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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An investigation of the current British Columbian eductional policy regarding single male Central… Campbell, Morgan Brand 1991

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AN INVESTIGATION OF THE CURRENT B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A N EDUCTIONAL POLICY, REGARDING SINGLE MALE CENTRAL A M E R I C A N REFUGEE C L A I M A N T S , AND THE E F F E C T , IF ANY, ON T H E I R S O C I A L AND E C O N O M I C W E L L BEING. by Morgan B . E d ( s e c ) . , A  THESIS THE  Brand  U n i v e r s i t y  Campbell  of  SUBMITTED IN REQUIREMENTS MASTER  B r i t i s h  PARTIAL FOR THE OF ARTS  Columbia,  FULFILMENT DEGREE OF  i n THE  FACULTY  S o c i a l  We  OF  and  GRADUATE  STUDIES  E d u c a t i o n a l  S t u d i e s  a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s to t h e r e q u i r e d  THE  UNIVERSITY  OF  June  © Morgan  a s conforming standard  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  1991  Brand  Campbell  ;  1975 OF  In  presenting  degree freely  this  at the available  copying  of  department publication  of  in  partial  University  of  British Columbia, I agree  for reference  this or  thesis  thesis for by  his  or  and study.  of  her  (2/88)  I further  the  requirements that the  agree  representatives.  It  this thesis for financial gain shall not  "HPlxdiA^-i o  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6  of  scholarly purposes may be  permission.  Department  fulfilment  VJ>  is  for  an  Library shall make  that permission for granted  by the  understood  be allowed  advanced  that  it  extensive  head  of  copying  my or  without my written  ABSTRACT  Refugees Federal  a r e on w e l f a r e and g e t i n t o d i f f i c u l t y because t h e Immigration p o l i c y  does not g i v e them work p e r m i t s  and P o v i n c i a l E d u c a t i o n p o l i c y does not p r o v i d e E n g l i s h as a second  language.  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ABSTRACT  ij-V^ i i  CHAPTER 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n I d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e problem  1 3  CHAPTER 2. Review o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e  8  CHAPTER 3. A p r o f i l e o f C e n t r a l America  20  CHAPTER 4. Canada's Immigration p o l i c y and i t ' s e f f e c t s on C e n t r a l American refugee c l a i m a n t s  33  CHAPTER 5. The problems o f C e n t r a l American male refugees  51  CHAPTER 6. Research Methodology  63  CHAPTER 7. A n a l y s i s o f Data S e c t i o n 1. Background S e c t i o n 2. A r r i v a l and E a r l y Years . . S e c t i o n 3. E d u c a t i o n and r e l a t e d areas S e c t i o n 4. Occupation and employment . S e c t i o n 5. Economic data S e c t i o n 6. O r i e n t a t i o n and b e l i e f s . . A comparison study  76 . 80 . 82 . 85 88 . 90 95  CHAPTER 8. Review o f s e r v i c e s and a g e n c i e s . . . . 107 Educational opportunities 113 CHAPTER 9. C o n c l u s i o n Recomendations  118 122  BIBLIOGRAPHY  12 5  APPENDIX I  130  Aknowledqements The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t o f people and o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t a s s i s t e d me i n my reseach. Many o f these people gave up v a l u a b l e time t o be i n t e r v i e w e d e i t h e r i n person o r on t h e phone. My thanks t o each and every one o f you. Roger Barany - Case worker f o r MOSAIC Pablo Bazeque - S t r e e t worker f o r DEYAS Nora P a t r i c h - A r t i s t Gina Sara - Immigration O f f i c e r , Employment & Immigration, Canada A l i s o n Sawyer - Lawyer f o r Burnaby L e g a l S e r v i c e s (Refugees) George V a r n e i i - S p e c i a l i s t i n Refugee Claimants w i t h Employment & Immigration, Canada F e r e a l McCann - O f f i c e o f t h e S e c t e t a r y o f S t a t e P h i l l i p Jung - Canadian C o u n c i l f o r Refugees (Vancouver) Dr. Gustov Lopez - P r e s i d e n t f o r t h e Commision o f Human R i g h t s i n C e n t r a l America C a r l o s M o r e i l a - Guatemalan Human R i g h t s Commision Danny C h a v a r r i a - Refugee from Nicaragua John F o s t e r - Oxfam Margaret Morgan - Amnesty I n t e r n a t i o n a l Stewart I s t v a n f y - Lawyer, Human R i g h t s A c t i v i s t (Montreal) Dan Livermore - Lawyer, D i r e c t o r o f Human R i g h t s and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , Department o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , Ottawa Hon. L l o y d Axworthy P.C.,M.P. - Chairman o f t h e s p e c i a l Committee on t h e peace process i n C e n t r a l America R.V. Gorham - Canada's r o v i n g Ambassador f o r C e n t r a l America & s p e c i a l advisor t o the Secretary of State for External A f f a i r s W i l l i a m Smiley - s o c i a l worker J u d i t h Roth - Program C o o r d i n a t o r f o r Vancouver School Board (Adult) L e s l e y Thompson - ESL I n s t r u c t o r a t KEC & VCC E s t e r S i l v a and Frank F r i g o n - Vancouver School Board, ESL t e a c h e r s , Spanish speakers Nona Thompson - Teacher a t Step Up, VSB  Chapter  One  Introduct ion My  i n t e r e s t i n refugee c l a i m a n t s began i n t h e w i n t e r  of 1987  when my  class,  to  spouse and I v o l u n t e e r e d t o t e a c h , an  Central  American  refugee  claimants  ESL  at  the  Carnegie Centre i n downtown Vancouver. That w i n t e r was eye  opener  as  claimants  and  problems.  We  cruising great  we  got learnt  had  our  liking  to  know more about  recently  own  sailboat  and  affinity  and  their  more  the  aspirations  returned  from  i n Mexico and with  about  two  had  i t s people  and years  developed and  the  reasons  for  the  situation  in  a  culture.  Our e x p e r i e n c e s i n Mexico and here i n Vancouver l e d me explore  an  which  to the  c l a i m a n t s had been p l a c e d . The purpose why  t h a t u n d e r l i e s t h i s study i s t o d i s c o v e r  C e n t r a l American refugee c l a i m a n t s a r e not  receiving  the h e l p , i n terms of e d u c a t i o n , t h a t they need. In o r d e r to  do  this  formation  i t i s necessary  of  the  policies  shaped t h e p r e s e n t day Three initial  major  question  and  examine  in  detail  circumstances  that  of  the  results  and how  o f these  have  as  study  that  arise  from  follows:  What  creates Central  American r e f u g e e s ; What p o l i c i e s are i n p l a c e t h a t them d i r e c t l y  the  situation.  areas are  to  the  effect  were they formulated; and what are policies  on  they a r e i n Canada?  Page - 1  the  refugees  now  that  To  address  these  three  n e c e s s a r y t o e x p l o r e each  issues  I  felt  of these a r e a s . By  it  was  approaching  the study  i n t h i s way  I hope t o be a b l e t o suggest  ways  in  the  policies  more  which  realistically  present deal  with  the  can  be  amended  to  crisis  that  emerging  is  o c c u r r i n g among our refugee p o p u l a t i o n . I t i s a l s o hoped t h a t t h i s study w i l l p o i n t  the way  f o r f u r t h e r study of  t h i s complex i n t e r c u l t u r a l , y e t g l o b a l problem. While working Eastside,  as a v o l u n t e e r i n Vancouver's Downtown  teaching English  as  a Second Language f o r the  Downtown E a s t s i d e Youth A c t i v i t i e s S o c i e t y (DEYAS), I got t o know about were l i v i n g  30  C e n t r a l American  refugee  i n the downtown e a s t s i d e of Vancouver.  g r e a t e s t number of these were p o l i t i c a l Salvador.  These  social  class  across  the  graduate,  with  attended  basis.  or  men  did  This  from  a  firsthand, they  viewed  regulated social  I  a l l come  winter  was  the  I  was  began their  their  drop-in  only  but  ESL  to  The  the  were to  range  A l l were determined the  from  near-illiterate  corresponding  access t o a t t h a t time Because  not  who  r e f u g e e s from E l  o c c u p a t i o n a l category,  spectrum  occupations. and  claimants  classes  on  training  previous i n Canada a  that  spread college  of  succeed  same  regular they  had  (see update). able  to  to  observe  develop  an  situations,  lives.  I  came  s e r v i c e s were a v a i l a b l e  their  understanding and to  the  of  forces  a p p r e c i a t e how  t o them, and  Page - 2  problems  their  how that few  need,  both  f o r r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e i r  integration  into  the  e x i s t e n c e and  f o r help  Canadian s o c i e t y t o which they  in had  fled.  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the problem During  the  last  five  years,  single,  male, C e n t r a l American  Canada  and  sought  metropolitan Vancouver  areas,  a  unique  sub  culture.  comes i n c o n t a c t w i t h  1989) .  an  accurate  Spanish  According  to  them, t h e r e  as  to  and  speaking  In Vancouver, they have formed Pablo  are  claimants  Bazerque,  who  approximately  300  i n Vancouver  the  subjects  are  moving, not o n l y between d i s t r i c t s of the c i t y also  in  larger  Toronto  Bazerque c l a i m s t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t figure,  of  "convention  Montreal,  Bazerque,  young, s i n g l e male refugee May  as  have g r a v i t a t e d t o the  Pablo  f o r DEYAS).  have a r r i v e d  asylum  specifically  (source  streetworker  refugees  political  r e f u g e e s " . These young men  i n c r e a s i n g numbers  other  metropolitan  (as of to give  constantly (discussed  below),  but  areas  across  Canada.  T h i s movement i s hard t o t r a c e or document,  but  i n Bazerque's experience  i s a major problem i n attempting  to  bases  from  and  Employment  help  them  Canadian  establish  Immigration  which  to  access  determination  p r o c e s s . T h i s p r o c e s s w i l l determine whether they w i l l accepted  as  immigrants  or whether they  t o t h e i r country of o r i g i n .  Page - 3  will  the  be  be  returned  Within themselves area,  the  Commercial of  their  in  three  Main  and  area. low  street l i f e The  Vancouver,  the  locations, Broadway  and  the  area  These areas  rents  subjects  grouped  and  Hastings  Main  and  have been  active  have  street  the  Broadway  s e l e c t e d because life.  This  active  i s r e m i n i s c e n t of t h a t i n C e n t r a l America.  s u b j e c t s are, i n the main, under- or unemployed,  not f l u e n t i n E n g l i s h and unsupported by e i t h e r the community  Latin  welfare in  and  conflict  or  the  subsist with  community-at-large.  Most  the  criminal a c t i v i t i e s . i s ever  local  are  on  from month t o month. Many have been law  and  most,  i f not  a l l , are  r i s k ' i n b e i n g exposed t o c o n t a c t w i t h persons  acts  and  The  present.  temptation  In  a  engaged i n  t o engage i n  illegal  r e p o r t summary, prepared  W i l l i a m Smiley f o r the conference B r i t a n n i a School i n A p r i l 1989,  he  by  on L a t i n Youth, h e l d a t states:  The refugee c l a i m a n t s , u s u a l l y s i n g l e young men, have the h a r d e s t time adopting (sic). T h e i r u n c e r t a i n s t a t u s and l a c k of s e r v i c e s makes i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r them. Immigration p o l i c y t r e a t s these people as 'gate c r a s h e r s ' and g i v e s them a double message - 'you can come in but you are not welcome'. I f they are accepted as immigrants they do not even g e t the same m a t e r i a l support and language t r a i n i n g t h a t government chosen refugees r e c e i v e . They are treated as 'regular' Canadians and b a s i c a l l y l e f t t o fend f o r themselves. They are o f t e n alone, have l i t t l e or no E n g l i s h , a r e unemployed, and have had t r a u m a t i c p r e m i g r a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s . T h i s s u b - p o p u l a t i o n seems t o be most 'at r i s k ' and has the l e a s t r e s o u r c e s and s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e t o them....The h i g h e s t r i s k p o p u l a t i o n seemed t o be s i n g l e young men who have come t o Canada as refugee c l a i m a n t s . They do not even have the support of f a m i l y and  Page - 4  'at  f r i e n d s . These young men f a c e t h e added s t r e s s of w a i t i n g t o see i f they w i l l be deported o r allowed t o s t a y i n Canada. ( W i l l i a m Smiley, 1989) Difficulties further Their  with  isolated  them  treatment  at  language from  others  the  i n the  hands  Immigration  Canada,  frustration,  due t o t h e time  legal  has  and a c c u l t u r a t i o n  of  increased taken  have  neighbourhood.  Employment  their  and  anxiety  t o determine  and their  status. T h i s paper  will  d e a l w i t h t h e problems o f s u r v i v a l  f a c e d by those s i n g l e , male refugee c l a i m a n t s who a r r i v e d prior  to  America  January  1989  from  f o r t h e purpose  Central  of t h i s  America.  paper  will  Central be  those  c o u n t r i e s t h a t l i e between t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Panama. Mexico  i s n o t normally  does produce the Latin  but  " r e f u g e e s " and these a r e c o n s i d e r e d p a r t o f  r e f u g e e group  Vancouver.  I n January  regulations process.  i n c l u d e d i n C e n t r a l America  changed  This  aspect  These men range  currently awaiting processing i n 1989, t h e  with will  respect  Canadian  immigration  t o the determination  be d e a l t  with  i n Chapter  3.  i n age from under 20 t o over 40. I n many  cases they come from c o u n t r i e s i n which t h e r e has been o r still and  is civil  have l e f t  have p a r e n t s  and/or m i l i t a r y  u n r e s t . Some a r e m a r r i e d  f a m i l i e s behind w h i l e most a r e s i n g l e but and o t h e r r e l a t i v e s  i n their  home c o u n t r y .  Many send money back home t o support those l e f t  Page - 5  behind.  Because o f t h e backlog i n t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f r e f u g e e claimants,  (Employment  80,000 as o f January young  men  to  and Immigration  Canada  estimates  1989) i t takes many months f o r t h e s e  obtain  work  permits.  Social  assistance  s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e w i t h i n t h e f i r s t month a f t e r but  many  have  reported  difficulty  arrival,  i n obtaining  this  money. The p e r c e p t i o n o f many Canadians  i s t h a t t h e s e young  men a r e members o f " L a t i n o gangs" who p r e y are  i n v o l v e d i n drug  While  trafficking.  on women and  (Vancouver  Sun, 1989)  i t i s t r u e t h a t these gangs e x i s t and are, o r have  been, i d e n t i f i e d  w i t h drug  trafficking  and p r o s t i t u t i o n ,  t h e i r membership r a r e l y i n c l u d e s men from t h e group under review.  (The gang most commonly c i t e d i s mainly  Diablos,  composed  i n Vancouver,  o f youths  from  the  Los  Latin  American community who came t o Canada as a d o l e s c e n t s w i t h their  families,  attended  high  school  and  are  now  unemployed.) The  single  association  males  called  have,  Los  however,  Marianas.  This  formed  a  group  has  loose been  formed as a support system and as a means o f e s t a b l i s h i n g an  identity  seen  f o r these young men. The o n l y time  they a r e  as a group i s a t s o c c e r matches and o t h e r  sporting  events w i t h i n t h e L a t i n community. The  problems  faced  by  involve  the d i f f i c u l t i e s  foreign  country  t h e group of  day  to  and t h e f r u s t r a t i o n  Page - 6  under day  discussion  living  in a  of planning  for a  satisfactory jobs, the  life  language,  major The  many  areas  how  that  our  social  background  of the study  cope w i t h  their  the  paper  are  stem  from  will  that  briefly  Next,  i n  evolved  how  to  clear be  examine  i twill  Latin  examine and  the  claimants.  established,  deal with  a  can  situations  policy  has been  research  problems  on t h e refugee  the  these  young  men  situation.  Economic  success  i n a new  language  of  new  the  training  i s  claimants  succeed.  The  this  i n order  political  will  status  discussion of  of  This  policy  remainder  the  purpose  immigration  of this  Once t h i s  under  nature  and  and  Housing,  explored.  created refugees.  current  uncertainty.  o f t h e problem  the  have  repercussions  be  the  analysed.  economic,  America  will  i s  of  and  of  education  o f t h e group  the sources  obtained the  that  I t  understanding  climate  acculturation,  problems  sources.  examine  i n a  essential  question  Federal  Immigration  policy  assist  to  country. to  be  policy  single  country  This  ensure  asked and  male  means  that  i s : Does  these  the  the Provincial  Central  claimants?  Page  requires skills  - 7  American  that  i n ESL  refugee  current Education refugee  Chapter Two Review o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e While sponsored  much  material i s available  refugees,  claimants.  Within  little  has been  t h e academic  handful of writers  on Canadian  on  immigration  w r i t t e n about  world  there  immigration  and  refugee  are only  and  a  immigrants.  Most n o t a b l e among t h e s e a r e Freda Hawkins and G e r a l d D i r k s . Two  journalists,  specialized  Victor  Malarek  i n the f i e l d  and  and have  Reg  both  Whitaker,  have  w r i t t e n books and  a r t i c l e s on t h e s u b j e c t . Freda  Hawkins,  Immigration: Latin  Public  American  in  her  policy  refugees,  1988  book,  and p u b l i c  Canada  concerns,  and  mentions  i n p a s s i n g , as b e i n g p a r t o f t h e  group o f r e f u g e e s who make up 26.7% o f r e f u g e e s accepted by Quebec. T h i s group  includes large  speak French and a r e sought  numbers o f H a i t i a n s who  by t h i s p r o v i n c e - a l l o f these  are sponsored r e f u g e e s . Her o n l y comment on i l l e g a l has  t o do  with  the backlog  clearance  program  migrants and  this  i n c l u d e s a l l i l l e g a l migrants c u r r e n t l y s e e k i n g s t a t u s , n o t just Latin  Americans.  V i c t o r Malarek, following  i n h i s 1987 book, Haven Gate.  t o say about  refugee  c l a i m a n t s from  has t h e  E l Salvador  and Guatemala: On February 20, 1987, Mr Bouchard.... announced a series o f " a d m i n i s t r a t i v e measures" t o i n c r e a s e Canada's " a b i l i t y t o h e l p genuine r e f u g e e s who need our p r o t e c t i o n by d e t e r r i n g abuse o f t h e refugee d e t e r m i n a t i o n system." The most d r a s t i c move was an attempt t o shut  Page - 8  down the o v e r l a n d r o u t e through the U n i t e d S t a t e s used by refugee c l a i m a n t s from El Salvador and Guatemala, two r e f u g e e - p r o d u c i n g c o u n t r i e s t h a t the Canadian government had acknowledged t o be r i f e w i t h human r i g h t s v i o l a t i o n s . (Malarek, 1987, p.117) Mr. and  has  Malarek i s a w r i t e r f o r the Toronto Globe and M a i l been i t s immigration  expert s i n c e 1974.  His  style,  w h i l e somewhat s e n s a t i o n a l , i s backed up by s o l i d r e s e a r c h . Another author Double  i n the same v e i n i s Reg Whitaker,  Standard  was  published  in  1987.  whose book  Mr  Whitaker  r e s e a r c h e d and wrote h i s book w h i l e on a f e l l o w s h i p a t York U n i v e r s i t y . H i s book i s w e l l researched, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n h i s use  o f the  Freedom of  Information  r e g a r d i n g the f o r m u l a t i o n and immigration book  acts.  looking  regarding  Mr  for  covert  activities  and  implementation  Whitaker  motives  Act  spends  and  a  i t s revelations of t h e v a r i o u s  great  deal  conspiracies,  involving  the  of  the  especially  United  States'  C e n t r a l I n t e l l i g e n c e Agency (CIA). He does, however, i n c l u d e a s m a l l s e c t i o n on views  can  be  C e n t r a l American refugee  discerned  from  the  claimants. His  f o l l o w i n g quote  from  book: In t h e 1980's the main area of the world producing s o - c a l l e d " l e f t - w i n g " refugees i s C e n t r a l America. The U n i t e d S t a t e s , b a c k i n g right-wing dictatorships and opposing both l e f t - w i n g g u e r r i l l a movements and the leftwing governments of Cuba and Nicaragua,is v i r t u a l l y c l o s e d t o the people d i s p l a c e d by war and by c o u n t e r - i n s u r g e n c y d r i v e s under American t u t e l a g e . . . . A number of them have begun t o show up as refugee c l a i m a n t s a t t h e Canadian border. T h e i r f l i g h t t o Canada i s i n every sense a genuine refugee movement, s i n c e t h e U.S. government w i l l deport them t o t h e i r c o u n t r y of o r i g i n i f they are apprehended—and  Page - 9  his  in many cases t h a t means (Whitaker, 1987, p.295) Gerald circles  Dirks,  regarding  regarding  the  a  certain  recognized  migrants,  Canadian  death.  authority  supports Mr.  governments  in  academic  Whitakers  inability  to  views handle  r e f u g e e c l a i m a n t s from C e n t r a l America i n an honourable  way.  In an a r t i c l e i n the Canadian J o u r n a l o f P o l i c a l S c i e n c e , o f June 1984, he s t a t e s : R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e p r e v a i l i n g Immigration A c t , r e f u g e e s from L a t i n America have never been t h e r e c i p i e n t s o f as prompt o r as liberal treatment as i n d i v i d u a l s from such r e g i o n s as E a s t e r n Europe. T h i s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s has been, and c o n t i n u e s t o be, a t t r i b u t a b l e to, political, administrative and ideological c o n s i d e r a t i o n s on t h e p a r t o f v a r i o u s Canadian governments r a t h e r than t o any d i s c r i m i n a t o r y f e a t u r e s o f immigration l e g i s l a t i o n . (Dirks, 1984, p.297) G e r a l d D i r k s ' c l a s s i c , Canada's Refugee P o l i c y : or opportunism. w r i t t e n i n 1977, illegal  migrants and  Indifference  only very b r i e f l y  t h e s e a r e mainly Portuguese  mentions and  East  I n d i a n s . The r e c e n t exodus from C e n t r a l America had not got under  way  in  1977.  Subsequently,  j o u r n a l s , he has acknowledge little  to  the  general  i n various  articles  in  t h i s exodus but has c o n t r i b u t e d  store  of  knowledge.  In  1988  he  addressed t h e Refugee D e t e r m i n a t i o n Process i n h i s a r t i c l e , of  the  same  name,  i n the  Science. This a r t i c l e  Canadian  Journal  of  Political  d e a l s more w i t h the mechanism o f t h e  p r o c e s s r a t h e r than i t s impact on those w i t h i n t h e system. A  1987  University  book,  edited  o f Manitoba,  by  John  entitled  Page - 10  R.  Refugees:  Roggee "A  for  third  the  world  dilemma,  contains  Central  America.  impact  that  a  number  The  main  refugees  of  thrust  from  those  Mr.  refugees  who  of  on  these  Guatemala,  Salvador have on neighbouring of  essays  refugees essays  Nicaragua  from  is  the  and  El  c o u n t r i e s r a t h e r than on t h a t  attempt  the  Roggee i n t r o d u c e s the s e c t i o n  arduous t r e k t o  Canada.  ( s e c t i o n t h r e e ) on C e n t r a l  America by s a y i n g : Of a l l the world's r e f u g e e - g e n e r a t i n g areas, L a t i n America has p r o b a b l y r e c e i v e d the l e a s t attention from either the media or the academic community. Yet South and Central America,as w e l l as the Caribbean s t a t e s , have been adding t o the world refugee numbers f o r much of the p o s t war e r a . . . . Although UNHCR (United Nations High Commission on Refugees) acknowledges t h a t upward of 1 m i l l i o n people have been d i s p l a c e d d u r i n g the p a s t decade i n Central America, only around 120,000 had b e n e f i t t e d d i r e c t l y from the p r o t e c t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e of the agency by mid-1986 (Barton 1986). Nowhere e l s e around the world does such a wide d i s c r e p a n c y exist.(Rogge (Ed.), 1987, p.159) Rogge  goes  on  to  say  that  the  c o u n t r i e s a r e Guatemala, Nicaragua majority  of  neighbouring  these  countries'  major and  E l Salvador  refugees  countries, especially  refugee-producing  seek  Mexico and  does acknowledge t h a t a s m a l l percentage  and  the  refuge  in  Honduras.  He  seek r e s e t t l e m e n t  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada. He n e v e r - t h e - l e s s m a i n t a i n s that  "the  numerous  majority refugee  of  refugees  holding  camps  are or  being have  i n t e g r a t e d among urban and r u r a l communities." p.159)  Page - 11  maintained  in  spontaniously (Rogge,  1987,  Another and  Laila  Relations America.  collection  Monahan, has  One  a  of  essays,  entittled  few  e d i t e d by  Refugees  references  to  and  refugees  Gil  Loescher  International from  Central  o f the essays, by E l i z a b e t h F e r r i s , d e a l s w i t h  the "Sanctuary Movement" and i t s growth and involvement Central  American  Salvador.  Ronny  Sanctuary;  the  refugees, Golder  new  particularly  and  Michael  underground  railroad  those  from  McConnell's covers  with El  book,  this  area  e x t e n s i v e l y , but i t i s F e r r i s ' essay t h a t g i v e s the movement l e g i t i m a c y by showing t h a t i t i s one i n i t i a t e d by the world's churches Escape from in  the  internationally.  Violence: Conflict  developing  world  by  o f many such movements  Aristide  and S e r g i o Aguayo, p u b l i s h e d i n 1989,  and  the  refugee  crisis  Zolberg, A s t r i  Suhrke  c o n t a i n s the f o l l o w i n g  quote i n the p r e f a c e : Widely p e r c e i v e d as an unprecedented crisis, t h e number of refugees o r i g i n a t i n g i n the d e v e l o p i n g world s i n c e the 1970s has generated urgent concern throughout the West. Such concern i s an ambiguous mixture of compassion f o r the p l i g h t of the u n f o r t u n a t e who have been c a s t a d r i f t and of f e a r t h a t they w i l l come p o u r i n g i n . But not o n l y does t h a t f e a r c o n s t a n t l y t h r e a t e n t o undermine the e x e r c i s e of compassion, i t a l s o shows t h a t t h e a f f l u e n t c o u n t r i e s of the West w i l l n e i t h e r admit a l l who seek e n t r y nor g i v e s u f f i c i e n t r e l i e f t o those who f i n d havens i n the d e v e l o p i n g world i t s e l f . T h i s i s e q u a l l y t r u e of n e i g h b o u r i n g c o u n t r i e s i n A s i a , A f r i c a and L a t i n America, which bear the brunt of the c r i s i s . ( Z o l b e r g , Suhrke & Aguayo, 1989, p . i ) This first  book  includes  chapter  two  (chapter 7)  chapters  on  C e n t r a l America.  d e a l s w i t h the g e n e r a l  Page - 12  The  situation  and  goes on t o d i s c u s s the s i t u a t i o n i n Cuba and  second o f t h e s e chapters  (chapter and  Haiti.  The  8) d e a l s e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h  Guatemala,  E l Salvador  Nicaragua.  The  writing  i s well  researched  and t r i e s t o step c a r e f u l l y through the m i n e f i e l d  of both p o l i t i c a l and economic r e a l i t i e s . In one decade, s o c i a l c o n f l i c t i n Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Guatemala has displaced between two and t h r e e m i l l i o n people, almost entirely from the poorest sectors of the p o p u l a t i o n . . . . ( a s in) p r e v i o u s cases. We must take into consideration conditions in the c o u n t r i e s of o r i g i n and r e c e p t i o n ; t h e r e i s a clear involvement of societies and international organizations i n debate about the d i s p l a c e d ; and t h e r e i s a tendency t o use the displaced as pawns in the c o n f l i c t . . . . T h e s e v a r i a b l e s are particularly c l e a r i n C e n t r a l America because the d i s p l a c e d come from two c o u n t r i e s r u l e d by rightist f o r c e s ( E l Salvador and Guatemala) and one by a leftist coalition (Nicaragua). (Zolberg, Suhrke & Aguayo, 1989, p.211) Zolberg  et  al  include  an  interesting table  in their  book  t h a t shows where the d i s p l a c e d from C e n t r a l America move t o . T h i s t a b l e shows t h a t the v a s t m a j o r i t y refugees and  seek asylum i n neighbouring  a h a l f m i l l i o n refugees  have sought r e f u g e these the m a j o r i t y Only 1987.  5,317  the  o n l y one  (95%)  have sought out the U n i t e d to  the  that  of  States.  Canada. These f i g u r e s are  change  one  third  i n c o u n t r i e s o u t s i d e of the r e g i o n and  have migrated  illustrate  c o u n t r i e s . Of  from E l Salvador  (Zolberg, Suhrke & Aguayo, 1989, To  of C e n t r a l American  for  p.212) has  occurred  in  the  movement of peoples w i t h i n the l a s t decade i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g  Page - 13  to  compare  t h e f o l l o w i n g quote  from  The  Organization of  American S t a t e s (OAS) w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s o f Z o l b e r g e t a l . Throughout t h e h i s t o r y o f L a t i n America t h e r e has....been a significant, i f not large, number o f L a t i n American n a t i o n a l s who have t e m p o r a r i l y moved i n t o e x i l e f o r p o l i t i c a l reasons....The p o l i t i c a l e x i l e s o f y e a r s p a s t flowed r a t h e r e a s i l y i n t o t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g L a t i n c o u n t r i e s where c u l t u r e , t r a d i t i o n and language posed few barriers: futhermore, politcal exiles have f r e q u e n t l y been t h e wealthier elements, and have not become burdens on t h e economy o f t h e a b s o r b i n g s t a t e . ( O r g a n i z a t i o n o f American S t a t e s , 1965, p . l ) S i n c e t h e 1970s, t h e r e has been a d r a s t i c appearance o f l a r g e i n t e r n a t i o n a l claim  refugee  markedly States  from  p o p u l a t i o n movements  s t a t u s and whose s o c i a l that  found  change w i t h t h e  composition  by t h e O r g a n i z a t i o n  who  differs  o f American  (OAS). The massive outflow from Cuba and l a t e r , C h i l e , Nicaragua, E l Salvador, and Guatemala severly strained existing legal codes and prompted a call by the Organization of American S t a t e s (OAS) f o r more members t o accept t h e somewhat broader o b l i g a t i o n s o f t h e U.N. c o n v e n t i o n and t o adopt i t s language i n national legislation. (Zolberg, Suhrke & Aguayo, 1989, p.28)  T h i s s h i f t i n t h e type o f refugee c l a i m a n t from C e n t r a l America  has c r e a t e d  i n the r e c e i v i n g  r e t h i n k i n g about refugees and t h e i r The causes  countries a  drastic  acceptance.  above p u b l i c a t i o n s have g e n e r a l l y d e a l t  f o r i n v o l u n t a r y movements o f people.  with the  The next  area  t h a t i s o f r e l e v a n c e t o t h i s study i s t h e area o f r e c e p t i o n and a c c u l t u r a t i o n i n Canada.  Page - 14  In are  t h e area o f r e c e p t i o n ,  government  Commission  publications;  Reports,  the most such  Employment  as  author i t i v e the  and  works  various  Immigration  Royal Canada  r e p o r t s , and S t a t i s t i c s Canada r e p o r t s . These g i v e the f a c t s and f i g u r e s about the people i n v o l v e d , but add l i t t l e  t o an  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the r e a l i t y t h a t these people f a c e i n t h e i r new  role.  Annual These  Examples  of  this  type  Reports t o P a r l i a m e n t on  of  publication  Future Immigration  r e p o r t s a r e i s s u e d each year and  r e f u g e e s t h a t Canada w i l l  are  the  Levels.  s t a t e t h e number o f  accept i n a g i v e n year from  each  r e f u g e e - p r o d u c i n g a r e a . They do not, r e f e r t o o r i n c l u d e the number  of  r e f u g e e c l a i m a n t s who  doorstep.  For  instance,  allowable/estimated f o l l o w i n g year was  will  in  refugees  turn  1986,  from  refugees  (Employment  & Immigration  the  Latin  landings  the  that  would  be  same  Canada, 1986,  time,  (application  Board  Determination  setting  at  (RSAC),  Board  quota o r c e i l i n g ,  the  a  p.13).  significance  for  of the  border  since  (IDB).  or  sponsored  i s the P e r s p e c t i v e s on  Page - 15  as  figure  but an e s t i m a t e based  government  Canada.  In the  1987  of  2,000  within  for  Canada).  by t h e Refugee S t a t u s  known  "This  by  s e t a t 3,400 f o r  figure  (Employment & Immigration Canada, 1987, Another  number  accepted  (These persons were t o be determined Advisary  Canada's  America  r e p o r t , t h e f i g u r e f o r C e n t r a l America was at  on  s e t t o be 3,200 out o f a t o t a l o f 12,000  world-wide  1988,  up  the i s not  Immigration a  target,  on c u r r e n t t r e n d s " p.11). report  Immigration  of  some  i n Canada.  Final  Report,  prepared  Immigration  Advisory  publication  looked  by  the  Canadian  Council at  how  in  we,  Employment  August as  1988.  Canadians,  and This  viewed  immigrants and r e f u g e e s . I t s f i n d i n g s are somewhat c o n f u s i n g but  give  the  general  the b e n e f i t s of new  impression immigrants,  that, while  Canadians  see  they would r a t h e r they  did  not s e t t l e i n t h e i r communities and take t h e i r same  time,  refugees, Southern this  citizens but  only  Europe).  felt from  The  for  terms,  the  States  or  refugees  specific  also from  Mexico.  skills  should  countries  mixed, Central  media p r e f e r r e d t h a t they The  report  recomendations. I f Canada was prepared  Canada  for  take  stayed  included  in  expressing political  i n the a  United  number  of  t o accept r e f u g e e s , we must be  t o g i v e them adequate language t r a i n i n g  t o be  and  (explored i n  while  America  the more  (Eastern  p e r c e p t i o n s of the media  p u b l i c a t i o n ) were  sympathy  that  jobs. At  and  enough  s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t . Other recomendations of  r e a d as f o l l o w s : That the government take the following measures w i t h r e g a r d t o the l e g i s l a t i o n on r e f u g e e s r e c e n t l y passed by p a r l i a m e n t : a) E s t a b l i s h a comprehensive s e t t l e m e n t f o r all current refugee claimants to ensure harmonious implementation of a l l p r o v i s i o n s c o n t a i n e d i n the new l e g i s l a t i o n . b) Ensure t h a t the appeal system....respect the s p i r i t and the l e t t e r of the Canadian Charter of R i g h t s and Freedoms. (Canadian Employment and Immigration A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l , 1988, p.12)  Page - 16  note  An  interesting,  publication  i s the  but  Aspects  now of  absorption  immigrants w r i t t e n by Antony H. of  Manpower and  Immigration  outdated,  government  and  adaption  H o l l a n d f o r the  i n 1974.  In  of  Department  i t s conclusion i t  made the f o l l o w i n g statement: Many immigrants experience some d e c l i n e i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s of t h e i r f i r s t j o b i n Canada compared with that i n the former c o u n t r y . Some e v e n t u a l l y r e c o v e r or improve upon their former position although not n e c e s s a r i l y i n the type of employment t h a t they had intended t o pursue i n Canada. Acculturation, as measured by use of an o f f i c i a l language and knowledge of Canadian symbols, i n s t i t u t i o n s and p e r s o n a l i t i e s , was governed by e d u c a t i o n and l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e . Less w e l l educated immigrants r e l i e d more h e a v i l y on a v a r i e t y of l o c a l s o c i a l and commercial f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e i r own language and were more dependent on e t h n i c p r e s s and radio. F i n a l l y , there i s a minority of alienated immigrants whose f a i l u r e to obtain steady employment a t a l e v e l commensurate w i t h t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s combined w i t h s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n and l a c k of a c c u l t u r a t i o n generate deep s e a t e d d i s a t i s f a c t i o n and s t r e s s . (Richmond, 1974, p.47) By had  1984,  Mr  Richmond, who  published  Today  journal  conflicts  in  an  c o n t i n u e d t o study  article entitled  in  the  adaptions  countries"  in  which  stated: The immigrant a d a p t i o n p r o c e s s i s i n f l u e n c e d by p r e - m i g r a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s , the t r a n s i t i o n a l experience i n moving from one country to another, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the migrants themselves and c o n d i t i o n s i n the receiving country, i n c l u d i n g government p o l i c i e s and economic f a c t o r s . Other important determinants  Page - 17  area,  International Migration  "Socio-cultural  immigrant-receiving  in this  and he  i n c l u d e age of a r r i v a l i n new country, t h e e d u c a t i o n and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f the immigrants concerned, t h e i r degree of exposure t o t h e mass media, i n c l u d i n g e t h n i c newspapers, r a d i o and television, and the types of social network e n t e r e d i n t o i n the r e c e i v i n g c o u n t r y . The p r o c e s s of a d a p t i o n i s m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l i n which a c c u l t u r a t i o n i n t e r a c t s w i t h economic a d a p t i o n , s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n , s a t i s f a c t i o n and degree of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the new c o u n t r y . (Richmond, 1984, p.110) These  later  assumptions  statements put  forth  where a c c u l t u r a t i o n was Canada  and  are in  the  a  far 1974  cry  from  the  government  publication  measured by a person's  i t s institutions,  r a t h e r than  by  earlier  knowledge of how  well  the  person coped w i t h i n the r e c e i v i n g country. On  education  h i s 1984  and  work o p p o r t u n i t i e s , Mr  Richmond,  in  a r t i c l e , had the f o l l o w i n g comments:  For o l d e r immigrants l e a r n i n g a new language and o t h e r a s p e c t s of a c c u l t u r a t i o n may p r e s e n t more formidable obsticles....Sometimes.... c l a s s are open o n l y t o government-sponsored migrants. Probably, e d u c a t i o n , more then ( s i c ) any o t h e r s i n g l e f a c t o r , e x p l a i n s the degree and e x t e n t of subsequent s o c i o - c u l t u r a l a d a p t i o n , and the p r e c i s e form t h a t the a d a p t i o n t a k e s . Ease of access t o e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the receiving country has an important i n f l u e n c e on the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l a d a p t i o n of immigrants.... F a i l u r e to provide such f a c i l i t i e s or t o a s s i s t i n the c o s t of f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n by governments or employers, l e a d t o t h e u n d e r u t i l i z a t i o n of immigrant s k i l l s and abilities, as well as frustration and disillusionment on the p a r t of immigrants themselves. In modern societies, a high degree of l i t e r a c y , as w e l l as o r a l f l u e n c y , i s needed by a l l those s e e k i n g employment i n o t h e r than u n s k i l l e d work. (Richmond, 1984, p.113) In  c o n c l u s i o n Richmond  stated that  "social,  cultural  e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s are needed t h a t w i l l ensure  Page - 18  and  integration  within  the  context  of  multicultural society"  a  genuinely  (Richmond, 1984,  polyethnic  and  p.122).  A study by A l e x S t e p i c k and A l e j a n d r o P o r t e s on H a i t i a n refugees  in  Florida  acculturation  found  were  that  lack  the  of  language  g h e t t o i s a t i o n of the refugees and to  meet  English-speaking  greatest  in  refugees  from  backlash  has  much  Americans  prejudice  the  English  been  reported  American and A f r i c a n  skills,  to the  the l a c k of o p p o r t u n i t i e s (Stepick  1986) . They a l s o found t h a t t h e r e was resulted  barriers  that  Portes,  r a c i a l backlash that further  speaking in  and  isolated  locals.  Canada  the  A  similar  against  Central  refugees.  In c i t i e s whose p r o s p e r i t y has a t t r a c t e d t h e largest share of immigrants notably Montreal, Vancouver and Toronto - the s h i f t i n g c o l o u r b a l a c e of s o c i e t y has a l r e a d y spawned outbreaks of open r a c i s m . . . ( i n consequence) Ottawa has acted to stem the flow of i l l e g i t i m a t e r e f u g e e s , by, among o t h e r t h i n g s , tightening i t s refugee-screening proceedures. (Maclean's Magazine, 1989, p.15) In c o n c l u s i o n , i t can refugees  from  academics and of any studies the  one  It  has  the media, i t has  study.  of  seen t h a t w h i l e the  America  Rather,  Canada's  i s hoped  other  this  been  of  neglected  by  been a f o o t n o t e t o  immigration  that  not  study  not been made a major p a r t  i t has  t h a t have d e a l t w i t h  impact  groups.  Central  be  groups o f migrants policy  reseach  t h i s neglected area.  Page - 19  other  will  on  these  and other  contribute  to  Chapter Three Although the major focus of t h i s r e s e a r c h r e c e p t i o n and  i s the  coping mechanisms of the r e f u g e e c l a i m a n t s i t  i s important t o understand the f o r c e s t h a t have shaped t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n s  p r i o r to  arrival.  T h i s background i s i n c l u d e d t o enable the r e a d e r t o understand the p o l i t i c a l and i n shaping p a s t and  s o c i a l f o r c e s t h a t are a t work  c u r r e n t s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n s  i n C e n t r a l America. These f o r c e s have been i n s t r u m e n t a l the c r e a t i o n of r e f u g e e s and  in  are thus germane t o t h i s  discussion.  A P r o f i l e of C e n t r a l America Why  does  America  has  Central  America  produce  refugees?  always been a b a t t l e ground  of  Central  cultures.  This  narrow neck of t r o p i c a l j u n g l e which l i e s between North South America before  the  was  the  arrival  migrations  from  under p r e s s u r e  meeting p l a c e  of  Asia  from  Columbus. during  the  between  cultures  Beginning  with  ice  nomadic  age,  s u c c e s s i v e waves of new  the  and long  early  groups,  a r r i v a l s i n the  n o r t h , moved south t o C e n t r a l America where they were f o r c e d by  geography t o form i n t o cohesive  protection. had the  As  each,  new  wave, occured  t o be f o r g e d f o r s u r v i v a l . The 16th  economic  century structure  changed of  societies for their  the  the  Page -  new  allegiances  a r r i v a l of the Spanish i n  whole  area.  so  own  The  20  cultural,  social  and  Europeans c u l t u r e  was  superimposed c u l t u r e with  on  the  existing  i t s class,  cultures  and  the  resultant  c o l o u r and l i n i a g e s t r u c t u r e became  dominant. S h o r t l y a f t e r t h e American War o f Independence the colonies  within  Central  America,  including  Mexico,  were  encouraged t o throw o f f t h e European yoke, and d i d so, o f t e n with  the  help  of  the  United  States.  r e c i p r o c a t e d by a l l o w i n g c e r t a i n U n i t e d  This  States  aid  was  interests to  become i n v o l v e d i n C e n t r a l America. The U n i t e d  S t a t e s ' Monroe D o c t r i n e  of t h i s c o n f l i c t which has allowed business  has been t h e  fulcrum  t h e U. S. government  t o e x p l o i t and dominate C e n t r a l America.  The Monroe D o c t r i n e  (December  2, 1823) s t a t e s i n p a r t :  ".. a p r i n c i p l e i n which t h e r i g h t s and i n t e r e s t s of the United States are involved, that the American continents, by the free and independent c o n d i t i o n which they have assumed and m a i n t a i n , a r e h e n c e f o r t h not t o be c o n s i d e r e d as s u b j e c t s f o r f u t u r e c o l o n i z a t i o n by any European powers. '• In 1904, t h i s d o c t r i n e was added t o by P r e s i d e n t  Theodore  Roosevelt: "Chronic wrongdoing o r an impotence which r e s u l t s i n a general loosening of the t i e s of c i v i l i z e d s o c i e t y , may i n America, as elsewhere, u l t i m a t e l y r e q u i r e i n t e r v e n t i o n by some c i v i l i z e d nation, and i n the Western Hemisphere the adherence o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o t h e Monroe d o c t r i n e may force the United S t a t e s , however r e l u c t a n t l y , i n f l a g r a n t cases o f such wrongdoing or impotence, t o t h e e x e r c i s e of an i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o l i c e power."  Page - 21  and  In 1912,  P r e s i d e n t W i l l i a m T a f t added t h i s c o d i c i l t o the  nation's diplomatic arsenal: "The day i s not f a r d i s t a n t when t h r e e s t a r s and s t r i p e s a t t h r e e e q u i d i s t a n t p o i n t s w i l l mark our t e r r i t o r i e s : One on the North Pole, another a t the Panama Canal and the t h i r d a t the South P o l e . The whole hemisphere w i l l be ours i n f a c t , as by v i r t u e of s u p e r i o r i t y of r a c e , i t a l r e a d y i s ours m o r a l l y . " To these remarkable statements of p o l i c y can be added the U.S.  S t a t e Department memorandum of  1927:  "We do c o n t r o l the d e s t i n i e s of C e n t r a l America and we do so f o r the simple reason t h a t the n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t a b s o l u t e l y d i c t a t e s such a c o u r s e . . . . U n t i l now C e n t r a l America has always understood t h a t governments which we r e c o g n i z e and support s t a y i n power, w h i l e those we do not r e c o g n i z e and support f a l l . " Finally,  i n 1947,  P r e s i d e n t Truman s a i d the U n i t e d  States  would: " support f r e e peoples who are r e s i s t i n g attempted s u b j u g a t i o n by armed m i n o r i t i e s or by outside pressure." These measures  set  C e n t r a l America s i n c e and  the P a c i f i c over,  firmly maintain  entrenched  on  and a  f o r what  happened  I I . With the war  the U n i t e d war  has  economy,  States' prosperity i t was  by  now  e s s e n t i a l to  attempt t o r e t u r n t o the n e u t r a l  machine r o l l e d on. The the  in  i n Europe  would have slowed down the U n i t e d  economy, and so the war followed  stage  World War  t h i s momentum. Any  days p r i o r t o 1941  Europe,  the  conflicts  Page - 22  i n Korea  States  "Cold War" and  in  Vietnam,  ensured and  a  continuation  of  America,  minor  South  engineered  by  the  multinational region. Cuba,  The  this  United  wars  States  corporations, emergence  backed  by  of  Russia  economic model. and on  Castro's ans  of  their  ensured  a  often  U.S.-based  hold  "communist"  China,  Central  skirmishes,  behalf  ensured  In  over  the  regime  in  continuing  i n t e r e s t i n C e n t r a l and South America. Rosemary Radford Ruether, i n a forward  t o Renny Golden's  and M i c h a e l McConnell's book, Sanctuary: The New R a i l r o a d , has  t h i s t o say  about the U n i t e d  Underground  States' role  in  the " T h i r d World" and more s p e c i f i c a l l y i n C e n t r a l America: Since the Second World War, (the U n i t e d S t a t e s ) has developed a permanent war economy. The purpose o f t h i s war economy i s t o m a i n t a i n U.S. c o n t r o l throughout the world i n defense of the Western Empire and i t s a b i l i t y t o use cheap l a b o u r and r e s o u r c e s of former c o l o n i z e d r e g i o n s of the planet. This war economy pursues military e s c a l a t i o n i n the two spheres where i t p e r c e i v e s t h i s c o n t r o l t o be t h r e a t e n e d — the n u c l e a r arms r a c e w i t h the U.S.S.R., l e a d e r of the second world, and counter r e v o l u t i o n a r y r e p r e s s i o n i n the t h i r d world. Much o f the war a g a i n s t the t h i r d world i s c a r r i e d out through s u r r o g a t e armies maintained by m i l i t a r y e l i t e s whose power the U.S. funds w i t h i n those t h i r d world s t a t e s . . . . the prime area of such r e p r e s s i v e c o n t r o l , backed up by local militia and at times, direct military i n t e r v e n t i o n by the U.S., i s C e n t r a l America, seven t i n y s t a t e s , w i t h a combined p o p u l a t i o n of l e s s than 25 m i l l i o n , t h a t form the "bridge" between North and South America. (Golden,R. & McConnell.M., 1986, Foreward ( v i ) ) The are  problems f a c e d by C e n t r a l America d u r i n g t h i s  similar  during  the  to  those  post  war  restructuring  of  faced  by  period.  global  the Since  power,  Page - 23  other World the  emerging War  vast  II  period nations  and  the  majority  of  voluntary  migrations  countries.  The  boundaries,  as  emergence o f  have  involved  subsequent Europe  people  released  its  United  States  world's p o l i t i c a l  stage,  changed the  most  developing  resources  were  countries  readily  Military  spending,  economic  mismanagement  benefited  those  number  of  i t s c i t i z e n s . The  they  sought  major  scarce for  short  this  the  This  their the  not  rarely  insecurity countries  decreasing  the  expansion  increased  the  only  overgenerosity  i n the  previous  1980's f o r c e d t o d i c t a t e d r a s t i c  to  feed  and  with  cloths  increased  their  the  nations, internal  "westernize".  further  two  decades, were, i n  a u s t e r i t y programs i n  e f f e c t o f these programs i n v a r i a b l y has  f a l l e n on the lower middle c l a s s and a  and  and  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Monetary Fund and the World Bank, a f t e r  the T h i r d World. The  to  projects  i n c u r r e d by the d e v e l o p i n g  cope  gains.  by  problems, but a l s o w i t h t h e i r attempts t o The  term  wealth  o i l c r i s i s of the s e v e n t i e s  to  the  producing  i n many t h i r d world population,  the  everywhere.  revenue  development that  and  f o r c e on  s t a t u s quo  beyond i t s a b i l i t y  massive debt l o a d b e i n g as  the  ensured  deaths.  countries population  national  i n need. Mass p o v e r t y  enlarged  infant  of  colonies,  the  exported  increased. Better h e a l t h care (India,Africa)  as  inappropriate  most  developing  reorganising  the  In  from  deterioration  of  the poor. T h i s has  their  already  led  precarious  situation. T h i s economic c r i s i s has exacerbated even more raw  m a t e r i a l s t o the  industrial  Page - 24  the demand t o s e l l nations,  and  has  led to ecological disaster  i n many p a r t s of t h e d e v e l o p i n g  world. D e f o r e s t a t i o n , d e s e r t i f i c a t i o n , water  and  problems,  drought  have  exacted  p o l l u t i o n o f a i r and  their  added t o those of governmental  many cases i n C e n t r a l America,  toll.  All  these  i n s t a b i l i t y , or, i n  m i l i t a r y r u l e , have l e d t o a  mass displacement of persons. Mass displacement has become a t r u l y g l o b a l phenomenon. Many of those uprooted i n the d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s have made t h e i r way t o the i n d u s t r i a l i s e d s t a t e s , o n l y t o be c o n f r o n t e d by f u r t h e r s o c i a l and economic c r i s i s . Here r e c e s s i o n and r i s i n g unemployment have l e d t o new waves o f p o p u l a r xenophobia. M i g r a n t s are i n c r e a s i n g l y s u b j e c t t o harassment. (Sadruddin Aga Khan and Hassan B i n T a l a l , 1986. Foreward). In  Central  America,  the  presence  juntas,  of m i l i t a r y  death squads and r e v o l u t i o n a r y wars have l e d t o mass t r a n s border m i g r a t i o n s . These m i g r a t i o n s have o f t e n brought temporary  relief  as the new  been a t c o n f l i c t two  decades  itself.  only  host country has  was  mainly  Mexico  economic  i n Central  economic factors  and  Costa  America,  such  as  wage  and  unoccupied  areas.  1980,  economic 175,000  Since has  migrants. refugees  until  i n n a t u r e . People  opportunities  and  Rica  It from  have  not  last been  strife.  employment  drastically  often  During the l a t e r p a r t of the  i n v o l v e d i n 'open' i n t e r n a l Migration  a l l too  only  been  late  rural  i s estimated neighbouring  has  refugees (1985)  for  increased  settlement  migration  mainly  1970's,  moved p r i m a r i l y  differences,  the  Page - 25  the  of  increased  rather  than  that  there  are  countries  living  in  Central  America,  excluding  c o n t r i b u t e another  Panama.  Panama  Mexico  175,000, b r i n g i n g t h e e s t i m a t e d t o t a l t o  350,000 f o r Mexico and C e n t r a l America.  E.  and  Torres-Rivas  presented  the  ( T o r r e s - R i v a s , 1985)  following  data  about  refugees w i t h i n the region : Receiving country  Country o f o r i g i n El Salvador 120.000 70,000 17,500 19,000 10,000  Mexico Guatamala Nicaragua Honduras Costa R i c a Belize/ Panama Total  500 1,000 1,000  19,200 25,000  2,700  Total 175,000 70,000 18,500 39,200 38,700  5,500 63,000  44,200  3,200  8,500 349,900  Guatamala Nicaragua 55,000  3,000 239,000  Other 500  (Torres-Rivas,1985) The r e c e i v i n g c o u n t r i e s i n C e n t r a l America hard  put  massive,  to  influx  themselves yet the  with  undergoing  needs  of  this  sudden,  o f r e f u g e e s . Many  have attempted  attempted the  deal  economic  t o adopt  the  crisis  In  retaliatory  because raids  these  o r have  brought  countries are strife  and programs t o meet  many  refugees  cases  and i n t e r n a l  cases,  t o move t h e r e f u g e e s t o s p e c i a l  borders  i n some  of these  policies  refugees.  and  have been  they  camps away  are often the host  have from  subject to  country  into  i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i s p u t e by b e i n g accused o f h a r b o u r i n g r e b e l s and o f encouraging t h e i r The  Central  American  activities. debt  amounts t o some  $21  billion  (1985) o r a debt, p e r c a p i t a , o f $750. A t t h e same time t h e  Page - 26  GNP  has d e c l i n e d i n a l l of C e n t r a l America,  Rica,  the most s t a b l e and  region.  (World Bank, 1986)  material  aid  the  These f a c t o r s have prevented b e i n g a b l e t o supply t h e refugees  require.  s e t t l e m e n t programs have been inadequate out  and  mass  resulted.  refugees to The  among  the  dissatisfaction  of  the  thought  refugees  has  migrate t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s of  i n the  Simpson/Mazzoli  of  support  or p o o r l y  caused  has many  America.  border has made i t i n c r e a s i n g l y hard  remain  1985.  resultant  Many  the  s t r i c t r e g u l a t i o n s and the i n c r e a s e d s u r v e i l l a n c e  the U.S. to  dissatisfaction  This  Costa  l e a s t debt r i d d e n c o u n t r y i n the  Governments i n v o l v e d from and  including,  lower  Bill  U.S.  states,  of 1982  immigration  making  the  laws by  penalties  p r o h i b i t i v e l y expensive These  measures  these d i s p l a c e d them have f l e d  people  p r o v i d i n g more  for  the  for  Bill  the of  enforcement  funding  hiring  of  and  by  illegals  (up t o $10,000 per o f f e n c e ) . have  ensured  into  a  steady  Canada as  the  and  trickle  of  r e f u g e e s . Many of  w i t h no c l e a r d e s t i n a t i o n  unprepared  since  t o s t r e n g t h e n the  f o l l o w e d the normal channels, border  especially  illegals  and the Rodino/Mazzoli  These B i l l s have sought  the  for  of  i n mind, have not  have a r r i v e d  determination  a t Canada's  ordeal  that  now  c o n f r o n t s them. For  Canada,  domineering Until  1973,  identity  stance  the in  United the  States'  intentions  were  little  south  our primary concern was  from  our  powerful  concern.  maintaining a separate  southern  Page - 27  of  and  neighbour.  Canada,  because o f i t s l a c k o f p o p u l a t i o n and s o v e r e i g n t y , r e t a i n e d a  low p r o f i l e  Trudeau  on t h e world  years  scene. T h i s changed d u r i n g t h e  (1968-1979,1980-1984)  as t h e then  prime  m i n i s t e r sought n o t o n l y t o r e p a t r i a t e t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n b u t also  t o become a l e a d e r  and spokesman f o r t h e non-aligned  (those n a t i o n s p e r c e i v e d t o be n e i t h e r p a r t o f t h e communist block  nor p a r t  o f t h e North A t l a n t i c  Treaty  Organisation,  (NATO). Canada  had u n t i l  t h e 1970's  immigrants o r refugees c o n t a c t w i t h refugees C h i l e a n s . Although  almost  no c o n t a c t  with  from C e n t r a l America. Canada's  first  from south o f the Rio Grande was w i t h  this  i n c i d e n t i s n o t w i t h i n the  of t h i s r e s e a r c h i t i l l u s t r a t e s the b i a s a g a i n s t and refugees On  a s s i s t a n c e and a p p r o v a l staged a coup  d'etat,  President,  t h e C h i l e a n armed f o r c e s w i t h t h e  o f t h e CIA (Whitaker,  1987,  with  foundations  p.134),  o u s t i n g and then e x e c u t i n g the  Salvador  Allende. Allende  i t s mandate  from  t h e people,  freely  represented a  l e f t wing c o a l i t i o n known as the "Popular U n i t y " P.U.,  immigrants  from the r e g i o n .  September 11, 1973,  elected  province  (P.U.). The  challenged the  o f t h e r u l i n g c l a s s by c o n t r o l l i n g an important  element o f the s t a t e , the e x e c u t i v e power. I n s o doing,  they  s e r i o u s l y t h r e a t e n e d the w e l l b e i n g and c a p i t a l o f many l a r g e multinational Copper,  corporations  I.T.&T.,  operating  and Kennecot  i n Chile  Copper).  (Dirks.G., 1977  p.244; Whitaker. R., 1987 p.254; G i l b e r t & Lee, 124)  For t h e United  States,  a coup  Page - 28  (Anaconda  d'etat  1986 p.123  -  was t h e o n l y  logical  solution,  and  in  view  of  the  Monroe  Doctrine,  e s s e n t i a l t o m a i n t a i n i t s r o l e as the major powerbroker i n t h e Americas. A f t e r the coup Santiago was the  swamped by people  C h i l e a n army  swiftly  the Canadian  d'etat,  embassy i n  seeking p o l i t i c a l  retaliated  asylum  a g a i n s t the  members by rounding up a l l A l l e n d e ' s prominent and p l a c i n g them under a r r e s t pending  trials  as  coalition  sympathizers, and e x e c u t i o n .  F o r e i g n embassies were soon crowded by r e f u g e e s f e a r i n g f o r their  safety.  initially  Canada's  responce  to  the  situation  was  slow.  By the end of December, 1973, Canadian officials had received approximately 1,400 a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r immigration t o Canada but o n l y 184 had been approved. ( D i r k s , 1977 p.248) Despite Churches,  a  i t was  established called  major  "The  a  by  not u n t i l 1974 special  the  Canadian  in their  had  immigration  1986  Canada, have the  registered article,  following  Council  t h a t the Canadian program  S p e c i a l C h i l e a n Movement". By  6,225 r e f u g e e s Lee,  effort  i n the Latin  the end  American  postscript  government  for  program.  Chileans of  Gilbert  section  the S p e c i a l C h i l e a n Movement: Evidence suggests that the Canadian Government d e l i b e r a t e l y slowed down the p r o c e s s of a c c e p t i n g t h i s group of r e f u g e e s . T h i s became apparent when the program of C h i l e a n r e f u g e e s i s compared w i t h t h a t i n v o l v i n g the Hungarians in 1956, the C z e c k o s l o v a k i a n s i n 1968 and the Ugandan A s i a n s i n 1972....in g e n e r a l terms, i t i s l o g i c a l and understandable t h a t c o u n t r i e s l i k e Canada have more sympathy f o r r e f u g e e s from c e r t a i n r e g i o n s . However, i t i s a l s o l o g i c a l t o conclude t h a t t h e  Page - 29  1978,  Immigration  to their  of  and to on  creation of refugee programs was politically m o t i v a t e d . Human compassion seems t o be o f l e s s importance when d e c i d i n g the f a t e of refugees. ( G i l b e r t & Lee, 1986 p. 125 - 126) The  c o n d i t i o n s t h a t have l e a d t o the c r e a t i o n of r e f u g e e s  i n C e n t r a l America are p r i m a r i l y due  t o the  instability  the r e g i o n , which are the d i r e c t r e s u l t o f two -  economics  and  politics.  In  i n c l u d i n g Mexico, the power and  all  of  of  major f a c t o r s  Central  America,  the wealth of the  states i s  h e l d i n the hands of a s m a l l , i n t e r - r e l a t e d group o f  elites.  The  descent  elites  are,  whose f a m i l y  more o f t e n  have been  than  i n Central  days of the European occupation and  of  European  America  and  and  country  control  85%  of  a l l the  h o l d and  i n Guatemala, 3% h o l d and 1989,  p.41);  Anastasio (Walker,  fled  in  1987,  in  p.56). some land  when Somoza  and  to  held  the  left  vacant  by  power, but not  (Salvaide,  and  then  l a n d , power and wealth i s s t i l l  countries  only  small  a  wealthy,  the  i s not  evenly  percentage majority  of  are  poor  Page -  and  30  the  1988);  controlled Sandinistas  wealthy the  of 90% have  landowners  d i s t r i b u t i o n of  equitable.  d i s t r i b u t e d . As  each  in  overthrow  In most of C e n t r a l America the wealth and p r o p e r t y various  land  population  wealth  the  Since  lost  early  (ICCHRLA Annual Report  prior 8%  the  p.22). In E l Salvador,  c o n t r o l 65%  1979,  of the  c o n t r o l 60%  Nicaragua,  Somoza  redistributed who  land  (World Bank S t a f f , June 1980,  of the p o p u l a t i o n  since  c o n t r o l most of the  f i n a n c e i n the c o u n t r y . In Mexico, 16%  hold  2%  not,  country's subsist  of  noted above  citizens on  the  are  e i t h e r poor  landholdings  o r a t low p a y i n g jobs  i n both r u r a l  and urban  settings. The  middle c l a s s , where i t e x i s t s , i s d i v i d e d  disparate  groups.  The f i r s t  such  doctors,  lawyers,  as  servants,  i s composed engineers  elite  and  professionals senior  civil  who r e c e i v e reasonable s a l a r i e s and some a r e a b l e  t o o b t a i n more through "mordida", bribe.  of  i n t o two  Many  of these  through  meaning "the b i t e "  professionals  aspire  or a  t o j o i n i n g the  marriage. The second group, who a r e n o t as  w e l l p a i d but who can a c h i e v e some b e n e f i t s , i s composed o f mechanics, p r i n t e r s , a r t i s a n s and j u n i o r c i v i l  servants  who  keep t h e machinery o f s t a t e running. T h i s d i s p a r i t y between t h e r i c h and t h e poor has l e d t o a system  o f government  that  has very  little  regard  f o r the  mass o f t h e people. T h e i r concerns a r e r a r e l y c o n s i d e r e d i n any  serious  ensuring  administrative  that  labour  force.  class.  Those  they  survive  The f i e l d with  These e l i t e s are,  money  planning  except  as a p a s s i v e ,  of p o l i t i c s and c l a s s  pliant  dominate  f o r non-interference  conduct t h e i r b u s i n e s s . by these  e l i t e s ' huge p r o f i t s , In  general  population,  and cheap  and c o n t r o l .  i n t u r n , c o n t r o l l e d and dominated by huge  i n exchange  engendered  of  i s one o f money and  North American and European m u l t i n a t i o n a l s elites  i n terms  who support t h e i n t h e way  The a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e  systems,  that  cheap  i s fundamental  they labour  t o the  i s ignored.  i t can  be  said  that  the  mass  of the  both r u r a l and urban, s t r u g g l e s from day t o day  Page - 31  to  survive.  These  factory  workers,  average  i n Central  people  service  are  industry  America  Injury  or  illness  farmers,  workers and  about  Much of t h i s work i s seasonal retain.  usually  $10  and  -15  or  labourors, are  paid  l e s s per  day.  often hard to obtain  i s cause  for  dismissal.  on  and  Add  to  t h i s s t r u g g l e the i d e o l o g i c a l wars c u r r e n t l y i n p r o g r e s s  and  the c r e a t i o n of r e f u g e e s i s assured. The major r e f u g e e - p r o d u c i n g c o u n t r i e s i n C e n t r a l America, as  f a r as  Honduras producing  Canada i s concerned, are and  Nicaragua.  political  Other  refugees  recently,  Panama. Mexico a l s o  generally  considered  to  be  E l Salvador,  countries include  has  in  Guatemala, the  Belize  emigrants but  economic  rather  than  and, these  32  more are  political  r e f u g e e s ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, Employment & Immigration,  Page -  region  1986)  Chapter Four Canada's Immigration Policy American r e f u g e e c l a i m a n t s . This  chapter  immigration  will  act that  and  deal  with  have a d i r e c t  c l a i m a n t under review and how interpreted the  those  on  Central  sections  b e a r i n g on  of  the  the  refugee  a l s o d e a l w i t h how  some o f  d i s p a r i t i e s w i t h i n the p o l i c y e v o l v e d . 1960 's i t had become obvious t h a t t h e  Immigration A c t need Commission, under  serious revision.  Joseph  a  nonpolitical  applicant  and  i n 1967.  nonpartisan  f o r immigration and  undertaken  l e d t o the  (IAB)  1952  Consequently a Royal  Sedgewick was  Sedgewick's recomendations  Immigration Appeal Board as  effect  these s e c t i o n s a r e a p p l i e d and  i n Canada. I t w i l l  By the mid  Mr.  it  in  creation  The  IAB was  buffer  the m i n i s t e r  1967.  of  the  to act  between  the  responsible for  immigration and h i s o f f i c i a l s . In  1973,  Immigration,  Robert set  Andras,  about  Minister  establishing  a  of new  Manpower  and  comprehensive  immigration p o l i c y . He asked f o r submissions from groups individuals December  across  1974.  By  Canada. April  The  1978,  results  were  Canada's  "New  released  law.  The  new  act  established  the  four  . . . .  Non d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Family r e u n i f i c a t i o n . Humanitarian concern f o r r e f u g e e s . Promotion o f n a t i o n a l g o a l s . (Immigration A c t 1978)  Page - 33  had  basic  p r i n c i p l e s t h a t u n d e r l i e our p r e s e n t immigration p o l i c y : 1) 2) 3) 4)  in  Consolidated  Immigration A c t " had passed through a l l i t s stages and become  and  Immigration was t o be l i n k e d t o Canada's p o p u l a t i o n and l a b o u r market. The a c t , u n l i k e p r e v i o u s ones, a l s o r e q u i r e d v i s i t o r s t o o b t a i n v i s a s o u t s i d e o f Canada, and p r o h i b i t e d v i s i t o r s from changing s t a t u s w h i l e w i t h i n t h e country.On r e f u g e e s , t h e a c t s t a t e s as f o l l o w s : An immigrant who i s n o t a member o f a p r o h i b i t e d c l a s s designated i n section 5 of the Act (certain classes of criminals,prostitutes e t c ) may be g r a n t e d l a n d i n g i n Canada i f a) he i s a r e f u g e e p r o t e c t e d by t h e c o n v e n t i o n ; . . . . Convention  under t h e a c t i s d e f i n e d a s :  "Convention" means the United Nations Convention r e l a t i n g t o t h e S t a t u s o f Refugees signed i n Geneva on J u l y 28th, 1951 and i n c l u d e s any P r o t o c o l t h e r e t o r a t i f i e d o r acceded t o by Canada. (Immigration Appeal Board A c t : Immigration adjustment o f S t a t u s R e g u l a t i o n s . (Chapter 941 o f t h e Immigration A c t . A p r i l 1978) T h i s s e c t i o n a l s o d e a l s w i t h " l a n d i n g " and g r a n t s t h e a p p l i c a n t , r e f u g e e s t a t u s , which e n t i t l e s t h a t person t o r e s i d e i n Canada u n t i l t h e outcome o f a s p e c i a l  inquiry  conducted under t h e Immigration I n q u i r i e s R e g u l a t i o n s , a t which t h e p r e s i d i n g o f f i c e r  shall:  Inform t h e person b e i n g examined t h a t t h e purpose o f t h e h e a r i n g i s t o determine whether he i s a person who may be admitted, a l l o w e d t o come i n t o Canada, o r t o remain i n Canada, as the case may be, and t h a t i n t h e event a d e c i s i o n i s made a t t h e i n q u i r y t h a t he i s n o t such a person, an order w i l l be made f o r h i s d e p a r t u r e from Canada. An e a r l i e r p r o v i s i o n w i t h i n t h e A c t a l l o w s f o r :  Page - 34  "an i n t e r p r e t e r who i s conversant i n the language of the a p p l i c a n t and the c o s t o f such i n t e r p r e t e r s h a l l be born by the Department of Employment and Immigration". Regarding d e p o r t a t i o n , " No person s h a l l , pursuant t o S u b s e c t i o n 37(1) o f the A c t , be i n c l u d e d i n a d e p o r t a t i o n o r d e r u n l e s s the person has f i r s t been g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g t o an immigration o f f i c e r t h a t he should not be excluded." Furthermore, i n S e c t i o n 1 2 ( c ) , i t s t a t e s : where the p r e s i d i n g o f f i c e r has reason t o b e l i e v e , from imformation o b t a i n e d a t the i n q u i r y or otherwise, t h a t the person ( i ) c l a i m s t o be a refugee or a Canadian c i t i z e n , or ( i i ) may be a refugee,[he s h a l l ] i n f o r m him of the r i g h t of appeal based on a c l a i m d e s c r i b e d i n paragraph 11(1) (c) or (d) of t h e Immigration Appeal Board A c t under the A c t and the procedure t o be f o l l o w e d i n e x e r c i s i n g such r i g h t of a p p e a l . " (Immigration A c t 1978)  What a l l t h i s means, i s : a person who  comes t o Canada and  asks f o r asylum as a refugee i s normally admitted t o Canada, and then undergoes a d e t e r m i n a t i o n p r o c e s s . However, because of  the  within down.  large  number  of  claimants  Canada  since  1978,  the  who  process  have has  applied become  from bogged  Delays of up t o f i v e y e a r s b e f o r e completion of the  d e t e r m i n a t i o n p r o c e s s are not unusual. Delays a r e caused the l a c k o f t r a i n e d  i n t e r p r e t e r s and  number of appeal board p e r s o n n e l , and between i n i t i a l h e a r i n g s and appeals. stumbling  block  they  at  are  that  risk  most  refugees  p e r s o n a l l y , they  c o u n s e l and  by  the s m a l l  involve lengthy waits There face:  a  major  namely,  though  unable  to  p r o v i d e documentary p r o o f of the t h r e a t from which they  are  fleeing.  Page - 35  often  is  are  The U n i t e d Nations P r o t o c o l , t o which Canada became a signatory  i n 1967,  states:  A r e f u g e e . . . i s a person who has a "well founded" f e a r of b e i n g p e r s e c u t e d f o r reasons of r a c e , r e l i g i o n , n a t i o n a l i t y , membership of a particular social group or political o p i n i o n . (U.N. P r o t o c o l , 1951)  Most r e f u g e e s ' have a problem  proving that a "well  fear of persecution" e x i s t s .  Boards o f i n q u i r y have  t o i n t e r p r e t t h i s phrase as meaning Malarek)  founded chosen  ( i n the words o f V i c t o r  t h a t the refugee be r e g u i r e d t o prove he was  either  i n d i v i d u a l l y p e r s e c u t e d , harassed, tortured or imprisoned f o r h i s b e l i e f s , [or] he would have t o e s t a b l i s h t h a t the bomb or m i s s i l e that devastated his village, killing 650 people and wounding another 1,500, was meant " s p e c i f i c a l l y " f o r him. (Malarek, 1987, p.97) T h i s narrow i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Convention a h i g h r e j e c t i o n r a t e and after  case,  grownlarger has  ensuring and  prompted  applicants  larger.  many  are  to  not  has meant  a l e n g t h y appeal p r o c e s s i n case that  The use  real  the  ensuing  high r e j e c t i o n statistics refugees  to  but  backlog rate,  show  has  i n turn, that  rather  most  "economic  r e f u g e e s " — a derogatory term c u r r e n t l y much i n vogue. When nation  Canada was  signed  committed  the  U.N.  Convention  t o accepting refugees  in  1969,  based  on  need f o r s u c c o r r a t h e r than on t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y as immigrants, of t h e 1976  as had  p r e v i o u s l y been the case.  Immigration  Act states:  Page - 36  their  Canadian  Section  " [ t h e need] t o  the  3(g)  fulfill  Canada's i n t e r n a t i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o r e f u g e e s and  t o uphold  i t s humanitarian  the  displaced  and  the  government  o b l i g a t i o n s with respect to  the p e r s e c u t e d " . When t h i s  d i d not  anticipate  that  was  written,  refugees  would  be  a p p l y i n g from w i t h i n Canada. I t had always been assumed t h a t r e f u g e e s would be unconnected  to  distance  time  at  from  c o u n t r i e s which were g e o g r a p h i c a l l y  North of  America,  and  application  that  would  the  still  refugees' ensure  "de  f a c t o " government a b i l i t y t o p i c k and choose,  from the mass  of  of  value  and  from  South  and  Ottawa o f f guard.  The  refugees  benefit  applying,  those  t o Canada. The  arrival  C e n t r a l America  i n the  Immigration  guaranteed  claim  Act  f o r refugee  Canada,  and  due  be  of r e f u g e e s  1980's caught  status,  individuals  a  r e g a r d l e s s of  they  crisis  not  came t o  1970s,  selectively.  the  refugees  could  how  their  There were few refugee c l a i m a n t s u n t i l the l a t e  countries  government  h e a r i n g on  these  to  the  would  treat  applicants  now  who  great  and  d i s t a n c e between  Canada.  During  the  most 1970s  refugee-producing Canada  (on r e q u e s t of the U n i t e d Nations)  situations.  These i n c l u d e d the  sponsored  i n a number of  E a s t I n d i a n Ugandans  f o r c e d by P r e s i d e n t I d i Amin t o l e a v e Uganda on s h o r t n o t i c e in  leave C h i l e  after  the murder of P r e s i d e n t Salvador A l l e n d e i n September  1973;  and of  August  1972  ; the C h i l e a n s f o r c e d  t h e boat people who Saigon  sponsored  in April refugees  1975. were  fled  to  Indo-china  f o l l o w i n g the  These w e l l - p u b l i c i z e d followed  Page - 37  by  a  series  fall  i n t a k e s of of  illegal  movements. generally  Those  illegal  migrants  who  reached  c o n s i s t e d o f groups o r i n d i v i d u a l s  who  Canada had  fled  e i t h e r by boat o r p l a n e . On a r r i v a l i n Canada they had asked for  asylum.  Freda  Hawkins  explains  this  second  wave  as  follows: I t i s well-known t h a t l e g a l immigration and r e f u g e e movements o f t e n i n s p i r e o r s e t i n motion illegal movements in the same d i r e c t i o n . The a n c i e n t commerce o f immigration a l s o f l o u r i s h e s today i n t h e i n t e r s t i c e s and w i t h i n t h e l o o p h o l e s o f immigration law. We are a l s o witnessing the e a r l y stages of a remarkable out-migration by a l l a v a i l a b l e means from t h i r d world c o u n t r i e s as knowledge of t h e h i g h e r l i v i n g standards and s a f e r , more secure l i f e i n t h e developed w o r l d becomes more widespread....Refugees and undocumented migrants are i n fact competing today f o r admission t o c o u n t r i e s o f f i r s t asylum and permanant s e t t l e m e n t . (Freda Hawkins, 1988, p.131) During t h i s i n i t i a l p e r i o d t h e Canadian  Immigration a c t  a l l o w e d f o r v i s i t o r s t o apply f o r immigration s t a t u s w i t h i n Canada.  This  loophole  was  closed  in  November  1972.  Subsequently  i n J u l y 1973, a b i l l was p r e s e n t e d t h a t allowed  o n l y genuine  r e f u g e e s t o a p p l y i n g from w i t h i n Canada. These  f a c t s have l e d t o a number o f p u b l i c a t i o n s t h a t have  dealt  w i t h t h e abuse o f t h e system r a t h e r than about t h e c l a i m a n t s themselves. The  sudden  influx,  i n the l a t e  1970's,  of  South  /American r e f u g e e s , mostly C h i l e a n , f o r c e d t h e t h e n - m i n i s t e r , Lloyd  /Axworthy,  Robinson.  to  Robinson  establish  a  task  force  under  presented h i s r e p o r t " I l l e g a l  Page - 38  W.G.  Migrants  in  Canada" i n June o f 1983. The r e p o r t recommended t h a t an  amended  refugee  w i t h these  determination  process  be d e v i s e d  "queue jumpers", and t h a t i t  t o deal  be implemented a t  the " f i r s t o p p o r t u n i t y " . He f u r t h e r s t a t e d : . . . i t [ t h e refugee d e t e r m i n a t i o n p r o c e s s ] has outgrown i t s l e g i s l a t i v e garment. Moreover, i t must be g i v e n t h e c a p a c i t y t o d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h abusive c l a i m s . Otherwise our r e s o u r c e s w i l l be squandered i n f i g h t i n g a r e a r g u a r d a c t i o n i n Canada, when they c o u l d be so much more e f f i c i e n t l y deployed i n a t t a c k i n g r e f u g e e problems a t t h e i r source. (W.G.Robinson, 1983. p.109)  The  conclusions  of  unsatisfactory  by  government,  which  of  defeated.  Axworthy  Conservatives,  this  report  Axworthy. he  was  was  were  However, part,  replaced  was  by John  who commissioned another  Ratushny completed t h i s  study  f o r Canada",  pointed  to  the  Liberal  soon  study.  and presented  be  afterwards  Roberts  of the  I n 1984, Ed  i t t o Roberts.  The new r e p o r t , e n t i t l e d "A New Refugee S t a t u s Process  felt  out t h e many  Determination flaws  i n the  system then i n p l a c e , and recommended q u i c k a c t i o n . Of f i r s t importance people,  was  who  the fact  were  that  refugees,  t h e o l d system  but who  were  their  c l a i m s , t o be sent back t o t h e i r  with  the  threat  of  persecution,  e x e c u t i o n . The r e p o r t prompted  caused  unable  some  t o prove  countries of o r i g i n ,  imprisonment,  or  even  Roberts t o i n i t i a t e a second  study. T h i s time Rabbi W.Gunther P l a u t was s e l e c t e d t o head it. Simultaneously,  t h e Supreme Court o f Canada handed down a  Page - 39  ruling  that  altered  the determination  process.  The c o u r t  upheld t h e r e f u g e e ' s r i g h t t o a f u l l o r a l h e a r i n g b e f o r e t h e appeal based  board.  Prior  to this  ruling,  on t h e w r i t t e n submissions  appeal  hearings  of the admitting  were  officer,  and tapes o r t r a n s c r i p t s made a t t h e time o f t h e a p p l i c a n t ' s original were  h e a r i n g . A l l subsequent  based  on p r o c e d u r a l  appeals  criteria  under  t h e system  and n o t on whether  a  c l a i m was j u s t i f i e d on i t s own m e r i t s . F l o r a MacDonald, who was  by now m i n i s t e r , d i d n o t c h a l l e n g e t h e Supreme  ruling,  and t h e p r o c e s s  was  changed  t o allow  Court  f o r oral  hearings. In  April  MacDonald. months  Plaut  presented  h i s report to  I t was t a b l e d  before  t h e House  o f Commons two  later.  refugee cost  1985, Rabbi  At t h i s  claimants  time,  needed  o f $3,500 each.  t o be processed,  By September  grown t o 23,000 refugee individual's  i t was e s t i m a t e d  that  13,000  at a projected  1986, t h e case  l o a d had  c l a i m a n t s and t h e d e l a y w i t h i n an  hearing process  had grown from  the o r i g i n a l  s i x months t o as much as f i v e y e a r s . Rabbi P l a u t , i n w r i t i n g about  t h e p r o c e s s i n g o f refugee c l a i m s made w i t h i n Canada,  states: These have become p r o t r a c t e d and cumbersome and have occasioned serious backlogs....Measured by t h e immensity o f t h e world-wide refugee problem, the task of d e t e r m i n i n g t h e s t a t u s o f persons who c l a i m r e f u g e e s t a t u s i n s i d e Canada i s r a t h e r s m a l l . G e n e r a l l y a few thousand persons a year make such a c l a i m ( a c t u a l f i g u r e s based on t h e f i s c a l year f o r 1980 - 1981 were 2,434; f o r 1981 -1982, 3,726; f o r 1982 - 1983, 3,640; and f o r 1983 - 1984, 6,792). Yet, as i n d i c a t e d ,  Page - 40  the p r o c e s s o f r e a c h i n g a f i n a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n has become complex and the d e l a y c o n s i d e r a b l e . A t p r e s e n t i t may take between two and f i v e y e a r s b e f o r e a c l a i m i s d e c i d e d . . . . For those who indeed are refugees such a delay i s i n t o l e r a b l e from any humane p o i n t of view. T h e i r l i v e s are i n shambles t o b e g i n w i t h , and w i t h every month t h a t passes the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r an e a r l y r e b u i l d i n g of t h e i r e x i s t a n c e on a permanent f o u n d a t i o n i s delayed. (W.G. P l a u t , 1985. Foreward)  As p o i n t e d out e a r l i e r , Canada s i g n e d the U.N. and  P r o t o c o l i n 1969,  1976  Immigration  and  Act.  gave i t l e g i s l a t i v e  The  c r e a t e d the l e g a l concept  r e c o g n i t i o n of  convention  of a c o n v e n t i o n r e f u g e e , and  however, p r o v i d e an automatic  fundamental  used  Canada d i d not,  r i g h t of asylum, o n l y a r i g h t  of p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t "refoulement". is  f o r c e i n the  the  the convention d e f i n i t i o n o u t l i n e d e a r l i e r .  refoulement"  Convention  to  The p r i n c i p l e of  the  entire  "non-  structure  of  i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t i o n s i n favour of r e f u g e e s , and  guarantees  that  sent  no  person  unwillingly reasons does,  to  covered  deport  c l a i m i n g refugee  status w i l l  the  which  country  by  the  refugee  through  which  Canada.  In  the  they case  from  U.N.  Convention.  claimants have of  to  passed  "third during  C e n t r a l and  "third  party"  country  i s usually  United  States  i s not,  however,  Refugees' Convention  they  a  back  have  fled  for  Canada  can,  and  party" countries their  South  the  be  journey  Americans,  United  States.  signatory to  the  to this The U.N.  i t s e l f , and has no qualms about sending  L a t i n American refugees back t o t h e i r c o u n t r i e s of o r i g i n . The  1976  Immigration  Act states,  Page - 41  " E n t r y i n t o Canada i s a  privilege statement  conferred  by  Canada  of s o v e r e i g n t y , found  limitations  and  upon  the  entrant".  This  i n most c o u n t r i e s , knows no  applies to v i s i t o r s  and  refugees  alike  who  a p p l y from o u t s i d e Canada. For them, the Canadian government has the r i g h t t o r e f u s e e n t r y . For those a l r e a d y i n Canada, who  a p p l y a f t e r a r r i v a l f o r refugee s t a t u s , t h e s i t u a t i o n i s  different.  Such persons must be d e a l t w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of our i n t e r n a t i o n a l o b l i g a t i o n s which a r e p a r t of Canadian Law, and a person who i s a refugee as d e f i n e d by the Convention may not be returned to his/her country of p e r s e c u t i o n . . . . D e c l a r i n g a c l a i m a n t t o be a refugee i s , then, not a p r i v i l e g e we g r a n t , but r a t h e r a r i g h t we acknowledge. (W.G. P l a u t , 1985. Foreward)  Rabbi P l a u t , i n h i s r e p o r t , i s c r i t i c a l of t h e p r o c e s s of refugee  status  determination  and  makes  many  valid  recommendations. He i s , however, most c r i t i c a l of t h e d e l a y s within  the  system  and  warns  of  i t s negative  effects  on  claimants. The structure of the Act and its a d m i n i s t r a t i o n have made " i n - s t a t u s " c l a i m a n t s ineligible for employment authorization. Often, to support themselves during the determination process, claimants must t h e r e f o r e v i o l a t e the law. (W.G. P l a u t , 1985, p.37)  As mentioned e a r l i e r , t h i s problem has s i n c e been r e c t i f i e d . In  1987,most  claimants  were  given  Page - 42  work  permits,  except  m a r r i e d women w i t h husbands e l i g i b l e In  May 1986, t h e then  Immigration,  Walter  and a b l e t o work.  j u n i o r m i n i s t e r o f Employment and  McLean,  announced  a new program.  He  ushered i t i n by s a y i n g : t h e r e i s agreement t h a t c l a i m s t o r e f u g e e s t a t u s should be t r e a t e d f a i r l y , humanely and expeditiously....this Government has g i v e n v e r y c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o a l l t h e views expressed by refugee a i d groups, church groups and e t h n i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s a c r o s s t h e c o u n t r y . (House o f Commons, May 1986)  The  new  program  immediately  got  criticized  underway  in  by refugee  September,  groups  but  was  and t h e Canadian  Bar A s s o c i a t i o n because o f i t s appeal procedure.  Under t h i s  procedure, appeals c o u l d o n l y be launched a g a i n s t p r o c e d u r a l i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s and not on t h e m e r i t o f t h e c l a i m . Finally,  i n May  1987, a  new  bill  regarding  refugee  d e t e r m i n a t i o n was p r e s e n t e d t o t h e House by B e n o i t Bouchard. He d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e new b i l l , ...ensures t h a t no genuine r e f u g e e w i l l be r e t u r n e d t o a country where they may f a c e persecution. I t also ensures that refugee c l a i m s w i l l be processed f a i r l y and q u i c k l y . I t w i l l now o n l y take months t o p r o c e s s a c l a i m , n o t y e a r s . (House o f Commons, May 1987)  This Board  bill  established  (RDB).  judicial  This  a  board  Convention would  be  Refugee an  Determination  independent  quasi-  body c o n s i s t i n g o f a two-person p a n e l ; t h e h e a r i n g  would be n o n - a d v e r s a r i a l ; t h e c l a i m a n t would have t h e r i g h t to  counsel;  and o n l y  one board  member need  Page - 43  find  for  the  claimant  for  decisions, appealed only  which  or  her  matters  primarily  on  of  the  especially  claim  obviously  (with leave)  on  Plaut,  his  need  t o the  law.  with  be  be  accepted.  unanimous,  F e d e r a l Court  The  findings  to  new and  bill  of  could  of Canada, 1987  recommendations  r e g a r d t o the  Negative be but  was  based  of  Rabbi  s e c t i o n s on  refugees  and r e f u g e e d e t e r m i n a t i o n . Rabbi  Plaut,  in  his  Determination  i n Canada", was  mechanics  the  of  refugee  extensive not  determination  w i t h the humanitarian treatment "Further  Considerations",  " a w a i t i n g the d e c i s i o n , be  c l o t h e d and  signing  live  of the U.N.  t o ensure  just  concerned process,  recommended  with but  that  the also IV,  while  c l a i m a n t s must e a t , s l e e p ,  i n dignity." Convention,  "Refugee  of c l a i m a n t s . In s e c t i o n  he  refugee  report  He  "has  argued an  t h a t our  very  implied obligation  t h a t c l a i m a n t s are p r o v i d e d w i t h t h e  necessities  of l i f e and are i n a p o s i t i o n t o f u l l y pursue t h e i r c l a i m t o p r o t e c t i o n . " T h i s aspect of the problem had p r e v i o u s l y been r e c o g n i z e d i n the 1976  Act i n section  8.10(4)(a).  ...Canada's l e g i s l a t i o n and p o l i c y w i t h r e g a r d to refugees is...to ensure that persons c l a i m i n g t o be Convention Refugees are g i v e n every o p p o r t u n i t y and a s s i s t a n c e t o advance t h e i r c l a i m ; (Immigration A c t , 1976, p.144) and i n S e c t i o n 8.11(2). .. .we must make i t p o s s i b l e f o r c l a i m a n t s t o await the outcome of t h e i r c l a i m s without undue physical or economic hardship. (Immigration A c t , 1976, p.144-145)  Page - 44  Rabbi  Plaut  efforts  concludes t h i s  have  been  well  section  by  intentioned,  arrival  relative  terms,  indicates  that  enter from  a  Latin  recent  of  the  Latin  American  includes  America;  that  America,  including  the  Statistics  Canada  immigrants  the  (1.4%) were  (Canada  Census  1981)  America  Cuba,  from as  San  40,000 immigrants initial  waves  include  many  sought  domicile. 1981  An  of  sought  a l l of  well  Domingo  out  Central the  can  be  seen  orders.  from  America.  United  appreciation  Central  and  Puerto  Since  From  1973  States  Latin  88 127 232 178 194 126 102  1973,  These of  America  immigrant  1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987  Page - 45  home.  The  did  not  as  has  figures  292 857 2,551 2,557 3,236 3,014 4,344  have 1981,  immigrants  o f the change t h a t i n the  to  America  Salvador: 1963 -1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978  Latin  as  out Canada as a f u t u r e  immigrants  from  This  as r e p r e s s i v e m i l i t a r y j u n t a s  old aristocratic  to  55,289  but not those of t h e Guyanas o r Surinam.  replaced  since  i s , in  only  immigrants  Mexico,  results  Canada  million  1973  i s , a l l South  the number has e s c a l a t e d  often  and  countries.  a l l of  in  phenomena. four  our  1 1  Americans  almost  Canada between 1946  number  Rico,  of  "While  the p r a c t i c a l  have o f t e n been l e s s than s a t i s f a c t o r y . The  saying  more a  new  occurred from  El  1979 1980  108 112  1988 1989  (Employment and Immigration This 1979  i n c r e a s e can  be  directly  m i l i t a r y coup t h a t overthrew  Canada  related  to  1989)  the  October  General C a r l o s Romero, and  t h e subsequent c o l l a p s e o f a s u c c e s s i o n o f m i l i t a r y  juntas  t h a t t r i e d t o run the country. The w e l l p u b l i c i s e d e x e c u t i o n of a l l o p p o s i t i o n l e a d e r s on the 27th o f November 1980  was  the  the  trigger  emigration that  most  Canada  As  refugees the  to  take  sudden  middle an  time  the  class.  average  they  of  leave.  increase  in  I t should  be  noted  two  to  reach  years  This  includes  both  and d e c l a r e d r e f u g e e s .  mentioned e a r l i e r , while  awaiting  p r o c e s s . The in  lead  of the mainly  from  sponsored  risk"  that  which  reasons  refugee  refugee  the  claimants are o f t e n "at  outcome  for this  claimants  of  the  determination  are r o o t e d i n the find  themselves.  situations  Boredom  and  f r u s t r a t i o n a t t h e i r s i t u a t i o n , without the r e l i e f of e i t h e r work  or  school,  lead  many  into  committing  criminal  Some c l a i m a n t s have had t o wait over f i v e y e a r s and case p e r s o n a l l y known t o me, with at  applicant). which  legally  time in  dispirited  and  the  of  has  unable a  job.  difficulty  i n , one  eight years (personal interview  wait,  claimants  Canada,  restrictions overcome,  The  acts.  especially were  given  ensured to  permission  that  successfully  Even of  b e f o r e January  when  finding  Page - 46  many  these  to  have  cope  1989, work become  with  the  problems  are  employment,  given  the  language and c u l t u r a l b a r r i e r s t h a t e x i s t ,  causes  problems,  and u s u a l l y r e s u l t s i n s p u r t s of s h o r t - t e r m work a t minimum wage. The temptation t o make money i l l e g a l l y or t o engage i n illegal  activities  overpowering. America  as a source o f excitement  The a b j e c t p o v e r t y many l e f t behind i n C e n t r a l  i s highlighted  lifestyle,  and  lifestyle,  rather  by  crime  reaons,  than  education  would  easy  existing  way  in  a  enable  i s not  Canadian  to  obtain  this  boring  and  still  limbo.  is  itwould  Canadian s o c i e t y . training  an  affluent  s u b s i s t i n g on w e l f a r e , unable t o work  Undoubtedly, and  the r e l a t i v e l y  seems  r e l a t i v e l y impoverished While  i s , f o r many,  denied  thse  refugee  make them b e t t e r  them  to  function  Even simple E n g l i s h readily  available  many  claimants.  eventual  more  for  citizens,  successfully  in  as a Second Language  in British  Columbia  (in  O n t a r i o , the p r o v i n c i a l government has p r o v i d e d ESL f o r a l l , including  refugee  v o l u n t e e r groups.  claimants),  except  through  church  and  As Rabbi P l a u t emphasizes i n h i s r e p o r t :  The immigration r e g u l a t i o n s as they p r e s e n t l y e x i s t do not p r o v i d e f o r the i s s u a n c e of student a u t h o r i z a t i o n t o c l a i m a n t s and t h e i r children.[Where i t e x i s t s ] T h i s i s g e n e r a l l y handled i n an e x t r a - l e g a l f a s h i o n whereby the CEIC (Canadian Employment and Immigration Commision) assures the s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s t h a t i t w i l l o v e r l o o k v i o l a t i o n s of the Immigration A c t , 1976. The immigration r e g u l a t i o n s s h o u l d be amended t o permit refugee c l a i m a n t s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s t o apply f o r and o b t a i n student a u t h o r i z a t i o n . ( P l a u t , 1985, p.149)  The  CEIC has g e n e r a l l y i n t e r c e d e d on b e h a l f of c h i l d r e n .  Page - 47  In  O n t a r i o , they have i n t e r c e d e d on b e h a l f of c e r t a i n groups of adult claimants,  but  i n the  rest  of the  country,  including  B r i t i s h Columbia, they have ignored the p l i g h t o f the  adult  claimants. Rabbi P l a u t ' s recommendations were i g n o r e d legislation  and  claimants s t i l l Putting aside,  so  the  burden  of  educating  i n the  adult  new  refugee  f a l l s mainly t o v o l u n t e e r groups.  the  another  question  of  f a c t o r t h a t has  educational ensured  a  opportunities  slow response  C e n t r a l American refugees has been our r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h  to the  U n i t e d S t a t e s , and the need t o ensure our and t h e i r n a t i o n a l security.  All  Nicaragua,  are  by  the  their the  the  countries  supported,  United  States.  of  both  This  Central  financially  means t h a t  and  any  state,  and  especially wing" you equally  therefore  In  United  of  must be  "left  simplistic countries  has,  the  States,  the  perception  Standard",  entry.  States,  claims  implementation C e n t r a l and  of  Reg  enabled  the  Canadian  in  his  48  of  political perception, "right and  all  the  Central  democracies,  legislators  to  enact  "democracies" book  s e v e r i t y extant  Immigration  L a t i n American refugees  Page -  are  from these  Whitaker,  t h a t much of the  enemy  a r e not  that  (other than Nicaragua)  measures t h a t ensure t h a t refugees denied  an  fleeing  wing".This s i m p l i f i c a t i o n ,  American  United  militarily,  doubtful  i n s e c u r i t y terms, i s t h a t i f you  American in  the  someone  except  person  " l e g i t i m a t e " government i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y  orientation.  are  America,  Act  "Double in  the  towards  i s i n response t o  U.S.  Cold  War p o l i c y .  1987,  Talking  about  t h e new immigration  act of  he s t a t e s : ...when t h e t o r i e s d i d apply t h e brakes, i t was apparent t h a t t h e r e a l t a r g e t o f t h e i r wrath were t h e C e n t r a l and L a t i n Americans, whose c l a i m s were l e g i t i m a t e by any r e a s o n a b l e m e a s u r e — except t h e o l d and n o t - s o - r e a s o n a b l e measure o f t h e c o l d war. (Whitaker, 1987, p.296)  G e r a l d D i r k echoes t h i s p e r c e p t i o n : R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e p r e v a i l i n g Immigration A c t , r e f u g e e s from L a t i n America have never been t h e r e c i p i e n t s o f as prompt o r as l i b e r a l treatment as i n d i v i d u a l s from such r e g i o n s as E a s t e r n Europe. T h i s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s has been and c o n t i n u e s t o be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o p o l i t i c a l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and i d e o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s on t h e p a r t o f v a r i o u s Canadian governments r a t h e r than t o any d i s c r i m i n a t o r y f e a t u r e s o f immigration l e g i s l a t i o n . ( D i r k s , 1977, p.246)  Under t h e o l d A c t o f 1976, refugee c l a i m a n t s had t o undergo the  lengthy  wait  of the determination process.  were hard p u t t o s u r v i v e , to  criminal  acts,  whereby they c o u l d  thus  They  i n our s o c i e t y , without putting  themselves  also  resorting  in a  position  r e a d i l y be deported. N e v e r t h e l e s s , they  were admitted and p e r m i t t e d t o s t a y u n t i l t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n process place,  settled  their  fate.  Today,  with  r e f u g e e c l a i m a n t s must make t h e i r  technically  i n the United  claim  entry,  upon  illegally. airlines  they  The new r u l e s  also  forbid  from  Page - 49  act i n  claim while  S t a t e s . I f they  are considered  and bus companies  t h e new  still  do n o t make a  t o be  carriers  transporting  i n Canada  such  as t h e  anyone  from  specific  countries  documents. The and  South  into  list  Canada  includes  America,but  A s i a n c o u n t r i e s . Reg  not  without  a l l the  the  valid  countries  Soviet  bloc,  travel  of  or  Central  Southeast  Whitaker s t a t e s :  Salvadoreans and Guatemalans were stopped a t the U.S. border and t o l d t o w a i t i n the U.S. w h i l e immigration i n q u i r i e s i n Canada were arranged. Canadian a u t h o r i t i e s e x p l a i n e d t h a t they had an agreement w i t h the U.S. t h a t no one awaiting a Canadian i n q u i r y would be deported. The U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service o f f i c i a l s scoffed at t h i s and s t a t e d f l a t l y t h a t anyone who had a c r i m i n a l r e c o r d or "derogatory i n f o r m a t i o n " on his file would be deported. "Derogatory information" i s a code term f o r " n a t i o n a l security risk". This i s truely a vicious circle, since the U.S. defines virtually anyone who f l e e s one of i t s r i g h t - w i n g c l i e n t s t a t e s as a Communist. (Whitiker, 1987, p.296297) The  new  Immigration A c t of 1987  discriminate  against  seems e s p e c i a l l y designed t o  Convention  refugees.  Communist s t a t e s g e n e r a l l y f a l l under the  Refugees  "designated-class"  p r o v i s i o n s and  so are t r e a t e d more l i k e immigrants than  refugees.  new  proof  that  The a  amendments  person  claimant.  It  has  ineligible  for  work  is  shifted  specifically  further or  have  ensured  schooling  at that  (this  has  s i n c e work p e r m i t s were g e n e r a l l y g r a n t e d as 1989).  The  new  determination  l i m i t e d a claimant's  system  has  the  Page -  50  like  burden  risk  -jbnto  claimants since  also  of the are  changed  o f January  r i g h t t o appeal a n e g a t i v e  the two-person board.  from  1,  severely  decision  of  Chapter Five The Problems of L a t i n American Male Refugees C e n t r a l American  refugees o r immigrants  arrive i n  Canada i n two d i s t i n c t ways. The f i r s t i s as immigrants people  who  origin  have  and  guidelines  applied  been  from  within  their  country  people  meet  the  Canada and a r e g e n e r a l l y  from  accepted.  f o r entry into  These  the middle c l a s s , have had a f a i r are  of  amount o f e d u c a t i o n and  h e a l t h y . They a l s o have s k i l l s , t r a d e s o r p r o f e s s i o n s  that  are  in  guidelines Act.  short  supply  a r e found  in  Canada.  i n section  44  The  of the  specific  Immigration  These people a r e p a r t o f Canada's ongoing program o f  immigration and t h e i r numbers a r e l e g i s l a t e d each year by the  Department  persons often jobs come  rarely  of  Employment  suffer  t h e trauma  a r r i v e w i t h marketable and housing. The second i n two  ways.  and  They  Immigration.  of refugees  skills  as  they  and, i n many cases,  come as r e f u g e e s .  either  These  seek  asylum  Refugees  abroad  at  Canadian c o n s u l a r f a c i l i t i e s o r from w i t h i n r e f u g e e camps in  host  countries  immigration accepted  officials.  under  Government. students thereafter  visited  a  or apply  illegal  Canada's  Successful  yearly  Otherwise  by  ceiling  they  come  arrivals,  f o r refugee  applicants  s e t by here and  status  Page - 51  teams  of are  the Federal as  at  from  visitors, some  time  within  our  borders.  These l a t t e r  r e f u g e e s were, u n t i l  January  1989  d e a l t w i t h under t h e immigration a c t o f 1976. Each  of  Government  the  groups  through  is  treated  Employment  and  by  the  Canadian  Immigration  Canada  under d i f f e r e n t c a t e g o r i e s . Immigrants Canadian  are  society  financially.  on  This  accorded arrival  includes  a l l the and  are  education  benefits often  of  helped  and  language  t r a i n i n g where a p p l i c a b l e . Sponsored immigrants receives  r e f u g e e s enjoy most o f t h e b e n e f i t s o f  and i n most cases  t h e head  f u r t h e r h e l p and t r a i n i n g  of the  t o ensure  household  that  he o r  she does not become a burden on s o c i e t y . On  the  other  hand,  refugees  i n s i d e Canada were, u n t i l January c l a i m a n t s t a t u s which e n t i t l e d  who  claim  status  1 s t 1989, g i v e n r e f u g e e  them t o remain  i n Canada,  but were not allowed t o seek work o r e d u c a t i o n . They were required,  until  completed, status  t o wait.  under  were o f t e n , However, were  These  Some  "ministerial after  determination refugees  were  permits",  process given  and these  nor t h e o t h e r  a l l the  normal  refugee  rights  claimant claimants  include  free  language  a s s i s t a n c e w i t h housing and j o b t r a i n i n g .  Page - 52  claimants  available  o r any o f t h e h e l p accorded sponsored  benefits  was  some d e l a y , g i v e n p e r m i s s i o n t o work.  n e i t h e r they  accorded  Canadians  their  to  refugees.  training  and  This  difference  marginalized per  month  process. live  18  and  welfare  while  T h i s payment,  has  must  awaiting  not  in  s u r v i v e on  s i n g l e men  determination  The  of  ages  education,  j o b s k i l l s and l i t t l e  ability  speak E n g l i s h or French. They are o f t e n s u f f e r i n g  mental  and  emotional  e x p e r i e n c e s , both  traumas, as a r e s u l t  in their  to  refugees i n  between the  levels  a  $468  u n n a t u r a l l y , f o r c e s them  They g e n e r a l l y have low  i f any, marketable  resulted  the  areas of our c i t i e s .  are predominantly  40.  and few, to  group of r e f u g e e s who  i n the cheaper  question  i n treatment  from  of t h e i r  past  c o u n t r y of o r i g i n and d u r i n g  t h e i r journey t o Canada. These traumas, and t h e p l i g h t i n which they f i n d themselves, drug in  dependence. The turn,  often  o f t e n l e a d t o a l c o h o l i s m and  need t o  leads  to  obtain i l l i c i t involvement  substances,  with  criminal  abused  substance  elements. Alcohol  is  g e n e r a l l y the  among the male L a t i n are o n l y used those  with  by  American  refugee  a small f r a c t i o n  these  disabilities  dependent b e f o r e a r r i v a l  most  population,  of the group.  were  alcoholic  i s not c l e a r ,  Whether or  toll  and,  drug-  but c e r t a i n l y  l o n g w a i t f o r the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e i r s t a t u s has its  drugs  i f not dependent b e f o r e a r r i v a l ,  the  taken  many are  now. Regarding Bazerque  (Spanish  the  situation  speaking  in  street  Downtown E a s t s i d e Youth A c t i v i t i e s  Page - 53  Vancouver, worker  with  Pablo the  S o c i e t y , DEYAS), w i t h  whom  I worked  Youth  as a v o l u n t e e r  Activity  process during  Society  of t h i s  and whom  study,  h i s working  refugee claimants  a t t h e Downtown  stated  day was  common o f f e n s e  but  i n c r e a s i n g l y , he was h a v i n g  had  been  arrested  the  drug  trade.  was "drunk  f o r working  i n the  o f h i s time  i n assisting with  with  those  the  i n a public  t o deal  law.  place",  those who  as " m u l e s " — c a r r i e r s f o r  i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note  h i s r o l e as a s o c i a l social  much  who had become i n v o l v e d  most  w i t h other  consulted  that  spent  The  sees t h a t  I  Eastslde  worker  that  i s often  Pablo  a t odds  agencies.  I see my r o l e as one o f h e l p i n g people get o f f t h e s t r e e t and on w i t h t h e i r lives— b r i n g i n g those who a r e n o t i n t h e system i n t o it by whatever means. Betrayal, police i n t e r v e n t i o n o r whatever e l s e , as long as they get i n t o t h e system. Once i n t o t h e system (I) ensure they s t a y i n t h e system and do n o t r e t u r n t o t o t a l dependence on t h e s t r e e t . I f e e l t h a t Employment and Immigration Canada a r e not o v e r l y concerned. They are very p r o t e c t i v e of moneys—require receipts f o r rent, e t c . before giving funds, especially emergency funds. (Pablo Bazerque, May 4, 1989) William  Smiley  suggests  that  new  r e c e i v e a double message r e g a r d i n g  arrivals  cultural  t o Canada  expectations.  On t h e one hand, i t (Canadian s o c i e t y ) seems c l o s e d and c o l d , w h i l e on t h e other hand, i t seems open and l i b e r a l . They see Canadian youth c u l t u r e as being f r e e and u n d i s c i p l i n e d . Drug and a l c o h o l abuse i s seen t o be almost normal behaviour.... the f i r s t impression many latinos g e t o f Canadian s o c i e t y i s somewhat n e g a t i v e . (W. Smiley, 1989)  Page - 54  While youth,  one  a t t e n d i n g the  Symposium  of the speakers  made the f o l l o w i n g  for Latin  (originally  from  American  E l Salvador)  statement:  We come from c o u n t r i e s i n c o n f l i c t . Our f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s are d i f f i c u l t . We o f t e n have t o l e t our f a m i l i e s down because of the difference i n culture. The treatment of us by t h e l o c a l s can be d i s c r i m i n a t o r y . We need t o f i n d i d e n t i t y as L a t i n s but we o f t e n look t o t h e wrong a r e a s . We look t o crime. Because we a r e from E l Salvador we have seen bad t h i n g s , death and k i l l i n g s . Canada i s p a c i f i s t . The e f f e c t i s t o make one unsure, e s p e c i a l l y i f we l i v e alone w i t h no f a m i l y . I t i s v e r y hard t o succeed without support. Crime, a l c o h o l and drugs a r e an e a s i e r s o l u t i o n ! (Tania, from El Salvador, May 27 1989) The  determination  process,  on  which  depends, has kept t h i s group of i n d i v i d u a l s  so  much  i n limbo f o r  up t o f i v e y e a r s i n some cases. Ottawa, i n an attempt c l e a r up the growing release  from  backlog, has begun a new  the M i n i s t e r  of  Employment  to  program. A  and  Immigration  dated March 31st,1989 s t a t e s : The p r o c e s s of a s s e s s i n g the 85,000 cases i n t h e b a c k l o g f o r a c r e d i t a b l e b a s i s f o r r e f u g e e s t a t u s i s expected t o take about two y e a r s t o complete....Permission t o work was g i v e n t o backlog c l a i m a n t s e f f e c t i v e January 12, 1989 w i t h a change i n the employment authorisation regulations. (Ministry of Employment & Immigration,1989) This  ability  opportunity take  to  get  to  work  on  with  advantage o f t h e i r  new  has, their  for lives.  s t a t u s and  s k i l l s , h a v e moved out of the E a s t end elsewhere the  some, Those  with  and  been able  an to  specialized  found  lodgings  i n the c i t y . However, the p u l l of the group and  need t o converse  i n Spanish  Page - 55  has  kept  even t h e s e  in  touch w i t h t h e i r unskilled in  f o r t u n a t e compadres.  and speak l i t t l e  seasonal  construction These  less  jobs  required.  jobs— or  E n g l i s h , have found  farming  Jobs,  i n which  forthis  only  group  the  non-Hispanic  minimal  problem place.  and a  number  English i s  a r e o n l y temporary and  Conflict  local  etc.),  (dish-washing, e t c . )  the men a r e f o r c e d by economics t o remain E a s t s i d e o f Vancouver.  some work  (fruit-picking  tourist-related  a r e ones  Those who a r e  residents  i n t h e Downtown  between  has r e c e n t l y  of violent  incidents  The use o f Oppenheimer park  and  Latinos  become a  have  on Powell  taken  Street, i n  the down-town E a s t - s i d e , became t h e scene o f a number o f , at  times  violent,  1990.  The Latinos  while  the l o c a l  Another  place  community  confrontations during  t h e summer o f  wanted t o use t h e park  t o play soccer  non-Hispanics at  centre  which at  wanted  conflict  44  t o play occurs  Alexander  softball.  i s a t the  street,  here  the  arguement i s over t h e evening r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and in  particular  t h e types  of films  t o be shown  on t h e  video. During "44  t h e Latinos  tend  t o congregate a t  Alexander P l a c e " Community Centre o r a t t h e Carnegie  Library. facilities in  the winter  The  community  centre  offers  and cheap meals and t h e l i b r a r y  ESL program  a couple  economical  snacks  newspaper  and look  and  o f evenings  Page - 56  o f f e r s a drop  a week as w e l l as  the opportunity  up employment  entertainment  to  read  opportunities.  the  During.  the  rest  o f t h e year  t h e Latinos  tend  t o congregate i n  Oppenheimer Park. Most evenings when t h e weather i s f a i r , they  c a n be found  music o r d i s c u s s i n g  there  playing  soccer,  listening  to  life.  A t p r e s e n t , i t i s estimated t h a t t h e r e a r e between two and  three  America  hundred  single  male  refugees  from  i n Vancouver. T h i s f i g u r e was o b t a i n e d  Central from t h e  Spanish-speaking  s t r e e t w o r k e r from t h e Downtown E a s t S i d e  Youth  Pablo  Program,  following  profile  Bazergue,  who  o f t h e community  also  gives  o f Latinos  the  in  the  Downtown E a s t S i d e : of  Refugee b a c k l o g i n B.C. -5192 persons C e n t r a l American o r i g i n .  Single males represent approximately (some movement between Toronto & Vancouver).  -300 Montreal,  The s i n g l e males a r e g e n e r a l l y poor, o r from poor backgrounds, and can be d i v i d e d i n t o two d i s t i n c t g r o u p s — r u r a l and urban. Rural— illiterate, and regarded as "dumb" o r n a i v e by t h e r e s t o f t h e C e n t r a l American community - v i r t u a l l y no e d u c a t i o n . U r b a n — u s u a l l y i l l i t e r a t e , but " s t r e e t smart" - average e d u c a t i o n grade t h r e e . I l l i t e r a c y - estimated a t 60 - 70%. (My study, u s i n g a s m a l l not support some o f Pablo's views) These and  single  desperately  situation  men a r e l o n e l y , i n need  of  sample, d i d  often  emotional  war-traumatized support.  This  has l e d many o f these men t o s e t up i n f o r m a l  relationships  with  n a t i v e I n d i a n women  Page - 57  ( t h e reason f o r  their  choice i s said  t o be t h a t they  are t h e "only  ones  a v a i l a b l e " ) . N a t i v e women a r e p a t i e n t and tend t o w a i t t o get  respect  and a t t e n t i o n r e l a t i v e  women. T h i s t r a i t who  tend  to  t o European-Canadian  f i n d s favour w i t h C e n t r a l American men,  feel  that  women  should  be  quiet  and  s u b s e r v i e n t . N a t i v e I n d i a n women a r e c u l t u r a l l y c l o s e r t o i n o u t l o o k and e x p e c t a t i o n s than European  Latinos  women  a r e . A l s o European women tend t o p r e f e r educated men and see Latinos  as i l l i t e r a t e  failures.  of N a t i v e I n d i a n women and Latinos the  Latin  resort their  men become v e r y  to violence partners.  often  and use  aggressive,  and o c c a s i o n a l l y  Drug  dependence  excuses  and heavy  f o r women i n Latino  f o r violence.  they  see i n  drinking are c u l t u r e , and  (Octavio  Paz, 1959)  a r e a l s o shocked a t t h e s e x u a l p r o m i s c u i t y among  Latinos  native  i s n o t v e r y smooth, as  t o correct the faults  not a c c e p t a b l e behavior are  However t h e m i n g l i n g  Indian  women. L a t i n  men a r e g e n e r a l l y n o t pimps  " w i l l n o t p u t women t o work, ( P a b l o ) " and indeed violence  t o stop  prostitution. their  native  "their"  women  being  will  involved i n  L a t i n men have a l s o been known t o beat up Indian  partners  t o stop  them  from  using  drugs. "Do n o t f i x ( i n g e s t o r i n j e c t n a r c o t i c s ) when w i t h me"  i s a common agreement  couples.  However,  made between H i s p a n i c / n a t i v e  paradoxically,  they  may  p a r t n e r s t o h e l p them s e l l drugs. The Latino protective  of their  Indian  aggressive  with  when  them  partners, these  Page - 58  ask  their  men a r e v e r y  and o n l y  women c o n t i n u e  become t o use  drugs  or  large  prostitution. The in  amounts  alcohol,  (Pablo Bazerque, 1990;  f a m i l y - c l a s s refugees  c o n t r a s t t o the  the m i d d l e - c l a s s have  of  arrived  of  neighbouring the  countries.  status  from  within  employment and their  eduction,  determination  p r o f e s s i o n a l s , and  blocks  in  their  professional  in  directly  4,800  in  like  terms  c h i l d r e n are  of  however  "Sponsored" refugees r e s e n t f u l of  regarding  Canada,  are,  t o await the r e s u l t s o f  although  path,  status  either  to,  Their  e l i g i b l e f o r r e g u l a r schooling.) often  from  applied f o r refugee  They  have had  process.  often  or from r e f u g e e camps i n  people who  Canada.  origin,  of o r i g i n . They u s u a l l y  (Approximately  s i n g l e male refugees,  are  refugees",  from t h e i r c o u n t r i e s of o r i g i n ,  to  Roger Barany,1990)  s i n g l e male refugees,  "sponsored  return  L a t i n American  i n t h e i r country  as  or  are  the  many  regaining generally  are  their able  to  c r e a t e new  l i v e s f o r themselves and  t h e i r families. Their  inability  to  status  generally  due  educational certification,  obtain to  a  professional lack  requirements to  which  of  English  families  do  aggravated by  and  not  suffer the  too from  the  Canadian  immigrants  internal  community new  struggle to regain t h e i r  and by t h e i r language d i f f i c u l t i e s .  in are  support,  life.  stress,  is  extra  "Sponsored" refugees  unpleasant  Page - 59  Canada  for  a l l professional  a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h , w i t h government and tolerable  and  necessary  p r o f e s s i o n a l f i e l d s are s u b j e c t .  a  in  Their  which  former  is  status  While  "Sponsored"  American  refugees  refugees  form  i n Canada  a  the bulk  significant  of  Latin  number  of  "Refugee C l a i m a n t s " a r e a l s o p r e s e n t . Of t h e 5192 a d u l t refugee been  claimants  issued  (April  have n o t been major  i n B.C. o n l y  issued  breadwinner  problems, whereas  1989).  work p e r m i t s  are available  f o r t h e men.  This  couples are the  has l e d  language.  a balance  society.  to  f o r t h e women,  Family  on t h e c h i l d r e n  creating  have  stress  occurs enter  w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s , soon become  i n the English  Latin-American  within  and a l s o occurs as t h e i r c h i l d r e n  dependent  negotiators,  permits  u n l e s s they  jobs  s c h o o l , and i n comparison  parents  females  the family.  few e x i s t  conversant  Most  work  within  as many  because o f t h i s ,  3308  This  makes t h e  as i n t e r p r e t e r s and  c o n t r a r y t o t h e norm i n  Our d i f f e r e n t  social  mores  also  put a s t r a i n on f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Family breakups a r e common among L a t i n s and they w i l l stay  together  jeopardy—  no  no l o n g e r c o h a b i t b u t  " f o r show". The women a r e now i n double independent  work  permit,  and  fear  of  d e p o r t a t i o n , i f they l e a v e t h e i r husband, on whose b e h a l f the  determination  practice  seems  Canadian  society.  process  a r c h a i c i n view  Refugee c h i l d r e n ,  s c h o o l , and have  have  not  graduated  be  conducted.  o f t h e norms  many who came t o Canada  teens, have n o t f i t t e d in  will  i n well.  a high and  Page - 60  o f modern  i n their  They have n o t succeeded  dropout are  This  rate.  often  Because  unemployed  they or  unemployable, they tend t o hang around get  into  gangs  petty  such  petty  scrapes  as Los  crime  prostitution discrimination population cultural  dealing  drugs.  against  has l e d  identity.  t h e law. Many  and have  Diablos  rings and  with  shopping m a l l s and  Latins  become  in  William by  many L a t i n  Smiley  joined  involved i n  stolen  property, claims  the l o c a l  youths  This rejection  have  that  non-Latin  to reject  has r e s u l t e d  their  i n Latin  youth a d o p t i n g a d e f i a n t a t t i t u d e t o s o c i e t y . ...a d e f i a n t a t t i t u d e towards s o c i e t y as m a n i f e s t e d by t h e gang members who j o i n together to reinforce their i d e n t i t y and support one another i n what they p e r c e i v e as a hostile, closed s o c i e t y . . . . a c c e s s t o power, status and money a r e gained through gang membership and a c t i v i t y . F o r some, i t i s an a l t e r n a t i v e t o welfare. (Smiley, 1989) Nona Thompson,  from  Stepup,  t h e Vancouver School Board the law, Los  noted,  s c h o o l under  f o r students i n c o n f l i c t  with  a t a r e c e n t t a l k she gave on gangs,  that  was  Diablos  a special  composed  of  approximately  30  gang  members, p l u s many "wannabe's"—youths who t r y t o emulate gang members. of  These youths a r e caught up i n t h e "glamour  t h e gang"  because  o f t h e rewards  membership bestows on t h e m — " n o t o r i e t y , money".  Thompson  went  on  to  that  associate  girls,  drugs and  say t h a t  i t i s the  "wannabe's" who perpetuate most o f t h e crimes gangs,  and t h a t  they  a c t u a l gang members. are j u v e n i l e s ,  are only  loosely  blamed on  directed  by t h e  They a r e used because u s u a l l y  and thus d e a l t w i t h r e l a t i v e l y  Page - 61  they  l i g h t l y by  the  courts.  A t t h e same conference,  withheld f o r security  Wayne  (name  reasons) o f t h e Vancouver Organized  Crime Squad confirmed Thompson's assessment o f Vancouver L a t i n American youth i n l o c a l crime. The included they  single  males  examined  (by t h e p u b l i c )  a r e not  often  gang  generally of a d i f f e r e n t  with  i n this  study  this  group,  members,  being  social  class.  Page - 62  are often  but i n f a c t older  and  Chapter s i x Research  Methodology  Canada  is still  seen  by many a s p i r i n g  refugees  the l a n d o f hope. I f we as Canadians a r e unable with  the current influx,  how a r e we g o i n g  as  t o cope  to deal  with  the l a r g e r numbers t h a t w i l l seek our shores as t h e world population are  continues  already  processing  overwhelmed.  refugee  120,000.  Today  reduced,  but has  applicants program.  that This  approximately per  month.  t o escalate? In  claimants  this  number  been  have  1989  the  policies  backlog  for  i n Canada was e s t i m a t e d a t has n o t been  added  arrived  added  Our c u r r e n t  number  to  by  under has  a  substantially new  t h e new been  influx  of  streamlined  estimated  at  40,000 and i s b e i n g added t o by about 3000  (Vancouver  Sun, 14 Feb. 1991, Joan  Bryden,  Southam News) By  choosing  t o study  t h e problems e x p e r i e n c e d  by a  s m a l l b u t growing source o f refugee c l a i m a n t s , I hope t o be  able  t o underline  t h e major  problems  r e f u g e e c l a i m a n t s as they attempt  faced  by  to rebuild their  a l l  lives  i n Canada. I doing  felt  t h a t by c o n c e n t r a t i n g on a few s u b j e c t s and  an i n depth  study  I would  gain a greater  insight  i n t o t h e t a r g e t group. The survey was t h e r e f o r e e x t e n s i v e i n terms o f t h e range o f q u e s t i o n s and t h e time taken t o complete.  A l l the questionnaires  Page - 63  were  only  completed  after  a  lengthy  interview.  I  felt  the purposes o f a g e n e r a l survey, to  obtain  fact,  a  profile  of  the  t h i r t e e n subjects  o b t a i n a t l e a s t one  would,  sufficient  refugee  interviewed,  s u b j e c t who  an economic refugee.  this  g i v e me  male  were  that  In  in  to  male  Central  Americans  living  order be  seen  as  determined t o  be  the minimum number r e q u i r e d . T h i s r e p r e s e n t e d single  data  claimant.  could c l e a r l y  Twelve s u b j e c t s was  for  in  10%  the  of  the  Downtown  E a s t s i d e o f Vancouver. Prior  to  interviewed in  contact  included  the  planning  personel with  people  the  of  the  from the v a r i o u s refugee  from  questionaire  agencies  claimants.  Employment  and  These  t h a t come interviews  Immigration  Canada,  l e g a l S e r v i c e s , the O f f i c e of the S e c r e t a r y of S t a t e , Canadian  Council  f o r Refugees  groups,  Oxfam,  Amnesty  lawyers,  social  workers,  (Vancouver),  International, refugees,  ESL  (a f u l l  the  attended  Acknowledgements)  conferences  that  focused  These i n c l u d e d the Simon  Fraser  I  also on  Central  "Human R i g h t s  University  (SFU)  the  a t SFU and  Canada and  (Harbour Centre) i n March 1990,  Immigration  a t MOSAIC i n may  s e r v i c e s , the  Back;og  1989.  Page -  64  a  number  1989,  the  Centre  of American and  and  of  refugees.  Disappeared"  Britania  the O r g a n i z a t i o n  rights  i s given i n  American the  the  Rights  human  list  in April  American Youth Symposium a t the 1989,  and  Human  instructors  Vancouver School Board p e r s o n e l .  I  the  Clearance  at  Latin  in July States  Eployment Process  After  e x t e n s i v e i n t e r v i e w s and d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h  those  who r e g u l a r l y come i n c o n t a c t w i t h these r e f u g e e s , and my own p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s as a v o l u n t e e r ESL t e a c h e r a t the  Carnegie  Centre  in  the  Vancouver, i t was determined  downtown  eastside  of  t h a t t h e b e s t approach would  be t o make t h e i n t e r v i e w s broad-based. T h i s would p u t i n perspective well,  t h e areas most r e l e v a n t t o t h e r e s e a r c h . As  personnel  both  at  t h e Downtown  P r o j e c t and a t MOSAIC suggested  Eastside  some a d d i t i o n a l  Youth  questions  t h a t would, on p u b l i c a t i o n , be o f v a l u e t o t h e i r work i n the f i e l d . the  two  Not o n l y would t h e survey be o f a s s i s t a n c e t o organizations  involved  with  Central  American  r e f u g e e c l a i m a n t s but would,I hoped, be o f b e n e f i t t o t h e refugee  claimants.  inequities  I  feel  that  and inadequacies  by  highlighting  of the present  policy  the that  t h i s w i l l a l t e r p o l i c y and be o f b e n e f i t t o t h e c l a i m a n t s in  their  Canadian  need  milieu.  D.E.Y.A.S. alcohol,  to assimilate I  was  t o enquire and  their  and a c c u l t u r a t e i n t o  asked  into  by  their  Pablo abuse  relationships  the  Bazarque of  with  of  drugs  women.  and This  i n f o r m a t i o n proved u s e f u l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a more complete profile  of the claimants  and how they  spent  their  time  and money. I t a l s o h i g h l i g h t e d t h e major areas o f concern for  the various  ongoing  basis.  relationships discover  agencies He  also  i n their  that asked  home  deal that  with some  background  i f a l c o h o l had been a problem  Page - 65  be  them idea  on  of the  explored  i n their  an  to  homes.  Roger which  Barany, areas  from  of  information  the  was  ethics  of  of  issue.  assistance  serve  the  possible  conflict  have  comprimised  supplied  was  interviewees interviewee was  refugee The both in  as  been  studied  behind  cases the  in  this  matched,  typical  a  by  my  not  and  to  own.In similar  Florida was in  to  see  hopes  profile  of  research  and  analysis. of  the  record  Each first  Accordingly,  the  research  their  areas  variables conducted  included  in  the  general  finding  single  information  of  addition,  of  any  employer. no  i f the  best  survey,  enquiring  include  were  based  the  be  questions  final  or  number  to  of  the  the  maintained.  my  in  in  raised  abrigate  broad  of  the  would  resources  however  value  designed as  less  to  Because  This  gained  inclusion  address  or  well  claimants  idea  of  given  was  a  as  agencies  therefore  scope  ensured  made  questionnaire concern,  the  surname, was  of  researcher,  information  other  paramount.  The  in  enquire resided.  information  ethics.  within  Confidentiality  was  would  would  to  for  allocation  of  the  fell  the  and  sources,  requested  clients  the  me  questioned  gathered  felt  clients  other  had  I  asked  those  the  in  from  name  city  being  confidentiality an  Mosaic,  male  of  which among study.  profile  in  generalizations Latin  American  refugees. In  order  interviewee, Bazarque  of  to  alleviate  I  tried,  D.E.Y.A.S.  any  in to  Page  anxiety  most  on  the  part  cases,  to  get  introduce  -  66  me  to  them  of  the  Pablo or  at  least  t o accompany me t o Oppenheimer Park and i n t r o d u c e  me t o t h e group who might become p o t e n t i a l i n t e r v i e w e e s . Pablo  accompanied  occasions  during  introduced  me  t o t h e park  which  interviews  on  s i x of the ten  took  place.  My  by Pablo ensured t h a t t h e p r o s p e c t i v e  being  subject  would know I was n o t from Immigration Canada o r any o t h e r official The one  agency.  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was designed interview  questionnaire administer,  situation. that  would  and t h a t  e f f o r t and as l i t t l e  could  t o be used i n a one-on-  I  wished  to  create  take  about  one  hour  be answered  with  as  a to  little  command o f E n g l i s h as p o s s i b l e .  The  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i v i d e d i n t o s i x s e c t i o n s as f o l l o w s : 1.  I n d i v i d u a l background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  2.  A r r i v a l and e a r l y  3.  E d u c a t i o n a l and r e l a t e d data  4.  Occupation and employment r e c o r d , both i n  experiences  country o f o r i g i n , and i n Canada 5.  Economic h i s t o r y i n Canada  6.  B e l i e f s and O r i e n t a t i o n  Because questions, and  of  the s e n s i t i v e  I was prepared  informed  nature  t o accept  of  some  of the  a r e f u s a l t o answer,  a l l t h e s u b j e c t s t h a t they  could decline t o  answer q u e s t i o n s t h a t they thought were n o t v a l i d . Section  1,  dealing  with  r e q u i r e d answers t o q u e s t i o n s from?  where i s t h a t ?  individual  such a s :  backgrounds,  where do you come  how b i g i s t h e t o w n / v i l l a g e  Page - 67  that  you  lived  in?  questions subjects felt in  what  are to  generally  answer  that  section  the  complex  to such  subjects  lead  up  as:  why  would  questions.  immediately asking  one-  or  to  more  did  be  to  about  father  their  and  you  journey  slowly  talking  from  so such  question,  by  I  questions  answering  this  ground  the  answers.  leave?,  when  These  allow  sensitive  asked  safer  do?  two-word  relaxed  Having  returned  questions  your  nonthreatening  i n simple  i t important  this  did/does  I and  homeland  to  Canada. Section again  2  included  required  questions, "Latins"  as  simple I  are  probability  very  to  when  also  day had  organized no  so  principal of  adaptation  other  they  For  such  in as  inability  mention  them,  reviewed  other  in  dates  events  questions,  when  Canada,  I  language,  and  in/sense work,  were  thus felt  problems  of  and  offered less  that  they  Page  -  68  a  a  yes  or  their number  immigration who  opportunity  selfconscious, might  were  family/cultural  Those  the  me  section  these  them  belong), other.  tell  about  give  economic,  a l l This  This  asking  would  in  could  place.  my  that  dates.  subjects  took  in  Mexico and  important  that  dates  generally required either  to  and  stay  in  most  example,  (fitting  problems  as  questions,  included  my  the  sensitive  problems  choices,  status,  specific  that  answer.  from  remember correct,  some  I  interested  would proved  factual  answers.  remembered  assumption the  mainly  have  faced.  had to  having  S e c t i o n 3, a f t e r the level  acquired  sliding  in their  scale.  For  i n i t i a l question homelands,  example,  of  educational  generally  the  employed  question  knowledge o f E n g l i s h employed a s c a l e r a n g i n g to  "fluent",  while  newspaper  readership  a  regarding from "none"  ranged  from  dealt  with  " d a i l y " t o "almost never". Section  4  was  kept  employment, both i n the This  section,  administer attempted  of  derive  the  up  as  it  of o r i g i n  might  be  language  and  more  i n Canada.  difficult  problems,  maximum of  and  information  to  so  I  with  the  status,  was  questions.  Section set  country  felt,  because to  minimum of  I  short  to  5,  on  be  their  as  current  simple  as  financial  possible  with  only  short  sliding  scale  answers r e q u i r e d . Section answers l i k e  6  was  Section  t a l k e d w i t h the As study  questions  4,  composed  that could  earlier,  any their  buried  that  level  questions  check e a s i l y  I was  within most  the  germaine  in of  it, if on  as  Canada.  anxious  English they  had  I  to  obtain  I  also  competence  newspaper r e a d i n g ,  Page - 69  had radio  and ESL  to how  obtain  determine they  classes.  listening  to  countries  managed t o  wanted  the The  answers  status i n t h e i r  not  to  questionnaire.  as w e l l as whether they had  education  acquired  be  questions  were those on t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l of o r i g i n ,  of  subjects.  mentioned were  mainly  had The  and  TV  watching  were  designed  to  extract  this  information.  Other g u e s t i o n s t h a t might h e l p determine t h i s were t h o s e regarding  the  ethnicity  of the  area  that  they  and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s w i t h n o n - L a t i n Americans Once  the  presented  to  Eastside  Youth  questionnaire the  comment. A f t e r  was  interested  Project review,  (D.E.Y.A.S.)  at  it  the  and  in  i n Canada.  designed,  parties  a few  lived  at  was  Downtown  MOSAIC  items were added, and  for some  of t h e e x i s t i n g q u e s t i o n s were amended so as t o f o c u s on t h e p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t s under study and so as not t o cause undue a n x i e t y i n the s u b j e c t s . Upon  revision  design,  i t was  and  determined,  worker  for  (Pablo  Bazarque),  summer of  acceptance  Latin  1990  of  with  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ' s  the  American  refugees  to  out  carry  a t Oppenheimer  the  a i d of at  the  the  social  D.E.Y.A.S.  i n t e r v i e w s over  Park.  T h i s park  the  i s used  most days by the r e f u g e e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the a f t e r n o o n . They p l a y s o c c e r or s o f t b a l l meeting  as w e l l  as hanging  out  and  friends.  Prior  to starting  the  interviews, I v i s i t e d  the  park  w i t h Pablo Bazarque from the D.E.Y.A.S. t o be i n t r o d u c e d to  some of the refugee c l a i m a n t s . I spent  meetings  just  chatting  generally  and  my  getting  first  few  t o know  a  few of the more v e r b a l and r e l a x e d members of the group. I  began  the  interviews i n late  June and  visited  the  park each Wednesday, except "Welfare Wednesday" (the l a s t Wednesday  of  each  month—the  day  Page - 70  welfare  cheques  were  distributed), s u b j e c t and i t was this  and  attempted  sometimes two  to  interview at  least  one  per week. "Welfare Wednesday",  p o i n t e d out by Pablo, would not be a good day,  was  t h e day  many o f their  the  that  w e l f a r e cheques were  s u b j e c t s would  cheques  on  alcohol  have  issued,  a l r e a d y spent  and  would  be  as and  some  difficult  of to  interview. Interviews before  I  had  unavoidable ship  continued  personal  obtained  what  scam",  with  July  all  (for further  the  see  August  Delays  city  myself  details  into  Wednesday",  from  between  and  thirteen.  "Welfare  interference  altercation  subjects,  through  the  were "cruise  police  and  and  one  of  a the  observations at  the  end of t h i s chapter) Many of the being up  s u b j e c t s were v e r y  apprehensive  i n t e r v i e w e d . I found the b e s t approach  each  interview  s e t t i n g up needed,  the  appointments  week  before.  I  was  found  about to set  that  w i t h more s u b j e c t s than I  I would u s u a l l y  get one  or two  to return  by  really to  be  interviewed. The  s u b j e c t s ' a p p r e h e n s i o n i s understandable. When  considers  the  have escaped, had  repressive  from  which  they  and the h a r d s h i p s and q u e s t i o n i n g they have  t o endure from  Immigration  circumstances  one  officers  t h e i r subsequent  border p a t r o l s , during t h e i r  police  officers,  and  journey t o Canada  and  d e a l i n g s w i t h Employment and  Page - 71  Immigration  Canada and w e l f a r e p e r s o n n e l , i t i s amazing t h a t they a r e as forthcoming as they a r e . When subject  conducting  interviews,  and  for  the  r e s e a r c h . I emphasized the p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s p o s s i b l e  from  such  were  explaining  minutes  each  doing  r e s e a r c h , and  ten  s i t with  the  procedure,  about  would  about  interview  talk  I  why  p o i n t e d out t h a t  I  was  i f my  findings  taken s e r i o u s l y by the government agencies i n v o l v e d , they might b e n e f i t conducted Spanish  i n the l o n g run. Our  i n English  i s limited.  speak—I  spent  with  c o n v e r s a t i o n would  some "pidgen"  Spanish,  (Though I understand  one  and  a  half  as  more than I  years  in  be  Mexico  my can  as  a  c r u i s i n g s a i l o r and d i d p i c k up some workable S p a n i s h ) . After  I felt  t h a t the s u b j e c t was  a t ease,  I would  b e g i n the a c t u a l survey. I never wrote down t h e s u b j e c t s ' names, but  numbered them one  were o n l y 13 s u b j e c t s i t was I  had  previously  occured.  Each  survey  were  spoke poor  English.  English,  interpreter. me  and  results  took  even  that  an  be  hour.  especially  In many cases,  I carried  i t was  so  over  longer,  would  Because t h e r e  easy t o keep t r a c k of  interviewed  interviews  better  to thirteen.  asked  a  no  duplication Some  if a  friend,  to  of  who  assist  i f I e x p l a i n e d why  I found I needed  question.  Page - 72  that the  I got  the  subject spoke as  a Spanish/English d i c t i o n a r y  o f t e n used.  those  an with  the  best  answer t o  each  Once  t h e s u b j e c t had r e l a x e d and t h e survey  in  most  cases  h e was w i l l i n g  In  some  cases  this  not in  completed. front  their  This  a  torn  up  the survey  was  and disposed  of  intended  more  available  by  willingness  to  their  method.  and w i l l i n g  was  not  survey  survey lives  of  the  intended prior  lives  i n  intended  they  were  that  i t was  with  t h e Canadian  treatment  on t h e day and  to  t o provide  an  to migration, Vancouver.  adequate  intended  they  and  The  time  dealt  statistically  under  how  needs.  they  but  portrayal  migration  study  how  study  indepth  was  available  was  at large  a  during  their  to explore  by t h e p u b l i c that  to  culture  be  population  to discover the facilities  whether  Any randomness l a y  there.  new  agencies  were  by any random  study  their  their  surveys  chosen  than  significant  of  Such  being  I was  rather  d i d n o t happen and then  were  participate  that  t o the questions.  of the subject involved.  Subjects  in  t o respond  had begun,  they  and  further  t o them and Other were  perceived  areas coping their  and t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s  and  with.  Observations It during  should  be  noted  the conducting  relevant  to  the  others  should  surveys  with  be  this  of these  study, aware type  that  some  interviews that,  highlight of  some  i f they  o f group.  Page  difficulties  - 73  of  attempt  arose  while not  the to  problems conduct  The by  "cruise  some  from  of  the  cruise  price.  liquor  at  selling  to  had  arrived  at  the  (a  three  had  station)  on  complaint protested, roughing  been a  and had  the  sold  i t at  cruise  ship  refugee east  side,  retail ships  who  by  then  well  below  employees  were  claimants  the  them  noses  one  who  and  were  other  only  and and  (a  and  too  this  informed When  number lips.  Page  -  74  of This  the  The whole  the went  stereo). The  group  that the  a  group  the  and more  police incident  refugees on  my  music  individuals  protested.  a  to  rock  happened,  allowed  some  police  prior  down.  out  I  interviewed  (a  noise.  after  with  portable  were  during  five  FM"  radio  picking  opinion),  split  had  large  the  talk  group,  "KISS  the  more  soon  I  The  to  refugees  i n my  to  arrived  about  The  soon  whom  They  began  occasion,  of  turn  why.  problem  begun  group.  to  ongoing  had  cars  filed  up.  the  on  blaster"  police  them  another  listening  been  escalate,  bleeding  off  and  and  the  asked  (deliberately, to  taken  the  them  number  "ghetto  told  violently  half  members  was  squad  arrival,  so,  purchased  crew  to  park  approached  did  about  be  some  Example,  refugees  police  at  discovery  of  downtown  officers  The  could  the  money.  For  already),  alcohol  being  The  harassment  study.  the  the  save  the  of  liquor  of  Police  off  prices.  the  residents  was  urging  liquor  store  from  that  liquor the  the  resulted  passengers  Duty-free  collected  scam",  subjects  ship  passengers,  eager  ship  for  had some  time,  until  others  a  t o leave  officers  who  clothes).  strengthened might  be  claimed  be.  and  with  to my  One one  I  hostility  on  re-introduce  me  the  were  have my  plain  obvious,  body  been  next  I  I  was  the  whole  might  have that  a n d n o t who  I  why  there  was  visit.  After  the  interviewee  before  i n  of the claimants  was  week  later,  while  I  was  I had t o get  able  attempting  o f t h e s u b j e c t s , he took .exception to  rushed  and dragged  up  strike  us  to  h i s determination  I was  thought always  been  I  board  was  around  Page  and he  drinking,  proceed  asking  - 75  interview  presence  and  His friends a l l fled.  having  hearing  involved  to  t o my  his fists.  apart,  time  apparently  had  with  that  with  he  me  explained  because  interest,  survey.  proceeded  He  some  the potential  the  this  an o f f i c i a l  might  told  throughout  ignored  among  with  and  up  and q u i t e  police  was  This  with  the roughing  the  connected  confrontation Pablo  by  arrived  of incidental  present  the belief  to  mistrust  of  I was  Because  officer  matter  d i d most  ignored  incident.  police  (as a  Although  totally  I  sixth  The had  that  with  questions.  others a  hard  morning.  Immigration,  Chapter  Seven  A n a l y s i s o f Data S e c t i o n 1. Background Based on t h e data o b t a i n e d from t h e t h i r t e e n s u b j e c t s it  can be e x t r a p o l a t e d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f s i n g l e  Latin  American  refugee  towns o r c i t i e s  with  claimants  come from  medium-sized  a mean p o p u l a t i o n o f approximately  50,000. The s u b j e c t s were s p l i t  nearly evenly  with  (6)  and  indicate  that  rural  male  backgrounds  those  into  those  with  urban  backgrounds ( 7 ) . Family working  backgrounds  class  families  poor w i t h i n t h e i r parents the  would  had no formal  age o f t h e i r  educational schooling fifty  level  fathers, i s high,  opportunities  years  n o t be regarded  o f s c h o o l . Four  education  these, t h e mean o f t h e remainder the  a r e from as  (two f a t h e r s ' e d u c a t i o n s were unknown)  f a t h e r s ' mean was 3.8 y e a r s  fathers  men  communities. Of t h e t h i r t e e n s u b j e c t s '  education  7  which  these  at a l l .  of the  On d i s c o u n t i n g  was 7 y e a r s . C o n s i d e r i n g  (mean  =  64.5  years),  this  taking  into  account  the  available  ago. The mothers'  in  mean  Central  was  3.5  America years  of  s c h o o l i n c l u d i n g s i x w i t h no formal s c h o o l i n g . Given t h e general  attitude  t o womens e d u c a t i o n  Central  America  (still  prevalent  t h i s i s a r e s p e c t a b l e average.  Page - 76  fifty  today  years  ago i n  i n rural  areas)  Five  of  my  when they  subjects  fled.  Of  either  followed  entered  trades  were  the  in  still  remaining  their  students  eight  fathers'  o r p r o f e s s i o n s . One  at  college  a l l but  one  had  footsteps  or  had  young men  did  of the  not f i t t h i s p a t t e r n , as he had been employed as a "mule" (carrier  of  illegal  drugs  b o r d e r ) . T h i s s u b j e c t was called"  across  the  U.S./Mexican  i n c l u d e d as an example of a  economic refugee"  -one  who  d i d not  flee  so-  because  of p e r s e c u t i o n . A  family  that  all  profile  the  is difficult  subjects  s u c c e s s f u l upbringings of  their  parents.  seem  to  to  obtain.  have  had  Five  subjects  are  from  were brought up by other r e l a t i v e s and  8.67 2.7  size  varied  Subjects  sharply  one  from r u r a l  between  reasonably  intact two  homes, subjects  s u b j e c t by h i s  rural  f a m i l i e s had  s i b l i n g s w h i l e urban s u b j e c t s had  an  and  urban  average of  an average o f  only  siblings. Only  two  subjects  money t o support come up and The  and  were married.  Both  currently  t h e i r wives, and hope t h a t the wives  send can  j o i n them soon.  average  o r i g i n was 21  say  stepmother.  Family dwellers.  can  and have i n h e r i t e d the work e t h i c s  f i v e are from s i n g l e parent homes (mothers),  f a t h e r and  I  25.3  23 y e a r s  age  of  departure  from  the  country  of  y e a r s . However, the m a j o r i t y were between of age  when they  Page - 77  left.  Two  s u b j e c t s were  considerably  older,  and  only  p e r s e c u t i o n and f e a r f o r t h e i r The  left  due  to  severe  safety.  s u b j e c t s d i d not a l l l e a v e a t t h e same time.  came p r i o r  t o 1982 w i t h  the r e s t  coming  Two  up d u r i n g t h e  p e r i o d 1985 t o 1989. The reasons f o r t h e departure v a r y and a r e as f o l l o w s : Student a c t i v i s t Political activist P e r s o n a l death t h r e a t s V i o l e n t death o f r e l a t i v e s Avoidance o f d r a f t Army d e s e r t e r Fleeing criminal prosecution  Both  the students  and  political  3 2 2 2 2 1 1 13  (Mexican)  activists  actively  opposed t h e i r c o u n t r i e s ' governments, and may have a hard time  proving t h e i r  c l a i m s as r e f u g e e s  u n l e s s they  have  been s p e c i f i c a l l y t a r g e t e d by t h e p o l i c e o r government as enemies o f t h e s t a t e .  Those who  r e c e i v e d death  threats,  o r whose f a m i l i e s have e x p e r i e n c e d a s e r i e s o f p o l i t i c a l murders, w i l l , claim the  asylum  draft  deserter's  i f they can s u b s t a n t i a t e them, be a b l e t o under  t h e U.N.  will  r e c e i v e very  fate  c o u l d go e i t h e r  been a member o f a "death executed  Convention.  and d i s p o s e d  little  Those a v o i d i n g  sympathy.  way.  The army  He c l a i m s  t o have  squad" and, as such,  of a  number  that  of c i v i l i a n s  he  before  b e i n g i n a p o s i t i o n t o f l e e . A case l a s t year i n Montreal d e a l i n g w i t h a known member o f a "death in  t h e refugee  resulting  from  claimant  being  granted  squad"  resulted  asylum.  (Lawsuit  a RDB h e a r i n g a t which Stewart  Page - 78  Istvanffy  represented civilians  a under  Conference SFU  in  Mexican  of  orders.  1989)  make any  a refugee real  who  and  the  Mexican  but  the  of  mandate  deserve  i n the  i t would the  Disappeared will,  I  c o n s i d e r a t i o n , and  three  are  army  deserter.  doubt;  The  the  held  at  Not  the  me,  the  the  suspect,  subjects  Mexican twelve  dodgers  dodgers  The  and  deserve  c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the l i g h t o f our treatment o f U.S. dodgers d u r i n g the Vietnam War.  I  studied  remaining  draft  a  cannot  the  draft  be  being  having  a l l but  of  at  (RDB), I  of  to  that  that  i n serious  board  cases  appear  RDB's,  killed  I s t v a n f f y spoke  determination  judgment  interviewed,  the  The  V.Cruz,  t o Mexico t o f a c e c r i m i n a l charges.  member o f  only  Stewart  Human R i g h t s  April  returned  soldier,  draft  army d e s e r t e r  should  be judged w i t h the p r e v i o u s case i n mind. Eight  of  interviewed  the  thirteen  used  the  refugee  bus  system  claimants  to  travel,  that not  through C e n t r a l America, but a l s o n o r t h a c r o s s the States.  Two  o f the  o n l y a f t e r they to  do  drove  so. up  One  Texas. means  From by  had  own  travelled car.  The  by last  Brownsville,  members  "sanctuary  of Two  he  the other  was  and  and  rail,  while  United buses afford another  walked  to Brownsville  transported  "sanctuary  only  used could  subject  from Mosote i n E l Salvador  Canadian border. the  hitch-hiked,  found work enroute,  subject  in his  entire t r i p  subjects  by  movement"  "sanctuary  Page - 79  the in  various to  s u b j e c t s were a l s o helped  movement". The  I  the by  movement" i s an  underground  o r g a n i s a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d by v a r i o u s  churches  w i t h i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada t h a t a s s i s t  refugees  i n g a i n i n g access t o both t h e U.S. and Canada. Only two s u b j e c t s t r a v e l l e d d i r e c t l y t o Canada. Of the others,  four  spent  time  i n both  Mexico and  the  United  S t a t e s b e f o r e coming t o Canada. The remainder spent i n the United way  to  journey one  S t a t e s . Most of them  support  themselves.  The  from home t o Canada was  does  not  include  the  two  This  i s just  over  jobs along the  average  length  thirty-three direct  average l e n g t h of t h e journey was months.  found  just  by r e f u g e e agencies had suggested  of  Figures supplied  a f i g u r e o f between two  (Mosaic - Roger Barany)  S e c t i o n 2. A r r i v a l and e a r l y  years  those  subjects  who  entered  entered  Canada  in British  the  thirty-eight  and t h r e e y e a r s was average.  Five  the  months. I f  travellers, over  three years.  time  i n Ontario,  Columbia,  were  and  unlike  o f f e r e d ESL  t r a i n i n g , a t t h e same time as being e l e g i b l e f o r w e l f a r e . The e i g h t s u b j e c t s who with  one  within  three  training. January  noticable months  entered  in British  exceptions, but  A l l subjects  were  were  Columbia were,  elegible not  granted  for  elegible work  welfare for  ESL  permits  in  differed  as  o f 1989.  The s t a t u s follows:  given  the refugee  Refugee c l a i m a n t  Page - 80  claimants 9  M i n i s t e r i a l permit Refugee s t a t u s Permanent r e s i d e n t s v i s a V i s i t o r s permit ( l y r . )  Although in  Oppenheimer Park,  area.  The  Vancouver, Broadway and  a l l subjects  others where  between  there Fraser  ( l a t e r granted refugee c l a i m a n t status)  were c o n t a c t e d  only  were  1 1 1 1  seven  lived  and  i n t h e immediate  from  t h e two  is a  concentration  and Main  interviewed  other  Streets,  areas of  of  Latins,  and Broadway  Commercial. On  average, each s u b j e c t had moved 3.2 times w h i l e i n  Vancouver. The most common reason was t o move t o a b e t t e r and  more  suitable  place.  The  ethnicity  of  neighbourhood chosen was predominantly one i n which are  many  other  both  Latins,  refugee  the there  claimants  and  immigrants. Some o f t h e refugees on  a r r i v a l , but o n l y  from a r e l a t i v e ,  had r e l a t i v e s  already  one o f t h e s u b j e c t s  and t h a t was o n l y  i n Canada  received  f o r a period  help  o f one  month. Most s u b j e c t s claimed on  arrival  t h a t they r e c e i v e d t h e most h e l p  from government agencies  Canada). Two r e c e i v e d h e l p two  received  help  from  (Health  and W e l f a r e  from  f r i e n d s while  a further  church  organizations  ( i n both  cases an e x t e n s i o n o f t h e "sanctuary  movement").  Seven s u b j e c t s noted language as t h e i r  major problem.  F i v e s u b j e c t s noted economic d i f f i c u l t i e s .  Other areas o f  d i f f i c u l t y experienced  by t h e s u b j e c t s a r e as f o l l o w s :  Page - 81  Family/Cultural Adaptation I n a b i l i t y t o f i n d work Concern over s t a t u s P o l i c e harassment Misses family  2 3 4 1 1 1  One s u b j e c t was very r e s e n t f u l o f t h e f a c t t h a t he was treated  as a refugee  with h i s l i f e . professional expected  claimant  and j u s t wanted t o g e t on  I n h i s home country,  he had h e l d a s e n i o r  p o s i t i o n , as a p o l i c e d e t e c t i v e and he had  t o be welcomed  with  open  arms  because  of h i s  s k i l l s and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s .  S e c t i o n 3. Education The  refugee  attended  and r e l a t e d areas  claimants  i n t e r v i e w e d had, a p a r t from two,  some secondary s c h o o l . Three had completed  high  s c h o o l , and these t h r e e had a l s o completed post-secondary courses.  Of t h e remainder,  attended  post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t d i d n o t r e q u i r e  high  school  attended three  graduation.  secondary  eight  The  school  two  at  subjects  a l l had  and Grade s i x . Both these  small v i l l a g e s  were a t t e n d i n g  who  had n o t  completed  Grade  s u b j e c t s were from  and each worked on t h e f a m i l y  l a c k o f secondary education,  o r had  farm.  very This  among farm c h i l d r e n , i s not  uncommon i n C e n t r a l American c o u n t r i e s , and t h e tendency for  farming  elementary  children  school  to  was observed  attend  only  primary  by t h e w r i t e r  d u r i n g 1986 and 1987.  Page - 82  or  i n Mexico  Education  in  Vancouver,  survey,  has  entered  Canada i n O n t a r i o  o f ESL  been  very  encouraged t o opportunity  limited.  churches  eastside. street  and  little  Practice  worker  night  been o f  to  five  and  of  the  subjects  who  offered  a l l took  while. ESL  s i x months the  refugees  advantage  The  rest  of  c l a s s e s . ESL  of the  classes  have been h e l d on a ad-hoc b a s i s Carnegie  has  Centre  been  solicit  a drop-in  a  or no  a week d u r i n g  fragmented turned  the  They  least  t h a t some have attended  one  subjects  The  were a l l  attend.  f o r at  s u b j e c t s have had  at  the  c l a s s e s . These c l a s s e s were f r e e and  were the  for  for  the  volunteers, the  nature,  dependent  on  so  the  local who  winter.  and  in  which  community  offer  These  the  downtown  classes  classes  teaching  groups  of  have  has  been  students  up.  The  subjects,  eligible  f o r ESL  because  of  their  classes unless  they  For most, t h i s  i s w e l l beyond t h e i r  In  even  Vancouver,  attend,  there  more).  The  evening,  a  long  classes  financial  resources.  held  have  list  either  (six  a l l day  MOSAIC  but  those  money  to  months  or  or  every  ESL  at  especially  the  l o o k i n g f o r work, the l e n g t h of the term i s daunting. held  many,  f o r them.  or  are  for  are  waiting  not  pay  subjects  can  are  working  courses  and  is  i f the  status,  these,  too,  are  over-  found  that  seven  subscribed. On  questioning  the  subjects,  f e l t t h a t t h e i r E n g l i s h was  i t was  moderate and  Page - 83  t h r e e claimed  to  be  fluent.  minimal. claim  The  remaining  From my  between  own  three  scored  observations,  "moderate  E n g l i s h , w i t h the r e s t  their  English at  I would a l l o w two  competence  and  fluency"  somewhat below "moderate",  except  whom I would p l a c e a t a  two  were o n l y j u s t a b l e t o make themselves understood and  d i d not  these  cases,  Spanish/English  I had  dictionary  Spanish I would r a t e a t The none  extensive.  knowledge  were  questioning, good grasp the  current  and  capitals.  well  the  knew  subjects  (both the Sun read  the  interpreter  all  else  and  paper  and  failed.  Canada ranged  from  subjects with  college  a My  almost  "extensive"  graduates,  and  on  geography, as w e l l  political  "moderate" informed  structures  and  and  where  Victoria,  except  two  read  the  the  and  current  provinces  Prince  t o get t h e r e by  as  "some" knowledge knew  prime m i n i s t e r as w e l l as  Kamloops were, and how All  and  Those w i t h  They  to  t h a t they d i d , i n f a c t , have a v e r y  social  reasonably  premier  an  o f Canadian h i s t o r y and  polititians. were  when  three  three  I found  at  "minimal".  The  the  last  i n monosyllables.  t o use  s u b j e c t s ' knowledge of  to  These  have enough language  o b t a i n j o b s or t o communicate except In both  level.  in  two  a very basic l e v e l ,  "minimal"  to  George  and and  road.  the  local  newspaper  the P r o v i n c e were r e a d ) . Four s u b j e c t s  every  day,  while  five  others  read  the  paper more than once a week. S i x s u b j e c t s r e a d i n E n g l i s h only  and  one  read  i n Spanish  only.  Page - 84  The  remaining  four  readers  read  in  both  Spanish  and  English.  Spanish  newspapers were o b t a i n a b l e a t s t o r e s on Commercial D r i v e or a t "La Quena". Nine s u b j e c t s l i s t e n e d t o t h e r a d i o on a r e g u l a r b a s i s (CBC  and  KISS  F.M.). Two  subjects also  listened  t o the  Spanish b r o a d c a s t s on Co-op Radio and the CBC. Television one who  was  favoured  by  a l l the  subjects,  except  never watched. E l e v e n watched r e g u l a r l y . Only t h e  regular  North  watched  the  American Spanish  programs  program  on  were  watched.  Saturday  None  mornings  on  Community TV.  S e c t i o n 4. Occupation  and  Employment  P r i o r t o a r r i v a l i n Canada All  thirteen  leaving who  their  were  s u b j e c t s had some work e x p e r i e n c e  home country,  students.  One  including  of  the  the f i v e  subjects  had  before  subjects held  two  c o n c u r r e n t j o b s due t o t h e s e a s o n a l nature o f h i s primary o c c u p a t i o n . He was both a farmer and a Three  subjects  occupations  have  worked  their  respective  f o r more than t e n y e a r s p r i o r t o moving.  o t h e r s had worked, on average, except  at  brickmaker.  f o r two  The breakdown  between two and s i x y e a r s ,  o f the students  s i x months and one year  The  who  had  o n l y worked f o r  respectively.  of t h e i r  occupational a c t i v i t i e s  o r g a n i z e d as f o l l o w s :  Page - 85  can be  Students Farmers Trades/Labourers C i v i l servants Pro f/Manageria1 Military Not  counting  employment  of  approximately  the  the  remainding years,  f o r t h e group. I f one 4.8  1/2 1/2  students,  the  fifty  5 1 1 1 3 1  eight  giving  years  of  subjects  is  a mean of  6.25  years  i n c l u d e s the s t u d e n t s , the mean i s  y e a r s . C o n s i d e r i n g the mean age  years,  total  of t h e group as  i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t these a r e people  who  25.3  have been  a c t i v e c o n t r i b u t o r s w i t h i n t h e i r c o u n t r i e s ' economies.  S i n c e a r r i v a l i n Canada S i n c e coming t o Canada, t h i n g s have changed f o r them. Only  five  have had  the  opportunity  to  then o n l y f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d of time.  be  students,  I t s h o u l d be  t h a t o n l y t h r e e took much advantage of t h i s The  remaining  and  that  two  felt  obtaining  that  work  their  was  higher  noted  opportunity.  E n g l i s h was  a  and  adequate  priority.  The  average number of y e a r s of employment f o r t h e group s i n c e being  i n Canada has  been 0.9  years.  o b t a i n a b l e l e g a l l y s i n c e January been  able  to  Nevertheless, to  find the  work  "under  noted  that  three  1989, the  average o b t a i n e d  t h e i r work r e c o r d i n t h e i r subjects  Work has but  table"  have  employment s i n c e t h e i r a r r i v a l , and  Page - 86  had  been  a number have before  i s i n sharp  home country.  only  that.  contrast  I t should  almost  be  continuous  i t i s these s u b j e c t s '  work r e c o r d s these  t h a t have r a i s e d  s u b j e c t s were e l i g i b l e  t h e average. A l l t h r e e o f  f o r ESL c l a s s e s i n O n t a r i o .  Only two o f t h e s u b j e c t s have never been unemployed, and both o f these three  had formal  subjects  arrival  have  never  January  unemployable, ethic. and,  obtained  i n Canada. One o f these  e i g h t years, not being until  ESL c l a s s e s . On t h e o t h e r  1989.  This  as he no  The o t h e r  long  longer  two i n t h i s  employment  has been  l e g a l l y allowed  hand,  i n Canada f o r  t o seek  wait  employment  has  made  has any s k i l l s  him  o r work  group a r e r e c e n t  i n my view, have not y e t a s s i m u l a t e d  since  arrivals,  sufficiently to  be a c c e p t a b l e t o employers. Subjects  obtained  either  new  friends  church  organizations  Only one s u b j e c t and  their  first  i n the L a t i n o r through  found h i s f i r s t  jobs  i n Canada  American their  community o r  own  initiative.  j o b through  Immigration Canada. The d u r a t i o n o f these  was a mean o f 4.2 months  through  Employment first  (discounting the three  jobs  subjects  who never found employment). It  should be noted t h a t d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w p e r i o d o f  over two months,  only  two o f t h e s u b j e c t s were  actually  employed. The r e s t were e i t h e r "between j o b s ' , o r w a i t i n g for  seasonal  farm work t o begin.  On t h e whole, t h e group i n t e r v i e w e d employment their of  dismal  r e c o r d i n Canada t h a t i s i n sharp c o n t r a s t t o  employment  origin.  has had a  Apart  record p r i o r to leaving t h e i r from  the three  Page - 87  subjects  who  countries have had  almost  continuous  welfare  except  work,  for brief  the  rest  spells  have  subsisted  of generally  on  low-paying  work. Two o f the t h r e e c o n t i n u a l l y employed s u b j e c t s have not  received welfare,  welfare  on  arrival  c l a s s e s . He was, in  Vancouver  savings t i l l  while  the t h i r d  i n Canada,  and  has o n l y  while  attending  a t t h e time o f t h e i n t e r v i e w r e l o c a t i n g  from  Fort  St.  John,  and  living  50% o f t h e i r  a monthly income of $1608.33,  to  $2800.00 in  per  extensively  employment  actively  employed ever  Vancouver. arrived.  His  Of  three  of the f r e e  these of  ESL  six,  from five  them  availing  classes  offered  shortly after arrival,  and have been  s i n c e ) . Only one o f t h e s i x , who  consistently  The  Vancouver,  during the periods  grasp o f E n g l i s h when they a r r i v e d ,  obtained  been  month.  Ontario,  (two had a reasonable  have  these  have been employed. T h e i r pay ranged  Canada  themselves  f o r more than  s t a y i n Canada and the mean income o f  i n which they  entered  off his  Economic Data  S i x o f t h e s u b j e c t s have been employed  $1000.00  ESL  he found another j o b .  S e c t i o n 5.  s i x was  received  English  employed was  remaining  entered  relatively seven  ( a l l w i t h marginal  fluent  entering  English)  Canada when  Canada  at he at  none o f whom were  o f f e r e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f f r e e ESL c l a s s e s , have been on welfare  f o r the greater part of t h e i r  have found o n l y  o c c a s i o n a l work.  Page - 88  s t a y . Four o f them  For t h e second  seven,  the mean monthly  Income has been  $486.00, t h e i r  welfare  cheque p a i d each month. Seven members o f t h e group their  i n t e r v i e w e d send  homeland each month; e i t h e r  relatives  t o wives  money t o  (2) o r o t h e r  ( 5 ) . T h i s r e m i t t a n c e averages $220.00 p e r month  w i t h a range o f $90.00 t o $1000.00. The  living  c o s t s f o r t h e group  were  found  t o be as  follows: Average $275.00 $150.00  Rent Food Amounts  spent  transportation  were  Range $250 - 425.00 p e r month. $120 - 300.00 p e r month.  on  clothing,  only  obtained  entertainment from  most o f whom were employed. C l o t h i n g (sample $50  -  Most  o f 4) averaged $300.00.  subjects  organizations Village" greater  they  f o r these subjects  T r a n s p o r t a t i o n (only either  obtained what  subjects,  2)  averaged  clothing they  a range  from  needed  Vancouver  area)  $25. relief  at  "Value  alcohol  second and  hand  tobacco)  stores. (sample  $52.00 w i t h a range o f $20 - $200.00. I was  t o get a very  spent  or s i m i l a r  (including  s u b j e c t s spent  satisfactory  on  i d e a s as t o how  entertainment.  some money on a l c o h o l  Most  stated  and tobacco,  much that  but they  were not a b l e t o say how much. During t h e i n t e r v i e w s , became  of  (a c h a i n o f l a r g e secondhand s t o r e s found i n t h e  of4) averaged  the  few  $100.00 a month w i t h  o r purchased  Entertainment  unable  a  and  obvious  that  their  major  concerns  on  i t  "Welfare  Wednesday" were t o pay r e n t , purchase food and send money  Page - 89  home  (where a p p l i c a b l e ) . Most  binges.  Anything  remaining  of the rest  went  was blown on  on tobacco  and/or  the  any  real  movies. Few,  i f any, o f t h e unemployed  possessed  m a t e r i a l p o s s e s s i o n s and those t h a t they had were mainly obtained  through  street  trading.  Items such  watches, and TV's were much coveted, to  as s t e r e o s ,  but o n l y  available  those who had b e e n . s u c c e s f u l i n g a i n i n g employment.  S e c t i o n 6. O r i e n t a t i o n and b e l i e f s Religion  cannot  be s a i d  t o play  a major  role i n  these p e o p l e s ' l i v e s . Of t h e t h i r t e e n s u b j e c t s , f i v e were Roman  Catholics,  persuasion  two were  and one was  o f an u n s p e c i f i e d  an  evangelical  Christian  Christian.  The  remainder d i d n o t observe any f a i t h . Of t h e f i v e who went to  church,  monthly.  one went  The  daily,  remainder  three  d i d not  went  weekly  attend  and one  any  church.  Although a number o f s u b j e c t s had been a s s i s t e d by church organizations,  they  felt  no o b l i g a t i o n  t o take  part i n  church f u n c t i o n s except t o g e t a s s i s t a n c e w i t h f o o d  (soup  k i t c h e n s ) o r c l o t h i n g needs. Twelve o f t h e s u b j e c t s expressed a s t r o n g d e s i r e t o become  Canadian  citizens,  and o n l y  one was  undecided.  These same twelve c l a i m e d t o be v e r y s a t i s f i e d w i t h  life  in  life  in  Canada. The d i s s e n t e r was o n l y " s a t i s f i e d Canada,  and expressed  extreme  impatience  d e t e r m i n a t i o n p r o c e s s . He was now unsure Canada had been t h e r i g h t  1 1  with  over t h e  that  coming t o  move f o r him. T h i s  individual  Page - 90  had never been out o f work and had averaged  over $2000.00  per month i n wages s i n c e a r r i v a l . He expressed to  be a b l e t o g e t on w i t h h i s l i f e  without  the desire  the threat of  h a v i n g h i s c l a i m found s p u r i o u s by t h e RDB and b e i n g  sent  home. Most  o f t h e refugees  (9) have had some  w i t h t h e n o n - L a t i n Canadian p o p u l a t i o n . Only to  have had l i t t l e  level  o r no c o n t a c t  (contacts with  except  Employment  interaction four claimed  a t an o f f i c i a l  and Immigration  Canada,  H e a l t h and Welfare Canada and t h e p o l i c e ) . Seven  subjects  have  experienced  incidences  of  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Four o f these had had "many" e x p e r i e n c e s . On  the other  hand,  s i x subjects  said  that  they  had  e x p e r i e n c e d no i n c i d e n c e s o f d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Ten  subjects  employment,  claimed  o f which  offers  of  employment.  unable  to  find  mentioned unable they  any  earlier.  On  t o have  three  claimed  Only work  had some  three at  t o have subjects  a l l . These  questioning  access  these  to  had many have  been  three  were  three,  I  was  t o g e t , from them, a s a t i s f a c t o r y answer as t o why  have  been  unable  t o obtain  work.  I n one case,  I  suspect a b a s i c a v e r s i o n t o work. I base t h i s on h i s n o t having  been a b l e t o work f o r s i x o f t h e e i g h t y e a r s he  has been and  i n Canada. The o t h e r  their  level  of  English  two a r e r e c e n t would,  in  the  arrivals, current  employment market, make them v i r t u a l l y unemployable.  Page - 91  In  general, relationships  problem  with  landlords  i n t h e downtown e a s t s i d e f o r most r e s i d e n t s ) were  positive. these,  I  obtained  i t  turned  misunderstandings  only  two  out,  with  negative  had  regard  a g a i n , a language r e l a t e d  responses  been  Immigration  and  caused  to rental  due  by  dates  problem.  R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h government o f f i c i a l s and  (a common  Canada,  and H e a l t h  (Employment  and Welfare  Canada)  were g e n e r a l l y p o s i t i v e . Negative responses were based on suspected be  the  discrimination, result  of  but seemed  on q u e s t i o n i n g , t o  miscommunication  due  to  language  problems r a t h e r than d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Relationships were  divided.  with  Five  t h e law ( p o l i c e  of  the  o r law c o u r t s )  subjects  felt  negatively  towards t h e law. These s u b j e c t s had been a r r e s t e d variety place"  of offences t o "break  ranging  from  "drunk  and e n t r y " and " t h e f t  in a  over  found t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s p a r t o f t h e survey i n t h a t more than h a l f the  law. I  brutality Methodology)  myself  while  fora public  $500.00". I surprising,  (7) s u b j e c t s f e l t p o s i t i v e towards  witnessed conducting  and had been  one  incident  these  told  of  police  interviews  by t h e v a r i o u s  (see social  workers who work w i t h these people t h a t p o l i c e harassment is  common.  harassment  I  can  only  i s common  conclude  i n Latin  that /America  regarded as unusual, whereas harassment  Page - 92  this and  type  of  was n o t  and a r r e s t  over  drunkenness  i s very  occurs  i n Canada.  here  Only relief or  two  rare  and  subjects  agencies  such  expressed  as  the  t h e DEYAS c e n t r e . T h i s  lack  of  from  understanding  perceived The  of  a t work  complaints  In  case,  through  subsequently  rectified  to  an  Branch).  In  the  unscrupulous employment known and  to  again,  attitudes  to  centres  stemmed  role,  a  appeal other  of  have  with  based  from  rather  a  than  the  a  a  two  local  negative disputes.  which  subject  Employment  subject  job.  positive  salary  the  deliberately  the  only  on  instructed  case,  of  had  misunderstanding  through  conditions rest  subjects  were  (I  employer  the  when i t  community  agencies  since arrival,  Their  institute  churches,  the  the  replies. one  negative  animosity  of  resentment  discrimination.  majority  experiences  so causes  was  on  Latin  how  Standards  underpaid.  misrepresented  This  was  employer  American  i s  An the now  community  i s avoided. Despite  refugee they  the  fact  claimants  seem  to  get  compatability  come  feel  well  due  Two  subjects  did,  their  compadres,  about  to  the  their  very  i n  they  the  from  along  could,  within  that  five well  part,  local  common  be  however,  of  with  each  due  to  -  because  93  American  countries, other.  the  and  negative others  This  isolation  environment,  language  express  mainly  Central  different  non-Spanish  bond  Page  studied  as  culture. feelings were,  i n  their  view,  behaving  like  "bums a n d n o t g e t t i n g  the  subjects  down t o  work". Only feelings  three  of  towards  the non-Latin  that  these  people  been  born  and r a i s e d  nothing had  of their  been  Oppenheimer  relationships  the  time  expressed women  regarded  had said  with  do  they  were  sentiment because their  they  use  centre.  was r e l a t e d Ten  to  permanent  lives.  missed  their  i n  native  European  were  Most Indian  Subjects  Page  that  past.  no  Two  suitable  with. A l l  short-term.  time  as their  None lives  married  men used  t o pay f o r sex and  felt  of the relationships women. women  and t r i e d  said  the  had a t  but nevertheless  Canadian  "bossy"  expressed  either  T h e t w o who w e r e  refused  n o t macho.  with  such  wives  Generally,  Indians.  relationships  until  of  t o the subjects'  they  essentially  of order.  The others  that  they  as  as  abuse  subjects  had  have  people  and  t o native  had  having  a l l t h e advantages  their  women.  felt  made  the relationships  semblance  They  having  community  or  s t i l l  street  i n  finding  available  s o was  formed  and  other  not applied  interview  anything  that  people.  d i s p l e a s u r e , and one c l a i m e d  prostitutes. to  were  relationships  some  saw  the  with  of  were  wanted  and  interesting  satisfaction  despite  especially  sentiments One  i n Canada,  They  Park  street  negative  a disgrace t o our society,  lives  given.  troublemakers,  these  were  expressed  they  - 94  Most  expressed t h e  were  not suitable  t o organize  had  no  they  and r u n  opportunity  to  meet  women  i n the l o c a l  Latin  (other than o n e - n i g h t - s t a n d s ) , months, b u t most p r e f e r r e d a  week.  Their  11  community.  Relationships  l a s t e d o n l y a few weeks o r  one-night-stands"  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with  have been d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s  native  o r a t most Indian  women  study.  Problems w i t h mood a l t e r i n g substances  were e v i d e n t ,  and common. The substance  o f c h o i c e was a l c o h o l , although  three  drug  said  they  were  c o c a i n e ) . Seven s t i l l  abusers  (marijuana  and  had problems w i t h a l c o h o l . Two f e l t  t h a t they were a b l e t o c o n t r o l t h e problem, and two f e l t that  there  alcohol subjects  was no problem.  problems said  Two o f those  a l s o had problems w i t h  that  they  with  drugs.  origin.  This  A l l the  had not had any problems  e i t h e r a l c o h o l o r drugs p r i o r t o l e a v i n g t h e i r of  serious  statement's  validity  with  countries  i s questionable,  g i v e n p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s o f a l c o h o l consumption d u r i n g my  stay  i n Mexico.  I t i s more  l i t t l e awareness o f t h e concept  likely  that  o f substance  there  was  abuse w i t h i n  the c o u n t r i e s o f C e n t r a l America. A l c o h o l and drugs c o s t money. T h i s  money  usually i l l e g a l l y . runs  to Seattle  crimes. was  has been  obtained  by v a r i o u s  means,  S h o p l i f t i n g , t h e f t from autos and drug for local  pushers,  a r e t h e commonest  Because o f t h e s e n s i t i v i t y o f t h i s s u b j e c t , I  n o t s a f e l y a b l e t o e x p l o r e t h i s area any f u r t h e r .  A Comparison Study  Page - 95  In  1984  Florida, results  by  a study o f H a i t i a n r e f u g e e s was Alex  Stepick  and  Alejandro  were p u b l i s h e d i n 1986.  conducted  in  Portes.  The  T h i s study gathered  data  i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: a) individual background characteristics of H a i t i a n immigrants; b) t h e i r a r r i v a l and e a r l y r e s e t t l e m e n t e x p e r i e n c e s ; c) t h e i r e d u c a t i o n , knowledge of E n g l i s h and i n f o r m a t i o n about the U n i t e d S t a t e s ; d) c u r r e n t employment s t a t u s and occupation; e) income and use of public assistance; f) predictors of employment, o c c u p a t i o n , and income; and g) beliefs and orientations. ( S t e p i c k & P o r t e s , 1986, p.329) I  became aware of t h i s  topic, to  study  after  but b e f o r e f i n a l i z i n g my  t r y to c o l l e c t  data on  choosing  traditionally in  like  some of the  of  both areas w i t h the a r r i v a l  decided  same v a r i a b l e s  America, refugees.  has This  not  changed  of d e s p o t i c d i c t a t o r s h i p s  supported by the U n i t e d S t a t e s . In H a i t i ' s case, the to  power of F r a n c o i s D u v a l i e r i n 1958  exodus York,  of  refugees.  Paris  and  These  first  Montreal,  b a s e — h e n c e the  spoken  (New  where  York  has  a  was  to  New  quarter).  1977.  was  and  with  where French  undertaken,  i g n o r e d by H a i t i a n refugees u n t i l about  Page - 96  large  French-speaking  Creole, a d i a l e c t  l a r g e French  S t e p i c k / P o r t e s ' study  fled  rise  language i n H a i t i ,  c h o i c e of c i t i e s a  the f i r s t  refugees  environment. French i s the o f f i c a l  French  saw  seeking  the common language spoken i s  as  purposes.  Central  been a producer  research  methodology, and  those i n t h i s study, f o r comparative Haiti,  my  a is  Florida, largely  H a i t i a n s had largely ignored F l o r i d a as a m i g r a t i o n d e s t i n a t i o n u n t i l the l a s t decade. Between 1977 and 1981, however, fifty to seventy thousand H a i t i a n s a r r i v e d by boat i n South F l o r i d a , w i t h the number peaking i n 1980 during the M a r i e l Cuban b o a t l i f t (Stepick, 1982a:12; C a r t e r , 1980, p. ). Another f i v e t o ten thousand came by airplane. The inflow d e c l i n e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n 1981 and a g a i n i n 1982, p a r t l y as a consequence o f a maritime interdiction program initiated by the U.S.government. ( S t e p i c k & P o r t e s , 1986, p.331) Historically, the  the f i r s t  wave of r e f u g e e s from H a i t i  d i s p l a c e d upper middle c l a s s o f the c o u n t r y . M i g r a n t s  leaving  Haiti  today,  as  studied  by  tend t o be members of the working Similarly, for  Canada  C e n t r a l American  Simpson/Mazzoli of  were  1985,  U.S.  Bill  restricting  was  not  and  Portes,  class. sought  refugees u n t i l o f 1982  Stepick  as  a  destination  the enactment  o f the  and the R o d i n o / M a z z o l i  employment o f i l l e g a l  P r i o r t o t h e s e laws, the U.S.  was  aliens  Bill  i n the  the d e s t i n a t i o n o f  choice. The survey done i n F l o r i d a looked a t both sexes and, while  this  c o m p l i c a t e s the  comparison,  does not i n v a l i d a t e i t . The  Florida  Males  the  are  from given  therefore  the  females  and  individually.  easy t o o b t a i n and  feel  that i t  survey s e p e r a t e s t h e  figures  Numbers  I  for  f o r both males  are d i s t i n c t  groups  only  are  from those o f  females. In  a n a l y z i n g the r e s u l t s o f the F l o r i d a  authors acknowledge t h a t w h i l e no can  be  made  about  the  simple g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s  refugees'  Page - 97  survey, the  backgrounds,  some  patterns  do  emerge.  The m i g r a t i o n  group  young, w i t h an average age o f 29. T h i s to  that  found  i n my  survey  d e p a r t u r e was 25, w i t h three years, In  population)  average i s c l o s e  t h e average  an average  length  age a t  o f journey o f  b r i n g i n g t h e average age i n Vancouver t o 28.  the Haitian  residents  where  i s relatively  (from  sample,  villages  compared w i t h  sample. A l s o , had  resided  to  migration,  i t should  with  less  60% from  considered than  rural  10,000  the Central  in  American  be noted t h a t 63% o f t h e H a i t i a n s  continuously compared  63% were  i n their  places  of b i r t h  t o 84% o f t h e C e n t r a l  prior  Americans  studied. A  general  populations  comment  can be made about  t h e two  i s t h a t they a r e young and p r i m a r i l y o f r u r a l  origin,  but u r b a n i z i n g .  figures  gives  demographics. Variable Age (years) M a r i t a l Status Birthplace  Stepick  that  a  quick  A brief breakdown  Significant  Group  look  o f t h e more Vancouver Study  a l l subjects % Single % V i l l a g e s < 10,000 % C i t i e s > 50,000 and P o r t e s  make  a t the following  28 84 60 28  the following  relevant Florida Study 29 54 64 19  observation  about t h e r e c e p t i o n t h a t t h e H a i t i a n r e f u g e e s r e c e i v e d on their original arrivals i n Florida.  Page - 98  When s i g n i f i c a n t numbers o f H a i t i a n s began a r r i v i n g on South F l o r i d a ' s shores i n t h e l a t e 1970's, l o c a l l y dominant groups p e r c e i v e d t h e i r u n c o n t r o l l e d e n t r y as a t h r e a t t o t h e economy of t h e area, an army o f unnecessary and unwanted labour. (Stepick & Portes, 1986, p.334) Similar regard  f e e l i n g s have t o migrants  attitude  is, I  negatively  to  been  from  expressed  "Third  suspect,  the  i n Vancouver  world"  universal  integration  of  countries. and  church  and other  championed Canada.  t h e cause  They  have  liberal  of  migrants  lobbied  p r o v i n c i a l and t h e f e d e r a l l e v e l s , s p e c i a l needs o f these The  Haitians,  American  governments,  into  the  i t has been  organizations  Central  This  contributes  dominant community. As i n t h e H a i t i a n case, the  with  that  have  refugees i n both  a t the  for recognition of the  refugees.  like  the  Central  Americans,  have  e x p e r i e n c e d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a t t h e hands o f lawmakers. The "red t a p e " s u r r o u n d i n g t h e e n t r y Stepick's  and  Portes's  words,  psychological  s t r e s s " . Pablo  the  American  Central  population  (the group I s t u d i e d ) ,  of  treatment  integrating to deal  resulted  Bazerque  Vancouver their  o f these people has,  i n Canada  in  "severe  indicated  that i n  he  deals  with  the psychological add  in  to  in scars  their  problems  i n t o s o c i e t y and make i t even more  difficult  w i t h t h e traumas o f t h e i r p a s t  lives  i n Central  America and t h e i r misadventures on t h e road t o Canada.  Page - 99  Another area where comparison of the illuminating  is  that  of  economics.  two  Stepick  studies and  is  Portes  found t h a t : In spite of the traumas associated with d e t e n t i o n and u n c e r t a i n l e g a l s t a t u s , economic problems have been the c e n t r a l concern f o the h a i t i a n s s i n c e t h e i r a r r i v a l . . . . I n sum, H a i t i a n r e f u g e e s a r r i v e d i n t o the c i t y t h a t d i d not expect or d e s i r e t h e i r presence, they s u f f e r e d frequent incarcerations and, when finally r e l e a s e d , l a c k e d the support o f s t r o n g f a m i l y networks. they sought refuge in ethnic neighbourhoods which gave them a c c e s s t o cheap, but d e t e r i o r a t e d housing. These severe i n i t i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s combined t o make economic problems t h e i r c e n t r a l concern i n the u n i t e d States. ( S t e p i c k & P o r t e s , 1986, p.335) C e n t r a l American refugee c l a i m a n t s same  position.  They  incarceration,  but  negative  faced  following  forces table  t h e i r a r r i v a l and  Variable  usually have by  gives  are p l a c e d  have  not  experienced  some  idea  of  all  the  the  undergo other The  similarity  Vancouver  Mean no. r e l a t i v e s i n country at a r r i v a l  all  P e r c e i v e d h e l p (%) r e c e i v e d from r e l a t i v e s  f a i r amount  2.7  to  of  problems.  S i g n i f i c a n t Group  P r i n c i p a l problem (%)  had  t h e i r Haitian counterparts.  resettlement  P e r c e i v e d group t h a t gave most h e l p (%)  i n much the  Florida  06 7.5  1.6 (1/13)  78  relatives govt, agencies churches self  7 53 15 7  90 5 5 0  none language  0 54  28  economic  38  39.8  Page -  100  cultural  6.1  assimilation legal/  8.6  can  groups  be  However,  in  perceived  This  from  the  above  few  relatives  the  case  help  whereas the low.  same e t h n i c group  seen  have  of  received  in  support r e c e i v e d could  be  because  (80,000  between 1977  and  country  these  by  Central  relatively different the  small  Central arrived  community  and  countries,  same c o u n t r y ) .  quite whereas  The  the  e x i s t s i n the  group  in an  in  South  the  incarcerations the  strong  is  likely  suffered  by  Vancouver  traditionally  due are  to  these  refugees.  Page -  101  still several  a l l from sources  solidarity  the In  the  frequent contrast,  government  social  U.S.  is  are  in  7,500  i n F l o r i d a and  from  much more e x t e n s i v e  ethnic  study).  i n perceived  results  Canadian  very  Florida  (from  Haitians  r e l i a n c e i n Vancouver on  of  high,  estimated  fragmented  differences  that  is  time o f my  H a i t i a n community  negativism  amount  American group  of h e l p can be seem as a d i r e c t outcome of the that  both  refuge.  Florida Haitian  compared w i t h  American  of  relatives  C e n t r a l Americans i n Vancouver a t the The  of  C e n t r a l American i s  the  Haitians  1981,  c h a r t , member s  Haitians,  from  65  46  the  the  group i s much l a r g e r than the Vancouver  7  immigration  Ethnicity of neighbours (%) As  15  agencies  services, than those  which in  the  In  a comparison  expressed Only  concern  language  regarding  problems  C e n t r a l Americans in  of perceived  number  Florida, speak,  which  English.  their  rated  both  economic  a higher  of  response f o r  area may p o s s i b l y  Haitians  eliminates, A  larger  knowledge  to  be  t o some  English  the  i n results l i e i n the  found  i n Southern  extent,  t h e need t o  percentage of  groups  situations.  i n Vancouver. The v a r i a t i o n  t h e two s u r v e y s i n t h i s  larger  problems,  of at  Haitians  also  arrival—  68%,  claimed  some  compared  w i t h 23% o f t h e C e n t r a l Americans.  A comparison o f e d u c a t i o n a l d a t a f o r t h e two groups shows s i m i l a r i t i e s . Variable  Categories  Education i n Haiti/C.A.  Average  % High S c h o o l Graduation  Vancouver  Florida  23  9.6  9  5.9  61 39 6  45.4 86.7 7.6  % None % Some % Fluent  54 23 23  31.6 38.2 30.1  % None % Some % Moderate  23 54 23  39.5 50.1 10.5  (years)  Education i n U.S./Canada Average  % None % E.S.L o n l y (months)  Knowledge o f English  Knowledge o f U.S./Canada  Page - 102  Categories  Variable Newspaper Reading  Language  Radio Listening  Language  Vancouver  Florida  % Daily % Weekly/Monthly % Almost never  31 54 15  18.7 35.3 46.0  % Creole/Spanish % English % Both  8 46 31  28.0 31.9 40.1  % Daily % Weekly/Monthly % Almost never  69 23 7  69.8 27.1 3.1  % Creole/Spanish % English % Both  0 77 0  26.3 11.5 62.2  On average, e d u c a t i o n a l data f o r t h e two groups show that  the  higher  Central  mean  counterparts.  level  Americans of  have  education  S t e p i c k and P o r t e s ,  achieved than  a  slightly  their  Haitian  i n their  the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s o f H a i t i a n r e f u g e e s , the  group  who  migrate  have  an  a n a l y s i s of suggest  above-average  level  e d u c a t i o n compared t o t h e norms o f H a i t i a n s o c i e t y : R e s u l t s thus r e v e a l a p o p u l a t i o n w i t h above average levels of education by Haitian standards, but s i g n i f i c a n t l y below t h e U.S. average. ( S t e p i c k & P o r t e s , 1986, p.338)  Page - 103  that of  Previous groups can be Variable  employment  i s another  compared. Categories  Occupation  I t can be seen t h a t the two  as farm workers or  where  % Vancouver  F u l l - t i m e Student Jobless Farm/Blue c o l l a r White c o l l a r Service Professional Military/Police  i n t h a t the m a j o r i t y  area  the  two  % Florida  8 46 15 8 8  28 55 4 4 9 15  populations  are s i m i l a r ,  of both groups were employed e i t h e r i n the  trades.  Recent employment among the  two  groups i n t h e i r  new  c o u n t r i e s show an i n t e r e s t i n g p a t t e r n . Variable  Categories  % Vancouver  %  Florida Occupation  When we that  most  lowered.  Farm/Blue c o l l a r Skilled Services Professional  54 7 15 0  61.9 8.0 3.4 1.0  job  the  Central  student,  l e a v i n g , w h i l e 28% been unemployed.  but  35.7  cases,  Among  full-time  held  23  compare t h i s t a b l e w i t h the one  in  figures  Jobless/Never Employed  all  not  expectations  had  have  Americans, been  reflect  occupations  necessarily hold  Page -  104  a t the  see  to  be  from  the  prior  to  t h a t they  had  employed  For the C e n t r a l Americans,  can  had  apart  of the H a i t i a n s r e p o r t e d  " i n Canada" may  above, we  occupational  that  they  time o f  have  study.  The  jobless  rate  is,  in  reality,  much  higher  s t a t i s t i c s suggest as much of the work i s seasonal temporary. actually figures  When  interviewed,  employed. represent  In  the  their  i n t e r v i e w . S t e p i c k and  only  case  of  actual  Portes  two  than and/or  subjects  the  status  were  Haitians,  at  the  the  time  of  state:  The jobless rate in this sample does not r e f l e c t u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o j o i n the labour f o r c e . To the contrary, less than 2% of the m a l e s . . . d e f i n e themselves as unemployed and not l o o k i n g f o r work. Thus the j o b l e s s r a t e i s almost i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t of t r u e ( i n v o l u n t a r y ) unemployment. Current l e v e l s of unemployment are not o n l y overwhelming but r e f l e c t a q u a s i permanent situation for the respondents. ( S t e p i c k & P o r t e s , 1986, p.338) T a k i n g i n t o account the American  refugees  Vancouver, Haitians  it  during  can  have had  employment r e c o r d  be  of the  Central  the  time  they  have  been  fairly  said  that  they  and  brief  look  similar  experiences.  A  each group's dependence on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e r e v e a l s the is  average 10.7  length  in  means ESL the  they  and  9.1  require months  Economic success i n a new the  language  training,  Central  report  time t h a t  months f o r H a i t i a n s  Americans. skill  of  that  of  that  English  classes  f o r the  l e s s than s u c c e s s f u l .  Page -  105  at that  assistance for  Central requires  This  usually  country.  i n Vancouver.  the  country  f o r both the H a i t i a n s  Americans  in  in Florida  Stepick Haitians  and have  and  Portes been  Many refugees have attempted t o improve t h e i r education, particularly their English skill, but so f a r these e f f o r t s have y i e l d e d l i t t l e r e s u l t s . As a whole, the sample has little knowledge of E n g l i s h or i n f o r m a t i o n about the U.S. s o c i e t y . ( S t e p i c k & P o r t e s , 1986, p.338) In Vancouver, the r e s u l t s are s t i l l f a c i l i t y a v a i l a b l e t o the refugee in  opperation  claimants that  the  success in  who  since had  September  ESL  training  group p r e s e n t l y  "not  i n " as the  c l a i m a n t s has  1990.  The  o n l y been  success  i n Ontario  would  of  the  suggest  have a  higher  r a t e than t h e i r H a i t i a n c o u n t e r p a r t s . T h i s  could,  p a r t , be due  t o the  i n Canada might  only  s m a l l e r numbers and  the  pressures  of the economic r e a l i t y f o r c i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n . While access  to education  fundamental importance, date  the  training  e x p e c t a t i o n s and  and  skill  training  i s of  i t i s doubtful that at t h i s  can  ever  remove  reality.  Page -  106  the  gap  late  between  Chapter E i g h t Review o f s e r v i c e s and agencies Once r e f u g e e of  being  allowed  awaiting they  their  can on  c l a i m a n t have passed t o remain  i n Canada, they  determination  t h e $486.00  the f i r s t  hearings,  p e r month  hurdle  must,  while  s u r v i v e as b e s t  they  receive  w e l f a r e . How do they cope? How do they make t h e i r  from space  w i t h i n a v a i l a b l e c h o i c e s and o p p o r t u n i t i e s ? The of  this  answer t o these q u e s t i o n s i s one o f t h e t h r u s t s paper.  Before  answer i t i s e s s e n t i a l  one can a r r i v e t o review  at a  satisfactory  t h e background a g a i n s t  which they must work. Refugee  claimants  government a g e n c i e s : with  their  refugee  collecting group  or  have  firstly, status  contact  with  i n the process  claims,  available  to  i s responsible  discuss  their  for their  particular  two  of dealing  and secondly,  t h e i r w e l f a r e cheques. No s p e c i f i c agency  only  while  government welfare  problems  or or  concerns. Those agencies they do d e a l w i t h , r a r e l y have a Spanish-speaking  member  of  staff.  Interpreters are  sometimes a v a i l a b l e a t Employment and Immigration and  refugee  commonly, claimants  determination  especially must  supply  board  after their  their own  hearings, initial  Canada  but  more  hearings  interpreters.  These  i n t e r p r e t e r s a r e o f t e n s u p p l i e d through MOSAIC (see below for  further  details).  Page - 107  Other o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h which t h e r e f u g e e c l a i m a n t s sometimes come i n c o n t a c t i n c l u d e Youth  Project,  streetworker community side,  Pablo  centre  the  Library  Bazarque  (which  (mentioned  previously), the  i n t h e downtown e a s t  of  incidentally,  t h e Vancouver  has  no  Public  collection  of  books), and ESL d r o p - i n c l a s s e s , as w e l l and s o c i e t i e s  i n t h e downtown  side. Organizations,  Service part  Spanish-speaking  Branch  t h e v a r i o u s churches  east  their  a t 44 Alexander  Carnegie  Spanish-language as  through  t h e Downtown E a s t s i d e  Society  funded  MOSAIC  of B r i t s h  (CEIC)  and  Program  and  Columbia  by t h e Canadian  Commission Adjustment  like  the  (ISS),  Employment  the  Immigrant  goals  are helping  training  o f immigrants.  with  They  only  that  and  are i n  Immigration  Settlement  (ISAP), a r e n o n p r o f i t  specific  Immigration  and  s o c i e t i e s whose  the a s s i m i l a t i o n  and  become i n v o l v e d  with  r e f u g e e c l a i m a n t s ( i n c l u d i n g those from C e n t r a l  America),  i n d i r e c t l y , through some o f t h e i r a u x i l i a r y programs such as  interpreting  offer service  and  are not a v a i l a b l e on  t h e ground  MOSAIC r e c e n t l y claimants.  a i d . The t o refugee  floor  started  does,  on  of  offering  ISS, i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  o n l y landed immigrants MOSAIC  legal  ESL programs claimants.  the building ESL c l a s s e s  new  housing  t o refugee  i s dedicated t o helping  and government-sponsored  the other  A  they  hand,  t r y to give  s e r v i c e s t o r e f u g e e c l a i m a n t s when they can.  Page - 108  refugees. support  The  only  other  organizations  that  the  c l a i m a n t s sometimes become i n v o l v e d w i t h a r e oriented  organizations  Commission Canadian  of  El  Salvador  Honduras t o mention  branches  i n Vancouver,  and  as  a  The  (CDHES),  Information  (CHISA),  refugees,  such  few.  politically  Human  and  Support  although  and  refugees,  rather  associations supportive  than  the  Association  appeal more t o the i n t e r e s t s o f more  settled  Rights  SalvAide,  A l l these  and  refugee  to  the  have  of a l l educated  group  under  study h e r e i n . One  o t h e r p l a c e t h a t o f f e r s moral  claimants  i s the c a f e "La Quena" on  Vancouver.  The  Latins  gather  to  supports Quena",  management at  of  this  many  Latin  events  Latins  get  together  the  support t o r e f u g e e Commercial D r i v e i n  restuarant  location in  the  to  and  encourage  promotes  community.  socialize  in  and  At  "La  Spanish.  Here they can meet and share e x p e r i e n c e s , as w e l l as g a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on j o b o p p o r t u n i t i e s and hear the l a t e s t news from South  their  American  peruse. the  homelands.  informal  c o u n t r i e s are  Networking  Vancouver  Newspapers  among the  Latin  from  available many  community  is  refugees  f a r the are  the  most  important  Central patrons  and to  groups w i t h i n  possible  within  clientele  tends  the to  left.  support  Spanish-speaking  for  social  atmosphere of the c a f e . The  be p o l a r i z e d p o l i t i c a l l y towards the By  many  service  streetworkers.  to  the  These  i n d i v i d u a l s work out of t h e i r l o c a l area o f f i c e s and meet  Page -  109  on a r e g u l a r b a s i s w i t h many of the r e f u g e e s d u r i n g t h e i r evening p a t r o l s . to-day  They h e l p them w i t h many of t h e i r  problems and  services  they  t r y to  find  need. Without  the  this  support  essential  extra  service,  s i n g l e male r e f u g e e s would have d i f f i c u l t y More o f these  and  day-  the  i n surviving.  s t r e e t w o r k e r s are d e s p e r a t e l y needed,  but  f u n d i n g i s , as always, a problem. Having we  now  survive  e s t a b l i s h e d the s e r v i c e s and  come t o the on  their  nub  of the  meagre  help  q u e s t i o n as  welfare  cheques  available,  t o how and  they  the  few  services available. Firstly, are  i t should be p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e s e  survivors.  homeland, North.  They  the  They  rigors have  acceptance  into  have  charge  taken  have of  of  " s e c u r i t y " of t h e i r  survived repression i n the  also  Canada.  leaving  endured Secondly,  their  own  and  the  their they  are  f u t u r e s by  their  journey  "half  open"  people  who  leaving  the  birthplace.  Accommodation and food are e a s i l y accounted areas t o which they have g r a v i t a t e d cheap h o t e l s and  people  f o r : the  c o n t a i n a number o f  boarding houses where t h e  average  rent  i s $250.00 per month. Food, e s p e c i a l l y i n "China town" i s relatively  cheap t o buy  and  a  large  number  of  services  and o r g a n i z a t i o n s p r o v i d e meals t o the needy. The most p r e s s i n g needs are s p i r i t u a l met,  and  these  are  t o some e x t e n t , by the c l o s e n e s s of the group.  The  amount of s e l f h e l p and support g i v e n w i t h i n the group i s  Page -  110  augmented an  by  the  essential  However  link  this  groups  could  Pablo  from  worker  Sunday  from  to  o f f the  At  other  that  i s  do  more.  with  the  staff  who  with  the  large  Native  this  section of  claimants  is  both  events  are  while find  in  park.  The  also  used  everything young with  held.  month  as  the  latins,  speaking  he  i s  i n the  to  lucky  morning.  with  the  English  hands  full  dealing  also  inhabit  who  to  area  free  in  Most  swap  news  from  life also  Wednesday".  Page  -  they  111  sports  and  fall  evenings  will  gathered ground  farm home  in  for  and A  more  the  jobs,  work.  It  number  in  i s  discuss  the  beginning  Because  are  It  "scratch"  congregate the  the  place.  i n general.  around  by  meeting  spring  latins  for  place  Vancouver.  fine  recruiting  cash  a  fall  fall  to  in  and  and  women  "welfare  meeting  areas  more  a  especially  generally l i t t l e  a  played  or  as  politics  Indian  as  softball.  summer  place  from  following  their  and  is  twenty  serves  a  deal  a l l three  summer  i t is  park  used  Soccer  from  in  three  the  Wednesday  nights  population  socializing  spring,  Native the  i s  from a  summer  especially  has  as  anywhere  on  u s u a l l y have  Park  refugee  the  only  or  and  eastside,  duty  must  Indian  enough  downtown  Most  are  town.  Oppenheimer  During  the  two  clients  no  who  well-being.  Spanish  midnight. before  their  only  to  street  on  Pablo,  the  in  speaking  used  i s  he  3.p.m.  times  In  as  to  certainly  D.E.Y.A.S. and  such  contributes  support  the  street  get  street-workers,  this likely  of  park  of  the  group to  be  found  around  than  at  La  restaurant a  the  park  Quena. and  or  The  are  is  ( i n the  cost.  expected  to  centre  is  by  community  many  of  the  meals,  free  T.V.  and  tennis  and  pool  tables.  supports  a  mix  Caucasians, centre  is  Latins  latins.  videos  of  as  The  Le  winter)  Quena  purchase  others  The  Carnegie  library  English  newspapers  as  mentioned  Spanish. a  Chess  room  for  card  T.V.  and  offered  as  writing  resumes  how  to  obtain  small  and  well  tea  a  as  is  at  a  least  library  be  hours  is  and no  of  from  table  active  a  wide  and  Indians,  good  The place  variety  magazines  are  books  magazines  or  their  own  classes  job  etc. and  very  10.a.m.  are  also as  training  in  10  also  drinks,  reasonable to  well  such  library  soft  in  as  skills  The  of  available  room  application,  meals at  a  simple  licence  purchased  games,  Indians.  not  E.S.L.  in  letters  cheap  very  West  winter  offers  Native  and  offers  video.  where  are  card  the  problems.  games h a v e  drivers  restaurant can  current  classes  and  as  noisy  earlier,  and  centre  including  and  consult  but,  well  during  occasionally  busy  over  The  centre  groups and  generally  services.  a  Alexander  reason  clients  Alexander  frequented  as  44  coffee. 44  to  at  coffee  prices.  pm  has  Monday  The to  Saturday. Hotel managers they  rooms  are  are  very  constantly  not  a  strict  feel  that  good  about the  Page  place  socialize  visitors. friends  -  to  112  will  This stay  is  as  the  because overnight  or b r i n g booze i n t o t h e room and c r e a t e a d i s t u r b a n c e . A number o f those i n t e r v i e w e d mentioned burst  into  when  they  their  h a v i n g t h e manager  rooms and e x p e l l i n g  attempted  a l l those  t o get together  this  present  way. The end  r e s u l t i s u s u a l l y t h a t t h e r e n t e r l o o s e s t h e room and a l l a r e thrown out. When they p r o t e s t , t h e p o l i c e a r e c a l l e d and they a r e a l l e v i c t e d and charges  laid  by t h e manager  u s u a l l y f o r d i s t u r b i n g t h e peace o r a l c o h o l abuse. Educational opportunities Because claimants' that  of  the  restrictions  eligibility  are available  to receive  placed  on  the free  t o immigrants  refugee  ESL c l a s s e s  in British  Columbia,  none o f t h e refugee c l a i m a n t s who entered Canada British  Columbia's  border  c r o s s i n g s have  received  f o r m a l ESL c l a s s e s u n t i l  the very recent past  note  chapter about  a t t h e end o f t h i s  through any  (n.b.  see  a new program i n  Vancouver). In  Ontario,  newcomers refugees Education guidelines  to or  ESL  classes  Canada, refugee  has  whether claimants.  adopted  s e t down  are  a  by  available  they  are  The  Toronto  policy,  contrary  the f e d e r a l  to a l l  immigrants, Board to  of  general  government,  which  o f f e r s f r e e ESL c l a s s e s t o a l l who need them. The Toronto Board  of Continuing  Education  Calendar  states:Reading,  w r i t i n g and o r a l language development a r e taught i n s m a l l groups  and through  tutoring.  Course  Page - 113  contents  f o c u s e s on  day t o day l i f e  skills,  such as home management, shopping  and  banking.  who  wish t o develop t h e i r E n g l i s h Language s k i l l s  English  as  These courses l a y the  a  Second  Language  f o u n d a t i o n f o r those  programs.  through  Learners  may  choose from two programs - b i l i g u a l or u n i l i n g u a l . . . . ESL l i t e r a c y : U n i l i n c r u a l T h i s program operates i n an environment in which the d i v e r s i t y of languages and c u l t u r e s may exist. For t h i s reason, course c o n t e n t o f f e r e d i s i n E n g l i s h o n l y , and support o f mother tongue is not available....These programs a r e f r e e , (emphasis author's) (Calender, A d u l t and C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , F a l l and Winter 89/90, Toronto Board of Education) Free programs are a v a i l a b l e t o : Canadian C i t i z e n s r e s i d i n g i n O n t a r i o Landed immigrants r e s i d i n g i n O n t a r i o Those a p p l y i n g f o r Landed Immigrant Status r e s i d i n g i n Ontario (Calender, A d u l t and C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , F a l l and Winter 89/90, Toronto Board of Education)  Significantly,  this  last  clause  also  i s applicable  r e f u g e e c l a i m a n t s , as they a r e , i n essence, landed immigrant In  are  applying for  status.  c o n t r a s t , s i m i l a r c l a s s e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia  available  only  to  landed  immigrants.  Refugee  Courses  to cost  pay  for  between  any  courses  $60.00  and  they  $120.00  wish  10-week term. Understandably,  out  of  of  reach  Vancouver,  a  long  most  refugee  waiting  Page -  114  for  these  are  take. for  an  t h i s cost i s  c l a i m a n t s . There  list  and  to  apiece  approximately  are  claimants  t r e a t e d as r e s i d e n t s , r a t h e r than immigrants,  required  to  is, in  courses  and  those  wishing  to  take  them  o f t e n have  to  wait  for six  months o r more. Some p r i v a t e in  the  o r g a n i z a t i o n s and  recent past,  attempted  church  groups  to provide  ESL  have,  services  f o r r e f u g e e c l a i m a n t s . These c l a s s e s are o f t e n dependent on  volunteer  n a t u r e . The such  teachers  are  usually  of  a  drop-in  Downtown E a s t Side Youth P r o j e c t o f f e r e d  program  a year  ago  downtown e a s t s i d e . week  and  during  The  the efforts  involved,  the  of  the  this  Library  offered  months.  program  in  Carnegie  program was  winter  intentioned  participated  a t the  organizers  was  not  program  during  night a  the  and  very  i n the  one  Despite  one  well-  teachers  effective. the  winter  I of  1988/89, and found t h a t i t needed t o be o f f e r e d on a much more  regular  financial for  basis  support  i t to  and  succeed.  attempted  t o run  suffered  from  (ie. several  a  greater a v a i l a b i l i t y  The  church  similar  a  times  lack  groups  programs, but of  regular  week),  with  of r e s o u r c e s ,  i n the  area  have  these,  too,  have  participants,  with  s t u d e n t s demoralized by the l a c k of f u n d i n g and m a t e r i a l s required  to  provide  a  sound  educational  base  to  ESL  learning. For there  most  are  no  refugee ESL  classes.  g r e a t e s t need, i f they successfully  claimants Yet  are t o be  i n Canadian s o c i e t y .  in  British  Columbia,  it  is  refugees'  the  a b l e t o make t h e i r  G e r a l d D i r k s comments,  i n h i s book on Canada's refugee p o l i c y , as f o l l o w s :  Page -  115  way  The temperament, education, and vocational training of the new refugee significantly accounts for his ability or i n a b i l i t y t o adapt t o a s t r a n g e environment. By nature, some people are inflexible in temperament and encounter marked d i f f i c u l t y i n a d j u s t i n g t o a f o r e i g n s o c i e t y . The s t r a i n may be severe enough i n some cases t o r e s u l t i n mental o r p h y s i c a l c o l l a p s e . (Dirks, 1977, p.12) Freda Hawkins o u t l i n e s twelve areas o f d i f i c u l t y be f a c e d by newcomers t o Canada. These areas  t h a t may  include:  ...employment; emergency w e l f a r e and medical assistance; language training; translation and interpreter services;...vocational training and adjustment;...and substantial protection f o r individual human r i g h t s and t h e r i g h t s o f immigration o r g a n i z a t i o n s . (Hawkins,1972,p.361) Hawkins a l s o expresses t h e hope t h a t o t h e r p r o v i n c e s w i l l f o l l o w t h e l e a d o f O n t a r i o i n s e t t i n g up s p e c i a l programs for  a l l immigrants. She p a r t i c u l a r l y admires and  recommends O n t a r i o ' s t h r e e - p a r t that includes intergroup  reception  program f o r immigrants  s e r v i c e s , o r i e n t a t i o n , and  development. T h i s program i s a v a i l a b l e t o a l l  newcomers i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e i r s t a t u s applying  (landed o r  f o r landed immigrant s t a t u s ) .  I t i s s u r e l y time t h a t t h e governments o f some o t h e r p r o v i n c e s p a i d a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s e moves and began to develop their own d i s t i n c t i v e brand o f programs t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e s e t t l e m e n t and adjustment o f immigrants. (Hawkins,1972,p.360) A  new  Vancouver,  program that  has  recently  i s attempting  been  instituted, i n  t o address  needs o f t h e r e f u g e e c l a i m a n t p o p u l a t i o n  Page - 116  some  of the  f o r ESL c l a s s e s .  This  program  "Section program their  grant  facilities  basis,  are  from  on  offered  i n September  the the  federal Inland  Commercial four  days  school  eighteen  of  operates  with  volunteers.  students.  end o f March,  three  At  Refugee  on  full-time  a  full-time  class  informed  waiting  list  and  program s t a r t i n g  me  and  group o f  until  students i n the  t h a t t h e program a l r e a d y has a  that  "they  could  easily  a  enrolls  t o run  w i l l be e n r o l l e d . Pam Goodwin, one o f t h e t e a c h e r s program,  a week.  teachers  i s scheduled  at  Vancouver.  twice  each  The  Society  in  t o 9 p.m.  a t which time a new  under a  government.  week  present,  The program  1990,  Drive a  and evenings from 7 p.m.  number  the  operation  i s sponsored by  Classes  The  28"  began  triple  long the  yesterday".  T h i s program i s a beginning,  and i t i s my  the f u t u r e w i l l see more e n t e r p r i s e s l i k e  Page - 117  this.  hope t h a t  Chapter Nine Conclusions I  have  findings  of  research  shown  that  Stepich  some  and  parallels  Portes  in  exist  Florida  i n Vancouver, the p a r a l l e l s are s i g n i f i c a n t .  in  cases where the  said  and  own  my  a d u l t H a i t i a n s , compared w i t h a sample of  13  be  the  i n Vancouver. While the survey conducted i n F l o r i d a  i n v o l v e d 499  can  between  argued t h a t to  be  two  surveys c o r r a b o r a t e  the  data  collected  supportable  despite  only  I feel  one  that  another i t  i n Vancouver can the  small  be  sampling  undertaken. The  group  Vancouver their  arrived  services,  Florida, labour provided labour Portes,  "were force by  1986,  difficulties  thus  American  they,  defined, were  employers  and  the  the  deprived to  without  like  from  refugee  established  in  demand  for  any  Haitians  start, the  claimants  de  as  a  South  redundant protection  facto  sources  in  of  1982b; NACLA,1979; Bach,1983)".  immigrant (Stepick  &  p.347) and  Portes  faced  eventually  They c i t e two  Central  unannounced  and  (Stepick,  Stepick  will  of  by  find  hold the  a  out  the  Haitians  niche  within  hope t h a t in the  reasons f o r t h i s optimism.  Page -  118  South  despite Florida  existent  the they  society.  First, there i s the motivation of the immigrants themselves. I n d i v i d u a l s who dared t o c r o s s 700 m i l e s o f open sea t o F l o r i d a shores aboard barely seaworthy craft comprise, undoubtedly, a s e l e c t group. T h e i r commitment t o s t a y i n t h e U.S. and advance economically, d e s p i t e all difficulties bodes w e l l f o r the future. Second, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l h o s t i l i t y and p r e j u d i c e found i n t h e i r new environment w i l l decrease with time. (Stepick & P o r t e s , 1986. p.347) In would  t h e case suggest  refugees  of the Central  a  similar  who reach  Americans  optimism.  The  i n Vancouver  Central  Vancouver have t r a v e l l e d  I  American  many thousands  of m i l e s over an average o f t h r e e y e a r s . T h i s has o f t e n been through aliens  hostile  are subject  determination They,  territory  o r through  countries  t o harassment and a r r e s t .  t o succeed, both e c o n o m i c a l l y  t o o , have  had  to  overcome  an  where a l l  They b r i n g a  and s p i r i t u a l l y .  initial  reluctance  r e g a r d i n g admittance and a l l a r e s t i l l u n c e r t a i n as t o t h e i r a b i l i t y t o s t a y and be granted It  i s likely  that  this  "landed"  status.  group w i l l  eventually  fill  a  low-wage, menial j o b n i c h e " t h a t i s p r e f e r a b l e t o widespread unemployment. Such jobs may p r o v i d e future  advancement  Portes,  1986. p.348).  A  question  by  that  needs  immigrants?  The answer  Constantine  Passaris,  University  o f New  an  ambitious  t o be  to this an  Brunswick  the r e q u i s i t e group."  asked  base f o r  (Stepick  i s : do we  i s an u n q u a l i f i e d  economics  professor  and member  &  need "yes".  at  the  o f t h e Economic  C o u n c i l o f Canada and an acknowledged s p e c i a l i s t i n Canadian immigration and r e f u g e e movements, puts i t t h i s way:  Page - 119  While our h i s t o r y o f Canada i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o immigration, i t i s becoming obvious t h a t Canada's f u t u r e w i l l be l a r g e l y dependent on t h e same factor. Canada's contemporary demographic p r o f i l e , c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e end o f t h e babyboom, t h e d e c l i n e i n f e r t i l i t y r a t e s , t h e ageing t r e n d o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n and t h e p r o s p e c t s f o r an absolute decline i n population s h o r t l y a f t e r the t u r n o f t h e [ t w e n t y - f i r s t ] century, n e c e s s i t a t e an enhanced r o l e f o r immigration and a more p r o a c t i v e immigration p o l i c y t o c o n f r o n t t h e s o c i a l and economic challenges and o p p o r t u n i t i e s of the ensuing decades. ( P a s s a r i s , 1989, p.28) (Other s t u d i e s support t h i s t r e n d , Don Devoretz the L o u r i e r I n s t i t u t e ) #§$%#§.Complete. The  rich  potential  that  lies  (SFU) and  i n the m u l t i l i n g u a l  c a p a b i l i t i e s o f immigrants, be they landed o r r e f u g e e , in  the future,  continues to  be a v a l u a b l e  f o r Canada as t r a d e  t o develop i n t h e Americas and a c r o s s  our p a r t n e r s  fluently  resource  on t h e P a c i f i c  i n Spanish  Rim.  and E n g l i s h ,  the P a c i f i c  The a b i l i t y  t o speak  and t h e c o n t a c t s  i n the  home c o u n t r i e s o f t h e refugee c l a i m a n t s  under review,  i n t h e l o n g run, be o f v a l u e t o Canada.  Instead  h a r d s h i p s and b a r r i e r s t o these d i s p l a c e d better  serve  quickly After  our  longterm  as p o s s i b l e ,  a waiting  period  interests  productive  will,  o f , on average,  of creating  people, we would  by  members  will,  making of  our  five  them  as  society.  years,  these  people have earned t h e r i g h t t o remain, t o t r y and e s t a b l i s h new l i v e s without t h e t h r e a t o f d e p o r t a t i o n under which they presently s u f f e r . Hopefully take t h e i r r i g h t f u l p l a c e somehow  address  t h e i r o f f s p r i n g w i l l be a b l e t o  i n Canadian s o c i e t y and t h i s  the repression,  t h e i r p a r e n t s f a c e today.  Page - 120  poverty  and  will  uncertainty  C u r r e n t f i g u r e coming out of the f e d e r a l Department of  Employment  acceptance hearing  and  rate  (Dirks,  Immigration  of  refugee  1984,  indicate  claimants  that  is  p.300;). In 1990,  our  91%  current  after  final  at a conference  on  C e n t r a l American r e f u g e e s h e l d i n Vancouver, L l o y d Axworthy, Liberal  immigration c r i t i c and  claimed  that  this  figure  former  was  immigration m i n i s t e r ,  95%.(Personal  communication).  I f t h i s i s the case, s u r e l y i t would be b e t t e r t o g i v e t h e s e people  ESL  become  productive  doomed  to  Canadian to  training  and  the  job  potential  continue  society.  citizens,  belonging Those  skills  to  a  (currently  countries  of  benefit  their  benefit  Canada  countries (which other  origin,  countries, i f they  overcome  are  will  their  currently  financial  leave and  use  their  massive  being  to  than  who  being  part  of  are deemed not  skills  their  that  eventually  will  indirectly help  their  international  debt  loads  the  skills  to  to  helped  institutions  rather  need  are r e t u r n e d t o  with  may  they  marginalized 5%)  have an a c c e p t a b l e c l a i m , and who  that  by  Canadian  detriment  banks of  and  Canadian  taxpayers). The the  l o n g e r we  skills  need  d e l a y i n h e l p i n g t h e s e people t o  to  become  self-supporting,  the  harder i t  w i l l be f o r them t o i n t e g r a t e s u c c e s s f u l l y i n t o t h e system,  and become p r o d u c t i v e c i t i z e n s .  (Alan  Nash(1987),  Hawkins(1972,1989)  Constantine and  Gerald  Page -  Research  develop  Canadian elsewhere  Passaris(1989),  Dirks(1977,1984,1988))  121  Freda has  i n d i c a t e d t h a t immigrants,  as a group, produce  s i x new j o b s ,  each, w i t h i n t h r e e y e a r s o f l a n d i n g i n Canada. ...the L o n g i t u d i n a l Study o f t h e Economic and S o c i a l Adaption o f Immigrants d i d i n d i c a t e , i n work p u b l i s h e d i n 1981, t h a t members o f a sample o f self-employed immigrants landed i n 1969 had, on averge, c r e a t e d s i x j o b s each w i t h i n a p e r i o d o f t h r e e y e a r s . (Nash, 1987, p . i ) I s u s p e c t t h a t these refugee c l a i m a n t s , who have, on t h e i r own  initiative,  travelled  the length  o f North  America  to  a r r i v e i n Canada, w i l l p r o s p e r and become a s s e t s t o Canadian s o c i e t y as w e l l , i f g i v e n h a l f a chance.  Recommendations I t h i n k t h a t t h e system t h a t a l l o w s t h e s e r e f u g e e s a c c e s s t o Canada, but d e l a y s t h e i r d e t e r m i n a t i o n and r e f u s e s t o a s s i s t them i n becoming competent and independent a d u l t s is  indefensible. The  situation  refugee Canada, are  claimants  that find  single  male,  themselves  Central  i n , upon  arrival  i s one o f c o n f u s i o n and d i s o r i e n t a t i o n .  they  caught  up  i n the "red tape"  of  American in  Not o n l y  their  having  s i d e s t e p p e d t h e normal and accepted means o f e n t r y , but they also  must  face  applications and  and answer  as refugee  o f t e n without  questions  claimants,  fundamental  to their  i n a foreign  language,  t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f an  interpreter.  On  b e i n g admitted t o t h e country so as t o pursue t h e i r c l a i m s , they a r e l e f t t o fend f o r themselves  Page - 122  i n a society that  they  do not understand and whose language they b a r e l y comprehend. Prior  to  January  themselves  1989,  they  by a c c e p t i n g w e l f a r e .  been e l i g i b l e t o seek work. specific  job  training,  they  pursued  transferable usually such  as  skills. new  the  dishwashing  and  are  support  equipped  classes  to  take  or the  c o u n t r i e s of  Canadian  economy,  origin  as  particularly  not  they  are  entry l e v e l  jobs  and  low-paying  working  are  so  busboys,  building  jobs t h a t dependent  site  r e q u i r e few on  language  Even i n these j o b s , they must compete w i t h the many  only  population  immigrants,  as w e l l as o t h e r  approximately  i n the  obliged  of my 10%  that  the  a t the the  stage  conversant  of  refugee time  five  of  refugee  claimant survey,  I  claimants  had entered Canada i n O n t a r i o , and were thus  e l i g i b l e f o r ESL t r a i n i n g , demonstrated the t r a i n i n g  Canadians.  survey, and a d m i t t e d l y i t of  downtown c o r e  t o p o i n t out  i n t e r v i e w e d who  the  to  As w e l l , many of the o c c u p a t i o n s  Judging by the r e s u l t s  feel  not  their  or  not  able  f o r m a l ESL  or s e a s o n a l farm workers,  Canadian  covers  With no  f o r c e d t o seek menial,  labourers, skills  to  in  only  S i n c e t h a t date they have  many a r e  o p p o r t u n i t y t o seek work. that  were  they r e c e i v e d . "just  with  the  Canadian d a i l y l i f e ,  c l e a r l y t h e v a l u e of  This training  coping"  and  up  to  social  and  economic  took them beyond  the  level  of  being  underpinnings  of  as w e l l as e n a b l i n g them t o f u n c t i o n a t  a more-than-survival l e v e l i n t h e i r d a i l y l i v e s . My recommendation t o the p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t r i e s i n v o l v e d is  t h a t they f o l l o w the l e a d of O n t a r i o , i g n o r e the  Page -  123  stated  policy  of the f e d e r a l  other  training  to  government, and open ESL c l a s s e s  a l l seeking  landed  i n c l u d i n g refugee c l a i m a n t s .  Page - 124  immigrant  and  status,  Reference L i s t Aga Khan, S. & B i n T a l a l , H. (1986). Refugees: of displacement. London: Z i d Books L t d .  the  Anderson, P.T. (1988). P o l i t i c s i n C e n t r a l America. York: Praeger.  dynamics  New  Abe11a, I . & Troper, H. (1982). 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(1972). and P u b l i c Concern. Press.  Canada and Immigration: P u b l i c P o l i c y M o n t r e a l : M c G i l l - Queen's U n i v e r s i t y  Page - 126  Hawkins, F. (1989). C r i t i c a l Years i n Immigration: Canada and A u s t r a l i a Compared. K i n g s t o n & M o n t r e a l : M c G i l l Queen's U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Hocke, J.P. (Winter 1986). Documentation: Notes on I n t e r n a t i o n a l P r o t e c t i o n . I n t e r n a t i o n a l M i g r a t i o n Review. 20(4) pp. 1020 - 1036. ICCHRLA ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l Church Committee on Human R i g h t s i n L a t i n America) Annual Report, (1989) V o l 1 & 2, Human R i g h t s i n L a t i n America. Toronto: ICCHRLA I n t e r n a t i o n Law A s s o c a t i o n (Winter 1986). Conference Report: L e g a l S t a t u s o f Refugees R e s o l u t i o n . I n t e r n a t i o n a l M i g r a t i o n Review. 20(4) pp. 1048 - 1053. K a l i n , W. (Summer 1986). T r o u b l e d Communication: CrossC u l t u r a l Misunderstanding i n t h e Asylum H e a r i n g . I n t e r n a t i o n a l M i g r a t i o n Review. 20(2) pp. 230 - 241. Loescher, G., & Scanlon, J.A. (1986). C a l c u l a t e d Kindness: Refugees and America's h a l f open door. 1945 t o t h e p r e s e n t . New York: The Free P r e s s . Loescher, G. (Summer 1988).Humanitanarianism and P o l i t i c s i n C e n t r a l America. P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e Q u a r t e r l y . 103(2), pp. 295-320. Loescher, G. & Monahan, L.(Ed) (1989). Refugees and i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s . Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Oxford. U.K. Malarek, V. (1987). Haven's Gate: Canada's F i a s c o . Toronto: _Macmillan o f Canada.  Immigration  M a r t i n e z , M.S. (Ed) (1963) E l A l c o h o l en l a Salud I n d i v i d u a l y C o l e c t i v a . U n i v e r s i t y o f Mexico, Mexico C i t y , Mexico. Melander, G. (Summer 1986). R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Examining an Asylum Request. I n t e r n a t i o n a l M i g r a t i o n Review. 20(2) pp. 220 - 229. Nash, A. (October 1987). The Economic Impact o f t h e Entrepreneur Immigrant Program. S t u d i e s i n S o c i a l P o l i c y : I n s t i t u t e f o r Research on P u b l i c P o l i c y . Nuccio, R.A. (1986). What's Wrong Who's R i g h t i n C e n t r a l America: A c i t i z e n ' s guide. New York:_Facts on F i l e P r e s s . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f American States(OAS) (1965) Report on t h e p o l i t i c a l r e f u g e e s i n America: prepared bv t h e s e c r e t a r i a t e of t h e Inter-American commision on Human R i g h t s . OAS/Ser. 1V/II. 11, Doc 7, r e v 2, September, 1965. Washington, D.C.  Page - 127  P a s s e r i s , C. (June 1989). The Immigration Cure. O p i n i o n . 10(5) pp. 28 - 30.  Policy  Paz, O. (1959) A l c o h o l i s m i n Modern Mexico. F i e l d , P.B. (Ed). (1962) A new c r o s s - c u l t u r a l study o f drunkenness. Pitman, New York. Plaut,R. (1985) The Canadian Immigration A c t ; A Review. Royal Commission Report. Queens P r i n t e r . Ottawa Richmond A.H. (1984) S o c i o - c u l t u r a l a d a p t i o n and c o n f l i c t i n immigration-receiving countries. International Migration Today. S t a h l C.(Ed). Emerging I s s u e s . UNESCO/University o f Western A u s t r a l i a Centre f o r M i g r a t i o n and development s t u d i e s . 18(2) pp. 109 - 123 Richmond A.H. (1974) Aspects o f a b s o r b t i o n and a d a p t i o n o f immigrants. M i n i s t r y o f Employment and Immigration Canada. Queens P r i n t e r . Ottawa Robinson.W.G. (1983) I l l e g a l M i g r a n t s i n Canada. Royal Commission Report. Queens P r i n t e r . Ottawa Rogge J.R. (Ed) (1987) Refugees; A t h i r d w o r l d dilemma. Rowman * L i t t l e f i e l d , New J e r s e y . U.S.A. Sedgewick, J . (1964) Roval Commission on Canadian Immigration P o l i c y . Queens P r i n t e r . Ottawa. Schooley, H. (1987). C o n f l i c t i n C e n t r a l America. H i l l s , U.K.: _Longman Group U.K.  Burnt  Smiley, W. (May 1989). Salvadorean and Guatemalean Youth i n E x i l e : A d a p t i n g t o l i f e i n Canada. Paper p r e s e n t e d a t the Symposium c o n c e r n i n g L a t i n American Youth, Vancouver, B.C. S t e p i c k , A. & P o r t e s , (Summer 1986). A. F l i g h t i n t o D e s p a i r : A P r o f i l e o f Recent H a i t i a n Refugees i n South F l o r i d a . I n t e r n a t i o n a l M i g r a t i o n Review. 20(2) pp. 329 -348. Straubhaar, T. (Winter 1986). The causes o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l l a b o r m i g r a t i o n s — a demand-determined approach. I n t e r n a t i o n a l M i g r a t i o n Review. 20(4) pp. 835 - 855. Tom, B., & Preusch, D. Grove P r e s s .  (1988).  The s o f t war. New  York:  T o r r e s - R i v a s , E. (1985). Report on the c o n d i t i o n o f C e n t r a l American Refugees and M i g r a n t s , prepared f o r the Hemispheric M i g r a t i o n P r o j e c t . O c c a s s i o n a l Papers S e r i e s . Georgetown U n i v e r s i t y and Intergovernmental Committee f o r M i g r a t i o n , Washington, D.C.  Page -  128  Walker. T.W. Co. Westview  (1987) N i c a r a g u a : The l a n d o f Sandino. Boulder Press.  Wallace, S.P. ( F a l l 1986). C e n t r a l American and Mexican Immigration C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Economic I n c o r p o r a t i o n i n C a l i f o r n i a . I n t e r n a t i o n a l M i g r a t i o n Review. 20(3) pp. 657 671. Whitaker, R. (1987). Orpen Dennys.  Double Standard. Toronto: _ L e s t e r &  Whitaker, R. (May - June 1987). Murder by Decree: The Tory Refugee P o l i c y . T h i s Magazine. 2jl(2) pp. 14 - 18.  New  Wright, R. (May 1987). Escape t o Canada. Saturday N i g h t . 102(5) 44. Z o l b e r g , A.R., Suhrke, A., & Aguayo, S. (Summer 1986). I n t e r n a t i o n a l F a c t o r s i n the Formation o f Refugee Movements. I n t e r n a t i o n a l M i g r a t i o n Review. 2_0(2) pp. 151 - 169. Z o l b e r g , A.R., Suhrke, A., & Aguayo, S. (1989) Escape from v i o l e n c e : C o n f l i c t and t h e r e f u g e e c r i s i s i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g w o r l d . Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Oxford. U.K.  Page - 129  APPENDIX I  I n t e r v i e w Data A n a l y s i s . Country.  E l Salvador  Guatamala Honduras Mexico TOTAL Background  9  2 2 1 13  Charactoristics.  Population of birthplace.  Under 100 500 1,000 5,000 10,000 50,000 100,000 250,000 500,000 -  100 500 1,000 5,000 10,000 50,000 100,000 250,000 500,000 1,000,000  TOTAL  1 2 0 0 3 2 3 1 0 1 13  Rural 4.* = 6. Urban 9.* = 7. *Two s u b j e c t s who i n d i c a t e d they were from urban areas (pop 6,000) were from farming f a m i l i e s and f o r t h e purpose o f t h i s study s h o u l d more c o r r e c t l y be p l a c e d the r u r a l c a t e g o r y . Occupation o f f a t h e r . Blue c o l l a r Farm worker Farm owner Tradesman Business Services Professional * One unknown, deceased.  TOTAL  1 0 4 2 3 2 0 12  Average age o f f a t h e r : 64.5years. Average e d u c a t i o n o f f a t h e r : 3.8 grades.* * 7 f a t h e r s w i t h l e s s than grade 5. 4 w i t h no f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g . D i s c o u n t i n g uneducated and unknown (2) median i s grade 7.  Page - 130  Occupation  o f mother. Housewife Domestic Business  TOTAL  9 2 2 13  Average age o f mother: 53. Average e d u c a t i o n o f mother: 3.5 grades.* * 6 have no formal s c h o o l i n g , d i s c o u n t i n g uneducated median i s grade 6. Average number o f b r o t h e r s . Average number o f s i s t e r s .  3 2.2  S i b l i n g s . R u r a l average R u r a l p l u s urban farmers average Urban average Unban minus farmers *Two f a m i l i e s l i v e d i n s m a l l urban areas were farmers.  8.75 8.67* 4 2.7* (pop 6,000) but  Family s t a t u s .  Both p a r e n t s p r e s e n t . 5 Mother o n l y p r e s e n t . 5 N e i t h e r parent p r e s e n t 2 Mother r e m a r r i e d 1 Father remarried 2 Father d e s e r t e d 3 Mother d e s e r t e d 1 Father deceased 5 Mother deceased 1 * 5 s u b j e c t s from i n t a c t homes. 5 s u b j e c t s from s i n g l e f a m i l y home. 2 s u b j e c t s brought up by r e l a t i v e s . 1 s u b j e c t o r i g i o n a l f a t h e r and stepmother. Occupation  of subject. Student Semi s k i l l e d Farmer Tradesman Business Professional  Marital status.  Departed  from.  Married Unmarried  Home Elsewhere  TOTAL  5 1 2 1 3 _1 13  TOTAL  2 11 13  TOTAL  Page - 131  11 2 13  Average age a t departure: Year o f d e p a r t u r e .  25.3  1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989  1 1 0 0 1 3 0 3 2 2  Reason f o r departure. Student a c t i v i s t Political activist Death t h r e a t s Death o f r e l a t i v e s Avoidance o f d r a f t Army d e s e r t e r F l e e i n g c r i m i n a l elements TOTAL Means o f t r a v e l .  Bus Train Hitch hike Private car Walked TOTAL  3 2 2 2 2 1 1 13  8 1 2 1 1 13  Intermediate d e s t i n a t i o n ( s ) . Country. Mexico United States Direct travel  TOTAL  4 10 2 13  Average l e n g t h o f s t a y f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . Average l e n g t h o f s t a y f o r i n d i r e c t t r a v e l l e r s . T o t a l l e n g t h o f journey. Average f o r a l l s u b j e c t s . Average e x c l u d i n g d i r e c t t r a v e l l e r s  Page - 132  10.5 months 16 months  33 months 38.36 months  S e c t i o n 2.  A r r i v a l and e a r l y e x p e r i e n c e s .  A r r i v a l p o i n t i n Canada.  Toronto London Vancouver  4 1 8  D e c l a r a t i o n t o Immigration Canada. Toronto 4 London 1 Vancouver 7 *,** A t l a n t a Ga. 1 * one s u b j e c t d i d n o t make c l a i m a t border, a t 'Albany S t ' Vancouver ** one s u b j e c t a r r e s t e d i n s i d e border and made c l a i m under e s c o r t a t t h e S i n c l a i r Centre. Status given. Refugee c l a i m a n t 9 M i n i s t e r i a l Permit 1 Refugee s t a t u s 1 Permanent r e s i d e n t s v i s a 1 V i s i t o r s permit (1 year) 1* • s u b j e c t g r a n t e d refugee c l a i m a n t s t a t u s on e x p i r y o f v i s i t o r s permit. E l i g i b i l i t y f o r welfare  Yes 12  No 1  Later  E l i g i b i l i t y f o r employment  8  5  4*  E l i g i b i l i t y f o r education  5**  8  * A l l r e f u g e e c l a i m a n t s g i v e n work p e r m i t s Jan. 1989. ** Only s u b j e c t s who e n t e r e d i n O n t a r i o g i v e n ESL c l a s s e s . Area l i v i n g i n Vancouver.  Downtown E a s t s i d e . Fraser. Commercial. Other. Number o f moves w i t h i n Vancouver. Average 3.2 Reasons f o r moves. Problems w i t h l a n d l o r d . Looking f o r b e t t e r p l a c e . D e l i b e r a t e f o r anonimity. Would n o t comment.  Page - 133  7 3 1 2 2 6 1 4  Number o f r e l a t i v e s i n Canada on a r r i v a l . Number o f r e l a t i v e s i n Canada now.  Total.  8  Total. 11 Help r e c e i v e d from r e l a t i v e s (%). None* * One s u b j e c t r e c e i v e d h e l p d u r i n g f i r s t month. Most h e l p r e c e i v e d i n f i r s t s i x months None. 1 Relatives. *see note above Friends. Government Agencies, Churches/organisations. Self. i n Canada 0 None. Language. 7 Economic. 5 2 Family/Cultural. Adaption. 3 Immigration S t a t u s . 1 I n a b i l i t y t o work. 4 5* Other. • P o l i c e harrasment,resents being refugee family,unable t o f i n d work,unspecified. Ethnicity  o f Neighbours.  Latino's. Native Indians. Europeans. Chinese. East I n d i a n s .  Page - 134  2 7 2 1  claimant,misses  11 3 6 2 1  Section 3 E d u c a t i o n and r e l a t e d a r e a s . E d u c a t i o n i n country o f o r i g i n Grade 1 - 3 . Grade 4 - 6 . Grade 7 - 1 0 . Grade 11. High School. Attended c o l l e g e . Attended t e c h . Completed p o s t s e c .  1 1 7 1 3 6 2 3  E d u c a t i o n i n Canada None. E n g l i s h courses.  8 5  Knowledge o f E n g l i s h None Some Moderate Fluent Knowledge o f Canada None Some Moderate Extensive Newspaper r e a d i n g Frequency Daily Weekly Monthly None Radio l i s t e n i n g Regularly Frequency Seldom Never T e l e v i s i o n watching Regularly Frequency Seldom Never  0 3 7 3 3 3 4 3 4 5 2 2  Language  Spanish English Both  1 6 4  9 3 1  Language  Spanish English Other  0 10 4  11 1 1  Language  Spanish English Other  0 12 0  Page - 135  Section 4 Occupation  and  employment.  Occupation Country of o r i a i n Student 5 Semi s k i l l e d 1 (6m) Blue c o l l a r 4 (5y;ly;6m;?) 2 (6y;6y) Farm work Trades 1 (12y) White c o l l a r 1 (lly) 1 (2y) Services Prof/Managerial 3 (4y;10y;?) Military 1 (2y) N.B.  years .75 .5 .75 2.0 .5 0 .75 0 0  Canada 3 7 5 2 1 0 2 0 0  years .5 .5 2.16 6.0 12.0 11.0 2.0 7.0 2.0  Years above r e f l e c t average years f o r the group.  Unemployment Average months d u r i n g p a s t t h r e e y e a r s 9.13 Range lm Never unemployed 2 Range 1.5y - 2.5y Never employed 3 Range 6m - 8y Help  i n securing f i r s t job i n Relatives/Friends Self Government Agencies Other No j o b s t o date  D u r a t i o n of f i r s t  Canada 3 3 1 3 3 3.25 months 4.225 months *  job  C u r r e n t employment C u r r e n t unemployment  2.5y  2 11  Duration Duration  2m 8m  •These f i g u r e d i s c o u n t s the t h r e e who employment.  Page -  136  Range 2w - 4m Range lm - 2y * have not  obtained  Section 5 Economic Data C u r r e n t income from a l l s o u r c e s Welfare Employment  No./subj e c t s 7 6  Earnings $486.00 p e r month $1608.33 p e r month  Use o f p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e Remittance t o home Living costs Rent Food Clothing Entertainment Transportation Other  7  11 D u r a t i o n  Average  Range $1000 - 2800 16m Range 2w - 8y  (month) $220 Range $90 - 1000  Average $275 $150 $100 (4) $52 (4) $25 (2)  Page - 137  $250 $120 $50 $20 $20  Range - $425 - $300 - $300 - $200 - $30  Section 6 B e l i e f s and o r i e n t a t i o n . Religion Catholic Protestant Evangelical Other None  5 0 1 2 5  Ferguency o f church Daily 1 Weekly 3 Monthly 1 Rarely 0 None 8  attendance  S a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h l i f e i n Canada Very s a t i s f i e d 12 Satisfied 1 Not s a t i s f i e d 0 P l a n t o become a Canadian C i t i z e n Yes 12 No 0 Undecided 1 O p p o r t u n i t i e s t o i n t e r a c t w i t h Anglo/Canadians Source 6 Many Work 5 3 Some Church 2 4 None Experiences of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n 4 Source Many Some 3 police 1 stores 1 6 None Employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s Many 3 some 7 3 None Relations with landlords 9 Positive 2 Satisfactory Negative 2 R e l a t i o n s w i t h Government O f f i c i a l s (Employment/Immigration) Positive 8 Satisfactory 3 Negative 2 R e l a t i o n s w i t h Law Enforcement Agencies 6 Positive 2 Satisfactory Negative 5 R e l a t i o n s w i t h R e l i e f Agencies Positive 7 3 Satisfactory Negative 2 None 1 R e l a t i o n s w i t h Employers Positive 5 3 Satisfactory Negative 2 None 3  Page - 138  Relations with other L a t i n s Positive 10 Satisfactory 1 Negative 2 R e l a t i o n s w i t h n o n - L a t i n s t r e e t people 7 Positive 3 Satisfactory 3 Negative R e l a t i o n s w i t h women Positive 6 Satisfactory 4 Negative 2 None ( u n a v a i l a b l e ) 1 A b i l i t y t o cope w i t h m o o d - a l t e r i n g substance Positive 4 Alcohol Satisfactory 2 Drugs Negative 7 Other problems 9 Yes 4 No  Page - 139  8 3  

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