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Adaptation tasks of Israeli immigrants to Vancouver Mastai, Judith 1980-12-31

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ADAPTATION  TASKS OF ISRAELI  IMMIGRANTS TO VANCOUVER  by  JUDITH B.A. U n i v e r s i t y M.A. U n i v e r s i t y  A THESIS SUBMITTED  MASTAI o f B.C., o f B.C.,  1966 1969  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF  EDUCATION  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE  STUDIES  (Department o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , F a c u l t y o f  We  accept  this  thesis  to the r e q u i r e d  as  conforming  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  ©  Judith Mastai,  Education)  19 80  In p r e s e n t i n g requirements Columbia, for  g r a n t e d by It  f o r an  and  gain  this  Head o f my  i s understood  financial  the  study.  copying of the  thesis  in partial  advanced degree  I agree t h a t  reference  extensive  this  that  Library I further thesis  be  or  agree t h a t  for scholarly  Adult  The U n i v e r s i t y o f Vancouver, B.C.  of  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  Education  British  his  publication  Judith  Department of  University  Columbia  of of  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  D e p a r t m e n t o r by  copying  s h a l l not  at the  fulfillment  Mastai  the British  available  permission  for  p u r p o s e s may  be  representatives. this  thesis  written  for  permission.  ABSTRACT •  /•  A t the m a c r o - l e v e l , t h i s study i n v e s t i g a t e d the r o l e o f educ a t i o n i n the a d a p t a t i o n process of a d u l t immigrants. was  d e f i n e d as a developmental  event,  a d a p t a t i o n was  the process by which t h a t event i s r e s o l v e d , and  Migration d e s c r i b e d as  l e a r n i n g and  c a t i o n were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d u s i n g A l l e y n e and Verner's  edu-  typology of  sources of i n f o r m a t i o n . At the m i c r o - l e v e l , these concepts were a p p l i e d to the of  Israeli  immigrants to Vancouver, B.C.  case  Four g e n e r a l r e s e a r c h  q u e s t i o n s were posed with r e s p e c t to the kinds of tasks emerging d u r i n g a d a p t a t i o n to l i f e  i n a new  a v a r i e t y of socio-demographic  s o c i e t y , the r e l a t i o n s h i p of  and other f a c t o r s to the p e r c e i v e d  d i f f i c u l t y of tasks and the use of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n sources of i n f o r m a t i o n i n r e s o l v i n g tasks of a d a p t a t i o n . An a n a l y t i c a l survey,  employing an i n t e r v i e w schedule, a  magnitude e s t i m a t i o n s c a l i n g d e v i c e to measure r e l a t i v e of  tasks and a s e r i e s of other measures of f a c t o r s thought  r e l a t e d to d i f f i c u l t y , was two  difficulty  respondents.  difficulty  conducted  e a r l y i n 1977  with  to be  seventy-  A n a l y s i s i n c l u d e d computation of geometric mean  s c o r e s , c a l c u l a t i o n o f u n i v a r i a t e frequency  t i o n of socio-demographic  v a r i a b l e s and of scores of other  as w e l l as means and c o r r e l a t i o n c o - e f f i c i e n t s . gression analysis u t i l i z e d  distribu-  difficulty  factors  Step-wise r e -  scores as dependent v a r i a b l e  and  ten socio-demographic measures as independent v a r i a b l e s i n an  attempt to a s c e r t a i n the p r e d i c t i v e a b i l i t y of the phic v a r i a b l e s with r e s p e c t to Results task,  difficulty.  of the data a n a l y s i s i d e n t i f i e d the most d i f f i c u l t  finding a s a t i s f y i n g , career-oriented  the m a j o r i t y  of other  tasks of a d a p t a t i o n  job, i n d i c a t e d t h a t  were being  u s i n g non-educational sources of i n f o r m a t i o n , s t r u c t " d i f f i c u l t y " might b e t t e r be innovation  socio-demogra-  r e q u i r e d " and  and  resolved  t h a t the  renamed "extent  of  con-  cultural  f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h i s f a c t o r be  conducted. I m p l i c a t i o n s were drawn r e g a r d i n g mation to assess e d u c a t i o n a l development of p o l i c y and  the use  of magnitude  needs of a d u l t immigrants, and  programs which meet the needs and  of both Canadian s o c i e t y and  the immigrant  learner.  esti the aims  Dedicated  with  love  and g r a t i t u d e t o  Moshe Elan  and  Galit  L e o n o r e , M i l t o n and Debby  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT  i i  DEDICATION  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  v  LIST OF TABLES  v i i  LIST OF FIGURES  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER I  II  III  ix  INTRODUCTION Background Purpose and Scope o f Study BASIC CONCEPTS Developmental Events Adaptation Learning, A d u l t Education Immigrant A d u l t Education  1 2 3  and A d a p t a t i o n  . .  METHODOLOGY Design o f Instruments The S e l e c t i o n of Tasks of A d a p t a t i o n . . . Magnitude E s t i m a t i o n o f the D i f f i c u l t y of Tasks o f Adaptation R e l i a b i l i t y o f Magnitude E s t i m a t i o n Items V a l i d i t y o f Magnitude E s t i m a t i o n Items . Factors Affecting D i f f i c u l t y Socio-Demographic V a r i a b l e s Extent of C u l t u r a l Innovation Time o f Task R e s o l u t i o n P e r c e i v e d Importance of Tasks Stage o f Task R e s o l u t i o n Sources of Information P o p u l a t i o n and Sample Design The P i l o t Study Data C o l l e c t i o n A n a l y s i s o f the Data  v  6 7 9 13 16 19 19 20 24 26 28 32 32 35 37 38 38 39 41 43 44 45  IV  RESULTS C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Respondents D i f f i c u l t y of Tasks of Adaptation The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between S o c i o - D e m o g r a p h i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and D i f f i c u l t y The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f D i f f i c u l t y t o O t h e r Factors Extent of C u l t u r a l Innovation Time o f T a s k R e s o l u t i o n Importance o f Tasks Stage o f Task R e s o l u t i o n The R e l a t i o n s h i p o f D i f f i c u l t y t o S o u r c e s o f I n f o r m a t i o n Employed . . . Summary  V  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s Discussion I m p l i c a t i o n s o f the Study f o r Researchers and P r a c t i t i o n e r s The P r o c e s s o f A s s e s s i n g E d u c a t i o n a l Needs P o l i c y Development Program Development  BIBLIOGRAPHY  46 46 53 54 61 62 64 67 68 76 79 83 83 88  . .  92 93 94 98 10 2  APPENDIX I II III  INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE  106  LETTER FROM J e w i s h  114  INTERVIEWERS' S t e p s  Social Studies to Follow  vi  115  L I S T OF  TABLES  TABLE I II III IV V VI VII  VIII IX X XI XII XIII  '  Terms U s e d t o D e s c r i b e t h e P r o c e s s o f Immigrant A d j u s t m e n t T a s k s o f A d a p t a t i o n as S u g g e s t e d by the L i t e r a t u r e C o r r e l a t i o n C o - e f f i c i e n t s of Three Tests of R e l i a b i l i t y f o r Magnitude E s t i m a t i o n T a s k Items G e o m e t r i c Mean D i f f i c u l t y S c o r e s on T a s k s o f A d a p t a t i o n f o r an I s r a e l i and a M i x e d Group Summary T a b l e o f S o c i o - D e m o g r a p h i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Respondents D i f f i c u l t y S c o r e s o f T h i r t y - S i x Task Items . . . S t e p w i s e R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s i s o f Ten S o c i o D e m o g r a p h i c V a r i a b l e s and t h e i r R e l a t i o n . to D i f f i c u l t y Scores C o r r e l a t i o n C o - e f f i c i e n t s of D i f f i c u l t y Scores of T h i r t y - S i x Tasks of A d a p t a t i o n and P a r t i c u l a r S o c i o - D e m o g r a p h i c V a r i a b l e s . . E x t e n t o f I n n o v a t i o n • R e q u i r e d by T a s k s o f Adaptation According to Fifty-Two "Expert" Respondents Mean R e s o l u t i o n Time and D i f f i c u l t y S c o r e s f o r T a s k s L i s t e d i n O r d e r o f Mean R e s o l u t i o n Time Mean Rank O r d e r o f T a s k s A c c o r d i n g t o Importance. Number and P e r c e n t a g e o f I n t e r v i e w e e s R e s p o n d i n g to Each R e s o l u t i o n Stage f o r Each Task . . . . F r e q u e n c y o f Use o f S o u r c e s o f I n f o r m a t i o n by Seventy-two I n t e r v i e w e e s f o r T h i r t y - S i x Tasks .  vii  10 21 29 33 51 52  56 58 63 66 69 73 78  L I S T OF  FIGURES  FIGURE I  C o m p a r i s o n i n O r d e r o f Mean R e s o l u t i o n Time o f P e r c e n t a g e o f Respondents Not A t t e m p t i n g , T r y i n g B u t Not R e s o l v i n g and R e s o l v i n g E a c h T a s k o f Adaptation 74  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I would of  my  thesis  guidance  and  t h i s work: Dickinson,  like  t o thank t h e  c o m m i t t e e , p a s t and  Rick Bill  Griffith, Jim  tion  C o o l i e Verner  of  this  John C o l l i n s ,  Bernie  of  Gary  Mohan, Wayne  Schroeder,  who  to acknowledge the d i d not  guidance  and  influence  s u r v i v e to c e l e b r a t e the  comple-  manuscript.  themselves  a multitude  realization  Thornton.  I would a l s o l i k e o t h e r s who  Terry Hull,  members  for their assistance,  d e v e l o p m e n t and  B a g n a l l , Roger B o s h i e r ,  In a d d i t i o n , I wish Dr.  present,  c r i t i c i s m during the  Mary Selman and  of  f o l l o w i n g c o l l e a g u e s and  to express  my  know t h a t t h e y  o f ways t h a t a r e  g r a t i t u d e to the  countless  c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s work i n  difficult  to i d e n t i f y  or express  in  words. Finally, the this  support work t o  and  i t i s impossible help  they  to ever  have p r o v i d e d .  them.  ix  fully  thank my  Suffice  family for  t o say  I  dedicate  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Canada i s a country  c r e a t e d through the e f f o r t s o f i t s  immigrants, and t h i s n a t i o n i s a w o r l d  l e a d e r i n developing  model of i n t e g r a t i o n - based on m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m r a t h e r than milation.  One  a assi-  of the major c o r o l l a r i e s o f the move away from the  " m e l t i n g pot" p o i n t of view has been the accompanying r e d u c t i o n o f a predetermined  end,  s u c c e s s f u l a s s i m i l a t i o n , which i m p l i e d  t h a t the i d e n t i t i e s o f newcomers would e v e n t u a l l y fade to be r e p l a c e d by a new  collective identity.  l i s h e d requirements ledge o f one and  of age,  Other than meeting estab-  length of r e s i d e n c e , adequate know-  of the n a t i o n a l languages, knowledge about Canada,  the r i g h t s and d u t i e s of c i t i z e n s , Canadian immigrants  become c i t i z e n s and s t i l l o f the new  may  r e t a i n the r i g h t to accept some aspects  c u l t u r e and r e j e c t o t h e r s .  In many cases,  individuals  choose whether or not they w i l l adapt, how  they w i l l r e s o l v e each  task they encounter d u r i n g a d a p t a t i o n , how  s u c c e s s f u l they want  to be,  As a d a p t a t i o n r e q u i r e s  and how  s u c c e s s f u l they have been.  l e a r n i n g , a d u l t education appears to be a s u i t a b l e and c h o i c e of a c t i v i t y  f o r immigrants.  Those p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n a l  programs f o r immigrants must maintain  1  logical  c o n t a c t with the p a t t e r n s  2  and needs o f t h e i r c l i e n t e l e i n o r d e r t o serve them i n a meaningful  and e f f i c i e n t manner. Background At the p r e s e n t time i n Canada, the education of a d u l t  immigrants i s conducted  p r i m a r i l y by those t e a c h i n g c l a s s e s of  E n g l i s h as a Second Language  (ESL).  While they have long been  aware of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between language and c u l t u r e , t e a c h e r s o f t e n r e c e i v e much of t h e i r b a s i c t r a i n i n g as In the l a s t t e n y e a r s , trends i n ESL have suggested a l approach and  these linguists.  a situation-  f u n c t i o n a l competency w i t h language i n s t r u c t i o n  c e n t e r i n g on the e s s e n t i a l language the immigrant needs i n order to  function in specific situations.  As informed  intuition  appears to have been the c h i e f b a s i s f o r choosing s i t u a t i o n s  to  use i n language i n s t r u c t i o n , a number of problems have a r i s e n . The  f i r s t problem occurs i n i d e n t i f y i n g the  immigrants face when they a r r i v e i n a new which ones r e l y on language s k i l l s i s r e l a t e d to a second problem: the new  situations  country and  determining  for their resolution.  This  a t what p o i n t a f t e r a r r i v a l i n  country are the language s k i l l s and i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d ?  In Vancouver, King Edward Campus o f Vancouver Community C o l l e g e serves the m a j o r i t y of a d u l t immigrants seeking i n s t r u c t i o n i n English.  The p r e s e n t c u r r i c u l u m a t KEC  r e f l e c t s support of func-  t i o n a l competency as a b a s i c approach by teachers and stration.  Beginners  cover t o p i c s such as shopping  u s i n g Canadian c u r r e n c y , f i l l i n g out  admini-  f o r food,  a p p l i c a t i o n forms such  as  3  for  medical  i n s u r a n c e , and u s i n g the p o s t a l system.  September and December 19 77, KEC of  t h e i r new  Between  reported that t h i r t e e n  percent  e n r o l l e e s had begun c l a s s e s a f t e r t h e i r t h i r d month  i n the country, eleven p e r c e n t had begun a f t e r s i x months i n Canada and  f o r t y - s e v e n percent had begun a f t e r one  year.  It is  c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t , t h r e e months a f t e r a r r i v a l or more, immigrants would have found buy  s o l u t i o n s to the problems posed by having  food, u s i n g Canadian currency,  forms or u s i n g the post o f f i c e . t h a t these  f i l l i n g out medical  to  insurance  Furthermore, i t seems p o s s i b l e  tasks c o u l d have been accomplished  p r e t e r or by u s i n g s i g n language, without  through an  the person  inter-  actually  speaking E n g l i s h . T h i r d l y , i t i s important  to i n q u i r e whether the  i s an a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e t o i n t r o d u c e a wide range of topics.  situational  For many of the n e c e s s i t i e s and t a s k s of d a i l y  immigrants appear t o t u r n to a v a r i e t y of sources and a s s i s t a n c e . difficult  classroom  life,  for information  Classroom time might b e s t be spent on the most  t a s k s , on s i t u a t i o n s and problems a p p r o p r i a t e to the  l e n g t h of time the immigrant has been i n Canada, or on  specific  tasks f o r which immigrants are c u r r e n t l y u s i n g e d u c a t i o n a l  insti-  t u t i o n s as a r e s o u r c e . Purpose and Scope of the Study At the p r e s e n t  time, there i s l i t t l e agreement as to what  constitutes s u c c e s s f u l i n t e g r a t i o n or adaptation.  For Canadians,  whether or not an immigrant s u c c e s s f u l l y adapts and the measure-  4  ment of a d a p t a t i o n seem l e s s u s e f u l q u e s t i o n s than i n q u i r i n g  into  the p r o c e s s of adapting and the kinds of tasks an immigrant counters  i n e n t e r i n g a new  society.  q u i r e s l e a r n i n g , but l i t t l e and when t h i s occurs.  The  en-  r e s o l u t i o n of tasks r e -  i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e as to  how  There i s a lack of knowledge as to the  nature of t a s k s of a d a p t a t i o n , what causes t h e i r d i f f i c u l t y f o r immigrants,  how  soon a f t e r a r r i v a l t a s k s are r e s o l v e d , and what  sources of i n f o r m a t i o n immigrants use i n r e s o l v i n g or l e a r n i n g how  to r e s o l v e t a s k s  encountered.  T h i s study examined the a d a p t a t i o n process of I s r a e l i  immi-  grants to Vancouver i n an attempt to determine a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e l i s t of t a s k s which immigrants encounter  upon a r r i v a l i n a  new  country and t o d e r i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s of those t a s k s f o r the design of  e d u c a t i o n a l programs f o r immigrant a d u l t s .  Although  intuition  has been a p p l i e d to t h i s problem b y . i n s t r u c t o r s and o f f i c i a l s work w i t h newcomers d a i l y , to date no e m p i r i c a l evidence gathered  to support or deny t h e i r  T h i s study was of  Israeli  not concerned  w i t h the degree o f a d a p t a t i o n  immigrants to Canadian l i f e ,  1.  Rather  t h e i r motivations f o r in this  four general research questions:  What k i n d s of tasks emerge d u r i n g a d a p t a t i o n to in  2.  i t addressed  has been  intuitions.  e m i g r a t i o n , or p r e j u d i c e they might have encountered society.  a new  who  life  society?  Which, i f any,  socio-demographic  characteristics  p e r c e p t i o n of d i f f i c u l t y o f tasks of  adaptation?  affect  5  3.  What r e l a t i o n s h i p , i f any, does d i f f i c u l t y of tasks o f a d a p t a t i o n bear t o the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s :  extent o f  c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n r e q u i r e d by t a s k s , l e n g t h o f task r e s o l u t i o n time r e q u i r e d , importance of tasks t o the immigrant when he f i r s t encounters  them, and stage o f  task r e s o l u t i o n ? 4.  How i s the use o f a d u l t education sources o f informat i o n f o r r e s o l v i n g tasks o f a d a p t a t i o n r e l a t e d t o d i f f i c u l t y o f tasks?  The  data o b t a i n e d i n seeking answers t o those q u e s t i o n s p r o v i d e d  a b a s i s f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f the program p l a n n i n g process used i n ESL c l a s s e s .  CHAPTER I I BASIC CONCEPTS A f t e r an e x t e n s i v e search i t became apparent of  a d u l t education l i t e r a t u r e d i d l i t t l e  more than  t h a t the body introduce  immigrant e d u c a t i o n as one minor aspect o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . the main, the l i t e r a t u r e c o n s i s t s of inadequate isolated  programs with l i t t l e  I t was t h e r e f o r e necessary  d e s c r i p t i o n s of  r a t i o n a l e and no follow-up.  the authors p r o v i d e d e m p i r i c a l evidence  Few of  t o support t h e i r o p i n i o n s .  t o e x p l o r e l i t e r a t u r e i n a number o f  o t h e r f i e l d s as w e l l , and many of the b a s i c concepts study  In  used i n t h i s  arose from the f i e l d of s o c i o l o g y . T h i s chapter d e s c r i b e s m i g r a t i o n t o a new country as a  developmental  event  and a d a p t a t i o n as the process by which  v i d u a l s r e s o l v e t h a t event.  As immigrants adapt, they  indi-  encounter  a number o f t a s k s of v a r y i n g d i f f i c u l t y which impel them to l e a r n new i n f o r m a t i o n , procedures  and customs from p e r s o n a l sources and  mass media or from e d u c a t i o n a l sources. major e d u c a t i o n a l o f f e r i n g The  At the present time, the  f o r immigrants i s language  a p p l i c a t i o n of a program-oriented,  r a t h e r than  instruction.  curriculum-  o r i e n t e d approach t o immigrant e d u c a t i o n by i n s t i t u t i o n s might f u r t h e r a s s i s t the immigrant a d u l t ' s a d a p t a t i o n .  6  7  Developmental Bengston  Events  (19 73) d e f i n e s developmental events as o c c u r r e n c e s  e x p e r i e n c e d by i n d i v i d u a l s d u r i n g the course of t h e i r l i v e s and which have some s y s t e m a t i c i n f l u e n c e i n the o r d e r i n g o f human behaviour, but the o r d e r i n which they occur v a r i e s from person t o person.  A l s o , events e x p e r i e n c e d by one i n d i v i d u a l may not  even occur f o r another.  Developmental  events may be b i o l o g i c a l ,  p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r s o c i o l o g i c a l i n nature i n c l u d i n g growth, and change i n the human body, development  o f mental  decline  capacities,  changes i n experience and g o a l s , o r e n t e r i n g and l e a v i n g  social  r o l e s and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  Developmental  events are  a f f e c t e d both by developmental time  (maturation) and h i s t o r i c a l  time so t h a t w h i l e most i n d i v i d u a l s share some events o f development, the e r a d u r i n g which they l i v e may a f f e c t the occurrence of an event. The concept of developmental events has much i n common with t h a t o f developmental t a s k s which H a v i g h u r s t (19 73) d e s c r i b e s as a r i s i n g from p h y s i c a l m a t u r a t i o n , from the p r e s s u r e o f c u l t u r a l p r o c e s s e s upon the i n d i v i d u a l , from the d e s i r e s , a s p i r a t i o n s and v a l u e s of the emerging  p e r s o n a l i t y and from combinations of these  f a c t o r s a c t i n g t o g e t h e r . ' Havighurst p o i n t s out t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l must master a s e r i e s o f developmental tasks to be a s u c c e s s f u l human b e i n g .  The n o t i o n o f developmental events  incor-  p o r a t e s H a v i g h u r s t 's work and expands i t s focus i n the f o l l o w i n g ways.  F i r s t l y , developmental t a s k s are c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o  8  age which presumes t h a t they occur i n a l i n e a r o r d e r .  Develop-  mental events are not age-bound and no o r d e r i s i m p l i e d . ly,  Second-  H a v i g h u r s t ' s developmental t a s k s are culture-bound t o North  American  s o c i e t y and presume the norms and v a l u e s of t h a t  Developmental  events are not culture-bound.  society.  T h i r d l y , Havighurst's  term r e f e r s t o those items t h a t appear i n h i s s p e c i f i c l i s t o f t a s k s whereas the d e f i n i t i o n of developmental events p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r i n c l u d i n g any occurrence t h a t meets the c r i t e r i a . F o u r t h l y , as Bengston  (19 73) p o i n t s o u t , Havighurst's n o t i o n of  developmental t a s k s a p p l i e s a t the m i c r o - l e v e l of s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s , examining the s o c i a l environment  of a given i n d i v i d u a l ,  w h i l e the concept o f developmental events can apply both a t t h i s m i c r o - l e v e l and a l s o at the m a c r o - l e v e l , a n a l y s i n g "how l a r g e aggregates o f human beings o r g a n i z e themselves over time i n o r d e r to  m a i n t a i n the group's  survival"  (1973,, p.14).  For the pur-  poses o f t h i s study, the concept w i l l be a p p l i e d a t the microl e v e l t o examine the way i n which the i n d i v i d u a l r e s o l v e s the developmental'event  c r e a t e d by h i s m i g r a t i o n .  M i g r a t i o n i s an occurrence which could be e x p e r i e n c e d by most i n d i v i d u a l s a t some time d u r i n g the course o f l i f e  and which  would have some s y s t e m a t i c i n f l u e n c e i n o r d e r i n g human behaviour. The i n f l u e n c e i s g e n e r a l l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l or s o c i o l o g i c a l i n nature and i s a f f e c t e d both by the h i s t o r i c a l time d u r i n g which the i n d i v i d u a l has migrated as w e l l as the developmental time a t which he migrates.  M i g r a t i o n may t h e r e f o r e be termed  a developmental event.  9  Adaptation A d a p t a t i o n i s the process by which the developmental migration, i s resolved.  A number of terms have been used  i d e n t i f y the process of adjustment  t o a new  country and  include n a t u r a l i z a t i o n , absorption, a s s i m i l a t i o n , and a d a p t a t i o n  (Table I ) .  event, to  these  acculturation  B o r r i e (1959) s t a t e d .-that these terms  are synonomous but Duncan and L i e b e r s o n  (1959) d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  between terms on the b a s i s of d i f f e r e n t observable outcomes. N a t u r a l i z a t i o n was  d e f i n e d as the a c q u i s i t i o n of l e g a l  s h i p ; a b s o r p t i o n , as entrance  citizen-  i n t o p r o d u c t i v e economic a c t i v i t y ;  a s s i m i l a t i o n , as i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o the s o c i a l system more or l e s s on terms of socio-economic  e q u a l i t y ; and a c c u l t u r a t i o n , as adop-  t i o n of the l o c a l customs and r e l i n q u i s h i n g of such  cultural  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as would i d e n t i f y the immigrants as a d i s t i n c t e t h n i c group.  Duncan and L i e b e r s o n ' s d e f i n i t i o n s are outcome-  o r i e n t e d but suggest to  a process i n t h a t these phenomena are s a i d  occur i n the order g i v e n .  Gordon's  (1964) typology p r o v i d e d  an i n i t i a l perspective; on p o s s i b l e components of a process model of  adaptation.  First,  Two  of h i s c o n c l u s i o n s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s  structural assimilation  ( d e f i n e d as l a r g e s c a l e  study.  entrance  i n t o c l i q u e s , c l u b s and i n s t i t u t i o n s of a host s o c i e t y on the primary group l e v e l ) i s the most important  type of a s s i m i l a t i o n  because, once i t o c c u r s , a l l of the other types w i l l f o l l o w . Second, c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n  ( d e f i n e d as change of c u l t u r a l p a t -  t e r n s t o those of a host s o c i e t y ) may  be the f i r s t  can occur alone, without any of the other types  to occur but i t  following.  10  10  Naturalization Absorption  Assimilation  Acculturation  Adaptati on  Eisenstadt (1954) the process of absorbing immigrants and integrating them into the society is the outcome of the interplay between the immigrant's own desires and expectations with regard to the new country and the extent to which these can be realized in terms of the various demands made on the immigrants by the institutional structure of the absorbing society  Borrie (1959) synonymous with assimilation, acculturation, adaptation  Duncan and Lieberson (1959) the acquisition of legal citizenship entrance into productive economic activity  synonymous with absorption, assimilation, adaptation  integration into the social system more or less on terms of socioeconomic equality  synonymous with absorption, assimilation, adaptation  the adoption of local customs and relinquishing of such cultural characteristics as would identify the immigrants as a distinct ethnic group  synonymous with absorption, assimilation, acculturation  Gordon (1964)  Goldlust and Richmond . (1974)  Anthropologist's term  sociologist's term: 7 types - cultural, marital, structural, identificational, a t t i tude receptional, civic behaviour reoeptional cultural assimilation change of cultured patterns to those of host society  the mutual interaction of individuals and collectives and their response to particular physical and social environments  11 A s i d e from r e f e r r i n g t o a b s o r p t i o n than a d a p t a t i o n ,  Eisenstadt's  (1954) d e f i n i t i o n has much i n  common w i t h t h a t o f G o l d l u s t and Richmond Richmond d e f i n e adaptation  and i n t e g r a t i o n r a t h e r  (19 74).  G o l d l u s t and  as a mutual i n t e r a c t i o n and E i s e n s t a d t  r e f e r s t o the n e g o t i a t i o n between the immigrant's own d e s i r e s and  expectations  w i t h regard  t o the new country and the extent  to which these can be r e a l i z e d . i n view o f the v a r i o u s demands made on immigrants by the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f the absorbing society.  G o l d l u s t and Richmond i n c l u d e i n t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n  adaptation ments.  i s a response t o p a r t i c u l a r p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l  While r e f e r e n c e  that environ-  t o i t i s not made i n t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s ,  E i s e n s t a d t , G o l d l u s t and Richmond agree i n the body o f t h e i r w r i t i n g t h a t l a c k of adaptation s o c i e t y or r e - m i g r a t i o n  leads t o deviance w i t h i n the new  t o another one.  For the purposes o f t h i s study, the major components of a d e f i n i t i o n of adaptation a r e : 1.  adaptation  i s a process,  r a t h e r than an outcome or a g o a l ;  2.  adaptation  i s a n e g o t i a t i o n between the d e s i r e s and expecta-  t i o n s of those immigrating and the extent  of c u l t u r a l  plural-  ism which the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f the r e c e i v i n g s o c i e t y can allow; 3.  adaptation  i s a mutual i n t e r a c t i o n i n which both the immigrat-  i n g i n d i v i d u a l s o r groups and the members o f the r e c e i v i n g society 4.  ( i n d i v i d u a l l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y ) are changed;  adaptation  i s a response t o p a r t i c u l a r p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l  environments by a l l i n d i v i d u a l s and c o l l e c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v e d i n migration  even as they are n e g o t i a t i n g t h e i r mutual i n t e r a c t i o n ;  12  5. a d a p t a t i o n i s dynamic, c o n t r i b u t i n g to and a f f e c t e d by changing  c o n d i t i o n s over  time.  A d a p t a t i o n , then, i s a dynamic process i n which and c o l l e c t i v i t i e s of  ( i n c l u d i n g those who  the r e c e i v i n g s o c i e t y ) mutually  and environmental  individuals  have migrated  i n t e r a c t , respond  and members to p h y s i c a l  c o n d i t i o n s and n e g o t i a t e a degree of  cultural  pluralism. For the purposes of the p r e s e n t study, i t i s important  to  c o n s i d e r a d a p t a t i o n at the m i c r o - l e v e l from the p o i n t of view of the i n d i v i d u a l immigrant because, i n t h i s way, developmental  events may  the n o t i o n of  be used t o i n f o r m a d a p t a t i o n .  t a t i o n i s a complex p r o c e s s , i t i s comprised  of a number  v a r i e t y of tasks which i n d i v i d u a l s must r e s o l v e . t a t i o n i s d e f i n e d here of  adap-  and  A task of adap-  as one which a r i s e s out of the m i g r a t i o n  an i n d i v i d u a l from one  s o c i e t y to another,  which a f f e c t s success w i t h subsequent t a s k s . i n d i v i d u a l w i l l encounter f o r every one  As  achievement of C l e a r l y not  the same t a s k s , nor w i l l tasks  at the same time.  every arise  The p r e s e n t study i s not  directed  toward t e s t i n g t h i s o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n by i n v e s t i g a t i n g  how  achievement or f a i l u r e w i t h t a s k s a f f e c t s m o t i v a t i o n to adapt or any of the consequences of l a c k of a d a p t a t i o n .  Rather,  this  study  focuses on determining what the tasks might be, asks some s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s about t h e i r n a t u r e , i n v e s t i g a t e s how  one  group of immi-  grants r e s o l v e s them, and proposes a r o l e f o r education i n t h e i r resolution.  13  Learning,  Adult Education  A n . i n d i v i d u a l may pleting  " r e s o l v e " a t a s k o f a d a p t a t i o n by com-  i t , f a i l i n g i t , i g n o r i n g i t , or postponing  successful place.  tion of c r i t i c a l  to learn  periods i n l i f e  Whether o r n o t an a d u l t i s a b l e successfully 1973).  i s considered  The  to l e a r n  h i s previous  t o master,  t o be a  which produce t e a c h a b l e to resolve a teachable  affects h i s future motivation  His a b i l i t y  learner,  i t .  r e s o l u t i o n o f any task r e q u i r e s t h a t l e a r n i n g takes  The a d u l t ' s r e a d i n e s s  trying  and A d a p t a t i o n  i s affected  to learn  func-  moments.  moment  (Havighurst,  by h i s e x p e r i e n c e  l e v e l o f knowledge a b o u t t h e c o n t e n t  and h i s k n o w l e d g e o f t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y  as a he i s  of the  i n f o r m a t i o n he r e q u i r e s . Learning societal 1960). in  i s said  setting  and t h e f o r m a l  I n the former,  the l a t t e r ,  information. process  to occur  an i n s t r u c t i o n a l The i n s t r u c t o r  (Jensen,  sources  munication  agent s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d i f f u s e s  to design  and manage a l e a r n i n g e x -  i s a c q u i r e d i n the n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l  are those  setting  ( A l l e y n e and V e r n e r ;  which i n v o l v e d i r e c t  1969).  f a c e - t o - f a c e com-  between t h e c o m m u n i c a t o r and t h e r e c e i v e r where t h e  r e c e i v e r may q u e s t i o n  the communicator.  These i n f o r m a t i o n  w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l o r b i t and i n c l u d e  tions  and e x p e r i e n c e s  Mass s o u r c e s time w i t h  while  employs knowledge o f t h e l e a r n i n g  t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l o r mass s o u r c e s  lie  setting  f o r the l e a r n e r .  Information  Personal  instructional  the n a t u r a l  l e a r n i n g i s more o r l e s s by c h a n c e ,  and o f i n s t r u c t i o n  perience  i n two s e t t i n g s ,  as w e l l as f r i e n d s ,  include information available  little  relatives,  sources  observa-  and c h i l d r e n .  t o e v e r y o n e a t t h e same  p r o v i s i o n f o r two-way c o m m u n i c a t i o n .  With n e i t h e r  14  p e r s o n a l n o r mass s o u r c e s  i s there  s u p e r v i s i o n by an i n s t r u c t i o n a l  immediate  and c o n t i n u i n g  a g e n t who manages t h e c o n d i t i o n s  for learning. Information via  individual  Verner,  instruction  1969).  conducted  i n the formal  on a o n e - t o - o n e b a s i s .  of individuals  communication. takes  and i n s t r u c t i o n a l  Individual instruction  educational activity ber  instructional  i n which  p l a c e when  groups  i s acquired ( A l l e y n e and  i s an e d u c a t i o n a l  An i n s t r u c t i o n a l  with  to Verner  learning occurs  an o p p o r t u n i t y  t o a.numf o r two-way  and A l l e y n e , a d u l t  in this  setting  activity  g r o u p i s an  information i s presented  simultaneously  According  setting  education  through  these  sources. An  i n d i v i d u a l may u t i l i z e  formal  instructional  task.  He may  from p e r s o n a l which  ly  and mass s o u r c e s ,  setting.  and  the r e s o l u t i o n  a l l of h i s characteristics  information  setting  group s o u r c e s ,  instructional  v i d u a l makes,during  acquire  instructional  or i n s t r u c t i o n a l  to the formal  he may  and t h e  o f any l e a r n i n g  acquire information i n the n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l  lead to the r e s o l u t i o n of the task.  by  the n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l  s e t t i n g s i n the r e s o l u t i o n  l e a d s him t o a f o r m a l  instruction  both  using  setting there  individual  o r he may go i m m e d i a t e -  Any o f t h e s e  routes  may  The c h o i c e s t h a t t h e i n d i of the task w i l l  be  affected  as a u n i q u e human, an i m m i g r a n t ,  a learner. Hallenbeck  pre-adult  (1964) s t a t e d t h a t w h e r e a s t h e s o c i a l  education  i s to provide  social  f u n c t i o n of a d u l t education  social  change.  cultural  function of  c o n d i t i o n i n g , the  i s t o promote a d a p t a t i o n t o  W h i l e t h i s may be t r u e o f t h e g e n e r a l  function of  15  adult education  i n s o c i e t y , i t i s l e s s t r u e i n the case of immi-  grant a d u l t e d u c a t i o n .  Here i t i s necessary  function  f o r the i n d i v i d u a l s i n c e the immigrant i s  (Bryson,  19 36)  l a c k i n g the c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n i n g normally elementary, and  to serve a  provided by  remedial  pre-school,  secondary school i n the c u l t u r e to which he  has  emigrated. Many a d u l t educators served by  favor a problem-centered approach  programs; r a t h e r than the knowledge-centered c u r r i c u l a  of p r e - a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  (Knowles, 19 70).  approach a l l o w s a d u l t educators  The  problem-centered  to meet immediate and  e d u c a t i o n a l needs of l e a r n e r s as they a r i s e . e t a l , 1964)  Verner  d i s t i n g u i s h e s between program and  b a s i s o f the e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s . v i d e l e a r n i n g experiences developmental tasks and  specific ( i n Jensen,  c u r r i c u l u m on  A c u r r i c u l u m i s designed  that deal simultaneously  with  the  to pro-  immediate  a n t i c i p a t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s while a pro-  gram i s f u n c t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d to an immediate need f o r s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g a r i s i n g out of an a d u l t ' s changing r o l e s i n s o c i e t y . A program concentrates objectives.  on a l i m i t e d number of  Each o b j e c t i v e may  l e a r n i n g tasks which may  seen as compromising a number of  be c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g  l e a r n i n g outcomes they r e p r e s e n t developmental tasks and  be  (Gagne, 19 74).  to a c q u i r e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n may  t u r e d i n t o a program.  to the types The  of  adult's  events c r e a t e s p e c i f i c problems and  i n d i v i d u a l r e q u i r e s i n f o r m a t i o n to r e s o l v e them. i n g necessary  instructional  the  Thus, the l e a r n -  be l o g i c a l l y s t r u c -  16  Taft  (1975) has taken the view t h a t a d a p t a t i o n i s a r e s u l t  of s u c c e s s f u l l e a r n i n g by the immigrant.  As l e a r n i n g i s argued  t o be g e n e r a l l y more e f f i c i e n t i n the formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l  setting  (Verner, 1964), e d u c a t i o n appears to be a l o g i c a l process and p r o grams seem t o be a s u i t a b l e format w i t h which t o a i d the immigrant learner  i n accomplishing r e s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Immigrant A d u l t E d u c a t i o n  The focus of e d u c a t i o n f o r immigrant a d u l t s has changed over the l a s t f i f t y years from c i t i z e n s h i p e d u c a t i o n t o E n g l i s h uage t r a i n i n g .  lang-  For a long time E n g l i s h language t r a i n i n g meant  i n s t r u c t i o n i n grammatical s t r u c t u r e s and memorizing v o c a b u l a r y . In the l a s t t e n y e a r s , the s i t u a t i o n a l approach has enjoyed a g r e a t d e a l of p o p u l a r i t y as i n t u i t i o n and experience have l e d many i n s t r u c t o r s t o conclude t h a t s i t u a t i o n s p r o v i d e a meaningful cont e x t f o r language l e a r n i n g .  U s i n g t h i s approach, s i t u a t i o n s  that  immigrants would f i n d themselves i n , such as meeting Canadians i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s or b e i n g i n t e r v i e w e d f o r a j o b , were used as the context f o r t e a c h i n g grammatical s t r u c t u r e s .  Jupp and H o d l i n  (1975) p o i n t e d out t h a t u s i n g s i t u a t i o n s i s a u s e f u l t e c h n i q u e , but i t i s s t i l l  only a context f o r a s t r u c t u r a l approach.  These  two authors suggest a f u n c t i o n a l approach based on the u n d e r l y i n g purposes of and i n f e r e n c e s i n our language.  T h i s i s not to be con-  fused w i t h f u n c t i o n a l competency which r e f e r s to b a s e l i n e t o perform i n s p e c i f i c  ability  situations.  Jupp and H o d l i n ' s n o t i o n o f language f u n c t i o n s appears to be t h a t a c t u a l language used i n s i t u a t i o n s of a l l k i n d s c o n t a i n s not  only s t r u c t u r e s and v o c a b u l a r y , but u n d e r l y i n g meanings, and n o n - v e r b a l i m p l i c a t i o n s as w e l l . to  ESL students must be able  comprehend and use a v a r i e t y of messages c o n t a i n i n g  i n f o r m a t i o n , a t t i t u d e s , emotions, non-verbal cues and h a b i t s i m p l i c i t i n speech.  purposes  specific cultural  To t h i s end, u s i n g j o b - r e l a t e d  t i o n s as t h e i r context, Jupp and H o d l i n suggest that  situa-  instructors  f a m i l i a r i z e themselves w i t h the r o l e s and o t h e r f u n c t i o n s f o r which language i s used i n p a r t i c u l a r work environments.  Struc-  t u r e s are s e l e c t e d from recorded language data and an i n s t r u c t i o n a l o u t l i n e may  be planned based on language f u n c t i o n s and  struc-  t u r e s used f o r p a r t i c u l a r f u n c t i o n s , r a t h e r than on s t r u c t u r e s alone. In  a d u l t e d u c a t i o n terms, Jupp and H o d l i n appear t o be ad-  v i s i n g the i n s t r u c t o r t o conduct a needs assessment a t the p r o gram p l a n n i n g stage ( c o l l e c t i n g data on what the l e a r n e r s  require)  and d e s i g n the course around the l e a r n i n g needs i d e n t i f i e d .  The  congruence of t h i s f u n c t i o n a l approach w i t h p r i n c i p l e s of program p l a n n i n g , coupled w i t h i t s growing p o p u l a r i t y i n the f i e l d  of  ESL, supports the need f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the l e a r n i n g needs of immigrant Berwick  adults.  (1978) reviewed the l i t e r a t u r e on needs  assessment,  p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l a t e d t o the d e s i g n of courses i n E n g l i s h f o r spec i f i c purposes, and concluded t h a t needs assessment, as a means of o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about l e a r n i n g purposes, i s a r e l a t i v e l y n o v e l concept i n the f i e l d o f second language i n s t r u c t i o n a l p l a n ning.  He r e p o r t e d methods employed  B l a c k w e l l , 1977;  t o assess needs  S t e v i c k , 1971; Buckingham and Pech,  (Selman and 1976;  18 Wong, 1977; 1977)  Ricterich,  Stevens,  1977;  Laylin,  as w e l l as approaches to the development of c u r r i c u l a from  l e a r n e r needs 1978;  19 73; Munby, 1978;  (Gorman, 19 78; M e r r i t t , 19 78; Mohan, 19 79; Munby,  S t e r n , 1978;  S t e v i c k , 1971).  One  problem common to the  l i t e r a t u r e Berwick r e p o r t s , however, i s the assumption t h a t educ a t i o n must p r o v i d e language to s u i t a l l immigrant needs and t h a t a s y l l a b u s or c u r r i c u l u m s t i p u l a t e s t a r g e t competencies of a part i c u l a r p a r t i c i p a n t or p a r t i c i p a n t s t e r e o - t y p e  (Munby, 1978)  with-  out d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between the sources of i n f o r m a t i o n sought by the immigrant.  I n v e s t i g a t i o n of sources used by immigrants to  r e s o l v e t a s k s of a d a p t a t i o n may  c l a r i f y the r o l e of e d u c a t i o n i n  the a d a p t a t i o n process and the tasks f o r which e d u c a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d and  sought.  As immigrants embark upon the process of adapting to a s o c i e t y , they encounter  many tasks which may  be r e s o l v e d by  q u i r i n g 'information i n the n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l and tional settings.  I n d i v i d u a l s may  r e s o l v e or f a i l t o r e s o l v e each task may to continue t h e i r a d a p t a t i o n p r o c e s s .  through  programs.  The  ac-  instruc-  experience v a r y i n g degrees of  d i f f i c u l t y w i t h tasks of a d a p t a t i o n and the way  a remedial f u n c t i o n and  formal  new  i n which they  a f f e c t t h e i r motivation  A d u l t e d u c a t i o n may  serve  a i d the immigrant i n r e s o c i a l i z a t i o n present format of ESL c l a s s e s i s w e l l  s u i t e d to d e l i v e r i n s t r u c t i o n , and  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of sources of  i n f o r m a t i o n u t i l i z e d , but a p p l i c a t i o n of p r i n c i p l e s of needs assessment might f u r t h e r a s s i s t the immigrant l e a r n e r .  This  study proposes t h a t i d e n t i f y i n g t a s k s of a d a p t a t i o n can  assist  i n the development of programs o f f e r e d t o a d u l t  immigrants.  CHAPTER I I I  METHODOLOGY An  analytical  survey  was c o n d u c t e d  19 77 w i t h  seventy-two I s r a e l i  bilingual  (Hebrew and E n g l i s h )  pants  regarding their  fication time  solve  of task  socio-demographic  them.  resolution,  This study.  scaling  well  selection  testing  to identify  instruments  relative  resolution  of tasks,  of tasks,  t h e i n s t r u m e n t s and  and sources  of the instruments  factors  estimation  i n t h e i n s t r u m e n t as  affecting data  o f respondents,  of v a l i d i t y  f o r the  difficulty,  a number  regarding socio-  time  of tasks of adaptation,  of i n f o r m a t i o n used  used i n  o f tasks of adaptation  and e s t a b l i s h m e n t  19  chapter.  Instruments  were u s e d t o c o l l e c t  importance  identi-  o f i n f o r m a t i o n used t o r e -  o f t a s k s u s e d as i t e m s  demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s tion,  importance  u s e d t o measure d i f f i c u l t y  In order  of other  difficulty  I t d e s c r i b e s the development o f a magnitude  as r e l i a b i l i t y  items.  partici-  are discussed i n t h i s  s e c t i o n o u t l i n e s the design  device  including  of  Eleven  characteristics,  used i n d e v e l o p i n g  and a n a l y z i n g t h e d a t a  Design  t o Vancouver.  relative  and s o u r c e s  The p r o c e d u r e s  to April  interviewers questioned  of tasks of adaptation,  collecting  the  immigrants  r e q u i r e d t o r e s o l v e them, r e l a t i v e  stages  from January  of task  resolu-  stages  of task  i n resolving  tasks,  20 and  a l l of  these  a typology assess  comprised  of c u l t u r a l  tion  is outlined.  ures  employed  D e s c r i p t i o n s of  Thirty-six  for identifying  f i r s t was  an  instruments  and  to adaptaproced-  them f o l l o w .  these  Adaptation  tasks  study.  The  i n v o l v e d four phases.  The  e x p l o r a t o r y p h a s e d u r i n g w h i c h d i s c u s s i o n s were h e l d  with  random i n d i v i d u a l s who  year  o r more.  Among t h e s e  a b r o a d o r who  had  had  lived  t o Canada.  country  had  either  A l l were f l u e n t  d e p i c t i n g the e x p e r i e n c e s  h i s t o r i e s were e x p l o r e d .  these  i n another  were C a n a d i a n s who  immigrated  In a d d i t i o n , novels  and  tasks of  o f a d a p t a t i o n were u s e d i n t h e  procedure  case  these  S e l e c t i o n of Tasks of tasks  In a d d i t i o n ,  independent experts  i n n o v a t i o n r e q u i r e d by  i n applying  The  sulted  interview schedule.  employed u s i n g a group o f  extent  written  the  A  of  long  for  one  lived in English.  immigrants  list  of tasks  and re-  were g r o u p e d u n d e r more g e n e r a l i z e d t a s k  headings  second phase, a wide range o f  was  (Table I I ) . During sulted,  p r i m a r i l y i n the  problem of the of  adaptation  field  the  sources  (1975).  to d e a l w i t h  d e s c r i b e d as  sociology. tasks  Anderson both  the  (1918) was s u b j e c t s of  i m m i g r a n t a d u l t s , and  i t i s the  educational policy.  represent  different  the views of  The  one  r e s o l v e d but  Borrie  o f the  first  immigration  and  (1959)  often  sources  All  and  Canadian books the  education  o n l y book whose i n t e n t was other  con-  the  r e s u l t s were r e p o r t e d .  v i e w s o f a d a p t a t i o n and  government  literature Nowhere was  t o be  c h o s e n were C a n a d i a n , e x c e p t  influence  as  of  v a r i a b l e s u s e d i m p l i e d t a s k s , and  Taft  of  the  were c h o s e n  immigrant groups  ( D e p a r t m e n t o f Manpower and  to to such  Immigra-  21  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37.  Find a doctor Register f o r mad. insurance Adjust to climate Accept change i n status Budget f o r d i f f . ec. l e v e l Get any job f o r income Meet countryman * Enrol children Use d i f f e r e n t measures Get a career job Enrol i n job r e t r a i n i n g Make f i r s t Cdn. f r i e n d Find place of worship Get used to Cdn. sense of humom Read l o c a l newspaper Find permanent residence Subscribe to ethnic press (*) * Find ethnic school f o r kids Use Vancouver buses Use p o s t a l system Open a bank account Help spouse Gain acceptance of occ. quals. Find ethnic stores (*) Identify alternate products Speak E n g l i s h to get by (*) * Apply f o r Cdn. c i t i z e n s h i p Change type of work Register f o r s o c i a l insurance Get d r i v e r s ' licence Change workday schedule * Speak good English Use Canadian money Register f o r car insurance Find temporary residence * Use community & ed. services Change s t y l e of doing business  Personal Case Histories  Literature  Wolfgang (1975)  (197 Taft  (1971)  the  Lai  Adaptation  Borrie (1959)  Tasks of  Anderson (1918)  (*) - Indicates that the source assumed or implied the task  Goldlust & Richmond (1974)  * - Indicates i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a task by a source  S u g g e s t e d by  Elliott (1971)  as  (1974),  Tasks of Adaptation  Dept. of Manpower & Imm.  TABLE I I  *.  (*)  *  * * (*) *  * * *  (*)  *  * *  (*)  * (*) (*)  * * *  *  (*)  (*)  * *  (*)  *  (*)  *  * * *  *  * * *  (*) (*) (*) (*)  (*)  (*)  * *  (*) (*)  * *  (*)  *  *  (*)  (*)  * * *  (*) (*) (*)  (*) (*)  (*) (*)  (*)  *  (*)  (*)  * *  *  * *  *  (*) '(*)  *  (*) (*)  (*) (*)  *  (*) (*)  (*) (*)  * *  * * *  * * *  * * * *  (*)  (*)  *  * * * (*) (*)  *  22 tion,  1974), C a n a d i a n s o c i o l o g i s t s  Richmond, case  19 74;  L a i , 1975) a n d e d u c a t o r s  o f Wolfgang  pologists,  (1975), t h o s e  teachers  chosen because  as w e l l .  i trepresented  s e l e c t e d because i t presented of the  adaptation list  anthro-  b u t many o f  seemed a p p r o p r i a t e f o r  (1959), a UNESCO p u b l i c a t i o n , was  a world  view and T a f t  a recent  (19 76)  was  d i s c u s s i o n on t h e problems  from the p o i n t o f view o f a p s y c h o l o g i s t .  o f tasks generated  In the  who c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e book  pre-adult education  Borrie  1975).  sociologists  remarks about problems o f a d a p t a t i o n  adult education  1971, G o l d l u s t a n d  (Wolfgang,  historians,  and policy-makers  were p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h their  (Elliott,  by the r e a d i n g s  Once  were g r o u p e d  again,  under  headings. During the Education  third  phase, a d v i s o r s i n t h e Department o f A d u l t  and E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n  a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Col-  umbia a n d t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g a t t h e K i n g Edward Campus o f V a n c o u v e r Community C o l l e g e teria  f o rexcluding potential  t e r i o n excluded prejudice group."  task  items  cri-  The f i r s t  cri-  p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t my e t h n i c  very  specific  the p u b l i c l i b r a r y "  and t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s task  tasks  such as  were e x c l u d e d  inherent  as  i n them were r e -  statements such as " u s i n g a  s y s t e m o f w e i g h t s a n d m e a s u r e s " a n d " u s i n g community a n d  educational services."  I n a d d i t i o n , a l l t a s k s were r e s t a t e d i n  behavioural  terms u s i n g a c t i v e v e r b s  rather  verbs  "adjust  two  p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s such as  t h e second c r i t e r i o n ,  i n t o more c o m p r e h e n s i v e  different  from the l i s t .  "dealing with  c l o t h e s " or "using  discrete phrased  dealing with  as i n the task Using  "buying  tasks  tasks  suggested  than  which  suggested  to", "deal with",  such as "use",  "find",  "enrol",  p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s such as  "cope w i t h "  and " g e t used t o . "  Table I I  23 lists  tasks o f a d a p t a t i o n used i n the study and the major sources  i n which each task was  s t a t e d or i m p l i e d .  Phase f o u r i n c l u d e d the p r e p a r a t i o n of s e t s of t h i r t y - s e v e n cards, one c a r d per t a s k , f o r use by a v a r i e t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e s t i n g the c l a r i t y and i n c l u s i v e n e s s of the items. e d u c a t i o n graduate new to  students were asked t o imagine  a r r i v a l s i n a country whose language  Twenty a d u l t  themselves  as  they d i d not know and  s o r t the cards i n t o f i v e c a t e g o r i e s of d i f f i c u l t y , u s i n g a  Q-sort procedure. were asked  An a d d i t i o n a l f i f t y a d u l t e d u c a t i o n students  to imagine  the same c o n d i t i o n s and a s s i g n a d i f f i c u l t y  score of between zero and one hundred t o each t a s k .  After  each  a p p l i c a t i o n , p a r t i c i p a n t s were asked to w r i t e on blank cards any a d d i t i o n a l tasks t h a t d i d not seem to be r e p r e s e n t e d . reliability  t e s t i n g w i t h twenty-four immigrant  During the  students a t Van-  couver Community C o l l e g e , the p i l o t study w i t h f o u r t e e n I s r a e l i s u b j e c t s , and the a c t u a l study, the same a d d i t i o n s were requested. A d d i t i o n a l t a s k s suggested were: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  B u r e a u c r a t i c problems w i t h f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s . D i f f i c u l t y i n making l a s t i n g f r i e n d s h i p s . S e p a r a t i o n from f a m i l y . Get used to h o s p i t a l system. Learn Canadian laws. Get used to a d i f f e r e n t crime r a t e . Learn Canadian h i s t o r y . Learn how government works. Get to know the e d u c a t i o n system. F i n d daycare c e n t r e s .  11.  Get used t o d i f f e r e n t  As none o f these was discrete tasks.  food.  c i t e d more than once, none were i n c l u d e d as  However, some were i n c l u d e d i n the i n t e r v i e w  questions regarding s a t i s f a c t i o n with l i f e d i f f e r e n c e s between l i f e i n Canada and l i f e  i n Canada i n Israel  (2,3)  and  (2,8,11),  24  and  o t h e r s were b e l i e v e d t o be components o f t a s k s  list. the  (1,5,7,8,9,10)  list  of tasks  eliminated  One t a s k w h i c h was o r i g i n a l l y  ("change y o u r  style  o f doing  due t o p r o b l e m s t r a n s l a t i n g  Hebrew, s o t h e f i n a l  a l r e a d y on t h e  list  contained  included i n  business")  t h e word  thirty-six  was  "business"  into  tasks.  Magnitude E s t i m a t i o n o f the D i f f i c u l t y of T a s k s o f A d a p t a t i o n The  construct  "difficulty"  i s a g l o b a l term t h a t r e f e r s t o  the magnitude o f the o v e r a l l p r o b l e m a t i c tasks in  of adaptation  this  study  of  as p e r c e i v e d by t h e i m m i g r a n t .  to allow  mation technique. many f a c t o r s ,  tasks  some o f w h i c h were s u g g e s t e d  available  required  in  the course  of  the task,  each task. each  factor,  ( A l l e y n e and V e r n e r ,  of task  Rather than an o v e r a l l  score  t a s k w h i c h was c o r r e l a t e d w i t h  1969), e x t e n t o f  scores  Others  perceived  a difficulty  of d i f f i c u l t y  of i n f o r m a t i o n  1969).  r e s o l u t i o n and t i m e  compile  Magnitude e s t i m a t i o n  may be composed  1960) and s o u r c e s  o f c o n s i d e r i n g the problem: stage  required to resolve  score  from s c o r e s  was s o u g h t  f o r each  factor.  psycho-physicists  of  any j u d g e m e n t t o t h e m a g n i t u d e o f p h y s i c a l s t i m u l u s Subject's  changes i n s t i m u l u s  to link  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  perceptions  intensity  (such  o f the r a t i o s  as p r e s s u r e  on  f o r each  i s one o f s e v e r a l t e c h n i q u e s  i n order  arose  importance  by  that experience.  esti-  (Department o f Manpower and Immigra-  (Lionberger,  and u t i l i z e d  used  by the l i t e r a t u r e :  1974; G o l d l u s t and Richmond, 1974; H e i s s ,  innovation  I t was  t o be m e a s u r e d b y a m a g n i t u d e  I t i s apparent that d i f f i c u l t y  socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s tion,  condition of resolving  developed experience producing  among  and l i g h t  inten-  25 s i t y ) were found t o be a c c u r a t e .  T h i s l e d experimenters  t o be-  l i e v e t h a t magnitude e s t i m a t i o n would be a u s e f u l instrument f o r s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s concerned with a t t i t u d e measurement.  Among  o t h e r s , s t u d i e s of the s e r i o u s n e s s of o f f e n c e s o f j u v e n i l e del i n q u e n t s , o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e and l i f e evidence Rahi,  to substantiate this b e l i e f  changes have p r o v i d e d  (Stevens,  1966; Holmes and  1967; Masuda and Holmes, 1967). Magnitude e s t i m a t i o n was chosen f o r t h i s study f o r two r e a -  sons. items  F i r s t l y , i t preserves  the a c t u a l assigned r a t i o s between  and these r a t i o s are generated  from the respondents'  c e p t i o n s o f the data, not from the instrument. allows items  t o be added by i n t e r v i e w e e s .  i s e s p e c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e i n a study of  per-  Secondly, i t  This l a t t e r  property  such as t h i s where no l i s t  t a s k s has ever been a s c e r t a i n e d and the tasks of a d a p t a t i o n  - - i d e n t i f i e d by the author may not be complete. The ing  f o l l o w i n g t h i r t y - s e v e n task items were used i n develop-  the magnitude e s t i m a t i o n . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.  F i n d a doctor whom you t r u s t and are s a t i s f i e d w i t h . R e g i s t e r f o r medical i n s u r a n c e . A d j u s t t o c l i m a t e i n Vancouver. Accept a change i n s t a t u s i n the community (up o r down). Budget f o r l i f e on a d i f f e r e n t economic l e v e l . Get any job f o r income u n t i l you g e t a s a t i s f a c t o r y j o b . Meet other o f your countrymen. E n r o l c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l and community a c t i v i t i e s . Use a d i f f e r e n t system o f s i z e s , weights and measures. Get a s a t i s f y i n g c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d j o b . E n r o l i n a job r e t r a i n i n g program. Make your f i r s t Canadian f r i e n d . F i n d a s u i t a b l e p l a c e o f worship. Get used t o a d i f f e r e n t sense of humour i n Canada. Read a l o c a l English-language newspaper r e g u l a r l y . F i n d a permanent p l a c e t o l i v e . Subscribe to an e t h n i c newspaper. F i n d a s u i t a b l e e t h n i c s c h o o l f o r your c h i l d r e n . Use the Vancouver bus system. Use the Canadian p o s t a l system.  26 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36.  Open a bank account. Help your spouse t o use community and e d u c a t i o n a l services. Gain acceptance o f e x i s t i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . F i n d e t h n i c s t o r e s and r e s t a u r a n t s . I d e n t i f y a l t e r n a t e products f o r the household. Speak enough E n g l i s h t o get by. Apply f o r Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p . Change type of work. R e g i s t e r f o r a s o c i a l insurance number. Get a B.C. d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e . Change your workday schedule. Speak good E n g l i s h . Use Canadian money. Register f o r car insurance. F i n d some temporary p l a c e t o l i v e when you f i r s t a r r i v e . Use a v a i l a b l e community and e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s .  37.  Change your s t y l e of doing  A few items  business.  (meet other of your countrymen, s u b s c r i b e t o an e t h -  n i c newspaper, f i n d a s u i t a b l e e t h n i c s c h o o l f o r your c h i l d r e n , f i n d e t h n i c shops and r e s t a u r a n t s ) may appear t o r e f e r t o f a c t o r s which would impede a d a p t a t i o n , but were i n c l u d e d f o r s e v e r a l r e a sons.  Upon a r r i v a l i n a new country of r e s i d e n c e , immigrants  tend t o seek out l i n k s to p r o v i d e a sense of c o n t i n u i t y and rootedness  and accomplishing  them may f r e e the newcomers t o accom-  p l i s h o t h e r tasks of a d a p t a t i o n .  In a d d i t i o n , those  t i e s t o the  e t h n i c community p r o v i d e much o f the i n f o r m a t i o n needed t o accomp l i s h the t a s k s .  F a i l u r e t o accomplish  the l i n k i n g tasks seems  t o impede the accomplishment of o t h e r tasks of a d a p t a t i o n . cause no e m p i r i c a l evidence  was found  Be-  t o c o n t r a d i c t or support  t h i s view, these tasks were i n c l u d e d as items. R e l i a b i l i t y o f Magnitude E s t i m a t i o n Items The  t h i r t y - s e v e n items were s u b j e c t e d t o t e s t s of r e l i a b i l -  i t y w i t h twenty-four two  immigrants from a v a r i e t y of c o u n t r i e s i n  advanced c l a s s e s i n E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g a t King Edward  Campus, Vancouver Community C o l l e g e .  27 The  respondents  were asked t o examine the items and, when  n e c e s s a r y , words were t r a n s l a t e d or e x p l a i n e d . appeared  Each item  on a separate c a r d and one item, chosen randomly by each  s u b j e c t , was a s s i g n e d an a r b i t r a r y standard d i f f i c u l t y 100.  value o f  Each s u b j e c t then compared the remaining items a g a i n s t t h i s  standard item and assigned v a l u e s t o them.  The same procedure  was f o l l o w e d on t e s t and r e t e s t o c c a s i o n s .  While  explanations  were g i v e n and the s u b j e c t s were judged by t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r s t o be competent enough t o use the instrument, of  i t i s possible a l o t  c o n f u s i o n c o u l d have a r i s e n as t o the meaning o f a word or  phrase. Three measures of r e l i a b i l i t y were used t o examine the ext e n t t o which each of the t h i r t y - s e v e n items measured the construct  "difficulty"  and whether any o f those items were u n r e l i a b l e  measures of the c o n s t r u c t . ing  The three procedures  used  r e l i a b i l i t y were mean p r e d i c t i v i t y , h i g h e s t simple  w i t h any other item, and t e s t - r e t e s t .  for estimatcorrelation  Mean p r e d i c t i v i t y i s the  mean c o r r e l a t i o n of one item w i t h a l l other items and r e p r e s e n t s a g e n e r a l i z e d r e l i a b i l i t y estimate i n t h a t i t e s t i m a t e s the degree to which the o t h e r t h i r t y - s i x items p r e d i c t the one item's culty.  H i g h e s t simple c o r r e l a t i o n  (Highest r ) i s a lower-bound  e s t i m a t e of the item's own r e l i a b i l i t y examines item s t a b i l i t y over  diffi-  and t e s t - r e t e s t  reliability  time.  Mean p r e d i c t i v i t y f i r m l y supports the r e t e n t i o n o f n i n e t e e n of  the t h i r t y - s e v e n items and, i n some cases, augments low t e s t -  retest r e l i a b i l i t y  i n t h a t a mean p r e d i c t i v i t y score o f between  .3 and .5 suggests t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l s r a t h e r than the items have changed over time.  A f u r t h e r nine items are f i r m l y supported by  28 t e s t - r e t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l or b e t t e r and the remaining nine items are supported by a c c e p t a b l e h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h another item. One  (Table I I I )  item "change your s t y l e of doing b u s i n e s s " was excluded,  not because o f r e l i a b i l i t y measures but r a t h e r because t h e r e appeared t o be semantic c o n f u s i o n i n the t r a n s l a t i o n of the word " b u s i n e s s " due t o i t s wide and v a r i e d use i n Hebrew, both f o r m a l l y and as s l a n g . V a l i d i t y of Magnitude  E s t i m a t i o n Items  Four types of v a l i d i t y were examined f o r the magnitude e s t i m a t i o n items; f a c e , p r e d i c t i v e , convergent and c r i t e r i o n validity.  Face v a l i d i t y was  group  judged t o be p r e s e n t i n t h a t items  were s e l e c t e d from l i t e r a t u r e and p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s  because  they appeared to pose d i f f i c u l t y to immigrants. P r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y was  i l l u s t r a t e d i n two ways.  f i r s t p l a c e , i t i s suggested by the c o r r e l a t i o n between c u l t y s c o r e s and s c o r e s f o r e x t e n t of c u l t u r a l (r=.37 p=.02)  In the diffi-  innovation.  I t appears l o g i c a l t h a t degree of d i f f i c u l t y  and  c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n would be p r e d i c t i v e of each other i n t h a t a more e x t e n s i v e c u l t u r a l change would pose a g r e a t e r degree of difficulty  to the immigrant.  In the second p l a c e , stepwise r e -  g r e s s i o n y i e l d e d socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s accounting f o r the v a r i a n c e i n d i f f i c u l t y expressed by respondents on a t a s k - b y - t a s k b a s i s f o r seventeen of the t h i r t y - s i x t a s k s .  I t appears, t h e r e -  f o r e , t h a t d i f f i c u l t y and s p e c i f i c socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s , depending on the task i n q u e s t i o n , tended to be p r e d i c t i v e o f each o t h e r .  29  TABLE I I I  C o r r e l a t i o n C o - e f f i c i e n t s of Three Tests of R e l i a b i l i t y f o r Magnitude E s t i m a t i o n Task Items  Item Names  Mean Predictivity  Highest r  15. 23. 7. 9. 36. 27. 10. 32. 8. 11. 33. 17. 12. 16. 20. 31. 26. 14. 13. 2. 34. 35. 30. 22. 1. 24. 18. 6. 21. 3. 29. 25. 5. 4. 19. 28. 37.  .4223 .3786 .3307 .4104 .2247 .3814 .3740 .4079 .4097 .4385 .0370 .3270 .2752 .3334 .4085 .3801 .2871 .3344 .2604 .3683 .4629 .2233 .4409 .3546 .4045 .2910 .3236 .4114 .2848 .3739 .4838 .3321 .2312 .2666 .2453 .3316 .3418  -.7829 -.6555 .6711 -.7231 -.4347 .3817 .7003 .7035 .6612 -.7799 -.5269 -.6600 -.5666 .5412 .7334 -.7448 .5736 -.6476 .4769 .6623 .8539 -.4903 .8539 -.6333 -.7829 .6711 .6612 -.7050 .6042 -.6875 .7930 -.6557 -.4950 -.5371 -.4977 -.5628 -.6010  Local Newspaper Occupational Qualifications Meet Countrymen Different Measures Ctoniminity & Ed. Services Canadian Citizenship Career Job Good English Enrol Kids Job Retraining Canadian Money Ethnic Newspaper Canadian Friend Personal Residence Postal System Workday Schedule Getby English Canadian Sense of Humour Place of Worship Medical Insurance Car Insurance Temporary Residence Driver's Licence Help Spouse Find a Doctor Ethnic Shcps Ethnic School for Kids Any Job for Income Bank Climate Social Insurance Alternate Products Budget Status Vancouver Bus Change Work Change Style of Business  * * * * * * * * *  * *  * * * * * * * *  * Correlations significant at the .05 level.  * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *  Test-Retest r .8890 .7557 .7264 .6704 .6564 .6457 .5916 .5874 .5860 .5830 .5793 .5676 .5258 .5101 .5008 .4939 .4800 .4561 .4460 .4417 .4386 .4301 .4901 .4072 .3026 .2677 .2489 .1859 .1844 .1384 .1329 .1249 .1051 .0984 .0860 .0501 .0081  * * * * * * * * *  * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *  30 Convergent v a l i d i t y was  shown i n the agreement  or more attempts t o measure the same t r a i t . t h i s appears to r e f e r o n l y to agreement ments measuring the same t r a i t .  between two  On the face o f i t ,  between separate i n s t r u -  However, by u s i n g a common f a c -  t o r approach, the mean p r e d i c t i v i t y s c o r e s , c a l c u l a t e d by averagi n g c o r r e l a t i o n s between each i t e m and the o t h e r t h i r t y - s e v e n items, may  be used to show convergent v a l i d i t y .  In t h i s case,  the t r a i t b e i n g measured i s d i f f i c u l t y and the mean p r e d i c t i v i t y scores  (Table I I I ) are t h i r t y - s i x s e p a r a t e and independent mea-  sures of i t .  As the c r i t e r i o n f o r assessment was  difficulty  and  s u b j e c t s were able t o assess each item, the mean p r e d i c t i v i t y s c o r e s i n d i c a t e v a r y i n g degrees of each item's a b i l i t y to measure d i f f i c u l t y .  Some of the items such as r e g i s t e r i n g f o r  s o c i a l i n s u r a n c e (r=.48) and g e t t i n g a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e  (r=.44)  measure t h a t t r a i t b e t t e r than o t h e r s such as u s i n g Canadian money  (r=.04)  or u s i n g community and e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s  In t h a t each item appears to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d i f f i c u l t y  (r=.22).  to a g r e a -  t e r or l e s s e r degree and a l l the items r e c e i v e d s c o r e s , they are a l l measuring the same t r a i t , d i f f i c u l t y , verge on t h a t t r a i t .  In t h i s way,  and may  be s a i d t o con-  convergent v a l i d i t y operates  to support the o v e r a l l v a l i d i t y of the instrument. C r i t e r i o n group v a l i d i t y i s evidenced by the appearance of d i f f e r e n c e s i n scores between groups which are known to be ent.  The d i f f i c u l t y  scores of twenty-eight advanced  differ-  English  Language T r a i n i n g students from a v a r i e t y of c o u n t r i e s were compared t o the scores of the seventy-two I s r a e l i respondents and a number of d i f f e r e n c e s appeared i n the rank o r d e r i n g of items,  in  31 t h a t the f i r s t group was composed o f i n d i v i d u a l s from many e t h n i c backgrounds, no c u l t u r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the groups c o u l d be a p p l i e d .  The expected  d i f f e r e n c e s arose  from  the f a c t t h a t members of the mixed group were a l l students who had e n r o l l e d i n an advanced l e v e l E n g l i s h course I s r a e l i group had not.  and those  i n the  In t h a t the mixed group were students i n  an advanced c l a s s , one may assume t h a t they were there not t o l e a r n enought E n g l i s h t o get by, but r a t h e r t o upgrade t h e i r E n g l i s h to a l e v e l commensurate with t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a tions.  Therefore,  i t was t o be expected  t h a t employment-oriented  t a s k s would, i n g e n e r a l , be among those p e r c e i v e d as most d i f f i c u l t by the mixed group and t h i s o c c u r r e d .  I t was a l s o t o be ex-  pected t h a t f i n d i n g a c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d job would be one o f the most d i f f i c u l t t a s k s f o r a group of I s r a e l i s r e p r e s e n t i n g a spectrum of  socio-demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  sented  In a d d i t i o n , as they  repre-  a v a r i e t y of f l u e n c y l e v e l s i n E n g l i s h compared with the  advanced ELT group, speaking  good E n g l i s h would a l s o be p e r c e i v e d  as a d i f f i c u l t task and t h i s o c c u r r e d .  Some of the other  tasks  p e r c e i v e d as most d i f f i c u l t by the I s r a e l i group were a l s o t o be expected.  I s r a e l i s experience  an extreme d i f f e r e n c e i n c l i m a t e  in  coming to Canada, o f t e n comment on the problems of understand-  ing  the Canadian sense of humour, and, w h i l e accustomed to m e t r i c  measures, a r r i v e d before m e t r i c c o n v e r s i o n i n Canada. group e x p e r i e n c e d  The mixed  much g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y with u s i n g Canadian  money than the I s r a e l i group and the I s r a e l i s i n d i c a t e d g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y w i t h budgeting It  f o r l i f e on a d i f f e r e n t economic  i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the f i r s t group understood  level.  the task, "use  Canadian  money", i n i t s w i d e r  general  i n which case both  t h e i r most d i f f i c u l t T h e s e two  groups,  sense  groups  t a s k s , and  of f i n a n c i a l matters  placed f i n a n c i a l  t h i s was  t o be  t h e n , were known t o be  in  concerns  expected  different  and  among  (Table IV). their  s c o r e s u s i n g the magnitude e s t i m a t i o n i n s t r u m e n t r e f l e c t e d cipated  differences  so t h a t  criterion  group  validity  was  anti-  demon-  strated.  Factors Affecting Six  t y p e s o f f a c t o r s were e x p e c t e d  scores,  and  taining  t o each  in  this  large  number o f s o c i o - d e m o g r a p h i c  and  Goldlust  and  ted  s i z e o f p r i m a r y group  o f e d u c a t i o n , was  Richmond  (19 74)  the l e s s  c l o s e k i n , t h e more s a t i s f i e d  citizenship.  stated  t h e most i m p o r t a n t  In a d d i t i o n ,  the immigrants,  t h e s t r o n g e r was  v a r i a b l e s were  examined  o f e d u c a t i o n , number o f c o u n t r i e s l i v e d  level  c a t e d e d u c a t i o n was acculturation.  per-  t h e t h r e e w h i c h were c o n s i d e r e d w i t h g r e a t e s t  s i x months o r more, and first,  data  Variables  study but  The  difficulty  type i s d e s c r i b e d below.  a t t e n t i o n were l e v e l for  to influence  the development of i n s t r u m e n t s to c o l l e c t  Socio-Demographic A  Difficulty  their  referred that  single  results  determinant the b e t t e r  t h e y were t o be  t h e y were w i t h  arrival.  t o by T a f t  their  they claimed t h a t likely  on  life  in  indiof educa-  involved  i n Canada,  commitment t o p e r m a n e n t r e s i d e n c e  (1975)  and  with and  33  TABLE IV  Geometric Mean D i f f i c u l t y A d a p t a t i o n f o r an I s r a e l i  Task Items 10. Career Job 32. Good English 9. Different Measures 15. Local News 14. Canadian Sense of Humour 16. Permanent Residence 5. Budget 23. Occupational Qualifications 3. Climate 4. Status 6. Get Any Job for Income 11. Job Retraining 25. Alternate Products 36. Ctnmunity & Educational Services 27. Canadian Citizenship 30. Driver's Licence 19. Vancouver Bus 28. Change Work 12. Canadian Friend 31. Workday Schedule 24. Ethnic Shops 2. Medical Insurance 22. Help Spouse 1. Find a Doctor 35. Temporary Residence 26. Getby English 8. Enrol Kids 7. Meet Countrymen 34. Car Insurance 21. Bank 13. Place of Worship 20. Postal System 29. Social Insurance 18. Ethnic School for Kids 33. Canadian Money 17. Ethnic News  Scores on Tasks o f and a Mixed Group  Difficulty Scores (geometric means) Mixed Group Israelis 210.3 149.7 135.5 134.2 131.9 129.2 122.7 119.9 114.0 103.5 89.3 79.0 78.7 71.6 69.3 67.6 66.8 66.4 65.9 64.6 64.6 48.6 46.2 45.4 41.3 40.2 38.1 35.5 32.8 32.6 32.6 31.1 29.8 27.3 24.4 23.9  237.2 117.0 58.2 129.6 100.1 85.4 89.8 81.6 92.5 117.8 146.3 198.4 33.6 72.2 209.6 40.6 61.4 129.9 67.6 71.6 241.4 32.0 33.7 61.4 60.4 108.5 56.5 42.5 22.1 47.4 175.6 52.3 196.8 43.8 227.5 158.2  The Heiss'  second socio-demographic v a r i a b l e was  suggested  (1969) h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the a s s o c i a t i o n between pre-migra-  t i o n t r a i t s and  a s s i m i l a t i o n was  p r e - m i g r a t i o n t r a i t s and (p. 427).  Taft  due  to the  a s s o c i a t i o n between  the a b i l i t y to l e a r n a new  (1975) appeared to concur t h a t  culture  culture  learning i s  an important v a r i a b l e i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g a d a p t a t i o n as d i d (195 4) who  r e f e r r e d to a d a p t a t i o n as r e s o c i a l i z a t i o n .  of c o u n t r i e s  i n d i v i d u a l s had  t h i s study as i t was  taken to i n d i c a t e the  which r e s o c i a l i z a t i o n had The  of i n f o r m a t i o n  number was  experience  frequency w i t h  occurred.  chosen to examine the e x t e n t of p e r s o n a l sources a v a i l a b l e to immigrants upon a r r i v a l i n Vancouver  t h e i r dependence on e t h n i c group and  t h a t time.  The  t h i r d socio-demographic v a r i a b l e , s i z e of primary group  on a r r i v a l , was  and  Eisenstadt  l i v e d i n f o r s i x months or more  the v a r i a b l e chosen to i n q u i r e i n t o c u l t u r e - l e a r n i n g in  by  The  more complete the  i n s t i t u t i o n a l networks of t h e i r  own  ethnic  and  sources of other e t h n i c groups or the h o s t s o c i e t y i n seeking  the  r e s o l u t i o n of tasks The  group, the  s o c i e t a l i n s t i t u t i o n s at  questionnaire  l e s s l i k e l y they are t o turn to i n s t i t u t i o n s  (Breton, 1968). p o r t i o n of the  interview  was  designed  c o l l e c t o t h e r socio-demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the as w e l l as the sex,  age,  three noted above.  m a r i t a l status, place  uage, spouse's b i r t h p l a c e English  and  Questions were asked  subjects regarding  of b i r t h , o c c u p a t i o n , f i r s t first  to  lang-  language, c i t i z e n s h i p s t a t u s ,  f l u e n c y , number of languages spoken, number of p r e v i o u s  o c c u p a t i o n s , e d u c a t i o n , length  of r e s i d e n c e i n Vancouver, f r e -  quency of use  of e t h n i c community f a c i l i t i e s ,  r e l a t i v e s and  f r i e n d s on a r r i v a l , and  number of  adult  s a t i s f a c t i o n with l i f e i n  Canada  (See Appendix I ) .  Those data p e r m i t t e d a more complete  d e s c r i p t i o n of the sample and the t e s t i n g of a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s to determine f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g  difficulty.  I n t e r v i e w e r s were i n s t r u c t e d t o a l l o w the i n t e r v i e w e e s to see the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , but to ask the q u e s t i o n s o r a l l y and w r i t e i n the responses out.  r a t h e r than a l l o w i n g i n t e r v i e w e e s to f i l l  They were encouraged to p r e s s f o r d e t a i l e d s p e c i f i c  mation, e s p e c i a l l y w i t h regard to employment and E x t e n t of C u l t u r a l The  infor-  education.  Innovation  importance of the e x t e n t of c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n r e q u i r e d  by each task was tion  them  (1960).  suggested  by L i o n b e r g e r ' s  f o u r types of  innova-  His typology i n d i c a t e d t h a t i n n o v a t i o n s have  ent degrees of complexity g i s t s t o examine why less d i f f i c u l t y  and i t has been used by r u r a l  sociolo-  some i n n o v a t i o n s are adopted w i t h more or  than o t h e r s .  adoption of a new  differ-  P a r a l l e l s may  be drawn between the  farming p r a c t i c e , which r e q u i r e s l e a r n i n g and  accomplishment of the new  p r a c t i c e on the p a r t of the  and the r e s o l u t i o n of the task of a d a p t a t i o n .  adopter,  Because of t h i s  s i m i l a r i t y , a typology based on e x t e n t of c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n r e q u i r e d by a task was  employed, and  f o u r types of tasks were de-  s c r i b e d i n the f o l l o w i n g manner. Type 1  T h i s task r e p r e s e n t s a change i n m a t e r i a l s and equipment o n l y , without  a change i n techniques  or o p e r a t i o n s .  example of t h i s would be a change from an aluminum i n g pan  to a c a s t - i r o n one  f o r cooking.  An fry-  36  Type 2  T h i s task r e p r e s e n t s a change i n e x i s t i n g o p e r a t i o n s with or without ple  a change i n m a t e r i a l s or equipment.  of t h i s would be a change from Canadian to  s t y l e cooking procedures f r y i n g pan Type 3  to a  w i t h or without  An examChinese  a change from a  wok.  T h i s task r e p r e s e n t s a change i n v o l v i n g new  techniques  o p e r a t i o n s , f o r example, a f a c t o r y worker changing job  on the assembly l i n e .  or  his  T h i s type of change i n v o l v e d  no t h r e a t t o the i n d i v i d u a l ' s socio-economic  s t a t u s and  no c o n f l i c t w i t h h i s c u l t u r a l v a l u e s . Type 4  T h i s task r e p r e s e n t s a change i n the t o t a l  experience.  An example of t h i s would be the case of a Moslem, Jew C h r i s t i a n being r e q u i r e d t o work on h i s holy day Saturday,  Sunday).  or  (Friday,  T h i s type of change c o u l d i n v o l v e a  t h r e a t to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s socio-economic  s t a t u s or a  c o n f l i c t with h i s c u l t u r a l values. T h i s typology was  used to t a b u l a t e e x t e n t of i n n o v a t i o n  s c o r e s f o r the t h i r t y - s i x tasks of a d a p t a t i o n used i n the A mixed group of experts was 4  asked  (corresponding to the typology)  study.  to a s s i g n a number from 1 to to each of the t a s k s .  Some of  the e x p e r t s were contacted by m a i l , i n c l u d i n g a d u l t e d u c a t i o n doct o r a l students who  c i t e d Lionberger i n t h e i r thesis b i b l i o g r a p h i e s ,  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g programs, and f e s s o r s of E n g l i s h as a Second Language. vanced ELT  students  pro-  Others were f i f t y  from a v a r i e t y of c o u n t r i e s contacted  a l l y at King Edward Campus, Vancouver Community C o l l e g e .  ad-  personTeachers  a s s i s t e d them w i t h t r a n s l a t i o n and p r o c e d u r a l problems i n a s s i g n -  37 ing  s c o r e s t o the t a s k s .  task and those  Mean scores were t a b u l a t e d f o r each  scores were used as an independent measure o f  extent o f c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n r e q u i r e d by t a s k s o f a d a p t a t i o n used i n the study. Time o f Task R e s o l u t i o n In some cases, the amount of time r e q u i r e d t o r e s o l v e a t a s k of a d a p t a t i o n c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y account f o r i t s p e r c e i v e d difficulty.  Tasks which were r e s o l v e d a long time a f t e r  c o u l d have been p e r c e i v e d as more d i f f i c u l t  arrival  simply because a  long p e r i o d o f time had e l a p s e d and tasks t h a t were r e s o l v e d soon a f t e r a r r i v a l could have been p e r c e i v e d as l e s s d i f f i c u l t because they were r e s o l v e d i n l e s s time. corresponding  to f i r s t  simply  Two p o i n t s i n time,  awareness of the task and task  resolution,  were c o n s i d e r e d i n the study and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o d i f f i c u l t y was examined. On the back of each task item card, the f o l l o w i n g time  line  appeaj:|Bdt j | [l|. r^prejsenjted tdm^> 'befjorje janjd jsincjs ' t h ^ ' imtnigrant' s B E F O R E  W K  A R R I V A L  •  1  M O 1  M O  M O  3  6  Y R  Y R  Y R  Y R  Y R  1  2  3  4  5  M O R E T H A N 5  Y R S  a r r i v a l i n Vancouver and served as a v e h i c l e f o r d i s p l a y i n g the answers t o the two q u e s t i o n s : 1)  A t what p o i n t i n time d i d you f i r s t t h i n k o f having t o do this  2)  task?  A t what p o i n t i n time d i d you r e s o l v e t h i s  task?  I f the task had not y e t been r e s o l v e d , i n t e r v i e w e e s were asked when they expected  t o r e s o l v e i t . I n t e r v i e w e r s recorded  responses  *  38 to the q u e s t i o n s by marking two and the numbers 1 and  dots p r e c i s e l y on the time  line  2.  P e r c e i v e d Importance of Tasks Although  no l i t e r a t u r e mentions t h i s , i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t  a task of a d a p t a t i o n may  or may  not be d i f f i c u l t simply because  of i t s importance to the i n d i v i d u a l . immigrants may  For example,  unmarried  a t t a c h no importance to f i n d i n g a s u i t a b l e e t h n i c  s c h o o l f o r c h i l d r e n , simply because i t i s not r e l e v a n t . p e r c e p t i o n would a f f e c t the d i f f i c u l t y  Such a  scores they a s s i g n to t h a t  item. Each of the t h i r t y - s i x task items appears on a separate ' card. asked  A f t e r completing to arrange  the magnitude e s t i m a t i o n , s u b j e c t s were  a l l t h i r t y - s i x cards a c c o r d i n g to the order of  t h e i r importance the f i r s t time they were f a c e d w i t h the t a s k s . I n t e r v i e w e r s recorded the order u s i n g number one important  f o r the most  item and t h i r t y - s i x f o r the l e a s t important  one.  Stage of Task R e s o l u t i o n Whether or not a task of a d a p t a t i o n has been attempted or r e s o l v e d by an immigrant might a f f e c t the d i f f i c u l t y item r e c e i v e s .  score  the  For i n s t a n c e , i f a task had not y e t been attempted  or i s not a p p l i c a b l e , the i n d i v i d u a l s c o u l d have a much d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n of i t s d i f f i c u l t y to and  failed.  than i f they had  r e s o l v e d i t or  In a d d i t i o n , some tasks c o u l d , by t h e i r  nature,  be more or l e s s r e s o l v a b l e than others which might a f f e c t difficulty  scores.  tried  their  39 Subjects were asked to s o r t a l l t h i r t y - s i x task items  into  f i v e p i l e s a c c o r d i n g to the f o l l o w i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  Not a p p l i c a b l e t o me. I haven't t r i e d t h i s y e t . I t r i e d t h i s but c o u l d n ' t r e s o l v e i t . I'm doing t h i s now. I've r e s o l v e d t h i s .  Interviewers marked each p i l e with a d i f f e r e n t c o l o r t o  facilitate  coding. Sources of  Information  An i n d i v i d u a l may  utilize  a great v a r i e t y of sources  search f o r the p a r t i c u l a r i n f o r m a t i o n he r e q u i r e s . sources  Some of  are w i t h i n h i s p e r s o n a l or community network and  are more d i s t a n t from h i s p e r s o n a l sphere.  The  m o d i f i e d from A l l e y n e and Verner  employed t o  the sources tasks of 1.  (1969) was  in his those  others  f o l l o w i n g system classify  of i n f o r m a t i o n used by immigrants i n r e s o l v i n g the  adaptation.  P e r s o n a l sources  are those which i n v o l v e f a c e - t o - f a c e communi-  c a t i o n between the communicator and the r e c e i v e r where the r e c e i v e r may  q u e s t i o n the communicator.  These sources  gener-  a l l y l i e w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l o r b i t ; t h a t i s , h i s own  observations  r e l a t i v e , or 2.  Mass sources t o any  and experiences  or c o n t a c t with a f r i e n d ,  acquaintance. are those through which i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e  and every one  at the same time w i t h no p r o v i s i o n f o r  two-way communication. 3.  I n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n i s an e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y  conducted  on a one-to-one b a s i s . 4.  I n s t r u c t i o n a l group i s an e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y i n which  infor-  mation i s presented  t o a number o f i n d i v i d u a l s  simultaneously  with an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r two-way communication. The  f i r s t two r e f e r t o sources  of i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i n the  n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g w h i l e the l a s t two are i n the formal instructional  setting.  Using t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system and A l l e y n e and Verner's (1969) l i s t formation  of sources  as a g u i d e l i n e , the f o l l o w i n g l i s t  sources was developed  f o r interviewees  erence when answering the q u e s t i o n : did  of  to use as a r e f -  What sources of i n f o r m a t i o n  you use to h e l p you r e s o l v e t h i s task?  list  of i n -  The a c t u a l r e f e r e n c e  t h a t was given t o i n t e r v i e w e e s d i d not i n d i c a t e c a t e g o r i e s  sources.  /  P e r s o n a l Sources Friend  Relative  Neighbour  Spouse  Child  Fellow Employee  Mass Sources Radio  Newspaper  (eg. Sun, Jewish  Western  Bulletin) Television  Brochures  Government Pamphlets  Books  (eg. from Manpower)  (including dictionary)  Individual Instruction Doctor  Teacher or p r i n c i p a l a t c h i l d ' s s c h o o l  College Counsellor  Immigrant Reception  Employer  Jewish  Information  Manpower C o u n s e l l o r  Jewish  Family  Centre Centre  Counsellor x  S e r v i c e Agency C o u n s e l l o r  41 Immigration C o u n s e l l o r  Other (eg. Shopkeeper, B.C. Hydro • Bus Information, MSA, Bank Manager, Insurance Agent)  I n s t r u c t i o n a l Group Community C o l l e g e  Night School at a high  school  University  Meeting of a Jewish o r g a n i z a t i o n (eg. Hadassah, ORT, Synagogue, Men's Club)  I n t e r v i e w e r s were asked to encourage the i n t e r v i e w e e s to d e s c r i b e how  each task was  corded  as i t was  r e s o l v e d and each i n f o r m a t i o n source was  re-  mentioned. P o p u l a t i o n and Sample  Design  I d e n t i f y i n g the p o p u l a t i o n and s e l e c t i n g a random sample for  the study were complicated  s a f e t y Of the p o p u l a t i o n . and  by two  factors.  Both Employment and  The  Employment and  the  Immigration Canada  the I s r a e l i community are r e l u c t a n t t o provide  about I s r a e l i c i t i z e n s .  f i r s t was  information  Immigration Canada do  not  g e n e r a l l y a l l o w i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e i r r e c o r d s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the case of I s r a e l i s who  are under high s e c u r i t y because of the  numerous l e t t e r bombs sent t o I s r a e l i s l i s t of countrymen ever compiled  living  abroad.  The  by the I s r a e l i community  completed i n 19 73 at the outbreak of the October War.  no  longer needed and more permanent  ments f o r l o c a t i n g servicemen were made subsequently I s r a e l i embassy i n Toronto. has no o f f i c i a l such l i s t be  was  As i t con-  t a i n e d i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g m i l i t a r y d u t i e s , the l i s t was s t r o y e d when i t was  only  de-  arrange-  through the  Consequently, the I s r a e l i  community  l i s t of i t s membership and would p r e f e r t h a t no  compiled.  The second f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g the sampling procedures i s a p r e v a i l i n g n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e among both Jews and I s r a e l i s e m i g r a t i o n from I s r a e l .  Two  s t u d i e s of I s r a e l i immigrants  toward  i n d i c a t i o n s of t h i s are the l a c k of (see Appendix II) and the r e p e a t e d  statements, even by I s r a e l i s who  h o l d Canadian  citizenship  and  have l i v e d i n Vancouver f o r t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s , that they are r e t u r n i n g to I s r a e l at the e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e moment.  I t i s the  author's experience t h a t I s r a e l i s tend to p r o t e c t each o t h e r from any i n q u i r i e s about themselves, t h e i r reasons f o r e m i g r a t i n g , or suggestions t h a t they are i n t e n d i n g to remain permanently country other than Why est  then was  i n any  Israel. t h i s p o p u l a t i o n chosen f o r study?  The s t r o n g -  reason i s t h a t the most r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n i s gathered when  the i n t e r v i e w e e has the o p t i o n of responding i n h i s n a t i v e tongue.  The author and the i n t e r v i e w e r s were f l u e n t i n both  Hebrew and E n g l i s h and the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n and design of the study, as w e l l as the a n a l y s i s of the d a t a , b e n e f i t t e d from the author's f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the n a t i v e c u l t u r e .  In a d d i t i o n , the  i n t e r v i e w e r s a l r e a d y enjoyed a degree of acceptance by the popul a t i o n which may  have c o n t r i b u t e d t o e l i m i n a t i n g s u s p i c i o n r e -  g a r d i n g the study and to i n c r e a s i n g the r e l i a b i l i t y (Greenberg,  of the data  1971).  Because of the v a r i o u s p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e f a c t o r s  affec-  t i n g the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n , p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s seemed t o be the o n l y way a sample.  to compile a l i s t  from which to  choose  A v a r i e t y of s c h o o l s , i n s t i t u t i o n s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s and  i n d i v i d u a l s were approached  and asked i o r l i s t s of names,  addresses and phone numbers of people known t o be of I s r a e l i o r i -  gin.  Key c o n t a c t people i n the I s r a e l i community were i d e n t i f i e d  and asked t o add t o the l i s t .  One hundred  and f o r t y - f i v e  I s r a e l i immigrants were i d e n t i f i e d , but t h e r e was no i n d i c a t i o n of  what percentage of the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n t h i s r e p r e s e n t e d .  Therefore, i t appeared necessary t o approach the e n t i r e sample  (Greenberg, 1971) f o r the study.  "snowball"  No a d d i t i o n a l names were  c o l l e c t e d once the i n t e r v i e w i n g had begun. Fourteen s u b j e c t s , chosen randomly,  were i n t e r v i e w e d d u r i n g  the  p i l o t study and the remaining s u b j e c t s were approached d u r i n g  the  data c o l l e c t i o n .  Seventy-two  i n d i v i d u a l s agreed t o be i n t e r -  viewed f o r the study. The P i l o t The purpose of the p i l o t and the methods by which collection.  Study  study was t o t e s t the instruments  they would be a d m i n i s t e r e d f o r the data  I t was conducted i n August,  1976 by f o u r b i l i n g u a l  (Hebrew and E n g l i s h ) i n t e r v i e w e r s , i n c l u d i n g the author. i n d i v i d u a l s were s e l e c t e d randomly  from a l i s t  Thirty  of 145 and f o u r -  teen of them consented t o be i n t e r v i e w e d . I n t e r v i e w e r o b j e c t i v i t y was t e s t e d by comparing of  the r e s u l t s  i n t e r v i e w s conducted by each i n t e r v i e w e r with the same I s r a e l i  subject.  The o n l y d i f f e r e n c e s which appeared were on the i n t e r -  views conducted by the author and, on the b a s i s of time cons t r a i n t s and her l e s s e r degree of f l u e n c y i n Hebrew, i t was dec i d e d t h a t the author should not conduct any of the i n t e r v i e w s d u r i n g the data c o l l e c t i o n .  44 A number o f m o d i f i c a t i o n s were made t o t h e i n s t r u m e n t s method o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as a r e s u l t  of the p i l o t  study.  and  First,  m o d i f i c a t i o n s were made t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e :  explanations  added t o s c a l e i t e m s which p r e v i o u s l y had o n l y  numbers, and q u e s -  t i o n s were added t o c l a r i f y the  interviewee  adaptation  the nature  upon a r r i v a l  o f doing  due t o t h e p r o b l e m o f t r a n s l a t i n g Third,  with  questions,  regard  be a d m i n i s t e r e d instead  t o the time  t e n task  S e c o n d , one t a s k o f  business)  was e l i m i n a t e d  t h e word, b u s i n e s s ,  line  and s o u r c e s  t o each s u b j e c t  of questioning  half  hours.  Fourth,  time  fora l l thirty-six  f r o m two and a h a l f  modifications  t h e method o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g  Hebrew.  basis to  f o r t h i s p o r t i o n o f the i n t e r v i e w  each s u b j e c t  reduced the interview  into  of information  i t e m s were c h o s e n on a r o t a t i o n a l  This  to  o f t h e primary group o f  i n Vancouver.  (change y o u r s t y l e  were  task  items.  t o one and a  and c l a r i f i c a t i o n s were made  the interview  a s shown i n  Appendix I I I .  Data The fluent and  i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d by t e n i n t e r v i e w e r s who were  i n b o t h Hebrew  two were  and E n g l i s h .  E i g h t were o f I s r a e l i  1977.  were t r a i n e d i n f o u r t w o - h o u r m e e t i n g s i n  During  the f i r s t  and second m e e t i n g s ,  ments a n d method o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n were t r i e d During  the t h i r d  discussed role  meeting, interviewers  problems that arose.  playing i n i t i a l  interview.  origin  Canadian-born.  Interviewers January,  Collection  telephone  Interviewers  the i n s t r u -  and d i s c u s s e d .  interviewed  e a c h o t h e r and  The f o u r t h m e e t i n g c o n s i s t e d o f calls  t o s u b j e c t s , r e q u e s t i n g an  t h e n made a r r a n g e m e n t s t o meet on a  one-to-one b a s i s i n t h e i r homes to conduct the each o t h e r .  F i n a l l y , i n t e r v i e w e r s were t e s t e d f o r  i n a mock i n t e r v i e w s i t u a t i o n . standard s c r i p t was viewers.  An  actor-respondent with a  i n t e r v i e w e d s e p a r a t e l y by each of the  The  means, b i v a r i a t e  lation coefficients. interval variables,  As the  the  l a t i o n r a t i o R;  3)  variables, 5)  a p p r o p r i a t e method f o r the  corre-  correlation,  type  4)  of  Pearson's product  variables,  M;  and  particular  for interval-nominal variables,  corre-  Jaspen's  co-  f o r nominal-nominal  Guttman's symmetric c o e f f i c i e n t of p r e d i c t a b i l i t y ,  for nominal-ordinal variables,  mination  c o e f f i c i e n t i n any  for i n t e r v a l - o r d i n a l  e f f i c i e n t of m u l t i s e r i a l  and  dis-  data i n c l u d e d nominal, o r d i n a l  for i n t e r v a l - i n t e r v a l variables,  moment c o e f f i c i e n t , r; 2)  frequency  frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s ,  correlation  o b t a i n e d with the 1)  notable  Data  s t a t i s t i c s reported included univariate  tributions,  no  inter-  appeared. A n a l y s i s of the  data:  objectivity  T h e i r i n t e r v i e w r e s u l t s were compared and  differences  case was  i n t e r v i e w s with  ; 6)  and  Freeman's c o e f f i c i e n t of  for ordinal-ordinal  variables,  K r u s k a l ' s c o e f f i c i e n t of rank a s s o c i a t i o n ,  G.  ;  deter-  Goodman's  and  (CORN Manual,  UBC  Computing Centre) Task d i f f i c u l t y scores were d e r i v e d from computing geometr i c means, and the  r e g r e s s i o n analyses u t i l i z e d d i f f i c u l t y scores  dependent v a r i a b l e s  independent  variables.  and  ten  socio-demographic measures as  as the  CHAPTER IV RESULTS T h i s chapter d i s c u s s e s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sample, r e p o r t s d i f f i c u l t y o f t a s k s , and e x p l o r e s r e l a t i o n s h i p s between socio-demographic  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and d i f f i c u l t y .  data are analyzed with a view t o examining difficulty  In a d d i t i o n ,  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  and each o f the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s :  extent of c u l t u r a l  i n n o v a t i o n r e q u i r e d , l e n g t h o f r e s o l u t i o n time r e q u i r e d , importance t o the immigrant when the task i s f i r s t encountered, and stage o f task r e s o l u t i o n . of  Finally,  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between use  a d u l t e d u c a t i o n sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and d i f f i c u l t y i s  examined. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Respondents More women than men were r e p r e s e n t e d among the seventy-two persons  i n t e r v i e w e d d u r i n g the study.  three to f i f t y - n i n e  the twenty-one s i n g l e respondents  men  had d i v o r c e d .  were married on a r r i v a l  approximately  from twenty-  and more than t w o - t h i r d s of those i n t e r v i e w e d  were married upon a r r i v a l i n Canada.  m a r r i e d respondents  Ages ranged  (25%)  Since a r r i v a l , e l e v e n o f  had married and f i v e o f the About the same percentage of as were s i n g l e  (19.4%) w h i l e  f o u r times as many women were married on a r r i v a l  (44.4%) as were s i n g l e  (9.7%).  C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t married  46  people  47  in  general reported less  English  spoken  t h a t m a r r i e d women r e p o r t e d low l e v e l s and  fluency  viduals  on a r r i v a l ,  relatives  other respondents, experience  so t h e i r  i t may be s u r m i s e d t h a t community  society.  may a c t u a l l y  women o f o t h e r e t h n i c  married I s r a e l i l i f e , having  insulated  than  little relatives Israelis,  than those o f  (57%) were b o r n  i n Israel.  were a c t u a l l y  born  i n other places.  c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s were b o r n and  t h e r e m a i n i n g 23% were b o r n  North A f r i c a ,  Western Europe,  Sixty-seven percent stated three  respondents  (4.2%)  Asia,  that  their  gave E n g l i s h  twenty-one  one  o t h e r t h a n Hebrew o r E n g l i s h .  These  (29.2%) r e p l i e d  stated  that  first  their  that  as t h e i r  their  spouse's  tation systems  by t h e i r  spouses'  ability  and i n f e r e n c e s h e r e  was Hebrew, language,  language  language  greatly  t o communicate  i n Canada.  America.  had been  one-quarter o f the r e -  first  r e s p o n d e n t s may have b e e n a s s i s t e d  first  first  Almost  countries:  and S o u t h  language  per-  or Russia  of other  and N o r t h  that  Twenty  i n E a s t e r n Europe  i n a variety  and  spondents  As  new s t a t e w i t h one o f t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n -  t a g e s o f i m m i g r a t i o n i n t h e w o r l d , i t i s t o be e x p e c t e d many I s r a e l i s  women  groups.  m a j o r i t y o f respondents  i s a relatively  t h a n any o f t h e  Jews, r a t h e r  be l e s s  indi-  also reported  However, many o f t h e i r  c o n t a c t s a r e Canadian  lives  The  i n Vancouver  a somewhat i n s u l a t e d  community  they  ones,  comprehension  t h a t m a r r i e d women were t h e o n l y  on a r r i v a l  c o n t a c t w i t h Canadian  Israel  of English  r e p o r t i n g no j o b e x p e r i e n c e and t h a t  more a d u l t  and  a t home t h a n s i n g l e  was E n g l i s h .  i n their  adap-  and comprehend  48  The  m a j o r i t y o f i n t e r v i e w e e s had completed  (80.3%). to  I n a d d i t i o n , more t h a n  four years  more t h a n viduals al  of university  five  years  (16.6%)in  thirteen sixteen  years  tions  i n Toronto  compares  nineteen percent years  compare  favourably  view o f these  of schooling.  favourably with  of their  the study  well-educated  education  of ethnic  twelve  immigrants  populareported  or thirteen sixteen years.  i n this  study  were  group.  a l l o f t h e s i n g l e women h a d c o m p l e t e d  fifty  percent  high  o f t h e s i n g l e men h a d done s o .  school,  In a d d i t i o n ,  men h a d t h e h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f v o c a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l  training  ( 5 7 . 1 % ) and t h e l o w e s t p e r c e n t a g e  university  (42.9%).  percentage  these,  (10.5%) reported  (1974) which  sample c o m p l e t i n g  Israeli  twelve t o  ResDondents'  While  single  Immigration  and e i g h t e e n p e r c e n t c o m p l e t i n g  results,  with  m a r r i e d women, 3 3 9 i n d i -  by G o l d l u s t and Richmond  of education  a comparatively  est  These f i g u r e s  years  indi-  (31.9%) reported vocation-  a m u l t i - e t h n i c sample r e g i s t e r e d  o r seventeen  also  of  Twenty-three  o f s c h o o l i n g and 2 1 3 i n d i v i d u a l s  level  only  training.  In t h a t study which excluded  viduals  one  and t w e n t y p e r c e n t h a d e n g a g e d i n  of university  training.  school  had completed  r e p o r t e d by t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f Manpower and  (1974).  In  percent  o f the seventy-two respondents  or technical  those  fifty  high  fifty  versity.  university.  M a r r i e d men, however, i n d i c a t e d  o f one t o f o u r y e a r s  p e r c e n t had completed  No s i n g l e  o f one t o f o u r  females  university five  five  the high-  ( 6 6 . 7 % ) and,  o r more y e a r s  had completed  years  of  of uni-  o r more y e a r s o f  49  S i n g l e men years of age ing l i v e s .  who  ranged between t w e n t y - f i v e  r e p o r t e d two  to f i v e o c c u p a t i o n s  and  thirty-three  d u r i n g t h e i r work-  Others i n the sample i n d i c a t e d g r e a t e r o c c u p a t i o n a l  s t a b i l i t y , r e p o r t i n g one  to three o c c u p a t i o n s .  Among the  married  women were the only i n d i v i d u a l s r e p o r t i n g no job e x p e r i e n c e , "housewife" was  not recorded  Most respondents eleven dents and  as an  occupation.  (86.9%) spoke o n l y E n g l i s h at work but  (15.5%) spoke only E n g l i s h at home. (45%)  spoke a mixture  Thirty-two  just  respon-  of E n g l i s h and Hebrew i n t h e i r homes  about f o r t y percent spoke mainly  gest number of married  but  individuals  Hebrew.at home.  (73.5%) r e p o r t e d  The  lar-  speaking  E n g l i s h at home h a l f the time or l e s s and the l a r g e s t number of s i n g l e people the time.  (6 8.4%)  r e p o r t e d speaking  i t there most or a l l of  Of the sample, t h i r t y - s e v e n i n d i v i d u a l s  (51.3%) r e -  p o r t e d t h a t they could speak l i t t l e E n g l i s h or none on Thirty-four individuals  arrival.  (47.1%) r e p o r t e d t h a t they could under-  stand e v e r y t h i n g and speak with v a r y i n g degrees of f l u e n c y . Comparison of f l u e n c y l e v e l s with the 1974  study by the Depart-  ment of Manpower and  Immigration i s l i m i t e d because t h e i r f i g u r e s  represented  and s i n g l e women i n the labour f o r c e .  only men  study r e p o r t e d s i x t y - n i n e percent of the men  and eighty-two  That per-  cent o f the women i n d i c a t i n g good o r p e r f e c t knowledge of E n g l i s h a f t e r s i x months i n Canada.  Of the t h i r t y - f o u r I s r a e l i s i n t h i s  study r e p o r t i n g some l e v e l of f l u e n c y on a r r i v a l , twenty-seven  50  (79%) were married.  T h i r t y - t w o p e r c e n t of the s i n g l e men and  f o r t y - s i x percent o f the married women r e p o r t e d low l e v e l s o f comprehension and f l u e n c y on a r r i v a l . While  i n d i v i d u a l s who had been i n Vancouver up t o f i f t e e n  years were approached had  f o r the study, the m a j o r i t y o f respondents  l i v e d here f o r t e n years o r l e s s .  A l l the i n d i v i d u a l s i n  the sample had l i v e d i n a t l e a s t two c o u n t r i e s , Canada and I s r a e l , f o r s i x months or more and no one r e p o r t e d more than four count r i e s of r e s i d e n c e . F i f t y - s e v e n persons  (80.3%) s t a t e d t h a t they attended one o f  the l o c a l synagogues about once a y e a r , s i x (8.4%) attended l a r l y on a weekly o r monthly b a s i s and e i g h t never About h a l f o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the study  regu-  attended.  (49.3%) never  read  the l o c a l weekly e t h n i c newspaper, The Jewish Western B u l l e t i n . Of those who d i d , s i x t e e n Fifty-seven few w i t h  (89.2%) persons  attended the Jewish Community Centre,  regularity.  F i f t y respondents i s f a c t i o n with l i f e was  (22.5%) read i t on a weekly b a s i s .  (70.4%) r e p l i e d that t h e i r degree  of sat-  i n Canada met t h e i r p r e v i o u s e x p e c t a t i o n s o r  b e t t e r than they had expected.  S i n g l e women were l e s s  satis-  f i e d , on the whole, than they had expected t o be. M a r r i e d men responded  f a v o u r a b l y but without h i g h degrees of s a t i s f a c t i o n  w h i l e married women and s i n g l e women expressed a wide range o f f e e l i n g s about  s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r  lives.  51  TABLE V  Summary o f Socio-Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Seventy-Two Respondents  Characteristics  Number  %  32 40  • 44.4 55.6  50 21  69.4 29.2  41 15 5 4 4 2 1  56.9 20.8 6.8 5.5 5.5 2.7 1.3  F i r s t Language: Hebrew English Other  48 3 21  67.0 4.2 29.2  Spouse's First Language English  17  23.6  Education: (respondents marked a l l applicable categories) High School Completion Vocational/Technical Training 1-4 Years University 5 or more Years University  57 23 39 15  80.3 31.9 54.2 20.8  Language Spoken: Only English at Work Only English at Home Hebrew and English at Home Only Hebrew at Home  63 11 32 27  86.9 15.5 45.0 40.0  Synagogue Attendance:  Yearly Monthly/Weekly Never  57 6 8  80.3 8.4 11.3  Read Weekly Ethnic Newspaper: Weekly Never  16 36  22.5 49.3  Sex: Male Female Marital Status on Arrival: Place of Birth:  Married Single  Israel Eastern Europe/Russia Western Europe North Africa Asia/Iraq North America South America  52  TABLE V I  Difficulty  Scores of  Task Items  10. 32. 9. 15. 14. 16. 5. 23. 3. 4. 6. 11. 25. 36. 27. 30. 19. 28. 12. 31. 24. 2. 22. 1. 35. 26. 8. 7. 34. 21. 13. 20. 29. 18. 33. 17.  Career Job Good English D i f f e r e n t Measures Read Local News Canadian Sense of Humour Permanent Residence Budget Occupational Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s Climate Status Get Any Job f o r Income Job Retraining Alternate Household Products Ctntnunity and Educational Services Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Driver's Licence Vancouver Bus System Change Type of Work Canadian Friend Change Work Schedule Find Ethnic Shops Medical Insurance Help Spouse Find a Doctor Temporary Residence Getby English Enrol Kids Meet Comtrymen Car Insurance Bank Worship P o s t a l System S o c i a l Insurance Ethnic School Canadian Money Ethnic News  T h i r t y - S i x Task  Items  D i f f i c u l t y Scores (Geometric Means) 210.3 149.7 135.5 134.2 131.9 129.2 122.7 119.9 114.0 103.5 89.3 79.0 78.7 71.6 69.3 67.6 66.8 66.4 65.9 64.6 64.6 48.6 46.2 45.4 41.3 40.2 38.1 35.5 32.8 32.6 32.6 31.1 29.8 27.3 24.4 23.9  53  Difficulty  of Tasks of  Magnitude e s t i m a t i o n s c a l i n g two  respondents  corresponded  resulted  t o the  Adaptation  of t h i r t y - s i x  i n each task b e i n g  geometric  t a s k s by  assigned  mean o f a l l s c o r e s  G e o m e t r i c means were employed a c c o r d i n g  seventy-  a value  for that  to Stevens'  that  item.  (1966)  sugges-  tion. The  most d i f f i c u l t  a satisfying, was  c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d job.  210.3, approximately  easiest  task  item,  career-oriented the  task,  in  remaining  a range of That  is  149.7.  supported  r e p o r t on  by  of  work and  2)  that after  the  score  the Finding a  system of s i z e s ,  s e c o n d most  weights,  and  t e n most d i f f i c u l t  data  o f e c o n o m i c and  Immigration,  three years  difficult  t a s k s were  for  of  social  with-  immigrants  Immigration adaptation  countries  (Depart-  19 74) .  1) t h a t t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y  i n t h i s country  not achieved  re-  measures,  f r o m t h e Canada Manpower and  survey  reported  than  (Table V I ) .  e a r n i n g s were a m a j o r p r e - o c c u p a t i o n  sample had  than  score  good E n g l i s h , w h i c h  for this  t o Canada f r o m a v a r i e t y  ment o f Manpower and study  The  points  a three-year  That  more d i f f i c u l t  speaking  getting  difficulty  t e n t a s k s p o s e the most d i f f i c u l t y the  2,037 immigrants  task,  seven of the  thirty  these  was  als.o s u b s t a n t i a l l y more d i f f i c u l t  using a d i f f e r e n t  the  respondents  s u b s c r i b i n g t o a n e t h n i c newspaper.  j o b was  a score of  by  T h i s item's  ten times  s e c o n d most d i f f i c u l t  ceived  and  task i d e n t i f i e d  almost  of jobs,  of  type  immigrants;  one-third of  their occupational goals;  3)  that  of  54  twenty p e r c e n t of the prevented  from  professional  entering their  and  stantial level; their it  their  qualifications;  6)  social lower  of the  sample had  p o s i t i o n had than  among t h e  former  of t h a t study,  system of  ones. weights  as b e i n g among t h e most d i f f i c u l t  The The  that a  ecosub-  felt  These p o i n t s , the  I t was and  taken  c h o i c e by  language,  that  status  of i n t e r e s t  measures and  reand that ad-  by  tasks.  R e l a t i o n s h i p Between S o c i o - D e m o g r a p h i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and D i f f i c u l t y  research q u e s t i o n addressed  socio-demographic individuals  was  poverty  t o t h e c l i m a t e i n V a n c o u v e r were a l s o p e r c e i v e d  Israelis  not  sample b e l i e v e d t h a t  support  to occupation,  sizes,  5)  twenty p e r c e n t  country.  t h e most d i f f i c u l t  a different  justing  because  a t t h e same t i m e ,  remained below  improved w h i l e  i n their  results  b u d g e t as b e i n g  t h e y were  t h a t language  t h a t t h i r t y - o n e p e r c e n t o f the  spondents of tasks r e l a t i n g  using  4)  f o r sixteen percent;  increased rapidly while,  percentage  and  was  from  had  sample s a i d  intended occupational f i e l d  to intended occupation  nomic l e v e l  i n the  trade a s s o c i a t i o n s or Canadian employers d i d  recognize or accept a barrier  individuals  v a r i a b l e s may  experience  be  i n resolving  here  i s t o what  p r e d i c t o r s of the  extent difficulty  tasks of adaptation.  Stepf  w i s e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was variables:  conducted  years of education,  utilizing  Israeli  f r i e n d s on a r r i v a l ,  ordinal  number o f c o u n t r i e s l i v e d  s i x months o f more, number o f a d u l t r e l a t i v e s of  ten  on a r r i v a l ,  in for number  number o f C a n a d i a n f r i e n d s on  arri-  55  val,  age,  occupational  sent  l e v e l of E n g l i s h .  five  to d i f f i c u l t y  lined previously coefficients  these,  II).  yielded limited  for  a  The  nineteen  Years of e d u c a t i o n speaking  the  of  no  significant  a  u s i n g E n g l i s h . • In each case, of  education  ing  f o r Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p ,  the  number o f  the  related  Correlations  t a s k was  the  t a s k was  system of  newspaper,  two  of  i n the  and  the  positive  difficulty  them  case  This f i n d i n g with  nic  g r o u p a s s o c i a t i o n s w o u l d a p p e a r t o be Richmond's f i n d i n g the  less  first  related  to  be  of  applyas  (Table V I I I ) . tasks,  relationship  of tasks  e t h n i c group a s s o c i a t i o n s , budgeting  to climate.  immigrants,  apply-  The  perceived  five  weights  further simplified  indicated a significant  of education  family l i f e ,  for  to learning English.  ing  the  and  i n c r e a s e d and,  here  (Table V I I ) .  w o u l d a p p e a r t o e a s e t h e most d i f f i c u l t  those  G o l d l u s t and  tasks  languages r e s p o n d e n t s spoke i n c r e a s e d  More e d u c a t i o n  with  reported  u s i n g C a n a d i a n money. tasks  out-  significant variables  l o c a l English-language and  first  correla-  t o have p r e d i c t a b i l i t y  t h r e e were among t h e most d i f f i c u l t  between y e a r s  are  pre-  regression  results,  good E n g l i s h , u s i n g a d i f f e r e n t  f o r Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p  especially  both  the  f o r reasons  where t h e  thirty-six  appeared  ing  as y e a r s  interest  In cases  or  the  measures, r e a d i n g  easier  r e l a t i o n s h i p s of  a n a l y s i s y i e l d e d no  and  to  l a n g u a g e s s p o k e n and  were a l s o examined and  each v a r i a b l e . of  number o f  were o f p a r t i c u l a r  for  tasks:  Of  (Chapter  tion coefficients  total  level,  likely  regard  (19 74)  associated and  to family l i f e substantiated  that  adjust-  and  eth-  by  the b e t t e r e d u c a t e d  t h e y were t o be  involved  with  56  TABLE V I I  Summary o f R e g r e s s i o n A n a l y s e s o f Ten S o c i o D e m o g r a p h i c V a r i a b l e s and t h e i r R e l a t i o n t o D i f f i c u l t y Scores  Tasks  Variables i n Regression Equation  none Yrs. o f Ed. Yrs. o f Ed. Yrs. of Ed. none none Age none Age # o f countries # Adult Rels. Status none Find Any Job # o f Languages Job Retraining none Alternate Products (Zonraunity & Ed. Serv. Occ. l e v e l # of countries # o f Languages Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Yrs. of Ed. none Driver's Licence none Vancouver Buses none Change Work none Canadian Friend none Work Schedule Occ. l e v e l Ethnic Shops # Adult Rels. none Medical Insurance # Adult Rels. Help Spouse # o f Occs. Doctor . none Temporary Residence none Getby English # I s r a e l i Friends Enrol Kids none Meet Crjuntxymen # Adult Rels. Car Insurance none Bank none Worship Age Postal none S o c i a l Insurance none Ethnic School Yrs. of Ed. Canadian Money # o f Languages Ethnic News # Adult Rels. .  Career Good English D i f f e r e n t Measures Local News Humour Permanent Residence Budget Occupational Quals. Climate  Normalized Regression Coefficient  Signif. Level  Percentage of variance (r2)  -.40 -.24 -.35  .00 .04 .00  .16 .06 .12  .31  .00  .10  .28 -.38 -.34  .01 .00 .00  -.26  .02  -.37 -.30 -.26 -.26  .00 .01 .02 .02  -.31 -.32  .00 .00  .19  -.35 .28  .00 .01  .13 .08  .24  .04  .06  -.27  .02  .07  .27  .02  .07  -.27 -.32 -.29  .02 .00 .01  .08  .22 .11 .07 .22 .13  .18  57  close kin. perception children  As  years  of the  difficulty  i n p u b l i c and  newspaper, f i n d i n g life  on  of education  ethnic schools,  economic  level  It is interesting  VIII).  Regardless  been a s s i s t e d by had  resolved  predictability  pressed  and  less  difficult.  a d j u s t i n g t o the  s e r v i c e s and  duced f o r those  with  the  had  had  this  task  higher  with  of two  arrival  i n a hew  finding  a temporary  living  and  using  have  presumably  community  climate.  ex-  However,  as  seemed t o become more levels  t a s k was  i n a g r e a t e r number o f  speaking  and  i n more c o u n t r i e s  of t h i s  in different  residence  re-  (Table  a v a i l a b l e community  difficulty  t a s k s which are  country:  increased  occupational  in using  lived  was  adaptation.  lived  Correlation coefficients  experience  difficulty  who  difficulty  i n a d j u s t i n g t o the  than others  climate  i n f o r s i x months o r more showed  Those who  ages i n c r e a s e d ,  for  tasks r e l a t e d  f r i e n d s who  of  f o r adjusting to climate  difficulty  ethnic  newcomers a p p e a r t o  tasks  Respondents with  (Table V I I ) .  level,  the  lived  of  arrival  Israeli  countries  difficulty  cational  f r i e n d s on  initial  enrolling  restaurants, budgeting  presence of  services.  respondents'  less  the  respondents'  spouse,  to note t h a t with  of e d u c a t i o n a l  some o f  Number o f  educational  Israeli  did  s u b s c r i b i n g t o an  to e t h n i c group a s s o c i a t i o n s , p e r c e p t i o n d u c e d as number o f  so  of h e l p i n g t h e i r  e t h n i c shops and  a different  i n Vancouver.  increased,  expressed and  further recountries  further indicated that countries perceived  r e q u i r e d immediately enough E n g l i s h t o g e t  (Table V I I I ) .  edu-  those  less  upon by  and  58  C o r r e l a t i o n C o - e f f i c i e n t s o f D i f f i c u l t y Scores o f T h i r t y - S i x Tasks o f A d a p t a t i o n ** Values s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 l e v e l and P a r t i c u l a r S o c i o - D e m o g r a p h i c V a r i a b l e s * Values s i a n i f i c a n t a t the .01 l e v e l English # Languages Occupational # Canadian # Israeli # Adult # Countries for Tasks Years of at Present Level Friends Friends Relatives 6 months + (in order o f d i f f i c u l t y ) Education -.0913 .3150 .2609** .0608 .0909 .0779 .0569 -.0552 1 . Career -.0188 -.1919 .0259 .4791* -.0810 -.0645 -.2010 -.0842 2. Good English .0438 .1430 -.1764 .1036 .3522 -.1151 -.2056 .1751 3. Different Measures -.0562 -.0641 -.0348 -.0255 .3411 .0917 -.1870 .0681 4. Local News -.0210 -.0364 -.0843 -.0046 .2571 -.0097 -.1410 -.0652 5. Humour .0204 .0301 -.1604 .1554 -.0000 .0490 -.1198 .1524 6. Permanent Residence .1333 -.0737 -.0446 .1530 -.1003 -.0078 -.1442 .2263* 7. Budget -.2047 -.1738 .0865 -.0735 .3141 .0203 .0989 8. Occupational Qualifications .0706 .1952 .0203 -.0550 -.1003 .1959 -.0453 -.0905 .3066* 9. Climate -.0610 .1411 .2813 -.3394* -.0596 .0193 -.0913 .0229 10. Status .0815 -.0649 .1702 .1477 .1538 -.1385 -.1277 .0194 1 1 . Find Any Jcb .1237 .0725 -.2501** .3193 .1445 .0199 .0764 .0505 12. Job Retraining .0012 .0444 .1465 -.1249 .0289 .2175 .0566 .1452 13. Alternate Products .1195 -.0029 -.1493 -.1050 .4152* .0589 -.1211 .1989 14. Comm. S Educ. Serv. -.0063 -.2574** .3716** .1212 .2250** .1609 -.0167 .0588 15. Canadian Citizenship .0916 -.0820 .2528 .1911 -.0973 -.1161 -.0787 -.1034 16. Driver's Licence -.0430 .0341 .1253 -.0837 .0428 -.0507 -.0322 .0775 17. Vancouver Bus .0546 -.1979 .1169 .0342 .0312 .0310 -.0311 .0436 18. Change Work -.6317 .0962 -.0556 .1089 .0168 .0240 -.1294 .0529 19. Canadian Friend .0604 .2042 .0382 -.0390 -.2497** .0398 -.0372 .0233 20. Work Schedule -.2958* -.1550 .2170 .1053 -.3246* .2001 .2432** -.1496 21. Ethnic Shops -.1956 .0852 .2147 -.0251 .2424** -.1657 -.0441 -.0004 22. Medical Insurance .1193 -.1405 .2772 .1151 -.3489* -.1285 -.1200 .3059* 23. Help Spouse -.0792 .0018 -.0389 .0275 .2093 -.0241 -.1475 -.0654 24. Doctor -.0984 .0151 -.1013 .1067 -.1100 .0556 .2362** .0001 25. Tenporary Residence -.0014 -.1400 .0234 .3495 -.6097 -.0250 -.2465** .1676 26. Getby English .1857 -.0241 -.1649 .2113 .0363 -.1463 -.0762 .2456* 27. Enrol Kics A X I l\ -.1073 .0638 .1412 .2943 -.6605 .0744 -.0486 -.1505 28. Meet Countrymen .0941 .0152 .0796 .1626 -.2618** -.0496 -.1100 .2140 29. Car Insurance .0003 -.0594 -.1853 .1796 -.0128 -.1824 .0968 -.1209 30. Bank .1319 .1150 -.1075 .1131 .1784 .0404 -.1582 .0728 31. Worship .0621 -.1123 .0431 .2450 -.1781 -.2114 -.1775 .1639 32. Postal -.2297** .1371 -.2368** .0795 .1505 -.1379 -.2009 .0476 33. Social Insurance -.0681 -.1708 .1514 .0798 -.1804 .2072 -.1265 .2928* 34. Ethnic School .0995 .1422 -.1744 0122 — 1 C\A£L .2357** 35. Canadian Money -.1598 .2635 -.2579** .0647 .05J3 -.2909* .2754* -.1590 36. Ethnic News TABLE V I I I  59  Of the three  types of primary group r e l a t i o n s about which  respondents were q u e s t i o n e d , only number of a d u l t r e l a t i v e s on a r r i v a l showed p r e d i c t a b i l i t y i n r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s , and occurred  for f i v e tasks.  this  Those respondents w i t h g r e a t e r  numbers  of a d u l t r e l a t i v e s i n Vancouver when they a r r i v e d expressed l e s s d i f f i c u l t y with a c c e p t i n g h e l p i n g t h e i r spouse and was  a change i n s t a t u s i n the  r e g i s t e r i n g f o r car i n s u r a n c e .  true f o r f i n d i n g e t h n i c shops and  to an e t h n i c newspaper but occupational who  community,  the  l e v e l increased  restaurants  former was  and  the  spoke a number of languages.  and  The  same  subscribing  f u r t h e r s i m p l i f i e d as  l a t t e r was  e a s i e r f o r those  While r e g r e s s i o n  a n a l y s i s showed  more I s r a e l i f r i e n d s on a r r i v a l as only p r e d i c t i n g more d i f f i c u l t y w i t h e n r o l l i n g c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l and  community a c t i v i t i e s ,  l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s v a r i a b l e bore a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p to tasks  negative  a s s o c i a t e d with e t h n i c community involvement  and  r e g i s t e r i n g f o r s o c i a l insurance  ber  of Canadian f r i e n d s respondents had  appeared to have no p r e d i c t a b i l i t y  and  car i n s u r a n c e .  increased,  The num-  on a r r i v a l i n Vancouver  f o r any  task.  Other r e s u l t s of the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d , that as age  corre-  firstly,  respondents appeared t o have more d i f f i c u l -  t y budgeting f o r l i f e on a d i f f e r e n t economic l e v e l , a d j u s t i n g c l i m a t e , and who  u s i n g the p o s t a l system and,  spoke more languages p e r c e i v e d  job r e t r a i n i n g and  applying  to  secondly, t h a t those  less d i f f i c u l t y enrolling for  f o r Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p .  60  While no v a r i a b l e s appeared i n the r e g r e s s i o n equation f o r the most d i f f i c u l t  task, f i n d i n g a s a t i s f y i n g , c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d  job, i t i s of i n t e r e s t t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e  correlation  was found between t h i s task and o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l .  In other  words, those with higher o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l s p e r c e i v e d difficulty  greater  i n finding a career-oriented job.  None of the socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s i n the r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s appeared t o have p r e d i c t a b i l i t y ployment-related  tasks:  f o r any of the four em-  finding a job, finding a career-oriented  job, g e t t i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s accepted  and changing  type of work.  (19 74)  concluded  While the Manpower and Immigration  study  t h a t employment was the most c r u c i a l v a r i a b l e t o  s u c c e s s f u l a d a p t a t i o n and t h i s study  supports  that finding i n that  the most d i f f i c u l t task was f i n d i n g a c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d j o b , none of the t e n socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s u t i l i z e d here appears to a s s i s t i n p r e d i c t i n g who w i l l experience  more or l e s s  difficulty  i n r e s o l v i n g that task. While no one socio-demographic v a r i a b l e proved t o be a good p r e d i c t o r f o r a l l t h i r t y - s i x tasks of a d a p t a t i o n , some p r e d i c t a bility  and a number of strong r e l a t i o n s h i p s appeared between  socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s and d i f f i c u l t y of t a s k s of a d a p t a t i o n . In view of t h i s , i t must be concluded  t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s of v a r y i n g  socio-demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s experience difficulty  v a r y i n g l e v e l s of  i n r e s o l v i n g tasks of a d a p t a t i o n , but t h i s c o n c l u s i o n  does not apply f o r a l l t h i r t y - s i x t a s k s . appeared i n the r e g r e s s i o n equations  Notably,  no v a r i a b l e s  f o r the four tasks  related  61 to  employment w h i c h  suggests that  the ten socio-demographic  a b l e s used  i n t h e a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e no k e y  difficulty  of employment-related  The One  Relationship  major p o r t i o n  factors,  o t h e r than  t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g the  tasks.  of D i f f i c u l t y  t o Other F a c t o r s  o f t h e s t u d y was  socio-demographic  an  investigation  ones, might  respondents'  p e r c e p t i o n s o f the d i f f i c u l t y  adaptation.  In a d d i t i o n  to d i f f i c u l t y  have  tasks of  socio-demogra-  d a t a , f o u r o t h e r f a c t o r s were m e a s u r e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y :  tent  of c u l t u r a l  lution  time  when t h e y  required,  first  accomplished. portion cultural bear the  r e q u i r e d by  importance  encountered  innovation  Israelis  relationship necessary.  r e q u i r e d by  and  tasks.  P e r c e i v e d importance to d i f f i c u l t y While  appear  and  resolution  t o shed  respondents resolution  results  of  this  respondents  those r e q u i r i n g  and  s o l v e d were r e s o l v e d by  time  light  fewer  d e t a i l e d examination o f each difficulty.  t o be  on  appears  to  of t a s k s , both f o r  of t a s k s appears  further  little  factor  of immigrants  t i m e and  little  This  to d i f f i c u l t y  f o r a mixed group  tasks requiring  to  of r e s o -  the stage o f task  G e n e r a l l y , t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t  ex-  o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n were w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e e x t e n t o f  countries.  ship  length  o f the t a s k t o the  i t , and  the s t r o n g e s t r e l a t i o n s h i p  plished  tasks,  which  influenced  of r e s o l v i n g  s c o r e s and  of  phic  innovation  vari-  from a v a r i e t y to bear  investigation  the nature of  little  seems  stage of r e s o l u t i o n  unaccom-  difficulty,  r e s o l v e d were r e s o l v e d by  g r e a t e r l e n g t h s o f time  respondents.  and  most  t o be  Herein follows  o f the f o u r f a c t o r s  of  re-  a more  i t s relation-  62 Extent  of C u l t u r a l Scores  Innovation  f o r extent  of cultural  innovation  t a s k were d e r i v e d by t a b u l a t i n g mean s c o r e s d e n t s who u s e d t h e t y p o l o g y  r e q u i r e d by e a c h  of fifty-two  described e a r l i e r  (p. 3 5 ) .  These  scores  provided  vation  r e q u i r e d i n t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t s were a m i x e d g r o u p and  not  Israelis  an i n d e p e n d e n t measure o f e x t e n t  respon-  t o mean s c o r e s  o c c u r r e d when t a s k s were  (Table  IX).  First,  money r e c e i v e d t h e h i g h e s t mean s c o r e able to  t h a t , as one r e s p o n d e n t  tended simple  extent be  using  Canadian  o f any t a s k .  remarked, t h i s  ordered  t a s k was  I t i s conceivunderstood  i n c l u d e a wide range o f f i n a n c i a l m a t t e r s r a t h e r than  speaking  inno-  i n t h e sample.  Two u n e x p e c t e d r e s u l t s according  of c u l t u r a l  u s e o f new c o i n s w i t h  good E n g l i s h m i g h t  a p p e a r t o be a t a s k  of innovation, i t occurs  due t o t h e f a c t  new v a l u e s .  fifteenth  that the majority  Second,  while  requiring a great  on t h e l i s t .  o f the  the i n -  This  may  expert-respondents  were a d u l t s t u d e n t s  i n a d v a n c e d E n g l i s h c l a s s e s and knew enough  English  this  part  to perceive  than  tasks  related  zenship which occur  as r e q u i r i n g l e s s  i n n o v a t i o n on  t o s t a t u s , employment,  before  their  f i n a n c e s , and  citi-  i t on t h e l i s t .  These mean s c o r e s , as an i n d e p e n d e n t measure o f e x t e n t o f cultural  i n n o v a t i o n r e q u i r e d by t a s k s , were c o r r e l a t e d a g a i n s t  difficulty  scores  a task-by-task overall that  of the I s r a e l i  b a s i s , r a t h e r than  c o r r e l a t i o n was  task  difficulty  respondents  i n t h e sample.  On  respondent-by-respondent, the  .3713 (p=.02) w h i c h a p p e a r s t o i n d i c a t e  increases  i n relation  t o the extent of  63  TABLE IX  Extent of Innovation Adaptation According Respondents  I Task  Canadian Money Status Career Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p S o c i a l Insurance Ethnic Shops Change Type of Work Any Job Budget Job Retraining Humour Permanent Residence Local News Canadian Friend Good English D i f f e r e n t Measures Vancouver Bus Climate E n r o l Kids Work Schedule Occupational Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s Getby English Worship Doctor Crjrminity and Educational Services Ethnic School Ethnic News Medical Insurance Temporary Residence Driver's Licence Alternate Products Meet Countrymen Car Insurance Help Spouse Postal Bank  R e q u i r e d by T a s k s o f t o Fifty-Two "Expert"  Mean Score 3.36 3.09 3.06 3.04 3.00 2.94 2.92 2.77 2.69 2.60 2.44 2.40 2.38 2.33 2.33 2.29 2.23 2.17 2.15 2.13 2.12 2.12 2.08 2.04 2.02 2.01 1.92 1.88 1.87 1.87 1.69 1.69 1.67 1.54 1.51 1.46  Standard Deviation  .9 .9 .8 .9 .9 1.0 1.0 .9 .9 .9 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.0 .8 1.0 .8 .9 .7 1.0 1.1 .9 .9 .9 1.0 1.0 .9 .9 .9 1.0 .8 .8 .8 .8  c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n may ing  to d i f f i c u l t y  be the s i n g l e most important  factor  relat-  of tasks of a d a p t a t i o n .  In an attempt to corroborate t h i s f i n d i n g and a s c e r t a i n whether or not t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p may  be g e n e r a l i z a b l e beyond the  p o p u l a t i o n of I s r a e l i immigrants i n Vancouver, a c o r r e l a t i o n a l s o sought between the independent e x p e r t scores of a mixed group of twenty-eight of  s c o r e s and  was  difficulty  immigrants from a v a r i e t y  c o u n t r i e s , a l l of whom were advanced students  i n the E n g l i s h  Language program at King Edward Campus, Vancouver Community College.  In t h i s case, a c o r r e l a t i o n o f .7969 (p<.001) was  tained, suggesting  t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c u l t u r a l  t i o n and d i f f i c u l t y may I s r a e l i s and  innova-  be g e n e r a l i z a b l e t o p o p u l a t i o n s other  s u p p o r t i n g the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t e x t e n t of  factor a f f e c t i n g perceived d i f f i c u l t y  than  cultural  i n n o v a t i o n r e q u i r e d by a task of a d a p t a t i o n i s probably important  ob-  the most  in resolving a  task. Time of Task R e s o l u t i o n Respondents were q u e r i e d as to the time at which they became aware of a task as one they r e s o l v e d or expected  to be r e s o l v e d and the time at which  to resolve a task.  t i o n of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n must be observed  R e s u l t s of t h i s  por-  c a u t i o u s l y because,  to the l e n g t h of the i n t e r v i e w , each respondent was  due  asked to com-  ment on r e s o l u t i o n time with r e s p e c t t o o n l y t e n of the tasks.  first  thirty-six  Of the seventy-two i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r v i e w e d , between e i g h t  and twenty-seven of them responded w i t h r e g a r d t o time f o r each task.  At b e s t then, 37.5  gathered  percent of the p o s s i b l e responses were  f o r each task with r e s p e c t to the r e s o l u t i o n time.  65  Generally, less d i f f i c u l t in  t a s k s were r e s o l v e d f i r s t .  the f i r s t month a f t e r a r r i v a l , on the average, respondents  r e s o l v e d u s i n g the p o s t a l system, f i n d i n g a temporary r e g i s t e r i n g f o r medical in  With-  the f i r s t  insurance  t h e i r countrymen, speaking  the f i r s t  Canadian  the  friend.  s i x months, two  tasks had been r e s o l v e d :  With-  r e s o l v e d meeting other of  enough E n g l i s h t o get by, u s i n g  bank and making t h e i r f i r s t Within  residence,  and u s i n g Canadian money.  three months, they had  had  of the ten most  difficult  f i n d i n g a permanent residence and bud-  g e t i n g f o r l i f e on a d i f f e r e n t economic l e v e l .  By the end of  the  f i r s t year, on the average, respondents had r e s o l v e d two more of the ten most d i f f i c u l t  tasks:  reading a l o c a l  English-language  newspaper and u s i n g a d i f f e r e n t system of s i z e s , weights and measures.  Since Canada has  task would probably  converted  to the m e t r i c system, t h i s  no longer be among the most  F i v e of the ten most d i f f i c u l t  difficult.  t a s k s , however, were not r e -  s o l v e d by the end of the second year a f t e r a r r i v a l :  speaking  E n g l i s h , g e t t i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s accepted, to  adjusting  c l i m a t e , g e t t i n g used to Canadian sense of humour, and  a s a t i s f y i n g , c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d job.  longer than two  and f i n d i n g a s a t i s f y i n g , c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d job.  speaking  good E n g l i s h , may  years,  e n r o l l i n g f o r job r e t r a i n i n g ,  changing type of work, g e t t i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n ted,  finding  I t i s noteworthy t h a t of the  t e n tasks whose mean r e s o l u t i o n time was four of them r e l a t e to employment:  good  a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d  accep-  A fifth  task,  employment-related.  A s i x t h t a s k , o b t a i n i n g Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p , has no  possibility  66  TABLE X  Mean R e s o l u t i o n Time and D i f f i c u l t y S c o r e s f o r T a s k s L i s t e d i n O r d e r o f Mean R e s o l u t i o n Time  Task Name 20. 35. 2. 33. 7. 26. 21. 12. 1. 16. 6. 5. 36. 25. 34. 19. 31. 15. 9. 29. 13. 30. 8. 4. 17. 24. 11. 28. 32. 22. 23. 3. 14. 6. 27. 18.  P o s t a l System Temporary Residence Medical Insurance Canadian Money Meet Ccuntrymen Getby English Bank Meet F i r s t Canadian Friend Doctor Permanent Residence Get Any Job f o r Income Budget Community "& Educational Services Alternate Products Car Insurance Vancouver Bus System Work Schedule Local News D i f f e r e n t Measures S o c i a l Insurance Worship Driver's Licence Enrol Kids Status Change Ethnic Newspaper Ethnic Shops Job Retraining Change Type of Work Good English Help Spouse Occupational Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s Climate Canadian Sense of Humour Career-Oriented Job Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Ethnic School  Mean R e s o l u t i o n Time ( i n months) .3 .4 .9 .9 1.9 2.6 2.8 2.9 3.2 3.5 3.6 5.8 5.9 6.3 7.1 7.2 7.4 7.5 11.7 15.6 17.7 18.7 19.1 20.4 21.0 21.1 24.8 26.8 27.0 29.8 31.0 32.7 32.7 34.4 48.1 54.0  D i f f i c u l t y Score ( G e o m e t r i c Me an) 31.1 41.3 48.6 24.4 35.5 40.2 32.6 65.9 45.4 129.2 89.3 122.7 71.6 78.7 32.8 66.8 64.6 134.2 135.5 29.8 32.6 67.6 38.1 103.5 23.9 64.6 79.0 66.4 149.7 46.2 119.9 114.0 131.9 210.3 69.3 27.3  of b e i n g r e s o l v e d b e f o r e three t o f i v e years r e s i d e n c e i n the country,  and t h e r e f o r e a u t o m a t i c a l l y f e l l i n t o t h i s time  category.  While mean time o f task r e s o l u t i o n bore no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o d i f f i c u l t y o f tasks of  (r=-.1105, p=.52), the r e s u l t s  t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f r e s o l u t i o n time might serve t o i n f o r m  c o u n s e l l o r s , course planners an immigrant p o p u l a t i o n .  and c u r r i c u l u m designers who serve  As d e t a i l e d elsewhere, more than  percent o f the I s r a e l i s had r e s o l v e d the f i r s t the f i r s t  three months or so but l e s s than  eighty  ten tasks w i t h i n  f i f t y percent of r e -  spondents ever r e s o l v e d the l a s t t e n t a s k s .  Less than f o r t y  per-  cent o f respondents r e s o l v e d the employment-related t a s k s . While no f i r m c o n c l u s i o n s may be drawn as t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between time o f task r e s o l u t i o n and d i f f i c u l t y , l i n e s may be suggested  f o r those who c o u n s e l , a d v i s e , and design  i n s t r u c t i o n f o r immigrants. of  these  some guide-  F u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of the a p p l i c a t i o n  g u i d e l i n e s may be found  i n the l a s t  chapter.  Importance o f Tasks The  assumption u n d e r l y i n g i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h i s f a c t o r ' s r e -  l a t i o n s h i p t o d i f f i c u l t y was t h a t p e r c e i v e d importance o f a t a s k when f i r s t encountered might have a b e a r i n g o n p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h a t task's d i f f i c u l t y . to  support  While there appears t o be some s l i g h t  t h i s assumption, the data d i d not a t t a i n  evidence  statistical  significance. The important  t e n most important  tasks appear t o be those which are  t o an immigrant's s e c u r i t y d u r i n g h i s f i r s t days i n a  new country  such as f i n d i n g a temporary r e s i d e n c e , speaking  enough  68 E n g l i s h to get by, i n s u r a n c e ; and new  f i n d i n g any  job, and r e g i s t e r i n g f o r m e d i c a l  those which are most important  to h i s l i f e  i n the  country over the long range such as f i n d i n g a permanent  dence, speaking f i n d i n g a doctor  resi-  good E n g l i s h , f i n d i n g a c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d j o b , (Table X I ) .  Of these  and  ten t a s k s , f i v e were  among the ones p e r c e i v e d as most d i f f i c u l t by respondents;  find-  ing  a permanent r e s i d e n c e , speaking  for  Income, f i n d i n g a c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d job, and g e t t i n g o c c u p a t i o n -  al  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s accepted.  c u l t and  important  good E n g l i s h , f i n d i n g any  With one  e x c e p t i o n , the most  job  diffi-  tasks r e l a t e d to employment and three of them  were i d e n t i f i e d as r e q u i r i n g a mean of more than two  years  to  resolve. Many of the l e a s t important  tasks appear t o r e l a t e t o the  immigrant's r e l a t i o n s h i p to h i s p e r s o n a l and e t h n i c group networks:  f i n d i n g a s u i t a b l e p l a c e of worship, h e l p i n g one's spouse,  f i n d i n g e t h n i c shops, e t h n i c schools f o r c h i l d r e n , and ing  to an e t h n i c newspaper.  The  l a s t two  those p e r c e i v e d as l e a s t d i f f i c u l t  subscrib-  t a s k s are a l s o among  (Table X I ) .  An o v e r a l l c o r r e l a t i o n between mean importance and mean d i f f i c u l t y of t a s k s was sis.  sought, u s i n g tasks as the u n i t of  As the c o r r e l a t i o n  (.2435) was  not s t a t i s t i c a l l y  (p=.15), the f i n d i n g s d e s c r i b e d above must remain mere  analy-  significant observa-  tions . Stage of Task R e s o l u t i o n I n v e s t i g a t i o n of the stage of task r e s o l u t i o n focused whether there appeared to be any c u l t y and respondents'  r e l a t i o n s h i p between task  a b i l i t y to r e s o l v e t a s k s .  While  no  on diffi-  69  TABLE XI  Mean Rank O r d e r  Task  35. 16. 32. 6. 1. 26. 2. 10. 7. 23. 3. 5. 21. 30. 8. 29. 12. 33. 28. 15. 19. 9. 31. 4. 34. 36. 20. 25. 27. 13. 22. 11. 24. 14. 18. 17.  Temporary Residence Permanent Residence Good English Any Job f o r Income Doctor Getby English Medical Insurance Career Job Meet Countrymen Recognize Occup. Quals. Climate Budget f o r D i f f e r e n t Income Bank Driver's Licence E n r o l Kids S o c i a l Insurance Canadian Friend Canadian Money Change Type of Work Read Local Newspaper Vancouver Bus System D i f f e r e n t Measures Change Work Schedule Status Change Car Insurance (Zomrnunity & Ed. Serv. Postal Alternate Products Canadian C i t i z e n s h i p Place of Worship Help Spouse Job Retraining Ethnic Shops Can. Sense o f Humour Ethnic Schools f o r Kids Ethnic Newspaper  of Tasks  According to  Arithmetic Mean  9.8 11.9 12.2 13.3 13.5 13.8 13.9 14.3 14.9 16.3 16.7 16.8 17.0 17.0 17.9 18.0 18.1 18.7 19.0 19.3 19.4 19.8 20.5 20.6 20.9 20.9 21.0 21.2 21.5 22.7 22.7 23.0 23.7 24.1 24.2 25.4  Standard Deviation  10.3 10.0 9.9 11.4 8.5 12.0 9.7 10.8 9.4 10.8 9.2 9.2 9.1 9.6 11.2 9.7 9.8 10.6 11.0 8.5 9.2 8.3 9.7 10.4 8.9 8.3 8.2 7.9 10.7 9.9 9.3 10.5 8.0 8.6 9.6 7.4  Importance Difficulty Scores (geometric mean) 45.4 129.2 149.7 89.3 45.4 40.2 48.6 210.3 35.5 119.9 114.0 122.7 32.6 67.6 36.1 29.6 65.9 24.4 66.4 134.2 66.8 135.5 64.6 103.5 32.8 71.6 31.1 78.7 69.3 32.6 46.2 79.0 64.6 131.9 27.3 23.0  70  g e n e r a l i z a b l e o v e r a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p was s e r v a t i o n s may  (between f i f t y of them:  sures,  and  tasks, a majority  of respondents  seventy-nine percent) were able to  resolve  u s i n g a d i f f e r e n t system of s i z e s , weights and  reading  mea-^  a l o c a l E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e newspaper, f i n d i n g a p e r -  manent r e s i d e n c e , budgeting f o r l i f e a d j u s t i n g to c l i m a t e  and  on a d i f f e r e n t economic  a d j u s t i n g to changes i n s t a t u s .  s m a l l percentage of respondents but  ob-  be made.  Of the ten most d i f f i c u l t  six  apparent, a number of  f a i l e d to r e s o l v e tasks  (one  level,  Only a  t o f o u r percent) had  tried  i n v o l v i n g u s i n g a d i f f e r e n t system of  s i z e s , weights and measures, f i n d i n g a permanent r e s i d e n c e ,  bud-  geting for l i f e  a  on a d i f f e r e n t economic l e v e l and  change i n s t a t u s i n the community. of respondents  (8.3 percent) had  task of r e a d i n g  t r i e d but  l a r g e r percentage  f a i l e d to r e s o l v e  the  a l o c a l E n g l i s h language newspaper r e g u l a r l y  and  more than a q u a r t e r a d j u s t i n g to the  A slightly  accepting  of respondents  climate  Fewer than f i f t y  (26.4  percent) had  not  resolved  i n Vancouver.  percent  remaining four most d i f f i c u l t  of respondents had tasks:  resolved  finding a satisfying  the career-  o r i e n t e d job, speaking good E n g l i s h , g e t t i n g used to Canadian sense of humour and  getting occupational  In the case of the most d i f f i c u l t j o b , twenty-four respondents  (33.3  task,  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s accepted. finding a  career-oriented  percent) s t a t e d t h a t they  r e s o l v e d t h i s task.  Of the f o r t y - e i g h t i n d i v i d u a l s who  resolved i t , sixteen  (22.2  twelve  (16.7  percent) had  t r i e d but  failed  had  had not  and  percent) were i n the p r o c e s s of attempting to  resolve  71  it.  Seven i n d i v i d u a l s  and t h i r t e e n  (9.1 percent) had not t r i e d t o r e s o l v e i t  (18.1 p e r c e n t ) , many of whom were housewives, s t a t e d  t h a t the t a s k was not a p p l i c a b l e t o them. Two o t h e r j o b - r e l a t e d t a s k s , speaking good E n g l i s h and g e t t i n g job q u a l i f i c a t i o n s accepted, were among the most t a s k s t h a t had low r e s o l u t i o n r a t e s . spondents  difficult  Thirty-nine percent of r e -  r e p o r t e d t h a t they had r e s o l v e d the task of speaking  good E n g l i s h .  F o r t y - t h r e e percent of respondents  s t a t e d t h a t they  were engaged i n r e s o l v i n g i t a t the time of the study, e l e v e n p e r cent had t r i e d but f a i l e d t o r e s o l v e i t and, f o r some reason, seven percent of respondents able t o them.  s t a t e d t h a t t h i s task was not a p p l i c -  When asked as to t h e i r p r e s e n t l e v e l of f l u e n c y ,  f i v e respondents n a t i v e Canadians,  (seven percent) s t a t e d t h a t they could pass as t h i r t y - s i x respondents (50.7 percent) s t a t e d  they spoke w e l l but with an accent, and eleven respondents  that  (15.5  percent) s t a t e d t h a t they spoke w e l l but had t r o u b l e with t e c h n i c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l In  terms.  the case of g e t t i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  41.7 p e r c e n t of respondents  accepted,  s a i d they had r e s o l v e d t h i s task ahd  j u s t over a q u a r t e r of them (26.4 percent) s t a t e d that t h i s task was not a p p l i c a b l e t o them.  Nine respondents  (12.5 percent)  said  t h a t they were engaged i n r e s o l v i n g t h i s task a t the time o f the study and the same number responded f u l l y to resolve t h i s task.  t h a t they had t r i e d  unsuccess-  72 Other t a s k s among the t h i r t y - s i x th,at had low r e s o l u t i o n r a t e s were e n r o l l i n g f o r job r e t r a i n i n g , a p p l y i n g f o r Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p , changing type o f work, h e l p i n g the spouse, and enrolling  c h i l d r e n i n r e g u l a r and e t h n i c s c h o o l s .  In these c a s e s ,  however, most respondents s t a t e d t h a t these t a s k s were not appl i c a b l e t o them-or t h a t they had not y e t attempted t o r e s o l v e them (Table X I I ) . While no g e n e r a l , o v e r a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p may be observed between t a s k r e s o l u t i o n stage and d i f f i c u l t y ,  a c l e a r l y observable  one appears t o e x i s t between number of respondents r e s o l v i n g t a s k s and time of task r e s o l u t i o n  (Figure 1 ) . On the whole, the l a r -  gest percentage of i n d i v i d u a l s r e s o l v e d e a r l y t a s k s and the p e r centage d e c l i n e d over time, so that tasks r e q u i r i n g two years o r more t o r e s o l v e were r e s o l v e d by the fewest respondents. of  In view  e a r l i e r o b s e r v a t i o n s , i t seems reasonable t o assume that the  two major reasons f o r t h i s were that these t a s k s were e i t h e r p e r c e i v e d as most d i f f i c u l t it,  and took l o n g e r t o r e s o l v e because of  o r they f e l l i n t o a group of t a s k s n o t a p p l i c a b l e and not  attempted.  Examples of t a s k s not a p p l i c a b l e and not attempted  were h e l p i n g your spouse  and e n r o l l i n g c h i l d r e n i n schools when  respondents had n e i t h e r spouse nor c h i l d r e n .  E n r o l l i n g f o r job  r e t r a i n i n g was a l s o among those f r e q u e n t l y not a p p l i c a b l e or not attempted. Three t a s k s , however, were attempted but not r e s o l v e d by respondents more f r e q u e n t l y than they were r e s o l v e d o r not attempted and these were among those tasks p e r c e i v e d as most d i f f i c u l t :  73  T7ABLE X I I  Number and P e r c e n t a g e o f I n t e r v i e w e e s R e s p o n d i n g to Each R e s o l u t i o n Stage f o r Each Task ( l i s t e d i n order of task d i f f i c u l t y ) . n=72  Task Not /Applicable n % 10. 32. 9. 15. 14. 16. 5. 23. 3. 4. 6. 11. 25. 36. 27. 30. 19. 28. 12. 31. 24. 2. 22. 1. 35. 26. 8. 7. 34. 21. 13. 20. 29. 18. 33. 17.  Career Good English D i f f e r e n t Measures Local News Sense of Humour Permanent Residence Budget Occupational Quals. Climate Status 7Any Job Job Retraining 7Altemate Products Community & Educ. Serv. Canadian Citizenship Driver's Licence Vancouver Buses Change Work Canadian Friend Change Work Schedule Ethnic Shops Medical Insurance Help Spouse Doctor Temporary Residence Getby English Enrol Kids Meet Countrymen Car Insurance Bank Worship Postal S o c i a l Insurance Ethnic Schools Canadian Money Ethnic News  13 18.1 5 6.9 4 5.6 5 6.9 7 9.7 5 6.9 7 9.7 19 26.4 2 2.8 20 27.8 19 26.4 38 52.8 8 11.1 6 8.3 17 23.6 8 11.1 14 19.4 22 30.6 5 6.9 7 9.7 8 11.1 1 1.4 36 50.0 2 2.8 6 8.3 8 11.1 28 38.9 4.2 3 9 12.5 4.2 3 21 29.2 4 5.6 5 6.9 42 58.3 2 2.8 17 23.6  Not Tried n % 7  9.1  7 3 6  9.7 4.2 8.3  5  6.9  3 7 19  4.2 9.7 26.4  11 17 9 6 9 1 8 7 1 8 3  15.3 23.6 12.5 8.3 12.5 1.4 11.1 9.7 1.4 11.1 4.2  2 6  2.8 8.3  5 2 6 1 2 6  6.9 2.8 8.3 1.4 2.8 8.3  12  16.7  Tried,Not Resolved % n 16 8 3 6 9 1 2 9 19 3 2 3  22.2 11.1 4.2 8.3 12.5 1.4 2.8 12.5 26.4 4.2 2.8 4.2  3 2 3  4.2 2.8 4.2  5 2 2 2  6.9 2.8 2.8 2.8  1 1  1.4 1.4  3  4.2  1 1 2  1.4 1.4 2.8  Doing Now Q. n *o  Resolved % n  12 31 10 15 21 4 11 9 9 10 8 3 7 16 7 6 2 8 6 4 5  24 28 55 39 32 56 52 30 42 36 36 9 57 36 29 46 50 28 58 51 50 70 23 62 64 58 34 57 57 66 40 60 64 22 60 37  16.7 43.1 13.9 20.8 29.2 5.6 15.3 12.5 12.5 13.9 11.1 4.2 9.7 22.2 9.7 8.3 2.8 11.1 8.3 5.6 6.9  5 6.9 5 6.9 2 2.8 4 5.6 3 4.2 11 15.3 1 1.4 1 1.4 2 2.8 7 9.7 1 1.4 1 1.4 9 12.5 4 5.6  33.3 38.9 76.4 54.2 44.4 77.8 72.2 41.7 58.3 50.0 50.0 12.5 79.2 50.0 40.3 63.9 69.4 38.9 80.6 70.8 69.4 97.2 31.9 86.1 88.9 80.6 47.2 79.2 79.2 91.7 55.6 83.3 88.9 30.6 83.3 51.4|  Figure  I  C o m p a r i s o n i n O r d e r o f Mean R e s o l u t i o n Time o f P e r c e n t a g e o f R e s p o n d e n t s N o t A t t e m p t i n g , T r y i n g But Not R e s o l v i n g and R e s o l v i n g E a c h Task o f A d a p t a t i o n  Task Not Attempted  Task Tried But Not Resolved  Task Resolved  75 f i n d i n g a c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d j o b , speaking used t o Canadian sense o f humour.  good E n g l i s h and g e t t i n g  With r e g a r d t o the most  diffi-  c u l t task, f i n d i n g a c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d job, t h i s was attempted b u t not r e s o l v e d by seven men and nine women.  Those men who attempt-  ed but d i d not r e s o l v e the task v a r i e d widely c o u l d s p e c u l a t e a v a r i e t y o f reasons t h i s task:  incomplete  i n age and one  for their failure to resolve  education, i n a b i l i t y t o receive r e c o g n i t i o n  f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s or age.  A l l of the nine women  who attempted but f a i l e d t o r e s o l v e t h i s task, however, were between the ages of t w e n t y - f i v e  and t h i r t y - t w o .  one was s i n g l e and one was d i v o r c e d . c h i l d r e n which may have prevented employment.  Seven were  married,  Four o f these women had  them from p u r s u i n g  With r e s p e c t t o e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l ,  full-time  a l l b u t one had  completed high s c h o o l and s i x women had between one and e i g h t years of u n i v e r s i t y .  S i x o f these women spoke e x c e l l e n t E n g l i s h  though with an accent w h i l e the other three had high l e v e l s o f fluency i n E n g l i s h .  While one may s p e c u l a t e t h a t o l d e r women may  not be seeking a c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d job o r t h a t younger women may be i n v o l v e d w i t h c h i l d - r e a r i n g , i t i s c u r i o u s and y e t unexplained why t h i s group o f women, a p p a r e n t l y q u a l i f i e d f o r employment, have f a i l e d t o r e s o l v e t h a t task.  76  The  R e l a t i o n s h i p of D i f f i c u l t y The  education  final  t o Sources of Information Employed  r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n q u e r i e d how the use of a d u l t  sources  of i n f o r m a t i o n  ( i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n and i n -  s t r u c t i o n a l groups) f o r r e s o l v i n g t a s k s of adaptation r e l a t e d t o difficulty  of t a s k s .  For the most p a r t , a d u l t education  were used f a r l e s s than p e r s o n a l sources education  sources,  frequency  than  sources  and of the two a d u l t  i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n was used with  greater  i n s t r u c t i o n a l groups.  For a l l t a s k s , p e r s o n a l sources  of i n f o r m a t i o n were used  more than any other ones and, f o r the e a s i e s t t a s k s , few other sources were employed.  For the most d i f f i c u l t  sources were g e n e r a l l y i n the group c l a s s i f i e d  tasks, a d d i t i o n a l as mass media ex-  cept f o r the two most d i f f i c u l t t a s k s , g e t t i n g a s a t i s f y i n g c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d job and speaking  good E n g l i s h .  In these two cases,  i n s t r u c t i o n a l groups were used with the g r e a t e s t frequency.  In  the case o f the most d i f f i c u l t t a s k , g e t t i n g a c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d j o b , i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n was used with the g r e a t e s t frequency  and,  i n most cases, the i n d i v i d u a l c o n s u l t e d was a c o u n s e l l o r or someone  serving a counselling function. I t i s noteworthy t h a t the category  cluded t r i a l  o f p e r s o n a l sources i n -  and e r r o r by the respondent h i m s e l f as w e l l as f r i e n d s  and r e l a t i v e s .  These sources were used most f r e q u e n t l y f o r tasks  i n v o l v i n g u s i n g a d i f f e r e n t system of s i z e s , weights and measures, f i n d i n g a d o c t o r , making t h e i r f i r s t Canadian f r i e n d , f i n d i n g a s u i t a b l e p l a c e o f worship, u s i n g Canadian money, g e t t i n g used t o a Canadian household.  stnse  of humour and f i n d i n g a l t e r n a t e products  f o r the  P e r s o n a l sources were used w i t h l e a s t frequency f o r  77  e n r o l l i n g i n job r e t r a i n i n g , h e l p i n g spouses, u s i n g community and e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , f i n d i n g e t h n i c s c h o o l s f o r c h i l d r e n , g e t t i n g a s a t i s f y i n g c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d j o b , f i n d i n g any job f o r i n come, and e n r o l l i n g c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l .  With r e g a r d t o j o b -  r e l a t e d t a s k s f o r which few p e r s o n a l sources were u t i l i z e d , a number of other types of sources were used.  F o r tasks f o r which  few p e r s o n a l sources were used t h a t were not j o b - r e l a t e d , few Other sources were employed. I n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n was sought l e s s f r e q u e n t l y than s o n a l sources except  f o r the most d i f f i c u l t  per-  task, f i n d i n g a  c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d j o b , f o r which i t was sought more than any o t h e r source.  G e n e r a l l y speaking,  t i o n i n c l u d e d sources agents, The  the category  of i n d i v i d u a l  such as c o u n s e l l o r s , bank c l e r k s ,  r e a l t o r s and others who p r o v i d e p r o c e d u r a l  tasks f o r which these  instrucinsurance  information.  sources were most f r e q u e n t l y c o n s u l t e d  were f i n d i n g a c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d j o b , a p p l y i n g f o r Canadian  citizen-  s h i p , g e t t i n g a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e , g e t t i n g any job f o r income, and r e g i s t e r i n g  f o r medical  was not c i t e d as a source  insurance.  Individual instruction  a t a l l f o r some t a s k s :  E n g l i s h , r e a d i n g a l o c a l English-language  speaking  good  newspaper r e g u l a r l y ,  g e t t i n g used t o Canadian sense of humour, making your  first  Canadian f r i e n d , h e l p i n g spouse, f i n d i n g a temporary r e s i d e n c e , meeting countrymen, and f i n d i n g a p l a c e o f worship. I n s t r u c t i o n a l groups were sought most f r e q u e n t l y f o r the two most d i f f i c u l t ing  t a s k s , f i n d i n g a c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d job and speak-  good E n g l i s h , and, i n g e n e r a l , f o r t a s k s a s s o c i a t e d with  78  TABLE X I I I  Frequency of Use of Sources of Information by Seventy-Two Interviewees f o r T h i r t y ^ s i x Tasks  Tasks  Sources of Information Used for Task Resolution Personal  10. 32. 9. 15. 14. 16. 5. 23. 3. 4. 6.  ill. (25. J36. .27. [30.  Career Good O l d i s h Different Measures Local News Humour Perm. Residence Budget Occup. Quals. niTnat-P Status Any Job Job Retraining Alternate Products Comm. & Educ. Serv. Can. Citizenship Driver's Licence  19. Vancouver Bus  8  12  25 13 18 13 16  1U  13 10 8 6 18 7 12 12  Mass  Individual Instruction  Instructional Groups  5 5 7  11  7 7 2 1 1 1  4  3 3  2 4 2 6 1 3  9  .28. 12. 31. 24. 2. 22. 1. 35. 26. 8. 7. 34. 21.  Change. Work Canadian Friend Work Schedule Ethnic Shops Medical Insurance Help Spouse Doctor Temp. Residence Getby English Enrol Kids Countrymen Car Insurance Bank  15 22 17 15 13 6 23 10 15 8 10 15 15  13. 20. 29. 18. 33. 17.  Worship Postal Social Insurance Ethnic School Canadian Money Ethnic News  21 13 •15 7 19 11  7 2 2 2  1 4  2  b 1 3 9 4 3 1 11  "  1 2 4 2 (Univ) 1  4 1 1  9  1 6  1  3 (Univ)  1  2 (Univ) 3 (Univ) 7  2  2 Other Bank Clerk 2  1 4 1 1 1  1  1  1  !  D  j  16  i  n  14 12 15 12 18 7 19 16  -  :  ) !  ! ;  i  14  5 4  6  1  18 17 27 18 19  10 Other: MV Branch Driv. School 8 Other: B.C.Hydro  1 10  4  Total Number of Individuals Responding  31 23 18 15  I  22  6  23 12 19  10  15 17 . 15 21 14 16 8 19 13  * Each individual had the option of reporting more than one source for each task and each individual was asked to respond with regard to ten tasks rather than a l l thirty-six.  j  !  j ;  79  l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h , employment and making f r i e n d s .  Tasks f o r which  i n s t r u c t i o n a l groups were never c i t e d as a source of i n f o r m a t i o n were:  budgeting f o r l i f e on a d i f f e r e n t economic  level,  i n g t o c l i m a t e , changing work schedule, h e l p i n g spouse, c h i l d i n school, getting a driver's licence, finding  adjustenrolling  alternate  products f o r the household, u s i n g the bus system, r e g i s t e r i n g f o r car i n s u r a n c e , banking, u s i n g the p o s t a l system, r e g i s t e r i n g f o r s o c i a l i n s u r a n c e , and u s i n g Canadian money.  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  i n t e r e s t i n g i n view of the f a c t t h a t the l a s t e i g h t of these tasks are g e n e r a l l y found i n ESL c u r r i c u l a , m a t e r i a l s and  texts,  e s p e c i a l l y f o r s t u d e n t s at b e g i n n i n g l e v e l s . Mass media, such as newspapers,  books  (including  dictionary),  and b r o c h u r e s , were used l e a s t f r e q u e n t l y on the whole and the task most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d f o r t h i s source type was  speaking  enough E n g l i s h t o get by. Respondents,  then, used p e r s o n a l sources most f r e q u e n t l y  f o r a l l t a s k s and, where p r o c e d u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n was i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n was ployment,  sought.  required,  Only f o r tasks r e l a t i n g to  em-  language l e a r n i n g , and making f r i e n d s were i n s t r u c t i o n a l  groups sought and mass media were used i n f r e q u e n t l y and o n l y f o r one-half o f the t a s k s . Summary In r e l a t i o n t o other immigrants to Canada, the respondents r e p r e s e n t e d a w e l l - e d u c a t e d group who  had l i v e d i n two, t h r e e o r  four c o u n t r i e s f o r s i x months or more and ranged i n age from mid-twenties to s i x t y .  As with most immigrant  their  groups, m a r r i e d  80 women had l e s s job experience than o t h e r respondents.  and were l e s s f l u e n t i n E n g l i s h  S i n g l e men a l s o r e p o r t e d low l e v e l s of  f l u e n c y i n E n g l i s h but the widest a d d i t i o n , they  range of job experience.  In  r e p o r t e d the lowest number of years of education  and the most t e c h n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g .  M a r r i e d men r e -  p o r t e d among the h i g h e s t l e v e l s of f l u e n c y i n E n g l i s h and the g r e a t e s t number of years of education with  f i f t y percent  of them  r e p o r t i n g f i v e or more years of u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n . The t e n most d i f f i c u l t tasks were g e t t i n g a s a t i s f y i n g c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d j o b , speaking  good E n g l i s h , u s i n g a d i f f e r e n t  system of s i z e s , weights and measures, r e a d i n g a l o c a l E n g l i s h language newspaper r e g u l a r l y , g e t t i n g used t o a d i f f e r e n t of humour i n Canada, f i n d i n g a permanent p l a c e t o l i v e , for  life  sense  budgeting  on a d i f f e r e n t economic l e v e l , g a i n i n g acceptance of  e x i s t i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , a d j u s t i n g t o the climate i n Vancouver and a c c e p t i n g a change of s t a t u s i n the community. No one socio-demographic v a r i a b l e proved t o be a good pred i c t o r of d i f f i c u l t y  f o r a l l t h i r t y - s i x tasks and, i n the case of  employment r e l a t e d t a s k s , no v a r i a b l e s appeared i n the r e g r e s s i o n equation.  On a task-by-task  b a s i s , some p r e d i c t a b i l i t y was  mined f o r seventeen of the t h i r t y - s i x  deter-  tasks.  Of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between d i f f i c u l t y  and other f a c t o r s  (extent o f i n n o v a t i o n , l e n g t h o f r e s o l u t i o n time, importance and r e s o l u t i o n s t a g e ) , o n l y extent of c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n r e q u i r e d appeared t o bear a r e l a t i o n s h i p to d i f f i c u l t y to  and there i s reason  b e l i e v e t h a t the s t r o n g p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  diffi-  c u l t y and e x t e n t of i n n o v a t i o n may a l s o be g e n e r a l i z a b l e t o e t h n i c  81  groups other than I s r a e l i s .  This  further investigation.  may  It  be  t o r a f f e c t i n g r e s o c i a l i z a t i o n and basis  r e l a t i o n s h i p c e r t a i n l y warrants the  s i n g l e most important  might p r o v i d e an  upon which to design programs f o r immigrant Although only about o n e - t h i r d  of the  fac-  excellent adults.  respondents p r o v i d e d  i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g time of task r e s o l u t i o n , the mean scores may  serve as a guide to c o u n s e l l o r s ,  lum  d e s i g n e r s who  serve a d u l t  course planners and  immigrants.  of tasks appears to bear l i t t l e  Perceived  curricu-  importance  r e l a t i o n s h i p to d i f f i c u l t y .  With  regard to r e s o l u t i o n stages, the most important f i n d i n g was c l e a r l y observable r e l a t i o n s h i p between r e s o l u t i o n of r e s o l u t i o n .  The  e a r l y tasks and  the percentage d e c l i n e d  On  stage and  l a r g e s t percentage of i n d i v i d u a l s  t a s k s appeared to be  less frequently  time  resolved  over time, so t h a t  later  resolved.  the whole, respondents c i t e d p e r s o n a l sources of i n f o r -  mation w i t h s u b s t a n t i a l l y g r e a t e r frequency than any source f o r a l l of the  t h i r t y - s i x tasks.  ( i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n and frequently  i z e d more f r e q u e n t l y  i n s t r u c t i o n a l groups) were used most  l i c e n c e and  job.  use  task, g e t t i n g  a  i n s t r u c t i o n was  util-  s p e c i f i c procedural  to apply f o r medical i n s u r a n c e , get the bus  were sought most f r e q u e n t l y making f r i e n d s , and  Individual  f o r tasks r e q u i r i n g  i n f o r m a t i o n such as how  other type of  A d u l t e d u c a t i o n sources  w i t h regard to the most d i f f i c u l t  s a t i s f y i n g career-oriented  driver's  the  system.  Instructional  groups  f o r t a s k s r e l a t e d t o language  f i n d i n g employment.  a  learning,  82  Of  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between d i f f i c u l t y  i n c l u d i n g e x t e n t of c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n , time, importance and  resolution  appears to warrant f u r t h e r c o r r e l a t i o n was  p o s i t i v e l y and eight  difficulty  c u l t y and  This  scores of the  and  innovation  scores of  experts also  difficulty  the  who  suggests that the  correlated  scores of twentywere members of  r e l a t i o n s h i p between required  by  tasks may  i n i t s e l f , t o be  r e l a t e d to d i f f i c u l t y ,  resolved  each t a s k .  i n s t r u c t i o n for adult  C o u n s e l l o r s and  number of  teachers p l a n n i n g  mean r e s o l u t i o n  Certainly,  time by  further i n -  g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of these f i n d i n g s  i s warranted.  respon-  l a t e r t a s k s were a c t u a l l y r e s o l v e d  l e s s than f o r t y percent of respondents. of the  the  immigrants might use  as a g e n e r a l guide i n t h a t  appear,  a r e l a t i o n s h i p d i d appear  to e x i s t between mean r e s o l u t i o n time and  groups  be  investigation.  While time of r e s o l v i n g tasks of a d a p t a t i o n d i d not  vestigation  diffi-  to other non-English-speaking immigrants to Vancou-  t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s worthy of f u r t h e r  dents who  scores  c l a s s at King Edward Campus, Vancouver Commun-  e x t e n t of c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n  generalizable  resolution  c u l t u r a l innovation  immigrants from a v a r i e t y of c o u n t r i e s  i t y College.  ver  the  s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h the  an advanced E n g l i s h  of  factors  i n v e s t i g a t i o n as a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e  seventy-two I s r a e l i respondents and The  length  other  stage, only e x t e n t of  found between the  of f i f t y - t w o e x p e r t s .  and  to other  CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND  IMPLICATIONS  T h i s chapter draws o v e r a l l c o n c l u s i o n s  from the study  and  e x p l o r e s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the p r a c t i c e of a d u l t education f o r immigrants, p a r t i c u l a r l y with r e g a r d to program planning f o r c l a s s e s of E n g l i s h as a second language.  Further research  into  tasks of a d a p t a t i o n and c u l t u r a l assumptions of North American a d u l t educators  is  suggested. Summary and  M i g r a t i o n to a new  Conclusions  country i s a developmental event  and  a d a p t a t i o n i s the process by which i n d i v i d u a l s r e s o l v e t h a t  event.  As immigrants adapt, they encounter a number of tasks of v a r y i n g d i f f i c u l t y which f o r c e them to l e a r n new The  information,  procedures  and  customs.  l e a r n i n g r e q u i r e d to r e s o l v e tasks of  may  be a c q u i r e d i n the n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g v i a personal  mass sources as w e l l as i n the formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l through i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n and  i n s t r u c t i o n a l groups.  t h e i r a d a p t a t i o n process.  c a t i o n i s w e l l s u i t e d to serve the remedial  83  and  setting  i n which i n d i v i d u a l s r e s o l v e each task of a d a p t a t i o n may t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n to continue  adaptation  The  way  affect A d u l t edu-  f u n c t i o n and a i d immi-  84  grants i n r e s o c i a l i z a t i o n . cational offering p r e s e n t format  At the p r e s e n t time, the major edu-  f o r immigrants i s language i n s t r u c t i o n .  The  of E n g l i s h as a second language c l a s s e s may  be  used to f u r t h e r a s s i s t the immigrant i f p r i n c i p l e s of needs assessment and program development are a p p l i e d . With r e g a r d to the four r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s posed i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s may  be drawn from the  data. 1.  What kinds of tasks emerge d u r i n g adaptation to i n a new  One  life  society?  major c o n t r i b u t i o n of t h i s work i s i t s attempt to a r -  t i c u l a t e an approach to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of l e a r n i n g needs f o r immigrants.  D e f i n i t i o n s of a d a p t a t i o n and tasks of a d a p t a t i o n  brought some conceptual c l a r i t y to an i n t r i c a t e and problem area. t a t i o n was  complicated  The major assumption i n i d e n t i f y i n g tasks of adap-  t h a t new  a r r i v a l s i n a country g e n e r a l l y experience  a  s i m i l a r range of tasks to r e s o l v e i n order t o s u r v i v e i n the new  society.  For the purposes of the study, a t t i t u d i n a l  and  p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s were not examined and the t h i r t y - s i x employed focused on behaviours  such as f i n d i n g a p l a c e to  f i n d i n g a job and speaking E n g l i s h .  The  tasks  live,  t a s k s of a d a p t a t i o n used  i n the study were drawn from a wide range of l i t e r a t u r e and  per-  s o n a l case h i s t o r i e s were s u b j e c t e d t o magnitude e s t i m a t i o n s of relative difficulty.  The  ten most d i f f i c u l t tasks were g e t t i n g  a s a t i s f y i n g c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d job, speaking  good E n g l i s h , u s i n g a  d i f f e r e n t system of s i z e s , weights and measures, r e a d i n g a  local  85 English-language  newspaper r e g u l a r l y , g e t t i n g used t o a d i f f e r e n t  sense of humour i n Canada, f i n d i n g a permanent p l a c e t o l i v e , budgeting  f o r l i f e on a d i f f e r e n t economic l e v e l , g a i n i n g  accep-  tance of e x i s t i n g o c c u p a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , a d j u s t i n g t o the c l i m a t e i n Vancouver and a c c e p t i n g a change o f s t a t u s i n the community. The  tasks of a d a p t a t i o n u t i l i z e d i n the study were gener-  ated as examples o f the use of the conceptual framework and t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r d i s c u s s i o n , c r i t i c i s m and improvement o f the a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s approach t o a d a p t a t i o n and the r o l e o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n f o r immigrants. a d a p t a t i o n i s suggested 2.  Which, i f any,  Further i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o tasks of  as an area f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . socio-demographic  characteristics  affect  p e r c e p t i o n o f d i f f i c u l t y of tasks of adaptation? While a l a r g e number o f socio-demographic  v a r i a b l e s were  examined, three were considered w i t h p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n :  level  of e d u c a t i o n , number o f c o u n t r i e s l i v e d i n f o r s i x months o r more, and s i z e of primary  group on a r r i v a l .  A few more women than men were represented among the seventytwo  respondents  whose ages ranged from twenty-three  to fifty-nine.  In comparison t o other e t h n i c groups i n Canada, they were a w e l l educated  group, p a r t i c u l a r l y the m a r r i e d men.  respondents  About o n e - h a l f the  were born i n I s r a e l and most had l i v e d i n from two t o  f o u r c o u n t r i e s and i n Vancouver from one t o t e n y e a r s .  Married  women r e p o r t e d more a d u l t r e l a t i v e s r e s i d i n g i n Vancouver when they a r r i v e d than any of the o t h e r respondents  and married  people  86  in general Married  reported  l e s s E n g l i s h spoken a t home than s i n g l e ones.  men and s i n g l e women r e p o r t e d h i g h e r  fluency l e v e l s i n  E n g l i s h than s i n g l e men and married women. Stepwise r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was conducted u s i n g t e n o r d i n a l socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d i n g years  of education,  num-  ber o f c o u n t r i e s l i v e d i n f o r s i x months o r more and number o f a d u l t r e l a t i v e s on a r r i v a l .  No one v a r i a b l e proved t o be a good  p r e d i c t o r f o r a l l t h i r t y - s i x tasks and, i n the case of employmentr e l a t e d t a s k s , no v a r i a b l e s appeared i n the r e g r e s s i o n  equation.  Some p r e d i c t a b i l i t y was determined f o r seventeen of the t h i r t y six tasks.  Years of education  and number of a d u l t r e l a t i v e s on  a r r i v a l each appeared t o have p r e d i c t a b i l i t y f o r f i v e t a s k s .  Num-  ber o f c o u n t r i e s l i v e d i n f o r s i x months or more was o r i g i n a l l y chosen as a measure of a b i l i t y t o l e a r n a new c u l t u r e b u t , i n the course of the r e s e a r c h , l i v e d i n could  i t became c l e a r t h a t number o f c o u n t r i e s  j u s t as r e a d i l y i n d i c a t e l a c k of a b i l i t y  a new c u l t u r e so no c o n c l u s i o n s were drawn with  regard  to learn to this  variable. 3.  What r e l a t i o n s h i p , i f any, does d i f f i c u l t y o f t a s k s o f adaptation  bear t o the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s :  extent o f  c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n r e q u i r e d by t a s k s , l e n g t h o f task r e s o l u t i o n time r e q u i r e d , importance o f tasks t o the immigrant when he f i r s t encounters them and stage o f task r e s o l u t i o n ?  87  Of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between d i f f i c u l t y and i n c l u d i n g e x t e n t of c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n , time, importance and  found between the d i f f i c u l t y  scores of f i f t y - t w o e x p e r t s . p o s i t i v e l y and  resolution  The  the c u l t u r a l  scores of the  the  innovation experts a l s o  s i g n i f i c a n t l y with the  difficulty countries  were members of an advanced E n g l i s h c l a s s at King Edward  Campus, Vancouver Community C o l l e g e . r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i f f i c u l t y and innovation  required  by t a s k s may  This  suggests t h a t  be g e n e r a l i z a b l e  r e l a t i o n s h i p i s worthy of f u r t h e r While the  time of r e s o l v i n g  to other this  investigation. t a s k s of a d a p t a t i o n d i d  appear, i n i t s e l f , to be r e l a t e d to d i f f i c u l t y ,  resolved  each t a s k .  planning i n s t r u c t i o n f o r a d u l t  Certainly,  further  by  the number  C o u n s e l l o r s and  teachers  immigrants might use mean  r e s o l u t i o n time as a g e n e r a l guide i n t h a t a c t u a l l y resolved  not  a relationship  appear to e x i s t between mean r e s o l u t i o n time and  of respondents who  the  extent of c u l t u r a l  non-English-speaking immigrants to Vancouver and  did  innovation  scores of  scores of twenty-eight immigrants from a v a r i e t y of who  factors  i n v e s t i g a t i o n as a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e  seventy-two I s r a e l i respondents and  correlated  of  r e s o l u t i o n stage, o n l y extent of  appears to warrant f u r t h e r c o r r e l a t i o n was  length  other  l a t e r tasks were  l e s s than f o r t y percent of respondents.  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the  g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of  these f i n d i n g s to other groups i s warranted.  88  4.  How  i s the  for  r e s o l v i n g tasks  of  sources  than  The  classes their  of  i n order of  i n the  sources,  study  to acquire  the  adaptation.  a level  occupational aspirations. to I s r a e l i s , be  true  consideration  tions  and  able  agencies and  t o use  i s no  oral  evidence  career-oriented  for English most  of  would  to  their  i s presently  to suggest  g r o u p s and  general  only  that i t suggest  situationally-  assisting  production  a second  s e r v i c e s more  T h i s may  suggest  language, not  counsellors in  learners with  skills  to  a p p e a r s t o have been  community.  i n working with  community  the  t o make f r i e n d s and  finding  information,  o f E n g l i s h as  and  of  I n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n , which tended  i n the  i n f o r m a t i o n , but  case  commensurate w i t h  this  immigrant  procedural  for instructors  prehension be  there  English classes.  far greater  i n the  register  opportunity  Although  for other  sought from sources  viding  difficulty  o f v o c a t i o n a l l y - o r i e n t e d , r a t h e r than  c o u n s e l l i n g on  role  to  They were p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n  o f E n g l i s h competency  be  related  i n f o r m a t i o n t o cope w i t h  acquire  oriented  information  except  d i d not  employment, an  might not  of  getting a satisfying  assistance with  applicable  sources  i n f o r m a t i o n were u s e d w i t h  t a s k w h i c h was  Israelis  tasks  of adaptation  adult education  most d i f f i c u l t job.  of adult education  tasks?  Personal frequency  use  they w i l l  the  in  pro-  institu-  listening  need i n o r d e r  effectively.  a  comto  89  Discussion The the  role  cation tion  of  education  for this  the  In  the  to  assist  tions  tors  in a  of  newcomers  instruction adult  society. using  a  normative  to  by  help  the  lies  an  viewpoint;  While  an  and  e d u c a t i o n a l needs  conditions program field,  with  language  As  a  adult When  a  impeded a  teachers ESL  of  but  not, are  study  was  approach  and  the  on  and  were  educator expecta-  the  as  a  the  part,  designed  of  on  Canadian  the  of  i n order To  p a r t of  most  i n 19 73,  language  basis  standards  dilemma frame  for  Canadian to  assess  date,  two  effective those  as the  pro-  educa-  conflict  the  group.  and  this,  called  competent,  community  begun  do  identification  f o r the rarely  has  them  client of  the their  To  must  society.  assumptions  view  diagnose  the  questions  courses  situational  must  of  i s , using  world  accepting  of  evaluate  (1977)  realization  developmental this  role  edu-  orienta-  educators of  to  that  cultural  those  gaps.  and  that  pre-occupation,  linguistic  result,  cific  programmer  design:  as  and  have  Paulston  equilibrium  standards.  those  values  first,  that  as  respect  e d u c a t i o n a l gaps  critically  norms,  society, meet  well  determining  must  what  dialectical  ESL  second,  i t i s the  bridge  with  and  i n n e g o t i a t i n g achievement  and  d i a g n o s i s and  and  adults,  immigrants  Herein  language  l e a r n e r s as  i n Canada  procedures,  for  adult  study  adults are:  provide  society;  immigrant  for l i f e  of  must  new  of  underlying this  f o r immigrant  group  needs  case  viding  of  assumptions  for life  serve  and  two  of  in  ESL the  themselves  adult  educators.  basis of  spe-  needs. audio-lingual  p r e v a l e n t i n the  ESL  methods  classroom.  90  Teachers appeared t o a t t a c h l i t t l e occurred o u t s i d e the classroom,  importance to l e a r n i n g which  except w i t h respect to grammati-  c a l mistakes being r e i n f o r c e d t h e r e .  Few ESL i n s t r u c t o r s had  r e c e i v e d formal t r a i n i n g but, i f they had, i t was i n general c a t i o n a l methodology applied  (elementary  o r secondary),  edu-  l i n g u i s t i c s and  linguistics.  During  the l a s t seven years, knowledge i n the f i e l d o f ESL  has accumulated q u i c k l y and r e s e a r c h e r s have moved from s t r u c t u r al  (grammar-based) to f u n c t i o n a l (purpose-related)  language a n a l y s i s and methodology development. (Munby, 1978; Trim,  methods of  Some r e s e a r c h e r s  1977; van Ek, 1976; W i l k i n s , 1973) have moved  from t h i s s t r u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l paradigm t o a systems approach and  are c u r r e n t l y i n v e s t i g a t i n g approaches to s y l l a b u s design i n  order to c r e a t e comprehensive systems, such as van E k s t h r e s h o l d 1  l e v e l system produced f o r the C o u n c i l of Europe conducting  (19 76).  Those  the r e s e a r c h , however, have l i m i t e d themselves to sug-  g e s t i o n o f l i n g u i s t i c r e a l i z a t i o n o f communicative f u n c t i o n s "made on the b a s i s of i n t r o s p e c t i o n and not as the r e s u l t of o b j e c t i v e , observational research" l i n e of reasoning stereotype" developers  ( W i l k i n s , 1972, p. 13). This f o l l o w s the  u t i l i z e d by Munby i n presuming a " p a r t i c i p a n t  (1978) and by most classroom  teachers and c u r r i c u l u m  i n d e s i g n i n g u n i t s and l e s s o n s on the b a s i s of assump-  t i o n s about the needs o f immigrant a d u l t s . A major c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h i s study these assumptions.  E m p i r i c a l evidence  b r i n g s the f o l l o w i n g i n t o q u e s t i o n :  i s to undermine some o f  has been provided  which  91 1.  the explanatory  f u n c t i o n of socio-demographic data i n pre-  d i c t i n g perceived 2.  d i f f i c u l t y of tasks of  the appropriateness  of o r d e r i n g  curriculum  adaptation; on the b a s i s of  knowledge r e q u i r e d by new a r r i v a l s so that beginning language l e a r n e r s concentrate or using  such as r e n t i n g accommodation  the post o f f i c e when  such tasks 3.  on tasks  most o f them have long  i n reality;  the n e c e s s i t y of p r o v i d i n g  "coping"  skills  to a d u l t immigrants  who seem to o b t a i n r e q u i r e d knowledge and a s s i s t a n c e personal  resolved  from  sources of i n f o r m a t i o n .  Some e l a b o r a t i o n or q u a l i f i c a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d . f o r each of the above three p o i n t s .  F i r s t , w h i l e the study f i n d i n g s i m p l i e d  t h a t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s should  not be drawn with r e s p e c t  to the  a b i l i t y of socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s to p r e d i c t perceived  diffi-  c u l t y , some a t t e n t i o n must be p a i d to t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to task resolution.  (p. 7 5 ), a p r o f i l e of those who  As noted e a r l i e r  attempted but f a i l e d to r e s o l v e the most d i f f i c u l t y task, a career-oriented it  job, r a i s e d f u r t h e r research  that the m a j o r i t y  How i s  of respondents i n t h i s category were women  between the ages of twenty-five  and t h i r t y - t w o who appeared t o be  q u a l i f i e d f o r d e s i r e d employment? to other e t h n i c groups? What f a c t o r s , other  questions.  finding  Is t h i s phenomena g e n e r a l i z a b l e  Is i t g e n e r a l i z a b l e to Canadians as w e l l ?  than socio-demographic ones, i n f l u e n c e  f u l completion of t h i s task? or p r e d i c t i n g p e r c e i v e d  Rather than p r o v i d i n g  difficulty,  success-  explanation  socio-demographic p r o f i l e s  92 appear to be u s e f u l i n i n d i c a t i n g and suggesting areas f o r f u r ther r e s e a r c h i n t o task The  resolution.  second p o i n t does not mean to suggest t h a t language or  other communication s k i l l s should never be taught.  r e l e v a n t to tasks of new  Rather,  i t suggests  arrivals  t h a t c a u t i o n must be  taken not to l e g i s l a t e such c h o i c e s i n t o c u r r i c u l u m so t h a t beg i n n i n g language l e a r n e r s must a u t o m a t i c a l l y l e a r n language f o r tasks, such as r e n t i n g accommodation, simply because they  are  beginners,  country  i r r e s p e c t i v e of how  long they have been i n the  or of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r developmental The  needs.  t h i r d p o i n t , s i m i l a r l y to the second, does not mean to  imply t h a t coping or o r i e n t a t i o n s k i l l s I t does suggest,  should never be  taught.  however, t h a t care must be taken not to impose  t h i s content on everyone v i a c u r r i c u l u m as the r e s u l t s of the study showed t h a t the m a j o r i t y of tasks of a d a p t a t i o n were r e s o l v e d by t h i s group of respondents t i o n networks.  from w i t h i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l  informa-  For r e s e a r c h e r s , i t might be i n t e r e s t i n g and  use-  f u l to i n v e s t i g a t e p e r s o n a l and e t h n i c group i n f o r m a t i o n networks. For ESL  i n s t r u c t o r s , i t might be more to the p o i n t to de-emphasize  coping and o r i e n t a t i o n s k i l l s skills  f o r which e d u c a t i o n was  spondents.  i n favour of employment-oriented a c t u a l l y being sought by these r e -  F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s r e q u i r e d to e s t a b l i s h whether or  not t h i s f i n d i n g i s g e n e r a l i z a b l e to e t h n i c groups other than one  the  s t u d i e d here. The major c o n t r i b u t i o n s of t h i s study a r e :  f i r s t , i n pro-  v i d i n g a d e f i n i t i o n of a d a p t a t i o n t h a t does not r e l y on l e g i s l a t - . ing  end-states  ( s u c c e s s f u l adaptation) but r a t h e r , concentrates  on  9 3  the  process  the  conceptualization  needs of  of  of  variables of  adaptation;  examined/  and  leads  to  the  be  renamed  search  concentrate  specific The  new  policy  on  of  of  conclusions  adult  program  educational  riate  both  sponsoring clude  for  of  the  bore  a  construct  of  difficulty  of  the  four  required  by  significant  r e l a t i o n s h i p to  the  prioritizing  difficulty.  "difficulty"  innovation"  and  might  further  investigating  re-  this  Study of  for  the  study  both  for  the  Researchers study  researchers  immigrants: and  program  planning  as  study,  institutional  of  the  The  and  discussed further  in  this  research  three  of For  generally  which  ESL  programming.  of  fur-  providing  educational  needs,  purposes  this  of  the  process  synthesize  and  are  and  the  program  i t i s c u r r e n t l y known vocational  areas  to  learners of  Practitioners  practitioners in  planning.  notion  and  inform  assessment  refers  activities  needs  ESL  of  practice.  institution.  vocational  findings focus  the  that,  innovation  which  implications  findings  devising to  one  second,  and  estimation  finding  cultural  only  of  assessing  o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g and  the  development,  discussion,  the  the  society;  construct.  field  for  third, of  new  magnitude  cultural  i n v e s t i g a t i o n by  education  using  the to  "extent  the  ther  approach  that  and  major  in  generalizable  i n e v i t a b l y have  The  place  suggestion  f i n d i n g s and  Implications  an  and  was  section for  a  extent  seemingly  better  more  of  adults  adaptation  positive This  negotiating  immigrant  tasks  tasks  of  is  mandate planning  and,  suggested  appropof  a  the  would  i n view as  of  of  major  inthe  94 . The The tasks  of  methodology adaptation  replicated The  Process  or  modified  wishing  1.  of  tasks  word, of  by  tasks  to  i n assessing  sample assess be  of  Israeli  needs  helpful  use  this  the  of  to  immigrants  those in  the  conceptualizing adaptation  or  problems  to  be  solved  and  o u t l i n e d i n the  study,  such  replaced. s t i l l  The  excluding  b)  generating  c)  concentrating those  methodology  stand.  a)  the  study  are  not  following as  for conducting  and  the as  final a  series  methodological  stating  instrument  M o d i f i c a t i o n s might  some  tasks  may  the  be  in  modified  assessment  include:  tasks;  more  items  of  learners.  future.  By  items  be  researchers  means.  the  of  may  immigrant  any  terms,  in this  difficulty  other  process  Needs  used  behavioural  will  to  Educational  adaptation  guidelines  or  a  will  practitioners  Assessing  utilized  with  following points  The  of  specific  on  and  which  items  relating  generating  represent  more  greater  to  employment;  specific extents  tasks  of  for  cultural  innovation; d)  generating  tasks  situations  an  lar 2.  immigrant  estimation  oriented  must  and  i s based  master  ability.  The  using  magnitude  estimation  that  on  the  i s , in a l l likelihood,  tural  notion  are  to  the  for  communicative  life  in a  particu-  community.  Magnitude ratios  which  this  f i n d i n g s of  instrument  a  ability human  Holmes  and  conceptualize  rather Masuda  cross-culturally, has  to  than  a  cul-  (1967),  substantiate  cross-cultural  validity  the  and,  therefore, assess  their  country 3.  i s appropriate  of  learning  assessment  starting  point of ESL i n s t r u c t i o n ,  may  provide  t o be c o n d u c t e d  question  the q u a l i t y  no  argument  against conducting  native  Magnitude  e s t i m a t i o n has t h r e e  may  language,  device.  second,  First,  i t allows  immigrant  practitioners. examination policy  While  i s necessary  education  the  current trend o f f i c i a l l y  and Immigration  job  trends;  market  embued  appears  reason t o be i n the  p r o p e r t i e s as a well,  i ti s easily  o f items;  parametric  and  third,  statistics  relationships.  for delivery  of education f o r  o f both  r e s e a r c h e r s and  i s a provincial  responsibility,  a n d manpower policy  training  statements  t o ESL program  be i n v e s t i g a t e d :  t o manpower  of Canadian  and M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m  training  values  proAt  problems o f  o f ESL c l a s s e s sponsored  (CEIC)  can  planners.  t o d e f i n e ESL as a d u l t b a s i c  and a n a l y s i s  i n Immigration  one h a s  Development  i s s u e s must  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  or  f o rthe  a self-assessment  device,  and d i r e c t i o n  Employment  there  i f explained  multiculturalism  present  (ABE);  three  i s no need  important  the a t t e n t i o n  the  tion  such  so t h a t p r o v i n c i a l  guidance  time  of policy  requires  of federal  suitable  their  f o r the content  Unless  i n analyzing hypothesized  development adults  there  f o r the addition  Policy The  self-  i f necessary.  i ti s a ratio-scaling  be u s e d  the basis  of translation,  learner's  because  regardless of  i n English.  to  used;  to  origin.  measurement  vide  needs  As needs  assessment  4.  priority  f o r use by ESL s t u d e n t s  and  policies.  by  educaCanada  policy  and  assumptions  96  The Programs  Draft issued  characterizes tion.  While  learning" adults  Policy by  t h e B.C. M i n i s t r y  the problems ESL programs  (p.l),  with  on the P r o v i s i o n  they  need  sufficient  "prepare  people  effectively  as c i t i z e n s ,  parents  As  Richmond  and Kalbach  (1980)  out, a f t e r  of  adjustment,  levels  immigrants'and  of material  prosperity  established  Canadians  were  educated  to  better  remain  Since  i n school  19 71,  favourable  These than  needing  effectively require tence  beyond  and more have  serious  been  language  children equalled  school  have  cited  English  to transfer  as c i t i z e n s ,  parents  and l e a r n e r s  society.  It  undercuts  This  i s not merely  the assumption  the a b i l i t y  ing  their  adult  may  be s u i t a b l e  o r have  that  failed  roles.  While  f o r ABE  students,  adult  times  the focus  of less  some  the view  likely  (p. 4 7 3 ) .  economic  (p. 4 7 5 ) .  that,  rather  to participate immigrant  adults  already-held  to the cultural an academic immigrants  to succeed  longer-  immigrants  age  of adjustment  their  period  c h i l d r e n more  and l e a r n e r s ,  sufficient  t h e new  recent  during  and c i t i z e n s h i p s k i l l s  (p. 2 ) .  achieved  or surpassed  leaving  to support  parents  speaking  an i n i t i a l  experienced  problems  for further  i n 1971 h a d  and t h e i r  arriving  conditions  educa-  and l e a r n e r s "  In addition,  minimum  immigrants  as c i t i z e n s ,  of  lack  (p. 473).  employment  findings  that  on t h e average  however,  difficulties  their  1980  a n d c i t i z e n s h i p s k i l l s to^  participate  point  basic  non-English  language  Education  i n April,  ESL as a d u l t  not "provide  English  Basic  of Education  of defining do i n d e e d  of Adult  compemilieu  distinction.  (ESL s t u d e n t s )  i n effectively  implied  by t h i s  i t i s not appropriate  realiz-  assumption f o r the  97  majority ABE,  of  ESL  students.  legislators  riate  lay  ESL  program  The  second  the  By  groundwork  issue  to  training policy  planned  labour ESL to  classes  fact,  appear for  -  guidance  suffer  Federal  money  federal  education content (or  other)  lack local  the  develop  from buys  direction  by  the  or  techniques most  part,  seats  in  does  CEIC.  institutions not  does  wish not  to  regional  plan  manpower and  other  Unofficial  and  and  these  provide  needs  reports  by to  appear,  assist  CEIC  to  classes  compounding  exists  that  these  be  province.  involved  in  determining Local by  get  to  the  college  omission,  individuals and who the  to  to the  to  maintain work general  misconceived,  students'  not,  jurisdiction.  counsellors  are  preis  appropriate  contributed  way  classes  the  sponsor.  required  have  ESL  in  education to  from  programs  to  or  skills  CEIC-sponsored  contribute  they  some  This  seems  funded  speak-  the  curriculum  It  appear  CEIC  analysis,  like.  participate in  classes  in  CEIC-sponsored  from  by  of  oriented  No  policy  CEIC-sponsored  the  well-intentioned,  while to  that  and  co-ordination.  to  Broadly  requirements  market  staff,  that  of  inapprop-  sponsored  job  the  of  and  trends.  skills  d i r e c t i o n of  graduates  context  respect  federal-provincial split  therefore,  job-search  impression  the  market  therefore,  i s provided  government  employment. with  none  overview  and  the  with  classes  orientation,  interview For  job  language  d i r e c t i o n and  and,  or  and  assume,  employment  and  classes  The  would  case.  lack  the  for misinformed  ESL  i s guided  provide  skills,  the  to  One  would  employment  within  attention  r e l a t i o n s h i p of  immigration  market.  employment in  the  requiring  is  ing,  ESL  development.  development manpower  defining  lack  difficulties  by  98 providing these  misinformation.  classes at  enough  to  better  education  the  warrant  The  present  an  amount o f  time  i n Canada  investigation  f o r immigrant  money b e i n g  of  ways  is  on  justification  and  adults wishing  spent  means to  to  enter  provide the  a  labour  force. Finally,  one  of  the  some d e f i n i t i o n  of  order  immigrant  life  to  assist  here.  cultural  The  Canadian  that  innovation"  research  into  predominant  the  adaptation  tries  cultures.  of  assumptions  comers  expect  widely  as  dividual these  of  process.  When  the  as  seek  of  of  more of  who  arrive  adopt  values here,  The  and  they  defining adaptation d i f f e r e n c e s as  For  as  a  to  process  i s the  is a  federal  extent  of  the of  appropriate  from of  most  their  to  "extent  experience  the  in  underlines  assumptions  beliefs  the  that  adapt  l e d to  This  Canada  culture of  limits  the  and  cultural  to  to  renamed  adaptation.  come  the  and  specific  c u l t u r e shock. to  be  implies  i s necessary  adaptation  conflicting  norms,  p o s s i b l y can.  individual  difficulty  tasks  tasks  study  education,  "difficulty"  Those  they  known and  they and  nature  them  through  facilitate  importance  bring with  mer  to  the  assumptions  between  construct  cultural  the  adults,  r e q u i r e d by  the  the  f i n d i n g s of  cultural  relationship  innovation  suggestion  major  other  coun-  their  for-  that part,  new  to  clash new-  country  ability  are  as in-  r e c o g n i t i o n of  multicultural  pol-  icy . Although as  emphasizing  much m a l i g n e d our  multiculturalism pluralism.  as  a  catch  differences rather  is a  Inherent  statement i n the  of  policy  phrase,  than  Canadian and  our  empty  or  similarities,  commitment  i n the  rhetoric  to  cultural  guidelines for dis-  99  tribution grams  is  of  funds  the  belief  determination their of  minorities  into  present,  the  policy  the  s a m e way  the  ism, to  Canadian  sub-text  so  other  "our"  cal  pieces  point  of  view  priority Without  for a  and  those  clear  be  provided  which  of  p a r t i c i p a n t s or  and  new  for  do  not  the  has  general,  centred  linguistic The  lack  riate  on  a  program  program  ly  exists  in  the  defining the  ethnic  of  the  be  found  m u l t i c u l t u r a l -' with  respect  minorities. source the  of  Canadian  must  will  or  such  philosophi-  immigrant  short  either  to  minorities  education  at  phenomena.  legislated  meet  of  be  a  adults.  continue  long  range  to  needs  Development of  education  English  formed  student-centred  planning  of  obvious  classes  delivery  have  planning  of  ethnic  In  country.  programs  concerns  of  no  the  an  adaptation  these  on  for  i t and,  assumptions  and  self-  society.  are  common p u r p o s e ,  Program In  values  pro-  support  change  statement  seem  the  that  support  carry  and  r i g h t of  successful  also  other  purpose  in  the  and  assumptions  the  Canadian  Canadians  the  engaging of  of  multicultural  value  to  policy  immigrants  sense  the  allow  legislation  cultural  toward  to  have  will  regulations  research  p o s i t i o n and  they  federal  of  and  fabric  these  toward  policy  Policy  the  appears  the  attitudes  Immigration data.  of  State's  contribute  society,  as  of  groups  society  identity will  to  in  ethnic  our  adapting  In  Secretary  that  within  ethnic  ethnic  under  as  the  as  second  basis  for  philosophical  methodologies  level,  a  adult  administrative  is  for  adult  language,  evidenced  structure  for  and  decision-making.  approach  educators  immigrants  by  and  approp-  the  fact  describe ESL  i t ,  programs  that  currentin  100  British  Columbia.  tutions  offering  ducted such  by  ones,  the  that,  once  are  except  by  dard  rather  than  with  difficulty  tion.  The  course ment  within nated  of  a  ESL  the  shifts  instiis  to  inexperienced  rarely  suggests  is modi-  a  guides  i n emphasis  carry out  well-conceived  the  assist  and  of  While  institution  such  con-  outcome  stan-  respond  and  evalua-  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e of  planner  lacking  specialized  the  of  a  permanent  work  seem  the  functions  i n the  of  develop-  a p p r o p r i a t e ESL  learners.  when  they  finding  that  the  pro-  satisfying  great  extent  people  people  in direct In  many  to  cases,  cultural and  to  task  further are  view  (and,  by  innovation)  while  the  the  instiwork train-  constructed  the  newcomers In  co-ordi-  host  enter  take  function  are  the  programs  i n Canada.  c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d job,  of  o p p o s i t i o n to  difficult of  planning  programs  focus  t h a t ESL  arrive most  ESL  market  prepare  force entry  the  a  to  program  few  preparing  i t appears  skills  requiring  labour  directly  surface,  desires of  study's  needs,  on  m o d i f i c a t i o n , would of  the  is static,  based  w i t h i n the  to  programs  postpone  job  f o r the  i t s presence  administrative structure,  Instead  On  and  and  especially  Programs  changing  program  addition  with  force,  approach  style,  within  curriculum guide.  curriculum guide  guide.  to  an  exist  courses.  the  tution.  a  a  projects,  syllabus or  such  teaching  maintenance  and In  one  short-term a  does  c u r r i c u l u m development,  for instructors,  a  e v a l u a t i o n and  and  grams  with  presence,  institution,  have  doing  completed,  planning  i t is called  useful  problem  fied  and  program  projects i s usually guides  to  ESL,  teachers  these  ing.  Where  needs  already  of  this  implication, was  i s s u e of  finding institu-  101  tional  manadate  statement, support 1.  the  work  CEIC  for  following  force  funded  turally  programs are  entry  by  programs  appropriate  requires  clarification  examples  of  adult  that  programs  via  a  which  policy  might  immigrants.  concentrate  strategies  for  on  language  getting  and  and  cul-  maintaining  employment; 2.  programs  in-professional  engineers a)  and  the  professional in  b)  native  which  doctors,  to  speak  lawyers,  on:  to  colleagues  and  read  publications;  discourse  language  for  concentrate  terminology  professional  transferring  c)  like  English  to  and  communication  skills  from  the  English;  c u l t u r a l l y appropriate  professional  strategies  and  pro-  cedures; d)  building  language  fessional 3.  certification  pre-vocational study  skills  ability  toward  will  provincial  pro-  examinations;  t r a i n i n g programs that  passing  directed  be.required  during  toward  the  vocational  texts or  and  other  retraining; 4.  on-the-job cational In  adult  ESL  programs  co-ordinated  i n s t i t u t i o n s and  business  or  addition  immigrants  citizenship  to  employment-oriented  should  examination,  Finally, offer  vocational  courses  developmental  in to  the  be a  available rite  same way  a s s i s t native  tasks,  second  of as  to  programs,  assistance  successfully into  continuing  language  edu-  industry.  passage  speakers  between  in  Canadian  education  resolving  speakers  complete  have  the  society.  programs  their  the  to  adult  right  of  102  access  t o programs  especially  ones which  sibilities. orientation these  programs  are provided  that In  of  closing,  i t should  and t h e i r  citizens  from  of  citizens  these  abroad  more w i l l  f o r economic  with  learners  are pragmatic  church have  arrive t o seek Canada  respect  fears.  influx,  centres  and s o c i a l  when  service to  and i f r e q u i r e d .  Canada  as world  i s a  country  economic and  better opportunities for r e q u i r e s and expects our history  shows  and used  Appropriate  f o r t h e needs  society.  respon-  refugee  as  new  that  many  scape-  educational  of adult  and d e s i r a b l e f o r t h e growth,  of Canadian  and  a responsibility  that  e x p l o i t e d , abused  and p o l i t i c a l  conceived  integrity  been  rights  i n urban  provided  but, i n the past,  have  While  be r e i t e r a t e d  families.  programs  and  institutions are being  information,  as the r e c e n t  e t h n i c group,  programs  such  and s o c i a l  be necessary.  through  a n d many  such  conditions oblige adults  themselves  goats  may  provide  legal  cases,  educational  these  immigrants  social  clarify  In special  organizations, ensure  f o r them w h i c h  immigrant  cohesiveness  103  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A l l e y n e , E. P a t r i c k and C o o l i e V e r n e r . 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"ESL on the Job: The Jantzen Experience", TEAL O c c a s i o n a l Papers, Vancouver: B.C. A s s o c i a t i o n of Teachers of E n g l i s h as an A d d i t i o n a l Language, V o l . 1, pp. 25-33, 1977. L i o n b e r g e r , Herbert F. Adoption of New Ideas and P r a c t i c e s , Ames, Iowa: State U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1960. Masuda, Minoru and Thomas H. Holmes. "Magnitude E s t i m a t i o n s of S o c i a l Readjustments", J o u r n a l o f Psychosomatic Research, V o l . 2, 1967, pp. 219-225. Masuda, Minoru and Thomas H. Holmes. "The S o c i a l Re-adjustment Rating S c a l e : A C r o s s - C u l t u r a l Study o f Japanese and Americans", J o u r n a l of Psychosomatic Research, V o l . 2, 1967, pp. 227-237. M e r r i t t , J.E. "The Development o f a Needs-Based L i t e r a c y Programme - a Comment", i n BAAL ( B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n of A p p l i e d L i n g u i s t i c s ) seminar r e p o r t , Languages f o r L i f e , pp. IV 1-11, 1978. M i n i s t r y Advisory Committee on C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n . A Draft P o l i c y on the P r o v i s i o n of A d u l t B a s i c Education Programs, Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, M i n i s t r y of Education, PostSecondary Department, C o n t i n u i n g Education D i v i s i o n , V i c t o r i a , B.C., A p r i l , 1980. Mohan, Bernard. " R e l a t i n g language teaching and content TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 13, No. 2, 1979. Munby, John. Communicative S y l l a b u s Design, London: U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1978.  teaching",  Cambridge  P a u l s t o n , Rolland G. " S o c i a l and E d u c a t i o n a l Change: Conceptual Frameworks", Comparative Education Review, Volume 21, Nos. 2/3, June/October, 1977, pp. 370-395. Richmond, Anthony H. and Warren E. Kalbach. F a c t o r s i n the Adjustment of Immigrants and T h e i r Descendents, Ottawa: S t a t i s t i c s Canada, January, 1980. R i c h t e r i c h , Rene. "A Model f o r the D e f i n i t i o n of Language Needs of A d u l t s " , Systems Development i n A d u l t Language Learning, Strasbourg: C o u n c i l of Europe, C o u n c i l of C u l t u r a l Co-operation, pp. 31-62, 1973. Selman, Mary and Margaret B l a c k w e l l . "ESL: A Community-Based Program", TEAL O c c a s i o n a l Papers, Vancouver: B.C. A s s o c i a t i o n of Teachers of E n g l i s h as an A d d i t i o n a l Language, V o l . 1, pp. 74-85, 1977.  106  Stern,  H.H.. "Mammoths o r O c t o b e r 8, 1 9 7 6 , p.  Modules", 44.  S t e v e n s , S.S. "A M e t r i c f o r S o c i a l F e b r u a r y , 1966, pp. 530-541.  Times  Educational  Consensus",  Supplement,  Science,  S t e v e n s , S.S. "Matching F u n c t i o n s Between Loudness C o n t i n u a " , P e r c e p t i o n and P s y c h o p h y s i c s , V o l . pp. 5-8.  and 1,  Vol.  151,  Ten Other 1966,  Stevick, Earl. A d a p t i n g and W r i t i n g Language L e s s o n s , Washington, D.C.: F o r e i g n S e r v i c e I n s t i t u t e , Department of S t a t e , 1971. Taft,  Ronald. Coping With U n f a m i l i a r C u l t u r e s , manuscript, December, 1975.  Trim,  J.L.M. General i n t r o d u c t i o n to the'symposium. Paper p r e s e n t e d a t a symposium on A E u r o p e a n u n i t / c r e d i t s y s t e m f o r modern l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g by a d u l t s , a t L u d w i g s h a f e n aur-Rhein, Strasbourg, France: C o u n c i l o f Europe, September, 1977.  Van  Ek, J.A. The T h r e s h o l d L e v e l f o r Modern Schools, London: L o n g m a n , 197 6.  unpublished  Language  Learning  in  Verner, Coolie. A C o n c e p t u a l Scheme f o r t h e I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Processes, Chicago, I l l i n o i s : Adult E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e U.S.A., 1962. W i l k i n s , D.A. "A C o m m u n i c a t i v e A p p r o a c h t o S y l l a b u s C o n s t r u c t i o n i n A d u l t Language L e a r n i n g " , p a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t a symposium on A U n i t / C r e d i t System f o r Modern L a n g u a g e s i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , S t . W o l f g a n g , A u s t r i a , J u n e , 1973. ( E r i c ED 086 012) . W o l f g a n g , A a r o n (ed) E d u c a t i o n of Immigrant Students, Symposium S e r i e s 5, T o r o n t o : Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, 1975. Wong, Wah. E n g l i s h as a Second Language Needs A s s e s s m e n t Survey, unpublished manuscript, Vancouver: B.C. M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n and B r i t a n n i a Community S e r v i c e s C e n t r e , 1977. Y i l d i z , Nancy. Community  N i g h t S c h o o l ELT Program, V a n c o u v e r : C o l l e g e , K i n g E d w a r d Campus, 1977.  Vancouver  107  7APPENDIX  I  Respondent Number  Respondent's Name:  Address:  Telephone:  Record o f V i s i t s  Date  A d d i t i o n a l Notes  Time  Comments  108  1.  Man Woman  2.  Age  3.  Single  Upon A r r i v a l  A t Present  Married Divorced Widowed 4.  Place of B i r t h  5.  F i r s t Language  6.  Number o f Languages  7.  Citizenship  8.  Spouse's P l a c e o f B i r t h  9.  Spouse's F i r s t Language  (describe)  10.  Spouse's C i t i z e n s h i p  11.  L a s t P l a c e s o f Residence  12.  Length o f Residence  i n Last Place  years  13.  Length o f Residence  i n Vancouver  years  14.  D i d y o u e v e r v i s i t Vancouver b e f o r e y o u came t o l i v e h e r e ?  Yes No  ,  15.  I f s o , how l o n g was y o u r v i s i t h e r e ?  16.  P r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n (Be v e r y s p e c i f i c such as owner o f s m a l l r e t a i l b u s i n e s s , s a l e s manager o f Sears Dept. s t o r e , s e c r e t a r y i n a r e a l e s t a t e o f f i c e , i r o n worker making c a r frames a t G e n e r a l Motors)  109  17.  I f p r e s e n t l y unemployed o r housewife, what was y o u r l a s t i n Canada?  18.  What was y o u r l a s t o c c u p a t i o n i n I s r a e l ?  19.  What o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s have you had i n y o u r  20.  I f you have never worked a t a l l what was y o u r spouse's o c c u p a t i o n when you l e f t I s r a e l ?  21.  How many c h i l d r e n d i d you have? upon a r r i v a l  22.  How o l d were y o u r c h i l d r e n  occupation  life?  at present upon a r r i v a l  at present  child 1 child 2 child  3  child  4  23.  How many y e a r s o f f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g have you had?  24.  D e s c r i b e y o u r l i f e ' s e d u c a t i o n i n d e t a i l (e.g. 10 y e a r s h i g h s c h o o l , 2 y e a r s i n army t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l , worked f o r 5 y e a r s , 4 y e a r s u n i v e r s i t y , 1 y e a r t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g , worked f o r 10 y e a r s , 6 months j o b r e t r a i n i n g a t an i n s u r a n c e company) B e f o r e a r r i v a l i n Canada  25.  years.  A f t e r a r r i v a l i n Canada  How many c o u n t r i e s have you l i v e d i n f o r s i x months o r more i n c l u d i n g Canada and I s r a e l ?  110  26.  Do y o u h o l d a B.C. D r i v e r ' s L i c e n c e ?  27.  D i d y o u h o l d a d r i v e r ' s l i c e n c e b e f o r e coming t o B.C.?  28.  When you a r r i v e d i n Vancouver, how many a d u l t r e l a t i v e s d i d y o u have here?  29.  How was each o f them (from #28) r e l a t e d t o you?  30.  When y o u a r r i v e d i n Vancouver, how many f r i e n d s d i d y o u a l r e a d y have l i v i n g here? (not r e l a t i v e s )  31.  How many o f y o u r f r i e n d s  32.  How o f t e n d i d y o u see each o f y o u r I s r a e l i Friend  Yes  No Yes  (from #30) were I s r a e l i s ? friends?  D u r i n g 1 s t 6 months i n Van.  A t present  3.  33.  How many o f y o u r f r i e n d s  34.  HOT o f t e n d i d y o u see each o f y o u r Canadian Friend  (from #30) were Canadians? friends?  D u r i n g 1 s t 6 months i n Van.  At present  No .  Ill  35.  36.  How o f t e n did y o u a t t e n d a synagogue? \  f Never  [  | Now and t h e n o v e r t h e y e a r s  1  | At least  yearly  |  | At least  monthly  |  | At least  weekly  ;  J At least  daily  When d i d y o u l a s t a t t e n d t h e synagogue? Occasion:  37.  When was t h e time b e f o r e t h e l a s t ^  38.  39.  time?  Occasion:  How o f t e n do y o u r e a d t h e J e w i s h Western B u l l e t i n ? |  | Never  |  | Now and t h e n o v e r t h e y e a r s  |  | At least yearly  [  | At least  |  J At least  monthly weekly  When was t h e l a s t time y o u r e a d i t ? Where?  40.  When was t h e time b e f o r e t h e l a s t  time?  Where? 41.  How o f t e n do y o u go t o t h e J e w i s h Community C e n t r e ? | |  | Never ~\ Now and t h e n o v e r t h e y e a r s  [  | At least yearly  |  | At least  monthly  |  | At least  weekly  |~  | At least  daily  112  42.  When was t h e l a s t time y o u went t o t h e J e w i s h ODrnmunity C e n t r e ? What f o r ?  43.  When was t h e time b e f o r e t h e l a s t  time?  What f o r ? 44.  Here a r e some statements d e s c r i b i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between l i f e i n I s r a e l and l i f e i n Canada. Read them and i n d i c a t e how s t r o n g l y y o u agree o r d i s a g r e e w i t h each one: s t r o n g l y agree, agree, n e u t r a l , d i s a g r e e , strongly disagree.  SA  A  N  D  SD  L i f e i s l e s s e x p e n s i v e i n Canada.  SA  A  N  D  SD  There i s a b i g d i f f e r e n c e i n Canadian  SA  A  N  D  SD  The Canadians a r e more f r i e n d l y than  SA  A  N  D  SD  There i s no p r e s s u r e from war and t h e p o l i t i c a l i n Canada.  SA  A  N  D  SD  The c l i m a t e i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t i n Vancouver.  SA  A  N  D  SD  P o l i t i c a l l i f e i s more i n t e r e s t i n g i n I s r a e l .  SA  A  N  D  SD  There a r e more economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n Canada.  SA  A  N  D  SD  There i s l e s s s o c i a l and f a m i l y l i f e i n Canada.  SA  A  N  D  SD  Canadians a r e more p o l i t e t h a n I s r a e l i s .  SA  A  N  D  SD  It's  SA  A  N  D  SD  People i n Canada l i v e i n b e t t e r h o u s i n g .  SA  A  N  D  SD  Canadians a r e n o t as f r i e n d l y as I s r a e l i s .  food. Israelis. situation  h a r d e r t o f i n d a j o b i n Canada.  45.  I f y o u have n o t i c e d some d i f f e r e n c e s between l i f e i n I s r a e l and l i f e i n Canada which do n o t appear i n #44, p l e a s e s t a t e  46.  How s a t i s f i e d a r e y o u w i t h y o u r l i f e i n Canada?  1. 2. Not a t a l l Much l e s s than I -it's thought I terrible would be  3. Almost as much as I thought I would be  4. As much as I thought I would be  5. Better than I thought I would be  6. More than I ever thought possible  7. Completely - I love it  113  47.  Here a r e seme statements d e s c r i b i n g reasons why you might be d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h y o u r l i f e i n Canada. Read them and i n d i c a t e how s t r o n g l y you agree o r d i s a g r e e w i t h each one: s t r o n g l y agree, agree, n e u t r a l , d i s a g r e e , strongly disagree.  SA  A  N  D  SD  Canadians are t o o p r i v a t e .  SA  A  N  D  SD  The c l i m a t e i n Vancouver  SA  A  N  D  SD  I p r e f e r a more s o c i a l i s t government.  SA  A  N  D  SD  I t ' s d i f f i c u l t t o make l o n g - l a s t i n g f r i e n d s h e r e .  SA  A  N  D  SD  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e I s r a e l i s and the o t h e r Jews i n Vancouver i s n o t good.  SA  A  N  D  SD  I c a n ' t g e t a good j o b h e r e .  SA  A  N  D  SD  I m i s s the I s r a e l i c u l t u r e .  SA  A  N  D  SD  I miss my  SA  A  N  D  SD  Canadian Jews a r e n ' t r e a l l y J e w i s h .  i s depressing.  family i n I s r a e l .  48.  I f you a r e d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h scmetliing t h a t i s n o t l i s t e d i n #47, p l e a s e state i t .  49.  D i d you come t o Canada Alone With f r i e n d s  (no f a m i l y )  With y o u r immediate  family  With y o u r f a m i l y and o t h e r s Others 50.  What was  your c i t i z e n s h i p status  Visitor's Visa  (no work permit)  Visitor's Visa  (& work permit)  Employment V i s a Student V i s a  (no work permit)  Student V i s a  (& work permit)  Landed Immigrant:  Independent F i a n c e (e) Sponsored Ncminated  Other:  Describe  Upon A r r i v a l  At Present  114  51.  Do y o u use E n g l i s h  (a)  a t home 1 none  2 sometimes  h a l f the time  most o f t h e time  a l l t h e time  (b)  2 a t work 1 none <• sometimes  3 h a l f the time  4 most o f t h e time  5 a l l t h e time  52.  How w e l l d i d you speak E n g l i s h upon a r r i v a l i n Canada?  1 couldn t g e t by at a l l 1  53.  3 I could understand a l o t and speak a little  4 I could understand everything and speak a lot  7  5 6 I spoke w e l l I spoke w e l l b u t had w i t h an trouble with accent t e c h n i c a l and professional terms  I could p a s s as a native Canadian  How w e l l do you speak E n g l i s h now?  1 I can't get b y at a l l  54.  2 I could understand a little but n o t speak  2 I can understand a little but not speak  3 I can understand a l o t and speak a little  Interviewer's  1 I had t o conduct the whole interview i n Hebrew. S/he does not know English at" a l l  4 I can understand everything and speak a lot  5 I speak w e l l b u t have trouble with t e c h n i c a l and professional terms  assessment o f i n t e r v i e w e e s  2 S/he understands a l i t t l e Engl i s h but doesn't speak i t  1  3 S/he understands a l o t o f Engl i s h and speaks a little  7 I speak w e l l w i t h an accent  I can p a s s as a native Canadian  English  4 S/he understands everything in English and speaks a l o t of English  5 S/he speaks English well but has t r o u b l e with techn i c a l and professiona l terms  6 S/he .; speaks well w i t h an accent  S/he c o u l d pass as a native Canadian  116  APPENDIX  INTERVIEWERS* 1.  Phone  the  person  appointment.  Ask  Say  something  "My  name  Mastai, who is  are  a  Bulletin  of  background  to an  this on  used  at  UBC,  article  week. what  who  be  word  "immigrant".  for.  Try,  at  doctoral  cation  at  i s conducting  they  are  r e s o l v e d when  does  not  i n q u i r e why  newcomers  they  to  how  to  they  can  providing groups members or  one  Yona  inform  of of  one  what  the  teachers  of  have  here.  in  Frishman,  in  Hebrew.  can  interviewers: Dahlia  and,  expect Dvori  a  an  on  Judith  Israelis  ten  years.  Below  the  Jewish  Western  to  what  avoid  give the  using  some  results the  "newcomer".  of  how  adapt  people a  a new  newcomer  country.  a  of  second and  the  next  phone  Ruth  the  call  Nathan  survey  Canada  or  survey  Different  from  new how  will  as  efficient  month,  Edu-  to  and  language  more  lessons.  Adult  The  come t o  results  Balshine,  Gottlieb-Tanaka,  of  Department  newcomers  during  behalf  and  to  face  E n g l i s h as  for their  community  on  The  content  interviewed  in  chosen' t o  meaningful  her  make  research  word  tasks  to  the  to  information  i n the  arrives  stay  on  i s about  helpful  be  speak  last  the  more  will  be  i s on  the  research  The  used  emphasis  phoning  a l l costs,  student  places.  intend  use  Substitute  a  be  i f you  appeared  research  Mastai,  long  i n order  i s doing  over  Please the  am  that  Judith  how  FOLLOW  interview  I  Vancouver  will  UBC,  TO  like:  student  copy  to  -  come  STEPS  i f i t ' s alright  is  have a  you  III  to in  ethnic  Israeli Mrs.  Mastai  Davidovitch,  Kowarsky,  Amos  Lakos,  117  Moshe  Mastai,  Harvey to  Michal  Radman.  Mrs.  Mastai  appreciated. couver  or  of  study  the  short  A in  the  know  of  someone  as  well  on  Bulletin  questionnaire  top  card  2.  At  'the  the  a  doing  research  interested to  upset  few  phone  of  live  or  in  on  new  unwilling to first  few  study  might  be:  the  directed  be  greatly  have  been  here  here  for  some  time.  you  see  the  to  the  as  Van-  success  who  first  be  the  "Did  going  can  arrived in  phone,  been  Parag,  will  recently  those  have  that  sorts  a  Lois  a  article  interview,  page  and  the  again  and  once  write  yellow  cards.  UBC  the  the  please  who  Introduce  at  have  has,  both  Nadel,  co-operation  Before  on  words  in  who  those  interview: in  i f you  week?"  deck  your  interviewing  number  plain  come  as  last  the  on  on  Josephine regarding  and  addition,  depends  opening  the  inquiries  (733-2003) In  while  good  Any  Nachmias,  yourself  you  represent  newcomers of  tasks  to  If  be  help,  much  minutes.  the  I f you  student  Vancouver.  that  place.  a  people people  more  who  is  She  is  meet when seem  to  find  need  to  you  could  for  leaving  the  any  of  these  a)  we  are  not  interested in  b)  we  are  not  i n t e r e s t e d i n how  not  i n t e r e s t e d i n whether  they  suspicious,  try  ing  ex-  out  why  dur-  mention  things: their  reasons  long  they  plan  to  Israel;  stay  in  Canada; c)  we  are  to  intend  to  return  Israel;  d)  we  e)  this  are  Stress  that  people  talk  to in  not  is a  face  lived  they  from  any  doctoral  we  are  when  Israelis Israel  agency research  only  they  the  to  the  a number  government;  in Adult  interested in  come  because for  or  a new  the  place.  researcher of  Education.  years.  sorts  of  We  have  speaks  tasks  that  chosen  Hebrew  and  to  113  Take the  some  time  interview  that  they  view.  to tell are:  will  When  be  the people  the cards,  used  what  papers f o r  the questionnaire,  at different  the interviewee  a l l your  feels  points  at ease,  e t c . and  during begin  the  inter-  the  inter-  view.  Show t h e i n t e r v i e w e e are  t h e deck  36  tasks  that  people  place.  Have  them  read  they  understand  late  the item  them what of  an  Ask  they  meet  to shuffle  the  the d i f f i c u l t y  (the  card  top of the shuffled  S/he  assigns  except  0,  difficult  subsequent  to the f i r s t  the task  was  card.  the f i r s t  card  on  card  easier  will  the table  i s easier  they  that trans-  giving  ask  examples  back that  and they  applicable f o r them.  forth  among  assign they  be  the f i r s t  to indicate  time  stands  than  Ask  a value  can s t i l l  t o every imagine  them  wish.  how  Please  difficult  many  card  Stress  Even  leave  whether  Encourage  card. how  or  could  f o r the next  i f they  100  with i t .  less  the f i r s t ,  not percentages. cards  faced  times  i s required.  than  f o r how  Interviewees  t h e same  what  100.  i t s difficulty  s / h e was  " s o many"  card.  of  card  or smaller  f o r reference.  Do  understand  interested i n ratios,  sure  sure  a problem,  a value  greater  or harder  (or harder).  on  The number  the f i r s t  than  on u n t i l  check  card  difficult  second  be  t o each  deck)  any number  card  the  not  a number,  each  first  are  new  cards.  of the task  out that  the  so  on  relation  times  there  i s a question,  Try to avoid  assigns  more  in a  t o make  If i t is s t i l l  i t means.  that  item.  the interviewee  Point  arrive  the cards  S/he  in  Explain  they  I f there  Hebrew.  think  when  through  everything.  into  of cards.  and  that  we  them t o make  i fi t ' s i t would  119  7.  8.  Have  the  interviewee  importance  the  You  their  record  centre their  front next  first  of  in  arrange time  they  ordering the  by  cards  importance  a l l the were  tasks faced  writing  -  1  and  on  with  large  is their so  i n order  to  their  task.  numbers  most  down  the  of  on  the  important, 36  2  f o r the  least  important.  9.  10.  S e l e c t your  Turn  one  ten  card  on  i t stand  Refer  to  each  of  the  Ask  the  Ask  line  the  to  do  with  at  items,  dot  interviewee  and  (or,  i f s/he  hasn't  time  s/he  expects  to  the  Ask t h e give all  time  line  one  or  their  of  their  a)  the  answers time  a  on  might  they  in  time,  remind  s/he  10  i t yet,  a t what  i t ) and  back  refer  arrived,  the  mark number  task  of  on  the  1.  resolved  to  thought  precisely  s/he  the  ask  items.  first  i n time  and  the  i t and  your  time  a l l the  arrival.  gave  of  time  the  that  after  s/he  each  mark  answers  the  a  and  point  made  of  at  number  dot  what  a number  answers  the  resolve  with  interviewee  and  line  etc.  value  point  a t what  task  on  one  about  what  task  time  months,  questions  that a  the  days, 10  deck.  difficulty  interviewee  having  the  Explain  the  following four  time  13.  of  from  for  the  of  12.  over.  lines  interviewees  11.  cards  point  time  that in  precisely  2.  difficult.  this  the  the  resolved  They  question.  card  at  the  time  of  high  could  Record top.  Some  to:  e.g.  at  a  unemploy-  ment ; b)  no  source  of  to  go  information;  for  c)  wrong  d)  something about  information  a v a i l a b l e or  knowledge  of  where  information;  what  that that  was,  of  hurdle  itself, was)  hard  to  learn  (Be  specific  12 0 e)  14.  how  o n how  to resolve  on  t h e back then  words,  t r y to find  Encourage  they  resolved  each  a t the bottom.  that  them  i f there  with  about  the item  t h e deck  of cards  and s o r t  n o t a p p l i c a b l e t o me;  b)  I haven't  tried  c)  I'm  this  d)  I tried  e)  I've r e s o l v e d  this  the  them  questions  but couldn't  symbol  Q  J.  they  to C In  other  consulted  you the story"  o f how  stripe. Just  that Write  You need be  s/he had t o each  new  n o t ask any  specific  when y o u  five  Have  him/her  read  piles:  resolve i t ;  this.  them colour  Please  i s nothing and w r i t e  y o u mark  about  i t .  i n the answers.  Make  especially  piles,  They  can f i l l  you g e t as s p e c i f i c about  each  pile  pencil.  secret  50.  that  into  l e tthe interviewee  i t i n by themselves.  possible,  letter  one y e t ;  f i l l  sure  sources  now;  the appropriate  There  into  this  s/he has s o r t e d  naire.  i n which  t o the interviewee.  a)  Questionnaire:  C  infor-  down.  cards  with  of  I f s/he went  on t h e c a r d s .  items.  the  doing  by  a r e any t a s k s  a yellow  t h e new  the l i s t  them  to "tell  to get  ten tasks.  are not l i s t e d  on a c a r d  After  t o J , mark  of these  Ask t h e i n t e r v i e w e e  Show  the sources  out the order  source.  Show  the task.  t o Q and then  each  write  o r t o whom s / h e w e n t  Mark  of the card  first,  questions  18.  where  a i d the interviewee.  task  17.  to resolve i t .  to  resolve  16.  i t took  Ask the interviewee mation  15.  long  employment.  see the q u e s t i o n However,  Don't  you ask  l e t them  i n questions information  as  just .  47 a n d  121  19.  Finish  20.  When  your  you,get  problems  21.  coffee  outside,  make  call  questions,  problems.  especially  i f you have  One  final  and  easier.  with  which  examples.  word.  You w i l l  Please  Always  Have  bear  fun.  Judith Please  about  find  keep  that  hard  questions i n mind  and f o l l o w Good  to discuss  the interview,  luck.  making  contact, appointments'.  the interviews  n o t t o change  become  a l l o f y o u must script  easier  the p r e c i s i o n  and n o t t o e m b e l l i s h  that this  the interview,  i n close  any problems  t r yvery  you ask your  t h e same way  useless.  any notes  you had, questions, e t c .  When y o u g e t home  tions  a n d g o home.  and g i v e  ask t h e ques-  or the results  will  be  

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