e r s o n n e l and G u i d - ance J o u r n a l , 1972 , 5 0 , 6 37 - 644 . S ue , D.W. C o u n s e l i n g t h e c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t : A c o n c e p t u a l a n a l y s i s . P e r s o n n e l and Gu idance J o u r n a l , 1977, 5 5 , 422 -425 . Sue , D.W., & K i r k , B.A. B r i e f r e p o r t . A s i a n - A m e r i c a n s : Use o f c o u n -s e l i n g and p s y c h i a t r i c s e r v i c e s on a c o l l e g e campus. J o u r n a l o f  C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1975 , 2 2 , 8 4 - 8 6 . Sue , D.W., R i c h a r d s o n , E . H . , R u i z , R .A. , & S m i t h , E . J . C o u n s e l i n g t h e  c u l t u r a l l y d i f f e r e n t : Theo ry and p r a c t i c e . New Y o r k : John W i l e y & Son s , I n c . , 1981. Sue , S. T r a i n i n g o f " T h i r d W o r l d " s t u d e n t s t o f u n c t i o n as^ c oun se l o r s , . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1973 , 2 0 , 73 - 78 . -Sue , S . , & M c K i n n e y , H. A s i a n A m e r i c a n s i n t h e community menta l h e a l t h c a r e s y s t e m . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y , 1975 , 45_, H i -l l 8. Sue , S . , & Sue , D.W. MMPI c o m p a r i s o n s between A s i a n - A m e r i c a n and n o n -A s i a n s t u d e n t s u t i l i z i n g a s t u d e n t h e a l t h p s y c h i a t r i c c l i n i c . J o u r n a l o f C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1974, 21_, 423 -427 . T i l l m a n , G . , & S u n d e r j i , K. F o r e i g n s t u d e n t s : P l a y i n g t h e numbers game. C a n a d i a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f U n i v e r s i t y T e a c h e r s B u l l e t i n , 1982, 29 , 1 2 , 8. T o u p i n , E. C o u n s e l i n g A s i a n s : P s y c h o t h e r a p y i n t h e c o n t e x t o f r a c i s m and A s i a n - A m e r i c a n h i s t o r y . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y , 1980 , 5 0 , 7 6 - 86 . 62 Ward , L .E . Some o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g dynamics o f c o n f l i c t i n f o r e i g n s t u d e n t s . J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n C o l l e g e H e a l t h A s s o c i a - t i o n , 1961 , 10 , 4 30 - 440 . Warman, R. D i f f e r e n t i a l p e r c e p t i o n s o f c o u n s e l i n g r o l e . J o u r n a l o f  C o u n s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , I 9 60 , ' 7 . , 269 -274 . W e b s t e r , D.W., & F r e t z , B.R. A s i a n A m e r i c a n , b l a c k , and w h i t e c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s ' p r e f e r e n c e s f o r h e l p - g i v i n g s o u r c e s . J o u r n a l o f Coun- s e l i n g P s y c h o l o g y , 1978, 2 5 , 124 -130 . Y e h , E. P a r a n o i d m a n i f e s t a t i o n s among C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s s t u d y i n g a b r o a d : Some p r e l i m i n a r y f i n d i n g s . In W. L e b r a ( E d . ) , T r a n s c u l - t u r a l R e s e a r c h i n M e n t a l H e a l t h ( V o l . 2 o f Men ta l H e a l t h Re sea r ch  i n A s i a and t h e P a c i f i c ) . H o n o l u l u : The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s o f H a w a i i , 1972. Y e h , E . , & Chu , H. The images o f C h i n e s e and A m e r i c a n c h a r a c t e r s : C r o s s - c u l t u r a l a d a p t a t i o n by C h i n e s e S t u d e n t s . In W. L e b r a ( E d . ) , Y o u t h , S o c i a l i z a t i o n and Men ta l H e a l t h ( V o l . 3 o f Men ta l H e a l t h  R e s e a r c h i n A s i a and t h e P a c i f i c ) . H o n o l u l u : The U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s o f H a w a i i , 1974. 63 APPENDIX A Q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r P r e f e r e n c e s o f H e l p - G i v i n g S ou r ce s You r name was randomly s e l e c t e d f r om t h e u n i v e r s i t y l i s t i n g s o f C h i n e s e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s f r o m f i v e d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s ; t h e R e p u b l i c o f C h i n a , T a i w a n , Hong Kong, M a l a y s i a and S i n g a p o r e . The f o l l o w -i n g q u e s t i o n s w i l l be used t o h e l p us a s s e s s i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s ' p r e -f e r e n c e s f o r h e l p - g i v i n g s o u r c e s . Such i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l p e r m i t t h e s t u -d e n t s e r v i c e s o f t h e u n i v e r s i t y t o b e t t e r meet t h e needs o f s t u d e n t s . You a r e a s k e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e two s e c t i o n s o f t h i s anonymous q u e s t i o n n a i r e by s i m p l y r a n k i n g t h e h e l p - g i v i n g s o u r c e s i n d i c a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g page s . P l e a s e n o t e , y o u a r e f r e e t o w i t h d r a w a t any t i m e o r r e f u s e t o answer any q u e s t i o n w i t h o u t p r e j u d i c e . T h i s s h o u l d t a k e a p p r o x i m a t e l y t e n m i nu te s o f y o u r t i m e . I t w i l l be a p p r e c i a t e d i f y ou w i l l c o m p l e t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e p r i o r t o A p r i l 20 th and r e t u r n i t i n t h e s t amped , a d d r e s s e d e n v e l o p e e n c l o s e d . I f y o u a r e n o t o f C h i n e s e e t h n i c b a c k g r o u n d , p l e a s e r e t u r n t h e c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h a n o t e i n d i c a t i n g y o u r e t h n i c b a c k g r o u n d . We w i l l be p l e a s e d t o s end you a summary o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s u l t s i f y ou d e s i r e . Thank y o u f o r y o u r c o o p e r a t i o n . Your s s i n c e r e l y , Dr . M. Westwood I f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s c o m p l e t e d i t w i l l be assumed t h a t c o n s e n t has been g i v e n . PLEASE DO NOT PUT YOUR NAME ON THE QUESTIONNAIRE. S e c t i o n I Assume you have an e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m c h a r a c t e r i z e d by n e r v o u s n e s s . You have t r i e d u n s u c c e s s f u l l y t o r e a c h a s o l u t i o n by y o u r s e l f . P l e a s e rank t h e f o l l o w i n g h e l p - g i v i n g s o u r c e s you w o u l d go t o f i r s t i n Canada. Rank 1 f o r t h e one you wou l d go t o f i r s t t h r o u g h t o Rank 14 f o r t h e one you w o u l d go t o l a s t . 1. F a c u l t y A d v i s o r 2 . R e l a t i v e 3. Female C o u n s e l l o r 4 . I n t e r n a t i o n a l House S t a f f Member 5. F a c u l t y Member 6. P s y c h i a t r i s t 7. N o n - s t u d e n t F r i e n d 8. P h y s i c i a n 9. Ma le C o u n s e l l o r 10. Canad i an S t u d e n t 11 . I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t ( O t h e r Than C h i n e s e ) 12 . P a r e n t s 13 . C h i n e s e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t 14. C h i n e s e Community L e a d e r O t h e r ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) P l e a s e i n d i c a t e i f y o u r p a r e n t s and r e l a t i v e c o n s i d e r e d l i v e w i t h i n o r o u t s i d e o f Canada and t h e n a t u r e o f c o n t a c t , i . e . , i n p e r s o n , by l e t t e r , t e l e p h o n e , e t c . P a r e n t s : P l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e N a t u r e o f c o n t a c t R e l a t i v e : P l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e N a t u r e o f c o n t a c t 65 S e c t i o n I I Assume you a r e f a c e d w i t h a p r ob l em c o n c e r n i n g a f u t u r e j o b and/o r a m a j o r e d u c a t i o n a l c o n c e r n and you have t r i e d u n s u c c e s s f u l l y t o r e a c h a s o l u t i o n by y o u r s e l f . P l e a s e rank t h e f o l l o w i n g h e l p - g i v i n g s o u r c e s you w o u l d go t o f i r s t i n Canada . Rank 1 f o r t h e one y o u wou l d go t o f i r s t t h r o u g h t o Rank 14 f o r t h e one you w o u l d go t o l a s t . 1. F a c u l t y A d v i s o r 2 . R e l a t i v e 3. Female C o u n s e l l o r 4 . I n t e r n a t i o n a l House S t a f f Member 5. F a c u l t y Member 6. P s y c h i a t r i s t 7. N o n - s t u d e n t F r i e n d 8. P h y s i c i an 9. Male C o u n s e l l o r 10. Canad i an S t u d e n t 11 . I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t ( O t h e r Than C h i n e s e ) 12 . P a r e n t s 13. C h i n e s e I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t u d e n t 14. C h i n e s e Community L e a d e r O t h e r ( p l e a s e s p e c i f y ) P l e a s e i n d i c a t e i f y o u r p a r e n t s and r e l a t i v e c o n s i d e r e d l i v e w i t h i n o r o u t s i d e o f Canada and t h e n a t u r e o f c o n t a c t , i . e . , i n p e r s o n , by l e t t e r , t e l e p h o n e , e t c . P a r e n t s : P l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e N a t u r e o f c o n t a c t R e l a t i v e : P l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e N a t u r e o f c o n t a c t 6 6 APPENDIX B Cove r L e t t e r f o r F o l l o w - u p Respondents Dear S i r/Madame: We a r e w r i t i n g t o you c o n c e r n i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e we had m a i l e d p r e v i o u s l y r e q u e s t i n g a r a n k i n g o f y o u r p r e f e r e n c e s f o r h e l p - g i v e r s g i v e n an e m o t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l - v o c a t i o n a l p r o b l e m . As we assume t h a t you have n o t r e t u r n e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e because o f an e r r o r on o u r p a r t o r some o v e r s i g h t , we have s e n t a n o t h e r copy o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h a s tamped a d d r e s s e d e n v e l o p e f o r y o u r c o n v e n i e n c e i n r e t u r n i n g t h e c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e . As an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t , y o u r r e s p o n s e w i l l be o f p a r t i c u l a r use i n h e l p i n g us t o d e v e l o p s t u d e n t s e r v i c e s a t t he u n i v e r s i t y w h i c h a r e r e l e v a n t f o r m e e t i n g t h e needs o f bo th Canad i an and i n t e r n a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . We wou ld a p p r e c i a t e y o u r c o m p l e t i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e as soon as p o s s i b l e as o t h e r a s p e c t s o f t h e s t u d y c anno t be c a r r i e d o u t u n t i l y o u r r e s p o n s e has been r e c e i v e d . I f y ou w i s h f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n , p l e a s e c a l l t h e Depar tment o f C o u n s e l l i n g P s y c h o l o g y a t 228-5259 and l e a v e a message w i t h a phone number t h r o u g h w h i c h we can r e a c h y o u . Thank you f o r y o u r c o o p e r a t i o n . Your s s i n c e r e l y , Dr. M. Westwood 

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