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Adult students in university : long-term persistence to degree-completion McLaren, Jack 1990

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ADULT STUDENTS IN UNIVERSITY: LONG-TERM PERSISTENCE TO DEGREE-COMPLETION  by  JACK McLAREN  A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t and Higher Education)  We accept t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n  as conforming  to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA ©  Jack McLaren 1990  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  University  available  copying  of  department publication  for  this or of  thesis  this  partial  of  British  reference  thesis by  in  for  his thesis  and  fulfilment  of  Columbia,  I  study.  scholarly  or for  her  I  further  purposes  gain  requirements  agree  be  It  is  shall  that  agree  may  representatives.  financial  the  not  that  the  The  DE-6  of  University  Administrative, of  Vancouver,  Canada  Date  29,  (2/88)  May  British  1990  Columbia  Adult & Higher  by  understood allowed  permission.  Department  Library  an  Education  advanced  shall  permission  granted  be  for  the that  without  for  make  it  extensive  head  of  my  copying  or  my  written  ABSTRACT  Long-term  persistence to degree completion  by adult  university students represents a different focus from most adult education participation research and higher education dropout  research.  university  has  traditional)  Much  treated  of  the  these  research  adults  group, despite evidence  students, part-time  adults in  a  new  as  (non-  that many had  enrolled as traditional-age students. first-year  on  been  Samples limited to  students,  and  students in  ' special programs provide only a limited perspective on the whole population of adults in university. It  was  university (Re-entry  hypothesized  that  adults  who  as traditional-age students and studenty)  would  be  completion than adults who  more  had  been  returned  persistent  to  hypothesis  was  later degree  had enrolled for the f i r s t  at age twenty-five or older (Adult Entry students). the  not  clearly  supported,  in  time While  differences  between the two groups were discovered. Six hypotheses  were generated  from the literature  adult participation and on higher education dropouts. were tested using bivariate  analysis.  on  These  The multivariate  techniques of multiple regression and discriminant analysis were  employed  to  examine  differences  between  Re-entry  students and Adult Entry students i n persistence to degree completion. ii  The  most  students' potent  important  persistence  variable  problems.  with  With  effect; with  persistence  correlated A  new  suggested. previously dropout), persistent  with  Adult  Entry  students  groups,  by  Entry  Adult  p e r s i s t e n c e by  been  mobility  of  students—new  who  Re-entry  was  affected an  was  associated  upward  mobility  students.  i n higher students  education  who  have  high-risk  group  persist  initially  may  i i i  by  ambiguous  a  students.  most  work-related  career  Re-entry  the  was  had  students;  adult student  enrolled—are  those  early  Re-entry-  Average;  persistence  in  First-time  than  Point  mobility  typology  but  Grade  Early-career  downward  affecting  was  both  satisfaction.  variable  never  (prone  become  is  to  more  Table of Contents Page Abstract Table o f Contents L i s t of Tables List of Figures  i i iv viii x i i  Chapter 1 BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM? Introduction Adults i n University New S t u d e n t s o r N o t ? P a r t i c i p a t i o n and P e r s i s t e n c e Statement of t h e Problem The R e m a i n i n g C h a p t e r s Chapter 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Introduction Adult Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n Research Dropout Research i n Higher E d u c a t i o n G e n e r a l Dropout S t u d i e s Long-term P e r s p e c t i v e i n Dropout R e s e a r c h . R e s e a r c h on A d u l t s i n H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n D e s c r i p t i v e and Market S t u d i e s S o c i o l o g i c a l R e s e a r c h on A d u l t s i n H i g h e r Education Other Relevant Research Summary Chapter 3 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE STUDY OF LONG-RANGE P A R T I C I P A T I O N AND PERSISTENCE Introduction Models o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n and Dropout The C r o s s M o d e l o f A d u l t P a r t i c i p a t i o n . . . . The T i n t o M o d e l o f D r o p o u t f r o m Higher Education A Model o f Long-term P e r s i s t e n c e by A d u l t s Hypotheses Adult Entry v s . Re-entry Background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Time o f D e c i s i o n Family E d u c a t i o n a l Background; Degree A s p i r a t i o n Social Class/Mobility  iv  1 1 2 5 7 8  10 10 12 16 16 18 20 21 '  24 27 28  30 30 31 31 34 38 44 44 46 47 48 49  Table  of Contents Page  P a r t i c i p a t i o n Factors Satisfaction S u p p o r t ; Problems Summary Chapter 4 RESEARCH DESIGN AND SURVEY PROCEDURES Introduction Sources o f Data Student Records Data The M a i l e d S u r v e y Sample Questionnaire M a i l e d S u r v e y : Response Rate i R e s p o n d e n t s and Non-respondents Compared.. L e n g t h o f Time Number o f C r e d i t s . . Grade P o i n t Average Telephone Survey Analysis Variables Data A n a l y s i s  51 53 54 56  59 59 59 61 62 63 64 67 70 72 74 75 76 81 81 87  Chapter 5 TESTING HYPOTHESES: BACKGROUND FACTORS AND-DEGREE COMPLETION Introduction Hypothesis Testing." The E n t r y H y p o t h e s i s Time o f D e c i s i o n Family E d u c a t i o n a l Background; Degree A s p i r a t i o n S o c i a l Class/Mobility-. Summary: B a c k g r o u n d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  103 107 116  Chapter 6 T E S T I N G HYPOTHESES PARTICIPATION E F F E C T S AND DEGREE COMPLETION Introduction Satisfaction Immediate P a y o f f S a t i s f a c t i o n with S o c i a l L i f e The S a t i s f a c t i o n V a r i a b l e I n s t r u c t o r Contact Counselling  119 119 120 121 123 126 128 130  v  89 89 89 90 96  Table of Contents Page The Importance of Satisfaction Support; Problems Support Problems Summary Chapter 7 PREDICTING DEGREE COMPLETION: USE OF MULTIPLE REGRESSION AND DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS Introduction Correlations with Degree Completion Regression F u l l Sample.. Adult Entry and Re-entry Compared ' Discriminant Analysis F u l l Sample Adult Entry and Re-entry Compared Summary and Conclusion Chapter ,8 CONCLUSION:NEW AND RETURNING STUDENTS Introduction. Summary of Findings Adult Participation Higher Education Dropout The Cross and Tinto Models Model of Long-range Persistence by Re-entry and Adult Entry Students Quality and Quantity of Educational Experience. Implications for Practitioners Suggestions for Further Research Limitations of the Study Conclusion Experience and Expectations  vi  130 134 135 13 8 143  14 7 147 14 9 153 155 159 166 167 17 3 179 183 183 185 185 188 192 196 198 202 2 05 207 208  Table of Contents Page BIBLIOGRAPHY  210  APPENDICES A. Student Records B. Mail Survey C. Telephone Survey D. Correlation Matrices  220 221 224 238 244  vii  List  of  Tables  Page Table 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  Hypothesized Differences Related to Populations Sampled and To L o n g - T e r m P e r s i s t e n c e  41  Summary o f H y p o t h e s e s : B a c k g r o u n d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and Degree C o m p l e t i o n  52  Summary o f H y p o t h e s e s : and E n t r y S t a t u s  Participation  57  R e s p o n s e R a t e by D e g r e e C o m p l e t i o n a n d Age o f I n i t i a l R e g i s t r a t i o n a t S . F . U  71  Response Rate of D e g r e e - C o m p l e t e r s and N o n C o m p l e t e r s b y Term o f I n i t i a l R e g i s t r a t i o n  73  Response Rate o f D e g r e e - C o m p l e t e r s and N o n C o m p l e t e r s by Number o f C r e d i t H o u r s a t S . F . U . ( T o t a l b y Summer, 1983)  74  Response Rate of Degree-Completers C o m p l e t e r s by G r a d e P o i n t A v e r a g e  75  8  Results  9  Telephone I n t e r v i e w e e s ' Reasons Completing Questionnaire  10  Factors  of  Telephone  and N o n -  Survey  78 for  not 80  V a r i a b l e s Used i n M u l t i v a r i a t e A n a l y s i s o f D e g r e e C o m p l e t i o n : Summary S t a t i s t i c s  82  D e g r e e C o m p l e t i o n a n d Age o f F i r s t R e g i s t r a t i o n of Male S t u d e n t s Aged 25-34 a t S . F . U . ( S t u d e n t R e c o r d s D a t a By A d u l t E n t r y a n d R e - E n t r y S t a t u s )  93  Degree C o m p l e t i o n and N o n - C o m p l e t i o n by A d u l t E n t r y a n d R e - e n t r y S t a t u s (Mail Survey)  94  13  Time of  97  14  T i m e o f D e c i s i o n and D e g r e e C o m p l e t i o n : A d u l t E n t r y and R e - E n t r y C o m p a r e d  11  12  15  Decision  and D e g r e e C o m p l e t i o n  P e r c e n t C o m p l e t i n g D e g r e e s by M a i n M o t i v e a t Time o f E n r o l l i n g or R e - e n r o l l i n g . . . .  viii  98  100  List  of Tables Page  Table 16  E m p h a s i s on V o c a t i o n a l v s . S e l f / U n d e r s t a n d i n g R e a s o n s f o r A t t e n d i n g , by E n t r y S t a t u s  102  17  Mother's  E d u c a t i o n and  104  18  Mother's  E d u c a t i o n and E n t r y  19  D e g r e e C o m p l e t i o n and  20  D e g r e e C o m p l e t i o n and E a r l y - C a r e e r M o b i l i t y . . . .  112  21  D e g r e e C o m p l e t i o n and  114  22  Support f o r P r e d i c t i o n s from Chapter B a c k g r o u n d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and Degree C o m p l e t i o n  23  24 25  26 27 28  29  Degree C o m p l e t i o n Status  105  Social Mobility  Level  110  of A s p i r a t i o n 3:  117  P e r c e n t C o n s i d e r i n g Immediate A p p l i c a t i o n I m p o r t a n t by D e g r e e C o m p l e t i o n and E n t r y S t a t u s  122  Satisfaction with Social L i f e Degree C o m p l e t i o n  125  and  Percent Very S a t i s f i e d With Aspects o f Simon F r a s e r E x p e r i e n c e by E n t r y S t a t u s and D e g r e e C o m p l e t i o n  127  D e g r e e C o m p l e t i o n and Instructor Contact  Satisfaction  129  D e g r e e C o m p l e t i o n and Counselling  Satisfaction  With With 131  A n a l y s i s of V a r i a n c e f o r Degree C o m p l e t i o n C o m p a r i n g E f f e c t s o f S a t i s f a c t i o n and Entry Status D e g r e e C o m p l e t i o n and Number o f  133  Sources  of Support  137  30  D e g r e e C o m p l e t i o n and W o r k - R e l a t e d  31  Type o f P r o b l e m R e p o r t e d as M a i n One D u r i n g Time as S t u d e n t , by D e g r e e / E n t r y C a t e g o r y  ix .  Problems....  139  141  List  of Tables Page  Table 32 33 34  35  36  37  38  39  40  41  42  S u p p o r t f o r p r e d i c t i o n s f r o m C h a p t e r 3: P a r t i c i p a t i o n F a c t o r s and E n t r y S t a t u s  144  C o r r e l a t i o n s o f B a c k g r o u n d and P a r t i c i p a t i o n V a r i a b l e s w i t h Degree C o m p l e t i o n , F u l l S a m p l e . .  150  C o r r e l a t i o n s o f B a c k g r o u n d and P a r t i c i p a t i o n V a r i a b l e s W i t h Degree C o m p l e t i o n , A d u l t E n t r y and R e - E n t r y Compared  151  M u l t i p l e R e g r e s s i o n : B a c k g r o u n d and P a r t i c i p a t i o n V a r i a b l e s and D e g r e e C o m p l e t i o n ( F u l l Sample)  156  M u l t i p l e R e g r e s s i o n : B a c k g r o u n d and P a r t i c i p a t i o n V a r i a b l e s and D e g r e e C o m p l e t i o n ( A d u l t E n t r y and R e - E n t r y Compared)  161  D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s U s i n g t h e D i r e c t Method: Summary S t a t i s t i c s f o r Degree C o m p l e t i o n ( F u l l Sample)  168  D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s U s i n g W i l k s Method: B a c k g r o u n d and P a r t i c i p a t i o n V a r i a b l e s , I n c l u d i n g E n t r y , and Degree C o m p l e t i o n ( F u l l Sample) -.  170  D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s U s i n g W i l k s Method: B a c k g r o u n d and P a r t i c i p a t i o n V a r i a b l e s , Not i n c l u d i n g E n t r y , and D e g r e e C o m p l e t i o n ( F u l l Sample)  171  D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s U s i n g D i r e c t Method: Summary S t a t i s t i c s f o r d e g r e e c o m p l e t i o n ( A d u l t E n t r y and R e - E n t r y Compared)  174  D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s U s i n g W i l k s Method: B a c k g r o u n d and P a r t i c i p a t i o n V a r i a b l e s a n d Degree C o m p l e t i o n ( A d u l t E n t r y )  176  D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s U s i n g W i l k s Method: B a c k g r o u n d and P a r t i c i p a t i o n V a r i a b l e s and D e g r e e C o m p l e t i o n ( R e - e n t r y )  17 7  x  List  of  Tables Page  Table 43  V a r i a b l e s o f S i g n i f i c a n c e W i t h t h e F u l l Sample, and A d u l t E n t r y and R e - E n t r y S u b s a m p l e s f r o m B o t h R e g r e s s i o n and D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s e s  xi  182  L i s t of Figures  Figure 1  Cross's Model of Adult Participation  33  2,  Tinto's Model of Attrition  35  3  Simplified Model of Factors Affecting Long-range Persistence Model of Long Range Persistence By Re-entry and Adult Entry Adult Students  4  xii  39 43  1  CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM  Introduction For the l a s t interest North  i n adult  America.  students and  beginning  to  by t i t l e s  least  problem This  as  1981)  Davila,  1985).  by t h e t o p i c ,  1984) and A d u l t  (Commission  of  on H i g h e r  the interest  proportion  generated  Learners:  Key  Education  and  i n adult  The  age  of  two  the  group  student  responses:  looking  is  which  has  p o p u l a t i o n has  population,  i n enrollment  students  creating  and i n to  as a d u l t s , and a t t a c k i n g t h e dropout  by  to retain  both  traditional-age  a  higher  and a d u l t s .  proportion  a  support.  alternative  "markets" such attempting  as  1984).  f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n s  has  generated  supplied the university a  by C r o s s ,  The New M a j o r i t y : A d u l t L e a r n e r s i n  demographics.  traditionally declined  like  some  to  excitement  Future  the Adult Learner,  (summarized  ( f o r example,  (D. C a m p b e l l ,  the Nation's  related  i n t h e 1970s  some  University  At  i n c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s i n  i n t h e 1980s  has been  suggested the  students  T h e r e have b e e n a number o f s t u d i e s o f a d u l t  continuing  There  two d e c a d e s , t h e r e has b e e n a c o n s i d e r a b l e  of  problem students,  2  Usually separate adults  recruitment  problems.  and  There i s a t best  i n dropout research  of p e r s i s t e n c e emphasis  i n studies  i s on  Persistence  retention  is little  adult  students  as  consideration  i n u n i v e r s i t y , where t h e  a t t r a c t i n g the adults  by  treated  a p e r i p h e r a l mention of  and t h e r e of adults  are  has  i n the f i r s t seldom  place.  been  studied  specifically. There are  treated  secondary had  i s confusion i n many  education  about  studies when,  the adults as  i f they  i n fact,  i n u n i v e r s i t y , who were  many  new  some d i s t o r t i o n  due t o r e s e a r c h  or  on p e r s i s t e n c e ,  which  different adult  populations,  students  discussed statement reported outline  Adults  in  briefly  university.  there  on p a r t i c i p a t i o n focused  on  representative  of  These  two  sections,  i s the focus  The c h a p t e r  who  issues  are  preceding  a  of the research  concludes with  a  brief  students  and  of the r e s t of thed i s s e r t a t i o n .  i n U n i v e r s i t y : New S t u d e n t s o r Not?  Some  research  traditional-age  indicates  students  (those  that  s i m i l a r motives  adult  aged  whom w o u l d have e n r o l l e d i m m e d i a t e l y  could  case  i n the following  study.  Also,  has r e s u l t e d i n s t u d i e s  of t h e problem which i n this  focusing  i n neither  post-  are returnees  been e n r o l l e d as t r a d i t i o n a l - a g e s t u d e n t s .  is  to  24  or  less,  a f t e r high  f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n higher  many  school)  education.  lead t o the response that the i n s t i t u t i o n s  of  have This  do n o t have  3  to  make  and  any  special  Gordon,  1981).  students in  are  fact,  mainly  often  c o n c l u s i o n may  make  considerable are  students  are  genuinely  t o be the to  evidence  that  the  kinds of  students.  credit aged  Canada,  25  or  recruited.  I f the  higher  new,  education,  process  i s not  of  programs, which  had  and  more  1984,  the  f o r the  by  1987 ) .  to  a  in  first  time  1985  older,  those  this  may  be  enrollments  in  and  of  of  forty  (Smart  who  are  different  Students  54.5% in  been  between  1986).  In  education in  of  1984,  further  attributed  (Cross,  1987).  f o r some o f and  in  full-time  years  prediction  account  adult  enrollment  Canada,  students  adults  kinds  over.  23.3%  i n c r e a s e has  part-time  to  additional  post-secondary  a  have  post-secondary  i n Canada by  despite  by  25  in  part-time  r e t u r n i n g " s t o p - o u t s " may in  may  not  growth  are,  students,  and  i n over  The  and  successful with  of  adult  most p e r s i s t e n t  (Statistics  enrollment  students  different  students  grown  demographers.  attracting  increase  75%  same p e r i o d  States,  increased  Possibly,  compared  i n the  United  decrease to  if  (Solmon  that  Universities  adjustments  37.4%  true  traditional-age  suspect.  up  decreased then  former  students  is  traditional-age  made  enrollment the  be  i t  p r o g r a m s i n 1984-85 were aged  credit 1975  like  i f  adult  r e t u r n i n g students  new  In  for  However,  returning  this  students  adjustments  this  Pascarella,  4  Much o f t h e s p e c u l a t i v e l i t e r a t u r e higher  education  college  or  describes a population  university—a  had n o t p r e v i o u s l y e n r o l l e d  program.  Empirical studies  (an i n c r e a s i n g  students  were  secondary  result  new t o  upwardly  i n a higher  mobile  education  i n a different  picture.  p r o p o r t i o n i n t h e 1970s) o f t h e s e  returnees  who  had  previous  post-  aged 25 and o v e r made up o n l y 2% o f new e n r o l l m e n t s  i n 1980,  over  Certainly,  38%  many  of  1980).  some  students  were  (Picot,  had  adult  I n t h e U.S.,  but  education  of students  second-chance,  g r o u p who  Many  on a d u l t s t u d e n t s i n  the t o t a l  enrollment  of the adult students  (Tinto,  i n university  1987)  are not  new. In  this  individuals degree  dissertation,  twenty-five years  programs.  education  typically  exclude  a l l individuals  adults  i n t h a t they  is  productive relatively  research  exclude  some who  a fairly  indeed  is  of  adult  full-time  have  been,  other  than  student.  in  common should  and  are defined  as  students  i n adult  students;  however,  25 and o l d e r w o u l d  would  simple  (examples  demarcation  is  roles  students  o f age and o l d e r , e n r o l l e d i n  Definitions  almost  in  adult  has  Cross,  at least  been  using  1985),  be c o n s i d e r e d  An used  1981);  (Davila,  have q u a l i f i e d  and  a t one  age  as  time,  definition  frequently age while  25  as  in a  i t may  as a d u l t s t u d e n t s , i t  s a f e boundary f o r a s s u r i n g t h a t a l l i n c l u d e d a r e  adults.  The  limitation  to  credit  programs  is  5  necessary in  because of the  programs not  Participation There confusion  just  and  is  interest  i n long-term  participation  courses.  Persistence  some  about  definitional  adult  sometimes g r o u p e d w i t h  (or  students. students  perhaps  territorial)  Part-time  students  i n non-credit  (often  are  general  interest)  p r o g r a m s as b e i n g p a r t o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n  Campbell,  1984).  Yet  and  between  part-time  forth  programs  than  Campbell, students  from  higher  traditional-age  to  programs adult  Rossi,  education  students  of  adult  first-year  (Cross,  students  population  to  and  at  as  higher  surveys  part-time  Partnership, different  1981;.  picture.  students,  Some  other  These and  more are  Humphreys  courses  (J.  in  students  Adult  common  with  than  with  tend  to  in special  give  a  of  traditional-age studies—for  a l l levels  and  Porter,  the  most  be  adult  picture  representative  studies indicate  perhaps  credit  education  studies  at  back  in  1984).  more  students  than  students  move  programs.  or  These group  large  students.  of  students  a  credit  have  to  status  Spiro,  may  in  likely  full-time  post-secondary  1981).  education  adult  and  more  i n other adult education  Studies limited  are  non-credit  Henstchel, in  students  adults  (D.  of the  higher example,  (Levy-Coughlin 1978)  give  a  t h a t many o f  the  persistent  and  6  successful,  are  not  new  s t u d i e s d i d not focus Studies  first-year  years  (Lenning,  is  extended  dropouts  students Beal,  students,  using  in not  other  studies  Participation  four  1980).  degrees  some  at  A  greater  Beal,  apparent or  of  a  adult  not just  graduates  five frame  same  Studies  first-  classified  proportion  would  education.  i s an e m p h a s i s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e  ( D a r k e n w a l d and M e r r i a m , vs.  involve or  many  the  at a l l levels  of the l a t e r  research  that  1964).  a s new t o h i g h e r  (Lenning,  these  When t h e t i m e  i t i s found  (Eckland,  persistence  education  go b e y o n d  as dropouts.  of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n of  and s e l d o m  individuals  be i d e n t i f i e d  study  often  complete  institution  include  However,  education  t o ten years,  eventually  would  system.  from h i g h e r  and S a u e r ,  different  year,  the  on p e r s i s t e n c e .  of dropouts  only  to  dropout and  is  a  Sauer,  1982), w h i l e t h e focus  1980).  of  higher  The  adult  education  e m p h a s i s l e a d s t o c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t h e r e c r u i t s o r  the  students  new  misrepresenting higher leads  in  education to putting  focus  on  too short  results  i n both  are  not r e p r e s e n t a t i v e university.  programs,  and  can  result  the population of adults i n university.  The  in  the  the dropout a time  instances  decision  frame  a r e sample  of the population  on  in The  frequently  the  research.  selections of adult  which  students  7  Statement  of the  The  research  persistence students who  to  who  degree  in  experience  may  to  the  affects  important  s t u d e n t s ' p e r s i s t e n c e and Looking levels  of  at  both  frame s h o u l d r e s u l t research. on  The  persistence. education but  were  first  both  those  who  age  these  persistence  in  those  affects  i f the there  two  If  should  groups.  understanding  of  adult  adults  a  be The  part-time using  how  quality  education.  and  An  groups  the  at  25  at  or  at a l l  ten-year  time  with  of  are  after  are  new  to  initially  to  analyze  variables  out,  Those as  postas  Re-  differences  associated  traditional-age  who  Adult  in  classified  on  higher  stopping  classified  are  emphasis  emphasis  pre-adults.  age  i s made  i n terms  research  as  enrolled  younger  effort  education  education  returned  older  who a  adult  a d u l t s who  students  those  education  students.  and  i n higher  higher  have  post-secondary  secondary  between  combines  I t looks  students;  and  study  the  at  the  attrition  and  enrolled  Entry  entry  and  and  adult  i n a v o i d i n g some o f t h e gaps i n p r e v i o u s  study  participation  role  in  adults.  education  f o r our  full-time  undergraduate  as  p e r s i s t e n c e , then between  those  students  education  student  differences  between  i n post-secondary  be  on  traditional-age  differences  differences  focuses  post-secondary  respond  significant  here  completion  been  experience  individuals the  reported  have  started  previous  of  Problem  students,  with and  8  to  assess the  in  general.  effects  of  the  variables  In a d d i t i o n to the t h e o r e t i c a l should  be  of  educators  value  to  interested  survival.  It  university  adult  interest,  students  this  knowledge  administrators  and  adult  i n program and i n s t i t u t i o n a l growth and  could  themselves and t h e i r  with  also  benefit  the  adult  students  counsellors.  The Remaining Chapters The  next  literature  from  participation and  chapter,  the  three  major  literature,  literature  education,  Chapter  sources:  university  adult  is  models,  one of  dropout,  are  d e v e l o p i n g the  and  conceptual  a  is  model  the  adult  of  education  dropout  participation  the  studies, higher  some f u r t h e r l i t e r a t u r e  review.  adult  in  in  the  framework f o r t h i s  used  (Adult  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and one  analyzed  to  on the d i f f e r e n c e s  education  students students  review  in  c h a p t e r c o n t a i n s the d e f i n i t i o n s  higher  a  i n c l u d i n g the l i t e r a t u r e on m a r k e t i n g .  Two e x i s t i n g  emphasis  is  higher education  on  In Chapter 3, t h e r e  study,  2,  research.  and hypotheses used i n  group  the  hypotheses.  of The this The  between a d u l t s who are new t o  Entry)  postsecondary  process  of  and  education  those as  who  had  been  traditional-age  (Re-entry).  Chapter Records of  4  adult  outlines  the  research  procedure  followed.  students at Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y i n  the  9  fall  of  1973  students some  was  were  analyzed  surveyed  non-respondents  discussions processes, and  of  by m a i l , by  the  using  a  telephone.  compared  younger  follow-up  The  on  the  of  contains  and  between  male  survey  chapter  development  5 and 6, t h e h y p o t h e s e s  mainly  student  6 deals with a  the survey  records.  characteristics  both  with  of  survey  respondents  basis  of  student  data.  tested,  being  sample  as w e l l as o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s  In Chapters  from  a  questionnaire  non-respondents,  records  and  The  of students  hypotheses  student  use  Chapter  some  information  hypotheses  on  background  on t h e e f f e c t s  5;  Chapter  of the experience of  factors).  mainly  3 are  with  are t e s t e d i n Chapter  (participation  chapters  data  from  Data  univariate  analyses i n  and  bivariate  techniques. Chapter regression groups,  7 and  the f u l l  Re-entry  employs  discriminant mail survey  subgroups  groups i s analyzed In C h a p t e r  multivariate  some  testing study, further  of  8, t h e f i n d i n g s  survey.  three  Each  of the three  types  of a n a l y s i s .  a r e summarized.  typology  i s suggested  relationships  the hypotheses.  implications  analyze  sample, and t h e A d u l t E n t r y a n d  s e p a r a t e l y , using both  of the observed some  analysis—to  of the mailed  of t h e A d u l t Entry/Re-entry for  techniques—multiple  The  A  revision  t o account  and t h e r e s u l t s limitations  of  of this  f o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r  research are included i n this  final  chapter.  10  CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE  LITERATURE  Introduction With together  the with  a  t r a d i t i o n a l age important  aging  of  the  population  d e c l i n e i n the f o r attendance  both  to  traditional-age  keep  students  as  size  of  of  North  the  population  i n university, many  who  as  America  i t has  possible  enroll  and  become of  to  of  the  recruit  i n d i v i d u a l s of n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l age as s t u d e n t s . The and  two  adult  resulting  streams of r e s e a r c h — d r o p o u t  participation  studies—have  separate u n t i l very r e c e n t l y . higher  education,  traditional-age  have  focused  Participation  on  are  and  what  they  want  than  with  from  full-time  studies,  from a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , have been more concerned adults  essentially  Dropout s t u d i e s , mainly  usually  students.  been  studies  mainly  with who  what  the  facilitates  their persistence. Adult individual higher  education needs, education  and  researchers to  downplay  tend credit  researchers  to and  emphasize credentials;  generally  i n s t i t u t i o n a l s u r v i v a l . However, i t i s worthwhile  emphasize t o combine  the a d u l t education and h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e s and t o include  long-term  considerations  in  a  study  of  11  dropout/persistence•  Whichever  student  or  (individual)  long-term  chapter  examines  r e l e v a n t to the  education,  from  perspective. adult  and  literature sub-section research The  last  in  adult  focuses  participation programs  the  decades  education  on  higher  literature  understanding  of  of  and  literature  review  of  Finally,  dropout used  with  adult  an  area  to  researchers  which  higher  some  of the  in  that higher  institutional  literature  particular.  which  and  the  education  selected sociological  education.  the  from  i n e d u c a t i o n a l programs  in  in  1960s  education, two  bodies  there i s a review  on  the  taken,  insightful.  individual  section deals  secondary the  the  dropout  of  from  third  both  credit on  four  is  s u b j e c t of a d u l t p a r t i c i p a t i o n  First,  education  general  institutional,  p e r s i s t e n c e should prove  This are  perspective  Second,  is  a  ten-year  deals time  participation  has  been o f  and  frame.  in  post-  interest  A  for both  sub-section  s t u d i e s of a d u l t s i n suggestions  on v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g and  A with  administrators  education.  relevant  the  reviewed.  studies  in  higher  from  the  s o c i a l m o b i l i t y are  considered. In  Chapter  3,  They  are  examined. with  the  conceptual  discussion of  of  long-range  two  models  placed  from  i n the  next  framework f o r t h i s  preliminary participation  steps  the  literature  chapter, study,  towards  which  deals  as p a r t o f  developing  and p e r s i s t e n c e .  are  a  the  model  12  A d u l t Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n Participation research.  i s a major  There  participants,  Research  have  and  of  emphasis  been the  a  i n adult  number  general  of  education  surveys  population  of  regarding  p a r t i c i p a t i o n , beginning w i t h Johnstone and R i v e r a ' s i n 1962 (Johnstone surveys,  and R i v e r a , there  motivation  been  (Weathersby  the  Tarule,  (Boshier,  of  1976),  create  of  and s t u d i e s of  1980).  Much  helps  in  is  understanding  definitions  especially  credit  difficulties  exclude  full-time  of  adult  for  used  students.  used  productive  role  alternate  periods  programs  i n higher  adult  education  For one t h i n g ,  researchers students  would q u a l i f y  definition:  i n society.  there  by  Many  or c o l l e g e f u l l - t i m e  commonly  adult  education.  (Darkenwald and Merriam, 1982).  Nonetheless,  studies  i s how  typical  another  proliferation  i n a d u l t education; what i s l e s s c l e a r  programs,  researchers  i n addition to  about  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n higher  education,  then,  known  knowledge  Credit  Since  between a d u l t development and p a r t i c i p a t i o n  and  participation  university  a  of p a r t i c i p a n t s  the connections  much  has  1965).  In  of  part-time  is  much  to  education p a r t i c i p a t i o n s t u d i e s .  that  be  attending  as a d u l t s by of  addition, and  often  having  some  full-time  learned  Participation  from  a  adults study. adult  r e s e a r c h has  13  unique  importance  voluntary  nature  While broader  can  Waniewicz,  Merriam,  1982)  credit,  by  For  example,  the  U.S. 12%  learning  of  total  other  4 8%  52%  interest  Of  with  and  studies  l e a r n e r s and  population.  show  learning of  adults  result  in  totals  optimistic." found  formal  An  78%  and  of  learning,  interested (2% o f  Ontario  in the  survey  would-be l e a r n e r s some  of  the  i n " learning.) that  level  (years)  i s perhaps the best p r e d i c t o r of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n further education,  and  numbers  (Undoubtedly  "interested  consistently  than  l e a r n e r s , 5%  courses.  Roelfs,  Darkenwald  population)  a l l active  of  education  and  (1974) in  the  These  Surveys  "wildly  Roelfs  the  taking credit  the  as  formal  determined  adult  by  of  interested  of  often  in  much  for adults,  much more  17)  the  students.  programs  p.  (1976) e s t i m a t e d of  the  as  learners.  summarized  credit  of  Peterson,  estimates  population (9%  would-be  Carp,  Peterson,  m i g h t have b e e n  These education  the  (1981,  these  were  by W a n i e w i c z to  Carp,  is  participants  concerned  in  offerings  of p o t e n t i a l  others  for credit.  population)  and  1976;  Cross  adult  of  recognized  programs  1965;  interest  described  because  higher education  Rivera,  even  are  the  credit  would-be  are  but  expressing  with  needs  learners  and  and  education  by  describe millions  (Johnstone  for  met  for  of  participants  1974;  be  demand  surveys  surveys  learning  system, l e t a l o n e  potential from  adult  o f most a d u l t l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s .  adult  than  education  in  t h a t i t i s an  of and  even b e t t e r  14  predictor (rather The  of  for vocational/professional  than general  more  likely  desire  years  further  i n t e r e s t ) , f o r c r e d i t and f o r d e g r e e s .  of  education  Much o f t h e r e s e a r c h  the  research  sometimes  can in  learning  lives  adult to  who  been  1980);  some  of t h e i r  life  ethical,  or  different programs  for  kinds  relevant  For instance,  (Tough,  1978) i s  vast  of  potential  adult markets engaged  i n transition i n their  personal  of learning  facing  ego  (Aslanian  developmental tasks  o r some  stage  of  development  l e t alone  education  interpreted  and at  intellectual,  (Weathersby  of  credit  as  or  c a n be  education,  individuals  and  various  stages  attracted their  opportunities  involved  (Chickering  learning for  motivation  and A s s o c i a t e s , of  participants  1971; B o s h i e r ,  1976) have  programs  higher  and  of  to credit needs  programs.  h a s been recommended a s a u n i f y i n g  (Burgess,  in  these  transitions,  higher  higher education Studies  that  o f development  development  adults  i s not  numbers o f a d u l t s  and a d u l t s  projects,  sometimes  Adult  Still,  i n need  i t i s not c l e a r  learning  are  more  1980).  While in  the  de-formalization  from  adults  Brickell,  Tarule,  learning  projects  for  1984).  are, therefore,  cognitive,  has,  desired.  learning  projected  projects;  stage  be  on a d u l t  argue  (Brookfield,  and have  individual  of c r e d i t higher education.  on  used  education  an  education w i l l  to considerations  education  purpose  1981). in  adult  n o t f o c u s e d on  education.  For  15  example,  Morstain  Educational  and  Smart  Participation  orientations;  Scale  however, t h e i r courses  (1977) to  survey  holders  ( a t t e n d i n g a community c o l l e g e ) ,  might  students In take  the  case  pursuing  general, an  removing  barriers  educators  have  been  focus.  formal  credit  programs  ( J . Campbell  programs,  Ardaiaolo,  adults  who  participation  are  are in  often  a  non-  although  non-credit t o credit  may  adults i n  have  students  more i n  (Kuh  and  1986).  i ti s difficult pursuing adult  t o many  ( n o n - c r e d i t ) and  1984) a n d t h a t  credit  of  Campbell,  grouped  or full-time,  traditional-age  (D.  predispose  education  adult  t h e cause  of adult education may  to  emphasize  While  education  and o t h e r s ,  1979; Shannon,  They  promoting  few a d u l t s move f r o m  I n any c a s e ,  and  institutional,  access.  with  education  part-time  an  so.  improving  students  indicates  with  than  Continuing  evidence  interests  have t e n d e d  relationship  institutional  common  predisposing a  researchers  i n post-secondary  of  degree-  students  militantly  concerned  institutions  credit  of  credit-course  rather  and  1984), t h e m a r g i n a l  part-time  thus  taking  degrees.  individual,  students  with  adult education  perspective—sometimes  adult  a n d h a s a l a r g e number  t o E s c a p e / S t i m u l a t i o n and s i m i l a r  be  still  motivational  includes students  interest  than  Boshier's  analyze  general  g r e a t e r response  used  t o make c o n c l u s i o n s  degrees  learning  from  i n general.  about  studies Adults  of in  16  higher  education  specific  group  literature  on  as  higher  been  The  studies  higher  (Boshier,  concern  section  higher  this  reviewing  the  1973),  but  deals  with both  and  has  education courses  education,  education  well  been  most  rather  the  a few  not  has  the  as  so  often  than  from  literature  more  on  traditional  s t u d i e s which took  a  perspective.  General  Dropout  Researchers on  (Summerskill, concerned  in  higher  has  been  (Iffert,  the concern  the  of  adverse  1958; has  of  of  have  Research  carried  Some  waste  recently  education  research.  1962).  with  perspective  Studies  dropout  education  face  i n adult  single  of short-term dropout  emphasis  after  on  education.  i n adult  This  research  Education  concern  from  from  long-term  higher  a  dropouts  programs. dropouts  from  been  studied;  examined  i n Higher  education  with  be  dropouts  has  pronounced.  been  will  Dropout Research Dropout  have  on  on  since  the  placed  dropouts  at  research  .1913  has  been  a  Pervin,  while  demographic  1966),  institutional  trends  (Bean,  in  least  talent—almost  been w i t h  great  societal more  survival  1982a;  in  Tinto,  1987 ) . The studied  effects  of  several variables  extensively,  including  on  student  dropout and  have  been  institutional  17  characteristics 1975;  Pantages  1980). are  (Iffert,  In  the  and  fact,  most  1958;  Creedon,  a  problem  important  Summerskill,  1978;  has  multiple  regression.  There  i n recent  (1971)  Tinto's  and  environment which  fit.  Spady  education. social  Spady  and  have  academic  recently  students, commuter  and  them,  time and  and  a  which  used  using  theoretical  s u c h as  Spady's  emphasize  i s family  person-  background, higher  support systems,  Bean  model  and  for  37  Metzner  and  (1985)  non-traditional  of n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l  emphasizes  d r o p o u t r e s e a r c h has a n y t h i n g t o s a y  age,  favourable  w h i l e not  students are Sauer,  adults  are  students  Spady's  models  emphasize  definition  that  1980;  s t u d e n t s have  time  Tinto  i t i s not  on  older  Beal,  out  s t a t u s more t h a n a d u l t h o o d .  findings that  Sauer,  "normative congruence" w i t h  developed  To t h e e x t e n t about  sort  some  models  integration.  but t h e i r  and  (1975)  been  important element  says a f f e c t s  Astin,  equation of dropout  using  Both  to  Astin  has  research  (1975).  An  been  variables.  to develop a p r e d i c t i v e  integration  Lenning, Beal,  often  variables  1962;  and  a  i s much  fact,  i s less  and  rate  of  disproportionately  Tinto's  which  likely  Pantages  (Statistics  less likely  models likely  adult  consistent,  more  higher  to  generally  to  drop  out  The  indicate (Lenning,  Creedon,  1978).  Part-  dropout  (Astin,  1975),  represented  Canada, emphasize  1986;  adults  among  Cross,  social  f o r part-time  for full-time  students.  1987).  integration,  students than  part-  and,  in  traditional-  18  age  students  based much  (Kuh and A r d a i o l o ,  on T i n t o ' s model s u g g e s t s more  important  Pascarella  than  further  integration  1980).  i n t h e next  time on  from  frame f o r dropout  a number  and  Merrill,  the  Tinto  less  model,  confirmed  persistence  (Eckland,  A recent  but that men  that  different  compared  research study been  based  long-range  students  Astin's  i t d i d not  a r e more o r  parental  study income  may  be  might  women  qualitatively  them  class  (U.S.)  dropout  not apply.  A  o f whom h a d  that  first-course to  from  many  indicated  of a national (a s o c i a l  explain  for  they  felt  and f i r s t - y e a r (Levy-Coughlin,  The e m p h a s i s on v a r i a b l e s m i g h t c h a n g e ; (1975)  on  women—institutional  i n Ontario,  apply  based  Jex  1986).  focus  f o r several years,  1966;  best  and t h e f i n d i n g s  short-term students  findings  involvement  persistence  o u t was a p r o b l e m — f o r  students—but 1981).  social  short-term,  of part-time  dropping  that  men;  on a  ten-year  study,  variables to  Smart, a n d E t h i n g t o n ,  from  a  1965; P e r v i n ,  some  (Pascarella,  different  that  longitudinal  for  fact,  be  Research.  indicated  commitment  In  will  r e s e a r c h would change t h e p e r s p e c t i v e  suggests  by  model  chapter.  t h e 1960s  of variables 1967).  research  (Munro, 1981;  Tinto's  Long-term P e r s p e c t i v e i n Dropout Some s t u d i e s  However,  t h a t academic i n t e g r a t i o n i s  social  and T e r e n z i n i ,  considered  1979).  f o r example,  survey  indicator)  concluded had  little  19  predictive the  37  value  (p. 3 5 ) .  variables  used  predicting such  as  dropout  emphasis  to  indicate  that  are  more  extended quality  social  than  from  i s a better  t o t h e same  n o t have  Pervin's  predictor  social  degrees  may  to return  (Cope  investigated,  there are indications  (Pervin, the  dropouts  Alfert, stayed  more  1966). may  1966).  been  when  dropping-out  even  when  Hannah,  They  may o r  originally.  extensively  When  that  than  than  i t has  returning  as been  students  first-time  students  Some o f t h e r e s e a r c h on d r o p o u t s  indicates  be more m a t u r e study  they  found  returned  might  wish  study  of d i f f e r e n c e s  expected  social  out, returning  left  as  1975).  persistent  One  that  they  studied  than that  o u t , t h e more improvement  achieved  of  that  1986).  institution.  has  be  frame i s  research suggests  out but stop  Stopping-out  may  studies  backgrounds  be an i n d i c a t o r  or a different  and  more  o f p e r s i s t e n c e by a d u l t s  do n o t d r o p  not  Their class  for  studies, give  i f t h e time  (Kuh and C r a c r a f t ,  intended  (1966)  did Astin.  higher  (which  equation  Longer-range  Some r e c e n t  school  Some s t u d e n t s  may  class  to ten years.  Grade P o i n t Average  later  and  i t as one o f  regression  five years.  t o complete  of high  class)  the  (1965)  students  likely  in  within  Eckland's  He d i d n o t i n c l u d e  Astin  to return  ( 1975)  the longer  (Suczek  (Bluhm had  who  and C o u c h , f o l l o w e d up dropouts  who  d i d not expect  and  individuals  i n Grade P o i n t Average  between t h o s e  and t h o s e  "stayins"  1972). with  One further  stated to  they  they  return.  20  Given  that  h i s stopouts  only)  were  in  between  definition  again)  to  differences  expect  those  Stopouts,  Higher an  limited,  time-frame  suggest  as  i t would  those  by  a  Eckland  than  somewhat  an  of  have  d i d and  and  Pervin,  students  more  individual, be  in  1980).  tended  and as w i l l  seen  to  take  perspective, i n the  next  students.  from  dropout  Studies  different  studies  based  appear  sampled, on l o n g e r  conclusions  on A d u l t s i n H i g h e r  In  from  somewhat  particularly time  those  frames  reported  the years  Education  immediately  after  World  made up a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f s t u d e n t s that  was  a  temporary  phenomenon  subsequently  pre-occupied  demand  traditional-age  The  reasonable  short-term studies.  Research  but  (by h i s  who  adult  (Picot,  t o the population  used.  be  dropouts  majority  researchers  studies  according  dropouts  year  p r o p o r t i o n o f p a r t - t i m e and a d u l t  rather  conclusions  f o r one  to return.  studies of adult  The  in  between  described  education  i n dropout  section,  and  i n Canada a r e r e t u r n e e s  institutional,  both  the  as  especially  universities  had l e f t  on many v a r i a b l e s ,  make up a f a i r  students,  who  persisters  who d i d n o t e x p e c t  undoubtedly  (those  from  trend  to greater  with  participation  I I , adults  i n higher  education  and u n i v e r s i t i e s  expanding  students  War  t o meet  increased  (D. C a m p b e l l ,  by a d u l t s , a n d  were  1984). interest  21  in  adult  students  researchers,  some  coincides  1981).  and  by  the  College Entrance Some always  restricted  by  of  (Solmon and describe  an  with  Gordon,  age),  the  terms  than  fact,  representativeness  acquired is  ethnic  of  and  sex on  ascribed  r a t h e r than social on  the  basis  secondary education. limited year  in  various  students;  to  is  has  and  simply  to  students  students  looked  in  is  social In  terms  of  information i s social  surveys students;  continuing  and  in  mobility  participating  these  1981)  students. at  limited  part-time in  Cross,  population  upward  students  lower-standard,  traditional-age  class;  (not  full-time  adult by  traditional-age  usually  1980).  students  include  in  197 8;  Ihlanfeldt,  shorter, or  general  interest  (Barton,  summarized  In a d d i t i o n , ways:  in  of p a r t - t i m e  origins of  traditional-age  part-time some  students  perspective (Cross,  1980;  and  social  class  of  increase  to  others  a p o p u l a t i o n which  class  education  adult  institutions  Surveys  1981;  representative  race or  growth  an  limited  a d u l t age.  in  institutional  e d u c a t i o n a l backgrounds than more  in  Examination Board, are  higher  interest  education  studies  students  the  coincides  of  Studies  decline  higher  part  recent.  Market  reflects  This  marketing  and  extent,  with  enrollment  the  is relatively  Descriptive To  on  in  are to  education  post-  usually firstor  in  22  special Cross,  adult  temptation  opportunity  be  exists  "second-chance"  Pike  for  of  grade  1981);  to  their a  1981).  Sosdian,  197 9;  level  cannot  be  either,  with  A  such  U.S.  included respects  For  including  in  to  much  yield  by  group  U.S.  class and  (limited adult  differ  example,  motivated  the  social  past  students  well-educated  to  basis  that  province  went  However, that  a  half  (Levy-Coughlin, at  a l l  than  (Solmon origin  additional  levels,  surveys and  of  Gordon,  data  occupational  more f r o m  hopes  one  are  not  information information,  institution)  indicates  (Kuh  adults  are  a b e t t e r job, with of  getting  that  a  and least  which in  part-time adult  students  full-time  t o get  to  students  traditional-age  attend university  the  the  must  opposed  study.  the  them.  c a t e g o r i e s as " p r o f e s s i o n a l - m a n a g e r i a l . "  full-time  from  in  students,  study  t h e y may  as  i n Ontario indicates  students  analyzed  denied  an  i n Ontario  on  in  university  students  these  school,  are  grabbing  academic  students  students  more  group  students  taken  high  full-time  sample,  on  not  in  Unfortunately,  available  most  had  (academic)  much  first-year  1979).  13  full-time  suggests  than  and  previously  that part-time who  of p a r t - t i m e  been  mobility  preparation  immediately survey  "back-door"  upward  students  vocational  had  (Sharp  t o assume t h a t a d u l t s t u d e n t s  or  (1975) assumed  mostly  7 0%  programs  1981).  The a  degree  students  Ardaiolo, likely  part-time  better  job.  some  In  to  adults other  23  respects  (for  example,  participation  in  adult  differed  than  students  time  w h i c h c a n be general.  more  Their  students  adult-age  the  about  study  was  (full-time  interest  p o i n t s out  and  to  part-  students),  i s adult students the  a l l adult students  students  limited  traditional-age  m i s l e a d i n g i f the  generalizing  however,  and  full-time  traditional-age  for a l l categories and  origins  activities)  from  study,  students,  Still,  class  extra-curricular  part-timers.  first-year  social  further  from  danger  s t u d i e s of  in of  part-  timers . Some  of  the  as  higher  experience  research  disproportionately dictated  by  frequently  education  in liberal  availability considered,  education  students  either  usually  do  not  seem t o a f f e c t  with  many c r e d i t s  than  adults with  tend  to  be  while  few  had  and  1985).  dropout  rates;  credits or  been f o u n d  t o be  (Davila,  critical  students  one  of  women  or  study  by  employed  services;  Iffert  are re-  adult  do  found  not  in  adults  full  one  time  students study,  about c o u n s e l l i n g  were more d i s s a t i s f i e d  earlier  be  responsibilities  1985). A d u l t  complaints  may  1976);  support, Work  register  members on  Shaevitz,  their  this  Family  family  s t u d e n t s made few  senior level  1985), as  have  Adults  i n research  were more l i k e l y  unaware  inexperienced  (Lenz  with  programs but  courses.  (Davila,  deals  students.  especially  higher  i t important  adults  arts  of  entering  consider  on  (1958).  (Davila,  24  The  marketing  interest  i n a d u l t s may  students.  As  institutional trying  to  (Cross,  needs  attract  1981,  a  suggest  narrow  They  descriptive are  a  new  at  .adults  lose  out  in  the  A n d e r s o n and  for  expanding  the  conclusions  i n the  or  to  students  the  i n Higher  Some o f  research  a  looking at  secondary  not  employing at  has  of  inconsistent with  the  population  s e l e c t e d f o r the  U.S.  (1965) and  Humphreys  limited  single  O s b o r n ' s U.K.  study  These  to  be  some  education  institutions  level  study. and  frame of  Ontario may  mentioned survey be  due  to  while  a  so f a r  by  Levy-  to  the  Eckland's  P o r t e r ' s Canadian  limited  post-  give  Unfortunately,  institutions,  or  perspective.  students  surveys  differences  (1975) was  one  adult  p i c t u r e from the  1981).  (1978) a r e  of  time  sociological  Coughlin,  study  may  Education  longer  more t h a n  a  investigations  somewhat d i f f e r e n t (although  adults  education  Sociological  run"  past.  R e s e a r c h on A d u l t s  least  long  enrollments.  higher  Sociological the  are  represent  assumptions  recruits  from  they  Darkenwald  students  post-secondary  adult  different  the  place  institutions  n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l age  adult  that  the  about the market.  market,  services to  of  However,  studies that  have s e r v e d  those  probably  38).  education's  "...colleges  that  base  question  above  higher  i n improved  says,  will  p.  behind  result  Cross  overly-optimistic (1979b)  impulse  study  Hopper  full-time  and  students  25  who  had  completed  studies  go  beyond  representative give  us  on  than  study  studies  its  sociological  who  at least  that  picture  of  surveys,  of  do  but  the  who  in  effects  these  them  more  addition  of  social  mentioned  i t i s also  time  seem t o  that  emphases)  has  some  the  later  in  that  here  class  i n higher  relevance to graduates  frame  to  be  years  While  affected origin  ten  by  a r e more  He  class,  likely  rather  education dropout understanding  and  of  about shows  changes  short-term  social  stopouts  are.  of  to  dropout students  return  than  (or l a c k also  students,  r e t u r n e d s t o p o u t s would  or  dropouts.  r e s e a r c h but adult  the  be  as  included  category.  graduation. marginal  degree  Osborn  They  social  were more o f t e n  status.  and  because  o f what i t s u g g e s t s  degrees.  be  i s , to  Hopper and  a  do  discussion  E c k l a n d ' s r e s e a r c h n o t o n l y q u e s t i o n s some emphases of  they  class  i n the  relevant  and b e c a u s e  competes  social  transfer,  and  makes  some o f t h e o l d e r u n d e r g r a d u a t e s  not  higher  the  (1965) was  basis  expanding  rates  many  students  that  participation.  Eckland's dropout  Nonetheless, the f a c t  first-year  i n f o r m a t i o n about  mobility  of  degrees.  was  found  status  an  that  often  initial  a  (different  tactic  Hopper and  adults  these  downwardly m o b i l e  In a d d i t i o n ,  respondents  (1975) s t u d i e d  graduates  from than  to  their  defend  their  describe  to  often  of had  parents)  upwardly;  Osborn  "warming-up"  at the time  and  pursuit  of  declining among  their  education followed  26  by  an  ineffective  adults  had  had  socialized  to  education,  even  education  the  some i n i t i a l relate  for  educational  "cooling-out."  a  success  success  i f they  had  while.  In  They  o p p o r t u n i t i e s , who  words,  i n education  in  at  other  life  some were  not  dropped  in  been  success  students  were  o r had  with  stage  these  out  who  any  had  way  in of had  new  to  system. Humphreys  Hopper and  and  at  Carleton  downwardly  mobile  education,  and  mobility  and  who,  before  specifically adult  repudiated  educationally The education  (see  of  returned  careers  already  of  to  as  that  a  higher  upwardly part-time  The  part-time  second  the  e x h i b i t e d upward  education.  perspective  adults  in  suggests  adult  long  idea  primarily  many  authors study  chance  for  or the  deprived.  the c o r r e l a t i o n Thus,  had  the  confirms  s m a l l e r group of  higher  r e s e a r c h as w e l l ,  summary  (1973)  are  sociological  recruitment  have  i n a d d i t i o n , had pursuing  programs  includes  who  category—a have  largely  T h e i r sample o f a l l p a r t - t i m e  individuals  who  (1978)  University  another  students  students  study  Osborn's f i n d i n g s .  students  mobile  Porter's  from  Cross, that  can  lower  1981).  social A  be  German  pursued  between p a r e n t a l and may  found  in  adult  f o r example i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f  education  education  be  by  class study  adults  offspring  used  to  backgrounds by  increases  social  correct  Muller  class.  downward  27  mobility, suggest  just  as Hopper and  higher education  Studies  of  adult  e d u c a t i o n have p r o d u c e d part,  to  Studies  the of  eliminate  simply  supporting levels,  Obviously, students Other  and  (1973),  of  and  this  the  likely on  to  a  population  without  students  stopouts  be  nature  classification  authors  returned  selected.  their  indicate  part-time  is any  at a l l  suggest  downwardly  restricted  by  of  Hauser  areas  outside  contribute  a  mobile.  samples of a d u l t  of  adult  suggestions  Hopper  suggest  adults  in  contains  and that  higher a  Osborn social  social  class  and  (1975)  indicate  of  Muller affects  The  social  suggestions  social  be  education.  mobility  education. that  may  (1975),  education.  number  education  which  of a d u l t s i n post-secondary  of  literature  and  by  by  in  generalizability.  study  others  interaction  Sewell  as  research  findings  participation  the  is  education  and  mobility  of  t o the  The  to  at l e a s t  Research  number  relevant  Studies  have l i m i t e d  higher  tend  them  c o n c l u s i o n s based  Relevant A  to  Porter  post-secondary  samples  which  students, although  graduates,  which  in  the  students,  ascribed  adult  among  stopouts,  evidence.  population  participants  v a r y i n g c o n c l u s i o n s due,  first-year  returned  Humphreys and  used.  differences  of upwardly mobile often  is  O s b o r n and  For  about  example,  class  origin  28  affects  both  educational  and  occupational  outcomes,  and  e d u c a t i o n i t s e l f a f f e c t s o c c u p a t i o n a l achievements. Another counselling itself  literature  has  the  comes  and  effects  individual Of  suggestion  on  (Holland,  from  indicates that the  value  Holland  1973;  social  education,  and  occupations only  of and  s i x c a t e g o r i e s i n Holland's  (1973),  the  in social  and  the  type  education  the  of  most  enterprising  as  well  as  Thus type of job and  1980).  level  of  job  (and  what  job  to  an  1976).  occupations status  to  occupations  i s t h e r e a s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n between e d u c a t i o n and (Gottfredsen,  of  Gottfredsen,  typology  accord  vocational  earnings  job environment,  this  indicated  in  i n d i v i d u a l cases about s o c i a l m o b i l i t y ) may  be p r e d i c t o r s of  participation  Beal,  have  (1980)  i n dropout  and  persistence.  suggested  the  Lenning,  usefulness  of  and  Holland's  Sauer  typology  research.  Summary The research,  bodies  dropout  education—all education  a  literature studies,  tend  to  participation  c r e d i t programs. takes  of  short  traditional-age  studies  have  adults  usually  and  Studies  higher Adult  focuses  on  non-  research usually  tends of  in  focuses.  e d u c a t i o n dropout  perspective  students.  of  limited  research  Higher time  reviewed h e r e — p a r t i c i p a t i o n  to  adults  emphasize in  higher  e d u c a t i o n are u s u a l l y d e s c r i p t i v e , are sometimes based on  a  29  marketing  perspective,  populations, Two greater  out  that  by  a  and a l s o  education  t h e dangers  of  time  of other  stopouts. a  o f making  they  usually  point Dropout  ten  years,  research  at least  some  may  adult  A few s t u d i e s o f a d u l t s  sociological  conclusions  f r o m s t u d i e s b a s e d on n a r r o w  have  the problem of  dropout  that  students.  research.  frame,  narrow  literature  In a d d i t i o n ,  suggest  from  to  program  the  of the other  longer  must be r e t u r n e d  higher  or special  adults.  some c o n c l u s i o n s  questionable  students  out  on  limited  f o r understanding  some o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s  suggest  in  to offer  persistence  based  often  sub-categories  insights  studies  be  are  such as f i r s t - y e a r  smaller  long-term  and  perspective  from  point  s p e c u l a t i o n and  populations.  W h i l e i t may be p o s s i b l e t o f i n d v a r i a b l e s and c o n c e p t s relevant  to  adults  sources,  there  ideas  from  these  research  problems by  higher  is still  adult  much  education  areas  have  of p a r t i c i p a t i o n  adults  i n higher  conceptual  framework  cipation  in  and d r o p o u t  education t o be  will  learned  and h i g h e r not focused  be  In  number  from  the  over next  of  applying  even  specifically  developed  considerations.  a  education  and p e r s i s t e n c e  education.  in  though on t h e  a long  term  chapter,  combining  a  parti-  30  CHAPTER 3 CONCEPTUAL  FRAMEWORK  FOR THE STUDY OF LONG-RANGE PARTICIPATION AND PERSISTENCE  Introduction  This its  chapter  discussion  extends  o f models  education  dropout.  elements  which  participation first  in  a  the review of adult  From would  by a d u l t s simplified  be  described A  i n later  distinction  started  their  students  (Re-entry  (Adult two  Entry  simplified to  model  emphasized  model  the  is  adult  students,  the  long-term  are suggested,  i n an  v a r i a b l e s used  made  university  between  elaborated  i n the research t o  adult  education  students)  and t h o s e  Incorporating  categories  of  i s elaborated  the discussion  difference  then  higher  models, in  education  and  develop t h e hypotheses which After  better-known  and  chapters.  students).  additional  participation  i n higher  v e r s i o n which i n c o r p o r a t e s be  two  of the l i t e r a t u r e , i n  as  additional  who  traditional-age  who s t a r t e d a s a d u l t s this  specific  d i s t i n c t i o n , and variables,  i n t o t h e model w h i c h  the  i s used  follow.  of the i n i t i a l  i n persistence  students  between  hypotheses  hypothesis  t h e two  about  groups  are organized  of into  31  those  involving  involving Six  background  participation  hypotheses  different  are  chapter  f a c t o r s , as  presented  v a r i a b l e s on  Following  the  p e r s i s t e n c e by  Cross's  model  dropout  from  adult  The  Cross  how  Houle  has  participation  they  as  on  brief  has the  not  the  been  Tinto  adopted.  model  There  has  of  1971;  Boshier,  1985).  are  model  deals  for this  generally motivations  Development  as  has no  (Burgess,  various  section  used  In f a c t ,  typology  focused  These  of  with  study.  Participation  extensive  Collins,  a  literature  Tinto's  have b e e n a d a p t e d  This  learners with  of  students.  adults.  and  This  (1961).  not  model.  effects  hypotheses,  p e r s i s t e n c e by  dropout research.  based  the  models from the  education.  model  widely  the  adult  the  by  those  Dropout  Model o f A d u l t  education  research  and  adult  higher  Cross  been  1985)  long-term  of  The  research by  to  m o d e l s and  education has  and  m e n t i o n e d p r e v i o u s l y , two  relevant  these  of  and  provided.  Models of P a r t i c i p a t i o n  are  suggested  involving  presentation  summary i s  As  characteristics  extensively been  been  Boshier  what  developed  orientations and  happens  for participation of  model  considerable  learners  motivational  on  higher  participation  adult  1976;  in  in  Collins, to  adult  (Boshier  p r e d i c t i v e models  based  32  on  motivational  Gilleland,  and  Dixon,  However, in  adult  education  Cookson,  adult  education  even  credit  by  synthesized  by  interest  to  education  (Kuh  models  this  suggested  take  just  herself  p.  of  long-term  term  of  (1981,  factors  (D,E,F)  participation  and  affecting,  feedback  continuing  model c a n  (A,B,C)  loop  participation  participation.  be  Long-term  Osborn  educational  (1975),  they  will  been  The is  model of  in  some higher  persisters  way  immediate  loop  itself—  to  of  education. looking  eventually, will  have  to  a  fair  will  have  Hopper  "warmed-up" t o  at  long-term  had  probably,  According  long-  or  attitudes  perhaps,  have b e e n  to consideration  f r o n t - e n d or  feedback  a  1) i n c l u d e d  adult deciding  short-term  provide  goals.  an  adapted  amount o f e x p e r i e n c e w i t h e d u c a t i o n and, established  have  (see F i g u r e  especially,  and  of  adults  e m p h a s i s on  the  could  models  124)  with  r a t h e r than on  or  the  p.  in  1986).  persistence with  variables  Merriam,  education  109-124).  C h a i n - o f - R e s p o n s e model  The  interest  and  literature  dealing  Cracraft,  ongoing  i n higher  number  (1981,  researchers  a course.  (Rogers,  is in participation  education  Cross  an  Darkenwald  interest  A  adult  Cross  are  example,  i n g e n e r a l , not  and  been  groups of v a r i a b l e s which would a f f e c t  to  The  1986);  in  summarized  Cross's  (for  programs.  participation  has  1988).  participation  1982;  six  orientations  and  education  33  FIGURE 1:  CROSS'S MODEL OF ADULT PARTICIPATION, (CROSS, 1981) (F)  ( D )  Life transitions  lnfonnatiou  Importance of goals and expectation Uiat participation will meet goals  Opportunities and barriers  (A) Self-evaluation  A  (E)  (G) Participation'  '(C) Attitudes about cduca tiou  because of past experience.  One might, therefore, expect  that the adults most l i k e l y to return to education, i f they had  dropped out i n the past, could be distinguished from  dropouts  who  do  not  return  by  already-established  differences i n attitudes to education and perceptions of the relevance  of education.  In any case,  information and  barriers, and perhaps demands arising from l i f e transitions, would have more effect on enrollment at specific times than on  long-range  investigation  participation, the emphasis  so  for purposes  i s on t.he input  elements of the model (A, B, and C).  of  this  or long-term  34  Even started  i f the  their  differences used  to  those  a  of  models  The  education,  should  and  Cross  some  focuses  be  or  less  are  long-term  participation.  general,  more  adult behavior  study  adult  to  experience  f o r a number o f c o u r s e s  Participation  for  limited  educational  predict  describe  were  those  who  e d u c a t i o n as a d u l t s , i t m i g h t be  in  participate  study  more  helpful  in  persistence,  credit  be  continue  to  insight  is  ongoing  others  1986)  higher  to  some  to  (Cookson,  understanding  could  intended  which  compared  and  that  years.  should provide  which  on  to  specifically  thus  have  expected  goals  likely and  model,  of  and  may  from  are  too  education.  It  degree-seeking  behavior  by a d u l t s . The  T i n t o Model o f D r o p o u t  There education. (1975) by  and  Lenning,  model  "intent  to  number of  of  Beal, to  Smart,  of  and be and  also  1980,  but  attrition the  model, pp.  1986).  depends  checked  in  A  i n the  higher  Tinto  model,  are  summarized The  Tinto  (Weidman,  1985;  r e c e n t model  1985)  for  the  in  43-49.  Metzner,  (measured  enrollment/non-enrollment  Education  frequently  Ethington, and  of  Spady  utilized  Bean  Higher  including  the  Sauer,  variance,  leave"  models  these,  i t s predecessor  (1982a,b;  explanation  a  Several  continues  Pascarella, Bean  are  from  most spring  fall),  has of  a  high  that  with which  by  on re-  could  35  almost  be c o n s i d e r e d a dependent v a r i a b l e ;  not a v e r y u s e f u l v a r i a b l e Tinto's extensively.  model  f o r long-range  (Figure  2)  A common f i n d i n g i s t h a t  ( o f t e n measured  as i n v o l v e m e n t s  of  more  class)  is  integration  has  certainly i t  predictions.  been  tested  academic  w i t h academic  important  in  retention  (involvement with other students)  ' FIGURE  is  fairly  integration  staff  outside  than  social  (Munro, 1981;  2: TINTO'S MODEL OF ATTRITION. (TINTO, 1975)  Commitments  Academic System  Commitments  n Grade Performance I  "1  Goat Commitment  I Individual A l Iriliutes  I  I  J^""'"!  I  Institutional Coininitinent  i  Intellectual  |  Development  |  LlJ_.  |  I  I'M- Colk'go St'linuiilig  Academic integration  r —  Family llucktrruund  1  " j "  n —  r  "71 Goal Commitment Dropout Decisions  -1  i  |  Peer-Group iiteractious  I I  Foculty Interactions  I Social S y s t e m  . j  I  I  >  Social Integration  Institutional Commitment  36  P a s c a r e l l a and T e r e n z i n i , basis f o r research emphasis  on  incorporated  1975 model i s the  by P a s c a r e l l a and s e v e r a l o t h e r s .  academic  interactions  1980). T i n t o ' s  as  a  integration means  i n Tinto's  of  and  on  academic  modification  Their  faculty/staff  integration  of the model  is  (Tinto,  1987) which moves f a c u l t y / s t a f f i n t e r a c t i o n s from the s o c i a l t o the academic system. wording  ( f o r example,  Other changes i n c l u d e "Skills  and  "Individual  Attributes")  Commitments"  t o the Commitments  end, j u s t before Adaptation probably  and  Abilities"  the  addition  a t Time  of the T i n t o  r e s u l t i n greater  to  2  instead  of  "External  (the  right-hand  model  to adult  emphasis  on  integrate  socially  as  students  the i n p u t  will  elements  students are not as  traditional-age  students  are, e s p e c i a l l y i f most of the students are t r a d i t i o n a l Adults  are  families, Likewise,  more  likely  jobs,  even  part-time  to  have  social  outside  activities  commitments (Tinto,  ;  t o be p l a c e d end  Even  given  emphasis  on the background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  of the model  participation).  to  1987).  Therefore,  t h a t these e f f e c t s are reduced or even a b s e n t , t h e  on the i n p u t  age.  students may not be as l i k e l y t o have as  much academic i n t e g r a t i o n as f u l l - t i m e r s .  would have  of  dropout).  than on the i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s . A d u l t likely  some t o the  (as with the Cross model  institutional  commitment  is  less  l i k e l y t o be a f a c t o r , e s p e c i a l l y f o r p a r t - t i m e  students,  commuting  for  distance  limits  choices  severely  on  as  adults,  37  especially college the  schooling  the  dropout  reduced  students.  would  variation in  applying of  part-time  intervening  external  commitments  something  of  importance  are  likely  traditional-age emphasizes  Tinto  to  and  education  model  be  adults,  has  However, i t has  whose  However,  commitments  formulations  been  one  of  been found t h a t  the  the the  and  the  model  add  are  for still  as  more  105-106). attempts  phenomenon.  more  widely  applied.  model works l e s s w e l l (Pascarella  Chapman,  in  study men  An  indicates and  Rather  that  women than  (Pascarella,  what of  to  a  may new  use  the  d i f f e r e n t models  applications  situations, development  effort  be model  Smart,  of  the  required (or  model may  and  same is  several  be  a  Ethington, to  and  for  1986).  different  adaptation, models  in  long-term  required  model  to The  some s e t t i n g s , f o r example t w o - y e a r c o l l e g e s 1983).  of  family  they  represent  of  the  does  commitment  models  of  than  (1987, p.  when  element  job  of  studies  because  model  more c o m p l e x  dropout  dropout,  The  1987  institutional  than external  theoretical  students,  pre-  more  students than i n  Tinto's for  and  much  vs.  variables.  students.  goal  Higher develop  in  for  persistence  traditional-age  of  background  account  T i n t o model w i t h a d u l t  effect  important  probably  long-range  among  situations  Family  or  even  for different  situations). Bean and only  Metzner  appropriate  for  (1985) s u g g e s t t h a t traditional  the  students  T i n t o model i s in  residential  38  four-year  colleges  adaptation  o f Bean's  still  contains  applies  the  studies.  traditional a  1982  to  In  of  not  short-term  addition,  a  external  commitments)  traditional  clear  discussion  that  Under  applying  in  emphasis  these not  of  experience  persistence Figure  more  Cross  family some  of  argued  which  and  includes  year) of  non-  age  only  They  ( s i m i l a r to  important  do,  Tinto's  with  non-  the on  the  Cross  models the  models i t  was  and  Tinto  elements  i t would  seem  variables,  itself,  adults.  Adults  long-term  input  many i n t e r v e n i n g  by  to  by  when  considerations of  the  that  except  there the  considering  What i s l e f t  is a  models. are,  quality  long-range  s i m p l e model  like  3.  This the  of  circumstances,  perhaps, the  Leave"  definition  variables  are  students  s t u d e n t s than academic v a r i a b l e s .  the  results  to  characteristic.  A Model o f L o n g - t e r m P e r s i s t e n c e In  Their  (consecutive  their  necessary,  however, s u g g e s t t h a t  Canada).  "Intent  e m p h a s i z e s commuter s t a t u s  possible,  external  in  model f o r n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l  element  specifically  dropout  as  (universities  i s not and  Tinto  background them  to  will  suggest models  should be  be  added  that such  the as  dropped. later  here i s a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n  specific  elements  attitudes, They a r e  (see  Figure  of the s t r u c t u r e  from  goals,  and  important 4). of  What the  and is  model  39  FIGURE 3: S I M P L I F I E D MODEL OF FACTORS AFFECTING LONG-RANGE  PERSISTENCE  Background  Persistence  Factors  for  long-term  generality  considerations,  i s desired.  Factors  enrollment/non-enrollment not  be a s i m p o r t a n t The  emphasis  at least which  decisions  i n a long-term  as  some  may  at  degree  influence  specific  well  as  participation experience  factors.  of  being  through  The way students  may  model.  i n t h e f i g u r e i s on t h e i n p u t  indirectly  model  times  elements o r  background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which a f f e c t p e r s i s t e n c e as  of  their  directly  influence  i n d i v i d u a l s respond i s affected  by  on  to the  background  characteristics. For as  a  first  adult  part  of their  enrolled  research,  students,  as  one f a c t o r w h i c h  background  i s whether  traditional-age  as R e - e n t r y  considered  o r not they  students.  t h o s e a d u l t s who had p r e v i o u s l y  or younger a r e c l a s s e d  c a n be  In  had this  e n r o l l e d a t a g e 24  students,  while  t h o s e who  40  had  never  enrolled  before  age  25  are  c l a s s e d as A d u l t  Entry  students. If  the  variable  population programs general seen  of  might than  i n the  long-term from  adults  are  of  recruited  the  of  students  completion  of  students  courses,  the  in  education  about  of  students)  students.  These  populations  shown i n T a b l e  all  years  been  differences,  selected  are  had  1.  of u n i v e r s i t y ,  of  things  a  as  to  the  words,  may  or  be  (parents,  attitude many  of  and them  university in  i n Chapter  of a p o p u l a t i o n  first-year  a  social  differences  discussed  the  on  group  like  members  addition,  related  just  to  students  g o a l s , and  T h i s i s a study not  is  t a k i n g one  traditional-age  f o r study,  was  changes  other  simply  family  In  In  adult  and  education.  (Re-entry  those  terms  v o c a t i o n a l experience  expectations  education  in  as  focus  interest  degrees.  and  However,  i n many r e s p e c t s , as  remaining  group,  origin,  siblings),  i n higher  of  a  credit  population  when t h e  population  adults  the  students.  literature,  the  only,  post-secondary  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  traditional-age  first-year  were p a r t i c i p a t i o n in  traditional-age  "traditional"  class  interest students  more  review  specific  very  be  approach  excluding two  adult  persistence,  newly  more l i k e  of  2, from  students.  41  TABLE  1:  HYPOTHESIZED DIFFERENCES RELATED TO SAMPLED AND  Adult  First  year  and  influence  the  and  mostly Re-entry, "traditional" e x c e p t i n age  of Re-entry  as  university  a  also  importance factors  affect thus  factors. may  In  have  time  of  social  class  and  as  social  student. a  student  addition,  these on  degree  to  response  a to  background  p e r s i s t e n c e , as i n f l u e n c e d by  aspiration  family experience mobility.  to These  adapts  the  effect  may  proceeds  influencing  decision,  Adult  f a m i l y members  a d e g r e e c o u l d be  o f g o a l commitment), and  such  individual  how  a direct  of completing as  an  of  traditional-age  may  characteristics  education,  not  environment,  participation  indicator  or  experience  and  affect persistence  Background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  educational  characteristics  such  Graduates  t o the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n  whether  university  the  Adult Entry Re-entry  specified.  Sampled  years  s t u d e n t s , o t h e r v a r i a b l e s w h i c h may  be  class  Populations  All  In a d d i t i o n  can  LONG-TERM PERSISTENCE  Student  mostly Adult Entry, "new" students  Entry  TO  POPULATIONS  with  (an  higher  42  Factors experience from  influencing  of being  family,  kinds  how  a student  employers,  and a b i l i t y  various  aspects  factors  are  student  hypothesized by  particular,  Re-entry  students  differently  previous experience  Figure the  4  Entry  students  distinction  model  exist in  influence  Entry  are In  students  may  factors,  with  i n higher  education  the  entry/Adult  Entry  response from  to  and l i s t i n g  i n F i g u r e 4 as o u t l i n e d i n Figure  3.  which  participation  factors,  start  their  Background directly  and  shown i n F i g u r e 4 i s t h e Reis  characteristics.  background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which r e s u l t to  background  factors.  categorization,  background  3, i n c o r p o r a t i n g  persistence  The m a j o r a d d i t i o n  likely  and  characteristics.  and A d u l t  indirectly.  more  with  participation  persistence  participation  same r e l a t i o n s h i p s  characteristics  separate  affect  and p a r t i c i p a t i o n  simplified  affect  These  i s an e l a b o r a t i o n o f F i g u r e  characteristics  the  various  them; and s a t i s f a c t i o n  background  of Re-entry  of  to greater persistence.  Re-entry/Adult  The  to  t o the  or lack of i t  problems  life.  to  affected  contributing  others;  t o cope w i t h of  responds  i n c l u d e support  and  themselves  respond  an i n d i v i d u a l  expected  as  an  to  element  The  same  i n individuals  being  post-secondary  education  as  F I G U R E B Y  4:  M O D E L  R E - E N T R Y  A N D  O F  L O N G - R A N G E  A D U L T  E N T R Y  P E R S I S T E N C E A D U L T  S T U D E N T S  Enrollment as traditional-age  PARTICIPATION FACTORS - support - problems - satisfaction  44  traditional-age  students  will  affect  directly.  Participation factors  variables  in  the  characteristics Entry  model.  is  dealt  are  treated  The with  their  effect  through  persistence  as  intervening  of  background  the  Re-entry/Adult  categorization. The  hypotheses  relationships correspond which are  which  s u g g e s t e d by  to  the  hypothesis  described  follow  are  model.  Numbers on  numbers,  i n the  based  indicating  on the  the  the arrows  effects  hypotheses.  Hypotheses In  t h i s and  participation can  be  (They a r e  on  using  on  possible  The Jex  as  hypotheses  Entry  vs.  ten-year and  as  the  according of  deal  to  with  variables  the  to  three  with  variable.  the  initial  are  model  in  hypothesis hypotheses  stated,  which  degree-completion.  participation  to  Hypotheses  dependent  distinction,  directly  related  identified.  independent  section  Entry  variables  characteristics  variables  intervening  Adult  were  presentation  background  additional  these  in this  A f t e r the  these  chapter,  degree-completion  Re-entry/Adult  connect  1966;  to  previous  persistence  grouped  4).  the  based  and  suggested  persistence  Figure  the  Two  factors  as  variables.  Re-entry.  dropout  Merrill,  studies 1967)  (Eckland, suggest  that  1964; many  Pervin, adult  45  students were i n post-secondary students.  I t would  experience  would  be  e d u c a t i o n as  seem reasonable an  advantage,  that  traditional-age  this  educational  i n t h a t they  would  knowledge of the h i g h e r education environment based direct  on  have their  experience. Hypothesis 1: Re-entry students are more l i k e l y t o p e r s i s t t o degree completion than A d u l t E n t r y students.  It  i s , in  any  case,  worthwhile  groups of a d u l t s t u d e n t s : those who students (Adult  (Re-entry)  Entry).  and  Former  those  to  compare  the  two  had been t r a d i t i o n a l - a g e  who  had  started  traditional-age  students  as  adults  have  been  i d e n t i f i e d as a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of a d u l t students i n h i g h e r education,  although  research  has  tended  to  emphasize  new  some d i f f e r e n c e s  are  students. This expected  i s a key between  background persistence the  hypothesis. Re-entry  characteristics, directly,  Re-entry/Adult  hypotheses  on  deal  the  with  participation effects  p e r s i s t e n c e of the two students.  and  Adult  most  of  independent Entry  of  While  of  Entry  these  factors  variables  their  categories.  students  intervening  affect  relationship However,  (Hypotheses variables  c a t e g o r i e s , A d u l t E n t r y and  5  in  and on  to the 6) the  Re-entry  46  Background C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Educational experience; may  experience,  time  of d e c i s i o n  be i n d i c a t o r s  been  previous social  related  postsecondary  aspiration  (which  t o e d u c a t i o n ) ; a h i s t o r y of  i n education; and s o c i a l m o b i l i t y  to  research.  mobility  and degree  of a t t i t u d e  family p a r t i c i p a t i o n all  including  persistence  to  varying  degrees  As d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s  may  be more  strongly related  have in  chapter,  to  long-term  p e r s i s t e n c e than i t i s t o p e r s i s t e n c e i n the short-term. the  previous  these  d i s c u s s i o n of models,  background  important  characteristics  i n long-term  v a r i a b l e s suggested As  shown  characteristics individual  characteristics individual  persistence  be  than  model  some  (Figure  effect  on  that  generally  more  the i n t e r v e n i n g  which  result in  student  4),  whether  as a t r a d i t i o n a l - a g e  enrolling  to  persistence  the  have  traditional-age  may  suggested  i n models l i k e those of Cross and T i n t o .  in  enrolls  i t was  In  student.  background or  not  The same  i n greater  likelihood  post-secondary  education  are  expected  degree-completion.  As  to  an  of an as  a  encourage  enrollment  as  a  t r a d i t i o n a l - a g e student c a t e g o r i z e s an a d u l t as Re-entry and therefore  more  likely  hypotheses  i n this  to  section  persist d e a l with  (Hypothesis the d i r e c t  background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on p e r s i s t e n c e .  1), the e f f e c t s of  47  Time o f D e c i s i o n . categories time  p e r s i s t e n c e c a n be  post-secondary  completion dropouts (Astin,  have  1975).  returning, had  that Those  as  some i n t e n d Re-entry  likely  perceived  their  planned  f o r a long time  and  get a degree  particularly  t o complete departure  degree-  Surveys  to return  of  and some do n o t  who  more  Entry  the length of  planned.  be  temporary.  and A d u l t  from  students  might  and l e s s  e d u c a t i o n as d e f i n i t e l y  and  definitely  dropouts  had  predicted  participation  been  indicate  themselves  who  Within the Re-entry  had p e r c e i v e d  tentative  a degree from  about  than  those  post-secondary  Adult Entry students  to attend college  w o u l d be more l i k e l y  or  to persist  who  university as s t u d e n t s  t h a n t h o s e whose d e c i s i o n s t o e n r o l l were more r e c e n t . Hypothesis 2: The longer adult students p l a n n e d t o c o m p l e t e d e g r e e s and t h e f a r t h e r planned t o go w i t h their education, the likely they are to persist t o degrees. specifically: (a)  The  earlier  decision school, degrees,  that  adult  t o pursue t h e more  students  made  e d u c a t i o n beyond  likely  e v e n as a d u l t  they  are to  have they more More  their  secondary complete  students.  (b)  Re-entry students w i l l be more likely to c o m p l e t e i f t h e y had i n t e n d e d t o r e t u r n when they left post-secondary education as t r a d i t i o n a l - a g e s t u d e n t s t h a n i f t h e y were uncertain o r had p e r c e i v e d t h e m s e l v e s as dropouts at that time.  (c)  Adult Entry students will more likely complete degrees i f attending a college or university was fulfillment of a long-time  48  ambition  than  i f their  decision  to attend  was  recent. Time o f d e c i s i o n students: other  traditional-age  parts  Re-entry  related of  the  Old plans new  be  related and  has  1985)  commitment  to  in  been  education  hypothesis  likely  persistence. aspiration  other  with  (Lenning,  Beal,  and  be  could  or less  or p a r t i c i p a t i o n  and  Sauer, a  than  they  been Family source Degree  completion  in  1980;  Bean  and  measure  of  goal  These  variables  have b e e n  but they  Other  have  model.  degree  considered  research,  to  Family  research.  and T i n t o m o d e l s .  important  are  has b e e n p a r t  a r e more  i n the Cross  connected  i n the Cross  be more  Entry  plans.  degree  persistence  about  research  Metzner,  of  i s p a r t o f t h e T i n t o model a n d c o u l d be a  aspiration  The  to differentiate  higher education  plan.  background  attitudes  dropout  A l l parts  life  will  with  background  may  groups.  factors  associated  students.  E d u c a t i o n a l Background:Degree A s p i r a t i o n .  educational  other  are expected  t o p e r s i s t e n c e than  Family  or adult  post-secondary  non-completers w i t h i n the A d u l t  t o the l e n g t h of time  contribute  of  from  an i n d i v i d u a l ' s  input  students  of the hypothesis  degree-completers and  [ 2 ( a ) ] c a n a p p l y t o any  will  found i n  still  have  effect. H y p o t h e s i s 3: A d u l t s who p e r s i s t i n p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n t o c o m p l e t i o n o f degrees, as opposed t o  49  a d u l t p a r t i c i p a n t s i n higher e d u c a t i o n who do not complete degrees w i l l (a)  more l i k e l y have f a m i l y members w i t h advanced education,  (b)  more frequently have advanced degrees, when secondary e d u c a t i o n .  planned to pursue they s t a r t e d post-  The hypothesis c o u l d a l s o be a p p l i e d t o t r a d i t i o n a l - a g e students:  i t i s , i n fact,  students  will  particularly  be  more  those  with  degree-completion like  adult  among  expected like  that  traditional-age  characteristics that  non-persisters.  persistent  students—  associated  age g r o u p — t h a n They  adult  they  with  will  are not r e a l l y  be  "new" t o  higher education. S o c i a l C l a s s / M o b i l i t y . The emphasis so f a r has been on attempting  to differentiate  those who are most l i k e l y However, s i m i l a r i t i e s p a r t i a l l y accounting f i r s t place. persisters persistence. status of  from  among  to persist  a l l adult  t o degree  among p a r t i c i p a n t s  students  completion.  are a l s o  expected,  f o r the d e c i s i o n t o p a r t i c i p a t e  i n the  These s i m i l a r i t i e s between p e r s i s t e r s and nonwill  have  more  For example,  (Hopper and Osborn,  do  with  anomalous  1975,  m a r g i n a l i t y ) i s expected  However, i t i s expected  to  enrollment  or marginal  p. 13,  125-126,  t o be common  t h a t the newer  social  definition  t o both  students,  than  groups. the ones  l e s s l i k e l y t o p e r s i s t , w i l l more l i k e l y be upwardly mobile, while more of the other students w i l l  be downwardly  mobile.  50  Maintaining an  status,  important  studied that  by  motivator  among  Hopper and O s b o r n  students  r e t u r n to  or c o r r e c t i n g the  decline  Eckland  families  after  in  status  degree-completing  (1975).  from h i g h e r c l a s s  higher education  for  was  adults found  (1965)  were more l i k e l y  to  leaving.  H y p o t h e s i s 4: T h e r e w i l l be a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f individuals downwardly mobile in social class among a d u l t s who p e r s i s t t o d e g r e e s t h a n among non-persisters. T h e r e w i l l be a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of upwardly mobile individuals among nonpersisting adults than persisters (mobility by comparison to the c l a s s of f a m i l y of o r i g i n ) .  Individuals likely  to  and w i l l , of  have  from had  family  therefore,  education.  including  status.  On t h e  f o r the  be  busy  a n y t h i n g about  be  educational,  other  patience  with  members  hand, payoff  pursue  their it.  pursue  will  higher  to  change  a degree.  not  education to  the  inclined  from c o u r s e s  their  status  more  to  be  more  education benefits take  their  upwardly mobile  long g r i n d to  to  classes  have more u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  e x p e c t more i m m e d i a t e  satisfied  social  They may a l s o  action,  too  higher  some  current  individuals  and t h u s T h e y may, or  perceive  have in  may less  fact,  sufficiently a  need  to  do  51  2  Hypotheses expected the  to  arrow  have  have d i r e c t  from  3 and  Figures  some  deal effect  background 4.  with on  variables  which  p e r s i s t e n c e , as  characteristics  to  on  adult  students'  i n higher education,  entry/Adult  Entry d i s t i n c t i o n .  hypotheses  in  the  form  degree-completers  of  and  Table expected  by  persistence i n will  response  t r e a t e d here  are  shown  These background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  effect  experience  4  to  also  to  through  their the  Re-  2 i s a summary o f  the  differences  non-completers  in  between  background  characteristics.  Participation While effects  the  of  emphasis  affected  education students  react  problems of  may  t o have some e f f e c t  Re-entry  and  dissatisfied  on  the  participate  and  characteristics,  is  happens t o a d u l t s t u d e n t s when t h e y  by  perception  ( F i g u r e 4)  model  experience  Entry  expectations  the  the  s t u d e n t s — i s expected  Adult  in  background  itself—what as  Factors  these  they be  are  in  different  of  being  problems; with  related  before they  students  to  their  may ways.  a  have How  student,  and  how  or  different adults and  not  in they  are  their  satisfied  experience  whether  became a d u l t s .  on p e r s i s t e n c e .  or  higher were  52  TABLE 2: SUMMARY OF HYPOTHESES: BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS AND  DEGREE COMPLETION  Degree  Completers  Hypothesis  2 (a) e a r l y  Hypothesis  Hypothesis  Non-Completers  time  of d e c i s i o n  late  time  of decision  (b)  stopouts - intended to r e t u r n (Re-entry)  p e r c e i v e d s e l v e s as dropouts (Re-entry)  (c)  long-time to attend  recent attend  ambition (Adult Entry)  plan to (Adult Entry)  3 (a) t r a d i t i o n o f h i g h e r education i n family  no t r a d i t i o n o f higher education in family  (b) a d v a n c e d d e g r e e aspiration  no a d v a n c e d degree a s p i r a t i o n  4 (a) downward mobility  social  upward s o c i a l mobility  53  Satisfaction. ascribed  to  pursuing  higher  entry  the  students)  experience. be  based  in  an  Those w i t h  new  "market"  education and  may  T h e i r more  on  a change  environment  perceived  to  be  credentials.  As  of  for  be  students  will  have  will  recent  familiarity  with  probability  of  be  (from  Re-  i n d i f f e r e n t ways by  the may  vocational goal  or  on  job  status to  result,  more  and  they  may  benefit  more  As  There  of  well,  e d u c a t i o n a l environment,  including  the  Re-entry  their  i s a much  the A d u l t E n t r y s t u d e n t s : w i t h  or  immediate  s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the whole e x p e r i e n c e  with  were  them, p e r h a p s t h a t  because  education.  a  advancement  expect  application.  easily  having  advancement  educational  than  other  reasons  may  participate  Re-entry the  students)  to  where  higher  sometimes  decision  immediate  adapt  different  affected  related a  (Adult Entry  signs that t h e i r courses w i l l content  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  greater greater by  the  the courses  and  instructors  and  students. Hypothesis 5: A d u l t E n t r y students w i l l from Re-entry students in response to educational experience, i n t h a t they w i l l  differ their  (a)  expect more immediate' p a y o f f from their c o u r s e s s u c h as more i m m e d i a t e a p p l i c a t i o n o f c o u r s e c o n t e n t t o work o r o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s ,  (b)  feel and  (c)  experience less instructors.  less  comfortable  with  other  s a t i s f a c t i o n with  students,  courses  and  54  While that  some  success  of the l i t e r a t u r e causes  on m o t i v a t i o n  satisfaction,  some  suggests  recent  higher  education r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t s a t i s f a c t i o n i s a cause of p e r s i s t e n c e and h i g h e r achievement 1983). more  The ambiguity argument  about  for  (Pascarella  satisfaction  placing  and Chapman,  i s , perhaps,  emphasis  on  one  background  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , where the c a u s a l d i r e c t i o n i s more c e r t a i n . The  model  here  suggests  that  expectations  and p r e v i o u s  persistence,  according  differences  satisfaction  experience, to  i n satisfaction  to  which are r e l a t e d t o  Hypothesis should  i s related  1.  However,  have some d i r e c t  effect  on p e r s i s t e n c e . Support; and  Problems.  perhaps,  their  i n fact,  education  than  the student r o l e of  being  other  encounter Re-entry  more problems  students,  both  (financial  of t h e i r  lives,  problems,  responsibilities).  They may  families  be due t o i n e x p e r i e n c e  (which  may  have had i n higher e d u c a t i o n ) . perceived  as  problems  the  effects  less  Support of  family  support  with  and job  from  family  with  burdens  and c o n f l i c t  particularly have  perceive  i n pursuing  (studying) and with the a d d i t i o n a l  a student  areas  A d u l t E n t r y students w i l l  their  members  and problems may be  external  situations  or  commitments on students' p e r s i s t e n c e . Hypothesis 6: A d u l t E n t r y students w i l l experience more problems with the student r o l e than Ree n t r y students, i n ways which w i l l n e g a t i v e l y  55  affect their Specifically,  more freguently have problems, (such as financial difficulties, job pressures, or difficulties with studying) which affect t h e i r persistence to degree-completion. has  f r e q u e n t l y been  participation married  Beal  and  that  of  (Hypothesis  3)  students,  more  Adult  Similarly, be  related  themselves related of  the  with Entry  to  to  students,  education, encounter  perception  may  of  inexperience, 1).  unfamiliarity  are  with  themselves obviously with be  problems.  and  important  by  Van  adults,  Dyk,  Support  by  also  important.  family  will  an  make  Entry  be  1977;  parents,  members  students  It i s  with  i t difficult  other  higher  for  than  some  Re-entry  support.  (Hypothesis  students  study  often  to obtain  (Bishop  e m p l o y e r s may  inexperience  as  persistence  1980).  education  students,  mentioned  and  adults  Sauer,  members, and  assumed  completion.  (b)  particularly  family  degree  perceive t h a t they have less support for t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t s f r o m f a m i l y members and o t h e r s c l o s e t o them, and  in  Lenning,  to  (a)  Support variable  persistence they w i l l  a less  and  and in  this  case  Financial student their  related more  response  determined  problems  of  the  families.  on  may the  be part  Difficulties  inexperience. commitment to  may  students  problems  lifestyle  to  recent  to  persist  Adult  to i f  higher they  56  Hypotheses which The  5  and  are middle  expectation  these  affect  effect  on  6  deal  elements i s that  Adult  intervening  i n the Cross  there  Entry  persistence  with  will  and  or  and  be  variables  Tinto  differences  Re-entry  students,  degree-completion  will  models. in  how  and t h e be  as  intervening variables. Table the  3  provides  hypotheses  hypotheses (Figure and  5  a  of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  on p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  and  Because  6 are intervening  4 ) , t h e summary  Adult  summary  Entry  the v a r i a b l e s i n  variables  i n t h e model  i s o f d i f f e r e n c e s between  students,  e x p e c t e d t o be more l i k e l y  with  the  t o complete  from  Re-entry  Re-entry students  degrees.  Summary The Tinto to  framework  models.  have  as  model. will route and  found  effect  with  most  on r e a c t i o n s  uncertain  important  the perception  that  t o achievement of goals importance  of  that  based  educational  education  and  of studies)  i n t e g r a t i o n , which on  Tinto's  background  i s o r c a n be t h e  and p e r c e p t i o n  support  and  t o the academic  relevance  i n research  suggested  the Cross  factors are predicted  on t h e f a c t o r o f a c a d e m i c  I t i s also  affect  background  (other students,  therefore been  i s consistent  Educational  a considerable  environment and  here  of the strength  barriers:  thus  57  TABLE  3:  SUMMARY OF HYPOTHESES: PARTICIPATION FACTORS AND ENTRY STATUS*  Re-entry Hypothesis 5  Hypothesis  6  Adult Entry  delayed a p p l i c a t i o n ( c r e d e n t i a l emphasis)  immediate a p p l i c a t i o n (content/skill emphasis)  comfortable with other students, s c h o l a s t i c environment  problems w i t h o t h e r students, s c h o l a s t i c environment  high  low  satisfaction  satisfaction  perceive higher l e v e l of support from f a m i l y and o t h e r s  p e r c e i v e lower l e v e l of support from f a m i l y and o t h e r s  fewer f i n a n c i a l and o t h e r problems  more f i n a n c i a l and o t h e r problems  *Re-entry s t u d e n t s expected c o m p l e t i o n (Hypothesis 1).  t o be more p e r s i s t e n t  t o degree-  58  giving goals  potentially than  because  to  of  o t h e r elements  the  models w i l l  greater  be  difference tested  The  hypotheses  research  reported  emphasis i n the  in this in  the  chapter  effects  5  to  7.  empirical  on  different  long-term The  results  model.  here,  of  However,  neither  of  the  basis  several  data c o l l e c t i o n ;  variables  persistence  utility  form  following  of  variables  importance  of  the  of  the  directly.  4 d e a l s w i t h the a c t u a l of  the  Cross  i n emphasis  Chapter the  to  the  are  and  chapters. the  combinations  reported i n  model  i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter  in 8.  testing of  Chapters  explaining  the  59  CHAPTER 4  RESEARCH DESIGN AND  SURVEY PROCEDURES  Introduction In  this  reported.  chapter, The  initial  data  selection. described  an o u t l i n e  first  section  collection Then  of  and  the procedure  reliability  and  including  non-respondents  followed  by  a  design  of  with  data.  for  the their  survey  is  to increase the  of  the  the  survey  Limitations  particularly  a brief  f o r making  A telephone  outline  t o the certain  survey  This  variables  are  of  report i s  used.  of the data  The  analysis  chapters.  initially  student  to  i s described b r i e f l y .  procedure used i n l a t e r Sources o f Data  number  efforts  are suggested.  description  concludes  The  reasons  non-respondents  o f t h e sample,  of comparison,  chapter  outlines  f o r the mailed  compared on t h e b a s i s o f a v a i l a b l e  some  design i s  rate.  Respondents  kinds  the chapter  plans  i n some d e t a i l ,  response  of the research  records  had two p a r t s : followed  somewhat s m a l l e r number o f t h o s e  by  a study a  students  mail  of a  large  survey  of a  whose r e c o r d s had  60  been a n a l y z e d . to t e s t a l l  for  the  the  Hypothesis  study  of  research,  1,  collected  two data sources  was  necessary  records enabled  provided partial  a  base  direct  of  hard  testing  allowed a check of the r e l i a b i l i t y of the  by  survey,  generalizability  of  however,  hypotheses.  (If  the  father's  and  the  The r e c o r d s ,  example,  of  hypotheses.  First, data  The use  gave  survey  data to  d i d not student  occupation,  some  idea  a wider  p r o v i d e data  of data  of  the  population.  on most  of  the  records data had i n c l u d e d ,  for  i t would have been p o s s i b l e  to  t e s t Hypothesis 4 more e a s i l y . ) The s o f t e r through  6.  survey data were needed to t e s t Hypotheses 2  The  survey  was  based  on  a  more  restricted  p o p u l a t i o n than the sample f o r the study of r e c o r d s , otherwise  the  is discussed Simon because  It  had  students in  would have been unwieldy.  Fraser has  University been  had for  By o f f e r i n g  policies  at  to  wishing  comparatively  a long time.  Columbia  (S.F.U.)  comparatively  p a r t i c u l a r l y those  British  (This  later.)  it  students,  data a n a l y s i s  because  set  S.F.U.  was  was  selected  accessible to  attend  to  up a p a r t - t i m e  first  to  adult  university  degree  l e a s t undergraduate A r t s courses  adult  part-time.  favorable the  mainly  program.  at n i g h t  on  61  a regular rotation, S.F.U. made i t possible for adults to make long-range plans to pursue degrees. three B.C.  universities  proportions students  who  of  A 1982  survey of  indicated that S.F.U. had  students  25  considered  years  of  themselves  age  and  part-time  higher  older  and  than  the  University of British Columbia or the University of Victoria (Taylor and Weldon, 1982). Thus, S.F.U. has been comparatively attractive to adult students in B.C. since  its  It has been involved with adult students  beginning  attractive to adults.  in  1965  and  remains  relatively  That i t s programming for adults i s  not a recent innovation was  especially important  for this  study, in order to obtain a population of adult students who could  have  been  attending  over  a  long  time-period,  specifically ten years. The  selection  convenient.  In  of  S.F.U.  addition,  the  was  also  Division  practical of  and  Continuing  Studies, the Office of Academic Advice, and the Registrar's Office were a l l cooperative and very helpful. Student Records Data A l l students who were enrolled at S.F.U. in the third trimester of 1973 and whose birthdates preceded December 1, 1948 were included in the study of records.  The selection  of age 25 as a minimum age i s consistent with other studies, required less data collection than would have been necessary  62  using  a  role  possibility  definition  of  having  traditional-age Entry),  out  by  this  some  that  25  o f age o r o l d e r  years  ago.  included  (There  study  Hypothesis  used  1;  when  age  of  by  because they  initial  data  context  not  included  data  The  initial who  were  but  for this  to  study).  partially  test  a t S.F.U.  was  or Re-entry  status.  some v a r i a b l e s  Average  which  could  f o r the and  In  time  data at  c a n be v i e w e d a s d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s  a s much a s  Mailed  variables.  They a r e i n c l u d e d , however,  (Chapter 7 ) .  Survey  of the v a r i a b l e s  obtained  i n t h e model  these  hypothesis  the m u l t i v a r i a t e analysis  Most  reasonable  records,  used  Point  left  or  a r e independent  The  was  and- p e r s p e c t i v e  Grade  (Adult  a t S.F.U. o v e r t e n  registration  provided  as  of students  total  of Adult Entry  survey.  were  was  started adults  adults.  enrolled  1561  the  undoubtedly  there  records  records  t o provide  university  in  of  records  obtained  they  usable  were  a s an i n d i c a t o r  addition, be  14 35  were  for  p o p u l a t i o n t o be  were  126 r e c o r d s w h i c h were n o t u s a b l e  The  used  students  a l l included  involved  years  for a substantial  adult  analysis  who  and a s  u s e o f an age c r i t e r i o n ,  confidence  allowed  students  (Re-entry)  allowed  While  adult,  both  students  and s t i l l  sampled.  of  from  a  used  mailed  i n this  research  questionnaire.  come  This  from  section  63  contains  a  discussion  development  of the  Sample • between 25 the  fall  was  of  34  respondents  was  years of  age  The  feasibly  still  i n 1983  1985),  not  the in  need the  to  had  include  1983,  a  undergraduates 1948.  The was  double  males  a  or  who  a t S.F.U. i n  ten-year i t  were  age  meant  cohort  that  of the  a l l  survey i n  It also  physiological  reduced  considerations  the  born  limit on  in the  the  number  mailed  analyses.  of  of  years  and  i t was  193 9  by  in  between  particularly the  in  influence  reasons of  result  sex  to  4),  i t was  sexes for  of  need  allow  for  that  the  expected  both  suggested dropping  in  out:  relationships,  vocational  stages.  and  in a  expected  family  importance  and the t i m e t a b l e f o r d e v e l o p m e n t a l (Figure  the  to  practicality.  respondents  While  a l l male  from  survey  f o r some v a r i a b l e s  of s o c i a l m o b i l i t y ,  model  selected  feasibility  there are d i f f e r e n c e s  differences  was  i n the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r would a p p l y t o  literature,  effects  to  would  statistical  sexes,  the  the  be y o u n g enough t o c o n t i n u e  sample  S.F.U.  mainly  females  model o u t l i n e d  the  of  (or a t the time  health  decision  almost  sound  to  a l r e a d y completed.  random  at  based  Including for  of  questionnaire.  In  age  and  when r e g i s t e r e d  However,  t o work f o r d e g r e e s i f they  selection  limited  selection  arbitrary.  could  sample  survey  1973.  somewhat  the  questionnaire.  The  and  of  With  that  goals,  respect  some  of  to the  64  participation  factors  problems—would included. fact  have  Another  group  applied  t o women.  reason  f o r study:  Eliminating much.  have  been  would  respond  differently factors),  interpretation  and a n a l y s i s  6.  period and  original  and  Bradburn,  with  a  Fraser  items  The  items,  Office  of other o f Academic  Questionnaire.)  to  the  has been  mainly  the population there  25  a n d 34.  the  that  older  student  males  experience  therefore complicate the  of the data unnecessarily.  survey  was  involved  sources,  researchers, Advice.  over  of other  t o Asking  other  use  of  a  H y p o t h e s e s 2, 3, 4, 5,  developed  a variety  reference  1982) and  number  expected  data t o t e s t  from  i s  t h e age r a n g e o f t h e sample  and would  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e using  were  have b e e n a more  t o 809 between  i t was a l s o  to collect  and  aged 35 a n d o l d e r a t Simon F r a s e r  for limiting  Questionnaire.  here  by age was n o t c o n t i n u o u s ;  (participation  questionnaire  males  education  o f 1973, compared  mentioned;  support  i f females  o l d e r males d i d n o t reduce  Some o f t h e r e a s o n s  and  effects  r e - e n t r y as a term  82 male s t u d e n t s  the f a l l  particular  f o r selecting  The d i s t r i b u t i o n  were o n l y in  different  t h a t m a t u r e women i n h i g h e r  popular  by  studied—in  an  extended  questionnaires  Questions  (Sudman  and c o n s u l t a t i o n  including  (See A p p e n d i x  t h e Simon C for  the  65  The  main  intent  educational  histories  educational  plans  -Questions (and  questionnaires  the  mail  survey  occupation  and  or  their  social  used  other  I t was  categories  (Holland,  occupational  titles.  support  (12,15),  mother's  important  possible, Marital included  hoped  1973)  used  (21),  also  status, because  size of  considerations could  questions of  family,  on  to  and  lost  students.  using Holland  specific  ( 1 4 ) , and  condense  histories. as  of c h i l d r e n  these  much  motives ( 8 ) ,  included age  name  10, 11)  were n o t e x p e c t e d  were  the p o s s i b i l i t y affect  be  required  order  data  to  t o use t h e  as employment and e d u c a t i o n a l open-ended  asked  (13), problems  in  for  not very  (20) b e c a u s e  f o r questions  and b e c a u s e t h e s e  —  7 ( b ) , 9,  can  which  satisfaction  education  questionnaire as  were  were  occupation  asking  for  "professional,"  (6(b),  information  Several of  when  as  Respondents  principal  questions.  lists  such  occupations  survey-  the instrument  "professional/managerial"  and p r e s e n t  Check  respondents'  history).  categories  categories  and  and  and  h i s t o r y and p l a n n i n g  i n preparing  checkoff  o r even  class  category  studied  father's  occupational  and a t t h e t i m e o f t h e  educational  informative.)  past  good  family educational  (using  "managerial,"  get  of the respondents,  1 t o 7 deal with  the  their  to  i n the past  17 and 21 w i t h  precise  was  life  the t o be Where well. were  situation  66  Four a d u l t students the  sample  population  completers ) wording  completed  and  time  a d d i t i o n a l items, which  affected  particular  who had attended S . F . U .  (two  degree-completers  the  questionnaire  requirements.  and  When  one  Science  person  specifically  courses).  from the O f f i c e  asks  (such  respondents  to  a  few  short  items enough  so  and m a i l i n g c o s t s .  question  enrollment important education  essentially but  to  asking  motives  for  as  That,  as  things  access  usually  along with  deleted to  to  relevant  minimize  7 and 9) was c u t ,  respondents  was  for  the  time  for  One q u e s t i o n on job h i s t o r y  in  In a d d i t i o n a few  item  was  keep  what  8  on they  pursuing  along w i t h  reasons perceived  to  as  themselves  suggested problems i n  considered  for  postsecondary  were d e l e t e d and f a t h e r ' s e d u c a t i o n was dropped (because most  to  students.  (so as to see i f these a d u l t s p e r c e i v e d  as d i f f e r e n t ) .  suggest  recommendations  duplicating  others  on  an open ended q u e s t i o n  make  were  (which would have gone between a  commented  Whatever came up was  improvement of S . F . U . ' s treatment of a d u l t  questionnaire  non-  of Academic Advice at S . F . U . ,  respondents  Finally,  and two  these i n d i v i d u a l s tended t o d i s c u s s  the reason f o r i n c l u d i n g Question 22, which  than  asked  something covered i n one of the q u e s t i o n s . a request  later  be  14 the  father's  occupation). A few questions the  questions  turned out not t o generate  on o c c u p a t i o n a l category  useful data:  (Holland,  1973)  and  67  sources  of  support,  p r o b a b l y due may  have  certain  Mailed  particular.  to the r e l a t i v e  resulted  in  a  S u r v e y ; Response 340  34 y e a r s o f age  Records.  Two  selections similar  i n the  more  had  the  total  made  fall  males  were  sample  any  to  check  Office  of  which  values  for  City  Directories  more  useful);  the  were  and  i n the  Canada.  addresses.  (Three  States,  each  It  was  (25  Columbia 342,  to  selected  i n the Student as  original  student records  were  City  and  no  Directory.  although  sent  out,  A l l addresses by  either  Alumni  only  using  (the C i t y  telephone  addresses not  Australia  the  some  were  34 0  possible were  and  British Columbia  Directories  used  of  B.C.,  check to  were  were  outside  sent  most  All  British  to  West  the  Fraser  directories  listed  effort  Simon  Office.  by  questionnaires to  range  immediately,  was  phonebooks  sample  1948  were r a n d o m l y  on  checked  out-of-town  and  initially.  known  or  1939  age  selected  selected  1984,  addresses  one  i n that  addresses.  Registrar's  those  1973)  questionnaires  in  Columbia  of  found i n a B r i t i s h  up-to-date,  in  was  o f t h e sample  range  b o r n between  "ADDRESS UNKNOWN"  name was  Before  but  problem  Rate  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were m a i l e d  for  homogeneity  restricted  males  f r o m t h e g r o u p o f 809  was  This  variables.  Initially,  So,  in  the  Germany.)  foreign United As  a  68  result, to  99  of  different  the  returned was  kept  of  and  the  number  individuals, by  but  oversight;  another  address  different  addresses  this  was  a  from  S.F.U.  second  the  third  effort  for  these  (from  the  originally);  worked.  Follow-up q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  where and  the  there  had  been no 106  response r a t e something  studies" 40% that  typically  (Lenning, with  Registrar's obtained.  of  one  the  342)  have  However:  of  were  trying  to  Ninety-six 10,  different  this  was  the  additional  sent sent  returned  31.0%. on  response  and  help  offices,  (This  into  an  questionnaires  embarks  Beal,  hundred.  by  32,  address to in  had  the 125  same cases  Canada  Post  response.-  usable  (out  not  to  number  t r i e d when a new  were  the  of the  86,  p r e v i o u s l y been  questionnaires  Finally,  not  had  and sent  addresses  For  not  one  went  for  individual. was  one  99  S.F.U. a d d r e s s  which  addresses  second m a i l i n g s — f o r  original  to  S.F.U.  individuals.)  the  address  of  were o v e r  main  the  by  originally  questionnaires  were t r i e d f o r  for  went  unfortunately,  the  records  address  provided  of  not,  address  mailed  number  Canada P o s t — t h e r e  simple  find  from those  were  used,  different  questionnaires  addresses  Records order  340  Sauer, of  a  the higher  were  Follow-up  returned, studies  optimistically. rates 1980). Simon rate  of  had  Fraser could  are  "Autopsy  between  It  a  15%  been Alumni have  and hoped and been  69  (1)  Simon F r a s e r A l u m n i O f f i c e d e f i n e s a l u m n i " o n l y as p e o p l e "who have c o m p l e t e d d e g r e e s , c e r t i f i c a t e s , o r d i p l o m a s " , t h u s e l i m i n a t i n g most n o n - c o m p l e t e r s from c o n s i d e r a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the o f f i c e was inactive before 1981. (Telephone c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h C h r i s t i n e L i o t t a , Simon F r a s e r A l u m n i O f f i c e , J u l y 5, 1985) .  (2)  The R e g i s t r a r ' s O f f i c e u n t i l r e c e n t l y made l i t t l e o r no e f f o r t t o keep t r a c k o f s t o p o u t s . Requests for transcripts were not recorded, ' so opportunities t o update a d d r e s s e s were missed. (Telephone conversation with David Smithers, Director of Systems Analysis, Simon Fraser R e g i s t r a r ' s o f f i c e , J u l y 5, 1985. He c o n s i d e r e d a 30% r e s p o n s e r a t e f r o m a l u m n i t o be good.)  In  1983,  the  Office  surveyed  1978-1982  response  rate,  in  this  a  from has  graduates  result  the  Simon  a special  Fraser  interest  C).  enclosed.  Stamped  Short  questionnaire  of  (which  consistently  effective  Hartman, and  Brown,  However, non-response be  by  mail  similar  were  researcher assuring  Appendix  not  Analytical  to  Studies  and  the  at  achieved  37.4%  for  S.F.U. a  38.3%  graduates  survey.  Questionnaires the  of  the  sent  out  with  confidentiality Office  of  Continuing  addressed  monetary was in  were  Studies,  adult  return  sent)  is  increasing  the  letter  anonymity,  envelopes a  and  (see were  follow-up  only  response  from  which  students  incentive,  problem  was  as n o n - c o n t a c t — m e m b e r s  questionnaires  and  i n p a r t - t i m e and and  cover  strategy  rate  (Fuqua,  1982).  major  "located".  a  As r e t u r n e d by  felt  t o be  not  so  o f t h e sample who  stated, Canada  over Post.  one Two  much could  hundred or  more  70  different  addresses  Probably  fewer  delivered of  the  who  than  actually  for  them. the  subsequent  141  individuals.  questionnaires  individuals;  received received  A  tried  24 0  t o the c o r r e c t  sample  50%.  were  The  were  perhaps  less  actually than  response  rate  for  q u e s t i o n n a i r e may  have  been  telephone  survey  half those over  confirmed  this  conclusion. R e s p o n d e n t s and N o n - r e s p o n d e n t s Table age  4  reports  of i n i t i a l  completion can  be  less  as  with  being  response  registration  of degrees  used  status,  the  those  Re-entry  students  at  students.  (Some o f t h o s e who  were t r a n s f e r s Both  at  age  S.F.U.  overall  were.  of  had  at  47.4%  only of  four  of  probable  the  45  age  24  those  or who  Adult  Entry  a t S.F.U. a t an  older  might  59.4%  of the respondents  or Adult Entry  and  25  non-  registration  definition  the  the  completion or  at  registration  were aged  dimensions:  initially  started  on  two  of i n i t i a l  being  therefore,  effect  68.1%  only  57.5%  table,  and,  by  older  S.F.U. b u t  While  degrees,  or  initial  an  sample,  registered  the  25  on  of Re-entry  registered  registered  age  age  Age  indicator  who  rate  a t S.F.U. and  a t S.F.U.  a rough  Compared  be  and  Re-entry.) degree-completion  response  rate.  or older  when t h e y  of  the  106  sample  had  received  had done s o .  non-degree  In  the first  respondents S.F.U.  (As n o t e d i n  respondents  had  71  TABLE 4 RESPONSE  RATE BY DEGREE  AND AGE OF I N I T I A L  Age  COMPLETION  REGISTRATION AT S.F.U.  Category:  24 o r l e s s  25 o r o l d e r  Totals  Completers  39.0% (  36.0% ( 86)  37.4% (163)  Non-completers  40.6% ( 32) •  21.8% (147)  25.1%  Degree: 1  Sample (Total x  2  77).  39.4% (109) 27.0% (233) number o f r e s p o n d e n t s : 106)  = 8.33, d . f . = 1,  (179)  31.0% (342)  p<0.01  •'•Percentages i n d i c a t e p r o p o r t i o n r e s p o n d i n g i n each c a t e g o r y . F o r e x a m p l e , 30 o f 77 (39.0%) c o m p l e t e r s i n 24 o r l e s s c a t e g o r y r e s p o n d e d . F o u r respondents age c a t e g o r y . 2  in  each  completed  degrees  elsewhere,  two  2  72  received  degrees  proportions They  may  respond  of  be,  like  four  rate  seen  for  the  i n T a b l e 4, groups  considerably  in  the  to  estimate  whole more  of  Response  the response are  students 1973,  rate  roughly  25  and  less  some e x t e n t  new  fall  impossible  degree-holders,  non-completers  To  by  is  individuals  S.F.U.  age/degree  categories. response  It  sample.  likely  to  non-completers.)  registration  in  similar  c a n be  the  the  of  than  As  elsewhere.  this  who  rates  equivalent, with older  than  at  for  i s due  first  the  to the  registered  for three  other  low  rate  of  f o r the  first  time  other  factors  (at  as d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . was  related  to  three  least): (a)  L e n g t h o f t i m e between i n i t i a l F r a s e r and t h e F a l l o f 1973.  (b)  (Related to time spent.) r e c e i v e d a t Simon F r a s e r .  (c)  Grade P o i n t  Basically,  account to  (at  respond  there  than  i s an  sample  who  responded  ratio  interaction  of  the  of  credits  that  effect  Only  initially mailed  the  same f o r  degree-  non-completers—taking  19  into  c o m p l e t e r s were more However,  in  some  likely cases,  between t h e above f a c t o r s  which i n c r e a s e s the  Time.  had to  3:2  and  non-completers.  degree-completion Length  a r e more o r l e s s  S.F.U.)  the basic  Number  Average.  the e f f e c t s  completers  e n r o l l m e n t a t Simon  difference.  (18.4%)  registered  and  in  questionnaire.  of  the  the As  103  fall  in of  a l l students  the 1973 in  73  the  sample were  some  extent  completers  25  or older  accounts  among  f o r the  those  when aged 25 o r more. category  was  age/degree  30.6%,  groups  registration  had  i n the  who  low  had  Within  still  less  Table  than  4.)  likely  of  1971  and  subsequently  between  most  of those  were  split  results  between  most  first  time  other  those  fall  who  of  three  whose  first  o f 1971 and t h e  1971  of those  was  38.2%.  were  completion  had  and  registered  around  two  Fall,  more  prior  years  1973  time to  later  registrants  between 1971 a n d 1973 a r e  degree-completers  are again s i g n i f i c a n t  to  Table 5 r e f l e c t s the  degree  initial  and  non-completers.  f o r the e f f e c t  S.F.U. on r e s p o n s e r a t e  i n that  l o n g e r were more  t o respond.  TABLE  non-  degree-completers  registered  likely  of  the response rate  still  graduated;  n o t ; and t h o s e who  evenly The  Of  the  groups,  interaction  a t S.F.U.:  Fall,  did  these  rate  f o r the  t o respond than non-completers.  effect spent  of  to  this  f o r others i n this  o c c u r r e d between t h e f a l l  prior  1973,  f o r the  (The r e s p o n s e r a t e  in  registered each  of  response  registered  summer o f 1973, 32.8% r e s p o n d e d ; who  fall  t h o s e who  of time a t  h a d b e e n a t S.F.U.  5:  RESPONSE RATE OF DEGREE COMPLETERS AND NONCOMPLETERS BY TERM OF I N I T I A L REGISTRATION. Simon F r a s e r Degree S t a t u s :  Fall,  1973  Completers  33.3%  (18)  34.9%  (63)  40.2% (82)  15.3%  (85)  30.6%  (62)  32.1% (28)  1  Non-completers X  2  = 10.50, d . f . = 2, p<0.01  •'-Four r e s p o n d e n t s included.  who  F a l l , 1971 t o Summer, 1973  Prior to F a l l , 1971  (N = 338)  completed  degrees  elsewhere  not  74  Number to  time  of  credits  spent  at  participation. first  year,  certainty those  Number  of  credits  Simon F r a s e r  as  an  It  is  second  because  with  30  of  of  those  responded;  of  those  (see  when  linear—in completer because credits  at  each  of  with  this not  to  between  be  transfer 22.7%  31  and  of  credit  the  are  small  31  and  non-linearity,  the  the  size  60  29.2% 36.5%  consistently are  compared  non-completers slightly of  the  credits.  effect  Of  sample  hours,  fairly  results  with  students.  GO c r e d i t s ,  than  of  level—e.g.,  non-completers  The  of  non-  degreePossibly  number  of  significant.  TABLE RESPONSE  determined  degree-completers  level.  extent  cannot  are  and  of  similar  of  o r • more  results  p a r t i c u l a r , due group  is  61  is  indicator  of  between  with  more  indicator  credits,  completers  6);  that  presence  with  These  Table  responded  the  fewer  responded;  maintained  possible  year—but  or  responded.  a  earned  6:  RATE OF DEGREE-COMPLETERS AND NON-COMPLETERS BY  NUMBER OF CREDIT HOURS A T S . F . U . Number o f 0 -  30  (TOTAL BY SUMMER,  1983).  Credits 31  -  60  61 +  Simon F r a s e r degree Completers  26.7%  (45)  44.4%  (18)  37.0%  Non-completers  20.5%  (83)  23.4%  (47)  35.1%  X  2  = 2.67,  d.f.  = 2,  .20<p<.30  (100) (  37)  75  with  Grade  Point  Average  The r e s p o n s e  grade  point  averages  between  those  w i t h G.P.A.s b e t w e e n  those  with  G.P.A.s  7, r e s p o n s e  rates  completion,  this  2.00  between  3.00  also using  TABLE  for individuals  0 a n d 1.99  was 2 3.8%; f o r  a n d 2.99, i t was a n d 4.00,  a r e a g a i n compared time  rate  27.61; f o r  32.7%.  In T a b l e  on t h e b a s i s  grade  point  of  degree  average.  7:  RESPONSE RATE OF DEGREE-COMPLETERS  AND  NON-  COMPLETERS BY GRADE POINT AVERAGE.  Grade p o i n t Simon F r a s e r degree:  2.99  or less  3.00 t o 4.00  Completers  33.7%  (86)  36.0%  (86)  Non-completers  20.9%  (91)  28.9%  (76)  = 1.25,  d.f.  X  2  G.P.A. i s d i c h o t o m i z e d b e c a u s e of  Average  degree-completers  Table  7, t h e l e v e l The  group  of  degree-completers  below  respondents  n. s .  of the very small  2.00.  of the difference  than  = 1,  As  can  be  number  seen  from  i s not s i g n i f i c a n t .  i s more  non-completers.  representative  of  Non-completers  of  76  degrees  who  registered  definitely partly who  of  registered  1973.  This  Adult  Entry  the  low  a t S.F.U.  low  the  groups;  S.F.U.  under-represented  because  limits  at  students range  otherwise,  rate did  data  rate  first  not  25  mail  results  possible  the  age  the  response  who  of  in  f o r the  response  at  among time  new  are  sample, students  i n the  fall  of  i n a s m a l l number f o r  analyses be  older  survey  complete  can  or  degrees.  and  This  comparisons  treated  as  of  reasonably  representative. In  subsequent  between  the  responses In  some  low  information  and  that  cases,  differences  these  a  rate  the  differences  may  respondents  has  t o be  problem  reasonable  o u t why  the  given a  of  B.C.  the  be  be  noted  questionnaire  Student  Records  due  to  data.  systematic  non-respondents.  a c c e p t e d as  reguiring  a  one  long  of  The  the r i s k s  time-frame  in  when  study i s i m p r a c t i c a l .  the response  sample for  31.0%  the  sample  non-respondents The  and  will  Survey  Although  telephone  from  from  conducting a longitudinal Telephone  obtained  obtained  between  response  studying  c h a p t e r s , some d i f f e r e n c e s  response  rate  circumstances,  of  the  as low  were i n t e r v i e w e d by  practical  effort  non-respondents,  r a t e was  selection  an  was  have was  mainly  as i t was.  been  made to  to  find  Twenty-four  telephone.  limited  reasons.  may  t o the  One  lower  three-digit  mainland random  77  number every  (144) was s e l e c t e d tenth  called  non-respondent  (thus  4, 14,...  respondents, lower  as l o n g  mainland  Otherwise,  ,  and  234)  a  number  from  number n o t i n s e r v i c e , to  be  and b e l o w  from  number  the  was  that  list was  f o r him  down  f o r telephone  down t h e l i s t  refusal  above  o f random numbers and  as t h e i n d i v i d u a l  the next  substitutes going  from a t a b l e  of  236  located  could  found.  found  (wrong  This  system,  calls,  slightly  less  random, was d e s i g n e d t o a s s u r e a s p r e a d o f r e s p o n d e n t s the  list,  which  trimester The had  followed  of i n i t i a l  registration  24 n o n - r e s p o n d e n t s  not completed  (Two  t h e Student Records  degrees  of t h e non-completers  elsewhere,  and one a l r e a d y  done  undergraduate  more  like  t h e sample  questionnaire, resulted Still,  work  from there  completers  was  a  obtained  were no i n t e r v i e w e e s S.F.U.  (less  a t Simon  had r e c e i v e d  i s not a  than three  degrees  that  to  197 3  balance,  the mailed  but  probably  technique sample  representative  had had a v e r y s h o r t trimesters,  after  This  sought,  the  o f 13 who  a l t h o u g h he had  Fraser.)  sampling  by  and 11 who h a d .  the respondents  suspicion  who  arrangement  consisted  had had a d e g r e e ,  varied  over  Fraser.  Fraser  deliberately  the s l i g h t l y is  interviewed  a t Simon  than  not  a t Simon  by  person,  no answer t o t h r e e c o n s e c u t i v e  interviewed).  non-  Similarly,  were  non-respondent  was  i n the  be  selected.  non-respondents  each  number  of  group;  used. nonthere  experience at  o r one y e a r ) ,  and t h r e e  78  of  the  four  who  refused  to  be  interviewed  were  non-  completers . The  results  contact  was  survey.  the major  Seven  successfully mailed had  not  cause  survey  said  former  they  q u e s t i o n n a i r e — t h e y had moved  they  want  forwarded,  or they  had  admit  ignoring  or  not  just  non-  t o the mailed  recently  who  received and  were the  the mail  not r e c e i v e d i t .  receiving  failing  that  students  had  s i m p l y c o u l d n o t remember  to  suggest  of non-response  of the twenty-four  interviewed  n o t been  Perhaps  of the telephone  to  i t , or d i d  respond  t o the  questionnaire. To and  obtain  attempt  24  respondents,  t o telephone  i t was  73 i n d i v i d u a l s .  TABLE  SURVEY  Number  Interviewed  24  No c o n t a c t  21  Wrong  24  number  Refusal Total  to  (See T a b l e  8:  RESULTS OF THE TELEPHONE  Result:  necessary  4 73  select 8.)  In  79  fact,  the response  rate  f o r the telephone  n o t much d i f f e r e n t  from  the  7 3 names were Valley  City  obtained  be  reached.  the  1984  Fraser yet  There  address  were 24  four  the  telephone people  cases  City  and  number  and  to find  Vancouver  whose  were  time  f o r the m a i l  u s i n g a l l Lower  Directories  summer, a bad  31.0%  Mainland  and  21  agreed  Vancouver  not  in  by  refusals:  one  degree-completer  It  was  could  not  according to  with  the  Telephone  was  The  Fraser  directories.  whose a d d r e s s ,  service  32.9%—  survey.  a t home, and  Directory  1985  s u r v e y was  July,  Simon  Directory,  1985.  and  There  three  non-  completers . Based an  on  estimate  the  of  the  questionnaire. not  have,  received received  so  a  some  of  never The  the  wrong  maximum  returned reasons  17 the  67.1%  of- a l l t h e  some o f  seven  i n the  telephone  over  certainly 50%  interviewees  of  questionnaire  f o r not r e t u r n i n g  the  21  have  had  it—some  mailed  certainly  would  survey  have sample  who  stated  actually  and they  received  reasonable.  received  said  46.2%  been n o n - r e c i p i e n t s .  who  a  make  non-contacts  survey  those  gave  73)  mail  t o i t seems q u i t e who  the  almost  of  to  r a t e w o u l d have b e e n  addition,  that  received  (49  In  the m a i l survey responded The  actually  the response  i t would  i t i s possible  numbers w o u l d  of  67.1%  survey,  received  estimate  24  If  (31.0/67.1).  survey,  numbers who  The  i t . the  telephone  number  but of  t h e y had  had  not  different meant t o  do  80  it  but  they  were  either  didn't  questions gave  fill  over  the  too in  the  reason  busy  had  misplaced  questionnaires  phone, as  negative reactions  or  one  but  they  cheerfully  and  (See T a b l e  TABLE  did one  "ambivalence"—mixed  t o S.F.U.  i t ; two  said answer  not;  one  positive  and  9.)  9:  TELEPHONE INTERVIEWEES' REASONS FOR  NOT  COMPLETING QUESTIONNAIRE.  Reason: never too  Number  received  7  busy  10  lost i t  4  disinclined  2  mixed  1  feelings  2~4  Total  The  main  understand fairly  function  why  the  low.  response  The  rate  expected.  was  respondents. good  as  attended  results probably  were As  S.F.U. more  the  response  Probably  questionnaires  of  at  as  least  a  in  than  for  about  survey the  that good  a the  the study  the as  by results of  sample  was  mail  third  received  earlier,  obtained  recently  rate  indicate  not  stated  telephone  to  help  survey mail  survey  c o u l d have of  the  the  was  been  mailed intended  were n e a r l y  graduates surveyed  who  here.  as had (An  81  abridged  questionnaire  respondents.  The  was  results  given  are  to  i n Appendix  the  telephone  D.)  Analysis This student  section  records  describes  and  the  the  mailed  methods o f a n a l y s i s u s e d  variables survey,  in later  obtained  and  from  outlines  the  chapters.  Variables The  variables  used  data  information  from  records.  As  completion,  t h e r e were e l e v e n v a r i a b l e s  survey with  each  multivariate  raw as the  These  on  greater  wider  number  ranges  (G.P.A.), sensitive  (such  and  time  than  not of as  in  are  7;  ranges  variable,  degree  with  Table  the  briefly 10,  below  giving  the  score  for  maximum  used  mailed  mainly  in  the  procedures,  than  f o r some v a r i a b l e s  such  the  used  z-  rather  results.  Nonetheless,  for variables  satisfaction,  others,  student  f o r these  possibilities  since  included the  described  d e v i a t i o n ) were  distort  from  used  minimum and  i n Chapter  standard  do  are  variables  s c o r e s so t h e much l a r g e r Satisfaction  dependent  presented  d e v i a t i o n , and  analysis  (based  the  variables  statistics  variable.  scores  as  The  mean, s t a n d a r d  analysis  t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e and  well  sample.  summary  both  in  enrollment)  Grade may  particularly  based  Point make the  on  Average  them  more  two-group  82  TABLE 10. VARIABLES USED IN MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF DEGREE COMPLETION:  Variable:  Mean  SUMMARY S T A T I S T I C S  Standard Deviation  Minimum  Maximum  N  .575  .494  0  1  106  .444  .509  0  1  98  2.491  1.071  1  4  106  .531  1.917  -5  +5  98  Early-career Mobility  1.412  1.390  -1  +5  97  Level of Aspiration  1.351  1.849  -5  +5  97  .544  .571  0  2  103  Satisfaction  10.373  2.044  5  15  102  Work-related problems  .470  - .611  0  2  100  Time s i n c e Enrollment  15.990  10.419  0  53  105  Grade P o i n t Average  2.860  .584  1.00  4 .00  Mother's Education  1.827  .955  0  3  Degree Entry  1  1  Time o f Social  Desire  Decision Mobility  f o r Change  1. Two-Group C a t e g o r i c a l  variables.  92 104  83 categorical  (either-or) variables,  such as d e g r e e  completion  o r not and E n t r y / R e - e n t r y . Most G.P.A.  of the v a r i a b l e s  and  records,  time  are  analysis.  and p a r t l y  than  described  This  will  questions  is  i n the d e f i n i t i o n be o b s e r v e d due  obtained  for  use  from  in  student  multivariate  u s i n g G.P.A. t i m e  since  almost  as  variables. t h e range  range.  o f s c o r e s i s much  These  situations  are  of the v a r i a b l e .  that  the N varies  mainly  to  from  92 t o 106.  non-responses  to  some  i n some o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .  The d e p e n d e n t  completion  fall  is  f o r the hypotheses.  t h e y c a n be v i e w e d  as i n d e p e n d e n t  the p o t e n t i a l  variation  Degree:  because  some o f t h e v a r i a b l e s ,  narrower  It  mainly  were no h y p o t h e s e s  much a s d e p e n d e n t For  enrollment,  included  There  enrollment,  since  are required  variable  throughout  of a Bachelor's degree  o f 1973 and t h e summer  o f 1983.  a l l the analyses  a t S.F.U. This  between t h e  is a  categorical  variable.  Entry:  This  independent categories in  and sometimes are Adult  variable as a  Entry,  i s sometimes  control  those  who  had been  university  b u t had n o t c o m p l e t e d  used  The two  registered  initially  and R e - e n t r y ,  s t u d e n t s a t ages younger  their  degree  a s an  variable.  p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n a t age 25 o r o l d e r ,  t h o s e who 25,  categorical  programs  than  and had r e -  84  entered were  the university  no  before  respondents  after to  age 25 w i t h o u t  attaining  the mail  t h e age o f 25.  survey  leaving university  who  had  There started  f o r at least  a year  b e f o r e 1973. Only or  98 o f t h e 106 were d e f i n i t e l y  Re-entry  on  the basis  Guesses  could  initial  registrations  avoided.  Because  variables than  some o t h e r  of  item,  dates  2.  on t h e r e m a i n i n g and  5 and 6,  birthdates,  respondents  who  Ns  i n some  answered  C.)  (Appendix eight but  of c r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n of Entry  Decision:  high  three years  Based  on  individuals  college  attending  made  Question  as E n t r y  using  this  was  with  tables  Question  2  other  are less left  out  question.  asking  attend  been  i n Chapters  98 when  Time  have  of  identified  or  four-category  when t h e y  high  during  questionnaire  had i n i t i a l l y  university:  school,  after  a  before high  they  school,  school, or l a t e r .  decided had  to  begun  i n the  first  T h i s i s an o r d i n a l  variable. Social  Mobility:  occupation year the  with  Based  level  by r e s p o n d e n t s . maximum  score  could  -5  fathers  o r sons were a l m o s t  t h e range  was  6).  closer  comparison job held  a six-level  have  minimum  so  a  of i n i t i a l Using  (1 minus  on  In  been fact,  +5  t o +2  father's  f o r at least  scale,  scores  1  of  scores  (3 minus  one  theoretically  ( s i x minus  non-existent,  t o -2  of  1), or  the 6 for  of 2 rare,  5 t o 5 minus  85  3).  (Eighty-four  of  98  q u e s t i o n were i n t h e -2  respondents  t o +2  respondent's  registration mobility  or  later at  the  time  Early-career  mobility:  occupation held  (Re-entry)  or  university. was  -5  by  less  of  respondents own  of  of  when t h e y  the  the  stated  wished  to  change  social  few  the  of  survey,  range,  in effect  respondents  to  careers  Because the  downward spread  (Eighty-one of  was  indicated  have  or  between  this  variable  z e r o and range.)  were  two.  based  by  i n the  advance  respondents  were i n t h i s  at  little  actual  - measurement  class  like  careers. time  Entry)  of 97  +2.) This  t h e y would  re-registered  variable  occupations at the time of the survey w i t h the they  little  f o r the  exhibited  careers,  of  occupation  (Adult  range  time  s c o r e s d i d not  initial  than f o r S o c i a l M o b i l i t y .  Aspiration:  comparison  comparison  the  showed  the r e s u l t i n g  theoretical  their  at  survey,  registered  s c o r e s between 0 and  Level  the  respondents  the  because  within  s c o r e s was  A  initially  Again,  t o +5;  mobility  had  of  upward o r downward and i n analysis.  this  of f a t h e r ' s occupation  occupations, either  prove u s e f u l  with  answered  range.)  A l t e r n a t i v e measures, comparison with  who  level  future,  lower  had  a  respondents'  within at  on  a  of  jobs  i f they  their levels  own at  restricted  ( S e v e n t y - f o u r of  97  86  Desire had if  f o r Change;  changed they  R e s p o n d e n t s were g i v e n one  occupations  since registration  variable  was  i n d i v i d u a l s with  from  scores of  T h i s was  five  q u e s t i o n s on  of  seven  being  a  instructor  with  i n the  did  contribute. on  questions  testing dealing  counselling  The  minimum 5,  Work-Related problems  was  problems  correlated item,  additive  one  There  index  based  The  questions  course  class life  They  size.  and  are  Two  analyzed  Hypothesis  significantly  work-related  with  index  (personal,  two  answers  to  family, with  problems,  used  The  with  because  this  an  not they  in  the  responses  to  social  than  on  questions—on  life  and  and  non-  variable  was  6.  additive  mailed  index  survey  f o u r of the  of  sample.  five  categories  study-related,  financial)  degree-completion.  was  were  scheduling,  degree-completers  the  nor  experience  separately  5.  satisfaction  Initially,  attempted  only  with c o u n s e l l i n g — w e r e  nobody s c o r e d l o w e r  Problems:  on  content,  maximum p o s s i b l e s c o r e on  but  were  for multivariate analysis  with  was  p o s s i b l e range f o r  s a t i s f a c t i o n with the  and  of  However, n e i t h e r t h i s of  another  two.  d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e  completers. 15,  index  The  two.  student.  social  included  section  to  classes,  contact,  s a t i s f a c t i o n with  not  an  university  satisfaction  or not.  zero  Satisfaction; of  and  s t a t e d a f u r t h e r d e s i r e f o r change, whether t h i s  a d e s i r e f o r upward m o b i l i t y this  point i f they  a useful  predictor  Only and,  one in  87  fact, this  was  very  important  since  subtracting  Enrollment:  t h e t e r m when  last  attended.  value  was  range f o r  obtained  p o s s i b l e : 1965-3;  p o s s i b l e score  o f 53.)  Point  grade  point  variable  Average: average  i n this  The was  distribution  the nearest  analysis,  with  available  The  graduate  other  14  had t a k e n  unfortunately  only  some  provided  possible:  attented.  of  the values to a  upper  U n d e r g r a d u a t e G.P.A. was o n l y  last  respondent  The v a r i a b l e d o e s  thing  an  by  a t Simon F r a s e r  or the  t o t h e a c t u a l number o f s e m e s t e r s  Grade  obtained  registration  a d e g r e e was  (Earliest  1 9 8 3 - 2 — a maximum refer  This  t h e term of i n i t i a l  from  data  The  i t e m was f r o m z e r o t o two.  Time  not  i n the analysis.  courses  graduate  continuous  limit  f o r 92  for  of  4.00.  respondents. and  G.P.A.s  records i n these  cases. Mother's  Education:  question  i n the questionnaire  lesser  to greater  of t h e o r i g i n a l  This  lengths  was  based  on  recoded  of formal  an  eight-category  t o three  education,  e i g h t c a t e g o r i e s were n e a r l y  levels  because  of some  empty.  Data A n a l y s i s  The  hypotheses  and  subhypotheses  univariate  and  bivariate  tabulations  and c o r r e l a t i o n s .  techniques, These  were  tested  including  analyses  using cross-  are reported  88  in  Chapters  test  5 and  the i n d i v i d u a l Multiple  importance useful While  of  the  regression  was  persisters  membership  and  groups  1971).  and  whether as  I t was  persisters  has  in  Chapter  to  was  the  persistence.  considered  Pedhazur,  t o determine indeed,  and  most  value  extent  discriminate  variable of  It  to  in  assisting  and  a in  i n studying populations  C o o l e y and  a n a l y s i s would similar  the  characteristics  different  1973;  1973).  non-persisters.  between g r o u p s  non-persisters  i f a  as d r o p o u t ) , i t c a n  and  within  relative  determine  dependent  Pedhazur,  expected t h i s and  and  individual  the  variables  ( K e r l i n g e r and  of  The  among  used  assess  predict  originally  understanding the d i f f e r e n c e s relations  to  i n t h e model do,  groups:  equation,  the  records data  to  variables  (Kerlinger  analysis  t o determine  group  and  (of b e h a v i o r such  the v a r i a b l e s  used  used  developed  for explanation  between t h e two  predict  be  regression  Discriminant  survey  was  independent  for prediction  t o which  both  hypotheses.  equation could  a l s o used  be  using  regression  multiple  useful  can  6,  produce Tables  Lohnes, profiles 2  and  3  3.  multivariate  discriminant  analysis  techniques, are discussed  multiple  regression  i n Chapter  7.  and  89  CHAPTER 5 TESTING HYPOTHESES: AND  BACKGROUND FACTORS  DEGREE  COMPLETION  Introduction In data by  this  obtained the  from  mailed  references the  chapter  males  of  the analysis  focuses  a g e d 25 t o 34 i n 1973 as  questionnaire.  i n these  test  and t h e n e x t ,  chapters  Hypothesis  1  There  t o student and  as  a  are  on  collected  occasional  records  data, f o r  means  of  checking  consists  of  sections  validity. The  remainder  examining  i n turn  selected  background  degree-completion. Table  2, C h a p t e r  persistence  of  this  Hypotheses  1  to  characteristics The  3, w h i c h  which  chapter  are  summary  on of  includes  summarizes stated  4  in  the  effects  respondents an  on  expansion  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s the  hypotheses  of  of with  about  Background F a c t o r s . Hypothesis  Testing  Analyses bivariate,  i n Chapters  examining  5 and 6 a r e e i t h e r  mainly  direct  univariate  relationships  or  between  90  independent variable  variables may  relationships,  particular,  were  introduced  or  because  to  A d u l t E n t r y than  contingency of  the  chosen  here  While  one  avoiding  to  in  Type  test  was  As with to  experiences  of  through on  Better  significance,  the  ( f o r example,  data  doubtful.  literal  appropriate.  The  hypotheses or  Type  hypotheses  which  t o be  with  procedure but  to  claiming 1 and  of  direction  when  to both  on t h e  for  t h e use  the  Type  be  support. 2  should  c o n s i d e r e d somewhat more i m p o r t a n t  process.  subjects  differently  statistical  conclusions  alert  variable.  square,  testing  (accepting  model b e f o r e w o r k i n g  The  in  the  making  2  and  chi  such  s h o u l d be  accepted) building  made  was  conservative  by  specifically  students.  i f any,  limitations  2)  Hypothesis  and  control spurious  independent  w i t h c o n c l u s i o n s based  tested  Occasionally,  hypothesis  were e x a m i n e d c h i e f l y  tables,  A for  degree-completion  f o r Re-entry  relationships,  usually  check  o f more t h a n one  affect  hypotheses  to  the  v a r i o u s motives  expected  The  degree-completion.  be  mentions i n t e r a c t i o n s In  and  error, not  be  i n a model-  sure of the m a t e r i a l s  for a  structure.  Entry Hypothesis stated  prior  persist  i n Chapter  post-secondary than  those  know what t o e x p e c t and  3,  i t was  expected  experience  without.  would  Experienced  t h e r e w o u l d be  that be  students  more  students  likely would  greater likelihood  of  91  positive  family  attitudes  to  participating  in  higher  education. HI: R e - e n t r y s t u d e n t s a r e more l i k e l y t o p e r s i s t degree completion than A d u l t E n t r y s t u d e n t s . In those and  this  who  research,  Re-entry  s t a r t e d post-secondary  Adult  education  Entry at  age  distribution Re-entry  as  25  mailed  years  registration  at  a  who In  survey  of  age  university  Adult  Entry  between 27  their  post-secondary  and  fact,  years  experience.  was  sample—with time  college, of  (See  24  or  as less  post-secondary  there  the  defined  a t age  started  at  or  28  were  education  or o l d e r .  i n the  18  those  students  to  and  age  a  the  mode f o r  of  initial  the  f o r the  Appendix  bimodal  C,  mode  for  start  of  Question  2.) It student  was  possible  records  importance  of  the  a p p r o a c h e s were Student categorize  S.F.U.  perhaps  in  the  hypothesis  Records  data  Entry  started  this  mailed i n the  hypothesis survey. model  using  Because (Figure  could  and  Re-entry  both  of  the  4) ,  be  coded  both  students,  precisely because a t age  another  institution previously. much y o u n g e r  those  who  started  1973  may  have  part-time.  not  a t Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y  have a t t e n d e d  Some o f at  and  test  used.  Adult  s t u d e n t s who o l d e r may  data  to  However,  been by  in  and  continuous  were  to  some 25  or  still  attendance,  s u b t r a c t i n g year  of  birth  92  from  time  of  initial  registration  approximation  c a n be c a l c u l a t e d ,  transfer.  The  registration  a t S.F.U.;  first  at  age  definition. Entry  24  students.  started  Those  age  who  younger  with  had  rate  the  out.  emphasis  i n the f a l l of 1 9 7 3 received  25  1 1 shows d e g r e e  t o 3 4 a t the time  on  age  of  population,  first except  of the survey, registration  for initial  from which t h e survey  seen,  those  were  significantly  t h o s e who student  initially  enrolled  more  at  likely  support  are Adult  initially  avoiding who  at  had a them  Type  2  registered  degrees. rates  S.F.U.  registrants  enrolled  by  f o r males  aged  i n two c a t e g o r i e s b a s e d  sample was  a t 2 5 o r more  records indicate  registered  so l e a v i n g  males  261  completion  1973,  who  of  on  first  T h i s group  a t S.F.U.,  initially Table  of  students  registered  Only  (16.9%)  time  Re-entry  error.  44  at  are  an  the p o s s i b i l i t y of  had i n i t i a l l y  o f 1 9 7 3 were l e f t  i s consistent  S.F.U.,  a t age 2 5 o r o l d e r  who  low d e g r e e - c o m p l e t i o n  out  ignoring  gives those  or  T h o s e who  S.F.U. i n t h e f a l l very  result  at  (This  selected.)  complete  the  i n the f a l l  at 24 or less  to  is  of  As c a n be (Re-entry)  degrees  (mostly A d u l t E n t r y ) . f o r the hypothesis.  than So,  93  TABLE 11: DEGREE COMPLETION AND AGE OF FIRST REGISTRATION OF MALE STUDENTS AGED 25-34 AT S.F.U. (STUDENT RECORDS DATA BY ADULT ENTRY AND  Age  Degree: 24 o r  25- 34  73 .2%  (208)  Non-Completers  26 .8%  (76)  100 .0%  (284)  645)  (N=  The in  33.1,  survey  12.  In the mailed  one-quarter degrees,  but  =  mail  Table  students  X2  data  of the A d u l t  while were  slightly  for this  records  Hypothesis  data.  1 c o u l d be  On  48 .5 . %  (175) (361)  1, p<0. 001  only  Entry  students  more  than  are reported  s l i g h t l y more failed to  half  The r e s u l t s  of  the  than  complete Re-entry  are s i g n i f i c a n t ,  o r t h e same d i r e c t i o n  the basis  rejected.  (186)  hypothesis  survey,  non-completers.  51 .5%  100 .0%  d • f. =  not i n the p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n  student  category  less  Completers  Totals:  RE-ENTRY STATUS)  of the mailed  as  survey,  94  TABLE 12: DEGREE COMPLETION AND  NON-COMPLETION  BY ADULT ENTRY AND RE-ENTRY STATUS (MAIL  SURVEY).  Status: Degree:  Re-entry  Adult  Entry  Completers  48. 1%  (26)  72.7%  (32.)  Non-Completers  51. 9%  (28)  27.3%  (12)  100. 0%  (54)  100.0%  (44)  Totals:  (N = 98)  There  were  categorized  eight  as  who  degrees  completed  considered initial have  = 6 .11, d . f . =  or  their  three  degrees On at  1, p<0.05  to the mail Entry.  These  after  leaving  the basis  S.F.U.,  involving  not  d i d not  the four  who  ( a l t h o u g h t h e two S.F.U. m i g h t age  and  the remaining (one  Entry  of  survey  (They  included  institutions  Re-entry  and one A d u l t  out of a n a l y s i s  Adult  o r 7. )  at other  registration  completers) left  2, 6,  Re-entry) .  included  2  respondents  Re-entry  answer Q u e s t i o n s completed  X  completer,  (non-completer).  the Entry variable  year  four  be of  would  two  non-  They  were  because i t  95  was  not  certain  including  what  them  category  would  not  they  have  belonged  to  affected  and  the  because  proportions  significantly. The It  may  findings  be  had  argued  already  therefore, response  of  Adult  Hypothesis  t h a t most o f  been  were  fairly  of  1973  was  completion.  Entry  sample. with  the m a i l  with  student  may  survey.  stated  data  student  t h e c o n c l u s i o n must be  perhaps the hypothesis fact,  time  i t may  even  have  of  within  time  dropout  being  are  than  spent the  system,  i n post-secondary  distinction  group  "hard"  4,  students out,  the  yet  Perhaps have  may  even  had  education.  of  of the  findings supported  supported.  and  indicate  that  reconsidered. f o r the  first  t h a t once A d u l t  Entry  one  negative  i s r e c o n s i d e r e d i n Chapter  lack  Therefore,  survey  be  The  low  data.  undetermined  they  a  registrants  enrolled  but  third  197 3  1 is  qualified  The  had  f o r the  fall,  the m a i l  s h o u l d be  some as  to  are  and,  i n the  deficiency  extent  that Hypothesis  t h a t new  Re-entry.  unlikely  1973  students.  this  a  respondents  in  initially  be  with  records  are at high r i s k t o drop  students  they  be  time  Chapter  some  However, t h e r e s u l t s w i t h  In  in  may to  Entry  committed  and  ambiguous.  However, t h e h y p o t h e s i s was  records  The  some  (18.4%),  account  somewhat  Adult  registered  non-completers  This  excluded.  As  are  for  well  low  1  these  students  r a t e o f t h o s e who  trimester rate  on  no  more  advantage  amount  prone is  experiences  Adult 9.  minimum  to  that from  Entry/Re-entry  96  Time o f D e c i s i o n Extent ambition, complete  of educational ambition,  was  expected  degrees  and  degree completion. held  i s an i n d i c a t o r  t h e more l i k e l y H2:  The  reported 13.  advanced  The l e n g t h o f t i m e of i t s strength.  i twill  Intention to  degrees  influence  an a m b i t i o n  has been  The o l d e r t h e dream,  be f o l l o w e d t o  fruition.  (a)  The e a r l i e r t h a t a d u l t s t u d e n t s made t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o pursue e d u c a t i o n beyond secondary s c h o o l , t h e more l i k e l y t h e y a r e t o c o m p l e t e d e g r e e s , e v e n as a d u l t s t u d e n t s .  (b)  Re-entry students will be more likely to complete degrees i f they had i n t e n d e d t o return when they left post-secondary e d u c a t i o n as p r e - a d u l t s than i f t h e y were uncertain o r had p e r c e i v e d themselves as dropouts a t t h a t time.  (c)  Adult Entry students will more likely complete degrees i f attending college or university was fulfillment of a long-time a m b i t i o n t h a n i f t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o a t t e n d was recent.  data  before  school.  t o pursue  persistence.  credential  The l o n g e r a d u l t s t u d e n t s have p l a n n e d t o c o m p l e t e d e g r e e s and t h e f a r t h e r t h e y p l a n n e d t o go w i t h their education, t h e more likely they are to p e r s i s t t o degrees. More specifically:  questionnaire from  to affect  particularly  f o r 2 ( a ) came allowing  high  four  from  a question  c a t e g o r i e s of time  s c h o o l t o more t h a n  (See A p p e n d i x  C,  i n the  Question  f o r degree-completers  and  of  three years 1.)  The  mailed  decision  after  high  results  are  non-completers  i n Table  97  TABLE 13: TIME OF DECISION AND DEGREE COMPLETION  Degree: Time o f d e c i s i o n :  Completed  Not  completed  Before  high  school  11  8  During  high  school  25  19  Less than 3 years a f t e r high school  11  4  More t h a n 3 y e a r s a f t e r high school  18  10  65  41  Totals: X  While  67% o f t h o s e  completed,  and o n l y  completed,  the  significant. Entry  2  This  = 1.49 d . f .= 3, n. s .  who made d e c i s i o n s a f t e r  57% o f t h o s e relationship might  non-completers.  high  who made e a r l i e r is  be an e f f e c t  not  school  decisions  statistically  of having  few A d u l t  98  Table  14  categories  compares  of the mailed  degree-completion. either  group.  Re-entry  The  Entry  survey  while  made  results  early  33 o f 44  and  f o r time are  The main d i f f e r e n c e  students  decisions, late  the Adult  not  i s that  (before  end  (75.0%) A d u l t  Re-entry  sub-  of decision  and  significant  for  46 o f 54  (85.2%)  of  school)  Entry  high  students  made  ones.  TABLE 14 TIME OF DECISION AND DEGREE COMPLETION: ADULT ENTRY AND RE-ENTRY COMPARED  Category: Adult Time o f d e c i s i o n :  Degree  Entry  Re-entry  No d e g r e e 1  Degree  No D e g r e e  Before  high  school  1  9  5  During  high  school  7  2  16  16  Less than 3 years a f t e r high school  6  2  3  3  More t h a n 3 y e a r s a f t e r high school  18  7  -  -  Totals:  32  12  28  26  X ( A d u l t E n t r y ) = 0.65, d . f . = 3, n . s . X ( R e - e n t r y ) = 1.22, d . f . =3, n . s . 2  2  The question  data  f o r hypotheses  asking  f o r t h e main  2(b) and 2 ( c ) a r e b a s e d reason  for re-enrolling  on a (Re-  99  entry)  or  for enrolling  f o r the f i r s t  time  (Adult  Entry).  (See A p p e n d i x C, Q u e s t i o n s 6 ( a ) and 7 ( a ) . ) I n d i v i d u a l s were a l l o w e d t o c h e c k 15  gives  degree-completion  the  motive  question.  completing motive. and  degrees  Adult  Entry  to return"  time  industrial None failure. said  they  ambition" Hypothesis sample  The  Nine had  enrolled  completed 2(c)),  the  and  be  case  "to  fulfill  and  "always  grouped  usually as  a  were  as  non-  something result  to  of  an  for stimulation.  predictors  of  success  or  o f 10 A d u l t E n t r y s t u d e n t s i n t h e sample  d i d that,  However,  was  boredom o r d e s i r e were  particular  f o r Re-entry  students  could  ( i n one  motives  answering  not a l l c a t e g o r i e s  "other" statement  these  each  a degree"  f o r Re-entry  accident), of  (because  Table  i s the percentage  parallel  f o r Adult Entry  available  those  selecting  " t o complete  ambition"  vocational. with  students  although  long-time  intended  do  t h e group  of  shown  C a t e g o r i e s are not e x a c t l y  identical), a  percentages  The p e r c e n t a g e  of  one i t e m o n l y .  mainly  degrees  but  most  whatever  "to  (showing Adult  main  degree-completion  and  (mainly v o c a t i o n a l )  more  frequently  alternatives  some  Entry  their  m o t i v e s were m e n t i o n e d  fulfill  a  long-time  support  students  motive  at  long-time  who  for  in  the  the  time.  ambition  t h a n any o f t h e o t h e r  by A d u l t E n t r y s t u d e n t s .  100  TABLE PERCENT COMPLETING  15: DEGREES  MOTIVE AT TIME OF ENROLLING OR  DY MAIN RE-ENROLLING  Status:  Main reason for enrolling  Adult  Entry  Re-entry  Always i n t e n d e d t o return Long time To  ambition  complete  Vocational  a  degree  motive  2  Other  90%  (10)1  71%  (21)  60%  (10)  50%  (2)  57%  (21)  48%  (25)  50%  (8)  refers  l l n parentheses, number c h e c k i n g i t e m . Percent t o p r o p o r t i o n o f t h a t number c o m p l e t i n g d e g r e e s .  Entry;  2combines f o u r s t a t e m e n t s f r o m t h r e e s t a t e m e n t s f r o m q u e s t i o n by  Another respondents  question what  post-secondary question  they  (Appendix  C,  considered  important  institutions  focused  question f o r Adult Re-entry.  on b e n e f i t s  a t t h e time attributed  Question  8)  asked  f o r attending  of the survey. to higher  This  education  101  by  the respondents,  their when  experience they  multiple  which  could  i n addition  started.  In  responses;  to their  addition,  respondents  as many items as they wished. degree;"  one  vocational self-  was  "To  emphases;  have  meet  influenced  motives  this  or a t t i t u d e s  question  One item was  and t h r e e  allowed  were  "To complete  s i x items based  motives.  on  be  motives  that  are more  university  than  individuals, people."  p e r s o n a l or  While  the q u e s t i o n  to a  vocational  all  or  social  respondents.  or  desire  Only s i x  checked  "To  in  between  likelihood  self/understanding significantly  more l i k e l y  degree  completion  more  while  the A d u l t  of  motives. likely Adult  emphasizing  of s e l f or the world.  (See Table 16.)  (at the 0.05 and  Re-entry  students  were  were  t o emphasize p e r s o n a l reasons  the  and  vocational  students  by  were  vocational  Re-entry  to stress  Entry  Entry  meet  completion,  reasons  However, t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t  differences  attending,  to  to attend  motives.  self/understanding  related  2, i t  self/understanding  long-term  degree-completers,  reasons,  significantly  groups  related  and  None of the other c a t e g o r i e s : degree  vocational  level)  degree-completion  a  indicated  does not p r o v i d e data d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t t o Hypothesis might  by  were allowed t o check o f f  people;"  o r world-understanding  been  reasons f o r significantly  or understanding  102  TABLE  16:  EMPHASIS ON VOCATIONAL VS. SELF/UNDERSTANDING REASONS FOR ATTENDING, BY ENTRY STATUS  Status: Reason f o r a t t e n d i n g :  Vocational  Adult  Entry  54.5%  1  Self/understanding  Re-entry  88.5 %  3  81.4%  2  N =  57.7%  44  52  X  2  ( v o c a t i o n a l ) = 13.93, d . f . = l ,  X  2  (self/understanding)  p<0.01  = 6.44, d . f . = l ,  p<0.05  ^Checked o f f one o r more o f s i x i t e m s . 2  Checked  o f f one o r more o f t h r e e  items.  ^Categories not mutually exclusive; check o f f items i n both c a t e g o r i e s .  could  Within  the  relationship  to  completed  likely  to  or  not  or  Re-entry not,  less  15  that  there  Adult  those  surprising  that  the  less  equally  emphasized Given  vocational  s u c c e s s f u l i n completing  no  students  were  they  motives. with  was  Entry  students  whether  self/understanding  i n Table  were r e l a t i v e l y perhaps  degrees;  complete  vocational  however,  degree-completion.  usually  indication  categories,  individuals  motives  degrees,  successful  the  i t is  Re-entry  103  group  w o u l d be more l i k e l y  attending  enrollment,  in  the were  time  of  decision  hypothesized not  H y p o t h e s i s 2 was  found.  entry  students  in  None  of  the  and A d u l t  motives with  for  degree  sub-hypotheses  of  supported.  Some v a r i a b l e s , expected  and  connections  F a m i l y E d u c a t i o n a l Background:  were  reasons f o r  d i f f e r e n c e s were f o u n d between R e - e n t r y  students  completion  vocational  university.  While Entry  to stress  like  to affect i n the  higher  e d u c a t i o n and  likely  to  affect  time  the  two  of  manner.  degree  Aspiration  of d e c i s i o n  persistence same  Degree  Adult  Family  aspiration groups'  i n Hypothesis  were  Entry  and  2, Re-  involvement  in  also considered  persistence  in  the  same  manner. H3: A d u l t s who p e r s i s t i n p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n t o completion of degrees, as opposed to adult participants in higher education who do not complete degrees, w i l l :  The somewhat between mailed  (a)  more l i k e l y have f a m i l y members w i t h e d u c a t i o n , and  (b)  more frequently have advanced degrees when secondary e d u c a t i o n .  influence ambiguous. mother's  survey.  of  family Table  education  The  results  planned to they started  educational 17  and  reports  pursue post-  involvement  the  significant.  is  relationship  degree-completion  are not  advanced  for  the  104  TABLE 17: MOTHER'S EDUCATION AND  DEGREE COMPLETION  Degree Completed Mother's  completed  Education:  Less  than  high  school  High  School  24  13  completion  24  15  Post-Secondary Education  12  13  Total:  60  41  X  2  = 1.88, d . f . = 2, n . s .  Statistically in  Not  mother's  groups.  significant  education  (See T a b l e  differences  between .the  18.)  Half  (21 o f 42) had m o t h e r s w i t h  less  compared  t o 14 o f 53 R e - e n t r y  students  had m o t h e r s  who  students'  mothers  on  than  high  Entry  average  than A d u l t Entry students' mothers.  more  discovered  and A d u l t  of the Adult  had a t l e a s t  (18 t o 6 o f t h e A d u l t had  Re-entry  students,  education  were  Entry  school  Entry  Students  completion  while  more  some  post-secondary  students). years  Having  of  Re-entry  Re-entry, education  relatively  well-  105  TABLE 18: MOTHER'S EDUCATION AND  ENTRY STATUS  Status• Re-entry  Adult  Entry  Mother's E d u c a t i o n : Less than high school  14  21  High School completion  21  15  Post-Secondary Education  18  Total:  53 X  Entry  mothers  secondary  Having  one w o u l d c o m p l e t e siblings  persisters  n o t be c a t e g o r i z e d  chances  immediately  one  would  go  o r soon  after  high  as A d u l t  to  post-  school,  a degree.  who had a t t e n d e d c o l l e g e  not d i f f e r e n t i a t e  Sixteen  could  increased  education  but not t h a t  42  = 7.33, d . f . = 2, p <0.05  -'•Six r e s p o n d e n t s or Re-entry.  educated  did  2  degree-completers  from  or university non-completers.  had had b r o t h e r s o r s i s t e r s  attend post-  secondary  b e f o r e t h e y d i d and s o d i d 11 n o n - p e r s i s t e r s , b u t  that  proportional  is  completers  to  t o non-completers  the  overall  ratio  of  among a l l r e s p o n d e n t s .  degree-  106  Hypothesis a significant Entry that had  variable  nor  taking  to  survey.)  A  few  by  Degree  they  had  not  Bachelor's 13,  who  One  aspired  to  of  than  go  advanced  students,  less  likely  to  starting aspire  and  but  neither  by  siblings  very  to  intended  to  of  them  few  students  many  useful  intended  of  when  said  they  these  were  they  first  (They  originally  were  intended  the to  degrees. difference five  of  in  nine,  slightly  less  than  half,  not  get  to  is  were  that  10  Re-entry older  beyond  the  age,  as  who  to  did  go  completion  intended  an  Adult  so were i n c l u d e d i n  had  no  point  at  a  believed.  1973  beyond  degrees  not  bankers  be  half,  d i d , and  interesting  Entry  initially.  fall  made  A  for can  originally  to  was  degree;  or p r o f e s s i o n a l  degree,  education,  a l l  s t a t e d they  more  intended  degree.  a  they  aspiration  slightly  of  course  the  more  complete graduate  students  a l l respondents  almost  short  There i s  degree-completion.  degree o n l y .  perhaps  students  rates:  and  stop  so  of  aspiration  certificate  enrolled,  level  Almost  a Bachelor's  a  degree  degree  variable.  intended  the data.  higher education p a r t i c i p a t i o n  degrees,  complete  by  between R e - e n t r y  on p e r s i s t e n c e t o  Likewise,  complete  supported  i n mother's  effect  predictor  i s not  difference  students  any  3(a)  of  stated  far  as  s i x of  the the  students. appeared  Bachelor's  a  first 13  who  Adult to  be  degree  107  It  was  express  not  interest  should  not  have  anticipated  that  in  degrees,  advanced  been  surprising f o r graduate  that  not  students  especially  full-time  professional twenties  programs,  (Frost,  1980;  Hypothesis Neither  are  3  level  of  as  like  after  30,  not  were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  age  For do  adult not  based  on  The (Eckland,  1965),  part-time  an  expectation  expected  adult  students that  associated with  be  evidence  education,  are  in  and their  1975).  available  nor  degree  mail  evidence. aspiration  survey.  to affect  These  persistence i n  post-secondary  traditional  students.  predictor  variables  effects.  sociologically-based  expected  students  graduate  they  i t  Class/Mobilitv  and  would  perhaps  have t r a d i t i o n a l  Social  was  traditional-age  students,  by  p e r s i s t e n c e i n the  a r e v a r i a b l e s w h i c h have been f o u n d research  t o pursue  as  education  adult  most  would  perhaps  There i s  Osborn,  supported  mother's  few  work.  education  students  although  inclined  Hopper and  is  few  that  w o u l d have a s p i r a t i o n s male  so  students  (Humphreys  degree-completion  downwardly  complete degrees  and  returned and  Porter,  mobility than  and,  students  than A d u l t  Entry.  of  dropouts  Osborn, 1978)  would  1975), led  be  upward m o b i l i t y .  p r o p o r t i o n of the Re-entry  mobile  Re-entry  on  (Hopper  downward  that a f a i r  that  research  course,  would  be  i t  more  to  more It  students had likely  been to  108  H4 :  There w i l l be higher p r o p o r t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s downwardly mobile i n s o c i a l c l a s s among a d u l t s who p e r s i s t t o degrees than among n o n - p e r s i s t e r s ; and there w i l l be a higher p r o p o r t i o n of upwardly mobile individuals among n o n - p e r s i s t i n g a d u l t s than p e r s i s t e r s ( m o b i l i t y by comparison t o f a m i l y of o r i g i n ) . Data asking  for testing  this  hypothesis  f o r f a t h e r ' s occupation  came  and f o r the main  the student had p r i o r t o becoming a student prior  t o r e t u r n i n g t o being  interest  were  occupational  questions  aspirations.  6,7,9,11, and 20.) system  rather  status  or  answers. using  than  about When  the  (Re-entry).  f o r present  simplified  A l s o of  C:  and  Questions  were coded u s i n g a s i x - l e v e l  prestige  an occupation  occupation  occupation  one of the more p r e c i s e  the l e v e l  questions  (Adult E n t r y ) o r  (See Appendix  Occupations  occupational  uncertainty  a student  asking  from  scales  of some was  socioeconomic  because  occupations  difficult  system—"banker"  of  given i n  t o code  for  some  even  example—a  generous l e v e l was given, as much as anything because of the overall  trend,  occupations  with  few respondents  reporting higher-level  for their fathers.  There were not many o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r downward m o b i l i t y in  the sample.  Only  6 of 101 who  answered  this  question  c o u l d be s a i d t o have f a t h e r s i n upper or upper middle c l a s s occupations.  The mean o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l f o r f a t h e r s , based  on the s i x - l e v e l system chosen, was 4.07.  109  The prior  mean  to being  slight  interpret  because this  Sixteen comparison not  status;  from was  did  left  their  this  would  probably  respondents  not  respond father's  as  intended  job  indicating  this  viewed  There  their  to  higher  jobs  and is  do  3  sense,  any  job  with  for  by  only  a  that  especially  return to  actually  question;  occupation  nothing  logical, to  to  students,  having  not  career.  occupation.  Re-entry  seem  have  3.76,  did  p a r t of t h e i r  out  the  main  However, t h i s must be i n t e r p r e t e d  present  viewed  definitely  would  5  f o r respondents'  o r t o r e - e n t r y was  many  106  only  give  mentioned  level  j o b as b e i n g  of  especially  had  a student  downward m o b i l i t y .  cautiously  did  occupational  their  those  who  education,  who  during  this  time  as  temporary. Table  19  completion  and  father's for  the (1)  (2)  full  the  relationship  t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s of  occupation  and  sample.  The  first  "job  between  social mobility held  for a  1 o r more l e v e l s  occupation  job  to f i r s t  no m o b i l i t y : no first  upward: father's  job; first  year  degree(between or  more)  t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s of m o b i l i t y a r e :  downward: change o f  and (3)  reports  from f a t h e r ' s  ( f o r example,  5-4);  c h a n g e between f a t h e r ' s  occupation  and job  1  occupation.  or  more  levels  higher  than  TABLE  19:  DEGREE COMPLETION AND  SOCIAL MOBILITY  Mobility: Downward mobility  Adult  Entry:  No  Degree  Degree  No mobility  Upward mobility  Total  5  3  4  12  13  9  7  29  X  2  = 0.39,  d . f . = 2,  n.s.  Re-entry: No  Degree  Degree  12  3  10  25  11  5  4  20  X Full No  2  = 2.50,  d . f . = 2,  n.s.  Sample: Degree  Degree  17  6  14  37  24  14  11  49  Ill  As full  sample,  mobile of  c a n be  upwardly  mobile  effect  with  adult  for  Re-entry  upwardly  alternative  of  survey,  had  completion.  By  respondents  could  the  from t h e i r  Early-career first  job t o  post-secondary  no  the  full  mobility  effect  even time  be  half the  f o r the A d u l t  have whom  a  slightly  the  expected  47.8%  of  compared t o 28.6%  social by  less  of  mobility,  respondent  the  of  the  as  comparing  at the  relationship  the  described  to  survey,  only  still  being  time  degree  two  of  the  downwardly  family-of-origin-status. mobility, the  education,  was  group.  for Adult  sample was  of  job held  job at  among t h e R e - e n t r y was  to  than  Likewise,  level  among  degrees  measure  occupation with  from  downwardly  a l t h o u g h t h e r e was  students,  father's  mobile  did.  f o r the  mobile.  An  the  the  degrees w h i l e l e s s  variable  downwardly m o b i l e c o m p l e t e d  of  a t t h e 0.05  the  significant  half  students  subsamples,  tendency  are not  than  significant  and R e - e n t r y  stronger  more  students completed  r e s u l t s were n o t Entry  the r e s u l t s  although  adult  the  seen,  not  change time  of  related  occupational  entry to  or  students  significant. level  and  re-entry  to  shows, t h e r e  the  ( T h e r e was  reported.)  level  degree-completion  However, as T a b l e 20 Entry  o f more t h a n one  in  effect no  for  downward  112  TABLE 20: DEGREE COMPLETION AND  EARLY-CAREER MOBILITY  Mobility: Degree:  No  Adult  mobility  Upward  mobility  Entry  No d e g r e e  6  6  18  14  No d e g r e e  22  4  Degree  14  12  28  10  32  26  Degree X =  0.12, d . f . = 1, n . s .  2  Re-entry  X =  5.76, d . f . = 1, p<.10  2  Full  Sample  No  degree  Degree (N=96) X  Upward returning  students .were more  mobility  to  completion  = 2.41, d . f . = l , n . s .  2  higher  by  who  between  education  Re-entry  displayed  likely  first  no  may  be  students. mobility  not t o complete  Re-entry  j o b and j o b h e l d  while  mobile  and b o t h  Entry  s t u d e n t s were more l i k e l y  related  to  Actually, i n their  degrees  mobile  than  before degree-  Re-entry  early to  careers complete,  and n o n - m o b i l e  t o complete  than  not.  Adult This  113  lack  of  persistence  indicate  related  for  to  occupation  they  job  compared  they  As  The  expected  or  one  was  of  low  no  aspired  upward  aspirations There  completer  become  an  level  to  were  be  based  asked  in  two A  doing  related  ten  of  years  level  of  strongly  indicated,  of  was  those  little  especially  who  non-completers  expected  scale)  Entry)  or  ten  aspired  while  completed.  difference: and  7 5%  7 8%  to of  (For A d u l t 71%  of  of  those  those  with  degrees.)  Re-entry). artist  70%  aspirations  s i x who  the  or  quite  aspiration  t o upward m o b i l i t y was  what  comparison  in  as measure  on  degree-completer. of  were  mobility  (Adult  four  motive,  may  strongly  measures  change.  used  a  students:  completed  to  Entry,  more  practicing  shows, t h i s  t o be  there  were  (according  was  any  o n l y one  j o b was  mobility  students, no  be  expected  first  f o r Re-entry  t h o s e who  with  students  c o m p l e t i o n : t h e more upward m o b i l i t y  effect  downward  mobility than  to  T a b l e 21  t h e more l i k e l y  Entry  expected  to t h e i r  degree  strong  Re-entry  Respondents  respondents  aspiration. with  upward  histories.  usually  the  further  degree-completion  respondents'  of  non-mobile  g i v i n g - u p , d e f e a t , or l a c k of a m b i t i o n .  Desire  years;  by  over  and  their  five  They  be  downwardly  careers,  one  non-completers  usually  craftsman,  n o t an e x p e c t a t i o n o f  to  stated  something  failure.  mobile degree-  (one a  like  Adult  desire a  to  dropout  114  21:  TABLE  DEGREE COMPLETION AND LEVEL OF ASPIRATION  Mobility: Downward o r no m o b i l i t y  Upward mobility  Total:  Re-entry No  degree  Degree  X Adult No  2  Entry  7  degree x  2  Level  2  completed mobility.  degrees  time,  than  prior  was  be c o n s i d e r e d a cause.  Those  realistically hand,  i n the f i r s t  questions what  could  might  negatively  aspiration  assessed;  rather  On t h e o t h e r  orientation  relate  = 8.10,  of aspiration  degree-completion  that  38 59  28 26  degree  X  of  10 33 d.f.=10, p<0. 01  = 0.10, d . f =1, n . s .  Degree  to  12 32  sample  No  goal  5 15  17  Degree  Full  26 27  21 5 9 18 = 12.19, d . f . = 1, p <0.01.  expect  i tcould  p l a c e , which  or  (actually, your  during  less  not  a lack of expect  However,  enrollment  goal?"  of  upward  one w o u l d  sub-questions)  vocational  who h a d  indicate  t o degree-completion. to  an e f f e c t  level  was n o t  a s k i n g : "At were  deleted  115  partly the  because  questions  save  p r e - t e s t respondents or f e l t  they  were  unable  were i r r e l e v a n t ,  t o answer  and p a r t l y t o  space. All  of  the  relationships  reported  worked more s t r o n g l y with Re-entry Entry more  students. likely  ones.  Re-entry  their  early  students  who  c a r e e r s were more  than degree-completers. complete  degrees  degrees  Re-entry  than  were  section  likely  unlikely  students  were upwardly  not upwardly  And, Re-entry  were  this  students than w i t h A d u l t  Downwardly mobile  t o complete  in  to  t o be  were mobile  mobile  in  non-completers  students who d i d not aspire  to  further  to  degree-  occupational mobility i n t h e i r careers. This  closer  completion  association  and  social  of  persistence  mobility  factors  with  Re-entry  students than w i t h the A d u l t E n t r y students may r e s u l t an  overall  with  closer  Re-entry  Hypothesis mothers  students.  high  higher  education  career  success.  traditional-age of  traditional  education  to  completion  they may  and  the  to  and  association  and may  students, try  i n the d i s c u s s i o n of  with  t o have  some  post-  have been more s o c i a l i z e d t o  Re-entry  students  and s t a t u s  students were more l i k e l y  school  education;  between e d u c a t i o n  As observed  3 ( a ) , Re-entry  with  secondary  association  from  may  reverse  of  students,  who  have many be  more downward  education had  with been  characteristics  inclined  to  mobility,  use and  116  conversely  may  be  if  not  succeed  t h e y do The  class the  lack  social  of  origins  mobility  related; less  the  The more  lower  their  aspirations  educationally. from  i n the  upper  class  and  upper  sample made i t d i f f i c u l t  but  Hypothesis  and  educational  4  is  partly  of  the  middle to  test  supported.  achievement  cause-effect direction  Background initial  likely  supported the  are  clearly  relationship  is  survey  the  table  i s an  summarizes  several  mainly There  not were  example, entry  records  Lack  partly  among t h e  respondents.  Entry  of  due  first-time  non-completers  to  expansion the  of  Table  relationships  the  relationships  in  2  sampling and,  of  were  degrees  Chapter  with  between  motivation,  non-persisters  in  some  The  were  i s conservative.  in  Entry  and  3.  the hypotheses  indicated Adult  i n Table  degree-completion  interpretation not  in  registrants  from  While  be was  support  o f H y p o t h e s e s 2 t o 4 i s summarized  supported,  and  Adult  data.  been  that  students would  than  Entry  differences  persisters  degrees  have  fact  Re-entry  background v a r i a b l e s .  students  mobility.  may  Adult  testing  which  student  the  underrepresented The  complete  data  therefore,  Characteristics  hypothesis that  to  by  limitations:  for  to  certain.  Summary:  22,  inclined  students  hypothesis,  Social  more  the  table,  students  differences aspects  of  and  for Re-  between career  117  TABLE  22:  SUPPORT FOR PREDICTIONS FROM CHAPTER BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS AND  DEGREE  COMPLETION  Degree: Completers  Hypothesis  3:  Non-completers  Support from from Data?  2:  (a)  e a r l y time of d e c i s i o n  mature time o f decision  no  (b)  stopouts-intended to return (Re-entry)  perceived selves as d r o p o u t s ( R e - e n t r y )  no  (c)  long-time ambition f u l f i l l e d (Adult Entry)  recent idea to attend (Adult Entry)  no  Hypothesis  3:  (a)  t r a d i t i o n of higher education  no t r a d i t i o n o f higher education in family  no  (b)  advanced degree aspiration  no a d v a n c e d degree a s p i r a t i o n  no  Hypothesis  4:  downward s o c i a l mobility  upward s o c i a l mobility  yes-Reentry no-Adult Entry  118  Vocational  motives  immediate a p p l i c a t i o n  or  motives  of l e a r n i n g  such  as  desire  for  were not as conducive t o  completing degrees as motives such as "to complete a degree" or  enrolling  were  more  because  f o r self-understanding.  prevalent  of b e l i e f  among  Vocational  Re-entry  i n the more  students;  intrinsic  enrolling  v a l u e s of h i g h e r  e d u c a t i o n was more p r e v a l e n t among the A d u l t E n t r y Conclusions (Hypothesis  about  4) were  the  influence  motives  of  group.  social  i m p o s s i b l e t o make mainly  mobility  because  of  r e s t r i c t e d range i n the sample: l a c k of students from upperlevel  families.  However,  there  are  statistically  s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between degree completion and  within-career  upward m o b i l i t y  (early-career  mobility),  and degree-completion and d e s i r e f o r f u r t h e r upward m o b i l i t y ( l e v e l of a s p i r a t i o n ) . those  who  were upwardly  those  who  aspired  survey  were  P a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h Re-entry s t u d e n t s , mobile  to further  more  likely  in their  mobility  to  early  careers  a t the time  complete  and  of the  degrees.  These  r e l a t i o n s h i p s , however, may be e f f e c t s as much as causes  of  educational success. To  some extent, background  persistence  than  (Participation)  had  been  variables  factors  anticipated,  - discussed  more importance than expected.  had l e s s  next  and  effect  on  intervening  i n Chapter  6  -  Some of the reasons f o r t h i s  w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n Chapter  7.  119  CHAPTER 6 TESTING HYPOTHESES: PARTICIPATION EFFECTS AND  DEGREE  COMPLETION  Introduction This analyses the the  chapter  experience  intervening  satisfaction, completion  with  the  support,  first  Each  bivariate  i s on t h e e f f e c t s o f  H y p o t h e s e s 5 and 6 d e a l the  model,  dealing with  the  with  effects  of  previous  i s quite  of Hypothesis  5 is  In a d d i t i o n , while the hypothesis  deals  between  the effects  reported.  satisfaction,  of the sub-hypotheses  differences  variable  in  and  and p r o b l e m s on p e r s i s t e n c e t o d e g r e e  section,  separately.  categories, also  The f o c u s  itself.  variables  univariate  ( F i g u r e 4, p . 4 3 ) .  extensive. treated  the  of the hypotheses.  student  The  continues  Adult  Entry  of s a t i s f a c t i o n  As n o t e d chapter,  the  i n the section  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  and t h e d e p e n d e n t  variable  and  Re-entry  on p e r s i s t e n c e a r e on H y p o t h e s i s between  the  1 in Entry  (degree-completion)  is  ambiguous. Following (Hypothesis  the  section  6 ) , t h e summary  on  problems  and  i n c l u d e s an e x p a n s i o n  support of  Table  120  3, C h a p t e r involved cause,  3, s i m i l a r in  treating  effect,  t o Table the  22 f r o m  variables  Chapter from  or intervening variables  5.  this  The  logic  chapter  as  i s discussed.  Satisfaction  The was  students' previous experience with  expected  to  expectations,  affect  level  response  of s a t i s f a c t i o n ,  These  differences,  expected  Entry  and R e - E n t r y  groups,  variables  in  experience, they  were  these  getting  effects  persistence students higher  expected  were  of  who,  this by  to  seen  be  student  group  definition,  to as  students,  more  compared had  no  Adult  mediating  because  satisfied  with  environment,  contribute  had  role—  between  as p o s s i b l e  the u n i v e r s i t y  expected  education  p e r c e p t i o n of problems.  Re-entry  and w i t h  were  the  to differentiate  persistence.  were  to  higher  to  to  of  what and  the  greater  Adult  Entry,  experience  with  education.  H5: Adult Entry students w i l l differ from Re-entry students in response to their educational experience, i n t h a t they w i l l : (a)  expect more immediate payoff from their courses such as immediate application of c o u r s e c o n t e n t t o work o r o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s ,  (b)  feel and  (c)  experience less instructors.  less  comfortable  with  satisfaction  other with  students,  courses  and  121  The  data  question about  on  for this reasons  The  8)  purpose  the s p e c i f i c was  (32.1%) c h e c k e d It Entry than as  was  than  completers  asking  educational  to  (see Appendix  o f f any  something  eleven  for a  specific  I f respondents  checked  i t was  them.  of  C,  assumed  immediate  Thirty-four  of  106  the item.  would  succeed.  Re-entry  "to learn  important  one o f t h e r e a s o n s to  check  purpose category,  that be  degree-completers  likely  to  application)."  predicted  students  of t h e i r  for enrolling  students  including  (immediate  application  question  a  Payoff  allowed  possibilities,  a  from  University.  q u e s t i o n on m o t i v e s  Question  generated  and  several aspects  a t Simon F r a s e r  Immediate  were  for enrolling  s a t i s f a c t i o n with  experience  off  hypothesis  both  more  non-completers  likely  and R e - e n t r y  t o check  this  Adult motive  t h i s was  seen  why A d u l t E n t r y s t u d e n t s w o u l d be  less  Adult  students  to  were more l i k e l y  However, t h e i n t e r a c t i o n  Entry check than  students;  and  students off this  were  more  item,  degree-completers  i s not a d d i t i v e .  and  likely non-  t o do s o .  122  Table down  by  23  reports  Entry  status  and  of  application  a s one o f t h e m o t i v e s  emphasis  completers Entry  on i m m e d i a t e  which  showing  Re-entry  immediate  for enrolling.  As c a n be  application  (difference  students:  emphasized  immediate  12  of  of  26  application  degree-completers.  0.10 b u t n o t a t t h e 0.05  the  included  differentiates  nonAdult  16.4% t o d i f f e r e n c e  The m o t i v e a p p a r e n t l y made t h e most d i f f e r e n c e  Re-entry  entry  category  completion,  broken  f r o m c o m p l e t e r s more t h a n i t d i f f e r e n t i a t e s  from  7.1%).  f o r the question  degree  percentage  seen,  each  the results  Re-entry compared  The e f f e c t  of  among  non-completers to  5  of  i s significant  28  Re-  at the  level. TABLE 23:  PERCENT CONSIDERING IMMEDIATE APPLICATION  IMPORTANT  BY DEGREE COMPLETION AND ENTRY STATUS  Status: Degree:  Adult  Entry  Re-entry  Total  Completed  37.5%(32)  17.8%(28)  28.3%(60)  Not C o m p l e t e d  41.7%(12)  46.2%(26)  44.7%(38)  Total  38.6%(44)  31.5%(54)  (N i n p a r e n t h e s e s ) . X  2  (Adult  X  2  Entry)  =0.41,d.f.=2,n.s.  ( R e - e n t r y ) = 4.96, d . f . = 2, n . s .  X  2  (Full  Sample) = 4.4, d . f . = 2, n . s .  123  Hypothesis application  5 ( a ) was n o t s u p p o r t e d .  as  completion,  a  motive  the effect  S a t i s f a c t i o n with The  various  from  a  "very  aspects  question  items—social scheduling,  class  (Appendix  but  C,  dealt  social  life  with  the other  checked  o f f by any  Adult  stated  direction—more  satisfaction  given survey,  to  and  say whether  of  classes  with  and  were seven  courses,  Hypothesis  13).  question  on  (5b) i s o n l y  satisfaction  with  other students"),  (Appendix  C,  Question  i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , was n o t  respondent. these  satisfaction  persisters  Re-entry  satisfaction  students, would  of  differences  items  be  and  in  reported  by  between  the  variable  Hypothesis  which  Adult  1  with  Entry  and  same  Re-entry  I t was a n t i c i p a t e d  rate of degree-completion. testing  were  and n o n - p e r s i s t e r s a n d  a c t as a m e d i a t i n g  to a higher  the results  they  come  no.  classmates"  before,  would  experience  o r "not s a t i s f i e d "  and by d e g r e e - c o m p l e t e r s .  contribute  life  c o n t a c t , and c o u n s e l l i n g  indicator  and  variable.  instructor  the  to differentiate  Entry  students  student  ( o r " o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o mix w i t h with  degree-  ( f o r H y p o t h e s e s 5 ( b ) and 5 ( c ) )  quality  by  to  Life.  students  size,  14(a)),  intended  of  Question,  "Problems  As  Social  "satisfied,"  life,  related  immediate  i s not t h a t of a mediating  asking  satisfied,"  partly  i s negatively  d a t a on s a t i s f a c t i o n  with  Although  that would  However, the  mail  Re-entry  124  s t u d e n t s on not  s a t i s f a c t i o n w o u l d n o t be  i n the expected d i r e c t i o n .  Entry  not expected, but might  the  earlier  results  12,  p.  As  94).  greater In social  might  satisfaction Table life  24  significant respondents  reported. for  for  the  the  results  especially less  the  likely  than  Re-entry,  i n the  survey  The  result  whole  of  report  case  with  to report  and  is  subsample. with  being  social  with  close  satisfaction  to few  life,  and  likely  satisfied;  students,  test  Very  were more  very  Re-entry high  reported  a c h i square  Degree-completers  to  (Table  on a l l i t e m s .  sample  Re-entry  given  for satisfaction  reported dissatisfaction  non-completers  overall  1  than non-completers  most o f t h o s e g r a d u a t e d .  was  on most i t e m s A d u l t  expect, degree-completers  the complete  are  certainly  have b e e n p r e d i c t e d  f o r Hypothesis  one  significant  than  In f a c t ,  students reported greater s a t i s f a c t i o n  w h i c h was  is  anticipated,  this  who  were  with  social  relationship  with  life. Although  there  is  an  degree-completion—Hypothesis Satisfaction Table is  25,  one  with s o c i a l  i t can of  the  be  seen  items and  contact  size).  and  class  Re-entry  direction.  that which  degree-completers and  life  effect—a 5(b)  i s related  not  most  It also although  supported.  to persistence.  satisfaction  non-completers  Students,  is  with  strongly (along  in  life  distinguishes  with  distinguishes not  social  In  instructor Adult Entry  the  expected  125  TABLE 24 SATISFACTION WITH SOCIAL L I F E DEGREE  AND  COMPLETION  Response:  Dissatisfied  Category: Adult No  Satisfied  Very  satisfied  Entry degree  Degree  0  9  3  3  16  12  1  21  2  1  15  9  1  33  5  4  34  23  X = 2.45, d . f . = 2, n.s, 2  Re-entry No  degree  Degree X =  5.45, d . f . = 2, n.s.  2  Full  Sample  No  degree  Degree X = 2  1  8.98, d . f . =2, p <0.01,  1(N=100), eight individuals included in sample n o t c a t e g o r i z e d as R e - e n t r y o r A d u l t E n t r y .  full  126  The S a t i s f a c t i o n V a r i a b l e The the  satisfaction  difference  than  items  except  seven  items  Entry  vs.  are  with  shown.  most  less,  of  summarized,  of  and  t h e r e were  with  no  using  degree-completers  degree  completion  a t Simon was  for  25,  vs.  the  Adult non-  "very  satisfied"  Fraser  University  chosen  "dissatisfied."  greater  Table  comparisons:  respondents  satisfied"  and  Re-entry  f o r a l l of the  In  both  between E n t r y  difference  and  c o u n s e l l i n g (and t r i v i a l  experience  few  non-completers  Entry  classes).  of  "very  the differences  between  because, i n  For f i v e  of the  c a t e g o r i e s a r e 5.6%  than  13.3%.  or  Differences  non-completers  ranged  from  t o 27.0%. The  with  quality  of t h e i r Use  cases,  items,  with  Percentages  aspects  and  i s greater, i n fact,  Re-entry,  completion.  completers  between t h e A d u l t  satisfaction with  i n g e n e r a l , c o n t r i b u t e more t o  degree  The d i f f e r e n c e  satisfaction  7.2%  between  t o the d i f f e r e n c e  groups.  are  items,  remaining  social  Hypothesis  life,  5(c).  items which  i n Table has  25,  been  besides  satisfaction  discussed,  S e v e r a l p o i n t s c a n be made.  deal  with  I t should  be  127  TABLE 25: PERCENT VERY SATISFIED WITH ASPECTS OF SIMON FRASER EXPERIENCE BY ENTRY STATUS AND DEGREE COMPLETION  Satisfaction (with:  Status: Adult Entry (N=43)  Persistence:  Re-Entry (N=51)  Degree (N=58)  No degree (N=36)  social l i f e  34.9%  21.6%  36.2%  13.9%  quality of classes  23.2%  17.6%  24.1%  13.9%  content of courses  16.3%  15.7%  19.0%  11.1%  23.5%  29.3%  11.1%  21.6%  35.3%  .8.3%  25.5%  37.9%  11.1%  scheduling of classes  20.9%  class size  23.3%  contact with instructors counselling  30.2% 20.9%  9.8%  19.0%  8.3%  128  noted  that  the table  satisfied"  responses.  respondents  checked  With- a l l b u t responses S.F.U.,  one  were  and  institution comments contact  to  than  made  "very  number o f  category—"satisfied." "very  satisfied"  "not s a t i s f i e d . "  Perhaps  at  of attempting  t o accommodate  adult  any  with  in  students,  f o r youth  order  on  Contact.  in detail.  the Adult and  problems  were  being  minimized.  satisfaction  with  an  Further instructor  Table  Entry  and  significant  related  findings  i n Chapter  and  reports the  satisfaction  Re-entry  f o r the f u l l  for  contact  groups  with  relationship instructor  (p<0.10  sample. with  to degree-completion.  of r e s e a r c h based 3.  26  The r e s u l t s were n e a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t f o r  opportunities  definitely with  middle  who  the l a r g e s t  item—counselling—more  degree-completion  contact,  with  those  and w i t h c o u n s e l l i n g .  between  <0.05)  only  has a t r a d i t i o n  Instructor  both  o f f the  primarily  are  with  With a l l items,  recorded  which  part-time  deals  but not  Satisfaction  instructors  was  This i s consistent  on t h e T i n t o m o d e l  referred  129  TABLE 26: DEGREE COMPLETION AND SATISFACTION WITH INSTRUCTOR CONTACT  Response:  Category:  Dissatisfied  Satisfied  Very satisfied  Adult Entry No degree  4  7  1  Degree  4  15  12  X = 4.77, d.f. = 2, n.s. 2  Re-entry No degree  6  15  3  Degree  2  15  10  10  24  4  6  34  23  X =5.46, d.f. = 2, n.s. 2  F u l l Sample  1  No degree Degree  X = 10.33, d.f. = 2, p <0.005. 2  1(N=101), seven respondents are included who were not categorized as Adult Entry or Re-entry..  130  Counselling. was  notably  were  Level  low; f o r t h i s  "dissatisfied"  among said  than  degree-completers, they  were v e r y  significant counselling level  of  question "very 15  association  dissatisfaction  feeling  only,  satisfied"  were  between  is still indicated  more  respondents  (27 t o 14;  27).  to  even  11  who  T h e r e was no with  but the r e l a t i v e l y  high  of  interest.  Comments  t h a t t h i s was n o t s o much  w i t h t h e c o u n s e l l i n g t h a t was r e c e i v e d a s i t that  t h e r e was  n o t enough  counsellors  should  be  attached  that  c o u n s e l l i n g should  be  given  The  counselling  dissatisfaction  that  their  with  not s a t i s f i e d  and d e g r e e - c o m p l e t i o n ,  dissatisfaction a  satisfaction  s a t i s f i e d ; see T a b l e  made by some r e s p o n d e n t s  was  of  to  of i t .  Some  departments;  felt some  t o a l l at the start  of  programs.  Importance o f  An effects  analysis of  completion.  Satisfaction  o f v a r i a n c e was c a r r i e d  Entry  status  and  satisfaction  The u s e o f a n a l y s i s  compare  effects;  i t would  analysis  to establish  be  causation.  o u t t o compare t h e  of variance  inappropriate  on  degree-  i s simply to  use  to such  131  TABLE 27: DEGREE COMPLETION AND SATISFACTION WITH COUNSELLING  Response:  Category: Adult  Dissatisfied  Satisfied  Very  satisfied  Entry  No degree  4  Degree X = 1.82, 2  d.f.  = 3,  8  7  1  14  8  n.s.  Re-entry No degree  8  14  2  Degree  6  16  3  X =0.59, 2  Full  Sample  = 3,  n.s.  1  No degree  12  24  3  Degree  15  33  11  X = 2.39, 2  d.f.  d.f.  = 3,  n.s.  ( N = 9 8 ) , seven respondents a r e i n c l u d e d who not c a t e g o r i z e d as A d u l t E n t r y o r R e - e n t r y . 1  were  132  The  results  of  importance  of  the  recalled,  however,  the  analysis  Satisfaction that  expressions  satisfaction.  The  and  multivariate completion any  other  had  analysis. than  a  composite  for  more  of  Satisfaction  (Variance  squares  accounted  of  degree  (p=0.064)  and  statistically more  is  but  s i g n i f i c a n t independent The  respondents  to  by i t s e l f of  statistical  Chapter  7.)  of  the  degree or  in  degree status.  satisfaction  sum  of  satisfaction of  Entry  on  significance  explained  mailed  survey  dissatisfaction  proportion  in  Satisfaction  total  effect  occasional  accounts  life  accounting f o r  the  S.F.U. e x p e r i e n c e , and t h e l o w e r  Satisfaction  of  an  variance i s by  is  f a r the  variable.  the  c o n s i d e r e d as a t l e a s t  was  Entry  with t h e i r  be  dis-  a l l seven,  variance  The  to  overall  significant,  on  useful  that  than  proportion  close  the  based  f o r 14.9% o f t h e v a r i a n c e i n  respectively.)  completion  be  here  f o r by e x p l a i n e d v a r i a n c e a n d  squares,  should  predictor  shows  results  i s the  the  or  most  including  28  completion with S a t i s f a c t i o n  9.7%.  found  explained  and E n t r y a c c o u n t  used  of  (except f o r s o c i a l  a better  score  the  completion/non-completion  sums  measure  Table  is  satisfaction  been  ( I t was  combination.)  accounts  degree  of  Satisfaction  which  It  measure  index of f i v e of the items  counselling)  indicative  variable.  this  retrospective  additive  are  expressed partly  for  variance  by  were  satisfied  s a t i s f a c t i o n and.  non-persisters  rationalization.  a  statistically  in  degree  may  However,  significant  completion.  (See  133  TABLE 28: ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR DEGREE  COMPLETION  COMPARING EFFECTS OF SATISFACTION AND ENTRY STATUS.  Source of Variation  Sum o f Squares  Mean Square  F  Main e f f e c t s :  3.162  3  1.054  4.907  0.003  Entry  0.756  1  0.756  3.521  0.064  Satisfaction  2.156  2  1.078  5.020  0.009  0.152  2  0.076  0.354  0.703  3.314  5  0.663  3.086  0.013  Residual  18.899  88  0.215  Total  22.213  93  0.239  D.F.  Significance  Interaction: Entry X Satisfaction  Explained Variance  134  Hypothesis Entry  students  emphasize with  5 was were  immediate  their  social  their university e f f e c t on  not not  supported more  inclined  application,  life  by  than  or t o be  at u n i v e r s i t y  experience.  the d a t a .  Adult  Re-entry  less  to  satisfied  o r any o t h e r  p a r t of  However, a l l these t h i n g s had  degree-completion.  S a t i s f a c t i o n d i d not a c t , a p p a r e n t l y , as an i n t e r v e n i n g variable. affect  To d i s c o v e r how i t works w i t h o t h e r v a r i a b l e s t o  degree-completion  requires  which i s r e p o r t e d i n t h e next Support;  multivariate  analysis,  chapter.  Problems  Because of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups i n t h e i r own  and  in  their  education, Adult and  have,  more  families'  Entry  students  problems  as  accounting  having  the  f o r some  with  were expected  than  a d j u s t i n g t o being a student. seen  experiences  Re-entry  higher  to perceive,  students  with  Again, these d i f f e r e n c e s were  effect  of  of the reasons  would be more l i k e l y t o complete  intervening why  Re-entry  variables, students  degrees.  H6: A d u l t E n t r y students w i l l experience more problems w i t h the student r o l e than Re-entry students, i n ways which will negatively affect their p e r s i s t e n c e t o degree-completion. Specifically, they w i l l : (a)  p e r c e i v e t h a t they have l e s s support f o r t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t s from f a m i l y members and others c l o s e t o them, and  135  (b)  more frequently have problems (such as financial difficulties, job pressures, or difficulties with studying) which affect t h e i r p e r s i s t e n c e t o degree-completion.  D a t a on s u p p o r t (Appendix sources  C:  Questions  of support  categories friends, support  of support  by  any  on  categorized  with  contribute  I t was  family categories, others.  not  determined. which  hypothesized  than  have  Re-entry  and  could  that Adult  be  family  Entry  this  would  expected  difficulty  endeavours, experience  to  particularly  that  i t was  more  educational less  The  t o be r e l a t e d  Similarly,  of  Degree o f  intended  dropout.  their  o f f a s many  and j o b p r o b l e m s  commitments,  would  on  personal  job  students  because  education,  t o check  items  p r o b l e m s and was  and  for  things  included  questions  The q u e s t i o n  have o r p e r c e i v e more p r o b l e m s ,  to  Entry  support  was  three  16).  individuals  a l l sources  question.  would  from  as they w i s h e d — s i x  problems  family  Adult  15, and  as f a m i l y , f i n a n c i a l ,  support  students  came  teachers, classmates,  or  as w e l l a s s t u d y the  14,  allowed  employers,  question  and problems  that  getting  among  other  with  higher  family  members  students.  Support Most —  respondents  50 c h e c k e d  friends  or  support  from  o f f one o r more f a m i l y c a t e g o r i e s .  ( 2 5 ) , someone  teachers (10).  reported  from  counsellors  (See A p p e n d i x  the  education  ( 1 4 ) , and  C, Q u e s t i o n  last  of  system  Next such  came as  a l l , employers  15.) G e n e r a l l y , i t a p p e a r s  136  these  adults  were  pursuing  c a r e e r s ; many i n f a c t on c a r e e r s .  felt  higher  education  to  change  they had not y e t r e a l l y embarked  As a r e s u l t , the employer c a t e g o r y was  not very  important. Support Entry rates  and  or l a c k of support d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e Re-entry  students  (See Table 29.)  checked  off  did  (-0.014, n.s.)  not  correlate  or with  Adult  respondents,  educational  efforts,  of  completion 13  these  opposed  their  members; completed  when  completed  education.  their  individuals  who  asked  i t was  (In  from  such  (-0.093, n . s . ) . supported  answered 11  their  "no  did  one."  not—a  i n the whole sample. anyone 11  close  cases  employers.)  degrees.  Slightly  reported  opposition  16) were A d u l t E n t r y students, but effect  who  degrees;  that  degree-completion  status  specifically  reported  twice  degree-completion  with  Entry  r a t e compared t o 62%  individuals'  affect  The t o t a l number of support c a t e g o r i e s  Twenty-seven  Sixteen  or  Adult  Nine more  to  e n t r y students i n t h e i r degree completion  them  had  was  family  of  the  13  had  half  of  the  (Appendix  opposition for either  Only  it  than  t h e r e was  59%  C,  Question  no n o t i c e a b l e  Adult Entry rates.  or  Re-  137  TABLE 29 DEGREE COMPLETION AND NUMBER OF SOURCES (JI SUJ'l'UKT 1  Number o f s o u r c e s o f s u p p o r t checked  Category  No o n e  2 o r more  1 source  sources  No degree  11  10  10  Degree  16  21  2G  (N=102), X  Hypothesis Considerations and  others  males  simply  not  supported  important  with  not important  survey.  ' I t may  adult  males  I t may  also  t o many be t h a t  be  as w i t h  the q u a l i t y of the support  was not d e t e r m i n e d .  by  the  or - o p p o s i t i o n of f a m i l y  i n other r e s e a r c h , i s not t h a t  persistence.  stated,  = 0.71, d . f . = 2, n . s .  was  of support  i n the mail  stressed term  was  6(a)  2  this  variable, i n J,ong-  i t i s not as  females.  from  members  of the adult  important  that  data.  specific  however,  as  individuals  138  Problems Respondents applied coded  were  t o them:  there  as p e r s o n a l  financial,  significant completers  in  four  Adult  somewhat Adult  less  Entry  likely  though  problems,  two  be as  and two as j o b - r e l a t e d o r T h e r e were  degree-completers and R e - e n t r y  five  problem  emphasized;  because  only of  non-  categories —  this  ( T h e r e were i s reported  f o r job  the  and  no  i n number o f  and s t u d y - r e l a t e d .  significant  had  had  effect  work-related  t o complete  non-completers  work.  could  as  or  work-  with  the  (See T a b l e 30.)  who  reported  university  the  mainly  group.  those  question  even  were  which  Q u e s t i o n 14.)  i n categories  problems,  So,  as f a m i l y  Entry  financial,  Results  Entry  of  as many p r o b l e m s  categories  four  between  o r between A d u l t  family,  later. )  two  (See A p p e n d i x ,  some d i f f e r e n c e s  related  problems,  differences  or  personal,  were  t h r e e as s t u d y - r e l a t e d ,  work p r o b l e m s .  problems  allowed t o check  job The  who  problems result  a degree. responded  problems Nine  to  conflicting  i s statistically  t h e r e were v e r y few n o n - c o m p l e t e r s .  were  of eleven  the  problems  with  their  significant  139  TABLE 30: DEGREE COMPLETION AND WORK-RELATED  PROBLEMS  No p r o b l e m s Reported  Problems Reported  2  9  22  10  No d e g r e e  13  11  Degree  16  10  No d e g r e e  15  21  Degree  43  20  Category:  Adult  Entry  No d e g r e e Degree X = 8.32, d . f . = 1, p<0.01 2  Re-entry  X =  0.27, d . f . = 1, n . s .  2  Full  X  2  Sample  = 6.69, d . f . = l  f  p<0.01.  (N=99). S i x responents are included c a t e g o r i z e d as A d u l t E n t r y o r R e - e n t r y . 1  not  1  who  where  140  In  addition,  between Table  the  31  Adult  there  were  categories  gives  the  Entry  in  their  question fact, was  but  most  as  i t was  were  greatest  likely  asked a  one  of  to  "laziness"—or  lack  and  by  completers.  Differences  job pressures,  p r o b l e m s were compared  to  problems  were  entry  of  emphasized not  family or  reported 19.6%  reported  compared  apparently  of  had  to no  in  group  main an  the  open-ended  the  and  non-completers  Adult  were  ( l a c k of  by 51  the  40.5%  student of  42  Re-entry  as  the  11.9%  of  effect  main  role  Adult  problem Entry  problems  and  like  of  58  Re-entry  finances,  itself. Entry  by  more  energy—  19.0%  students.  Adult on  and  Entry  external pressures  non-  non-significant,  non-completers  between  in  checklist  degree-completers  that  problem  responses;  from  deficiencies  35  but  by  degree  s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e ) ; these  were r e p o r t e d  students  was  statistically  personal  31.5%  This to  between  of  reported  down  suggestions  d i f f e r e n c e being  emphasize  emphasized.  indicate their  easy  the  slight  problems  categories. to  fairly  differences  broken  student.  Differences  completers the  time  often  given.  were  sub  of  (slight)  major problems  Re-entry  completion/non-completion  during  types  c a t e g o r i e s of  and  Respondents  some  or  Study  students Financial  21.6%  of  students,  persistence  by  Reand the  TABLE 31: TYPE OF PROBLEM REPORTED AS MAIN ONE DURING TIME AS STUDENT, BY DEGREE/ENTRY CATEGORY  Category: Re-entry Main problem  No degree  Adult Entry  Degree  No degree  Degree  None  1  3  0  0  Personal  8  5  3  6  Job  4  4  2  Family  2  3  2  5  Financial  5  -6  0  5  Study  _  6  4  13  24  27  11  31  1  Totals (N=93)  l"None" or "no problem" specifically stated.  2'  142  Adult  Entry  financial  was  f o r the  Adult  reported, not  but  was  in  related  Entry by  students,  were  types  little  students  family  and  problems.  and  were  Hypothesis  6(b)  differences between  of  (but  the  problems  being  apparently other  for  them;  a  on d e g r e e  student,  were  problems  or  difficulties  much e f f e c t  lack  not  Re-entry  most  often  between  having  Re-entry  students  p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s and financial  Hypothesis Support  has  have  problems  for  of  skills  work-  was  not  more  instead  f o r doing  things did  not  student r o l e s ,  likely  to  to themselves,  apparently  having  some  a  the have to  did.  attribute with  these  effect  on  f o r them. 6  little some  except  having problems r e l a t e d  deficiencies  problems  degree-completion  were  particularly  stressed  These  completion;  not  support  they  lack  studying.  of  work, c o p i n g w i t h t h e c o m b i n e d work and  did  reported  problems  relationship  Support  consideration  problems w i t h  and  who  work-related  differences)  groups  those  h a v i n g p r o b l e m s and p e r s i s t e n c e .  affected  work  that  There  there  of  degrees.  Adult Entry  significant  Entry  Adult  major  by  supported.  statistically  or  finding  t o dropout  not  and  a l l five  problems completing  Except related  respondents,  in  total  not  o r no d i s c e r n i b l e  effect,  for Adult  is  Entry  especially  supported effect. work-  by While  or  s t u d e n t s , problems w i t h  o t h e r p e o p l e were n o t o f t e n m e n t i o n e d and  had  the  data.  problems  job-related family  little  and  effect.  143  The effect from  variables  i n Hypothesis  6  d i d seem  t o have  on p e r s i s t e n c e b u t n o t i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g  Re-entry  students.  Thus,  variables  d o e s n o t make much  variables  work  multivariate  with  others  analysis,  viewing  sense.  Adult Entry  as  To d e t e r m i n e  to affect  which  them  is  mediating how  persistence  reported  some  in  these  requires the  next  chapter.  Summary 32  Table The  i s an e x p a n s i o n  of part  hypothesized relationships  examined  found  discussed i n this  f o r support from a v a i l a b l e  were f o u n d between p e r s i s t e r s between  students,  the Adult  could  Entry  not  data.  and R e - e n t r y  relating be  and problems d i d n o t p e r f o r m  between  Adult  completion. obviously, least do  to  be  intervening  support  or  sense:—but  the conjecture  these  differences  Satisfaction,  status  mediating the results they  E n t r y / R e - e n t r y and d e g r e e - c o m p l e t i o n .  were  c a t e g o r i e s and  variables  that  57).  Chapter are  as m e d i a t i n g  Re-entry  Participation  i n an " h i s t o r i c a l "  not  Adult  These  and  (p.  categories of  supported.  support,  Entry  While  3  and n o n - p e r s i s t e r s , f e w e r  and t h e h y p o t h e s e s  degree-completion  of Table  variables  and  degree  would  seem,  variables—at of t h e study  mediate  between  TABLE 32: SUPPORT FOR PREDICTIONS FROM CHAPTER  3: PARTICIPATION FACTORS AND  ENTRY  STATUS  Category: Re-entry  Hypothesis  Support from Data?  Adult Entry  5:  delayed application ( c r e d e n t i a l emphasis)  immediate a p p l i c a t i o n ( c o n t e n t / s k i l l ) emphasis  comfortable with other students, scholastic environment  problems w i t h o t h e r students, s c h o l a s t i c environment  high  low  satisfaction  Hypothesis  satisfaction  6:  perceive higher l e v e l of support from f a m i l y and o t h e r s  p e r c e i v e lower l e v e l of s u p p o r t from f a m i l y and o t h e r s  fewer other  more f i n a n c i a l a n d other problems  * **  f i n a n c i a l and problems  indicates indicates  possible definite  relationship relationship  with with  degree-completion degree-completion  145  If  the  completer  categories  and  different. relationships  existing Double  the  non-completer, The  asterisks  with  differences  in  degree  between  between  table  the  in  results  Table  32  completion,  Re-entry  and  indicate  been  would  degree-  have  indicate  with  the  Adult  degree-completers  asterisks  had  probable  hypothesized  Entry  and  been  instead  non-completers.  stronger,  more  certain  relationships. Satisfaction experience  was  satisfaction However,  express  with  by  Adult  students  students the  new  Entry  did  emphasized student and  o p p o s i t i o n was  life  Chapter  Although  kinds  with  of  problems. persons  multivariate importance  or  ( T h i s was  of  work-  Re-entry  Adult  these Entry  coping  with  personal  contrary  to  support  or  completion.  techniques  of t h e s e  and  emphasized  expressing  predictor  satisfied.  problems  studying  students  students  non-completion  Entry  of  their  because  degree-completion.  Re-entry  a useful  the r e l a t i v e  with  to  Adult  contact.  more  mainly  strongly related  problems  7,  satisfied  persistence  financial  not  were  instructor  s t a t e t h e y were v e r y  affect  Number  and  student including  than  so  role;  the  degree-completion,  different  not  of  counselling did  students.  reported  aspects  with  affected  expectation.)  analyze  only  p r o b l e m s were  deficiencies  In  social  dissatisfaction  differences  to  respondents  time;  Problems related  various  related  most  university  with  are  variables  used and  to  those  146  examined affect  i n Chapter  degree  5,  and  completion.  how  they  work  i n combination  to  147  CHAPTER  7:  PREDICTING DEGREE-COMPLETION: USE  OF  AND  MULTIPLE REGRESSION  DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS  Introduction  In  Chapters  relationships and  In  and  6  are  still  predicting order  predictive  which  to  moderate  participation variables  documented. serve  individuals will  two  as  However, a practical  persist  to  the basis  degrees.  t h i n g s : w h i c h v a r i a b l e s have t h e  power i n d i v i d u a l l y  interactions are  Multiple  of  of  variables  because  regression. variance  The  regression is  the  discriminant  which and  can  be  what  combinations  techniques  first  greatest  they i n t e r a c t . with  and  Multiple  study,  how  deal  variables.  regression  under  and  techniques  multiple  partly  multiple amount  were  inadequate  Multivariate  used,  hypothesis-testing,  t o make p r e d i c t i o n s s y s t e m a t i c a l l y , i t i s n e c e s s a r y  to understand  chapter  on  between b a c k g r o u n d and  degree-completion  findings for  5  used  in  and this  discriminant  analysis.  multivariate  technique  analysis  based  regression accounted combination  is  on  indicates  the  for  the  best  using  predicts  148  degree completion emphasized used  to  (Norusis,  because  i t deals with  distinguish  completers  1985).  (Cooley  between  and  Discriminant  the  analysis i s  v a r i a b l e s which  degree-completers  Lohnes,  1981;  can  and  K e r l i n g e r and  be non-  Pedhazur,  1973). These full  mail  groups.  analyses survey  The  are  carried  sample,  Adult  and  Entry  the  and  f o r two  entry  have  full  sample;  effects  of  did  not  second,  the  Adult  three Entry  groups  reasons:  the  because  entry  with  Re-entry  were t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y variable  out  of  the  v a r i a b l e with  and of  first,  expected  the  sample  because with  of  survey  the  Re-entry  effect  finding  the  groups:  the the  opposite  and  records  data. Before  the  regression  extensive  and  treatment  discriminant  of  analyses,  the  the  multiple  simple  Pearson  c o r r e l a t i o n s with  degree completion  i n the  three  groups  full  the  Adult  Entry  subsamples)  are  sample,  and  examined, w i t h  compared  after  Re-entry  the  the  results  and  for Adult  correlations  for  Entry  the  and  full  (the  Re-entry  sample  are  reported. After parts  of  the the  s e c t i o n on chapter,  one  for  discriminant analysis.  the  technique,  full and  sample, Re-entry  then and  one  groups.  two  correlation, for  there  multiple  E a c h p a r t has  s e c t i o n s : one  comparing  on  analyses  are  two  regression an the of  major  and  one  introduction to a n a l y s i s of the  Adult  the  Entry  149  The  chapter  contribution of  degree  summary  deals  of the d i f f e r e n t  completion,  as  different  groups  this  discussion  of  that  in  Before analyses  going  between  completion,  the  t o an  relative  understanding  Also,  completion,  of the  there  is  t o the  a  extent  allow.  Completion  to  the  i t i s worthwhile  correlations degree  on  degree  with  i n the analysis  chapter.  here  C o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h Degree  variables  indicated  predicting  the data a v a i l a b l e  mainly  regression  to  examine  the various  t h e dependent  and  the  simple  independent variable  discriminant Pearson  variables  i n this  and  research.  Many o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s — t h o s e w h i c h were c o n t a i n e d i n t h e hypotheses  3—have  i n Chapter  previous  two  compared  with  chapters.  The  equations  chapter.  (The c o m p l e t e  Table the  the  will  make  to the  and d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n s l a t e r correlation  matrices  be  i n the  for a l l  the  are reported  D.) 33  gives the correlations  sample.  completion for  correlations  involved i n the m u l t i v a r i a t e analyses  i n Appendix  for  simple  discussed i n the  the contributions the variables  regression  variables  a l r e a d y been  While  achieves  sample,  the  significance  none  of  with  degree  relationship  completion  with  degree  f o r eight of the v a r i a b l e s  the correlations  i s larger  than  150  TABLE 33: CORRELATIONS OF BACKGROUND AND PARTICIPATION VARIABLES WITH DEGREE COMPLETION, FULL SAMPLE.  Independent Variable  Correlation  -0.229* 0.074 0.145 0.239* 0.325* 0.186* 0.333*  EntryTime o f D e c i s i o n Social Mobility Early-career Mobility Level of A s p i r a t i o n D e s i r e f o r Change Satisfaction Work-related Problems Time s i n c e E n r o l l m e n t Grade P o i n t Average Mother's E d u c a t i o n  -0.225* -0.161* 0.195* 0.078  * - s i g n i f i c a n t a t p<.05  0.333. attempt combined Two  The  level  justification  to increase  f o r multivariate  the predictive  the  variables  have  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with degree completion: of  aspiration.  significant groups.  They  effects  are also  with  both  i s to  power by c o n s i d e r i n g  e f f e c t s o f two o r more v a r i a b l e s of  analysis  the  simultaneously.  clearly  the  strongest  s a t i s f a c t i o n and l e v e l  the only the Adult  variables Entry  and  t o have Re-entry  151  Table of  34 compares  the mail  order  of  survey  with  absolute  significant  the Adult  Entry,  That  fewer c o r r e l a t i o n s  with  the entire  All  mail  with  and Re-entry listed  f o r each five  sample  group.  with  groups  descending Three  of s i g n i f i c a n c e  with  are  students.  t h e groups  i s due t o sample  o r A d u l t E n t r y group a r e s i g n i f i c a n t the f u l l  in  f o r Re-entry  are significant  survey  of the c o r r e l a t i o n s  entry  correlations  magnitude  f o r Adult  Entry  either  than size.  t h e Re-  a t t h e 0.05 l e v e l  sample.  TABLE 34: CORRELATIONS OF BACKGROUND AND PARTICIPATION  VARIABLES  WITH DEGREE COMPLETION, ADULT ENTRY AND RE-ENTRY  COMPARED  CORRELATIONS Adult  W o r k - r e l a t e d P r o b l e m s -0. 421* 0. 329* Satisfaction 0. 306* Level of A s p i r a t i o n 0. 182 D e s i r e f o r Change -0. 120 Grade P o i n t Average 0. 096 Social Mobility 0. 092 Early-career Mobility 0. 086 Time s i n c e E n r o l l m e n t 0. 059 Mother's E d u c a t i o n -0. 017 Time o f D e c i s i o n  * - significant  Re-entry  Entry  a t p<0.05  Grade P o i n t Average 0. 395* Satisfaction 0 .320* Level of A s p i r a t i o n 0 .311* Early-career Mobility 0 .306* 0. 252* Time s i n c e E n r o l l m e n t Time o f D e c i s i o n -0. 200 D e s i r e f o r Change 0. 187 Social Mobility 0 .183 0. 133 Mother's E d u c a t i o n W o r k - r e l a t e d P r o b l e m s -0. 032  level  152  Satisfaction  and l e v e l  largest  correlations  sample)  appear  largest  correlations  problems, with  with  i n both  which  of a s p i r a t i o n degree  lists,  i n each  has a  for  full  sample.  but the v a r i a b l e s  the  full  cumulative by  i n the Re-entry  sample  a n d -0.120  G.P.A., b a s e d  respondents  traditional-age which  makes  Nonetheless, Re-entry  at  with  group,  Adult  Thus,  with  6.  the importance  0.195  with  Entry.  (G.P.A.  was  courses  Entry  of the cumulative  is still  relevant.  G.P.A.  but only  courses  Adult  -0.225  Problems  taken  are i n c l u d e d f o r Re-entry  comparison  students  group  0.032  correlates  of Work-related  on a l l u n d e r g r a d u a t e  S.F.U.  students  of  i n A d u l t E n t r y , up f r o m  The i m p o r t a n c e  0.395  with the  correlation  i n the Re-entry  full  Work-related  t h e A d u l t E n t r y group i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter  correlates  have t h e  i n the  are d i f f e r e n t .  -0.421 w i t h d e g r e e - c o m p l e t i o n with  completion  nonsignificant  degree-completion  (which  taken as  students,  a  problem.  G.P.A.  The e f f e c t  with  o f G.P.A.  on p e r s i s t e n c e o f A d u l t E n t r y s t u d e n t s  i s discussed later i n  this  early-career  and  Chapter.) time  Re-entry change the  other  since enrollment,  variables,  have s i g n i f i c a n t  b u t do n o t f o r A d u l t retains  full  close  approximately  sample,  because o f t h e comes  Two  but  is  not  Early  degree  Desire f o r  correlation  statistically  size.  with  correlations for  students.  t h e same  s m a l l e r sample  to significance  Entry  mobility  time  as  with  significant of decision  completion  f o r Re-  153  entry  but  Adult  Entry. It  i s almost  is  noteworthy  significant students  uncorrelated with  or  but  that  close  to  for  the  not  the  Adult  students  c o r r e l a t i o n s with  variables.  On  the  the  strongest  might  be  environmental) connection  as  a  the  involved  in their  and  the  matrices  discussion  of  the  and  may  students,  a  or  longer  were  less  commitments.  34,  and  D  will  be  regression  which  have b e e n more  and  i n Appendix  traditional  had  external  33  be  (external  system  other  could  Entry  students  students  c o r r e l a t i o n s from T a b l e s  correlation  during  careers  Entry  are  Re-entry  problems,  Adult  educational  externally; Adult  the  with  Re-entry  involved  The  or  non-educational  variable.  with  the  educational  hand, w o r k - r e l a t e d  correlation  seen  Entry  for  which  for  as  has  correlations  significant  interpreted  other  degree completion  and  others  from  referred  to  discriminant  analyses. Regression Multiple attempts  to  Statistical Bent,  and  multiple predict used  regression predict  Package Hull,  freshmen  multiple  traditionally  success  for  1970)  regression  has  the  in  as  procedure,  G.P.A.  regression.  college.  Social  used,  Sciences an  of  the  in  first  manual  (Nie,  illustration  (1975)  used  The  pre-college  Astin's Four  been  of  variables  study  examples  of of  the to  dropouts uses  of  154  the  technique  multiple  i n Kerlinger  regression  (achievement combination It that  a r e attempts  have  as  on  departments  equations  variable  Such p r e c i s i o n  basis  only  be t e m p o r a r y :  at least yearly  r e l a t i v e importance of d i f f e r e n t  prediction  some r e s e a r c h  over  what  would  (Kerlinger  and P e d h a z u r ,  Bent,  Hull,  1970).  little  obtained like  1973) o r C o l l e g e However,  the multiple  or ignored,  a n d when c o m b i n a t i o n s  variable.  the p r e d i c t i o n  such have  as t h e r e s e a r c h correlations  variables  The a b i l i t y  c a n be  would  samples.  0.3  using  score (Nie, regression should  be do  t o improve t h e useful  h e r e where with  the  Average  of variables  especially  reported  around  plus....  improvement i n  Board  emphasized  to prediction.  like  i s comparing  Grade P o i n t  when  of  some  X2  from  indicates  significantly  on t h i n g s  variables.  indicates be  students  different  procedure  variables  some  believed  about  i s possible  c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h a major p r e d i c t o r  situations  of  the equation  with  the  strength  success  institutions  0.82 t i m e s v a r i a b l e  i s misleading—what  fact,  data  t o make p r e d i c t i o n s  precision  add  college  researchers  t o plug  The  and  t e x t b o o k on  i n post-secondary  i n which  XI p l u s  could  have t o be c h a n g e d  In  the  i f educational  use the r e s u l t s  1.37 t i m e s  to predict  persistence)  i s almost  then  (197 3)  o f measures.  admissions  should and  or  and P e d h a z u r ' s  in  several  t h e dependent  155  In for  a l l the regression  this  used  chapter,  ( N i e , 1986).  forced-entry  used,  First,  contribution  the  method,  significance  variable  selection  were i n c l u d e d  at  a  time  i n order  correlation  i f  they  met  yielded  with  and v a r i a n c e  close  a  more  economical  t o the  same  by t h e their  of  was  their  and  including  the  test  The  of  Stepwise  solution  multiple  (R ) as t h e f o r c e d - e n t r y  out were  of  (p<0.05) f o r a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a n c e .  always  carried  Then t h e S t e p w i s e method  one  only  were  regardless  multiple  variables  that  a l l variables  variables to  additional  variables),  of  or s i g n i f i c a n c e .  entering  method  methods  (Enter)  contribution  (R)  two  analyses  (fewer  correlations  method.  In f a c t , -j  Stepwise which  selection usually  i s the preferred  regression  equation  sample was  selected.  Full  measure  with  subsamples,  comparing regression  the  well  goodness o f  population  and e x c l u d i n g as. the  shown i n T a b l e  f i t of the  from  which  the  and  performed with  Re-entry full  Separate Stepwise analyses,  both  Entry  was  Entry  the  ten-variable  35.  Adult  analysis  sample o f 106 r e s p o n d e n t s .  as  the  of  i n a higher Adjusted R ,  Sample  Before  including  resulted  as a v a r i a b l e , regression.  were  The  performed  results  are  156  TABLE 35: MULTIPLE REGRESSION: BACKGROUND AND VARIABLES AND DEGREE COMPLETION  Summary Variables (by o r d e r of e n t r y  Multiple R  R Square  PARTICIPATION  (FULL  SAMPLE)  Table  R Square Adjusted  Significance  F  ENTER (all  variables)  0.574  0.329  0.267  5.24  0.000  0.326  0.106  0.097  12.33  0.001  0.445  0.198  0.183  12.72  0.000  0.487  0.237  0.214  10.55  0.000  0.522  0.272  0.243  9.44  0.000  0.554  0.307  0.272  8.85  0.000  STEPWISE Satisfaction Level of Aspiration Grade P o i n t Average Work-related Problems Entry As entry  c a n be s e e n (Enter)  multiple  R,  procedures a  from  Table  and S t e p w i s e  procedures  R , and A d j u s t e d  are s i g n i f i c a n t .  five-variable  equation  35, t h e r e s u l t s  R .  Stepwise  accounting  from  are very  The  results  regression f o r 2 7%  forced-  similar from  in both  results  in  t o 30% o f t h e  157  variance are,  (R =0.307,  in  order  satisfaction, work-related  (62% value  closer  to  0.00,  Y'  (The  o f Y:  predict  be  likely  a  in  survey, was by  a  the  second  carried  only  out.  about  3%  significant.  vary  sample). that  Entry vs.  slightly.  Y'  of  degree-  stands  i s t o 1.00,  for  t h e more  degree-completer;  the i n d i v i d u a l  The  the  will  be  a  With e n t r y i n c l u d e d , the equation i s :  -0.612 + 0.077 ( S a t i s f a c t i o n ) +.076 ( L e v e l o f Aspiration) +0.177 (G.P.A.) - 0.158 (Work-related Problems) -0.191 ( E n t r y ) coefficients  a constant  =  can  be  simply  multiplied  raw s c o r e s f o r t h e p a r t i c u l a r for this  With e n t r y l e f t Y'  full  Average,  (Adult  the l i k e l i h o o d  the c l o s e r  t h e more  Point  still  equations  should  equation,  variable  to predict the  the  mail  2  with  to  not  variance  prediction  variables  =  individuals' is  the a  five  category  did  as  The  Grade  R =0.243) and was  individual  non-completer.  entry  accounted  c a n be u s e d  the  and  entry  the  resulting  likely  aspiration,  with  2  predicted  contribution  direction  (R =0.272, A d j u s t e d  completion  2  entry  reduced  equations  of  R =0.272).  Because  excluding  The  the  problems,  hypothesized analysis  of  level  Re-entry).  This  Adjusted  2  variables;  by  the  -0.612  equation.)  out, the equation i s :  -0.778 + 0.077 ( S a t i s f a c t i o n ) +0.082 ( L e v e l of A s p i r a t i o n ) + 0.177 (G.P.A.) - 0.156 (Work-related Problems)  158  As and  c a n be s e e n ,  G.P.A.)  aspiration the  two o f t h e c o e f f i c i e n t s  are i d e n t i c a l ;  and w o r k - r e l a t e d  effect  of  these  The  because there  i s one f e w e r  stated  somewhat  absolute  before,  doubtful.  the  factors  the  appropriateness  i fprecision  when a t l e a s t  be a v a i l a b l e u n t i l  and  had c o m p l e t e d  situation  the  fact  that  like  admissions account  some o f clear i s  policy  decisions  They w o u l d be f o r example,  and w o u l d  t h e a p p l i c a n t had b e e n a  semester is a  admitted  of coursework. subjective  i t i s important  In  recall  attendance,  of  although  as i m p o r t a n t  c o u l d have m e n t i o n e d o t h e r  satisfaction,  is  i s less  attendance  of u n i v e r s i t y  as w e l l as a cause,  However, w h i l e  equations  P o i n t Average and  i t i s so f r e q u e n t l y r e c a l l e d  indicates that  a result,  use i n making  problems  n o n - c o m p l e t e r s when t h e y  aspiration,  what  of u n i v e r s i t y  at least  a t t h e time  entry  increases  i n understanding  i s i m p u t e d t o them.  after  work-related  the  of  help  such  f o r use i n admissions,  results  not  problems  do  of  two o f t h e v a r i a b l e s — G r a d e  satisfaction—are  because  f o r t h e two  of the constant  of  variable.  of t h e i r  inappropriate  addition,  value  i n persistence/dropout;  - especially entirely  differs  the u t i l i t y  They  for level  problems change s l i g h t l y  variables  categories.  As  the c o e f f i c i e n t s  (satisfaction  by  kinds of  i n some way.  Level  c a n a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d  of u n i v e r s i t y  as  success.  the use of the r e g r e s s i o n equations f o r  i s doubtful,  f o r a quarter  the fact  that  of the variance  four  v a r i a b l e s can  indicates that  they  159  should  be  taken  seriously.  variables—G.P.A. i n t e r a c t i o n with related  overall  both  only  appear  Re-entry  overall  influence  the  were  students  Student  more l i k e l y the  especially  Given survey  the  i n Chapter likely  5,  separate when  to  be  to  behave  difference  i n the  effect  mail  of  the  the  effect  aspiration when  is the not  in  the  moderate,  groups.  hypothesis  Adult than  is  the  that  degrees by  Re-entry  data  from  students  were  Testing  records  any  case,  variables of  data  entry variable,  among  regression  in  independent each  Adult  students  worthwhile  with  Re-entry  than  the  Entry  survey.  differently  of  of  similar  however  supported  the  between  the  I t s presence  complete  groups  some  in  are r e l a x e d ; i t does  some,  the  However,  the  workthe  10%  regression  with both  t o complete degrees to  an  Compared  seem t o  Records.  with  expected  to  Re-entry  would  respondents  models  due  a  L e v e l of  f o r Re-entry. be  the  with  variable  i t has  Entry  of v a r i a b l e s  must  more  first  Entry.  of  and  f o r approximately  Adult  equation  seen  two  satisfaction  the  because  Adult  the  E n t r y and  was  students  be  on d e g r e e - c o m p l e t i o n  Adult  Entry  and  for inclusion  equation  As  may  simply  in  i n the  seen,  problems—have  Entry;  (accounting  itself)  included  criteria  Adult  experience  by  be  work-related  with  regression  variance  will  s u b s a m p l e s : G.P.A. w i t h R e - e n t r y ,  problems  university  with  and  As  the and  i t was  are  groups. the  mail  seen  as  160  especially each  of  important  the  confirmed  Re-entry  the  regressions equation  for  the  and  accounted the  were two  important,  perform  usefulness  for  variables  to  Adult of  regression  Entry  the  full  groups,  as  and  which  the  sample.  a  had  new  as  the  separate did  the  different  important  variable  with  results  than  addition,  most  opposite  The  variance  In  the  analysis  groups.  procedure  f o r more o f  indicated  one  a  predictors  was  exposed  effects  with  as  the  two  groups. While both  the  groups  initial  Enter  gave  Stepwise  equations  very  ( a l l variables  similar  analysis  resulted  for  Adult  that  the  t h r e e - v a r i a b l e Re-entry  the  anomalous  variable  selection  selection, into no  the  equation  they  meet  variable  the  the  not  Adult  attempted  testing  selection, criterion  criterion  equation.  an  variables'meet  but  Backward meet  for  were  requiring  change.  variables  results  with  in  equation for  Entry  results  for  R  (see  Table  only  a  value  Entry, (Nie, the for  other  the  than  of  methods  of  Forward  criterion removal,  half  Because  1906).  inclusion  removal  36),  less  not  for  one-variable  equation.  however,  for  included)  for  entry  resulted  in  requiring  that  but  that  resulted  only in  a  four-  161  TABLE 36: MULTIPLE REGRESSION: BACKGROUND AND PARTICIPATION VARIABLES AND DEGREE (ADULT ENTRY AND RE-ENTRY  Summary Variables (by o r d e r of e n t r y Adult  Multiple R  R Square  COMPLETION  COMPARED)  Table  R Square Adjusted  Significance  Entry  ENTER (10 v a r i a b l e s )  0.638  0.407  0.275  3.08  0.009  STEPWISE Work-related Problems  0.406  0.165  0.146  8.50  0.006  (Level of Aspiration)  0.481  0.232  0.195  6.33  0.004  (Satisfaction]  0.559  0.313  0.263  6.22  0.001  (Early-career Mobility)  0.601  0.362  0.298  5.66  0.000  (last v  ,  ,  .  variables  significance  with  o f change  9  altered  criterion  i n R^ o f 0.10 r a t h e r  for  t h a n 0.05)  Re-entry ENTER (10 v a r i a b l e s )  0.613  0.376  Average  0.369  0.137  Satisfaction  0.478  0.228  0.263  3.31  0.005  0.120  8.06  0.006  0.198  7.40  0.002  STEPWISE Grade  Point  Early-career 0.281 7.78 0.000 Mobility 0.568 0.323 (no a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s w i t h a l t e r e d c r i t e r i o n o f e n t r y ]  162  There i s j u s t i f i c a t i o n be  seen  i n Table  36.  for using this  First,  procedure,  given the r e s u l t s  as  can  of the  forced  0.407), s e t t l i n g  f o r an  9  entry  equation  equation  equation there  significance the  for  is  only  i n the  I t can  9  as  w o u l d be  overwhelming  variable.  R  between 0.275 and  accounting  variable reason  (R  giving  one  change  the  addition  of  be  that  change the  for  0.05  level the  level  significant including  of  variable  the  most  important  is  an  half three  satisfaction, The  is a  one-  Second,  the  due  for simply  problems larger  (0.067)  Entry,  developed f o r the  the to  as  a  change  in  with  the  f o r the each  level  of  and  fact,  the  regression equation  t o be  an  By  by  and  a  or far  completion itself,  of the v a r i a n c e , equation.  at  equation  group  t o degree  moderate  aspiration  appears  Entry  problems.  16.5%  a  significant  although  Adult  four variable  making  is  in  using relaxed c r i t e r i a  contributing  work-related  than  and,  satisfaction  for Adult  So,  (0.081)  satisfaction  So,  f o r between 14.5%  variables,  mobility.  of  factor  of  of the t o t a l  work-related there  the  p<0.05  i s probably  aspiration  o n l y be  selection.  absence  soon.  using  satisfaction  (p=0.033).  Backward  accounts  of  addition  i t can  too  as  .  addition  of  up  in R  effect seen  variance  variable  . with  little  i t  almost  The  contribution,  other are  e a r l y — c a r e e r downward  for Adult Entry i s :  163  Y'  =  (The  equation  0.887 in  0.202 - 0.256 ( W o r k - r e l a t e d P r o b l e m s ) + 0.131 (Level o f A s p i r a t i o n ) + 0.060 ( S a t i s f a c t i o n ) - 0.107 ( E a r l y - c a r e e r M o b i l i t y )  - 0.314  the  [Work-related Entry  regression  from  first  occupation  occupation  held  registration Adult complete  degrees  i f they  as w i l l  upwardly result  in  their  mobile.  i n less  might conclude equation  adults.  educational  variable mobility,  o r more t o  registration  slightly downwardly  university  or  be  careers,  One  greater who  success  more  re-  likely  mobile  than  their  i f they  were  might  outside  t o pursue  f o r the  suggest  f o r those  would  to  in  to the situation  seen.)  would  Also,  =  more  that  who  are  likely  education  i t inside.  be  could  Thus,  one  from t h e v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d i n t h e r e g r e s s i o n career  t o degrees  Level  variable;  were  motivation  that  persistence  were  be  last  f o r a year  of  i s Y'  student.  starting  responsibilities  successful  held  (This i s opposite  group,  The  i s early-career  time  students  before  upwardly mobile.  over  the  as a u n i v e r s i t y Entry  occupations  Re-entry  at  regression  Problems].)  Adult  movement  work  f o r the one-variable  only  success  has  by t h o s e  of a s p i r a t i o n  three-quarters  negative  start  i s likewise  satisfaction  experience.  who  a  is  of the Adult  i n university  Entry  on as  a career-related  directly  I n t h e sample  effect  related  for this group  had  to  research, completed  164  degrees; careers  i t appears  that  an i m p o r t a n t  the  Re-entry  group,  Grade  considerable  impact,  work-related  p r o b l e m s does f o r A d u l t  and  but the other  13.7%),  early-career <0.05  at  satisfaction  as  a  d i d not  of t h e i r  Mobility  f o r Re-entry;  i s that  to that  f o r Adult  Entry.  mobility  positive  Re-entry  and  at the  and  Stepwise  results.)  Again,  but i n the  i t s importance survey So,  as  i n the  i s thus f o r the  due  to  Re-entry  e x p e r i e n c e , has  i s also  part  of the  regression  i t i s not included  i t s e f f e c t f o r Re-entry The e q u a t i o n  i n the  i s opposite  f o r Re-entry i s :  -0.130 + 0.245 (G.P.A.) +0.093 ( S a t i s f a c t i o n ) + 0.116 ( E a r l y - c a r e e r M o b i l i t y )  Upward  with  satisfaction  educational  the reason  equation  as  Entry;  a  b e t w e e n 12.0%  contribution,  contribution.  overall  slight  has  impact.  Early-career  Y' =  (R  Backward,  f o r the mailed  g r o u p G.P.A., an a s p e c t  equation  Entry  change  small  f o r Adult  consistent  greatest  Average  t o the regression  Forward,  a fairly  regression  making  contribute  <0.10  makes  Point  two v a r i a b l e s ,  (Use o f  p  direction  overall  the  their  c o n t r i b u t i n g a l m o s t as much v a r i a n c e  mobility,  level.  selection  same  i s that  d i d not i n t e r f e r e .  For  p  factor  Adult  in  early  career  correlation, rather  Entry  students  students.  t o be  less  development  has  downward  mobility  than  Generally, involved  one w o u l d  with  their  a  expect careers  165  than A d u l t Entry having  s p e n t more t i m e  i n formal  education.  Some s u c c e s s m i g h t be an e n c o u r a g e m e n t r a t h e r t h a n Also,  as  mentioned  students  was  significant The  before,  often  stage  not  i n their  variables.  i s opposite  but  reasonable  The i m p o r t a n c e  Re-entry  students  stop-out  o r dropout  only with to  the  11 who  related  only  problems  careers  and  reported  having  From students, presence or  of  29  o r degree  t o cope w i t h  the situations  may  with  variable  Adult  that  their  Entry 9 of work-  academic  degree-completers  t o work.  completion  For Adult  i s based  of work-related  work a n d s t u d e n t have  initial  i ti s difficult  reported  emerge.  o f a c o n s i d e r a b l e burden  before  among  responding  two p r o f i l e s  discussed  among t h e g r o u p ,  guestion  any p r o b l e m s r e l a t e d  success  While  interfering  cases i s  f o r some h a s t o be  completion  to this  8  a l l this,  on a b i l i t y  cases,  subsample.  the  s t u d e n t s (and  i s an i m p o r t a n t  12 n o n - c o m p l e t e r s  were  only  problems  degree  responded  a  of students,  been  t h a t l o w G.P.A. f r o m  Entry  about  as  f o r early-  i n both  has  represents a handicap  the Adult  students, with  f o r t h e two g r o u p s  apparently)  Work-related  generalize  The e f f e c t  and t h e e f f e c t  only,  The p o s s i b i l i t y  Re-entry  students  o f G.P.A. f o r R e - e n t r y  before.  considered.  the  for  career.  career mobility  small.  by  job  between t h e two r e g r e s s i o n s i s  i n the primary  i t appears  first  regarded  main d i f f e r e n c e  difference  the  a burden.  been  beyond  Entry  either  on  problems  roles.  I n some  the  students'  166  control.  For  experienced  some  feelings  need  of  conflicts  with  expectations, For ability  succeed  work  or  students  think  success  degree.  The  may  life  spur  academically  be  are  success  for  or at  may  educational  rather  requirement  not  be  strong  i f there does  not  are meet  more r e l a t e d history  and  individuals i n educational  than  hinder  success  least  already  out.  success  These  of  may  education  drop  one's  handicaps.  having  i n u n i v e r s i t y , so  may  with  to  there  i f higher  to  deal  perhaps  success,  students,  socialized  achieve  career to  the  students,  Re-entry  resulting  career  other  not  may  be  being  to the  already terms  so  completing  a  being  hindered  able by  a  to low  G.P.A. These analysis  profiles  are  i s a p p l i e d t o the  Discriminant  and  how  between  individuals  are  discriminant  function?  accuracy  Classifications  are  1973).  well  discriminate  in  discriminant  data.  a n a l y s i s has  Pedhazur,  classification:  groups  when  Analysis  Discriminant Kerlinger  reinforced  does  groups?  correctly  of  In  two  purposes One  the  placed addition,  for three  these  proportion according differences may  be  separate  1985;  purposes  discriminant  What  classification  reported  of  (Norusis,  of  is  function of to  the the  between interest.  discriminant  167  analyses, Adult  with  Entry The  the  groups  second  examination groups.  full  the is  it  prediction.  between  chances  in  of  the  Re-entry  and  of  that The  Being  theory  the  analysis  differences  discriminates emphasis  able  to  degree completion  between  explanation the  the  being  able  ( K e r l i n g e r and  rather  differences  non-completers than  an  degree-completers  understand  and  development  i s on  is  is to  more  predict  Pedhazur,  1973,  341). Full The  almost  Sample variance  always  (Compare  the  categorical  the  analysis  with  by  preferably  using  f o r by that  is and,  (Table the  discriminant  from  reported  these data.  forced-entry  variance  either  than  results  variables  successfully using  accounted  higher  Discriminant  the  with  discriminant  degree-completers  important  p.  of  nature  from non-completers? than  and  separately. purpose  of  What  sample,  multiple  below  with  specifically therefore, The  work  eleven-variable  square of  (Variance the  1-lambda, lambda b e i n g  can  canonical an  inverse  35.)  designed may  be  is  regression. Table  ( D i r e c t ) method a c c o u n t s 37).  analysis  for more  equation  f o r 34.8%  of  calculated  correlation, measure.)  or  168  37:  TABLE  D I S C R I M I N A N T ANALYSIS U S I N G T H E D I R E C T METHOD: SUMMARY  STATISTICS  FOR DEGREE C O M P L E T I O N  ( F U L L SAMPLE)  Classification: Number of Cases 41 65  ' A c t u a l Group: No d e g r e e Degree i  Correct  P r e d i c t e d Group: No d e g r e e Degree 78.4%(32) 21.6%(9) 24.6%(16) 75.4%(49)  76.4%  classification:  Canonical Correlation W i l k s ' Lambda Significance  This method  i s not quite  equation  slightly  using  better  than  equation  from t h e Wilks  excluded  as  a  0.590 0.652 p =0.001 (X =30.586, 2  as good entry  discriminant  method  parsimony.  equations  Wilks  a s one o f t h e v a r i a b l e s b u t with  a  of selection  (See T a b l e s  r e s u l t s u s i n g t h e W i l k s method the  as t h e s i x - v a r i a b l e  the r e s u l t s  variable.  d.f.=11)  38  a r e , however,  have  four-variable when  entry i s  and 39).  The  a c c e p t a b l e , and  t h e advantage  of greater  169  In T a b l e s are  38  reported.  of  the  is  opposite  (Table  t o the equation  reduction  lambda)  both  cases.  Average  are  contribute excluded  first and  slightly a  with  not  in  of  function  the  w h i c h has  included  be  problems  they  more  simpler  discriminant  the  D i r e c t method, e x c e p t  not  included. So,  based  on  s a t i s f a c t i o n with aspiration Average,  for and  the  absence  to  the  have  higher  that Time  the at  i s included, be  noted,  ones w i t h  function  the  using  f o r e a r l y - c a r e e r m o b i l i t y which i s  analysis  the u n i v e r s i t y  further  more  may  greatest  the  is  when e n t r y As  they  entry  defined.  method a r e t h e  with  Point  when  and  t h e v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d by W i l k s correlation  second  While  indicates  equation.  largest  Grade  contribute  clearly  four39).  i s the  i n lambda  This  in a  i n the  and  coefficients)  39%  (Table  equations.  a small e f f e c t  i n the  30.4%  for  i t s effect  results  aspiration  function.  may  i t because  (results  reduction  method  i n accounting  for  both  (higher  using Wilks  direction  variable  variable,  correlations  is  excluding  level  less  function  university,  analyses  Work-related  discriminant  simpler  38);  included  as  two  accounting  i s the  in  the  hypothesized  Satisfaction  in  39  Including entry results  variance  variable  and  career  of  the  experience, mobility,  of w o r k - r e l a t e d  full a high  high  problems  sample, level  Grade  of  Point  distinguish  170  TABLE 38 DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS USING WILKS METHOD: BACKGROUND AND PARTICIPATION VARIABLES, INCLUDING ENTRY, AND DEGREE COMPLETION  Independent Variable  Discrim. Function Coefficient  0.659 Satisfaction Level of Aspiration 0.505 -0.570 Entry Work-related -0.474 Problems 0.353 Grade P o i n t Average Time s i n c e 0.276 Enrollment  Summary  (FULL  SAMPLE)  Correlation within Function  Wilks' Lambda  Significance  0.434  0.893  0.003  0.424 -0.367  0.790 0.729  0.000 0.000  -0.320 0.245  0.672 0.626  0.000 0.000  0.190  0.610  0.000  Statistics:  Canonical Correlation: Significance:  0.625 p=0.000  (X =36.099, d.f.=6) 2  Classification: A c t u a l Group: No d e g r e e Degree Correct  Number of Cases 41 65  classification:  P r e d i c t e d Group: No d e g r e e Degree 80.5%(33) 19.5%(8) 26.2%(17) 73.8%(48) 76.2%  171  TABLE 39: DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS USING WILKS METHOD: BACKGROUND AND PARTICIPATION VARIABLES, NOT INCLUDING ENTRY, AND DEGREE COMPLETION  (FULL SAMPLE)  Independent Variable  Discrim. Function Coefficient  Satisfaction L e v e l of Aspiration Work-related Problems Grade P o i n t Average  0.7.07  0.525  0.893  0.003  0.618  0.513  0.790  0.000  -0.476  -0.388  0.736  0.000  0.428  0.297  0.696  0.000  Summary  Correlation within Function  Wilks' lambda  Significance  Statistics:  Canonical c o r r e l a t i o n Significance  0 .551 p=0 .000 (X =>26.785, d .f.=4) 2  Classification: Actual  Group:  Number of Cases  P r e d i c t e d Group: No degree Degree  No degree  41  78.5%  Degree  65  21.5% (14)  Correct c l a s s i f i c a t i o n :  78.3%  (32)  22.0% (9 78.5%  (51)  172  degree-completers from non-completers. as  a v a r i a b l e , Adult  enrollment  Entry  status  I f entry i s included  and a l o n g e r  time  since  (not s u r p r i s i n g , as dropouts would u s u a l l y spend  a s h o r t e r time) are added as d i s c r i m i n a t i n g v a r i a b l e s . A l l of  these  v a r i a b l e s , except  f o r time  since  enrollment,  the same as those i n the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n As  will  discriminant  be  only,  with  regression.  the  sub-group  to  completers not  Grade  Level  Entry  Point  This  f o r f u r t h e r upward  differentiate  when  Average  and  a l l adult  categories.  to  of a s p i r a t i o n does  u s e f u l when a n a l y z i n g  entry  i s a variable  Adult  discriminants.  desire  appears  f o r both  (Table 36). i n the Re-entry  Work-related problems c o n t r i b u t e t o the A d u l t  function  indicates  satisfaction  functions  sub-samples. Entry  seen,  are  Re-Entry—as  not s u r v i v e i n  variable,  social  mobility,  degree-completers students  from  are considered,  the separate  Adult  Other v a r i a b l e s w i l l  which  Entry  thus non-  but i s and Re-  be c o n s i d e r e d  when  the d i s c r i m i n a n t s f o r A d u l t Entry and Re-entry a r e compared. The  classification  both Wilks variable) overall  procedures are i n each  result  r e s u l t s f o r the D i r e c t ( i n c l u d i n g and e x c l u d i n g case  i s f o r Wilks  slightly without  method and entry  different. entry,  mainly  The  as  useful  as  the o t h e r s .  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n are s l i g h t .  However,  equation  best  because  the r e s u l t s f o r degree-completers a r e more s u c c e s s f u l . i s another i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the simpler  as a  This  i s at l e a s t  a l l differences i n  The r e s u l t s , between 75% and 80%  173  in  each  case,  discriminant  are  not  functions  particularly  are  only  impressive.  moderately  The  effective  in  classification. It  appears  experience, best  that  vocational  discriminates  completers. degrees  a  history,  between  Adult  if  combination  are  are  i f they  are  able  educational  lives,  and  i f  Work  environments considered  for  and  adult  when  aspiration  more  satisfied  experience,  aspirations.  educational variables  degree-completers  students  they  and  of  likely  with  to  have  education  male  university  high  and  educational  non-  complete  their  are  students  predicting  to  their  integrate  they  and  work  and  vocational  the  relevant  both  must  persistence  be or  dropout. Adult  Entry  Because variable, and  of  Grade  Point  Table  While  the  40  ambiguity  the  analyses  separate the  separate  is  successful  in  were  are  the  effect  performed  of  the  entry  for Adult  Entry  of w o r k - r e l a t e d  better  analyzed  d i s c r i m i n a n t s f o r the results  and  the  Adult  i s not  is  and  the  classification group,  significant  their  subsamples. (Direct)  Re-entry  greater,  Entry  problems  for  for forced-entry  Entry  lambda  the  function  of  Adult  higher, for  Compared  effects  Average  reduction  discriminant  The  reports  for  correlation more  the  students.  e f f e c t s with  analyses  Re-entry  separate  Re-entry  and  and  at the  canonical  is  the  groups.  somewhat resulting  0.05  level  174  TABLE 4 0 DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS USING DIRECT METHOD: S T A T I S T I C S FOR DEGREE  COMPLETION  (ADULT ENTRY AND RE-ENTRY  Adult  SUMMARY  COMPARED).  Entry:  Canonical Wilks'  Correlation  0.669  Lambda  0.552  Significance Correct  p=0.082  classification  ( X = 1 6 . 6 5 5 , d.f.=10) 2  84.1%  Re-Entry: Canonical Wilks'  Correlation  0.638  Lambda  0.593  Significance Correct  (p=0.082). too  classification  This  few c a s e s .  significant students  the that not  2  i s p a r t l y b e c a u s e o f t o o many v a r i a b l e s a n d F o r Re-entry,  the results  because  there  are at  a r e more  least  Re-entry  i n t h e sample.  with  Direct  results  that  they d e t r a c t  selection  results  f o r Re-entry  are i n fact  10 v a r i a b l e s only  (X =19.336, d.f.=10)  79.2%  by c h i s q u a r e ,  While Wilks those  p=0.036  account  much  i n comparable  (Table better  42), f o rAdult (Table  f o r less variance  additional variables from t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s  results to  41).  Entry  The f a c t  than three  do n o t h e l p b u t a l s o of the function.  means that  175  As  can  variable  be  from  discriminant  considerably for  seen  more  Re-entry.  variable  in  variables  in  to  0.595 w i t h  for  six  variables  the  importance  The  as  Entry  Re-entry  with  of  satisfaction function  and,  social  low  survey respondents  appears  to  function, The  be  simply  w i t h no  real  (Table in  forced-entry Table  40),  works  at  are so  least  the as  41).  more well,  the  is  the  problems to  0.606  underscores  the  Adult  Entry  regression. for Adult  is of  Entry  are  with  the  the  first  significance  to  the  discriminant  degree-completion.  for  the  Wilks  method  same  for  Adult  Entry  efficient and  all  However, i t s i m p o r t a n c e  contributing  exactly  for  a variable  results  by  than  This  relationship to  classification  one  correlation  mobility. as  by  finding  function  a  more  compared  s e c t i o n on  appearance f o r s o c i a l m o b i l i t y for  This  problems  i n the  despite  itself,  Entry  for  function  Work-related  Adult  three-  accounts  reduced  case.  i n the  the  Entry  discriminant  work-related  other variables  42,  six-variable  is  Re-entry.  discussed  and  the  lambda  the  lambda  41  for Adult  than  fact,  Adult  reduces  students,  function  variance  In  the  Tables  three-variable  better  on  most  and (see  function  statistical  grounds. For  the  regression, career  Re-entry Grade  mobility  discriminant  group,  Point make  function.  the  Average, the In  same  variables  satisfaction,  greatest addition,  as and  contribution three  in  the  earlyto  the  variables  are  176  TABLE DISCRIMINANT  41  ANALYSIS USING WILKS METHOD:  BACKGROUND AND PARTICIPATION V A R I A B L E S AND DEGREE COMPLETION (ADULT E N T R Y ) .  Independent Variable  Correlation within Function  Wilks' lambda  -1.012  -0.733  0.595  Satisfaction  0.688  0.323  0.486  0. 000  Social  0.432  0.085  0.441  0. 000  24.796,  d . f .=3  Adult  Discrim. Function Coefficient  Significance  Entry:  Work-related Problems  Summary  Mobility  .  0. 000  Statistics:  Canonical  Correlation:  0.748  Significance:  p=0.000  (X  2  Classification: Actual  Group:  Number of Cases  P r e d i c t e d Group: No d e g r e e Degree  No d e g r e e  12  83.3%  (10)  16.7%  Degree  32  15.8%  (5)  84.4% (27)  Adult  Entry correctly  classified:  84.1%  (2)  177  TABLE 4 2 DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS USING WILKS METHOD: BACKGROUND AND  PARTICIPATION  DEGREE COMPLETION  Discrim. Function Coefficient  Independent Variable  VARIABLES  AND  (RE-ENTRY)  Correlation within Function  Wilks' lambda  Significance  Grade P o i n t Average  0 .421  0 .478  0 .871  0 .017  Satisfaction  0 .760  0 .453  0 .759  0 .004  Early-career Mobility  0 .662  0 .419  0 .676  0 . 001  -0 .452  -0 .311  0 .645  0 .002  0 .343  0 .323  0 .628  0 .003  -0 .355  0 .210  0 .606  0 .004  Time o f  Decision  Time s i n c e Enrollment Mother's Summary  Education  Statistics:  Canonical  0.551  correlation  p=0.004 ( X =  Significance  2  19.507, d . f . = 6)  Classification:  Actual  Group:  Number  Predicted  Group:  of Cases  No d e g r e e  Degree  No d e g r e e  26  76.9%  (20)  2 3 . 1 % (6)  Degree  27  22.2%  (6)  77.8%  Re-Entry c o r r e c t l y  classified;  77.4%  (21)  178  added t o t h o s e decision, Like  r e v e a l e d as i m p o r t a n t  time  Grade  since  Point  Average,  education-related variables.  with  traditional-age with  than  careerand  success  students  with  time  See T a b l e  mother's  last  are  i n the  whom  previous  variables perhaps will  a  have  general,  short  than the  well  with  whole  with  amount  difference  The  affected  for  Adult  b e c a u s e t h e Re-  more l i k e  since  students  that  these  enrollment  given  that  Re-entry  by e d u c a t i o n a l  Re-entry Entry  discriminant  the causes  of  variable,  sample.  i s , however,  reported,  Time  trivially  is  dropouts group,  in  variables  Group.  Re-entry;  the Re-entry  been  stay.  classification  discriminate  the  obvious  i s the Adult Entry  successful  with  a  has  are  i n research  overall  enrollment  importance.  seems t o be more  The  less  some  somewhat  often  general, than  have  research  decision  most  I t i s perhaps  are  work-related  of  at  e n t r y g r o u p i s somewhat more t r a d i t i o n a l , on  variables  or  time  but  since  34.)  three  time of  education.  i n university  degree-completion  correlation  significant.  and  these  education  associated with  correlated (The  rather  Mother's  frequently  enrollment,  by r e g r e s s i o n :  i t seems of  group.  variance  is  (Tables  procedure simply  slightly 41, works  more  42).  less In  slightly  difficult  to  degree-completion/non-completion More v a r i a b l e s  accounted  seems t o be m a i n l y  a r e r e q u i r e d , and  for i s less.  But  the  t h a t t h e r e i s no one v a r i a b l e  179  as  significant  f o r the  Re-entry  group  as  work-related  r e g r e s s i o n and d i s c r i m i n a n t equations  use the same  problems i s with the A d u l t E n t r y group. Summary and C o n c l u s i o n The  v a r i a b l e s f o r the f u l l mailed since  enrollment  discriminant  which  when  survey  appears  entry  sample, except  only  i n the  i s included  f o r time  six-variable  as a v a r i a b l e .  The  importance of each of the v a r i a b l e s becomes c l e a r when the subsample analyses Treating  the  additional variables. prediction overall  (Adult E n t r y  groups  insight  effects  the separate  degree  sample,  subsamples  i n t o • the  Within of  or  and Re-entry) a r e s t u d i e d .  completion  with  some  separately  l e d to  of some of the other  groups, than  there  was  better  there  was  f o r the  and  some  similar  different  v a r i a b l e s emphasized. Satisfaction, both  full  sample  which  i s the most important  equations,  analyses but not as the f i r s t  appears  variable i n  i n a l l the subsample  variable.  L e v e l of a s p i r a t i o n  l i k e w i s e appears i n both the r e g r e s s i o n and the d i s c r i m i n a n t analyses  f o r the f u l l  sample  sample a n a l y s i s — t h e A d u l t  Entry  criterion  of v a r i a b l e e n t r y .  variables  i s t h a t they  with  both  groups,  but only  appears  r e g r e s s i o n with  The importance  have some, f a i r l y  i n the case  i n one sub-  of l e v e l  a  reduced  of these  consistent  two  effect  of a s p i r a t i o n  so  180  moderate  that  i t  almost  disappears  in  the  subsample  analyses. One  other  and  Re-Entry  not  appear  opposite early  careers  The  Point  full  with  the  sample  due  is  degree completion other  discriminant  the  variables.  and  mobility related  to  educational  had  Re-entry  with  degree  their  with  of  affected  the  environments  effect  with  full  like  by  to  since G.P.A.,  educational  interaction  Adult  the  persistence  Entry  the  to  time  (work-related  fact,  with  the  only  students'  affected  by  In  Grade  case.  decision,  Adult  in  problems  contribution  education—are,  more  are  Entry, while  contribute  while  more  in  by  Work-related  variables  of  which  considerations). problems  has  mobility  associated variable  Re-entry be  did  i t  sub-samples  subsample i n each  mother's  more  the  of these  variables, is  highly  Re-entry—time  educational  persistence  completion  for Adult  strength  i n one  and  background  Upward  Entry  which  because  correlated  between  most  enrollment,  generally  Adult  Students.  variables  for  degree  variable  importance to  both  analyses  f o r each group.  i s the  The  with  groups.  mobility  important  Re-entry.  work  with  differences  variables  Average  seems  two  with Adult Entry  most  The  sample  correlated  major  appears  i s early-career mobility,  downward  the primary the  the  effects  completion  which  equations in  students;  is  variable  students' of  problems,  variable Entry  their  work-  than  any  181  other s i n g l e p r e d i c t o r with e i t h e r group:  presence  related  non-completion  problems  was  likely  to  lead  to  of workof  degrees. Table 4 3 summarizes the f i n d i n g s variables  found  i n t h i s chapter.  s i g n i f i c a n t i n a l l the a n a l y s e s are  None of the c o r r e l a t i o n s i n Tables 3 3 and meaningful.  (With  0.333).  The  revealing  the  the  total  multivariate importance  sample  analysis  and  effects  34  was  none was was of  t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with degree-completion.  the  variables  and  regression  analysis  to  which  degree  variables  under  additional  understanding  different studied  the i r  obviously  more the  than  useful  in  variables  in  The  use of  both  conclusions  The  multiple  l e d t o some understanding of the e x t e n t  completion  variables  effects.  listed.  higher  m e t h o d s — r e g r e s s i o n and d i s c r i m i n a n t — r e i n f o r c e d about  The  study.  can  be  predicted  Discriminant of  the  relative  t o degree - completion  i n t h i s chapter.  using  analysis  gave  contribution among  the  the  of  groups  182 TABLE VARIABLES OF AND  43:  SIGNIFICANCE WITH THE  ADULT ENTRY AND  FULL  SAMPLE,  RE-ENTRY SUBSAMPLES FROM  BOTH REGRESSION AND  DISCRIMINANT ANALYSES.  Sample  Regression (Stepwise)  Discriminant ( W i l k s Method)  Full  Satisfaction  Satisfaction  Level  of A s p i r a t i o n  Level  Grade  Point  (Entry)  Sample  Average  of A s p i r a t i o n 1  Work-related Problems  Work-related Problems  (Entry)  Grade  1  Point  Average  (Time s i n c e Adult  Entry  Work-related Problems  Work-related Problems  (Level of Aspiration)  Satisfaction  (Satisfaction; (Early-career Re-entry  EnrollmentJ  Grade  Point  Social  Mobility  Mobility)  Average  Grade  Point  Average  Satisfaction  Satisfaction  Early-career Mobility  Time o f  Decision  Time s i n c e Mother's  Enrollment  Education  (Variables are listed in order of contribution to regressions equation or discriminant function.) 1. O n l y s i g n i f i c a n t when E n t r y i s i n c l u d e d as a v a r i a b l e .  1  183  CHAPTER 8  CONCLUSION: NEW AND RETURNING  STUDENTS  Introduction Two study:  major  bodies  literature  had  generated  adults  from  a  number  degrees different  emphasis by  adult focus  although  models  which  mainly  in  some d r o p o u t  Research on an i n t e r e s t  study  i n educational  and  studied  here.  The  i n the treatment of  in  of  persistence to  universities most  higher  use  study  i n adults  areas  n o t , however,  a  requires  a  adult  education  education  attrition  longer  time  r e s e a r c h i n t h e 1960s u s e d  on a d u l t s  mainly  research  do  on l o n g - t e r m  in  that  the  frame a s d i d t h i s  this  e d u c a t i o n , and t h e  These  problem  students  research  in  education.  i n this  from  pursued  and u n i v e r s i t y ,  f r o m t h e two f i e l d s c o n v e r g e s  participation research,  college  the  i n post-secondary  The  of adult  education. of  to  were  participation  the f i e l d  of higher  specifically  literature  time  from  on d r o p o u t s  the f i e l d  apply  research  t h e l i t e r a t u r e on a d u l t  programs, mainly  from  of  period,  a ten-year  ( f o r example, E c k l a n d ,  1964).  i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , sometimes a s a m a r k e t , has t e n d e d  based  t o f o c u s on  184  first-year than  students.  men.  This  undergraduates 34,  and  students  t o degree  Most o f t h e d a t a and m u l t i v a r i a t e  mail  survey  respondents The  questioning  reported in  Chapters  those  differences  the relative  education) discussed this  which  and  as t h e dependent  variable,  3.  In  First,  information  population some  this  chapter,  noting  contributions  they  categorization  modification is  of  suggested.  literature  Second, t h e  i n particular  the  p e r i o d i s used. (from models  adult are  contribute t o understanding  p e r s i s t e n c e model d e s c r i b e d i n C h a p t e r a  findings  education)  p o p u l a t i o n , f o l l o w e d by a d i s c u s s i o n  Next  the  a r e compared t o  of the Cross  higher  previous emphases  t o the  when a l o n g e r t i m e  as t o t h e e x t e n t  the  and  participation.  i s examined,  (from  about  from  findings  the findings  on a d u l t  result  5 and  7) were o b t a i n e d by a  5 t o 7 a r e compared  Tinto  part-  student records.  different  others.  literature  Dealing with  long-term  (Chapter  i n confirming  2 and  25 t o  with  supplementary  i n the l i t e r a t u r e  dropout  Then,  a  i n Chapters  aged  f o r h y p o t h e s i s - t e s t i n g (Chapters  some  resulted  adult  from p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h .  analysis  on  4.  women  with  t o males  at a l l levels,  b e i n g o b t a i n e d from  focus  research and  with  emphasized  concerned  limited  completion  represents a departure  6)  was  often  explained i n Chapter  full-time  persistence  study  at a l l levels,  f o r reasons  time  I t has more  the With  of the  long-range  3. Re-entry/Adult an  emphasis  Entry on  the  185  difference students,  between  new  some c o n c l u s i o n s  suggested which  may  from  Chapter  those  developing  in  Then,  after  conclusion the  the  These  findings,  higher  research  are  hypotheses  be  helpful  section  on  what  particularly  are  suggestions  considered  for  future  l i m i t a t i o n s of  was  learned,  in  in  the  for  in  the  research. study,  particular  the about  study.  f i n d i n g s from t h i s  u s e f u l to administrators  are  Chapter  by  in this  different  possibly,  education,  a number o f  grouped  applicability on  and,  and  Relationships  Findings  There are be  new  post-secondary  future.  higher  stresses  Summary o f  presented.  these  followed  respondents  could  of  in  section,  are  3  a model i n t h e  administrators  experienced  contribute  Implications  next  and  to  adult  education based  in  on  this  to  section  future  Cross  to  and  Tinto  models  their  research  ( o u t l i n e d i n Chapter 2), and  which  researchers.  according  p a r t i c i p a t i o n research  dropouts the  and  research  and  to  (described  in  3).  Adult P a r t i c i p a t i o n Less Simon  than  Fraser  degrees T h o s e who  at  half  of  University  that  the in  students the  fall  university within  r e g i s t e r e d f o r the  first  aged of  the time  25  1973  and had  following i n the  over  at  completed ten  fall  years. of  1973  186  were  especially  with  less  adult rate  20%  doing  students  who  were  continuation  education, of  example,  give  research,  that  higher  those  new  to  addition, initially  most  was  because  the in  holds  the  decision  new  to  years  in  to  go  students  the low  higher  beyond  (such  studying  fall  low  i s an  area  as,  pursuit  often  the for of  been  education,  degrees  adult  more  by  student  1973,  probably  pursuits,  experience  at are  contradict r a t e of  the new  in than is  a l l  In  enrolled  comparatively  suggests least  this  The  data.  r a t e o f s t u d e n t s who  connection,  response  in  education.  records  and  education  that  that  less  f o r the p o p u l a t i o n s t u d i e d here data  what  participation  with  educational  to  of  students  follows  in  adults  of  ambiguity  hypothesis  persist  finding  of  (Darkenwald  previously  greater  supported  survey of  had  more  by  educational  participate,  ten  especially  were  education  consistent  education/participation less  the  the i n i t i a l  the non-continuation  inexperienced  The  adult  research:  in  who  education  who  would  activities  hypothesis  and  1981)  postsecondary  participation education  of  those  education  the  in  l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of  first-year  Nonetheless,  higher  with  the  degrees  group.  1982).  perhaps  to  Gordon,  definition  Merriam,  those  Solmon  Degree-credit the  by  and  this  The  returnees,  support  and  complete  so.  first-time  d e g r e e s by  in  to  than  of  study  unlikely  adults  likely as  hypothesis,  the  to  well. partly  students—those  who  187  registered restated section  initially in  new  of t h i s  Along  i n much  the  categorization  education, adult  of the survey  neither  social  sample  upper  nor  came  opportunity  f o r upward  in  (based  contributed  2) t h a t  Adult  Entry  to persistence  mobility, on  not  be  would  and  educationally. by  some  career  involvement time  have  Re-entry success;  than  i n higher  may  Adult  students felt  may  less  students  may  pressure have  g e n e r a l l y they Entry  education  students,  i n the years  have  been  downward students.  had  greater  to  succeed  encouraged  had had l e s s having before  with  mobility  students;  mobile  burdens  tested.  Upward  Upwardly  Entry  result  had o p p o s i t e e f f e c t s  Re-entry  the  participation  c o n t r i b u t e d t o p e r s i s t e n c e by A d u l t E n t r y Adult  little  that  rigorously  students. by  much  was  so  downward m o b i l i t y  could  with  levels  there  research  a r e key  class  mobility  work  later  research.  the middle  As a r e s u l t ,  o r downward  persistence  and  a  and m o b i l i t y  socioeconomic  Early-career occupational mobility Re-entry  in  participation  from  on s o c i o l o g i c a l  i n Chapter  greater  class  lower  i n t h e sample.  reported  The h y p o t h e s i s i s  presented  education  represented  hypothesis  o f 1973.  chapter.  with  variables Most  a  i n the f a l l  spent they  career some turned  twenty-five. Other research section  variables ( f o r example,  on  dropout.  sometimes support)  used  in  are considered  participation i n t h e next  188  For the younger males on which t h i s study the  effects  of  some  variables  p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e s e a r c h are not of  educational  discussed  experience  i n the  Entry/Re-entry mobility, research,  could  limitations;  the  not  The  key  variable  be  vigorously  not  however,  linear,  The as  effect  in  some  tested  early-career  effect  the  be  Adult  of  social  participation  owing  mobility  in  will  m o d i f i c a t i o n of  categorization.  another  extensively  straightforward.  is  s e c t i o n on  used  concentrated,  had  to  sample opposite  e f f e c t s f o r each of the Re-entry and A d u l t E n t r y c a t e g o r i e s , as s t a t e d above. Perhaps formal higher education, because i t r e q u i r e s an e x t e n s i v e commitment, over one  intends  this  to  activity  other  kinds  frame  may  complete  a considerable t i m e — a t a  degree—makes  qualitatively of  be  different  educational  the  key  to  participation  in  from p a r t i c i p a t i o n  in  activities. identifying  least i f  The the  longer  time-  variables  which  determine on-going as opposed t o o c c a s i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Higher The from  of  decision,  Dropout  hypotheses used i n t h i s r e s e a r c h which were d e r i v e d  higher  effects  Point  Education  education a  number  degree  Average;  satisfaction.  dropout of  variables:  aspiration, and  The  research  mother's  dealt  with  the  educational—time education,  situational—support,  and  problems,  of  Grade and  e d u c a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s , e s p e c i a l l y G.P.A.,  189  affected Entry  the p e r s i s t e n c e of Re-entry  students.  contributed  the  p e r s i s t e n c e by Some  of  effect.  the  particularly  other  male  by  or  studies  may  females,  with  males  less  support.  Or  i t may  who  been  had  years  not  effect  a  those  contributing  almost  half  equation  for Adult  could  rationalization  be  Entry  of  the  the  Cross,  of  1981),  (Lenz  and  especially,  did  in  long-term males  considerations problems  for a  dropout  had  had a  and of of  Students number a  first-course  themselves  of  problem  or  first-  passed. significant  Adult  Entry  students,  variance  i n the  regression  this  explanation  students. on  in  participants.  however,  persistence  emphasized  between  considered  problems,  or  degree-completion:  i n Ontario  Work-related  problems  t r o u b l e d by  cause) t h a t a p p l i e d t o  the  on  much be  women  about  become l o n g - t e r m students  seem  of importance  concerned  1981)  on  have  to  1980;  difference  something they  on  not  Support,  students, but  effect  Sauer,  1979).  that  part-time  not  financial  concentrate  be  be  (Levy-Coughlin,  (whatever the year  do  which  in explaining  considerations  a variable  There  just  Adult  variable  did  did  or  B e a l , and  persistence.  support  the  variance  surveyed  particular  i s not  of  family  which  seem t o have any  was  variables  lack),  Rawlins,  perhaps support  amount  students  affected  1976;  fact,  not  students.  s t u d i e s (Lenning,  Shaevitz,  in  situational  (presence  especially  not  greatest  Re-entry  The  support  G.P.A.,  s t u d e n t s , but  While  p a r t of  the  non-completers,  190  this  was  the  only  a difference  one  of  vocational  educational  (or  not  career  while  t h e y may  little  Satisfaction Beal,  In  in  effect  on  their  here  that  Sauer,  1980),  research,  persistence survey.  experience  and  of both  discussed  support,  Re-entry  this  study  were  differences  1980), not  lead  kinds  of the  as  and  not  consistently found  at l e a s t  dropouts. were  more  some The  that aspects  findings  satisfied  contributed  than  to  the  Adult Entry students - i n the  indicated did  in  the  question  sometimes with  on  express  instructor  contact  is  s e c t i o n on t h e T i n t o m o d e l . ) satisfaction,  perceived  between  persistence  (1958)  with  than  (Satisfaction  i n the next  although  satisfaction  persisters  dissatisfaction.  In  that  Nonetheless,  counselling,  do  at  p e r s i s t e n c e by  Iffert  degree-completers  non-completers,  that  Brickell,  i s frequently associated with  earlier  were  participating  Other  long-term  to  survey.  and  college  students.  suggesting  and  made  opposed  for  education.  p e r s i s t e r s were more d i s s a t i s f i e d of  as  reasons  (Aslanian  Entry  lead to short-term p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  a d u l t males i n the  so.  for Adult  persistence,  investment  had  (Lenning,  with  transitions  long-term  problems  c a t e g o r i e s which  (career-related)  self-improvement)  associated  least  to  problem  i n degree completion  Generally,  were  five  as  Adult  s a t i s f a c t i o n were s l i g h t ,  along  mediating Entry  and  the e f f e c t  with  problems  variables. Re-entry  c o u l d not  Because  students be  and  in  considered  191  mediating, an  leaving  independent  is  or  significant  contribution analysis. greater  open t h e q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r s a t i s f a c t i o n i s dependent and  to  the  Recent effect  Bradley,  on  is  conceptualized independent This extension  variance,  performance so  i t  a  as  is  cause  of  depending  the  y e a r s o r more  ( E c k l a n d , 1964;  1967).  of  Some  initially not  as  complete  the  early  students  as  degrees  dropouts.  1965. in  i f one  methods  satisfaction  vice  versa to  variable  or  i t  on t h e model one  for  Pervin,  1966;  in this  may  the  years  or  an  for  the  to  ten  uses.  J e x and had  less  completion  be  be  dropout  study  that  may  justification  studying  a  and  conclude It  of  has  (Bean  Merrill,  registered  I n some r e s e a r c h , t h o s e  five  However,  considerably  that  effect  consistent  different  some f u r t h e r  time-frame  the  a  persistence.  variable,  of  using  reasonable  mediating  presents  makes  than  a  study  However,  variable  research suggests  1986),  satisfaction  the  variable.  are  who  do  considered  rate  increases  goes b e y o n d f o u r o r f i v e y e a r s  (Eckland,  1964). Generally, more  than  dropout seen three  just  studies  i n Chapter and  the one  or  two  (Pantages 7,  six) to  degree-completion. 1975;  research  not  and  many  account Lists  some o f t h e examples  here  variables Creedon, variables  f o r the of  supports  the  should 1978). are  i n Lenning,  be  used  in as  (between  variation  ( f o r example, B e a l and  that  However,  needed  significant  variables  idea  Sauer,  in  Astin, 1980)  192  are  not  models  necessarily i s that  variables  useful.  they  that  are  One  of  supposed  must  be  the  to  useful  reduce  f u n c t i o n s of  the  considered  numbers  in  of  explaining  relationships.  The  Cross  When discussed adult seen  and  the in  T i n t o Models  models Chapter  participation that Cross's  here.  It  adult  is  applying  and  has  general  and  been c o n c e r n  models  elements  like  institutional  with  this  population.  are of  (1975)  based  on  and  comparability located  with  variables  are  and  in  of  of the  dropout,  the home  higher  model  of  i t can  be  the  study  of  fit.  they things  community when  not  apply like  Spady  of  types  of  (Lenning,  the the  dealing  very the  model of  concerned  like  where  about  ( F i g u r e 2,  Because  are  adult  1985).  models, the  of  with  research  T i n t o model do  situation  education  Metzner,  community  appropriate  a  were  concerned  variety  Many d r o p o u t  with  model  in  commitment,  students  deal  a  the  person-environment  often  which  Cross's  i n dropout  i t s predecessor,  institutions  models  to  Bean and  32),  model  that  f i t better  1980;  the  re-examined,  logical  students  Sauer,  Some o f  are  literature  T i n t o ' s model o f  should  and  the  model i s more a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e  There  institutions Beal,  3  perhaps  students  students.  from  well Tinto  (1971),  the  kinds  with,  residences university student. with  p.  the and is Such  full-time  193  traditional-age  undergraduates  the  away from  first  1980). for  move  home  Person-environment  adults,  students  (Lenning, B e a l ,  may be  and Sauer,  f i t may a l s o be a v a l i d  but t h e meaning  i s different  f o r whom u n i v e r s i t y  o f t h e environment  from t h e meaning  concern  f o r adult  for traditional-age  u n i v e r s i t y students. The  university  work s e t t i n g , be  taking  will  often  be l e s s  important than t h e  even f o r f u l l - t i m e s t u d e n t s , many of whom may  a leave  fairly  clearly  period  o f study.  from  established  careers  and may know  where they a r e going t o be working With  Adult  Entry  after a  students, work-related  problems was t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e a f f e c t i n g completion.  Among t h e A d u l t E n t r y  having w o r k - r e l a t e d problems completion  of  environment students,  on  degrees.  persistence,  i s emphasized  students i n t h e sample,  was l i k e l y The  effect  to result of  particularly  developing environment  a future  with  working  of adults i n  considerations.  incorporate d i f f e r e n t and on  similar  models,  environment  situation).  (Holland, 1973) might of adult  dropout  non-  external  i n other d i s c u s s i o n s  model  in  the  h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n (Bean and Metzner, 1985; T i n t o , type o f work environment  degree  1987).  The  be u s e f u l i n using  person-  In any case, t h e model  would  environmental emphases from t h e T i n t o  particularly  outside  i n t h e degree  the u n i v e r s i t y  of emphasis  ( f o r example, j o b  194  Of  the  research, and  several  the  of  The  and  The  data  indicate  Tinto's  while  1980). they  predicting (including  that  both  the evidence  attention  to  is  important  students  with  fairly  Cross  well:  model  at  (Figure  least  there  were n o t  collected  about  life  barriers  (elements  D,  and  E,  discussion  of  problems  alternative  and  somewhat  Changes i n l i f e finances term to  be  might  situations have  participation. operationalized  less Or,  1, are  33)  no  to  transitions  i n some way  re-enroll. life)  of  paying  the  model),  data  and  here Data  although  intervening  when  and  dropout.  information,  problems w i t h  importance  social  contact  satisfaction  parallel and  than  contradictions.  i n the  and  found  persistence.  fits  transitions, F  surveyed  social  instructor  p.  1980;  and  the p r a c t i c a l i t y  for  aspect  stressed  would  i n t e r a c t i o n with other students i n preventing The  instructor  Terenzini,  contribute  indicates  opportunities  with  enrolled  satisfaction  aspects  Certainly,  and  this  degree-completers  model,  still  more  which  here  in  These r e s e a r c h e r s  were  was  used  c o n t a c t , as an  Pascarella  integration  in  between  satisfaction  in  Pascarella,  academic  integration  satisfaction  of i n s t r u c t o r  1981;  respondents  that  in  integration  (Munro,  Terenzini their  was  importance  academic  elsewhere  of  greatest difference  non-completers  contact.  measures  brings  and the in  variables.  support  and/or  considering longbarriers  other than  may  through  have asking  195  questions properly  about  problems,  support  and  satisfaction  to  be  investigated.  The  data  for  this  study  clearly  support  the  propositions that d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e s to education  and  expectations  the  about  participation  (elements  Cross model) c o n t r i b u t e t o p e r s i s t e n c e . of the  elements  impossible  to  i n the Cross conclude  important  because the model was  the  Cross  model and  not  inconsistent.  elements not  participate,  more data had participation  not  findings  of  this  short—one  to specify  a d u l t dropout  model.  about  But  dissertation  are  term,  drop  out.  does If  students whose especially—as sample who  were  of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , i t may  have  the a d a p t a t i o n s needed t o make an  Perhaps t h i s would r e q u i r e more data  the work environment,  of the shortcomings  more  It i s  directly.  the a d u l t  been p o s s i b l e  case, most  less  been c o l l e c t e d about  more or l e s s veterans  in  does and who  opposed t o the A d u l t E n t r y students i n the all  C  or  does not  very  does  are  and  was  who  In any  tested  The Cross model i s concerned with who not  and  model are a p p l i c a b l e .  which  the  B  as suggested  i n the  discussion  of the T i n t o and other dropout models i n  d e a l i n g w i t h long-term p e r s i s t e n c e and a d u l t s t u d e n t s .  196  M o d e l o f L o n g - r a n g e P e r s i s t e n c e by Entry Adult Students The  model  specifically adult  used  designed  students.  although  in  not  to  It  as  study  (Figure  deal  with  long-term  some was  i n the  model  completion  and  so  did  some  is  how  the  the  clear  participation  model  as  should Entry  an  separate  and  Re-entry  to  the  The  variable; for  students  factors:  status i t  the  two  were  was  was  may  data,  degree  what  is  affected  used  be  in  that  the  there  categories.  affected  by  background  characteristics  Entry  models  43)  p.  affected persistence to  background  intervening  be  correspondence  participation  factors.  Adult  persistence  hypothesized.  characteristics  less  4,  the  has  always  R e - e n t r y and  Adult  differently  by  some o f t h e v a r i a b l e s . Among  the  background  variables  (such  persistence  of Re-entry  students.  Similarly,  greatest  effect  students,  could  this  group;  with  Adult  effect  on  influence (lack of  as  of be  students  Early-career  of  students Grade  students.  for  a  7)  has  t h a t of A d u l t  variable  restricted and  apparently  Entry  had  with  Re-entry  variable  the  with  a background v a r i a b l e  mobility and  the  which  background be  educational  affected  Average,  not  from u p p e r - c l a s s  mobility  not  Social  (Chapter the  but  single  i t could  the  decision)  Point  considered  persistence except  time  any  obviously Entry  characteristics,  may range  may  have  some  have  shown  more  of  the  lower-class opposite  sample  origins).  effects  with  197  the  Re-entry  and  contributing  to  Adult  positively  Entry students.  variables  should  groups,  persistence  downward m o b i l i t y Adult  Entry  be  of  different with  education;  used  with  work  and  differences students' Adult in  as  entering  full-time  v a r i a b l e s may With  n o t be  the  satisfaction  Entry  mothers,  to  apparently  employment  indicate  that different  separate  variables.  The  the  p e r s i s t e n c e of A d u l t  to  include  involved  be  based  effect Entry  education be  a  in  or  in  this,  in  the  the  model,  persistence, The and  complex,  of w o r k - r e l a t e d may  like  while  effects  s h o u l d p e r h a p s be  differences  difference  completion.  important,  factors  than  results  Beyond  factors  students  on  Re-entry  education  effect.  aspects  hypothesized  may  which  first.  affected  no  environmental The  more  more  r e l e v a n t t o degree  had  were  so t h e r e may  s a t i s f a c t i o n were s u f f i c i e n t l y  situation.  group  students  involved  education  problems  with  more  post-secondary  had  s e t s of  characteristics.  to  by  were  differences  participation  and  Entry  significantly  orientation directly  completion  characteristics  students  The  had  students'  family  proceeding  Re-entry Adult  and  models. Adult  background  mothers  students  degree  background  and  career.  in  Entry  support  the the  mobility  G e n e r a l l y , i t seems d i f f e r e n t  students  pasts:  upward  Re-entry  affecting  each group, perhaps i n separate Re-entry  with  as  to  t r e a t e d as problems  indicate job  of  and  between A d u l t  a  on  need  career Entry  198  and  Re-entry  that  students  p e r s i s t e n c e of A d u l t  more a d v e r s e l y ) not  with  affected  participation  Entry by  students  of  the  satisfaction  functions  Simplicity,  generality,  It  that  different  selecting  different  may  be  models, points.  The  Re-entry adult  and  the b e h a v i o r under or  dissertation  be  more  (and  problems,  were  and  This  not  may  elements  to  allows  was  based  that  t o degrees  to higher  Entry  for  for  used,  research  this  out. Experience  a categorization  Re-entry  confirm  Adult  models  of  the  on  the new  category  are  not drop  are  completely  and  some p r e d i c t i o n s a b o u t w h i c h a d u l t  research data  students  describe  expectation  however,  Entry  different  to adequately  and  the  different  necessary  Quantity of E d u c a t i o n a l  to persist  compatible.  attach at  particularized  i n t o dichotomous g r o u p s — A d u l t  likely  be  t h a t even w i t h i n the  be  simplify.  require  Adult  students the  to  not  populations  models  and w i l l  study  is  study.  still  students w i l l  models  accuracy  students,  p o p u l a t i o n s may  Whether  of  between  indicate  university  Quality  and  differences  students  separate  out.  would  mainly  found. One  of  factors,  than  ambiguous the  students,  once  a d u l t male  E n t r y and  Re-entry—  students Adult  this  that  are they  would  Entry.  about  idea  education  of  The  are  more  results  expectation;  students  at high  be  risk  who  are  to  drop  experienced  as  199  university Re-entry in  students,  (who  order of 1.  likelihood  no  at  secondary  education)  Re-entry  students  least  who  Re-entry  one  This are  had  with  Students  (initial  typology  i s o b v i o u s l y not  exclusive for only than  a  However, p r e d i c t i o n s c a n  this  categorization.  students for  any  from it  (as  conclusions  those  to  one  be made.  t h i n g s which  were  previous  never  related  new  can  too  responded about  The  payoff already  non-continuing  from  new  taking courses.  achieved  some upward  categories  students  to  them. to  made  using  new  adult  mail  survey  few the  Extrapolating  success  or  lack  immediate  P e r h a p s many o f them w o u l d in  their  of  individuals  students might expect  mobility  who  students.  be  f o r A d u l t Entry students, high p r o p o r t i o n s of  among t h e  higher  previously  returning  some h y p o t h e s e s  made  education  G.P.A.  time;  still  be  post-  traditional-age  "clean."  become  here)  in  students)  Unfortunately,  described  have  G.P.A.s).  term  Some c o n c l u s i o n s and  who  higher  term,  as p o s t - s e c o n d a r y  more  as  negative  (low  than  be:  successfully  p e r h a p s m e a s u r e d by  students  might  positive  enrolled  mutually  continue  term  out  categorization,  students  (started  education experience New  t o drop  A new  (experienced  completed  experience,  4.  more l i k e l y  t o complete degrees,  Entry  students)  3.  be  are a l s o experienced).  Adult  2.  may  careers  have and  200  would with Much  consider no  serious  of  students  had  to  tentative  persist  i n g e n e r a l would a p p l y t o t h i s  group.  students  on  G.P.A. c o u l d  the  be  basis  others, with  be  of  interpreted  negative q u a l i t y  satisfaction  could  split  their  as  into  Adult  Point  measure  of  course  previous  failures  experience.)  or  qualified.  post-secondary experience with  relatively  education  index  higher  would  G.P.A.s  low  risk  Re-entry  students  variables  related  of  decision,  This  Those  be  are to  a  a  more  completing  with  date  a  might  Adult initial  degrees  score  to  by  could  kind  sense  other  of  l a c k of  indicate  Entry  sense,  not  Those  would  be  are  a  that  "traditional"  adult  (time  students.  involvement  many  of  the  in Re-  really adults.  students,  experience, of the  that  of  out.  research  than  a  previous  some  drop  affected  education)  s t u d e n t s were, i n a r o l e  in  to  scale  from  on  p e r s i s t e n c e i n dropout  entry  their  research)  scale  of  hypotheses  (limited  G.P.A.s  likely  (There  There are other i n d i c a t i o n s  careers  survived  low  high  their  Experienced  low  more  group.  along to  or  or  mother's  finding,  with  two  level  The  in this  of  positive  such  dichotomous e i t h e r / o r c a t e g o r i z a t i o n be  the  educational experience.  as  Entry  Average.  of t h e i r  about the advantages of e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e  then  difficult.  either  Grade  one  commitment,  i f i t got about  be  been  a  hypothesized  categories  might  enrollment  intention  what  Re-entry  or  their  the  those  who  have  most s u c c e s s f u l  four c a t e g o r i e s i n the  proposed  201  typology.  U n l i k e Re-entry  the  experience  few  or  no  those  roles  were  degrees,  desire than  are  desire  Entry  Continuing Adult  possibly entry  of  found  greater  students  expectation  students  real  model,  Spady's  and  who  and  are  new  for  f o r the  sake  high  or  rather  education  term. clearly 4)  Even  delineated.  are  and  2  in a  Any indicate  division low  sense  1).  would  necessary  categories  those  differences  typology  possibly  Tinto's.  to differences  education  motives  of  G.P.A.s  Re-  could  as G.P.A. i s an  and  3  could  be  empirically.  However, t h e sequential  and  and  the  categories  i s not  work  (category  differences.  Only  ambition,  that  (category  with  had  themselves,  not  students  groups  have  time  or  short  the  they  Their  long  or  i n the  had  of degrees  the world  between  into  a  have  their  out.  of  New  variable,  established  drop  not  education.  between  fulfill  arbitrary—although this  ordinal  to  to  will  higher  c a t e g o r i e s are  Entry  sub-category  differences  be  to  off, especially Adult  from  frequently pursuit  v o c a t i o n a l motives  The  a  likely  they  stopping-out;  conflict  f o r understanding  w o u l d pay  or  experiences  experienced  participation of  dropping-  negative  who  student  of  students,  who  The are  a  c o u l d be  person-environment  difference not  likely  between  the  experience.  ways  they  come f r o m  respond  to  model  new  to continue  i n the environments they in  incorporated into  a  like  students  may  be  as w e l l  their  due as  higher  202  Implications The  for Practitioners  interest  of u n i v e r s i t i e s  f o c u s e d on t r a d i t i o n a l - a g e students first  has g e n e r a l l y  place.  goal  apply  persistence The  to  of adult  major  The  any  on  of adult  for universities.  should  students; t h e i r  focused  Retention  i n retention  attracting  students  of  the  that Adult  that they out  likely  recommendations  administrators  who  expend  Entry  to  have  new  students.  extra  resources  back  for  attending  their  first  their first  semester  t o one  suggested  p r e v i o u s l y attended,  to  provided likely  that  t o drop  P o s s i b l y , i t i s not worthwhile t o on  adult  at least  strategies  register  the  leads  be  they  Generally,, i t appears  students  until  university  once,  include  next  course  should  they  have (that  be made  t o make an  courses.  getting  adults  while  they  and c o n t a c t i n g s t u d e n t s after  they  education  t o g e t them  e x t r a commitment by t a k i n g a d d i t i o n a l Useful  once  1 i n t h e new  (Category  come b a c k f o r more) o r t h a t e x t r a e f f o r t get students  long-term  students,  could  education.  made an e x t r a commitment t o t h e i r is,  useful section  in  do n o t have a l o w G.P.A., a r e much l e s s than  a  i n this  t o be p e r s i s t e n t , which  i n higher  students  i s also  i n the  students.  finding  are very  i n adult  them  interested  a r e no l o n g e r new t o h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n typology),  interest  suggestions  university  has g e n e r a l l y  cease  to preare  by  attendance  still  telephone (Coyle,  203  Pennipede,  and  Reilly,  1984-85).  s h o u l d be made t o make t h e f i r s t as  rewarding  classes  well  further  comments  can  higher education t o adults. career  advancement  universities career  should  should  success,  counselling  students  instructors  outside  on t h e T i n t o model a s  be  or  be  made  be made  ready  they  with  should  be  V o c a t i o n a l motives  on  students  appeals  to  but w i l l  n o t keep  distant.  Marketing  care  create  may  1974;  Loverock  adult's  many  better  may  a p p l i e d without  those  they  understood  o r improvements t o s p e c i f i c  promotion  may  adult be t o o  considerable (Kotler,  Some  product  would  i n higher  were n o t  solve  1980). which  to  provide  attract  The p a y o f f  Rothschild,  experience  to  on the  the connection  Apparently,  as  based  Either  prepared  motives  problems  especially  initial  counselling,  as  appeals  forparticipation  them.  techniques  and  improvements,  career  marketing  care.  t o prove  to contribute to persistence.  based  about  Any r e c r u i t i n g  s o a s t o make t h e c o n n e c t i o n  students.  found  f o r new  t h i n g s as i n c r e a s i n g  with  i n research  efforts  as h e r e ) . Some  by  such  f o r informal contact  (as i n d i c a t e d  addition,  experience  a s p o s s i b l e by d o i n g  opportunities of  In  improve  an  education—improved courses—might  help  g e t a d u l t s b a c k f o r more. There  i s probably  could  be  done  main  problem  t o help they  little, Adult  claimed  other Entry was  than  counselling, that  students  cope  interfering  with the  with  their  204  persistence,  pressures  opportunities employed  from  for directed  students,  i t  could  lend moral  assist  might  during  capabilities  two  work  aptitude  a  some  to  The  make  of  sure  involvement.  mature  to  should  simply  or test  graduate  High  (Comments  bitterness  being  several years  i t i s not this.  about  the  for  Being  Past  some  of  year  or  one  evidence  for  along  with  discouraged  about  programs records  may  for  have  should  respondents  penalized  basis  not  suggested  their  lack  of  earlier.)  considerable d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with counsellors clear  what s u g g e s t i o n s  Respondents  were  satisfied  or d i s s a t i s f i e d  aspects  of  volunteered  on  programs,  professional  from  their  sufficient  p e r s i s t e n c e i n some c a s e s .  penalty.  G.P.A. c o u l d  education,  marks  graduate  Point  have  judged  results.  or  Grade  individuals  higher  be  considered  their  these  from  students.  be  with  cumulative  indeed,  absence  Honours  T h e r e was  of  to  s c h e d u l i n g or might  easier. If,  or admission  achievement  but  work  deal  students  could  admission affected  helpful  students  be  their  as as  years  admission  be  may  de-emphasized.  their  In the case  s t u d e n t s ' academic  with  Re-entry  Average problem  matured  be  providing  support.  Helping  be  although  study might h e l p .  e m p l o y e r s a r e aware o f t h e i r Employers  work,  their  asked  made  whether  because were  with c o u n s e l l i n g (along with  other  for  only  be  they  university  suggestions  should  experience),  improvement.  Most  but  some  frequent  205  suggestions  were  post-secondary attached other the  t o departments.  clearly,  education  and  Suggestions As education  a  of  education  dropout  not  study  Nonetheless,  identify  variables  model  is  collecting  more  Further  dropout  models  long  credit, A  to and  deal  and  models  this  deal and  and  based these  in  with  making payoffs their  with  program the  students  Most  a  time  short  useful  in  from  or  a  simply  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s from  require  modifications  to  adult  between  short  to and  participation  credit  and  non-  participation. new,  at  helping  Proceeding  d i f f e r e n c e s between  differences  credit  1982).  speculation  modifications  on  using  were  making  would  education  incorporating  research.  and  adult  education  Adult  Merriam,  than  from  higher  completely.  conducted  the  in  with  course  study  identifying  been  research to  help  between  models  and  difficulty  productive  time-frames,  models  existing  apply  d e s c r i p t i v e data  that.  counsellors  adults  conflicts  research  has  has  focus.  assist  of  life.  (Darkenwald  research  having  perceiving distant  with  the  participation do  beginning  Research  before,  research  higher  coping  for Further  field  could  work o r f a m i l y  stated  the  Improved c o u n s e l l i n g may  connection,  and  at  and/or  Counsellors  career-education  dropout  counselling  participation  problems.  more  as  laid-on  the  four time  category of  typology  registration  or  206  shortly  after  and f o l l o w i n g t h e i r  performance  f o r , s a y , two  y e a r s would p r o v i d e  some i n d i c a t i o n w h e t h e r what was  here  widely  try  could  be more  this  at  different Use sample  two  from  results  in  6,  the  techniques  accounting problem  u n i v a r i a t e and  none a c c o u n t i n g  at  least  one  and  of  a  f o r more t h a n  discriminant  analysis,  shown i n  analysis  number  techniques  e v e n when  As was  bivariate  Multivariate  of  often  moderate  ten percent  such in  as  of  multiple  addition  to  f o r much more o f t h e v a r i a n c e , h e l p d e a l w i t h t h e  of r e l a t i v e  importance  use o f a v a r i e t y  logical  useful to  i s justified,  i s problematic.  identification  variance.  regression  or  be  S.F.U.  and  relationships,  I t would  universities,  representativeness 5  the  more  of m u l t i v a r i a t e  Chapters  the  or  applied.  learned  procedure  of v a r i a b l e s .  of techniques for  with  examining  I n any  t h e same  data  relationships  case, is a among  variables. There indicated expected  are by  some  specific  findings  immediate  of  likely the  t o drop out.  importance  connection  This  of payoff,  between  career connection  this  payoffs  s t r e s s e d v o c a t i o n a l motives  areas  from  for further  research. their  f o r pursuing  finding  leads  perception  education  and  Students  courses  and  who who  e d u c a t i o n were more t o the questions  of  o f b e n e f i t s , and t h e  career.  has b e e n r e s e a r c h e d  research,  The  education-  i n the s o c i a l m o b i l i t y  207  area,  for  example,  t h i n g s work w i t h Limitations  stated  in  represent first  much  from  this  4,  first-time i n the  known  except  research  the  mail  students  fall  of  about  Entry  category  i n c l u d e d most o f t h e  students  research  was  who  must  (those  d i d not  out  not  registered  had  only a small  complete  with  a  been  (Taylor  concerned  and  The  identify survey  Weldon,  survey  population  with  had  British  and  attractive  to  their  other  universities  education.  that,  universities, adult  students  conducted  over  ten  years  after  b e e n a t S.F.U. f o r t h e t e r m w h i c h was  While  necessarily  one  one  1982).  was  focused  (which  from  was  Columbia  them as t h e p o p u l a t i o n f o r s t u d y .  was  the  number  degrees  sample  least  other  for  students).  compared  to  As  adequately  who  However, Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y  has  these  tentative.  did  first-time  carried  be  university. at  how  anecdotally.  survey  1973), and  of A d u l t  This  is  Study  Chapter  time  not  adult students,  of the  Conclusions  but  on  experience at  a d u l t male may  be  other  representative  students  similar times, of  to  the  a l l  used  In a d d i t i o n , younger that  of  to the  than  35.  adults  at  population adults  the  in  is  not  higher  208  Conclusion: Experience The  final  and  comments  education,  particularly  was  that  found  research not  on  apply  not  are  about  adults  the respondents  to this  of  the  variables  d r o p o u t s — c a l l them especially  problems;  by  they  support  not t o A d u l t  were  or  more  lack  likely  v o c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s ; they  good  students,  affected a very  their  although  independent  succeed  group,  used  they  or  by  problems  in  In were  financial  educational with  with  being  studying  In s h o r t , they  and one g e t s  It  students.  concerned  little.  somehow o r o t h e r , p r o v i d e d  survey.  said  motivated  having  persistence very  Entry  support,  were  higher  variables—did  students  of  in  frequently  traditional  the s u c c e s s f u l Adult Entry  troubled  than  some  here,  addition,  Expectations  were  t h e sense they  would  the o b s t a c l e s they  faced  were n o t enormous. When A d u l t E n t r y likely or  t o be t h o s e  who  efforts.  had  Those  who  attracted The  associated  with  were n o t p e r s i s t e r s  had e x p e c t a t i o n s  were  objectives most  for  to higher  their  of  education Re-entry  previous  group  o f immediate their  efforts;  students  they  was  payoff  seemed  any  reported value.  strongly  experience,  Similarly,  were  educational  for i t sintrinsic  educational  Grade P o i n t Average.  s u c c e s s f u l Re-entry  they  s u c c e s s f u l d i d not expect  rewards f o r t h e i r  persistence  example t h e i r less  who  vocational  immediate e x t r i n s i c being  students  for  the generally  t o be more  influenced  209  by  v o c a t i o n a l motives,  students.  These  of  experience  a  problem,  findings  the non-persisting Adult  lead  The  education  unsuccessful  influence  Entry  to the conclusion that  i n post-secondary while  handicap.  like  i s not n e c e s s a r i l y  previous  depends  on  lack  experience  the quality  is  a  of the  experience. Some maybe  adults  very  persist 199).  little  (like Some  education; itself;  be  merely  commitment;  t h e New  adults,  their  they  may  Students however,  education  are very  testing  they  are not that  a r e q u i t e committed  i s often perceived  likely  to persist.  more), their  t h e y make a commitment adult  goal.  students  will  there  likely  i n the categorization  r e s o u r c e s n e e d t o be e x p e n d e d t o a s s i s t If  the waters;  to  on p .  to their  a s an e n d i n Not t h a t  many  them.  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Chapman, " V a l i d a t i o n o f a T h e o r e t i c a l Model o f C o l l e g e W i t h d r a w a l : I n t e r a c t i o n E f f e c t s o f M u l t i - I n s t i t u t i o n a l Sample," R e s e a r c h i n H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n . 19, 1983, pp. 25-48. P a s c a r e l l a , E.T., J o h n C. Smart, and C o r i n n a E t h i n g t o n , " L o n g - t e r m P e r s i s t e n c e o f Two-Year C o l l e g e S t u d e n t s , " R e s e a r c h i n H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n . 24, 1986, pp. 47-72. P a s c a r e l l a , E.T. and P. T e r e n z i n i , " P r e d i c t i n g F r e s h m a n P e r s i s t e n c e and V o l u n t a r y D r o p o u t D e c i s i o n s f r o m a T h e o r e t i c a l Model," J o u r n a l of Higher E d u c a t i o n . 51, 1980, pp. 60-75. P e r v i n L a w r e n c e A., "The L a t e r A c a d e m i c , V o c a t i o n a l , and P e r s o n a l Success of C o l l e g e Dropouts," i n P e r v i n , L o u i s E. 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Shannon, D a n i e l W., " T r a d i t i o n a l S t u d e n t s and A d u l t s : A r e They F u n d a m e n t a l l y A l i k e i n A l l U n i m p o r t a n t P a r t i c u l a r s ? " J o u r n a l of C o n t i n u i n g Higher E d u c a t i o n . 1986, pp. 8-12. S h a r p , L.M., and C P . S o s d i a n , " E x t e r n a l D e g r e e s : How Do They S e r v e T h e i r H o l d e r s ? " J o u r n a l o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n . 50, 1979, pp. 615-649.  Well  Smart, J o h n C , and E r n e s t T. P a s c a r e l l a , " I n f l u e n c e s on I n t e n t i o n t o Reenter Higher E d u c a t i o n , " J o u r n a l of H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n . 58, 1987, pp. 306-322. S m i t h e r s , A l l a n , and A l i c e G r i f f i n , U n i v e r s i t y : Entry, Experience, i n H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n . 11, 1986,  the  "Mature S t u d e n t s a t and Outcomes, " S t u d i e s pp. 257-2 68.  Solmon, L e w i s C , and J o a n n e J . G o r d o n , The C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and Needs o f A d u l t s i n P o s t s e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n ( L e x i n g t o n , Mass.: D.C. H e a t h , 1 9 8 1 ) . Spady, W i l l i a m G., " D r o p o u t s f r o m H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n : Toward an E m p i r i c a l M o d e l , " I n t e r c h a n g e 2, 1971, pp. 38-62. S t a t i s t i c s Canada, U n i v e r s i t i e s : E n r o l m e n t ( O t t a w a : S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1 9 8 6 ) .  and  Degrees,  1984  S t e l t e n p o h l , E l i z a b e t h , and J a n e S h i p t o n , " F a c i l i t a t i n g a Successful T r a n s i t i o n to College f o r Adults," Journal o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n . 57, 1986, pp. 635-658.  218  S u c z e k , R o b e r t F., and E l i z a b e t h A l f e r t , P e r s o n a l i t y C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of C o l l e g e Dropouts ( U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , B e r k e l e y ) , 1966, ERIC ED 010 101. Sudman, Seymour, and Norman M. B r a d b u r n , A s k i n g Q u e s t i o n s (San F r a n c i s c o : J o s s e y - B a s s , 1 9 8 2 ) . S u m m e r s k i l l , J . , "Dropouts from C o l l e g e , " i n N e v i t t S a n f o r d , e d . , The A m e r i c a n C o l l e g e (New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y and Sons, 1962), pp. 627-657. T a y l o r , R o b e r t M. and M. J i l l Weldon, U n i v e r s i t y S t u d e n t P r o f i l e ( V a n c o u v e r , B.C.: P o s t - S e c o n d a r y E n r o l l m e n t F o r e c a s t i n g Committee, 1982). T e r e n z i n i , P a t r i c k T., and E r n e s t P a s c a r e l l a , "Toward t h e V a l i d a t i o n o f T i n t o ' s Model o f C o l l e g e S t u d e n t A t t r i t i o n : A Review o f R e c e n t S t u d i e s , " R e s e a r c h i n H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n . 12, 1980, pp. 271-282. T i n t o , V i n c e n t , "Dropout from H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n : A T h e o r e t i c a l S y n t h e s i s of Recent R e s e a r c h . " Review of E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h . 1975, v o l . 45, pp. 89-125. T i n t o , V i n c e n t , " L i m i t s o f T h e o r y and P r a c t i c e i n S t u d e n t A t t r i t i o n , " J o u r n a l o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n . 53, 1982, pp. 687-700. T i n t o , V i n c e n t , L e a v i n g C o l l e g e : R e t h i n k i n g t h e C a u s e s and Cures of A t t r i t i o n (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1987). Tough, A l l e n , "Major L e a r n i n g E f f o r t s : R e c e n t F u t u r e D i r e c t i o n s . " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . 28, 263.  R e s e a r c h and 1978, pp. 250-  Trow, M a r t i n , " C o m p a r a t i v e P e r s p e c t i v e s on A c c e s s , " i n F u l t o n , A c c e s s t o H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n . 1980, pp. 89-121. W a n i e w i c z , I g n a c y , Demand F o r P a r t - T i m e L e a r n i n g i n O n t a r i o ( T o r o n t o : O n t a r i o E d u c a t i o n a l Communications Authority, 1976). W e a t h e r s b y , R i t a P r e s z l e r , and J i l l M a t t u c k T a r u l e , A d u l t Development: I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n (Washington, D . C : ERIC C l e a r i n g h o u s e f o r H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n , 1980). Weidman, J o h n C , R e t e n t i o n o f N o n t r a d i t i o n a l S t u d e n t s i n P o s t s e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n , 1985, ERIC ED 261 195.  W r i g h t , E r i k O l i n , "A S t u d y o f E d u c a t i o n a l L e a v e s o f A b s e n c e , " J o u r n a l o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n , 1967, pp. 247.  235  Zemsky, R o b e r t , and Penny O e d e l , The S t r u c t u r e o f C o l l e g e C h o i c e (New Y o r k : C o l l e g e E n t r a n c e E x a m i n a t i o n B o a r d 1983 ) .  220  APPENDICES A.  Student Records  221  B.  Mail Survey  224  C.  Telephone Survey  238  D.  Correlation Matrices for Multivariate Analysis.  244  221  A. STUDENT RECORDS  1.  File Description  222  2.  Data Description  223  222  1.  Field  F I L E DESCRIPTION  Starting Position  Description  STUDENT SURNAME STUDENT FIRST NAME & INITIAL SEX BIRTHDATE ADDRESS LINE ADDRESS LINE POSTAL CODE DEGREE AWARDED DATE DEGREE CONFERRED FIRST SEMESTER ATTENDED CUMULATIVE CREDIT HOURS PASSED CUMULATIVE GRADE POINT AVERAGE •REGISTRATION VECTOR  Length  Type  Picture  1  20  CHAR  A  21 43 44 150 272 92 98 98  22 1 22 20 6 3 3 6  tt  tt  107  3  li  XXX  110  3  tt  X.XX  113 117  4 30 146  tl  X.XX A A  li it tt tl  )• II ti  ti  A  M/F MMDDYY A A tt  A-A MMDDYY YYS  •REGISTRATION VECTOR c o n s i s t s o f 30 c h a r a c t e r positions where e a c h position represents a semester. The first p o s i t i o n on t h e l e f t r e p r e s e n t s F a l l 1973 (73-3) a n d t h e l a s t p o s i t i o n on t h e r i g h t r e p r e s e n t s Summer 1983 (83-2). (83-2). I f the character i s an N t h e s t u d e n t was n o t registered i n that s e m e s t e r . - I f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s an Y t h e s t u d e n t was r e g i s t e r e d i n t h a t semester. File Characteristics  D a t a S e t Name:  RG.A6 4 0 3.JMCLAREN  Label:  No  Tape  6250 BPI  Density:  Label  223  2.  DATA DESCRIPTION  T o t a l Number of Records Graduate Students i n F a l l , 197 3 No Records, p o s s i b l e N o n - s t a r t s Usable Records Cumulative G . P . A . based on Graduate Study a f t e r 1973 Usable Grade P o i n t Average and C r e d i t Hours  1561 61 6_5 1435 155 1280  1.  DEGREE (n-14 35) Simon F r a s e r Degree No Simon F r a s e r Degree  648 787  2.  SEX (n=1435) Male Female  891 544  3.  4.  AGE (n=1435) Born p r i o r to 1939 Born between J a n . 1, GRADE POINT AVERAGE 0 - 1.99 2 - 2.99 3.00 - 4.00  1939 and Dec. 1,  1948  240 1195  (n=1280) 115 543 622  224  B. MAIL SURVEY  1.  Cover letters -  225  2.  Data Known About Sample from Student Records -.  228  3.  Questionnaire with Frequencies  228  228  2.  D A T A KNOWN ABOUT  SAMPLE  1.  Degree Simon F r a s e r d e g r e e No d e g r e e (From s u r v e y ) Degree  RECORDS.  61 45 4  obtained elsewhere  2.  Grade P o i n t Average ( s e e C h a p t e r 4, T a b l e 1)  3.  Time a t Simon F r a s e r ( s e e C h a p t e r 4, T a b l e 1)  Sex  FROM S T U D E N T  a n d Age n o t r e l e v a n t b e c a u s e o f sample  restriction.  3.  QUESTIONNAIRE WITH FREQUENCIES  1.  When d i d y o u f i r s t d e c i d e t h a t y o u w o u l d be a s t u d e n t i n post-secondary education (take U n i v e r s i t y o r C o l l e g e courses f o r c r e d i t ) ? .19(a) 4_4(b) 15(c) 2.8(d)  2.  How o l d were y o u when y o u f i r s t or c o l l e g e course? 161718 19 2021-  3.  Before high school During high school In the f i r s t 3 years a f t e r l e a v i n g school More t h a n 3 y e a r s a f t e r l e a v i n g h i g h s c h o o l  (a)  1 8 27 18 5 8  22 23 24 25 26 27  -  4 1 4 2 5 8  attended 282930313233 -  a university 6 3 3 2 0 1  D i d you i n t e n d t o pursue your e d u c a t i o n degree o r diploma a t t h a t time? Yes (b)  96  I f yes,  to a  No 10 what was y o u r e d u c a t i o n a l  goal?  5_ c o m p l e t e c e r t i f i c a t e p r o g r a m . 4_ C o m p l e t e d i p l o m a p r o g r a m . 77 B a c h e l o r ' s d e g r e e . 5. M a s t e r ' s d e g r e e Q Doctorate, or p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n (c)  What i s t h e h i g h e s t e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l y o u a s p i r e t o (most a d v a n c e d d e g r e e ) ?  229  8^ l e s s t h a n B a c h e l o r ' s d e g r e e 21 B a c h e l o r ' s d e g r e e 46 M a s t e r ' s d e g r e e 17 D o c t o r a t e , o r p r o f e s s i o n a l 4.  qualification  ( S t u d e n t s who have n o t c o m p l e t e d a d e g r e e . ) I f you a r e p l a n n i n g t o c o m p l e t e y o u r d e g r e e , when do y o u n e x t p l a n to e n r o l l i n a course? 83 n o t a p p l i c a b l e 8. n o t p l a n n i n g t o e n r o l l a g a i n 4. e n r o l l e d a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e 11 p l a n n i n g t o e n r o l l a g a i n How many s e m e s t e r s ( a f t e r t h i s one) do y o u e x p e c t t o take t o reach your present e d u c a t i o n a l goal? 76 • 4 12 6 8  not - 1 - 2 - 3 years - 9 years  RE-ENTRY STUDENTS (first enrolled education b e f o r e age 25) ONLY: 6.  (a)  21 16 2 7 1 7 (b)  -  i n post-secondary  Between t h e t i m e y o u f i r s t s t a r t e d t a k i n g p o s t s e c o n d a r y c o u r s e s and t h e p r e s e n t , t h e r e has b e e n a t l e a s t one i n t e r r u p t i o n o f t h r e e s e m e s t e r s o r more when y o u d i d n o t t a k e c o u r s e s o r " s t o p p e d out." When y o u d e c i d e d t o r e t u r n what was t h e reason?  (a) had a l w a y s i n t e n d e d t o r e t u r n (b) b e c a u s e o f a c h a n g e i n o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l (c) t o s a t i s f y a requirement o f your j o b (d) t o q u a l i f y f o r advancement (e) t o do s o m e t h i n g w i t h t i m e a v a i l a b l e ? (f) other?—please specify: What were y o u d o i n g a t t h e t i m e o f t h i s d e c i s i o n (.that i s , were y o u unemployed, w o r k i n g a s a h o u s e w i f e , o r d i d y o u have some o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n ? ) Please specify: (occupation)  see below  ADULT ENTRY STUDENTS (25 o r o v e r y e a r s e n r o l l e d i n post-secondary education)  o l d when ONLY:  first  230  7. 21 2 10 4 2 2 0 2  (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)  (a)  When you f i r s t e n t e r e d c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y , what was t h e r e a s o n ?  to obtain a degree(s) to obtain pre-professional q u a l i f i c a t i o n s to f u l f i l l a long-time ambition because of a change i n o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l t o s a t i s f y a requirement of your job t o q u a l i f y f o r advancement t o do s o m e t h i n g w i t h t i m e a v a i l a b l e other?—please specify:  (b) What a r e you d o i n g a t t h e t i m e you c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y ? Please specify:  decided  to  enter  (occupation) 6  (b), 7  (b)  totals:  - Occupational Category Realistic Investigative Artistic Social Enterprising Conventional  (R) (I) (A) (S) (E) (C)  - Occupational Level 1 2 3 4 5 6  (Holland,  1973)  38 6 2 14 15 15 (G.E.D., p a r a l l e l s  Social  Class)  0 10 23 36 21 0  8. Which o f t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s w o u l d you c o n s i d e r as b e i n g v e r y i m p o r t a n t t o you i n d e c i d i n g t o e n r o l l i n a p o s t secondary p r o g r a m a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e (Check any o r a l l . ) - j = J o b - r e l a t e d reason; J U J J J J  U = self/understanding reason  To q u a l i f y f o r a j o b For personal i n t e r e s t To i m p r o v e e x i s t i n g j o b s k i l l s To d e c i d e on a c a r e e r To s t u d y u n t i l a j o b becomes a v a i l a b l e To c o m p l e t e t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e d as a c o n d i t i o n o f employment 6_ To meet p e o p l e (6 = number c h e c k i n g i t e m )  my  231  U To l e a r n f o r s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g U To l e a r n i n order t o b e t t e r understand the world J To l e a r n something f o r a s p e c i f i c purpose (immediate a p p l i c a t i o n ) 39 To complete a degree (39 = number c h e c k i n g item) J - J o b - r e l a t e d reasons: (number of items checked by i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n d e n t s ) : 0 26 1 27 2 25 3-6  22  U - S e l f / u n d e r s t a n d i n g reasons: (number of items checked by r e s p o n d e n t s ) : 0 34 1 39 2-3  27  9. What i s your present or most r e c e n t job or occupation? - O c c u p a t i o n a l Category R I A S E C  (Holland c a t e g o r y ; see p. 230):  12 7 3 47 20 15  - O c c u p a t i o n a l L e v e l (G.E.D. l e v e l ; see p. 230): 1 2 3 4 5 6  0 0 3 12 79 2  10. (a) What occupation do you expect t o f o l l o w i n the next two years? Same as 9. (check) Or: (14 changes) (Specify.)  232  - Occupational category R 9 I 6 A 4 S 46 E 18 C 15 - Occupational  level  (Holland  category)  (G.E.D. l e v e l ;  see p. 230):  1 0 2 0 3 1 4 6 5 76 6 16 11. (a) What t y p e o f work w o u l d you l i k e y e a r s ' t i m e , i f e v e r y t h i n g worked o u t ?  t o be d o i n g  i n 10  Same as 10. (check) Or: (42 c h a n g e s ) (Specify) - Occupational category R I A S E C  (Holland category;  8 5 5 39 28 10  - Occupational  level  (G.E.D.  level):  1 0 2 0 3 0 4 5 5 65 6 25 - Change o f o c c u p a t i o n No c h a n g e s 1 change 2 changes  51 48 4  (10,11)  see p. 233):  233  12.  What i s the education? 92 2 0 3 0  13.  primary  source  Own employment 3 P a r e n t ' s employment 1 Social Assistance 2 Loan Other? (please s p e c i f y ) :  (b) (c)  (d)  14.  for  your  How s a t i s f i e d a r e y o u w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g a s p e c t s o f your educational experience? (Place mark in a p p r o p r i a t e box.)  (a)  (i)  money  S p o u s e ' s employment Other r e l a t i v e s Government t r a i n i n g allowance  Very Satisfied  (g) (h)  of  quality of classes . . . . usefulness of course content . , scheduling of classes . . . amount o f c o n t a c t with i n s t r u c t o r s . size of classes . opportunities to mix w i t h o t h e r students . . . . a v a i l a b i l i t y of academic a d v i c e and c o u n s e l l i n g . (a)  Satisfied  19  67  18  69  21  73  27  59  21  62  28  67  14  50  Dissatisfied 7 15 8 16  26  Which, i f any, p r o b l e m s r e l a t e d t o b e i n g a s t u d e n t have y o u e n c o u n t e r e d ? (Check a s many a s a p p l y . )  (P = P e r s o n a l p r o b l e m ; J = J o b - r e l a t e d p r o b l e m ; F = f a m i l y problem; M = f i n a n c i a l problem; A = s t u d y - r e l a t e d problem) P J F F M F M P F J A A A  l a c k o f energy c o n f l i c t with job r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s family obligations non-supportive family attitudes t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problems problems w i t h c h i l d care f i n a n c i a l problems lack of self-confidence g u i l t about n e g l e c t o f f a m i l y g u i l t about n e g l e c t o f j o b l a c k o f s p e c i f i c s k i l l s and a b i l i t i e s r u s t y study s k i l l s problems with c l a s s m a t e s / / o t h e r ? (please  specify):  - Number o f i t e m s c h e c k e d  by  respondents  p  =  Personal  0 1,2  53 47  J  =  Job-related  0 1,2  59 41  F  =  Family  0 1-3  52 48  M  =  Financial  0 1,2  51 49  A  =  Study-related  0 1-3  48 52  (b)  Which o f t h e above w o u l d greatest d i f f i c u l t y ?  you  None o r no p r o b l e m ( s p e c i f i c a l l y stated) P e r s o n a l (P) J o b - r e l a t e d (J) F a m i l y (F) F i n a n c i a l (M) S t u d y - r e l a t e d (A) 15.  Who has most e n c o u r a g e d (Check any o r a l l . )  s a y has  been  your  4 22 13 12 19 29  your e d u c a t i o n a l  ambitions?  27 No one 25 Friends F Spouse 10 Employer Children F S Teachers F S Mother Classmates F S Father Counselors/Adviser F Sisters/brothers F Other r e l a t i v e s 0 Other? (please s p e c i f y ) F = F a m i l y 50 S = School 14 F a m i l y / r e l a t i v e s - 3 5 checked 1 f a m i l y category; 15 c h e c k e d 2 o r more. 16. (a) A r e t h e r e p e o p l e who taking courses? 13 Yes (b)  What i s t h e i r  family-11;  do 89  relationship  employers-2  not No  t o you?  (relationship)  approve  of  your  235  17. 27  (a) Had any o f y o u r b r o t h e r s o r s i s t e r s had some post-secondary e d u c a t i o n b e f o r e you d i d ? Yes  65 No  11 N o t A p p l i c a b l e  (b) Have any b r o t h e r s o r s i s t e r s begun p o s t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n s i n c e y o u have s t a r t e d ? 35  Yes  56 No  12 Not A p p l i c a b l e  DEMOGRAPHIC DATA: 18.  What i s y o u r  marital status?  14 N e v e r m a r r i e d 6 Separated 13 D i v o r c e d 0 Widowed 70 S t i l l m a r r i e d 19.  (a)  How many d e p e n d e n t c h i l d r e n 70  respondents  had c h i l d r e n  do y o u have? (number)  Number o f c h i l d r e n 0 1 2 3 o r more (b)  What i s t h e age o f t h e y o u n g e s t mean median  20.  33 17 36 17  (a)  7.3 7  dependent  child?  (age i n y e a r s )  What was y o u r f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n ? (What j o b d i d he have f o r t h e l o n g e s t t i m e w h i l e y o u were s t i l l l i v i n g with your family?)  Holland  category:  Realistic Investigative Artistic Social Enterprising Conventional  47 5 1 8 26 14  236  -  Occupational level  What was t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l y o u r mother? (Check o n e . ) 10 27 39 10 10 3 2 5  22.  level;  see  p.  of  education  completed  elementary s c h o o l , grade 8 or l e s s s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l , 1-2 y e a r s s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l , 3-4 y e a r s some p o s t - s e c o n d a r y ( t r a d e , v o c a t i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l , c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y ) completed B a c h e l o r ' s degree some g r a d u a t e s t u d y completed p o s t - g r a d u a t e degree do n o t know  Final  Question:  What m i g h t y o u recommend t o Simon F r a s e r i t a s s i s t s t u d e n t s l i k e you? No s u g g e s t i o n Or:  230):  0 5 22 41 27 6  1 2 3 4 5 6 21.  (G.E.D.  t o make 66  (check)  40 made comments 77 s u b j e c t s were commented on  to  help  by  237  Category:  Number  Complaints,  suggestions:  Program — c h a n g e s (majors o f f e r e d , e t c . ) —more correspondence courses —more night classes (or s p e c i f i c — c h a n g e s i n marking, assignments  ones)  Support s e r v i c e s : —counselling —admissions —financial aid — f a m i l y housing —more services (parking, recreation,  etc.)  11 8 6 3_ 28 9 4 6 2 4. 25  Environment: — " p r e j u d i c e " a g a i n s t mature o r part-time students  4  Miscellaneous:  4  Total  complaints, suggestions:  61  Compliments: — f o r mature s t u d e n t program —general Total Total  compliments:  5 11 16 77  238  C. TELEPHONE SURVEY  1.  P r o t o c o l and Response r a t e  239  2.  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and F r e q u e n c i e s  239  239  1.  P r o t o c o l and r e s p o n s e r a t e . A l l numbers c a l l e d a t l e a s t t h r e e t i m e s (2 d i f f e r e n t evenings and 1 daytime c a l l - a t l e a s t ) . Numbers c a l l e d  f o r 24 i n t e r v i e w s  73  I n t r o d u c t i o n - i d e n t i f i e d researcher, s t a t e d purpose of s u r v e y , why a n d how r e s p o n d e n t s e l e c t e d . 1.  D i d y o u r e c e i v e 'the Yes No ("Not  2.  guestionnaire?  17 7 sure"  response recoded  probing.)  I f y o u d i d , why d i d n ' t y o u c o m p l e t e i t ? too busy lost i t d i d n o t want t o  3.  after  Would y o u be w i l l i n g time?  10 4 3 t o answer a few q u e s t i o n s  at this  Yes 24 Complete q u e s t i o n n a i r e 3 Reduced q u e s t i o n n a i r e 21 No 4 Reduced 1.  Questionaire  When d i d y o u f i r s t d e c i d e t h a t y o u w o u l d be a s t u d e n t in post-secondary education (take U n i v e r s i t y o r College courses f o r c r e d i t ) ? 2(a) 8(b) 2(c) 12(d)  Before high school During high school In the f i r s t 3 years a f t e r l e a v i n g school More than 3 years a f t e r l e a v i n g high school  6. (a) Between t h e t i m e y o u f i r s t s t a r t e d t a k i n g p o s t secondary c o u r s e s and t h e p r e s e n t , t h e r e has been a t l e a s t one i n t e r r u p t i o n o f t h r e e s e m e s t e r s o r more when y o u d i d not take c o u r s e s o r "stopped out." When y o u d e c i d e d t o r e t u r n what was t h e r e a s o n ?  240  4 2 2 3  (b)  (a) had a l w a y s i n t e n d e d t o r e t u r n (b) b e c a u s e o f a c h a n g e i n o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l (c) t o s a t i s f y a requirement o f your j o b (d) t o q u a l i f y f o r advancement (e) t o do s o m e t h i n g w i t h t i m e a v a i l a b l e ? (f) o t h e r ? — p l e a s e s p e c i f y : What were y o u d o i n g a t t h e t i m e o f t h i s d e c i s i o n ( t h a t i s , were y o u unemployed, w o r k i n g a s a h o u s e w i f e , o r d i d you have some o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n ? ) Please specify:  ADULT ENTRY STUDENTS ( o v e r 21 y e a r s i n p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n ) ONLY: 7.  (a)  When y o u f i r s t e n t e r e d c o l l e g e was t h e r e a s o n ?  2 2  (a) (b) (c) 5 (d) _2 (e) (f) (g) (h) (b)  o l d when f i r s t  enrolled  or university,  what  t o obtain a degree(s) to obtain pre-professional qualifications t o f u l f i l l a long-time ambition because o f a change i n o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l t o s a t i s f y a requirement of your job t o q u a l i f y f o r advancement t o do s o m e t h i n g w i t h t i m e a v a i l a b l e other? — p l e a s e s p e c i f y :  What were y o u d o i n g a t t h e t i m e y o u d e c i d e d t o enter college or university? Please specify:  Summary o f 6  (b),7 (b):  Occupational category Realistic Investigative Enterprising Conventional Occupational Level  1 2 3 4 5 6  (Holland category;  s e e p . 2 30  11 4 3 4 (G.E.D. l e v e l ;  0 2 7 9 4 0  see p.  230):  241  9.  What i s y o u r p r e s e n t Occupational  o r most  Category  recent  (Holland category;  see p. 230):  1 2 3 1 12 5  R I A S E C Occupational  Category  (G.E.D. l e v e l ;  (a) What o c c u p a t i o n years?  do y o u e x p e c t  Same a s 9. .19. Or: (5 c h a n g e s ) Occupational  Category  (check) (Specify.)  2 4 1 12 5  " Level  t o f o l l o w i n t h e next  (Holland)  Realistic Artistic Social Enterprising Conventional Occupational  (G.E.D.) 0 1 17 6  4 5 6  11. (a) What t y p e o f work w o u l d y o u l i k e y e a r s ' t i m e , i f e v e r y t h i n g worked o u t ? Same a s 10. Or:  see p. 230):  0 4 17 3  1,3 4 5 6 10. two  job or occupation?  18 6 changes)  (check) (Specify.)  t o be d o i n g  i n 10  242  Occupational  Category  Artistic Social Enterprising Conventional Occupational  4 2 11 7 Category  1,4 5 6  A d a p t e d 13.  (Holland)  (G.E.D.): 0 15 9  How s a t i s f i e d were y o u w i t h a t Simon F r a s e r ?  your  experience  8 8 8  some d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n expressed generally s a t i s f i e d very s a t i s f i e d very s a t i s f i e d Adapted  14  D i d y o u have any p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m s d u r i n g y o u r time as a s t u d e n t which a f f e c t e d y o u r work o r s t u d i e s ? 11 13  none some p r o b l e m s  Which o f t h e above would" y o u s a y has been y o u r difficulty? personal job-related family  7 2 2  financial study-related  greatest 2 0  243  20.  (a) What was y o u r f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n ? (What j o b d i d he have f o r t h e l o n g e s t t i m e w h i l e you were s t i l l l i v i n g at home w i t h y o u r f a m i l y ? ) Occupational Category  (Holland)  Realistic Investigative Conventional 1 2 3 4 5 6  Occupational Level  13 3 7 (G.E.D.): 0 1 6 12 2 2  244  D. CORRELATION MATRICES  1.  Full  Mail  Survey  2.  Mail  Survey, A d u l t  3.  Mail  Survey,  245 Entry  Re-entry  24 6 247  Mail Full Survey  1.  Degree  2.  Entry  1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  7.  B.  1.000  -.229*  .075  • 145  -.240«  -.325*  -.186*  -.333*  1.000  -.586*  -.009  -.141  -.115  -.045  1.000  -.091  -.030  -.142  1.000  -.645* 1.000  3. Time of Decision 4. Social Mobility 5.  Early - career Mobility  6. Level of Aspiration 7. Desire for Change 8. Satisfaction 9. Work-related Problems 10. Mother's Education  11. Grade Point Average  •significant at 0.05 level  9.  10.  11.  -.225  -.161  -.078  -.007  -.007  -.106.  -.099  -.003  -.190  -.077  -.070  -.094  -.154  -.012  -.408*  -.150  -.146  -.125  -.135  -.103  -.124  -.644*  -.093  -.123  -.170  -.041  -.026  -.199"  1.000  -.312*  -.026  -.062  -.038  -.077  -.017  1.000  -.088  -.007  -.118  -.079  .163  1.000  -.039  -.108  -.012  .023  1.000  -.015  -.011  .005  1.000  -.050  - . 292*  12. .196*  1.000  Mail Survey, Adult Entry  3. 1.  Degree  2.  Time of Decision  1.000  3. Social Mobility 4.  Early - career Mobility  5.  Level of Aspiration  6.  Desire for Change  7.  Satisfaction  8.  Work-related Problems  9.  Time at University  10.  Mother's Education  11.  Grade Point Average  .017 1.000  4.  5.  6.  7.  8.  9.  10.  11.  -.096  -.092  -.306*  -.183  -.329*  -.421*  -.086  -.059  -.120  -.249*  -.270  -.299  -.207  -.167  -.004  -.008  -.046  -.260  1.000  -.677  -.438*  -.022  -.092  -.126  -.043  -.042  -.294*  1.000  -.739*  -.128  -.058  -.135  -.045  -.161  -.284*  1.000  -.356*  -.079  -.124  -.038  -.096  -.387*  1.000  -.094  -.125  -.056  -.331*  -.058  1.000  -.188  -.274  -.172  -.104  1.000  -.167  -.047  -.098  1.000  -.127  -.271  1.000  -.117  t  1.000  Mail Survey, Re-entry  1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  7.  8.  9.  1.000  .200  -.183  -.306*  -.311  -.187  -.320  -.032  -.252*  -.133  -.395*  1.000  -.013  -.004  -.220  -.350*  -.060  -.152  -.104  -.355  -.151  1.000  -.654  -.361*  -.262*  -.190  -.292*  -.209  -.046  -.111  1.000  -.557*  -.054  -.187  -.205  -.061  -.276*  -.197*  1.000  -.270*  -.120  -.015  -.061  -.305  -.170  1.000  -.094  -.111  -.163  -.184  -.260*  1.000  -.128  -.018  -.143  -.022  1.000  -.096  -.121  -.018  1.000  -.178  -.334  1.000  -.095  1.  Degree  2.  Time of Decision  3.  Social Mobility  4.  Early - career Mability  5.  Level of Aspiration  6.  Desire for Change  7.  Satisfaction  8.  Work-related Problems  9.  Time at University  10.  Mother's Education  11.  Grade Point Average  'significant  at 0.05 level  10.  11.  1.000  

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