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Portrayal of world interdependence in social studies textbooks Hannah, John Ogilvie Leo 1991

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PORTRAYAL OF WORLD INTERDEPENDENCE IN SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOKS By JOHN OGILVIE LEO HANNAH B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a , 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULLFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (De p a r t m e n t o f S o c i a l and E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1991 Jo h n O g i l v i e L e o Hannah, 1991 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of S o c i a l and Educational Studies The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada D a t e March 2 5 , 1991 DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT T h i s t h e s i s focuses on how s o c i a l s t u d i e s textbooks, a u t h o r i z e d f o r use i n Canadian classrooms, p o r t r a y our changing world. P r e p a r i n g young people f o r c i t i z e n s h i p i n a world that i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y interdependent r e q u i r e s p r e s e n t i n g them with a way of t h i n k i n g about the world that allows f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e s . The textbook, as a major v e h i c l e for t r a n s m i t t i n g knowledge, can p l a y an important r o l e i n that process. Although the volume of t e x t u a l accounts of world interdependence i s expanding, i t i s contended that the themes and images presented to students tend to r e i n f o r c e u n i l a t e r a l r a t h e r than m u l t i l a t e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of r e a l i t y . A framework of a n a l y s i s i s developed to determine i f the textbooks employ e i t h e r a m u l t i l a t e r a l thematic or u n i l a t e r a l thematic approach to the study of world interdependence. A m u l t i l a t e r a l approach encourages the e x p l o r a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of view on important world i s s u e s whereas a u n i l a t e r a l approach tends to focus on a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the same is s u e s or events. T h i s framework employs four r u b r i c s s u i t e d to the a n a l y s i s of the t r a n s m i s s i o n of knowledge, d e s c r i p t i o n , e x p l a n a t i o n , p r e d i c t i o n and p r e s c r i p t i o n , to guide a s e r i e s of a n a l y t i c a l q uestions designed to determine i f textbooks present u n i l a t e r a l or m u l t i l a t e r a l themes. s i x s i g n i f i c a n t w o r l d Issue a r e a s a re e v a l u a t e d i n f o u r t e e n s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k s . The i s s u e a r e a s p r o f i l e d a r e : food s u p p l y i s s u e s , p o p u l a t i o n i s s u e s , e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s , peace and s e c u r i t y i s s u e s , human r i g h t s i s s u e s and economic I s s u e s . The f i n d i n g s of t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t the f o u r d imensions of the framework a r e not a d e q u a t e l y a d d r e s s e d i n the s e l e c t e d t e x t b o o k s . Twenty-two of the t w e n t y - e i g h t p r o f i l e s s t u d i e d tend t o s u p p o r t a u n i l a t e r a l t h e m a t i c r a t h e r t h a n a m u l t i l a t e r a l t h e m a t i c p o r t r a y a l of how the w o r l d works. P r e p a r i n g s t u d e n t s f o r c i t i z e n s h i p i n a g l o b a l age r e q u i r e s p r o v i d i n g them w i t h a c c e s s t o a body of knowledge t h a t h e l p s them t o a c q u i r e a more i n t e g r a t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e i r w o r l d i n o r d e r t o make informed d e c i s i o n s and judgements about p r e s s i n g g l o b a l c o n c e r n s . That g o a l i s impeded when t h e r e i s a p r o p e n s i t y f o r t e x t b o o k s t o p r o v i d e a p a r t i c u l a r v i e w p o i n t r a t h e r than a v a r i e t y of v i e w p o i n t s on i m p o r t a n t w o r l d I s s u e s . A l t h o u g h t h i s s t u d y i s e x p l o r a t o r y i n n a t u r e , i t s f i n d i n g s p r e s e n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s f o r s o c i a l s t u d i e s e d u c a t o r s when c h o o s i n g t o adopt p a r t i c u l a r t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n a l p u r poses. i i i TABLE. Q E CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS iv LIST OF TABLES v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS v i i CHAPTER I . THE NATURE OF THE STUDY 1 Introduction 1 Problem of the Study 9 Purpose of the Study 10 Method of the Study 10 Limitations 12 II. A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 13 Notions of Interdependence 13 H i s t o r i c a l Studies 18 Geographical Studies 19 International Relations Studies 22 Promotion of a M u l t i l a t e r a l Representation .... 26 II I . THE METHOD OF ANALYSIS 28 Formulation of A Framework 28 A Multidimensional Approach - the DEPP Model .. 29 Explanation of an Issues Approach 32 The Selected Issue Areas 35 iv Nature of the Selected Geography Issue Areas .. 35 Nature of the Selected International Issue Areas 37 Importance of Textbooks 40 Selection of Textbooks 43 Summary Review of Procedure 46 IV TEXTBOOK ANALYSIS 49 An Exploratory Study 49 The Geography Issue Areas 49 Examination of the World Food Issue 50 Examination of the Population Growth Issue .... 57 Examination of the Environmental Issue 65 The International Relations Issue Areas 73 Examination of the Security Issue 73 Examination of the Human Rights Issue 82 Examination of the Global Economic Issue 88 Adequacy of the Portrayal of Interdependence 93 V CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 100 Overview of the Findings of the Study 100 Conclusions in the Six Issue Areas 101 Conclusions on the Adequacy of Portrayal of World Interdependence 104 Implications and Recommendations 105 BIBLIOGRAPHY 110 v LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I. L i s t of Textbooks Selected for Analysis 45 II. Questions for the Analysis of Social Studies Textbooks 48 II I . Geography: P r o f i l e of the World Food Issue .. 95 IV. Geography: P r o f i l e of the Population Growth Issue 95 V. Geography: P r o f i l e of the Environmental Issue 96 VI. International Relations: P r o f i l e of the Security Issue 96 VII. International Relations: P r o f i l e of the Human Rights Issue 97 VIII. International Relations: P r o f i l e of the Global Economic Issue 97 v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to express my sincere appreciation to Dr. Donald C. Wilson and to D r . Peter Seixas. As my thesis advisors, their guidance and constructive c r i t i c i s m has done much to advance my professional growth and development. Appreciation i s also extended to the other members of my supervisory committee, D r . Dennis Milburn and D r . Donald Alper, for their continued interest and positive support during the completion of this thesis. I also wish to thank my wife, June, whose patience and understanding has served as a constant source of encouragement. This thesis i s as much hers as i t is mine. v i i 1 CHAPTER ONE THE NATURE OF THE STUDY I n t r o d u c t i o n D u r i n g t h e p a s t d e c a d e , C a n a d i a n s have w i t n e s s e d a tremendous i n c r e a s e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e l a t i o n s w i t h a wide v a r i e t y o f c o u n t r i e s . T h i s g r o w t h r e f l e c t s i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n p o l i t i c a l , e c o n o m i c and e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s common t o t h e g l o b a l community. These m u l t i l a t e r a l c o n n e c t i o n s a l s o d e v e l o p r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h i n v o l v e d i f f e r e n t b e l i e f s and p o i n t s o f v i e w . The w o r l d t h a t we s h a r e i s c h a n g i n g and how we t h i n k a b o u t t h e w o r l d i s a l s o c h a n g i n g . S t a v r i a n o s (1979) a s s e r t s t h a t " p r o g r e s s i v e g l o b a l i z a t i o n o f t h e human c o n d i t i o n " makes i t v i t a l f o r us t o r e t h i n k t h e way we have t r a d i t i o n a l l y v i e w e d t h e w o r l d and our p o s i t i o n i n t h a t s e t t i n g . S i n c e 1945, many new n a t i o n s i n A f r i c a , A s i a and t h e C a r i b b e a n have emerged, c r e a t i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y ? m o r e complex p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r a c t i o n , c o n f l i c t , and c o o p e r a t i o n . T e c h n o l o g y , i n t h e form o f s p a c e s a t e l l i t e s and c o m p u t e r s , has h e l p e d t o l i n k a l l c o r n e r s o f t h e g l o b e . The I n c r e a s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n o f u n i v e r s a l human r i g h t s t h r o u g h g r e a t e r media c o v e r a g e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l e v e n t s has l e d t o c u l t u r a l c h a n g e s . H i s t o r i c a l l y , we have c o n s i d e r e d t h e w o r l d a s a c o l l e c t i o n o f s e p a r a t e n a t i o n - s t a t e s w i t h d i f f e r i n g s o c i a l s y s t e m s and m o r a l c o d e s . T r a d i t i o n a l images o f s e p a r a t e l a n d s and p e o p l e s may no l o n g e r match t h e r e a l i t i e s o f t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y w o r l d . 2 During the 1980s the international setting has been increasingly witness to events that have transcended national and regional boundaries. P o l i t i c a l actions demonstrate dramatically the increasing interdependence of world a f f a i r s . An e l e c t i o n in the Philippines, receives considerable world attention because of i t s implications for the security of Asia and for the interests of the superpowers in the region. The denial of human rights in E l Salvador has implications for the Influx of refugees into Canada as does China's recent suppression of the pro-democracy movement. In the l a t t e r s i t u a t i o n , the problem becomes increasingly complex i f Great B r i t a i n follows through on i t s promise to close i t s doors to immigrants from Hong Kong. For Canada, both events may resu l t in reassessment of immigration p o l i c i e s . The l i s t of examples goes on, indicating evidence of the linkages among the participants in the global p o l i t i c a l system. As well, the cast of characters grows with an additional dimension to the global p o l i t i c a l scene being realized through the increasing influence of what Lamy (1988) refers to as "non-state actors" or "transnational enterprises". These non-governmental organizations work toward influencing national and international p o l i c i e s on a wide range of global issues thus playing a part in world p o l i t i c s and assuring that the global p o l i t i c a l stage is no longer s o l e l y the domain of the nation states. In Charting & Course; S o c i a l Studies f_p_r_ the. 21st Century, the 3 1989 U n i t e d S t a t e s N a t i o n a l Commission on S o c i a l s t u d i e s In t h e S c h o o l s c o n c l u d e s t h a t : In a w o r l d i n w h i c h c o r p o r a t i o n s o p e r a t e t r a n s n a t i o n a l l y , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s a r o u n d t h e g l o b e c a n be v i r t u a l l y i n s t a n t a n e o u s and t h e most i m p o r t a n t p r o b l e m s w i l l have t o be s o l v e d on an i n t e r n a t i o n a l b a s i s -i n s u c h a w o r l d t h e m u l t i d i s c i p l i n a r y s t u d y of humankind i n i t s v a r i e t y , r o o t e d n e s s , and i n t e r e l a t e d n e s s becomes e v e n more e s s e n t i a l . ( p . X) I n an e c o n o m i c s e n s e , t h e e v i d e n c e i s a l l a r o u n d us t h a t we f u n c t i o n and consume w i t h i n a g l o b a l economy. E c o n o m i c i n t e r a c t i o n i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y m u l t i -f a c e t e d ; t h e a u t o m o b i l e s t h a t Canada i m p o r t s may come from J a p a n or Germany b u t t h e i r p a r t s may be m a n u f a c t u r e d e l s e w h e r e . An i n c r e a s e d pace o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i o n and s e r v i c e s has been v e r y much a movement o f t h i s d e c a d e t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t i t i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o s e p a r a t e t h e many i s s u e s and p r o b l e m s o f t h e w o r l d economy. The l i n k between t h e U.S. t r a d e and b u d g e t d e f i c i t s and e c o n o m i c g r o w t h e l s e w h e r e i n t h e w o r l d i s h i g h l y v i s i b l e when t h e U.S. d o l l a r f a l l s and t h e e c o n o m i c r e c o v e r y i n t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d s t o p s . Canada's i n v o l v e m e n t i n w o r l d e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t s has i n c r e a s e d t r e m e n d o u s l y d u r i n g t h e 80s, s h a r p l y a c c e n t e d by t h e r e c e n t s i g n i n g o f t h e C a n a d a - U n i t e d s t a t e s f r e e t r a d e p a c t , l e a d i n g t o a more i n t e g r a t e d N o r t h A m e r i c a n economy. W i d e n i n g t h e p a r a m e t e r s o f t r a d e e v e n f u r t h e r , t h e government o f Canada c o n t i n u e s t o expand i t s t r a d e l i n k s t o A s i a n c o u n t r i e s t h u s e n s u r i n g C a n a d i a n a c c e s s t o an e v e n 4 l a r g e r m a r k e t . R o s e c r a n c e (1986) I l l u s t r a t e s how a r i s e In t h e power o f t r a d i n g s t a t e s c a n c r e a t e a p o s i t i v e web o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e among n a t i o n s as o p p o s e d t o what h i s t o r y has o f t e n w i t n e s s e d as a s t r u g g l e f o r power b a s e d on t e r r i t o r i a l c l a i m s s u p p o r t e d by m i l i t a r y e n d e a v o u r s . W i l s o n (1989) s t a t e s t h a t when n a t i o n s c o n c e n t r a t e t h e i r e n e r g i e s on d e v e l o p i n g s t r o n g e r e c o n o m i c l i n k s w i t h o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , t h e r e i s a much g r e a t e r c h a n c e o f r e a l i z i n g t h a t " t h e b e n e f i t s o f c o o p e r a t i o n a r e g r e a t e r t h a n t h e c o s t s , and t h a t c o - o p e r a t i o n among n a t i o n s i s more b e n e f i c i a l t h a n a g g r e s s i o n " , ( p . 6 ) . The p l a n e t on w h i c h we l i v e i s a s h a r e d b u t f r a g i l e e n t i t y . The d e c a d e o f t h e 80s has been w i t n e s s t o t h e i n c r e a s i n g c a l l f o r g r e a t e r s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e f i n i t e n a t u r e o f t h e e a r t h ' s r e s o u r c e s and t h e need t o manage t h e r e s o u r c e s w i s e l y . T h i s new e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s m , e n v i s i o n i n g t h e w o r l d a s a s y s t e m , c h a l l e n g e s t h e v i e w t h a t we l i v e on a p l a n e t w i t h t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r u n l i m i t e d c o n s u m p t i o n . P o l l u t i o n i n i t s many forms r e s p e c t s no i n t e r n a t i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s . The c o n t a m i n a t i v e e f f e c t s o f t h e C h e r n o b y l n u c l e a r a c c i d e n t i n t h e S o v i e t U n i o n were t r a n s n a t i o n a l i n s c o p e a s t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e p r o b l e m went w e l l beyond t h e b o r d e r s o f t h e n a t i o n o f o r i g i n . T h e s e p r o b l e m s r e s p e c t no p o l i t i c a l marks on t h e map. Humans, b e c a u s e o f our a b i l i t y t o e i t h e r m a i n t a i n or d e s t r o y on a l a r g e s c a l e , become t h e most c r i t i c a l a c t o r s i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l s y s t e m . 5 The I n c r e a s i n g I n t e r e s t i n w o r l d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e , c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y has g e n e r a t e d i n t e r e s t f r o m an e d u c a t i o n a l p o i n t o f v i e w . In most C a n a d i a n p r o v i n c e s , t h e l a t e s t s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e s promote as one o f t h e i r g o a l s , t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f young p e o p l e f o r c i t i z e n s h i p i n a w o r l d t h a t i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e r d e p e n d e n t . W i l s o n (1988) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m o f t h e 90s w i l l l e s s e n i t s f o c u s on i n t e r n a l l y - o r i e n t e d i s s u e s and move more toward p o r t r a y i n g a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h h i g h l i g h t Canada's w o r l d c o n n e c t i o n s . A s e l e c t i o n f r o m s e v e r a l p r o v i n c i a l g u i d e l i n e s i n d i c a t e s t h e s c o p e and i n t e n t o f t h i s t a s k . The B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1985 S o c i a l S t u d i e s G u i d e f o r g r a d e e l e v e n , c o n t a i n s t h e s u b s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d The  G l o b a l E n v i r o n m e n t - s o c i a l and Economic Perspectives. A sample o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e q u e s t i o n s a r e : - I n what way a r e c o u n t r i e s e c o n o m i c a l l y i n t e r d e p e n d e n t ? - What i s our p e r s o n a l r o l e and o b l i g a t i o n as i n d i v i d u a l C a n a d i a n and w o r l d c i t i z e n s ? - How d o e s t h e l i f e o f a c h i l d i n a T h i r d W o r l d c o u n t r y compare t o t h e l i f e o f a c h i l d i n Canada? - How do we r e s o l v e t h e dilemma o f t h e w o r l d ' s a t m o s p h e r e and o c e a n as b e l o n g i n g t o e v e r y o n e y e t b e i n g t r e a t e d a s i f b e l o n g i n g t o no one? M a n i t o b a ' s 1984 s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e h i g h l i g h t s i t s w o r l d I s s u e s theme by f o c u s i n g on E a s t / W e s t and N o r t h / S o u t h r e l a t i o n s h i p s . S p e c i f i c i s s u e s a r e i d e n t i f i e d s u c h as human r i g h t s , s o v e r e i g n r i g h t s , t r a d e I s s u e s and d i s p a r i t y . F u t u r e i m p l i c a t i o n s and a l t e r n a t i v e s to p r e s e n t t r e n d s a r e a l s o h i g h l i g h t e d w i t h i n t h e c u r r i c u l u m . R e c e n t l y a d o p t e d s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s i n O n t a r i o f o c u s on p r e s e n t i n g h i s t o r y a s an e x p l o r a t i o n of 6 t h e r o o t s o£ p r e s e n t g l o b a l t r e n d s . A component o f t h e program e n t i t l e d The Emergence Q± the. G l o b a l v i l l a g e i s d e s i g n e d t o " p r o v i d e s t u d e n t s w i t h a c o n t e x t i n wh i c h t o vi e w and u n d e r s t a n d t h e i d e a s and images o f our g l o b a l v i l l a g e " . A l l o f t h e g u i d e l i n e s e n c o u r a g e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s t u d e n t r e s e a r c h and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g s k i l l s . I n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r c i t i z e n s h i p i n a g l o b a l age, s t u d e n t s must be a b l e t o make i n f o r m e d judgements and d e c i s i o n s a b o u t complex w o r l d i s s u e s ; t h e r e f o r e , i t i s I m p e r a t i v e t h a t t h e y a r e g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e v e l o p an i n t e g r a t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e w o r l d i n w h i c h t h e y l i v e . Many new s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k s , a u t h o r i z e d f o r use i n C a n a d i a n c l a s s r o o m s , d e v o t e g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n t o p o r t r a y i n g our c h a n g i n g w o r l d . A l t h o u g h t h e volume o f c o n t e n t d e v o t e d t o t h e d e p i c t i o n o f w o r l d r e l a t i o n s i s e x p a n d i n g , many t e x t b o o k s do n o t a p p e a r t o p o r t r a y images o f t h e w o r l d and n o t i o n s o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e from m u l t i p l e p o i n t s o f v i e w . P o r t r a y i n g w o r l d I s s u e s from a p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t m e r e l y r e i n f o r c e s t h e c o n v e n t i o n s o f one's own s o c i e t y t o t h e e x c l u s i o n o f o t h e r s may f a i l t o h e l p s t u d e n t s d e v e l o p t h e l a r g e r , i n t e g r a t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e i r w o r l d t h a t i s needed t o d e v e l o p a d e e p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f w o r l d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e . Seney (1986) c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y o f s e l e c t e d s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k s p o r t r a y i n g t h e C a n a d i a n - A m e r i c a n r e l a t i o n s h i p . H i s f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y 7 of textbooks analyzed, d e p i c t the r e l a t i o n s h i p i n what he r e f e r s to as a " n a t i o n - c e n t r i c " mode whereby onl y the Canadian p e r c e p t i o n of a b i - l a t e r a l i ssue i s g i v e n . In other words, the image of the r e l a t i o n s h i p p r o j e c t e d , r e i n f o r c e s the sense of d i v i s i o n between the two peoples. Seney concludes t h a t the s i t u a t i o n 11 denies students the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a g r e a t e r understanding of the r e l a t i o n s h i p " and i n t u r n " encourages myopic prejudgements and s e l f - c e n t e r e d e v a l u a t i o n s " . (Seney, 1986, p. 103). Developing a deeper understanding of the g l o b a l s e t t i n g i s f r e q u e n t l y hampered by what Cortes and Fleming (1986) r e f e r to as the p e r s p e c t i v e problem which has four main components: a n a t u r a l tendency to w r i t e about f o r e i g n areas through Western eyes; the d i f f i c u l t y of p r e s e n t i n g the views of persons w i t h i n f o r e i g n areas; the n e g l e c t of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between major world areas (unless I n v o l v i n g North America); and the f a i l u r e to present the d i v e r s i t y of p e r s p e c t i v e s t h a t may e x i s t w i t h i n f o r e i g n areas themselves. (p. 380). Kniep (1986) contends t h a t i n order to respond to the i n t e r r e l a t i n g nature of the world, i t i s necessary that people begin to view i t as a whole, r a t h e r than a sum of p a r t s . Many s o c i a l s t u d i e s programs are designed to p r o j e c t o n l y a u n i - p e r s p e c t i v e approach t h a t does not c o n s i d e r emerging g l o b a l r e a l i t i e s from a multitude of viewpoints. He f u r t h e r contends t h a t d e v e l o p i n g a deeper understanding of world r e l a t i o n s i s of paramount importance 8 s i n c e : t o d a y , as n e v e r b e f o r e a l l human b e i n g s l i v e i n a m u l t i - b o u n d a r y w o r l d : n o t s i m p l y a w o r l d o f n a t i o n s t a t e s b u t one w i t h a d i v e r s i t y o f Worldwide s y s t e m s i n w h i c h a l l p e o p l e a f f e c t and a r e a f f e c t e d by o t h e r s a c r o s s t h e g l o b e . ( K n i e p , p. 536) Lamy (1987) e c h o e s t h a t c o n c e r n when he a s s e r t s : i f t h e p u r p o s e o f e d u c a t i o n i s t o p r e p a r e s t u d e n t s f o r e f f e c t i v e and r e s p o n s i b l e c i t i z e n s h i p , t h e c o n t e n t o f what we t e a c h must r e f l e c t t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s w h i c h have c r e a t e d a complex i n t e r c o n n e c t e d w o r l d i n w h i c h c u l t u r e s c o l l i d e e v e r y m inute and d e p e n d e n c i e s l i m i t t h e f l e x i b i l i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s and n a t i o n - s t a t e s . ( p . 37) Hanvey (1982) s u p p o r t s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a model f o r t e a c h i n g a b o u t t h e w o r l d t h a t i n v o l v e s i n t e g r a t i o n o f f i v e d i m e n s i o n s : p e r s p e c t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s ; s t a t e o f t h e p l a n e t a w a r e n e s s ; c r o s s - c u l t u r a l a w a r e n e s s ; knowledge o f g l o b a l d y n a m i c s and a w a r e n e s s o f human c h o i c e s . By s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e w o r l d ' s n a t i o n s makes i t n e c e s s a r y f o r s t u d e n t s t o d e v e l o p an i n t e r n a t i o n a l a w a r e n e s s , Hanvey i s p r o m o t i n g a s t u d y o f t h e w o r l d f r o m a v a r i e t y o f p e r s p e c t i v e s . I n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r c i t i z e n s h i p i n a g l o b a l age, C a n a d i a n s t u d e n t s a r e i n c r e a s i n g l y demanding an o p p o r t u n i t y t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n making d e c i s i o n s and judgements a b o u t complex i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s s u e s . A c c o r d i n g t o C l e v e l a n d ( 1 9 8 5 ) , t h e p l a t f o r m b e s t s u i t e d t o h e l p s t u d e n t s t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e w o r l d i n w h i c h t h e y l i v e , i s t h e s o c i a l s t u d i e s , " t h e s t u d y of how c i t i z e n s i n a s o c i e t y make p e r s o n a l and p u b l i c d e c i s i o n s on 9 i s s u e s t h a t a f f e c t t h e i r d e s t i n y " ( p . 1 0 5 ) . R a s k i n s and B e r n s t e i n (1987) deem i t i m p e r a t i v e t h a t s t u d e n t s g a i n a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what t h e y r e f e r t o as " t h e i r r e v o c a b l e g l o b a l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f a l l p e o p l e and n a t i o n s " ( p . 1 6 ) . I t i s b ecoming i n c r e a s i n g l y a p p a r e n t t h a t w o r l d r e l a t i o n s and t h e p r o b l e m s I n h e r e n t i n w o r l d i n t e r -c o n n e c t e d n e s s , r e q u i r e p r o - a c t i v e s o l u t i o n s . T e a c h i n g a b o u t g l o b a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h e r e f o r e , r e q u i r e s an a p p r o a c h t h a t r e f l e c t s t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y p l u r a l i s t i c n a t u r e o f our w o r l d . Problem oJL the study As we move i n t o t h e t w e n t y - f i r s t c e n t u r y , s c h o l a r s and c u r r i c u l u m p l a n n e r s a r g u e t h a t t h e s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m i n c r e a s i n g l y must f o c u s on p r o v i d i n g our y o u t h w i t h a more t h o r o u g h u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e n o t i o n o f a c h a n g i n g w o r l d . I f t o d a y ' s s t u d e n t s , who w i l l be tomorrow's d e c i s i o n - m a k e r s , c o n t i n u e t o be e x p o s e d t o t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l w h i c h r e i n f o r c e s a u n i l a t e r a l v i e w o f t h e w o r l d , t h e y w i l l be l a r g e l y u n p r e p a r e d t o e f f e c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s complex and i n c r e a s i n g l y p l u r a l i s t i c I n t e r n a t i o n a l s e t t i n g . The s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m In C a n a d i a n s c h o o l s , and i n t u r n i t s t e x t b o o k s , o c c u p y an I m p o r t a n t p o s i t i o n i n o v e r c o m i n g t h o s e l i m i t a t i o n s . The t e x t b o o k , w i t h i t s s t r o n g c l a s s r o o m p r e s e n c e , r e q u i r e s c a r e f u l s c r u t i n y f o r t h e ways i n w h i c h i t u s e s i t s power t o 10 communicate t o s t u d e n t s what t h e w o r l d i s l i k e and how i t works. A s s u m p t i o n s made i n t e x t b o o k s a b o u t how n a t i o n s I n t e r a c t i n t h e g l o b a l v i l l a g e s e r v e as I m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e r s o f s t u d e n t knowledge, b e l i e f s and o u t l o o k s . A l t h o u g h t e x t b o o k s p r o v i d e s t u d e n t s w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e I n f o r m a t i o n on w o r l d a r e a s , t h e r e i s a need t o examine t h e form o f c o n t e n t i n t e x t b o o k s t o d e t e r m i n e whether t h e knowledge base p r o v i d e d , i s a d e q u a t e t o e f f e c t i v e l y i n c r e a s e s t u d e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f w o r l d I n t e r d e p e n d e n c e . G i v e n t h i s c o n c e r n , t h e p r o b l e m i s whether s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k s a d e q u a t e l y p o r t r a y t h e c h a n g i n g n a t u r e o f t h e w o r l d community. P u r p o s e g_£ t h e S t u d y The p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y i s t o examine how n o t i o n s o f w o r l d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e a r e p o r t r a y e d i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k s . The s t u d y p o s e s t h e s e q u e s t i o n s : 1. What doe s a r e v i e w o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l a b o u t n o t i o n s o f w o r l d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e ? 2. How a r e t h o s e n o t i o n s o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e p o r t r a y e d i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k s ? 3. To what e x t e n t a r e t h o s e p o r t r a y a l s o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e a d e q u a t e , w i t h a d e q u a c y d e f i n e d as a m u l t i l a t e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ? Method o £ t h e S t u d y I n o r d e r t o examine t h e n o t i o n s o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t i n t e a c h i n g a b o u t t h e 11 w o r l d , c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a b r o a d a n a l y t i c a l framework Is r e q u i r e d as a m e a s u r i n g d e v i c e f o r e x a m i n i n g how t h o s e n o t i o n s o f w o r l d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e a r e a c t u a l l y p o r t r a y e d i n t e x t b o o k s and t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h an a d e q u a t e c o n c e p t u a l base i s e v i d e n t i n t h o s e p o r t r a y a l s . S i n c e t h i s s t u d y i s e x p l o r a t o r y i n n a t u r e , t h e framework c o n s i s t s o f a s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o examine c o n t e n d i n g v i e w s on t h e c h a n g i n g n a t u r e o f t h e w o r l d as w e l l as t o a s s e s s t h o s e n o t i o n s as b e i n g e i t h e r m u l t i l a t e r a l t h e m a t i c o r u n i l a t e r a l t h e m a t i c i n p e r s p e c t i v e . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e t e r m m u l t i l a t e r a l i s r e f e r r e d t o i n a p e d a g o g i c a l c o n t e x t . A m u l t i l a t e r a l t h e m a t i c a p p r o a c h t o t h e t e a c h i n g and s t u d y o f w o r l d I n t e r d e p e n d e n c e r e c o g n i z e s c o n f l i c t i n g v i e w p o i n t s on p a r a d i g m s o f r e l a t i o n s between n a t i o n s and t h e p a r t i c u l a r b e l i e f s o r p e r s p e c t i v e s o f t h e a c t o r s i n v o l v e d . On t h e o t h e r hand, a u n i l a t e r a l a p p r o a c h t o t h e p o r t r a y a l o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e t e n d s t o e x c l u d e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f a l t e r n a t e v i e w s on how n a t i o n s i n t e r a c t a s w e l l a s t h e manner In w h i c h t h e c o n c e r n s o f t h e a c t o r s a r e made known. The s t u d y c o n t e n d s t h a t a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s o f an i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e r d e p e n d e n t w o r l d n e c e s s i t a t e s s t u d e n t s b e i n g e x p o s e d t o a m u l t i l a t e r a l a p p r o a c h whereby a v a r i e t y o f v i e w p o i n t s a r e r e c o g n i z e d . Hence, a m u l t i l a t e r a l p o r t r a y a l o f how t h e w o r l d works i s b e t t e r t h a n a u n i l a t e r a l a c c o u n t . A s e l e c t i o n o f s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t e m p o r a r y g l o b a l i s s u e s i n t h e s o c i a l s t u d i e s p r o v i d e s a s u i t a b l e c o n t e x t f o r a n a l y s i s . 12 L i m i t a t i o n s F i r s t , the s t u d y i s l i m i t e d t o t e x t b o o k s p r e s c r i b e d f o r use a t the s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l e v e l i n Canada. A second l i m i t a t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o the s e l e c t i o n of books p u b l i s h e d no e a r l i e r than 1980. I t Is reasoned t h a t few s o c i a l s t u d i e s c l a s s r o o m s use, as t e a c h i n g t o o l s , t e x t b o o k s p u b l i s h e d p r i o r t o t h i s d a t e . T h i r d , the s t u d y i n c l u d e s a n a l y s i s of w r i t t e n and v i s u a l m a t e r i a l p r e s e n t e d i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k s but makes no r e f e r e n c e t o t e a c h e r g u i d e s or s t u d e n t workbooks. The second c h a p t e r i s a s e l e c t e d r e v i e w of the e d u c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o d e t e r m i n i n g n o t i o n s of w o r l d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e . The t h i r d c h a p t e r i n t r o d u c e s a broad framework of a n a l y s i s t h a t i s employed as the b a s i s of assessment t o a n a l y s e t e x t b o o k p o r t r a y a l s of w o r l d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e . The a c t u a l a n a l y s i s of the s e l e c t e d t e x t b o o k s and c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the adequacy of the p o r t r a y a l of w o r l d interdependence t a k e s p l a c e i n the f o u r t h c h a p t e r . Chapter f i v e p r e s e n t s the c o n c l u s i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s of the s t u d y . 13 CHAPTER TWO A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE NOTIONS QE INTERDEPENDENCE P r i o r t o c o n d u c t i n g an a n a l y s i s o f n o t i o n s o f w o r l d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e as t h e y a r e p o r t r a y e d i n C a n a d i a n s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k s , i t i s v i t a l t o c o n d u c t a s e l e c t e d r e v i e w o f t h e r e c e n t e d u c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o w o r l d I n t e r d e p e n d e n c e . As w e l l , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o c o n s i d e r v a r i o u s a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e s t u d y and t e a c h i n g o f w o r l d r e l a t i o n s . Our r a p i d l y c h a n g i n g w o r l d n e c e s s i t a t e s c h o o s i n g c u r r i c u l a r c o n t e n t t h a t b e s t r e f l e c t s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s o c i e t y i n w h i c h s t u d e n t s a r e t o l i v e ( B r a n d t and T y l e r , 1 9 8 3 ) . Such a n o t i o n o f change g e n e r a t e s m u l t i p l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f how t h e w o r l d works and c o n s e q u e n t l y p romotes much i n t e r e s t among s c h o l a r s as t o t h e r o l e and f u n c t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l s t u d i e s i n h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s t o c o n s t r u c t c o r r e s p o n d i n g frameworks o f meaning. G a i n i n g t h a t knowledge o c c u r s when an i n f o r m a t i o n b a s e , w h i c h i n t h e c l a s s r o o m Is p r e d o m i n a t e l y t h e t e x t b o o k , i s s t r u c t u r e d i n s u c h a way as t o show r e l a t i o n s h i p s among phenomena. U n d e r s t a n d i n g t h o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s n e c e s s a r y t o h e l p s t u d e n t s c o n c e p t u a l i z e t h e i r own image o f r e a l i t y . Bragaw and H a r t o o n i a n (1988) c o n t e n d t h a t t h e s o u r c e f o r d e v e l o p i n g t h a t l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s i s f o u n d w i t h i n t h e "most p o w e r f u l c o n t e n t - b a s e d c o n c e p t s " r o o t e d i n t h e s c h o l a r l y d i s c i p l i n e s . 14 Common themes emerge from a survey of the l i t e r a t u r e on world interdependence. Rosenau (1983) s t a t e s that the growing interdependence of world a f f a i r s does not imply t h a t people and nations have always been s e l f -s u f f i c i e n t but t h a t "what Is new about interdependence i s the g l o b a l s c a l e on which i t i s p r e s e n t l y u n f o l d i n g " (Rosenau, 1983. p. 30). T h i s a s s e r t i o n i s r e i n f o r c e d by a study of the economic f o r c e s reshaping world r e l a t i o n s . Rosecrance (1986) contends t h a t world interdependence i s unavoidable as modern technology, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communications b r i n g n a t i o n s i n t o g r e a t e r c o n t a c t with one another. T h i s Increased i n t e r a c t i o n makes i t more d i f f i c u l t to s o l v e problems from the t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i o n - s t a t e or what Rosecrance r e f e r s to as the " t e r r i t o r i a l s t a t e " p e r s p e c t i v e . A more v i a b l e o p t i o n can be found i n the growth of the " t r a d i n g s t a t e " where natio n s g a i n t h e i r s t r e n g t h not through t e r r i t o r i a l or m i l i t a r y endeavours but by means of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n an interdependent g l o b a l t r a d i n g network. Rosecrance e x p l a i n s : while t r a d i n g s t a t e s t r y to improve t h e i r p o s i t i o n and t h e i r own domestic a l l o c a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s , they do so w i t h i n a context of accepted interdependence. Trading s t a t e s r e c o g n i z e t h a t they can do b e t t e r through i n t e r n a l economic development s u s t a i n e d by a world wide market f o r t h e i r goods and s e r v i c e s than by t r y i n g to conquer and a s s i m i l a t e l a r g e t r a c t s of l a n d . (Rosecrance, 1986, p. 24) He f u r t h e r supports h i s t h e s i s by h i s t o r i c a l r e f e r e n c e to the f a t e f u l attempts of Japan and Germany to improve t h e i r 15 p o s i t i o n s In w o r l d a f f a i r s t h r o u g h a n n e x a t i o n o f new t e r r i t o r y . Today, t h o s e same n a t i o n s command p r o m i n e n c e on t h e w o r l d s t a g e t h r o u g h a s u c c e s s f u l s t r a t e g y o f e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t b a s e d on t r a d e . A major s t u d y by Kennedy ( 1 9 8 8 ) , v e n t u r e s t o p r e d i c t w h i c h n a t i o n s w i l l p r o s p e r and d e c l i n e i n t h e nea r f u t u r e . I n l o o k i n g t o w a r d t h e n e x t c e n t u r y , Kennedy c o n t e n d s t h a t : t h e r e e x i s t s a dynamic f o r change, d r i v e n c h i e f l y by e c o n o m i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s , w h i c h t h e n i m p a c t upon s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s , p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m s , m i l i t a r y power, and t h e p o s i t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s t a t e s and e m p i r e s . (Kennedy, 1988, p. 439) Kennedy, l i k e R o s e c r a n c e ( 1 9 8 6 ) , a r g u e s t h a t t h e dominance of t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and t h e S o v i e t U n i o n i s on t h e d e c l i n e n o t b e c a u s e as p o w e r f u l n a t i o n s t a t e s t h e y a r e g r o w i n g weaker o r p o o r e r , b u t b e c a u s e o t h e r s a r e g r o w i n g r i c h e r and s t r o n g e r . Many a r e a s o f t h e w o r l d a r e now t u r n i n g f r o m o b e d i e n t c l i e n t s i n t o a g g r e s s i v e e c o n o m i c c o m p e t i t o r s . C h i n a and J a p a n a r e i m p r o v i n g t h e i r s h a r e s o f w o r l d power as a r e members o f t h e E u r o p e a n community who i n t u r n f i n d t h e i r w e a l t h and i n f l u e n c e I n c r e a s i n g as t h e y submerge n a t i o n a l d i s p u t e s and a g r e e on common e c o n o m i c g o a l s . Kennedy (1988, p. 536) m a i n t a i n s t h a t " i t s i m p l y has n o t been g i v e n t o a n y one s o c i e t y t o r e m a i n p e r m a n e n t l y ahead of a l l t h e o t h e r s . " W h i l e many s c h o l a r s v i e w t h e web o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e as i r r e v o c a b l e , t h e r e a r e o t h e r s who do n o t s h a r e t h e v i e w t h a t t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e n a t i o n s t a t e 16 should be played down In favour of p a r t i c i p a t i o n In a "global communuity" that transcends national boundaries. Holsti (1985) challenges the proponents of "thinking gl o b a l l y " to substantiate their arguments that growing interdependence is bringing profound s t r u c t u r a l changes leading to the weakness of the nation state. Considering those who predict the demise of the nation state to be u n j u s t i f i a b l y alarmist, H o l s t i points to the vast majority of relationships among states to be peaceful and collaborative. In contrast to those who contend that the nation state perspective is becoming increasingly less viable, H o l s t i argues: despite the seeming anarchy, the prevalence of war, and the lack of central authority, t h i s society in both subtle and for c e f u l ways, l i k e a club, regulates the major forms of the behaviour of i t s constituent units. ( H o l s t i , p. 692) Lamy (1983, 1988) on the other hand, maintains that s i g n i f i c a n t transformations in the post-World War Two International system makes i t untenable to consider world issues from s o l e l y a nation-centrist point of view. These changes he believes, irrevocably a f f e c t the structure and order of that system. They can be attributed to the emergence of what he refers to as new state and non-state "actors" caused by the subsequent change in the d i s t r i b u t i o n of power and influence in the world and the increased depth and breadth of economic, p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l transactions. New states, in the i r desire to 17 a v o i d e n t e r i n g i n t o a d e p e n d e n c y r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h w e a l t h i e r and more p o w e r f u l s t a t e s , have i n c r e a s i n g l y l o o k e d t o i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s l i k e t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s as a f orum t o b o t h p r o t e c t and f u r t h e r n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . As w e l l , t h e g r o w i n g power and i n f l u e n c e o f n o n - s t a t e a c t o r s , i n t h e f o r m o f m u l t i - n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s and n o n - g o v e r n m e n t a l a g e n c i e s f u r t h e r c h a l l e n g e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i o n - c e n t r i c v i e w o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s . A l t h o u g h s u b s e r v i e n t t o n a t i o n -s t a t e s i n t e r m s o f power and a u t h o r i t y , t h e s e n o n - s t a t e a c t o r s c a n become p o w e r f u l l o b b y i n g g r o u p s . As t r a d e i s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s y s t e m , a m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n ' s a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e r e s o u r c e s f o r e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t has c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o u n t r i e s t r y i n g t o p r o v i d e employment and o t h e r b a s i c n e e d s . S i m i l a r l y , i f c i t i z e n s b e l i e v e t h e i r government i s f a i l i n g t o r e s p o n d t o p e r s i s t e n t and p o t e n t i a l l y d e s t a b i l i z i n g i s s u e s s u c h a s t h e q u e s t i o n o f human r i g h t s , t h e y may s o l i c i t t h e s u p p o r t o f g r o u p s s u c h as Amnesty I n t e r n a t i o n a l and t h e W o r l d C o u n c i l o f C h u r c h e s i n a b i d t o i n f l u e n c e g overnment p o l i c y . W i t h a g r e a t e r number o f s t a t e and non-s t a t e a c t o r s o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y i n t e r n a t i o n a l s y s t e m , t h e r e s u l t i s a p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f w o r l d v i e w s t h a t l e a d t o " d i v e r g e n t d e s c r i p t i o n s , c o m p e t i n g e x p l a n a t i o n s , c o n t r a s t i n p r e d i c t i o n s , and a wide r a n g e o f p o l i c y s o l u t i o n s " on c o n t r o v e r s i a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s s u e s (Lamy, 1988, p. 2 ) . 18 E d u c a t o r s a r e a l s o c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p e d a g o g i c a l a s p e c t s o f t h e c h a n g i n g n a t u r e o f w o r l d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e . They e x p r e s s t h e c o n c e r n t h a t t o o f r e q u e n t l y an I n a d e q u a t e c o n c e p t u a l base e x i s t s t o h e l p s t u d e n t s d e v e l o p a b r o a d e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e complex n a t u r e o f w o r l d r e l a t i o n s . H i s t o r i c a l S t u d i e s The s t u d y o f w o r l d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e from an h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e t h e o r e t i c a l l y i s s u p p o s e d t o h e l p s t u d e n t s l e a r n a b o u t t h e p a s t i n an i n t e g r a t e d and c o n c e n t r a t e d way. Woyach and Remy (1988) m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s i n g l e theme a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e s t u d y o f h i s t o r y o r g a n i z e d i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l , t o p i c a l o r r e g i o n a l f a s h i o n o f t e n f a i l t o p r o v i d e t h e n e c e s s a r y i n t e g r a t i o n t o b r o a d e n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f w o r l d w i d e i n t e r a c t i o n . T h e y b e l i e v e t h a t a l t h o u g h c h r o n o l o g y may c o n t r i b u t e t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g , " t h e s t o r y o f human h i s t o r y c a n r e m a i n f a i r l y a b s t r a c t and e v e n s u p e r f i c i a l . S t u d e n t s may a l s o e q u a t e a b s t r a c t i o n s w i t h I r r e l e v a n c e t h e r e b y d i m i n i s h i n g t h e i r i n t e r e s t " ( p . 4 8 4 ) . S i m i l a r l y , a t o p i c a l a p p r o a c h i f i t i g n o r e s c h r o n o l o g y , c a n f a i l t o p r o v i d e d e e p e r c o n t e x t u a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g as h i s t o r i c a l knowledge i s e s s e n t i a l l y knowledge o f how t h i n g s change t h r o u g h t i m e . Many s c h o l a r s a r e c a l l i n g f o r a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e s t u d y o f h i s t o r y t h a t b e t t e r c o n c e p t u a l i z e t h e i n t e g r a t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e w o r l d f r o m an h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e (Woyach and Remy, 1988, R e i l l y 1988, A l d e r and Downey 1985, 19 M c N e i l l , 1989). R e l l l y (1988) and Bohannan (1988) see a r e d u c t i o n i n the " c e n t r a l i t y of Western h i s t o r y " as an imperative f i r s t s t e p i n a t t a i n i n g t h a t g o a l . Some s c h o l a r s on the other hand, maintain t h a t a meaningful study of world interdependence need not r e j e c t what others r e f e r to as the i n h e r e n t l y p a r o c h i a l nature of viewing the world through a "western" l e n s . Alder and Downey (1985) and Gordon (1988) maintain t h a t a p l a u s i b l e conceptual base f o r an h i s t o r i c a l study of Western c i v i l i z a t i o n e x i s t s when other c i v i l i z a t i o n s ' views of the West are compared and c o n t r a s t e d with the West's view of i t s e l f . T h i s " g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e " of the West h i g h l i g h t s the n o t i o n of interdependence and becomes "an o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e t h a t informs, i n f l u e n c e s , and a f f e c t s our understanding of both Western and world h i s t o r y " (Gordon, 1988, p. 62). Geographical Studies L i k e h i s t o r i a n s , geographers have p r i n c i p l e s f o r o r g a n i z i n g the way they view the world. However, agreement on what c o n s t i t u t e s the dimensions of geography has o f t e n proven e l u s i v e . P a t t i s o n (1964) i n h i s now c l a s s i c d e s c r i p t i o n of the dominant approaches to the f i e l d I d e n t i f i e s the "four t r a d i t i o n s " of geography as: man-land, r e g i o n a l study, s p a t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and e a r t h s c i e n c e . Ridd (1977) contending t h a t the elements of P a t t i s o n ' s framework o v e r l a p each other, proposes combining the man-land and e a r t h s c i e n c e t r a d i t i o n s i n t o one heading which 20 would encompass a l l n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t u d i e s ( p h y s i c a l g e o g r a p h y ) and a l l human e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t u d i e s (human g e o g r a p h y ) i n a d d i t i o n t o t h o s e w h i c h combine t h e n a t u r a l and human r e a l m s . The r e s u l t i s t h r e e t r a d i t i o n s : e n v i r o n m e n t a l , r e g i o n a l and s p a t i a l ( R l d d , 1977, p. 1 6 ) . Tuan (1976) f i n d s s u c h a c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f g e o g r a p h y t o be t o o e x c l u s i v e and c a l l s f o r t h e a d d i t i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l g e o g r a p h y . S t i l l o t h e r s c o n t e n d t h a t t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p u r p o s e o f g e o g r a p h y i s t h e s t u d y o f p l a c e and t h a t a l l t r a d i t i o n s a r e subsumed under t h e p l a c e d omain. P r o p o n e n t s o f t h i s v i e w a r g u e t h a t i t l o g i c a l l y i n c l u d e s t h e e n t i r e s p a t i a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l t r a d i t i o n s t h u s a l l o w i n g g e o g r a p h y t o be p a r t o f t h e h u m a n i t i e s as w e l l a s s c i e n c e . G r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n p e o p l e and p l a c e s a r o u n d t h e w o r l d has r e s u l t e d i n r e g i o n a l g e o g r a p h y , f o c u s i n g l a r g e l y on t h e d e s c r i p t i o n and c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e n a t u r a l and s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t , e m e r g i n g as a s t r o n g p r e s e n c e i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s c l a s s r o o m s . Manson (1980) i n h i s s t u d y o f newly p u b l i s h e d g e o g r a p h y t e x t b o o k s r e p o r t s few a l t e r n a t i v e s t o t h e w o r l d r e g i o n a l a p p r o a c h . H a r t (1982) i n h i s s u p p o r t o f a r e g i o n - b y - r e g i o n a n a l y s i s , m a i n t a i n s t h a t i t i s o n l y t h r o u g h a s t u d y o f r e g i o n s t h a t t h e r e e x i s t s a u n i f y i n g theme f o r t h e d i s c i p l i n e t h a t t i e s t o g e t h e r a l l t h e d i s p a r a t e phenomena w i t h w h i c h g e o g r a p h e r s d e a l . On t h e o t h e r hand, W i n s t o n (1986) s u g g e s t s t h a t t r e a t i n g r e g i o n s as s e p a r a t e u n i t s " t e n d s t o o b s c u r e t h e g l o b a l n a t u r e o f n a t u r a l s y s t e m s and t h e g l o b a l c h a r a c t e r o f human 21 e x p e r i e n c e " ( p . 52). She f u r t h e r m a i n t a i n s t h a t g e o g r a p h i c knowledge s h o u l d e n a b l e s t u d e n t s t o : g a i n p e r s p e c t i v e s a b o u t s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n ways p e o p l e i n o t h e r s o c i e t i e s l i v e and i n t e r a c t w i t h e a c h o t h e r and t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t s and see ways i n w h i c h a p p a r e n t l y l o c a l , r e g i o n a l or n a t i o n a l i s s u e s a r e l i n k e d i n e x t r i c a b l y t o g l o b a l i s s u e s . ( W i n s t o n , p. 43) I t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e wide a r r a y o f d i m e n s i o n s r e l a t e d t o t h e s t u d y o f g e o g r a p h y s h o u l d h e l p s t u d e n t s t o g a i n p e r s p e c t i v e s a b o u t t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e r a c t i v e n a t u r e o f w o r l d r e l a t i o n s . I n r e a l i t y however, s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t o f t e n s t u d e n t s a r e u n a b l e t o d e s c r i b e or e x p l a i n e v e n t h e most b a s i c i n t e r a c t i v e a s p e c t s o f w o r l d g e o g r a p h y . S t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d by t h e U.S. N a t i o n a l A s s e s s m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n a l P r o g r e s s (1974) and Barrows (1981) b o t h c o n c l u d e d t h a t s t u d e n t s were s e r i o u s l y d e f i c i e n t I n knowledge o f w o r l d wide s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s a s w e l l a s knowledge a b o u t i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n and among p h y s i c a l and c u l t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t s . R e c e n t e f f o r t s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e l i n k a g e between g e o g r a p h y and human d e v e l o p m e n t a r e a p p a r e n t i n t h e 1984 G u i d e l i n e s f o r G e o g r a p h i c Education; Elementary and. S e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . F i v e f u n d a m e n t a l themes o f g e o g r a p h y a r e p r o m o t e d : l o c a t i o n , p l a c e , h u m a n - e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n t e r a c t i o n s , movement and r e g i o n s . S a l t e r (1989) m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l n a t u r e o f s u c h a model h e l p s t o make t h e w o r l d more u n d e r s t a n d a b l e as i t prom o t e s a v a r i e t y o f c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n a d h e r i n g t o one 22 a l l - i n c l u s i v e paradigm. Many of the problems and c r i t i c i s m s of geography education, scholars attribute to the f a i l u r e to conceptualize a more Integrated and teachable approach to world geography. Developing a sense of place and space that r e f l e c t s the increasingly interdependent nature of the world requires conceptualizations that focus on relationships which develop and occur within and among places as well as between and among places (Natoli 1986, Vulcich, Stoltman and Boehm, 1988). Smith (1989) contends that the importance of geography to understanding world interdependence l i e s in the notion of interdependence being " Inherently geographic i t s o r i g i n s " (p. 131). He asserts that a proper conceptualization of world geography must emphasize an understanding of va r i a t i o n across places as well as how change within a par t i c u l a r place may cause the pattern of i t s interactions with other places to change. According to Smith (1989), a conceptual base that highlights the ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of places and the differences among places, enables students to better understand the complexities of the contemporary world as well as heighten their awareness of the increasing p l u r a l i t y of the society in which they l i v e . International Relations Studies Thinking about how the world around us works 23 i s c e n t r a l t o t h e s t u d y o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s . In c o m p a r i s o n t o an h i s t o r i c a l or g e o g r a p h i c a l a p p r o a c h , i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s p r o j e c t s a n a r r o w e r f o c u s , d e a l i n g d i r e c t l y w i t h c o n t e m p o r a r y i s s u e s o f c o n f l i c t and c h a n g e . McGowan and Woyach (1989) d e f i n e i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s as " t h e s t u d y o f i n t e r a c t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t l i n k t h e v a r i o u s p e o p l e , g r o u p s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s and s t a t e s i n h a b i t i n g our w o r l d " ( p . 1 7 1 ) . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s has been v i e w e d as a c h e s s game p l a y e d a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y by t h e p r i n c i p a l powers a c t i n g as t h e r u l e m a k e r s f o r t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s y s t e m . I n h e r e n t i n t h a t v i e w o f t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s y s t e m i s t h e n o t i o n t h a t In s p i t e o f a s u b s t a n t i a l p o s t W o r l d War Two i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f n a t i o n - s t a t e s , t h e r e has been no s i g n i f i c a n t change i n t h e w o r l d o r d e r . A l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v i e w o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s s u p p o r t t h e p r e m i s e t h a t c h a n g e s i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power and i n f l u e n c e c r e a t e s a w o r l d where nobody i s i n c h a r g e and e v e r y b o d y i s p a r t l y i n c h a r g e . T h i s s e n s e o f l n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s Is r e f l e c t e d In what Hanvey (1982) r e f e r s t o as t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f " p e r s p e c t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s " and what Lamy (1983) s e e s as t h e " p o l i t i c s o f a c commodation". Rosenau (1980) w h i l e b e l i e v i n g i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e v e l o p a s i n g l e p a r a d i g m t h a t a d e q u a t e l y a c c o u n t s f o r t h e s t a t e o f w o r l d r e l a t i o n s , t a k e s what he c o n s i d e r s t o be a 24 p r a g m a t i c v i e w as t o why t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a more p l u r a l i s t i c w o r l d v i e w i s d e s i r a b l e . He s t a t e s : The s t a t e - c e n t r i c p a r a d i g m o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s has been w i t h us f o r so l o n g t h a t i t i s n o t e a s i l y abandoned i n f a v o u r o f a more e n c o m p a s s i n g p e r s p e c t i v e .... t o be s u r e t h e c h a n g e s a r e c h a l l e n g e s t o t h e p r e v a i l i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s , b u t t h e y may a l s o r e p r e s e n t b a s i c t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s i n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f w o r l d a f f a i r s . And t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y c a n n o t be f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e d a s l o n g as we r e m a i n i m p r i s o n e d i n o u r own c o n c e p t u a l j a i l s . A m u l t i p l e c o n c e p t a p p r o a c h may t h u s p r o v e u s e f u l a t t h i s t i m e , e n a b l i n g us t o e n g i n e e r a j a i l b r e a k t h a t a l l o w s us t o d i s c e r n t h e d y n a m i c s o f change more c l e a r l y and t h e r e b y t o t r a c e new c a u s a l s o u r c e s and p o s s i b l e new p a r a m e t e r s w i t h i n w h i c h t h e c o u r s e o f e v e n t s u n f o l d s . (Rosenau, 1980, p. 5) O t h e r s c h o l a r s r e f l e c t Rosenau's c o n c e r n s t h a t a n a t i o n -c e n t r i c v i e w o f knowledge i s no l o n g e r a d e q u a t e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r l i v i n g and w o r k i n g i n an I n c r e a s i n g l y complex and i n t e r d e p e n d e n t w o r l d (Lamy, 1983, 1988; T u c k e r , 1987; Nava, 1987; B e l l , 1 9 8 7 ) . B o t h McGowan and Woyach (1989) c o n t e n d t h a t t h i n k i n g a b o u t t h e w o r l d a s a " s y s t e m " i s a c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n c r i t i c a l t o d e v e l o p i n g a more p l u r a l i s t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f w o r l d a f f a i r s . They p o i n t o u t t h a t " t h e c o n c e p t o f a s y s t e m , ( o r a p a t t e r n o f a c t o r s and t h e i r I n t e r a c t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) , g i v e s o r d e r t o what c a n o t h e r w i s e be a c h a o t i c c o l l e c t i o n o f e n t i t l e s and e v e n t s " (McGowan and Woyach, 1989, p. 1 8 0 ) . McGowan and Woyach a l s o p o i n t o u t t h e p e d a g o g i c a l v a l u e i n h e r e n t i n s y s t e m s - t h i n k i n g . T h e y e x p l a i n : The s y s t e m i c n a t u r e o f t h e w o r l d r e s u l t s i n p a t t e r n s o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e and dependence among t h e members o f t h e s y s t e m . These two 25 concepts are among the most Important for students to grasp and use in analyzing world events and making judgments about international issues. (McGowan and Woyach, 1989, p. 180) Other scholars support McGowan and Woyach's be l i e f in the value of systems-thinking as an educational t o o l . (Hanvey, 1982; Lockhart, 1982; Boulding, 1985; Anderson, 1985; Lamy, 1987, 1 9 8 8 ) . Lockhart (1982) argues that the world-systems approach challenges ethnocentrism and parochialism by helping to create a learning climate that helps students to see that "the whole is greater than the sum of i t s parts while at the same time affirming that the parts can not be properly understood without reference to the whole" (Lockhart, 1982, p. 7 8 ) . With a greater number of actors operating in the intenational system, informed decision-making requires a more comprehensive understanding of the issues. Consequently, Lamy develops his own conceptual framework which he believes i s broad enough to characterize an increasingly p l u r a l i s t i c international system and i t s contending perspectives. Lamy employs a "worldview" approach which he defines as " a set of values, assumptions and core b e l i e f s that individuals use to interpret the world around them" (Lamy, 1988, p. 13). This approach analyzes issues from three worldview categories: that of "system-maintainer" which supports the nation-state as the major focus of world a f f a i r s ; "system-reformer" which promotes co-operative action between state and non-state actors to solve controversial issues; and "system-26 t r a n s f o r m e r " whose a d v o c a t e s e n v i s i o n a w o r l d s y s t e m d e v o t e d t o r a d i c a l a l t e r a t i o n i n t h e power o f t h e s t a t u s quo (Lamy, 1988, pp. 1 3 - 2 0 ) . By d e s i g n i n g s u c h a framework, Lamy i s p r o m o t i n g a s t u d y o f w o r l d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e t h a t h e l p s t o t r a n s c e n d t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s o f w o r l d r e l a t i o n s . P r o m o t i o n gj. h. Mvtlt 1 l a t e r a l Represen ta t ion A r e v i e w o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e on w o r l d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e a r e many n o t i o n s o f how t o v i e w t h e w o r l d i n w h i c h we l i v e . Y e t , no one a p p r o a c h by I t s e l f c a n a d e q u a t e l y p o r t r a y t h e c h a n g i n g n a t u r e o f t h e w o r l d . E d u c a t o r s c o n c e r n e d w i t h how n o t i o n s o f w o r l d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e a r e communicated t o s t u d e n t s , a r g u e t h a t most p o r t r a y a l s o f how t h e w o r l d works f r e q u e n t l y do n o t c o n s i d e r a l t e r n a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . T h ey c o n t e n d t h a t a more a d e q u a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f w o r l d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e r e q u i r e s a c o n c e p t u a l base t h a t a l l o w s f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f m u l t i l a t e r a l r a t h e r t h a n u n i l a t e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f r e a l i t y . P r e p a r i n g s t u d e n t s f o r l i v i n g i n t h e n e x t c e n t u r y makes i t v i t a l t h a t t h e y come t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e i r own, o f t e n narrow i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s and t h a t o t h e r , o f t e n q u i t e d i v e r s e v i e w p o i n t s c o n t a i n t h e i r own measure o f v a l i d i t y . When i n d i v i d u a l s make a s s u m p t i o n s a b o u t p a s t and p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n s and e v e n t s , a t t e m p t t o gauge t h e a c t i o n s o f I n d i v i d u a l l e a d e r s or n a t i o n s and e v e n make p r e d i c t i o n s 27 on what the future holds for them, they frequently do so through viewpoints created and sanctioned by the culture in which they grew up. Just as frequently, i t Is probably true that they do not sense the uniqueness of their own or their society's way of regarding the world. Despite l i v i n g in a geographically mobile society characterized by tourism, migration, commerce and telecommunications, for many people, experiencing l i f e beyond their immediate surroundings occurs infrequently, i f at a l l . To some extent, overcoming those lim i t a t i o n s can occur in the classroom, through the presentation of an information base, namely textual materials, that recognizes the existence of competing interests and alternating perspectives. A study of currently authorized s o c i a l studies textbooks may provide answers as to whether the c a l l for more adequate portrayals of world interdependence is having an impact in the classroom. In the next chapter, a framework is designed and a set of a n a l y t i c a l questions created, to examine how notions of world interdependence are portrayed in textbooks. 28 CHAPTER I I I THE METHOD OF ANALYSIS The p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r f o c u s e d on r e v i e w i n g l i t e r a t u r e on t h e n o t i o n s of w o r l d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e as t h e y p e r t a i n t o t h e s o c i a l s t u d i e s . T h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a framework f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g t h o s e n o t i o n s of I n t e r d e p e n d e n c e i n s e l e c t e d s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t s and o u t l i n e s t h e p r o c e d u r e s f o r s e l e c t i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g t e x t b o o k s . Formulation of. a. FrameWOrK A r e v i e w o f l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t v a r i o u s n o t i o n s o f w o r l d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e e x i s t . O f t e n t h e y a r e b a s e d on a s i n g l e theme or a p p r o a c h . Some e d u c a t o r s c o n t e n d t h a t u n i l a t e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e no l o n g e r a d e q u a t e t o c r e a t e a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y complex and i n t e r d e p e n d e n t n a t u r e o f t h e w o r l d . i n s t e a d , t h e y a r e c a l l i n g f o r an a p p r o a c h t h a t r e c o g n i z e s t h e e x i s t e n c e of m u l t i l a t e r a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s whereby o t h e r o f t e n d i v e r s e v i e w p o i n t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d , e a c h c o n t a i n i n g t h e i r own d e g r e e o f s i g n i f i c a n c e . P r e s e n t i n g a way o f t h i n k i n g a b o u t t h e w o r l d t h a t e n c o u r a g e s m u l t i l a t e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s i s d i f f i c u l t n o t o n l y f o r e d u c a t o r s b u t a l s o f o r t e x t b o o k w r i t e r s whose t a s k i t i s t o t r a n s l a t e a g r o w i n g e m p h a s i s on t h e p o r t r a y a l of 2 9 c o m p e t i n g i n t e r e s t s and a l t e r n a t i v e p o i n t s of v i e w i n t o t a n g i b l e meaning i n t h e c l a s s r o o m . However, a m u l t i l a t e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a p p r o a c h c a n be s u c c e s s f u l l y i n f u s e d i n t o t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s . The f i r s t s t e p t h e n , i s t o c o n s t r u c t a model o f a n a l y s i s t o examine how t e x t b o o k s a u t h o r i z e d f o r use i n C a n a d i a n s o c i a l s t u d i e s c l a s s r o o m s p o r t r a y an i n t e r d e p e n d e n t w o r l d . k M y i t l - d l m e n s l c n a l Approach - Ths. PEPP Model A major g o a l of t h e s o c i a l s t u d i e s i s t o e n c o u r a g e t h e k i n d of t h i n k i n g t h a t c a n l e a d t o a more i n t e g r a t e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how t h e w o r l d works. W o r k i n g toward a c h i e v i n g s u c h a g o a l o f t e n means d e a l i n g w i t h q u e s t i o n s o f how e v e n t s a r e d e s c r i b e d and t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s g i v e n f o r t h e i r o c c u r r e n c e . L o o k i n g f o r answers t o t h e q u e s t i o n s means t h a t a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o how r e a l i t y i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d . I n t u r n , t h e b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r o f d i f f e r e n t t h o u g h t s , p o i n t s o f v i e w , and r a t i o n a l e s , c r e a t e s a forum f o r t h i n k i n g a b o u t t h e f u t u r e and p o s s i b l y , new ways t o r e s o l v e p r o b l e m s and i s s u e s . I n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e how s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k s p o r t r a y w o r l d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o d e s i g n a framework o f a n a l y s i s t h a t a c c u r a t e l y i d e n t i f i e s whether a p a r t i c u l a r t e x t b o o k employs a u n i l a t e r a l o r m u l t i l a t e r a l t h e m a t i c a p p r o a c h i n i t s s t u d y o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e . A s e t o f q u e s t i o n s d e r i v e d from d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of w o r l d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e 30 i n c h a p t e r two have been f o r m u l a t e d t o g u i d e t h e a n a l y s i s . U s i n g Lamy's model ( 1 9 8 8 ) , f o u r d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n , namely d e s c r i p t i o n , e x p l a n a t i o n , p r e d i c t i o n , and p r e s c r i p t i o n , (DEPP), p r o v i d e t h e f o c u s f o r t h e q u e s t i o n s . E a c h o f t h e s e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s has a p o s s i b l e f u n c t i o n w h i c h would make i t a p p r o p r i a t e f o r use i n t e x t s . Q u e s t i o n s u s e d f o r a n a l y s i s a r e o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e I I on p. 48. D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t e m e n t s r e f e r t o p a r t i c u l a r e v e n t s o r o b j e c t s . T h e i r f u n c t i o n In t e x t b o o k s i s t o p r o v i d e s t u d e n t s w i t h a v i c a r i o u s e x p e r i e n c e . By i d e n t i f y i n g b o t h t h e b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a p r o b l e m or I s s u e , and r e p o r t i n g on t h e r o l e s o f t h e a c t o r s i n v o l v e d and how t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e , s u c h c o m m u n i c a t i o n c a n h e l p t o make t h e e v e n t s r e c o g n i z a b l e and i n t e r p r e t a b l e t o s t u d e n t s . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r a n a l y s i s , i f t h e t e x t b o o k d e s c r i b e s a n o t i o n o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e v i e w p o i n t s and n e g l e c t s t o p o r t r a y t h e i n t e r e s t s o f a v a r i e t y o f a c t o r s , t h e n t h a t t e x t b o o k c a n be s a i d t o p r o j e c t a u n i l a t e r a l t h e m a t i c p e r s p e c t i v e . C o n v e r s e l y , i f t h a t same n o t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t ways, and t h e v i e w s o f d i f f e r e n t a c t o r s a r e c o n s i d e r e d , t h e n a m u l t i l a t e r a l t h e m a t i c s t y l e i s p r e s e n t . E x p l a n a t i o n s communicate t h e r e a s o n s as t o why e v e n t s emerge. T h e i r f u n c t i o n i s t o p r o v i d e t h e o r i e s w h i c h h e l p t o d e v e l o p and t h e n c o n f i r m or d i s c o n f i r m why p r o b l e m s 31 or issues p e r s i s t . The choice of explanations also makes known the b e l i e f s or perspectives of the actors involved. If the textbook chooses a s p e c i f i c explanation for the origins and persistence of an Issue, and neglects to explain the b e l i e f s of the actors concerned, then a u n i l a t e r a l thematic approach is evident. On the other hand, p r o f i l i n g competing explanations for an issue's development and continuance as well as exploring the reasons behind the actions of the actors, signals the presentation of a m u l t i l a t e r a l approach. Making predictions about how certain events w i l l turn out or how individuals w i l l respond to particular problems created by an issue adds an important dimension to the textbook's educative power. Creation of future scenarios not only d i r e c t s attention to factors that are not o r d i n a r i l y considered but also makes students aware of problems which might occur i f particular courses of action are pursued. If the textbook portrayal makes predictions about the future which are based on a single interpretation, and l i t t l e evidence exists as to the future role of the actors concerned, then a u n i l a t e r a l approach can be said to e x i s t . However, when an expanded range of possible and plausible futures is evident, and predictions about future roles for the actors involved are made, then a more m u l t i l a t e r a l approach is in place. When textbooks offer prescriptions as possible resolutions to issues, they are e s s e n t i a l l y t e l l i n g the 32 reader what can be done and frequently, how It can be done. Identifying solutions that encourage acceptance of a single strategy suggests that the textbook is reinforcing a u n i l a t e r a l thematic style of presentation. On the other hand, where strategies involving the views of a variety of stakeholders are advanced and potential solutions explored where there exists an attempt to assess their strengths and weaknesses, then the text can be acknowledged as promoting a m u l t i l a t e r a l thematic approach. Given the way in which textbooks describe notions of world interdependence, account for their o r igins, as well as consider their future d i r e c t i o n and the responses to the challenges they present, i t is quite possible that a portrayal of Interdependence can be designated as either u n i l a t e r a l or m u l t i l a t e r a l thematic in approach. Choosing a suitable approach to the portrayal of world interdependence in textbooks is governed not only by the obvious need to reduce the study to manageable proportions but also by the fact that the notion of Interdependence as indicated In a review of the l i t e r a t u r e , Implies consideration of problems from a variety of perspectives. Focussing on s i g n i f i c a n t global issues provides a suitable context for the study of interdependence. Explanation g_f_ aa Issues Approach When structured to show relationship among 33 phenomena, the textbook helps students to create knowledge for themselves and in turn form their own conceptualizations of r e a l i t y . As a way of achieving consistency with these p r i n c i p l e s , major content-based concepts can be used as a means of making connections across the curriculum and applying what i s learned to create meaning. These concepts are derived from the str u c t u r a l elements of the d i s c i p l i n e s underlying the so c i a l studies and for the purposes of this particular study, from the areas of geography and International r e l a t i o n s . Each of these d i s c i p l i n e s uses concepts to organize inquiry and describe i t s structure and view of r e a l i t y as well as focus on Issues for which i t s knowledge may provide descriptions, explanations, predictions, and prescriptions. P a r t i c u l a r concepts consistently appearing in a review of the educational l i t e r a t u r e on world interdependence are complexity, change and c o n f l i c t . They appear frequently in the language and thinking of the s o c i a l studies and serve as organizers around which other concepts gather. A study of issues, which by nature necessitates consideration of d i f f e r e n t viewpoints, can provide a substantive focus for bringing concepts to l i f e and in turn, help students to gain a more in-depth understanding of how the world works. Wilson (1982) states that issues "created from human interests and expectations" become s i g n i f i c a n t when 3 4 they enable students to better understand the complex nature of society and in turn encourage them to seek pro-active resolutions to commonly shared world problems. According to McGowan and Woyach (1989), selecting issues of "fundamental and enduring importance" must be guided by certain c r i t e r i a . That i s , the issue must be: of fundamental concern to a l l international actors can not be solved by any single international actor with an o r i g i n located in the past, a present dilemma, and a future that has implications for the students' own l i v e s . (McGowan and Woyach, 1989, pp. 176-177) Lamy (1988) supports a similar approach to the I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of global issues, with the added provision that the element of controversy must be highly v i s i b l e and that those affected by the issue "disagree over d e f i n i t i o n s of the problems, explanations of their o r igins, and how best to respond to the challenges they present" (Lamy, 1988, p. 1). S i g n i f i c a n t global issues are transnational in scope. The origins and consequences of the Issues go beyond the boundaries of any one nation and their resolution occurs through m u l t i l a t e r a l actions rather than by the actions of a single state. As well, an element of c o n f l i c t is present when disagreement occurs over not only the nature and cause of an issue but over the means by which to secure a s a t i s f a c t o r y resolution. 35 The s e l e c t e d i s s u e A r e a s Six issue areas, indicative of some facet of world interaction, have been chosen for analysis. They are: population growth, food supply, environment, security, human rig h t s , and economic issues. F i r s t , they have been i d e n t i f i e d by Kniep (1987), and McGowan and Woyach (1989), as issues which are global in concern and scope, allow for an h i s t o r i c a l perspective, and require international cooperation to manage and resolve. Second, they are issues of global significance that widely appear as prescribed topics of study in the ten pro v i n c i a l s o c i a l studies curriculum guides. Two of the issue areas, population growth and food supply, appear as important areas of study in seven curriculum guides while environmental issues are referenced in eight curriculum guides. Human rights appears as an important issue area in six pro v i n c i a l guides while two issue areas, security and economics, are considered as key topics of study in a l l ten pro v i n c i a l curriculum guides. Nature o_f_ the Selected Geography Issue Areas Rapid population growth is regarded by many as one of the world's most pressing issues. This concern exists for a number of reasons. While the most basic reason may be that the world's population can not s a t i s f a c t o r i l y feed i t s e l f , other causes for concern e x i s t . It is feared that population pressures w i l l lead to world 36 r e s o u r c e e x h a u s t i o n . Some p e o p l e b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e w i l l be t o o few j o b s , l e a d i n g t o mass unemployment i f p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h c o n t i n u e s . O t h e r s see t h e p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n f l i c t when a t t e m p t s a r e made t o m i g r a t e f r o m a r e a s t h a t seem t o o f f e r l i t t l e , t o p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d t h a t a p p e a r t o be w e a l t h y . In t u r n , t h o s e p e o p l e l i v i n g i n t h e more d e v e l o p e d r e g i o n s o f t h e w o r l d may a t t e m p t t o p r o t e c t t h e i r w e a l t h . On t h e o t h e r hand, c o n c e r n s o v e r r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h a r e n o t u n i v e r s a l l y s h a r e d . In some c o u n t r i e s , a l a r g e r p o p u l a t i o n I s t h o u g h t t o p r o m i s e g r e a t e r s t r a t e g i c , p o l i t i c a l , and e c o n o m i c power. T e x t b o o k p o r t r a y a l s o f p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h p r o v i d e a p l a t f o r m f r o m w h i c h t o a n a l y z e t h e c o n t e n t i o u s n a t u r e o f t h e i s s u e a l o n g w i t h i t s g l o b a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . The w o r l d f o o d s u p p l y s i t u a t i o n i s o f g r e a t c o n c e r n . Some a r e a s have l a r g e s u r p l u s e s , w h i l e o t h e r s s u f f e r f r o m s e r i o u s s h o r t a g e s . D e s p i t e t h e s u r p l u s o f f o o d b e i n g p r o d u c e d , s t a r v a t i o n and m a l n u t r i t i o n c o n t i n u e t o p e r s i s t In t h e w o r l d . T h e r e a r e c o n f l i c t i n g v i e w s a b o u t t h e c a u s e s o f h u n g e r , some p e o p l e s a y t h e main r e a s o n f o r t h e f o o d p r o b l e m i s t h e w o r l d ' s h i g h p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h r a t e w h i l e o t h e r s p o s t u l a t e t h a t t h e p r i n c i p a l c a u s e i s t h e low l e v e l o f a g r i c u l t u r a l t e c h n o l o g y . S t i l l o t h e r s c o n t e n d t h a t l a c k o f f o o d c a n be a t t r i b u t e d t o p a t t e r n s o f l a n d h o l d i n g i n t h e d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . As w e l l , t h e r e a r e many d i f f e r e n t v i e w s as t o what s h o u l d be done, r a n g i n g f r o m i n c r e a s i n g t h e q u a n t i t i e s o f f o o d a v a i l a b l e t o a 37 w h o l e s a l e r e - e x a m l n a t i o n and r e - o r d e r i n g o f w o r l d w i d e m a r k e t i n g and d i s t r i b u t i o n p o l i c i e s . What makes t h e l a c k of f o o d s e r i o u s now i s i t s Impact on l a r g e numbers o f p e o p l e and i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r i n c i t i n g g l o b a l p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l t u r m o i l . T e x t b o o k p o r t r a y a l s o f t h e w o r l d f o o d s u p p l y q u e s t i o n p r o v i d e a c o n t e x t i n w h i c h s t u d e n t s c a n d i s c o v e r how t h e y r e l a t e t o t h e p r o b l e m s o f f o o d s u p p l y , t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e c r i s i s and, j u s t as i m p o r t a n t l y , how t h e y c a n become I n v o l v e d i n t h e s e a r c h f o r s o l u t i o n s . A t h i r d i s s u e t o be c o n s i d e r e d i s t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . R e f l e c t i n g a c o n c e r n f o r management o f t h e e a r t h ' s r e s o u r c e s i s n o t new; however, w i t h an e v e r b u r g e o n i n g human p o p u l a t i o n and a g l o b a l I n c r e a s e i n co n s u m e r i s m , t h e t o l l on t h e e n v i r o n m e n t q u i c k l y r e a c h e s c r i s i s p r o p o r t i o n s . P o l l u t i o n o f r i v e r s and o c e a n s , h o l e s i n t h e ozone l a y e r , t h e g r e e n h o u s e e f f e c t , and d e p l e t i o n o f r a i n f o r e s t s r e p r e s e n t b u t a sample o f humankind's e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r o b l e m s . A l l o f them t r a n s c e n d n a t i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s and t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e t h e a t t e n t i o n o f a wide v a r i e t y o f a c t o r s . S o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k s f o c u s s i n g on w o r l d e n v i r o n m e n t a l i s s u e s c a n h e l p s t u d e n t s t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e need f o r c o l l a b o r a t i v e a c t i o n on an i s s u e v i t a l l y i m p o r t a n t t o a l l human b e i n g s . N a t u r e o f t h e S e l e c t e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s I s s u e A r e a s The i s s u e o f s e c u r i t y has been and c o n t i n u e s t o be n e a r l y a g l o b a l o b s e s s i o n . S i n c e t h e end o f W o r l d War 38 I I a l o n e , t h e r e have been numerous c o n f l i c t s and m i l l i o n s o f l i v e s l o s t n o t t o m e n t i o n t h e f a c t t h a t i n a number o f i n c i d e n t s t h e t h r e a t o f n u c l e a r war has m a g n i f i e d t h e s e v e r i t y o f t h e c r i s i s . N a t i o n s c o n s i d e r t h e i r s e c u r i t y i n d a n g e r when t h e i r b a s i c v a l u e s or t h e r e s o u r c e s on w h i c h t h e y depend f o r t h e i r w e l l - b e i n g a r e t h r e a t e n e d . A wide d i v e r s i t y o f c o n c e r n s f o r s e c u r i t y e x i s t , r a n g i n g from p o l i t i c a l autonomy t o e c o n o m i c s t a b i l i t y . S i n c e a c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y f o r t h e e n f o r c e m e n t o f laws and t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f c o n f l i c t among n a t i o n s does n o t e x i s t , c o n t e m p o r a r y c o n c e r n s a r e a l l t h e more v i v i d i n t h e n u c l e a r age. The i s s u e o f s e c u r i t y p r o v i d e s a c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e p o r t r a y a l o f w o r l d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e c a n be c l o s e l y s c r u t i n i z e d i n t h e c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g . The d e c a d e s s i n c e W o r l d War I I have a l s o been a t i m e o f c o n s i d e r a b l e I n t e r e s t and c o n c e r n f o r human r i g h t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d . The U n i t e d N a t i o n s d e c l a r a t i o n o f human r i g h t s i s a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f w o r l d o u t r a g e o v e r t h e g e n o c i d e o f m i l l i o n s o f Jews and o t h e r s d u r i n g t h e War. As w e l l , c o n t e m p o r a r y c o n c e r n s f o r human r i g h t s emanate from t h e i n c r e a s e d i n t e r c o n n e c t e d n e s s o f t h e modern w o r l d , s t u d e n t s must be g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o s t u d y how n a t i o n s and i n d i v i d u a l s c o n c e i v e t h e human r i g h t s i s s u e . I d e a l l y , t h e s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k p r o v i d e s a forum from w h i c h s t u d e n t s c a n examine t h e t e n s i o n s and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s between d i f f e r i n g w o r l d v i e w s t h a t i n e v i t a b l y r i s e i n t h e d e b a t e o v e r human r i g h t s . 39 Few would d i s p u t e t h a t t o d a y , we l i v e , work, and consume w i t h i n a g l o b a l economy or t h a t i t i s a h i g h l y complex s y s t e m p r o d u c i n g i n t e r d e p e n d e n c i e s f a r beyond a c a u s e and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between one consumer and one p r o d u c e r In two d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d . A wide r a n g e o f a c t i v i t i e s c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e g l o b a l e c o n o m i c s y s t e m . M a n u f a c t u r e d goods o f t e n go t h r o u g h t h e i r v a r i o u s s t a g e s o f a s s e m b l y i n d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s . As w e l l , f i n a n c i a l b a c k i n g f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h o s e goods may have o c c u r e d t h r o u g h i n v e s t m e n t by m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n s and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e n d i n g a g e n c i e s . At t h e p o l i t i c a l l e v e l , a major d e c i s i o n f a c i n g e v e r y c o u n t r y I s whether i t s h o u l d move i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f f r e e r t r a d e and an open economy o r more t o w a r d t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f t a r i f f s and o t h e r p r o t e c t i o n i s t d e v i c e s w h i c h r e d u c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l economy. Owing t o t h e complex n a t u r e o f t h e g l o b a l e c o n o m i c s y s t e m , a c t i o n s t a k e n by a n y o f t h e a c t o r s i n v o l v e d u s u a l l y have c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r o t h e r a c t o r s o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n t h e s y s t e m . A s t u d y o f g l o b a l e c o n o m i c i s s u e s i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k s s h o u l d h e l p s t u d e n t s t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e r o l e s o f t h e v a r i o u s a c t o r s i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s y s t e m , t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n s , and how t h e y make d e c i s i o n s , and t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y i n t e r d e p e n d e n t n a t u r e o f t h e g l o b a l economy c r e a t e s p r o b l e m s t h a t d e f y l o c a l o r n a t i o n a l s o l u t i o n s . The s i x i s s u e a r e a s c h o s e n f o r a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e a s u b s t a n t i v e f o c u s f o r s t u d e n t s t o d e v e l o p a more i n - d e p t h 40 u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f how t h e w o r l d works. A l l o f t h e i s s u e a r e a s a r e o f g l o b a l c o n c e r n . T h e i r b e g i n n i n g s and c o n s e q u e n c e s a r e n o t c o n f i n e d w i t h i n t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f a n y one c o u n t r y . A l l a r e p e r s i s t e n t i s s u e s e v o l v i n g o v e r t i m e and a r e most l i k e l y t o c o n t i n u e i n some form i n t o t h e f u t u r e . A l l r e q u i r e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n i n o r d e r t o be r e s o l v e d . A l l a l l o w f o r e x p l i c i t a t t e n t i o n t o be g i v e n t o t h e c o n c e p t s o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e , c o m p l e x i t y , change and c o n f l i c t w h i c h p r o v i d e a v o c a b u l a r y f o r a n a l y z i n g w o r l d a f f a i r s . By f o c u s s i n g on how t e x t b o o k s p o r t r a y e a c h o f t h e s i x s e l e c t e d i s s u e a r e a s , i t i s presumed t h a t a c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f w o r l d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e w i l l emerge. I m p o r t a n c e Q_L T e x t b o o k s T e x t b o o k s a r e c o m m u n i c a t i o n d e v i c e s w h i c h h e l p s t u d e n t s t o i n t e r p r e t and r e s p o n d t o t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t . In e s s e n c e , t h e y a t t e m p t t o h e l p l e a r n e r s t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f o t h e r s . The c o m m u n i c a t o r ' s p r o b l e m t h e n becomes one o f how t o r e p r o d u c e t h e e x p e r i e n c e t h r o u g h words a s a s u b s t i t u t e f o r a c t u a l l y b e i n g engaged In t h e a c t i v i t y . The p r i n t e d words a r e o f t e n d i r e c t i n g s t u d e n t s t o c o n s i d e r t h i n g s w h i c h t h e y may b e l i e v e have no d i r e c t b e a r i n g on t h e i r own l i v e s . When s t u d e n t s a r e c o n c e r n e d a b o u t r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h o s e u s u a l l y o n l y i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y , i t becomes d i f f i c u l t t o u n d e r s t a n d how words a b o u t t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h o s e on t h e o t h e r s i d e o f t h e w o r l d c a n e v e r change p e r c e p t i o n s and a c t i o n s . However, t h e t e x t b o o k 41 p o s s e s s e s tremendous I n f l u e n c e i n c i r c u l a t i n g knowledge as M a x w e l l (1985) s t a t e s : " t h e t e x t d e t e r m i n e s what i s t a u g h t , when i t i s t a u g h t and how i t i s t a u g h t " ( p . 6 8 ) . I f young p e o p l e a r e t o g a i n a g r e a t e r s e n s e o f t h e complex n a t u r e o f t h e w o r l d i n w h i c h t h e y l i v e , t h e i r e d u c a t i o n must p r o v i d e them w i t h an i n f o r m a t i o n base s u f f i c i e n t t o h e l p them t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e c a u s e s , t h e e f f e c t s and t h e p o t e n t i a l s o l u t i o n s t o i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s . A c c o r d i n g t o E i s n e r ( 1 9 8 7 ) , t h a t forum i s t h e t e x t b o o k . He s t a t e s : R e g a r d l e s s o f what one m i g h t want t o c r e a t e w i t h r e s p e c t t o c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s , a t p r e s e n t t h e t e x t b o o k h o l d s a p l a c e o f u n p a r a l l e l e d I m p ortance i n i n f l u e n c i n g what s h a l l be t a u g h t i n t h e s c h o o l s . ( E i s n e r , 1987, p. 11) O l s o n (1980, p. 192) e n s h r i n e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e t e x t b o o k when he r e f e r s t o i t a s t h e " a u t h o r i z e d v e r s i o n o f s o c i e t y ' s v a l i d k n o w l e d g e " as does Luke (1983) who p o s i t s t h a t t h e t e x t b o o k ' s " e n d u r i n g c e n t r a l i t y " i s v e r y much a r e s u l t o f i t s a b i l i t y t o "make meanings more e x p l i c i t " ( p . 1 1 2 ) . I n t e r e s t i n t h e e d u c a t i v e power o f t h e s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k has i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n r e c e n t y e a r s a s e v i d e n c e d by a g r o w i n g number o f t e x t b o o k s t u d i e s , b o t h q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e i n n a t u r e . Upon r e v i e w i n g t h e f i n d i n g s o f h i s own e a r l i e r s t u d y and o t h e r s on t h e a n a l y s i s o f c r i t i c a l i s s u e s i n C a n a d i a n s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k s , P r a t t (1975) a s s e r t s t h a t " C a n a d i a n s c h o o l t e x t b o o k s do n o t r e p r e s e n t o r s u p p o r t 42 a c u l t u r a l l y p l u r a l i s t model o f s o c i e t y . T h ey do s u p p o r t a c o n s e n s u s , n o n c o n t r o v e r s i a l , c o n v e n t i o n a l v i e w o f s o c i e t y " ( p . 1 1 7 ) . I n A l b e r t a , a c o m p r e h e n s i v e and d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f t h e K a n a t a K i t s and A l b e r t a H e r i t a g e L e a r n i n g R e s o u r c e s s e r i e s c o n d u c t e d by D e c o r e ( 1 9 8 1 ) , i n d i c a t e s t h a t l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s f r e q u e n t l y l a c k s u f f i c i e n t c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o h e l p d e v e l o p an a d e q u a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f complex i s s u e s . S i m i l a r l y , Wood (1983) i n h i s s t u d y o f m u l t i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y i n Canada c o n c l u d e s t h a t " s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t s have done a poor j o b i n p r e s e n t i n g c u l t u r a l and e t h n i c d i v e r s i t y " ( p . 4 1 ) . I n an e x p l o r a t i v e s t u d y o f t h e i d e o l o g y o f c o n t e n t i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k s , M u r r a y (1986) examines t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e t e x t b o o k communicates t h e n a t u r e and needs o f s o c i e t y t o s t u d e n t s . A l t h o u g h t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y s u p p o r t h e r p r e m i s e t h a t t e x t b o o k s must " r e f l e c t t e n s i o n s t h a t r e s u l t from a p l u r a l i t y o f I n t e r e s t s " , c o n c l u s i o n s a r e a l s o made t h a t t e x t b o o k s t e n d t o : r e f l e c t a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g a c o n s e n s u s v i e w o f s o c i e t y w i t h r e g a r d t o how e x p l a n a t i o n s o f human and s o c i a l phenomena a r e a c h i e v e d and how s o u r c e s o f knowledge p r o v i d e s o c i e t a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g s . ( M u r r a y , 1986, p. 80) S eney (1986) i n an e x t e n s i v e t e x t b o o k s t u d y o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , f i n d s much s u p p o r t f o r h i s t h e s i s t h a t C a n a d i a n s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k s p o r t r a y b i l a t e r a l m a t t e r s f r om an o v e r w h e l m i n g l y C a n a d i a n p e r s p e c t i v e , t h u s h e l p i n g t o c r e a t e what he r e f e r s t o as an a u t a r k i s t or "us a g a i n s t them" m e n t a l i t y . He s u g g e s t s t h a t s u c h a p e r s p e c t i v e d o e s l i t t l e t o f o s t e r " w o r l d - m i n d e d n e s s " and i n s t e a d c r e a t e s a s i t u a t i o n whereby s t u d e n t s " d e v e l o p a p o i n t o f v i e w t h a t r e s t r i c t s c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g a b o u t b i l a t e r a l i s s u e s and l i m i t s an a w a r e n e s s o f t h e n a t u r e o f t e n s i o n s and p o s s i b l e r e s o l u t i o n o f i s s u e s " ( p . 1 0 4 ) . S a l i n g e r and W i l s o n (1990) i n t h e i r s t u d y o f how Canada i s p o r t r a y e d i n commonly-used A m e r i c a n s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k s , c o n t e n d t h a t a p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f d i s t o r t e d images o f Canada a r e communicated i n t h e t e x t s . They c o n c l u d e t h a t an i n a d e q u a t e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f Canada f a i l s t o h e l p A m e r i c a n s t u d e n t s t o d e v e l o p a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r n o r t h e r n n e i g h b o u r . A l l o f t h e above w r i t e r s , whether a s s e s s i n g t e x t b o o k s f o r t h e way i n w h i c h t h e y p o r t r a y e v e n t s o f d o m e s t i c o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l i m p o r t a n c e , p o i n t t o t h e n e c e s s i t y o f p r o v i d i n g s t u d e n t s w i t h an i n f o r m a t i o n base t h a t c o n t a i n s a b r o a d c o n t e x t o f i d e a s as opposed t o t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l t h a t r e i n f o r c e s o n l y l i m i t e d c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s o f how t h e w o r l d works. S e l e c t i o n o f Textbooks The p r o c e s s o f i d e n t i f y i n g a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample o f C a n a d i a n s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k s began w i t h a r e v i e w o f t h e most r e c e n t t e x t b o o k c a t a l o g u e s f r o m t h e t e n 44 p r o v i n c i a l d e p a r t m e n t s o£ e d u c a t i o n . E a c h c a t a l o g u e had t o c o n t a i n t h e h e a d i n g s o f " h i s t o r y " , " g e o g r a p h y " or 11 i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s " . I t was t h r o u g h t h i s manual s e a r c h t h a t a number o f r e l a t e d d e s c r i p t o r s s u c h a s " w o r l d i s s u e s " , " w o r l d s t u d i e s " , " g l o b a l s t u d i e s " or " c o n t e m p o r a r y i s s u e s " were i d e n t i f i e d a s s u i t a b l e t o i n c l u d e i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y and t h e r e f o r e e x a m i n e d . S o u r c e s t h a t were c o n s i d e r e d r e l e v a n t t o t h e s t u d y , e i t h e r by t h e i r t i t l e o r t h r o u g h an a c c o m p a n y i n g a b s t r a c t , were l i s t e d on n o t e c a r d s by a u t h o r and t i t l e . A f t e r an e x t e n s i v e l i s t o f t i t l e s was g e n e r a t e d , a s e r i e s o f l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s were employed. I t must be n o t e d t h a t t h e r e s t r i c t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e c r i t e r i a f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f u s e a b l e s o u r c e s e l i m i n a t e s a g r e a t many r e f e r e n c e s t h a t c o u l d I n d i r e c t l y p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d t o t h i s s t u d y . However, t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a , w h i c h was somewhat r e s t r i c t i v e , was c o n s i d e r e d n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o make t h e s t u d y more manageable. A l l books p u b l i s h e d b e f o r e 1980 a r e d i s c a r d e d on t h e p r e m i s e t h a t most s o c i a l s t u d i e s c l a s s r o o m s use as t h e i r main s o u r c e s o f r e f e r e n c e , t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l s t h a t a r e l e s s t h a n t e n y e a r s o l d . As w e l l , i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e t e x t s s e l e c t e d f o r a n a l y s i s a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f c l a s s r o o m use i n Canada, t h o s e n o t a u t h o r i z e d a s s u i t a b l e f o r use I n a t l e a s t two p r o v i n c i a l t e x t b o o k c a t a l o g u e s a r e d i s c a r d e d . F i n a l l y , t h o s e books t h a t do n o t d e v o t e s p e c i f i c s e c t i o n s o f t h e t e x t t o t h e s t u d y o f w o r l d i s s u e s a r e o m i t t e d f r o m t h e f i n a l s e l e c t i o n l i s t . 45 T a b l e I TEXTBOOKS SELECTED FOR ANALYSIS B a l d w i n , D., T. S p l r a , R. S t u a r t , and D. C r e l g e r . The R i s e fii ths. Global V i l l a g e . S c a r b o r o u g h : M c G r a w - H i l l R y e r s o n L t d . , 1988. [ a u t h o r i z e d i n M a n i t o b a , O n t a r i o ] Cannon, J . The Contemporary World; C o n f l i c t ox Co-o p e r a t i o n . T o r o n t o : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e , J o v a n o v i c h , 1986. [ a u t h o r i z e d i n A l b e r t a , M a n i t o b a , O n t a r i o , New B r u n s w i c k , P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d ] D a v i e s , Wendy. W o r l d I s s u e s : The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Debt C r i s i s . S c a r b o r o u g h : N e l s o n Canada, 1988. [ a u t h o r i z e d i n M a n i t o b a and O n t a r i o ] D a v i s , M. D a l e . ContOUK3 i n the 20th C e n t u r y . Don M i l l s : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1989. [ a u t h o r i z e d i n M a n i t o b a and O n t a r i o ] D u n l o p , S t e w a r t . Towards Tomorrow. Canada l a k C h a n g i n g W o r l d . T o r o n t o : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e , J o v a n o v i c h , 1987. [ a u t h o r i z e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , S a s k a t c h e w a n , M a n i t o b a and O n t a r i o ] G i b b , C h r i s t o p h e r . World issues; Food Q i Famine?. S c a r b o r o u g h : N e l s o n Canada, 1987. [ a u t h o r i z e d i n M a n i t o b a and O n t a r i o ] H a r b o u r , B e r n a r d and C h r i s S m i t h . W o r l d I s s u e s : The Arms T r a d e . [ a u t h o r i z e d i n M a n i t o b a and O n t a r i o ] Harshman, R. and C h r i s t i n e H a n n e l l . The Human W o r l d : h. C h a n g i n g P l a c e . R e x d a l e : J o h n W i l e y and Sons, 1985. ( a u t h o r i z e d In M a n i t o b a and O n t a r i o ] Harshman, R. and C h r i s t i n e H a n n e l l . W o r l d I s s u e s in. t h e G l o b a l Community. R e x d a l e : J o h n W i l e y and Sons, 1989. [ a u t h o r i z e d i n M a n i t o b a and O n t a r i o ] Markham, Adam. W o r l d I s s u e s : The E n v i r o n m e n t . S c a r b o r o u g h : N e l s o n Canada, 1988. [ a u t h o r i z e d i n M a n i t o b a and O n t a r i o ] McGraw, E r i c . W o r l d I s s u e s ; Population Growth' S c a r b o r o u g h : N e l s o n Canada, 1987. ( a u t h o r i z e d i n M a n i t o b a and O n t a r i o ] Molyneux, J . and M. M a c K e n z i e . W o r l d P r o s p e c t s : A, C o n t e m p o r a r y S t u d v . S c a r b o r o u g h : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1987. ( a u t h o r i z e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , S a s k a t c h e w a n , M a n i t o b a , O n t a r i o , Nova S c o t i a and N e w f o u n d l a n d ] S c u l l y , Angus L., C a r l F. S m i t h , and D a n i e l J . M c D e v i t t . Canada Toda y . S c a r b o r o u g h : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1988. [ A l b e r t a , S a s k a t c h e w a n and O n t a r i o ] S h e r w i n , J a n e . W o r l d I s s u e s : Human R i g h t s . S c a r b o r o u g h : N e l s o n Canada, 1989. [ a u t h o r i z e d i n M a n i t o b a and O n t a r i o ] 46 The f o u r t e e n s e l e c t e d t e x t b o o k s share a number of s i m i l a r q u a l i t i e s . A l l a r e of r e c e n t p u b l i c a t i o n . As w e l l , t h e y a r e c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e d i n p r o v i n c i a l c a t a l o g u e s . Two of the t e x t b o o k s appear i n s i x p r o v i n c i a l c a t a l o g u e s w h i l e two o t h e r s a r e r e f e r e n c e d i n f i v e c a t a l o g u e s . A f u r t h e r t h r e e books a r e a u t h o r i z e d f o r use i n f o u r p r o v i n c e s w h i l e the r e m a i n i n g seven t e x t s a r e a l l a u t h o r i z e d f o r use i n a t l e a s t two p r o v i n c i a l c a t a l o g u e s . The f o u r t e e n t e x t b o o k s chosen from the p r o v i n c i a l c a t a l o g u e s p r o v i d e the i n f o r m a t i o n base f o r t h i s s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of how n o t i o n s of w o r l d interdependence a r e p o r t r a y e d i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k s (see Table I ) . summary Review oJL P r o c e d u r e In o r d e r t o determine how s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k s c o n c e p t u a l i z e w o r l d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o d e v e l o p a framework of a n a l y s i s t h a t would h e l p t o d e s i g n a t e the p o r t r a y a l of interdependence as b e i n g e i t h e r u n i l a t e r a l t h e m a t i c or m u l t i l a t e r a l t h e m a t i c i n p e r s p e c t i v e . A s t u d y of s i g n i f i c a n t g l o b a l i s s u e s which r e q u i r e the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of m u l t i l a t e r a l v i e w p o i n t s forms the c o n t e n t base. The s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d i n Table I I p r o v i d e a f o c u s f o r the a n a l y s i s by h e l p i n g t o determine how n o t i o n s of w o r l d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e a r e p o r t r a y e d i n t e x t b o o k s and whether or not an adequate c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e e x i s t s i n t e x t b o o k s . They c o n s i d e r f o u r d i m e n s i o n s s u i t e d t o the a n a l y s i s of the 4 7 t r a n s m i s s i o n o f k nowledge: how t h e i s s u e a r e a i s d e s c r i b e d , t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s t h a t a r e g i v e n f o r i t s e x i s t e n c e , p r e d i c t i o n s t h a t a r e made a b o u t t h e f u t u r e o f t h e i s s u e and f i n a l l y , p r e s c r i p t i o n s o f f e r e d f o r t h e i s s u e ' s r e s o l u t i o n . 48 T a b l e I I QUESTIONS E m IBS. ANALYSIS QF_ SOCIAL STUDIES TEXTBOOKS A. DESCRIPTION 1. What a r e t h e b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e i s s u e a s p r e s e n t e d ? 2. What a c t o r s p l a y a c e n t r a l r o l e and hov a r e t h e i r i n t e r e s t s p o r t r a y e d ? B. EXPLANATION 1. What a r e t h e o r i g i n s o f t h e i s s u e ? 2. What i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e o f t h e i s s u e ? 3. Hov a r e t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e a c t o r s e x p l a i n e d ? C. PREDICTION 1. What a r e p o s s i b l e s c e n a r i o s f o r t h e f u t u r e ? 2. W i l l outcomes be l a r g e l y i n t e r n a l l y o r e x t e r n a l l y d r i v e n ? 3. What i s t h e f u t u r e r o l e o f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e i s s u e ? D. PRESCRIPTION 1. Who o r what s h o u l d r e s o l v e t h e i s s u e ? 2. A r e p r e s c r i b e d a c t i o n s e s s e n t i a l l y u n i l a t e r a l o r m u l t i l a t e r a l i n a p p r o a c h ? 3. What a r e t h e a d v a n t a g e s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f t h e p r e s c r i b e d s o l u t i o n s ? 49 CHAPTER FOUR TEXTBOOK ANALYSIS An E x p l o r a t o r y S t u d y T h i s c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s an a n a l y s i s o f how n o t i o n s o f w o r l d I n t e r d e p e n d e n c e a r e p o r t r a y e d i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k s . The a n a l y s i s o f t e x t b o o k s i s o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e t o f q u e s t i o n s o u t l i n e d i n T a b l e I I i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r . The f o c u s o f t h e q u e s t i o n s i s d e r i v e d f r o m s p e c i f i c c o n c e r n s r a i s e d i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f w o r l d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e i n c h a p t e r two. An e x a m i n a t i o n o f s i x i s s u e a r e a s i n g e o g r a p h y and i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s i s c o n d u c t e d i n f o u r t e e n t e x t b o o k s a u t h o r i z e d f o r use i n C a n a d i a n c l a s s r o o m s . F o l l o w i n g a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e i s s u e a r e a s , c o n c l u d i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s a r e made c o n c e r n i n g t h e a d e q u a c y o f p o r t r a y a l . T o g e t h e r , t h e y f o r m an e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y o f s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k s . The geography I s s u e Areas W i t h one e x c e p t i o n , a l l o f t h e g e o g r a p h y t e x t s e x h i b i t s u f f i c e n t c o n t e n t t o d e t e r m i n e whether c o n c e r n s o v e r t h e w o r l d f o o d s u p p l y , p o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h , and t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a r e c o n c e p t u a l i z e d a s e i t h e r u n i l a t e r a l o r m u l t i l a t e r a l t h e m a t i c i n p e r s p e c t i v e . O n l y Harshman and H a n n e l l ' s The Human W o r l d ; A. C h a n g i n g P l a c e , d o e s n o t f e a t u r e a d i s t i n c t s e c t i o n on t h e w o r l d f o o d i s s u e . 50 Examination gJL the WQrld Food IS3Ue D u n l o p i n T o v a r d s Tomorrow: Canada i n A C h a n g i n g  W o r l d - G e o g r a p h y , e m p h a s i z e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f c o n s i d e r i n g d i f f e r e n t v i e w p o i n t s when a t t e m p t i n g t o draw v a l i d c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t w o r l d i s s u e s i n a " s e n s i t i v e way" ( p . 1 ) . D e s c r i b i n g t h e w o r l d f o o d s u p p l y p r o b l e m as one o f a l l o c a t i o n , t h e a u t h o r i n f e r s a l i n k a g e e x i s t s between d o m e s t i c o r i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s and i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r e x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s . However, n o t i o n s o f a m u l t i l a t e r a l a p p r o a c h t o t h e i s s u e q u i c k l y d i m i n i s h when i t becomes e v i d e n t t h a t m a i n l y i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s a r e h i g h l i g h t e d i n t h e s e a r c h f o r c a u s a t i o n . S t a t e m e n t s s u c h as "many A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s , i f t h e y do n o t t a k e p o s i t i v e a c t i o n t o e n c o u r a g e a d r o p i n f e r t i l i t y r a t e s , a r e s p e e d i n g h e a d l o n g t o w a r d d i s a s t e r " (p.82) and " h e l p i n g a n y c o u n t r y c a n be made v e r y d i f f i c u l t by i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l p r o b l e m s " ( p . 9 1 ) , a l t h o u g h c o n t a i n i n g t h e i r own d e g r e e o f v a l i d i t y , a r e n o t j u x t a p o s e d by t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t a c o m b i n a t i o n o f i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s m i g h t be c a u s e f o r p e r s i s t e n c e o f t h e p r o b l e m . A u n i l a t e r a l a p p r o a c h i s n o t m e r e l y c o n f i n e d t o e x p l a n a t i o n s . I n l o o k i n g t o t h e f u t u r e , D u n l o p c o n s i d e r s t h e q u e s t i o n o f whether o r n o t f o o d s e l f -s u f f l c e n c y w i l l e v e r be p o s s i b l e i n A f r i c a . A l t h o u g h no answer i s p r o v i d e d , t h e a u t h o r s u g g e s t s t o t h e r e a d e r t h a t outcomes must be l a r g e l y i n t e r n a l l y d r i v e n when he s t a t e s : " t h e r e a r e s i g n s t h a t A f r i c a n c o u n t r i e s have begun t o r e c o g n i z e t h e g r a v i t y o f t h e i r s i t u a t i o n " ( p . 92) and t h a t 51 r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h i s s e l f - h e l p a x i o m must be f o l l o w e d by t h e A f r i c a n n a t i o n s t h e m s e l v e s c r e a t i n g f o o d r e s e r v e s , and i m p r o v i n g s o i l c o n s e r v a t i o n w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e t a k i n g s t e p s t o improve h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n . W h i l e t h e o r i e s a d v a n c e d t o e x p l a i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e i s s u e f o c u s e n t i r e l y on t h e s i t u a t i o n i n A f r i c a , p r e s c r i b e d s o l u t i o n s f o r t h a t g e o g r a p h i c a r e a r e c e i v e o n l y c u r s o r y t r e a t m e n t when i t i s b r i e f l y and m a t t e r - o f - f a c t l y s t a t e d t h a t o n l y t h r o u g h an i m p roved e c o n o m i c e n v i r o n m e n t f o r f a r m e r s w i l l a s o l u t i o n be f o u n d . A l t h o u g h a number o f ways t o i n c r e a s e t h e w o r l d f o o d s u p p l y a r e p r e s e n t e d , o n l y t h e a u t h o r ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e i r s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses a s p o t e n t i a l s o l u t i o n s i s c o n s i d e r e d . I n t e r e s t s , p r i o r i t i e s , and needs as p e r c e i v e d by t h o s e s t a t e and n o n - s t a t e a c t o r s most d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d by t h e w o r l d f o o d s u p p l y p r o b l e m a r e n o t e x p l o r e d . W h i l e i t i s D u n l o p ' s I n t e n t t o p r o v i d e a " s e n s i t i v e " t r e a t m e n t o f t h e i s s u e , h i s a p p r o a c h i s s i m p l y n o t m u l t i l a t e r a l . Whether c o n s i d e r i n g c a u s a t i o n , f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s o r p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s , t h e r e e x i s t s l i t t l e d i v e r s i t y o f i d e a s f r o m w h i c h t o p r e s e n t a s e t t i n g f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f c o m p e t i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s . Not o n l y d o e s t h e t i t l e o f Harshman and H a n n e l l ' s W o r l d I s s u e s i n t h e G l o b a l Community a l l u d e t o t h e n a t u r e o f i t s c o n t e n t , e x p r e s s i o n s s u c h as " w o r l d w i d e i m p l i c a t i o n s " , "we s h o u l d be c a r e f u l n o t t o impose our v a l u e s " , " t o u c h i n g t h e l i v e s o f e v e r y o n e " and " t h e w o r l d as 5 2 a w h o l e " i m p l y t h a t a m u l t i l a t e r a l a p p r o a c h Is i n t e n d e d . The w o r l d f o o d i s s u e i s d e s c r i b e d a s complex and i n v o l v i n g many i n t e r r e l a t e d f a c t o r s . A v a r i e t y o f d i v e r g e n t d e s c r i p t i o n s d e f i n e t h e p r o b l e m . A l t h o u g h e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e p e r s i s t e n c e o f t h e hunger p r o b l e m c o n s i d e r b o t h i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l f o r c e s when i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t b e i n g a s much a p a r t o f t h e p r o b l e m as t h e s o l u t i o n e x t e n d s t o d e v e l o p i n g and d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s a l i k e , few examples a r e g i v e n t o s u p p o r t t h a t n o t i o n , w h i l e t h e t e x t makes no p r e d i c t i o n s a b o u t t h e r o l e t o be p l a y e d by s t a t e o r non-s t a t e a c t o r s , some c r e d i t must be g i v e n t o t h e a u t h o r s when t h e y c o n s i d e r p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s by d e v e l o p i n g a m a t r i x t h a t o u t l i n e s t h e a d v a n t a g e s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f b r e a s t -f e e d i n g a s o p p o s e d t o b o t t l e - f e e d i n g i n f a n t s . However, ev e n t h o u g h s t u d e n t s a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o a s s e s s d i f f e r e n t s i d e s o f e a c h argument, t h a t image o f m u l t i l a t e r a l i s m q u i c k l y f a d e s w i t h an a c c o m p a n y i n g summary t h a t p o r t r a y s b r e a s t - f e e d i n g a s " p e r f e c t l y s u i t e d " , w h i l e b o t t l e - f e e d i n g i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s u c h d e s c r i p t o r s a s "under t h e Impact o f a g g r e s s i v e w e s t e r n - s t y l e a d v e r t i s i n g " , and " u n a c c e p t a b l e s a l e s t e c h n i q u e s " . No a l t e r n a t i v e p o i n t o f v i e w Is p r o v i d e d t o c h a l l e n g e t h e a u t h o r s ' c o n t e n t i o n . I n a s i m i l a r l y d i r e c t i v e f a s h i o n , t h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s a r e p o s e d : 1. What c o s t s , b o t h d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t , w ould a c o u n t r y o f t h e d e v e l o p i n g w o r l d e n c o u n t e r i f a m a j o r i t y o f i t s p o p u l a t i o n s w i t c h e d f r o m b r e a s t - f e e d i n g t o b o t t l e - f e e d i n g ? E v a l u a t e s p e c i f i c a l l y a l l a s p e c t s o f l i f e t h a t would be a f f e c t e d . ( p . 183) 53 2. Imagine t h a t you a r e a c o n s u l t a n t t o t h e h e a l t h m i n i s t e r f o r an u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r y . What r e g u l a t i o n s o r r e s t r i c t i o n s would you recommend be a p p l i e d t o m u l t i n a t i o n a l f o o d c o r p o r a t i o n s w h i c h m a r k e t e d i n f a n t f o r m u l a i n y o u r c o u n t r y ? ( p . 183) A l t h o u g h t h e I m p o r t a n c e o f c o n s i d e r i n g d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s o f v i e w i s r e p e a t e d l y s t r e s s e d , t h e d i r e c t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e q u e s t i o n s a s k e d , and t h e l a c k o f a b a l a n c e d i n c l u s i o n o f c o n t e n d i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s on p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s t o t h e hunger i s s u e , p r e c l u d e s t h i s s e c t i o n o f H a n n e l l and Harshman*s t e x t f r o m b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d a s m u l t i l a t e r a l i n a p p r o a c h . The a u t h o r s o f W orld P r o s p e c t s ; A. C o n t e m p o r a r y S t u d y d e v o t e t h e i r e n t i r e f i r s t c h a p t e r t o e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e i r book a s b e i n g i s s u e s - o r i e n t e d . S t a t e m e n t s s u c h as " i m p a r t i a l an a n a l y s i s as p o s s i b l e " , " i t i s b e t t e r t o t h i n k i n t e r m s o f i s s u e s , w h i c h have a t l e a s t two s i d e s t o them", and "an a t t e m p t i s made t o p r e s e n t as f u l l a s p e c t r u m o f v i e w s a s p o s s i b l e " a p p e a r f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e i r w r i t i n g . I n t h e i r l o o k a t k e y w o r l d I s s u e s , M o l y n e a u x and M a c k e n z i e d e v o t e a l e n g t h y s e c t i o n t o t h e w o r l d f o o d s u p p l y q u e s t i o n . T h ey c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e i s s u e a s one framed by t e n s i o n s , c i t i n g t h e Impact on l a r g e numbers o f p e o p l e and i t s p o t e n t i a l f o r s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l t u r m o i l . A u n i l a t e r a l a p p r o a c h f r e q u e n t l y p r o v i d e s a s p e c i f i c e x p l a n a t i o n a s t o why an i s s u e p e r s i s t s . In t h i s i n s t a n c e , a wide v a r i e t y o f c a s e s t u d i e s and e x c e r p t s f r o m documents and s p e e c h e s a r e a d v a n c e d t o e x p l a i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t and p e r s i s t e n c e o f t h e 54 I s s u e . E f f o r t s t o e n c o u r a g e a more p l u r a l i s t i c a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e f o o d i s s u e u n f o r t u n a t e l y do n o t e x t e n d t o f u t u r e p r e d i c t i o n s o r p r e s c r i b e d s o l u t i o n s . The s t a t e m e n t t h a t "many c h a n g e s a r e needed t o a p p r o a c h e q u i t y i n g l o b a l f o o d s u p p l i e s " ( p . 108) s u g g e s t s t h e m u l t i l a t e r a l s e n t i m e n t s o f common c r i s i s and i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e . However, l i t t l e e v i d e n c e i s g i v e n t o s u p p o r t t h a t p r e m i s e . A l t h o u g h t h e measures t h e y p r e s c r i b e a t l e n g t h , i n c l u d i n g l a n d r e f o r m and t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new t e c h n o l o g i e s , do r e p r e s e n t t h e t h o u g h t s o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s and a r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h i n a c o n t e x t o f r e f o r m s t r a t e g y , t h e y a r e s i m p l y n o t m u l t i l a t e r a l . The v a r i o u s o p i n i o n s s e l e c t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n r e p r e s e n t a c o n s e n s u s p o i n t o f v i e w i n t h a t t h e y c a l l f o r s o l u t i o n s t h a t a r e a l m o s t e n t i r e l y i n t e r n a l l y d r i v e n . No d i s c u s s i o n e n s u e s a s t o t h e s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses o f t h e p r e s c r i b e d s o l u t i o n s n o r a r e t h e r e a n y s t a t e m e n t s made by t h e c o u n t r i e s e x p e r i e n c i n g f a m i n e , as t o t h e f e a s i b i l i t y o f t h e s u g g e s t e d r e f o r m s . Wjjxld. i s s u e s a c t s a s an u m b r e l l a t i t l e f o r a s e r i e s o f " m i n i " t e x t s c o n c e n t r a t i n g on t o p i c s o f g l o b a l c o n c e r n , one o f w h i c h i s e n t i t l e d F o o d or. F a m i n e ? , i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e f o o d q u e s t i o n , t h e a u t h o r s t i m u l a t e s i n t e r e s t when he s t a t e s " I t i s s i m p l e j u s t i c e t h a t i s i n s h o r t s u p p l y , n o t f o o d " ( p . 8 ) . He do e s n o t I g n o r e c o n t r o v e r s y . He r e p e a t e d l y a s k s q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e c a u s e o f f a m i n e and whether o r n o t t h e c l a s s i c r e s p o n s e o f " n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r " i s more myth t h a n f a c t . He p l a c e s t h e 55 f a m i n e q u e s t i o n i n b o t h an h i s t o r i c a l and g l o b a l c o n t e x t by j u x t a p o s i n g t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y I r i s h f a m i n e w i t h t h e c u r r e n t p l i g h t i n A f r i c a . The a t t e m p t h e r e i s t o e s t a b l i s h a s e n s e o f c o n n e c t i o n o v e r t i m e and p l a c e . He s e e s b o t h s i t u a t i o n s as a p r o d u c t o f e x p l o i t a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n as t h e commonly p e r c e i v e d l a b e l l i n g o f " n a t u r a l d i s a s t e r " . G i b b ' s e x p l a n a t i o n a s t o c a u s e , a v o i d s t h e u n i l a t e r a l s t a n c e o f o v e r l y e m p h a s i z i n g i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s . He p o i n t s t h e f i n g e r o f blame i n many d i r e c t i o n s , c i t i n g t h e c o l o n i a l p a s t , t h e b u r d e n s o f d e b t and t r a d e , p o o r p l a n n i n g and n e g l e c t o f t h e c o u n t r y s i d e a s a l l h a v i n g been I n s t r u m e n t a l i n p r o d u c i n g A f r i c a ' s p r e s e n t p l i g h t . The a u t h o r a l s o a t t e m p t s t o p r o v i d e c o n t r a s t i n g o p i n i o n s a s t o why t h e famine i s s u e p e r s i s t s . Two r e a d i n g s a r e p r e s e n t e d one c i t e s t h e r e a s o n s g i v e n by a t o p r a n k i n g I n t e r n a t i o n a l a i d o f f i c i a l a s t o how h i s a g e n c y f a i l e d t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e s c o p e o f t h e p r o b l e m , and t h e o t h e r by an A f r i c a n government o f f l c a l who, a l t h o u g h q u e s t i o n i n g t h e t y p e o f a i d g i v e n by d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s s t i l l p r a i s e s t h e i n t e n t , and s u g g e s t s t h a t A f r i c a n s t h e m s e l v e s f r e q u e n t l y do n o t u n d e r s t a n d A f r i c a n p r o b l e m s . In l o o k i n g t o t h e f u t u r e and p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s t o t h e f a m i n e q u e s t i o n , G i b b a s s e r t s t h a t a p l u r a l i s t i c and hence a more m u l t i l a t e r a l a p p r o a c h i s r e q u i r e d . He u r g e s s t u d e n t s t o l o o k a t t h e d i v e r s e p o i n t s o f v i e w h e l d by a v a r i e t y o f p e o p l e a b o u t an i s s u e t h a t i s " h i g h l y c o m p l e x " , and " i n v o l v i n g no t a i l o r - m a d e a n s w e r s " . He e m p h a s i z e s t h a t s o l u t i o n s must I n v o l v e a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y 56 o£ a c t o r s and t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e and o f t e n competing p e r s p e c t i v e s must be g i v e n s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Various p r e s c r i p t i o n s are f e a t u r e d , i n c l u d i n g the need f o r l i t e r a c y campaigns, longterm development p r o j e c t s and economic p o l i c i e s t h a t w i l l promote gradual reform i n an e f f o r t to c r e a t e more e q u i t y w i t h i n the world-trade system. Although appearing to come c l o s e to being m u l t i l a t e r a l thematic i n p e r s p e c t i v e , the author's e f f o r t s f a l l s h o r t of such a d e s i g n a t i o n when he f a i l s to provide any opposing views to h i s d i s a p p r o v a l of the type of a i d given by i n d i v i d u a l governments, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t of the United S t a t e s . His f e e l i n g s are c a p s u l i z e d by such statements as "not always with the most c h a r i t a b l e of motives or r e s u l t s " (p. 30), and by the p o i n t e d comment t h a t : The United S t a t e s , f o r example, o r i g i n a l l y donated food f o r two reasons: to c r e a t e g o o d w i l l towards i t and so help to stop the spread of Communism, and to b u i l d up markets abroad f o r American goods. European a i d donors have s i m i l a r aims. Most of B r i t a i n ' s a i d budget i s spent i n t h i s way. Moreover, government a i d tends to be given o n l y to c o u n t r i e s t h a t are f r i e n d l y to the donor, or to whom the donor country wishes t o woo. (p. 36) A d e f i n i t e d i s p r o p o r t i o n e x i s t s In the assessment of the types of a i d g i v e n . Non-governmental a i d agencies are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by words and phrases such as "more f l e x i b l e " , "a p ioneer", "not imposing s o l u t i o n s " , " f o r t h r i g h t " , "championing", "they can be sure t h a t t h e i r a i d i s a c t u a l l y working" and "extremely s u c c e s s f u l " . No attempt i s made to present what might be construed as p o s i t i v e aspects of the 57 type of a i d given by the developed c o u n t r i e s , nor c o n v e r s e l y i s any c o n s i d e r a t i o n given t o adverse e f f e c t s that may be c r e a t e d by the a c t i o n s of the non-governmental o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The way i n which d e s c r i p t i o n s and exp l a n a t i o n s of the issue are presented may be an i n d i c a t o r t h a t the author i s c l o s e t o u t i l i z i n g a m u l t i l a t e r a l approach; however, the notable lack of op i n i o n s opposite to those expressed by the author imposes boundaries on the stu d e n t s ' a b i l i t i e s to make t h e i r own judgements. As a r e s u l t , a u n i l a t e r a l thematic tone looms over t h i s s e c t i o n . Examination pj. the P o p u l a t i o n growth LSLSJlfi. Towards Tomorrow. Canada in. a. Changing World/ Geography,, t y p i f i e s many new textbooks s u r f a c i n g i n Canadian s o c i a l s t u d i e s classrooms. While many of the pages are g i v e n t o p r e s e n t i n g i s s u e s as they a f f e c t Canadians, a s i z e a b l e p o r t i o n i s devoted to problems i n the much l a r g e r world community. Dunlop contends t h a t world i s s u e s "are ve r y complex and must be t a c k l e d on a g l o b a l s c a l e " and i n doing so " i t i s important t o recog n i z e and co n s i d e r d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of view" (p. 1). However, that sentiment r e c e i v e s l i t t l e support i n the w r i t e r ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n growth i s s u e . As i s the case i n most textbooks which p r o f i l e the p o p u l a t i o n q u e s t i o n , Dunlop examines f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t i n g to a r i s i n g growth r a t e i n d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s as w e l l as those which 58 cause a d e c l i n i n g r a t e i n the I n d u s t r i a l i z e d world. Although a p l e n t i f u l supply of s t a t i s t i c a l data, maps, and diagrams e x i s t , d e s c r i p t i o n s of the issue mostly appear as a bland s y n o p s i s of f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n . No competing r a t i o n a l e s are p r o f i l e d as e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the i s s u e ' s o r i g i n s , nor are the b e l i e f s and p e r s p e c t i v e s of any i n d i v i d u a l s or o r g a n i z a t i o n s p o r t r a y e d . L i t t l e evidence e x i s t s of p o s s i b l e s c e n a r i o s f o r the f u t u r e whereby students can become aware of problems t h a t might occur i f p a r t i c u l a r courses of a c t i o n are pursued, other than when the author s t a t e s "Unless the f e r t i l i t y r a t e i n Canada i n c r e a s e s d r a m a t i c a l l y i n the near f u t u r e , immigration w i l l c e r t a i n l y have to be encouraged i f our country Is to a v o i d an older-than-average age s t r u c t u r e i n the 21st century" (p. 38). No c o n t r a s t i n g p r e d i c t i o n s e x i s t from e i t h e r s t a t e or non-state a c t o r s t h a t would a l l o w students t o assess f o r themselves, a l t e r n a t e p o i n t s of view. In the search f o r p l a u s i b l e s o l u t i o n s to world p o p u l a t i o n problems, the author presents a case study p r o f i l i n g China's p o p u l a t i o n c o n t r o l e f f o r t s . Other than a b r i e f comment t h a t d i f f i c u l t i e s with the o n e - c h i l d p o l i c y have l e d to c r i t i c i s m w i t h i n and o u t s i d e China, l i t t l e i s done with the e x c e r p t . The q u e s t i o n i s a l s o posed, "Can world p o p u l a t i o n s t a b i l i t y be achieved?" (p. 41). I t i s answered with " i t w i l l take u n t i l l a t e i n the 21st century" (p.41). In c o n c l u s i o n , there i s much evidence t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s textbook does not provide a backdrop f o r a m u l t i l a t e r a l 59 r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the world p o p u l a t i o n i s s u e . Moild. Prospects p r e f a c e s a study of the p o p u l a t i o n q u e s t i o n with an e x t e n s i v e commentary on how an i s s u e s - o r i e n t e d a n a l y s i s should be conducted. I t n e c e s s i t a t e s : d e v e l o p i n g an awareness and understanding of the d i f f e r e n t views (based upon d i f f e r e n c e s i n values) h e l d by d i f f e r e n t people i n r e l a t i o n to the components of i s s u e s ; f o r m u l a t i n g a s y n t h e s i s of one's views on the i s s u e s , r e f i n i n g one's system of v a l u e s , and r e a l i z i n g t h a t one's views and values may need to be modified as the f u t u r e u n f o l d s . (p. 9) The world's r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n growth i s d e s c r i b e d as a common c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n ; however, i t i s q u i c k l y p o i n t e d out t h a t not everyone shares t h a t concern. Two viewpoints are juxtaposed: one s t a t i n g t h a t the pressure c r e a t e s an unbearable burden on the g l o b a l environment, the other t h a t the c r e a t i o n of l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n s i s p r e f e r e n t i a l t o worries over the environment. The w r i t e r s take a s i m i l a r s t e p toward a more m u l t i l a t e r a l approach when they p r o f i l e the s i z e and complexity of the issue i n a manner t h a t does not assume s i m i l a r p o l i c i e s and o b j e c t i v e s . S e l e c t e d readings p o r t r a y d i v e r s e o p i n i o n s of both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a c t o r s . Phrases such as "a t i g h t r e i n on p o p u l a t i o n growth i s necessary" and "I don't th i n k t h i s s t a t e i n human a f f a i r s can endure" are juxtaposed with "graduates and p r o f e s s i o n a l s w i l l be t o l d to go f o r t h and m u l t i p l y " and "having and r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n i s a foremost 60 p a t r i o t i c duty" (pp. 16-18). M u l t i l a t e r a l i s m i s a l s o present i n the search f o r c a u s a t i o n where a v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s , economic, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l , are h i g h l i g h t e d . Molyneux and Mackenzie s e t up the p o t e n t i a l f o r c o n t r o v e r s y by j u x t a p o s i n g two s e l e c t e d readings o f f e r i n g d i f f e r e n t views on whether a p o p u l a t i o n problem a c t u a l l y e x i s t s : The world can't keep going a t the present growth-rate, even f o r tens of y e a r s , l e t alone f o r hundreds or thousands. The matter of a p o p u l a t i o n l i m i t i s not a problem f o r the f u t u r e , then. We might j u s t as w e l l r e a l i z e t h a t the world i s j u s t about r e a c h i n g i t s p o p u l a t i o n l i m i t now. To the extent t h a t p o p u l a t i o n problems are experienced, they are experienced mainly a t the l e v e l of the n a t i o n s t a t e t o lump a l l of these v a r i e g a t e d s i t u a t i o n s together i n a l l -encompassing statements about a "world p o p u l a t i o n problem" i s to show symptoms of demographic simple-mindedness. (pp. 36-37) Although there i s no s p e c i f i c i n d i c a t i o n of the authors' views r e g a r d i n g the f o r e g o i n g arguments, they do encourage students to assess the opposing p o i n t s of view. The c o n t e n t i o n i s made t h a t there w i l l always be s t r u g g l e s w i t h i n and among s o c i e t i e s over how to approach the p o p u l a t i o n growth problem, and f o r t h a t matter even i f a problem a c t u a l l y e x i s t s . P o s s i b l e s c e n a r i o s f o r the f u t u r e f e a t u r e contending p e r s p e c t i v e s are i n d i c a t i v e of a m u l t i l a t e r a l approach. The idea of r e s o l u t i o n s and the need f o r them not being u n i v e r s a l l y shared i s i l l u s t r a t e d through a s e r i e s of s e l e c t e d r e a d i n g s . A p l u r a l i t y of o p i n i o n s , expressed by a v a r i e t y of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a c t o r s i n developed and l e s s e r developed c o u n t r i e s , are 61 p r o f i l e d . For example, the b i r t h c o n t r o l c o n t r o v e r s y i n c l u d e s the o p i n i o n s of p r o n a t a l i s t s and those who support b i r t h c o n t r o l along with an e v a l u a t i o n of the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of each viewpoint. As w e l l , the successes and f a i l u r e s of i n t e r n a t i o n a l agencies In d e a l i n g with the p o p u l a t i o n growth q u e s t i o n are i n c l u d e d . True to i t s s t a t e d i n t e n t i o n s , world Prospects ensures t h a t d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s of the problem along with competing e x p l a n a t i o n s of i t s o r i g i n are p l a c e d s i d e by s i d e with p o t e n t i a l s o l u t i o n s t h a t h i g h l i g h t not one but r a t h e r a v a r i e t y of d i v e r s e views. Hannell and Harshman devote a s i z e a b l e p o r t i o n of t h e i r textbook, World Issues i a t h e G l o b a l Community to the p o p u l a t i o n i s s u e . P o p u l a t i o n growth i s d e s c r i b e d as "an i n t e r n a t i o n a l problem", "having worldwide impact", and " o c c u r i n g i n more developed and l e s s e r developed n a t i o n s a l i k e " . The authors c e n t r e t h e i r study around the premise t h a t human p o p u l a t i o n s , whether i n d e v e l o p i n g or i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s change due to s o c i e t a l f o r c e s and t h a t a study of changes w i t h i n i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s a l l o w s f o r p r e d i c t i n g p o p u l a t i o n change i n the d e v e l o p i n g world. That process they c l a i m , best understood by a study of the past, can help p r e d i c t the f u t u r e . P a t t e r n s are looked f o r t h a t l i n k c u r r e n t problems i n the d e v e l o p i n g world to s i m i l a r ones experienced by i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s d u r i n g t h e i r developmental stage. The t h i n k i n g of Thomas Malthus as i t once r e l a t e d to h i s t o r i c a l Europe 62 Is a p p l i e d to c u r r e n t events and c o n d i t i o n s i n the d e v e l o p i n g world. The idea of h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary l i n k a g e may be an i n d i c a t o r of a more m u l t i l a t e r a l approach to d e s c r i p t i o n s of the i s s u e , but the way i n which the m a t e r i a l i s presented suggests otherwise. A lengthy account of the wealth-poverty paradox of Sao-Paulo i s given and no p e r c e p t i o n s of the issue are presented u n t i l one i n t e r e s t group's view of what should be done i s s t a t e d . They suggest t h a t "the o n l y s o l u t i o n i s a d r a s t i c r e d u c t i o n i n the number of people allowed to migrate t h e r e " and conclude by s t a t i n g " i f the c i t y had fewer people, i t would have fewer problems." (p. 202). No d i v e r s e o p i n i o n s are s e t a l o n g s i d e t h i s s i n g u l a r viewpoint. Hannell and Harshman go on to s p o t l i g h t the concern c r e a t e d by the developed world's aging p o p u l a t i o n . To the authors' c r e d i t , accompanying questions focus on t h i n k i n g s k i l l s which encourage students to compare and c o n t r a s t the s i t u a t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s as w e l l as examine the reasons f o r t h e i r own a t t i t u d e s toward f a m i l y p l a n n i n g . However, as pervades much of the s e c t i o n on p o p u l a t i o n Issues, e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the problem's e x i s t e n c e are not framed i n such a way as to encourage competing r a t i o n a l e s . In l o o k i n g a t s c e n a r i o s f o r the f u t u r e , one p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n to a predominantly u n i l a t e r a l approach can be found when the q u e s t i o n i s posed: "Does our c u r r e n t p o p u l a t i o n growth s p e l l d i s a s t e r or p r o g r e s s ? " (p. 225). Two c o n t r a s t i n g viewpoints are summarized. Both c o n s i d e r 63 the r e a l i t i e s t h a t e x i s t i n de v e l o p i n g and i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s . The questions t h a t f o l l o w ask students t o assess the arguments and to co n s i d e r what i m p l i c a t i o n s e x i s t f o r s t a t e and non-state a c t o r s i n su p p o r t i n g e i t h e r of the two p o i n t s of view. T h i s method of p r e s e n t i n g p o s s i b l e f u t u r e s c e n a r i o s comes c l o s e to being m u l t i l a t e r a l i n approach. However, when summarizing Hannell and Harshman*s o v e r a l l account of the p o p u l a t i o n i s s u e , a d i s t i n c t lack of r e p o r t i n g on the r o l e s of the a c t o r s i n v o l v e d and how they p a r t i c i p a t e , coupled with e x p l a n a t i o n s t h a t do not co n s i d e r a l t e r n a t i v e responses t o why an is s u e p e r s i s t s leaves the overwhelming impression t h a t the t e x t ' s account i s p r i m a r i l y u n i l a t e r a l i n i t s approach. McGraw, i n Wjaild. Issues; P o p u l a t i o n Growth, s t r e s s e s t h a t an in-depth examination of is s u e s l i k e the p o p u l a t i o n growth q u e s t i o n , enables students t o "examine the c h o i c e s t h a t ve have to make now about the kind of world we wish t o l i v e i n the f u t u r e " . He s t a t e s t h a t i t i s h i s i n t e n t i o n to c l o s e l y s c r u t i n i z e the causes of the p o p u l a t i o n e x p l o s i o n as v e i l as t o suggest measures t h a t would help "to r e s o l v e t h i s emotive issue i n a vay s e n s i t i v e both t o human r i g h t s and to human needs". McGraw does i n v e s t i g a t e the h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary f a c t o r s behind the p o p u l a t i o n i s s u e , but a l v a y s from a u n i l a t e r a l thematic s t a n c e . A s e r i e s of i n t e r v i e v s take plac e vhere the author asks government o f f i c i a l s i n developed and 64 d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s to d e s c r i b e t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e views on the p o p u l a t i o n growth i s s u e . Although t h i s attempt t o d i s p l a y an i n s i d e r p e r s p e c t i v e i s commendable, i n each ins t a n c e the o p i n i o n s e l e c t e d f o r i n c l u s i o n r e p r e s e n t s one p a r t i c u l a r viewpoint. The I n t e r e s t s and p r i o r i t i e s of a c t o r s h o l d i n g a l t e r n a t i v e views are not i n c l u d e d . Nor i s there any attempt made to assess the v a l i d i t y of those statements made by the government o f f i c i a l s . The author goes on to e x p l a i n a t le n g t h , the c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s to the p o p u l a t i o n problem, a l b e i t i n a m a t t e r - o f - f a c t f a s h i o n . No d i v e r s i t y of t h e o r i e s which may r e v e a l u n d e r l y i n g c o n t r o v e r s i e s or t e n s i o n s are o f f e r e d t o account f o r the development and p e r s i s t e n c e of the i s s u e . Although the author pu r p o r t s t o present f u t u r e s c e n a r i o s and p r e s c r i p t i v e measures i n a " s e n s i t i v e " manner, there i s l i t t l e t o support such a n o t i o n . No i n d i c a t i o n e x i s t s of the r o l e s to be played by e i t h e r s t a t e or non-state a c t o r s or f o r t h a t matter even i f na t i o n s w i l l a c t i n d i v i d u a l l y or c o l l e c t i v e l y t o address p o p u l a t i o n problems. The United Nations' World P o p u l a t i o n P l a n of A c t i o n i s the one p o l i c y s t r a t e g y Included; however, no assessment i s made of i t s s t r e n g t h s or weaknesses. T h i s t e x t ' s account of the p o p u l a t i o n growth i s s u e i s c l e a r l y u n i l a t e r a l thematic i n approach. The. Hjifflaji World; L Changing Place s t a t e s i t s g o a l as " h e l p i n g students to develop a t h o u g h t f u l approach to c u r r e n t g e o g r a p h i c a l concerns and t h e i r p o s s i b l e 65 r e s o l u t i o n " (p. x v ) . The authors e s t a b l i s h an issue i n t h e i r p o r t r a i t of the p o p u l a t i o n q u e s t i o n , a l b e i t q u i t e s u p e r f i c i a l l y . The mainstay of Harshman and Hannell's p r e s e n t a t i o n r e v o l v e s around the q u e s t i o n of whether or not the world s u f f e r s from o v e r p o p u l a t i o n . Two t h e o r i e s are presented, one attempting to c o n f i r m , the other d i s c o n f i r m , t h a t a problem e x i s t s . However, the lack of depth e v i d e n t i n the contending e x p l a n a t i o n s leaves both c o n c l u s i o n s tenuous a t b e s t . No r o l e e x i s t s f o r s t a t e or non-state a c t o r s . The one p r e d i c t i o n made i s t h a t the world's p o p u l a t i o n w i l l s t a b i l i z e w i t h i n the next century. No competing f u t u r e s c e n a r i o s are o f f e r e d to c h a l l e n g e t h i s s i n g u l a r p e r c e p t i o n . Whether such an outcome w i l l r e s u l t l a r g e l y from i n t e r n a l l y d r i v e n p o l i c i e s or through the involvement of e x t e r n a l f o r c e s remains unanswered. Nor do any p r e s c r i p t i v e measures appear vhereby students are able to assess how d i f f e r e n t a c t o r s see and respond to d i f f e r i n g p e r c e p t i o n s of the p o p u l a t i o n q u e s t i o n . Examination gJL tha. The Environmental Issue Towards Tomorrow; Canada i n a. Changing World -Geography focuses on the Impact of resource use as an u n d e r l y i n g theme i n a d d r e s s i n g the environmental i s s u e . P o l l u t i o n of the Niagara R i v e r , along with the dangers inherent i n n u c l e a r waste d i s p o s a l , and the d i f f i c u l t i e s of p r e s e r v i n g water through p o l l u t i o n c o n t r o l , are c i t e d as examples of environmental problems caused by Improper 66 resource use. In each Instance, the attempt to s u s t a i n an i s s u e s - o r i e n t e d approach i s weak. Dunlop does not i n c l u d e any d i v e r g e n t d e s c r i p t i o n s d e f i n i n g the b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the problem nor are contending e x p l a n a t i o n s advanced to account f o r i t s p e r s i s t e n c e . P r e d i c t i o n s f o r the f u t u r e and p o s s i b l e p r e s c r i p t i v e measures r e c e i v e o n l y c u r s o r y treatment when the author p o s i t s t h a t "the resource c r i s i s i s l i k e l y t o get worse" and "the s o l u t i o n s to these problems are both complex and c o s t l y " (p. 156). There i s l i t t l e t o suggest t h a t Dunlop presents the environmental issue i n a m u l t i l a t e r a l thematic manner. i n c o n t r a s t , l o x i d . Prospects; & contemporary Study r i s more e x p l i c i t i n i t s p o r t r a y a l of environmental concerns. The environmental i s s u e i s broken i n t o a s e r i e s of s p e c i a l i z e d components. One of them, energy, i s d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h . An attempt i s made to e s t a b l i s h an i s s u e - o r i e n t e d approach with the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t Issues "have a t l e a s t two s i d e s , and most have many more .... the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r wi d e l y v a r y i n g views are almost e n d l e s s " (p. 4). The energy i s s u e Is c h a r a c t e r i z e d as one of "common c r i s i s " which a l s o generates "much c o n f u s i o n " , " c o n f l i c t i n g views", and "no consensus" on how to approach the i s s u e . An in-depth a n a l y s i s of the nuclear energy c o n t r o v e r s y i s i n c l u d e d . Two p o i n t s of view are p r o f i l e d : Many people t h i n k , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t continued development of nucl e a r energy poses unacceptable r i s k s to s o c i e t y and should be stopped. Many others c l a i m 67 these r i s k s are a c c e p t a b l e and t h a t nuclear energy should continue to be developed, (p. 4) S e l e c t e d readings h i g h l i g h t those competing i n t e r e s t s . The f a c t t h a t no s i n g u l a r p e r c e p t i o n e x i s t s i s r e i n f o r c e d by a d i v e r s i t y of p e r s p e c t i v e s . S i m i l a r and d i f f e r i n g views are p r o f i l e d . For i n s t a n c e , nuclear energy i s d e s c r i b e d as both an energy source where " r i s k s f a r outweigh any b e n e f i t s " , and as "one of the necessary p r e - r e q u i s i t e s f o r r e t a i n i n g the economic independence of every country" (pp. 214-215). The authors o b j e c t i v e l y present both s i d e s of the i s s u e i n t h e i r s e arch f o r reasons as to why c o n t r o v e r s y p e r s i s t s over the q u e s t i o n of nuclear energy use. In the s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d " I t i s s a f e / I t i s dangerous", the d i f f e r e n t and c o n f l i c t i n g views of a v a r i e t y of a c t o r s are presented. The authors contend t h a t i t i s one of the tasks of i s s u e s a n a l y s i s t o present p o s s i b l e f u t u r e s . A v a r i e t y of energy o p t i o n s and p o s s i b l e plans f o r a c t i o n are then e x p l o r e d . In each case, they i d e n t i f y the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of those options as w e l l as assess t h e i r impact on both developed and d e v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s i n terms of environmental and h e a l t h hazards. As w e l l , each o p t i o n f o r the f u t u r e a l l u d e s to s p e c i f i c r o l e s f o r s t a t e and non-s t a t e a c t o r s a l i k e . In a l l a s p e c t s , supportable evidence e x i s t s to i n d i c a t e t h a t Molyneux and Mackenzie present students with a m u l t i l a t e r a l thematic look a t the energy i s s u e . Hannell and Harshman devote a s i z e a b l e p o r t i o n of 68 t h e i r textbook, World Lasji&s_ i n toe. G l o b a l communlty r to environmental concerns. S t r u c t u r e d around the theme of interdependency, the authors s t a t e t h e i r i n t e n t i o n s to explore the causes and f u t u r e i m p l i c a t i o n s of d e f o r e s t a t i o n , s o i l e r o s i o n , d e s e r t i f i c a t i o n , atmospheric and water p o l l u t i o n , and h a b i t a t and w i l d l i f e d e s t r u c t i o n . To s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e i r emphasis on the environmental r e l a t i o n s h i p i n a g l o b a l context, the authors d e s c r i b e the issue as "an i n t e r n a t i o n a l problem", "having worldwide impact", " o c c u r i n g i n more developed and l e s s e r developed c o u n t r i e s a l i k e " . They devote c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n to the growth of i n t e r n a t i o n a l concern about f u r t h e r d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the ozone l a y e r . Evidence of a m u l t i l a t e r a l approach e x i s t s when students are asked to weigh the b e n e f i c i a l and d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s of the p r o d u c t i o n and use of c h l o r o f l u o r o c a r b o n s . As w e l l , they are encouraged to produce arguments to support opposing s i d e s i n a d i s c u s s i o n on the m e r i t s of more e x t e n s i v e t e s t i n g of I n d u s t r i a l c h e m i c a l s . C i t i n g p o l l u t i o n and i t s e f f e c t s on the s t a t e of the atmosphere as having " l o c a l , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s " , the authors i n c l u d e case s t u d i e s p r o f i l i n g the a i r q u a l i t y of Mexico C i t y , sulphur d i o x i d e emissions i n North America, and the Chernobyl n u c l e a r r e a c t o r f i r e . In each i n s t a n c e , the cause and e f f e c t of the p o l l u t i o n problem i s explored and students are asked t o weigh the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of the a c t i o n s taken by a v a r i e t y of a c t o r s . In l o o k i n g to 69 the f u t u r e , the authors p r e d i c t t h a t environmental problems i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l community w i l l most l i k e l y p e r s i s t f o r a long time to come and t h a t any f u t u r e a c t i o n s must c r e a t e a ••climate" of changing a t t i t u d e s t h a t w i l l c r o s s n a t i o n a l boundaries. Hannell and Harshman approach s o l u t i o n s to g l o b a l environmental problems i n a manner r e f l e c t i n g a m u l t i l a t e r a l r a t h e r than a u n i l a t e r a l approach. Where c o n t r o v e r s y e x i s t s as to the f e a s i b i l i t y of a p a r t i c u l a r s o l u t i o n , d i v e r g e n t o p i n i o n s are i n c l u d e d . In the chapter summary q u e s t i o n s , the authors encourage students to look at the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of a v a r i e t y of p r e s c r i p t i v e measures. Two examples a r e : What would be the r e s u l t s i f no more t r o p i c a l f o r e s t s were to be c l e a r e d ? C a t e g o r i z e those r e s u l t s as b e n e f i t s to l e s s e r developed n a t i o n s , problems f o r l e s s e r developed n a t i o n s , b e n e f i t s to more developed n a t i o n s , or problems f o r more developed n a t i o n s . (p. 240) What a c t i o n should be taken i n response to the e a r l y evidence of the spread of the d e s e r t s ? C l e a r l y e x p l a i n hov l o c a l people, n a t i o n a l governments, and i n t e r n a t -i o n a l agencies should be i n v o l v e d . (p. 252) The authors a l s o u t i l i z e a m u l t i l a t e r a l approach i n an i n t e r e s t i n g f a s h i o n vhen they present students v i t h a problem t h a t asks them to a c t as an a d v i s o r to an imaginary n a t i o n on the best development s t r a t e g y f o r improving the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of v a t e r s u p p l i e s . In t h e i r response, they are encouraged t o develop t h e i r ovn i d e a s , c o n s i d e r the i n t e r e s t s of the l o c a l I n h a b i t a n t s , and the r o l e s to be played by the n a t i o n a l government, other n a t i o n s , and 70 I n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . O v e r a l l , there i s good evidence to support the n o t i o n t h a t t h i s textbook presents the environmental issue w i t h i n a m u l t i l a t e r a l theme. World Issues; The Envjronpent, p o r t r a y s the environmental q u e s t i o n i n both an h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary l i g h t . Although key g l o b a l environmental concerns are d i s c u s s e d a t l e n g t h , there i s l i t t l e evidence of opposing viewpoints about those concerns. D e s c r i p t o r s used t o i d e n t i f y the v a r i o u s components of the issue r e v e a l a symmetry i n terms and phrases. For example: energy p r o d u c t i o n , urban development, the use of t r o p i c a l r a i n f o r e s t s and wetlands, and waste d i s p o s a l are a l l c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n language such as " r i s k s which are too g r e a t , " " l i t t l e heed p a i d t o the c r i s i s " , "causing d e s t r u c t i o n , " " i n s i d i o u s , " and " d i s t u r b i n g i n f l u e n c e s " . The use of these d e s c r i p t i v e words and many more l i k e them r e f l e c t the development of a s i n g u l a r theme - the complete v u l n e r a b i l i t y of the environment. Although Markham's comments have t h e i r own v a l i d i t y , r a r e l y are views presented which d i s a g r e e with h i s d e f i n i t i o n s of the problems. As w e l l , each issue i s giv e n a s p e c i f i c e x p l a n a t i o n f o r i t s p e r s i s t e n c e . No attempt i s made to examine contending e x p l a n a t i o n s . F i n d i n g s o l u t i o n s f o r the f u t u r e , Markham contends, i s a d i s t i n c t l y g l o b a l concern. He a s s e r t s t h a t " I n t e r n a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n i s v i t a l . We must r e a l i z e t h a t we are a l l p a r t of one world and must s t a r t to behave a c c o r d i n g l y . I t i s i n t e r n a t i o n a l 71 c o o p e r a t i o n t h a t has been l a c k i n g i n the past" (p. 39). Although i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , a theme of c o o p e r a t i v e g l o b a l p a r t n e r s h i p i s h i g h l i g h t e d , l i t t l e s u b s t a n t i v e d e t a i l f o l l o w s to support t h a t n o t i o n . S e v e r a l p o l i c y options f o r the f u t u r e are mentioned but no attempt i s made to assess t h e i r f e a s i b i l i t y . He a l s o i d e n t i f i e s a number of s t a t e and non-state i n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t o r s who are working together on i s s u e s of g l o b a l environmental importance; however, the o n l y e v a l u a t i o n made of t h e i r I n t e r e s t s and p r i o r i t i e s i s "some are more s u c c e s s f u l than o t h e r s " (p. 39). Many environmental concerns and I n c i d e n t s having g l o b a l i m p l i c a t i o n s are exposed, but there are few occasions where students can e v a l u a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s opposite to those of the author. T h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of environmental i s s u e s , d e f i n e d s o l e l y by the author's i n t e r e s t s and p e r c e p t i o n s , can o n l y be c l a s s i f i e d as u n i l a t e r a l thematic i n p e r s p e c t i v e . The Human World; h. Changing Place, makes the c o n t e n t i o n t h a t i t i s v i t a l to approach environmental i s s u e s i n such a way as to form a "balanced" image of the world. Although the t e x t purports to be i s s u e s - o r i e n t e d i n approach, an a n a l y s i s of the s e c t i o n e n t i t l e d " G l o b a l Environmental Concerns" r e v e a l s l i t t l e to support t h a t n o t i o n . D e f o r e s t a t i o n and a i r and v a t e r p o l l u t i o n are p r o f i l e d as having " v o r l d v i d e as v e i l as l o c a l e f f e c t s " . Hovever, the b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each problem are presented i n a v e r y bland manner. No mention i s made of a 72 r o l e f o r s t a t e or non-state a c t o r s . The c h o i c e of ex p l a n a t i o n s i s no more r e v e a l i n g . In each i n s t a n c e , a s p e c i f i c reason i s given f o r the o r i g i n s and p e r s i s t e n c e of the problem. The authors do not i n c l u d e any c o n t r a s t i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . As v e i l , they make no p r e d i c t i o n s about hov c e r t a i n events w i l l t u r n out or hov i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l respond to p a r t i c u l a r problems. Although a b r i e f l i s t of p o t e n t i a l s o l u t i o n s accompanies each problem, no attempt i s made to assess t h e i r s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses. A case study on Egypt's High Aswan Dam i s p r o f i l e d as an i l l u s t r a t i o n of environmental concerns r e s u l t i n g from the b u i l d i n g of superdams. The account focuses e n t i r e l y on the the negative e f f e c t s of the dam. There i s no attempt to i n c l u d e opposing v i e w p o i n t s . Accompanying questions are posed i n s i m i l a r f a s h i o n : The High Aswan Dam c o s t m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s . Suggest other ways i n which t h i s money c o u l d have been spent f o r the betterment of the country? Do you t h i n k t h a t Egypt has b e n e f i t t e d from the b u i l d i n g of the High Aswan Dam? (p. 331) The d i r e c t i v e nature of the ques t i o n s makes I t u n l i k e l y t h a t students would c h a l l e n g e the authors' c o n c l u s i o n s . O v e r a l l , t h i s textbook's p o r t r a y a l of g l o b a l environmental concerns remains w i t h i n a u n i l a t e r a l thematic frame. In review, an a n a l y s i s of the t e x t s i n the geography component r e v e a l s a s t r o n g preponderance of u n i l a t e r a l thematic accounts i n the food, p o p u l a t i o n and environment i s s u e a r e a s . Eleven p r o f i l e s c l e a r l y present 73 such an image. Although three of those p r o f i l e s c o n t a i n elements of a m u l t i l a t e r a l approach i n t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n s and e x p l a n a t i o n s , t h a t trend i s not extended to t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n s and p r e s c r i p t i o n s . Only three p r o f i l e s present a d e c i s i v e l y m u l t i l a t e r a l r a t h e r than a u n i l a t e r a l theme. Tae. i n t e r n a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s LSJSJIS. AXSJLS. With one e x c e p t i o n , a l l of the textbooks chosen fo r a n a l y s i s c o n t a i n s u f f i c i e n t s e c t i o n s on the i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s i s s u e s of s e c u r i t y , human r i g h t s , and the g l o b a l economy. Only S c u l l y ' s Canada Today n e g l e c t s to c o n s i d e r the g l o b a l economy g u e s t i o n . Examination g_i the S e c u r i t y ls_sjie_ The authors of The Contemporary World: C o n f l i c t or Co-operation? Include the s e c u r i t y i s s u e as p a r t of t h e i r o v e r a l l examination of complex problems shaping the world s i n c e 1945. H i g h l i g h t i n g the i s s u e as being "as much a matter of b u t t e r as i t i s of guns", they go on to s t a t e t h a t i t i s t h e i r i n t e n t i o n to help students become "capable of making Informed c h o i c e s on i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s s u e s " (p. 1). A t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n to the Canada-United Sta t e s defence r e l a t i o n s h i p . However, from the o u t s e t the t e x t account i s almost e n t i r e l y preoccupied with the n o t i o n of Canada as a subordinate p l a y e r i n c o n t i n e n t a l defence. There i s l i t t l e evidence of an a l t e r n a t i v e p o i n t of view to help students judge f o r themselves the m e r i t s of the authors' 74 c o n t e n t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g i s s u e areas are addressed: Canadian p o s s e s s i o n of nu c l e a r weapons and Canada's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n American nuclear weapons programmes. The weapons ownership q u e s t i o n i s viewed i n terms of "the US put pressure on Canada to proceed to arm the systems" and the debate i n Canada " s p l i t the Cabinet and helped to d e f e a t the government i n 1963" (pp. 177-178). The t e s t i n g of a i r - l a u n c h e d c r u i s e m i s s i l e s over Canadian t e r r i t o r y i s viewed i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: as having " r a i s e d key questions from Canadians about American nuclear s t r a t e g y , " " p u b l i c r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t the proposed t e s t s was s t r o n g , " and "there was concern t h a t by a g r e e i n g to t e s t the c r u i s e m i s s i l e guidance system, Canada was endorsing an American defence s t r a t e g y " (p. 179). The authors conclude t h a t "In n e i t h e r case d i d Canada pursue a d e c i s i v e p o l i c y o p t i o n " (p. 179). T h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n s c o n t i n u a l l y present an image of Canadian f r u s t r a t i o n over American m i l i t a r y domination. A u n i l a t e r a l approach i s e v i d e n t i n t h i s i n stance as there i s no attempt to provide an American p e r s p e c t i v e of the defence r e l a t i o n s h i p . The w r i t e r s a l s o focus on Canada's membership i n NATO and NORAD. I t i s suggested t h a t both o r g a n i z a t i o n s are t o be viewed as " o f f e r i n g o c c a s i o n s f o r Canada to c o n s u l t and to be c o n s u l t e d " (p. 176). A l t e r n a t e viewpoints debating the b e n e f i t s of those a l l i a n c e s are i n c l u d e d and worded i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: While some would argue t h a t t h i s helps to preserve Canadian independence from Amer-75 lean domination in in ternat iona l issues, others claim that Canadian inf luence in NATO, for example, remains extremely l imited because of our extremely l imi ted m i l i t a r y cont r ibut ion . Other c r i t i c s see NATO and NORAD as instruments for binding Canada too c l o se l y to American defence and foreign po l i c y . (p. 176) While the choice of explanations appear to come close to being m u l t i l a t e r a l in so far as c o n f l i c t i n g viewpoints are expressed, they h igh l ight the concerns of one small group of actors in the in ternat iona l system, namely Canadians. Outsider views on Canada's defensive r o l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y American ones, are not expressed. In the portraya l of Canadian-American defence re l a t i on s , there are no predict ions of what the future holds or what problems might occur i f pa r t i cu l a r courses of act ion are pursued. Equal ly short measure i s given to how best to respond to the challenges that the defence re la t ionsh ip presents. As we l l , questions at the end of the unit do l i t t l e to stimulate thinking s k i l l s . They merely ask students to confirm what has already been sa id in the text content. If anything, the questions r e f l e c t a u n i l a t e r a l approach in keeping with the overa l l presentation of the secur i ty issue. The second ed i t i on of Canada Today d i rec t s at tent ion not only to events happening within the country but a lso to hov Canadians a f fec t and are a f fected by issues of g lobal concern. Students are encouraged "to form the i r ovn vievs on issues, to decide vhat they might have done in the past, and to decide vhat they might do in the future" 76 (p. I x ) . The q u e s t i o n of s e c u r i t y i s broached by f o c u s s i n g on the n u c l e a r arms race as "the major t h r e a t to peace i n the world today" (p. 396). The authors appear to move toward a m u l t i l a t e r a l approach when they d e s c r i b e the b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i s s u e . Two d i v e r g e n t views of r e a l i t y are expressed to i n d i c a t e the type of world being c r e a t e d under present c o n d i t i o n s : one suggests t h a t the d e s t r u c t i v e p o t e n t i a l of n u c l e a r weapons induces c a u t i o n i n those who c o n t r o l them; the other, t h a t m i s c a l c u l a t i o n or misunderstanding leaves the world poised on the edge of a d i s a s t e r . E x p l a n a t i o n s are g i v e n to account f o r the continued e x i s t e n c e of the i s s u e and the a c t i o n s of a c t o r s , s t a t e and non-state a l i k e , are assessed. However, opposing views on d e t e r r e n c e are presented i n a such a way as to make i t d i f f i c u l t f o r students to weigh the merits of the arguments. The argument i n favour of deterrence i s presented o n l y s u p e r f i c a l l y while the opposite view i n c l u d e s e x t e n s i v e p r o f i l e s of the 1983 Trudeau world peace mi s s i o n , the I n t e r n a t i o n a l a c t i o n s of P h y s i c i a n s f o r S o c i a l R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , the campaign a g a i n s t c r u i s e m i s s i l e s and the Peace P e t i t i o n Caravan. The authors deem the Trudeau mi s s i o n to be c o n t r o v e r s i a l ; however, a l l o p i n i o n s r e p r e s e n t the consensus view t h a t Trudeau's e f f o r t s were a f a i l u r e . With one e x c e p t i o n , a l l of the accompanying q u e s t i o n s , focus on the s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s found w i t h i n the a n t i - d e t e r r e n c e movement. Moreover, no p r e d i c t i o n s are made about the f u t u r e course of the i s s u e , 77 nor are are any p r e s c r i p t i v e measures o f f e r e d other than the comment t h a t " I t i s up to a l l c i t i z e n s to make t h e i r v o i c e s heard" (p. 404). Although i n i t i a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of the i s s u e a l l u d e to a m u l t i l a t e r a l approach t a k i n g p l a c e , there i s not much evidence o v e r a l l to support the n o t i o n t h a t t h i s textbook d e p i c t s the nuclear weapons aspect of the s e c u r i t y issue i n a m u l t i l a t e r a l thematic l i g h t . Harbour and Smith i n SLoxld. i s s u e s : The Arms  Trade, see the arms trade as l i n k e d to almost every important q u e s t i o n the world f a c e s . The c o n t e n t i o n i s made tha t although p r i m a r i l y an issue of s e c u r i t y , a study of the arms trade " t e l l s us a l o t about the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s of the world, i n c l u d i n g the r e l a t i o n s of the superpowers with other c o u n t r i e s and with each o t h e r " (p. 43). D e s c r i p t i o n s of the arms trade i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l system, focus on why c o u n t r i e s buy and s e l l arms, whether or not there should be more c o n t r o l over arms s a l e s , and whether or not i t i s p o s s i b l e t o f i n d a l t e r n a t i v e forms of t r a d e . The search f o r reasons as to why the arms trade continues unabated extends to a d e t a i l e d examination of the m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r s behind the s e l l i n g and buying of weapons. In both i n s t a n c e s domestic or i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s and i n t e r n a t i o n a l or e x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s are c o n s i d e r e d . The w r i t e r s a l s o c o n s i d e r a blend of p o l i t i c a l and economic reasons r a t h e r than one or the other. As v e i l , they assess the advantages and disadvantages of each s c e n a r i o . The a c t i o n s of the arms 78 e x p o r t i n g c o u n t r i e s are p r o f i l e d on the one hand as o p p o r t u n i t i e s to "extend t h e i r i n f l u e n c e , " and "to c r e a t e a good c l i m a t e f o r f u r t h e r t r a d e , " and on the other as c r e a t i n g s i t u a t i o n s where "a change of government can transform an a l l y i n t o an a dversary" and " i t i s impossible to a v o i d the moral questions i n v o l v e d " (p. 24). The authors a l s o Introduce an element of m u l t i l a t e r a l i s m i n t o t h e i r p o r t r a y a l of ways i n which to c o n t r o l the arms t r a d e . The approach i s one that does not assume t h a t a l l a c t o r s have the same i n t e r e s t s and p r i o r i t i e s . Included are proposals f o r disarmament committees to monitor the arms t r a d e , e f f o r t s t o l i n k disarmament and development, superpower arms r e d u c t i o n t a l k s , and the United Nations arms embargo on South A f r i c a i n response to the a p a r t h e i d system. In each i n s t a n c e , the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a v a r i e t y of key a c t o r s and the r o l e s they p l a y are made known along with e x p l a n a t i o n s as to the nature of t h e i r d i f f e r i n g views. An assessment of the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of each p r o p o s a l i s a l s o g i v e n . While the authors don a m u l t i l a t e r a l l e n s to d e s c r i b e and e x p l a i n c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l system as w e l l as provide a v a r i e t y of ways i n which to respond to the c h a l l e n g e s the arms race p r e s e n t s , they a l s o Incorporate a semblance of m u l t i l a t e r a l i s m Into t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n of p o s s i b l e f u t u r e s c e n a r i o s . The authors p o s i t t h a t the arms trade most l i k e l y can not be c o n t r o l l e d ; however they do leave the door open to Include an a l t e r n a t e view, one which suggests 79 t h a t a r e d u c t i o n i n the arms trade can occur i n one of two ways: "the system c o u l d mature t o a p o i n t where arms are needed l e s s than they are now or not a t a l l " or "developing c o u n t r i e s c o u l d attempt to de s i g n new defence p o l i c i e s which do not r e l y so much on the most expensive technology a v a i l a b l e " (p. 43). O v e r a l l , there i s good evidence to support the n o t i o n t h a t t h i s textbook presents the arms trade q u e s t i o n w i t h i n a m u l t i l a t e r a l c o n t e x t . Common and d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of view, needs and i n t e r e s t s , are rec o g n i z e d . The authors of The Bififi. Of. the G l o b a l V i l l a g e , focus a t t e n t i o n on the peace and s e c u r i t y issue i n the world community by h i g h l i g h t i n g the United Nations' g l o b a l m i s s i o n , the r o l e of m u l t i n a t i o n a l s , and the q u e s t i o n of disarmament. Baldwin et a l . s t a t e t h a t i t i s t h e i r i n t e n t i o n to present each example w i t h i n a context of co-o p e r a t i o n and c o n f l i c t . Although the idea of such a backdrop may r e f l e c t an element of m u l t i l a t e r a l i s m , there i s l i t t l e to i n d i c a t e t h a t such an approach accompanies ensuing d e s c r i p t i o n s and e x p l a n a t i o n s . Although i t i s suggested t h a t the United Nations helps to ease t e n s i o n s and promote d i s c u s s i o n s , the dominant judgement made i s tha t the i n s t i t u t i o n i s " b u r e a u c r a t i c , i n e f f e c t i v e , and absorbed i n endless debate" (p. 151). No opposing viewpoints are o f f e r e d . The r o l e of m u l t i n a t i o n a l s , how they p a r t i c i p a t e and what t h e i r p r i o r i t i e s are, are addressed. The authors ask "Are m u l t i n a t i o n a l s c r e a t i n g 80 a l t e r n a t e l i n e s of g l o b a l power? and "Could m u l t i n a t i o n a l s c h a l l e n g e major governments?" (p. 156). Such ques t i o n s introduce an element of c o n t r o v e r s y and c r e a t e a context where contending p e r s p e c t i v e s of key a c t o r s can be examined, but not much i s done with them. The authors provide no c o n t r a s t i n g view t o t h e i r o p i n i o n t h a t " M u l t i n a t i o n a l s have no human and p o l i t i c a l concerns apa r t from m a i n t a i n i n g p r o f i t s . " and " P o l i t i c a l and humanitarian iss u e s r a r e l y concern the m u l t i n a t i o n a l s " (p. 156). S i m i l a r l y , when the authors present the disarmament q u e s t i o n they employ a format q u i t e removed from t h a t of a m u l t i l a t e r a l approach. A bland synopsis of i n f o r m a t i o n i s presented. There i s no attempt to mention any of the c o n t r o v e r s i e s t h a t t y p i c a l l y surround the n o t i o n of disarmament nor are the views of any key a c t o r s p r o f e r r e d . In t h e i r s y n o p s i s , the authors do c o n s i d e r some p r e s c r i p t i v e measures and do look to the f u t u r e , a l b e i t v e r y s u p e r f i c i a l l y . They wonder "whether the i n t e n s i t y of the world c o n f l i c t s w i l l outweigh the q u a l i t y of the co-o p e r a t i o n " (p. 168). They a l s o suggest t h a t progress w i l l p o s s i b l y come from I n t e r n a t i o n a l agreements and the c o l l e c t i v e endeavours of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a c t o r s . However, no opposing view i s presented t o help students to thi n k c r i t i c a l l y about the merits of the authors' a s s e r t i o n s . Although the t e x t emphasizes t h a t no s o c i e t y can remain i s o l a t e d from g l o b a l i s m , the m a t e r i a l on peace and s e c u r i t y i s not organized w i t h i n a framework t h a t 81 allows students to assess m u l t i p l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of r e a l i t y . Davis, i n h i s p r e f a c i n g remarks to Contours i n the. Twentieth Century s t a t e s h i s i n t e n t i o n to concentrate on issue t o p i c s and provide a balanced approach by p r e s e n t i n g c o n t r a s t i n g c h o i c e s and p e r s p e c t i v e s . C e n t r a l to the author's examination of the s e c u r i t y issue i s the q u e s t i o n of how to reduce g l o b a l t e n s i o n c r e a t e d by the nuclear arms r a c e . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a m u l t i l a t e r a l approach are e v i d e n t . The issue chosen i s one which i s complex, i n v o l v e s a number of a c t o r s i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l system, and d e f i e s r e s o l u t i o n by any one government or I n d i v i d u a l . Three readings are i n t r o d u c e d , each p r e s e n t i n g a d i f f e r e n t d e s c r i p t i o n of nuclear p o l i t i c s . For example: America faces an adversary, t h a t while understanding the d e s t r u c t i v e p o t e n t i a l of n u c l e a r weapons, s t i l l plans to f i g h t and win. (p. 230) ....when i t becomes p o s s i b l e to r e s o l v e something i n our r e l a t i o n s , they [the United S t a t e s ] use a t r i c k or p l o y to torpedo i t . (p. 239) T r y i n g to c o n t r o l the u l t i m a t e f o r c e i s f a r l e s s r e a l i s t i c and important than l i m i t i n g the causes of c o n f l i c t . (p. 235) As w e l l , each p o i n t of view presents e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the p e r s i s t e n c e of the i s s u e based upon i t s own p a r t i c u l a r image of r e a l i t y . Three c o n t r a s t i n g p r e d i c t i o n s f o r the f u t u r e are a l s o made. F i n a l l y , each wo r l d v i e v presents a s e t of p o t e n t i a l s o l u t i o n s , a g a i n c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to i t s core b e l i e f s . One view maintains t h a t deterrence and 82 nothing l e s s p r o v i d e s the Inc e n t i v e to av o i d war. Another i n s i s t s t h a t d e c i s i v e a c t i o n to reduce the t h r e a t of g l o b a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n can not occur u n t i l a l l s t a k e h o l d e r s acknowledge the f u t i l i t y of s e a r c h i n g f o r t e c h n i c a l s o l u t i o n s to the problems of war and peace. The t h i r d view contends t h a t r e d u c i n g the t h r e a t of g l o b a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n i s f e a s i b l e ; however, i t i s c r u c i a l t h a t non-state a c t o r s assume a g r e a t e r r o l e i n p r e s s u r i n g governments to r i d the world of nuclear weapons. Accompanying questions focus on t h i n k i n g s k i l l s which encourage students to assess d i f f e r e n t s i d e s of each argument. I t can be concluded t h a t the way i n which the t e x t presents the s e c u r i t y i s s u e allows f o r a m u l t i l a t e r a l thematic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Examination gj. the HJifflajQ. Rights l£SJl£. I d e a l l y , the human r i g h t s issue lends i t s e l f to a n a l y s i s . I t i s complex, i n v o l v i n g s t a t e and non-state a c t o r s throughout the world community and i s d i f f i c u l t to r e s o l v e by any one i n d i v i d u a l or group. The authors of Ihfi. Contemporary World; C o n f l i c t ox co-opera t i o n ? a l l u d e to the g l o b a l nature of the human r i g h t s q u e s t i o n when they s t a t e "Human r i g h t s a r e , or should be, everyone's concern. There i s no country i n the world i n which someone's human r i g h t s are not i n some way abused" (p. 173). They do not however, take an i s s u e s -o r i e n t e d approach whereby a v a r i e t y of contending p e r s p e c t i v e s can stand s i d e by s i d e so t h a t students can 83 assess f o r themselves a l t e r n a t e v i e w p o i n t s . Instead, the t o p i c i s presented i n the form of b i o g r a p h i c a l sketches on the t o r t u r e and Imprisonment of Steve Biko, the South A f r i c a n a n t i - a p a r t h e i d a c t i v i s t ; Fred M o r r i s , a m i s s i o n a r y i n B r a z i l ; and Alexander S o l z h e n l t s y n , a S o v i e t author and d i s s i d e n t . Although these case s t u d i e s promote i n t e r e s t i n the s u b j e c t , not much i s done with them nor are any n o t i c a b l e judgements made. The authors then go on to d e s c r i b e the issue as simply one "which has become i n c r e a s i n g l y common i n the 1970s and 80s" (p. 173). No competing r a t i o n a l e s are p r o f i l e d as e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the problem's o r i g i n s or p e r s i s t e n c e nor are the b e l i e f s of any i n d i v i d u a l s p o r t r a y e d . P o s s i b l e s c e n a r i o s f o r the f u t u r e r e c e i v e s h o r t s h r i f t with the lone comment t h a t "the problem, f a r from being s o l v e d , appears to be becoming worse" (p. 173). No mention of s u p p o r t i n g or a l t e r n a t e views accompany t h i s very b r i e f r e v e l a t i o n . Other than b r i e f l y mentioning one non-state a c t o r , Amnesty I n t e r n a t i o n a l , and i t s r o l e i n advancing the cause of the human r i g h t s movement, p l a u s i b l e s o l u t i o n s remain undiscovered and unpresented. No d i s c u s s i o n r e a l l y e x i s t s about the fundamental q u e s t i o n of whether or not the world's a c t o r s c o n s i d e r the q u e s t i o n of human r i g h t s to be l e s s or more important than the is s u e of n a t i o n a l s o v e r e i g n t y . The authors present a c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the human r i g h t s problem t h a t can o n l y be judged as u n i l a t e r a l thematic i n p e r s p e c t i v e . 84 Canada Today s t a r t s students t h i n k i n g about the human r i g h t s i s s u e v i t h e x p l i c i t d e p i c t i o n s of human r i g h t s v i o l a t i o n s . The s e l e c t i o n of p e r t i n e n t readings i l l u s t r a t e s the i s s u e ' s m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l nature. Abuses of p ersonal r i g h t s are p r o f i l e d a l o n g s i d e excerpts on p o l i t i c a l , economic, s o c i a l , and c u l t u r a l r i g h t s . The i n f e r e n c e i s made th a t people need a l l r i g h t s and not j u s t some. T h i s m u l t i l a t e r a l approach continues i n a number of ways. The w r i t e r s a l l u d e to the Issue's complexity when they d e s c r i b e i t as one where no u n i f i e d image of the problem e x i s t s and t h a t not a l l a c t o r s i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l system have s i m i l a r g o als and o b j e c t i v e s . E x p l a n a t i o n s as to why p e r c e p t i o n s of the issue are not u n i v e r s a l l y shared i s i l l u s t r a t e d by j u x t a p o s i n g two d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of view on how to look a t human r i g h t s i n other c o u n t r i e s : R i g h t s such as freedom of the p r e s s , freedom of r e l i g i o n , or freedom of movement are not important to many c u l t u r e s i n other p a r t s of the world. Do we have a r i g h t to f o r c e our ideas of freedom on others? I t i s t r u e t h a t other c o u n t r i e s have d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s and v a l u e s . That does not mean t h a t we should never c r i t i c i z e t h e i r p r a c t i c e s or i n t e r v e n e to change them, we cannot say t h a t events i n s i d e another c o u n t r y are none of our b u s i n e s s , (p. 436) S c u l l y e t a l . do not make any of t h e i r own judgements; however, they do encourage students to assess both s i d e s of the argument and to make up examples t h a t c o u l d be used to support each of the two views. P r e d i c t i o n s f o r the f u t u r e along with p r e s c r i p t i v e measures are portrayed i n a 85 m u l t i l a t e r a l l i g h t . The r o l e s and p o s s i b l e a c t i o n s of government and non-government groups are p r o f i l e d . Where c o n t r o v e r s y may e x i s t as to the f e a s i b i l i t y of a p a r t i c u l a r s o l u t i o n , d i v e r g i n g viewpoints are i n c l u d e d . The t e x t account a l s o c o n t a i n s a lengthy s e r i e s of questions where students are encouraged to develop t h e i r own ideas, c o n s i d e r the i n t e r e s t s of the l o c a l Inhabitants and the r o l e s t o be played by the n a t i o n a l government, other n a t i o n s , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . O v e r a l l , there i s evidence to suggest t h a t t h i s textbook presents the human r i g h t s i ssue w i t h i n a m u l t i l a t e r a l thematic framework. From the o u t s e t , World Issues; Human. R i g h t s . does not g l o s s over any c o n t r o v e r s y i n i t s d e p i c t i o n of the human r i g h t s q u e s t i o n . Sherwin begins with what appears to be an i s s u e s - o r i e n t e d approach when she s e t s the stage with "Who i s to say what i s f a i r or r i g h t ? Should i t be the people i n a u t h o r i t y who decide? And should the same r u l e s or laws be a p p l i e d i n every case?" (p. 6). The questions imply t h a t the c e n t r a l issue i s whether human r i g h t s should be c o n s i d e r e d as l e s s or more important than the idea of n a t i o n a l s o v e r e i g n i t y . Numerous case s t u d i e s , d i a l o g u e s and s t o r i e s , and excerpts from documents and speeches are i n c l u d e d . The i s s u e i s d e s c r i b e d w i t h i n a broad h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary context where examples are c i t e d from as f a r back as the s i g n i n g of the Magna C a r t a and the reform movements of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y to the on-going 86 r e p r e s s i v e a c t i v i t i e s of modern-day d i c t a t o r i a l regimes. U n f o r t u n a t e l y however, as much as t h i s c o n t r o v e r s i a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l issue i s presented i n a c o l o u r f u l and in f o r m a t i v e f a s h i o n there i s l i t t l e to i n d i c a t e t h a t the account i s organized around a m u l t i l a t e r a l thematic framework. No evidence e x i s t s of competing r a t i o n a l e s as ex p l a n a t i o n s f o r the i s s u e ' s p e r s i s t e n c e nor are any p l a u s i b l e p r e d i c t i o n s made f o r the f u t u r e . As w e l l , and s u r p r i s i n g l y so, there i s no attempt to i n c l u d e any examples of p r e s c r i p t i v e measures. Whether s t a t e s w i l l a c t u n i l a t e r a l l y or m u l t l l a t e r a l l y i n t h e i r approach to the human r i g h t s g u e s t i o n remains unanswered. The Rise Sit the. Global V i l l a g e f e a t u r e s an i n t e r e s t i n g m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l approach i n i t s d e p i c t i o n of the human r i g h t s i s s u e . Under the umbrella heading of "Themes For Our Time" an ex t e n s i v e a r r a y of examples are c l a s s i f i e d i n t o four c a t e g o r i e s : the human r i g h t s scene as i t e x i s t s i n the g l o b a l v i l l a g e , developed c o u n t r i e s , communist c o u n t r i e s and de v e l o p i n g c o u n t r i e s . However, the authors' method of p r e s e n t i n g the human r i g h t s g u e s t i o n does not c o n t a i n the i n g r e d i e n t s to c r e a t e a m u l t i l a t e r a l approach. C o n t r o v e r s i a l and d i v e r s e o p i n i o n s are not p r o f i l e d s i d e by s i d e to a l l o w students to assess a l t e r n a t e p o i n t s of view. Two s p e c i f i c examples i l l u s t r a t e the p o i n t . Apartheid i n South A f r i c a i s d e s c r i b e d i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: "Apartheid has played a major r o l e i n South A f r i c a n l i f e ....The government's a p a r t h e i d p o l i c i e s 87 a l s o a f f e c t South A f r i c a ' s f o r e i g n a f f a i r s . . . . W h i t e South A f r i c a n s are not unanimous about a p a r t h e i d " (p. 208). Bach of these statements c r e a t e s a forum f o r disagreement over d e f i n i t i o n s , e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r t h e i r p e r s i s t e n c e , and i f or how r e s o l u t i o n of the problem i s to occur. The Issue by i t s v e r y nature not onl y i n v i t e s competing i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of r e a l i t y , but a l s o c h a l l e n g e s the concept of a g l o b a l community. In t h i s i n s t a n c e , no evidence of competing p e r s p e c t i v e s e x i s t s . Poverty as a consequence of the human r i g h t s i s s u e i s a l s o p r o f i l e d . Some c r e d i t must be given to the authors when they d e s c r i b e the problem as one whereby " d e s p i t e the tremendous d i v e r s i t y of peoples, r e l i g i o n s , I d e o l o g i e s , and t r a d i t i o n s throughout the world, each co u n t r y faces s i m i l a r problems" (p. 229). The sug g e s t i o n i s made that s o l u t i o n s r e q u i r e not o n l y i n c r e a s e d support from the developed c o u n t r i e s , but t h a t b e n e f i c i a r i e s themselves must p l a y an I n c r e a s i n g l y g r e a t e r r o l e i n s o l v i n g the problem. A n o t i o n of g l o b a l p a r t n e r s h i p i s i m p l i e d , and one document does e x i s t , r e p r e s e n t i n g an i n s i d e r viewpoint on the need f o r A f r i c a n s e l f - h e l p : however, there are no documents e i t h e r r a t i o n a l i z i n g or d i s m i s s i n g the n o t i o n of gr e a t e r involvement on the p a r t of developed s t a t e s . N e i t h e r of. the human r i g h t s q u e s t i o n s i s addressed w i t h i n a framework th a t encourages the comparison of contending images. Contours i a the 20th Century examines the human r i g h t s issue i n i t s h i s t o r i c a l and contemporary s e t t i n g s . 88 Davis maintains t h a t the r o l e g i v e n to n a t i o n a l s o v e r e i g n t y determines the d i f f e r e n t i n t e r n a t i o n a l viewpoints on human r i g h t s , e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e many c o u n t r i e s oppose I n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e i r domestic a f f a i r s . The is s u e i s d e s c r i b e d as one which produces a lack of consensus r e s u l t i n g In "i n t e n s e d i v i s i o n r a t h e r than c o - o p e r a t i o n i n s o l v i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l problems" (p. 136). Both p o i n t s a l l u d e to the Idea t h a t a range of contending p e r s p e c t i v e s might be ev a l u a t e d ; however, the author's approach to the t o p i c suggests otherwise. A t t e n t i o n i s focussed on worldwide e f f o r t s to improve the s t a t u s of women. The United Nations i s p r o f i l e d as the one c r i t i c a l a c t o r i n the women's r i g h t s i s s u e . The i n t e r e s t s and p r i o r i t i e s of other s t a k e h o l d e r s are not d e s c r i b e d . No competing t h e o r i e s are o f f e r e d to e x p l a i n why the issue p e r s i s t s nor i s there s p e c u l a t i o n on what the f u t u r e h o l d s . Although Davis maintains t h a t problems t h a t are i n t e r n a t i o n a l and o f t e n Interdependent r e q u i r e s o l u t i o n s i n k i n d , he o f f e r s none of h i s own nor does he i n c l u d e any p o l i c y s t r a t e g i e s advocated by d i f f e r e n t a c t o r s . O v e r a l l , there i s l i t t l e i n t h i s t e x t u a l account of the human r i g h t s i s s u e t o suggest t h a t the m a t e r i a l i s presented w i t h i n a m u l t i l a t e r a l c o n t e x t . Examination oj. ta§_ g l o b a l Economic issUS. The Contemporary World; C o n f l i c t QJL Co-opeyation? focuses on the q u e s t i o n of f r e e trade versus p r o t e c t i o n i s m as i t s u n d e r l y i n g theme i n a d d r e s s i n g g l o b a l economic 89 concerns. However, i t can not be claimed t h a t the m a t e r i a l i s presented w i t h i n a m u l t i l a t e r a l thematic framework. Although the i s s u e i s c o n s i d e r e d to be one that has become "more g l o b a l and more complex", and "does not i n v o l v e black and white c h o i c e s " , the manner i n which the authors d e s c r i b e the i s s u e does l i t t l e to encourage students to t h i n k c r i t i c a l l y . Trade l i b e r a l i s m , embodied i n the p r i n c i p l e s of the General Agreement on T a r i f f s and Trade (GATT) i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d i n terms of "economic p r o s p e r i t y " , "the e n t i r e system reaps the economic b e n e f i t s " and "most economists p r a i s e i t " (pp. 153-154). Conversely, p r o t e c t i o n i s m i s simply d e s c r i b e d as " a t t a c k i n g " f r e e t r a d e . A l t e r n a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s are absent. The authors b e l i e v e that i t i s important f o r students to understand how and why p r o t e c t i o n i s m has grown i n the world. They e x p l a i n why t e n s i o n e x i s t s between the United S t a t e s and Japan over the d i r e c t i o n of g l o b a l t r a d e . However, the s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses of each p o s i t i o n are not d i s c u s s e d . Nor i s there any mention of the views of other a c t o r s i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l system who may f e e l advantaged or disadvantaged by the p o l i c i e s of f r e e r trade and p r o t e c t i o n i s m . L i t t l e a t t e n t i o n i s paid to the d i r e c t i o n of f u t u r e s c e n a r i o s i n the g l o b a l economy. Although a forum f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of trends toward e i t h e r f r e e r trade or increased p r o t e c t i o n i s m e x i s t s , no d i s c u s s i o n to t h a t end i s generated. When c o n s i d e r i n g p o l i c y p r e s c r i p t i o n s , the authors a s s e r t t h a t 9 0 the debate over f r e e t r a d e and p r o t e c t i o n i s m r e q u i r e s "a hard look a t a wide range of o p t i o n s " (p. 156). Once a g a i n , t h e y n e g l e c t t o i n c l u d e any s t r a t e g i e s t h a t might be advocated by d i f f e r e n t a c t o r s i n v o l v e d In the s i t u a t i o n . O v e r a l l , i t can be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h i s t e x t does not p r e s e n t the d i s c u s s i o n of a major g l o b a l economic c o n c e r n w i t h i n a m u l t i l a t e r a l framework. D a v i e s , i n World I s s u e s ; The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Debt C r i s i s p u r p o r t s t o e x p l o r e the causes of the debt c r i s i s as w e l l as t h e k i n d s of a c t i o n r e q u i r e d t o s o l v e the dilemma and c r e a t e a f a i r e r g l o b a l economic system. The debt c r i s i s i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d as an i s s u e t h a t i s e x t r e m e l y complex, has a human c o s t as w e l l as a f i n a n c i a l one and i s a t the r o o t of many of the w o r l d ' s problems. I n p o s i n g the q u e s t i o n "Whose c r i s i s i s i t ? " , a forum i s c r e a t e d f o r d i v e r g i n g d e f i n i t i o n s of the problem, competing r a t i o n a l e s f o r i t s p e r s i s t e n c e and a wide range of s t r a t e g i e s f o r i t s r e s o l u t i o n . However, few i n s t a n c e s e x i s t where m u l t i p l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of r e a l i t y a r e o f f e r e d . I n s t e a d , the au t h o r p r o v i d e s s o l e l y her own t h e o r i e s as t o why the i s s u e p e r s i s t s . Mo c o n t r a s t i n g e x p l a n a t i o n s a r e i n c l u d e d from e i t h e r s t a t e or n o n - s t a t e a c t o r s t h a t would a l l o w s t u d e n t s t o a s s e s s a l t e r n a t e p o i n t s of view. While m a i n t a i n i n g t h a t t h e r e i s no easy way of s o l v i n g the debt c r i s i s , t he c o n t e n t i o n i s made t h a t any f u t u r e p o l i c y agenda must demonstrate " f i r m and f a r - r e a c h i n g a c t i o n " . T h i s a s s e r t i o n however, i s accompanied by few s p e c i f i c s . Whether the 91 means to achieve t h a t end should be l a r g e l y I n t e r n a l l y or e x t e r n a l l y d r i v e n , remains unexplored. Davies presents what she b e l i e v e s to be three n e c e s s i t i e s f o r the f u t u r e : s p e c i a l h elp f o r the poorest c o u n t r i e s , economic adjustment "with a human f a c e " and a "shake-up" of the " g r o s s l y u n f a i r " g l o b a l economic system. L i t t l e s u b s t a n t i v e d e t a i l f o l l o w s to support such n o t i o n s . A number of s t a t e and non-state a c t o r s who are working toward r e s o l v i n g the c r i s i s are i d e n t i f i e d but no e v a l u a t i o n i s made of t h e i r i n t e r e s t s or p r i o r i t i e s . T h i s study can not be considered m u l t i l a t e r a l i n p e r s p e c t i v e as i t i s s o l e l y d e f i n e d by the author's i n t e r e s t s and p e r c e p t i o n s . The BlSJS. QJL the. G l o b a l v i l l a g e focuses on economic c o - o p e r a t i o n , the exchange c r i s i s , the world economy today, and the debt c r i s i s i n i t s e f f o r t s to i l l u s t r a t e g l o b a l economic interdependence. However, there i s l i t t l e to i n d i c a t e t h a t a m u l t i l a t e r a l thematic approach i s employed. Instead, ten pages of m a t e r i a l are o f f e r e d i n a m a t t e r - o f - f a c t and n o n - c o n t r o v e r s i a l manner. The r o l e played by GATT i n redu c i n g world trade b a r r i e r s , the growth of the European Economic community, and the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Monetary Fund's r o l e i n the t r a n s i t i o n from a f i x e d t o a f l o a t i n g c u r r e n c y exchange system are c h r o n i c l e d a l o n g s i d e d i s c u s s i o n of the f a c t o r s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a marked slowdown i n g l o b a l economic growth d u r i n g the mid 1970s and the subsequent accumulation of huge debts by borrowing c o u n t r i e s . For each aspect, the authors provide a s i n g l e 92 d e f i n i t i o n o f i t s b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . No d i v e r g e n t d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e o f f e r e d . E x p l a n a t i o n s a s t o t h e o r i g i n s o f e a c h o f t h e above p o i n t s a r e no more r e v e a l i n g . D i f f e r i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s or g r o u p s a r e n o t p o r t r a y e d . As w e l l , l i t t l e s p e c u l a t i o n e x i s t s a s t o t h e f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e g l o b a l e c o n o m i c s y s t e m nor i s t h e r e much e v i d e n c e o f p o l i c y s t r a t e g i e s t h a t m i g h t be e m p l o y e d . I n t h i s i n s t a n c e , a u n i l a t e r a l t h e m a t i c c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s e a s i l y made. L i k e t h e p r e v i o u s t e x t , C o n t o u r s in t h e 2 0 t h  C e n t u r y d e v o t e s a s u b s t a n t i a l s e c t i o n t o t h e n o t i o n o f g l o b a l e c o n o m i c i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e . D a v i s t r a c e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e g l o b a l e c o n o m i c s y s t e m i n b o t h i t s h i s t o r i c a l and c o n t e m p o r a r y s e t t i n g s . As w e l l , an a t t e m p t i s made t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e t h e r i s e and f a l l o f t r a d e l i b e r a l i z a t i o n on a g l o b a l s c a l e . T r a d e i s p o r t r a y e d a s a major i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s s u e i n t h e r e l a t i o n s among t h e a d v a n c e d i n d u s t r i a l c o u n t r i e s and between t h o s e same c o u n t r i e s and t h e T h i r d W o r l d . A l t h o u g h t h e t r a d e i s s u e i s v i e w e d a s complex and a f f e c t i n g s t a t e and n o n - s t a t e a c t o r s t h r o u g h o u t t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s y s t e m , t h e t e x t u a l a c c o u n t once a g a i n i s n o t o r g a n i z e d w i t h i n a framework t h a t e n c o u r a g e s m u l t i p l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . I n s t e a d , D a v i s u s e s a s i n g l e l e n s t o d e s c r i b e and e x p l a i n g l o b a l e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s . W h i l e he p r o v i d e s a r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e o r i g i n s and p e r s i s t e n c e o f T h i r d W o r l d d e b t and warns a g a i n s t t h e d a n g e r s o f p r o t e c t i o n i s m , no o p p o r t u n i t y e x i s t s f o r a 93 d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e s e c o n c e r n s . The a u t h o r d o e s n o t i n c l u d e a n y e v i d e n c e o f p o s s i b l e s c e n a r i o s f o r t h e f u t u r e . A l t h o u g h t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r l e n d s i t s e l f t o d e b a t e o v e r whether t h e p r e s e n t d i r e c t i o n o f t h e g l o b a l economy i s d e s i r a b l e f o r t h e f u t u r e , none i s f o r t h c o m i n g . As w e l l , no p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s a r e p r e s e n t e d In r e s p o n s e t o c o n d i t i o n s t h a t t h r e a t e n t h e g l o b a l e c o n o m i c s e t t i n g . O v e r a l l , t h e r e a r e few i n s t a n c e s where s t u d e n t s would c h a l l e n g e t h e a u t h o r ' s c o n c l u s i o n s . A u n i l a t e r a l t h e m a t i c s t y l e i s q u i t e e v i d e n t i n t h i s i n s t a n c e . E l e v e n o f t h e f o u r t e e n i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s p r o f i l e s f o l l o w a u n i l a t e r a l t h e m a t i c p a t t e r n . A l t h o u g h two p r o f i l e s i n p a r t , b r i e f l y d i v e r t f r o m t h a t p a t h by p r e s e n t i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s o f I s s u e s i n a manner w h i c h i n v i t e s c o m p a r i s o n o f d i f f e r i n g v i e w p o i n t s , t h e r e m a i n i n g t h r e e e l e m e n t s o f t h o s e p r o f i l e s v i e w n o t i o n s o f w o r l d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e t h r o u g h a t y p i c a l l y u n i l a t e r a l l e n s . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t and c o n c e r n a r e t h e f i n d i n g s i n t h e g l o b a l e c o n o m i c s i s s u e a r e a where a l l e l e m e n t s p r e s e n t a s o l i d l y u n i l a t e r a l f r o n t . O n l y t h r e e p r o f i l e s r e f l e c t a d i s t i n c t l y m u l t i l a t e r a l a p p r o a c h i n a l l a s p e c t s o f a n a l y s i s . A d e q u a c y o_f_ the P o r t r a y a l flf. w o r l d interdependence To d e t e r m i n e how n o t i o n s o f w o r l d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e a r e p o r t r a y e d i n C a n a d i a n s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k s , a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f s i x s i g n i f i c a n t g l o b a l i s s u e a r e a s 94 has been c o n d u c t e d i n f o u r t e e n t e x t b o o k s . A t o t a l o f t w e n t y - e i g h t p r o f i l e s have been c r e a t e d . When I t comes t o c o n s i d e r i n g t h e a d e q u a c y o f t h e p o r t r a y a l o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e , some i n t e r e s t i n g t r e n d s emerge. As o u t l i n e d In t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , a m u l t i l a t e r a l t h e m a t i c a p p r o a c h t o t h e s t u d y o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e i n v o l v e s p r e s e n t i n g s t u d e n t s w i t h a way o f t h i n k i n g a b o u t w o r l d i s s u e s t h a t a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f m u l t i p l e I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f r e a l i t y . I t s s t r e n g t h i s t h a t i t e n c o u r a g e s s t u d e n t s t o compare and c o n t r a s t d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e i s s u e s , e x p l a n a t i o n s o f t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t , and t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e y m i g h t be r e s o l v e d a s w e l l a s r e c o g n i z e t h e d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s and p r i o r i t i e s o f t h e a c t o r s i n v o l v e d . I t i s p r e d i c a t e d h e n c e , t h a t a m u l t i l a t e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n p r o v i d e s a b e t t e r p o r t r a y a l o f w o r l d i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e t h a n d o e s a u n i l a t e r a l a c c o u n t . Thus, m u l t i l a t e r a l p o r t r a y a l s a r e a d e q u a t e . F i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y however, i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e t e x t b o o k s a n a l y z e d , a l t h o u g h a p p e a r i n g t o o f f e r many ways o f s e e i n g t h e w o r l d a r o u n d u s , r e v e a l a p r o p e n s i t y t o p r o j e c t n o t i o n s o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e from u n i l a t e r a l r a t h e r t h a n m u l t i l a t e r a l t h e m a t i c p e r s p e c t i v e s ( s e e T a b l e s I I I t h r o u g h V I I I ) . 9 5 TABLE I I I GEOGRAPHY : PROFILE OF WORLD ! POOD ISSUE TEXT 1 DESCRIPT. EXPLANAT. PREDICT. PRESCRIPT. OVERALL Canada C h a n g i n g W o r l d u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l W o r l d P r o s p e c t s m u l t i -l a t e r a l m u l t i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l W o r l d I s s u e s i n t h e G l o b a l Community u n i -l a t e r a l m u l t i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l W o r l d I s s u e s : Food o r Famine? m u l t i -l a t e r a l m u l t i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l TABLE IV GEOGRAPHY: PROFILE OF THE POPULATION GROWTH ISSUE TEXT DESCRIPT. EXPLANAT. PREDICT. PRESCRIPT. OVERALL Canada C h a n g i n g W o r l d u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l W o r l d P r o s p e c t s m u l t i -l a t e r a l m u l t i -l a t e r a l m u l t i -l a t e r a l m u l t i -l a t e r a l m u l t i -l a t e r a l W o r l d I s s u e s i n t h e G l o b a l Community u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l m u l t i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l W o r l d u n l -I s s u e s : l a t e r a l P o p u l a t i o n u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l The Human Wor l d u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l 96 TABLE V GEOGRAPHY: PROFILE OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUE TEXT 1 DESCRIPT. EXPLANAT. PREDICT. PRESCRIPT. OVERALL Canada Changing World u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l World Prospects m u l t i -l a t e r a l m u l t i -l a t e r a l m u l t i -l a t e r a l m u l t i -l a t e r a l m u l t i -l a t e r a l World Issues i n the G l o b a l Community m u l t i -l a t e r a l m u l t i -l a t e r a l m u l t i -l a t e r a l m u l t i -l a t e r a l m u l t i -l a t e r a l World Issues: The E n v i -ronment u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l The Human World u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l TABLE VI INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS - PROFILE OF THE SECURITY ISSUE TEXT DESCRIPT. EXPLANAT. PREDICT. PRESCRIPT. OVERALL Contem-porary World u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l Canada Today m u l t i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l World Issues: Arms Trade m u l t i -l a t e a l m u l t i -l a t e r a l m u l t i -l a t e r a l m u l t i -l a t e r a l m u l t i -l a t e r a l Rise of Gl o b a l V i l l a g e u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l Contours i n the m u l t i -l a t e r a l m u l t i -l a t e r a l m u l t i -l a t e r a l m u l t i -l a t e r a l m u l t i -l a t e r a l Twentieth Century 97 TABLE VII INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS - PROFILE OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUE TEXT DESCRIPT. EXPLANAT. PREDICT. PRESCRIPT. OVERALL Contem-porary World u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l Canada Today m u l t i -l a t e r a l m u l t i -l a t e r a l m u l t i -l a t e r a l m u l t i -l a t e r a l m u l t i -l a t e r a l World Issues: Human Rights m u l t i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l Rise of G l o b a l V i l l a g e u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l Contours i n the Twentieth Century u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l TABLE VIII INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS - PROFILE OF GLOBAL ECONOMIC ISSUES TEXT DESCRIPT. EXPLANAT. PREDICT. PRESCRIPT. OVERALL Contem-porary World u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l World Issues: I n t e r -n a t i o n a l Debt C r i s i s u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l Rise of G l o b a l V i l l a g e u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l Contours i n the Twentieth Century u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l u n i -l a t e r a l 98 A preponderance of u n i l a t e r a l i s m i s ev i d e n t i n twenty-two of the twenty-eight p r o f i l e s . F i f t e e n of those p r o f i l e s i l l u s t r a t e u n i l a t e r a l t r a i t s i n a l l parameters of a n a l y s i s . Although to v a r y i n g degrees, seven others show t r a i t s i n d i c a t i v e of a m u l t i l a t e r a l approach, the dominant theme of u n i l a t e r a l i s m i s r e t a i n e d . The p r o f i l e s which d i s p l a y a u n i l a t e r a l approach present a common thread i n t h e i r p o r t r a y a l of the is s u e a r e a s . F r e q u e n t l y , a s p e c i f i c p e r s p e c t i v e or a n a l y s i s of an issue i s presented with l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y e x i s t i n g f o r the i n c l u s i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s . As w e l l , a n o t i c a b l e lack of c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the ideas and I n t e r e s t s of a range of a c t o r s i s e v i d e n t . S i x p r o f i l e s do r e f l e c t a m u l t i l a t e r a l approach. The emphasis on p r e s e n t i n g a v a r i e t y of d e s c r i p t i o n s and e x p l a n a t i o n s , p r e d i c t i o n s and p r e s c r i p t i o n s , as opposed to s i n g u l a r p e r c e p t i o n s may i n d i c a t e some concern e x i s t s f o r p r o v i d i n g students with a more p l u r a l i s t i c assessment of world i s s u e s . However, much evidence remains to support the u n d e r l y i n g assumption t h a t textbook accounts f r e q u e n t l y r e i n f o r c e r a t h e r than break down narrow p e r c e p t i o n s of the world around us. In summary, the m a j o r i t y of textbook p r o f i l e s p o r t r a y the geography and i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s i s s u e areas i n a s t r o n g l y u n i l a t e r a l f a s h i o n . T h i s type of p o r t r a y a l of the world i s e v i d e n t i n the s i x s p e c i f i c i ssue areas of world food supply, p o p u l a t i o n , environment, peace 99 and s e c u r i t y , human r i g h t s , and t h e g l o b a l economy. The n e x t c h a p t e r f o c u s e s on s p e c i f i c c o n c l u s i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y . 100 CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Overview a l the. Findings a l toe. study T h i s study has developed and a p p l i e d a framework of a n a l y s i s f o r the purpose of examining s i g n i f i c a n t g l o b a l i s s u e s as they are po r t r a y e d i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s textbooks. A s e t of ques t i o n s have been designed to determine i f images of those i s s u e s are represented i n such a way as to help students develop a deeper understanding of the world i n which they l i v e . E s s e n t i a l l y , t h i s study argues t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of world interdependence i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s textbooks t h a t are presented from m u l t i p l e p o i n t s of view b e t t e r enable students to understand the i n c r e a s i n g l y p l u r a l i s t i c nature of our world. Conclusions reached from an a n a l y s i s of the s e l e c t e d textbooks r e v e a l t h a t while some t e x t s do r e f l e c t the concerns of s c h o l a r s and educators c i t e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s study, there i s a d e f i n i t e p r o p e n s i t y t o p o r t r a y key g l o b a l i s s u e s i n a manner more i n keeping v i t h a u n i l a t e r a l r a t h e r than a m u l t i l a t e r a l thematic s t y l e of p r e s e n t a t i o n . Of the t v e n t y - e i g h t p r o f i l e s c o n s t r u c t e d , r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s (Tables I I I through VIII i n Chapter IV), shov t h a t t v e n t y - t v o p r o f i l e s r e f l e c t a s t r o n g tendency to p o r t r a y i s s u e s from a s i n g u l a r or l i m i t e d p e r c e p t i o n . S i x p r o f i l e s have been ev a l u a t e d as p r o j e c t i n g v o r l d i s s u e s i n 101 a d i s t i n c t l y m u l t i l a t e r a l thematic way. They address many of the concerns of s c h o l a r s by attempting to i n t e g r a t e a p l u r a l i t y of p e r s p e c t i v e s i n t o the p r e s e n t a t i o n of key g l o b a l concerns. Looking a t each of the four parameters contained w i t h i n the a n a l y t i c a l framework, some i n t e r e s t i n g trends are r e v e a l e d . E i g h t e e n p r o f i l e s present d e s c r i p t i o n s i n a u n i l a t e r a l thematic manner while ten have been assessed as m u l t i l a t e r a l i n t h e i r approach. Twenty of the p r o f i l e s analyzed have been judged as p o r t r a y i n g e x p l a n a t i o n s of i s s u e s In a u n i l a t e r a l way while e i g h t others have been c l a s s i f i e d as adopting a m u l t i l a t e r a l s t y l e . Twenty-one p r o f i l e s i n c o r p o r a t e a u n i l a t e r a l theme i n t o t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n s while seven e x h i b i t t r a i t s t h a t i n d i c a t e a m u l t i l a t e r a l approach. A n a l y s i s of how the s e l e c t e d t e x t s present p r e s c r i p t i v e measures r e v e a l s that twenty-two p r o f i l e s r e t a i n a d i s t i n c t l y u n i l a t e r a l theme whereas s i x employ a more m u l t i l a t e r a l s t a nce. Although d e s c r i p t i o n s and e x p l a n a t i o n s are i n c l i n e d to be po r t r a y e d i n a l e s s u n i l a t e r a l s t y l e than p r e d i c t i o n s and p r e s c r i p t i o n s , o v e r a l l , a u n i l a t e r a l p o r t r a y a l of world interdependence i s c l e a r l y e v i d e n t . Conclusions LA the SjjL IS5Ue AXfiAS. As mentioned i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n to t h i s chapter, the study r e v e a l s an o r i e n t a t i o n toward p o r t r a y i n g s p e c i f i c world Issues through lenses t h a t f o r the most p a r t 102 do not c o n s i d e r m u l t i p l e images of hov the v o r l d works. For i n s t a n c e , the t e x t s which p r o f i l e the world food supply issue tend to h i g h l i g h t the n o t i o n that e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the o r i g i n s and p e r s i s t e n c e of the i s s u e are to be found w i t h i n the c o u n t r i e s e x p e r i e n c i n g food shortages, r a t h e r than look f o r a v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s , I n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l , which may c o n t r i b u t e to the problem. S i m i l a r l y , a much g r e a t e r emphasis i s placed on i n t e r n a l r e s o l u t i o n of the food issue as opposed to c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the need f o r a g r e a t e r r o l e t o be played by the world community. Although one author does attempt to provide a balanced n o t i o n of d e s c r i p t i o n s and e x p l a n a t i o n s , t h a t t r e n d i s not extended to f u t u r e s c e n a r i o s and p o l i c y s t r a t e g i e s . The p o p u l a t i o n growth p r o f i l e s r e f l e c t the c o n t i n u i n g trend toward u n i l a t e r a l p o r t r a i t s . A l l f i v e of the t e x t s c o n s i d e r problems a s s o c i a t e d with both i n c r e a s i n g and d e c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n r a t e s . In each i n s t a n c e , the authors p r e f a c e t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n of the i s s u e by p l e d g i n g to help students to p e r c e i v e the problem as g l o b a l i n scope and to understand why d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s shape the i s s u e . However, o n l y one a c t u a l l y does p o r t r a y the c o m p l e x i t i e s of the i s s u e i n a manner t h a t assumes c o n s i d e r a t i o n of d i s s i m i l a r p o l i c i e s and o b j e c t i v e s to be an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the p r e s e n t a t i o n . The environmental issue i s portrayed to some extent i n a more m u l t i l a t e r a l thematic l i g h t than the world 103 food s u p p l y and p o p u l a t i o n i s s u e s . Two of the f i v e p r o f i l e s accent the t e n s i o n s and c o n t r o v e r s i e s t h a t t y p i c a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e the issue as v e i l as assess the st r e n g t h s and veaknesses of v a r i o u s p o l i c y s t r a t e g i e s . They a l s o encourage the n o t i o n of a "m u t u a l i t y of i n t e r e s t s " i n r e s o l v i n g environmental concerns. On the other hand, tvo p r o f i l e s d v e l l on the complete v u l n e r a b i l i t y of the environment. No opposing v i e v p o i n t s e x i s t to c h a l l e n g e t h a t s i n g u l a r theme. A t h i r d p r o f i l e , v h i l e a l l u d i n g to the g l o b a l nature of the i s s u e , does l i t t l e to s u b s t a n t i a t e such a n o t i o n . F i v e textbook p o r t r a i t s of the peace and s e c u r i t y issue are ana l y z e d . Tvo encourage the n o t i o n of a g l o b a l p a r t n e r s h i p i n the search f o r a l t e r n a t i v e s t o armed c o n f l i c t and the t h r e a t of mutual d e s t r u c t i o n . Of the three remaining t e x t s , one focuses s o l e l y on the North American defense r e l a t i o n s h i p v h i l e l e a v i n g the l a r g e r g l o b a l p i c t u r e unpresented, a second t e x t c o n s i d e r s the deterre n c e q u e s t i o n but i n v i t e s o n l y a consensus v i e v , v h i l e the t h i r d looks t o the c o l l e c t i v e e f f o r t s of s t a t e and non-state a c t o r s to maintain peace, but provides fev d e t a i l s t o support such a n o t i o n . Of the f i v e human r i g h t s p r o f i l e s , one focuses e x t e n s i v e l y on the t e n s i o n s and c o n t r o v e r s i e s c r e a t e d when i t becomes e v i d e n t t h a t not a l l a c t o r s i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l system have s i m i l a r goals and o b j e c t i v e s . The q u e s t i o n of vhether human r i g h t s should or should not be con s i d e r e d 104 more Important than the Idea of n a t i o n a l s o v e r e i g n t y i s giv e n c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Three of the four remaining p r o f i l e s elude to the s o v e r e i g n i t y q u e s t i o n as v e i l as present the theme of unprecedented contemporary concern f o r human r i g h t s . Hovever, i n each instance s i n g u l a r r a t h e r than m u l t i p l e p e r s p e c t i v e s accompany the accounts. When i t comes to l o o k i n g a t the g l o b a l economic is s u e area, the theme of f r e e trade versus p r o t e c t i o n i s m dominates three of the accounts v h i l e a f o u r t h focuses on the i n t e r n a t i o n a l debt c r i s i s . None of the four accounts maintains a focus on the a c t o r s , t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n s and hov they make d e c i s i o n s . Although some of the t e x t s shov evidence of p o r t r a y i n g competing p e r s p e c t i v e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the environmental and s e c u r i t y i s s u e areas, c o n s i d e r a b l y s t r o n g e r evidence e x i s t s to i n d i c a t e t h a t a u n i l a t e r a l theme continues t o dominate many textbook accounts of world interdependence. conclusions QJQ. Adequacy Q± the Portrayal ai. Interdependence Textbook w r i t e r s , i n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the world they endeavour t o b u i l d , can make a major c o n t r i b u t i o n to improving s t u d e n t s ' understanding of how the world works. B u i l d i n g a more adequate p o r t r a y a l , as a review of the l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s , r e q u i r e s t h a t c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s are met. The i s s u e , i n a d d i t i o n t o going beyond the borders of any one n a t i o n , must r e f l e c t 105 disagreement over I t s nature and cause, as v e i l as be l i k e l y t o p e r s i s t i n some form i n t o the f u t u r e . Moreover, i t s r e s o l u t i o n v i l l come through the a c t i o n s of not j u s t one but many s t a t e s and a c t o r s . An examination of hov textbooks d e s c r i b e and e x p l a i n as v e i l as o f f e r p r e d i c t i o n s and p r e s c r i p t i o n s about s i g n i f i c a n t g l o b a l i s s u e s , p r o v i d e s some i n t e r e s t i n g r e v e l a t i o n s . Although many of the textbooks s t a t e t h a t i t i s t h e i r i n t e n t i o n to present v o r l d i s s u e s from d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s , f i n d i n g s of the study i n d i c a t e t h a t t v e n t y -tvo of the t v e n t y - e i g h t p r o f i l e s analyzed, shov a tendency to r e i n f o r c e r a t h e r than reduce narrov p e r c e p t i o n s of the issue a r e a s . By having textbooks r e f l e c t a p a r t i c u l a r image of the v o r l d r a t h e r than a v a r i e t y of v i e v p o i n t s , a lack of adequacy of p o r t r a y a l i s r e i n f o r c e d . i m p l i c a t i o n s and. Recommendations The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study generate a number of i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r those p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d i n the l e a r n i n g of s o c i a l s t u d i e s content, e s p e c i a l l y i n v i e v of the textbook's important r o l e i n the classroom. T h i s study o b v i o u s l y has Important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s t u d e n t s , who i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r c i t i z e n s h i p i n a g l o b a l age, r e q u i r e an o p p o r t u n i t y to develop a deeper understanding of the complex nature of the v o r l d i n v h i c h they l i v e . Within the p r o f i l e s there e x i s t s a tendency to In v e s t i g a t e g l o b a l i s s u e s without p r o v i d i n g any evidence of 106 c o n t r a s t i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s . As a r e s u l t , students may not f e e l t h a t they are even p a r t i a l l y e x p e r i e n c i n g the t h i n g s or happenings d i s c u s s e d and t h e r e f o r e they may lose I n t e r e s t i n e x p l o r i n g the t o p i c f u r t h e r . I n c l u s i o n of a wide v a r i e t y of d e s c r i p t i o n s tends to encourage a l e s s c u r s o r y examination of the t o p i c . The study a l s o r e v e a l s the p r o p e n s i t y of authors to e x p l a i n the o r i g i n s and p e r s i s t e n c e of an iss u e i n l i m i t e d terms. When c a u s a t i o n i s g e n e r a l i z e d or s i m p l i f i e d too much, the danger e x i s t s t h a t students may a t t a c h too l i t t l e importance to the reasons behind the development of the i s s u e . A m u l t i l a t e r a l approach, i n which a d i v e r s i t y of ex p l a n a t i o n s are p r o v i d e d , would encourage students to r e f l e c t on the causes i n a more c r i t i c a l manner. When f u t u r e s c e n a r i o s are p o r t r a y e d i n a predominantly u n i l a t e r a l l i g h t as re v e a l e d i n t h i s study, the p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s t h a t students w i l l not see what i m p l i c a t i o n s the f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n of the iss u e has f o r t h e i r own l i v e s . On the other hand, i f an author i n c l u d e s a range of p l a u s i b l e f u t u r e s , posed by a v a r i e t y of a c t o r s , then students may be encouraged to co n s i d e r the Importance of l o o k i n g to the f u t u r e . In o n l y a few i n s t a n c e s do the t e x t s d i s p l a y c l e a r evidence of a v a r i e t y of p r e s c r i p t i v e measures. I n c l u s i o n of a broad range of p o t e n t i a l s o l u t i o n s i n each i s s u e area may help students to see the importance of p l a y i n g an a c t i v e r a t h e r than a pa s s i v e r o l e i n the search f o r s o l u t i o n s . I f students do not see the need to ch a l l e n g e 107 Information t h a t i s presented to them, and l e a r n to hypothesize about d i v e r g i n g viewpoints, they are l e s s l i k e l y t o develop the c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g s k i l l s c a l l e d f o r i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s e d u c a t i o n . I t i s a l s o important t o co n s i d e r the f a c t t h a t f o r those students who do not proceed t o i n s t i t u t e s of higher l e a r n i n g , or even f o r many who do, secondary s c h o o l s o c i a l s t u d i e s courses provide them with t h e i r l a s t o p p o r t u n i t y t o study the wider world i n a focussed way. T h e r e f o r e , textbooks which a t t a c h s i g n i f i c a n t meaning to the understanding of world i s s u e s can p l a y a v i t a l r o l e i n h e l p i n g students to a c q u i r e a broader understanding of the world. Another group f o r whom t h i s study has i m p l i c a t i o n s are s o c i a l s t u d i e s teachers whose task i t i s to t r a n s l a t e p r o v i n c i a l s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s i n t o t a n g i b l e meaning f o r t h e i r s t u d e n t s . When teachers are used to working with textbooks t h a t do not present m u l t i p l e v i e w p o i n t s , they may f a i l t o c l e a r l y p e r c e i v e the importance of h e l p i n g students to develop a broader understanding of the world around them. As a r e s u l t , the o v e r a l l l e a r n i n g t h a t students achieve may be di m i n i s h e d . I f teach e r s are exposed on a r e g u l a r b a s i s t o t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l s which c o n c e p t u a l i z e world i s s u e s from a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s , they may f e e l c h a l l e n g e d to r e - e v a l u a t e t h e i r own, o f t e n narrow p e r c e p t i o n s . In t u r n , g r e a t e r teacher enthusiasm f o r e x p l o r i n g a l t e r n a t e worldviews may help students to understand t h a t g l o b a l 108 i s s u e s r e s u l t from complex problems and r e q u i r e complex s o l u t i o n s . As v e i l , t h i s study a l s o holds i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m workers r e s p o n s i b l e f o r textbook s e l e c t i o n . A l l of the t e x t w r i t e r s go to great lengths i n t h e i r p r e f a c i n g remarks to assure the reader that i t i s t h e i r i n t e n t i o n to present t e x t u a l m a t e r i a l i n a manner which r e c o g n i z e s m u l t i p l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of world i s s u e s . The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study i n d i c a t e t h a t i n most in s t a n c e s the t e x t s do not p o r t r a y i s s u e s i n such a manner. S e l e c t i o n committees need to c a r e f u l l y s c r u t i n i z e how textbooks d e s c r i b e and e x p l a i n , as w e l l as make p r e d i c t i o n s and o f f e r p r e s c r i p t i o n s about s i g n i f i c a n t g l o b a l concerns. The message i n p r o v i n c i a l s o c i a l s t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m s i s t h a t there i s a d e f i n i t e need to prepare students f o r l i v i n g i n an i n c r e a s i n g l y interdependent world. Textbook w r i t e r s have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to ensure t h a t the content of t h e i r m a t e r i a l s r e f l e c t s t h a t n o t i o n of a changing world. They must c o n s i d e r a wide v a r i e t y of ways to p o r t r a y notions of world interdependence. The major c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s study i s t h a t the dominant u n i l a t e r a l thematic approach e v i d e n t i n the p o r t r a y a l of world i s s u e s i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s textbooks must be r e p l a c e d with a more m u l t i l a t e r a l approach. When textbooks f a i l t o h e l p students come to g r i p s with m u l t i p l e and o f t e n c o n t r a d i c t o r y views t h a t e x i s t i n the world, students may f a i l t o g a i n an image of the world t h a t Is 109 a d e q u a t e t o t h e c h a l l e n g e o f l i v i n g i n a g l o b a l a g e . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y has been t o i n v e s t i g a t e hov s i g n i f i c a n t g l o b a l i s s u e s a r e p o r t r a y e d i n s o c i a l s t u d i e s t e x t b o o k s a u t h o r i z e d f o r use i n C a n a d i a n c l a s s r o o m s . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r a n a l y s i s o f t e x t b o o k s f o c u s e s o n l y on i s s u e s p e r t a i n i n g t o v o r l d g e o g r a p h y and i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s . However, f o r r e s e a r c h e r s t h e r e a r e many d i f f e r e n t p a t h s t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h c o u l d t a k e . E m p l o y i n g a d i f f e r e n t a n a l y t i c a l framework or f o c u s s i n g on d i f f e r e n t I s s u e s o r t e x t b o o k s may p r o d u c e f i n d i n g s t h a t a r e s i m i l a r o r d i f f e r e n t t o what t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y r e v e a l s . C o n d u c t i n g s t u d i e s i n t o how t e x t b o o k s p o r t r a y h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s would a l s o be a w o r t h w h i l e e n d e a v o u r . 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