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Home Economics programs in Oyo state secondary schools Owolabi, Elizabeth Aina 1987

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HOME E C O N O M I C S P R O G R A M S I N O Y O S T A T E S E C O N D A R Y S C H O O L S By ELIZABETH AINA OWOLABI ,C.E., U n i v e r s i t y of I f e , Adeyemi C o l l e g e of E d u c a t i o n , 1981 B.H.E., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1986 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of M a t h e m a t i c s and S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December 1987 © E l i z a b e t h A i n a O w o l a b i , 1987 In present ing this thesis in partial fulf i lment o f the requ i rements for an a d v a n c e d deg ree at the University o f British C o l u m b i a , I agree that the Library shall m a k e it freely available for re ference and study. I further agree that permiss ion for extens ive c o p y i n g o f this thesis for scholar ly pu rposes may be granted by the head of m y depar tment o r by his o r her representat ives. It is u n d e r s t o o d that c o p y i n g o r publ icat ion of this thesis for f inancial gain shall not b e a l lowed wi thout m y wri t ten permiss ion . Depa r tmen t o f MA"ftt£tlWf/C6 frtJ) £Ci£NC£ £J)UCATWri T h e Univers i ty o f British C o l u m b i a 1956 M a i n Ma l l Vancouve r , C a n a d a V 6 T 1Y3 Da te 3>£G£rm£R ISj HS7 i i ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was t o i d e n t i f y t he c u r r i c u l a emphases of home economics i n Oyo s t a t e secondary s c h o o l s , and t o a n a l y z e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u b j e c t matter emphasis and s e l e c t e d a s p e c t s about t e a c h i n g and the t e a c h e r . S i x t y - t w o home economics t e a c h e r s i n Oyo s t a t e , N i g e r i a , responded t o a m a i l e d survey a s k i n g them t o i n d i c a t e the degree of emphasis g i v e n t o 50 t o p i c s i n f i v e s u b j e c t matter a r e a s of home economics: Human Development and the F a m i l y , Home Management and F a m i l y Economics, Foods and N u t r i t i o n , T e x t i l e s and C l o t h i n g , and Hous i n g . The most taught s u b j e c t matter area was Foods and N u t r i t i o n f o l l o w e d by Home Management and F a m i l y Economics, T e x t i l e s and C l o t h i n g , Human Development and the F a m i l y , and Housing. A s i m i l a r rank o r d e r was observ e d f o r s u b j e c t matter competence and f o r p r e f e r e n c e f o r t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t m a t t e r . S c o r e s on the t o p i c s w i t h i n each s u b j e c t matter a r e a , however, i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l l of t h e s e t o p i c s and the s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a s were mo d e r a t e l y emphasized i n the c u r r i c u l u m . The p h i l o s o p h i c a l views of home economics as homemaking e d u c a t i o n ; home economics as hou s e h o l d management and home economics as c o o k i n g and sewing e x i s t c o n c u r r e n t l y . M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was used t o examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the above f i v e s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a s and s e l e c t e d a s p e c t s about t e a c h i n g and the t e a c h e r . The r e s u l t s of the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p . Some of the problems f a c i n g home economics as a s u b j e c t i n the secondary s c h o o l s were l a c k of l a b o r a t o r y space, equipment, f i n a n c e , and s h o r t a g e of home economics t e a c h e r s . C o l l a b o r a t i v e c u r r i c u l u m development and l o c a l c o - o p e r a t i v e r esponses may o f f e r the means t o overcome the s h o r t a g e of r e s o u r c e s f o r programs i n s p e c i f i c l o c a l e s . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n the form of case s t u d i e s of s u c c e s s f u l home economics programs c o u l d be i n f o r m a t i v e i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g b e t t e r the n e c e s s a r y components which s h o u l d be f o s t e r e d i n s t r e n g t h e n i n g home economics programs. i v CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES . . v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION 1 The Purpose of the Study 11 Statement of the Problem 11 The J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the Study 12 L i m i t a t i o n s 14 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 15 The O r g a n i z a t i o n of the T h e s i s 16 CHAPTER I I : LITERATURE REVIEW 18 Trends i n C u r r i c u l u m Development 18 C u r r i c u l u m i n A c t i o n 26 Trends i n Home Economics C u r r i c u l u m 32 T e c h n i c a l l y O r i e n t e d C u r r i c u l u m 35 I n t e r p r e t i v e O r i e n t e d C u r r i c u l u m 36 C r i t i c a l / E m a n c i p a t i v e O r i e n t e d C u r r i c u l u m 38 H i s t o r i c a l Overview of Home Economics E d u c a t i o n i n N i g e r i a 43 CHAPTER I I I : METHODOLOGY 52 P o p u l a t i o n and Sample 52 Development of the Instrument 53 Data C o l l e c t i o n 58 Data A n a l y s i s 59 CHAPTER IV: ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF DATA 60 P s y c h o m e t r i c s of the Instrument 60 D e s c r i p t i v e I n f o r m a t i o n on the S u b j e c t s 61 Sch o o l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 67 Teacher C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 69 Home Economics Programs 70 V S u b j e c t M a t t e r Emphasis In Home Economics 75 P r o f e s s i o n a l Involvement ^. 81 P r o f e s s i o n a l Development 1. 83 I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s 84 G e n e r a l Comments from Respondents 84 Models of Home Economics 89 T e s t i n g the Hypotheses ... 92 CHAPTER V: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS, IMPLICATIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS 95 Summary of Major F i n d i n g s 96 Recommendations 98 C o n c l u s i o n s 106 LIST OF REFERENCES 108 APPENDIX A: CORRESPONDENCE 116 1. L e t t e r s of Request t o Conduct t h e Study i n Oyo S t a t e Secondary S c h o o l s 2. L e t t e r of A p p r o v a l from C e n t r a l S c h o o l s Board, Ibadan, Oyo S t a t e , N i g e r i a 3. C e r t i f i c a t e of A p p r o v a l From E t h i c s Committee 4. L e t t e r s Sent w i t h the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 5. F o l l o w - u p L e t t e r s APPENDIX B: LIST OF REVIEWERS 125 APPENDIX C: THE WEST AFRICAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCILS SYLLABUS 127 APPENDIX D: QUESTIONNAIRE 132 APPENDIX E: SUBJECT MATTER EMPHASIS 146 v i LIST OF TABLES T a b l e I : P s y c h o m e t r i c s of the Instr u m e n t 62 T a b l e I I : Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 63 T a b l e I I I : S u b j e c t M a t t e r C u r r e n t l y Taught 71 T a b l e IV: S u b j e c t M a t t e r Competence 73 T a b l e V: S u b j e c t M a t t e r P r e f e r e n c e 74 T a b l e V I : S u b j e c t M a t t e r Emphasis 78 T a b l e V I I : The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between F i v e Dependent V a r i a b l e s and the Independent V a r i a b l e s 93 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Dr. Margaret A r c u s and Dr. L i n d a P e t e r a t , who c h a i r e d my committee, f o r t h e i r e x p e r t i s e , guidance and many hours spent e d i t i n g t h i s t h e s i s . I a l s o w i s h t o thank o t h e r members of my committee, Dr. W a l t e r B o l d t and Dr. Robert C a r l i s l e , f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t and a s s i s t a n c e w i t h t h i s s t u d y . I am i n d e b t e d t o Dr. Jane P r o m n i t z w i t h whom I took a cou r s e and de v e l o p e d an i n t e r e s t i n t h i s type of r e s e a r c h . I would l i k e t o thank t h e members of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Peace S c h o l a r s h i p Board of T r u s t e e s f o r the p r o v i s i o n of g r a n t s - i n - a i d f o r my t u i t i o n and books t h r o u g h out my graduate program. S i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n i s e x p r e s s e d t o my f a t h e r , Mr. S.O. Odusina (my r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t ) , who spent h i s time and money t o conduct t h i s s tudy i n N i g e r i a . A s p e c i a l thank you i s extended t o my husband, Tunde, and my c h i l d r e n , O l a y i n k a and A k i n s a n y a , f o r t h e i r u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s u p p o r t . God b l e s s you a l l . 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Home economics i s a f i e l d of study and a p r o f e s s i o n whose major o b j e c t i v e i s t o improve the w e l l b e i n g of i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s and s o c i e t y t h rough e d u c a t i o n . A t t e n t i o n i s c e n t e r e d on the f a m i l y because the f a m i l y i s seen as the p r i m a r y s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e i n the s o c i e t y , p r o v i d i n g c a r e , p r o t e c t i o n , and support f o r f a m i l y members. As Brown (1980) s t a t e s "the f a m i l y i s a haven f o r p ersons of a l l ages when the l a r g e r s o c i e t y i s or seems i n d i f f e r e n t . I t p r o v i d e s p s y c h i c a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h n u r t u r a n t q u a l i t i e s as a p l a c e of r e f u g e , of r e n e w a l , of s a t i s f a c t i o n s which a r e i n t i m a t e and p e r s o n a l " (p. 50). F a m i l i e s a r e a l s o of importance because "the f a m i l y i s a s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l f o r c e whose power i s m a n i f e s t e d i n the c o o p e r a t i o n of f a m i l i e s t o f o r m u l a t e community norms and v a l u e s and t o t r a n s f o r m s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s " (Brown, 1980, p. 5 1 ) . Home economics i s found i n many c o u n t r i e s throughout the w o r l d , and i n each c o u n t r y , i t has de v e l o p e d i n response t o the need f o r i m p r o v i n g the d a i l y l i v e s of f a m i l i e s . In B r i t a i n , f o r example, t h e s c h o o l i n g of g i r l s from 1854-1900 was i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i d e a t h a t s i n c e the h e a l t h y f u n c t i o n i n g of a l l s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s i n the s o c i e t y depended upon the w e l l - b e i n g of the f a m i l y , g i r l s must be p r e p a r e d 2 f o r t h e i r f u t u r e r o l e s as wives and mothers. The middl e c l a s s women who founded home economics i n B r i t a i n were p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n c erned t h a t w o r k i n g c l a s s g i r l s were l i v i n g i n m i s e r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s because they l a c k e d domestic t r a i n i n g a t home. To improve t h e s e working c l a s s f a m i l i e s , and t o e r a d i c a t e d i s e a s e , p o v e r t y , and o t h e r s o c i a l p roblems, domestic e d u c a t i o n was de v e l o p e d f o r the s e g i r l s ( P u r v i s , 1981). The founders of B r i t i s h home economics a l s o had an i n t e r e s t i n t r a i n i n g w o r k i n g c l a s s g i r l s f o r a v o c a t i o n i n domestic s c i e n c e (home economics) i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e an ample s u p p l y of s e r v a n t s t o work i n t h e i r upper c l a s s homes. In N o r t h A m e r i c a , the g o a l of p i o n e e r home econ o m i s t s was t o b r i n g u p - t o - d a t e s c i e n t i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n on food p r e p a r a t i o n , home management and c h i l d c a r e t o women through e d u c a t i o n . As E l l e n Swallow R i c h a r d s s t a t e d : But s c i e n c e has t o a p p l y i t s knowledge t o (improve) t h a t u n i t of the community, the home; f o r upon the w e l f a r e of the home depends the w e l f a r e of the commonwealth. Upon t h i s common f a c t o r s h o u l d be l a v i s h e d whatever knowledge and s c i e n c e t h i s c e n t u r y has. ( E a s t , 1980, p. 10) A c c o r d i n g t o H o o d l e s s , a Canadian l e a d e r i n the development of home economics, the r o l e of home economics was t o h e l p women t o b e t t e r c a r r y out t h e i r "God g i v e n p l a c e i n l i f e " (Stamp, 1977, p. 2 0 ) . Hoo d l e s s ' p h i l o s o p h y has been t r a c e d t o the d e a t h of her ei g h t e e n - m o n t h - o l d son i n the summer of 1889 from d r i n k i n g c o n t a m i n a t e d m i l k . As a r e s u l t of t h i s t r a g e d y , she f e l t the need t o educate the 3 g e n e r a l p u b l i c and e s p e c i a l l y young women f o r homemaking and motherhood (Stamp, 1977). H o o d l e s s ' p u b l i c campaign l e d t o the development of the f i r s t home economics c u r r i c u l u m i n the Canadian p u b l i c s c h o o l s ( K i e r e n , V a i n e s & B a d i r , 1982). As Stamp (1977) n o t e d , the d e v a s t a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s of l i v i n g i n those days w a r r a n t e d such e d u c a t i o n : F l i e s swarmed i n most k i t c h e n s and i c e boxes were few and i n e f f i c i e n t . M i l k d e l i v e r e d t h rough the s t r e e t s i n open cans was one of the p r i n c i p a l causes of t he summer c o m p l a i n t of which so many c h i l d r e n d i e d . Open w e l l s l e d t o e p i d e m i c s and t y p h o i d f e v e r and few f a m i l i e s had not l o s t a t l e a s t one member from t u b e r c u l o s i s . (Stamp, 1977 p. 21) In the l a t e e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the Europeans c o l o n i z e d A f r i c a , A s i a and I n d i a , and C h r i s t i a n i t y and Western e d u c a t i o n were e x p o r t e d t o t h e s e c o l o n i e s . When the f i r s t European s e t t l e r s observed t h a t the n a t i v e people d i d not enjo y the same s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g t h a t they had l e f t b e h i n d i n Europe, they d e v e l o p e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n h y g i e n e , p u b l i c h e a l t h , c h i l d w e l f a r e , and domestic economy i n orde r t o promote g e n e r a l knowledge, h e a l t h and w e l l b e i n g , and t o combat d i s e a s e and h i g h i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y ( S c a n l o n , 1964). As t h e s e examples i l l u s t r a t e , home economics developed throughout the w o r l d i n response t o the needs of f a m i l i e s f o r the improvement of the c o n d i t i o n s of d a i l y l i v i n g . A l t h o u g h t h e s e s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s have changed over t i m e , home economics has r e t a i n e d i t s purpose t o improve the w e l l - b e i n g of i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s and communities. As Green (1980) has noted, home economics i s the o n l y 4 p r o f e s s i o n and body of knowledge which f o c u s e s on the f a m i l y as i t s c o r e , and which works p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n a p r e v e n t i v e , e d u c a t i o n a l , and dev e l o p m e n t a l mode r a t h e r than through r e m e d i a t i o n , t h e r a p y or c r i s i s i n t e r v e n t i o n . E d u c a t i o n i n home economics i s p r o v i d e d i n a v a r i e t y of e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s throughout the w o r l d . I t i s taught i n h i g h s c h o o l s , c o l l e g e s , v o c a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s and u n i v e r s i t i e s . I t i s i n c l u d e d i n most of the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs o f f e r e d t h r o u g h the p u b l i c s c h o o l systems and i t forms a l a r g e p a r t of r u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s ( E a s t , 1980). As V i n c e n t i (1982) n o t e s , however, i t i s the s c h o o l which i s the p r i m a r y means by which home economics e d u c a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d . Home economics programs i n h i g h s c h o o l s may be c a l l e d by d i f f e r e n t names i n d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s . In B r i t a i n , home economics i s used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y w i t h domestic economy, domestic s c i e n c e , and domestic s u b j e c t s i n c l u d i n g home management, c o o k e r y , l a u n d r y w o r k , household management, h y g i e n e , n u t r i t i o n , h o u s e c r a f t , needlework, h o u s e w i f e r y , c h i l d c a r e , m o t h e r c a r e , p a r e n t c r a f t , and home s t u d i e s ( P u r v i s , 1981). The most common terms i n N o r t h America a r e homemaking, home economics, foods and n u t r i t i o n , f a m i l y management, consumer e d u c a t i o n , f a m i l y s t u d i e s , c l o t h i n g and t e x t i l e s , c a r e e r e d u c a t i o n , and parenthood e d u c a t i o n (Mead, 1984). In A u s t r a l i a , the terms f a m i l y management, c h i l d development, and n u t r i t i o n a r e synonymous w i t h the concept of home economics (Dixon and Bouma, 1984). Broad programs 5 i n home economics tend t o i n t e g r a t e the f i v e s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a s o"f Foods and N u t r i t i o n , C l o t h i n g and T e x t i l e s , Home Management and F a m i l y Economics, Human Development and the F a m i l y , and Housing. In a d d i t i o n t o the s e d i f f e r e n t names, s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s have been proposed f o r home economics over the y e a r s . At the 1902 F o u r t h Lake P l a c i d C o n f e r e n c e , f o r example, home economics was d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : Home economics ... i s the study of the la w s , c o n d i t i o n s , p r i n c i p l e s , and i d e a l s concerned w i t h man's i m e d i a t e p h y s i c a l environment and h i s n a t u r e as a s o c i a l b e i n g , and s p e c i a l l y the r e l a t i o n between tho s e two f a c t o r s . (Lake P l a c i d Conference on Home Economics, 1902, p.71) A c c o r d i n g t o E l l e n R i c h a r d s (1904) home economics i s : The i d e a l home l i f e f o r today unhampered by the t r a d i t i o n s of the p a s t . The u t i l i z a t i o n of a l l r e s o u r c e s of modern s c i e n c e t o improve the home l i f e . The freedom of the home from the dominance of t h i n g s and t h e i r due s u b o r d i n a t i o n t o i d e a l s . The s i m p l i c i t y i n m a t e r i a l s u r r o u n d i n g s which w i l l most f r e e the s p i r i t f o r the more i m p o r t a n t and permanent I n t e r e s t s of the home and of s o c i e t y . (Lake P l a c i d C onference on Home Economics, 1904, p. 31) More contemporary d e f i n i t i o n s have atte m p t e d t o r e c o n c e p t u a l i z e the f i e l d . For example, the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n d e v e l o p e d by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n f o r Home Economics i n 1976 expanded the d e f i n i t i o n t o i n c l u d e the development of both human and m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s : Home economics i s concerned w i t h u s i n g , d e v e l o p i n g and managing human and m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s f o r the b e n e f i t of i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s i n s t i t u t i o n s and the community, now and i n the f u t u r e . T h i s i n v o l v e s study and r e s e a r c h i n s c i e n c e s and a r t s , concerned w i t h d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of f a m i l y l i f e and i t s 6 i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the p h y s i c a l , economic and s o c i a l environment. (IFHE, 1976, e x t r a c t from Goncet, 1984, p. 12) A s i m i l a r d e f i n i t i o n was proposed by the I n s t i t u t e of Home Economics i n B r i t a i n : Home economics i s a study of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p r o v i s i o n of f o o d , c l o t h i n g , s h e l t e r and r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s and man's p h y s i c a l , economic, s o c i a l and a e s t h e t i c needs i n the c o n t e x t of the home. (Matthews, 1985, p. 17) In N i g e r i a , home economics i s d e f i n e d a s : ...the a p p l i c a t i o n of many s c i e n c e s and a r t s towards a c h i e v i n g h e a l t h y and happy homes. I t i n c l u d e s knowledge of b a s i c s c i e n c e s , a r t s and h u m a n i t i e s as w e l l as a p p l i e d s c i e n c e s such as foods and n u t r i t i o n , c l o t h i n g and t e x t i l e s , home management, and f a m i l y l i v i n g , h e a l t h s c i e n c e and s o c i o l o g y . (Fayemi, et a l . , 1977, p. v i i ) These v a r i a t i o n s i n names and d e f i n i t i o n s r e p r e s e n t the broad scope of t o p i c s n e c e s s a r i l y encompassed by a f i e l d f o c u s e d on homes, f a m i l i e s and d a i l y l i v i n g . These v a r i a t i o n s may a l s o be due t o the e x i s t e n c e of s e v e r a l s e p a r a t e competing models of home economics. Eas t (1980) i d e n t i f i e d f o u r of thes e models: 1. Management of the h o u s e h o l d : economics. T h i s model emphasizes the c o g n i t i v e a c t i v i t i e s of p l a n n i n g , managing, d e c i d i n g , c h o o s i n g and e v a l u a t i n g . Courses based on t h i s model s t r e s s consumer e d u c a t i o n , d e c i s i o n making, v a l u e s , and management c o n c e p t s . 2. A p p l i c a t i o n of s c i e n c e f o r i m p r o v i n g the environment. T h i s model emphasizes the a p p l i c a t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s g a i n e d from d i s c i p l i n e s such as c h e m i s t r y , 7 b i o l o g y , p s y c h o l o g y , and economics t o the problems of home and f a m i l i e s . T h i s was the model which r e f l e c t e d the p h i l o s o p h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n of the e a r l y home ec o n o m i s t s . These e a r l y c o u r s e s i n c l u d e d t o p i c s such as s a n i t a t i o n and food p r e s e r v a t i o n . 3. I n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g : c o o k i n g and sewing. T h i s model emphasizes the importance of p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral development and r e f l e c t s the e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y of John Dewey. Contemporary c o u r s e s based on t h i s model p r o v i d e s t u d e n t s w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y t o a c q u i r e the s k i l l s , knowledge, and e x p e r i e n c e n e c e s s a r y t o e n t e r employment. Courses i n c l u d e c a r e e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs i n Food S e r v i c e s , D e s i g n , and F a m i l y S e r v i c e s . 4. The e d u c a t i o n of women f o r womanhood: homemaking. T h i s model emphasizes the p r e p a r a t i o n of women f o r t h e i r f u t u r e r o l e s as wives and mothers. Courses i n c l u d e a l l a s p e c t s of homemaking: Cookery, Needlework, Laundry, H o u s e w i f e r y , and Home N u r s i n g . C u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t emphasizes t o p i c s such as managing r e s o u r c e s , c a r i n g f o r and m a i n t a i n i n g c l o t h i n g and l i v i n g e n vironment. Other approaches t o home economics i n c l u d e the s c i e n t i f i c view, the problem s o l v i n g a pproach, and c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g i n home economics. As the s e become more common i n home economics, p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e moving away from c o o k i n g and sewing t o an emphasis on management, f a m i l y and human development c o n c e p t s (Dixon and Bouma, 1984; Mead, 1984). 8 In N i g e r i a , home economics emphasizes management p r i n c i p l e s and d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s e s and s t r e s s e s the development of b a s i c s k i l l s and knowledge f o r the c a r e and maintenance of the home. I t a l s o emphasizes human development and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s p e r t a i n i n g t o f r i e n d s h i p , m a r r i a g e and par e n t h o o d (W.A.E.C. S y l l a b u s 1985/86 S e s s i o n ) . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t d i f f e r e n t models may e x i s t c o n c u r r e n t l y i n some i n s t i t u t i o n s and s e t t i n g s , depending on the p h i l o s o p h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n e r s and t e a c h e r s . The dominance of one model over a n o t h e r may a l s o depend upon s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic i n f l u e n c e s ( P e t e r a t , 1987; Thomas, 1986). P e t e r a t (1987) has noted t h a t "a s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r i n s h a p i n g s c h o o l programs i s the broader e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t i n which programs a r e l o c a t e d and the backdrop of p o l i t i c s t h a t s u r r o unds the e d u c a t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e " (p. 14). Other f a c t o r s may a l s o i n f l u e n c e the model or models used w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r program. One example of p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e i n home economics c u r r i c u l u m was the p u b l i c a t i o n of Concepts and Generalizations: Their Place in High School Home Economics Curriculum Development (American Home Economics A s s o c i a t i o n , 1967). T h i s p u b l i c a t i o n was a r e s u l t of c u r r i c u l u m r e f o r m i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s f o l l o w i n g the S p u t n i k e r a and p l a c e d emphasis on c o g n i t i v e c o n t e n t , thus f o s t e r i n g the s c i e n t i f i c view of home economics. In t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n , c o n c e p t s and 9 g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s i n home economics were c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o f i v e s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a s : 1. Human Development and the F a m i l y 2. Home Management and F a m i l y Economics 3. Foods and N u t r i t i o n 4. T e x t i l e s and C l o t h i n g 5. Housing W h i l e t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n r e f l e c t e d American c u r r i c u l u m r e f o r m i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , h i s t o r i c a l l y such changes i n the American e d u c a t i o n a l system have always had an i n t e r n a t i o n a l e f f e c t . In Canada, f o r example, the f i v e s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a s o u t l i n e d above formed s p e c i a l i z e d c u r r i c u l a i n the p r o v i n c e s of B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a and Quebec ( P e t e r a t , 1984, 1986). A s i m i l a r i n f l u e n c e i s ob s e r v e d i n N i g e r i a . The home economics s y l l a b u s used i n N i g e r i a n s c h o o l s r e q u i r e s s c i e n t i f i c background i n the f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a s : 1. P r i n c i p l e s of Management 2. F a m i l y L i v i n g 3. Housing 4. Maintenance of C l o t h i n g and Household A r t i c l e s These a r e a s a r e ve r y s i m i l a r t o tho s e l i s t e d i n the Concepts and Generalizations document. In s p i t e of the e f f o r t s of e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n e r s , and l o c a l , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o i n c r e a s e e d u c a t i o n a l e x c e l l e n c e , c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s may not always be i n t e r p r e t e d i n the same way. 10 C u r r i c u l u m as pl a n n e d may be q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from c u r r i c u l u m i n a c t i o n . One might ask why s h o u l d t h e r e be a d i f f e r e n c e ? Werner (1981) d i s c u s s e d the r o l e of b e l i e f i n c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and p o i n t e d out t h a t "Everyone i n v o l v e d w i t h an i n n o v a t i o n may not share the same assum p t i o n s , v a l u e s , e x p e c t a t i o n s and consequent i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n . As a s o c i a l p r o c e s s , t h e r e f o r e , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o c c u r s as p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e r p r e t t hese b e l i e f s i n the c o n t e x t of t h e i r s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n s , background e x p e r i e n c e s and e d u c a t i o n a l commitments" (p. 137). Werner f u r t h e r e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e r e i s a d i s c r e p a n c y between the i d e a l s of c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s and the r e a l i t i e s f a c e d by t e a c h e r s . Stenhouse (1975) a l s o suggested t h a t t h e r e may be d i s c r e p a n c y between the i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r ' s l e s s o n p l a n s and what the t e a c h e r does or a l l o w s t o happen. For example, t h e r e may be incongruence between the t e a c h e r ' s p u b l i c l y d e c l a r e d p h i l o s o p h y or b e l i e f s about e d u c a t i o n and the t e a c h e r ' s own b e h a v i o u r i n the c l a s s r o o m . Many s t u d i e s (Regan and Leith w o o d , 1974; Goodlad et al., 1974) have documented t h a t what a t e a c h e r says about t e a c h i n g may not be the same as what he or she a c t u a l l y does. Many f a c t o r s may be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the a f o r e m e n t i o n e d d i s c r e p a n c y . Some of the s e i n c l u d e the t e a c h e r , books and m a t e r i a l s , the c o n t e n t and the s t u d e n t s . Both t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s have d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w hich .they b r i n g t o the c l a s s r o o m . In one way or a n o t h e r , the p r e v i o u s 11 e x p e r i e n c e s and p r e s e n t a p t i t u d e s , i n t e r e s t s , s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s of each of thes e p e r s o n s i n f l u e n c e s the meaning of c u r r i c u l u m and i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ( K i n g , 1986). The Purpose of the Study The purpose of t h i s s tudy i s t o i d e n t i f y the s u b j e c t matter a r e a s b e i n g taught i n home economics programs i n Oyo s t a t e secondary s c h o o l s . Such a s t u d y i s i m p o r t a n t because c u r r i c u l u m as p l a n n e d may be d i f f e r e n t from the c u r r i c u l u m i n a c t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s and c u r r i c u l u m i n a c t i o n has t o meet the c h a l l e n g e s of a ch a n g i n g s o c i e t y and respond t o l o c a l c o n s t r a i n t s and s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s . In ord e r f o r home economics e d u c a t i o n t o be w e l l equipped t o meet t h e s e c h a l l e n g e s , c o n t i n o u s c u r r i c u l u m r e v i s i o n i s n e c e s s a r y . The r e s u l t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h demographic d a t a t o examine f a c t o r s which may i n f l u e n c e the s u b j e c t m a t t e r emphasis. I n f e r e n c e s w i l l a l s o be made about the e x i s t i n g model i n the N i g e r i a n home economics programs as g l e a n e d from the r e s u l t i n g d a t a . Statement of the Problem To a c h i e v e the purpose of the study the f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i v e s were s e t : 1. t o i d e n t i f y the s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a s b e i n g taught i n secondary s c h o o l home economics programs i n Oyo s t a t e and the r e l a t i v e amount of emphasis g i v e n t o each a r e a . 2. t o a n a l y z e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u b j e c t matter emphasis and s e l e c t e d f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g t o t e a c h i n g and the t e a c h e r : t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , academic 12 q u a l i f i c a t i o n , i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g , p r o f e s s i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t , i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , c l a s s e n r o l l m e n t , and p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e of t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t s . The f o l l o w i n g hypotheses were dev e l o p e d f o r t e s t i n g : 1. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the amount of t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e and s u b j e c t m a t t e r emphasis. 2. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r s ' academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and s u b j e c t m a t t e r emphasis. 3. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r s ' a t t e n d a n c e a t an i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g c o u r s e ( s ) / workshop(s) and s u b j e c t m atter emphasis. 4. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r o f e s s i o n -a l i n t e r a c t i o n and s u b j e c t matter emphasis. 5. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the typ e s of i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s and s u b j e c t m a t t e r emphasis. 6. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between c l a s s e n r o l l m e n t and s u b j e c t m a t t e r emphasis. 7. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e of t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t and s u b j e c t m atter emphasis. The J u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the Study As mentioned e a r l i e r , home economics i s o r g a n i z e d , i n many secondary s c h o o l s under d i f f e r e n t names: homemaking, home management, consumer e d u c a t i o n , f a m i l y s t u d i e s , foods and n u t r i t i o n . These broad programs are i n t e n d e d t o have a s i m i l a r f o c u s . However, even when the same c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s a r e i n use i n a l l secondary s c h o o l s , the c u r r i c u l u m may not be i n t e r p r e t e d i n the same way i n a l l secondary s c h o o l s . T h i s may be due t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t , background e x p e r i e n c e of s t u d e n t s , t e a c h e r ' s t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n , commitments t o 13 p r o f e s s i o n a l enrichment and a v a i l a b i l i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . I n a d d i t i o n , the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of home economics which a t e a c h e r h o l d s may i n f l u e n c e c u r r i c u l u m i n a c t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s s tudy i s d e s i g n e d t o a n a l y z e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u b j e c t m a t t e r emphasis and s e l e c t e d f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g t o t e a c h i n g and the t e a c h e r . The a n a l y s i s w i l l p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n about the c u r r e n t s t a t u s of home economics programs i n Oyo s t a t e secondary s c h o o l s . In Oyo s t a t e , the c o m p l e x i t y of l i f e i s i n c r e a s i n g as a r e s u l t of t e c h n o l o g i c a l advancement as w e l l as s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic changes. These changes have both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e impacts on the q u a l i t y of l i v e s of i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s . In o r d e r f o r home economics e d u c a t i o n t o be w e l l equipped t o meet the c h a l l e n g e s of the f u t u r e , c o n t i n o u s c u r r i c u l u m r e v i s i o n i s n e c e s s a r y . In o r d e r t o p l a n f o r the f u t u r e , however, i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o know the contemporary s t a t u s of home economics. The att e m p t s made i n t h i s s tudy t o d e s c r i b e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u b j e c t matter emphasis and f a c t o r s r e l a t i n g t o t e a c h i n g and the t e a c h e r w i l l be u s e f u l f o r home economics c u r r i c u l u m s p e c i a l i s t s and p o l i c y makers i n p l a n n i n g , d e s i g n i n g and implementing home economics programs. Documentation of home economics programs i s v e r y i m p o r t a n t i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s where l i t t l e r e s e a r c h d a t a i s a v a i l a b l e . At the p r e s e n t t i m e , l i t t l e i s known about home economics t e a c h i n g , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between home economics and o t h e r s u b j e c t s i n the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a , 14 c u r r i c u l u m e v a l u a t i o n , c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , and many o t h e r a r e a s of e d u c a t i o n i n N i g e r i a . One cannot u n d e r e s t i m a t e the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of a p p r o p r i a t e s c h o o l r e l a t e d r e s e a r c h t o knowledge i n the f i e l d of e d u c a t i o n , c u r r i c u l u m s t u d i e s and home economics. In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e has been no documentation of home economics programs from s t a t e t o s t a t e i n N i g e r i a . The at t e m p t s made i n t h i s study t o i d e n t i f y the s u b j e c t m atter a r e a s b e i n g taught i n home economics i n Oyo s t a t e may i n i t i a t e s i m i l a r r e s e a r c h i n o t h e r p a r t s of N i g e r i a and may se r v e as a b a s i s f o r a comparison among s t a t e s i n N i g e r i a . As w e l l , t h i s r e s e a r c h may serv e t o s t i m u l a t e f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on home economics programs i n N i g e r i a n secondary s c h o o l s . L i m i t a t i o n s There a r e s e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s t o t h i s s t u d y : The r e s e a r c h e r was unable t o gather d a t a a t f i r s t hand because she was s t u d y i n g i n Canada and unable t o o b t a i n f u n d i n g t o t r a v e l t o N i g e r i a t o conduct the s t u d y . Thus the da t a were g a t h e r e d by means of a m a i l survey w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of a r e t i r e d t e a c h e r who r e s i d e s i n N i g e r i a . A l t h o u g h t h i s was an a p p r o p r i a t e means t o gat h e r the d a t a , the use of a m a i l s u r v e y r a t h e r than i n t e r v i e w s has l i m i t e d the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of d a t a o b t a i n e d . Respondents might have p r o v i d e d more d e t a i l e d and more a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n i f they had been a b l e t o answer i n 1 5 t h e i r own words r a t h e r than use o n l y t h o s e a l t e r n a t i v e s p r e s e n t e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The s t u d y i s l i m i t e d t o Oyo s t a t e secondary s c h o o l s w i t h home economics programs. Thus, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u b j e c t matter emphasis and s e l e c t e d a s p e c t s of t e a c h i n g and the t e a c h e r l a c k g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y t o a l l home economics programs i n N i g e r i a n secondary s c h o o l s . D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Home Economics Education Home economics e d u c a t i o n i s the t e a c h i n g of the knowledge and s k i l l s r e q u i r e d t o s o l v e the problems of f e e d i n g , c l o t h i n g and s h e l t e r i n g human b e i n g s and a s s i s t i n g them t o b u i l d m e a n i n g f u l h e a l t h y r e l a t i o n s h i p s and l i f e s t y l e s (Adapted from CHEA, 1985). Human Development A l l p r o c e s s e s of change both i n the body i t s e l f ( s t r u c t u r e ) and i n i t s b e h a v i o u r ( f u n c t i o n ) , from c o n c e p t i o n t h r o u g h o l d age (American Home Economics A s s o c i a t i o n , 1967). Family A u n i t of i n t i m a t e t r a n s a c t i n g and i n t e r d e p e n d e n t p e r s o n s who share some v a l u e s and g o a l s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e c i s i o n s and r e s o u r c e s and have commitment t o one an o t h e r over time (Sheek, 1984). 1 6 Management The p r o c e s s of d e c i s i o n making and o r g a n i z a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v e d i n the use of r e s o u r c e s f o r d e f i n i n g and a c h i e v i n g g o a l s (AHEA, 1967). Indigenous Home Economics Education The t r a d i t i o n a l home economics e d u c a t i o n t h a t e x i s t e d i n A f r i c a b e f o r e c o n t a c t w i t h the Europeans and the A r a b s . I t i n c l u d e s the t e a c h i n g of the knowledge of c o o k e r y , s a n i t a t i o n , a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s , p r o d u c t i o n , maintenance, and c a r e of h o u s e h o l d o b j e c t s ( A u t h o r ' s d e f i n i t i o n , 1987). C u r r i c u l u m The c u r r i c u l u m i s a s t r u c t u r e d s e r i e s of i n t e n d e d l e a r n i n g outcomes (Johnson, 1981). Subject Matter The f a c t s , g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , i n f o r m a t i o n or o b j e c t s an i n d i v i d u a l uses i n a c t i v i t i e s t o promote a purpose which he i s e n d e a v o u r i n g t o r e a l i z e ( C a s w e l l & Campbell, 1935). The O r g a n i z a t i o n of the T h e s i s T h i s c h a p t e r has d e s c r i b e d the purpose of the s t u d y , i t s g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n , i t s p o s s i b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s , i t s l i m i t a t i o n s and the d e f i n i t i o n of r e l e v a n t terms. Chapter 1 7 two p r e s e n t s a r e v i e w of r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e i n home economics e d u c a t i o n . T h i s i n c l u d e s t r e n d s i n c u r r i c u l u m development, c u r r i c u l u m i n a c t i o n , t r e n d s i n home economics c u r r i c u l u m and an h i s t o r i c a l overview of home economics e d u c a t i o n i n N i g e r i a . Chapter t h r e e d e s c r i b e s the d e s i g n of the study w h i l e Chapter f o u r d i s c u s s e s the a n a l y s i s of the da t a and the r e s u l t s of the st u d y . Chapter f i v e c o n c l u d e s the t h e s i s and p r e s e n t s a summary of major f i n d i n g s , i m p l i c a t i o n s , and recommendations t o g e t h e r w i t h some s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . 18 CHAPTER I I LITERATURE REVIEW T h i s s e c t i o n r e v i e w s l i t e r a t u r e r e l e v a n t t o the s t u d y . I t i n c l u d e s f o u r a r e a s of r e v i e w : 1. Trends i n c u r r i c u l u m development 2. C u r r i c u l u m i n a c t i o n 3. Trends i n home economics c u r r i c u l u m 4. H i s t o r i c a l o v e rview of home economics e d u c a t i o n i n N i g e r i a Trends i n C u r r i c u l u m Development An overview of t h e o r y r e l a t e d t o c u r r i c u l u m development i n N o r t h America p r o v i d e s a u s e f u l background f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h i s s t u d y . The word c u r r i c u l u m has d i f f e r e n t meanings depending on the p h i l o s o p h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n of the people i n v o l v e d i n c u r r i c u l u m making. A c c o r d i n g t o C a s w e l l and Campbell (1935), d e f i n i t i o n s of c u r r i c u l u m f a l l i n t o t h r e e g e n e r a l groups. The f i r s t group i n c l u d e s uses of the term t o i n d i c a t e a group of s u b j e c t s or f i e l d s of st u d y a r r a n g e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r sequence t o a t t a i n a p a r t i c u l a r g o a l . For example, P u c k e t t d e f i n e s c u r r i c u l u m a s : the s e l e c t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n , and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a body of s u b j e c t m a t t e r d e s i g n e d t o l e a d the p u p i l on to some d e f i n i t e l i f e o b j e c t i v e s . Examples are the c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t o r y , the i n d u s t r i a l a r t s , and g e n e r a l c u r r i c u l a . ( P u c k e t t , 1931, p. 6) 19 The second group of d e f i n i t i o n s i s based on the f a c t t h a t the c u r r i c u l u m i s the s u b j e c t m atter f o r c o n t e n t t h a t i s t o be employed i n i n s t r u c t i o n . C u r r i c u l u m from t h i s p o i n t of view concerns the a c t i v i t y of s e l e c t i n g and a r r a n g i n g the t o p i c s t h a t a r e t o be taught i n the v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s . The t h i r d view of c u r r i c u l u m f o c u s e s on the e x p e r i e n c e of the l e a r n e r . I n t h i s v i e w , c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s f o c u s on p u p i l i n t e r e s t s . B o b b i t t (1918) shared the above view: The word curriculum i s L a t i n f o r a race-course, or the r a c e i t s e l f , a p l a c e of deeds, or a s e r i e s of deeds. As a p p l i e d t o e d u c a t i o n , i t i s t h a t s e r i e s of t h i n g s which c h i l d r e n and y o u t h must do and e x p e r i e n c e by way of d e v e l o p i n g a b i l i t i e s t o do the t h i n g s w e l l t h a t make up t h e a f f a i r s of a d u l t l i f e . . . ( B o b b i t t , 1918, p. 42) B o b b i t t viewed c u r r i c u l u m as i n c l u d i n g both d i r e c t e d and u n d i r e c t e d e x p e r i e n c e s whose o b j e c t i v e s must i n c l u d e the t o t a l range of human a b i l i t i e s , h a b i t s , systems of knowledge e t c . , t h a t one s h o u l d p o s s e s s . He b e l i e v e d the c u r r i c u l u m of the s c h o o l s h o u l d aim a t t h o s e o b j e c t i v e s t h a t a r e not s u f f i c i e n t l y a t t a i n e d as a r e s u l t of the g e n e r a l u n d i r e c t e d e x p e r i e n c e . B o b b i t t a l l o w s f o r i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g w i t h o u t any k i n d of d i r e c t t r a i n i n g . He c l a i m e d t h a t l e a r n i n g under u n d i r e c t e d t r a i n i n g i s bound t o be f u l l of m i s t a k e s . T h e r e f o r e , he emphasized s e t t i n g up o b j e c t i v e s t h a t w i l l meet "the s h o r t c o m i n g s of i n d i v i d u a l s a f t e r they have had a l l t h a t can be g i v e n by the u n d i r e c t e d t r a i n i n g " ( B o b b i t t , 1918, p. 45). 20 C h a r t e r s (1923) e n u n c i a t e d a method of c u r r i c u l u m making s i m i l a r t o B o b b i t t ' s . H i s emphasis d i f f e r e d from B o b b i t t ' s i n t h a t he b e l i e v e d t h a t the c o n t e n t of the c u r r i c u l u m and the aim of e d u c a t i o n must be s t a t e d i n terms of i d e a l s and o b j e c t i v e s . He saw i d e a l s as o b j e c t i v e s w i t h o b s e r v a b l e consequences. C h a r t e r s suggested t h a t a l l men s t r i v e t o sec u r e s a t i s f a c t i o n t h r o u g h the performance of a c t i v i t i e s under the c o n t r o l of t h e i r i d e a l s such as ho n e s t y , l o y a l t y and g e n e r o s i t y . On the o t h e r hand, he c l a s s i f i e d a c t i o n s which l e a d t o d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n as d i s h o n e s t y , d i s l o y a l t y and s e l f i s h n e s s . A c c o r d i n g t o C h a r t e r s , once i d e a l s a r e s e l e c t e d , they s e r v e as s t a n d a r d s f o r a c t i o n s . I t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t e a c h e r s t o d e c i d e the i m p o r t a n t i d e a l s they want t o emphasize. They are encouraged to make s u b j e c t m a t t e r r e l e v a n t t o l e a r n e r ' s needs. In 1949, T y l e r a t t e m p t e d t o c l a r i f y B o b b i t t ' s and C h a r t e r s ' v i e w s of s c i e n t i f i c c u r r i c u l u m making. In t h i s p r o c e s s , he de v e l o p e d a proce d u r e f o r c u r r i c u l u m making. He i d e n t i f i e d f o u r b a s i c q u e s t i o n s t h a t anyone engaging i n c u r r i c u l u m development must t r y t o answer. 1. What e d u c a t i o n a l purposes s h o u l d the s c h o o l seek t o a t t a i n ? 2. What e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s can be p r o v i d e d t h a t a re l i k e l y t o a t t a i n t h e s e p urposes? 3. How can t h e s e e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s be e f f e c t i v e l y o r g a n i z e d ? 21 4. How can we determine whether these purposes a r e bei n g a t t a i n e d ? T y l e r suggested t h a t a l l a s p e c t s of the e d u c a t i o n a l program a r e r e a l l y means t o a c c o m p l i s h b a s i c e d u c a t i o n a l p urposes. In or d e r t o d e v e l o p the e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s , T y l e r proposed t h a t the l e a r n e r ' s p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs, p h y s i c a l needs, s o c i a l needs, i n t e r e s t s , contemporary l i f e o u t s i d e the s c h o o l as w e l l as s u g g e s t i o n s from s u b j e c t matter s p e c i a l i s t s be s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n . He i d e n t i f i e d f i v e g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s f o r the s e l e c t i o n of l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s : 1. S t u d e n t s must have e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t g i v e them an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r a c t i c e the k i n d of b e h a v i o u r i m p l i e d by the o b j e c t i v e s . 2. L e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s must be such t h a t the s t u d e n t s o b t a i n s a t i s f a c t i o n from c a r r y i n g on the k i n d of be h a v i o u r i m p l i e d by the o b j e c t i v e s . 3. The r e a c t i o n s d e s i r e d i n the e x p e r i e n c e s h o u l d be w i t h i n the range of p o s s i b i l i t y f o r the s t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d . 4. Many e x p e r i e n c e s c o u l d be used t o a t t a i n the same e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . 5. Same l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s ( c o u l d ) b r i n g about s e v e r a l outcomes. T y l e r a l s o f o c u s e d h i s a t t e n t i o n on t h e e f f e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m . He b e l i e v e d t h a t t h r e e major c r i t e r i a must be met t o b u i l d an e f f e c t i v e l y o r g a n i z e d group of l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s : c o n t i n u i t y , sequence and i n t e g r a t i o n . C o n t i n u i t y r e f e r s t o the v e r t i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n of major c u r r i c u l u m e l e m e n t s . Sequence emphasizes the importance of h a v i n g each s u c c e s s i v e e x p e r i e n c e b u i l d upon 22 the p r e c e d i n g one but go more b r o a d l y and d e e p l y i n t o the c u r r i c u l u m e l e m e n t s . I n t e g r a t i o n r e f e r s t o the h o r i z o n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of c u r r i c u l u m e x p e r i e n c e s . F i n a l l y , he r e g a r d e d e v a l u a t i o n as an i m p o r t a n t o p e r a t i o n i n c u r r i c u l u m development. He saw t h i s as a p r o c e s s of d e t e r m i n i n g how w e l l the e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s a r e b e i n g a t t a i n e d . Bruner (1960) a l s o s u b s c r i b e d t o T y l e r ' s concept of c u r r i c u l u m . He c o n s i d e r e d the i s s u e s of p r e d i s p o s i t i o n , the importance of s t r u c t u r e , sequence and r e i n f o r c e m e n t i n p r e p a r i n g c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s . L i k e T y l e r , he b e l i e v e d t h a t the t e a c h e r , s u b j e c t m a t t e r s p e c i a l i s t and p s y c h o l o g i s t have a r o l e t o p l a y i n s e l e c t i n g the most i m p o r t a n t e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . He s u g g e s t e d t h a t s c h o o l s must a l s o c o n t r i b u t e t o the s o c i a l and e m o t i o n a l development of the c h i l d i f they are t o f u l f i l l t h e i r f u n c t i o n of e d u c a t i o n f o r l i f e . Bruner (1966) c a l l e d f o r c u r r i c u l u m r e f o r m which would r e c o n c e p t u a l i z e the s u b j e c t m atter of the s c h o o l around the s t r u c t u r e of the d i s c i p l i n e s and the modes of d i s c i p l i n e d i n q u i r y : ... To i n s t r u c t someone i n t h e s e d i s c i p l i n e s i s not a m a t t e r of g e t t i n g him t o commit r e s u l t s t o mind. R a t h e r , i t i s t o t e a c h him t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p r o c e s s t h a t makes p o s s i b l e the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of knowledge. We t e a c h a s u b j e c t not t o produce l i t t l e l i v i n g l i b r a r i e s on t h a t s u b j e c t , but r a t h e r t o get a s t u d e n t t o t h i n k m a t h e m a t i c a l l y f o r h i m s e l f , t o c o n s i d e r m a t t e r s as an h i s t o r i a n does, t o t a k e p a r t i n the p r o c e s s of knowledge g e t t i n g . Knowing i s a p r o c e s s , not a p r o d u c t . ( B r u n e r , 1966, p. 72) Habermas (1971), a s o c i a l p h i l o s o p h e r has had a g r e a t impact on c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r i s t s . H i s i d e a s r e l a t e d t o s e l f 23 r e f l e c t i o n , c r i t i q u e and c r i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s has i n f l u e n c e d the r e c o n c e p t u a l i s t p e r s p e c t i v e of c u r r i c u l u m . H i s t h r e e modes of r a t i o n a l i t y have been • u s e f u l as a framework f o r r e s e a r c h and development of knowledge, but a l s o as a source f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g the problems of c u r r i c u l u m . As Goodlad and R i c h t e r (1966) n o t e d , c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s a r e not v a l u e f r e e , t h e r e f o r e the d e c i s i o n t o a c c e p t a c u r r i c u l u m i s an e x p r e s s i o n of a v a l u e . Habermas' modes of r a t i o n a l i t y has p r o v i d e d c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n e r s w i t h a r a t i o n a l and a moral framework by which t o make v a l u e judgments about c u r r i c u l u m . T h i s has l e d t o v a r i o u s c u r r i c u l u m d e s i g n s . Macdonald (1975) re v i e w e d the c o n c e p t s p r e s e n t e d by Habermas i n Knowledge and Human Interest and d i s c u s s e d t h e s e c o n c e p t s i n r e l a t i o n t o c u r r i c u l u m . Habermas proposed t h r e e fundamental c o g n i t i v e human i n t e r e s t s which u n d e r l y d i f f e r e n t b e l i e f s about what knowledge i s and how we come t o know: (1) a t e c h n i c a l c o g n i t i v e i n t e r e s t i n c o n t r o l u n d e r l y i n g the e m p i r i c a l - a n a l y t i c approach, (2) a p r a c t i c a l c o g n i t i v e i n t e r e s t i n consensus u n d e r l y i n g the hermeneutic h i s t o r i c a l a pproach, (3) a c r i t i c a l c o g n i t i v e i n t e r e s t i n e m a n c i p a t i o n or l i b e r a t i o n u n d e r l y i n g the s e l f r e f l e c t i v e a p proach. Based on the above d i s t i n c t i o n s , Macdonald suggested t h a t d i f f e r e n t b a s i c c o g n i t i v e i n t e r e s t s , namely, (1) c o n t r o l , (2) consensus and (3) e m a n c i p a t i o n u n d e r l y d i f f e r e n t c u r r i c u l u m development models. He d e s c r i b e d the t h r e e d i f f e r e n t c u r r i c u l u m development models a s : (1) l i n e a r 24 e x p e r t model, (2) c i r c u l a r consensus model, and (3) d i a l o g i c a l model. The l i n e a r e x p e r t model i s a p r o c e s s i n which e x p e r t s dominate and c o n t r o l a l l of the c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s . T h i s approach i s d e s i g n e d t o improve stud e n t achievement and t e a c h e r s a t i s f a c t i o n . Examples of models of c o n t r o l l e d c u r r i c u l u m development a r e the models of B o b b i t t and T y l e r . Macdonald c r i t i c i z e d t he c o n t r o l model i n t h a t the major i n t e r e s t was t o m a n i p u l a t e , c o n d i t i o n and i n d o c t r i n a t e l e a r n e r s towards a p r e d e t e r m i n e d end over which the l e a r n e r has l i t t l e or no i n f l u e n c e . Macdonald's second model, the c i r c u l a r consensus model i s l i k e n e d t o " g r a s s r o o t s " c u r r i c u l u m development, i n v o l v i n g the l o c a l t e a c h e r s , s t a f f and the community i n the c u r r i c u l u m development p r o c e s s . The g o a l of c u r r i c u l u m development i n t h i s r e s p e c t i s g e a r e d towards meeting the l o c a l needs. Macdonald's d i a l o g i c a l model was r o o t e d i n F r e i r e ' s p h i l o s o p h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n of e m a n c i p a t i o n of per s o n s from o p p r e s s i v e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s such as economic, language and p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s . The model a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e s s t u d e n t s i n c u r r i c u l u m development. As the f o r e g o i n g i n d i c a t e s , t h e r e have been d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s on c u r r i c u l u m development. The e a r l y c u r r i c u l u m t h e o r i s t s a d d r e s s e d the i s s u e of how c u r r i c u l u m s h o u l d be made. More r e c e n t l y , the f o c u s i s on how d e c i s i o n s should be made about what t o t e a c h . U n d e r l y i n g t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a re d i f f e r e n t n o t i o n s of what e d u c a t i o n i s 25 and what i t i s m o r a l l y and e t h i c a l l y r i g h t t o do as e d u c a t o r s . M c N e i l (1984) c a t e g o r i z e d the c u r r e n t c o n c e p t i o n s of c u r r i c u l u m i n t o f o u r major c a t e g o r i e s : h u m a n i s t i c , s o c i a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s t , t e c h n o l o g i c a l and academic. He argued t h a t d i f f e r e n t groups d i f f e r e d i n terms of "what s h o u l d be t a u g h t , t o whom, when and how" (p. v i i ) . The h u m a n i s t i c t h e o r i s t s b e l i e v e t h a t the c u r r i c u l u m must p r o v i d e each l e a r n e r w i t h i n t r i n s i c a l l y r e w a r d i n g e x p e r i e n c e s which c o n t r i b u t e t o p e r s o n a l l i b e r a t i o n , and development. The c u r r i c u l u m must be r e l e v a n t t o day-to-day l i v i n g of the l e a r n e r , e m p h a s i z i n g c r e a t i v i t y , problem s o l v i n g s k i l l s , and i n n o v a t i o n . C u r r i c u l u m a c t i v i t i e s a r e e x p l o r a t o r y , p u z z l i n g , p l a y f u l , and spontaneous i n n a t u r e . S i t u a t i o n s u s u a l l y d i c t a t e the e d u c a t i o n a l purposes and t e a c h e r s a c t as f a c i l i t a t o r s . On the whole, the h u m a n i s t i c c u r r i c u l u m encourages p e r s o n a l development, l e a r n i n g , s e l f a c t u a l i z a t i o n and good human r e l a t i o n s h i p s . S o c i a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s t s emphasize s o c i e t a l needs over i n d i v i d u a l i n t e r e s t s . They a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n u s i n g e d u c a t i o n t o e f f e c t s o c i a l r e f o r m s . The c u r r i c u l u m h e l p s l e a r n e r s use c o n c e p t s from s o c i a l s c i e n c e s and a e s t h e t i c s t o i d e n t i f y and s o l v e c u r r e n t s o c i a l problems. T h i s e n t a i l s F r e i r e ' s (1970) i d e a of c o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n which i s making people aware of t h e i r o p p r e s s i v e s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s and t h e i r a b i l i t y t o l i b e r a t e t h e m s e l v e s . 26 The t e c h n o l o g i s t s c o n c e p t u a l i z e the purpose of c u r r i c u l u m as e s s e n t i a l l y one of a c h i e v i n g a s e t of p r e d e f i n e d n o n p r o b l e m a t i c ends. I t f o c u s e s on the. e f f e c t i v e n e s s of programs, methods and m a t e r i a l s i n the achievement of s p e c i f i c ends. A c c o r d i n g t o M c N e i l (1984) t e c h n o l o g y i n f l u e n c e s c u r r i c u l u m i n two ways: a p p l i c a t i o n and t h e o r y . A p p l i e d t e c h n o l o g y i s the use of e l e c t r o n i c d e v i c e s to a c h i e v e the i n t e n d e d l e a r n i n g outcomes w h i l e t e c h n o l o g y as t h e o r y i s used i n the development and e v a l u a t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s . C u r r i c u l u m t h e o r i s t s w i t h an academic o r i e n t a t i o n see c u r r i c u l u m as the v e h i c l e by which l e a r n e r s a r e i n t r o d u c e d t o s u b j e c t matter d i s c i p l i n e s and t o o r g a n i z e d f i e l d s of s t u d y . There a r e t h r e e approaches t o t h i s c u r r i c u l u m development model: (1) L e a r n e r s a r e exposed t o two p o i n t s of view and are e x p e c t e d t o use t h e i r judgement t o come t o a r e a s o n a b l e c o n c l u s i o n . (2) In i n t e g r a t i o n , s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a s a r e combined t o g e t h e r t o g i v e a comprehensive view. (3) Back t o b a s i c s a p p l i c a t i o n emphasizes r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , a r i t h m e t i c , and deemphasizes v o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e s and o t h e r e l e c t i v e s . C u r r i c u l u m in A c t i o n I r r e s p e c t i v e of how a program i s d e s i g n e d by i t s d e v e l o p e r , the d e v e l o p e r ' s i n t e n t s , r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l , and a c t i v i t i e s a re i n t e r p r e t e d and e x p e r i e n c e d by t e a c h e r s i n ways which may s u r p r i s e the d e s i g n e r (Werner and A o k i , 27 1979). T h i s i s because c u r r i c u l u m i n s c h o o l s i s always an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by the t e a c h e r of some g u i d e l i n e or document, and an a d a p t a t i o n t o c o n t e x t , s i t u a t i o n , and l o c a l e of the s c h o o l . The t e a c h e r i s the r e a l c u r r i c u l u m maker. He or she i s the d e c i s i o n - m a k e r , the q u e s t i o n - a n s w e r e r , the one r e s p o n s i b l e f o r what u l t i m a t e l y o c c u r s i n the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s (Jampolsky, 1973). The M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n may make c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s , t e x t b o o k s , workbooks, magazines, f i l m s and o t h e r l e a r n i n g r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o t e a c h e r s but c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s may not be i n t e r p r e t e d i n the same way by a l l t e a c h e r s . So c u r r i c u l u m i n a c t i o n i s u s u a l l y d i f f e r e n t from c u r r i c u l u m as pl a n n e d . E i s n e r (1985) s u g g e s t e d t h a t a l l s c h o o l s t e a c h t h r e e c u r r i c u l a : the e x p l i c i t , the i m p l i c i t , and the n u l l . The e x p l i c i t c u r r i c u l u m r e f e r s t o the p u b l i c l y announced programs of study such as c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s , c o u r s e d e s c r i p t i o n s , and c o u r s e o u t l i n e s . The i m p l i c i t c u r r i c u l u m , on the o t h e r hand, i n c l u d e s v a l u e s and e x p e c t a t i o n s which a r e g e n e r a l l y not i n c l u d e d i n the f o r m a l c u r r i c u l u m but a r e n e v e r t h e l e s s l e a r n e d by the s t u d e n t s . The n u l l c u r r i c u l u m i s d e f i n e d as what the s c h o o l does not t e a c h . " . . . t h e o p t i o n s s t u d e n t s are not a f f o r d e d , the p e r s p e c t i v e s they may never know about, much l e s s be a b l e t o use, the c o n c e p t s and s k i l l s t h a t a r e not p a r t of t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l r e p e r t o i r e " ( E i s n e r , 1985, p. 107). Werner (1981) d i s c u s s e d the r o l e of b e l i e f i n c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . He p o i n t e d out t h a t "everyone 28 i n v o l v e d w i t h an i n n o v a t i o n may not share the same as s u m p t i o n s , v a l u e s , e x p e c t a t i o n and consequent i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n . As a s o c i a l p r o c e s s , t h e r e f o r e , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o c c u r s as p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t e r p r e t t h e s e b e l i e f s i n the c o n t e x t of t h e i r s c h o o l s i t u a t i o n s , background e x p e r i e n c e s and e d u c a t i o n a l commitments" (1981, p. 137). Stenhouse (1975) a l s o suggested t h a t t h e r e may be d i s c r e p a n c y between the i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r ' s l e s s o n p l a n s and what the t e a c h e r does or a l l o w s t o happen. For example, t h e r e may be incongruence between the t e a c h e r ' s p u b l i c l y d e c l a r e d p h i l o s o p h y or b e l i e f s about e d u c a t i o n and the t e a c h e r ' s own beh a v i o u r i n the c l a s s r o o m . Many s t u d i e s (Regan and Le i t h w o o d , 1974; Goodlad et a l . , 1974) have a l s o argued t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o r e c o g n i z e what a t e a c h e r says about h i s t e a c h i n g and what he a c t u a l l y does. Both t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s have d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w hich they b r i n g t o the c l a s s r o o m . In one way or a n o t h e r , the p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s and p r e s e n t a p t i t u d e s , i n t e r e s t s , s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s of these persons i n f l u e n c e s the meaning of c u r r i c u l u m and i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ( K i n g , 1986). O f t e n the c u r r i c u l u m i s i n t e n d e d t o e f f e c t change, w i t h the main g o a l t o enhance the q u a l i t y of c l a s s r o o m l i f e or t o h e l p s t u d e n t s l e a r n more e f f e c t i v e l y ( F u l l a n and Le i t h w o o d , 1982). Such i n n o v a t i o n s may r e q u i r e t h a t t e a c h e r s devote more time and energy t o c l a s s r o o m p l a n n i n g , a c q u i r i n g new knowledge or s k i l l s , g a i n i n g a c c e s s t o new f a c i l i t i e s and 29 r e s o u r c e s or t a k i n g a p r o f e s s i o n a l r i s k by c h a n g i n g something t h a t seems to be working w e l l i n the c l a s s r o o m . O f t e n these c h a l l e n g e s i n t i m i d a t e t e a c h e r s and, i n s t e a d of a c c e p t i n g i n n o v a t i v e i d e a s , they l o c k c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s i n the drawers w i t h o u t u s i n g them. The age and e x p e r i e n c e of the t e a c h e r c o u l d be r e l a t e d t o r e s i s t a n c e t o change. E x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s are proud of t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e s and p r a c t i c e s and may b e l i e v e t h a t they have l e a r n e d e v e r y t h i n g t h a t needs t o be l e a r n e d . S i n c e they do not see the need f o r change, they t e a c h the same t h i n g over and over a g a i n (Cavanagh and S t y l e s , 1983). However, dogmatic o b s e s s i o n w i t h t r a d i t i o n may be an h i n d r a n c e t o c r e a t i v i t y and p r o d u c t i v i t y . As Cavanagh and S t y l e s (1983) d i s c u s s e d , openness of mind t o new p o s s i b i l i t i e s and commitment t o change can l e a d to p r o d u c t i v e and c r e a t i v e v a r i a t i o n s on the " o l d themes" of t r a d i t i o n a l l y sound p r a c t i c e s . In t h i s s t u d y , i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d on t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e t o determine the e x t e n t t o which t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e would i n f l u e n c e s u b j e c t matter emphasis. Lack of the a v a i l a b i l i t y of r e s o u r c e s and m a t e r i a l s i s another f a c t o r which i n f l u e n c e s c u r r i c u l u m i n a c t i o n . In o r d e r t o ensure s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t r e s o u r c e s be a v a i l a b l e . Books and o t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s w r i t t e n and s t r u c t u r e d a c c o r d i n g t o s t u d e n t s background may h e l p w i t h m e a n i n g f u l e x e c u t i o n of the c u r r i c u l u m . The l i m i t a t i o n caused by inadequate r e s o u r c e s and m a t e r i a l s i s a problem f a c i n g v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n i n 30 d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s (Okwuanaso, 1984). Because of i t ' s p r a c t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n , home economics i s an e x p e n s i v e s u b j e c t i n comparison t o o t h e r academic s u b j e c t s . The l a b o r a t o r y equipment and r e s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y f o r a program come, from i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s and a r e o f t e n c o s t l y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , poor n a t i o n s cannot a f f o r d t o buy many p i e c e s of equipment and t h e r e f o r e , ten s t u d e n t s f o r example, may need t o s hare one p i e c e of equipment. In t h i s s t u d y , the q u e s t i o n of the e x t e n t t o which r e s o u r c e s and m a t e r i a l s i n f l u e n c e d what was taught was e x p l o r e d . Lack of the t e a c h e r ' s involvement w i t h the p l a n n i n g and development of a new c u r r i c u l u m can h i n d e r program improvement. . S i n c e t e a c h e r s a r e the key i n t e r p r e t e r s of c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s , i t i s g e n e r a l l y recommended t h a t t e a c h e r s be d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n the development and p l a n n i n g of c u r r i c u l u m ( M c N e i l , 1984; Cavanagh and S t y l e s , 1983; Rhodes and Young, 1981). Teachers a r e i s o l a t e d from one a n o t h e r , and i n - s e r v i c e s e s s i o n s and meetings of e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t c o u l d p r o v i d e p r o f e s s i o n a l growth f o r t e a c h e r s a r e not a t t e n d e d f r e q u e n t l y (Goodlad, 1983). S u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the q u a l i t y of i n - s e r v i c e programs t h a t t e a c h e r s r e c e i v e ( C r a n d a l l , 1983; Cavanagh and S t y l e s , 1983; F u l l a n , 1979). In t h i s s t u d y , i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d on i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n t o f i n d out the e x t e n t to which t e a c h e r s ' a t t e n d a n c e a t an i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s a f f e c t e d s u b j e c t m a t t e r emphasis. 31 The assumption t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l involvement i n c r e a s e s t e a c h e r c l a s s r o o m s k i l l s i s commonly a c c e p t e d . T h i s may be because the o r g a n i z a t i o n s p u b l i s h n e w s l e t t e r s , j o u r n a l s and o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s f o r members' use. They a l s o f o c u s on p r o f e s s i o n a l i s s u e s . Through p r o f e s s i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n s , t e a c h e r s c o u l d s h a r e , s u p p o r t , and communicate e d u c a t i o n a l t r e n d s w i t h t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s a c r o s s the c o u n t r y . Marsh and Huberman (1984) suggested t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s can a l s o be i n f l u e n t i a l w i t h i n a s t a t e ' s e d u c a t i o n system. They c l a i m e d t h a t members of p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s i n f l u e n c e the i n i t i a t i o n and d i r e c t i o n of c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n s and can a l s o a f f e c t l e v e l s of a d o p t i o n and use by t e a c h e r s . E x e c u t i v e committees of p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e o f t e n s e n i o r e d u c a t o r s (academics, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ) , who d etermine the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n i n - s e r v i c e a c t i v i t i e s , i n the p r o d u c t i o n of m a t e r i a l s and many a c t i v i t i e s t h a t are geared towards academic improvement. Academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a y a r d s t i c k w i t h which t o measure the competency of a t e a c h e r t o t e a c h a s u b j e c t m a t t e r . In t h i s s t u d y , i n f o r m a t i o n was sought on academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n i n o r d e r t o e x p l o r e whether t h e r e was any r e l a t i o n s h i p between academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and s u b j e c t m a t t e r emphasis. 32 T r e n d s i n Home E c o n o m i c s C u r r i c u l u m D u r i n g the pa s t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100 y e a r s , home economics has assumed v a r i o u s responses a t v a r i o u s t i m e s and under v a r i o u s c o n d i t i o n s . E a s t (1980) b e s t d e s c r i b e s these responses i n the f o u r models of home economics: (1) Management of the hou s e h o l d : economics, (2) A p p l i c a t i o n of s c i e n c e f o r i m p r o v i n g environment, (3) I n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g : c o o k i n g and sewing, (4) The e d u c a t i o n of women f o r womanhood: homemaking. The f i r s t model, management of the hou s e h o l d economy da t e s back t o the time of A r i s t o t l e . The word economics i s a c t u a l l y Oi konomi a i n Greek meaning h o u s e h o l d management. A c c o r d i n g t o E a s t , management of household a f f a i r s i n v o l v e s the c o g n i t i v e a c t i v i t i e s of p l a n n i n g , managing, d e c i d i n g , c h o o s i n g , and e v a l u a t i n g . As she s t a t e s "home management c o n s i s t s of t h i n k i n g about what would be the bes t p o s s i b l e c o n d i t i o n s t h r o u g h which the people of the f a m i l y c o u l d a c h i e v e t h e i r p o t e n t i a l f o r a r i c h , joyous l i f e , t h i n k i n g out how t o a c h i e v e such c o n d i t i o n s , t h i n k i n g i n a f e e d - f o r w a r d and a feed-back way w h i l e c a r r y i n g out the s t e p s d e c i d e d upon" (p. 36). E a s t (1980) c l a i m s t h a t t h i s model i s not as p o p u l a r as the a p p l i e d s c i e n c e or e d u c a t i o n of women f o r homemaking model. In c o n t r a s t , P e t e r a t (1987) obser v e d t h a t management of household model has been emphasized i n Canadian s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a . Courses a re 33 d e v e l o p e d around consumer e d u c a t i o n , d e c i s i o n making, v a l u e and management c o n c e p t s . The second model, a p p l i c a t i o n of s c i e n c e f o r i m p r o v i n g environment: human e c o l o g y i s the model which r e f l e c t e d the p h i l o s o p h i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n of the e a r l y home e c o n o m i s t s . As d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter one, R i c h a r d s s u b s c r i b e d t o t h i s model. As a s c i e n t i s t , R i c h a r d s saw the r e l e v a n c e of a p p l y i n g s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s t o enhance the q u a l i t y of day t o day l i v i n g of i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s . The knowledge g a i n e d from c h e m i s t r y , b i o l o g y , m i c r o b i o l o g y , and b e h a v i o u r a l s c i e n c e s l i k e p s y c h o l o g y , s o c i o l o g y and economics were brought t o bear on home problems. Some of the most p o p u l a r c o u r s e s were s a n i t a t i o n and food p r e s e r v a t i o n . The t h i r d model, i n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g : c o o k i n g and sewing i s based on the e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y of John Dewey. He b e l i e v e d t h a t a c t u a l "hands on" e x p e r i e n c e w i t h r e a l t h i n g s was i m p o r t a n t f o r i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral development. He b e l i e v e d i n l a b o r a t o r y work and l a b o r a t o r y work i n home economics was encouraged as a r e s u l t of h i s e f f o r t s . As East (1980) d i s c u s s e d , t h i s model became p o p u l a r i n h i g h s c h o o l s because of i t s p r a c t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . I t p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o escape from the r i g o u r s of the s o - c a l l e d academic s u b j e c t s . The c o o k i n g and sewing model i s a l s o the f o u n d a t i o n f o r some of the v o c a t i o n a l home economics c o u r s e s . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , the f i e l d of home economics i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as a c o o k i n g and sewing d i s c i p l i n e . 34 The f o u r t h model, the e d u c a t i o n of women f o r womanhood: homemaking assumes t h a t most women w i l l be wives and mothers and t h e r e f o r e i t i s im p o r t a n t t o pr e p a r e them f o r t h e i r f e m i n i n e r o l e s . E a s t c l a i m s t h a t t h i s model has competed w i t h the a p p l i e d s c i e n c e model and Dewey's i n d u c t i v e model and so f a r i s the most p o p u l a r model i n U n i t e d S t a t e s p u b l i c s c h o o l programs. S i m i l a r l y , P e t e r a t (1984) argued t h a t e d u c a t i o n of women f o r womanhood was the view f o r which Hoodless fought i n h a v i n g home economics a c c e p t e d i n the Canadian p u b l i c s c h o o l s . A common t h r e a d i n the above models i s the co n c e r n f o r w e l l - b e i n g of i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s . Brown (1986) contends t h a t the t e c h n i c a l n a t u r e of the g o a l s s e t f o r these models a r e i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r s e r v i c e o r i e n t e d f i e l d s l i k e home economics e d u c a t i o n . In her c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of home economics as a p r a c t i c a l s c i e n c e , Brown s u b s c r i b e s t o Habermas' (1971) concept of t h r e e modes of r a t i o n a l i t y : the e m p i r i c a l - a n a l y t i c , i n t e r p r e t i v e , and c r i t i c a l l y r e f l e c t i v e . Brown, l i k e Macdonald (1975), f i n d s the modes of r a t i o n a l i t y concept t o be a p o w e r f u l r a t i o n a l e t o argue a g a i n s t the t e c h n i c a l l y o r i e n t e d c u r r i c u l u m work. She r e l a t e d the concept of modes of r a t i o n a l i t y t o home economics c u r r i c u l u m work and i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e systems of f a m i l y a c t i o n s which e d u c a t o r s s h o u l d be a i d i n g i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s t o de v e l o p : t e c h n i c a l a c t i o n s , communicative a c t i o n s and e m a n c i p a t i v e a c t i o n s (Brown, 1980). Each system of f a m i l y 35 a c t i o n e n t a i l s a mode of r a t i o n a l i t y . For example, f a m i l y communicative a c t i o n s r e q u i r e the i n t e r p r e t i v e mode of r a t i o n a l i t y . Her c o n c e p t u a l framework of home economics p l a c e s more emphasis (1) on the f a m i l y as a source of i m p r o v a b i l i t y of per s o n s as i n d i v i d u a l s and of the human c o n d i t i o n g e n e r a l l y and (2) on c o n d i t i o n s i n s o c i e t y which need t o support the f a m i l y i n i t s e f f o r t s and, i n contemporary s o c i e t y , which need t o change i n o r d e r t o support the f a m i l y . In r e c e n t y e a r s , c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p e r s a r e a d o p t i n g approaches r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r own i d e a s about modes of r a t i o n a l i t y and f a m i l y a c t i o n . Hence, the i n c i d e n c e of (1) T e c h n i c a l l y o r i e n t e d c u r r i c u l u m (2) I n t e r p r e t i v e o r i e n t e d c u r r i c u l u m and (3) C r i t i c a l / E m a n c i p a t i v e o r i e n t e d c u r r i c u l u m . T e c h n i c a l l y O r i e n t e d C u r r i c u l u m T h i s c u r r i c u l u m o r i e n t a t i o n emphasizes t e c h n i c a l r u l e s , drawn from c a u s a l knowledge f o r m u l a t e d i n the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s and i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . G e n e r a l l y , t e c h n i c a l l y o r i e n t e d c u r r i c u l u m i s based on the premise t h a t homemaking i s a d e f i n e d o c c u p a t i o n and i n o r d e r f o r i n d i v i d u a l s t o assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r e l a t e d t o t h i s o c c u p a t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y , they need t o master c e r t a i n s k i l l s . The u l t i m a t e g o a l i s t o p r e p a r e s t u d e n t s f o r the o c c u p a t i o n of homemaking. Examples of such t e c h n i c a l l y o r i e n t e d c u r r i c u l a a r e C o l o r a d o C u r r i c u l u m P r o j e c t ( B r i n k et a l . , 1986) and 36 V o c a t i o n a l T e c h n i c a l E d u c a t i o n C o n s o r t i u m of S t a t e s (VTECS) C u r r i c u l u m P r o j e c t (Downey and K i z e r , 1986). In b o th p r o j e c t s , c u r r i c u l u m s p e c i a l i s t s i d e n t i f i e d the t a s k s performed by homemakers and devel o p e d c u r r i c u l u m t h a t r e f l e c t e d t he t o t a l scope of homemaking r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The C o l o r a d o C u r r i c u l u m P r o j e c t emphasized f o u r s k i l l a r e a s : (1) P r o v i d i n g a l i v i n g environment, (2) M e e t i n g needs of f a m i l y , (3) Managing r e s o u r c e s (4) C a r i n g f o r and i m p r o v i n g s e l f . The VTECS C u r r i c u l u m P r o j e c t r e q u i r e d a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge and s k i l l s i n the f i v e a r e a s of Homemaking; Foods and N u t r i t i o n , Human Development, Housing, and Home F u r n i s h i n g s , Management and F a m i l y Economics, and C l o t h i n g and T e x t i l e s ( B r i n k et al ., 1986; Downey and K i z e r , 1986). I n t e r p r e t i v e O r i e n t e d C u r r i c u l u m T h i s c u r r i c u l u m approach stems from the need f o r home economists t o conduct open and u n d i s t o r t e d communicative a c t i o n w i t h those whom they s e r v e and t o g i v e a t t e n t i o n i n the c o n t e x t of t h a t communication t o the meanings and the l o g i c f o r v a l i d a t i n g those b e l i e f s , meanings, and norms s i g n i f i c a n t t o f a m i l y l i f e and development of the i n d i v i d u a l (Brown, 1986). I n t e r p r e t i v e c u r r i c u l u m h o l d s the view t h a t i t i s o n l y through e x p e r i e n c e and shared u n d e r s t a n d i n g s of e x p e r i e n c e t h a t wisdom and judgment d e v e l o p , a p o s s i b i l i t y c r e a t e d by communication w i t h one a n o t h e r . The s u b j e c t matter i n i n t e r p r e t i v e programs i s a t o o l r a t h e r than an end i n i t s e l f . The development of p r o f i c i e n c y i n the p r o c e s s of 37 i n q u i r y , v a l u i n g , d e c i s i o n and a c t i o n i s a c e n t r a l g o a l . Important f e a t u r e s of such c u r r i c u l u m i n c l u d e f l e x i b i l i t y and r e l e v a n c e of l e s s o n s t o the d a i l y problems e n c o u n t e r e d by s t u d e n t s . Examples of i n t e r p r e t i v e o r i e n t e d c u r r i c u l u m a r e the N o r t h Dakota S t a t e C u r r i c u l u m P r o j e c t (Murphy, 1986) and the West V i r g i n i a C u r r i c u l u m P r o j e c t ( B l a n k e n s h i p and Ferguson, 1986). The N o r t h Dakota S t a t e C u r r i c u l u m P r o j e c t was based on the i d e a t h a t i n t u i t i v e l y d e v e l o p e d c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s a r e not a p p r o p r i a t e when they are t o be used by p e r s o n s o t h e r than the d e v e l o p e r s . T h e r e f o r e , to d e v e l o p a consumer e d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m t h a t would meet the needs of both s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s , a team c o n s i s t i n g of t e a c h e r s , s t a t e department of e d u c a t i o n p e r s o n n e l , c o l l e g e e x p e r t s and l o c a l c o n s u l t a n t s observed consumer b e h a v i o u r s . Based on t h e i r f i n d i n g s , a c u r r i c u l u m was d e v e l o p e d t o r e f l e c t the i n q u i r y p r o c e s s , v a l u i n g p r o c e s s , d e c i s i o n p r o c e s s , and a c t i o n p r o c e s s (Murphy, 1986). The West V i r g i n i a C u r r i c u l u m P r o j e c t i s s i m i l a r t o Macdonald's c i r c u l a r consensus model which i s l i k e n e d t o the " g r a s s r o o t s " c u r r i c u l u m development approach. In t h i s c a s e , the t e a c h e r s i n i t i a t e d the need f o r c u r r i c u l u m change i n the f i e l d . They formed a c u r r i c u l u m development committee c o n s i s t i n g of t e a c h e r s , s t a t e department of e d u c a t i o n p e r s o n n e l , c o l l e g e e x p e r t s and l o c a l c o n s u l t a n t s t o examine major i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g the f i e l d such a s : male e n r o l l m e n t , absence of major c u r r i c u l u m e f f o r t s i n the p a s t 38 15 y e a r s , complacency among many t e a c h e r s about t h e i r programs, and s o c i e t a l changes. T h e i r e f f o r t s r e s u l t e d i n the development of a non-graded c u r r i c u l u m w i t h f o u r themes. Each of the f o u r themes i n c l u d e d l e s s o n s from f o u r a r e a s of home economics i n c l u d i n g P e r s o n a l Development and F a m i l y R e l a t i o n s h i p s , Management, Foods and N u t r i t i o n , Consumer E d u c a t i o n , World of Work, and C l o t h i n g and T e x t i l e s ( B l a n k e n s h i p and Ferguson, 1986). C r i t i c a l / E m a n c i p a t i v e O r i e n t e d C u r r i c u l u m E m a n c i p a t i v e a c t i o n i n the f a m i l y i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be e s s e n t i a l t o p r o v i d i n g a f r e e , d e m o c r a t i c environment f o r f a m i l y members. Such an environment encourages i n t e l l e c t u a l growth i n s t e a d of dogmatic c o n f o r m i t y t o t r a d i t i o n (Brown, 1980). C u r r i c u l u m p l a n n e r s , d e s i g n e r s and o t h e r e d u c a t o r s have examined the emerging concept of home economics and f a m i l y systems of a c t i o n w i t h a view t o p r o v i d i n g new e x p e r i e n c e s f o r s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s . Examples a r e the development of t h r e e home economics c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s i n M i n n e s o t a , W i s c o n s i n , and P e n n s y l v a n i a i n U n i t e d S t a t e s . M i n n e s o t a ' s p r o j e c t was based on the i d e a t h a t v a l u e s and knowledge i n t e r a c t i n r e a s o n i n g t o answer c u r r i c u l u m q u e s t i o n s . Most o f t e n c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n e r s d e a l w i t h v a l u e q u e s t i o n s i n p r e s c r i p t i v e ways. To a v o i d t h i s , M i n n e s o t a c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n e r s b e l i e v e d s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m / e d u c a t i o n i n g e n e r a l s h o u l d produce p e r s o n s who a r e c r i t i c a l l y aware, independent, r e s p o n s i b l e and s e l f renewing. Such e d u c a t i o n 39 was concerned w i t h the development of c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e s r a t h e r than c o n t e n t l e a r n i n g a l o n e . The d e s i g n used i n t h i s p r o j e c t r e c o g n i z e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l and c o g n i t i v e development. M a t e r i a l s were developed t o meet s t u d e n t s ' l e a r n i n g needs. The main g o a l of the v o c a t i o n a l homemaking program was t o enable i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s t o f u n c t i o n w i t h i n t h e i r own s t r e n g t h s . Through e d u c a t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s d e v e l o p t h e i r i n t e l l e c t and use r a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e a n a l y s i s of a l t e r n a t i v e s and ends ( S c h w a r t z , et al ., 1986). The f a m i l y focus approach i n home economics was develo p e d i n W i s c o n s i n under the d i r e c t i o n of the W i s c o n s i n Home Economics C o n c e p t u a l Guide C o u n c i l . T h i s approach i n c l u d e s the development of a management o u t l o o k r e g a r d i n g the f a m i l y and the t a s k s of the home. T h i s approach s u b s c r i b e s t o Brown's e m a n c i p a t i v e a c t i o n i n the f a m i l y . T h i s c u r r i c u l u m encourages v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of c o g n i t i v e development such as t h i n k i n g , s e l f l e a r n i n g , m o t i v a t i o n and a c t i n g (Fauske, 1986). In a p r o j e c t a t P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , c u r r i c u l u m was developed t o implement a c r i t i c a l s c i e n c e p e r s p e c t i v e of home economics proposed by Brown and P a o l u c c i (1979). The aim of the c u r r i c u l u m was t o h e l p s t u d e n t s i n home economics reason about v a l u e i s s u e s , and use what i s l e a r n e d t h r o u g h c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and a c t i n g on p r a c t i c a l problems of f a m i l i e s ( H u l t g r e n , 1986). 40 H i s t o r i c a l l y , the o r i e n t a t i o n s of home economics c u r r i c u l u m i n Canada has been i n f l u e n c e d by t r e n d s i n the American system of e d u c a t i o n . Movement away from technical-know-how t o a p r a c t i c a l problem s o l v i n g approach i s t h e r e f o r e p r e d i c t a b l e i n the Canadian c u r r i c u l u m . As MacFarlane (1966) n o t e d , home economics has w i t n e s s e d a p r o g r e s s i v e movement from mastery of do m e s t i c s k i l l s t o a l l a s p e c t s of p e r s o n a l and f a m i l y l i v i n g . She went f u r t h e r t o d i s c u s s t h a t a l t h o u g h home economics had d u a l f u n c t i o n s i n s c h o o l s , p r e v o c a t i o n a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l , i t i s p a r t of g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n and s h a r e s common o b j e c t i v e s of d e v e l o p i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l competence, s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n s t u d e n t s . In the most r e c e n t s t u d y , P e t e r a t (1986) o b s e r v e d t h a t two dominant p h i l o s o p h i c a l views of home economics are e v i d e n t i n the secondary programs i n Canada: home economics as management and d e c i s i o n making, and home economics as p e r s o n a l and f a m i l y development. W h i l e n e i t h e r of t h e s e views i s e x c l u s i v e , each t a k e s precedence over the o t h e r view i n o r d e r i n g and e x p r e s s i n g the c o u r s e c o n t e n t i n the c u r r i c u l u m documents. ( P e t e r a t , 1986, p. 274) P e t e r a t (1986) c o n c l u d e d t h a t the view of home economics as management and d e c i s i o n making i s e v i d e n t i n B r i t i s h C olumbia, A l b e r t a , and Quebec c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s . In 1985, i n the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , home economics t e a c h e r s worked w i t h B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n C u r r i c u l u m Development Branch t o produce a f a m i l y management c u r r i c u l u m guide and r e s o u r c e book. The c o n t e n t of t h i s c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e i s "concerned w i t h human growth and 41 development, i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , management of human and m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s , and s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t s . The c u r r i c u l u m i s d e s i g n e d t o encourage s t u d e n t s t o use p r o c e s s e s of d e c i s i o n making, communicating, and problem s o l v i n g i n a wide v a r i e t y of l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s " ( B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , 1985, p. 1 ) . S i m i l a r changes a re t a k i n g p l a c e i n A u s t r a l i a , where home economics e d u c a t o r s i n t r o d u c e d a c o u r s e t i t l e d "Home Economics: Human Development and S o c i e t y " i n t o the h i g h s c h o o l c e r t i f i c a t e program. T h i s c o u r s e f o c u s e d on management c o n c e p t s and on f a m i l y and human development c o n c e p t s . Because i t was a s t i m u l a t i n g s u b j e c t , i t became p o p u l a r and p r e r e q u i s i t e s t o the f o l l o w i n g u n i v e r s i t y programs: m e d i c i n e , s o c i a l work, n u r s i n g , p o l i c e t r a i n i n g , and k i n d e r g a r t e n t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g (Dixon and Bouma, 1984). In 1983, the Car i b b e a n A s s o c i a t i o n of Home Economics (C.A.H.E.) produced "Caribbean Home Economics i n A c t i o n " Books 1, 2, and 3 f o r t h e i r secondary s c h o o l s w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of the Toronto Home Economics A s s o c i a t i o n . The major g o a l of t h i s p r o j e c t was t o produce t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s t h a t would r e f l e c t the Ca r i b b e a n f a m i l y l i f e s t y l e ( F l o y d , 1983). T h i s t ype of p r o j e c t i s ve r y h e l p f u l i n the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . I t encourages autonomy and s e l f r e l i a n c e i n c u r r i c u l u m d e c i s i o n s , w i t h p e r p e t u a l r e l i a n c e on f o r e i g n a i d s from Europe or N o r t h America reduced. Home econo m i s t s i n the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s w i l l be a b l e t o use 42 t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e s and m a t e r i a l s w i t h i n t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s t o h e l p f a m i l i e s h e l p t h e m s e l v e s . In a s i m i l a r t w i n n i n g p r o j e c t , Ghana Home S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n and Saskatoon Home Economics A s s o c i a t i o n produced t h r e e t e x t b o o k s f o r use i n Ghana: Book 1 - a g e n e r a l book f o r secondary forms 1 - 3 . Book 2 - a s p e c i a l i z e book w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l home s c i e n c e s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a s f o r secondary s c h o o l s forms 4 and 5 Book 3 - a t e a c h e r ' s manual f o r t r a i n i n g c o l l e g e s . (CHEA's Development N e w s l e t t e r , 1985) In 1977, thr o u g h the e f f o r t s of the Comparative E d u c a t i o n , Study and A d a p t a t i o n C e n t r e (CESAC), U n i v e r s i t y of Lagos, a home economics w r i t i n g group was s e t up t o review the N i g e r i a n home economics s y l l a b u s . As a r e s u l t of t h i s r e v i e w , the f o l l o w i n g t e x t b o o k s were produced: Home economics f o r N i g e r i a n secondary s c h o o l s form I , I I , and I I I s t u d e n t ' s t e x t . Home economics f o r N i g e r i a n secondary s c h o o l s forms I , I I , and I I I t e a c h e r ' s g u i d e . The f o r e g o i n g i s a review of c u r r i c u l u m i n home economics. The development p r o c e s s i s an e v o l u t i o n a r y one. The i d e a s t a r t e d from women who wanted t o use t h e i r e d u c a t i o n t o improve the w e l l - b e i n g of i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s . H i s t o r i c a l l y , home economics has d e v e l o p e d f o u r d i s t i n c t models ( E a s t , 1980). Of the f o u r models, the most e n d u r i n g model i n s c h o o l s , a t l e a s t i n the p u b l i c p e r c e p t i o n , has been I n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g : c o o k i n g and sewing model. I t can be argued t h a t the i n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g model, f o c u s i n g on how-to-knowledge i s congruent w i t h the b e l i e f s and views u n d e r l y i n g t e c h n i c a l l y o r i e n t e d c u r r i c u l u m i n 43 g e n e r a l . Brown contends t h a t t e c h n i c a l l y o r i e n t e d c u r r i c u l u m a r e i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a s e r v i c e o r i e n t e d f i e l d l i k e home economics. She d e s c r i b e d t h r e e systems of f a m i l y a c t i o n s (based on Habermas' c o n c e p t s ) - t e c h n i c a l a c t i o n s , communicative a c t i o n s , and e m a n c i p a t i v e a c t i o n s , - which she has extended i n c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g t h r e e forms of knowing f o r home economics c u r r i c u l u m . C u r r i c u l u m p l a n n e r s , d e s i g n e r s , and o t h e r e d u c a t o r s have examined the emerging concept of home economics and f a m i l y systems of a c t i o n w i t h a view t o p r o v i d i n g new e x p e r i e n c e s f o r s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s . In d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s , the need t o make c u r r i c u l u m r e l e v a n t t o the environment has n e c e s s i t a t e d the w r i t i n g of home economics books, and e n c o u r a g i n g t e a c h e r s t o take r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r what they t e a c h and how they t e a c h i t . H i s t o r i c a l Overview of Home Economics E d u c a t i o n i n N i g e r i a Fafunwa (1974) wrote e x t e n s i v e l y on the h i s t o r y of e d u c a t i o n i n N i g e r i a : T r a d i t i o n a l A f r i c a n E d u c a t i o n , Muslim and C h r i s t i a n E d u c a t i o n . In d i s c u s s i n g the h i s t o r i c a l development of home economics e d u c a t i o n i n N i g e r i a , r e f e r e n c e i s made t o h i s work i n t h i s s e c t i o n . In the o l d N i g e r i a n s o c i e t y , e d u c a t i o n was geared towards immediate i n d u c t i o n i n t o s o c i e t y and p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a d u l t h o o d . T h i s e d u c a t i o n emphasized s o c i e t a l r e s p o n s i b i l -i t y , j o b o r i e n t a t i o n , p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and s p i r i t u a l and moral v a l u e s . The s c h o o l s were w i t h o u t w a l l s and the aim, the c o n t e n t and the methods of t r a d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n 44 were i n t r i c a t e l y i n t e r w o v e n . Because t h e r e were no f o r m a l s c h o o l s , c h i l d r e n l e a r n e d as they grew up t h r o u g h m o d e l l i n g a d u l t s and t h r o u g h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n ceremonies and r i t u a l s . As i n any o t h e r s o c i e t y , e d u c a t i o n of an i n f a n t s t a r t e d soon a f t e r b i r t h . The baby l e a r n e d t o l o v e and be l o v e d . The mother c a r r i e d the baby on her back wherever she went. She f e d and c a r e d f o r the i n f a n t when s i c k . By t h e age of two, the c h i l d l e a r n e d t o t a l k , p l a y w i t h t o y s and improve h i s / h e r psychomotor s k i l l s . By the age of t h r e e , the c h i l d was weaned and t o i l e t t r a i n e d . The m a j o r i t y of knowledge g a i n e d by t h e c h i l d d u r i n g the f i r s t y e a r s of l i f e was l e a r n e d from the mother. S i n c e some f a m i l i e s i n N i g e r i a were polygamous, the o t h e r "mothers" i n the home and members of the extended f a m i l y were a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the e d u c a t i o n of the c h i l d . They sent the c h i l d on s m a l l e r r a n d s , t o l d him/her s t o r i e s , t a u g h t him /her obedience and r e s p e c t f o r e l d e r s , i n s t i l l e d a code of b e h a v i o u r , and t a u g h t the h i s t o r y of the f a m i l y or e t h n i c group. C h i l d r e n were exposed t o s a n i t a r y and a e s t h e t i c norms of the p e o p l e t h r o u g h taboos and s u p e r s t i t i o n s . For example, i t was a taboo f o r a c h i l d t o use h i s l e f t hand t o e a t . A c h i l d d i s c o v e r e d t a k i n g f o o d i n the morning b e f o r e he had p e r f o r m e d h i s morning a b l u t i o n s ( i . e washing h i s f a c e and c l e a n i n g h i s mouth) r e c e i v e d c o r r e c t i o n i n one form or a n o t h e r a t t h e hands of any a d u l t member of the compound. As mentioned e a r l i e r , c h i l d r e n a c q u i r e d knowledge and s k i l l s t h r o u g h d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n home a c t i v i t i e s . 45 They watched and m o d e l l e d a d u l t s . By the age of t e n , t h e r e were sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of s k i l l s . Boys r e c e i v e d t r a i n i n g on the farm w h i l e g i r l s s t a y e d a t home w i t h t h e i r mothers. O c c a s i o n a l l y , g i r l s accompanied t h e i r f a t h e r s t o the farm, but most of her t r a i n i n g took p l a c e a t home. She p a r t i c i p a t e d i n household c h o r e s and took c a r e of l i t t l e b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s , b a t h e d , and f e d them, and babysat whenever mother was away. As a g i r l grew o l d e r , she l e a r n e d t o make h e r s e l f b e a u t i f u l and a d o r a b l e . At p u b e r t y , her mother e x p l a i n e d the p h y s i o l o g i c a l changes which she was g o i n g t h r o u g h . The i m p l i c a t i o n s of h a v i n g s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h boys were d i s c u s s e d , and a b s t i n e n c e from sex was the o n l y sex e d u c a t i o n message g i v e n t o the a d o l e s c e n t s . When a young g i r l was of m a r r i a g e a b l e age, she was g i v e n a code of conduct by her mother i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r her f u t u r e r o l e as a w i f e and mother. Young g i r l s r e c e i v e d some e d u c a t i o n i n dom e s t i c a c t i v i t i e s . They a l s o l e a r n e d l o c a l geography, h i s t o r y , poems, p r a i s e s , i n c a n t a t i o n s , p r o v e r b s and r i d d l e s . S i n c e most women were t r a d e r s , they l e a r n e d mathematics t h r o u g h c o u n t i n g c o w r i e s . A l t h o u g h advanced i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a i n i n g i n p h i l o s o p h y and " s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s " was e x c l u s i v e l y f o r men, women who showed an i n t e r e s t were never t u r n e d away. They were i n i t i a t e d i n t o the " s e c r e t s o c i e t i e s " where they l e a r n e d more r i d d l e s , p r o v e r b s , "Yoruba Ofo", "Ogede", " O r i k i " , p h i l o s o p h y , p s y c h o l o g y , r e a s o n i n g and judgment. 46 The t r a d i t i o n a l A f r i c a n e d u c a t i o n was not complete w i t h o u t v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . Fafunwa (1974) c l a s s i f i e d such v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n i n t o the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : 1. A g r i c u l t u r e e d u c a t i o n : f o r example f a r m i n g , f i s h i n g and v e t e r i n a r y s c i e n c e ( a n i m a l c a r e and a n i m a l r e a r i n g ) . (Women's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a g r i c u l t u r e was not as e x t e n s i v e as t h a t of men) 2. Trades and c r a f t s : f o r example weaving ( b a s k e t s and c l o t h ) s m i t h i n g ( i r o n , s i l v e r , g o l d e t c ) , h u n t i n g , c a r v i n g d a n c i n g , h a i r p l a i t i n g , d r e s s making e t c (Both men and women p a r t i c i p a t e d i n some t r a d e s except f o r a few which were s i n g l e sex t r a d e s ) 3. P r o f e s s i o n s : f o r example p r i e s t s , w i t c h d o c t o r s , c i v i l s e r v a n t s , v i l l a g e heads, c h i e f s , and k i n g s . (Most p r o f e s s i o n s were f o r men except f o r a few i n which women c o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e ) (Fafunwa, 1974, p. 30) For a c a r e e r , g i r l s u s u a l l y l e a r n e d the f a m i l y t r a d e s and c r a f t s from t h e i r mothers. Such t r a d e s i n c l u d e d h a i r p l a i t i n g , mat making, soap making, o i l making, p o t t e r y , d y e i n g , g l a s s making, wine making, and c l o t h weaving. Most of t h e s e t r a d e s were h e r e d i t a r y , but t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n g i r l s were a l l o w e d t o choose t r a d e s of i n t e r e s t . In t h i s c a s e , they l e a r n e d t h r o u g h a p p r e n t i c e s h i p from m i s t r e s s e s , f r i e n d s , or r e l a t i v e s f o r an e s t a b l i s h e d p e r i o d of t i m e . A f t e r t r a i n i n g , each a p p r e n t i c e was r e q u i r e d t o p e r f o r m a ceremony, which q u a l i f i e d her t o e s t a b l i s h her own t r a d e . T h i s t r a d i t i o n a l N i g e r i a n e d u c a t i o n a l system changed as a r e s u l t of European c o n t a c t . Home economics was no l o n g e r t a u g h t a t home, and a p p r e n t i c e s h i p of g i r l s t o m i s t r e s s e s a l s o d i m i n i s h e d as s c h o o l s were b u i l t f o r g i r l s . 47 The f i r s t European c o n t a c t was i n 1472 through Portuguese merchants. M i s s i o n a r y a c t i v i t i e s s t a r t e d i n 1515, when C a t h o l i c m i s s i o n a r i e s s e t up a s c h o o l f o r the sons of k i n g s . In September of 1842, the f i r s t E n g l i s h m i s s i o n a r i e s a r r i v e d , and a year l a t e r a s c h o o l was e s t a b l i s h e d by the M e t h o d i s t M i s s i o n Team. In 1858 a N i g e r i a n , Samuel A j a y i Crowther s t a r t e d a s c h o o l f o r g i r l s between the ages of s i x and t e n . The f o l l o w i n g m i s s i o n s a l s o took p a r t i n the e a r l y e d u c a t i o n a l e x p a n s i o n i n Southern N i g e r i a : U n i t e d P r e s b y t e r i a n Church of S c o t l a n d , the Qua Ibo M i s s i o n , the P r i m i t i v e M e t h o d i s t M i s s i o n a r y S o c i e t y and the B a s e l M i s s i o n . The e a r l y c u r r i c u l u m c o n s i s t e d of r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , a r i t h m e t i c and r e l i g i o n . Sewing was i n c l u d e d f o r g i r l s . However the main o b j e c t i v e of these s c h o o l s was t o win A f r i c a n s f o r C h r i s t ( A j a y i , 1965). The B r i t i s h m i s s i o n a r i e s became more i n v o l v e d i n the e d u c a t i o n of t h e i r c o n v e r t s . They found the same need t h a t n e c e s s i t a t e d the development of home economics i n B r i t a i n t o be p r e s e n t i n these c o l o n i e s . The n a t i v e s were l i v i n g i n u n h y g i e n i c c o n d i t i o n s , and t h e r e was a h i g h i n f a n t m o r t a l i t y and m o r b i d i t y r a t e . T h e r e f o r e , i n s t r u c t i o n was d e v e l o p e d i n h y g i e n e , p u b l i c h e a l t h , c h i l d w e l f a r e , and domestic economy to improve the h e a l t h and w e l l b e i n g of the p e o p l e ( S c a n l o n , 1964). As r e p o r t e d i n the Phel s-Stokes Reports on Education in Africa many women m i s s i o n a r i e s p o i n t e d out t h a t development would be slow i n A f r i c a i f women were not g i v e n 48 e q u a l e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i t h men: E d u c a t i o n of the n a t i v e woman i n our A f r i c a n t e r r i t o r i e s must be based upon her f u t u r e p o s i t i o n and upon the i n f l u e n c e which she w i l l have t o e x e r c i s e . Now the b l a c k woman, not l e s s than her s i s t e r the w h i t e woman, i s c a l l e d upon t o become the s o u l of a c l e a n and h e a l t h f u l home. I t i s her v o c a t i o n ... I t i s t h e r e f o r e n e c e s s a r y t o educate h e r , t o educate her i n t e l l i g e n c e , her h e a r t and her w i l l power. ( L e w i s , 1962, p. 193-194) In response t o such demand, s c h o o l s f o r g i r l s were b u i l t i n A f r i c a . S e v e r a l examples of such s c h o o l s were d e s c r i b e d by L e w i s : Another f e a t u r e of t h i s s c h o o l was the t r a i n i n g f o r g i r l s about t o be m a r r i e d , most of whom had been sent t o the s c h o o l by t h e i r f u t u r e husbands. These young women l i v e d i n a s e p a r a t e compound and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s a l l - r o u n d l i f e was p l a c e d q u i t e d e f i n i t e l y upon them. T h i s i n c l u d e d the p r e p a r a t i o n of f o o d , the making and c a r e of c l o t h i n g , the c l e a n l i n e s s and o r d e r of t h e i r s l e e p i n g accommodation, v e g e t a b l e and f l o w e r g a r d e n i n g , r e c r e a t i o n s b oth outdoor and i n the eve n i n g hours w i t h i n t h e i r q u a r t e r s , the r e l i g i o u s l i f e of the compound, and a l l the i n f l u e n c e s t h a t make f o r the f u l l - o r b e d womanhood... Another well-known s c h o o l , i n a d d i t i o n t o the r e g u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n and p r a c t i c e i n home l i f e p r o v i d e d s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n m a r k e t i n g . Another s c h o o l [was] s u c c e s s f u l both i n i m p a r t i n g g e n e r a l knowledge of the more c o n v e n t i o n a l i z e d type and knowledge and p r a c t i c e of home a c t i v i t i e s such as sewing, c o o k i n g , and the c a r e of the gardens... ( L e w i s , 1962, p. 196-197) On the whole, i n or d e r t o promote g e n e r a l knowledge, h e a l t h and w e l l - b e i n g of the whole f a m i l y , the home economics c u r r i c u l u m was geared towards t e c h n i c a l h o w - t o - s k i l l s , t h a t i s , how t o c l e a n a house, how t o prepare meals, and how t o wash. 49 Today, home economics i s taught i n the p u b l i c , p r i v a t e , c h r i s t i a n and muslim secondary s c h o o l s . I t i s d e f i n e d as "the a p p l i c a t i o n of many s c i e n c e s and a r t s towards a c h i e v i n g h e a l t h y and happy homes" (Fayemi 1972, p. v i i ) . The Oyo s t a t e secondary home economics e d u c a t i o n programs encompass coursework r a n g i n g from the t r a d i t i o n a l c o o k i n g and sewing c l a s s e s t o c o u r s e s f o c u s e d on p r i n c i p l e s of N u t r i t i o n , C l o t h i n g and T e x t i l e s , Home Management, F a m i l y L i v i n g , and Hous i n g . In Foods and N u t r i t i o n , s t u d e n t s a r e taught the p r i n c i p l e s of normal n u t r i t i o n and t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n t o the s e l e c t i o n of adequate d i e t s f o r i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s . In C l o t h i n g and T e x t i l e s , s t u d e n t s a r e exposed t o the s o c i a l and a e s t h e t i c a s p e c t of c l o t h i n g s e l e c t i o n , c o n s t r u c t i o n f e a t u r e s , garment f i t , and f i b r e c o n t e n t of f a b r i c (Adeyemi C o l l e g e of E d u c a t i o n Course D e s c r i p t i o n , 1983). Home Management i s the i n t e g r a t i o n of Foods and N u t r i t i o n , C l o t h i n g and T e x t i l e s , H o u s e c r a f t and M o t h e r c r a f t . The West African Examinations Council Regulations and Syllabuses for the Joint Examinations, For the School Certificate and General Certificate in Education (W.A.E.C.) (1985/86 s e s s i o n ) i s used w i t h o t h e r books t o d e v e l o p a scheme of work and l e s s o n p l a n s . The s y l l a b u s i s geared towards p r e p a r i n g s t u d e n t s f o r s c h o o l c e r t i f i c a t e e x a m i n a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h the e x a m i n a t i o n board bases t h e i r e x a m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s on the s y l l a b u s , t e a c h e r s i n p u t i s encouraged. In t h i s c a s e , t e a c h e r s a r e asked t o w r i t e i f they have not cove r e d a l l t h a t i s r e q u i r e d or i f they have 50 taught t h e i r s t u d e n t s something new. The comments ar e t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n when e x a m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n s a r e s e t . In the s y l l a b u s , i t was proposed t h a t the f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t matter a r e a s be s t u d i e d i n home economics: 1 . F a m i l y L i v i n g 2. Housing 3. Maintenance of C l o t h i n g and Household A r t i c l e s 4. P r i n c i p l e s of Management The o b j e c t i v e s of the home economics c o u r s e s a r e : 1 . to encourage the use of management p r i n c i p l e s and the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s t o i d e n t i f y and a n a l y z e a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s and t h e i r j u d i c i o u s use f o r the w e l f a r e of the i n d i v i d u a l s f a m i l y and community. 2. t o s t r e s s the development of r e l e v a n t b a s i c s k i l l s and knowledge f o r e f f e c t i v e use, maintenance and c a r e of the home and i t s equipment and f u r n i s h i n g s . 3. t o s t r e n g t h e n the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of one's s e l f , d i f f e r e n t f a m i l y o r g a n i z a t i o n s and one's r o l e as r e l a t e d t o f r i e n d s h i p s , m a r r i a g e and p a r enthood. (WAEC, 1985/86 S e s s i o n , p. 2) S o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic f a c t o r s have a tremendous i n f l u e n c e on c u r r i c u l u m ( P e t e r a t , 1987; Thomas, 1986). The w o r l d has a l s o become a g l o b a l v i l l a g e , w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l changes i n one c o u n t r y h a v i n g an i n t e r n a t i o n a l e f f e c t . An example noted e a r l i e r was the c u r r i c u l u m development i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s which r e s u l t e d i n the p u b l i c a t i o n of Concepts and Generalization: Their Place in High School Home Economics Curriculum Development (American Home Economics A s s o c i a t i o n , 1967). The outcome of the p u b l i c a t i o n was an emphasis on the s c i e n t i f i c v i e w , the problem s o l v i n g approach, and the c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g view of 51 home economics (Dixon and Bouma, 1984; Fauske, 1986; Mead, 1984; H u l t g r e n , 1986; P e t e r a t , 1984 & 1986 and Schwartz, et a l . , 1986). As i n d i c a t e d i n the above o b j e c t i v e s , home economics i n N i g e r i a has a s i m i l a r f o c u s . The c u r r i c u l u m emphasizes management p r i n c i p l e s and d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s e s . A l t h o u g h home economics c u r r i c u l u m i n N i g e r i a responded t o the t r e n d of back t o b a s i c s , i t has not y e t ga i n e d the s t a t u s of an academic s u b j e c t . I t i s s t i l l t e c h n i c a l i n i t s o r i e n t a t i o n . One c o u l d i n f e r from the s y l l a b u s t h a t management of the h o u s e h o l d : the economics model, I n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g : c o o k i n g and sewing model, and the e d u c a t i o n of women f o r womanhood: homemaking model as i d e n t i f i e d by E a s t (1980) e x i s t c o n c u r r e n t l y i n the N i g e r i a n home economics programs ( P l e a s e r e f e r t o Appendix C f o r a d e t a i l e d o u t l i n e of the s y l l a b u s ) . 52 C H A P T E R I I I M E T H O D O L O G Y The major purpose of t h i s study was t o i d e n t i f y the s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a s b e i n g t a u g h t i n secondary s c h o o l home economics programs i n Oyo s t a t e and t o examine the r e l a t i v e amount of emphasis g i v e n t o each a r e a . An a d d i t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e of the r e s e a r c h was t o a n a l y z e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u b j e c t matter emphasis i n home economics and s e l e c t e d a s p e c t s of t e a c h i n g and the t e a c h e r : t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e ; academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n ; i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g ; p r o f e s s i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t ; i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s ; c l a s s e n r o l l m e n t ; and p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e of t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t s . These f a c t o r s were chosen because of t h e i r p e r c e i v e d i n f l u e n c e on d e c i s i o n s about what t o t e a c h . The d i s c u s s i o n i n t h i s c h a p t e r f o c u s e s on the s t u d y ' s methodology, i n c l u d i n g the sample s e l e c t i o n , the i n s t r u m e n t used, the r e s e a r c h p r o c e d u r e s and da t a a n a l y s i s . P o p u l a t i o n a n d S a m p l e The p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h i s study was home economics t e a c h e r s i n Oyo s t a t e secondary s c h o o l s . In o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s s t u d y , the names and s c h o o l a d d r e s s e s of a l l secondary s c h o o l s i n Oyo s t a t e were o b t a i n e d from the Oyo S t a t e M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . Three 53 hundred secondary s c h o o l s were i d e n t i f i e d and 25 of thes e s c h o o l s were l i s t e d by the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n as h a v i n g home economics programs. However, because the r e s e a r c h e r e n v i s a g e d t h a t more s c h o o l s might have home economics programs than were l i s t e d and t o ensure t h a t a l l s c h o o l s had an e q u a l chance of b e i n g i n c l u d e d i n the s t u d y , i t was d e c i d e d t o send q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o a l l secondary s c h o o l s i n Oyo s t a t e d u r i n g A p r i l , 1987. Each s c h o o l was a s s i g n e d a number f o r f o l l o w - u p purposes. Of the 300 s c h o o l s i n c l u d e d i n the s t u d y , 86 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (29%) were r e t u r n e d . Twenty-four s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d t h a t they d i d not have home economics programs i n t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a f i n a l sample of 62 s c h o o l s t h a t had home economics programs (72% of the s c h o o l s r e s p o n d i n g and a p p r o x i m a t e l y 21% of Oyo s t a t e secondary s c h o o l s ) . Development of the Instrument The l i t e r a t u r e was reviewed t o i d e n t i f y any survey i n s t r u m e n t which might be used t o g a t h e r d a t a f o r the s t u d y . A l t h o u g h H a l l ' s C u r r i c u l u m O r i e n t a t i o n Survey (1978) was d e s i g n e d t o measure both s u b j e c t m a t t e r and c o n t e n t themes and p r o c e s s e s i n t e g r a t e d through a program, t h i s i n s t r u m e n t was found t o be i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h i s s t u d y because of d i f f e r e n c e s i n g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n of the r e s e a r c h and a l s o because of d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s u b j e c t a r e a s of stu d y i n the two c o u n t r i e s . F u r t h e r m o r e , s i n c e E n g l i s h i s the second 54 language of the respondents t o t h i s s u r v e y , i t was c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t t h a t the items on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e be worded i n a s i m p l e l e v e l of E n g l i s h . I t was a l s o i m p o r t a n t t h a t the items be r e l e v a n t t o the N i g e r i a n s i t u a t i o n . Thus i t was n e c e s s a r y f o r the r e s e a r c h e r t o d e v e l o p an ins t r u m e n t r e l e v a n t f o r t h i s s t u d y . S e v e r a l documents were reviewed t o i d e n t i f y the most a p p r o p r i a t e t o p i c s t o be i n c l u d e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . These documents i n c l u d e d the U n i t e d S t a t e s p u b l i c a t i o n Concepts and Generalizations: Their Place in High School Home Economics Curriculum Development ( d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I ) because of i t s impact on home economics c u r r i c u l u m development i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y p l u s s e v e r a l documents s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l e v a n t t o N i g e r i a n home economics: 1. I f e G i r l s ' High S c h o o l Scheme of Work on Home Economics Forms I t o V, 1984/85 S e s s i o n . 2. Home Economics f o r N i g e r i a n Secondary S c h o o l s Form I St u d e n t ' s T e x t , 1977. 3. Home Economics f o r N i g e r i a n Secondary S c h o o l s Form I I Stu d e n t ' s T e x t , 1977. 4. Home Economics f o r N i g e r i a n Secondary S c h o o l s Form I I I Stu d e n t ' s T e x t , 1977. 5. Home Economics f o r N i g e r i a n Secondary S c h o o l s Form I Teacher's Guide, 1977. 6. Home Economics f o r N i g e r i a n Secondary S c h o o l s Form I I Teacher's Guide, 1977. 7. Home Economics f o r N i g e r i a n Secondary S c h o o l s Form I I I Teacher's Guide, 1977. 8. The West A f r i c a n E x a m i n a t i o n s C o u n c i l R e g u l a t i o n s and S y l l a b u s f o r the J o i n t E x a m i n a t i o n s 1985/86 S e s s i o n (W.A.E.C S y l l a b u s ) . 55 These N i g e r i a n and West A f r i c a n p u b l i c a t i o n s a re used i n s c h o o l s f o r l e s s o n p l a n s . The t e x t b o o k s were w r i t t e n i n the N i g e r i a n c o n t e x t t o make home economics more r e l e v a n t to the N i g e r i a n s t u d e n t s . The W.A.E.C. S y l l a b u s i s geared towards West A f r i c a n r e g i o n a l e x a m i n a t i o n s and emphasizes the f o l l o w i n g s u b j e c t matter a r e a s : 1. F a m i l y L i v i n g 2. Hou s i n g 3. Maintenance of C l o t h i n g and Household A r t i c l e s 4. P r i n c i p l e s of Management W i t h the e x c e p t i o n of Foods and N u t r i t i o n , these s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a s p a r a l l e d those found i n Concepts and Generalizations: Their Place in High School Home Economics Curriculum Development. However, the s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a of Foods and N u t r i t i o n does appear i n the Ife Girls High School Scheme of Work and t h e r e f o r e , t h i s s u b j e c t was i n c l u d e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . B e f o r e the i n s t r u m e n t was sent to N i g e r i a f o r a p i l o t s t u d y , the f i r s t d r a f t of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was reviewed by t h r e e e x p e r i e n c e d home economics t e a c h e r s who were graduate s t u d e n t s i n the F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n , Department of C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (see Appendix B ) . One of th e s e r e v i e w e r s had ta u g h t home economics i n Ghana (West A f r i c a ) . Because the r e v i e w e r s were f a m i l i a r w i t h home economics t o p i c s , they were a b l e t o i d e n t i f y a m b i g u i t i e s and comment on the c l a r i t y of the t o p i c s . 56 F o l l o w i n g t h i s r e v i e w , the i n s t r u m e n t was r e v i s e d and p i l o t t e s t e d i n Oyo s t a t e secondary s c h o o l s u s i n g t en home economics t e a c h e r s from l i e I f e and Modakeke (see Appendix B ) . The s u b j e c t s were not o n l y asked t o respond t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e but were a l s o r e q u e s t e d t o comment on each item of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . T h e i r comments and s u g g e s t i o n s were used f o r f u r t h e r r e v i s i o n of the i t e m s . The f i n a l d r a f t of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was re v i e w e d by fo u r s u b j e c t matter s p e c i a l i s t s i n the f i e l d of home economics and e d u c a t i o n (see Appendix B ) . In the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , respondents were asked t o i n d i c a t e the degree of emphasis g i v e n t o s e l e c t e d home economics t o p i c s i n t h e i r t e a c h i n g , u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g 7 -point s c a l e : 1. E x t r e m e l y h i g h degree of emphasis 2. Very h i g h degree of emphasis 3. Q u i t e h i g h degree of emphasis 4. N e i t h e r h i g h nor low (undecided) degree of emphasis 5. Q u i t e low degree of emphasis 6. Very low degree of emphasis 7. E x t r e m e l y low degree of emphasis The q u e s t i o n n a i r e had f i v e s u b t e s t s which were: 1. C l o t h i n g and T e x t i l e s 2. Foods and N u t r i t i o n 3. Home Management and F a m i l y Economics 4. Housing 5. Human Development and the F a m i l y 57 Each of the f i v e s u b j e c t matter emphasis s u b t e s t s i n c l u d e d t e n items (see Appendices D and E ) . P o s s i b l e s c o r e s f o r each s u b t e s t ranged from 10 ( h i g h degree of emphasis) t o 70 (low degree of em p h a s i s ) . The t o t a l s c o r e f o r a l l items i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ranged from 50 i n d i c a t i n g a major emphasis i n a l l the f i v e s u b j e c t matter a r e a s t o 350 i n d i c a t i n g low emphasis i n a l l the f i v e s u b j e c t matter a r e a s . The r e s e a r c h e r a l s o developed a demographic d a t a s e c t i o n , ( P a r t I I of Survey, Appendix D) t o p r o v i d e background i n f o r m a t i o n f o r d e s c r i p t i v e purposes and t o supplement the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s . Respondents were asked t o i d e n t i f y s e l e c t e d p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : sex; number of y e a r s of t e a c h i n g ; academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n ; s u b j e c t matter a r e a ( s ) emphasis; s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a ( s ) competence; s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a ( s ) p r e f e r e n c e ; t r a i n i n g / w o r k s h o p a t t e n d a n c e ; p r o f e s s i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t ; and t y p e s of i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s used. I n f o r m a t i o n was a l s o r e q u e s t e d c o n c e r n i n g s c h o o l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : the name of the s c h o o l ; the t o t a l number of home economics t e a c h e r s i n the s c h o o l ; the type of s c h o o l ( c o e d u c a t i o n a l or s i n g l e sex s c h o o l ) ; the t o t a l number of p u p i l s i n the s c h o o l ; t o t a l home economics c l a s s e n r o l l m e n t , and i f c o e d u c a t i o n a l , the number of boys. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n c l u d e d a s e c t i o n f o r open ended q u e s t i o n s which would g i v e some i n s i g h t i n t o the c u r r e n t s t a t u s of the programs. 58 Data C o l l e c t i o n Data was c o l l e c t e d by means of a m a i l s u r v e y . T h i s was n e c e s s a r y because the s u b j e c t s of the study r e s i d e d i n N i g e r i a w h i l e the r e s e a r c h e r c o n d u c t i n g the study was s t u d y i n g i n Canada. T h i s was an a p p r o p r i a t e r e s e a r c h t o o l s i n c e the s u b j e c t s c o u l d not be i n t e r v i e w e d or o b s e r v e d d i r e c t l y . In a d d i t i o n , i t was e a s i e r t o r e a c h a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e of the sample through a m a i l s u r v e y . G e n e r a l l y , m a i l s u r v e y s have a low response r a t e ( H e b e r l e i n and Baumgartner, 1978). T h e r e f o r e , t o a c h i e v e a s u f f i c i e n t number of r e s p o n s e s , the s e r v i c e of a r e t i r e d t e a c h e r r e s i d i n g i n N i g e r i a was used t o conduct the s t u d y . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was p i l o t t e s t e d i n J a n u a r y , 1987, a t l i e I f e and Modakeke, u s i n g t e n secondary s c h o o l home economics t e a c h e r s . In March, 1987, 300 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were m a i l e d w i t h s e l f a d d r e s s e d e n v e l o p e s t o the r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t . In A p r i l , 1987, the r e s e a r c h a s s i s t a n t m a i l e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w i t h stamped s e l f a d d r e s s e d e n v e l o p e s t o a l l secondary s c h o o l s i n Oyo s t a t e . L e t t e r s of t r a n s m i t t a l accompanied the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (Appendix A ) . These l e t t e r s d e s c r i b e d the study and r e q u e s t e d t e a c h e r s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r c o m p l e t i n g and r e t u r n i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were i n c l u d e d . In June, 1987, a second m a i l i n g of 150 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o non-respondents was made. For t h i s m a i l i n g , a new c o v e r 59 l e t t e r (Appendix A ) , an o t h e r copy of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix D), and a stamped s e l f a d d r e s s e d r e t u r n envelope were i n c l u d e d . Data A n a l y s i s The answers of re s p o n d e n t s t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s c r i b e d i n the p r e c e d i n g i n s t r u m e n t s e c t i o n p r o v i d e d the raw data f o r the s t u d y . The q u a n t i t a t i v e d ata were a n a l y z e d t h r o u g h t a l l i e s of responses t o the 50 items about home economics i n s t r u c t i o n ( P a r t I of S u r v e y ) . The f r e q u e n c y , mean s c o r e , and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n were computed f o r each of the f i v e s u b j e c t matter a r e a s and f o r the independent v a r i a b l e s ( P a r t I I of S u r v e y ) . The above d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s were used t o d e s c r i b e t h e da t a c o l l e c t e d on the r e s e a r c h sample. Responses were g i v e n as a c t u a l numbers and as p e r c e n t a g e s of the t o t a l sample. M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was used t o i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the f i v e dependent v a r i a b l e s ( c l o t h i n g and t e x t i l e s , foods and n u t r i t i o n , home management and f a m i l y economics, h o u s i n g , and human development and the f a m i l y ) and 42 independent v a r i a b l e s (see Ta b l e V I I ) . The a n a l y s i s was completed s e p a r a t e l y f o r each dependent var i a b l e . 60 CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF DATA The purpose of t h i s s t u d y was to i d e n t i f y the s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a s b e i n g taught i n secondary s c h o o l home economics programs i n Oyo s t a t e and t o examine the r e l a t i v e amount of emphasis g i v e n t o each of these a r e a s . An a d d i t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e of the r e s e a r c h was t o a n a l y z e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u b j e c t matter emphasis and s e l e c t e d a s p e c t s of t e a c h i n g and the t e a c h e r . In t h i s c h a p t e r , the r e s u l t s of the study a r e d i s c u s s e d . The p s y c h o m e t r i c s of the i n s t r u m e n t w i l l be p r e s e n t e d f i r s t , f o l l o w e d by demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sample, s u b j e c t m a t t e r emphasis i n home economics programs, and t e a c h e r s ' g e n e r a l comments on home economics programs. P s y c h o m e t r i c s of the Instrument The i n s t r u m e n t used f o r t h i s s t u d y was developed by the r e s e a r c h e r . In o r d e r t o de t e r m i n e the r e l i a b i l i t y of the i n s t r u m e n t f o r the purpose of the s t u d y , the l e v e l of i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y of the i n s t r u m e n t was o b t a i n e d u s i n g the computer program LERTAP. The t o t a l t e s t Hoyt e s t i m a t e of r e l i a b i l i t y f o r the t e s t was 0.95. T h i s i n d i c a t e s the breakdown of so u r c e s of v a r i a b i l i t y due t o i n d i v i d u a l i tem 61 random s a m p l i n g . I t was a l s o an i n d i c a t i o n of the homogeneity of the i t e m s . From the above Hoyt e s t i m a t e of r e l i a b i l i t y , one c o u l d c l a i m t h a t the i n s t r u m e n t was r e l i a b l e . The i n s t r u m e n t s t a n d a r d e r r o r of measurement was 9.28. The mean s c o r e was 162.63, w i t h the h i g h e s t s c o r e 321.00 and l o w e s t s c o r e 83.00. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t the lower the s c o r e the h i g h e r the degree of emphasis. T h e r e f o r e , the mean sco r e of 162.63 i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l l the s u b j e c t matter a r e a s were mo d e r a t e l y emphasized. As d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I I , t h e r e were f i v e s u b t e s t s i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e : (1) Human Development and the F a m i l y (2) Home Management and F a m i l y Economics (3) Foods and N u t r i t i o n (4) T e x t i l e s and C l o t h i n g (5) Housing. The means, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , Hoyt e s t i m a t e of r e l i a b i l i t y , and s t a n d a r d e r r o r of measurement was computed f o r each s u b t e s t and a r e r e p o r t e d i n Ta b l e I . D e s c r i p t i v e I n f o r m a t i o n on the S u b j e c t s Of the 300 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d i s t r i b u t e d , 86 were r e t u r n e d , w i t h 24 s c h o o l s r e p o r t i n g t h a t they d i d not have a home economics program. T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a sample of 62 s c h o o l s w i t h home economics programs (72% of the s c h o o l s r e s p o n d i n g t o the survey and 21% of Oyo s t a t e secondary, s c h o o l s ) . A summary of the demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s u b j e c t s i s p r e s e n t e d i n Ta b l e I I . I t was i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t a l t h o u g h the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n l i s t i n d i c a t e d t h a t o n l y 25 Oyo s t a t e s c h o o l s 62 T a b l e I P s y c h o m e t r i c s of the Instrument Means, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s and Hoyt R e l i a b i l i t y f o r S u b t e s t s of the F i v e S u b j e c t M a t t e r Areas i n Home Economics S u b j e c t M a t t e r Area N 1 N 2 Mean SD HR 3 SE" Human Development 10 62 34. .56 1 1 . .09 0, .86 3. .96 Home Management 1 0 62 35. .23 9, .98 0, .83 3, .89 Foods & N u t r i t i o n 10 62 27, .13 10, .44 0, .88 3, .43 T e x t i l e s & C l o t h i n g 10 62 33, .65 9, .83 0, .83 3, .84 Housing 1 0 62 32, .06 8, .66 0, .79 3, .76 1 T o t a l number of items i n c l u d e d i n s u b j e c t matter a r e a 2Number of t e a c h e r s 3Hoyt r e l i a b i l i t y " S tandard e r r o r of measurement 63 T a b l e I I Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Number (N=62) S c h o o l C h a r a t e r i s t i e s T o t a l S chool P o p u l a t i o n 601 or more s t u d e n t s 501 - 600 s t u d e n t s 401 - 500 s t u d e n t s 301 - 400 s t u d e n t s 201 - 300 s t u d e n t s l e s s than 200 s t u d e n t s M i s s i n g Data Type of S c h o o l C o e d u c a t i o n a l S i n g l e - s e x Number of Home Economics Teachers 7 or more t e a c h e r s 5 - 6 t e a c h e r s 3 - 4 t e a c h e r s 1 - 2 t e a c h e r s M i s s i n g Data 44 4 3 2 4 4 1 53 9 2 1 1 4 44 1 70.97 6.45 ,84 ,23 ,45 ,45 ,61 85.48 14.52 3 1 23 61 22.58 70.97 1.61 T o t a l Number of Boys 7 or more boys 5 - 6 boys 3 - 4 boys 1 - 2 boys No boys M i s s i n g Data 41 3 10 1 0 7 66. 1 3 4.84 16.13 1 .61 00.00 1 1 .29 Grade L e v e l Taught Form 4 o n l y Form 5 o n l y Both Forms 4 and 5 Forms 1, 2, and 3 M i s s i n g Data 8 2 20 21 1 1 12.90 3.23 32.26 33.87 17.74 64 Tab l e I I c o n t i n u e d Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Number 50 or more s t u d e n t s 40 - 49 s t u d e n t s 30 - 39 s t u d e n t s 20 - 29 s t u d e n t s 10 - 19 s t u d e n t s Less than 10 s t u d e n t s M i s s i n g Data Teacher C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 44 2 5 1 4 1 5 (N=62) T o t a l E n r o l l m e n t i n Home Economics C l a s s e s 70.97 3.23 8.06 1.61 6.45 1 .61 8.06 Sex of the Teachers Male Female Years of E x p e r i e n c e 20 or more y e a r s 16 - 19 y e a r s 12 - 15 y e a r s 8 - 1 1 y e a r s 4 - 7 y e a r s 2 - 3 y e a r s 1 year l e s s than 1 year H i g h e s t Academic Q u a l i f i c a t i o n M.A/M.Sc. B.A/B.Sc,/H.N.D. N.C.E./O.N.D. H.S.C./G.C.E. Advance L e v e l Teacher's Grade I Teacher's Grade I I W.A.S.C./G.C.E. O r d i n a r y L e v e l O t h e r s Home Economics Background Yes No M i s s i n g Data Membership of P r o f e s s i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s Yes No 0 62 1 2 5 8 1 1 10 1 1 2 3 2 7 47 0 0 1 1 4 44 1 5 3 55 7 00.00 100.00 19.35 8.06 12.90 17.74 16.13 17.74 3.23 4.84 3.23 1 1 .29 75.81 00.00 00.00 1.61 1.61 6.45 70.97 24. 1 9 4.84 88.71 1 1 .29 0 65 Ta b l e I I c o n t i n u e d Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Number (N=62) P r o f e s s i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s O.S.H.E.T.A. Members 42 67.74 Nonmembers 20 32.26 N.H.E.T.A. Members 24 38.71 Nonmembers 38 61.29 N.U.T. Members 49 79.03 Nonmembers 13 20.97 N.F.H.S.A. Members 5 8.06 Nonmembers 57 91.94 P r o f e s s i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s O.S.H.E.T.A. At t e n d e d M e e t i n g s 33 53.23 D i d not A t t e n d M e e t i n g s 29 46.77 N.H.E.T.A. At t e n d e d M e e t i n g s 11 17.74 D i d not A t t e n d M e e t i n g s 51 82.26 N.U.T. At t e n d e d M e e t i n g s 18 29.03 D i d not A t t e n d M e e t i n g s 44 70.97 N.F.H.S.A. At t e n d e d M e e t i n g s 2 3.23 D i d not A t t e n d M e e t i n g s 60 96.77 Att e n d a n c e of an I n s e r v i c e T r a i n i n g Course 5 or more y e a r s ago 4 6.45 3-4 y e a r s ago 7 11.29 1-2 y e a r s ago 20 32.26 Less than 1 year 19 30.65 M i s s i n g Data 12 19.35 Number of I n - s e r v i c e Courses A t t e n d e d 5 or more 13 20.97 3-4 10 16.13 1-2 24 38.71 0 11 17.74 M i s s i n g Data 4 6.45 66 Tab l e I I c o n t i n u e d Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Number % (N=62) I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s Textbooks Use 55 88.71 Non use 7 1 1 .29 Teacher's Guide Use 41 66. 13 Non use 21 33.87 Student Workbooks Use 20 32.26 Non use 42 67.74 W a l l C h a r t s Use 40 64.52 Non use 22 35.48 Spec imens Use 40 64.52 Non use 2 2 35.48 67 o f f e r e d home economics c o u r s e s , a t o t a l of 62 s c h o o l s w i t h home economics c o u r s e s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . T h i s suggests the importance of a p p r o a c h i n g s c h o o l s d i r e c t l y i n s t u d i e s such as t h i s one s i n c e o f f i c i a l l i s t s may not be up - t o - d a t e . S c h o o l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s I n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d on s c h o o l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c l u d e d t o t a l s c h o o l e n r o l l m e n t ; t o t a l e n r o l l m e n t i n home economics c l a s s e s ; the number of home economics t e a c h e r s ; the sex c o m p o s i t i o n of the s c h o o l ; and the t o t a l number of boys e n r o l l e d i n home economics c l a s s e s . As n o t e d i n T a b l e I I , t o t a l s c h o o l e n r o l l m e n t s ranged from 200 t o over 600 s t u d e n t s . S i n c e the m a j o r i t y of the s c h o o l s o f f e r i n g home economics (44, or 71%) r e p o r t e d t o t a l s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n of over 600 s t u d e n t s , i t might be i n f e r r e d t h a t a h i g h t o t a l s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e s the l i k e l i h o o d of o f f e r i n g home economics c o u r s e s . Such a c o n c l u s i o n must be made w i t h c a u t i o n , however, s i n c e t h e r e were the same number of s c h o o l s o f f e r i n g home economics when the s c h o o l had a p o p u l a t i o n of 201 - 300 s t u d e n t s and when i t had 501 - 600 s t u d e n t s . S i m i l a r l y , the m a j o r i t y of the s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d t h a t the t o t a l e n r o l l m e n t i n home economics c l a s s e s was 50 or more s t u d e n t s , w i t h o n l y one s c h o o l r e p o r t i n g l e s s than 10 s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r home economic c l a s s e s . T h i s f i n d i n g s u g g e sts t h e r e i s a t l e a s t some demand among s t u d e n t s f o r 68 home economics c l a s s e s . F u r t h e r s t u d i e s a r e needed t o de t e r m i n e the l e v e l of the demand f o r th e s e c o u r s e s and t o i d e n t i f y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s which might i n f l u e n c e e n r o l l m e n t i n home economics c l a s s e s . The m a j o r i t y of the s c h o o l s i n the sample (71%) had e i t h e r one or two home economics t e a c h e r s . A re v i e w of the raw d a t a i n d i c a t e d l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t o t a l s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n and t o t a l e n r o l l m e n t i n home economics c l a s s e s and the number of home economics t e a c h e r s p o s t e d t o any g i v e n s c h o o l . Those s c h o o l s h a v i n g the l a r g e s t e n r o l l m e n t i n home economics c l a s s e s a l s o had the lo w e s t number of home economics t e a c h e r s . The presence of o n l y one or two home economics t e a c h e r s i n a l a r g e s c h o o l may be due t o a sh o r t a g e of t e a c h e r s i n the f i e l d . Most t e a c h e r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t they taught i n c o e d u c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s and r e p o r t e d male e n r o l l m e n t i n home economics c o u r s e s . Two t h i r d s of the s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d h a v i n g more than seven boys i n t h e i r home economics c l a s s e s . The boys r e p o r t e d t o be i n home economics c l a s s e s may be i n forms I t o I I I . I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o determine the number of boys t h a t a c t u a l l y e n r o l l f o r home economics i n the West A f r i c a n S c h o o l C e r t i f i c a t e E x a m i n a t i o n s . S i n c e t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d an i n c r e a s e i n the number of boys t a k i n g home economics, a t t e m p t s s h o u l d a l s o be made t o meet the needs of these boys.. 69 Teacher c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s I n f o r m a t i o n was sought c o n c e r n i n g t e a c h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as sex, t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , h i g h e s t academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n and grade l e v e l t a u g h t . A l l the t e a c h e r s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study were f e m a l e s . T h i s r e s u l t was not unexpected as home economics i s g e n e r a l l y r e f e r r e d t o i n the l i t e r a t u r e as a female dominated p r o f e s s i o n (Brown, 1980; K i e r e n , V a i n e s and B a d i r , 1982; E a s t , 1980; P u r v i s , 1982). Of the 62 t e a c h e r s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the s t u d y , 12 (19%) had taught f o r over twenty y e a r s . About h a l f of the sample have been t e a c h i n g f o r the p a s t 11 y e a r s w h i l e o n l y t h r e e t e a c h e r s (5%) were f i r s t y e a r home economics t e a c h e r s . Most home economics t e a c h e r s (76%) r e p o r t e d t h a t they were h o l d e r s of the N i g e r i a n C e r t i f i c a t e i n E d u c a t i o n (N.C.E.). Seven t e a c h e r s (11%) had B a c h e l o r of A r t s or B a c h e l o r of S c i e n c e degrees and two (3%) had earned Master of A r t s or Master of S c i e n c e d e g r e e s . Few t e a c h e r s have earned advanced degrees p o s s i b l y because they a r e women and do not have the same o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e d u c a t i o n as men. These women may a l s o h o l d c o n s e r v a t i v e v i e w s about women's e d u c a t i o n or may be unable t o l e a v e f a m i l i e s or j o b s i n p u r s u i t of advanced e d u c a t i o n . When the t e a c h e r s were asked whether they had had home economics t r a i n i n g above h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l , 71% of the 70 t e a c h e r s s a i d " yes" and 24% s a i d "no". Because of the sh o r t a g e of home economics t e a c h e r s , t h e r e i s a v e r y " h i g h chance t h a t when one t e a c h e r l e a v e s a s c h o o l she w i l l be r e p l a c e d by a t e a c h e r who i s not a home economist. Thus, i t was e n c o u r a g i n g t o d i s c o v e r t h a t the m a j o r i t y of home economics t e a c h e r s c u r r e n t l y t e a c h i n g i n Oyo s t a t e secondary s c h o o l s have r e c e i v e d some form of t r a i n i n g i n home economics beyond the h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l . In summary, most home economics t e a c h e r s i n Oyo s t a t e r e p o r t e d t h a t the secondary s c h o o l s i n which they were t e a c h i n g had a t o t a l s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n of over 600 s t u d e n t s . Respondents a l s o r e p o r t e d h i g h e n r o l l m e n t i n home economics c l a s s e s . A l l the home economics t e a c h e r s t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y were females. E i g h t y - f i v e p e r c e n t of them ta u g h t i n c o e d u c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s , and about 60% of the s c h o o l s had more than seven boys i n t h e i r home economics c l a s s e s . The m a j o r i t y of the t e a c h e r s were e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r s w i t h e i g h t or more ye a r s of e x p e r i e n c e . S e v e n t y - s i x p e r c e n t of the t e a c h e r s had a diplo m a i n e d u c a t i o n ( N i g e r i a n C e r t i f i c a t e i n E d u c a t i o n , N.C.E.). Home Economics Programs I n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the c o u r s e s o f f e r e d i n home economics programs i n Oyo s t a t e s c h o o l s i s summarized i n Ta b l e I I I . As r e p o r t e d i n t h i s t a b l e , t h r e e s u b j e c t matter a r e a s were ta u g h t i n more than 60% of the s c h o o l s . The s u b j e c t m a t t e r taught most f r e q u e n t l y was Foods and 71 T a b l e I I I S u b j e c t M a t t e r C u r r e n t l y Taught S u b j e c t M a t t e r Number % (N=62) Human Development & the F a m i l y Yes No 26 36 41 .94 58.06 Home Management & F a m i l y Economics Yes No 46 1 6 74.19 25.81 Foods & N u t r i t i o n Yes No 51 1 1 82.26 1 7.74 T e x t i l e s & C l o t h i n g Yes No 38 24 61.29 38.71 Housing Yes No 20 42 32.26 67.74 72 N u t r i t i o n , f o l l o w e d by Home Management and by T e x t i l e s and C l o t h i n g . The re m a i n i n g two s u b j e c t matter a r e a s , Human Development and the F a m i l y , and Hous i n g , were t a u g h t i n l e s s than h a l f of the s c h o o l s i n t h i s s t u d y . A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n was ob s e r v e d when t e a c h e r s were asked t o i n d i c a t e the s u b j e c t matter a r e a s t h a t they f e l t most competent t o t e a c h (see Tab l e I V ) . More than h a l f of the t e a c h e r s c l a i m e d t h a t they were competent to t e a c h Foods and N u t r i t i o n , Home Management, and T e x t i l e s and C l o t h i n g ( i n t h a t o r d e r ) , w h i l e l e s s than h a l f f e l t competent t o t e a c h H o u s i n g , and Human Development and the F a m i l y . Teachers were a l s o asked t o rank o r d e r t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r t e a c h i n g the f i v e home economics s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a s , (see Table V ) . A g a i n , Foods and N u t r i t i o n was r a t e d as the most p r e f e r r e d s u b j e c t matter a r e a , f o l l o w e d by Home Management and T e x t i l e s and C l o t h i n g . I t was i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t a l t h o u g h T e x t i l e s and C l o t h i n g was ranked t h i r d i n s u b j e c t matter p r e f e r e n c e , the r a n k i n g s of the respondents on t h i s s u b j e c t matter a r e a were e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d among the c a t e g o r i e s . Human Development and the F a m i l y and Housing were the l e a s t p r e f e r r e d a r e a s t o t e a c h . T h i s i s not s u r p r i s i n g s i n c e the m a j o r i t y of respondents had a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t they d i d not f e e l competent t o t e a c h t h e s e a r e a s (see Tab l e I V ) . A l t h o u g h the p a t t e r n r e p o r t e d i n response t o t h i s q u e s t i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p a t t e r n s r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e s I I I and IV, i t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out t h a t f o r each s u b j e c t matter a r e a , t h e r e were r e l a t i v e l y h i g h 73 Table IV S u b j e c t M a t t e r Competence S u b j e c t M a t t e r Number % (N=62) Human Development & the F a m i l y Yes No 27 35 43.55 56.45 Home Management & F a m i l y Economics Yes No 42 20 67.74 32.26 Foods & N u t r i t i o n Yes No 55 7 88.71 1 1 .29 T e x t i l e s & C l o t h i n g Yes No 33 29 53.23 46.77 Housing Yes No 25 37 40.32 59.68 74 Ta b l e V S u b j e c t M a t t e r P r e f e r e n c e S u b j e c t M a t t e r Number (N=62) Human Development & the F a m i l y 1 2 3 4 5 M i s s i n g Data Home Management & F a m i l y Economics 1 2 3 4 5 M i s s i n g Data Foods & N u t r i t i o n 1 2 3 4 5 M i s s i n g Data T e x t i l e s & C l o t h i n g 1 2 3 4 5 M i s s i n g Data Housing 1 2 3 4 5 M i s s i n g Data 1 7 18 1 7 2 17 17 19 1 2 4 0 10 34 12 3 2 2 9 8 1 1 9 8 12 14 3 2 3 1 0 25 19 1.61 1 1 .29 29.03 27.42 3.23 27.42 27.42 30.65 19.35 6.45 0.00 16.13 54.84 19.35 4.84 3.23 3.23 1 4.52 1 2 1 7 1 4 12 19 22 90 74 52 90 35 58 .84 23 84 16.13 40.32 30.65 75 numbers of respondents who d i d not answer t h i s q u e s t i o n . I t i s not c l e a r whether t h e s e t e a c h e r s d i d not have a p r e f e r e n c e or whether they were u n w i l l i n g t o s t a t e t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t m a t t e r . The d a t a p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s I I I , IV, and V i n d i c a t e a c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n among the s u b j e c t matter a r e a s of home economics. Foods and N u t r i t i o n , was the most taught and the most p r e f e r r e d s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a and t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t they f e l t most competent t o t e a c h t h i s a r e a . The o t h e r s u b j e c t m atter a r e a s were c o n s i s t e n t l y ranked i n the f o l l o w i n g d e s c e n d i n g o r d e r : Home Management, T e x t i l e s and C l o t h i n g , Human Development and the F a m i l y and Housing. In comparing T a b l e s I I I and IV, the da t a i n d i c a t e t h a t more t e a c h e r s t e a c h Home Management, T e x t i l e s and C l o t h i n g , and Human Development and t h e F a m i l y than b e l i e v e d they were competent t o t e a c h t h e s e s u b j e c t s . In Foods and N u t r i t i o n , and Housing fewer t e a c h e r s t e a c h these a r e a s than f e e l competent t o t e a c h them. S u b j e c t M a t t e r Emphasis In Home Economics In o r d e r t o o b t a i n a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the s u b j e c t matter b e i n g t a u g h t , respondents were asked t o i n d i c a t e the degree of emphasis g i v e n t o each of 10 t o p i c s w i t h i n t h e s e f i v e s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a s of home economics (see Appendix E ) . These t o p i c s were s e l e c t e d t h r o u g h a review of the N i g e r i a n and West A f r i c a n home economics l i t e r a t u r e . P o s s i b l e s c o r e s f o r each s u b j e c t matter a r e a 76 ranged from 10, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a was a major p a r t of the c u r r i c u l u m , t o 70, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the s u b j e c t m atter a r e a was not i n c l u d e d i n the t e a c h e r ' s c u r r i c u l u m . The t o t a l s c o r e f o r a l l the f i v e s u b j e c t matter a r e a s ranged from 50 ( i n d i c a t i n g h i g h emphasis i n a l l s u b j e c t m atter a r e a s ) t o 350 ( i n d i c a t i n g low emphasis i n a l l the f i v e s u b j e c t matter a r e a s ) . The mean s c o r e f o r a l l of t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a s was 162.63 i n d i c a t i n g a moderate emphasis f o r s u b j e c t matter a r e a s . The mean sco r e f o r each s u b j e c t m a t t e r ranged from 27.13 t o 35.23, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e v a r i a n c e i n the emphasis g i v e n t o the a r e a s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t the f i v e c o n c e p t u a l a r e a s of study i n home economics e x i s t c o n c u r r e n t l y i n Oyo s t a t e secondary s c h o o l s , and c o n t r a d i c t s the t e a c h e r s ' o p i n i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the r a n k i n g of t h e s e a r e a s of s t u d y . More than 50% of the t e a c h e r s c l a i m e d they were not competent t o t e a c h or d i d not t e a c h e i t h e r Human Development and the F a m i l y or Housing i n t h e i r home economics c l a s s e s (see T a b l e s I I I and I V ) . However, i n f o r m a t i o n on the t o p i c s w i t h i n t h e s e a r e a s i n d i c a t e s t h a t they a re taught i n home economics c l a s s e s . Teachers may be unaware of the s e as s e p a r a t e c o n c e p t u a l a r e a s of st u d y or they may be i n t e g r a t e d or combined w i t h o t h e r a r e a s of s t u d y , f o r example, Home Management. For the purposes of c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s the seven c a t e g o r i e s of response r e p o r t e d i n Appendix E were c o l l a p s e d t o the l a r g e r c a t e g o r i e s of h i g h , n e u t r a l , and low degree of 77 emphasis r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e V I . E x a m i n a t i o n of the emphasis on t o p i c s " " w i t h i n the s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a s r a i s e s some i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s (see Table V I ) . For example, i n Foods and N u t r i t i o n , t o p i c s such as n u t r i t i o n - r e l a t e d d i s e a s e s and the e f f e c t of t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s on food c h o i c e s r e c e i v e d low emphasis. One cannot u n d e r e s t i m a t e the importance of th e s e t o p i c s i n Oyo s t a t e home economics c u r r i c u l u m , b e a r i n g i n mind the h i g h i n c i d e n c e of k w a s h i o r k o r , marasmus and o t h e r n u t r i t i o n - r e l a t e d d i s e a s e s . Ignorance and l a c k of knowledge have been documented as causes of t h e s e d i s e a s e s ( C o l l i s , Dema, and Omololu, 1962). There i s a l s o a r e l a t i o n s h i p between food h a b i t s and t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s , norms, v a l u e s and customs ( C a l i e n d o , 1979). A l t h o u g h Home Management and F a m i l y Economics was f r e q u e n t l y t a u g h t , t o p i c s such as the d i f f e r e n t banking systems a v a i l a b l e t o f a m i l i e s and f a m i l y use of c r e d i t r e c e i v e d low degree of emphasis. A h i g h emphasis on these t o p i c s c o u l d e n l i g h t e n i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s about a l t e r n a t i v e ways of i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r p u r c h a s i n g power. There was a l s o a low emphasis on the impact of a d v e r t i s i n g on the consumer. S t u d e n t s need t o be aware of d e c e p t i o n s i n a d v e r t i s e m e n t and the f a c t t h a t as consumers they need t o make r a t i o n a l d e c i s i o n s . Low emphasis on t o p i c s such as the d i f f e r e n c e s between c o n s t r u c t i o n s t a n d a r d s of ready made c l o t h i n g and c l o t h i n g made by t a i l o r s and the use of commercial p a t t e r n s i n T e x t i l e s and C l o t h i n g i s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t e a c h e r s uphold Teachers' Table VI Subject Matter Emphasis Responses to Questionnaire Items I tern No. Questionnaire Items Scale High Degree of Neutral Emphasis (%) Low Missing Data Human D e v e l o p m e n t and t h e F a m i l y 2 The customs of various ethnic groups in Nigeria. 45 . 1 17 .7 30 . 7 6 .5 7 The importance of healthy boy/girl relationship. 62 . 9 17 .7 19 .4 O .0 12 The impact of physical changes on the psychological development of adolescents. 64 . 5 14 . 5 19 .4 1 .6 17 Stages of development of an infant. 46 .8 27 . 4 25 .9 0 .0 22 The family l i f e cycle. 64 . 5 16 . 1 19 . 3 0 .0 27 The d i f f e r e n t types of marriages that exist in Nigeria. 69 .3 1 1 .3 19 .4 0 .0 32 The challenges of contemporary parenthood. 33 .9 25 . 8 37 . 1 3 . 2 37 Human reproduction. 59 . 6 17 . 7 22 . 7 0. .0 42 Relationships and social s k i l l s . 43 .6 29 .0 25 . 8 1 . 6 47 The role of communication in maintaining a healthy relationship. 50 .0 24 .2 25 .8 0 .0 Home Management and F a m i l y E c o n o m i c s 1 The meaning of management. 7 1 . .0 16 . 1 1 1 . 2 1 . . 6 6 Household budgeting. -72. .5 6. .5 19 .4 1 , 6 1 1 The decision-making process. 46 . 8 . 24 . . 2 24 . 2 4 . 8 16 The ava i l a b l e human resources and their use for the welfare of families. 58 , . 1 22 . 6 17. .8 1 . .62 1 The d i f f e r e n t banking systems available to families. 37 . 1 22 . 6 40. . 4 O. O 26 The impact of advertising on the consumer. 41 . 9 24. ,2 34 . 0 0. .0 31 Family use of credit. 21 . 0 27 . 4 51 , .6 0. .0 36 The changes in today's society that have an impact on the family's management 54. .8 24. .2 19. .4 1. .6 pract i ces. 41 Patterns of spending family income. 59. 7 22 . 6 16 . 2 1. 6 46 The role of the consumer in the market. 61 . 3 14. 5 24 . 2 0. 0 Table VI continued I tern No. Questionnaire Items Scale High Degree of Neutra1 Emphasis (%) Low Missing Data F o o d s a n d N u t r i t i o n 5 The functions of nutrients in the body. 90. . 3 3 . 2 6 .4 0 .0 10 Nu t r i t i o n - r e l a t e d diseases. 59. . 7 14 . 5 24 . 2 1 .6 15 Preparation of foods. 87 . 1 4 . 8 8 .O O .0 20 Preservation of foods. 72. .6 14 . 5 12 .9 0 .0 25 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of food. 87 . 1 6 . 5 6 . 4 0 .0 30 The meaning of balanced diet. 83 . 9 4 .8 1 1 .2 0 .0 35 The e f f e c t of t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s on food choices. 54 . 9 14 . 5 29 . O 1. .6 40 Storage of food. 75. .8 1 1 .3 12 .9 0. .0 45 Convenience foods. 59. . 7 22 . G 16 . 1 1 .6 50 Meal planning in r e l a t i o n to the family. 77 , .4 9. .7 12 . 9 0. .0 T e x t i l e s a n d C l o t h i n g 4 Care of clothing. 72 .6 11 . 3 16 . 2 0. .O 9 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of f a b r i c s . 67 . 7 17 . 7 14 .5 0. .0 14 Fashion consciousness. 72 . 6 14 .5 12 .9 O. .0 19 The differences between construction standards of readymade clothing and clothing made by t a i l o r s . 48 . 3 14 . 5 37 , .0 0. 0 24 Use of a sewing machine. 64 .4 16 . 1 19 . 4 0. .0 29 The care of sewing machines. 64 . 5 19 .4 16. . 2 0. .0 34 Use of commercial patterns. 35 . 5 1 1 . . 3 50. .0 3 . 2 39 Children's garments. 50. .0 21 . 0 29 . 0 0. 0 44 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of f a b r i c s . 54 . 8 21 , O 24 . O O. 0 49 Clothing worn for d i f f e r e n t occasions. 91 .9 3. .2 4 . 8 0. 0 Table VI continued I tern No. Questionnaire Items Seal e High Degree of Neutral Emphasis (%) Low Missing Data H o u s i n g 3 The impact of family income on the choice of family l i v i n g space. 62 .9 19 .4 16 . 1 1 .6 8 The importance of good v e n t i l a t i o n . 82 . 3 9 . 7 8 .0 0 .0 13 Housing as a basic need of the family. 79 .0 9 . 7 8 .0 3 . 2 18 Maintenance of family l i v i n g space. 67 .7 14 . 5 16 . 1 1 . 6 23 The implications of l i v i n g in an overcrowded house. 83 . .9 6 .5 9 .6 0. .0 28 Different ways of owning a house (e.g., inheritance, mortgage, loan, housing scheme, etc . ) . 37 . . 1 21 .0 42 .0 0 .0 33 Choice of home furnishings. 59, ,6 21 .0 17 . 7 1 .6 38 The use of wood, kerosene, e l e c t r i c i t y , gas, etc. in the home. 82 . . 2 9 . 7 8 . 1 0 .0 43 Government's role in housing. 25. .9 11. . 3 62 .9 0. .0 48 The d i f f e r e n t types of houses. 64 . 5 22, .6 12 .9 0. .0 81 the view of home economics as a p r a c t i c a l s u b j e c t . S i n c e t h e r e a r e not many commercial p a t t e r n s a v a i l a b l e , t e a c h e r s may be e m p h a s i z i n g c l o t h i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n which p r o b a b l y i n v o l v e s d r a f t i n g of p a t t e r n s . P r o f e s s i o n a l Involvement E i g h t y - n i n e p e r c e n t of the t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t they belonged t o a p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n (see Ta b l e I I ) . Responses i n d i c a t e d t h a t the N i g e r i a n Union of Teachers (N.U.T.) and the Oyo S t a t e Home Economics Teachers A s s o c i a t i o n (O.S.H.E.T.A.) were the most p o p u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n s , w i t h 79% members of N.U.T. and 68% members of O.S.H.E.T.A. The h i g h r a t e of membership i n N.U.T. may be due t o the f a c t t h a t every r e g i s t e r e d t e a c h e r i n N i g e r i a i s ex p e c t e d t o be a member. In s p i t e of t h i s h i g h membership r a t e , however, N.U.T. appeared t o have a low meeting a t t e n d a n c e , w i t h o n l y 29% of the sample r e p o r t i n g h a v i n g a t t e n d e d any meetings w i t h i n the l a s t y e a r . O.S.H.E.T.A. had both a h i g h membership r a t e and h i g h meeting a t t e n d a n c e , w i t h 53% of the t e a c h e r s r e p o r t i n g t h a t t hey had a t t e n d e d O.S.H.E.T.A. meetings w i t h i n the l a s t y e a r . The l o w e s t membership r a t e s were r e p o r t e d f o r the N i g e r i a n Home Economics Teachers A s s o c i a t i o n (N.H.E.T.A.) and N i g e r i a n F e d e r a l Home S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n (N.F.H.S.A.). Low membership i n the s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s may i n d i c a t e t h a t t e a c h e r s p r e f e r l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s or t h a t they may be unaware of the f e d e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n home economics. 82 They may a l s o be u n w i l l i n g or unable t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s at the same time . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i n or d e r t o p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y i n the s e f e d e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , an advanced degree may be an a s s e t . S i n c e most home economics t e a c h e r s do not have a degree i n home economics, they may not see the need t o b e l o n g t o a F e d e r a l P r o f e s s i o n a l body and may be s a t i s f i e d w i t h s t a t e l e v e l r a t h e r than f e d e r a l or i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t . However, s i n c e membership i n these o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o u l d mean exposure t o home economics i n ot h e r p a r t s of N i g e r i a , A f r i c a , and the whole w o r l d , t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e m e n t s h o u l d be encouraged. Such i n v o l v e m e n t might b e n e f i t the development of home economics c u r r i c u l u m i n N i g e r i a . I t i s e n c o u r a g i n g t o observe t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the Oyo s t a t e home economics t e a c h e r s were members of O.S.H.E.T.A. and d i d a t t e n d meetings. T h i s i s i m p o r t a n t f o r t h e i r own p r o f e s s i o n a l development and f o r the development of the p r o f e s s i o n . Through p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t e a c h e r s have a c c e s s t o n e w s l e t t e r s , j o u r n a l s and o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s t h a t may h e l p t o keep them c u r r e n t on p r o f e s s i o n a l i s s u e s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p r o f e s s i o n a l meetings encourages t e a c h e r s t o s h a r e , s u p p o r t , and communicate e d u c a t i o n a l t r e n d s w i t h t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s a c r o s s the s t a t e . Mears, Ley and Ray (1981) r e p o r t e d t h a t a r e c u r r i n g f a c t o r i n r e p o r t s on t e a c h e r s of exemplary programs was t h e i r i nvolvement i n p r o f e s s i o n a l 83 o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A v a r i e t y of p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s e n a b l e d them t o c o n t i n u a l l y update t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l competence. The data r e p o r t e d here i n d i c a t e t h a t Oyo s t a t e home economics t e a c h e r s were m o d e r a t e l y i n v o l v e d i n p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Oyo S t a t e Home Economics Teachers A s s o c i a t i o n (O.S.H.E.T.A.) was the most p o p u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n i n b o th membership and a t t e n d a n c e , f o l l o w e d by N i g e r i a n Union of Teachers (N.U.T.). N i g e r i a n Home Economics Teachers A s s o c i a t i o n (N.H.E.T.A.) and N i g e r i a n F e d e r a l Home S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n (N.F.H.S.A.) were not p o p u l a r among home economics t e a c h e r s i n Oyo s t a t e . P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Respondents were asked t o i n d i c a t e when they had l a s t a t t e n d e d an i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g c o u r s e and t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e p o r t e d i n Ta b l e I I . Atten d a n c e a t p r o f e s s i o n a l development courses/workshops appears t o be r e l a t i v e l y h i g h s i n c e 62% had a t t e n d e d c o u r s e s w i t h i n the p a s t two y e a r s . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 1/3 had a t t e n d e d one or two c o u r s e s and anot h e r 1/3 had a t t e n d e d more than t h r e e c o u r s e s . S u c c e s s f u l program i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the q u a l i t y of i n - s e r v i c e programs t h a t t e a c h e r s r e c e i v e ( C r a n d a l l , 1983; Cavanagh and S t y l e s , 1983; F u l l a n , 1979). I t i s a l s o a common assumption t h a t l a c k of p r o f e s s i o n a l renewal reduces a t e a c h e r ' s p r o d u c t i v i t y . Teachers who do not p a r t i c i p a t e i n i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s may l o s e the o p p o r t u n i t y t o a c q u i r e new i n f o r m a t i o n , competencies or 84 s k i l l s which might h e l p them s o l v e day-to-day problems as thes e a r i s e i n the c l a s s r o o m . On the whole, a t t e n d a n c e at p r o f e s s i o n a l development courses/workshops appears t o be r e l a t i v e l y h i g h f o r t h i s group of t e a c h e r s . I n s t r u c t i o n a l M a t e r i a l s The r e s p o n d e n t s were asked t o i n d i c a t e the i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s b e i n g used i n t h e i r s c h o o l s . Of the 62 t e a c h e r s p a r t i c i p a t i n g , 89% r e p o r t e d u s i n g s t a n d a r d t e x t b o o k s i n t h e i r s c h o o l s , 66% used t e a c h e r ' s g u i d e s , 65% used both w a l l c h a r t s and specimens and 32% used s t u d e n t workbooks. P r i o r t o c o n d u c t i n g t h i s s tudy the r e s e a r c h e r a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s may not be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . However, i t i s e n c o u r a g i n g t o observe t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s were a v a i l a b l e f o r t e a c h e r s ' use and were b e i n g used by them. G e n e r a l Comments from Respondents The r e s p o n d e n t s were asked t o p r o v i d e any a d d i t i o n a l comments wh i c h might be r e l e v a n t t o the c u r r e n t s t a t u s of home economics programs i n t h e i r s c h o o l s , the s u b j e c t m atter a r e a s t a u g h t , i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s or home economics programs i n g e n e r a l . Comments made by t e a c h e r s i n w e l l -e s t a b l i s h e d programs w i l l be p r e s e n t e d f i r s t and w i l l be f o l l o w e d by comments from the r e m a i n i n g r e s p o n d e n t s who o f f e r home economics programs. F i n a l l y , comments from s c h o o l s who do not have home economics programs w i l l be 85 d i s c u s s e d . E l e v e n s c h o o l s (18%) r e p o r t e d h a v i n g w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d home economics departments. By t h a t , the t e a c h e r s meant t h e i r programs were s u c c e s s f u l i n terms of adequate l a b o r a t o r y space, equipment, q u a l i f i e d home economics t e a c h e r s and s u f f i c i e n t f i n a n c e s t o run t h e i r programs. For example, one respondent n o t e d : The home economics department i n t h i s s c h o o l i s a d e q u a t e l y funded and i t s t a n d s as a model i n the s t a t e . A l l branches of the s u b j e c t s a r e taught and p r e s e n t l y , Foods and N u t r i t i o n , and Home Management are o f f e r e d a t c e r t i f i c a t e l e v e l . C l o t h i n g and T e x t i l e s w i l l soon be taken at t h i s l e v e l as the s t u d e n t s a re b e i n g p r e s e n t l y groomed f o r i t . Most of the t e a c h i n g s t a f f s p e c i a l i z e i n more than one a s p e c t of home economics and t h i s a s p e c t of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s ta k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n w h i l e they a r e be i n g r e c r u i t e d . A much s i m i l a r note of s u c c e s s was r e p o r t e d from another s c h o o l : Home economics here ... has reached i t ' s peak. I t has a l l the n e c e s s a r y support needed f o r i t t o grow. I t has gone a l o n g way t o change the l i f e s t y l e of some of those we i n t e r a c t w i t h . T h i s i s more so because a l l the equipment needed a r e a v a i l a b l e . Thus s t u d e n t s tend t o e x p r e s s g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t because most of the time they can see the r e s u l t of t h e i r e f f o r t . A t h i r d respondent i n d i c a t e d : The home economics program i n my s c h o o l i s a s u c c e s s . Both t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s a re ,happy w i t h the s u b j e c t s . D i f f e r e n t t y p e s of i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s a r e used f o r t e a c h i n g t h i s s u b j e c t t h a t makes i t a s u c c e s s . There i s a l s o pot and pan c l u b e s t a b l i s h e d i n the s c h o o l t o improve the s t a t u s of the program. 86 In s p i t e of the su c c e s s r e p o r t e d above, some s c h o o l s had some problems. Shortage of home economics t e a c h e r s was one of the problems r a i s e d by t e a c h e r s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the s t u d y . As one home economics t e a c h e r n o t e d : T e a c h i n g of home economics i s s t i l l new i n the s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m of Oyo s t a t e because t e a c h e r s f o r t h i s s u b j e c t a r e s c a r c e , some s c h o o l s do not i n t r o d u c e i t i n t h e i r s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m a t a l l . Where the s u b j e c t i s be i n g t a u g h t , t h e r e a r e not enough t e a c h i n g a i d s or t h e r e i s none at a l l . T e a c h i n g of Foods and N u t r i t i o n i s e x t r e m e l y h i g h , o t h e r a r e a s have j u s t been i m p r o v i n g because of l a c k of i n t e r e s t and t e a c h i n g a i d s . Home economics programs g e n e r a l l y have been i m p r o v i n g than the p r e v i o u s y e a r s and I am s u r e , t h e r e i s hope i n the f u t u r e . From another t e a c h e r the f o l l o w i n g comments were rece i v e d : As f a r as home economics i s concerned, I am not a s p e c i a l i s t but I o f f e r e d r e l a t e d s u b j e c t c o u p l e d w i t h i n t e r e s t . Home economics as a s u b j e c t i s not y e t g i v e n adequate a t t e n t i o n l i k e e v e r y o t h e r s u b j e c t . For example, no p r o v i s i o n of q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s i n t o the secondary s c h o o l s , no equipment and the l i k e . Many home economics s p e c i a l i s t s l i v e i n t h e c i t i e s t h e r e f o r e , making the s t u d e n t s i n r u r a l a r e a s who would have l o v e d t o o f f e r the s u b j e c t t o s u f f e r . I n - a v a i l a b i l i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s i s combating home economics programs i n my s c h o o l . A t h i r d respondent has t h i s t o say: The c u r r e n t s t a t u s of home economics as a s u b j e c t i n t h i s s c h o o l i s c o n s t a n t l y too poor. Though I am the o n l y t e a c h e r of the s u b j e c t y e t I would say I am not a s p e c i a l i s t i n i t . I am o n l y working on i t w i t h the p r e knowledge a t h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l . In essence t h e r e i s no t r a i n e d t e a c h e r f o r the s u b j e c t h e r e . G e n e r a l l y , the s t u d e n t s have developed a g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n the s u b j e c t . However, w i t h the 87 i n t r o d u c t i o n of the J.S.S. s t u d e n t s ( 6 - 3 - 3 - 4 ) another s u b j e c t has r e p l a c e d the s u b j e c t , hence i t ' s f e e t i s r e a l l y s h a k i n g i n the s c h o o l . F i n a n c e s were a l s o r e p o r t e d t o be problem i n some s c h o o l s . In Oyo s t a t e , home economics i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be an e x p e n s i v e c o u r s e . T h e r e f o r e , i t i s f o r the r i c h g i r l s . As a home economics t e a c h e r s a i d : Home economics i s not g a i n i n g enough ground. The p u b l i c i s not s e r i o u s l y r e c o g n i z i n g the c o u r s e . I t i s not w e l l a i d e d by e v e r y i n d i v i d u a l . F i r s t l y , the p a r e n t s do not encourage t h e i r c h i l d r e n by g i v i n g the m a t e r i a l s needed f o r the c o u r s e . S e c o n d l y , the government i s not a i d i n g the c o u r s e w e l l because of the economic r e c e s s i o n . T h i r d l y , the m a j o r i t y of the s t u d e n t s do not encourage t e a c h e r s by not b r i n g i n g the m a t e r i a l s t o a i d t h e i r l e s s o n s . People t h i n k t h a t the s u b j e c t i s an o r d i n a r y c o u r s e d e a l i n g w i t h o n l y c o o k i n g and i t i s an e x p e n s i v e c o u r s e . A much s i m i l a r problem was r e p o r t e d a t an o t h e r s c h o o l . I t has been observed t h a t many of the s t u d e n t s d e s p i t e t h e i r i n t e r e s t a r e s t i l l r u n n i n g away from home economics because i t i s an e x p e n s i v e s u b j e c t . The economic s t r a n g u l a t i o n i n the c o u n t r y has a s t r o n g n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on t h e i r i n t e r e s t s . Many of the s t u d e n t s a re from p r e d o m i n a n t l y poor f a m i l i e s , t h e i r p a r e n t s a re peasant farmers who cannot a f f o r d t o meet the demand of the c o u r s e . However, the p a r e n t s s h o u l d t r y t o g i v e the r e q u i r e d a s s i s t a n c e , the t e a c h e r s s h o u l d a l s o t r y t o s a c r i f i c e and make use of a v a i l a b l e l o c a l raw m a t e r i a l s . F i n a l l y , the government s h o u l d employ q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s , p r o v i d e e s s e n t i a l equipment on t h e c o u r s e and encourage t h e i r t e a c h e r s . Another problem r e p o r t e d by the re s p o n d e n t s i s the l a c k of l a b o r a t o r y space and equipment. As one home economics 88 t e a c h e r n o t e d : The home economics l a b o r a t o r y i n the s c h o o l l a c k s some b a s i c equipment which a r e needed f o r p r a c t i c a l s . A l s o most p a r e n t s do not c o - o p e r a t e by f a i l i n g t o s u p p l y t h e i r c h i l d r e n w i t h the specimens n e c e s s a r y t o c a r r y out t h e i r own p r a c t i c a l s . The s t u d e n t s have more i n t e r e s t i n Foods and N u t r i t i o n , Home Management than i n o t h e r a r e a s of home economics. Another t e a c h e r ' s comments i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : In our l o c a l government, our s c h o o l i s the o n l y s c h o o l t h a t i s d o i n g home economics t o s c h o o l c e r t i f i c a t e l e v e l . We do o f f e r home management as a co u r s e but t h e r e i s not much c o m p e t i t i o n . We have problems of equipment and the government has no money t o f i n a n c e home economics i n s c h o o l s . The f o l l o w i n g t e a c h e r ' s comments and o p i n i o n s were a l s o r e c e i v e d : Lack of equipment and s t a n d a r d l a b o r a t o r y i s g r e a t l y a f f e c t i n g the over a l l r e s u l t s of t e a c h i n g home economics t o s t u d e n t s i n b o t h J u n i o r and S e n i o r c l a s s e s . Home economics i s one of the im p o r t a n t s u b j e c t s recommended f o r the 6-3-3-4 program i n N i g e r i a . I t i s a p r o f e s s i o n a l j o b . But the government has f a i l e d by p r o v i d i n g n e s e s s a r y equipment f o r us i n the s c h o o l s f o r the s u b j e c t . A c t u a l l y , the s c h o o l a u t h o r i t y i s t r y i n g t o put t h i n g s r i g h t i n our home economics l a b o r a t o r y . G e n e r a l l y , s t u d e n t s have i n t e r e s t i n the s u b j e c t i n my s c h o o l . But the s u b j e c t needs a l o t of money and t h i s d i s c o u r a g e s some s t u d e n t s from o f f e r i n g i t a t the s c h o o l c e r t i f i c a t e l e v e l . The p r i n c i p a l s ' comments from t h e s c h o o l s t h a t d i d not have home economics programs a l s o s u b s t a n t i a t e t e a c h e r s ' e a r l i e r comments t h a t s h o r t a g e of home economics t e a c h e r s i s a problem i n Oyo s t a t e : I am indeed v e r y s o r r y t h a t the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n had r e f u s e d t o p o s t a home economics t e a c h e r t o t h i s s c h o o l d e s p i t e our r e p e a t e d r e q u e s t s 89 f o r the p a s t f i v e y e a r s . Your q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s hereby r e t u r n e d t o you because o n l y a few s c h o o l s i n town have t h i s type of t e a c h e r a t a l l . ... We do not o f f e r home economics i n t h i s s c h o o l and t h e r e i s no t e a c h e r f o r the s u b j e c t a t a l l . We however, hope t h a t t h e r e w i l l be human and m a t e r i a l f a c i l i t i e s i n f u t u r e f o r us t o i n t r o d u c e the s u b j e c t . . . ... Home economics even though i t i s i n c l u d e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m i s not b e i n g t a u g h t i n our s c h o o l because t h e r e a r e no q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s t o handle the s u b j e c t . ... I t i s a p i t y the s u b j e c t i s not b e i n g o f f e r e d i n t h i s s c h o o l due to l a c k of t e a c h i n g p e r s o n n e l . M o d e l s o f Home E c o n o m i c s E x a m i n a t i o n of the c o n t e n t taught i n the c l a s s r o o m s suggests t h a t t h r e e p h i l o s o p h i c a l views of home economics a r e e v i d e n t i n Oyo s t a t e secondary s c h o o l s : home economics as homemaking e d u c a t i o n , home economics as hou s e h o l d management, and home economics as c o o k i n g and sewing. Homemaking e d u c a t i o n i s e v i d e n c e d by the degree of emphasis g i v e n t o t o p i c s l i k e r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( p a r e n t , c h i l d , f a m i l y , and community), human r e p r o d u c t i o n , human development, f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e , d i f f e r e n t ways of owning a house, c h o i c e of home f u r n i s h i n g s , maintenance of f a m i l y l i v i n g space, and c a r e of c l o t h i n g . The main g o a l of t h i s model i s t o pr e p a r e g i r l s f o r t h e i r f u t u r e r o l e s as wives and mothers. Home economics as hou s e h o l d management i s e v i d e n c e d by the emphasis on t o p i c s such as the meaning of management, hou s e h o l d b u d g e t i n g , d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s , consumer's r o l e i n the market, and f a m i l y s p e n d i n g p a t t e r n s . A c c o r d i n g 90 t o E a s t (1980) management of ho u s e h o l d a f f a i r s i n v o l v e s the c o g n i t i v e a c t i v i t i e s of p l a n n i n g , managing, d e c i d i n g , c h o o s i n g , and e v a l u a t i n g . The main g o a l of t h i s model i s to h e l p i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s manage both human and m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s t o improve t h e i r q u a l i t y of l i f e . The home economics as c o o k i n g and sewing model i s e v i d e n c e d by the emphasis on t o p i c s such as food s t o r a g e , food p r e p a r a t i o n , food p r e s e r v a t i o n , c l o t h i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n , use of the sewing machine and c a r e of c l o t h i n g . T h i s emphasis i s on p r a c t i c a l e d u c a t i o n and l a b o r a t o r y work. As Fayemi et al., (1977) suggested f o r N i g e r i a n secondary s c h o o l s , homemaking s k i l l s t h a t a r e a c q u i r e d s h o u l d "... be put i n t o p r a c t i c e t h r o u g h group work i n s c h o o l home economics l a b o r a t o r i e s and i n the p u p i l s homes" (p. i i ) . The d a t a suggest t h a t the above t h r e e models e x i s t c o n c u r r e n t l y i n Oyo s t a t e home economics programs. As P e t e r a t (1987) o b s e r v e d "a s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r i n shap i n g s c h o o l programs i s the broader e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t i n which programs are l o c a t e d and the backdrop of p o l i t i c s t h a t s u r r o u n d s the e d u c a t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e " (p. 14). The broad aims of secondary e d u c a t i o n i n N i g e r i a a r e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r u s e f u l l i v i n g w i t h i n the s o c i e t y and p r e p a r a t i o n f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n ( N i g e r i a F e d e r a l M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , 1981). S i n c e the a c q u i s i t i o n of a p p r o p r i a t e s k i l l s , a b i l i t i e s and competences (both mental and p h y s i c a l ) remain as equipment f o r the i n d i v i d u a l t o l i v e i n and c o n t r i b u t e t o the development of the N i g e r i a n s o c i e t y , the e x i s t i n g home 91 economics models are a p p r o p r i a t e . These models, home economics as homemaking e d u c a t i o n , home economics as h o u s e h o l d management, and home economics as c o o k i n g and sewing . c o u l d be grouped under Brown's t e c h n i c a l l y o r i e n t e d c u r r i c u l u m e m p h a s i z i n g t e c h n i c a l h o w - t o - s k i l l s . T e c h n i c a l l y o r i e n t e d c u r r i c u l u m i s based on the a s sumption t h a t a l l home economics s t u d e n t s a re females who must be p r e p a r e d f o r t h e i r f u t u r e r o l e s as homemakers (Brown, 1980, 1986). In Oyo s t a t e , the emphasis on t e c h n i c a l l y o r i e n t e d c u r r i c u l u m i s made a t the expense of o t h e r c u r r i c u l u m models such as i n t e r p r e t i v e and c r i t i c a l / e m a n c i p a t i v e o r i e n t e d c u r r i c u l a . The e v i d e n c e of t h i s c o u l d be seen i n the low degree of emphasis g i v e n t o t o p i c s such as : the customs of v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups i n N i g e r i a , the e f f e c t of t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s on food c h o i c e s , the impact of a d v e r t i s i n g on the consumer, and the government's r o l e i n h o u s i n g . On such t o p i c s , t e a c h e r s c o u l d s t r i v e t o have d i a l o g u e w i t h s t u d e n t s , h e l p t o c l a r i f y v a l u e s , v a l i d a t e b e l i e f s , and d i s c u s s norms s i g n i f i c a n t t o f a m i l y l i f e and development of i n d i v i d u a l s . Such a t t e m p t s would h e l p make e d u c a t i o n r e l e v a n t t o the l e a r n e r ' s needs. I n s t e a d of m a i n t a i n i n g the s t a t u s - q u o , s t u d e n t s would be encouraged t o use t h e i r e d u c a t i o n t o e f f e c t s o c i a l change. For example, s t u d e n t s would be aware of the t y p e s of houses they a r e l i v i n g i n and examine the government's r o l e i n h o u s i n g , b o t h what i t i s and what they would l i k e i t t o be. D i s c u s s i o n on such s o c i a l i s s u e s would enhance the i n t e l l e c t u a l and s o c i a l 92 development of s t u d e n t s . T e s t i n g the Hypotheses The seven hypotheses i d e n t i f i e d f o r the s tudy were t e s t e d u s i n g m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s t o examine the s t r e n g t h of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s u b j e c t m atter emphasis and s e l e c t e d a s p e c t s of t e a c h i n g and the t e a c h e r . These hypotheses were: 1. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the amount of t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e and s u b j e c t m atter emphasis. 2. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r ' s academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and s u b j e c t m atter emphasis. 3. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e a c h e r s ' a t t e n d a n c e at an i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g c o u r s e ( s ) / w o r k s h o p ( s ) and s u b j e c t m atter emphasis. 4. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r o f e s s i o n a l i n t e r a c t i o n and s u b j e c t m atter emphasis. 5. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the t y p e s of i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s and s u b j e c t m atter emphasis. 6. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between c l a s s e n r o l l m e n t and s u b j e c t m a t t e r emphasis. 7. There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r s o n a l p r e f e r e n c e of t e a c h i n g s u b j e c t and s u b j e c t m atter emphasis. As i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e V I I , the r e s u l t s of the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between any of the f i v e dependent v a r i a b l e s and the 42 independent v a r i a b l e s . T h i s can be seen i n T a b l e V I I t h r o u g h an e x a m i n a t i o n of the R 2 a d j u s t e d v a l u e s . These v a l u e s , i n d i c a t e t h a t a v e r y s m a l l amount of v a r i a n c e i n the dependent v a r i a b l e was a c counted f o r by the 42 independent 93 T a b l e V I I The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between F i v e Dependent V a r i a b l e s and the Independent V a r i a b l e s Dependent V a r i a b l e s 1 ( S u b j e c t M a t t e r Areas) R 2 2 (%) R 2 ( a d j ) 3 Human Development & the F a m i l y 68. , 1 2. ,7 Home Management & F a m i l y Economics 67. , 1 0. ,0 Foods & N u t r i t i o n 73. , 1 18. .0 T e x t i l e s & C l o t h i n g 68. .9 5. .0 Housing 66. ,0 0-.0 'h m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s model which i n c l u d e d a l l the independent v a r i a b l e s was c o n s t r u c t e d i n o r d e r t o determine how much v a r i a n c e i n the dependent v a r i a b l e s c o u l d be acco u n t e d f o r . 2 E s t i m a t e d squared m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o - e f f i c i e n t i n the p o p u l a t i o n . 3 T h e r e i s a tendency f o r the R 2 t o be o v e r e s t i m a t e d . I t i s not p o s s i b l e t o det e r m i n e the ex a c t degree of o v e r e s t i -mation of R 2, but an e s t i m a t e of the amount of s h r i n k a g e of the m u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o - e f f i c i e n t c o u l d be c a l c u l a t e d by u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g f o r m u l a : R 2 = 1.0-(1.0-R 2) (N-1) (N-K-1) ( K e r l i n g e r and Pedhazur, 1973). 94 v a r i a b l e s . As e a r l i e r mentioned, no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s was found between the dependent v a r i a b l e s and the independent v a r i a b l e s i n the s t u d y . There may be s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e reasons f o r t h i s r e s u l t : 1 . G iven the l a r g e number of v a r i a b l e s , the sample s i z e was too s m a l l . T h i s problem needs t o be a d d r e s s e d i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s . 2. The group was r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous on many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . D i f f e r e n c e s may not be as apparent a g a i n because of the r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l sample s i z e . 3 . The s u r vey method might not have c a p t u r e d some of the i n f o r m a t i o n which was needed t h a t i s , the q u e s t i o n n a i r e may not have been s e n s i t i v e enough t o d e t e c t d i f f e r e n c e s . 4. Respondents may have had d i f f i c u l t y i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g and r e s p o n d i n g t o some of the q u e s t i o n s s i n c e E n g l i s h i s t h e i r second language. There may a l s o have been c o n s i d e r a b l e r e l u c t a n c e t o respond or r e s p o n d e n t s may have p r o v i d e d "expected" answers e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e the survey was a d m i n i s t e r e d from a f a r . 95 C H A P T E R V S U M M A R Y , R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S , I M P L I C A T I O N S , A N D C O N C L U S I O N S T h i s study i n v e s t i g a t e d the c u r r i c u l a emphases of secondary home economics t e a c h e r s i n Oyo s t a t e . The purpose of the stu d y was t o i d e n t i f y the s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a s b e i n g taught and the r e l a t i v e amount of emphasis g i v e n t o each a r e a . A secondary o b j e c t i v e was t o a n a l y z e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u b j e c t matter emphasis and s e l e c t e d a s p e c t s of t e a c h i n g and the t e a c h e r . The study was conducted u s i n g the su r v e y method. The s u b j e c t s were 62 Oyo s t a t e home economics t e a c h e r s who completed and r e t u r n e d t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . Two m a i l i n g s of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s from Vancouver t o N i g e r i a were co m p l e t e d . The home economics i n s t r u c t i o n s e c t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were used t o examine the degree of emphasis g i v e n t o f i v e s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a s . The demographic data p r o v i d e d d e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on the s c h o o l s , t e a c h e r s , and s e l e c t e d a s p e c t s of t e a c h i n g . D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s such as the mean, s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , f r e q u e n c y , and pe r c e n t a g e were computed f o r each of the f i v e s u b j e c t m atter a r e a s and the demographic i n f o r m a t i o n . M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was used t o examine the s t r e n g t h of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c u r r i c u l a emphases and the independent v a r i a b l e s . 96 Summary of Major F i n d i n g s Most of the s c h o o l s o f f e r i n g home economics i n Oyo s t a t e were l a r g e s c h o o l s w i t h t o t a l s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n above 600. Most t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d over 50 s t u d e n t s i n home economics c l a s s e s . In s p i t e of the h i g h e n r o l l m e n t s most of the s c h o o l s (71% of the sample) had between one or two home economics t e a c h e r s . T o t a l s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n and c l a s s e n r o l l m e n t d i d not appear t o determine the number of home economics t e a c h e r s p o s t e d t o any g i v e n s c h o o l . E i g h t y - f i v e p e r c e n t of the t e a c h e r s were t e a c h i n g i n c o e d u c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s and the m a j o r i t y of them r e p o r t e d h a v i n g more than seven boys i n t h e i r home economics c l a s s e s . A l l the t e a c h e r s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s study were f e m a l e s , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t home economics i s s t i l l a female dominated p r o f e s s i o n i n Oyo s t a t e . H a l f of the t e a c h e r s have been t e a c h i n g f o r the past 11 y e a r s , and t w e l v e t e a c h e r s had taught f o r over 20 y e a r s . Only t h r e e t e a c h e r s were f i r s t y e a r home economics t e a c h e r s . The m a j o r i t y of the t e a c h e r s were h o l d e r s of N i g e r i a n C e r t i f i c a t e i n E d u c a t i o n (N.C.E.). Two t e a c h e r s had M a s t e r s degrees and o n l y one t e a c h e r was t e a c h i n g w i t h a h i g h s c h o o l d i p l o m a . Teachers r e p o r t e d t h a t the most taught s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a s a re Foods and N u t r i t i o n , Home Management and F a m i l y Economics and T e x t i l e s and C l o t h i n g w h i l e Human Development 97 and the F a m i l y and Housing were the l e a s t t a u g h t s u b j e c t matter a r e a s . A s i m i l a r response was g i v e n f o r t e a c h e r s ' l e v e l of competency and s u b j e c t matter p r e f e r e n c e . However, an e x a m i n a t i o n of t o p i c s w i t h i n each s u b j e c t matter a r e a i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l l the f i v e s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a s a re mo d e r a t e l y emphasized. Three models of home economics appear t o e x i s t c o n c u r r e n t l y i n Oyo s t a t e secondary s c h o o l s , namely: home economics as management of hou s e h o l d economy, home economics as homemaking and home economics as c o o k i n g and sewing. These models r e f l e c t t e c h n i c a l l y o r i e n t e d approaches t o c u r r i c u l u m development. Oyo s t a t e home economics t e a c h e r s were m o d e r a t e l y i n v o l v e d i n p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . N.U.T. and O.S.H.E.T.A were the most p o p u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n membership. However, t e a c h e r s a t t e n d a n c e a t N.U.T. meetings were v e r y low. O.S.H.E.T.A. was the most p o p u l a r o r g a n i z a t i o n i n both membership and meeting a t t e n d a n c e . The m a j o r i t y of the t e a c h e r s were n e i t h e r members of N.H.E.T.A. and N.F.H.S.A. nor had a t t e n d e d meetings of these o r g a n i z a t i o n s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p r o f e s s i o n a l development programs was q u i t e moderate. I n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s such as s t a n d a r d t e x t b o o k s , t e a c h e r s ' g u i d e s , w a l l c h a r t s and specimens were r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e t o Oyo s t a t e home economics t e a c h e r s . Student workbooks were not used o f t e n i n home economics c l a s s e s . 98 Seven h y p o t h e s i s were d e v e l o p e d and m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was used t o i n v e s t i g a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u b j e c t m a t t e r emphasis ( f i v e dependent v a r i a b l e s ) and s e l e c t e d a s p e c t s of t e a c h i n g and the t e a c h e r . M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s showed no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between any of the f i v e dependent v a r i a b l e s and the independent v a r i a b l e s . Many problems f a c i n g home economics as a s u b j e c t i n the secondary s c h o o l s were i d e n t i f i e d t h r o u g h the re s p o n d e n t s a d d i t i o n a l comments. Some of th e s e problems c e n t r e d on l a c k of l a b o r a t o r y space, equipment, f i n a n c e , and s h o r t a g e of home economics t e a c h e r s . Recommendations The p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h i s s t u d y was home economics t e a c h e r s i n Oyo s t a t e secondary s c h o o l s . I n o r d e r t o i d e n t i f y s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s s t u d y , the names and s c h o o l addresses of a l l secondary s c h o o l s i n Oyo s t a t e were o b t a i n e d from the Oyo S t a t e M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . Of the 300 secondary s c h o o l s i n Oyo s t a t e , 25 s c h o o l s were l i s t e d as s c h o o l s w i t h home economics programs. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were sent t o a l l the secondary s c h o o l s , and 62 s c h o o l s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the st u d y . S i n c e t h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the M i n i s t r y ' s r e c o r d s on s c h o o l s h a v i n g home economics programs ar e not u p - t o - d a t e , i t c o u l d be of c o n s i d e r a b l e a s s i s t a n c e t o s i m i l a r or f u t u r e s t u d i e s i f up - t o - d a t e r e c o r d s were a v a i l a b l e . 99 Teachers a re the d e t e r m i n a n t s of what happens i n the c l a s s r o o m . They i n t e r p r e t c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s and documents and adapt them t o t h e i r s c h o o l c o n t e x t , s i t u a t i o n , and l o c a l e of the s c h o o l . The W.A.E.C. s y l l a b u s used i n Oyo s t a t e ( i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r g u i d e s ) t o d e v e l o p a scheme of work and l e s s o n p l a n s i s o f t e n developed by u n i v e r s i t y p r o f e s s o r s who seldom see the i n s i d e of a c l a s s r o o m . In a d d i t i o n , the W.A.E.C. s y l l a b u s i s achievement o r i e n t e d s i n c e i t i s geared towards the Sch o o l C e r t i f i c a t e E x a m i n a t i o n s . In o r d e r t o ensure development of m a t e r i a l s t h a t w i l l be r e l e v a n t t o the e x p e r i e n c e s of both s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s , and b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c u r r i c u l a , i t i s im p o r t a n t f o r t e a c h e r s t o be i n v o l v e d i n the c u r r i c u l u m development p r o c e s s . Rhodes and Young (1981), o b s e r v e d t h a t t e a c h e r ' s involvement and commitment t o c u r r i c u l u m change comes much more smoothly when they a re m e a n i n g f u l l y i n v o l v e d i n c u r r i c u l u m development. The F e d e r a l Government of N i g e r i a has adopted e d u c a t i o n as an i n s t r u m e n t f o r e f f e c t i n g n a t i o n a l development ( N i g e r i a F e d e r a l M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , 1981). In or d e r t o a c h i e v e t h i s , e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be made r e l e v a n t t o the needs of the i n d i v i d u a l i n r e l a t i o n t o the environment and the r e a l i t i e s of t he modern w o r l d and r a p i d s o c i a l changes. As Fafunwa (1974) noted "... the p r e s e n t e d u c a t i o n a l system, i n s t e a d of d e v e l o p i n g p o s i t i v e v a l u e s i n the s o c i e t y i n which the A f r i c a n c h i l d l i v e s , tends t o a l i e n a t e him from h i s c u l t u r a l e n vironment" (p. 194). Home economics may be found f a u l t y 100 i n t h i s r e s p e c t . D e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t N i g e r i a n home economics books a re a v a i l a b l e t o make programs r e l e v a n t t o the needs of the s t u d e n t s , a d d i t i o n a l c u r r i c u l u m e f f o r t s by the t e a c h e r s c o u l d be of a s s i s t a n c e . For example, i n Foods and N u t r i t i o n (the most f r e q u e n t l y taught s u b j e c t matter a r e a ) t e a c h e r s encourage western ways of c o o k i n g ; they t a l k about c a k e s , b i s c u i t s , puddings e t c . i n s t e a d of t e a c h i n g s t u d e n t s t o improve t r a d i t i o n a l c o o k i n g methods. In the f a c e of economic r e c e s s i o n the f o r e i g n commodities may be v e r y s c a r c e or c o s t l y . Teachers s h o u l d be encouraged t o use the l o c a l commodities t o reduce c o s t s ' of p r a c t i c a l s . In a d d i t i o n , a v a i l a b l e l o c a l r e s o u r c e s can p o t e n t i a l l y enhance complete u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the c o n t e n t of the c u r r i c u l u m and the a p p l i c a t i o n of the knowledge i n d a i l y l i v e s . E x p l o r i n g i d e a s of i n t e r p r e t i v e and c r i t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d c u r r i c u l u m as d e s c r i b e d by Brown (1980) c o u l d a l s o be e f f e c t i v e i n d e c r e a s i n g the c u l t u r a l a l i e n a t i o n r e f e r r e d t o by Fafunwa. Macdonald's (1975) models of c i r c u l a r consensus model, and d i a l o g i c a l model (p. 24) c o u l d a l s o be e f f e c t i v e i n making home economics r e l e v a n t t o the s t u d e n t s ' needs. The most taught s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a s i n home economics were Foods and N u t r i t i o n and Home Management and F a m i l y Economics. Through t h e s e c o u r s e s , s t u d e n t s a c q u i r e knowledge and s k i l l s t h a t w i l l e n a b le them t o f u n c t i o n i n a p r o d u c t i v e way now and i n the f u t u r e . Most s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d h a v i n g more than seven boys i n home economics c l a s s e s . T h e r e f o r e , a t t e m p t s s h o u l d be made t o meet the needs of 101 t h e s e boys. T h i s i s im p o r t a n t s i n c e many women are g a i n f u l l y employed o u t s i d e the home and men need t o a c q u a i n t themselves w i t h domestic s k i l l s t h a t once were r e s e r v e d f o r women. Most t e a c h e r s c l a i m e d they were not competent t o t e a c h or d i d not t e a c h Human Development and the F a m i l y , and Hou s i n g , p r o b a b l y as s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t matter a r e a s . However, the need f o r a s t r o n g Human Development and F a m i l y o p t i o n i s ever p r e s e n t s i n c e most h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s a re i n t h e i r t e e n s , a time when they a r e most l i k e l y t o be co n f u s e d about t h e i r s e x u a l i t y , growth, i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h f r i e n d s and f a m i l i e s . A s u b j e c t matter a r e a w i t h Human Development and F a m i l y f o c u s e m p h a s i z i n g the b i o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s of growth, and development throughout the l i f e span; i n t e r a c t i v e e f f e c t s of p h y s i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s on growth and development w i l l e n a b le t e e n a g e r s t o e x p l o r e the dimensions of f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g as w e l l as d e v e l o p p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s about t h e m s e l v e s . In o r d e r t o p r e p a r e the t e a c h e r s t o t e a c h Human Development and F a m i l y , and Hous i n g , r e f r e s h e r c o u r s e s are h i g h l y recommended. T h i s c o u l d be i n the form of i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n . To en a b l e t e a c h e r s t o b e t t e r c a r r y out t h e i r c l a s s r o o m d u t i e s , t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s s h o u l d be i n t e n s i v e and o r g a n i z e d i n such a way as t o expose t e a c h e r s t o what they a r e most l i k e l y t o encounter i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s ( H a l l et al., 1983). C r a n d a l l (1983), o b s e r v e d t h a t t e a c h e r s l e a r n 102 b e s t when t r a i n e r s s e r v e as r o l e models. F i e l d s u p port s e r v i c e s a r e an i n t e g r a l a s p e c t of c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . For s t a f f t r a i n i n g t o be s u c c e s s f u l , i t must be r e i n f o r c e d and extended t h r o u g h : c o a c h i n g - o n - s i t e , p e r i o d i c t e a c h e r meetings, communications v i a n e w s l e t t e r s , l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g , and p r o f e s s i o n a l development s e m i n a r s . Having gone through i n t e n s i v e s t a f f development, t e a c h e r s would f e e l more competent t o t e a c h the c o u r s e s they were i n c a p a b l e of t e a c h i n g . In a d d i t i o n , when coaches go t o the c l a s s , observe the t e a c h e r s and p r o v i d e them w i t h feedback on t h e i r performances, t e a c h e r s may be more c o m f o r t a b l e i n t e a c h i n g the c o u r s e s t h a t they were not a b l e t o t e a c h b e f o r e . In view of the f a c t t h a t most home economics t e a c h e r s had a di p l o m a i n e d u c a t i o n (N.C.E.), i t would be h e l p f u l i f the c u r r e n t t e a c h e r s c o u l d be g r a n t e d a l e a v e of absence w h i l e they t a k e c r e d i t c o u r s e s towards a degree. T h i s w i l l update t h e i r knowledge, and p r o b a b l y i n c r e a s e t h e i r competence t o t e a c h the l e a s t t a u g h t , and the l e a s t p r e f e r r e d s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a s : Human Development and the F a m i l y , and Hou s i n g . An i n t e r e s t i n g s t u d y would be t o deter m i n e whether th e s e s u b j e c t matter a r e a s a r e i n c l u d e d i n t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t o r y c o u r s e s a t the u n i v e r s i t y and c o l l e g e l e v e l s . I f n o t , u n i v e r s i t y and c o l l e g e programs s h o u l d be s t r e n g t h e n e d i n t h e s e a r e a s t o i n c r e a s e t e a c h e r s ' competence. 1 03 Based on the f i n d i n g s of t h i s s t u d y , l a r g e s c h o o l s tend to o f f e r home economics i n Oyo s t a t e . T h i s may be due to the f a c t t h a t a l a r g e amount of money i s r e q u i r e d t o e s t a b l i s h a good home economics program. More o f t e n , t h i s amount of money i s not made a v a i l a b l e t o s m a l l s c h o o l s . Large s c h o o l s may be more e s t a b l i s h e d and more a b l e t o lobby f o r money t o e q u i p t h e i r l a b o r a t o r i e s because of p r e v i o u s s u c c e s s f u l programs. Enough money s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d f o r both l a r g e and s m a l l s c h o o l s t o ensure the development and s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of home economics programs. Moreover, i n some c a s e s , s m a l l s c h o o l s might share nearby l a b o r a t o r y spaces and equipment from l a r g e r s c h o o l s . In a d d i t i o n , i t i s im p o r t a n t f o r t e a c h e r s t o a c q u i r e s k i l l s t h a t w i l l e nable them to lobby f o r money t o su p p o r t t h e i r programs. Teachers s h o u l d be a b l e t o communicate and a d v e r t i s e t h e i r programs. Having an a d v i s o r y committee may be an a s s e t . Both t e a c h e r s and s t u d e n t s c o u l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n fund r a i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The P a r e n t Teacher A s s o c i a t i o n c o u l d a l s o b e ' c o n s u l t e d f o r f i n a n c i a l support i f a l l o t h e r avenues f a i l . F u r t h e r m o r e , the c u r r e n t I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development P r o j e c t o r g a n i z e d by Canadian Home Economics A s s o c i a t i o n (C.H.E.A.) c o u l d be h e l p f u l . T h i s i s c a l l e d a t w i n n i n g p r o j e c t where a p r o v i n c i a l home economics a s s o c i a t i o n t w i n s w i t h another d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r y ' s home economics a s s o c i a t i o n on a de v e l o p m e n t a l p r o j e c t (C.H.E.A. Developmental N e w s l e t t e r , 1985). The N i g e r i a n F e d e r a l Home S c i e n c e 104 A s s o c i a t i o n s h o u l d be encouraged t o e x p l o r e such avenues. Oyo s t a t e home economics t e a c h e r s were not a c t i v e i n p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of O.S.H.E.T.A. Many were members of t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n and had a t t e n d e d i t s m e e t i n g s . I t would be important t o c o n t i n u e t o encourage t e a c h e r s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s whether these a r e l o c a l , n a t i o n a l , or i n t e r n a t i o n a l . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h c o u l d be conducted on what m o t i v a t e s t e a c h e r s t o become members of p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e t hemselves i n the a c t i v i t i e s and meetings of t h o s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Research r e l a t e d t o p r o f e s s i o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t c o u l d p r o v i d e s u g g e s t i o n s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o a d v e r t i s e and a t t r a c t more members and keep them a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d w i t h r e l e v a n t programs. An e x a m i n a t i o n of the c o n t e n t taught i n home economics c l a s s e s s u g g e s t s the e x i s t e n c e of t h r e e models: home economics as h o u s e h o l d management; home economics as homemaking and home economics as c o o k i n g and sewing. These models f i t i n t o Brown's (1986) t e c h n i c a l l y o r i e n t e d c u r r i c u l u m which has been c r i t i c i z e d i n t h a t the major i n t e r e s t of the model i s t o c o n t r o l , m a n i p u l a t e , c o n d i t i o n , and i n d o c t r i n a t e l e a r n e r s towards a p r e d e t e r m i n e d end over which the l e a r n e r has l i t t l e or no i n f l u e n c e . Brown suggested t h a t t e c h n i c a l l y o r i e n t e d c u r r i c u l u m i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a s e r v i c e o r i e n t e d f i e l d l i k e home economics. T e c h n i c a l l y o r i e n t e d c u r r i c u l u m may be r e l e v a n t 105 f o r some home economics programs, but s h o u l d not be made dominant i n a l l programs s i n c e i t emphasizes p r a c t i c a l s i n s t e a d of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and problem s o l v i n g . Teachers s h o u l d make home economics r e l e v a n t t o the needs of the s t u d e n t s , by d i s c u s s i n g s o c i a l i s s u e s w i t h i n the s o c i e t y , and h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s c l a r i f y b e l i e f s , norms and v a l u e s . Such emphasis would enhance the c o g n i t i v e development i n s t u d e n t s . Many t e a c h e r s i d e n t i f i e d the f o l l o w i n g as problems f a c i n g home economics i n Oyo s t a t e secondary s c h o o l s : s h o r t a g e of home economics t e a c h e r s , i n s u f f i c i e n t f i n a n c e , l a b o r a t o r y space, and equipment. In s p i t e of t h e s e problems, some s c h o o l s r e p o r t e d h a v i n g s u c c e s s f u l home economics programs. Case s t u d i e s of such programs would be h e l p f u l i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g how d i f f i c u l t i e s have been overcome and what a c c o u n t s f o r t h e i r s u c c e s s . As a r e s u l t of t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e i s now a l i s t of home economics t e a c h e r s i n Oyo s t a t e . I t would be f e a s i b l e t o beg i n a communication network among t h e s e s c h o o l s . The purpose of t h i s network would be t o share c u r r i c u l u m i d e a s which have worked i n c l a s s e s , s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s used i n i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s e s , and a c t i v i t i e s t h a t have been s u c c e s s f u l . Another i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of t h i s network c o u l d be t o keep t e a c h e r s i n f o r m e d of upcoming workshops, i n - s e r v i c e programs, and s p e c i a l c o u r s e s o f f e r e d a t the c o l l e g e l e v e l t o upgrade t e a c h i n g a b i l i t i e s . 106 Many q u e s t i o n s remain unanswered, such as why many s c h o o l s i n Oyo s t a t e d i d not have home economics programs d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t the s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g them. Are p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s , o t h e r than l a c k of t e a c h e r s and funds, i n f l u e n c i n g the g r a n t i n g of p e r m i s s i o n t o ^ e s t a b l i s h programs? To what e x t e n t a r e the e x i s t i n g programs meeting the needs of the s t u d e n t s ? What are the p r e s e n t home economics t e a c h e r s d o i n g t o improve t h e i r programs? In o t h e r words, what are the home economics t e a c h e r s d o i n g t o reduce some of the problems f a c i n g home economics? What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p of o t h e r s c h o o l s u b j e c t s t o home economics? What do p a r e n t s expect t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n from the programs? Do the s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s e x e r t some i n f l u e n c e on the programs? What are t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s ? What a r e the programs l i k e a t the u n i v e r s i t y and/or c o l l e g e l e v e l s ? C o n c l u s i o n s T h i s t h e s i s has documented the c u r r e n t s t a t u s of home economics i n Oyo s t a t e secondary s c h o o l s . The e x i s t i n g programs are t e c h n i c a l i n o r i e n t a t i o n and they support a s o c i a l i z i n g g o a l of p r e p a r i n g young women f o r t h e i r f u t u r e r o l e s as wives and mothers. The p o t e n t i a l e x i s t s f o r more c o n t r i b u t i o n t o s o l v i n g the s o c i a l problems of i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l i e s and the N i g e r i a n s o c i e t y by r e c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g home economics as a f i e l d of s t u d y . W h i l e Brown's work (1980) h o l d s p r o m i s e , the p a r t i c u l a r a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s i t h o l d s f o r 107 the N i g e r i a n home economics remains t o be e x p l o r e d . Home economics programs i n Oyo s t a t e secondary s c h o o l s a r e l i k e l y t o be s t r e n g t h e n e d through i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l development, through i n - s e r v i c e and i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r po s t - s e c o n d a r y study i n home economics e d u c a t i o n . 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Vancouver: C e n t r e f o r the Study of C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. West A f r i c a n E x a m i n a t i o n s C o u n c i l . (1985/86). Home Management (economics, o r d i n a r y l e v e l ) i n Regulations and Syllabuses for the Joint Examinations for the School Certificate and General Certificate in Education, (O. L.) . APPENDIX A CORRESPONDENCE APPENDIX B IST OF REVIEWERS 1 26 Reviewers of F i r s t D r a f t of Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 1. S h e i l a Wareing, Graduate S t u d e n t , F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n , Department of C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 2. Audrey Van A l s t y n e , Graduate St u d e n t , F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n , Department of C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 3. Jane Thomas, Graduate S t u d e n t , F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n , Department of C u r r i c u l u m and I n s t r u c t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Reviewers of Second and T h i r d D r a f t s of Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 1. Dr. W a l t e r B o l d t , P r o f e s s o r , Dept. of E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y and S p e c i a l E d u c a t i o n , F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 2. Dr. Robert C a r l i s l e , P r o f e s s o r , Dept. of Mathematics and S c i e n c e E d u c a t i o n , F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 3. Dr. Margaret A r c u s , P r o f e s s o r , The Sc h o o l of F a m i l y and N u t r i t i o n a l S c i e n c e s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o lumbia. L i s t of S c h o o l s t h a t P a r t i c i p a t e d i n the P i l o t Study 1. A n g l i c a n Grammar S c h o o l , I y e k e r e , l i e I f e 2. I f e G i r l s ' High S c h o o l , H e I f e 3. Modakeke High S c h o o l , Modakeke 4. Ooni G i r l s ' High S c h o o l , H e I f e 5. Our Lady's G i r l s ' High S c h o o l , Modakeke Note: Two t e a c h e r s from each s c h o o l p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the p i l o t s t u d y . APPENDIX C WEST AFRICAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL SYLLABUS 128 T H E WEST A F R I C A N E X A M I N A T I O N S C O U N C I L : R e g u l a t i o n s a n d S y l l a b u s e s f o r t h e J o i n t E x a m i n a t i o n s F o r t h e : S c h o o l C e r t i f i c a t e a n d G . C . E . ( O . L . ) 1 9 8 5 / 8 6 Home M a n a g e m e n t ( E c o n o m i c s ) ( O . L . ) P r i v a t e c a n d i d a t e s may be a c c e p t e d f o r t h i s s u b j e c t p r o v i d e d they s a t i s f y c o n d i t i o n s C5(3) of t h e r e g u l a t i o n s and s c h o o l c a n d i d a t e s can be a c c e p t e d o n l y i n accordance w i t h r e g u l a t i o n G . 4 ( 1 ) . There w i l l be two p a p e r s , both of which must be t a k e n . Paper 1: There w i l l be a p r a c t i c a l t e s t of 2 1/2 h o u r s , which w i l l be c onducted by a v i s i t i n g examiner. There w i l l be an a d d i t i o n a l 1/2 hour a l l o w e d f o r p r e p a r a t i o n on the day of the e x a m i n a t i o n . A p l a n n i n g p e r i o d of 1 hour 20 minutes w i l l be a l l o w e d one t o f o u r days p r i o r t o the d a t e of the p r a c t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n . The paper w i l l c o n s i s t of f i v e p r a c t i c a l t e s t s (each c o v e r i n g a l l f o u r s e c t i o n s of the s y l l a b u s ) , one of which w i l l be a l l o c a t e d t o each c a n d i d a t e . On the day of e x a m i n a t i o n , the p l a n of work w i l l be r e i s s u e d , and c a n d i d a t e s w i l l be a l l o w e d 2 1/2 hours t o c a r r y out the p r a c t i c a l work i n the presence of the examiner (80 m a r k s ) . Paper 2: There w i l l be a w r i t t e n paper of 2 1/2 hours c o n s i s t i n g of S e c t i o n A: M u l t i p l e c h o i c e o b j e c t i v e q u e s t i o n . 1 3/4 hours 80 marks. S e c t i o n B: Four out of s i x q u e s t i o n s are t o be a t t e m p t e d . 40 marks. 1 1/4 h o u r s . The o b j e c t i v e s of the s y l l a b u s a r e : 1. t o encourage the use of management p r i n c i p l e s and the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s e s t o i d e n t i f y and a n a l y s e a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s and t h e i r j u d i c i o u s use f o r the w e l f a r e of the i n d i v i d u a l s , f a m i l y and community. 2. t o s t r e s s t h e development of r e l e v a n t b a s i c s k i l l s and knowledge f o r e f f e c t i v e use, maintenance and c a r e of the home and i t s equipment and f u r n i s h i n g s . 3. t o s t r e n g t h e n the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of one's s e l f , d i f f e r e n t f a m i l y o r g a n i z a t i o n s and one's r o l e as r e l a t e d t o f r i e n d s h i p s , m a r r i a g e and p a r e n t h o o d . 129 D e t a i l e d S y l l a b u s The s y l l a b u s has been drawn on the assumption t h a t c a n d i d a t e s w i l l have done two y e a r s ' work b e f o r e the e x a m i n a t i o n a n d ' t h a t d u r i n g the e x a m i n a t i o n year a t l e a s t 2 3/4 hours per <*week ( a r r a n g e d i n such a way t o g i v e s u f f i c i e n t c o n s e c u t i v e time t o the p r a c t i c a l ) w i l l be devoted t o the s u b j e c t . The work s h o u l d have s c i e n t i f i c background. S c h o o l s a r e i n v i t e d t o send t o the C o u n c i l memorandum i n d i c a t i n g any s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s . T h i s w i l l be taken i n t o account i n s e t t i n g the papers and marking the answers. The s y l l a b u s c o n s i s t s of the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s , a l l of which must be s t u d i e d : 1. P r i n c i p l e s of Management 2. F a m i l y L i v i n g 3. Housing 4. Maintenance of C l o t h i n g and Household A r t i c l e s I . P r i n c i p l e s of Management A. Management and d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s i n the home. B. Human r e s o u r c e s : s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s , p r e s e n t income, e a r n i n g p o t e n t i a l , time and energy of f a m i l y members. C. M a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s : income, d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t . D. Household b u d g e t i n g , s a v i n g s : b a n k i n g d e p o s i t and c u r r e n t a c c o u n t ; i n s u r a n c e s ; t r a d i t i o n a l s a v i n g . E. Consumer e d u c a t i o n : c o m p a r a t i v e s h o p p i n g ; h i r e p u r c h a s e ; l o a n s ; a d v e r t i s e m e n t s . I I . F a m i l y L i v i n g A. S e l f , F a m i l y and Community 1. Types of f a m i l y / f a m i l y c y c l e 2. R o l e s / r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of members of the f a m i l y 3. R e l a t i o n s h i p s - p a r e n t , c h i l d , f a m i l y members and community. 4. Changes i n a d o l e s c e n c e . B. M a r r i a g e and P a r e n t h o o d . 1. P r e p a r a t i o n f o r m a r r i a g e - importance of h e a l t h y b o y / g i r l r e l a t i o n s h i p s : f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n c h o i c e of p a r t n e r . Types of m a r r i a g e . 2. Pregnancy ( a n t e - n a t a l c a r e ) ; c h i l d b i r t h ( p o s t - n a t a l c a r e ) ; c l o t h i n g ( c h o i c e and c a r e ) . 3. P r e p a r a t i o n of home f o r baby's a r r i v a l ; n e c e s s a r y c l o t h e s ; c a r e of baby's bed and equipment. 4. R o u t i n e of a baby's day - - b a t h i n g ; f e e d i n g — b r e a s t and a r t i f i c i a l ; weaning 5. Care of t o d d l e r s . 6. Common a i l m e n t s of c h i l d r e n . Immunization. Home a c c i d e n t s — f i r s t a i d . 7. Stages o f . development of baby up t o n u r s e r y age p h y s i c a l , e m o t i o n a l and s o c i a l development ( b a s i c f a c t s 130 o n l y ) . C. B a s i c n u t r i t i o n and meal p l a n n i n g i n r e l a t i o n t o the f a m i l y i n c l u d i n g s p e c i a l groups e.g. aged, e x p e c t a n t mothers. S e r v i n g of meals; t a b l e s e t t i n g . I I I . Housing A. D i f f e r e n t t y p e s of house-- s t r u c t u r a l and s o c i a l . B. Choosing a house. 1. S i t e , s i z e , i n r e l a t i o n t o s i z e and income of the f a m i l y , neighbourhood. 2. V e n t i l a t i o n and l i g h t i n g 3. I m p l i c a t i o n s of r e n t i n g 4. Ways of owning a house-- mortgage, l o a n , h o u s i n g scheme. C. D e c o r a t i n g , F u r n i s h i n g and e q u i p p i n g a house 1. B a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of a r t and d e s i g n i n r e l a t i o n t o d e c o r a t i n g and f u r n i s h i n g . 2. E q u i p p i n g a house i n r e l a t i o n t o s p e c i f i c rooms. 3. Use, c a r e and s t o r a g e of f u r n i s h i n g and equipment i n c l u d i n g use of time and l a b o u r - s a v i n g d e v i c e s . 4. Flower arrangements f o r d i f f e r e n t a r e a s i n the home. D. U t i l i t i e s i n the home. 1. Water — s o u r c e s , p u r i f i c a t i o n , s t o r a g e . 2. F u e l -- s o u r c e s , use, s t o r a g e . U n d e r s t a n d i n g b a s i c f a c t o r s about t h e use of e l e c t r i c i t y and gas i n the home. E. Maintenance and c a r e 1. S u r f a c e s — wooden, t i l e d , c o n c r e t , f o r m i c a , p l a s t i c s , g l a s s , m a r b l e , e t c . 2. F l o o r c o v e r i n g s -- c a r p e t s , l i n o l e u m , mats, r u g s , e t c . 3. Ornaments -- c e r a m i c s , m e t a l s , c o l l a g e s , e t c . 4. C l e a n s i n g agents -- l o c a l and c o m m e r c i a l . 5. S h u t t i n g up and opening a house. F. S a n i t a t i o n i n the home 1. D i s p o s a l of r e f u s e / w a s t e 2. C l e a n i n g of s u r r o u n d i n g and d r a i n s 3. Household p e s t c o n t r o l IV. Maintenance of C l o t h i n g and Household A r t i c l e s A. P r o p e r t i e s of t e x t i l e f i b e r s ( n a t u r a l and s y n t h e t i c ) and t h e i r r e a c t i o n t o te m p e r a t u r e and c h e m i c a l s . B. E f f e c t s of d i r t and p e r s p i r a t i o n on t e x t i l e s . C. C l e a n s i n g a g e n t s 1. P h y s i c a l and c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s , e f f e c t and use. 2. Water — l a u n d r y b l u e , venegar, e t c . 3. Soaps, s o a p l e s s d e t e r g e n t s 131 4. B l e a c h e s D. S t a i n s and s t a i n removing a g e n t s . £. F a b r i c r i n s e -- l a u n d r y b l u e , venegar, e t c . F S t i f f e n i n g agents -- s t a r c h ( v a r i o u s k i n d s ) . G. P r i n c i p l e s u n d e r l y i n g washing, spo n g i n g , p r e s s i n g , d r y c l e a n i n g , s i m p l e home d y e i n g , t i n t i n g , e t c . H. Management of f a m i l y wash P r a c t i c a l T h i s paper w i l l t e s t , among o t h e r t h i n g s , the f o l l o w i n g : I. A b i l i t y t o i n t e r p r e t t e s t . 2. A p p l i c a t i o n of p r i n c i p l e s of management i n c a r r y i n g out h o u s e h o l d c h o r e s . 3. Use of b a s i c s k i l l s i n maintenance and c a r e of the d i f f e r e n t rooms and f u r n i s h i n g s . 4. A b i l i t y t o p l a n s i m p l e b a l a n c e d meals f o r d i f f e r e n t members of the f a m i l y . 5. Use of b a s i c s k i l l s i n maintenance and c a r e of d i f f e r e n t f a m i l y c l o t h i n g . APPENDIX D QUESTIONNAIRE 133 HOME ECONOMICS PROGRAMS IN OYO STATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS: A SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Mathematics and Science Education Department Vancouver, B.C. Reference Number 134 Dear Home Economics Teacher: P l e a s e t a k e a few minutes of your time t o answer the q u e s t i o n s on the f o l l o w i n g pages. The i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d w i l l h e l p me d e s c r i b e the s u b j e c t m a t t e r emphasis of secondary home economics programs i n Oyo S t a t e . The i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l a l s o be u s e f u l i n a n a l y z i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s u b j e c t m a t t e r emphasis of secondary home economics programs and s e l e c t e d a s p e c t s of t e a c h i n g . Thank you f o r your c o o p e r a t i o n . S i n c e r e l y , E l i z a b e t h A i n a Owolabi (Mrs.) Graduate Student (Home Economics E d u c a t i o n ) Note: Your response i s c o m p l e t e l y c o n f i d e n t i a l . The number on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s s o l e l y f o r f o l l o w - u p p u r p o s e s . T h i s page w i l l be removed and d i s c a r d e d as soon as the r e t u r n of your q u e s t i o n n a i r e has been r e c o r d e d . The d a t a o b t a i n e d w i l l be used o n l y by the r e s e a r c h e r and the r e p o r t w i l l quote group data o n l y . I n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s and s c h o o l s w i l l not be i d e n t i f i e d . Please r e t u r n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n s e l f - a d d r e s s e d envelope by A p r i l 30, 1987. the stamped 135 P A R T I : H O M E E C O N O M I C S I N S T R U C T I O N The purpose of t h i s s e c t i o n i s t o determine the s u b j e c t m a tter emphasis of secondary home economics programs i n Oyo S t a t e . D I R E C T I O N S : Read each t o p i c and then c i r c l e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e response t o i n d i c a t e the degree of emphasis g i v e n t o each of the f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s i n your t e a c h i n g of home economics t h i s y e a r . S C A L E : Degree of Emphasis E x t r e m e l y Very Q u i t e N e i t h e r H i g h Q u i t e Very E x t r e m e l y H i g h High High nor Low Low Low Low (undec i d e d ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1. The meaning of management. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2. The customs of v a r i o u s e t h n i c groups i n N i g e r i a . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3. The impact of f a m i l y income on the c h o i c e of f a m i l y l i v i n g space. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 4. Care of c l o t h i n g . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5. The f u n c t i o n s of n u t r i e n t s i n the body. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 6. Household b u d g e t i n g . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7. The importance of h e a l t h y b o y / g i r l r e l a t i o n s h i p . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8. The importance of good v e n t i l a t i o n . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 9. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of f a b r i c s . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Degree of Emphasis E x t r e m e l y Very Q u i t e N e i t h e r High Q u i t e Very E x t r e m e l y High H i g h H i g h nor Low Low Low Low (undecided) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 10. N u t r i t i o n - r e l a t e d d i s e a s e s . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 11. The d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 12. The impact of p h y s i c a l changes on the p s y c h o l o g i c a l development of a d o l e s c e n t s . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 13. Housing as a b a s i c need of the f a m i l y . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14. F a s h i o n c o n s c i o u s n e s s . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 15. P r e p a r a t i o n of fo o d s . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 16. The a v a i l a b l e human r e s o u r c e s and t h e i r uses f o r the w e l f a r e of f a m i l i e s . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 17. Stages of development of an i n f a n t . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 18. Maintenance of f a m i l y l i v i n g space. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 19. The d i f f e r e n c e s between c o n s t r u c t i o n s t a n d a r d s of ready-made c l o t h i n g and c l o t h i n g made by t a i l o r s . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 20. P r e s e r v a t i o n of foo d . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 21. The d i f f e r e n t b a n k i n g systems a v a i l a b l e t o f a m i l i e s . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 22. The f a m i l y l i f e c y c l e . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Degree of Emphasis E x t r e m e l y Very Q u i t e N e i t h e r H i g h Q u i t e Very E x t r e m e l y High High High nor Low Low Low Low (undecided) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 23. The i m p l i c a t i o n s of l i v i n g i n an overcrowded house. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 24. Use of a sewing machine. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 25. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of f o o d . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 26. The impact of a d v e r t i s i n g on the consumer. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 27. The d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of m a r r i a g e s t h a t e x i s t i n N i g e r i a . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 28. D i f f e r e n t ways of owning a house ( e . g . , i n h e r i t a n c e , mortgage, l o a n , h o u s i n g scheme, e t c . ) . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 29. The c a r e of sewing machines. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 30. The meaning of b a l a n c e d d i e t 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 31. F a m i l y use of c r e d i t . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 32. The c h a l l e n g e s of contemporary parenthood. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 33. C h o i c e of home f u r n i s h i n g s . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 34. Use of commercial p a t t e r n s . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 35. The e f f e c t of t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s on food c h o i c e s . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 138 Degree of Emphasis E x t r e m e l y Very Q u i t e N e i t h e r H i g h Q u i t e Very E x t r e m e l y High H i g h High nor Low Low Low Low (undecided) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 36. The changes i n today's s o c i e t y t h a t have an impact on the f a m i l y ' s management p r a c t i c e s . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 37. Human r e p r o d u c t i o n . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 38. The use of wood, kero s e n e , e l e c t r i c i t y , gas, e t c . i n the home. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 39. C h i l d r e n ' s garments. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 40. S t o r a g e of food. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 41. P a t t e r n s of spending f a m i l y income. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 42. R e l a t i o n s h i p s and s o c i a l s k i l l s . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 43. Government's r o l e i n h o u s i n g . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 44. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of f a b r i c s . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 45. Convenience f o o d s . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 46. The r o l e of the consumer i n the market. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 47. The importance of communication i n m a i n t a i n i n g a h e a l t h y r e l a t i o n s h i p . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 48. The d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of houses. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 49. C l o t h i n g worn f o r d i f f e r e n t o c c a s i o n s . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 50. Meal p l a n n i n g i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e f a m i l y . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 39 P A R T I I : B A C K G R O U N D I N F O R M A T I O N In t h i s s e c t i o n I ask f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on t e a c h e r e x p e r i e n c e and the s c h o o l s e t t i n g . D I R E C T I O N S : P l e a s e answer a l l q u e s t i o n s by p u t t i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e number i n the box to the r i g h t . E X A M P L E : Do you read f o r p l e a s u r e ? (1) Yes (2) No 51. What i s the name of your s c h o o l ? 61. What i s the t o t a l number of p u p i l s i n your s c h o o l ? (1) 601 or more s t u d e n t s i n forms 1 t o 5 (2) 501 - 600 s t u d e n t s i n forms 1 t o 5 (3) 401 - 500 s t u d e n t s i n forms 1 t o 5 (4) 301 - 400 s t u d e n t s i n forms 1 t o 5 (5) 201 - 300 s t u d e n t s i n forms 1 t o 5 (6) Less than 200 s t u d e n t s i n forms 1 t o 5 62. What i s the t o t a l number of home economics t e a c h e r s i n your s c h o o l ? (1) 7 or more home economics t e a c h e r s (2) 5 - 6 home economics t e a c h e r s (3) 3 - 4 home economics t e a c h e r s (4) 1 - 2 home economics t e a c h e r s 63. What i s your sex? (1 ) Male' (2) Female 63 1 40 64. In which type of s c h o o l do you p r e s e n t l y teach? (1) C o e d u c a t i o n a l s c h o o l (2) S i n g l e sex s c h o o l 64 65. I f your s c h o o l i s c o e d u c a t i o n a l , what i s the t o t a l number of boys c u r r e n t l y e n r o l l e d i n your home economics c l a s s e s ? (1) 7 or more boys (2) 5 - 6 boys (3) 3 - 4 boys (4) 1 - 2 boys (5) No boys 65 66. Which c l a s s e s do you p r e s e n t l y teach? (1) Form 4 o n l y (2) Form 5 o n l y (3) Both Forms 4 and 5 66 67. What i s the t o t a l e n r o l l m e n t i n your home economics c l a s s e s ? (1) 50 or more s t u d e n t s (2) 40 - 49 s t u d e n t s (3) 30 - 39 s t u d e n t s (4) 20 - 29 s t u d e n t s (5) 1 0 - 19 s t u d e n t s (6) L e s s than 10 s t u d e n t s 67 141 68. Which home economics s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a ( s ) do you p r e s e n t l y teach? Check a l l t h a t a p p l y . (1) Human Development and the F a m i l y (4) T e x t i l e s and C l o t h i n g (3) Food and N u t r i t i o n 68 (2) Home Management and F a m i l y Economics (3) Food and N u t r i t i o n 70 71 (5) Housing 7 2 73. Which home economics s u b j e c t matter a r e a ( s ) do you f e e l most competent t o teach? Check a l l t h a t a p p l y . (1) Human Development and the F a m i l y 7 ^ (2) Home Management and F a m i l y Economics ^ 75 (4) T e x t i l e s and C l o t h i n g 7 6 (5) Housing 77 142 78. I f you have a c h o i c e , which s u b j e c t matter a r e a ( s ) do you p r e f e r t o te a c h ? Rank a l l f i v e a r e a s Most Rank Order Favour i t e 1 L e a s t F a v o u r i t e Rank Human Development and the F a m i l y 78 Home Management and F a m i l y Economics 79 Food and N u t r i t i o n 80 T e x t i l e s and C l o t h i n g 81 Housing 82 83. How many y e a r s have you (1) 20 or more y e a r s (2) 16-19 y e a r s (3) 12-15 ye a r s (4) 8-11 y e a r s (5) 4-7 year (6) 2-3 year (7) 1 year (8) l e s s than 1 year been t e a c h i n g ? 83 84. What i s your h i g h e s t academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n ? (1) M.A./M.Sc. (2) B.A./B.Sc./H.N.D. (3) N.C.E./O.N.D. (4) H.S.C./G.C.E. Advance L e v e l (5) Teacher's Grade I (6) Teacher's Grade I I (7) W.A.S.C./G.C.E. O r d i n a r y L e v e l (8) Other ( s p e c i f y ) 84 143 85. Have you taken any <home economics c o u r s e s above h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l ? (1) Yes (2) No • 65 86. Are you a member of any p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h home economics or e d u c a t i o n ? (1) Yes (2) No 86 87. I f y e s , t o which of the f o l l o w i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s do you belong? Check a l l t h a t a p p l y . (1) Oyo S t a t e Home Economics Teachers A s s o c i a t i o n (2) N i g e r i a n Home Economics Teachers A s s o c i a t i o n (3) N i g e r i a n Union of Teachers (4) N i g e r i a n F e d e r a l Home S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n 87 88 89 90 91. Have you a t t e n d e d any p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n meetings w i t h i n t he l a s t y ear? (1) Yes (2) No 91 92. I f y e s , t o which of the f o l l o w i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n meetings have you a t t e n d e d i n the l a s t y e a r ? Check a l l t h a t a p p l y . (1) Oyo S t a t e Home Economics Teachers A s s o c i a t i o n (2) N i g e r i a n Home Economics Teachers A s s o c i a t i o n 92 93 (3) (4) N i g e r i a n Union of Teachers N i g e r i a n F e d e r a l Home S c i e n c e A s s o c i a t i o n ~1 95 144 96. When d i d you l a s t a t t e n d an i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g c o u r s e / workshop? (1) 5 or more y e a r s ago (2) 3-4 y e a r s ago (3) 1-2 y e a r s ago (4) Less than 1 year 96 97. How many i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g courses/workshops have you att e n d e d ? (1) 5 or more (2) 3-4 (3) 1-2 (4) 0 97 98. Which i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s a re you u s i n g i n your s c h o o l ? Check a l l t h a t a p p l y . (1) S t a n d a r d t e x t b o o k s 98 (2) Teacher's Guide 99 (3) Student workbooks 100 (4) W a l l c h a r t s 101 (5) Specimens 1 02 GENERAL COMMENTS P l e a s e f e e l f r e e t o comment on the c u r r e n t s t a t u s of the home economics program i n your s c h o o l . You may wi s h t o comment on the s u b j e c t matter a r e a s t a u g h t , i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s , or home economics programs i n g e n e r a l . THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME APPENDIX E SUBJECT MATTER EMPHASIS Table E-1 Subject Matter Emphasis Teachers' Responses to Questionnaire Items Item Questionnaire Items Degree of Emphasis (%) No. Scale 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 M Human Development and t h e F a m i l y 2 The customs of various ethnic groups in Nigeria. 14 . 5 16, . 1 14 .5 17 . 7 9 . 7 12 .9 8 . 1 6 .5 7 The importance of healthy boy/girl relationship. 1 1 . 3 22 , .6 29 .0 17 . 7 1 1 . 3 6 .5 1 .6 0 .0 12 The impact of physical changes on the psychological development of adolescents. 12 .9 25 .8 25 . 8 14 .5 6 . 5 8 . 1 4 . 8 1 .6 17 Stages of development of an infant. 9 . 7 16 , . 1 21 .0 27 .4 9 . 7 6, . 5 9 , . 7 0, .0 22 The family l i f e cycle. 16 . 1 16. , 1 32 . 3 16 , . 1 1 1 , .3 3 , 2 4 , .8 0. .0 27 The d i f f e r e n t types of marriages that exist in Nigeria. 14 .5 16, , 1 38 .7 1 1 . 3 1 .6 8 . 1 9, .7 0 .0 32 The challenges of contemporary parenthood. 1 . 6 12 . 9 19 .4 25 , 8 17 . 7 1 1 , . 3 8 . 1 3 .2 37 Human reproduction. 16 . 1 17 , 7 25 .8 17, .7 8 . 1 6 , 5 8 . , 1 0 .0 42 Relationships and social s k i l l s . 9 . 7 6 . , 5 27 .4 29, .0 14 , .5 1 1 , , 3 0. .0 0. .0 47 The role of communication in maintaining a healthy 8 . 1 16. , 1 25, .8 24 , .2 14 . 5 8 . 1 3. .2 0, ,0 relati o n s h i p . Home Management and F a m i l y Economics 1 The meaning of management. 19 .4 21 .0 30 .6 16 . 1 3 .2 3 .2 4 .8 1 .6 6 Household budgeting. 1 1 .3 30 . 6 30 .6 6 .5 8 . 1 4 .8 6 .5 1 .6 1 1 The decision-making process. 6 . 5 16 . 1 . 24 . 2 24 . 2 16 . 1 6 .5 1 .6 4 .8 16 The available human resources and their use for the welfare of fam i1i es. 9 . 7 22 . 6 25 . 8 22 .6 6 . 5 1 1 .3 0 .0 1 .6 21 The d i f f e r e n t banking systems available to families. 3 . 2 12 .9 21 , .0 22, .6 19 .4 8 , . 1 12 . 9 0 .0 26 The impact of advertising on the consumer. 1 1 . 3 14 . 5 16 . 1 24 , 2 19 , 4 6 . ,5 8 . 1 0 .0 31 Family use of cre d i t . 1 .6 8 , 1 1 1 . , 3 27 . ,4 22 .6 14 . 5 14 , . 5 0 .0 36 The changes in today's society that have an impact on the family's management practices. 3 . 2 17 , 7 33 . , 9 24 , 2 9 . 7 6 . 5 3 . 2 1 .6 4 1 Patterns of spending family income. 1 1 . 3 19 . 4 29 .0 22 , 6 6 , . 5 6 . 5 3 . 2 1 .6 46 The role of the consumer in the market. 1 1 . 3 17 , 7 32. .3 14 . , 5 8 . , 1 1 1 , .3 4 . 8 0 .0 Table E-1 continued Item Questionnaire Items Degree of Emphasis (%) No. Scale 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 M F o o d s a n d N u t r i t i o n 5 The functions of nutrients in the body. 40 . 3 35 . 5 14 .5 3 .2 1 .6 3 .2 1 .6 0 .0 10 Nu t r i t i o n - r e l a t e d diseases. 14 .5 22 .6 22 .6 14 .5 14 .5 8 . 1 1 .6 1 . 6 15 Preparation of foods. 40 . 3 21 , .0 25 .8 4 .8 4 .8 1 .6 1 .6 0 .0 20 Preservation of foods. 21 O 24 . 2 27. . 4 14 .5 6 .5 3 . 2 3 . 2 0. .0 25 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of food. 27 .4 33. .9 25 .8 6. .5 3 .2 1 .6 1 .6 0. .0 30 The meaning of balanced diet. 30 .6 33 . 9 19 . 4 4 .8 3 . 2 3 . 2 4 .8 0 .0 35 The e f f e c t of t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s on food choices. 12 .9 •21 . 0 21 .0 14 .5 14 . 5 9 .7 4 .8 1 .6 40 Storage of food. 16 . 1 32 . 3 27 .4 1 1 . .3 4 .8 6 . 5 1 .6 0 .0 45 Convenience foods. 11 . 3 24 , . 2 24. . 2 22 .6 1 .6 14. . 5 0 .0 1 .6 50 Meal planning in r e l a t i o n to the family. 27 .4 25. . 8 24. .2 9. .7 8 . 1 4 .8 0 .0 o .0 T e x t i l e s a n d C l o t h i n g 4 Care of clothing. 24 .2 16, . 1 32 . 3 1 1 . . 3 8 . 1 6 . 5 1 .6 0. .0 9 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of f a b r i c s . 6 .5 30. .6 30. .6 17 . 7 8 . 1 1 . 6 4 . 8 0 .0 14 Fashion consciousness. 14 . 5 22. .6 35. .5 14 . 5 4. .8 8 . 1 0 .0 0. .0 19 The differences between construction standards of readymade 4 . 8 16 . 1 27 . 4 14 . 5 16. . 1 4 . 8 16 . 1 0. .0 clothing and clothing made by t a i l o r s . 24 Use of a sewing machine. 17 , 7 16 . : 1 30. .6 16 . 1 1 1 . .3 1 . .6 6 . 5 0. .0 29 The care of sewing machines. 4 . 8 24. ,2 35. .5 19. 4 3 . 2 6 . 5 6 . 5 0. 0 34 Use of commercial patterns. 1 . .6 9. . 7 24. .2 1 1 . . 3 17 .7 1 1 . . 3 21 . 0 3. . 2 39 Children's garments. 4 . 8 21 . 0 24 . 2 21 . 0 8 . 1 16 . 1 4 . 8 0. .0 44 Ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of f a b r i c s . 4 . ,8 14 . 5 35. . 5 21 . 0 9 .7 9. .7 4 . 8 0. .0 49 Clothing worn for d i f f e r e n t occasions. 29 . 0 29. .0 33 . 9 3 . 2 1 . 6 3 . 2 0. O 0. .0 Table E-1 continued Item Questionnaire Items Degree of Emphasis (%) No. Scale 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 M H o u s i n g 3 The impact of family income on the choice of family l i v i n g space. 17 . 7 19 .4 25 .8 19 . 4 8 . 1 3 . 2 4 .8 1 .6 8 The importance of good v e n t i l a t i o n . 19 .4 22 .6 40 . 3 9 .7 4 .8 3 . 2 0 .0 0 .0 13 Housing as a basic need of the family. 2 1 . ,o 27 . 4 30 . 6 9 . 7 4 .8 3. .2 0 .o 3 . 2 18 Maintenance of family l i v i n g space. 8. . 1 17 . 7 41 . 9 14 .5 4 .8 4 . 8 6 . 5 1 .6 23 The implications of l i v i n g in an overcrowded house. 25 . 8 32 . 3 25 . 8 6 . 5 1 . 6 3 . 2 4 . 8 0 .0 28 Differe n t ways of owning a house (e.g., inheritance, mortgage, loan, housing scheme, etc. ) . 8. . 1 11 .3 17 .7 21 .0 19 .4 9 .7 12 .9 0 .0 33 Choice of home furnishings. 3. . 2 16 . 1 40. . 3 21 .0 4. .8 12 . 9 0. .0 1 .6 38 The use of wood, kerosene, e l e c t r i c i t y , gas, etc. in the home. 25 . 8 27. .4 29. O 9 . 7 8 .  1 0 .0 0. .0 0 .0 43 Government's role in housing. 0. ,0 6 . 5 19. . 4 1 1 . . 3 24 . 2 27 . 4 1 1 . .3 0. .0 48 The d i f f e r e n t types of houses. 8 . 1 27 . 4 29. .0 22 .6 3. .2 3 , .2 6 . 5 0 .0 

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