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A study of factors relating to the attitude of theological students toward the elderly Lewis, Rolland Wray 1982

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A STUDY OF FACTORS RELATING TO THE ATTITUDE OF THEOLOGICAL  STUDENTS TOWARD THE ELDERLY by ROLLAND WRAY LEWIS B. A. University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977 A STUDY SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Adult Education We accept this study as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1982 © Rolland Wray Lewis I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e h e a d o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Rolland Wray Lewis D e p a r t m e n t o f Adult Education The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3 D a t e 22 A p r i l 1982 DE-6 (3/81) Abstract The purpose of t h i s study was to investigate the int e r a c t i o n of selected independent variables with the general concept of attitude toward the elderly by students attending Northwest Baptist Theological College and the Vancouver School of Theology. In order to investigate these interactions, attitudes of subjects toward the el d e r l y were measured and the res u l t s tested against the independent variables of sex, age, years of post-secondary education, years of theological education, purpose f o r taking theological education, and the nature and the frequency of contact with the eld e r l y . A three part quest-ionnaire was used to gather data: a r e l i g i o u s conservatism measure developed by the Hartford Seminary Foundations an attitude measure developed by Rosencranz and McNevin (196-9) that measured a t t i t u d e , but subdivided into the Instrumental-Ineffective, the Autonomous-Dependent, and the Personal Acceptability-Unacceptability dimensions of attitude toward the elderly1 a section that e l i c i t e d demographic data. Data gathered was analysed by Pearson Product Moment cor-r e l a t i o n , t - t e sts f o r c r i t i c a l r a t i o s , and multiple regression analysis. Reported re s u l t s indicated that students tested at both schools held s i g n i f i c a n t l y positive attitudes toward the elderly when measured against a t h e o r e t i c a l l y neutral score. On the three sub-dimensions of the attitude scale, subjects at both schools registered positive responses, with the exception of subjects at Northwest Baptist Theological College, who reported a s i g n i f i c a n t l y negative score on the Instrumental-Ineffective dimension. Analysis of data gathered f a i l e d to establish any s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t r e lationship at the . 0 5 i i i l e v e l of confidence between attitude toward the elderly and sex, age, years of post-secondary education, years of theological education, purpose f o r undertaking theological education, and the frequency or the nature of contact with the el d e r l y . Subjects at Northwest Bapt-i s t Theological College registered a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between r e l i g i o u s conservatism and attitude toward the e l d e r l y , but subjects at the Vancouver School of Theology f a i l e d to report a s i g n i f i c a n t relationship on t h i s variable. F i n a l l y , those subjects who had one or more regular contacts with the elderly tended to be more positive than those subjects who had no regular contact with the e l d e r l y , '-.v. although not s i g n i f i c a n t l y so at the . 0 5 l e v e l of confidence. IV TABLE OF CONTENTS Ab s t r a c t i i Tables v i i Fig u r e s i x Acknowledgements x Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 North American A t t i t u d e s toward the Elderly-H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e s 1 Twentieth-century P e r s p e c t i v e s 5 Studies of Twentieth-century A t t i t u d e s 7 The Problem t o be I n v e s t i g a t e d 1 2 Summary 1 3 Chapter 2 LITERATURE RELATING TO ATTITUDE STUDIES I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 5 E a r l y Studies of A t t i t u d e toward the E l d e r l y 1 6 A t t i t u d e of Students toward the E l d e r l y 2 1 Stud i e s of Medical and Dental Students 3 0 Summary of Students' A t t i t u d e s 3 0 A t t i t u d e of Helping P r o f e s s i o n s 3 1 Conclusion 3 8 Chapter 3 THE STUDY Purpose of the Study 3 9 Ra t i o n a l e of V a r i a b l e s Age 3 9 Sex ko Post-secondary Secular Education kl Years of T h e o l o g i c a l Education * f l Purpose f o r T h e o l o g i c a l Education kZ Frequency of Contact kZ Nature of Contact kj Compulsory and Voluntary Contact 44 Theological Conservatism 44 The Sample Subjects 45 Northwest Baptist Theological College 45 Vancouver School of Theology 46 Instrumentation Religious Conservatism Measure 47 Attitude Measure 47 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Attitude 49 Elderly 49 S t a t i s t i c a l Significance 5 6 Sampling Procedure 5 0 Reason f o r the Study 5 0 Limitations Nature of Study 5 1 Instrumentation 5 1 Sampling 5 1 Limit of Conceptual Concepts i n Literature 5 1 Generalization 5 2 Chapter 4 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Introduction 5 3 Analysis of Dependent Variables Northwest Baptist Theological College 55 Vancouver School of Theology 59 Independent Variables Age 64 Sex 6 5 Years of Post-secondary Secular Education 6 7 Years of Theological Education 6 7 Purpose f o r Undertaking Theological Education 68 Contact with the Elderly 7 0 No Contact versus One or More Contacts 7 1 Nature of Contact 7 2 Voluntary and Compulsory Contact 7 2 Religious Conservatism 7 3 Chapter 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION Dependent Variables 7 6 Age versus Attitude 7 8 Sex versus Attitude 79 Post-secondary Education versus Attitude 80 Theological Education versus Attitude 80 v i Purpose f o r Undertaking Theological Education versus Attitude " 82 Number of Contacts versus A t t i t u d e 83 Compulsory, Mixed Compulsory and Voluntary, and Voluntary Contact versus Attitude 8*f Religious Conservatism versus A t t i t u d e Conclusion 86 References 90 Bibliography 93 Appendix A — The Statement Read a t Administration 96 Appendix B — The Instrument 97 v i i TABLES Table 1 - 1 Percentage of Jokes about the Elderly by Attitude and Sex 10 Table 1 - 2 Percentage of Jokes about the Elderly as related to Attitudes about Dying . . . 10 Table 2 - 1 Percentage of Agreement with Stereotypical Statements: Tuckman and Lorge 1958 Study 19 Table 2 - 2 Mean Scores on Subject's Attitude toward the Elderly: Naus 1973 Study 28 Table 2 - 3 Mean Attitude Scores of College Students, Fresh-man Dental Students and Freshman Medical Students . . 31 Table 2 - 4 Clergymen's Reported Preferences in Working with Age Groups: Longino and Kitson Study, I976 36 Table 4 - 1 Demographic Characteristics of Subjects Sampled 54 Table 4 - 2 Mean Scores Reported by Students at NWB on Dependent Variables Attitude, I-I, A-D, and P A-U . . 55 Table 4 - 3 Single-sample Chi-square Analysis for Scores from Dependent Variables Attitude, I-I, A-D, P A-U and a Normal Probability Curve 56 Table 4 - 4 Critical Ratios Value for Dependent Variables Attitude, I-I, A-D, and P A-U versus a theoretically Neutral Score 59 Table 4 - 5 Mean Scores Reported by Students at VST on Dependent Variables Attitude, I-I, A-D and P A-U . . . 60 Table 4 - 6 Single-sample Chi-square Analysis for Scores from Dependent Variables Attitude, I-I, A-D, and P A-U and a Normal Probability Curve . . . . . 6 l Table 4 - 7 C r i t i c a l Ratio Values for Dependent Variables Attitude, I-I, A-D, and P A-U versus a Theoretically Neutral Score 6 l Table 4 - 8 Correlation between Age and Dependent Variables Attitude, I-I, A-D, and P A-U 64 Table 4 - 9 Correlation between Sex and Dependent Variables Attitude, I-I, A-D, and P A-U 65 Table 4 - 1 0 Critical Ratios Value for Independent Variable Sex versus Dependent Variables Attitude, I-I, A-D, and P A-U 66 v i i i Table 4 - 1 1 Correlation between Years of Post-secondary Education and Dependent Variables Attitude, I - I , A-D, and P A-U 6 7 Table 4 - 1 2 Correlation between Years of Theological Education and Dependent Variables Attitude, I - I , A-D, and P A-U 6 8 Table 4 - 1 3 Student's Percentage of Purpose f o r Taking Theological Education . 6 9 Table 4 - 14 Mean Scores on Attitude and Purpose f o r Undertaking Theological Education 6 9 Table 4 - 1 5 C r i t i c a l Ratios between Purposes f o r Undertaking Theological Education 7 0 Table 4 - 1 6 Correlation between Number of Contacts and Attitude 71 Table 4 - 1 7 Subjects' Scores f o r No Regular Contact versus One or More Contacts 7 1 Table 4 - 1 8 Subjects' Scores on Voluntary, Mixed Voluntary and Compulsory, and Compulsory Contact with the Elderly . . 7 2 Table 4 - 1 9 T-Test Scores f o r Voluntary versus Compulsory Contacts 7 3 Table 4 - 2 0 Religious Conservatism Mean Scores 7 4 Table 4 - 2 1 Correlation between Religious Conservatism and Dependent Variables Attitude, I - I , A-D and P A-U . . . 7 4 Table 5 - 1 C r i t i c a l Ratios f o r Age and Attitude versus Religious Conservatism on a Median S p l i t : Northwest Baptist Theological College . . . . . . . . 8 6 ix FIGURES Figure 2 - 1 Mean Scores on Rosencranz and McNevin I 9 6 9 Study: Instrumental-Ineffective Dimension 24 Figure 2 - 2 Mean Scores on Rosencranz and McNevin 1 9 ^ 9 Study: Autonomous-Dependent Dimension 25 Figure 2 - 3 Mean Scores on Rosencranz and McNevin I969 Study: Personal Acceptability-Unacceptability Dimension 26 Figure 4 - 1 Normal Probability Curve versus NWB Attitude Curve 57 Figure 4 - 2 Normal Probability Curve versus NWB I-I Curve . . . 57 Figure 4 - 3 Normal Probability Curve versus NWB A-D Curve . . . 58 Figure 4 - 4 Normal Probability Curve versus NWB P A-U Curve . . 58 Figure 4 - 5 Normal Probability Curve versus VST Attitude Curve 62 Figure 4 - 6 Normal Probability Curve versus VST I-I Curve . . . 62 Figure 4 - 7 Normal Probability Curve versus VST A-D Curve . . . 63 Figure 4 - 8 Normal Probability Curve versus VST P A-U Curve . . 63 X Acknowledgements May I express my gratitude and appreciation to my supervisor, Jim Thornton, of the University of British Columbia, for his helpful encouragement and criticism at every stage of this study, and to Dan Pratt, University of British Columbia, and Bud Phillips, Vancouver School of Theology, for their helpful guidance and direction. I also appreciate the helpful cooperation of Principal J. P. Martin, Vancouver School of Theology, and Principal D. W. Harris, Northwest Baptist Theological College, and to members of faculty of both schools for their assistance in gathering data. My special thanks to my wife, Norah, for her helpful suggestions and close reading of this study during its development. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND Introduction In North America, the prevalent picture of an elderly person is that of a bent, grey-haired, wrinkled person with a shawl about his shoulders, sitting in a rocking chair. A l l too many cartoons, comic strips, stories, jokes, and anecdotes re-inforce this picture. A l l too often, care for the elderly consists primarily of custodial care through old age pensions, medicare and pharmacare, and governmentally subsidized old-folks* homes. But is this a l l that the elderly want and need? In 1978, as a requirement for the University of British Columbia's course Education 508, this student conducted interviews with the directors of two community centres that provided programs for the elderly. Both directors indicated that social isolation and loneliness were two factors found among their elderly clients. Some elderly people that their respective centres contacted had been isolated for so long they had insufficient confidence left to join other elderly persons in social activities. NORTH AMERICAN ATTITUDES TOWARD THE ELDERLY  Historical Perspectives The general treatment of a minority group frequently reflects the attitude of society at large. Treatment of the elderly, a minority group, fa l l s within this classification. During American colonial times, the elderly were held in highest esteem, in fact, the elderly were venerated. Retirement was not an option available to men, even when they were in advanced old age. Elderly men were 2 deferred to, even to the extent that they were given the preferred seats in the meetinghouses. Young men were dominated by their elders until the older members died. But even in colonial society* not a l l elderly men were given an elevated placet elderly poor, aged servants, and a l l blacks regardless of age were often neglected in the extreme. The colonial period reflected the largely Puritan dominated Bible based society in which clergymen exercised a substantial influence in the community. Naturally, their interpretation of the Bible became highly important. Extreme emphasis was placed on references such as The hoary head is a crown of glory," (Book of Proverbs), "Rebuke not an elder, but intreat him as a father," (Exodus), and the commandment, Honour thy father and thy mother . . . " (Exodus), with the suggestion that a long l i f e was the reward for observing these commandments. The themes of these quotations were expounded regularly from pulpits and occupied a disproportionately high percentage of content of clergymen's writing. Between about 1790 and I85O, the picture changed. During this period, young men 'rebelled* against their seniors, and the preferential, elevated position of the elderly middle and upper class was lowered. The young men's revolt against oppression by the elderly paralleled the underlying causes of the American revolution — a striving for more independence and authority. The strong sense of liberty and •quality that came to North America with the Puritans flourished, and the major segment of the population was not prepared to be dominated by a weak minority, and when the shift in attitudes began, i t continued until society at large denigrated the elderly and old age. 3 By about 1850, the disproportionate influence by the clergy had been replaced by a growing band of influential writers and lecturers. Fischer (1978) stated that, "An historical moment, mysterious in its origins but unmistakable in its effect, began at the end of the eighteenth-century . . . That great historical wave changed age relations in several ways at once." (pp. 113 ~ 114) First, advances in health care resulted in more people reaching old age, and a decline in the birth rate increased the percentage of elderly in the total population. Secondly, where the clergy (the intellectual elite in society) had made veneration of the elderly a sacred duty, the New England lit e r a t i told their readers the exact opposite. Writers such as Emerson, Thoreau, Hawthorne, Longfellow, and Walt Whitman wrote of old age in terms ranging from unfavourable to terms of extreme contempt. About 100 years later, writers such as Robert Service, Hemmingway, Steinbeck, Robert Frost, and T. S. Elliot portrayed their elderly characters in a pejorative manner. What is not clear is whether writers led, reflected, or followed attitudes, or whether writers and attitudes supported each other. But, a systematic study of literature from the mid-1800*s to the present indicates a steady decline in the status of old age. Many other indicators reflect changing attitudes by the society at large toward the elderly* Consider dress styles and semantic collocations. Prior to about 1790, for example, clothing worn by men and women was designed to hide the poorer parts of an elderly body and to emphasize the better parts. The last part of a man to show age i s the lower leg. Men's clothing in the pre-1790's included tight knee length hose that showed the shape of the wearer's leg, but also included loose fitting upper clothes, frequently with a 4 cape, that concealed the exact shape of the remainder of the body. Women's clothing, likewise, concealled the wearer in flowing skirts that completely camouflaged the wearer from the waist down — a concession to the elderly, but the upper torse, the shoulders and the breasts, was revealed as much as possible; this i s the portion of the body a mature woman can display to advantage. By about I85O, however, these styles had changed, and clothing no longer flattered the elderly figure, but, rather, flattered the young. Language also changed during this period. Prior to about 1 7 9 0 , words like fogy, gaffer, greybeard, and superannuated were not pejorative in nature. By about I85O, these words had taken on negative collocations. By the early nineteenth-century, neologisms expressing abuse against the elderly multiplied rapidly, and words such as cadge, codger, old corn-stalk, old goat, and fuddy-duddy became common. T. S. Elliot used the term 'straw men' in his poem to attack the 'old guard.' Euphemisms such as senior citizen carry a heavy sarcastic content. Thus, we see thatithe change in attitude towards the elderly showed itself in many aspects of society (See Fischer, 1 9 7 3 ) . Clark and Anderson ( 1 9 6 7 ) suggest four principal historical factors to explain why the elderly have come to be viewed negatively by North American society at large. First, kinship ties are weak. America was a frontier society until about the beginning of this century, and children were inclined to move away and to establish their own families in locations remote from their parents. By thus reducing extended family households, aging parents were at least partially removed from the mainstream of society. Secondly, tech-nological change and rapid industrialization altered the elderly 5 worker's role significantly. People in middle to later years were out-of-date as far as technical competance was concerned. Students leaving university today are trained for employment that did not exist a few years ago. In industry, older employees are frequently by-passed because they are no longer competent in their fields. Thirdly, more people are reaching old age. Many sets of figures are available to show that an ever increasing number of people are living in a state of 'non-productivity' in a society that values active production and achievement. Fourthly, Kluckhohn ( l ^ * P. 233) states, "Americans are not merely optomistic believers that 'work counts.* Their creed insists that anyone, anywhere in the social structure, can and should 'make the effort* . . . The only way to be safe in American l i f e is to be a success." By about age 65» stereotypical American policy compulsorily retires workers and class-ifies them as old. Removed from an active, productive, perhaps influential l i f e , such persons are relegated to an inferior position, 'put out to pasture,* and neglected. Twentieth-Century Perspective An excellent example of present day societal attitudes toward the elderly was presented in a July, 1981* television showing of a film titled "Robin and Marion." The film was a sequel to the Robin Hood story, only the events happened 20 years after the original story, unfortunately, the film presented many of the stereotypical views of the elderly. The story began with the return from the crusades of Richard the Lionheart, Robin Hood, and Little John. All were well into their middle to late years. Richard was portrayed 6 as a vendictive, addled old nan who ordered his troops to slaughter a l l the women and the children in an undefended castle. At the same time, Richard has acquired a young wife and was trying to execute a spirited dance. He dies early in the film — of old age. Robin and Little John are late middle-aged, greying, tired men trying to relive the past. In the major climax of the plot line, Robin and the Sheriff of Nottingham (Robin's former antagonist) fight to the death — portrayed as two out-of-condition, weary, old enemies with much more spirit than fight. Marion has become a prioress who, in middle age, tries to bring back the past. But she f a i l s , and poisons herself and the badly wounded Robin. Although this film had many humourous incidents and tended to use a cross between the forms of comedy of manners and high comedy, i t effected i t s purposes by u t i l -izing many of the age-old cliches about the middle-aged and the elderly, and by presenting its protagonists as high spirited but physically and mentally declining, middle-aged 'has-beens.' Richard presented the picture of a senile old man who has lost his bearings, who is trying to prove that he is 'as good as he ever was* by acquiring a teenage wife and by attempting a lively dance. He was the typical 'dirty old may* who was not 'acting his age.' Robin (played by Sean Connery) also made reference a number of times to his abilities. After a fight with a number of guards in which he and Little John win, he makes reference to the manner in which he had fought — "just like we used to . . Marlon is now middle-aged, but in a somewhat long soliloquay to Robin she suggested they build a cottage in Sherwood where they had been 20 years previously, and 7 makes plans characteristic of a young couple preparing to produce and rear a family. When Robin is severely wounded in his final fight with the sheriff, death i s the only alternative for someone who is no longer capable of leading a healthy, action f i l l e d l i f e . The unfort-unate fact of the film is that i t merely presented the North American stereotypical view of those persons no longer in their action-achieve-ment young adulthood. Studies of Twentieth-Century Attitudes A number of studies have been undertaken to investigate the North American view of the elderly. In 1976, Clara Collette-Pratt used a semantic differential scale to investigate devaluation of old age in comparison to age in general. Devaluation was predicated on attitudes toward cultural values, negative concomitants of old age, demographic variables, and self-reported intergenerational contacts. Her subjects were 123 college students, 90 middle-aged adults, and 108 elderly adults. A l l three groups of subjects devalued old age. Collette-Pratt presented three possible explanations for the negative attitudes: 1. One view is that negative feelings reflect the belief that old people represent a minority group characterized by low socio-economic status, poor health, and loneliness. In North America, a positive l i f e satisfaction relationship has developed about financial security, continuing social relationships, and good health. The absence of these entities generates the opposite attitude. And, of course, poor health and old age are equated with death, with a l l its negative images and connotations. 8 2 . " . . . the elderly lack the ability or opportunity to reflect the American values of productivity, achievement, and independence." (Collette-Pratt, 1976, p. 1 9 3 ) . As a group, the elderly have dif-ficulty exercising any of these attributes, although organizations such as the Grey Panthers and the work of the Glide Memorial United Methodist Church may alter this situation. Because of forced retire-ment, continuing illnesses, and the need for society to provide increased care (nurturance), the highly regarded American values of achievement and independence cannot be realized. (Clark, 1967, Cowgill and Holmes, 1972.) 3« The sharp stratification in America that divides people into age groups generates stereotypes and misinformation. Although this area of investigation has not been clearly examined, i t remains a theorized explanation for negative attitudes toward the elderly (McTavish, 1971)* An indirect method of measuring attitudes toward the elderly was undertaken independently by Joseph Richman (1977) and Leland J. Davies (1977). Both researchers analysed the content of jokes in order to form a national concensus of opinions about the elderly. Richman drew on Freud to say that jokes are used to say what cannot be said seriously. Richman further suggests that, "The quality of wisdom, of wit as a vehicle for uncovering the truth, suggests that jokes might be a particularly sensitive means of arriving at basic social and folk attitudes which are not commonly stated." (p. 211) Richman*s work was a slightly modified replication of Palmore's I 9 7 I study of jokes. Richman undertook a thematic analysis of 100 jokes about the elderly and 160 jokes dealing with pre-adolescent children, and compared the results. In order to establish a system-atic comparison, each joke was analyzed along five major dimensions. 9 1. The hero as main c h a r a c t e r . Jokes d e a l i n g w i t h the e l d e r l y u s u a l l y separated male and female, but jokes about c h i l d r e n u s u a l l y made no sex d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . 2. Who was the b u t t o f the j o k e . Not a l l jokes had a b u t t . 3. The a t t i t u d e toward the c h i l d o r the o l d person. Richman used a simple dichotomous p o s i t i v e / n e g a t i v e s c o r e , 4. The major overt theme o f the j o k e . The theme o f a joke might be r e f e r r e d t o as the 'p o i n t ' o r the 'moral.* Some jokes have o n l y one theme. 5* The major covert theme o f the j o k e . Richman summarized h i s study w i t h t h r e e major f i n d i n g s . F i r s t , jokes and t h e r e f o r e s o c i e t a l a t t i t u d e s confirmed a g r e a t e r negative a t t i t u d e toward the e l d e r l y than toward c h i l d r e n . Secondly, h i s study o f jokes r e v e a l e d a c r i t i c a l and h o s t i l e a t t i t u d e toward an o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y toward parents and parent f i g u r e s . T h i r d l y , negative a t t i t u d e s toward the e l d e r l y a l s o contained a negative a t t i t u d e toward those who were biased a g a i n s t t h e e l d e r l y . Yet, a benign view o f the e l d e r l y comes through, even i n the negative a t t i t u d e s . For h i s study o f a t t i t u d e s as r e f l e c t e d i n j o k e s , Davies examined a sample o f 363 jokes s e l e c t e d from s i x a n t h o l o g i e s purchased i n Toronto. Davies d i v i d e d h i s jokes i n t o the two broad c a t a g o r i e s o f a g i n g and death. A chi-square a n a l y s i s f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p was done f o r those two c a t a g o r i e s , but not f o r i n d i v i d u a l s u b d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n each catagory. Jokes about s e x u a l i t y (27 percent) appeared most f r e q u e n t l y , and the m a j o r i t y were male o r i e n t e d (60 p e r c e n t ) . Table 10 1-1 details the aggregate results. Table 1-1 Percentage of Jokes about the Elderly by Attitude and Sex Percentage total jokes Percentage for each attitude Attitude each attitude Male Female Nonspecific Positive 14.6 Negative 63.1 Ambivalent 22.3 17.1 7.9 8.3 65.8 84.2 68.2 17.1 7.9 23.5 Jokes about death were 55 percent in the general area of the dying process. Seventy percent were negative in terms of showing an understanding or acceptance of dying. Table 2 details the aggregate results of the dying catagory. Table 1-2 Percentage of Jokes about the Elderly as related to Attitudes about Dying Attitude Percentage total jokes Percentage for each attitude each attitude Male Female Nospecific Positive 25.1 27.5 16.2 26.8 Negative 57.3 51.* 75-7 56.1 Ambivalent 17.6 21.1 8.1 17.1 11 Davies concluded his study be stating that ". . . i t becomes clear that the jokes were showing negative views and sexual differences in attitude toward the later developmental stages." (p. 224). His final summary is that, "This does not indicate a healthy social attitude." (p. 224). A number of other studies that have investigated the attitude of North American society at large toward the elderly might be cited. Also, a sharp contrast could be drawn between the American practice of isolating and disengaging the elderly from the mainstream of society and the practices of some other societies. Generally speaking, however, America appears to have an active, achievement oriented society which places extreme emphasis on youth and accomplishment. Alicia P. Savage (1978, p. 13) states: Initiatives for and adaptation to change are normally perogatives of the young. Older people represent another era, another way of l i f e that are often incomprehensible to the young. Within this context, therefore, i t is not surprising that in our rapidly changing society, the central societal focus is on the young. As obsolescence is the key of our technology, i t is but a simple step to extend this concept to people and cultural values as well. A l l of these factors, then, have been contributory to the social isolation of older people. In discussing world societies in general, Philip Slater (1964, p. 261) states t Those societies which approach or achieve a level we c a l l •civilized 1 particularly when characterized by a fairly advanced technology, also show in many cases an attitude of disregard for the aged, although tempered by a sense of obligation with respect to their maintenance and care . . . Societies in which the elderly have high prestege are generally authoritarian, total-itarian, collectivistic and static . . . In societies in which the aged have low prestege, government is by general assembly or some other democratic system . . . Individualism is prevalent and highly valued . . . There is a high value . . . or over-estimation of youth . . . in a society as ours . . . For an American, old age is a misfortune. 12 Problem to be Investigated When considering the difficulties facing the elderly — especially in terras of rejection and social isolation — the attitudes of helping professionals becomes significant. This study is designed to invest-igate the attitudes toward the elderly of students attending theolog-ica l schools. A significant number of these students wil l become clergymen, and in that capacity their attitude towards the elderly wil l significantly affect the quality of service to their ever-growing elderly segment of our population. Have these theological students absorbed the negative attitudes of their surrounding societal setting? Or, i f they have, wil l i t be possible to provide a gerontological educational component during their theological training that wi l l help prospective members of the clergy realize that the aging segment of society is composed of people with social, educational, and spiritual needs that must be satisfied just as much as physical and financial needs must be met. "The *pastoral ministry* or *care of souls* activities of the clergy tend to centre around problems. The minister, priest, or rabbi is often the f irst person after immediate family to be informed of emergency personal needs." (Moberg, 1975* P» 170). Yet, when Moberg investigated gerontological training among 109 clergymen in the Milwaukee area, he found only 29 percent reported any specific preparation during their theological training to help them under-stand the experiences and feelings of the elderly, and fewer s t i l l who reported that they felt their preparation was adaquate. Moberg further reported that seminaries traditionally train students to meet the needs of children,iyouths, young adults, and parents with children 13 in the family, and that training to understand the needs of people in later maturity and old age is usually lacking. A 1972 survey of 126 American theological schools disclosed that 24 (19 percent) offered special courses designed to prepare students to minister to the elderly, but that in only two schools were the courses compulsory. Twenty-eight of the schools provided continuing education for practicing clergymen in the area of aging. A slightly earlier study (mid-1960's) disclosed that theological schools offered extensive training for clergymen-in-training to meet the needs of people from childhood to early middle age. It appears reasonable to conclude that gerontological education appears to be a much neglected area in American theological schools. A substantial number of studies researched for this paper investigated the attitude toward the elderly by students in general. A limited number of studies were found that investigated the attitudes of members of other helping professions and their preparation of students for these professions. No study specifically investigated the attitudes of students attending theological schools was located. This investigation, therefore, has l i t t l e spedific precedence on which to be based. Summary Evidence available indicated that most care for the elderly is provided in the area of goveramentally funded custodial care. Seniors are furnished with medical and pharmaceutical services, some dental care, and excellent suites at a rent substantially below the prevailing market rates. They also benefit from reduced travel fares and lower 14 entertainment costs than non-seniors. Some universities extend tuition free credit courses for those seniors who want to attend. But, unfort-unately, prevailing North American attitudes toward the elderly leads to their social isolation, financial worry, and a sense of uselessness and lack of purpose, and a general denigration by society at large. Unfortunately, some members of the helping professions tend to be negligent in their associations with the elderly. The purpose of this investigation is to survey the attitudes of theological students toward the elderly to test whether the subjects hold prevailing attitudes, and to correlate a number of independent variables with the reported attitudes. 15 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE RELATING TO ATTITUDE STUDIES Introduction An examination of the reports of studies of attitude toward the e l d e r l y indicates a somewhat random sampling from many areas, but l i t t l e exhaustive research i n any given f i e l d . Perhaps t h i s i s because gerontology and g e r i a t r i c t r a i n i n g are s t i l l i n t h e i r early stages. Studies p r i o r to about I960 concentrated heavily on the 'attitudes* of students toward the aged; frequently students i n low l e v e l psychology classes i n u n i v e r s i t i e s and i n teacher's t r a i n i n g schools were prime sources f o r subjects. Unfortunately, some studies appear to have used un validated questionnaires of unproven r e l i a b i l i t y . Tuckman and Lorge's studies, f o r example, used a 137 item questionnaire that tested 13 dimensions of attitudes toward the e l d e r l y , which e l i c i t e d a dichot-omous Yes/No answer. Tuckman and Lorge also used pieces of t h i s same questionnaire f o r other studies. A l i m i t e d number of subsequent investigators also used pieces of the same questionnaire. In 1961, however, Eisdorfer and Axelrod tested the Tuckman and Lorge 137 item questionnaire and reported that they found only 97 of the items posses-sed r e l i a b i l i t y . Tuckman and Lorge are not to be discounted, however, because they pointed i n a general d i r e c t i o n and served as a basis f o r subsequent work to b u i l d upon. A second l i m i t i n g f a c t o r i n studies of attitudes toward the e l d e r l y i s the s p e c i f i c i t y of the works, as attitude research carried out i n the f i e l d s of sociology and psychology often have s p e c i f i c purposes within these d i s c i p l i n e s . Studies conducted by psychologists and socio l o g i s t s are often designed to cover a s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n , and 16 may not be suitable for generalization to the population at large. The recorded attitude of a group of graduate students in a given discipline, for example, may not be representative of the general public. A third factor that might reduce the accuracy of early attitude studies is the method of gathering information. Is the information a subject reports on a questionnaire representative of his actual affective behaviour? LaPiere's 1934 study indicated that i t might not be so. Under LaPiere's direction, a Chinese couple patronized a number of different hotels and restaurants to see whether they would be served. Almost without exception, they were served. About one week later, LaPiere had the operators of the establishments involved complete a questionnaire in which they were asked to state whether they would serve Chinese customers. Many operators stated that they would not. Clearly, there was a discrepancy between affective behaviour A n d stated attitudes. Although the limitations listed above may reduce the accuracy of some research, frequently the instruments employed were sufficiently accurate to provide the results required by the investigator. With these limitations in mind, let us examine some studies about attitudes toward the elderly. Because this paper is concerned with the attitude of a group of students preparing to enter a helping profession, the attitude of both students and persons in the helping professions will be examined. Early Studies of Attitudes Toward the Elderly Among the f irst serious investigations of attitudes toward the 17 elderly were those conducted by Jacob Tuckman and Irving Lorge in the late 1940*s and the 1950's. The f irst study they reported was in 1952, in which a group of 14? graduate students at Teacher's Col-lege at Chicago University were given a pretest, a treatment consisting of a course on the psychology of adults, and a posttest to determine whether the course had altered their attitude toward the elderly and the older worker. The pretest consisted of a 137 item questionnaire that investigated 13 catagories of stereotypical attitudes toward the elderly and a 51 item questionnaire that investigated 9 catagories of attitude toward older workers. Most of the items on the two questionnaires were statements about the elderly and the older worker for which no valid basis existed. Unfortunately, the posttest was not the same as the pretest, but rather consisted of 37 statements from the 137 item questionnaire and 10 from the 51 original statements about the older worker — a situation which might cast doubt on the results. The treatment (course) was prepared to give factual information about the physical and the psychological aspects of aging, and not as a behaviour modifying course. Tuckman and Lorge reported that "The findings showed that even a sophisticated group of graduate students agree substantially with these beliefs and generalizations about old people and the older worker, indicating that old age is looked upon as a period of economic insecurity, poor health, loneliness, and fai l ing physical and mental powers." (p. 400). Also, their study demonstrated that the course failed to produce any significant change in attitude. In 1953, Tuckman, Lorge, and Spooner reported a study that extended the 1952 study. The purpose of this study was to investigate the 18 relationship between beliefs held by parents and their children toward the elderly and the older worker. Fifty sophomore students in a statistics course taught by Spooner, together with the parents of the students, served as subjects. The instruments used were the same 137 item stereotypical scale and the 51 statement questionnaire used in the 1952 Tuckman and Lorge study. The reported results indicated that fathers tended to accept stereotypical beliefs to a greater extent than both mothers and students, that students tended to accept stereo-typical beliefs more than their mothers, and that male students accepted stereotypical beliefs more than female students. Tuckman, et a l , concluded that the difference, however, was not statistically significant, having a correlation of only .08 on the 137 item att i t -udinal scale and .13 on the worker's scale. The study demonstrated that students and parents generally accepted the stereotypical negative view of the elderly. In 1958, Tuckman and Lorge reported a study in which the "Attitude Toward Aging of Individuals with Experience with the Aged," was investigated. The authors opened their article by stating, The attitude toward aging of widely different groups show considerable agreement with the misconception and stereotypes about old people and the older worker." (p. 199). For this study, Tuckman and Lorge selected a group of 92 men and women (age range 25 - 79 years, M 56) attending a lecture-discussion series on aging sponsored by the Federation of Protestant Welfare Agencies of New York. The lecture group was composed of social workers, YMCA secretaries, directors of homes for the aged, ministers, occupational therapists, teachers, industrial executives, trade unionists, and public relations experts. •19 As a test instrument, Tuckman and Lorge selected 40 questions from t h e i r 137 item questionnaire and 10 questions from t h e i r 51 item questionnaire r e l a t i n g to stereotypical b e l i e f s about older workers. The researchers then correlated t h e i r r e s u l t s against a number of former studies involving students ranging from high school to graduate l e v e l , middle-aged adults (M 50 years of age) and older adults (M 75 years of age). Table 2 - 1 d e t a i l s the r e s u l t s . Table 2 - 1 Percentage of Agreement with Stereotypical Statements: Tuckman and Lorge 1953 Study Lecture Under Grad. Middle Older Group group grads. students aged aged Older 29.5 34.75 30.8 51.7 40 People Older 49.9 43.9 40.2 56.9 56.6 Worker Note. These are aggregate percentages of agreement. A number of differences appeared within d i f f e r e n t catagories of aging aspects. The data indicated that graduate students held the fewest stereotypical b e l i e f s concerning the e l d e r l y , with the conglomerate lecture group second. Graduates held the fewest stereotypical b e l i e f s concerning older workers, with undergraduate students second. Tuckman and Lorge concluded t h e i r study by st a t i n g that "Individuals who have more d i r e c t contact with a variety of old people tend to be somewhat less negative i n t h e i r attitudes toward aging 20 than those whose acquaintance i s more li m i t e d and constrained." (p. 204). Although Tuckman and Lorge's studies lacked many of the controls that are now considered necessary, they opened the door leading to studies of attitudes toward the e l d e r l y . In some of t h e i r studies, no control groups were used. Some of t h e i r studies f a i l e d to check attitudes of the subjects toward people i n general, therefore no means exists to indicate how t h e i r subjects attitude toward the elder correlated with t h e i r attitudes toward the population at large. In 1961, Eisdorfer and Axelrod conducted a detailed study to test the r e l i a b i l i t y and the v a l i d i t y of Tuckman and Lorge's 137 item questionnaire. Eisdorfer asked two questions. The f i r s t question asked was whether the attitudes expressed are predictive of r e a l -l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , how are the attitudes expressed translated i n t o actions? The second question asked related to "stimulus-group" v a l i d i t y . This point raised the question of whether subjects discrimiate among groups to which questions applied. Eisdorfer concluded that v a l i d a t i o n of t h i s order i s extremely d i f -f i c u l t to e f f e c t , but that i t i s ess e n t i a l i f the r e s u l t s are to be trusted. After administering Tuckman and Lorge*s questionnaire to 280 students i n introductory classes at Duke University, they reported that only 96 of the items were v a l i d f o r a stimulus group of 65 - 75 year olds. Despite the p o s s i b i l e i l a c k of t o t a l r e l i a b i l i t y of Tuckman and Lorge's work, i t at least highlighted an area that required investigation and 'started the b a l l r o l l i n g * i n attitude studies toward the e l d e r l y . Attitude of Students toward the Elderly The attitude of students toward the elderly is of concern to this study because the subjects are students attending theological schools. This differs from other studies in that subjects used in previous general attitudinal studies appear to be drawn primarily from undergraduate psychology classes and from teacher's training schools. Most of the previous studies examined indicated that the student group as a whole indicated a negative attitude toward the elderly. One of the best controlled 'earlier' studies of student's attitude toward the elderly was conducted by Golde and Kogan in I953. Capitalizing specifically on the shortcomings of the Tuckman and Lorge works, Golde and Kogan designed a set of 25 incomplete sentence stems in which the subjects — 100 undergraduate students, age range 17 to 23 — supplied the remainder of the sentence. Two virtually identical sets were prepared, one set stating "old peopld . . ." and the other "people . . . " Their purpose was to determine whether a difference existed between their subject's attitude toward the elderly and their attitude toward the larger class of people in general. The results of the study indicated that a qualitative di f -ference in attitude definitely existed. Although many subjects expressed positive comments about the elderly, most subjects viewed their own impending old age either unfavourably or else were unable to^conceive i t at a l l . The subject's fear of the possibility of becoming physically and emotionally dependent appeared to be a major factor in this position. The majority of students reflected the achievement/success orientation of North American society in that 22 i n t h e i r own old age they expected personally to be a c t i v e , interested people, whereas the majority reported that they believe the present el d e r l y were no longer achievement/success oriented. The area of interpersonal relationships r e f l e c t e d another s i g n i f i c a n t difference. Few of the subjects expressed any desire to become inter-personally involved with the el d e r l y . Golde and Kogan expressed the opinion that t h i s was a r e f l e c t i o n of the American i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c society that does not encourage f r i e n d l y cross-generational contact. Although Golde and Kogan were not s p e c i f i c a l l y measuring the attitude of t h e i r subjects toward the e l d e r l y , t h e i r subjects s i g n i f i e d that old age was not a desireable state and viewed t h e i r own ultimate old age i n an unfavourable l i g h t . L3 Although Kogan's 1961 study of attitudes toward old people was designed primarily t o develop and te s t an attitude scale, h i s study produced i n t e r e s t i n g r e s u l t s . Kogan developed a set of 17 items st a t i n g negative sentiments about old people, and a set of 17 items expressing the exact reverse of the f i r s t set. The second set was worded so subjects would not e a s i l y recognize the various items as opposites to previous statements. Kogan then interspersed these items among the items of the f i r s t set. Kogan's questions covered four catagories: l ) old people; 2) re l a t i o n s with authoritarianism; 3) re l a t i o n s with anomie; 4) re l a t i o n s with antiminority attitudes. Subjects used f o r t h i s study consisted of two samples of male students (N 128 and 186) from Northeastern University and one sample (87 male and 81 female) of^students from Boston University. A l l subjects were registered i n introductory psychology classes. On the old people scale, subjects registered, i n general, a more favourable than 23 unfavourable a t t i t u d e . In the Boston University sample, no sign-i f i c a n t difference was recorded between the responses of the male and the female subjects. When the authoritarian scale was correlated to the old peoples scale, the r e s u l t s were somewhat mixed, however, the tendency showed that the more authoritarian individuals were more unfavourably disposed toward old people. Insofar as the correl a t i o n between scores on the old people scale and anomie were concerned, subjects unfavourably disposed toward old people were more disposed towards anomie. F i n a l l y , the study disclosed that those persons more negatively disposed toward the el d e r l y held the most unfavourable attitudes toward ethnic, p h y s i c a l l y disabled, and mentally i l l m inorities. Kogan's research represented a w e l l designed and c a r e f u l l y executed study. He detailed a l l shortcomings and possible inaccuracies i n h i s work. He established a base-line f o r the attitude of h i s subjects, and correlated three human attributes with h i s subject's a t t i t u d e , thereby extending the p r o f i l e of h i s subjects. One aspect Kogan d i d not investigate, unfortunately, was the relevant attitude of h i s subjects toward the population i n general} t h i s , however, was not the purpose of h i s research. In 1969, Rosencranz and McNevin developed a semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l scale to measure the attitude of students toward the e l d e r l y . After developing, t e s t i n g , and r e f i n i n g t h e i r instrument, the researchers s e t t l e d on a 32 item questionnaire that examined the s p e c i f i c dimensions of Instrumental-Ineffectiveness, Autonomous-Dependence, and Accept-abil i t y - U n a c c e p t a b i l i t y . Their 287 undergraduate subjects were asked to rate men i n the 20 to 30, the 40 to 55» and the 70 plus year range. 24 Scoring was set on a 1 to 7 scale, with the lower the score the more favourable the a t t i t u d e . Scores appeared to follow the prevailing North American attitude toward age groups. In the Instrumental-Ineffective association, the 20 to 30 age group received the most positive r a t i n g , the 70 plus year old group received the most negative r a t i n g . A man scored high on t h i s dimension was considered able to a c t i v e l y pursue goals and to adapt t o change. Men i n the 70 plus year old range were rated as extremely i n e f f e c t i v e . Figure 2-1 d e t a i l s raw scores on the Instrumental-Ineffective dimension. Figure 2-1 Mean Scores on Rosencranz and McNevin 1969 Study: Instrumental-Ineffective Dimension 20 - 30 year olds 2.12 40-55 year olds — 3.66 70 plus year olds _ _ 5 * 6 2 o 1 2 5 % 3 "8 7 The Autonomous-Dependency scale also followed the North American pattern, with men i n the 40 to 55 age group rated most p o s i t i v e l y . In most cases, men i n t h i s age range occupy the management and executive positions, whereas those i n the 20 to 3° year range have not yet reached senior positions and those i n the 70 plus range have r e t i r e d from active employment. Additionally, t h i s scoring co-incides with Williams and Wirth's (1965) d e f i n i t i o n of successful aging, whereby a person who 25 has been scored high on t h i s dimension i s seen as contributing as much to the functioning of the s o c i a l system as he i s seen receiving from others f o r the maintenance of h i s personal maintenance. Figure 2-2 d e t a i l s raw scores on the Autonomous-Dependent dimension. Figure 2-2 Mean Scores on Rosencranz and McNevin 1969 Study: Autonomous-Dependent Dimension 20 - 30 year olds 40 - 55 year olds 70 plus year olds 3.32 2.36 4.26 T 5 5 5 3 5 7 On the t h i r d dimension investigated — Personal Acceptability-Unacceptability — Rosencranz and McHevin's subjects continued to r e f l e c t the prevailing North American att i t u d e . The younger the person rated, the more positive the at t i t u d e . S p e c i f i c to t h i s dimension were items such as f r i e n d l i n e s s , tolerance, happiness, and co-operativeness. A person scored high i n t h i s dimension (a low figure score) i s viewed as being able to function well i n h i s s o c i a l environment, and indicates a high l e v e l of s o c i a l interaction. The 20 to 30 and the 40 to 55 year olds were rated c l o s e l y together (M scores 2.81 and 2.98 respectively), but the 70 plus age range was rated M 4.00, s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower than the younger groups. Figure 2-3 d e t a i l s raw scores on the Personal Acceptability-Unacceptability dimension. 26 Figure 2-3 Mean Scores on Rosencranz and McNevin 1969 Study: Personal Acceptability-Unacceptability Dimension 20 - 30 year olds 2.82 4 0 - 5 5 year olds 2.98 70 plus year olds 4.00 T 0 1 2 3 5 6 7 In the same investigation, Rosencranz and McNevin examined the effect of h i s subject's contact with the el d e r l y . Three areas were investigated: a comparison of those with close grandparent contact with those with l i t t l e or no grandparent contact; a comparison of those with at least one meaningful association with an elderly person with those with no meaningful association; a comparison of those with h o s p i t a l contact with those with no hospital contact. The researchers hypothesized that the quantity and the qu a l i t y of contact with the elde r l y would a f f e c t the valence of the subject's attitude toward the 70 plus group. "Close contact" was defined as contact at lea s t once a week on a regular basis. Unfortunately, "meaningful association" was not defined i n the a r t i c l e . The subjects' responses were as expected: 1. Those subjects with close grandparental contact recorded a more positive attitude toward the eld e r l y than those who d i d not have close contact, although the Instrumental-Ineffective dimension d i f -ference was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t on a t - t e s t at the .05 l e v e l . 27 2. Those subjects with a meaningful association with an e l d e r l y person recorded a more positive attitude toward the e l d e r l y than those without a meaningful association. Again, the Instrumental-Ineffective dimension f a i l e d to show s t a t i s t u c a l significance on a t - t e s t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence. 3. Those subjects with no h o s p i t a l contact registered a more pos-i t i v e attitude toward the e l d e r l y than those with h o s p i t a l contact. The researchers d i d not indicate any investigation as to whether the subject's contact with the e l d e r l y was compulsory or voluntary. A 1973 study that added an additional f a c t o r i n the measurement of attitudes toward the e l d e r l y was one conducted by Peter J . Naus. His measurement scales recorded both stated attitude and a f f e c t i v e behaviour. Naus selected three s p e c i f i c objectives to t e s t : to determine the attitudes and acceptance of stereotypes of a group of college students toward older people; to t e s t the v a l i d i t y of a non-verbal attitude measure; to explore some seemingly obvious, as w e l l as less obvious, correlates of attitude toward old people. Because Naus was on a ' f i s h i n g expedition,' he proposed no formal hypotheses. Naus selected 103 undergraduate students i n introductory psych-ology classes as subjects. Credit was given f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the study. F i f t y of these subjects participated i n the second session, along with four subjects who did not participate i n the f i r s t session. The mean age f o r session one was 18.8 years, range 18 t o 22, and f o r session two 18.8 years, range 18 to 21 years. Eighty-nine percent of the subjects i n both sessions were male. The instrument used contained 15 scales from Rosencranz and McNevin's 28 semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l questionnaire mentioned e a r l i e r , and f i v e scales from studies on semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l scales intended to depict an evaluation dimension. Naus included concepts concerning paternal grandfather, paternal grandmother, maternal grandfather, maternal grandmother, old person I l i k e most, old person I l i k e l e a s t , young person I l i k e most, young person I l i k e l e a s t , and myself. The a f f e c t i v e behaviour measure Naus employed consisted of a "personal space measure' developed by L i t t l e (I965). In essence, Naus had his subjects place figures of people i n d i f f e r e n t attitudes f o r d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s . His subjects were led to believe they were being studied f o r verbal exchanges between the figures ; i n r e a l i t y they were being checked f o r a personal space relationship. Because t h i s paper i s concerned primarily with the attitude of students toward the e l d e r l y , only a comparison of the ratings on man 20 to 30 and man 70 to 85 years of age w i l l be reported. For each scale on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l instrument, a 1 to 7 point system was used; the lower the aggregate score the more positive the a t t i t u d e . Table 2-2 d e t a i l s the r e s u l t s . Table 2-2 Mean Score on Subject's attitude toward the E l d e r l y : Naus 1973 Study Dimension Concepts Decisive-Evaluation Indecisive Instrumental-Ineffective 20 - 30 year olds 2.36 2.48 1.97 70 - 85 year olds 3.03 3.43 4.19 On a l l three catagories investigated, the older male was scored s i g n i f i c a n t l y more negatively than the younger male. The aggregate on a 1 to 7 scale was 3.55 f o r the older man and 2.27 f o r the younger man. The attempt to measure a f f e c t i v e behaviour, unfortunately, was not so clear-cut, and Naus admitted several shortcomings and d i f f i c -u l t i e s with interpretations. The problem arose because the r e s u l t s of the a f f e c t i v e measure contradicted the r a t i n g on the written instrument. Consequently, Naus suggested the a f f e c t i v e behaviour r e s u l t s be viewed with suspicion. Since 1976, Signori, Butt, and Kozak, of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, have presented several papers reporting t h e i r investigations i n t o attitudes toward the e l d e r l y . In one paper, "Attitudes of Persons Under and Over Forty Towards the Aged," the d e t a i l s are reported f o r an investigation of the attitudes toward persons over 64 years of age by 456 age-matched males and females under the age of 40 and 260 un-matched males and females over the age of 40. A f a c t o r analysis of 69 bi-polar Likert type scales constructed from previous studies on prejudice toward minority groups yielded the f i v e factors of integ-r e t y , f o r t i t u d e , s o c i a l appeal, dependableness, and open-mindedness from subjects under 40, and those f i v e factors plus competence and reflectivenes from subjects over 40 years of age. Contrary to several previous studies, Signori, et a l , found that older subjects reported either a neutral or a positive attitude toward the e l d e r l y . "Despite the differences i n emphasis shown between the perceptions of older and younger adults on three of the major factors they both perceive the older person very p o s i t i v e l y (p. 6). Signori, et a l , believed that instruments used i n some e a r l i e r 30 studies were such that they tended to produce a negative response r a t i n g . Signori stated that "Only by drawing attention t o such positive q u a l i t i e s w i l l the general misconceptions recorded i n our l i t e r a t u r e about the older person be d i s p e l l e d . " (p. 7). Studies of Medical and Dental Students In 1979, Beck. Ettinger, Glen, Paule, and Holtzman conducted a study that examined the impact of o r a l health status of the elderly on dental students. In the course of t h e i r work, they administered Rosencranz and McNevin's 32 item semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l scale to college students, dental students, and medical students. Subjects responded to stimulus-groups of people aged JZ years and people aged 65 and over. This i s the portion of the study that i s of i n t e r e s t i to t h i s paper, as i t compares college students attitudes with two groups of students preparing to enter helping professions. Table 2-3 records t h e i r findings. Unfortunately, no report was made of medical student's attitude toward the 32 year old stimulus-group. The re s u l t s of t h i s study c l e a r l y indicated that a l l three groups of students held the el d e r l y i n a much more negative po s i t i o n than they held young people. Medical and dental student's attitudes correlated extremely c l o s e l y , and are considerably more positive toward the el d e r l y than the attitude of college students. SummfrfrY of Student's Attitude Although a number of other a t t i t u d i n a l studies involving students could be c i t e d , from these other studies and the studies presented a general pattern emerges. A few studies indicated positive a t t i t u d e s , 31 Table 2-3 Mean Attitude Scores of College Students, Freshman Dental Students and Freshman Medical Students Subjects S o c i a l Object Instrumental-Ineffective Autonomous-Dependent Personal Accep t a b i l i t y -Unacceptability 287 College students Men, 20-30 2.0 2.0 2.5 92 Dental students People -32 2.6 3.6 3.5 Medical students — — — 287 College students Men 70 plus 5.3 4.1 4.0 92 Dental students Men 70 plus 4.4 3.7 3.5 68 Medical students People -65 plus 4.3 3.6 3.4 but the general trend indicated that the e l d e r l y are viewed i n a more negative manner than any other age group. Further study i s needed t o determine whether Signori's contention regarding the nature of instruments used i s v a l i d , or whether a genuine difference exists between United States c i t i z e n s and Canadians l i v i n g i n the Greater Vancouver area of Canada. Attitude of Helping Professionals " I t has been we l l documented that there i s a reluctance of members of various occupational groups to work with e l d e r l y patients and c l i e n t s , as w e l l as a tendency to view such work negatively or as undesirable (Beck, et a l , 1979, P. 580). In an action based, achievement oriented, f u t u r i s t i c society, one would expect t h i s statement to be true. Studies involving health professionals, therapists, and s o c i a l workers indicate a negative attitude toward the e l d e r l y . Studies involving medical and dental students (previously reported) suggest a s u b s t a n t i a l l y more negative attitude toward the e l d e r l y than toward young adults. Studies involving clergymen produced mixed r e s u l t s . Unfortunately, in-depth extensive studies i n many of the areas involved are not numerous, therefore present judgements must be based on some-what incomplete evidence. In 1964, Kastenbaum asked the question, "Why i s there a reluctance to conduct psychotherepy with the aged?" (p. 139). He answered by stat i n g that, "few c l i n i c i a n s have received adequate preparation f o r gerontological or g e r i a t r i c practices." (pp. 139 - 140). Kastenbaum concluded by s t a t i n g , "the psychotherapist's reluctance t o work with el d e r l y persons i s based la r g e l y upon attitudes and values that have been u n c r i t i c a l l y absorbed from views prevalent i n our society." (P. m). Researchers have made several attempts to determine the attitude of nurses toward the e l d e r l y . In a 1973 study to te s t whether any difference existed i n attitude toward the eld e r l y because of a nurse's age, education l e v e l , length of time worked i n a f a c i l i t y u t i l i z e d f o r the care of the el d e r l y , and the type of care where nursing personnel were employed, Sr. Marion G i l l i s investigated the attitudes of JZ registered nurses, 28 licensed p r a c t i c a l nurses, and 26 nurse's a i d s , ( t o t a l , 86 subjects). A modified 48 opinion state-ment instrument was adapted from Lowey's (1968) 100 item instrument. G i l l i s ' study produced r e s u l t s that indicated that the age of nursing 33 personnel was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to t h e i r a t t i t u d e s , that the higher the educational l e v e l of the subjects the more positive t h e i r attitude (with some notable exceptions), that no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n emerged between the length of time the subjects had worked with the eld e r l y and t h e i r a t t i t u d e , and that personnel employed i n d i f f e r e n t agencies (nursing homes, hospitals) reported no difference i n attitude toward the e l d e r l y . G i l l i s made no attempt to establish a base l i n e of nurses' attitudes toward the el d e r l y . In another study involving nursing personnel, Margaret Ealanor Campbell (1976) investigated the degree of acceptance of various stereotypical attitudes toward the e l d e r l y , the relationship between designated demographic independent variables and the dependent variable a t t i t u d e , the rank ordering of age groups with whom nurses preferred to work, and possible salary d i f f e r e n t i a l s or s h i f t pref-erences which might be used as incentives to work with the el d e r l y . Campbell found that the 50 registerednurses, 48 licensed p r a c t i c a l nurses, and the 49 nursing assistants used as subjects a l l demon-strated a s i g n i f i c a n t degree of stereotyping of the el d e r l y , although the registered nurses reported the least degree of acceptance. A l l three groups indicated that they preferred working with adults and with children much more than with the e l d e r l y . No group reported that salary d i f f e r e n t i a l or s h i f t preference would a l t e r t h i s l a t t e r p o s i t i o n . Clearly, t h i s study suggests that nursing personnel held a negative attitude toward the elderly and that they preferred to work with other age groups. Kosberg and Harris (1978) reported t h e i r review of research into the feelings of s o c i a l workers working with e l d e r l y c l i e n t s . They 34 concluded that many s o c i a l workers hold negative attitudes about the e l d e r l y a t t r i b u t a b l e , they believed, to two main fact o r s . F i r s t , many s o c i a l workers view the e l d e r l y as persons incapable of responding to treatment. Secondly, they hold the view previously reported about psychotherapists that the elderly do not have s u f f i c i e n t time l e f t i n t h e i r l i v e s to j u s t i f y the expenditure of professional time. To conclude, Kosberg and Harris suggest that the remedy f o r s o c i a l worker's negative attitude toward the elderly might be altered through an increase i n gerontological courses i n s o c i a l work schools, through in-service t r a i n i n g f o r practicing s o c i a l work workers, through more car e f u l screening of applicants f o r entry i n t o s o c i a l work schools, and f o r increased advocacy e f f o r t s toward society at large. Nancy Lynn Lust investigated the relationship between counsellor's attitudes toward the elderly and a number of counsellor variables, i n 1978* Lust commenced her report of the study by s t a t i n g that among counsellors there i s an increasing awareness concerning the need f o r gerontological counselling. For independent variables, Lust selected age, sex, worksetting, academic background, f a c t u a l knowledge about aging, quantity of counselling contact with the e l d e r l y , and the nature of the counsellor's occupation, defined as the quantity of counselling contact with a l l c l i e n t s . To determine counsellor's a t t i t u d e . Lust used Kogan*s 'Old People's Scale." For subjects, she randomly selected 454 members of the Ohio branch of the American Psychological Society and the National Association of S o c i a l Workers. S t a t i s t i c a l analysis of Lust's data disclosed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences, but f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l purposes no strong relationships appeared between the independent variables and the 35 dependent variable of attitude toward the el d e r l y . Also, the respondents recorded a positive attitude toward the e l d e r l y , although they spent only a minimal amount of time (3.5 percent) a week coun-s e l l i n g the elderly as against 43 percent a week counselling other c l i e n t s . Lust concluded by s t a t i n g that Ohio mental health profes-sionals spend l i t t l e time counselling the elderly. One study that discovered a 'less negative* attitude toward the eld e r l y than d i d any other study was Longino and Kitson's 1976 investigation of stereotypical views of clergymen toward t h e i r par-rishioners. Longino and Kitson asked the questions: l ) Do parish clergy f i n d pastoral contacts with the aged unpleasant and 2) Do parish clergy f i n d ministering to the aged unpleasant because of ageism. Ageism was defined as a form of prejudice i n which negative stereotypes of the aged were expressed i n preference given to the young purely on an age basis. The researchers 'mined* t h e i r data from a 1965 mailed questionnaire sent to 962 American Baptist clergymen. Sjx hundred and f i f t y - f o u r (68 percent) of the subjects completed and returned the questionnaire. Four s p e c i f i c dimensions investigated produced the following r e s u l t s : 1. Sa t i s f a c t i o n i n ministering t o the elde r l y . Sixty-one percent of the subjects f e l l i n the upper one t h i r d , i n d i c a t i n g a positive s a t i s f a c t i o n . Thirty-four percent f e l l i n the middle t h i r d , and only 5 percent ranked i n the lower t h i r d . C l e a r l y , ministering t o the e l d e r l y was a s a t i s f y i n g a c t i v i t y . 2. How does ministering to the eld e r l y compare with other r o l e a c t i v i t i e s ? On 52 r o l e items performed by parish clergymen, ministering to the e l d e r l y ranked 21st, i n d i c a t i n g a s l i g h t l y above middle position on the scale of parish duties. 36 3. Preferences i n working with 5 d i f f e r e n t age groups. Table 2-4 d e t a i l s the r e s u l t s . Note that ministering to the elderly i s centre i n the l i s t . Table 2-4 Clergymen's Reported Preferences i n Working with Age Groups« Longino and Kitson Study, 1976 Role Item Percentage with high r a t i n g Mean score Teaching young people 75-8 5-09 Teaching and working d i r e c t l y with adults 76.6 5.04 Ministering to aged 60.7 4.77 Teaching undergraduate and graduate students 54.3 4.63 Teaching children 53.7 4.60 Npte. Scoring i s on 1 to 7J the higher the score the more desirable the a c t i v i t y . 4. How do ministers who derive greater s a t i s f a c t i o n from parish duties which optimize an expressive r o l e f i n d s a t i s f a c t i o n i n minist-ering to the aged? A factor analysis produced s i x church r o l e functions: l ) personal evangelism; 2) teaching; 3) counselling; 4) church administration; 5) preaching; 6) community activism. Items 1 through 4 correlated s i g n i f i c a n t l y with the subject's attitudes toward the e l d e r l y . Longino and Kitson summarized t h e i r findings by s t a t i n g that although ministering to the elderly was not the most favoured act-i v i t y , i t c e r t a i n l y was not the least enjoyable either. Nevertheless, clergymen preferred to be involved with young adults rattier than with 37 the el d e r l y . In 1969. Richard G. Moberg undertook a study of clergymen's attitudes toward the eld e r l y f o r h i s doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n at Boston University. His subjects consisted of 60 prac t i c i n g clergymen from the United Church of Christ serving i n Massachusetts east of the Connecticut River. Mo berg's control group consisted of 125 members of the Rotary Club of Brockton, Massachusetts. Rotarians were selected because they represented a f a i r cross section of the com-munity with an educational and socio-economic l e v e l comparable to the m i n i s t e r i a l sample. Also, Rotarians were f e l t to have experience with the productivity and achievement values of American culture, thereby maximizing the s i m i l a r i t i e s between the c u l t u r a l and the Christian values orientation. For an instrument, Moberg used a 44 bi-polar semantic difference scale, and asked h i s subjects to scale people i n general, old people (65 years of age and older), young people ( i n t h e i r 20's) and myself. In addition, a personal inventory questionnaire and a section c o l l e c t i n g demographic data was included. Moberg's study indicated that the clergymen i n h i s study registered a more negative attitude toward the elderly than they d i d toward people i n general and young people. Ministers rated the el d e r l y as t r a d i t i o n a l , f o r g e t f u l , slow, lonely, non-contemporary, worried, passive, dependent, r i g i d , non-sexual, and pessimistic. In other words, they,;held the stereotypical view of the eld e r l y that i s char-a c t e r i s t i c of North American society at large. His second fi n d i n g indicated that h i s sample of clergymen held approximately the same attitude toward the eld e r l y as did h i s non-clergymen control group. Moberg stated that, "The findings indicates ministers cannot be assumed to vary from the general population i n attitudes toward 38 minority or guasi-minority groups and that religious-humanitarianism values are not operative i n changing some m i n i s t e r i a l a t t i t u d e s . " (P. 172). Conclusion In the past 20 years, considerable research has been done on the attitudes towards the aged . . . The focus of most of t h i s research has been on the attitudes of college students towards the aged, although some research has been done with regard to the attitudes towards the aged of other groups . . . As with most of the studies i n t h i s area, the r e s u l t s have often been contradictory. (Ivester and King, 1977. P. 85) With the exception of the l i m i t e d number of less negative studies found, by f a r the preponderance of attitude research undertaken with members of the helping professions and with students has indicated a more negative attitude toward the e l d e r l y than towards any other age group. Clergymen and mental health workers represent exceptions to the pattern. The general North American c u l t u r a l environment appears to be conducive to a denigration of the e l d e r l y , thereby augmenting the normal old age problems of declining physical strength, loss of power, s o c i a l i d e n t i t y and f i n a n c i a l s ecurity, and fear of approaching death. 39 CHAPTER 3 THE STUDY Purpose of the Study The purpose of t h i s study was to investigate the rel a t i o n s h i p between the attitude toward the el d e r l y by students attending theo-l o g i c a l shcools and each of the following variables: ( i ) Age ( i i ) Sex ( i i i ) Years of post-secondary secular education ( i v ) Years of theological education (v) Purpose f o r which theological education was being undertaken ( v i ) The number of regular contacts with persons over 64 years of age ( v i i ) The nature of a student's contact with persons over 64 years of age ( v i i i ) Effect of voluntary versus compulsory contact with persons over 64 years of age ( i x ) The student's r a t i n g on a r e l i g i o u s conservatism scale RATIONALE OF VARIABLES Age. Studies indicate the effect of age on one's attitude toward the elde r l y i s not c l e a r . Borges and Dutton (1976) c i t e 13 studies conducted between 1937 and 1972, f i v e of which reported an increasingly negative attitude toward the elderly with an increase i n the subject's age, s i x reported an increasingly positiveness with increasing age, and two f a i l e d to f i n d any proportional change i n attitude with age differences. "Taken together, these studies f a i l to prove a r e l i a b l e Re-connect ion, either positive or negative, between aging . . (p. 220). Borges and Dutton suggest that other independent variables, such as health, income, a c t i v i t y l e v e l , or self-knowledge, may be responsible f o r attitude changes with age. Their own investigation, however, indicated an increase i n positive attitude toward the elderly that peaked i n the 49 to 65 age period and then declined sharply. Addition-a l l y , Kogan (1961) found l i t t l e difference i n response between students and healthy older adults i n t h e i r attitudes toward the el d e r l y , as did Tuckman and Lorge i n t h e i r 1952 study. Because research has f a i l e d t o establish a clear difference i n attitude toward the elderly between d i f f e r e n t age groups, t h i s study tested t h i s variable to determine whether a difference existed among students attending theological schools. No corr e l a t i o n , however, was expected. Sex Investigations have revealed l i t t l e i f any difference between the attitude of male and female subjects within s i m i l a r age and socio-economic ranges, although variations may e x i s t between d i f -ferent concepts of the el d e r l y . In 1961, Kogan and Wallach tested the attitude toward the elderly of 71 young women, 66 young men, 76 older women, and 55 older men. The instrument used tested 28 di f f e r e n t concepts of the e l d e r l y . Tabulated re s u l t s indicated that the aggregate attitude scores between males and females were extremely close, although differences were noted among the various concepts tested. Collette-Pratte (1976) used a semantic d i f f e r -e n t i a l scale t o te s t the attitude of 52 males (M age 23.6 years) and 71 females (M age 22.4 years) University of Oregon students 41 toward the negative concomitants of old age and c u l t u r a l values. She found no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between sex, age, or age-sex int e r a c t i o n . Because no research was located that tested a cor-r e l a t i o n between sex and the attitude of theological students, i t was included i n t h i s study, although no correlation was expected. Post-secondary Secular Education Of the many studies of attitude toward the elderly that have been conducted i n the l a s t 25 years, only a few that have simult-aneously investigated students of d i f f e r e n t ages have touched on educational l e v e l . Ross and Freitag (1975)» f o r example, conducted an examination of attitudes toward the el d e r l y by adolescents (M age 13.5 years) and young adults (M age 21.5 years). The older and better educated group recorded a less negative attitude than d i d the younger group. Alan B. Knox (1977, P. 50) stated that, "During young adulthood, especially f o r college graduates, there i s evidence of a deepening of i n t e r e s t s , a humanizing of values, and an expansion of caring." Knox (p. 50) also stated that, " I t appears that adults with more formal education . . . have a more positive attitude toward the e l d e r l y . " Because the rel a t i o n s h i p between attitude and post-secondary secular education appears to lack conclusive investigation, t h i s study tested t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with the expect-ation that a positive c o r r e l a t i o n would be found. Years of Theological Education Wilson (1973, P. 130) suggests that, "One of the major prin c i p l e s of the Christian f a i t h i s a b e l i e f i n the importance of love and good-42 w i l l towards one's fellow men." As already quoted i n chapter one, the Bible enjoins people to honour the hoary head, not to rebuke an elder, to entreat elders as fathers, and to honour one's father and mother. One might expect, therefore, that students exposed to continuous and intensive study of b i b i c a l teachings w i l l develop a positive attitude toward the e l d e r l y . Thus, t h i s study tested the correlation between sutdents* attitudes toward the e l d e r l y and t h e i r years of theological education, with the expectation that a positive c o r r e l a t i o n existed between years of theological education and attitude toward the e l d e r l y . Purpose of Theological Education Those who undertake theological education do so f o r one of three reasons: l ) to prepare f o r graduate studies; 2) to prepare to practice i n the paid ministry; 3) to develop both personally and r e l i g i o u s l y . Although students select theological courses that lead to t h e i r s p e c i f i c objectives, most courses are b i b i c a l l y based. No study was located that tested the purpose f o r which students are under-taking theological education. The reason students are pursuing theo-l o g i c a l education was tested against attitude to determine whether subjects aiming at d i f f e r e n t goals held d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s , although the s p e c i f i c orientation of a student's theological education was not expected to produce a correlation with attitude. Frequency of Contact The attitude of persons who have regular contact with the elderly versus those who have no contact i s unclear; d i f f e r e n t studies have 43 produced c o n f l i c t i n g r e s u l t s . Auerback and Levenson (1977) found that younger university students developed a more negative attitude toward the elderly a f t e r they were exposed to elderly students i n a classroom. Whether the attitude change resulted from contact or from competition f o r grades i s not known, as Amir (19<>9) indicated that competition between groups produced more negative attitudes than had previously existed. Tuckman and Lorge (1958) reported the findings of t h e i r study with persons 25 to 79 years of age (M age 56 years) who had close contact with the el d e r l y . Their research indicated that, "Individuals who have more d i r e c t contact with a variety of old people tend to be somewhat less negative i n t h e i r attitudes toward aging than those whose acquaintance i s more li m i t e d and constrained." (p. 204). Weinberger and Millham (1975) found only a low correla t i o n between contact with the eld e r l y and at t i t u d e . Based on research a v a i l a b l e , the r e s u l t s of t h i s study were expected to disclose that those students who had regular contact with the eld e r l y held a more pos-i t i v e a t titude toward the eld e r l y than those who had no contact, and that a positive c o r r e l a t i o n existed between attitude and the number of regular contacts with the e l d e r l y . Nature of Contact No research was located that studied attitudes toward the elderly by those persons who had regular contact with elderly r e l a t i v e s , regular contacts r e l a t i n g to business, or regular contacts within t h e i r s o c i a l milieu. This lack of information made expected r e s u l t s d i f f i c u l t to forecast, however, based on the commonly held stereotypical view of the eld e r l y and the North American orientation ' 4 4 toward youth, the resu l t s of t h i s study were not expected to disclose any s i g n i f i c a n t difference among those persons who had regular family, business, or s o c i a l contact with the e l d e r l y . Compulsory versus Voluntary Contact The search of l i t e r a t u r e f o r t h i s study f a i l e d to locate any studies that d i r e c t l y tested the effect of voluntary versus compulsory contact with the el d e r l y . The studies of nursing s t a f f s reported i n chapter one indicated that nurses and nurse's aids preferred to work with groups other than the e l d e r l y , but these studies d i d not measure the attitude toward the eld e r l y of those who had compulsory or voluntary contact. Based on t h i s i n d i r e c t evidence, t h i s study expected to f i n d that those subjects who had compulsory contact with the elderly held a more negative attitude than those who had only voluntary contact. Theological Conservatism Webster and Stewart (1973) found an extremely high corre l a t i o n between r e l i g i o u s l y conservative persons and those with conservative personalities. Highly conservative people reported a high degree of dogmatism, authoritariansim, ethnocentrism, and a negative attitude toward the e l d e r l y . In order to measure the r e l i g i o u s conservatism of theological students, a conservatism instrument developed by the Hartford Seminary Foundation was used, and the reported r e s u l t s compared with the subject's response on an attitude measure. Based on Webster and Stewart's findings, the resu l t s of t h i s study were expected to indicate that the more r e l i g i o u s l y conservative the 45 subject, the more negative his attitude toward the elde r l y . THE SAMPLE Subjects Subjects selected f o r t h i s study were students undertaking theological education at Northwest Baptist Theological College (NWB) and the Vancouver School of Theology (VST). These schools were selected because both are located i n Vancouver, and both have programs of study leading t o m i n i s t e r i a l ordination. Major demographic char-a c t e r i s t i c s of subjects are included i n the s t a t i s t i c a l section of t h i s study. Northwest Baptist Theological College Northwest Baptist Theological College offers diplomas, under-graduate, and master's degrees i n theological areas of study. I t i s the post-secondary educational branch of the Convention of Regular (Fellowship) Baptist Churches of B r i t i s h Columbia, and subscribes to a conservative theological stance. I t s primary purposes are to t r a i n students f o r ordination, t o develop mature pastoral leadership among those i n the ministry, and to provide theological education f o r personal and s p i r i t u a l development. I t does not off e r any courses i n gerontology or aging. A one semester course i n the education of adults i s included i n i t s Bachelor of Religious Education program. In the 1981 - 82 academic year, NWB had a t o t a l enrollment of , 178 students, 97 male and 81 female. Forty-three male and 56 female students c o r r e c t l y completed questionnaires, giving a sample of 55•6 percent. Additionally, two questionnaires were inadaquately completed and had to be discarded. 46 Vancouver School of Theology The Vancouver School of Theology was formed from the United Church of Canada and the Anglican Church schools of theology. I t offers one bachelors and several master's degrees i n theological areas of study. I t s theological position r e f l e c t s the theological stance of i t s founding churches, i n that i t holds a •middle-of-the-road• theo-l o g i c a l stance — neither highly conservative nor highly l i b e r a l . I t provides courses designed to lead to ordination, t o further graduate study i n theology, and to personal s p i r i t u a l development. Vancouver School of Theology has four members of fa c u l t y with graduate degrees i n Adult Education. I t s course Pastors as Educators (course VkZZ) i s designed to teach theories and practices of adult education as applied to the practice of Christian education. Additionally, the practice of adult education i s touched on i n several of i t s other courses. In i t s degree programs, i t offers no studies i n gerontology or aging. Vancouver School of Theology's enrollment i n the 1981 - 82 academic year consisted of 58 nal® and 59 female students ( t o t a l 117). Fifteen male and thirteen female students c o r r e c t l y completed the questionnaire, giving a sample of 23.8 percent. Additionally, eleven questionnaires were inadaquately completed and had to be discarded. INSTRUMENTATION The questionnaire used i n t h i s study consisted of three parts. Part A was a r e l i g i o u s conservatism measure developed at the Hartford Seminary Foundation, part B was an attitude scale developed by Rosen-cranz and McNevin, and part C e l i c i t e d demographic data on the subjects. I t was administered i n one session to 39 students at VST and i n two sessions to 101 students at NWB. At each administration, the same prepared statement was read and no additional information supplied u n t i l completed questionnaires were returned. Religious Conservatism Measure A questionnaire developed at the Hartford Seminary Foundation f o r a parish p r o f i l e inventory was used. This instrument consisted of four questions, two of which were single items and two were multi-item, which measured b e l i e f about Jesus Ch r i s t , the B i b l e , l i f e influences, and a number of contemporary moral issues. Each item touched s i g n i f i c a n t l y on a b i b i c a l l y related e n t i t y , and therefore ref l e c t e d the respondent's interpretation and degree of acceptance of a b i b i c a l position. Responses to each item were recorded on a Li k e r t type scale. Scoring consisted of adding responses to each question; the lower the score the more conservative the respondent. The possible range on the measure was 14 to 57, with 35»5 as a theo-r e t i c a l l y neutral mid-point. Attitude Measure The instrument selected f o r attitude measurement was a semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l scale developed by Rosencranz and McNevin (1969). I t was "constructed as a means of measuring the valances of stereotypical attitudes and determining the content or dimensions of such att i t u d e s " (p. 55 )• Rosencranz and McNevin had students submit l i s t s of bipolar sets of adjectives that described attributes and behavioural charact-e r i s t i c s of people of a l l ages. The suggested l i s t s of adjectives were 48 pre-tested extensively to eliminate those which were i n v a l i d or lacked r e l i a b i l i t y . F i n a l l y , the remaining adjectives were factored a f t e r being administered to 200 subjects. The result: was a 32 bipolar scale used t o investigate the attitude of 287 University of Missouri undergraduate students. The 32 bipolar descriptive adjectives measured three dimensions: 1) the Instrumental-Ineffective dimension; 2) the Autonomous-Dependent dimension; 3) the Personal Acceptability-Unacceptability dimension. The Instrumental-Ineffective dimension consisted of pairs of polar adjectives such as productive-unproductive, progressive-old fashioned, and busy-idle. A high r a t i n g on t h i s dimension indicated respondents tested believed an el d e r l y person able t o a c t i v e l y pursue goals, adapt to change, and to be 'where the action i s . ' The Autonomous-Dependent dimension included matched pairs of adjectives such as independent-dependent, secure-insecure, organized-disorganized, and certain-un-ce r t a i n . Those tested who gave a high r a t i n g on t h i s dimension viewed the e l d e r l y as contributing at least as much energy to the functioning of t h e i r s o c i a l system as they derived from others f o r t h e i r personal maintenancy. The t h i r d dimension, Personal Acceptability-Unaccept-a b i l i t y , presented such pairs as friendly-unfriendly, t o l e r a n t - i n t -olerant, happy-sad, and cooperative-uncooperative. Elderly persons rated high i n t h i s dimension ought to function w e l l i n t h e i r s o c i a l milieu, and ought to be able to maintain high l e v e l s of s o c i a l i n t e r -action. Respondents to the questionnaire indicated t h e i r choices on a seven point scale. Scoring consisted of adding responses; the low the score the more positive the respondent's a t t i t u d e . A score of 4.00 was a t h e o r e t i c a l l y neutral score, i n d i c a t i n g the respondent was neither positive nor negative toward the e l d e r l y . The minimum score possible was 32, indi c a t i n g a highly positive a t t i t u d e ; the maximum score possible was 224, in d i c a t i n g a highly negative a t t i t u d e . DEFINITION OF TERMS Attitude A review of l i t e r a t u r e indicated that the term 'attitude* was defined i n a variety of ways. Furthermore, a stated attitude may or may not coincide with one*s a f f e c t i v e behaviour. Shaw and Wright (1967) extracted the major common elements from a number of attitude d e f i n i t i o n s and offered the following! "A r e l a t i v e l y enduring system of evaluative, a f f e c t i v e reactions based upon and r e f l e c t i n g the evaluative concepts or b e l i e f s which have been learned about the char a c t e r i s t i c s of a s o c i a l object or class or s o c i a l objects." (p. 3). This d e f i n i t i o n was used i n t h i s study. Eld e r l y Just when i s a person old? Each person has a d i f f e r e n t under-standing of the term, depending on such factors as h i s own age, the opinions of h i s peer group, h i s experience with older persons, and h i s knowledge of senescence. Some writers introduced factors assoc-iated with r o l e function as a determinant; i s a 55 year old r e t i r e e d i f f e r e n t from an active 55 year old worker? Some writers a r b i t -r a r i l y assigned an age of 65 years of age and older as old age, based, no doubt, on governmental and company pendion plans. Neugarten (1975) suggested two age-group d i v i s i o n s , designating 65 - 7^  years of age as young-old and 75 years of age and older as old-old. For t h i s study, the generally accepted'chronological age of 65 was used to indicate the lower l i m i t of old age. S t a t i s t i c a l Significance In a l l s t a t i s t i c a l procedures and descriptions, a l e v e l of confidence .05 or less was considered s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Sampling Procedure Arrangements were made to administer the instrument to class groups at the schools selected. Two administrations were conducted at NWB and one at VST. The same prepared statement was read to each group, and students at NWB involved i n the f i r s t administration were requested not to mention or discuss the questionnaire u n t i l a f t e r i t had been administered to the second group. Faculty members at both schools were h e l p f u l and cooperative. Reason f o r the Study The extremely li m i t e d amount of l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g to the attitude of r e l i g i o u s s p e c i a l i s t s toward the e l d e r l y indicated that only a few had t r a i n i n g to prepare them to meet the needs of the e l d e r l y . Because of the future involvement with the e l d e r l y of theological students who enter the paid ministry, t h e i r attitude toward the e l d e r l y becomes important. W i l l these students u n c r i t -i c a l l y accept prevailing North American attitudes toward the elderly? 51 LIMITATIONS Nature of Study The problem presented f o r t h i s study suggested an ex post facto design. Also, selecting variables that would be relevant to attitude presented a degree of uncertainty. Instrumentation The instrument used to measure attitude was c a r e f u l l y constructed and tested by i t s originators, and has been used extensively by researchers. The r e l i g i o u s conservatism measure, however, was assemb-led by the Hartford Seminary Foundation from a number of other measures to form part of a Parish P r o f i l e Inventory, a measure designed to produce a p r o f i l e of the 'average* churchgoes. Hartford had no data concerning i t s v a l i d i t y or r e l i a b i l i t y , although Hartford found i t satisfactory f o r i t s purposes. Sampling Unfortunately, not as many subjects were available f o r sampling as would have been desired (NWB 56 percent and VST - 2k percent useful returns), but r e s u l t s obtained appeared reasonably representative as shown by a single-sample chi-square analysis. Also, the possible difference between stated behaviour (as i n a written form) and a f f e c t i v e behaviour may r a i s e a question concerning the accuracy of r e s u l t s as t h i s study confined i t s e l f to written r e s u l t s . Limit of Conceptual Concepts i n Literature Because of the paucity of l i t e r a t u r e t r e a t i n g the attitude of 52 r e l i g i o u s s p e c i a l i s t s toward the e l d e r l y , and because no l i t e r a t u r e was found r e l a t i n g t o the attitude of theological students, extreme d i f -f i c u l t y was encountered i n applying t h e o r e t i c a l concepts to t h i s study. Consequently, many of the expected re s u l t s were based on extrapolated conceptual concepts. Generalization Although the two groups sampled held many common cha r a c t e r i s t i c s , they also d i f f e r e d on a number of other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In the l i g h t of d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s recorded on some variables by subjects at the two schools, considerable question arose regarding the generalization of res u l t s to a l l theological students. No attempt was made to tes t the relationship between attitudes of theological and non-theological students. 53 CHAPTER 4 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Introduction As noted i n chapter three, Northwest Baptist Theological College (NWB) and Vancouver School of Theology (VST) are schools with somewhat di f f e r e n t theological positions. They also have considerably d i f f e r e n t demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i n d i c a t i n g that students attending theo-l o g i c a l schools are not an homogeneous group but, rather, are as varied as any other group of students. Table 4 - 1 d e t a i l s demo-graphic characteristics of students at NWB and VST. Because of these differences, data from the two schools was not combined as the re s u l t s would, not be representative of either school-or, probably, of theo-l o g i c a l students i n general. The questionnaire used f o r t h i s study measured four dependent variables and nine independent variables. The four dependent var-iables were Attitude, which measured the t o t a l attitude of theological students toward the e l d e r l y , and three d i v i s i o n s of Attitude, the Instrumental-Ineffective ( i - l ) dimension, the Autonomous-Dependent (A-D) dimension, and the Personal Acceptability-Unacceptability dimension. I - I , A-D, and P A-U dimensions combine to form the o v e r a l l dependent variable of Attitude. The nine independent variables tested were Age, Sex, Years of Post-secondary Secular Education, Years of Theological Education, Purpose f o r Undertaking Theological Education, Religious Conservatism, the Number of Regular Contacts with'the e l d e r l y , the Nature of Contact with the Elderly, and whether Contact with the Elderly was compulsory or voluntary. Raw data from dependent variables was analysed by Single-sample 54 Table 4-1 Demographic Characteristics of Subjects Sampled Theological School Northwest Baptist Vancouver School Characgeristic Theological College of Theology Age Sex Post-secondary Secular Education Theological Education Contact with the elderly Type of Contact Mean age Range Male Number Female Number 20.8 years 17 - 37 years 4-3 percent 43 56 percent 56 Mean years 1.515 years Range 0 - 5 years Mean years 1.939 years Range 0 - 5 years No contact 14 percent Number 14 Regular contact Number Voluntary Number Compulsory Number 85 percent 85 67 percent 67 3 percent 3 Mixed Comp.15 percent and Vol. Number 15 29.9 years 20 - 50 years 54 percent 15 46 percent 13 4.535 years 3-5 years 1.464 years 0 - 5 years 32 percenti 9 68 percent 19 57 percent 16 11 percent 3 Note. Five years of education means f i v e or more academic years completed. Chi-square analysis to test whether recorded r e s u l t s d i f f e r e d sign-i f i c a n t l y from an expected normal pr o b a b i l i t y response, and data recorded f o r both dependent variables and independent variables was analysed by Pearson Product Moment correla t i o n and by t- t e s t f o r c r i t i c a l r a t i o s to t e s t f o r s i g n i f i c a n t differences between variables. ANALYSIS OF DEPENDENT VARIABLES  Northwest Baptist Theological College Students at NWB reported the scores recorded i n table 4 - 2 on dependent variables I - I , A-D, and P A-U. Table 4 - 2 Mean Scores Reported by Students at NWB on Dependent Variables Attitude, I - I , A-D, and P A-U Range Dependent — Variable Mean Score SD Min Max Attitude 3.66 .67 1.91 5.38 Instrumental- 4.23 .73 2.78 6.33 Ineffective Autonomous- 3.55 .78 I.78 6.11 Dependent Personal 3.31 .78 I.36 5.14 Accepta b i l i t y -Unacceptability Scores recorded i n table 4 - 2 indicated that subjects tested held a positive attitude on dependent variables Attitude, A-D, and P A-U, but a negative attitude on I - I . 56 A single-sample chi-square analysis i s a procedure used to determine whether scores on a frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n d i f f e r sign-i f i c a n t l y from a normal probability curve. In order to test whether scores reported by subjects at NWB d i f f e r e d from a normal pro b a b i l i t y curve, a single-sample chi-square analysis was performed on dependent variables Attitude, I - I , A-D, and P A-U. The re s u l t s are detailed i n table 4 - 3 . Table 4 - 3 Single-sample Chi-square Analysis f o r Scores from Dependent Variables Attitude, I - I , A-D, P A-U and a Normal Probability Curve Dependent Variable Chi-square value Degrees of Freedom Level of Confidence Attitude 1.35 5 NS Instrumental-Ineffective 5.40 5 NS Autonomous-Dependent 3.68 5 NS Personal Acceptability-Unacceptability .98 5 NS Note. To be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence with df 5, chi-square values must exceed 11.07. A l l chi-square values l i s t e d i n table 4 - 3 indicated the d i s t r -ibution of scores d i d not s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r from a normal probability d i s t r i b u t i o n curve. Figures 4 - 1 , 4-2, 4-3, and 4 - 4 v i s u a l l y compare observed d i s t r i b u t i o n against an expected d i s t r i b u t i o n curve by displaying the small differences involved between curve shapes. These graphs portray differences under the curve and not means, as 'Figure 4 - 1; 157 4 3 Normal Probability 'Curve versus; NWB Attitude Curve. •': "1" * ! . ; i • 1 \ ^ ^ ^ ^ \ \ . • , 7/ 'vX'X, \ X - ' ^ ' X \: \ • \ ^ X V \ \ 1 j : ; - i : -.I ;-| ! : .A / x \ \\;V\ \ \ \ \ \ \ x x "vV •-. "NX. ! . \X . ...I... \ i \ X ! - i j 1. •• i i . .. „ *r -v r\ \ \ \ I V \ \ \ \ \ \X\X X, \ \ :\ •, X \"X -\ -v \ • V • "\ i . \ ' \ | \' • NWB j | -2 -1 Chi-square Single-sample; ; 41 J +2 Observed \ : 2i02- 11.1 : •37.k • 36.4 11.1 2.02 Expected 1 : 2120 13-7 1 .34.1 34.1 : 13.7 : 2.20 j IM 3.66 . M 4.00 Qii-square value 1.35; df 5? E 99; 'SB .6?; p j S | Figure 4 - 2 .1 Normal Probability Curve versus NWB I-I Curve ; 4 3 i i i < ••- i -Figiire '4 - 3 I Normal Probability Curve^versus I NWi A-D Curve [ !58' I '•• jNormal.. : ; . . ! j ' 1 I J 'f\ • \ V \ w \ J# - l- X \ X W \ ' \ \ . \ \ , j . W . w L . . A / XX* \ \ \ ' \ \ \ \ . \ \ \ . . . . . . V \ \ i XX <X :\ \ V\. X \ X X \ X V \ \:\,!\. i \ i . i W; " j ; - i +1 +2 •Chi-sqjuarle Single-sample; Observed 1 ; 2.0 12.0 32.0 : 42.0 ; 9^ 0 • 2.0 Expected j r 2.2 13-7 :34.l 34.1 13.7 2.2 % 3.55, M 4.od Chi-square value 3.68; df 5 ; N 99; SD_: .78; p NS Figure 4 - 4 Normal Probability Curve versus NWB P A-U Curve / \ \ \ • —-Normal — NWB ; 'wv \ \ \ \ >WW \ \ \ \ \ A rf \ w \ \ \ \ W W w j : . 1 i \ xX> w -, \ \ \ \ \ \ \ W - ' ^ S \\w , , : 1 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 Chi-square Single-sample Observed 3.0 13.0 34.0 34.0 14.0 r . o •M 3.3I Expected 2.2 13.7 34.1 34.1 13.7 2.2 M 4.00, Chi-square value .985 df 5;- N 99; SD .78; p 16 the curves are presented with coinciding means. In order to te s t whether scores of dependent variables Attitude, I - I , A-D, and P A-U as reported by subjects a t NWB d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from a t h e o r e t i c a l l y neutral score, t-tests were performed f o r O E H i c a l r a t i o s between obtained scores and t h e o r e t i c a l l y neutral scores. The resul t s are detailed i n table 4-4. Table 4-4 C r i t i c a l Ratio Values f o r Dependent Variables Attitude, I - I , A-D, and P A-U versus a Theoretically Neutral Score Dependent Variable CR df Level of Confidence Attitude 13.23 196 .01 Instrumental-Ineffective 3.134 196 .01 Autonomous-Dependent 8.557 196 .01 Personal Acceptability-Unacceptability 8.802 196 .01 Note. To d i f f e r at a .01 l e v e l of confidence, a c r i t i c a l r a t i o value i n excess of 2.58 i s required. A l l the c r i t i c a l r a t i o values l i s t e d i n table 4-4 indicated that the scores on the four dependent variables d i f f e r e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y from a t h e o r e t i c a l l y neutral score at a .01 l e v e l of confidence. Vancouver School of Theology Students at VST reported the scores recorded i n table 4 - 5 on 60. dependent variables Attitude, I - I , A-D, and P A-U. Table 4-5 Mean Scores Reported by Students at VST on Dependent Variables Attitude, I - I , A-D, and P A-U Dependent Variable Mean Score SD Min Range Max Attitude .57 2.47 4.67 Instrumental-Ineffective 3.62 .59 2.56 4.89 Autonomous-Dependent 3.81 .60 2.56 4.89 Personal Acceptability-Unacceptability 3.26 .67 2.14 4.50 Scores recorded; i n table 4-5 indicated that subjects tested held a positive attitude on a l l four dependent variables. In order to te s t whether scores reported by subjects at VST on dependent variables Attitude, I - I , A-D, and P A-U d i f f e r e d from a normal probability curve, a single-sample chi-square analysis was performed. The re s u l t s are detailed i n table 4-6. A l l chi-square values l i t e d i n table 4-6 indicated the d i s t r i b u t i o n of scores d i d not d i f f e r s t a t i s t i c a l l y from a normal pro b a b i l i t y curve, execpt f o r P A-U, which d i f f e r e d at .05 l e v e l of confidence. Figures 4-5, 4 - 6, 4 - 7, and 4-8 v i s u a l l y compare observed d i s t r i b u t i o n against an expected d i s t r i b u t i o n curve. These graphs display differences under the curve and not means, as the curves are presented with coinciding means. 61" Table 4-6 Single-sample Chi-square Analysis f o r Scores from Dependent Variables Attitude. i - i , A-D, P A-U and a Normal Probability Curve Dependent Variable Chi-square value Degrees of freedom Level of confidence Attitude 3.99 5 NS Instrumental-Ineffective 4.16 5 NS Autonomous-Dependent 2.18 5 NS Personal Acceptability-Unacceptability 13.65 5 NS In order to te s t whether scores of dependent variables Attitude, I - I , A-D, and P A-U as reported by subjects at VST d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from a t h e o r e t i c a l l y neutral score, t - t e s t s were performed f o r c r i t i c a l r a t i o s between obtained scores and a t h e o r e t i c a l l y neutral score. The re s u l t s are detailed i n table 4-7. Table 4-7 C r i t i c a l Ratio Values f o r Dependent Variables Attitude, I - I , A-D, and P A-U versus a Theoretically Neutral Score Dependent Variable CR df Level of confidence Attitude 4.92 Instrumental- 3.4l Ineffective Autonomous- I.67 Dependent Personal 5.84 Acceptability Unacceptability 54 54 54 54 .01 .01 NS .01 •3 I .! . . Figure 4 - 5 • •!' -j ' ' ! ' •• Normal Probability Curv#; versus VST Attitude Curve 62 • "' 1 " / / X x ' X ; \ \>v h V • v : • X /x ' ' , X A \ \ \ \ \ \ i \ v. \ x O \ K \ \ N \ \ \ \ X X . . ..1. _.. X 1 N \ / \ X X X X X \ \ x K . \ X : \ • \ ' \ X . X X ..s X \ \ ' \ — \ . \ i \ \ . A \ . . . . \ \ i \ 1 \ \ : i 1 A \X \ X N ^ \ \ \ \ X X • X V \ • ~ x ! ! - ! " ' ' ; »• \ X • Chi-square i -2 Single-sample i ; 0 +1 i :" 4-2 Observed •< 0.0 : 4.0 ; 11.0 12.0 1.0 : 0.0 i j M 3.62 Expected 0.6 3-8 . 9.55 9.55 3-8 0.6 M 4.00 1 — — _ 1 i : 1 Chi-square value 3-99; df 5; N 28;' SD .57, p NS Norlal Probability Curve versus VST I-I Curve / / X X X X T-X"^ w • x \ — —Normal ' / x x \ < \ . -x X \ \ \ \ \ x . X \\ 1 \ X. \ N X \ \ \ \ X \ N x x \ s \ \ \ , - x X \ \ X x \ \ \ X X \ \ \ X X \ X X \ X \ \ \ 1' : , | . . . j . . . . : \ \ \ X \ " X X X X x^c^ >xX\> \ "x \ \ X V X -2 Chi-square Single--sample -1 0 +1 +2 Observed . 0.0 4.0 11.0 12.0 1.0 . 0.0 M 3.62 Expected 0.6 3.8 9.55 9.55 3.8 0.6 : M 4.001 x Chi-square value 4.16; .df 5; N 28; SD .59. p NS, Figure 4 - 7 Normal P r o b a b i l i t y Curve versus VST A-D Curve. 63 4 3 / / \ \ \ \ X /•. K £ X 'X ^  •• \ \ \ \ \ ^ \ \ X xV\V - X X -. '•' \ \ X \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ '• X \ -2 -1 0 +1 +2 Normal VST Chi-square Single-sample Observed 1.0 4.0 17.0 • 12.6 4.0 o.o '• Expected 0-..6 3.8 9.55 9.55 3.8 0.6 H 3.81 Chi-square value 2.18; df 5; N 28; SD .60; p NS ; v Figure 4 ' - 8 Normal P r o b a b i l i t y Curve versus VST P A-U Curve / '•• - \ \ \ \ / /' '•• \ " \ ff X \ \ N \ \ \ X ^x \ \ " \ \ . ' \ \ Jy \ S N / x A X \ XX \ \ v \ \ X \. X\X! ! X x x \ v XX< . \ \ \ x X \ \ \ . \ \ . \ > v X XXX X Normal i X. VST i -2 -1 Chi-square Single-sample . +1 +2 Observed 0.0 7-0 10.o' 3.0 8.0 0.0 Expected 0.6 3-8 9.55 9.55 3 .8 r 0.6 Chi- square value 13.65; df 5; N 28; SD .67 ; p :<.05 M 3-26 M 4.0 64 Note. To d i f f e r at a .01 l e v e l of confidence, df 54, a c r i t i c a l r a t i o value i n excess of 2.01 i s required. A l l the c r i t i c a l r a t i o values l i s t e d i n table 4-7 indicated that the scores on dependent variables Attitude, I - I , A-D, P A-U di f f e r e d at a significance of .01, but that A-D d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y at .05 l e v e l of confidence. INDEPENDENT VARIABLES Age To test the expected r e s u l t that no co r r e l a t i o n existed between a student's age and h i s attitude toward the el d e r l y , a Pearson Product Moment cor r e l a t i o n was performed between age and the four dependent variables of at t i t u d e , I - I , A-D, and P A-U. Table 4-8 d e t a i l s the r e s u l t s . Table 4-8 Correlation between Age and Dependent Variables Attitude, I - I , A-D, and P A-U Northwest Baptist Vancouver School Theological College of Theology Dependent Level of Level of Variable r confidence r confidence Attitude Instrumental-Ineffective Autonomous-Dependent Personal Acceptability-Unacceptability .073 .237 .131 .098 .O63 .269 .007 .474 .099 .307 .126 .261 .106 .296 .153 .219 65 C l e a r l y , no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n existed between age and the four dependent variables f o r students at either NWB or VST. Sex To test the expected r e s u l t that no relationship existed between sex and dependent variables a t t i t u d e , I - I , A-D, and P A-U, a Pearson Product Moment correla t i o n was performed. Table 4-9 d e t a i l s the r e s u l t s . Table 4-9 Correlation between Sex and Dependent Variables Attitude, I - I , A-D, and P A-U Dependent Variable Northwest Baptist Theological College Level of c confidence Vancouver School of Theology Level of confidence Attitude Instrumental-Ineffective .040 .000 .021 Autonomous-Dependent Personal .004 Accepta b i l i t y -Unacceptability •345 .500 .419 .483 .159 .317 .226 .153 .209 .049* .124 .219 No s i g n i f i c a n t correlation between sex and the four dependent variables was found, with the exception of the I-I dimension reported by VST students, who recorded a Pearson Product Moment correlation of •317, P .049. Because t h i s difference appeared, a t - t e s t f o r c r i t i c a l r a t i o was conducted. Table 4-10 d e t a i l s the r e s u l t s , indicating that the t - t e s t f a i l e d t o produce a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference. Table 4-10 C r i t i c a l Ratio Values f o r Independent Variable Sex versus Dependent Variables Attitude, I - I , A-D, and P A-U Northwest Baptist Theological College Dependent Mean Score Level of Variable Male Female CR confidence Attitude 3.63 3.68 .431 NS 3.55 3.37 .79 NS Instrumental-Ineffective 4.23 4.23 .000 • NS 3.80 3.43 1.71 NS Autonomous-Dependent 3.53 3.57 .260 NS 3.93 3.67 1.12 NS Personal 3.32 3.31 .060 NS 3.35 3.15 .78 NS Ac c e p t a b i l i t y -Uhacceptability Vancouver School of Theology Mean Score Level of Male Female CR confidence Note. With a df 196 f o r NWB, a c r i t i c a l r a t i o i n excess of I.96 i s required f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t difference at the .05 l e v e l of confidence With a df f o r VST scores, a c r i t i c a l r a t i o i n excess of 2.01 i s required f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t difference at the .05 l e v e l of confidence. 67 Years of Post-secondary Secular Education In order to t e s t the expected r e s u l t that a s i g n i f i c a n t correlation existed between the subject's years of post-secular education and at t i t u d e , I - I , A-D, and P A-U scores, a Pearson Product Moment cor-r e l a t i o n was performed. Table 4 - 1 1 d e t a i l s the r e s u l t s . Table 4 - 1 1 Correlation between Years of Post-secondary Secular Education and Dependent Variables Attitude, I - I , A-D, and P A-U Northwest Baptist Vancouver School Theological College of Theology Dependent Variable r Level of confidence r Level of confidence Attitude . 0 6 5 . 2 6 2 . 0 2 5 .449. Instrumental-Ineffective . 0 5 6 . 2 9 0 . 0 6 2 . 3 7 8 Autonomous-Dependent .018 . 4 3 1 . 1 0 3 . 3 0 1 Personal Acceptability-Unacceptability . 1 7 3 .043* . 1 7 9 . 1 8 1 Only on the P A-U dimension was a s i g n i f i c a n t correlation (r • 1 7 3 t P .043) registered by students at NWB. On a l l other scores, no s i g n i f i c a n t correlation was registered. Years of Theological Education In order to te s t the expected r e s u l t that a correl a t i o n existed between the subject's years of theological education and dependent 68-variables Attitude, I - I , A-D, and P A-U, a Person Product Moment corr e l a t i o n was performed. Table 4-12 d e t a i l s the r e s u l t s . Very c l e a r l y , t h i s study f a i l e d to establish any c o r r e l a t i o n between years of theological education and;the four dependent variables f o r either NWB or VST. Table 4-12 Correlation between Years of Theological Education and Depend Variables Attitude, I - I , A-D, and P A-U Northwest Baptist Vancouver School Theological College of Theology Dependent Level of Level of Variable r confidence r confidence Attitude .133 .094 .209 .143 Instrumental- .10? .145 .045 .410 Ineffective Autonomous- .142 . 080 .299 . 061 Dependent Personal .055 .295 .130 .255 Ac c e p t a b i l i t y -Unacceptability Purpose f o r Undertaking Theological Education Table 4-13 d e t a i l s the scores reported by students at NWB and VST as t h e i r purposes f o r undertaking theological education. Subjects at both schools registered close scores on Attitude versus purpose f o r undertaking theological education. Table 4 - 14 d e t a i l s the r e s u l t s . 69 Table 4-13 Students' Percentages of Purposes f o r Taking Theological Education Northwest Baptist Vancouver School Purpose Theological College of Theology Preparatory to further 5 % 3«6 % theological study Preparatory f o r paid 24 % 71A % Christian service For personal s p i r i t u a l 71 % 25 % development Table 4 - 1 4 Mean Scores on Attitude and Purpose f o r Undertaking Theological Education Northwest Baptist Theological College Purpose Mean Score SB N Vancouver School of Theology  Mean Score SD N Further Theological 3.57 Study Paid Christian 3.57 Service Personal S p i r i t u a l 3.70 Development 1.09 5 2.04 - - 1 .57 25 3.48 .60 20 .69 69 3.52 .51 7 In order to te s t the prediction that no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference would be found between the attitude toward the el d e r l y and the purpose f o r which theological students were undertaking theological education, t - t e s t s f o r c r i t i c a l r a t i o s were performed. Table 4-15 d e t a i l s the r e s u l t s . Table 4-15 C r i t i c a l Ratios between Purposes f o r Undertaking Theological Education Northwest Baptist Theological College Purpose CR df Level of confidence Vancouver School of Theology Level of CR df confidence Further Study and Paid 0 Service Further Study and .263 71 NS Personal Development Paid Service and Personal .927 92 NS .170 25 NS Development Note. Level of confidence at .05 are as follows t df 71 - 2.01; df 92 -1.96; df 25 - 2.06. None of the tests detailed i n table 4-15 produced a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between any of the purposes. Contact with the Elderly To test the expected r e s u l t s that those who had regular contact with the elderly would have a more positive attitude than those who had no regular contact, a Pearson Product Moment correlation was performed on the gathered data. The questionnaire used to gather data tested attitudes of subjects who had from zero to f i v e regular contacts, with the expectation that the more contacts subjects had with the e l d e r l y , the more positive t h e i r attitude would be. Table 4 - 16 d e t a i l s the r e s u l t s . 71 Table 4 - 16 Correlation between Number of Contacts and Attitude Dependent Variable Northwest Baptist Theological College Level of confidence Vancouver School of Theology Level of confidence Attitude .090 .187 .181 .178 C l e a r l y , no correla t i o n existed between the number of contacts ranging from zero to f i v e and the subjects' attitudes. No Contact versus One or More Contacts Subjects with no regular contact and those with one or more regular contacts reported the data recorded i n table 4-17. Table 4-17 Subjects' Scores f o r No Regular Contacts versus One or More Contacts Contact Northwest Baptist Theological College Vancouver School of Theology Mean Score SD N Percentage of sample Mean Score SD N Percentage of sample No contact One or more contacts 3.94 .64 14 14 3.62 .67 85 85 3.60 .69 9 32 3.41 .51 19 68 A t - t e s t was performed to test whether a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference existed between those subjects i n the same school who had no regular contact and those who had regular contact with the el d e r l y . NWB students registered a c r i t i c a l r a t i o of 1.734, df 97. and VST students 72 registered a c r i t i c a l r a t i o of .258, df 26. No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f -icant difference was found between those who reported no contact and those who reported one or more regular contacts. Nature of Contact Unfortunately, contact with e l d e r l y r e l a t i v e s , and business and s o c i a l contacts were intermixed i n the responses recorded. As no separation among these groups was possible, t h i s item could not be s t a t i s t i c a l l y treated. Voluntary versus Compulsory Contact Table 4-18 d e t a i l s responses of students concerning voluntary, mixed voluntary and compulsory, and compulsory contact with the eld e r l y . Table 4-18 Subjects' Scores on Voluntary, Mixed Voluntary and Compulsory, and Compulsory Contacts with the Elderly Northwest Baptist Vancouver School Theological College of Theology Mean Score SD N Type of contact Voluntary 3.62 Mixed Compulsory 3.59 and Voluntary Compulsory 3.55 .688 67 .639 15 .481 3 Mean Score SD N 3.45 .500 16 3.20 .644 3 To te s t the expected results that those subjects who had compulsory contact with the elderly held a more negative attitude than those who had voluntary contact, a t - t e s t f o r c r i t i c a l r a t i o was performed. Table 4-19 d e t a i l s the r e s u l t s . Table 4-19 T Test Scores f o r Voluntary versus Compulsory Contacts Northwest Baptist Vancouver School Theological College of Theology Types of Level of Level of contacts CR df confidence CR df confidence Voluntary versus .162 80 NS .382 16 NS Mixed Comp/Vol. Voluntary versus .241 68 NS Compulsory Mixed Comp/Vol .124 16 NS versus Compulsory Note. Levels of confidence at .05 are as follow s : df 80 - 2.00; df 68 - 2.01; df 16 - 2.12. I n s u f f i c i e n t numbers of respondents at VST precluded a f u l l s t a t i s t i c a l procedure f o r that school. No s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference, however, appeared between responses of students who reported voluntary, mixed voluntary and compulsory, and compulsory contacts with the e l d e r l y . Religious Conservatism On the r e l i g i o u s conservatism measure, students at NWB and VST reported scores recorded i n table 4 - 20. Students at NWB and VST reported s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o u s conservatism scores. A t - t e s t f o r differences between the two groups produced a c r i t i c a l r a t i o value of 10.685, df 125, i n d i c a t i n g that the two groups are s t a t i s t i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t at the .01 l e v e l of confidence. 74 Table 4 - 2 0 Religious Conservatism Mean Scores Northwest Baptist Vancouver School Theological College of Theology Mean Mean Score SD Range Score SD Range 22.8 2.5 15 30 30.0 3.3 25 37 To test the expected results that the more r e l i g i o u s l y conservative a subject the more negative h i s attitude toward the e l d e r l y , a Pearson Product Moment correla t i o n was performed. Table 4 - 2 1 d e t a i l s the r e s u l t s . Table 4 - 2 1 Correlation between Religious Conservatism and Dependent Variables Attitude, I - I , A-D, and P A-U Dependent Variable Northwest Baptist Theological College Level of r Confidence Vancouver School of Theology Level of r confidence Attitude .214 .02 Instrumental- .247 .007 Ineffective Autonomous- .161 .05 Dependent Personal .169 .05 Accepta b i l i t y -Unacceptability .184 .052 .199 .199 .17 .40 .15 .15 75 Noteworthy i n the resu l t s of the conservatism measure i s that students at NWB and VST recorded completely d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s . Students at NWB supported the expected r e s u l t s on a l l four dependent variables at the .01 l e v e l of confidence, but students at VST f a i l e d t o support the expected re s u l t s on any dependent variable. VST r e s u l t s , however, are unclear, i n that the number of respondents i n each conservatism catagory was i n s u f f i c i e n t to y i e l d accurate s t a t i s t i c a l r e s u l t s . In some catagores, such as 35* 36, and 37» only one subject was represented. In order to further t e s t the reported r e s u l t s of conservatism versus a t t i t u d e , VST and NWB mean attitude and conservatism r e s u l t s were compared. T-tests indicated that the two schools d i f f e r e d at the .01 l e v e l of confidence -on reported conservatism, but at the .07 l e v e l of confidence on a t t i t u d e . Although the att i t u d e difference i s not s i g n i f i c a n t at the accepted l e v e l of confidence, a clear trend i s indicated that the more r e l i g i o u s l y conservative a subject the more negative h i s attitude toward the el d e r l y . CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION  Measure of Attitude The purpose of t h i s study was t o inves t i g a t e the i n t e r a c t i o n of selected independent variables with the general concept of a t t i t u d e toward the e l d e r l y on the part of students attending t h e o l o g i c a l schools. In order to investigate these i n t e r a c t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s of subjects toward the e l d e r l y were f i r s t measured and, although formal hypotheses were not generated, expected r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a t t i t u d e s and independent v a r i a b l e s were s p e c i f i e d . Once the mean a t t i t u d e of students attending Northwest Baptist Theological College (NWB) and the Vancouver School of Theology (VST) had been measured, each of the nine independent variables was tested against a t t i t u d e by the s t a t -i s t i c a l procedures of Pearson Product Moment c o r r e l a t i o n , t - t e s t s f o r c r i t i c a l r a t i o , and multiple regression a n a l y s i s , i n order to t e s t the extent of any r e l a t i o n s h i p that might develop. Results i n d i c a t e d that students at both schools tested held s i g n i f i c a n t l y p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward the e l d e r l y when measured against a t h e o r e t i c a l l y neutral score. On the three subdivisions of the a t t i t u d e s c a l e , the Instrumental-Ineffective, the Autonomous-Dependent, and the Personal A c c e p t a b i l i t y - U n a c c e p t a b i l i t y dimensions, subjects at both schools r e g i s t e r e d p o s i t i v e responses, with the exception of subjects a t NWB, who reg i s t e r e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y negative score (p <.0l) on the Instrum-e n t a l - I n e f f e c t i v e dimension. The negative response by students at NWB on the Instrumental-I n e f f e c t i v e dimension indicated that these subjects believed the 77 eld e r l y to be low i n power and effectiveness, and to be i d l e , o l d -fashioned, reactionary, and unproductive, s i g n i f y i n g that they have accepted the North American opinion that the elderly constitute a weak, unproductive, and inactive minority group. This misconception suggested that an educational component t r e a t i n g the s o c i o l o g i c a l and the psychological aspects of aging would perhaps help to d i s p e l l the student's stereotypical view of the eld e r l y . Subjects at both schools recorded t h e i r most positive scores on the Personal Acceptability-Unacceptability dimension, recording scores that were more positive than a t h e o r e t i c a l l y neutral score by more than the .01 l e v e l of confidence on a t- t e s t f o r c r i t i c a l r a t i o . This r e s u l t indicated that the subjects believed the el d e r l y to be a happy, hopeful, f r i e n d l y , pleasant, and tolerant group of people, and sugested they personally l i k e d the elderly as persons. In t h i s dimension, students at VST were consistant with t h e i r response on the Instrumental-Ineffective dimension, but students at NWB were opposite to t h e i r response on the Instrumental-Ineffective dimension. Data from t h i s study f a i l e d to c l e a r l y i d e n t i f y a reason f o r t h i s inconsistency on the part of NWB students, but one might speculate that the substantially higher secular education of students at VST was a contributing f a c t o r , as exposure to higher education provides students with greater know-ledge about people i n general. Respondents at VST who reported t h e i r undergraduate degrees indicated that only about 10 percent held science degrees and 90 percent held s o c i a l science and a r t s degrees. As already mentioned, respondents at NWB who reported a negative score on the Instrumental-Ineffective dimension suggested they lacked knowledge about the position of the elderly i n our society. 78 Interestingly, a t - t e s t between the two groups on the Personal Accept-ability-Unacceptability dimension produced a c r i t i c a l r a t i o of only •336, df 125, which indicated t h e i r attitudes on t h i s dimension d i f f e r e d by an exceedingly small amount. As many of the subjects tested w i l l be entering the ordained church ministry, these subjects should be supportive and effec t i v e i n t h e i r ministries toward the elder l y . As already noted, subjects at VST registered a frequency d i s t -r i b u t i o n that resulted i n a prob a b i l i t y curve s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from a normal probability curve on the Personal Acceptability-Unaccept-a b i l i t y dimension. A bi-modal response caused the d i s t o r t i o n . Although the response mean f o r the t o t a l VST group indicated a s i g n i f i c a n t l y positive score on t h i s dimension, 28.5 percent (N*8) of the sample registered a negative score that f e l l between the standard deviation levels of 1 and 2. Extensive s t a t i s t i c a l t r e a t -ment between the 28.5 percent of the subjects who registered the negative score on t h i s dimension and a l l nine independent variables f a i l e d to produce any significance between them and the remaining 72 percent of the subjects sampled. Data available from t h i s study i s i n s u f f i c i e n t to account f o r t h i s difference. Age versus Attitude Literature examined f o r t h i s study indicated that no clear cor-r e l a t i o n existed between age and attitude toward the e l d e r l y ; the expected r e s u l t was substantiated by data collected from both NWB and VST. Nor d i d any one age group r e g i s t e r a s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t attitude than any other age group. Because ages of subjects were 7 9 grouped predominantly i n the 2 0 's, i n s u f f i c i e n t numbers of subjects above age 32 precluded s t a t i s t i c a l treatment of attitudes of subjects older than the lower 3 0 's. In a l l l i k e l i h o o d , the majority of theological students w i l l continue to be i n the early adult age group. I f the effect of age on attitude toward the elderly i s to be e f f e c t i v e l y investigated, a long-i t u d i n a l study w i l l be necessary to plot differences i n age and attitude over l i f e spans, rather than a cross-sectional study that might be biased by factors other than age alone. Sex versus Attitude The expectation that no co r r e l a t i o n existed between the sex of students attending theological schools and t h e i r attitude toward the elderly was supported by students at both NWB and VST, with the exception of a . 0 4 - 9 l e v e l of confidence Pearson .troduct Moment correlation recorded on the Instrumental-ineffective dimension by students at VST. Students at NWB reported a zero correlation with a ,jjO l e v e l of confidence on the Instrumental-Ineffective dimension. Because t h i s one r e s u l t was t o t a l l y inconsistant with a l l other scores, a t - t e s t f o r c r i t i c a l r a t i o between male and female respondents was performed. No s i g n i f -icant c r i t i c a l r a t i o resulted. Additionally, a multiple regression analysis credited sex with contributing only 1.123 percent toward the t o t a l a t t i t u d e , although a multiple regression with only 28 cases lacks s i g n i f i c a n t accuracy. Because a t - t e s t i s a more sensitive analysis of data f o r small numbers than a Pearson Product Moment cor r e l a t i o n , the t - t e s t i s a more powerful r e s u l t . The Pearson Product Moment correlation must, therefore, be c l a s s i f i e d as a s t a t i s t i c a l aberation probably caused by i n s u f f i c i e n t sample s i z e . 80 Post-secondary Secular Education versus Attitude Contrary to expectations, data gathered f o r t h i s study f a i l e d to demonstrate a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between subjects' years of post-secondary secular education and a t t i t u d e , with the exception of r e s u l t s from students at NWB, who recorded a .043 l e v e l of confidence Pearson Product Moment correlation on the Personal Acceptability-Unacceptability dimension. The corre l a t i o n of scores reported by students at NWB, however, may lack accuracy. When subjects were grouped i n t o catagories of from 0 to 5 or more years of post-secular education, 72.7 percent reported no post-secondary education, 13.1 percent reported 1 year, and 10.1 percent reported 2 years, 0 percent reported 3 years, 2 per-cent reported 4 years, and 2 percent reported 5 or more years. Because 96 percent of respondents were grouped i n the 0 to 2 year range, insuf-f i c i e n t numbers of subjects i n the 3 to 5 o r more year range caused the corre l a t i o n r e s u l t s to be suspect. Respondents at VST reported a li m i t e d range of post-secondary education — three to f i v e years — and therefore may have reached a plateau where further secular education does not af f e c t attitude to any extent. A l l VST students are university graduates working at the master's l e v e l . Combining res u l t s from both schools i n an e f f o r t to secure a more even d i s t r i b u t i o n of subjects f a i l e d to produce a cor-r e l a t i o n between post-secondary education and any of the four dependent variables. Because of the unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n of subjects over the range examined, the re s u l t s of t h i s study may be open to question. Theological Education versus Attitude This study was unable to support the expectation that the longer 81 a student had studied theology the more positive his attitude will be toward the elderly. Both NWB and VST subjects failed to register any significant correlation between the number of years of theological education and dependent variables Attitude, Instrumental-Ineffective, Autonomous-Dependent, or Personal Acceptability-Unacceptability. Unfortunately, the distribution of subjects in theological education may have led to a distortion in statistical results. Subjects at VST registered a higher mean level of theological education than subjects at NWB; 1.46 years for VST and .939 years for NWB. At NWB, 50.5 percent of respondents registered no years of theological education, and 27.3 percent registered only one year completed. This left insuf-ficient numbers in the 2 to 5 or wore year range to yield reliable results. Subjects at VST recorded a more even distribution over the 0 to 5 or more year range, with 21.4 percent with 1 year, 39.3 percent with 2 years, 3.6 percent with 3 years, and 7.1 percent with 4 years. Combining scores of the two schools in an effort to obtain a more even distribution also failed to establish any correlation between years of theological education and attitude toward the elderly. The relationship between years of theological education and attitude might suffer from other distorting factors. Subjects in both groups tested most likely have been exposed to varying degrees of theological training in Christian education departments of churches, informal Bible study groups, and Christian home environments, and the measure employed in this study was not sensitive enough to detect these factors. If the relationship between theological education and attitude is to be thoroughly investigated, a much more wide ranging and sensitive instrument than the one used in this study must be designed. 82 Purpose f o r Undertaking Theological Education versus Attitude This area was investigated to test whether subjects planning to enter the paid ministry d i f f e r e d from those undertaking theological education f o r other purposes. Because no study that investigated t h i s area was located, expected re s u l t s were extrapolated from other areas of investigation. Applying the concept that exposure to theological education would produce a more positive attitude toward the el d e r l y , no difference i n attitude was expected between subjects* purposes f o r undertaking theological education. As expected, no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p appeared between attitudes toward the eld e r l y and the subjects' purposes f o r undertaking theological education. Referring to Table 4-13, NWB reported 5 percent and VST 3.6 percent of i t s students preparing f o r further theological education, a spread of only 1.4 percent. NWB students, however, reported only 24 percent preparing f o r the paid ministry, whereas VST students reported 71.4 percent i n t h i s catagory, as spread of 52.6 percent. Informal d i s -cussions with some NWB students a f t e r the administration of the questionnaire suggested that some f e l t "paid Christian service" was a poor expression, as they had dedicated themselves to serving t h e i r Lord and pay was a minor consideration. These students stated they had indicated "personal or r e l i g i o u s development" on the questionnaire, even though they intended to enter the paid ministry. A t - t e s t between scores reported by subjects at NWB on the three purposes f o r undertaking theological education (preparation f o r further study, personal s p i r i t u a l development, and preparation to enter the paid ministry) f a i l e d to produce s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t c r i t i c a l r a t i o s . I n s u f f i c i e n t numbers of respondents at VST i n the catagory of future study precluded t-tests between future study 83 * and personal development, but a t - t e s t between paid ministry and personal development f a i l e d to produce a s i g n i f i c a n t c r i t i c a l r a t i o . (Refer to table 4 - 15.) Number of Contacts with the Elderly versus Attitude Contrary to the expectation that the more contacts a subject had with the elderly the more positive his a t t i t u d e , t h i s study c l e a r l y f a i l e d to indicate any such rel a t i o n s h i p . Students at NWB recorded a s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher percentage of contact with the elderly than students at VST; 96 percent of MB versus 68 percent of VST students had such contact. No correlation between the number of contacts and att i t u d e , however, emerged i n the analysis of data, indicating that the number of contacts with the elderly d i d not af f e c t the subjects' attitudes toward the el d e r l y . Mention must be made, however, that the most negative mean scores were recorded by subjects who had no contact with the e l d e r l y , but the difference was not s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence on t - t e s t s . In order to further test the independent variable of contact with the e l d e r l y , reported attitude scores were grouped i n t o the two cat -agories of subjects with no contact versus subjects with one or more regular contacts. When analysed by t - t e s t s , students at both schools tested who had no contact with the elderly registered a more negative attitude than those who had one or more contacts, but the difference was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence. When scores from both NWB and VST were combined, t- t e s t s resulted i n a c r i t i c a l r a t i o of 1.51, df 125. To be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , a c r i t i c a l r a t i o of I.96 was required. Although no s t a t i s t i c a l 84;: s i g n i f i c a n c e emerged, the most negative scores on the combined scores were recorded by those who had no contact with the e l d e r l y . Compulsory. Mixed Compulsory and Voluntary, and Voluntary Contact  versus Attitude S t a t i s t i c a l procedures f a i l e d to e s t a b l i s h any s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between voluntary, mixed voluntary and compulsory, and compulsory contact with the e l d e r l y versus a t t i t u d e toward the e l d e r l y . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , those who had compulsory contact recorded a s l i g h t l y more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e than those who had voluntary contact, but the d i f f e r e n c e was not s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l of confidence on a t - t e s t . Very c l e a r l y , the data from t h i s study indicated that neither contact versus no contact, nor frequency of contact with the e l d e r l y s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d the respondents* a t t i t u d e s . An attempt to characterize contacts on the basis,of family, business, and s o c i a l contacts was unsuccessful, as these f a c t o r s were intermixed on the questionnaire and s t a t i s t i c a l treatment was impossible. From the data gathered, very few subjects indicated they had contacts of a s i n g l e nature, but rather indicated they had a mix of contact with colleagues, r e l a t i v e s (primarily parents) and business people. Religious Conservatism versus Attitude Based on the fin d i n g s of researchers such as Webster and Stewart (1973)t data from t h i s study was expected to d i s c l o s e that respondents who were more t h e o l o g i c a l l y l i b e r a l would hold, more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward the e l d e r l y than respondents who were more r e l i g i o u s l y conser-v a t i v e . This expectation should apply from a d i s t r i b u t i o n of l i b e r a l 85 and conservative subjects within a homogeneous group, and between comparable groups who r e g i s t e r e d d i f f e r e n t mean conservatism scores. Data from t h i s study only p a r t i a l l y s a t i s f i e d t h i s expectation, i n that respondents within NWB confirmed the predicted r e s u l t s by recording a Pearson Product Moment c o r r e l a t i o n between r e l i g i o u s conservatism and a t t i t u d e at greater than the .05 l e v e l of confidence on a l l four dependent v a r i a b l e s , but subjects at VST f a i l e d to r e g i s t e r a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n with any dependent v a r i a b l e . On an i n t e r -group comparison, subjects i n the two schools recorded conservatism scores that y i e l d e d a c r i t i c a l r a t i o score of 10.685, d f 125, on a t - t e s t , i n d i c a t i n g that the two groups tested d i f f e r e d a t a .01 l e v e l p f confidence. VST was the more l i b e r a l group. A t t i t u d e scores between the two schools a l s o d i f f e r e d ; VST subjects were more p o s i t i v e toward the e l d e r l y , but not s i g n i f i c a n t l y so at the .05 l e v e l of confidence on a t - t e s t score. Although the inter-group scores f a i l e d to e s t a b l i s h a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between conservatism and a t t i t u d e , a d e f i n i t e trend developed, suggesting that f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s i n d i c a t e d . In an e f f o r t to locate a r e l a t i o n s h i p between conservatism and other independent v a r i a b l e s , extensive s t a t i s t i c a l treatments were performed. On the conservatism responses, respondents a t NWB recorded a much higher percentage of scores within a l i m i t e d range than d i d students at VST; 92 percent of NWB scores f e l l between 20 and 27, whereas VST respondents recorded a much more even d i s t r i b u t i o n of responses across t h e i r conservatism range. Extensive treatment of data from VST subjects f a i l e d to produce any s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between any other independent v a r i a b l e and conservatism, nor d i d any 86' combination of independent v a r i a b l e s and conservatism produce any s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . In the NWB sample, however, on a median s p l i t of conservatism scores, the more conservative group was s i g n i f -i c a n t l y younger i n age and more negative i n a t t i t u d e than l e s s conserv-a t i v e subjects. Table 5 ~ 1 d e t a i l s the r e s u l t s . Table 5 - 1 C r i t i c a l Ratios f o r Age and Attitude versus Religious . Conservatism on a Median S p l i t ; Northwest Baptist Theological College Religious Conservatism Below Median Inde pendent Mean Variable Score SD Att i t u d e 3.82 .64 3.48 .69 2.46 96 .05 Age 19.8 2.8 21.88 4.74 2.66 96 .05 Note. With a df 96, a c r i t i c a l r a t i o of 2.63 f o r p .01 and I .96 f o r p .05 i s required. Conclusion The data of t h i s study produced somewhat mixed r e s u l t s , i n that i t confirmed some expected outcomes and f a i l e d to confirm others. No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e and age, sex, or purpose f o r undertaking t h e o l o g i c a l education was expected to be found within the subject groups; t h i s expectation was sustained. A s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was an t i c i p a t e d between a t t i t u d e and years of post-secondary secular education, years of t h e o l o g i c a l education, and Above Median Mean Level of Score SD CR df Confidence 87 " contact with the e l d e r l y ; no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found. A s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between a t t i t u d e and r e l i g i o u s conservatism was expected; subjects a t NWB sustained t h i s expectation, but subjects at VST f a i l e d t o r e g i s t e r any s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p . D i f f i c u l t y was experienced i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the d i f f e r e n t responses between NWB and VST subjects on the conservatism measure. VST subjects recorded no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between any combination of indep-endent variables tested and the conservatism measure. On a median s p l i t of conservatism scores from NWB, the more conservative group was both younger and more negative than the more l i b e r a l group. Data from t h i s study i s inadaquate t o explain t h i s d i f f e r e n c e ; a d i f f e r e n t measure capable of more s e n s i t i v e measurements i n the variables tested, and independent v a r i a b l e s other than those investigated appear to be necessary i f the reason f o r the d i f f e r e n c e i s t o be explained. Because t h i s study confined i t s e l f t o two groups of students attending d i f f e r e n t t h e o l o g i c a l schools, and because these two groups recorded a number of d i f f e r e n t demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the two populations were treated separately. Nor should the r e s u l t s obtained be generalized t o embrace a l l t h e o l o g i c a l students or other t h e o l o g i c a l schools. One common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of both subject groups was t h e i r p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward the e l d e r l y , although NWB subjects r e g i s t e r e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l y negative score on the Instrumental-Ineffective dimension, a sub - d i v i s i o n of a t t i t u d e . One must ask whether the element of C h r i s t i a n i t y described by Wilson (1973, P. 130) as "a b e l i e f i n the importance of love and goodwill towards one's f e l l o w men" i s a f a c t o r common t o most t h e o l o g i c a l students that r e s u l t e d i n t h e i r r e p o r t i n g 88 ' a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward the e l d e r l y , or whether a l l students of s i m i l a r s o c i a l , economic, and educational l e v e l would r e g i s t e r a s i m i l a r a t t i t u d e . Or, i s a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward the e l d e r l y common only t o those persons preparing to enter a helping profession? This area has yet to be investigated. Students at NWB reported a personal l i k i n g f o r the e l d e r l y , but s i g n i f i e d a major lack of knowledge about the e l d e r l y by t h e i r response on the Instrumental-Ineffective dimension of a t t i t u d e , a measure that tested such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as powerlessness, ef f e c t i v e n e s s , and prod-u c t i v i t y . The a t t i t u d e measured on the Instrumental-Ineffective dim-ension might be influenced through an educational program which discusses f a c t o r s such as the b i o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l o g i c a l , and psychological aspects of aging. A d d i t i o n a l l y , although sample mean scores i n d i c a t e d a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward the e l d e r l y , 26 percent of subjects at NWB and 18 percent of subjects at VST recorded a t t i t u d e s more negative than a ne u t r a l score. As many of these students w i l l be entering a helping profession, most w i l l be involved with a c l i e n t group toward which they posses a marked lack of knowledge and hold a negative a t t i t u d e . As already stated, perhaps the introduction of an educational component that supplies information and knowledge about the aspects of normal aging may be indi c a t e d . F i n a l l y , t h i s study leaves many questions unanswered. I f most of the independent v a r i a b l e s of age, sex, years of post-secondary education, years of t h e o l o g i c a l education, contact with the e l d e r l y , and r e l i g i o u s conservatism f a i l e d t o account f o r the subjects' a t t i t u d e s toward the e l d e r l y , what does? Multiple regression a n a l y s i s indicated that none of the independent v a r i a b l e s were responsible f o r more than 89 about 5 percent of t o t a l a t t i t u d e . Obviously, subjects* attitudes must rest i n factors other than those investigated, such as family contact and networks, or family and ethnic t r a d i t i o n s , either separ-a t e l y or i n combination with the independent variables tested. Also, what i s the attitude of non-theological students preparing to enter other helping professions, and how do they compare with theological students. Furthermore, measurements within homogeneous student pop-ulations to te s t attitudes toward age groups other than the elderly might be h e l p f u l , as such measurements w i l l provide an a t t i t u d i n a l p r o f i l e of the students which w i l l indicate whether the attitudes toward the el d e r l y are more positive or negative than t h e i r attitude toward any other age group. These interesting and important areas have yet to be tested. 90 References Ainir, J. Contact Hypothesis in ethnic relations. Psychological Bulletin, 1969, £, 319 - 341. — Auerbach, D. N., & Levenson, R. L. 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I976, 193 - 197. Cowgill, 0 . , & Holmes, L. C. Aging and modernization. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1972. Davies, L. J. Attitudes toward old age and aging as shown by Humor. The Gerontologist. vol. 17, 3_, 1977, 220 - 225. Eisdorfer, C., & Axelrod, S. Attitudes towards old people; An empirical analysis of the stimulus-groups validity of the Tuckman-Lorge questionnaire. Journal of Gerontology, 16 1961, 75 _ 80. Fischer, D. H. Growing old in America. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978. G i l l i s , Sr. M. Attitude of nursing personnel toward the aged. Nursing  fteaefyrch, November-December, 1973, vol. 22, 6, 517 ~ 519. Golde, P., & Kogan, N. A sentence completion procedure for assessing attitudes toward old people. Journal of Gerontology, 14, 1959, 355 - 363. Ivester, C., & King, K. Attitudes: of adolescents toward the aged. Gerontologist, vol. 17, 1, 1977. Kastenbaum, R. The reluctant therapist. New Thoughts on old age. R. Kastenbaum (ed.), New York: Springer Publishing! Company, Inc., 1964. 91 Kluckhohn, C. Mirror for man. New York: Whitelevy House, 19^9. Knox, A. B. Adult development and learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1977. Kogan, N. The development*of a scale and an examination of correlates. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 62 1961 , kk - 5k. Kogan, N., & Wallach, M. A. Age changes in values and attitudes. Journal of Gerontology. 1 6 , 1961, 2 7 2 . Kosberg, J. I., & Harris, A. P. Attitudes towards elderly clients. Health and Social Work, vol. 3 ( 3 ) , 1978, 67 - 9 0 . La Piere, R. T. Reported in N. Warren & M. Johoda, (eds.) Attitudes. Middlesex: Penguin Books, 1973, 167 . L i t t l e , K. B. Personal space. Journal of Experimental Social Psy- chology. 1965, 1, 237 - 2k?. Longino, G. F. & Kitson, G. G. Parish clergy and the aged: Examining stereotypes. Journal of Gerontology, vol. J, 3_» 1976. Lust, N. L. The relationship of counselor attitudes toward the elderly with selected cournselor variables. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 1978. McTavish, D. G. Perceptions of old people: A review of research method-ologies and findings. Gerontologist, vol. 11 , k, 1 9 7 1t 90 - 1 0 2 . Moberg, R. G. The attitudes of ministers toward old people. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Boston, 1969. Naus, P. J. Some correlates of attitudes towards old people. Inter- national Journal of Aging and Human Development, vol. k, J_, 1973-Rose, R. F., & Freitag, G. B. A comparison of adolescent and adult attitudes toward the aged. Educational Gerontology, 1 , 1976, 291 - 2 9 5 . Richman, J. The foolishness and wisdom of.old age: Attitudes toward the elderly as reflected in jokes. Gerontologist, vo. 17, 3_» 1977, 210 - 219 . Rosencranz, H. A., & McNevin, T. E. A factor analysis of attitudes towards the aged. Gerontologist, vol. 9 , I 9 6 9 , 55 ~ 5 9 . Savage, A. P. Societal role preceptions of-older adults: Three contrasting cultures. Lifelong Learning: The Adult Years, May, 1978, 13. Signori, E. I., Butt, D. G., Kozak, J. F. Attitude of persons under and over forty toward the aged. Unpublished Paper, University of British Columbia, Department of Psychology. Slater, P. E. Cross-cultural views of the aged. Rebert Kastenbaum, (ed). New thoughts on old age. "iNew York: Springer Publishing Co., 19W. Tuckman, J., & Lorge, I. The influence on a course on the psychology of the adult towards old people and older workers. The Journal  of Educational Psychology. 4_3_, 1952, 400 - 40?. Tuckman, J., & Lorge, I. Attitudes toward old people. The Journal  of Social Psychology. 3_7_, 1953, 249 - 260. Tuckman, J. , & Lorge, I. Attitude toward aging of individuals with experience with the aged. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 92, 1958, 199 - 204. Tuckman, J., Lorge, I., & Spooner, G. A. The effects of family environment on attitudes toward old people and the older worker. Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 38, 1953, 207 - 218. Webster, & Stewart. Theological conservatism. In G. D. Wilson (ed.), The Psychology of Conservatism. London: Academic Press, 1973. Weinberg, L. E., & Millham, J. A multi-level approach to attitudes. Journal of Gerontology, vol. 30, 3_, 1975, 3^ 3 - 3^8. Williams, R. H., & Wirth, C. G. Lives through the years. Atherton Press, I965. 93 Bibliography Achenbaun, W. A* Old Age in the new land. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 1978. Allport, G. V. Attitudes. A Handbook of social psychology. Carl Murchison, ed. Worcestert Clark university Press, 1935* Allport, G. W. ft Ross, J. Journal of Personality and social psychology. 1967, 5. Bennett, B. ft Eckman, J. Attitudes toward aging: A critical examination of recent literature and implications for future research. The ft^hQioyy Adult Davalottnint and Aging. American Psychological Association, 1973, P» 5°5» Birren, J. E. The Psychology of aging. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1964, Birenbaum, A, Aronson, A., ft Seiffer, S. Training medical students to appreciate the special problems of the elderly. The Gerontologist. Vol. 19, No. 6, 1979, PP. 575 - 579. Blazer, D. ft Palmore, E. Religion and aging in a longitudinal study. Gerontologiat. Vo. 16, No. 1, Pt. 1, February, 1976. Clifton, D. 0 . , Hollingsworth, P. L. ft Hall, V. E. A projective technique for measuring positive and negative attitudes toward people in a real-life situation. Th* Janrwfi of Qitir^fJ nnai Psychology. XLIII, 1952, pp. 273 - ^ § 3 . Crockett, W. H., Press, A. N. & Osterkamp, M. The effect of deviation from stereotyped expectations upon attitudes toward older persons. frroBYQloglftt* 1979, Vol. 34, No. 3, PP. 368 - 374. D@no8, V. ft Jache, A. When you care enough: An analysis of attitudes toward the aging in humorous birthday cards. The Gerontologist. Vol. 21, No. 2, 1981, pp. 209 - 215. Eisdorfer, C ft Altrocchi, J. A comparison of attitudes towards old age and mental illness. Journal of Gerontology. No. 16, 1961, pp. 340 - 343. Eisdorfer, C. ft Lawton, M. P. The psychology of adult development and |g^&. American Psychological Association, Washington, D. fl., Hinkley, E. D. The influence of individual opinions on construction of an attitude scale. Journal of Social Psychology. Vol. 3. ±932, pp. Z03 — 296. Hickey, T. ft Kalish, R. Young people's perception of adults. Journal  of Gerontology. 23, 1968, pp. 215 - 219. 94 Hiltner, S. Toward a theology of aging. Special issue of Pastoral Psychology. Hiltner, S. Religion and the aging process. Pastoral Psychology. 4, September, 1954, pp. 29 - 30. Hollander, B . P. Principles and Methods of social psychology. Hew York. Oxford University Press, 1971* Holmestad, H. The Canadian conference of aging. Toronto, I966. University of British Columbia c a l l number HQ 1064 C2 C3. Holtzman, J. M., Bech, J. D. ft Kogan, P. D. Geriatrics program for medical studentst Impact of two educational experiences on students attitudes. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 1978 (Aug.), Vol. 28 (8), pp. 355 - 359. Kastenbaum, JR. ft Durkee, N. Elderly people view old age. New thoughts on old age. Robert Kastenbaum, ed. New York: Springer Publishing Company, Inc., 1964. Kilty, K. M. ft Fold, A. Attitudes toward aging and toward the needs of older people. Journal of Gerontology. No. 5, Vol. 31, 1976, pp. 586 - 594. Kleyman, P. Senior Power: Growing old rebeliouslv. Glide Publications, Sanfrancisco, 1974. Kuchaski, L. T., Whiate, R. M., Schratz, M. Age bias, referal for psychological assistance and the private physician. Journal of Gerontology. 1979, Vol. No. 3, pp. 423 - 428. Labouvie-Vief, G. ft Baltes, P. B. Reduction of adolescent misconceptions of the aged. Journal of Gerontology. Vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 68 - 71. Lindzey, G., Hall, C. S. ft Thompson, R. F. Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers, Inc., 1978. Neugarten, B. L. The future of the young-old. Gerontologist. 1975, 15 (1*2), pp. 4 - 9. Haves, P. B. ft Cedarleaf, J. L. Older people and the church. New York« Abingdon-Cokesbury Press, 1949. ' Moberg, D. 0. Needs felt by the clergy for ministries to the aging. Gerontologlftt,, vol. 15, N O . 2, 1975. PP. 170 - 175. ^ B a r r ^ ^ . ^ ffr^Tn&l^ lgKt0n L' Palaore, E. The status and integration of the aged in Japanese Society. Journal of Gerontology. Vol. 30, No. 2, 1975, PP. 199 - 208. I^<1971E,llAt|3*r)epJ0llc5 4 8 s h 0 * m ^ ft«Bour. Gerontologist. 95 Russell, J. F. Aging In the public schools. Educational Gerontology, 4, 1979, PP. 19-24. Sadowski, B. D. Attitude toward the elderly and perceived age among two cohort groups as determined by the AAAT. Journal of Educational Gerontology. Vol. 1, 1977, pp. 71 - 77. Shaw, M. E. 4 Wright, J. H. Scales for the measurement of attitudes. Hew York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1967* Stewart, R. A. C. ft Webster, A. C. Theological conservatism. Psychology of Conservatism. G. D. Wilson, ed. London: Academic Press, 1973* Thurston, L. L. The measurement of opinlon. Journal of Abnormal and s i ± Social Psychology. 22, 1928, pp. #15 - 420. Tibbitts, C. Handbook of Social Gerontology. Chicagot The University of Chicago Press, 1961. Warren N. & Jahoda, M. eds. Attitudes. Middlesex! Penguin Books, 1973. Williams, R. M. Jr. American Society, A Sociological Interpretation. New York i Alfred A. Knopf, 1951. Wilson, G. D. Development and evaluation of the C scale. The Psychology of Conservatism. G. D. Wison, ed. Londont Academic Press, 1973• Wright, P. G., Haley, G. ft Morean. M. The Clergy and Mental Health. A report to the Health Promotion Directorate's summer resource fund, 1979. Project number: 1216-9-106. Vancouver School of Theology c a l l number BV 4330 W74. Youmans, E. G. Attitudes: Young-old and old-old. Gerontologist. Vol. 17, Ho. 2, 1977. Zola, E. K. Feelings about age among older people. Journal of Gerontology. Vol. 17, 1962, pp. 65-68. 96 Appendix A Instructions f o r each group to whom the questionnaire i s administered My name i s R o l l i e Lewis. I'm a graduate student working a t the Adult Education Research Centre a t U. B. C. Your p r i n c i p a l , , has k i n d l y given me permission to have students a t supply me with some information I am c o l l e c t i n g . To gather t h i s information, I have prepared a questionnaire which, I hope, you w i l l a l l f i l l i n . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i s t o t a l l y voluntary; i f anyone wishes not to p a r t i c i p a t e , please leave the form blank. This questionnaire w i l l have nothing to do with your grade i n any course. Cn the l a s t page of the questionnaire, there i s a place f o r your name. I f you wish to be completely anonymous, do not include your name. I f you do include your name, I assure you the contents of your paper w i l l be kept c o n f i d e n t i a l . The reason I have included a space f o r your name i s because I might want a d d i t i o n a l information l a t e r on. This questionnaire w i l l take between 10 and 15 minutes to complete. In advance, thanks f o r your help. Part A 97 In t h i s s e c t i o n , we are interested i n what you personally believe -believe about Jesus and the B i b l e , believe about the forces that c o n t r o l your l i f e , and believe about a number of contemporary moral issues. 1 . Which of the following statements best expresses what you believe about Jesus? • Jesus rose from the dead and i s the Divine Son of God Jesus reveals God t o us, but I have some doubts concerning His p h y s i c a l resurection. Jesus was a great man and very holy, but I don't f e e l Him to be the Son of God any more than a l l of us are c h i l d r e n of God • Jesus was only a man, although perhaps an extroardinary one [ | Frankly, I'm not e n t i r e l y sure there was such a person as Jesus 2. Which one of the following best expresses your view of the Bible? | \ The B i b l e i s the a c t u a l word of God and i s t o be taken l i t e r a l l y , • word f o r word The Bible was written by men i n s p i r e d by God, and i t s basic moral and r e l i g i o u s teachings are true, but because the writers were men, i t contains some human errors | | The Bible i s a valuable book because i t was written by wise and good men, but God had nothing to do with i t • The Bible was written by men who l i v e d so long ago that i t i s of l i t t l e value today 3 . To what extent do you think your l i f e i s influenced by each of the f o l l o w i n g : Almost Strong Small No E n t i r e l y Influence Influence Influence A. The way you were brought up j | j | j j J B. God or some supernatural force | | j | j | | G. Luck or f a t e j | j | j } | [ D. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s you were r~I [ I I j j 1 born with (heredity) I 1 I 1 I I I I JS. What people i n power decide j j ^ j j | | | F. Your own w i l l power • • • • 98 4. To what extent do you agree or disagree with each of the fo l l o w i n g statements? A. Duty comes before pleasure B. There should be more respect f o r a u thority G. Facing my d a i l y tasks i s a source of pleasure and s a t i s f a c t i o n D. There should be more accept-ance of sexual freedom E. There should be more emphasis on t r a d i t i o n a l family t i e s Strongly Moderately Moderately Strongly Agree Agree Disagree Disagree • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • F. The s o l u t i o n to almost any , . I . • . . • human problem should be based I I I I I I — x i _ i x i : _ x x i xi ' • I I I '» I » on the s i t u a t i o n a t the time, not on some general idea of r i g h t or wrong. MORE OVER THE PAGE Part B 99 Below i s l i s t e d a s e r i e s of polar adjectives accompanied by a s c a l e . Please place a check mark along the scale at a point which i n your judgement best describes persons over 64 years of age. Make each item a separate and independent judgement. Do not worry or puzzle over i n d i v i d u a l items. Do not t r y to remember how you have marked e a r l i e r items even though they may seem to have been s i m i l a r . I t i s your f i r s t impression or immediate f e e l i n g about each item that i s wanted. Progressive Consistent Independent Rich Generous Productive Busy Secure Strong Healthy Active Handsome Cooperative Optimistic S a t i s f i e d Expectant ;'. f l e x i b l e Hopeful Organized Happy Fr i e n d l y Neat T r u s t f u l S e l f - r e l i a n t L i b e r a l Certain Tolerant Pleasant Ordinary Aggressive E x c i t i n g Decisive Old-fashioned Inconsistent Dependent Poor S e l f i s h Unproductive Idle Insecure Weak Unhealthy Passive Ugly Uncooperative Pessimistic D i s s a t i s f i e d Resigned I n f l e x i b l e Dejected Disorganized Sad Unfriendly Untidy Suspicious Dependent Conservative Uncertain Intolerant Unpleasant Eccen t r i c Defensive D u l l Indecisive MORE ON NEXT PAGE Part C 100 Name (Optional) 1. Age Male Female 2. Post-secondary SECULAR education. Please respond to a l l catagories of post-secondary secular education that you have undertaken. C i r c l e the number of academic years completed and in d i c a t e the nature of the program. Specify t i t l e or nature of program (a) T e c h n i c a l / Vocational 1 or 2 more 3 4: 5 years ( b ) Community College 1 or 2 more 3 4 5 years (c) U n i v e r s i t y 1 or 2 more 3 4 5 years Other (Specify) 1 or 2 more 3 4 5 years 3. Theological education. Please respond t o a l l catagories of THEOLOGICAL education that you have undertaken. C i r c l e the number of academic years completed and in d i c a t e the nature of the program. Specify t i t l e or nature of program (a) Bible School 1 2 3 4 5 years (non-degree or more programs) (b) Theological 1 2 3 4 5 years School degree or more program 4. Which one of the 3 reasons l i s t e d below i s c l o s e s t t o your reason f o r undertaking t h e o l o g i c a l education. Please check only one item. (a) Preparatory t o (further) graduate studies I I (b) To enter paid C h r i s t i a n service | I (c) For personal or r e l i g i o u s development 1 I MORE OVER THE PAGE . . 101 5. Think of f i v e persons 65 years of age or older with whom you have regular contact f o r about 15 minutes or more a contact (Not a phone c a l l ) . Please indicate t h e i r r elationship to you (grandmother, neighbour, e t c . ) . How old i s each person (estimate i f necessary), and how frequently do you see each person (once a week, twice a month, et c . ) . Person Relationship Age Frequency of contact 1. 2 . ' 3. _ 4. [ 5-6. Referring to the persons you have l i s t e d i n 5 above, please indicate whether t h i s contact i s voluntary or compulsory. Person Voluntary of Compulsory 

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