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Relationships between motivational orientations and participant satisfaction with instructional environments Clarke, Grant Stewart 1981

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RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MOTIVATIONAL ORIENTATIONS AND PARTICIPANT SATISFACTION WITH INSTRUCTIONAL ENVIRONMENTS' hy GRANT STEWART CLARKE B.A., Concordia University, 1978  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES* (Department of Administrative, Adult and Higher Education)  We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA January I98I  (c)  Grant Stewart Clarke, I98I  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  Itis  understood t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l n o t be allowed without my  permission.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5  riF-fi  r?/7cn  Columbia  written  ii  ABSTRACT  The l i t e r a t u r e on motivational orientations suggests that p a r t i c ipants' reasons f o r taking courses possibly have an impact on t h e i r subsequent perceptions  of and behaviour i n those courses.  have empirically investigated t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p .  Yet few  studies  Previousimotivational  orientation research has focused instead on variables that "predict" participation.  The purpose of t h i s study was  to investigate the extent  to which participant s a t i s f a c t i o n with i n s t r u c t i o n a l environments i s predicted by t h e i r motivational orientations. Subjects were 222 participants enrolled i n general i n t e r e s t and l a r g e l y non-credit courses i n four i n s t i t u t i o n s i n lower mainland B r i t i s h Columbia.  At the beginning of each course subjects completed the  Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale (EPS) which measures motivational tations and a questionnaire  orien-  e l i c i t i n g socio-economic information.  Toward  the end of each course, most of which were eight to t h i r t e e n weeks long, participants completed a modified Personality and Educational Environment Scales (PEES) which measured t h e i r " s a t i s f a c t i o n " with f i v e aspects of t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n a l environments:  Other Adult Education Students; Myself;  My Instructor; Course Content; and Course Setting. PEES ratings were f a c t o r analyzed to y i e l d three factors resembling those produced by Boshier (1973)  :  Conventionality.  S o c i a b i l i t y ; I n t e l l e c t u a l Potency; and  Scores on each of these factors f o r each of the f i v e  environmental concepts were .used as the dependent variables i n multiple regression equations where s i x EPS f a c t o r scores and socio-economic data were independent.  Univariate; and-bivariate analyses were performed as w e l l .  iii  The r e s u l t s of the analyses gave r i s e to the following  conclusions.  A l l the predictor variables accounted f o r l e s s than eighteen percent of  the  v a r i a b i l i t y i n participant s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n a l environments.  This suggests that participants' motivational predispositions  not strongly determine s a t i s f a c t i o n . psychological  do  If motivation and other " i n t e r n a l "  variables are not strong predictors of participant s a t i s f a c -  tion, substantial amounts of variance must l i e elsewhere.  In  speculating  about sources of unexplained variance ( i n s a t i s f a c t i o n ) i t i s probable that the quality of i n s t r u c t i o n i s a powerful determinant; a good i n s t r u c t o r induce high (or low) motivation.  can  l e v e l s of s a t i s f a c t i o n i r r e s p e c t i v e of participant  Other external variables such as physical setting, climate,  so on, probably have minimal e f f e c t s compared to those associated qualityhof i n s t r u c t i o n and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i n s t r u c t o r .  and  with the I f correct,  t h i s conclusion suggests a need f o r behaviouristic, rather than mentalistic studies of participant s a t i s f a c t i o n . In general, the variables employed did not explain large amounts of variability in satisfaction.  However, s a t i s f a c t i o n with "things" i n the  i n s t r u c t i o n a l environment was  easier to explain than s a t i s f a c t i o n with  "persons."  Theoretically, the study questioned the u t i l i t y of t r y i n g to  explain participant s a t i s f a c t i o n i n terms of i n t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s .  Practically,  the study appeared to suggest that s a t i s f a c t i o n l a r g e l y stems from the influence of external internal v a r i a b l e s . of the  instructor.  (instruction-related) variables i n i n t e r a c t i o n with These external variables are probably under the  control  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES  '•  LIST OF FIGURES  vi v i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  viii  Chapter I..;  BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM  1  Introduction  1  Approaches to the Study o f M o t i v a t i o n a l Orientations  7  Research on motivational f a c t o r s antecedent to p a r t i c i p a t i o n  8  Research on behaviours consequent t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n and t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o motivational f a c t o r s Statement of the Problem II.  . .  INSTRUMENT SELECTION AND DEVELOPMENT  ....  9 10 12  Socio-economic Questionnaire  12  The Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale (EPS)  12  The P e r s o n a l i t y and Educational Environment  III.  Scales (PEES) . . .  14  Factor a n a l y s i s of the adapted PEES  16  R e l i a b i l i t y of.the PEES  18  METHODOLOGY . . . The Preparation Phase . . . * Preliminary contact with i n s t i t i o n s o f adult education Subject s e l e c t i o n  21 21 21 22  IV.  The Data Gathering Phase .  23  Instrument administration  23  Analysis of the data  25  RESULTS  2?  Characteristics of the Respondents  •  Correlates of Participant S a t i s f a c t i o n  28  Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale scores  31  Socio-economic variables  32  Multivariate Foundations of Participant S a t i s f a c t i o n . Regression summary tables for. participant satisfaction Predictive contributions  • •  36  37  of socio-economic  and EPS variables Summary of multivariate analysis V.  27  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND DISCUSSION  ^8 51 53"  Summary  53  Conclusions. .'  57  ' Discussion REFERENCES  59 66  vi  LIST OF TABLES Table 1. 2. 3' 4. 5. 6.  7.  Page Studies Directed Toward Two Lines of Research .on Motivation f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n  7  Factor Loadings of PEES on Five Concepts After Orthogonal Rotation  17  Test-Retest and Internal Consistency Measures o f PEES R e l i a b i l i t y  19  R e l i a b i l i t y Values (Coefficient alpha) f o r Three S a t i s f a c t i o n Factors  20  Correlation Matrix f o r S a t i s f a c t i o n Factors with Socio-economic and EPS Variables  30  Summary of Multiple R's f o r F i f t e e n Regression Equations  37  S a t i s f a c t i o n with the " I n t e l l e c t u a l Potency" of Other Participants  38  8.  Perceptions of the "Conventionality" of Myself  9-  Perceptions of the "Conventionality" of the Instructor S a t i s f a c t i o n with the " S o c i a b i l i t y " of the Course Content  42  S a t i s f a c t i o n with the " I n t e l l e c t u a l Potency" of the Course Content ,»  43  10. 11. 12. 13. 14.  15-  16.  . 3?  41  Perceptions of the "Conventionality" o f ''the Course Content  44  S a t i s f a c t i o n with the " S o c i a b i l i t y " of the Course Setting  46  S a t i s f a c t i o n with the " I n t e l l e c t u a l Potency" of the Course Setting  47  Perceptions of the "Conventionality" of the Course Setting . . ..-  47  Percent of V a r i a b i l i t y i n Three " S a t i s f a c t i o n " Factors Explained by Two Categories of Independent Variables  50  vii  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.  2.  Page Model D e t a i l i n g Hypothesized Relationships Between Motive f o r Attendance, Congruence, Mediating Variables and Dropout from Adult Education  3  Schematic Representation of Four Primary S p e c i a l i s t Groups  6  3.  F i f t e e n PEES Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l Scales . . .  15  k.  Proportion of Completed Instruments Included i n Analyses  2h  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I wish to thank my research supervisor, Roger Boshier, f o r h i s u n f a i l i n g enthusiasm and guidance i n seeing t h i s study through to completion.  I thank Gary Dickinson f o r h i s expeditious and h e l p f u l advice. I am indebted to the University of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r two years  of f i n a n c i a l support I received i n the form of research and teaching assistantships.  Special thanks are due John C o l l i n s f o r h i s assistance  i n the analysis of the data and f o r h i s patience i n discussing m u l t i variate s t a t i s t i c a l methods with me. I am also indebted to Don McKinnon, Supervisor of Community Education, School D i s t r i c t #36 (Surrey), Lawrence Fast, formerly Director of Continuing Education, Langara College, and the other administrators, i n s t r u c t o r s and adult p a r t i c i p a n t s who provided f a c i l i t i e s which made t h i s study possible. Not the l e a s t , I thank my family and friends f o r t h e i r l o y a l support and encouragement, e s p e c i a l l y Jay and MaryAnne Oszuscik and the l a t e William P. McCreary f o r t h e i r help with coding.  Above a l l , I thank my  wife, Elaine K. McCreary, f o r her h e l p f u l advice and understanding i n seeing t h i s project through to the end.  1  CHAPTER I BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM t  Introduction Adult educators have long been concerned with f a c i l i t a t i n g p a r t i c ipation.  The concept of l i f e l o n g education proposed with foresight i n the  I9I9 Report rings true today amidst widespread concern over the increasing obsolescence of t r a d i t i o n a l systems of education i n a rapidly changing world.  Organizations l i k e the United Nations Educational, S c i e n t i f i c , and  C u l t u r a l Organization (UNESCO) and the Club of Rome have sponsored reports (Faure, et a l . , 1972; Botkin, Elmandjra, and Malitza, 1979) which c a l l f o r the elimination of b a r r i e r s to p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the development o f "participatory learning" modes at the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t a l l e v e l s , thereby r e i n f o r c i n g the e f f o r t s of adult educators to be responsive to the needs and expectations of participants i n programs and i n s t r u c t i o n a l environments which they create. To date, adult educators have generated research on adult learners' reasons f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the b e l i e f that greater understanding of what "motivates" them w i l l help resolve intransigent problems r e l a t e d to learner d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n such as dropout.  Researchers have assumed that  knowledge about the learner's motivational orientations may lead to e f f e c t i v e control or t a i l o r i n g of educational programs and environments to produce a "good f i t " with t h e i r (the learners') purposes and expectations. This notion of "good f i t " further assumes that participants i n adult education courses would be more s a t i s f i e d with t h i s condition than with  2  "poor f i t " ;  h e n c e t h e y w o u l d be  participate  again  While valid  and  i n the  previous  reliable  studies  motivational,  and  should only  not  as  be  motivational  little  environmental As  Boshier  thought  of  as  and  participation  added t o  explained  ment i n t e r a c t i o n s a n d the  person.  i n motivational research  not  To  just to  date,  few  perceptions  adult  educators can and  Yet, any  only  the  The  education  be  f o r the explicit  A  orientations  orientations sense,  number o f  which d i d focus  be  on  internal for  proportion  investigation of variables that  of  instructors.  literature  on  of  significantly  learners  most p a r t ,  in  motivational  r e l a t e d to  level  without  this  knowledge  adult  partici-  courses.  course  their  One  of  environments  orientations frequently a  arise  of t h e o r e t i c a l develop-  participants in Yet  impact  (antecedent  subsequent  exception  to  suggests  factors)  perceptions  s u c h s t a t e m e n t s have "remained u n t e s t e d  theoretical rationale.  of  person/environ-  guess about r e l a t i o n s h i p s between r e a s o n s f o r  experience  but  studies  "predict" reasons  d i r e c t e d toward  present  p a r t i c i p a n t s ' reasons f o r taking to  such  s t u d i e s have examined the  behaviour or  produced  orientations.  the  ment) on  by  impel  i n c r e a s i n g the  should  (at t h e i r  the  to  psychological,  psychological  variables that  orientations  likely  i n the  1979)  Blakley,  motivational  that  underlying  f o r c e s w h i c h may  u n d e r s t a n d i n g by  However, f u t u r e  pation  o r i e n t a t i o n s have  (I980) noted, m o t i v a t i o n a l  motivational  variability  more l i k e l y  reasons f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n they  about the  "motives"  R i d d e l l , 1976;  psychological  created  dropout and  c l u s t e r s of reasons f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  (Haag, 1976;  within  on  f a c t o r s which describe  comparatively  1 9 7 6 ) .  to  future.  have r e v e a l e d  (Boshier,  less likely  this  was  and  are of i t . without  Boshier's  3  (1973; 1977) model (Figure 1) concerning factors related to dropout.  r" Deficiency  motivation  I  Self / i t u d e n t  fntro-ielf incongruence  incongruence  Self/lecturer  incongruence  Self/  incongruence  ?  _  t —^>  CfOwth  Self/lecturer  congruence  Self/  congruence  ?  motivation  <  5  r 5  u  II ae  o  >  a.  ENV  congruence  o  SOCIAl  I n t r o - i * If  congruence  • DROPOUT  53  O Self/ifudent  I MEDIATING S  ^-  Al MEDIATINC  i i  3  >  -PERSISTENCE  i  Figure 1. Model d e t a i l i n g hypothesized relationships between motive f o r attendance, congruence, mediating variables and dropout from adult education (Boshier, 1977) •  Based on a f a c t o r analytic investigation of Houle's (I96I) typology of adult learners and drawing on Haag's (1976) study on the psychological underpinnings of motivational motivational  orientations, Boshier attempted to l i n k the  orientation factors of h i s Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale  (EPS) with neuroticism  and s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n scores which resembled  Maslow's (1954) description of deficiency and growth motivation.  Boshier's  model shows "deficiency" motivation leading to states of i n t r a - s e l f incongruence and subsequently to i n t e r - s e l f incongruence between self/others, s e l f / i n s t r u c t o r , and p o t e n t i a l l y self/non-personological i n s t i t u t i o n and course content.  f a c t o r s such as  I t depicts "growth" motivation as leading  to states of i n t r a - s e l f and i n t e r - s e l f congruence.  Where the l i k e l i h o o d  of incongruence i n the learner i s high, Boshier suggested that participant dropout i s more probable, due to the e f f e c t s of "mediating" variables  which p r e c i p i t a t e factors or  t h i s behaviour.  which c o r r e l a t e d  Thus, m o t i v a t i o n a l  w i t h e s t i m a t e d measures o f  " g r o w t h " m o t i v a t i o n were a c t i n g  ipation  as  potential  b e h a v i o u r i n B o s h i e r ' s model o f Although  some o f  relationships  he  orientations  which approximate d e f i c i e n c y  the  not  feelings  of  "goodness o f  study  i s that  untested  person/environment logical  and  terms o f to  part  interactions  of  t h e i r own  tested  within  and  partic-  f i t " or  impact  overall  the  instructional  environments conceptualized  on  This  of  personorelate  study attempts  r e l a t i o n s h i p between m o t i v a t i o n a l  e d u c a t i o n by orientations  i n terms o f  to  displays  consists  knowledge about p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t  investigating  motivational  particular interest  which p a r t i c i p a n t s  orientations.  have  s a t i s f a c t i o n with  B o s h i e r ' s model which  to  of  growth m o t i v a t i o n  where e n v i r o n m e n t  motivational  of  B o s h i e r ' s model  the  What i s o f  non-personological factors  "deficiency"  predictors  investigate  c o u r s e s f o r which they e n r o l l e d .  this  add  empirically  either  (EPS)  dropout.  been t e s t e d ,  participants'  did  the  orientation  in to  directly and  both persons  and  things. Much o f interactions  adult  (e.g.  participant/instructor)  amount o f  the  as  (1962) was  Verner  education l i t e r a t u r e considers that  "goodness o f  techniques,  and  within  adjustment  r e f e r to  to  to  and  point  techniques of  out,  d e v i c e s as  participants). instruction his  (e.g.  and  significant courses.  d i s t i n c t i o n s s h o u l d be possible  instructional settings.  person/person i n t e r a c t i o n s  participant/other  for a  f i t " between p a r t i c i p a n t s  careful  among m e t h o d s ,  account  person/person  sources of  T e c h n i q u e s and  made  influence methods  participant/instructor  While V e r n e r viewed d e v i c e s as d e s c r i p t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the  However,  and subsidiary  uses of  devices  5  clearly  refer to person/thing Knowles  learning  environment.  instruction climate  ( 1 9 7 0 )  also  interactions.  referred  F o r both  l e v e l s he p r o p o s e d  conducive  to adult  to person/thing interactions  t h e p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g a n d management o f that  the f i r s t  learning.  ularly  that  the distinctive  an adult's  how t h e y w a n t t o be t r e a t e d physical  environments  order to f a c i l i t a t e ment m i g h t  impede  Boshier, that  psychology.  learning.  Verner,  Little  (19?6)  proposed  objects o f environmental  things,  According to L i t t l e , differently,  towards persons  groups  Non-Specialist This  learners,  Knowles partic-  e x p e c t a t i o n s about that  expectations i n  a poor  physical  Person  "persons'",  i n h i s own way,  environ-  investigation  acknowledged  i n instructional  comes f r o m  "things",  environmental  and " s e l f "  specialization  individuals  o r things, nor things.  Specialist,  respectively  general d i s t i n c t i o n  each,  consti-  i n personality  construe o r perceive the  thereby manifesting a generalized  o r t o n e i t h e r persons  specialist  step i s  i n " S p e c i a l i z a t i o n and t h e V a r i e t i e s  tute  t o be o r i e n t e d  with those  support f o r t h i s view  Experience" that  environment  of this  He made t h e p o i n t  "person" and "thing" dimensions  of Environmental  psychology.  to certain  Otherwise,  a n d Knowles have  Additional  the primary  of adult  educators.  s h o u l d be c o n g r u e n t  adult  part  a  learning.  there a r e both  environments.  give rise  by a d u l t  i s to establish  which puts a d u l t s a t ease.  characteristics  self-concept,  concern  A substantial  the c r e a t i o n o f a p h y s i c a l environment proposed  i n the  sometimes b o t h He l a b e l l e d  Thing Specialist,  disposition  persons and  these  four  primary-  Generalist, and  (Figure 2). i n c o r p o r a t e d measures r e l a t i n g  t o t h e more  between p e r s o n — p s y c h o l o g i c a l and t h i n g — p h y s i c a l i s t i c  6  ENVIRONMENT  SELF  Figure 2. Schematic representation of the four primary s p e c i a l i s t groups—nonspecialists, person-specialsits, t h i n g - s p e c i a l i s t s , and generalists ( L i t t l e , 19?6).  orientations.  A f t e r taking into account dimensions within i n s t r u c t i o n a l  environments, t h i s study investigated participant s a t i s f a c t i o n with f i v e aspects, three of which are "person" concepts and two of which are "thing" concepts.  The "person" concepts used to measure s a t i s f a c t i o n were Other  Adult Education Students, Myself, and My Instructor. were Course Content and Course Setting. planning and needs assessment.  The "thing" concepts  Course Content underlies  program  Course Setting, as Knowles (1970) indicated,  i s fundamental to the f i r s t event of i n s t r u c t i o n .  7  The  present study was designed to r e l a t e motivational  with participant s a t i s f a c t i o n . orientations  orientations  Rather than c o r r e l a t i n g motivational  with "general" s a t i s f a c t i o n , i t was f e l t that understanding  would be enhanced i f a d i s t i n c t i o n was made between "person" and "thing" elements of i n s t r u c t i o n a l environments.  Approaches to the Study o f Motivational Orientations Two d i f f e r e n t approaches have characterized motivation f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education.  the research on  The bulk of research  has focused on reasons f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n which existed p r i o r t o actual participation.  Table 1 l i s t s the studies related to both l i n e s of research  on motivation f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  Clearly, very l i t t l e research has  TABLE 1 Studies Directed Toward Two Lines of Research on Motivation f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n Motivational Factors Antecedent to Participation Houle (1961) S h e f f i e l d (1964) Douglah (1970) Boshier (1971) Burgess (1971) Sovie (1972) Grabowski (1972) Morstain & Smart (1974) Dickinson & Clark (1975) Haag (1976) Zack ( I 9 7 6 ) Riddell ( I 9 7 6 ) Denney (1978) Baker (1978) Blakley (I979)  investigated  Motivational Factors Related to Behaviours Consequent to P a r t i c i p a t i o n Boshier (1973) Potvin (1978)  the relationships between factors antecedent to p a r t i c i p a t i o n  8  and the consequent f a c t o r s a r i s i n g from p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  The purpose of  t h i s section i s to review these two l i n e s of research.  Research on Motivational Factors Antecedent to P a r t i c i p a t i o n The study of motivational orientations or reasons given f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n began with Houle's (1961) report, The Inquiring Mind.  On  the basis of interviews with 22 continuing learners he proposed that adult learners t y p i c a l l y exhibit one of three types of motivational orientations.  According to Houle, every i n d i v i d u a l possessed one orien-  t a t i o n more strongly than the other two.  He suggested that goal-  oriented learners have an e x p l i c i t purpose or goal to achieve which accounts f o r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  A c t i v i t y - o r i e n t e d learners were  thought by him to participate more f o r reasons of s o c i a l contact and a c t i v i t y than i n t e r e s t i n a p a r t i c u l a r course content. oriented p a r t i c i p a n t s appeared to be those who seeking knowledge f o r i t s own  sake.  Learning-  had a primary i n t e r e s t i n  Houle s three f a c t o r typology of 1  motivational orientations has spawned much a d d i t i o n a l research concerned with t e s t i n g i t s v a l i d i t y . S h e f f i e l d (1964) constructed the Continuing Learning Orientation Index (CLOl) c o n s i s t i n g of 58 items.  Factor analysis of response data  yielded f i v e f a c t o r s which he l a b e l l e d societal-goal, personal goal, need f u l f i l l m e n t , s o c i a b i l i t y , and l e a r n i n g orientations. have employed t h i s instrument  (Sovie, 1972;  Other researchers  Dickinson and Clark, 1975)*  Burgess (1971) constructed the 70 item Reasons f o r Educational P a r t i c i p a t i o n scale (REP) which yielded seven f a c t o r s s i m i l a r to those of S h e f f i e l d with the exception of the f a c t o r "to reach a r e l i g i o u s goal."  Unlike  Burgess, other researchers have not incorporated r e l i g i o u s items i n t h e i r  9 instruments.  Boshier ( l 9 7 l ) constructed a 48 item Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n  Scale (EPS) with which he measured motives f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r adult learners i n New  Zealand.  Subsequent modification of the instrument r e -  duced the number of items to 40.  Other researchers have employed t h i s  instrument (Morstain and Smart, 19?4; 1978; Baker, 1979;  Blakley, 1 9 7 9 ) .  Haag,  .1976; R i d d e l l , 1976;  Denney;  The Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale  y i e l d s s i x f a c t o r s l a b e l l e d Professional Advancement, S o c i a l Welfare, Escape/Stimulation,  Social Contact, Cognitive Interest, and External Ex-  pectations which have been shown to be stable over time and place 1977)-  (Boshier,  Grabowski (1972), Dickinson and Clark ( 1 9 7 5 ) , and Zack (1976) i n -  vestigated the motivational orientations of d i f f e r e n t groups of p a r t i c i pants.  Boshier  (1976) assessed the growth and s o p h i s t i c a t i o n of previous  motivational o r i e n t a t i o n research and proposed that future research  should  focus on i d e n t i f y i n g psychological and motivational variables which underl i e these orientations. Douglah (1970) sought to r e l a t e l e v e l s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n with psychological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s measured by the C a l i f o r n i a Test of Personality. Haag ( 1 9 7 6 ) , R i d d e l l ( 1 9 7 6 ) , Blakley ( 1 9 7 9 ) . and Boshier (1980) each attempted to r e l a t e various measures of psychological c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with the Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale. Research on Behaviours Consequent to P a r t i c i p a t i o n , and t h e i r Relation to Motivational Factors Psychological and s o c i a l forces underpinning  reasons f o r p a r t i c i -  pation have been investigated but few studies examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between motivational orientations and the perceptions and experiences enrolees i n adult education courses.  Boshier s 1  of  (1973) t h e o r e t i c a l model  of forces which impel drop-out proposed that d i f f e r e n t motivational  10 orientations r e f l e c t e i t h e r "growth" or "deficiency" motivation i n p a r t i cipants and ultimately r e s u l t i n t h e i r persistence  or drop-out  respectively. Potvin  (1978) completed an empirical study which measured and  compared the motivational  orientations and perceived benefits of adult  part-time students over the duration of courses i n three types of i n s t i t u t i o n a l setting: university c r e d i t settings; university non-credit settings; and business or i n d u s t r i a l settings. (p^.05) i n both motivational  He found that significant: differences  orientations and perceived benefits  existed  according to s e t t i n g . To date then, very l i t t l e i s known about the e f f e c t of i n i t i a l "motivation" on the consequent experience of p a r t i c i p a n t s .  This s i t u a t i o n  l e d to the formulation of a research question which formed the basis of the study. Statement of the Problem Each variabledata c o l l e c t i o n . variable.  The  needed to be operationalized  Appropriate measuring instruments were required f o r each  selection and development of these instruments i s taken up  i n d e t a i l i n the next chapter. ments was  i n order to permit  The data generated by each of the i n s t r u -  subjected to multivariate a n a l y s i s .  The research question  guiding t h i s investigation concerns the extent to which participant s a t i s f a c t i o n with educational environments i s predicted by t h e i r orientations and  motivational  socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  Having regard to the foregoing, the problem investigated i n the present study concerned the nature of relationships .between motivational orientations and participant s a t i s f a c t i o n . To what extent does 1  11  p a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f a c t i o n at the end of a course vary as a f u n c t i o n of "motives" which impelled them to p a r t i c i p a t e ?  12  CHAPTER.II INSTRUMENT SELECTION AND DEVELOPMENT This chapter describes the selection and development of the three instruments used i n t h i s study.  These instruments are: l ) a Socio-  economic Questionnaire; 2) the Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale (EPS); 3) the Personality and Educational Environment Scales (PEES).  and  The adapt-  ation of the PEES, and i t s r e s u l t i n g f a c t o r structure and r e l i a b i l i t y  will  be discussed.  Socio-economic Questionnaire This questionnaire was developed c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sample population.  by the researcher to measure the Previous studies have indicated  the importance of such variables as occupation, amount of education, i n come, and age to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education. ted  Economic data c o l l e c -  on t h i s questionnaire were personal income, family income, and  pation.  The Blishen scale (Blishen and McRoberts, 1976)  occupation data. of education.  occu-  was used to code  Demographic data c o l l e c t e d included sex, age, and years  The data c o l l e c t e d on t h i s instrument were used to deter-  mine the extent to which they predicted PEES f a c t o r scores.  The Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale  (EPS)  An instrument was required to measure the motivational orientations of the sample population.  Of the three best known measures of motivational  orientations, the Continuing Learning .Orientation Index (CLOl), the  13 Reasons f o r Educational P a r t i c i p a t i o n (REP), and the Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale (EPS), the EPS was chosen because i t has been shown to be f a c t o r i a l l y stable over time and place, f a c t o r i a l l y pure, economical and free of passenger items (Boshier, 1977)• (Boshier, 1971; 1974;  It has also been shown to be r e l i a b l e  Morstain and Smart, 1974), and v a l i d (Morstain and Smart,  Haagf 1976).' Standardization and normative data f o r English speak-  ing participants are available (Boshier and C o l l i n s , i n press). t i o n , Boshier (1973; 1977;  1980)  attempted to relate i t s f a c t o r structure  to the notions of "deficiency" and Maslow (1954),and 16 PF scores.  In addi-  "growth" motivation,- f i r s t espoused by  Through association (Haag, 1976)  with  one d i r e c t and another i n d i r e c t measure of deficiency and growth motivation, two concepts central to Boshier's (1973; 1977)  notion of congruence/  incongruence, motivational orientations have demonstrated predictive potential concerning participants' feelings of "goodness of f i t " with courses. "No  The EPS consists of 40 items cast on a four point scale from  influence" to "Much influence" l i k e t h i s :  To increase my job competence  No influence  Little influence  Moderate influence  Much influence  Each scale i s scored by assigning a numerical value of 1 through 4 to the "No  influence" through to the "Much influence" categories r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The EPS y i e l d s s i x factors l a b e l l e d Professional Advancement, Social Welfare, Escape/Stimulation, Social Contact, Cognitive Interest, External  and  Expectations. Professional Advancement includes items l i k e "To increase my  competence", and "To meet formal requirements".  job  Social Welfare includes  14 items l i k e "To become more e f f e c t i v e as a c i t i z e n " , "To gain insight into my personal problems", and "To prepare f o r community service."  Escape/  stimulation includes items l i k e "To get r e l i e f from boredom", "To overcome the f r u s t r a t i o n of day to day l i v i n g " , and "To provide a contrast to  the r e s t of my l i f e . "  Social Contact includes items l i k e "To  fulfill  a need f o r personal associations and friendships" and "To participate i n group a c t i v i t y . " for  Cognitive Interest includes items l i k e "To seek knowledge  i t s own sake" and "To s a t i s f y an inquiring mind."  External Expectations  includes items l i k e "To carry out the recommendation of some authority" and "To comply with i n s t r u c t i o n s from someone else."  The Personality and Educational Environment Scales (PEES) In order to test relationships between antecedents to p a r t i c i p a t i o n and consequents to p a r t i c i p a t i o n across d i f f e r e n t settings and courses, a t h i r d instrument was required.  I t measured participant's f e e l i n g s of  s a t i s f a c t i o n , a consequent of p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  S a t i s f a c t i o n i s an amorphous  concept that could e a s i l y be t i e d to a s p e c i f i c context with l i t t l e genera l i z a b i l i t y across d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s .  For t h i s reason an instrument  was needed to provide a measure of s a t i s f a c t i o n without being bound by a s p e c i f i c context (e.g. time, culture, content). developed such an  Boshier (1973) had  instrument.  The o r i g i n a l form of the PEES developed by Boshier consisted of f i f t e e n Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l scales (e.g. stimulating...boring) each of which was used to rate three concepts associated with educational environments — ^Myself;Students-...  My Adult Education Lecturer  and  Other Adult Education  The same three factors emerged from the ratings f o r each con-  cept i n Boshier's study and accounted f o r over 80 percent of the variance  15  i n each a n a l y s i s .  These three f a c t o r s were: I —  Conventionality; and III —  —  Personal Effectiveness. Factor I, Personal  Warmlth, was a measure of s o c i a b i l i t y . measure of conservatism.  Personal Warmth; II  Factor.II, Conventionality, was  Factor I I I , Personal Effectiveness,-measured  "activity/potency" of the person named i n the concept.  a the  Taken together,  scores on the PEES scales constituted a measure of participant s a t i s f a c t i o n with three concepts associated with the adult education environment.  My Instructor By i n s t r u c t o r we mean the person who teaches your c l a s s . I f you a r e i n more than one c l a s s keep i n mind the i n s t r u c t o r f o r t h i s c l a s s . We a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n how you view the i n s t r u c t o r f o r t h i s c l a s s . Be f r a n k .  stimulating  I  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  boring  sympathetic  L  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  unsympathetic  strong  L  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  weak  conventional  L  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  eccentric  rational  L  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  irrational  unfriendly  L  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  friendly  active  L  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  passive  optimistic  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  pessimistic  scholarly  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  non-scholarly  warm  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  cold  organized  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  disorganized  lively  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  dull  conservative  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  liberal  sociable  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  unsociable  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  non-conformist  conformist  ;  Figure 3-  F i f t e e n PEES Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l scales.  16  In view of the discussion i n Chapter I on the "person" and "thing" dimensions of i n s t r u c t i o n a l environments, there was a need to expand the range of PEES measures of participant s a t i s f a c t i o n to include the concepts of Course Content and Course Setting i n addition to the three existing personological concepts.  In order to approximate the o r i g i n a l factor  structure, the same f i f t e e n scales as o r i g i n a l l y employed by Boshier (1973) were used to rate the three o r i g i n a l and two a d d i t i o n a l concepts.  Figure  3 presents the f i f t e e n Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l scales used to rate each of the f i v e concepts associated with i n s t r u c t i o n a l environments.  My Adult  Education Lecturer was changed to My Instructor to r e f l e c t the Canadian context. Factor Analysis of the Adapted PEES A f a c t o r analysis was performed on PEES questionnaires completed by 222 p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Individual concept ratings were factor analyzed  separately to avoid scale/concept i n t e r a c t i o n .  The number of i t e r a t i o n s  required f o r the f i n a l communalities estimates varied from concept to concept.  The f a c t o r matrix was constructed using factors with eigenvalues  i n excess of unity, except f o r the concepts Other Students and Course Setting.  Subsequent to the f i n a l communalities estimates, both of these  concepts gave r i s e to only two factors with eigenvalues greater than unity. An additional control command then required the computer to create a factor matrix f o r the three p r i n c i p l e factors i n both cases as each had a t h i r d factor with an eigenvalue approaching unity.  Thus, i n a n t i c i p a t i o n of  f a c t o r scoring, a comparable factor structure was maintained across a l l concepts as the remaining three concepts each gave r i s e to three f a c t o r s . The matrix f o r each concept was then rotated to achieve orthogonality.  17  Table 2 . Factor Loadings of PEES on Five Concepts A f t e r Orthogonal Rotation to.  -p  14 O -P o p  ri cu  Tl  P -P  ra U CD -p  o  CH H CD  W >i  -P  CQ  ri  M  s  -P  a CD  -P  O  o  tiO  ri  • H  -P -P  CD CO  CD CO.  CD CO  pi O  3 o  H  o  a  7?6 52 77 59 42 45  41 56 52 31 62 34 18  47 63 54 25 56 54 23  93 53 60 67 46 46 60  70 74 63 74 50 34 52  FACTOR I Sociability  Strong / Weak Stimulating / Boring Organized / Disorganized Scholarly / Non-scholarly  74 36 40 57  21 34 32 17  18 27 29 20  72 63 41 33  73 78 26 32  .FACTOR. 11 Intellectual •Potency..  Conventional / Eccentric Conformist / Non-conformist Conservative / L i b e r a l Rational / I r r a t i o n a l  6l 63 32 35  77 72 62 39  69 76 59 27  77 73 52 57  69 65 49 46  FACTOR I I I Conventionality  Warm / Cold Lively / Dull Optimistic / Pessimistic Sociable / Unsociable 'Active / Passive Sympathetic / Unsympathetic Friendly / Unfriendly  •83  Table 2 presents scales and f a c t o r loadings f o r the f i v e concepts. The same basic three factors emerged from the ratings f o r each concept, and accounted f o r more than 57 percent of the variance i n ratings of each concept.  The f i r s t factor, S o c i a b i l i t y , contains scales concerned with the  outgoing warmth of persons and things.  The second factor, I n t e l l e c t u a l  Potency, contains scales concerned with the success o f persons and things i n i t h e adult education s i t u a t i o n . measure of conservatism.  The t h i r d factor, Conventionality, i s a  These factors strongly resemble the three that  emerged from Boshier's (1973) f a c t o r analysis of the o r i g i n a l PEES.  Boshier  18  noted  that h i s Factors I  were r e l a t e d parts  i n both  meaning and  i n this analysis,  Potency) are r e l a t e d exhibited several  by  the  ( P e r s o n a l Warmth) a n d  factors  to each  spective  e m p i r i c a l terms. I  f a c t o r s on  the  other.  Despite  (Sociability),  test-retest  Students of  its reliability.  (X=.67)«  internal  Boshier  mean i t e m c o r r e l a t i o n s In the  present  study  consistency  (coefficient  factor  (intellectual  test-retest  procedure  counter-  loadings  Potency)  and  were g r o u p e d i n t h e i r  re-  meaning.  PEES  (1973) had  test-retest  i t was  neces-  previously estab-  (X=.76) and  f o r Myself  alpha)  their  (intellectual  v i e w o f m o d i f i c a t i o n s made t o t h e P E E S i n s t r u m e n t  sary to establish lished  of the  II  the lower  they  b a s i s of compatible  Reliability In  Similarly,  ( S o c i a b i l i t y ) and  s c a l e s composing F a c t o r I I  scales i n Factor I  I I I (Personal Effectiveness)  Other...  c o r r e l a t i o n and  were u s e d  to  measures  estimate  reliability. The a credit British complete the  seminar  purpose  instrument 1963).  T h i s g r o u p was  socio-economic of their  ' Table  3 presents the  or was  concept)  better, with significant  separate  EPS  participation the  weeks s e p a r a t e d t h e  measures o f i n t e r n a l (highest  and  i n order to reduce  Two  e m p l o y e d w i t h n i n e t e e n members  of  i n the Department o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n a t the U n i v e r s i t y  Columbia. the  was  r e g a r d i n g the effect  second  r e s u l t s o f both The  the exception o f the level.  the  main study and T h e y we're n o t  completion  of testing  and  were a l l s i g n i f i c a n t  .02  the  questionnaires.  first  consistency.  a t the  from  o f the  (Campbell  &  did  not  told, of PEES  Stanley,  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the t e s t - r e t e s t procedure  PEES. and  highest test-retest  correlations  a t the  significnace  scale  A l l but  .01  level  of  "optimistic/pessimistic" three of the  of  s c a l e s were  which  '•  19  s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of significance or better when the average c o r r e l a t i o n f o r a l l concepts was taken.  These r e s u l t s suggest that most  of the scales were s t a t i s t i c a l l y r e l i a b l e f o r the t e s t - r e t e s t sample. However, one of the shortcomings with t e s t - r e t e s t procedures i s that r e a l changes i n respondents w i l l jeopordize r e l i a b i l i t y .  Thus, a more  comprehensive estimate of the r e l i a b i l i t y of an instrument can be achieved by obtaining a measure of i n t e r n a l consistency. TABLE 3 Test-Retest and Internal Consistency Measures of PEES R e l i a b i l i t y  N = 222  Factor  Sociability  "•" Mean Coeff. alpha  Item 1 2 3 4 5 6 7  '  ; N = 19 Single T-R r (p<.0l) ..Mean T-R r (Highest Concept) ( A l l Concepts  • 70 .72 .68 • 72 •69 .61 .64  .75 .83 .54* .66 •78 •73 •78  -57 •71 .41 .52 .41 .48 •55  (p<-02) (p<-oi) (p<.10) (p<-05) (p<.10) (p<-05) (p<.02) (p<-05) (p<.0l) (p<.02) (p<-05)  Intellectual Potency  8 9 10 11  .66 •73 •65 .67  •71 •76 .84 • 83  .49 • 65 •57 .49  Conventionality  12 13 14 15  •67 .61 .64 •70  • 90 .88 .89 •72  •55 (p<.02) •74 (p<.0l) •58 ( K . o i ) .36**  * p<.02  *-#  P>.IO  The measures of i n t e r n a l consistency f o r the PEES were obtained from the main sample of respondents since power i s associated with sample  20  size.  The high mean c o e f f i c i e n t alpha values f o r each scale suggest a  s i g n i f i c a n t degree of consistency i n the patterns of response f o r each of the scales across the f i v e concepts.  ratings  Table 4 presents the  c o e f f i c i e n t alphas f o r each of the three PEES f a c t o r s .  Thus, when both  t e s t - r e t e s t and c o e f f i c i e n t alpha measures of r e l i a b i l i t y are considered, the adapted PEES instrument appeared to have provided a s t a t i s t i c a l l y consistent  measure of participant  s a t i s f a c t i o n with f i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l  environment concepts. TABLE 4 ReMabilityVMalues (Coefficient alpha) For Three S a t i s f a c t i o n Factors Factor  Coefficient alpha  Sociability  • 77  Intellectual • Potency  • 74  Conventionality  •71  The instruments described above were developed to investigate relationships between i n i t i a l motives f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and s a t i s f a c t i o n with aspects of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l environment.  The EPS was administered  at the beginning of courses to measure participant motivation; the PEES was administered near the end of courses to ascertain participant s a t i s faction.  Scores from the two instruments-were  through simple c o r r e l a t i o n and multivariate  subsequently associated  procedures.  The following  chapter describes i n d e t a i l how these instruments were employed to investigate  the research problem.  21  CHAPTER I I I  METHODOLOGY  This and on  c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s t h e two p h a s e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e c r e a t i o n  implementation the i n i t i a l  of this  steps taken  P h a s e 1,  study.  t h e P r e p a r a t i o n Phase,  by t h e r e s e a r c h e r i n o r d e r t o s e t up t h i s  including  c o n t a c t w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n a number o f i n s t i t u t i o n s  selection  o f subjects f o r this  the  distribution,  instruments.  results,  their  The f i n a l  Data Gathering,  and c o l l e c t i o n  on t h e instruments  punched, a n d a n a l y z e d . the  P h a s e 2,  study.  completionpprocedures,  The d a t a  reports  and the  describes  o f the research  were s u b s e q u e n t l y  steps i n t h i s  study,  coded,  key-  phase i n v o l v e d r e p o r t i n g  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a n d some p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s  for adult  education.  The  P r e p a r a t i o n Phase  Preliminary  Contact  of The  researcher decided  institutions  which o f f e r  correlational teristics from of  i t was f e l t  t h e community  administrators —  with  Institutions  Education  t o c o n t a c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n a number o f  courses  for adults.  As t h e study  that a greater variety  was p r i m a r i l y  o f socio-economic  charac-  ( a n d t h u s v a r i a n c e ) w o u l d b e e x h i b i t e d among s u b j e c t s d r a w n  institutions  College  Adult  which v a r y served,  i n t h e amount o f t u i t i o n  and i n t h e range  o f courses  i n the Continuing Education Division  Langara  Campus, t h e C e n t r e  charged,  the size  offered.  Consequently,  o f Vancouver  f o r Continuing Education  Community  o f the  22  University of B r i t i s h Columbia, and the Community Education D i v i s i o n of the Surrey School D i s t r i c t No. 36 were contacted.  The two centres contacted  i n the Surrey School d i s t r i c t were the Queen Elizabeth Adult Education Centre and the White Rock Elementary Community School. The researcher i n i t i a l l y telephoned each of the administrators to introduce himself and to arrange a personal interview with each one i n order to explain the purposes and scope of ,this study.  A l l administrators  r e a d i l y gave t h e i r permission f o r the researcher to contact i n s t r u c t o r s i n courses selected f o r t h i s study.  In addition, each one offered to  n o t i f y instructors i n t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s of t h e i r approval f o r t h i s study. In one case, t h i s n o t i f i c a t i o n took the form of a memo d i s t r i b u t e d to a l l i n s t r u c t o r s i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s  The remaining administrative contacts  either spoke to c e r t a i n instructors by telephone or inpperson.  I t was  agreed that i n d i v i d u a l instructors would have the r i g h t to refuse to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study, though none d i d .  Subject Selection Having received permission to proceed with the study, the researcher set about choosing courses i n the various i n s t i t u t i o n s suitable to the nature of Ithe study.  The bulk of courses offered by the i n s t i t u t i o n s  were non-credit, with the exception of the Queen Elizabeth Adult Education Centre which offered many academic courses f o r Grades 11 and 12 equivalency. Two such courses from that Centre were selected because they had a low proportion of regular day d i v i s i o n high school students who were enrolled f o r the purposes of making up c r e d i t s .  The c r i t e r i a employed i n selecting  courses included the number of sessions f o r each course, the l e v e l of course content, the course content area.  A minimum of eight sessions per  23  course was thought to be necessary i n order to allow the administration of  instruments on two separate occasions.  Where possible, introductory  l e v e l courses were chosen, f o r example introductory language and c a l l i graphy courses, i n preference to those at a more advanced l e v e l .  Advanced  courses were excluded because they represented a more specialized range of i n t e r e s t s on the part of p a r t i c i p a n t s .  A wide v a r i e t y of courses was  chosen to capture the broadest possible spectrum of participant i n t e r e s t s .  The Data Gathering Phase In most cases advance arrangements were made with i n s t r u c t o r s regarding the p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s time inw.which the instruments would be administered.  In the remaining cases?, data c o l l e c t i o n was permitted by  i n s t r u c t o r s who could not be reached i n advance of c l a s s time but to whom some form of n o t i f i c a t i o n about t h i s study had been given by the admini s t r a t i v e contact.  Instrument Administration Due to the nature of the study, instruments were administered on two separate occasions i n each course, once i n the opening few sessions and again i n the closing sessions. A standardized procedure was followed on each occasion.  The researcher f i r s t introduced himself to the i n s t r u c -  t o r and participants and then explained the purpose of the study.  He  informed participants that a summary of r e s u l t s would be available to anyone interested.  The instrument was then d i s t r i b u t e d and d i r e c t i o n s f o r  completing the instrument were reviewed o r a l l y .  These were the same  d i r e c t i o n s printed on the form. With the exception of the course on yoga, a l l classes agreed to  2k  complete the instrument immediately.  Stamped, self-addressed envelopes  were l e f t with the yoga class and the few participants i n any other classes who were unable to complete the instrument within approximately f i f t e e n minutes.  A very smalllnumber of enrolees across a l l courses declined to  complete the instruments.  Once completed, the instruments were c o l l e c t e d  by the researcher, the participants were thanked and questions were answered.  Thoseswho had ye.t to complete the instrument were urged to  do so at home and return i t by mail as soon as possible.  At the end of  the administration and c o l l e c t i o n f o r the f i r s t instrument participants were informed that the researcher would return i n several weeks' time with a d i f f e r e n t instrument f o r them to complete.  N = 389  138  Unuseable  2-5  -  Gancllled  N = 236 lk Ko EPS/Unuseable:  226  Useable  EPS & Socio-economic Figure k.  N = 222  222  222  Useable  Useable Sets  PEES  EPS, PEES & Socio-economic  Proportion of completed instruments included i n analyses.  25  Of 389 EPS and socio-economic the f i r s t occasion (and completed),  forms d i s t r i b u t e d to 28 classes on  I 3 8 were unuseable.  Of the 236 PEES  forms d i s t r i b u t e d to 25 classes and completed on the second occasion, fourteen were unuseable because they were not f i l l e d out correctly, or had no matching EPS form.  In a l l , 2 2 2 complete sets of  EPS, and PEES instruments were assembled. of completed  socio-economic,  Figure 4 shows the proportion  instruments included i n the analysis, compared to the t o t a l  number of instruments d i s t r i b u t e d .  Analysis of the Data The same procedure was applied to the data obtained from a l l three instruments.  Item responses on each of the questionnaires were coded  and then transferred to IBM coding forms.  The data on these coding forms  were punched and v e r i f i e d at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia Computer Centre. A l l variables were scaled as ordinal or i n t e r v a l with the exceptions of  sex,anddemployment status which were dichotomous, but amenable to  analysis with both the ordinal and i n t e r v a l v a r i a b l e s .  For ease of coding,  a l l EPS scales were coded uniformly l e f t to r i g h t i n columns from low to high numerical value.  A recode card was employed to reverse the values  assigned to every odd-numbered item.  A second recode card was  inserted  so that the computer would read blank spaces as missing data with no value. The S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the Social Sciences (SPSS) programs were employed f o r a l l analyses.  Basic s t a t i s t i c a l information such as  means, standard errors, standard deviations, range, frequency counts, e t c . was obtained on a l l v a r i a b l e s .  A c o r r e l a t i o n a l matrix was produced f o r  26  a l l the variables on the three questionnaires.  F i n a l l y , regression  analysis was performed using the PEES factor scores as the dependent variables. In order to v e r i f y that the data i n the computer f i l e s matched the raw data, factor scores f o r several respondents on both EPS and PEES instruments were summed over by hand.  The scores calculated by hand f o r  both instruments matched those from the computer data f i l e s . EPS, PEES, and socio-economic data were c o l l e c t e d f o r the purpose of investigating relationships between "motives" and "satisfaction'."  The  following chapter describes the r e s u l t s of analyses undertaken to i n v e s t i gate these r e l a t i o n s h i p s . multivariate s t a t i s t i c s .  This involved the production of uni, b i , and  27  CHAPTER IV RESULTS This chapter describes the socio-economic respondents,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the  presents Pearson product-moment correlations f o r the PEES  f a c t o r scores, motivational orientations (EPS f a c t o r scores) and socioeconomic variables, and f i n a l l y , the r e s u l t s of the multiple regression equations employing EPS and socio-economic  variables as the predictors of  participant s a t i s f a c t i o n (PEES f a c t o r scores). section discusses  The fourth and f i n a l  the more salient findings of the preceding sections. Characteristics o f the Respondents  A t o t a l of 222 subjects met the c r i t e r i a f o r i n c l u s i o n i n t h i s investigation.  Of these, 121 subjects (54 «5 percent) were enrolled i n  courses at Langara Continuing Education, Vancouver Community College. Another 58 subjects (26.1 percent) were enrolled at the White Rock Elementary Community School and 17 others (7-7 percent) at the Queen Elizabeth Adult Education Centre i n Surrey, B r i t i s h Columbia. (11.7  A further 26 subjects  percent) were enrolled at the Centre f o r Continuing Education, The  Univeristy of B r i t i s h Columbia.  In a l l , 171  subjects (77-0  were female and 51 subjects (23.0 percent) were male.  percent)  The average age of  the subjects was 37-8 years (S.D. = I 5 . 3 6 ) . Some 145 subjects (65.3 percent) had completed twelve years of formal education. 11.7  The average number of years of formal education was  years (S.D. = I . 3 I years).  One hundred and twenty-nine subjects  28  (58.1  percent) had completed one or more years of f u l l - t i m e post-  secondary education.  The average number of years of f u l l - t i m e post-  secondary education f o r these subjects was 2.2 years (S.D. = 2.08).  In  a d d i t i o n , 84 subjects (37 «8 percent) had completed one or more years of part-time post-secondary education.  For these i n d i v i d u a l s the average  number of years of part-time post-secondary education was 1.9  years  (S.D. = 4 . 4 5 ) . Of the t o t a l , I56 subjects (70.3  percent) i n d i c a t e d that they  were presently working f o r an income while 63 subjects (28.4 i n d i c a t e d that they were not.  percent)  Rated on the B l i s h e n Scale ( B l i s h e n and  McRoberts, 1976), the average present or previous occupational r a t i n g of the subjects was 51.99-  The average personal income of the 202 subjects  who reported was $15,322.00 (S.D. = $9,006.00). (36.5  Of these, 81 subjects  percent) reported personal incomes of $10,000.00 or l e s s .  For  the 118 subjects who reported f a m i l y income the average was $31,780.00 (S.D. = $13,968.00). The socio-economic v a r i a b l e s i n d i c a t e that the subjects i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n were generally i n the middle c l a s s and thus " t y p i c a l " of adult education p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Though the average age, income, years of  formal and post-secondary education, and occupational r a t i n g s may  be  higher than those f o r the general population i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the f i n d i n g s f o r these v a r i a b l e s are c o n s i s t e n t with the r e s u l t s of previous p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e l a t e d studies i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Haag, I976; B l a k l e y , 1979). Correlates of P a r t i c i p a n t S a t i s f a c t i o n The basic i n v e s t i g a t i o n concerned r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f a c t i o n with i n s t r u c t i o n a l environments on the one hand, and  reasons  29  for  p a r t i c i p a t i o n and socio-economic  "Satisfaction" ment S c a l e s  was m e a s u r e d w i t h t h e P e r s o n a l i t y  (PEES) c o n s i s t i n g  Students, Myself, on  My  f i f t e e n Semantic  factor  structure  Intellectual  to  o f f i v e concepts  Instructor,  Course  o f P E E S was d e s c r i b e d .  compute PEES f a c t o r  scores;  these  p o n s e s made o n e a c h e l e v e n p o i n t  factor  score  o v e r PEES s c o r e s on F a c t o r Potency,  indicated  scores on F a c t o r a  concept  EPS in  factor  the "standard"  solution consists the a  summed-over E P S f a c t o r  score,  II, the  (e.g.  i t was  stimulating  on F a c t o r  indicated  necessary  i 2 3  that  res-  ••• 1 0 1 1  I, S o c i a b i l i t y , the  II,  High  summed-  Intellectual factors.  High  participants  rated  "conventional."  solution  factors,  rated  of Sociability,  s a t i s f a c t i o n on these  s c o r e s were d e r i v e d  of six  Setting)  by summing o v e r  I, S o c i a b i l i t y , and F a c t o r  s i xf a c t o r  Education  was 7 7 « t h e minimum was s e v e n .  t h a n more  Environ-  analysis.  Thus,  III, Conventionality,  hand.  which accounted f o r  o f the analysis  scale  low p a r t i c i p a n t  as l e s s rather  factors  were d e r i v e d  b o r i n g ) encompassed by each f a c t o r . maximum p o s s i b l e  Course  I t consists  i n each  the purposes o f t h i s part  (Other A d u l t  E a r l i e r i n Chapter  and Conventionality  o f the variance  and E d u c a t i o n a l  Content,  Differential scales.  Potency,  over 57 percent For  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on the other  b y summing o v e r i t e m s a s used by B o s h i e r  each containing  (1977)-  s i xitems.  t h e more i n f l u e n c e  that  clustered This  The l a r g e r  f a c t o r had as  respondent's reason f o rp a r t i c i p a t i n g . The  resultant  used along with  factor  s c o r e s f o r P E E S a n d EPS i n s t r u m e n t s w e r e  socio-economic  data  i n P e a r s o n product-moment  then  correlations.  Table 5 p r e s e n t s t h e c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x f o r a l l independent and dependent variables.  While  simple  c o r r e l a t i o n does not l e a d  t o statements  concerning  TABLE 5 C o r r e l a t i o n Matrix f o r S a t i s f a c t i o n Factors with Socio-economic and EPS Variables i'Person ' Concepts  Independent Variables  I  Factors I I "III  .10 .08 .08 Sex Age - . 0 9 - .09 - .08 Years of formal .06 .03 - .02 education . . . Years o f f u l l time post-second. .12 .15* .02 education . . . Years o f p a r t time post-second. education . . . -.01 - .05 .02 Currently Employed . . . . -.06 - .09 - .12 Occupation . . . .05 .03 - .02 .00 .02 Personal Income -.01 Family Income . -.04 .07 .00  My Instruc t o r  Myself  - Other Students I  "Thing" Concept 3  Factors II III  I  Factors II III  .12 .;o5 •03 - • 05 .11 .01 - .05 - .23** -.11 - .10 - .15*  Course Content I  Factors II III  .09 .02 - .03 -.16* -.17*- .14*  Course.Setting I  Factors II III  .11 .04 .06 -.15*- .15* '.01  .00 - .09 - .04  .11  .01  .03  .04  .07  • 05  .05  .06  .00  - . 0 2 - .07 - .04  .07  .09  • 03  .14  .07  .01  .10  .13  .11  -.04 - .02  .10  .02 - . 0 2  .01  .16  .11  .09  .01 - .04 - .01 .08 - .11 -.06 .00 - .06 - .11 .04 - .11 - .03 -.01 - .06 .10  Professional .08 - .08 , •05 - . 0 2 - .08 Advancement . . .02 .01 S o c i a l Welfare . - . 0 3 - .12 - .01 Escape/ .00 - .03 Stimulation . . -.12 - . 1 ? * - .06 .01 - .04 S o c i a l Contact . -.13 - .16* .03 Cognitive .01 - .06 .06 - .07 - .12 External - . 0 2 - .06 Expectations . . - . 0 2 .03 .08 * r > . l 3 8 , df=200, P<-05 ** r>.181, df=200 , p<.0l  .05 .02  -.04 - .03 - .17* .06 .09 .02 .03 .08 .01 .04 .01 -.06 .08 - .08 - .05 .00 - .06 .02  v  -.11 -.08 - .07 -.20 - .20 - .11 .07 .11 .13 .18* .10 .09 -.01 .00 .02 • .18 .18 .09 .08 •15 .13 . 2 6 ^ . 2 3 .19 x x  .02 -.13 - .08 -.14 - . 2 2 * * .04  -.02 - .08 - .17 -.08 - .10 - .08  S .07  - .11  - . 0 3 - .01 .00 .00  .02 .00 .  -.10 - . 2 2 * * .01 -.11 -.09 .09  -.06 - .21*- .11 -.10 - .10 .00  - .02  -.08 - .11  .08  -.11  - . 2 0 * * .12  -%08 - .09 - .03  - .17*  -.05 - • 07 -.17* -.10 r>.l74, df=l25, p-<.05 xx r?>.228, df=l25, p-<.0l  X  .04 - .05 -.07 - .08 .01 v r>.1 5, df= 150, p<.05  31  causality, they do indicate the existence of s i g n i f i c a n t associations between v a r i a b l e s .  Recalling from Chapter I that the purpose of t h i s study  was to investigate the extent to which participant s a t i s f a c t i o n with i n s t r u c t i o n a l environments i s predicted by t h e i r motivational orientations and socio-economic  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , these simple correlations play an  important r o i e by i d e n t i f y i n g l i k e l y predictors of participant s a t i s f a c t i o n . E a r l i e r , i n Chapter II, the d i s t i n c t i o n was made between PEES concepts oriented toward "personsV and those oriented toward "things';" On Table 5 there are twice as many s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t correlations under the "things" concepts as under the "persons" concepts.  The s t a t i s -  t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r M a t i o n s (Table 5). between the PEES factor scores and the other v a r i a b l e s and f a c t o r scores are presented and discussed below. Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale Scores Under the "person" concepts there are four s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s . Participants with higher scores on Escape/Stimulation (r=-.17, df=200, p<-05) or on Social Contact (r=-.I6,ddf=200, p<.05) were more s a t i s f i e d with " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" i n other adult edueation students than were those with lower scores on either f a c t o r .  Participants scoring high on External  Expectations were more l i k e l y to perceive themselves as "conventional" than those with low External Expectations scores (r=-.l7, df=200, p^,05)«  More-  over, participants with high External Expectations scores were more l i k e l y to perceive t h e i r instructors as "conventional" than those who had low scores (>r=-.l7, df=200, p<.05). Under the "things" concepts there are f i v e s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s . Participants with high scores on Social Welfare (r=-.22, df=200, p<.0l), Escape/Stimulation (r=-.22, df=200, p<.0l), or Cognitive Interest (r=-.20, df=200, p^.Ol) were more s a t i s f i e d with " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" i n the  32  course content than those with lower scores on any of those three f a c t o r s . Participants who scored high on Escape/Stimulation were also more s a t i s f i e d with " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" i n the course setting than those with lower Escape/Stimulation scores (r=-.2l, df=200, p<.0l).  Those participants  with higher Professional Advancement scores were more l i k e l y to perceive the course setting as "conventional" than those with lower scores on t h i s factor (r=-.l7, df=200, p<.05). Socio-economic Variables Under the "person" concepts there are four s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s . Participants with the greatest number of years of f u l l - t i m e  post-secondary  education were more d i s s a t i s f i e d with " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" i n other adult education students than those with fewer years (r=-.l5, df=200, p<.05). Older participants were more l i k e l y to perceive both themselves (r=-.23, df=200, p<.0l) and t h e i r instructors (r=-.l5, df=200, p<.05) as "conventional" than younger p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Participants who were not employed (no wages  or salary) were more l i k e l y to perceive the instructor as "conventional" than those who were employed (r=-.l7, df=200, p<.05). Under the "things" concepts there are fourteen s i g n i f i c a n t correlations.  Older participants were more s a t i s f i e d with " s o c i a b i l i t y " i n  course content (r=-.l6, df=200, p<.05) and course setting (r=-.l5, df=200, p<.05), and with " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" i n course content (r=-.17, df=200, p<.05) and course setting (r=-.15, df=200, p<.05) than younger p a r t i c i p a n t s . In addition, older participants were more l i k e l y to perceive course content as "conventional" than younger participants (r=-.l4, df=200, p<.05). Participants with the greatest number of years of part-time  post-secondary  education were more d i s s a t i s f i e d with " s o c i a b i l i t y " i n course setting than  33 those with fewer years of part-time post-secondary education (r=.l6, df=150, p<.05)-  Participants who were not employed (no wages or salary) were more  s a t i s f i e d with " s o c i a b i l i t y " (r=-.20, df=200, p<.0l) and " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" (r=-.20, df=200, p<.0l) i n course setting than those who were employed.  Participants with higher occupational ratings were more d i s s a t -  i s f i e d with " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" i n course setting than those with lower occupational ratings (r=.l8, df=200, p<.0l).  Participants reporting larger  personal incomes were more d i s s a t i s f i e d with " s o c i a b i l i t y " (r=.l8, df=200, p<.05) and " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" (r=.l8, df=200, p<.05) i n course setting than those who reported smaller personal incomes.  In addition, those  participants who reported larger family incomes were more d i s s a t i s f i e d with " s o c i a b i l i t y " (r=.26, df=125, p<.0l) and " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" (r=.23, df=125, p<.0l) i n course setting than were participants who reported smaller family incomes.  F i n a l l y , participants reporting higher family  incomes were more l i k e l y to perceive the course s e t t i n g as l e s s "conven-' t i o n a l " than those who reported lower family incomes (r=.19, df=200, p<.05)« In summary, 13 of the 15 independent variables correlated  signifi-  cantly with PEES factor scores. Of the 225 possible correlations between PEES factor scores and independent variables, 27 were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f icant.  Of these 27 s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t correlations eight occured  with the three "person" concepts while nineteen occured with the two "thing" concepts.  These eight s i g n i f i c a n t correlations with "person" con-  cepts wMle nineteen occured with the two "thing" concepts.  These eight  s i g n i f i c a n t correlations with "person" concepts accounted f o r only s i x percent o f the 135 t o t a l possible correlations with those three concepts. On the other hand, the nineteen s i g n i f i c a n t correlations with "thing" concepts accounted f o r 21 percent of the 90 possible correlations with  34  those two concepts.  In a l l , eighteen s i g n i f i c a n t correlations were calcu-  l a t e d between PEES scores and socio-economic variables, twice as many as the nine s i g n i f i c a n t correlations with EPS factor scores.  However, those  eighteen s i g n i f i c a n t correlations between PEES factors and socio-economic variables represented only t h i r t e e n percent of the 135 possible c o r r e l a t i o n s between those sets of v a r i a b l e s .  In addition, the nine s i g n i f i c a n t corre-  l a t i o n s between PEES and EPS factors represented ten percent of the 90 possible correlations, much closer to p a r i t y with socio-economic  variables  than the two;-to-one rationof absolute frequency of occurrence suggests. Age correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y with PEES f a c t o r scores seven times, more than twice as often as any other single v a r i a b l e .  Older participants  saw themselves and t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r as "conventional" and were more s a t i s f i e d with " s o c i a b i l i t y " and " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" i n both course content and course s e t t i n g than were younger p a r t i c i p a n t s . No s i g n i f i c a n t correlations occured between EPS factors and " s o c i a b i l i t y " i n any PEES concept.  Looking at the s i g n i f i c a n t EPS correlates  of PEES factors, high scorerssonnProfessional Advancement and External Expectations were more l i k e l y to perceive "conventionality" i n course setting, i n themselves, and i n t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r s respectively while low scorers on these two EPS f a c t o r s were more l i k e l y to view these PEES factors as "unconventional."  Scores on the EPS factors S o c i a l Welfare, Escape/  Stimulation, Cognitive Interest, and S o c i a l Contact correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y with the PEES f a c t o r " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency."  Participants with high scores  on these EPS f a c t o r s were more s a t i s f i e d with " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" i n one or several of the f i v e PEES concepts than those with lower scores. For example, participants with high Social Welfare scores were more l i k e l y to be s a t i s f i e d with " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" i n course content thantthose with  35 lower scores.  High scorers on Escape/Stimulation were more s a t i s f i e d with  " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" i n other students, i n course content, and i n course s e t t i n g than lower scorers on the same EPS  factor.  The relationships reported thus f a r are simple c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i cients, and revealed a s t r i k i n g absence of s i g n i f i c a n t relationships, e s p e c i a l l y between "person" concepts and the independent v a r i a b l e s .  Re-  c a l l i n g Boshier's (1973) t h e o r e t i c a l model of drop-out from Chapter I, i t appears that participant s a t i s f a c t i o n with the  i n s t r u c t i o n a l environment i s  more l i k e l y to be determined by the i n t e r a c t i o n of variables rather than by any one f a c t o r acting i n i s o l a t i o n . Although the relationships of socioeconomic and EPS variables with PEES f a c t o r s have been considered  separately,  many studies have shown that they are related to each o t h e r — t h e y act together (e.g. age with Professional Advancement).  Thus, i n order to  assess the combined e f f e c t of socio-economic and EPS variables on p a r t i c i pant s a t i s f a c t i o n , a more powerful multivariate procedure known as c o r r e l a t i o n was  multiple  required.  Multiple c o r r e l a t i o n , the r e s u l t of regression procedures, has several advantages over simple c o r r e l a t i o n .  It f i n d s how  well the  "best"  l i n e a r weighting of a number (>2) of independent variables predicts a single dependent variable (e.g. " s o c i a b i l i t y " of course content).  To f i n d t h i s  maximum possible positive c o r r e l a t i o n between the dependent variable  and  any l i n e a r combination of independent variables multiple regression removes from each one any contaminating e f f e c t s of other independent variables before entering them forward into the regression equation.  Next i t accumu-  l a t e s the e f f e c t s of the best-weighted composite of variables which account f o r v a r i a t i o n i n the dependent v a r i a b l e .  36  Multivariate Multiple tion"  factors  determine best  on  (i.e.factor  The  o f the  "satisfaction"  factor  post-secondary  currently  employed,  economic); Social  isk  occupation,  Contact,  results  of the  regression equations  on  Table  v a l u e s below  6.  The  .25  f o r the  and  be  s i x equations  (R  ficient sion  ).  As  to warrent  equations  place i n the  additional  "satisfac-  PEES c o n c e p t s )  to  the  age,  Welfare,  being  inde-  of  full-  education,  f a m i l y income  (socio-  Escape/Stimulation,  External Expectations are  The  years  post-secondary  a  presented  that are  (EPS  factors).  below.  Only  marked w i t h an  summarized had  aster-  multiple R  r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n above which a l l one  predictive  percent  p o w e r was  consideration. equal  to the  cumulative  c o n s i d e r e d t o be  For each o f the  to or greater than  nine .25  variainsufregreswhere  "> c h a n g e v a l u e s - ^ 1,  will  be  multiple  presented. R's  variability), of  their  with multiple R values  2 R  such,  education,  summarized not  three  PEES c o n c e p t s .  of part-time  v a r i a b l e s a d d e d c l o s e t o o r more t h a n bility  of five  regression equations will  five  p e r s o n a l income, and  Cognitive Interest,  the  i n e a c h r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n was  f o r one  years  on  p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s were  P r o f e s s i o n a l Advancement, S o c i a l  The those  fifteen  years of formal  education,  Satisfaction  performed  dependent v a r i a b l e  p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s were s e x , time  was  scores f o r each o f the  which combination  a  of Participant  regression analysis  predictors.  score  Foundations  simple on  summary t a b l e  Results will  (cumulative  each v a r i a b l e  variables.  a  r's  be  and  discussion of i t s principal  presented  multiple correlation (Pearson's  r ) , and  and  d i s c u s s e d i n terms  coefficient),  Beta's  dependent v a r i a b l e ) f o r the  R  (predictive  most p o w e r f u l  results of  (cumulative coefficient independent  37  TABLE  6  Summary o f M u l t i p l e R's f o r F i f t e e n Regression Equations Instructional  Environment  Concept s  t "Person"  Satisfaction Factors  II  III  Myself  My Instructor-  .06(.l0)  •25(.3or • 18( .22)  .20(.26)  Sociability  Conventionality  *  Course . Setting--  .21(.26)  *.27(.34)  *.35(-38)  .1?(.23)  .20(.27)  *-35(.40)  *.39(-40)  *.35(-38)  *-32(.35)  *.27(.3l)  *.26(.33)  1  1.  Number i n p a r e n t h e s e s  2.  * indicates R^  Regression  .25  Summary T a b l e s  = total  w h e r e R^  R  f o r each  third  preceding  two  correlation. predictive iable  potency"  for Participant  analysis  steps involved descriptive The  Satisfaction  satisfaction  summary t a b l e  potency"  was  with  statistical  EPS  like  expected  collectively  variables  in this  on  the  the  i s presented  The  simple  combined  dependent  environments. with  repre-  study.  a n a l y s i s and  satisfaction  responses  satisfaction  disclose  instructional  students  m e a s u r e d by  o f items  I n g e n e r a l , i t was both  and  for participant  i n other adult education  predictors,  employed  f o l l o w i n g regression equations  scales consisting  boring".  phase o f the  power o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  "Intellectual  better  final  of participant  regression  ential  and  equation.  c h a n g e ^ 1.  T h e s e r e g r e s s i o n summary t a b l e s f o r p a r t i c i p a n t sent the  V  Course - Content  N2  r  Concepts  IV  I Other Adult Education Students  Intellectual Potency  "Thing"  Concepts  var-  The  "intellectual  i n Table  t o f o u r Semantic  7Differ-  "strong...weak" and " s t i m u l a t i n g . . .  t h a t EPS and  factor  s c o r e s would a c t  individually,  of  participant  as  38  s a t i s f a c t i o n than the socio-economic variables.  Table 7 shows Escape/Stimu-  l a t i o n and years of f u l l - t i m e post-secondary education to be the most important variables.  Escape/Stimulation accounted f o r the largest c o r r e l a -  t i o n (R=.17) and the greatest amount of v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n score (R =.03).  The higher the score on Escape/Stimulation, the more  s a t i s f i e d the respondent was with " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" i n other p a r t i c i pants.  The more years of f u l l - t i m e post-secondary education participants  had the more l i k e l y they were to be d i s s a t i s f i e d with the " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" i n other participants. (R =.05) '• On the other hand, participants with more years of part-time post-secondary education.were  more l i k e l y to  be s a t i s f i e d with " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" i n other participants (R=.24, R =.06).  Years o f f u l l - t i m e post-secondary education (Beta=.l6) was the  most powerful predictor of participant s a t i s f a c t i o n with " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" i n other participants.  TABLE 7 Socio-economic and Motivational Predictions of Participant S a t i s f a c t i o n with the " I n t e l l e c t u a l Potency" o f Other Participants  Independent Variables  Multiple -R  R  9  Simple r  Beta  Escape/Stimulation  .17  .03  -.17  --10  Years of f u l l - t i m e postsecondary, education  .22  .05  .15  -16  Years of part-time postsecondary education  .24  .06  -.05  -.08  Respondent's sex  .25  .06  .08  .11  39  The respondent most l i k e l y to be s a t i s f i e d with " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" i n other participants was female, motivated to participate f o r reasons of Escape/Stimulation, with fewer years of f u l l - t i m e postsecondary education than her fellow participants but with perhaps more years of part-time post-secondary education.  The person least l i k e l y to  be s a t i s f i e d with " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" inoother participants was male, scored low on Escape/Stimulation, with more years of f u l l - t i m e but fewer years of part-time education than h i s fellow respondents. Only s i x percent (R=.25) of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n s a t i s f a c t i o n with " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" i n other adult education students was accounted f o r by the v a r i a b l e s i n Table ?•  Of t h i s , three percent was explained by socio  economic variables, three percent by an EPS f a c t o r . Table 8 summarizes the regression equation f o r participant perceptions of "conventionality" i n themselves.  "Conventionality" was measured  by response to four Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l scales of such items as "convent i o n a l ...eccentric" and  "conformist...non-conformist." TABLE 8  Socio-economic and Motivational Predictions of Participant Serceptionsnof the "Conventionality" of Myself Independent Variables  Multiple R  R  2  Simple r  Beta  Respondent's age  • 23  .05  -.23  -.22  External Expectations  •30  .09  -.16  -.20  Respondent's sex  • 32  .10  .11  .12  Occupation  •33  .11  -.11  -.06  Escape/Stimulation  • 35  .12  -.11  -.16  40 The most important v a r i a b l e s shown on Table 8 are age and External Expectations.  Age accounted f o r the largest c o r r e l a t i o n (R=.23) and the  greatest amount of v a r i a b i l i t y i n "conventionality" (R = . 0 5 ) .  Older  respondents perceived themselves as more "conventional" than not. The higher the score on External Expectations, the more "conventional" the 2  respondents were (R=.30,  R =.09).  Women were more l i k e l y than men to see 2  themselves as "conventional" (R=.32,  R =.10).  The higher the occupational  r a t i n g on the Blishen scale, the more l i k e l y respondents were to perceive 2  themselves as "conventional" (R=-33,  R =.ll).  High scorers on Escape/  Stimulation were l i k e l y to perceive themselves as "conventional" (R=-35, 2  R =.12).  The most powerful predictors o f participant "conventionality"  were age (Beta=-.22) and External Expectations  (Beta=-.20).  The person most l i k e l y to perceive h e r s e l f as "conventional" was female, older than average f o r her group of participants, motivated to p a r t i c i p a t e by External Expectations and Escape/Stimulation factors, with a higher than average occupational r a t i n g .  The person l e a s t l i k e l y to  perceive himself as "conventional" was a younger man with a lower occupational r a t i n g jfehan average f o r h i s group, and low scores on External Expectations and Escape/Stimulation. Twelve percent (R=.35) of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n "conventionality" of Myself was accounted f o r by the v a r i a b l e s included i n Table 8 . percent of i t was explained by socio-economic  Seven  v a r i a b l e s , the remaining  five  percent by EPS f a c t o r s . Table 9 summarizes the regression equation f o r p a r t i c i p a n t perceptions of "conventionality" i n the i n s t r u c t o r .  The most s i g n i f i c a n t  v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s equation were External Expectations, c u r r e n t l y employed,  41  age, and years of part-time post-secondary education. accounted f o r the most v a r i a b i l i t y (R =.03)•  External Expectations  i n "conventionality" of the i n s t r u c t o r  Participants with high scores on External Expectations were  l i k e l y to perceive the instructor as "conventional';"  Those respondents  who were not employed f o r salary or wages were l i k e l y to perceive the  2 i n s t r u c t o r as "conventional" (R =.06).  Older participants were also l i k e l y  2 to view the instructor as "conventional" (R = .07) • The most powerful predictors of instructor "conventionality" were years of part-time post-secondary education (Beta=.2l) and currently employed (Beta=.l9). TABLE 9 Socio-economic and Motivational Predictions of Participant Perceptions of the "Conventionality" of the Instructor Independent Variables  Simple r  Beta  .03  -.17  -.17  .24  .06  -.17  -.19  Re spo nient's age  .26  .07  -.15  -117  Years of part-time postsecondary education ,  .29  • 09  .10  .21  Family income  •31  , .10  .01  -.07  Cognitive Interest  • 32  .08  .06  Multiple R  R  External Expectations  .17  Currently employed  2  .10  The person most l i k e l y to perceive the i n s t r u c t o r as "conventional" was motivated to participate f o r External Expectations reasons, not employed at the time of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , older with more years of part-time postsecondary education than others i n the course.  The person l e a s t l i k e l y to  perceive the instructor as "conventional" scored low 'on External Expectations, was younger, employed, with fewer years of part-time post-secondary  42 education than average f o r h i s group. In a l l , only ten percent (R=.32) of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n p a r t i c i p a n t perception o f "conventionality" i n the i n s t r u c t o r i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to the v a r i a b l e s i n Table 9.  Seven percent of i t was explained by socio-economic  v a r i a b l e s , the remaining three percent by EPS f a c t o r s . Table 10 provides the regression summary of p a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f a c t i o n with " s o c i a b i l i t y " i n the course content.  " S o c i a b i l i t y " was measured by  responses to seven Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l scales c o n s i s t i n g of such items as "warm...cold", and  "friendly...unfriendly." TABLE 10  Socio-economic and M o t i v a t i o n a l P r e d i c t i o n s of P a r t i c i p a n t S a t i s f a c t i o n with the " S o c i a b i l i t y " of the Course Content Independent Variables  1  Multiple R  ;R  2  Simple r  Beta  -.16  -.15  Respondent's age  116  .03  Years of f u l l - t i m e postseeondary education  .22  .05  .14  .09  S o c i a l Welfare  .25  .06  -.14  -.17  Respondent's sex  ?.Z]  • 07  .09  .12  Age (R^=.03), years o f f u l l - t i m e post-secondary education (R^=.05), 2  2  S o c i a l Welfare (R =.06), and sex (R =.07) accounted f o r the most v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h i s equation. The person most l i k e l y to be s a t i s f i e d with " s o c i a b i l i t y " i n course content was an o l d e r woman w i t h fewer than average years of f u l l - t i m e post-secondary education f o r her group, motivated to p a r t i c i p a t e f o r S o c i a l Welfare reasons.  The person l e a s t l i k e l y to be  43 s a t i s f i e d with " s o c i a b i l i t y " i n course content was a younger male with more years of f u l l - t i m e post-secondary education than average f o r h i s group, not motivated to participate f o r Social Welfare reasons.  The most powerful  predictors of s a t i s f a c t i o n with " s o c i a b i l i t y " were Social Welfare -.17) and age (Beta=-.15).  (Beta=  Only seven percent (R=.27) of the v a r i a b i l i t y  i n participant s a t i s f a c t i o n with " s o c i a b i l i t y " i n course content i s a t t r i butable to the variables i n Table 10.  Six percent of i t was explained by  socio-economic variables, the remaining one percent by EPS f a c t o r s . Table 11 summarizes the regression equation f o r participant s a t i s f a c t i o n with " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" i n course content.  2  2  Social Welfare  2  (R =.05), age (R =.08), Cognitive Interest (R =.10), and family income (R =.12) accounted f o r the most v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h i s equation.  The person  most l i k e l y to be s a t i s f i e d with " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" i n course content was older, motivated to participate f o r reasons related to Social Welfare or Cognitive Interest, with a lower than average family income f o r the group. TABLE 11 Socio-economic and Motivational predictions of Participant S a t i s f a c t i o n with the " I n t e l l e c t u a l Potency" of the Course Content Independent Variables  Multiple R  2 R  Simple r  Social Welfare  .22  .05  -.22  -.17  Respondent's age  .28  .08  -.17  -.16  Cognitive Interest  .32  .10  -.20  -.13  Family income  • 34  .12  .15  .21  Personal income  • 35  .12  .00  -.17  44  The person l e a s t l i k e l y t o be s a t i s f i e d with " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" i n course content was younger, not motivated t o p a r t i c i p a t e f o r e i t h e r S o c i a l Welfare o r Cognitive I n t e r e s t reasons, with a higher than average f a m i l y income.  The best p r e d i c t o r s o f s a t i s f a c t i o n with " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency"  i n course content were f a m i l y income (Beta=.2l), S o c i a l Welfare (Beta=-.17) and personal income (Beta=-.17)« In a l l , the v a r i a b l e s i n Table 11 accounted f o r twelve percent (R=.35) o f the v a r i a b i l i t y i n p a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f a c t i o n with " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" i n course content.  Socio-economic  v a r i a b l e s accounted f o r f i v e  percent o f t h i s v a r i a b i l i t y , EPS f a c t o r s f o r the remaining seven percent. Table 12 summarizes the equation f o r p a r t i c i p a n t perceptions o f " c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y " i n course content. TABLE 12 Socio-economic and M o t i v a t i o n a l P r e d i c t i o n s of P a r t i c i p a n t Perceptions of the "Conventionality" of the Course Content Independent Variables  2 Multiple R  R  Simple r  Beta  Respondent's age  .14  .02  -.14  -.16  Occupation  .20  .04  .11  .17  Cognitive I n t e r e s t  .24  .06  .12  .13  .25  .06  -.08  -.12  .28  .07  .04  .09  Professional Advancement S o c i a l Welfare  Age (R =.02), occupation (R =.04), and Cognitive Interest (R =.06) accounted f o r the most v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h i s equation.  The person most  l i k e l y to perceive the course content to be "conventional" was o l d e r , with a lower than average occupational r a t i n g , motivated to p a r t i c i p a t e f o r  45 reasons r e l a t i n g to Cognitive Interest or Social Welfare and not to Prof e s s i o n a l Advancement.  The person l e a s t l i k e l y to perceive the course  content to be "conventional" was younger, with a higher than average occupational rating, motivated f o r reasons of Professional Advancement, but not f o r Cognitive Interest or Social Welfare.  The best predictors  of course content "conventionality" were occupation (beta=.l?) and age (Beta=-.16). The v a r i a b l e s i n Table 12 accounted f o r only seven percent (R=.28) of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n participant perceptions of "conventionality" i n course content/  Socio-economic  variables accounted f o r four percent of  t h i s , while EPS factors explained the remaining three percent. Table 13 summarizes the equation f o r participant s a t i s f a c t i o n with " s o c i a b i l i t y " i n course s e t t i n g .  Family income (R =.0?), currently employed  2  2  (R =.09)» years of part-time post-secondary education (R =.10) 2  and age  (R =il2) accounted f o r the greatest amount.of v a r i a b i l i t y i n the equation. The person most l i k e l y to be s a t i s f i e d with " s o c i a b i l i t y " i n course setting was older, with a lower than average family income f o r the group, not employed f o r salary or wages, with fewer than average years of parttime post-secondary education, and a lower occupational r a t i n g than the group average.  The person l e a s t l i k e l y to be s a t i s f i e d with " s o c i a b i l i t y "  i n course setting was younger, with a higher than average family income, employed, with more than the average occupational r a t i n g .  The best  predictors of participant s a t i s f a c t i o n with " s o c i a b i l i t y " i n course setting were family income (Beta=.l?) and age  (Beta=-.t?).  In a l l , the variablestineTable 1.3 accounted f o r twelve percent (R=-35) of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n participant s a t i s f a c t i o n with " s o c i a b i l i t y "  46  i n course s e t t i n g .  Socio-economic  v a r i a b l e s accounted f o r a l l twelve per-  cent o f t h i s v a r i a b i l i t y , EPS factors accounted f o r none. TABLE . 1 3 Socio-economic and Motivational Predictions of Participant S a t i s f a c t i o n with the " S o c i a b i l i t y " of the Course Setting Independent Variables  Multiple R  R  Family income  .26  • 0?  .26  Currently employed  .30  • 09  -.20  Years of part-time postsecondary education  .32  .10  Respondent's age  .34  .12  -.15  -.17  Occupation  •35  .12  .13  .11  Simple r  2  Beta  .17 -.12  .16'  .15  , Table 14 summarizes the equation f o r participant s a t i s f a c t i o n with " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" i n course s e t t i n g .  2  Family income (R =.05), Escape/  2  2  Stimulation (R =.10), currently employed (R =.11), occupation (R =.13),  2 and age (R =.15) accounted f o r the most v a r i a b i l i t y i n the equation.  The  person most l i k e l y to be s a t i s f i e d with the " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" of the course s e t t i n g had a lower than average family income, was motivated to p a r t i c i p a t e f o r Escape/Stimulation reasons, was not employed f o r salary or wages, had a lower than average occupational rating, and tended to be older. The person .least l i k e l y to be s a t i s f i e d with " i n t e l l e c t u a l  potency"  i n course setting was younger, with a higher than average occupational r a t i n g and family income, employed, and not motivated to p a r t i c i p a t e f o r reasons r e l a t e d to Excape/Stimulation.  The best predictors of participant  s a t i s f a c t i o n with " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" i n course'setting were Escape/ Stimulation (Beta=-.23), occupation (Beta=.l7, and age (Beta=-.l7).  47 TABLE 14 Socio-economic and M o t i v a t i o n a l P r e d i c t i o n s of P a r t i c i p a n t S a t i s f a c t i o n with the " I n t e l l e c t u a l Potency" o f the Course S e t t i n g Independent Variables  Multiple R  Family income  .23  Escape/Stimulation  R  Simple r  2  Beta .14  • 31  .05 .10  .23 -.21  -.23  Currently employed  •34  .11  -.19  -.14  Occupation  • 36  -13  .18  .17  Respondent's age  • 38  -115  -.15  S o c i a l Contact  • 39  .15  -.10  -.17 .08  '  The v a r i a b l e s i n Table 14 accounted f o r f i f t e e n percent (R=.39) of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n p a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f a c t i o n with " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" i n course s e t t i n g .  Socio-economic v a r i a b l e s explained t e n percent of t h i s  v a r i a b i l i t y , EPS f a c t o r s explained f i v e percent. Table 15 summarizes the equation f o r p a r t i c i p a n t perceptions o f " c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y " i n the course s e t t i n g . TABLE 15 Socio-economic and M o t i v a t i o n a l P r e d i c t i o n s of P a r t i c i p a n t Perceptions o f the Conventionality„o f; the • Gourse S e t t i n g II  Independent Variables  :  Multiple R  R  Family income  .19  .04  Professional Advancement  •25  .06  -.17  -.20  Currently employed  .26  .07  -.11  -.14  2  Simple r • 19  Beta .21  48 2 2 Family income (R =.04), Professional Advancement (R = . 0 6 ) , and currently employed (R =.07) accounted f o r the greatest amount of v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h i s equation.  The person most l i k e l y to perceive the course s e t t i n g as "con-  ventional" had a lower than average family income, was not employed f o r salary or wages and motivated to participate f o r reasons r e l a t e d to Prof e s s i o n a l Advancement.  The person l e a s t l i k e l y to perceive the course  s e t t i n g as "conventional" had a higher than average family income, was employed and not strongly motivated to participate f o r reasons of Profess t i o n a l Advancement.  The most powerful predictors of "conventionality" i n  course s e t t i n g were family income (Beta=.2l) and Professional Advancement (Beta=-.20). The variables i n Table 15 accounted" f o r only seven percent of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n participant perceptions of "conventionality" i n course setting.  Socio-economic variables accounted f o r f i v e percent of t h i s  v a r i a b i l i t y , EPS factors f o r the remaining two percent. Predictive Contributions of Socio-economic and EPS Variables Age enters s i g n i f i c a n t l y into seven of the nine, equations, more than any other single v a r i a b l e .  Age was both an important predictor and  accounted f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t proportion of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n participant s a t i s f a c t i o n with the " s o c i a b i l i t y " and " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" of the course content and participant perceptions of "conventionality" i n themselves (Myself), the instructor, and the course content.  Older par-  t i c i p a n t s i n general tended to be more s a t i s f i e d with those aspects of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l environment and to perceive greater "conventionality" than younger p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Family income was also an important predictor and  accounted f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of v a r i a b i l i t y i n participant  49 s a t i s f a c t i o n with " s o c i a b i l i t y " and " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" i n the course setting.  The higher the family income, the l e s s s a t i s f i e d participants  were and the l e s s "conventionality" they perceived i n course s e t t i n g . Escape/Stimulation accounted f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of v a r i a b i l i t y i n participant s a t i s f a c t i o n with " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" i n both course s e t t i n g and other adult education participants and was an important pred i c t o r i n the equation  on course s e t t i n g .  The higher the scores on  Escape/Stimulation, the more s a t i s f i e d the respondents were with ectual potency" i n setting and others.  "intell-  External Expectations was a  r e l a t i v e l y important predictor and accounted f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t amount of v a r i a b i l i t y i n participant perceptions of t h e i r own "conventionality" and that of t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r s .  The higher the scores on External Expecta-  tions, the more "conventionality" the respondents attributed to themselves and the i n s t r u c t o r .  S o c i a l Welfare was an important predictor and accounted  f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t proportion of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n s a t i s f a c t i o n with the " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" of the course content.  The higher the scores on  Social Welfare, the more s a t i s f i e d the respondents were. Overall, socio-economic variables acted as s i g n i f i c a n t predictors of the dependent variables i n the nine regression equations — often as EPS f a c t o r s .  twice as  This was true f o r "person" and."thing" concepts.  "Thing" concepts were s i g n i f i c a n t l y predicted almost twice as frequently as "person" concepts by both socio-economic and EPS v a r i a b l e s .  Table 16  shows the proportion of the t o t a l v a r i a b i l i t y i n a l l f i f t e e n regression equations explained by socio-economic and EPS v a r i a b l e s . summarized and reported are marked with an a s t e r i s k .  The nine equations  The percent of v a r i a -  b i l i t y given i n Table 16 represents the t o t a l amount of v a r i a b i l i t y i n each  50  equation explained by a l l s i g n i f i c a n t and non-significant independent v a r i ables.  In general, socio-economic variables accounted f o r a greater pro-  portion of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n most equations, e s p e c i a l l y those which were important.  The amount of v a r i a b i l i t y accounted f o r i s noticeably higher  i n several equations r e l a t e d to "thing" concepts.  Participant satisfac-  t i o n with " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" i n course content and s e t t i n g , and t h e i r perceptions  of "conventionality" i n themselves and the i n s t r u c t o r were  the most strongly predicted of a l l dependent v a r i a b l e s . these equations and l e s s  Even so, with  powerful ones e s p e c i a l l y , the explained  pro-  portion of the t o t a l v a r i a b i l i t y i n each dependent variable i s markedly low.  TABLE 16 Percent of V a r i a b i l i t y i n Three " S a t i s f a c t i o n " Factors Explained by Two Categories of Independent Variables  Education" cx J J. Students  Myself  FACTOR I Sociability Socio-economic Variables EPS Factors Totals  3 h 7%  1 0 1%  FACTOR I I I n t e l l e c t u a l Potency Socio-economic Variables EPS Factors Totals  5 4 9%  FACTOR I l l Conventionality Socio-economic Variables EPS Factors Totals 5  2 3 5%  _ Instructor +  G  f ***** content Setting o  u  e  +  fc  2 7%  ^ 8 3 11%  13 1 lk%  2 3 5%  3 ^ 7%  7 9 W o  11 5 16%  9 5 lk%  8 k 12%  6 h 10%  5 11%  5  51  Summary of Multivariate Analysis The purpose of t h i s study was to investigate the extent to which motivational orientations "predict" participant s a t i s f a c t i o n with adult educational environments.  It was expected that motivational orientation  factors would be more powerful predictors (singly  and c o l l e c t i v e l y ) of  participant s a t i s f a c t i o n than the socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of subj e c t s i n t h i s study.  The nine regression equations chosen previously as  the most s i g n i f i c a n t are discussed below i n terms of both expected and actual r e s u l t s . When considering the c o l l e c t i v e contribution of the two types of variables to the t o t a l explained v a r i a b i l i t y i n each equation, a l l but one of the nine s i g n i f i c a n t equations resulted i n the largest proportion of v a r i a b i l i t y being predicted by socio-economic v a r i a b l e s .  The exception  was the " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" of the "course content" equation.  Social  Welfare accounted f o r the most v a r i a b i l i t y i n the perceived potency of "course content"; EPS factors c o l l e c t i v e l y accounted f o r more than h a l f of the t o t a l explained v a r i a b i l i t y . Individuals motivated by S o c i a l Welfare or Cognitive Interest were more s a t i s f i e d with " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" i n the course content than low scorers on these f a c t o r s .  These i n d i v i d u a l s were also l i k e l y to be older  than average f o r t h e i r group and to have smaller than average family  :  .  incomes. Although the c o l l e c t i v e contributions to theeexplained v a r i a b i l i t y i n the remaining equations was greater f o r socio-economic variables, single EPS factors accounted f o r the largest i n d i v i d u a l percent of v a r i a b i l i t y i n three of these equations.  For example, i n the equation predicting p a r t i c i - ;  pant s a t i s f a c t i o n with the " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" of other adult education  52  students, Escape/Stimulation accounted f o r the single greatest amount o f variability.  Individuals motivated by Escape/Stimulation were more s a t i s -  f i e d with the " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" of the other p a r t i c i p a n t s .  Escape/  Stimulation was also one of the two v a r i a b l e s accounting f o r the most v a r i a a b i l i t y i n participant s a t i s f a c t i o n with " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" i n the course s e t t i n g .  Individuals motivated by Escape/Stimulation were more  s a t i s f i e d with the " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" of the course s e t t i n g . In the equation predicting participant perceptions of "conventiona l i t y " i n the instructor, External Expectations was one of two v a r i a b l e s that accounted f o r the largest amount of v a r i a b i l i t y .  Individuals moti-  vated by External Expectations perceived more "conventionality" i n the i n structor than low scorers on t h i s EPS f a c t o r . In the remaining f i v e equations socio-economic  v a r i a b l e s accounted  f o r the largest proportion of v a r i a b i l i t y both singly and c o l l e c t i v e l y . Age accounted  f o r the single largest amount of v a r i a b i l i t y i n three equa-  tions, l e v e l of family income f o r the most v a r i a b i l i t y i n the other two. In general the older the respondents were, the more s a t i s f i e d they were and the more "conventionality" they perceived i n c e r t a i n aspects of the educat i o n a l environment.  In general, the higher the family income the more d i s - '  s a t i s f i e d the respondents were and the l e s s "conventionality" they a t t r i b u t e d to c e r t a i n aspects of the Instructional.environment.  53  CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION This f i n a l chapter begins with a summary of the most -.salient f i n d ings of the study.  From these findings four p r i n c i p a l conclusions are  drawn and discussed. F i n a l l y , the significance and implications of these findings f o r adult education research and practice w i l l be considered. Summary This study had as i t s main purpose the investigation of the r e l a t i o n ship of socio-economic and motivational c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to participant s a t i s f a c t i o n with i n s t r u c t i o n a l environments. ulated to guide the investigation asked: with i n s t r u c t i o n a l environments economic characteristics?  A research question form-  To what extent i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  predicted by t h e i r motivational and socio-  As tested knowledge  regarding the nature of  relationships i d e n t i f i e d by the research question i s very incomplete, the multivariate analysis employed i n t h i s study was exploratory i n nature. Three instruments were' used i n the course of t h i s study; a socioeconomic instrument; the Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n Scale (EPS); and the Personality and Educational Environment Scales (PEES).  The EPS measured the  motivational orientations of respondents. The PEES measured participant s a t i s f a c t i o n with i n s t r u c t i o n a l environments.  The three personological concepts to be rated on the o r i g i n a l  PEES were supplemented by two a d d i t i o n a l thing-related concepts to produce a revised PEES instrument consisting.;, of f i v e i n s t r u c t i o n a l environment  \  54 concepts, each t o be rated on the same s c a l e s . Factor a n a l y s i s and r e l i a b i l i t y procedures were conducted on the PEES.  The three f a c t o r s which  emerged were I —  Sociability, I I —  I n t e l l e c t u a l Potency, and I I I —  Conventionality.  The PEES appeared to be r e l i a b l e .  In a l l , 28 mainly general i n t e r e s t courses were included i n the study.  Courses were selected from four d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n a l providers  of a d u l t education.  They were Vancouver Community College —  Langara  Campus, the While Rock Elementary Community School, the Queen E l i z a b e t h Adult Education Centre i n Surrey, and the Centre f o r Continuing Education a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. were obtained.  From them, 222 complete sets o f data  Socio-economic and EPS questionnaires were administered i n  one of the opening few sessions o f each course.  The PEES instrument was  administered i n one of the c l o s i n g sessions f o r each course. researcher administered the instruments to a l l courses.  The  D e s c r i p t i v e , cor-  r e l a t i o n a l , and m u l t i v a r i a t e s t a t i s t i c a l techniques were used t o analyze the data. A t o t a l o f f i f t e e n independent v a r i a b l e s were used to p r e d i c t part i c i p a n t s a t i s f a c t i o n with f i v e educational environment concepts. nine were socio-economic factors.  Of these,  v a r i a b l e s and s i x were m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n  Of f i f t e e n m u l t i p l e regression equations, the nine most important  were discussed i n d e t a i l . 1.  In., the equation p r e d i c t i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f a c t i o n with the  " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" of other a d u l t education students, the v a r i a b l e s accounting f o r the most explained v a r i a b i l i t y were Escape/Stimulation, years of f u l l - t i m e post-secondary  education, years o f part-time  post-secondary  education, and sex. Together they explained s i x percent of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" i n other students.  55  2.  The most powerful variables i n the equation predicting participant  perceptions of "conventionality" i n themselves were age, External Expectations, sex, occupation and Escape/Stimulation.  Together they explained  twelve percent of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n perceptions of "conventionality" i n themselves. 3-  The most powerful variables i n the equation predicting participant  perceptions of "conventionality" i n t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r were External Expectations, currently employed, age, years of part-time post-secondary educat i o n and family income. Together they explained ten percent of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n perceptions of "conventionality" i n t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r . 4.  The most powerful predictors of participant s a t i s f a c t i o n with the  " s o c i a b i l i t y " of the course content were age, years of f u l l - t i m e postsecondary education, Social Welfare and sex. Together they accounted f o r seven percent of the explained v a r i a b i l i t y i n s a t i s f a c t i o n with the " s o c i a b i l i t y " of course content. 5.  The most powerful predictors of participant s a t i s f a c t i o n with the  " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency"  of the course content were Social Welfare, age,  Cognitive Interest, family income, and personal income. Together they explained twelve percent of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n s a t i s f a c t i o n with " i n t e l l ectual potency" i n the course content. 6.  The most powerful predictors of participant perceptions of  "conventionality" i n course content were age, occupation, Cognitive Interest, Professional Advancement and Social Welfare.  Together they  explained seven percent of the v a r i a b i l i t y i n perceptions of "conventionality" i n course content. 7.  The most powerful predictors of participant satisfaction, with the  " s o c i a b i l i t y " of the course setting were family income, currently employed,  56  years  o f part-time post-secondary  they accounted faction with 8.  f o r twelve  "intellectual Stimulation, explained ectual  potency" currently  fifteen  potency"  9.  The  predictors  employed,  The most p o w e r f u l  variability  i n the course  of participant setting  were f a m i l y income, Together  i n satisfaction  Escape/ they  with  "intell-  setting. of participant  perceptions of  s e t t i n g were f a m i l y income, P r o f e s s i o n a l  employed.  Together  they  e x p l a i n e d seven  i n perceptions of "conventionality" most p o w e r f u l  i n satis-  s a t i s f a c t i o n with the  occupation, and age.  predictors  i n course  Together  setting.  o f the v a r i a b i l i t y  i n the course  and c u r r e n t l y  o f the explained v a r i a b i l i t y  o f the course  percent  "conventionality" ment,  percent  "sociability"  'The m o s t p o w e r f u l  e d u c a t i o n , age, and o c c u p a t i o n .  single  variables  i n course  Advance-  percent  of the  setting.  i n the preceding nine r e g r e s s i o n  e q u a t i o n s were age, f a m i l y income, E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a t i o n s a n d S o c i a l  Welfare.  O l d e r p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e more  satisfied  likely  than younger p a r t i c i p a n t s  t o be  with and t o p e r c e i v e as " c o n v e n t i o n a l " s p e c i f i c  instructional  concepts.  f a m i l y i n c o m e s were  satisfied those  Respondents w i t h h i g h e r than average on c e r t a i n  with lower  concepts  and p e r c e i v e d l e s s " " c o n v e n t i o n a l i t y "  f a m i l y incomes. or Social  certain  R e s p o n d e n t s more h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d  t i o n s w e r e more  likely  Welfare  ortion  o f the v a r i a b i l i t y  w e r e more almost  important.  were more  to perceive certain  In general, socio-economic  variables.  t o be  than  "thing"  satisfied  on  as "conventional."  especially  concepts  by  by E x t e r n a l E x p e c t a -  v a r i a b l e s accounted  twice as f r e q u e n t l y a s the three  economic a n d EPS  likely  concepts  i n most e q u a t i o n s ,  T h e two  less  R e s p o n d e n t s more h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d  Escape/Stimulation concepts.  environment  f o r a greater those  nine  prop-  which  were s i g n i f i c a n t l y p r e d i c t e d  "person"  concepts  by b o t h  socio-  57  Conclusions The 1. in  results  A l l the participant  icipant for  variables  satisfaction. was  capture  i t .  the  and  a  participant  However, t h i s  and  this  is  unlikely.  f i r s t explanation The  second  o v e r 83  but  appears that  of  other variables to  the  difference  part-  account  for  i s the  satisfaction.  be  of  a  between  study  i f the  reliability  t h i s and  other  r e l i a b l e and  study d i d  valid,  measure t h e  orientations  and  true  participant  R a t h e r t h a n de°cis-ively these  antecedent This  strongly  p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s which determine  their  below.  participant  satisfaction  i s easier  to  many r e g r e s s i o n  significants  accounted  "person"-related  this  v a r i a b i l i t y unexplained.  Twice as  "thing"-related  result  Since be  exists  but  satisfaction,  satisfaction  c o n c e p t s were j u d g e d t o  seven percent  of  identified  amount o f  "thing"-related  v a r i a b i l i t y on  the  participants'  equations,^predictor variables the  this  environments.  feelings  percent  i t i s not  "person"-related  of  variability  variability in  relationship  PEES i n s t r u m e n t s t o  instructional  Having regard  "thing"  the  belmore l i k e l y  between m o t i v a t i o n a l  participants'  left  satisfaction  it  with  for  suggests that  2.  of  conclusions.  very l i t t l e  satisfaction  would  p o s s i b i l i t y i s that  relationship  satisfaction  variables  for  i n s t r u m e n t s were i n a d e q u a t e . EPS  accounting  f o u r main  Several explanations could  more p o t e n t  s t u d i e s have"shown the  of  to  percent  unexplained.  orientations  v a l i d i t y of  extent  rise  accounted  O v e r 83  p o s s i b i l i t y i s that  motivational  and  study give  results.  One  to  this  predictor  satisfaction  these  failed  of  f o r an  For  explain  than  equations  on  a l l fifteen  average of  satisfaction  satisfaction.  g r e a t e r r e a d i n e s s by  be  regression  thirteen  v e r s u s an I t may  explained,  percent  average that  participants  of  this to  rate  58 the non-personological factors i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l environment. t h i s was  Even i f  the case, these r e s u l t s confirm the d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t s (measured  i n t h i s case by ratings based on perceived or i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s ) of  per-  sonological and non-personological a t t r i b u t e s of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l environment . 3.  O v e r a l l , . i t appeared that socio-economic variables were more power-  f u l predictors of participant s a t i s f a c t i o n than motivational Socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are known to be associated of developmental tasks.  orientations.  with the notion  Thus, adult educators should employ programming  models that draw t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l foundations from the l i t e r a t u r e on developmental tasks and related notions.  Programming i n t h i s way  would  increase the changes of " f i t t i n g " courses with the developmental tasks of adults through t h e i r known socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Motives f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n are related to socio-economic variables but are i n e f f e c t i v e predictors of participant s a t i s f a c t i o n . tions to t h i s pattern were Escape/Stimulation, which was  a  Several excepconsistently  important predictor of participant s a t i s f a c t i o n with " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency" i n other students and course setting, and External Expectations which cons i s t e n t l y predicted  participant perceptions of "conventionality"  selves and t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r s .  i n them-  In the case of high Escape/Stimulation moti-  vation, respondents were more s a t i s f i e d with " i n t e l l e c t u a l potency.."  This  This appears to indicate that these persons were " s a t i s f i e d " by the act of p a r t i c i p a t i n g and cast a l e s s c r i t i c a l eye at students and course s e t t i n g . In the case of high External Expectations motivation, respondents perceived more "conventionality"  i n themselves and t h e i r instructors than low  It i s not surprising that persons who expectations of another person saw  scorers.  participated i n order to meet the  themselves and t h e i r instructors as  59 "conventional."  This relationship, as well as the preceding one,  makes  sense i n view of the types of motivational orientations which gave r i s e to them. 4.  No common p r o f i l e emerged f o r a " t y p i c a l " respondent across a l l  regression predicted  equations.  In other words the " s i g n i f i c a n t " variables  that  s a t i s f a c t i o n with course content were not the same as those asso-  ciated with course setting, other students, and  so on.  This suggests that  there i s no pervasive tendency to be s a t i s f i e d or d i s s a t i s f i e d irrespective of the "target" of the discontent.  In other words, each element of the  environment (setting, content, students, i n s t r u c t o r and  so on) was c r u c i a l .  The only " i n t e r n a l " participant variable prominent i n predicting s a t i s f a c t i o n with several aspects <5f the environment was extent, family income.  age,  and to a l e s s e r  Results concerning t h i s aspect of the study suggest  that people behave r a t i o n a l l y ; i f an element of the environment i s defect i v e (e.g. the i n s t r u c t o r or the setting) they become d i s s a t i s f i e d with i t . Their d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n has l e s s to do with i n t e r n a l participant  characteris-  t i c s than with the objectiveereality with which they are confronted.  In  other words, a poor i n s t r u c t o r or s e t t i n g per se induces d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . It has l i t t l e to do with participant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  Direct measures of  i n s t r u c t i o n a l environment variables might correlate more highly with s a t i s f a c t i o n than " i n t e r n a l " participant  variables.  Discussion This study i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n research and education practice i n several ways.  Given the minimal impact of  adult socio-  economic and motivational c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s on participant s a t i s f a c t i o n program planners and instructors should be more c r i t i c a l of  strategies  60  based upon accommodation of learner c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which were investigated i n t h i s study.  Motivational  orientations i n p a r t i c u l a r have l i t t l e impact  on participant s a t i s f a c t i o n .  The  quality of i n s t r u c t i o n i s possibly a  more powerful determinant of participant s a t i s f a c t i o n . In some respects, the fact that motivational orientations  largely  f a i l e d to account f o r participant s a t i s f a c t i o n i s a heartening r e s u l t f o r adult education p r a c t i t i o n e r s but challenges fundamental b e l i e f s .  Adult  educators appear to believe that programs and environments t a i l o r e d to the needs, motives and  expectations of learners w i l l r e s u l t i n higher l e v e l s of  participant s a t i s f a c t i o n than programs involving minimal consultation tween learners and  "teachers" . The  present study suggests that  be-  participant  s a t i s f a c t i o n i s l a r g e l y independent of i n i t i a l motives that impelled that person to p a r t i c i p a t e .  In other words, a good i n s t r u c t o r can induce high  (or low) l e v e l s of s a t i s f a c t i o n irrespective of participant motivation. Fundamental to t h i s assertion i s the d i s t i n c t i o n between program planning and i n s t r u c t i o n .  This d i s t i n c t i o n i s central to Verner's (1962)  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between method (programming) and technique ( i n s t r u c t i o n ) . Writers such as Knowles and Houle do not make t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n .  Indeed,  i n Knowles' (1970) seven-step model, programming and i n s t r u c t i o n steps are interspersed  with each other; thus climate setting, an i n s t r u c t i o n a l pro-  cess, precedes the establishment of a structure f o r planning, a step i n the program planning process. A f a i l u r e to d i s t i n g u i s h program planning from i n s t r u c t i o n has some writers to conclude that internal participant variables  led  (such as  motivational orientations) have powerful e f f e c t s during a l l phases of the adult education process.  The  present study highlights a problem  associated  61  with the f a i l u r e to distinguish program planning from i n s t r u c t i o n .  Motiva-  t i o n a l orientations are apparently associated with the p a r t i c i p a t i o n "behaviour of people (when choosing programs) but, according to t h i s study, have l i t t l e impact on t h e i r o v e r a l l s a t i s f a c t i o n with people and things i n the i n s t r u c t i o n a l environment.  In short, participants l a r g e l y appear to leave  t h e i r motivational orientations outside the classroom door; they have l i t t l e influence on s a t i s f a c t i o n with the i n s t r u c t i o n provided. In some respects adult i n s t r u c t i o n may a c t u a l l y be impeded by i n s t r u c t o r s who "blame" f a u l t y participant motivation f o r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and an i n a b i l i t y to l e a r n .  This study showed that while some s a t i s f a c t i o n  with "things" i n the environment i s related to i n i t i a l motives f o r p a r t i c i pation, large amounts o f s a t i s f a c t i o n variance are unexplained.  According  to Knowles (1970), adults allegedly have an "independent" self-concept, a broad experiential base and an "immediate" time perspective. that i n s t r u c t i o n f o r them be "adult" oriented.  This requires  I t i s the "adult" character-  i s t i c s that l a r g e l y provide the r a t i o n a l e f o r "adult education". Motivational orientations represent only a small fragment of the adult " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " so prominent i n adult education.  Nevertheless, they  have occupied considerable research attention and appear to be c r u c i a l to the program planning process.  Their minimal impact on participant s a t i s f a c -  t i o n , i f confirmed i n subsequent research, suggests that the sources of variance i n s a t i s f a c t i o n l i e elsewhere — more probably, external v a r i a b l e s .  such as i n other i n t e r n a l or,  I t may be, f o r example, that good  i n s t r u c t i o n i s simply good i n s t r u c t i o n and that "adult" c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have l i t t l e to do with i t .  Proponents of l i f e l o n g education (e.g. Dave, 1976) who  want to dismantle boundaries between "adult" and other segments o f the education "system" would argue that s i m i l a r i t i e s between people outweigh  62  differences associated with age or "adultness'." I f , as t h i s study appears to suggest, s a t i s f a c t i o n i s not a s s o c i ated with " i n t e r n a l " participant variables (of which motivational  orien-  t a t i o n s i s one of the more c r u c i a l ) then other sources of variance to be considered.  Participants are known to become d i s s a t i s f i e d with .  uncomfortable furniture, adverse weather, mindless bureaucratic ments and so on.  need  require-  But these variables probably have minimal e f f e c t s coni£  pared to those associated with the q u a l i t y of the i n s t r u c t i o n and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the i n s t r u c t o r .  the  As Boshier (1980) and Knox (197?)  have suggested, s a t i s f a c t i o n probably stems from an i n t e r a c t i o n of p a r t i cipant, i n s t r u c t o r and course content v a r i a b l e s . variables under i n s t r u c t o r control are c r u c i a l .  In t h i s transaction, Moreover, one  suspects  that almost any participant, regardless of "motivation" or other psychol o g i c a l states, w i l l be s a t i s f i e d with high-quality i n s t r u c t i o n .  Thus,  future research concerning participant s a t i s f a c t i o n might focus on i n s t r u c t o r behaviour and the educational  environment.  T h e o r e t i c a l l y and p r a c t i c a l l y , t h i s study has several possible implications f o r future work. representative  I f motivational  orientations are broadly  of learner c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (as i s often asserted) t h i s study  suggests they have l i t t l e influence on s a t i s f a c t i o n . Thus, future  research  which t r i e s to explain or predict s a t i s f a c t i o n (or r e l a t e d variables such as dropout) merely on the basis of i n t e r n a l variable e f f e c t s may predictive power.  Researchers may  be disappointed  ship between "learner" and s a t i s f a c t i o n v a r i a b l e s .  lack  by the lack of r e l a t i o n However, i f motivational  orientations represent only a fragment or sub-set of a l a r g e r domain of learner c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s then i t i s possible that other " i n t e r n a l " variables may  s a t i s f a c t o r i l y predict s a t i s f a c t i o n , even when r e l a t i o n s h i p s with .  63  motivational  orientations are weak.  U n t i l researchers more f u l l y understand  the correlates and antecedents of motivational  orientations and conduct  studies r e l a t i n g other i n t e r n a l variables to s a t i s f a c t i o n , i t w i l l not  be  possible to establish the extent to which other i n t e r n a l variables have e f f e c t s separate from those of motivational  orientation.  With regard to the foregoing i t appears that s a t i s f a c t i o n stems from an i n t e r a c t i o n of i n t e r n a l and external v a r i a b l e s .  However, i n  considering the r e l a t i v e contributions of i n t e r n a l and external  variables  to s a t i s f a c t i o n , i t appears that external variables, p a r t i c u l a r l y the q u a l i t y of the i n s t r u c t i o n , have a greater influence than i n t e r n a l psychological variables.  As s o c i a l learning t h e o r i s t s have noted, the human  organism i s not a passive r e c i p i e n t of environmental cues and r e i n f o r c e r s , but i n t e r a c t s with and shapes the nature of external v a r i a b l e s .  Future  research and theorizing should stem from a recognition of the f a c t that  few  adult education outcomes stem from the e f f e c t s of single v a r i a b l e s . Thus, further testingoof B o s h i e r s congruence model would require 1  an examination of i n s t r u c t o r and i n s t r u c t i o n r e l a t e d variable's.  In pre-  senting and developing t h i s model Boshier adopted a phenomenological stance; he maintained that perception  precedes a c t i o n .  For example, i f  participants perceive an i n s t r u c t o r to be boring, behaviour would flow from that perception.  Thus participants' perceptions of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l en-  vironment are measured by PEES.  Although t h i s i s an a t t r a c t i v e and widely  adopted t h e o r e t i c a l stance, future researchers might consider the p o s s i b i l i t y of measuringg aspects of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l environment more d i r e c t l y . Implicit i n t h i s suggestion i s the need f o r a behaviouristic model of i n s t r u c t o r behaviour.  (quantifiable)  Such a model would enable researchers to  64  measure i n s t r u c t i o n d i r e c t l y ;  they could  r e l y on  objective rather  than  s u b j e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t measures o f i n s t r u c t o r b e h a v i o u r .  Within  l i t e r a t u r e of adult education  Chamberlain,  A k e r , 1963;  Verner, Dickinson,  c e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s and tors.  The  should  be  e t a l , 1970;  competencies intended  t h e o r e t i c a l and incorporated  satisfaction,  a r e a number o f w o r k s ( e . g .  drop-out, persistence)  i n s t r u c t o r ' s r o l e and  personal  onmental f o r c e s  social,  (e.g.  which  to characterize  "good" i n s t r u c -  propose  r e l a t e d works  on p a r t i c i p a n t b e h a v i o u r  to assess the  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  (e.g.  the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n r e l a t i o n to other p h y s i c a l ) and  I960;  C a m p b e l l , 1976)  e m p i r i c a l t h r u s t o f t h e s e and  into future research  the  internal states  (e.g.  envir-  motiva-  t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s ) a c t i n g on p a r t i c i p a n t s . Another p o s s i b i l i t y p e r v a d e s one's p e r c e p t i o n people are  grumpy p e r  f i e d w i t h the adult  i s that satisfaction i s a  o f many p e r s o n s a n d  se.  In other  things.  w o r d s t h e y may  be  "general" For  generally  c l a s s and  annoyed i f s u b j e c t e d In the  so o n .  I f t h i s conjecture  job,  i s c o r r e c t , one  can  doubly  to poor i n s t r u c t i o n i n an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  class.  meantime, i t a p p e a r s t h a t p a r t i c i p a n t s a t i s f a c t i o n can  •partly e x p l a i n e d  by v a r i a b l e s s u c h a s  those employed i n the  I f adult educators continue  to b e l i e v e t h e i r prime m i s s i o n  the. needs o f a d u l t l e a r n e r s  (and,  nations)  dissatis-  g o v e r n m e n t , t h e i r c h i l d r e n , ithe w e a t h e r , t h e i r g a r d e n ,  education  by  This  present i s to  be  study.  satisfy  i m p l i c a t i o n , communities, s o c i e t i e s ,  t h e y w i l l w a n t t o know how  in participant satisfaction.  which  e x a m p l e , grumpy  r e a s o n a b l y a s s u m e t h a t g e n e r a l l y d i s s a t i s f i e d p e o p l e w o u l d be  and  state  to create  s t u d y has  conditions  that result  theoretical significance i n  t h a t i t c a s t s d o u b t on t h e  extent  tional  satisfactorily explain participant satisfaction.  orientations —  can  t o w h i c h one  type of v a r i a b l e —  motiva-  65  P r a c t i c a l l y , i t has optimistic but challenging implications. the f a c t that motivational  In view of  orientations appear to have l i t t l e to do with  s a t i s f a c t i o n , the burden appears to reside with instructors who control the conditions f o r learning.  66  REFERENCES A k e r , G.F. 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