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Adaptation tasks of Israeli immigrants to Vancouver 1980

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ADAPTATION TASKS OF ISRAELI IMMIGRANTS TO VANCOUVER by JUDITH MASTAI B.A. U n i v e r s i t y of B.C., 1966 M.A. U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C., 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , F a c u l t y of Education) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA © J u d i t h M a s t a i , 19 80 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . J u d i t h Mastai Department of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver, B.C. ABSTRACT • /• At the macro-level, t h i s study investigated the role of edu- cation i n the adaptation process of adult immigrants. Migration was defined as a developmental event, adaptation was described as the process by which that event i s resolved, and learning and edu- cation were d i f f e r e n t i a t e d using Alleyne and Verner's typology of sources of information. At the micro-level, these concepts were applied to the case of I s r a e l i immigrants to Vancouver, B.C. Four general research questions were posed with respect to the kinds of tasks emerging during adaptation to l i f e i n a new society, the rel a t i o n s h i p of a variety of socio-demographic and other factors to the perceived d i f f i c u l t y of tasks and the use of adult education sources of information i n resolving tasks of adaptation. An a n a l y t i c a l survey, employing an interview schedule, a magnitude estimation scaling device to measure r e l a t i v e d i f f i c u l t y of tasks and a series of other measures of factors thought to be related to d i f f i c u l t y , was conducted early i n 1977 with seventy- two respondents. Analysis included computation of geometric mean d i f f i c u l t y scores, c a l c u l a t i o n of univariate frequency d i s t r i b u - t i o n of socio-demographic variables and of scores of other factors as well as means and c o r r e l a t i o n c o - e f f i c i e n t s . Step-wise re- gression analysis u t i l i z e d d i f f i c u l t y scores as dependent variable and ten socio-demographic measures as independent variables i n an attempt to ascertain the predictive a b i l i t y of the socio-demogra- phic variables with respect to d i f f i c u l t y . Results of the data analysis i d e n t i f i e d the most d i f f i c u l t task, finding a s a t i s f y i n g , career-oriented job, indicated that the majority of other tasks of adaptation were being resolved using non-educational sources of information, and that the con- str u c t " d i f f i c u l t y " might better be renamed "extent of c u l t u r a l innovation required" and further i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h i s factor be conducted. Implications were drawn regarding the use of magnitude e s t i mation to assess educational needs of adult immigrants, and the development of policy and programs which meet the needs and aims of both Canadian society and the immigrant learner. Dedicated with love and g r a t i t u d e to Moshe E l a n and G a l i t Leonore, M i l t o n and Debby i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i DEDICATION i v TABLE OF CONTENTS v LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ix CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 Background 2 Purpose and Scope of Study 3 II BASIC CONCEPTS 6 Developmental Events 7 Adaptation 9 Learning, Adult Education and Adaptation . . 13 Immigrant Adult Education 16 III METHODOLOGY 19 Design of Instruments 19 The Selection of Tasks of Adaptation . . . 20 Magnitude Estimation of the D i f f i c u l t y of Tasks of Adaptation 24 R e l i a b i l i t y of Magnitude Estimation Items 2 6 V a l i d i t y of Magnitude Estimation Items . 28 Factors Affecting D i f f i c u l t y 32 Socio-Demographic Variables 32 Extent of Cultural Innovation 35 Time of Task Resolution 37 Perceived Importance of Tasks 38 Stage of Task Resolution 38 Sources of Information 39 Population and Sample Design 41 The P i l o t Study 43 Data C o l l e c t i o n 44 Analysis of the Data 45 v IV RESULTS 46 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Respondents 46 D i f f i c u l t y of Tasks of A d a p t a t i o n 53 The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Socio-Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and D i f f i c u l t y 54 The R e l a t i o n s h i p of D i f f i c u l t y to Other F a c t o r s 61 Extent of C u l t u r a l I n n o v a t i o n 6 2 Time of Task R e s o l u t i o n 64 Importance o f Tasks 6 7 Stage of Task R e s o l u t i o n 6 8 The R e l a t i o n s h i p of D i f f i c u l t y to Sources of Information Employed . . . 76 Summary 79 V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 8 3 Summary and C o n c l u s i o n s 8 3 D i s c u s s i o n 88 I m p l i c a t i o n s o f the Study f o r Researchers and P r a c t i t i o n e r s 92 The Process of A s s e s s i n g E d u c a t i o n a l Needs . . 9 3 P o l i c y Development 9 4 Program Development 9 8 BIBLIOGRAPHY 10 2 APPENDIX I INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE 106 I I LETTER FROM Jewish S o c i a l S t u d i e s 114 I I I INTERVIEWERS' Steps to F o l l o w 115 v i LIST OF TABLES TABLE I Terms Used to Describe the Process of Immigrant Adjustment 10 II Tasks of A d a p t a t i o n as Suggested by the L i t e r a t u r e 21 I I I C o r r e l a t i o n C o - e f f i c i e n t s of Three Tests o f R e l i a b i l i t y f o r Magnitude E s t i m a t i o n Task Items 29 IV Geometric Mean D i f f i c u l t y Scores on Tasks of A d a p t a t i o n f o r an I s r a e l i and a Mixed Group 3 3 V Summary Table of Socio-Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Respondents 51 VI D i f f i c u l t y Scores of T h i r t y - S i x Task Items . . . 52 VII Stepwise Regression A n a l y s i s of Ten S o c i o - Demographic V a r i a b l e s and t h e i r R e l a t i o n . t o D i f f i c u l t y Scores 56 V I I I C o r r e l a t i o n C o - e f f i c i e n t s of D i f f i c u l t y Scores of T h i r t y - S i x Tasks of A d a p t a t i o n and P a r t i c u l a r Socio-Demographic V a r i a b l e s . . 58 IX Extent of Innovation•Required by Tasks of Ada p t a t i o n A c c o r d i n g t o F i f t y - T w o "Expert" Respondents 6 3 X Mean R e s o l u t i o n Time and D i f f i c u l t y Scores f o r Tasks L i s t e d i n Order of Mean R e s o l u t i o n Time 66 XI Mean Rank Order of Tasks A c c o r d i n g to Importance. 6 9 XII ' Number and Percentage of Interviewees Responding to Each R e s o l u t i o n Stage f o r Each Task . . . . 73 X I I I Frequency of Use o f Sources of Information by Seventy-two Interviewees f o r T h i r t y - S i x Tasks . 78 v i i LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE I Comparison i n Order of Mean R e s o l u t i o n Time of Percentage of Respondents Not Attempting, T r y i n g But Not R e s o l v i n g and R e s o l v i n g Each Task of A d a p t a t i o n 74 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to thank the f o l l o w i n g c o l l e a g u e s and members of my t h e s i s committee, pas t and present, f o r t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e , guidance and c r i t i c i s m during the development and r e a l i z a t i o n of t h i s work: Rick B a g n a l l , Roger B o s h i e r , John C o l l i n s , Gary D i c k i n s o n , B i l l G r i f f i t h , T e r r y H u l l , Bernie Mohan, Wayne Schroeder, Mary Selman and Jim Thornton. In a d d i t i o n , I wish to acknowledge the guidance and i n f l u e n c e of Dr. C o o l i e Verner who d i d not s u r v i v e to c e l e b r a t e the comple- t i o n of t h i s manuscript. I would a l s o l i k e to express my g r a t i t u d e to the c o u n t l e s s o t h e r s who themselves know t h a t they c o n t r i b u t e d to t h i s work i n a m u l t i t u d e of ways t h a t are d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y or express i n words. F i n a l l y , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to ever f u l l y thank my f a m i l y f o r the support and help they have p r o v i d e d . S u f f i c e to say I d e d i c a t e t h i s work to them. i x CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Canada i s a country created through the e f f o r t s of i t s immigrants, and t h i s nation i s a world leader i n developing a model of integration - based on multiculturalism rather than a s s i - milation. One of the major c o r o l l a r i e s of the move away from the "melting pot" point of view has been the accompanying reduction of a predetermined end, successful a s s i m i l a t i o n , which implied that the i d e n t i t i e s of newcomers would eventually fade to be re- placed by a new c o l l e c t i v e i d e n t i t y . Other than meeting estab- l i s h e d requirements of age, length of residence, adequate know- ledge of one of the national languages, knowledge about Canada, and the rights and duties of c i t i z e n s , Canadian immigrants may become c i t i z e n s and s t i l l r e t a i n the r i g h t to accept some aspects of the new culture and reject others. In many cases, indiv i d u a l s choose whether or not they w i l l adapt, how they w i l l resolve each task they encounter during adaptation, how successful they want to be, and how successful they have been. As adaptation requires learning, adult education appears to be a suitable and l o g i c a l choice of a c t i v i t y for immigrants. Those planning educational programs for immigrants must maintain contact with the patterns 1 2 and needs of t h e i r c l i e n t e l e i n order to serve them i n a meaning- f u l and e f f i c i e n t manner. Background At the present time i n Canada, the education of adult immigrants i s conducted primarily by those teaching classes of English as a Second Language (ESL). While they have long been aware of the rel a t i o n s h i p between language and culture, these teachers often receive much of t h e i r basic t r a i n i n g as l i n g u i s t s . In the l a s t ten years, trends i n ESL have suggested a s i t u a t i o n - a l approach and functional competency with language i n s t r u c t i o n centering on the e s s e n t i a l language the immigrant needs in order to function i n s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s . As informed i n t u i t i o n appears to have been the chief basis for choosing situations to use i n language i n s t r u c t i o n , a number of problems have arisen. The f i r s t problem occurs i n i d e n t i f y i n g the situations immigrants face when they ar r i v e i n a new country and determining which ones rel y on language s k i l l s for t h e i r resolution. This i s r e l a t e d to a second problem: at what point a f t e r a r r i v a l i n the new country are the language s k i l l s and information required? In Vancouver, King Edward Campus of Vancouver Community College serves the majority of adult immigrants seeking i n s t r u c t i o n i n English. The present curriculum at KEC r e f l e c t s support of func- t i o n a l competency as a basic approach by teachers and admini- s t r a t i o n . Beginners cover topics such as shopping for food, using Canadian currency, f i l l i n g out application forms such as 3 for medical insurance, and using the postal system. Between September and December 19 77, KEC reported that thirteen percent of t h e i r new enrollees had begun classes a f t e r t h e i r t h i r d month in the country, eleven percent had begun a f t e r s i x months i n Canada and forty-seven percent had begun a f t e r one year. It i s conceivable that, three months after a r r i v a l or more, immigrants would have found solutions to the problems posed by having to buy food, using Canadian currency, f i l l i n g out medical insurance forms or using the post o f f i c e . Furthermore, i t seems possible that these tasks could have been accomplished through an i n t e r - preter or by using sign language, without the person actually speaking English. T h i r d l y , i t i s important to inquire whether the classroom i s an appropriate place to introduce a wide range of s i t u a t i o n a l topics. For many of the necessities and tasks of d a i l y l i f e , immigrants appear to turn to a variety of sources for information and assistance. Classroom time might best be spent on the most d i f f i c u l t tasks, on situations and problems appropriate to the length of time the immigrant has been i n Canada, or on s p e c i f i c tasks for which immigrants are currently using educational i n s t i - tutions as a resource. Purpose and Scope of the Study At the present time, there i s l i t t l e agreement as to what constitutes successful integration or adaptation. For Canadians, whether or not an immigrant successfully adapts and the measure- 4 ment of adaptation seem less useful questions than inquiring into the process of adapting and the kinds of tasks an immigrant en- counters i n entering a new society. The resolution of tasks re- quires learning, but l i t t l e information i s available as to how and when t h i s occurs. There i s a lack of knowledge as to the nature of tasks of adaptation, what causes t h e i r d i f f i c u l t y for immigrants, how soon after a r r i v a l tasks are resolved, and what sources of information immigrants use i n resolving or learning how to resolve tasks encountered. This study examined the adaptation process of I s r a e l i immi- grants to Vancouver in an attempt to determine a representative l i s t of tasks which immigrants encounter upon a r r i v a l i n a new country and to derive implications of those tasks for the design of educational programs for immigrant adults. Although i n t u i t i o n has been applied to t h i s problem by.instructors and o f f i c i a l s who work with newcomers d a i l y , to date no empirical evidence has been gathered to support or deny t h e i r i n t u i t i o n s . This study was not concerned with the degree of adaptation of I s r a e l i immigrants to Canadian l i f e , t h e i r motivations for emigration, or prejudice they might have encountered i n t h i s society. Rather i t addressed four general research questions: 1. What kinds of tasks emerge during adaptation to l i f e i n a new society? 2. Which, i f any, socio-demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a f f e c t perception of d i f f i c u l t y of tasks of adaptation? 5 3 . What re l a t i o n s h i p , i f any, does d i f f i c u l t y of tasks of adaptation bear to the following factors: extent of c u l t u r a l innovation required by tasks, length of task resolution time required, importance of tasks to the immigrant when he f i r s t encounters them, and stage of task resolution? 4. How i s the use of adult education sources of informa- ti o n for resolving tasks of adaptation related to d i f f i c u l t y of tasks? The data obtained i n seeking answers to those questions provided a basis for a discussion of the program planning process used i n ESL classes. CHAPTER II BASIC CONCEPTS After an extensive search i t became apparent that the body of adult education l i t e r a t u r e did l i t t l e more than introduce immigrant education as one minor aspect of adult education. In the main, the l i t e r a t u r e consists of inadequate descriptions of is o l a t e d programs with l i t t l e rationale and no follow-up. Few of the authors provided empirical evidence to support t h e i r opinions. It was therefore necessary to explore l i t e r a t u r e i n a number of other f i e l d s as well, and many of the basic concepts used i n t h i s study arose from the f i e l d of sociology. This chapter describes migration to a new country as a developmental event and adaptation as the process by which i n d i - viduals resolve that event. As immigrants adapt, they encounter a number of tasks of varying d i f f i c u l t y which impel them to learn new information, procedures and customs from personal sources and mass media or from educational sources. At the present time, the major educational o f f e r i n g for immigrants i s language i n s t r u c t i o n . The application of a program-oriented, rather than curriculum- oriented approach to immigrant education by i n s t i t u t i o n s might further a s s i s t the immigrant adult's adaptation. 6 7 Developmental Events Bengston (19 73) defines developmental events as occurrences experienced by individuals during the course of t h e i r l i v e s and which have some systematic influence i n the ordering of human behaviour, but the order i n which they occur varies from person to person. Also, events experienced by one i n d i v i d u a l may not even occur for another. Developmental events may be b i o l o g i c a l , psychological or s o c i o l o g i c a l i n nature including growth, decline and change i n the human body, development of mental capacities, changes i n experience and goals, or entering and leaving s o c i a l roles and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Developmental events are affected both by developmental time (maturation) and h i s t o r i c a l time so that while most ind i v i d u a l s share some events of develop- ment, the era during which they l i v e may affe c t the occurrence of an event. The concept of developmental events has much i n common with that of developmental tasks which Havighurst (19 73) describes as a r i s i n g from physical maturation, from the pressure of c u l t u r a l processes upon the i n d i v i d u a l , from the desires, aspirations and values of the emerging personality and from combinations of these factors acting together.' Havighurst points out that the i n d i - v i d u a l must master a series of developmental tasks to be a successful human being. The notion of developmental events incor- porates Havighurst 's work and expands i t s focus i n the following ways. F i r s t l y , developmental tasks are categorized according to 8 age which presumes that they occur i n a l i n e a r order. Develop- mental events are not age-bound and no order i s implied. Second- l y , Havighurst's developmental tasks are culture-bound to North American society and presume the norms and values of that society. Developmental events are not culture-bound. Thirdly, Havighurst's term refers to those items that appear i n his s p e c i f i c l i s t of tasks whereas the d e f i n i t i o n of developmental events provides a basis for including any occurrence that meets the c r i t e r i a . Fourthly, as Bengston (19 73) points out, Havighurst's notion of developmental tasks applies at the micro-level of s o c i o l o g i c a l analysis, examining the s o c i a l environment of a given i n d i v i d u a l , while the concept of developmental events can apply both at t h i s micro-level and also at the macro-level, analysing "how large aggregates of human beings organize themselves over time i n order to maintain the group's s u r v i v a l " (1973,, p.14). For the pur- poses of t h i s study, the concept w i l l be applied at the micro- l e v e l to examine the way i n which the i n d i v i d u a l resolves the developmental'event created by his migration. Migration i s an occurrence which could be experienced by most individ u a l s at some time during the course of l i f e and which would have some systematic influence i n ordering human behaviour. The influence i s generally psychological or s o c i o l o g i c a l i n nature and i s affected both by the h i s t o r i c a l time during which the i n d i - v idual has migrated as well as the developmental time at which he migrates. Migration may therefore be termed a developmental event. 9 Adaptation Adaptation i s the process by which the developmental event, migration, i s resolved. A number of terms have been used to i d e n t i f y the process of adjustment to a new country and these include n a t u r a l i z a t i o n , absorption, assimilation, acculturation and adaptation (Table I ) . Borrie (1959) stated .-that these terms are synonomous but Duncan and Lieberson (1959) d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between terms on the basis of d i f f e r e n t observable outcomes. Naturalization was defined as the a c q u i s i t i o n of l e g a l c i t i z e n - ship; absorption, as entrance into productive economic a c t i v i t y ; assimilation, as integration into the s o c i a l system more or less on terms of socio-economic equality; and acculturation, as adop- tion of the l o c a l customs and reli n q u i s h i n g of such c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as would i d e n t i f y the immigrants as a d i s t i n c t ethnic group. Duncan and Lieberson's d e f i n i t i o n s are outcome- oriented but suggest a process in that these phenomena are said to occur i n the order given. Gordon's (1964) typology provided an i n i t i a l perspective; on possible components of a process model of adaptation. Two of his conclusions contributed to t h i s study. F i r s t , s t r u c t u r a l assimilation (defined as large scale entrance into cliques, clubs and i n s t i t u t i o n s of a host society on the primary group level) i s the most important type of assimilation because, once i t occurs, a l l of the other types w i l l follow. Second, c u l t u r a l assimilation (defined as change of c u l t u r a l pat- terns to those of a host society) may be the f i r s t to occur but i t can occur alone, without any of the other types following. 10 10 Naturalization Absorption Assimilation Acculturation Adaptati on Eisenstadt (1954) the process of absorbing immigrants and integrating them into the society is the outcome of the interplay be- tween the immigrant's own desires and expectations with regard to the new country and the extent to which these can be realized in terms of the var- ious demands made on the immigrants by the institutional structure of the absorbing society Borrie (1959) synonymous with assimilation, acculturation, adaptation Duncan and Lieberson (1959) the acquisition of legal citizenship entrance into produc- tive economic activity synonymous with absorption, assimilation, adaptation synonymous with absorption, assimilation, adaptation integration into the social system more or less on terms of socio- economic equality synonymous with absorption, assimilation, acculturation the adoption of local customs and relinquish- ing of such cultural characteristics as would identify the immigrants as a distinct ethnic group Gordon (1964) Anthro- pologist's term sociologist's term: 7 types - cultural, marital, structural, identificational, atti- tude receptional, civic behaviour reoeptional cultural assimilation change of cultured patterns to those of host society Goldlust and Richmond . (1974) the mutual interaction of individuals and col- lectives and their re- sponse to particular physical and social environments 11 Aside from r e f e r r i n g to absorption and integration rather than adaptation, Eisenstadt's (1954) d e f i n i t i o n has much i n common with that of Goldlust and Richmond (19 74). Goldlust and Richmond define adaptation as a mutual i n t e r a c t i o n and Eisenstadt refers to the negotiation between the immigrant's own desires and expectations with regard to the new country and the extent to which these can be r e a l i z e d . i n view of the various demands made on immigrants by the i n s t i t u t i o n a l structure of the absorbing society. Goldlust and Richmond include i n t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n that adaptation i s a response to p a r t i c u l a r physical and s o c i a l environ- ments. While reference to i t i s not made i n the i r d e f i n i t i o n s , Eisenstadt, Goldlust and Richmond agree i n the body of t h e i r w riting that lack of adaptation leads to deviance within the new society or re-migration to another one. For the purposes of t h i s study, the major components of a d e f i n i t i o n of adaptation are: 1. adaptation i s a process, rather than an outcome or a goal; 2. adaptation i s a negotiation between the desires and expecta- tions of those immigrating and the extent of c u l t u r a l p l u r a l - ism which the i n s t i t u t i o n a l structure of the receiving society can allow; 3. adaptation i s a mutual int e r a c t i o n i n which both the immigrat- ing individuals or groups and the members of the receiving society ( i n d i v i d u a l l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y ) are changed; 4. adaptation i s a response to p a r t i c u l a r physical and s o c i a l environments by a l l ind i v i d u a l s and c o l l e c t i v i t i e s involved i n migration even as they are negotiating t h e i r mutual interaction; 12 5. adaptation i s dynamic, contributing to and affected by chang- ing conditions over time. Adaptation, then, i s a dynamic process i n which i n d i v i d u a l s and c o l l e c t i v i t i e s (including those who have migrated and members of the receiving society) mutually i n t e r a c t , respond to physical and environmental conditions and negotiate a degree of c u l t u r a l pluralism. For the purposes of the present study, i t i s important to consider adaptation at the micro-level from the point of view of the i n d i v i d u a l immigrant because, i n t h i s way, the notion of developmental events may be used to inform adaptation. As adap- ta t i o n i s a complex process, i t i s comprised of a number and var i e t y of tasks which in d i v i d u a l s must resolve. A task of adap- ta t i o n i s defined here as one which arises out of the migration of an i n d i v i d u a l from one society to another, achievement of which a f f e c t s success with subsequent tasks. Clearly not every i n d i v i d u a l w i l l encounter the same tasks, nor w i l l tasks arise for every one at the same time. The present study i s not directed toward t e s t i n g t h i s operational d e f i n i t i o n by investigating how achievement or f a i l u r e with tasks affects motivation to adapt or any of the consequences of lack of adaptation. Rather, t h i s study focuses on determining what the tasks might be, asks some s p e c i f i c questions about t h e i r nature, investigates how one group of immi- grants resolves them, and proposes a role for education i n t h e i r r e s o l u t i o n . 13 Learning, A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and A d a p t a t i o n A n . i n d i v i d u a l may " r e s o l v e " a task of a d a p t a t i o n by com- p l e t i n g i t , f a i l i n g i t , i g n o r i n g i t , or postponing i t . The s u c c e s s f u l r e s o l u t i o n o f any task r e q u i r e s t h a t l e a r n i n g takes p l a c e . The a d u l t ' s r e a d i n e s s to l e a r n i s c o n s i d e r e d to be a func- t i o n of c r i t i c a l p e r i o d s i n l i f e which produce teachable moments. Whether or not an a d u l t i s ab l e to r e s o l v e a teachable moment s u c c e s s f u l l y a f f e c t s h i s f u t u r e m o t i v a t i o n to l e a r n (Havighurst, 1973). His a b i l i t y to l e a r n i s a f f e c t e d by h i s experience as a l e a r n e r , h i s previous l e v e l of knowledge about the content he i s t r y i n g to master, and h i s knowledge of the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the i n f o r m a t i o n he r e q u i r e s . Learning i s s a i d to occur i n two s e t t i n g s , the n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g and the formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g (Jensen, 1960). In the former, l e a r n i n g i s more or l e s s by chance, while i n the l a t t e r , an i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d i f f u s e s i n f o r m a t i o n . The i n s t r u c t o r employs knowledge of the l e a r n i n g process and of i n s t r u c t i o n to design and manage a l e a r n i n g ex- pe r i e n c e f o r the l e a r n e r . Information i s a c q u i r e d i n the n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g through pe r s o n a l or mass sources ( A l l e y n e and Verner; 1969). P e r s o n a l sources are those which i n v o l v e d i r e c t f a c e - t o - f a c e com- munication between the communicator and the r e c e i v e r where the r e c e i v e r may q u e s t i o n the communicator. These i n f o r m a t i o n sources l i e w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l o r b i t and i n c l u d e observa- t i o n s and experiences as w e l l as f r i e n d s , r e l a t i v e s , and c h i l d r e n . Mass sources i n c l u d e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e to everyone at the same time w i t h l i t t l e p r o v i s i o n f o r two-way communication. With n e i t h e r 14 p e r s o n a l nor mass sources i s there immediate and c o n t i n u i n g s u p e r v i s i o n by an i n s t r u c t i o n a l agent who manages the c o n d i t i o n s f o r l e a r n i n g . Information i n the formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g i s a c q u i r e d v i a i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n and i n s t r u c t i o n a l groups (Alleyne and Verner, 1969). I n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n i s an e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y conducted on a one-to-one b a s i s . An i n s t r u c t i o n a l group i s an e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y i n which i n f o r m a t i o n i s presented to a.num- ber of i n d i v i d u a l s s i m u l taneously w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r two-way communication. According to Verner and A l l e y n e , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n takes p l a c e when l e a r n i n g occurs i n t h i s s e t t i n g through these sources. An i n d i v i d u a l may u t i l i z e both the n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l and the formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g s i n the r e s o l u t i o n of any l e a r n i n g task. He may acquire i n f o r m a t i o n i n the n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g from p e r s o n a l and mass sources, he may ac q u i r e i n f o r m a t i o n there which leads him to a formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g u sing i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n or i n s t r u c t i o n a l group sources, or he may go immediate- l y to the formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g . Any of these routes may l e a d to the r e s o l u t i o n of the task. The cho i c e s t h a t the i n d i - v i d u a l makes,during the r e s o l u t i o n of the task w i l l be a f f e c t e d by a l l of h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as a unique human, an immigrant, and a l e a r n e r . Hallenbeck (1964) s t a t e d t h a t whereas the s o c i a l f u n c t i o n of p r e - a d u l t education i s to provide c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n i n g , the s o c i a l f u n c t i o n of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s to promote adaptation t o s o c i a l change. While t h i s may be true of the general f u n c t i o n of 15 adult education i n society, i t i s less true i n the case of immi- grant adult education. Here i t i s necessary to serve a remedial function (Bryson, 19 36) for the i n d i v i d u a l since the immigrant i s lacking the c u l t u r a l conditioning normally provided by pre-school, elementary, and secondary school i n the culture to which he has emigrated. Many adult educators favor a problem-centered approach served by programs; rather than the knowledge-centered c u r r i c u l a of pre-adult education (Knowles, 19 70). The problem-centered approach allows adult educators to meet immediate and s p e c i f i c educational needs of learners as they a r i s e . Verner (in Jensen, et a l , 1964) distinguishes between program and curriculum on the basis of the educational goals. A curriculum i s designed to pro- vide learning experiences that deal simultaneously with immediate developmental tasks and anticipated r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s while a pro- gram i s f u n c t i o n a l l y related to an immediate need for s p e c i f i c learning a r i s i n g out of an adult's changing roles i n society. A program concentrates on a l i m i t e d number of i n s t r u c t i o n a l objectives. Each objective may be seen as compromising a number of learning tasks which may be c l a s s i f i e d according to the types of learning outcomes they represent (Gagne, 19 74). The adult's developmental tasks and events create s p e c i f i c problems and the i n d i v i d u a l requires information to resolve them. Thus, the learn- ing necessary to acquire t h i s information may be l o g i c a l l y struc- tured into a program. 16 Taft (1975) has taken the view that adaptation i s a r e s u l t of successful learning by the immigrant. As learning i s argued to be generally more e f f i c i e n t i n the formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l setting (Verner, 1964), education appears to be a l o g i c a l process and pro- grams seem to be a suitable format with which to aid the immigrant learner i n accomplishing r e s o c i a l i z a t i o n . Immigrant Adult Education The focus of education for immigrant adults has changed over the l a s t f i f t y years from c i t i z e n s h i p education to English lang- uage t r a i n i n g . For a long time English language t r a i n i n g meant i n s t r u c t i o n i n grammatical structures and memorizing vocabulary. In the l a s t ten years, the s i t u a t i o n a l approach has enjoyed a great deal of popularity as i n t u i t i o n and experience have led many inst r u c t o r s to conclude that s i t u a t i o n s provide a meaningful con- text for language learning. Using t h i s approach, situations that immigrants would fi n d themselves i n , such as meeting Canadians i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s or being interviewed for a job, were used as the context for teaching grammatical structures. Jupp and Hodlin (1975) pointed out that using situations i s a useful technique, but i t i s s t i l l only a context for a s t r u c t u r a l approach. These two authors suggest a functional approach based on the underlying purposes of and inferences i n our language. This i s not to be con- fused with functional competency which refers to baseline a b i l i t y to perform i n s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s . Jupp and Hodlin's notion of language functions appears to be that actual language used i n situations of a l l kinds contains not only structures and vocabulary, but underlying meanings, purposes and non-verbal implications as well. ESL students must be able to comprehend and use a var i e t y of messages containing s p e c i f i c information, attitudes, emotions, non-verbal cues and c u l t u r a l habits i m p l i c i t i n speech. To this end, using job-related s i t u a - tions as t h e i r context, Jupp and Hodlin suggest that i n s t r u c t o r s f a m i l i a r i z e themselves with the roles and other functions for which language i s used i n p a r t i c u l a r work environments. Struc- tures are selected from recorded language data and an i n s t r u c t i o n - a l outline may be planned based on language functions and struc- tures used for p a r t i c u l a r functions, rather than on structures alone. In adult education terms, Jupp and Hodlin appear to be ad- v i s i n g the i n s t r u c t o r to conduct a needs assessment at the pro- gram planning stage ( c o l l e c t i n g data on what the learners require) and design the course around the learning needs i d e n t i f i e d . The congruence of th i s functional approach with p r i n c i p l e s of program planning, coupled with i t s growing popularity i n the f i e l d of ESL, supports the need for further inv e s t i g a t i o n of the learning needs of immigrant adults. Berwick (1978) reviewed the l i t e r a t u r e on needs assessment, p a r t i c u l a r l y related to the design of courses i n English for spe- c i f i c purposes, and concluded that needs assessment, as a means of obtaining information about learning purposes, i s a r e l a t i v e l y novel concept i n the f i e l d of second language i n s t r u c t i o n a l plan- ning. He reported methods employed to assess needs (Selman and Blackwell, 1977; Stevick, 1971; Buckingham and Pech, 1976; 18 Wong, 1977; R i c t e r i c h , 19 73; Munby, 1978; Stevens, 1977; L a y l i n , 1977) as w e l l as approaches to the development of c u r r i c u l a from learner needs (Gorman, 19 78; M e r r i t t , 19 78; Mohan, 19 79; Munby, 1978; Stern, 1978; Stevick, 1971). One problem common to the l i t e r a t u r e Berwick reports, however, i s the assumption that edu- cation must provide language to s u i t a l l immigrant needs and that a syllabus or curriculum stipulates target competencies of a par- t i c u l a r p a r t i c i p a n t or participant stereo-type (Munby, 1978) with- out d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between the sources of information sought by the immigrant. Investigation of sources used by immigrants to resolve tasks of adaptation may c l a r i f y the role of education in the adaptation process and the tasks for which education i s re- quired and sought. As immigrants embark upon the process of adapting to a new society, they encounter many tasks which may be resolved by ac- quiring 'information in the natural s o c i e t a l and formal i n s t r u c - t i o n a l settings. Individuals may experience varying degrees of d i f f i c u l t y with tasks of adaptation and the way in which they resolve or f a i l to resolve each task may a f f e c t t h e i r motivation to continue t h e i r adaptation process. Adult education may serve a remedial function and aid the immigrant i n r e s o c i a l i z a t i o n through programs. The present format of ESL classes i s well suited to d e l i v e r i n s t r u c t i o n , and investigation of sources of information u t i l i z e d , but application of p r i n c i p l e s of needs assessment might further a s s i s t the immigrant learner. This study proposes that i d e n t i f y i n g tasks of adaptation can a s s i s t i n the development of programs offered to adult immigrants. CHAPTER I I I METHODOLOGY An a n a l y t i c a l survey was conducted from January t o A p r i l 19 77 w i t h seventy-two I s r a e l i immigrants t o Vancouver. Eleven b i l i n g u a l (Hebrew and E n g l i s h ) i n t e r v i e w e r s questioned p a r t i c i - pants r e g a r d i n g t h e i r socio-demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i d e n t i - f i c a t i o n of ta s k s of ad a p t a t i o n , r e l a t i v e d i f f i c u l t y of t a s k s , time r e q u i r e d t o r e s o l v e them, r e l a t i v e importance of t a s k s , stages of t a s k r e s o l u t i o n , and sources of i n f o r m a t i o n used t o r e - so l v e them. The procedures used i n de v e l o p i n g the instruments and c o l l e c t i n g and a n a l y z i n g the data are d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s chapter. Design of Instruments T h i s s e c t i o n o u t l i n e s the design of the instruments used i n the study. I t d e s c r i b e s the development o f a magnitude e s t i m a t i o n s c a l i n g d e v i ce used to measure d i f f i c u l t y o f tasks of a d a p t a t i o n i n c l u d i n g s e l e c t i o n of tasks used as items i n the instrument as w e l l as r e l i a b i l i t y t e s t i n g and est a b l i s h m e n t of v a l i d i t y f o r the items. In order t o i d e n t i f y f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g d i f f i c u l t y , a number of o t h e r instruments were used t o c o l l e c t data r e g a r d i n g s o c i o - demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of respondents, time of ta s k r e s o l u - t i o n , r e l a t i v e importance of tasks of a d a p t a t i o n , stages of ta s k r e s o l u t i o n and sources of i n f o r m a t i o n used i n r e s o l v i n g t a s k s , 19 20 and a l l of these comprised the i n t e r v i e w schedule. In a d d i t i o n , a t y p o l o g y employed u s i n g a group of independent experts to assess e x t e n t of c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n r e q u i r e d by tasks of adapta- t i o n i s o u t l i n e d . D e s c r i p t i o n s of these instruments and proced- ures employed i n a p p l y i n g them f o l l o w . The S e l e c t i o n of Tasks of A d a p t a t i o n T h i r t y - s i x tasks of a d a p t a t i o n were used i n the study. The procedure f o r i d e n t i f y i n g these tasks i n v o l v e d four phases. The f i r s t was an e x p l o r a t o r y phase d u r i n g which d i s c u s s i o n s were h e l d with random i n d i v i d u a l s who had l i v e d i n another country f o r one year or more. Among these were Canadians who had e i t h e r l i v e d abroad or who had immigrated to Canada. A l l were f l u e n t i n E n g l i s h . In a d d i t i o n , novels d e p i c t i n g the experiences of immigrants and w r i t t e n case h i s t o r i e s were e x p l o r e d . A long l i s t of tasks r e - s u l t e d and these were grouped under more g e n e r a l i z e d task headings (Table I I ) . During the second phase, a wide range of l i t e r a t u r e was con- s u l t e d , p r i m a r i l y i n the f i e l d o f s o c i o l o g y . Nowhere was the problem of a d a p t a t i o n d e s c r i b e d as tasks to be r e s o l v e d but o f t e n the v a r i a b l e s used i m p l i e d t a s k s , and r e s u l t s were r e p o r t e d . A l l o f the sources chosen were Canadian, except B o r r i e (1959) and T a f t (1975). Anderson (1918) was one o f the f i r s t Canadian books to d e a l w i t h both the s u b j e c t s of immigration and the e d u c a t i o n o f immigrant a d u l t s , and i t i s the o n l y book whose i n t e n t was to i n f l u e n c e e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y . The o t h e r sources were chosen to r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t views of a d a p t a t i o n and immigrant groups such as the views of government (Department of Manpower and Immigra- 2 1 TABLE II Tasks of A d a p t a t i o n as Suggested by the L i t e r a t u r e * - Indicates identification of a task by a source (*) - Indicates that the source assumed or implied the task Tasks of A d a p t a t i o n An de rs on  ( 19 18 ) Bo rr ie  ( 19 59 ) De pt . of  M an po we r & Imm . (1 97 4) , El li ot t (1 97 1)  Go ld lu st  &  R ic hm on d (1 97 4)  Lai  (1 97 1)  Ta ft  (19 7 Wo lf ga ng  ( 19 75 ) Pe rs on al  C as e Hi st or ie s 1. Find a doctor (*) *. 2. Register for mad. insurance * 3. Adjust to climate * 4. Accept change in status * * * (*) * * (*) 5. Budget for d i f f . ec. level (*) * (*) (*) (*) 6. Get any job for income * * (*) * (*) 7. Meet countryman (*) (*) * (*) (*) 8. Enrol children * * (*) * 9. Use different measures * 10. Get a career job * * (*) '(*) * 11. Enrol i n job retraining * (*) 12. Make f i r s t Cdn. friend (*) * (*) * 13. Find place of worship * 14. Get used to Cdn. sense of humom (*) * 15. Read local newspaper (*) * * 16. Find permanent residence * * (*) (*) 17. Subscribe to ethnic press (*) * * (*) * (*) (*) 18. Find ethnic school for kids * * (*) 19. Use Vancouver buses * 20. Use postal system * 21. Open a bank account * 22. Help spouse (*) (*) 23. Gain acceptance of occ. quals. * (*) (*) * 24. Find ethnic stores (*) * * (*) (*) 25. Identify alternate products (*) (*) * 26. Speak English to get by (*) (*) * (*) (*) * * 27. Apply for Cdn. citizenship * (*) * (*) * * 28. Change type of work * * 29. Register for social insurance * 30. Get drivers' licence * 31. Change workday schedule * * 32. Speak good English * (*) * * (*) * * 33. Use Canadian money * 34. Register for car insurance * 35. Find temporary residence * (*) 36. Use community & ed. services * * (*) (*) 37. Change style of doing business * * 22 t i o n , 1974), Canadian s o c i o l o g i s t s ( E l l i o t t , 1971, G o l d l u s t and Richmond, 19 74; L a i , 1975) and educators (Wolfgang, 1975). In the case of Wolfgang (1975), those h i s t o r i a n s , s o c i o l o g i s t s a n t h r o - p o l o g i s t s , t e a c h e r s and policy-makers who c o n t r i b u t e d t o the book were p r i m a r i l y concerned with p r e - a d u l t e d u c a t i o n but many of t h e i r remarks about problems of a d a p t a t i o n seemed a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n as w e l l . B o r r i e (1959), a UNESCO p u b l i c a t i o n , was chosen because i t re p r e s e n t e d a world view and T a f t (19 76) was s e l e c t e d because i t presented a r e c e n t d i s c u s s i o n on the problems of a d a p t a t i o n from the p o i n t of view of a p s y c h o l o g i s t . Once again, the l i s t o f ta s k s generated by the readings were grouped under headings. During the t h i r d phase, a d v i s o r s i n the Department of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l - umbia and the Department of E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g a t the King Edward Campus of Vancouver Community C o l l e g e suggested two c r i - t e r i a f o r e x c l u d i n g p o t e n t i a l tasks from the l i s t . The f i r s t c r i - t e r i o n e x c luded tasks d e a l i n g w i t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s such as p r e j u d i c e as i n the task " d e a l i n g w i t h p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t my e t h n i c group." U s i n g the second c r i t e r i o n , very s p e c i f i c t asks such as "buying c l o t h e s " or "using the p u b l i c l i b r a r y " were excluded as d i s c r e t e task items and the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h e r e n t i n them were r e - phrased i n t o more comprehensive task statements such as "using a d i f f e r e n t system of weights and measures" and "using community and e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . " In a d d i t i o n , a l l tasks were r e s t a t e d i n b e h a v i o u r a l terms u s i n g a c t i v e verbs such as "use", " f i n d " , " e n r o l " , r a t h e r than verbs which suggested p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s such as " a d j u s t t o " , " d e a l w i t h " , "cope with" and "get used t o . " T a b l e I I 23 l i s t s tasks of adaptation used i n the study and the major sources i n which each task was stated or implied. Phase four included the preparation of sets of thirty-seven cards, one card per task, for use by a v a r i e t y of indiv i d u a l s i n testing the c l a r i t y and inclusiveness of the items. Twenty adult education graduate students were asked to imagine themselves as new a r r i v a l s i n a country whose language they did not know and to sort the cards into f i v e categories of d i f f i c u l t y , using a Q-sort procedure. An additional f i f t y adult education students were asked to imagine the same conditions and assign a d i f f i c u l t y score of between zero and one hundred to each task. After each application, participants were asked to write on blank cards any addit i o n a l tasks that did not seem to be represented. During the r e l i a b i l i t y t e s t i n g with twenty-four immigrant students at Van- couver Community College, the p i l o t study with fourteen I s r a e l i subjects, and the actual study, the same additions were requested. Additional tasks suggested were: 1. Bureaucratic problems with federal agencies. 2. D i f f i c u l t y i n making l a s t i n g friendships. 3. Separation from family. 4. Get used to hospital system. 5. Learn Canadian laws. 6. Get used to a d i f f e r e n t crime rate. 7. Learn Canadian history. 8. Learn how government works. 9. Get to know the education system. 10. Find daycare centres. 11. Get used to d i f f e r e n t food. As none of these was c i t e d more than once, none were included as discrete tasks. However, some were included i n the interview questions regarding s a t i s f a c t i o n with l i f e i n Canada (2,3) and differences between l i f e i n Canada and l i f e i n I s r a e l (2,8,11), 24 and o t h e r s were b e l i e v e d t o be components of tasks a l r e a d y on the l i s t . (1,5,7,8,9,10) One task which was o r i g i n a l l y i n c l u d e d i n the l i s t of tasks ("change your s t y l e o f doing business") was e l i m i n a t e d due to problems t r a n s l a t i n g the word "bus i n e s s " i n t o Hebrew, so the f i n a l l i s t c o n t a i n e d t h i r t y - s i x t a s k s . Magnitude E s t i m a t i o n of the D i f f i c u l t y of Tasks of Adap t a t i o n The c o n s t r u c t " d i f f i c u l t y " i s a g l o b a l term t h a t r e f e r s to the magnitude of the o v e r a l l p r o b l e m a t i c c o n d i t i o n of r e s o l v i n g tasks of a d a p t a t i o n as p e r c e i v e d by the immigrant. I t was used i n t h i s study to allow tasks t o be measured by a magnitude e s t i - mation technique. I t i s apparent t h a t d i f f i c u l t y may be composed of many f a c t o r s , some o f which were suggested by the l i t e r a t u r e : socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s (Department of Manpower and Immigra- t i o n , 1974; G o l d l u s t and Richmond, 1974; H e i s s , 1969), ex t e n t o f i n n o v a t i o n r e q u i r e d (Lionberger, 1960) and sources of i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e and u t i l i z e d ( A l l e y n e and Verner, 1969). Others arose i n the course of c o n s i d e r i n g the problem: p e r c e i v e d importance of the task, stage of task r e s o l u t i o n and time r e q u i r e d t o r e s o l v e each task. Rather than compile a d i f f i c u l t y score from scores on each f a c t o r , an o v e r a l l score of d i f f i c u l t y was sought f o r each task which was c o r r e l a t e d w i t h scores f o r each f a c t o r . Magnitude e s t i m a t i o n i s one of s e v e r a l techniques developed by p s y c h o - p h y s i c i s t s i n order t o l i n k the p s y c h o l o g i c a l experience of any judgement t o the magnitude of p h y s i c a l stimulus producing t h a t e x p e r i e n c e . S u b j e c t ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f the r a t i o s among changes i n stim u l u s i n t e n s i t y (such as pressure and l i g h t i n t e n - 25 si t y ) were found to be accurate. This led experimenters to be- lie v e that magnitude estimation would be a useful instrument for s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s concerned with attitude measurement. Among others, studies of the seriousness of offences of juvenile de- linquents, occupational prestige and l i f e changes have provided evidence to substantiate t h i s b e l i e f (Stevens, 1966; Holmes and Rahi, 1967; Masuda and Holmes, 1967). Magnitude estimation was chosen for t h i s study for two rea- sons. F i r s t l y , i t preserves the actual assigned ra t i o s between items and these ratios are generated from the respondents' per- ceptions of the data, not from the instrument. Secondly, i t allows items to be added by interviewees. This l a t t e r property i s e s p e c i a l l y desirable i n a study such as t h i s where no l i s t of tasks has ever been ascertained and the tasks of adaptation --identified by the author may not be complete. The following thirty-seven task items were used in develop- ing the magnitude estimation. 1. Find a doctor whom you t r u s t and are s a t i s f i e d with. 2. Register for medical insurance. 3. Adjust to climate i n Vancouver. 4. Accept a change i n status i n the community (up or down). 5. Budget for l i f e on a d i f f e r e n t economic l e v e l . 6. Get any job for income u n t i l you get a sa t i s f a c t o r y job. 7. Meet other of your countrymen. 8. Enrol children in school and community a c t i v i t i e s . 9. Use a d i f f e r e n t system of siz e s , weights and measures. 10. Get a s a t i s f y i n g career-oriented job. 11. Enrol i n a job r e t r a i n i n g program. 12. Make your f i r s t Canadian f r i e n d . 13. Find a suitable place of worship. 14. Get used to a d i f f e r e n t sense of humour i n Canada. 15. Read a l o c a l English-language newspaper regularly. 16. Find a permanent place to l i v e . 17. Subscribe to an ethnic newspaper. 18. Find a suitable ethnic school for your children. 19. Use the Vancouver bus system. 20. Use the Canadian postal system. 26 21. Open a bank account. 22. Help your spouse to use community and educational services. 23. Gain acceptance of e x i s t i n g occupational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . 24. Find ethnic stores and restaurants. 25. Identify alternate products for the household. 26. Speak enough English to get by. 27. Apply for Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p . 28. Change type of work. 29. Register for a s o c i a l insurance number. 30. Get a B.C. driver's l i c e n c e . 31. Change your workday schedule. 32. Speak good English. 33. Use Canadian money. 34. Register for car insurance. 35. Find some temporary place to l i v e when you f i r s t a r r i v e . 36. Use available community and educational services. 37. Change your st y l e of doing business. A few items (meet other of your countrymen, subscribe to an eth- nic newspaper, f i n d a suitable ethnic school for your children, f i n d ethnic shops and restaurants) may appear to r e f e r to factors which would impede adaptation, but were included for several rea- sons. Upon a r r i v a l i n a new country of residence, immigrants tend to seek out links to provide a sense of continuity and rootedness and accomplishing them may free the newcomers to accom- p l i s h other tasks of adaptation. In addition, those t i e s to the ethnic community provide much of the information needed to accom- p l i s h the tasks. Fail u r e to accomplish the l i n k i n g tasks seems to impede the accomplishment of other tasks of adaptation. Be- cause no empirical evidence was found to contradict or support t h i s view, these tasks were included as items. R e l i a b i l i t y of Magnitude Estimation Items The thirty-seven items were subjected to tests of r e l i a b i l - i t y with twenty-four immigrants from a variety of countries i n two advanced classes i n English Language Training at King Edward Campus, Vancouver Community College. 27 The respondents were asked to examine the items and, when necessary, words were translated or explained. Each item appeared on a separate card and one item, chosen randomly by each subject, was assigned an ar b i t r a r y standard d i f f i c u l t y value of 100. Each subject then compared the remaining items against t h i s standard item and assigned values to them. The same procedure was followed on test and retest occasions. While explanations were given and the subjects were judged by th e i r i n s t r u c t o r s to be competent enough to use the instrument, i t i s possible a l o t of confusion could have arisen as to the meaning of a word or phrase. Three measures of r e l i a b i l i t y were used to examine the ex- tent to which each of the thirty-seven items measured the con- struct " d i f f i c u l t y " and whether any of those items were unreliable measures of the construct. The three procedures used for estimat- ing r e l i a b i l i t y were mean p r e d i c t i v i t y , highest simple c o r r e l a t i o n with any other item, and t e s t - r e t e s t . Mean p r e d i c t i v i t y i s the mean c o r r e l a t i o n of one item with a l l other items and represents a generalized r e l i a b i l i t y estimate in that i t estimates the degree to which the other t h i r t y - s i x items predict the one item's d i f f i - c u l t y . Highest simple co r r e l a t i o n (Highest r) i s a lower-bound estimate of the item's own r e l i a b i l i t y and t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y examines item s t a b i l i t y over time. Mean p r e d i c t i v i t y firmly supports the retention of nineteen of the thirty-seven items and, i n some cases, augments low t e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y i n that a mean p r e d i c t i v i t y score of between .3 and .5 suggests that the individuals rather than the items have changed over time. A further nine items are firmly supported by 28 t e s t - r e t e s t correlations s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l or better and the remaining nine items are supported by acceptable highest co r r e l a t i o n s with another item. (Table III) One item "change your st y l e of doing business" was excluded, not because of r e l i a b i l i t y measures but rather because there appeared to be semantic confusion in the tr a n s l a t i o n of the word "business" due to i t s wide and varied use i n Hebrew, both formal- ly and as slang. V a l i d i t y of Magnitude Estimation Items Four types of v a l i d i t y were examined for the magnitude est- imation items; face, p r e d i c t i v e , convergent and c r i t e r i o n group v a l i d i t y . Face v a l i d i t y was judged to be present i n that items were selected from l i t e r a t u r e and personal interviews because they appeared to pose d i f f i c u l t y to immigrants. Predictive v a l i d i t y was i l l u s t r a t e d i n two ways. In the f i r s t place, i t i s suggested by the co r r e l a t i o n between d i f f i - c ulty scores and scores for extent of c u l t u r a l innovation. (r=.37 p=.02) I t appears l o g i c a l that degree of d i f f i c u l t y and c u l t u r a l innovation would be predictive of each other i n that a more extensive c u l t u r a l change would pose a greater degree of d i f f i c u l t y to the immigrant. In the second place, stepwise re- gression yielded socio-demographic variables accounting for the variance i n d i f f i c u l t y expressed by respondents on a task-by-task basis for seventeen of the t h i r t y - s i x tasks. I t appears, there- fore, that d i f f i c u l t y and s p e c i f i c socio-demographic variables, depending on the task i n question, tended to be predictive of each other. 29 TABLE III Correlation C o - e f f i c i e n t s of Three Tests of R e l i a b i l i t y for Magnitude Estimation Task Items Item Names Mean Highest r Test-Retest Predictivity r 15. Local Newspaper .4223 * -.7829 * .8890 * 23. Occupational Qualifications .3786 * -.6555 * .7557 * 7. Meet Countrymen .3307 * .6711 * .7264 * 9. Different Measures .4104 * -.7231 * .6704 * 36. Ctoniminity & Ed. Services .2247 -.4347 * .6564 * 27. Canadian Citizenship .3814 * .3817 * .6457 * 10. Career Job .3740 * .7003 * .5916 * 32. Good English .4079 * .7035 * .5874 * 8. Enrol Kids .4097 * .6612 * .5860 * 11. Job Retraining .4385 * -.7799 * .5830 * 33. Canadian Money .0370 -.5269 * .5793 * 17. Ethnic Newspaper .3270 -.6600 * .5676 * 12. Canadian Friend .2752 -.5666 * .5258 * 16. Personal Residence .3334 .5412 * .5101 * 20. Postal System .4085 * .7334 * .5008 * 31. Workday Schedule .3801 * -.7448 * .4939 * 26. Getby English .2871 .5736 * .4800 * 14. Canadian Sense of Humour .3344 -.6476 * .4561 * 13. Place of Worship .2604 .4769 * .4460 * 2. Medical Insurance .3683 * .6623 * .4417 * 34. Car Insurance .4629 * .8539 * .4386 * 35. Temporary Residence .2233 -.4903 * .4301 * 30. Driver's Licence .4409 * .8539 * .4901 * 22. Help Spouse .3546 * -.6333 * .4072 * 1. Find a Doctor .4045 * -.7829 * .3026 24. Ethnic Shcps .2910 .6711 * .2677 18. Ethnic School for Kids .3236 .6612 * .2489 6. Any Job for Income .4114 * -.7050 * .1859 21. Bank .2848 .6042 * .1844 3. Climate .3739 * -.6875 * .1384 29. Social Insurance .4838 * .7930 * .1329 25. Alternate Products .3321 -.6557 * .1249 5. Budget .2312 -.4950 * .1051 4. Status .2666 -.5371 * .0984 19. Vancouver Bus .2453 -.4977 * .0860 28. Change Work .3316 -.5628 * .0501 37. Change Style of Business .3418 -.6010 * .0081 * Correlations significant at the .05 level. 30 Convergent v a l i d i t y was shown i n the agreement between two or more attempts to measure the same t r a i t . On the face of i t , t h i s appears to refer only to agreement between separate i n s t r u - ments measuring the same t r a i t . However, by using a common fac- tor approach, the mean p r e d i c t i v i t y scores, calculated by averag- ing c o r r e l a t i o n s between each item and the other thirty-seven items, may be used to show convergent v a l i d i t y . In th i s case, the t r a i t being measured i s d i f f i c u l t y and the mean p r e d i c t i v i t y scores (Table III) are t h i r t y - s i x separate and independent mea- sures of i t . As the c r i t e r i o n for assessment was d i f f i c u l t y and subjects were able to assess each item, the mean p r e d i c t i v i t y scores indicate varying degrees of each item's a b i l i t y to mea- sure d i f f i c u l t y . Some of the items such as r e g i s t e r i n g for s o c i a l insurance (r=.48) and getting a driver's licence (r=.44) measure that t r a i t better than others such as using Canadian money (r=.04) or using community and educational services (r=.22). In that each item appears to operationalize d i f f i c u l t y to a grea- te r or lesser degree and a l l the items received scores, they are a l l measuring the same t r a i t , d i f f i c u l t y , and may be said to con- verge on that t r a i t . In t h i s way, convergent v a l i d i t y operates to support the o v e r a l l v a l i d i t y of the instrument. C r i t e r i o n group v a l i d i t y i s evidenced by the appearance of differences i n scores between groups which are known to be d i f f e r - ent. The d i f f i c u l t y scores of twenty-eight advanced English Language Training students from a variety of countries were com- pared to the scores of the seventy-two I s r a e l i respondents and a number of differences appeared i n the rank ordering of items, i n 31 that the f i r s t group was composed of individ u a l s from many ethnic backgrounds, no c u l t u r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the differences between the groups could be applied. The expected differences arose from the f a c t that members of the mixed group were a l l students who had enrolled i n an advanced l e v e l English course and those i n the I s r a e l i group had not. In that the mixed group were students i n an advanced cla s s , one may assume that they were there not to learn enought English to get by, but rather to upgrade t h e i r English to a l e v e l commensurate with t h e i r occupational aspira- ti o n s . Therefore, i t was to be expected that employment-oriented tasks would, i n general, be among those perceived as most d i f f i - c u l t by the mixed group and t h i s occurred. I t was also to be ex- pected that finding a career-oriented job would be one of the most d i f f i c u l t tasks for a group of I s r a e l i s representing a spectrum of socio-demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . In addition, as they repre- sented a variety of fluency levels in English compared with the advanced ELT group, speaking good English would also be perceived as a d i f f i c u l t task and t h i s occurred. Some of the other tasks perceived as most d i f f i c u l t by the I s r a e l i group were also to be expected. I s r a e l i s experience an extreme difference i n climate i n coming to Canada, often comment on the problems of understand- ing the Canadian sense of humour, and, while accustomed to metric measures, arrived before metric conversion in Canada. The mixed group experienced much greater d i f f i c u l t y with using Canadian money than the I s r a e l i group and the I s r a e l i s indicated greater d i f f i c u l t y with budgeting for l i f e on a d i f f e r e n t economic l e v e l . I t i s possible that the f i r s t group understood the task, "use Canadian money", i n i t s wider sense of f i n a n c i a l matters i n g e n e r a l i n which case both groups p l a c e d f i n a n c i a l concerns among t h e i r most d i f f i c u l t t a s k s , and t h i s was to be expected (Table I V ) . These two groups, then, were known to be d i f f e r e n t and t h e i r s c o r e s u s i n g the magnitude e s t i m a t i o n instrument r e f l e c t e d a n t i - c i p a t e d d i f f e r e n c e s so t h a t c r i t e r i o n group v a l i d i t y was demon- s t r a t e d . F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g D i f f i c u l t y S i x types of f a c t o r s were expected to i n f l u e n c e d i f f i c u l t y s c o r e s , and the development of instruments to c o l l e c t data per- t a i n i n g to each type i s d e s c r i b e d below. Socio-Demographic V a r i a b l e s A l a r g e number of socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s were examined i n t h i s study but the three which were c o n s i d e r e d w i t h g r e a t e s t a t t e n t i o n were l e v e l of education, number of c o u n t r i e s l i v e d i n f o r s i x months or more, and s i z e of primary group on a r r i v a l . The f i r s t , l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n , was r e f e r r e d t o by T a f t (1975) and G o l d l u s t and Richmond (19 74) s t a t e d t h a t t h e i r r e s u l t s i n d i - c a t e d e d u c a t i o n was the most important s i n g l e determinant of a c c u l t u r a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , they claimed t h a t the b e t t e r educa- ted the immigrants, the l e s s l i k e l y they were to be i n v o l v e d with c l o s e k i n , the more s a t i s f i e d they were with l i f e i n Canada, and the s t r o n g e r was t h e i r commitment to permanent r e s i d e n c e and c i t i z e n s h i p . 33 TABLE IV Geometric Mean D i f f i c u l t y Scores on Tasks of Adaptation for an I s r a e l i and a Mixed Group Difficulty Scores (geometric means) Task Items Israelis Mixed Group 10. Career Job 210.3 237.2 32. Good English 149.7 117.0 9. Different Measures 135.5 58.2 15. Local News 134.2 129.6 14. Canadian Sense of Humour 131.9 100.1 16. Permanent Residence 129.2 85.4 5. Budget 122.7 89.8 23. Occupational Qualifications 119.9 81.6 3. Climate 114.0 92.5 4. Status 103.5 117.8 6. Get Any Job for Income 89.3 146.3 11. Job Retraining 79.0 198.4 25. Alternate Products 78.7 33.6 36. Ctnmunity & Educational Services 71.6 72.2 27. Canadian Citizenship 69.3 209.6 30. Driver's Licence 67.6 40.6 19. Vancouver Bus 66.8 61.4 28. Change Work 66.4 129.9 12. Canadian Friend 65.9 67.6 31. Workday Schedule 64.6 71.6 24. Ethnic Shops 64.6 241.4 2. Medical Insurance 48.6 32.0 22. Help Spouse 46.2 33.7 1. Find a Doctor 45.4 61.4 35. Temporary Residence 41.3 60.4 26. Getby English 40.2 108.5 8. Enrol Kids 38.1 56.5 7. Meet Countrymen 35.5 42.5 34. Car Insurance 32.8 22.1 21. Bank 32.6 47.4 13. Place of Worship 32.6 175.6 20. Postal System 31.1 52.3 29. Social Insurance 29.8 196.8 18. Ethnic School for Kids 27.3 43.8 33. Canadian Money 24.4 227.5 17. Ethnic News 23.9 158.2 The second socio-demographic variable was suggested by Heiss' (1969) hypothesis that the association between pre-migra- t i o n t r a i t s and assimilation was due to the association between pre-migration t r a i t s and the a b i l i t y to learn a new culture (p. 427). Taft (1975) appeared to concur that culture learning i s an important variable i n investigating adaptation as did Eisenstadt (195 4) who referred to adaptation as r e s o c i a l i z a t i o n . The number of countries individuals had l i v e d i n for s i x months or more was the v a r i a b l e chosen to inquire into culture-learning experience in t h i s study as i t was taken to indicate the frequency with which r e s o c i a l i z a t i o n had occurred. The t h i r d socio-demographic variable, size of primary group on a r r i v a l , was chosen to examine the extent of personal sources of information available to immigrants upon a r r i v a l i n Vancouver and t h e i r dependence on ethnic group and s o c i e t a l i n s t i t u t i o n s at that time. The more complete the i n s t i t u t i o n a l networks of t h e i r own ethnic group, the less l i k e l y they are to turn to i n s t i t u t i o n s and sources of other ethnic groups or the host society i n seeking the resolution of tasks (Breton, 1968). The questionnaire portion of the interview was designed to c o l l e c t other socio-demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the subjects as well as the three noted above. Questions were asked regarding sex, age, marital status, place of b i r t h , occupation, f i r s t lang- uage, spouse's b i r t h place and f i r s t language, c i t i z e n s h i p status, English fluency, number of languages spoken, number of previous occupations, education, length of residence i n Vancouver, f r e - quency of use of ethnic community f a c i l i t i e s , number of adult r e l a t i v e s and friends on a r r i v a l , and s a t i s f a c t i o n with l i f e i n Canada (See Appendix I ) . Those data permitted a more complete desc r i p t i o n of the sample and the testing of additional variables to determine factors influencing d i f f i c u l t y . Interviewers were instructed to allow the interviewees to see the questionnaires, but to ask the questions o r a l l y and write in the responses rather than allowing interviewees to f i l l them out. They were encouraged to press for detailed s p e c i f i c i n f o r - mation, e s p e c i a l l y with regard to employment and education. Extent of Cultural Innovation The importance of the extent of c u l t u r a l innovation required by each task was suggested by Lionberger's four types of innova- t i o n (1960). His typology indicated that innovations have d i f f e r - ent degrees of complexity and i t has been used by r u r a l s o c i o l o - g i s t s to examine why some innovations are adopted with more or less d i f f i c u l t y than others. P a r a l l e l s may be drawn between the adoption of a new farming practice, which requires learning and accomplishment of the new practice on the part of the adopter, and the resolution of the task of adaptation. Because of t h i s s i m i l a r i t y , a typology based on extent of c u l t u r a l innovation re- quired by a task was employed, and four types of tasks were de- scribed i n the following manner. Type 1 This task represents a change i n materials and equipment only, without a change i n techniques or operations. An example of t h i s would be a change from an aluminum f r y - ing pan to a cast-iron one for cooking. 36 Type 2 This task represents a change in e x i s t i n g operations with or without a change i n materials or equipment. An exam- ple of t h i s would be a change from Canadian to Chinese s t y l e cooking procedures with or without a change from a f r y i n g pan to a wok. Type 3 This task represents a change involving new techniques or operations, for example, a factory worker changing h i s job on the assembly l i n e . This type of change involved no threat to the individual's socio-economic status and no c o n f l i c t with his c u l t u r a l values. Type 4 This task represents a change i n the t o t a l experience. An example of t h i s would be the case of a Moslem, Jew or C h r i s t i a n being required to work on his holy day (Friday, Saturday, Sunday). This type of change could involve a threat to the individual's socio-economic status or a c o n f l i c t with his c u l t u r a l values. This typology was used to tabulate extent of innovation scores for the t h i r t y - s i x tasks of adaptation used in the study. A mixed group of experts was asked to assign a number from 1 to 4 (corresponding to the typology) to each of the tasks. Some of the experts were contacted by mail, including adult education doc- t o r a l students who c i t e d Lionberger in t h e i r thesis bibliographies, administrators of English Language Training programs, and pro- fessors of English as a Second Language. Others were f i f t y ad- vanced ELT students from a variety of countries contacted person- a l l y at King Edward Campus, Vancouver Community College. Teachers assisted them with tr a n s l a t i o n and procedural problems i n assign- 37 ing scores to the tasks. Mean scores were tabulated for each task and those scores were used as an independent measure of extent of c u l t u r a l innovation required by tasks of adaptation used in the study. Time of Task Resolution In some cases, the amount of time required to resolve a task of adaptation could conceivably account for i t s perceived d i f f i c u l t y . Tasks which were resolved a long time a f t e r a r r i v a l could have been perceived as more d i f f i c u l t simply because a long period of time had elapsed and tasks that were resolved soon af t e r a r r i v a l could have been perceived as less d i f f i c u l t simply because they were resolved i n less time. Two points i n time, corresponding to f i r s t awareness of the task and task resolution, were considered i n the study and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to d i f f i c u l t y was examined. On the back of each task item card, the following time l i n e appeaj:|Bdt j | [l|. r^prejsenjted tdm̂ > 'befjorje janjd jsincjs ' th^ ' imtnigrant' s B E F O R E W K • M O M O M O Y R Y R Y R Y R Y R M O R E A R R I V A L 1 1 3 6 1 2 3 4 5 T H A N * 5 Y R S a r r i v a l i n Vancouver and served as a vehicle for displaying the answers to the two questions: 1) At what point i n time d i d you f i r s t think of having to do this task? 2) At what point i n time d i d you resolve t h i s task? If the task had not yet been resolved, interviewees were asked when they expected to resolve i t . Interviewers recorded responses 38 to the questions by marking two dots p r e c i s e l y on the time l i n e and the numbers 1 and 2. Perceived Importance of Tasks Although no l i t e r a t u r e mentions t h i s , i t i s conceivable that a task of adaptation may or may not be d i f f i c u l t simply because of i t s importance to the i n d i v i d u a l . For example, unmarried immigrants may attach no importance to finding a suitable ethnic school for children, simply because i t i s not relevant. Such a perception would a f f e c t the d i f f i c u l t y scores they assign to that item. Each of the t h i r t y - s i x task items appears on a separate ' card. After completing the magnitude estimation, subjects were asked to arrange a l l t h i r t y - s i x cards according to the order of t h e i r importance the f i r s t time they were faced with the tasks. Interviewers recorded the order using number one for the most important item and t h i r t y - s i x for the least important one. Stage of Task Resolution Whether or not a task of adaptation has been attempted or resolved by an immigrant might a f f e c t the d i f f i c u l t y score the item receives. For instance, i f a task had not yet been attempted or i s not applicable, the individuals could have a much d i f f e r e n t perception of i t s d i f f i c u l t y than i f they had resolved i t or t r i e d to and f a i l e d . In addition, some tasks could, by t h e i r nature, be more or less resolvable than others which might a f f e c t t h e i r d i f f i c u l t y scores. 39 Subjects were asked to sort a l l t h i r t y - s i x task items into f i v e p i l e s according to the following c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . 1. Not applicable to me. 2. I haven't t r i e d t h i s yet. 3. I t r i e d t h i s but couldn't resolve i t . 4. I'm doing t h i s now. 5. I've resolved t h i s . Interviewers marked each p i l e with a d i f f e r e n t color to f a c i l i t a t e coding. Sources of Information An i n d i v i d u a l may u t i l i z e a great va r i e t y of sources i n his search for the p a r t i c u l a r information he requires. Some of those sources are within his personal or community network and others are more distant from his personal sphere. The following system modified from Alleyne and Verner (1969) was employed to c l a s s i f y the sources of information used by immigrants i n resolving the tasks of adaptation. 1. Personal sources are those which involve face-to-face communi- cation between the communicator and the receiver where the receiver may question the communicator. These sources gener- a l l y l i e within the individual's personal o r b i t ; that i s , his own observations and experiences or contact with a fr i e n d , r e l a t i v e , or acquaintance. 2. Mass sources are those through which information i s available to any and every one at the same time with no provision for two-way communication. 3. Individual i n s t r u c t i o n i s an educational a c t i v i t y conducted on a one-to-one basis. 4. Instructional group i s an educational a c t i v i t y i n which i n f o r - mation i s presented to a number of ind i v i d u a l s simultaneously with an opportunity for two-way communication. The f i r s t two refer to sources of information available i n the natural s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g while the l a s t two are i n the formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l setting. Using t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system and Alleyne and Verner's (1969) l i s t of sources as a guideline, the following l i s t of i n - formation sources was developed for interviewees to use as a r e f - erence when answering the question: What sources of information did you use to help you resolve t h i s task? The actual reference l i s t that was given to interviewees did not indicate categories of sources. / Personal Sources Friend Relative Neighbour Spouse Child Fellow Employee Mass Sources Radio Newspaper (eg. Sun, Jewish Western Bulletin) Television Brochures (eg. from Manpower) Government Pamphlets Books (including dictionary) Individual Instruction Doctor Teacher or p r i n c i p a l at child' s school College Counsellor Immigrant Reception Centre Counsellor Employer Jewish Information Centre x Manpower Counsellor Jewish Family Service Agency Counsellor 41 Immigration Counsellor Other (eg. Shopkeeper, B.C. Hydro • Bus Information, MSA, Bank Manager, Insurance Agent) Instructional Group Community College Night School at a high school University Meeting of a Jewish organization (eg. Hadassah, ORT, Synagogue, Men's Club) Interviewers were asked to encourage the interviewees to describe how each task was resolved and each information source was re- corded as i t was mentioned. Population and Sample Design Identifying the population and se l e c t i n g a random sample for the study were complicated by two factors. The f i r s t was the safety Of the population. Both Employment and Immigration Canada and the I s r a e l i community are reluctant to provide information about I s r a e l i c i t i z e n s . Employment and Immigration Canada do not generally allow investigation of t h e i r records, p a r t i c u l a r l y in the case of I s r a e l i s who are under high security because of the numerous l e t t e r bombs sent to I s r a e l i s l i v i n g abroad. The only l i s t of countrymen ever compiled by the I s r a e l i community was completed i n 19 73 at the outbreak of the October War. As i t con- tained information regarding m i l i t a r y duties, the l i s t was de- stroyed when i t was no longer needed and more permanent arrange- ments for locating servicemen were made subsequently through the I s r a e l i embassy i n Toronto. Consequently, the I s r a e l i community has no o f f i c i a l l i s t of i t s membership and would prefer that no such l i s t be compiled. The second factor influencing the sampling procedures i s a p r e v a i l i n g negative attitude among both Jews and I s r a e l i s toward emigration from I s r a e l . Two indications of t h i s are the lack of studies of I s r a e l i immigrants (see Appendix II) and the repeated statements, even by I s r a e l i s who hold Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p and have l i v e d i n Vancouver for twenty-five years, that they are re- turning to I s r a e l at the e a r l i e s t possible moment. It i s the author's experience that I s r a e l i s tend to protect each other from any i n q u i r i e s about themselves, t h e i r reasons for emigrating, or suggestions that they are intending to remain permanently i n any country other than I s r a e l . Why then was t h i s population chosen for study? The strong- est reason i s that the most r e l i a b l e information i s gathered when the interviewee has the option of responding in his native tongue. The author and the interviewers were fluent in both Hebrew and English and the conceptualization and design of the study, as well as the analysis of the data, benefitted from the author's f a m i l i a r i t y with the native culture. In addition, the interviewers already enjoyed a degree of acceptance by the popu- l a t i o n which may have contributed to eliminating suspicion re- garding the study and to increasing the r e l i a b i l i t y of the data (Greenberg, 1971). Because of the various posi t i v e and negative factors affec- t i n g the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the population, personal contacts seemed to be the only way to compile a l i s t from which to choose a sample. A var i e t y of schools, i n s t i t u t i o n s , organizations and ind i v i d u a l s were approached and asked i o r l i s t s of names, addresses and phone numbers of people known to be of I s r a e l i o r i - gin. Key contact people in the I s r a e l i community were i d e n t i f i e d and asked to add to the l i s t . One hundred and f o r t y - f i v e I s r a e l i immigrants were i d e n t i f i e d , but there was no ind i c a t i o n of what percentage of the entire population t h i s represented. Therefore, i t appeared necessary to approach the entire "snowball" sample (Greenberg, 1971) for the study. No additional names were col l e c t e d once the interviewing had begun. Fourteen subjects, chosen randomly, were interviewed during the p i l o t study and the remaining subjects were approached during the data c o l l e c t i o n . Seventy-two individuals agreed to be i n t e r - viewed for the study. The P i l o t Study The purpose of the p i l o t study was to t e s t the instruments and the methods by which they would be administered for the data c o l l e c t i o n . I t was conducted i n August, 1976 by four b i l i n g u a l (Hebrew and English) interviewers, including the author. Thirty individuals were selected randomly from a l i s t of 145 and four- teen of them consented to be interviewed. Interviewer o b j e c t i v i t y was tested by comparing the results of interviews conducted by each interviewer with the same I s r a e l i subject. The only differences which appeared were on the i n t e r - views conducted by the author and, on the basis of time con- s t r a i n t s and her lesser degree of fluency i n Hebrew, i t was de- cided that the author should not conduct any of the interviews during the data c o l l e c t i o n . 44 A number of m o d i f i c a t i o n s were made t o the instruments and method of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as a r e s u l t of the p i l o t study. F i r s t , m o d i f i c a t i o n s were made to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e : e x p l a n a t i o n s were added t o s c a l e items which p r e v i o u s l y had only numbers, and ques- t i o n s were added to c l a r i f y the nature of the primary group of the i n t e r v i e w e e upon a r r i v a l i n Vancouver. Second, one ta s k of ad a p t a t i o n (change your s t y l e of doing business) was e l i m i n a t e d due to the problem of t r a n s l a t i n g the word, b u s i n e s s , i n t o Hebrew. T h i r d , with r e g a r d t o the time l i n e and sources of i n f o r m a t i o n q u e s t i o n s , ten task items were chosen on a r o t a t i o n a l b a s i s to be a d m i n i s t e r e d t o each s u b j e c t f o r t h i s p o r t i o n of the i n t e r v i e w i n s t e a d of q u e s t i o n i n g each s u b j e c t f o r a l l t h i r t y - s i x task items. T h i s reduced the i n t e r v i e w time from two and a h a l f t o one and a h a l f hours. F o u r t h , m o d i f i c a t i o n s and c l a r i f i c a t i o n s were made to the method of a d m i n i s t e r i n g the i n t e r v i e w as shown i n Appendix I I I . Data C o l l e c t i o n The i n t e r v i e w s were conducted by ten i n t e r v i e w e r s who were f l u e n t i n both Hebrew and E n g l i s h . E i g h t were of I s r a e l i o r i g i n and two were Canadian-born. I n t e r v i e w e r s were t r a i n e d i n four two-hour meetings i n January, 1977. During the f i r s t and second meetings, the i n s t r u - ments and method o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n were t r i e d and d i s c u s s e d . During the t h i r d meeting, i n t e r v i e w e r s i n t e r v i e w e d each other and d i s c u s s e d problems t h a t arose. The f o u r t h meeting c o n s i s t e d o f r o l e p l a y i n g i n i t i a l telephone c a l l s to s u b j e c t s , r e q u e s t i n g an i n t e r v i e w . I n t e r v i e w e r s then made arrangements to meet on a one-to-one basis in t h e i r homes to conduct the interviews with each other. F i n a l l y , interviewers were tested for o b j e c t i v i t y i n a mock interview s i t u a t i o n . An actor-respondent with a standard s c r i p t was interviewed separately by each of the i n t e r - viewers. Their interview results were compared and no notable differences appeared. Analysis of the Data The s t a t i s t i c s reported included univariate frequency d i s - t r i b u t i o n s , means, bivar i a t e frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s , and corre- l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . As the data included nominal, ordinal and i n t e r v a l variables, the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t i n any p a r t i c u l a r case was obtained with the appropriate method for the type of data: 1) for i n t e r v a l - i n t e r v a l variables, Pearson's product moment c o e f f i c i e n t , r; 2) for interval-nominal variables, corre- l a t i o n r a t i o R; 3) for i n t e r v a l - o r d i n a l variables, Jaspen's co- e f f i c i e n t of m u l t i s e r i a l c o r r e l a t i o n , M; 4) for nominal-nominal variables, Guttman's symmetric c o e f f i c i e n t of p r e d i c t a b i l i t y , ; 5) for nominal-ordinal variables, Freeman's c o e f f i c i e n t of deter- mination ; 6) and for ordinal-ordinal variables, Goodman's and Kruskal's c o e f f i c i e n t of rank association, G. (CORN Manual, UBC Computing Centre) Task d i f f i c u l t y scores were derived from computing geomet- r i c means, and regression analyses u t i l i z e d d i f f i c u l t y scores as the dependent variables and ten socio-demographic measures as the independent variables. CHAPTER IV RESULTS This chapter discusses the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sample, reports d i f f i c u l t y of tasks, and explores relationships between socio-demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and d i f f i c u l t y . In addition, data are analyzed with a view to examining relationships between d i f f i c u l t y and each of the following f a c t o r s : extent of c u l t u r a l innovation required, length of resolution time required, impor- tance to the immigrant when the task i s f i r s t encountered, and stage of task resolution. F i n a l l y , the relat i o n s h i p between use of adult education sources of information and d i f f i c u l t y i s examined. Characteristics of the Respondents More women than men were represented among the seventy-two persons interviewed during the study. Ages ranged from twenty- three to f i f t y - n i n e and more than two-thirds of those interviewed were married upon a r r i v a l i n Canada. Since a r r i v a l , eleven of the twenty-one single respondents had married and five of the married respondents had divorced. About the same percentage of men were married on a r r i v a l (25%) as were single (19.4%) while approximately four times as many women were married on a r r i v a l (44.4%) as were single (9.7%). Considering that married people 4 6 47 i n g e n e r a l r e p o r t e d l e s s E n g l i s h spoken at home than s i n g l e ones, t h a t married women r e p o r t e d low l e v e l s of E n g l i s h comprehension and f l u e n c y on a r r i v a l , t h a t married women were the o n l y i n d i - v i d u a l s r e p o r t i n g no job experience and t h a t they a l s o r e p o r t e d more a d u l t r e l a t i v e s on a r r i v a l i n Vancouver than any of the other respondents, i t may be surmised t h a t married I s r a e l i women experience a somewhat i n s u l a t e d community l i f e , h a v i ng l i t t l e c o n t a c t with Canadian s o c i e t y . However, many of t h e i r r e l a t i v e s and community c o n t a c t s are Canadian Jews, r a t h e r than I s r a e l i s , so t h e i r l i v e s may a c t u a l l y be l e s s i n s u l a t e d than those of women of other e t h n i c groups. The m a j o r i t y of respondents (57%) were born i n I s r a e l . As I s r a e l i s a r e l a t i v e l y new s t a t e w i t h one of the h i g h e s t percen- tages o f immigration i n the world, i t i s to be expected t h a t many I s r a e l i s were a c t u a l l y born i n other p l a c e s . Twenty per- cent of the respondents were born i n E a s t e r n Europe or R u s s i a and the remaining 23% were born i n a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r c o u n t r i e s : North A f r i c a , Western Europe, A s i a , and North and South America. S i x t y - s e v e n p e r c e n t s t a t e d t h a t t h e i r f i r s t language was Hebrew, three respondents (4.2%) gave E n g l i s h as t h e i r f i r s t language, and twenty-one (29.2%) r e p l i e d t h a t t h e i r f i r s t language had been one other than Hebrew or E n g l i s h . Almost one-quarter of the r e - spondents s t a t e d t h a t t h e i r spouse's f i r s t language was E n g l i s h . These respondents may have been a s s i s t e d g r e a t l y i n t h e i r adap- t a t i o n by t h e i r spouses' a b i l i t y to communicate and comprehend systems and i n f e r e n c e s here i n Canada. 48 The m a j o r i t y of in t e r v i e w e e s had completed h i g h s c h o o l ( 8 0 . 3 % ) . In a d d i t i o n , more than f i f t y p e r c e n t had completed one to f o u r years of u n i v e r s i t y and twenty pe r c e n t had engaged i n more than f i v e years of u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g . Twenty-three i n d i - v i d u a l s of the seventy-two respondents (31.9%) r e p o r t e d v o c a t i o n - a l or t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g . These f i g u r e s compare f a v o u r a b l y w i t h those r e p o r t e d by the Department o f Manpower and Immigration ( 1 9 7 4 ) . In t h a t study which excluded married women, 339 i n d i - v i d u a l s ( 1 6 . 6 % ) i n a m u l t i - e t h n i c sample r e g i s t e r e d twelve t o t h i r t e e n years of s c h o o l i n g and 213 i n d i v i d u a l s (10.5%) r e p o r t e d s i x t e e n or seventeen years of s c h o o l i n g . ResDondents' education l e v e l a l s o compares f a v o u r a b l y with the study o f e t h n i c popula- t i o n s i n Toronto by G o l d l u s t and Richmond (1974) which r e p o r t e d n i n e t e e n p e r c e n t of t h e i r sample completing twelve or t h i r t e e n y e a rs of e d u c a t i o n and ei g h t e e n p e r c e n t completing s i x t e e n y e a r s . In view of these r e s u l t s , I s r a e l i immigrants i n t h i s study were a comparatively w e l l - e d u c a t e d group. While a l l o f the s i n g l e women had completed h i g h s c h o o l , o n l y f i f t y p e r c e n t of the s i n g l e men had done so. In a d d i t i o n , s i n g l e men had the h i g h e s t percentage of v o c a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g ( 5 7 . 1 % ) and the lowest percentage of one t o fou r years of u n i v e r s i t y ( 4 2 . 9 % ) . M a r r i e d men, however, i n d i c a t e d the h i g h - e s t percentage o f one to f o u r years u n i v e r s i t y (66.7%) and, of these , f i f t y p e r c e n t had completed f i v e or more years of u n i - v e r s i t y . No s i n g l e females had completed f i v e or more years of u n i v e r s i t y . 49 Single men who ranged between twenty-five and th i r t y - t h r e e years of age reported two to fiv e occupations during t h e i r work- ing l i v e s . Others i n the sample indicated greater occupational s t a b i l i t y , reporting one to three occupations. Among the married women were the only individuals reporting no job experience, but "housewife" was not recorded as an occupation. Most respondents (86.9%) spoke only English at work but just eleven (15.5%) spoke only English at home. Thirty-two respon- dents (45%) spoke a mixture of English and Hebrew i n t h e i r homes and about forty percent spoke mainly Hebrew.at home. The l a r - gest number of married individuals (73.5%) reported speaking English at home half the time or less and the largest number of single people (6 8.4%) reported speaking i t there most or a l l of the time. Of the sample, thirty-seven indiv i d u a l s (51.3%) re- ported that they could speak l i t t l e English or none on a r r i v a l . T hirty-four individuals (47.1%) reported that they could under- stand everything and speak with varying degrees of fluency. Comparison of fluency levels with the 1974 study by the Depart- ment of Manpower and Immigration i s l i m i t e d because t h e i r figures represented only men and single women i n the labour force. That study reported sixty-nine percent of the men and eighty-two per- cent of the women in d i c a t i n g good or perfect knowledge of English a f t e r s i x months in Canada. Of the t h i r t y - f o u r I s r a e l i s i n t h i s study reporting some l e v e l of fluency on a r r i v a l , twenty-seven 50 (79%) were married. Thirty-two percent of the single men and f o r t y - s i x percent of the married women reported low levels of comprehension and fluency on a r r i v a l . While individuals who had been i n Vancouver up to f i f t e e n years were approached for the study, the majority of respondents had l i v e d here for ten years or less. A l l the individuals in the sample had l i v e d i n at least two countries, Canada and I s r a e l , for s i x months or more and no one reported more than four coun- t r i e s of residence. Fifty-seven persons (80.3%) stated that they attended one of the l o c a l synagogues about once a year, six (8.4%) attended regu- l a r l y on a weekly or monthly basis and eight never attended. About half of the participants i n the study (49.3%) never read the l o c a l weekly ethnic newspaper, The Jewish Western B u l l e t i n . Of those who did, sixteen (22.5%) read i t on a weekly basis. Fifty-seven (89.2%) persons attended the Jewish Community Centre, few with r e g u l a r i t y . F i f t y respondents (70.4%) r e p l i e d that t h e i r degree of sat- i s f a c t i o n with l i f e i n Canada met t h e i r previous expectations or was better than they had expected. Single women were less s a t i s - f i e d , on the whole, than they had expected to be. Married men responded favourably but without high degrees of s a t i s f a c t i o n while married women and single women expressed a wide range of feelings about s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r l i v e s . 51 TABLE V Summary of Socio-Demographic Cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of Seventy-Two Respondents Characteristics Number % Sex: Male 32 • 44.4 Female 40 55.6 Marital Status on Arrival: Married 50 69.4 Single 21 29.2 Place of Birth: Israel 41 56.9 Eastern Europe/Russia 15 20.8 Western Europe 5 6.8 North Africa 4 5.5 Asia/Iraq 4 5.5 North America 2 2.7 South America 1 1.3 First Language: Hebrew 48 67.0 English 3 4.2 Other 21 29.2 Spouse's First Language English 17 23.6 Education: (respondents marked a l l applicable categories) High School Completion 57 80.3 Vocational/Technical Training 23 31.9 1-4 Years University 39 54.2 5 or more Years University 15 20.8 Language Spoken: Only English at Work 63 86.9 Only English at Home 11 15.5 Hebrew and English at Home 32 45.0 Only Hebrew at Home 27 40.0 Synagogue Attendance: Yearly 57 80.3 Monthly/Weekly 6 8.4 Never 8 11.3 Read Weekly Ethnic Newspaper: Weekly 16 22.5 Never 36 49.3 52 TABLE VI D i f f i c u l t y Scores of T h i r t y - S i x Task Items Task Items D i f f i c u l t y Scores (Geometric Means) 10. Career Job 210.3 32. Good English 149.7 9. Different Measures 135.5 15. Read Local News 134.2 14. Canadian Sense of Humour 131.9 16. Permanent Residence 129.2 5. Budget 122.7 23. Occupational Qualifications 119.9 3. Climate 114.0 4. Status 103.5 6. Get Any Job for Income 89.3 11. Job Retraining 79.0 25. Alternate Household Products 78.7 36. Ctntnunity and Educational Services 71.6 27. Canadian Citizenship 69.3 30. Driver's Licence 67.6 19. Vancouver Bus System 66.8 28. Change Type of Work 66.4 12. Canadian Friend 65.9 31. Change Work Schedule 64.6 24. Find Ethnic Shops 64.6 2. Medical Insurance 48.6 22. Help Spouse 46.2 1. Find a Doctor 45.4 35. Temporary Residence 41.3 26. Getby English 40.2 8. Enrol Kids 38.1 7. Meet Comtrymen 35.5 34. Car Insurance 32.8 21. Bank 32.6 13. Worship 32.6 20. Postal System 31.1 29. Social Insurance 29.8 18. Ethnic School 27.3 33. Canadian Money 24.4 17. Ethnic News 23.9 53 D i f f i c u l t y of Tasks of A d a p t a t i o n Magnitude e s t i m a t i o n s c a l i n g of t h i r t y - s i x tasks by seventy- two respondents r e s u l t e d i n each task being a s s i g n e d a value t h a t corresponded t o the geometric mean of a l l scores f o r t h a t item. Geometric means were employed a c c o r d i n g to Stevens' (1966) sugges- t i o n . The most d i f f i c u l t task i d e n t i f i e d by respondents was g e t t i n g a s a t i s f y i n g , c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d job. T h i s item's d i f f i c u l t y score was 2 1 0 . 3 , approximately ten times more d i f f i c u l t than the e a s i e s t task item, s u b s c r i b i n g to an e t h n i c newspaper. F i n d i n g a c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d job was als.o s u b s t a n t i a l l y more d i f f i c u l t than the second most d i f f i c u l t task, speaking good E n g l i s h , which r e - c e i v e d a score of 149.7. The score f o r t h i s second most d i f f i c u l t task, u s i n g a d i f f e r e n t system of s i z e s , weights, and measures, and the remaining seven of the ten most d i f f i c u l t tasks were w i t h - i n a range of t h i r t y p o i n t s (Table V I ) . That these ten tasks pose the most d i f f i c u l t y f o r immigrants i s supported by the data from the Canada Manpower and Immigration r e p o r t on a t h r e e - y e a r survey o f economic and s o c i a l a d a p t a t i o n of 2,037 immigrants to Canada from a v a r i e t y of c o u n t r i e s (Depart- ment of Manpower and Immigration, 19 74) . That study r e p o r t e d 1) t h a t the a v a i l a b i l i t y of jobs, type of work and earnings were a major p r e - o c c u p a t i o n of immigrants; 2) t h a t a f t e r three years i n t h i s c ountry almost o n e - t h i r d of the sample had not achieved t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l s ; 3) that 54 twenty p e r c e n t of the i n d i v i d u a l s i n the sample s a i d they were prevented from e n t e r i n g t h e i r intended o c c u p a t i o n a l f i e l d because p r o f e s s i o n a l and trade a s s o c i a t i o n s or Canadian employers d i d not r e c o g n i z e or accept t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ; 4) t h a t language was a b a r r i e r to intended o c c u p a t i o n f o r s i x t e e n percent; 5) t h a t eco- nomic l e v e l had i n c r e a s e d r a p i d l y w h i l e , at the same time, a sub- s t a n t i a l percentage of the sample had remained below poverty l e v e l ; and 6) t h a t t h i r t y - o n e percent of the sample b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i r s o c i a l p o s i t i o n had improved w h i l e twenty percent f e l t t h a t i t was lower than i n t h e i r former country. These p o i n t s , taken from among the r e s u l t s of t h a t study, support the choice by r e - spondents of tasks r e l a t i n g to o c c u p a t i o n , language, s t a t u s and budget as being the most d i f f i c u l t ones. I t was of i n t e r e s t t h a t u s i n g a d i f f e r e n t system of s i z e s , weights and measures and ad- j u s t i n g to the c l i m a t e i n Vancouver were a l s o p e r c e i v e d by I s r a e l i s as b e i n g among the most d i f f i c u l t t a s k s . The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Socio-Demographic C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and D i f f i c u l t y The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n addressed here i s to what extent socio-demographic v a r i a b l e s may be p r e d i c t o r s of the d i f f i c u l t y i n d i v i d u a l s experience i n r e s o l v i n g tasks of a d a p t a t i o n . Step- f wise r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was conducted u t i l i z i n g ten o r d i n a l v a r i a b l e s : years of e d u c a t i o n , number of c o u n t r i e s l i v e d i n f o r s i x months of more, number of a d u l t r e l a t i v e s on a r r i v a l , number of I s r a e l i f r i e n d s on a r r i v a l , number of Canadian f r i e n d s on a r r i - 5 5 v a l , age, o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l , number of languages spoken and p r e - sent l e v e l of E n g l i s h . Of these, the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the f i r s t f i v e to d i f f i c u l t y were of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t f o r reasons out- l i n e d p r e v i o u s l y (Chapter I I ) . In cases where the r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s y i e l d e d l i m i t e d or no s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s , c o r r e l a - t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were a l s o examined and both are r e p o r t e d here f o r each v a r i a b l e . The a n a l y s i s y i e l d e d no s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s f o r a t o t a l of n i n e t e e n of the t h i r t y - s i x tasks (Table V I I ) . Years of e d u c a t i o n appeared to have p r e d i c t a b i l i t y f o r f i v e t a s k s : speaking good E n g l i s h , u s i n g a d i f f e r e n t system of weights and measures, r e a d i n g a l o c a l E n g l i s h - l a n g u a g e newspaper, a p p l y - i n g f o r Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p and u s i n g Canadian money. The f i r s t t hree were among the most d i f f i c u l t tasks and two of them r e l a t e d to u s i n g E n g l i s h . • In each case, the task was p e r c e i v e d to be e a s i e r as years of e d u c a t i o n i n c r e a s e d and, i n the case of a p p l y - in g f o r Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p , the task was f u r t h e r s i m p l i f i e d as the number of languages respondents spoke i n c r e a s e d (Table V I I I ) . More educ a t i o n would appear to ease the most d i f f i c u l t t a s k s , e s p e c i a l l y those r e l a t e d t o l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h . C o r r e l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between years of e d u c a t i o n and the d i f f i c u l t y o f tasks a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f a m i l y l i f e , e t h n i c group a s s o c i a t i o n s , budgeting and a d j u s t - i n g t o c l i m a t e . T h i s f i n d i n g with regard t o f a m i l y l i f e and e t h - n i c group a s s o c i a t i o n s would appear to be s u b s t a n t i a t e d by G o l d l u s t and Richmond's f i n d i n g (19 74) that the b e t t e r educated the immigrants, the l e s s l i k e l y they were to be i n v o l v e d with 56 TABLE VII Summary of Regression Analyses of Ten S o c i o - Demographic V a r i a b l e s and t h e i r R e l a t i o n t o D i f f i c u l t y Scores Tasks Variables in Regression Equation Normalized Regression Coefficient Signif. Level Percentage of variance (r2) Career none Good English Yrs. of Ed. -.40 .00 .16 Different Measures Yrs. of Ed. -.24 .04 .06 Local News Yrs. of Ed. -.35 .00 .12 Humour none Permanent Residence none Budget Age .31 .00 .10 Occupational Quals. none Climate Age # of countries .28 -.38 .01 .00 .22 Status # Adult Rels. -.34 .00 .11 Find Any Job none Job Retraining # of Languages -.26 .02 .07 Alternate Products none (Zonraunity & Ed. Serv. Occ. level # of countries -.37 -.30 .00 .01 .22 Canadian Citizenship # of Languages Yrs. of Ed. -.26 -.26 .02 .02 .13 Driver's Licence none Vancouver Buses none Change Work none Canadian Friend none Work Schedule none Ethnic Shops Occ. level # Adult Rels. -.31 -.32 .00 .00 .19 Medical Insurance none Help Spouse # Adult Rels. -.35 .00 .13 Doctor # of Occs. .28 .01 .08 Temporary Residence . none Getby English none Enrol Kids # Is r a e l i Friends .24 .04 .06 Meet Crjuntxymen none Car Insurance # Adult Rels. -.27 .02 .07 Bank none Worship none Postal Age .27 .02 .07 Social Insurance none Ethnic School none Canadian Money Yrs. of Ed. -.27 .02 .08 Ethnic News # of Languages # Adult Rels. . -.32 -.29 .00 .01 .18 57 c l o s e k i n . As years of education i n c r e a s e d , so d i d respondents' p e r c e p t i o n of the d i f f i c u l t y of h e l p i n g t h e i r spouse, e n r o l l i n g c h i l d r e n i n p u b l i c and e t h n i c s c h o o l s , s u b s c r i b i n g to an e t h n i c newspaper, f i n d i n g e t h n i c shops and r e s t a u r a n t s , budgeting f o r l i f e on a d i f f e r e n t economic l e v e l and a d j u s t i n g to the c l i m a t e i n Vancouver. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t w i t h tasks r e l a t e d to e t h n i c group a s s o c i a t i o n s , p e r c e p t i o n of d i f f i c u l t y was r e - duced as number of I s r a e l i f r i e n d s on a r r i v a l i n c r e a s e d (Table V I I I ) . Regardless of e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l , newcomers appear t o have been a s s i s t e d by the presence of I s r a e l i f r i e n d s who presumably had r e s o l v e d some of the i n i t i a l t a sks of a d a p t a t i o n . Number of c o u n t r i e s l i v e d i n f o r s i x months or more showed p r e d i c t a b i l i t y f o r a d j u s t i n g to c l i m a t e and u s i n g community and e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . Those who had l i v e d i n more c o u n t r i e s ex- pressed l e s s d i f f i c u l t y i n a d j u s t i n g to the c l i m a t e . However, as respondents' ages i n c r e a s e d , t h i s task seemed t o become more d i f f i c u l t . Respondents with h i g h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l l e v e l s expressed l e s s d i f f i c u l t y than others i n u s i n g a v a i l a b l e community and edu- c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s and the d i f f i c u l t y of t h i s task was f u r t h e r r e - duced f o r those who had l i v e d i n a g r e a t e r number of c o u n t r i e s (Table V I I ) . C o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t those with experience of l i v i n g i n d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s p e r c e i v e d l e s s d i f f i c u l t y w i t h two tasks which are r e q u i r e d immediately upon a r r i v a l i n a hew country: speaking enough E n g l i s h to get by and f i n d i n g a temporary r e s i d e n c e (Table V I I I ) . 5 8 TABLE VIII C o r r e l a t i o n C o - e f f i c i e n t s of D i f f i c u l t y Scores and P a r t i c u l a r Socio-Demographic V a r i a b l e s of T h i r t y - S i x Tasks of ** * Adaptation Values significant at the .05 Values sianificant at the .01 level level Tasks Years of (in order of difficulty) Education # Countries for 6 months + # Adult Relatives # Israeli Friends # Canadian Friends Occupational Level # Languages English at Present 1. Career -.0552 .0569 .0779 .0909 .0608 .2609** -.0913 .3150 2. Good English -.0842 -.2010 -.0645 -.0810 -.0188 -.1919 .0259 .4791* 3. Different Measures .1751 -.2056 -.1151 .0438 .1430 -.1764 .1036 .3522 4. Local News .0681 -.1870 .0917 -.0562 -.0641 -.0348 -.0255 .3411 5. Humour -.0652 -.1410 -.0097 -.0210 - . 0 3 6 4 -.0843 -.0046 .2571 6. Permanent Residence .1524 -.1198 .0490 -.0000 .0204 .0301 -.1604 .1554 7. Budget .2263* -.1442 -.1003 -.0078 .1333 -.0737 -.0446 .1530 8. Occupational Qualifications .0706 .0989 .0203 -.2047 -.1738 .0865 -.0735 .3141 9. Climate .3066* -.0905 -.0453 .1952 .0203 -.0550 -.1003 .1959 10. Status .0229 -.0913 .0193 -.3394* -.0596 -.0610 .1411 .2813 1 1 . Find Any Jcb .0194 -.1277 -.1385 .1477 .1538 .0815 -.0649 .1702 12. Job Retraining .0505 .0764 .0199 .1445 .1237 .0725 -.2501** .3193 13. Alternate Products .1452 .0566 .0012 .0444 .1465 -.1249 .0289 .2175 14. Comm. S Educ. Serv. .1989 -.1211 .0589 .1195 -.0029 -.1493 -.1050 .4152* 15. Canadian Citizenship .0588 -.0167 .1609 .1212 .2250** -.0063 -.2574** .3716** 16. Driver's Licence -.1034 -.0787 -.1161 -.0973 .1911 .0916 -.0820 .2528 17. Vancouver Bus .0775 -.0322 -.0507 -.0837 .0428 -.0430 .0341 .1253 18. Change Work .0436 -.0311 .0310 .0342 .0312 .0546 -.1979 .1169 19. Canadian Friend .0529 -.1294 .0240 -.6317 .0168 .0962 -.0556 .1089 20. Work Schedule -.0372 .0233 -.2497** .0398 .0382 -.0390 .0604 .2042 21. Ethnic Shops .2432** -.1496 .2001 -.3246* .1053 -.2958* -.1550 .2170 22. Medical Insurance -.0004 -.0441 -.1657 -.0251 .2424** -.1956 .0852 .2147 23. Help Spouse .3059* -.1200 -.1285 -.3489* .1151 .1193 -.1405 .2772 24. Doctor -.0654 -.1475 -.0241 -.0792 .0018 -.0389 .0275 .2093 25. Tenporary Residence .0001 .2362** .0556 -.1100 -.0984 .0151 -.1013 .1067 26. Getby English .1676 -.2465** -.0250 -.6097 -.0014 -.1400 .0234 .3495 27. Enrol Kics .2456* -.0762 -.1463 .0363 .1857 -.0241 -.1649 .2113 A X I l\ 28. Meet Countrymen -.1505 -.0486 .0744 -.6605 -.1073 .0638 .1412 .2943 29. Car Insurance .2140 -.1100 -.0496 -.2618** .0941 .0152 .0796 .1626 30. Bank -.1209 .0968 -.1824 -.0128 .0003 -.0594 -.1853 .1796 31. Worship .0728 -.1582 .0404 .1784 .1319 .1150 -.1075 .1131 32. Postal .1639 -.1775 -.2114 -.1781 .0621 -.1123 .0431 .2450 33. Social Insurance .0476 -.2009 -.1379 -.2297** .1371 -.2368** .0795 .1505 34. Ethnic School .2928* -.1265 .2072 -.1804 — 1 C\A£L .0798 0122 -.0681 -.1744 -.1708 .0995 .1514 .1422 35. Canadian Money 36. Ethnic News .2357** .2754* -.1598 -.1590 -.2909* .05J3 .0647 -.2579** .2635 5 9 Of the three types of primary group r e l a t i o n s about which respondents were questioned, only number of adult r e l a t i v e s on a r r i v a l showed p r e d i c t a b i l i t y i n regression analysis, and t h i s occurred for f i v e tasks. Those respondents with greater numbers of adult r e l a t i v e s i n Vancouver when they arrived expressed less d i f f i c u l t y with accepting a change i n status i n the community, helping t h e i r spouse and r e g i s t e r i n g for car insurance. The same was true for f i n d i n g ethnic shops and restaurants and subscribing to an ethnic newspaper but the former was further s i m p l i f i e d as occupational l e v e l increased and the l a t t e r was easier for those who spoke a number of languages. While regression analysis showed more I s r a e l i friends on a r r i v a l as only predicting more d i f f i c u l t y with e n r o l l i n g children i n school and community a c t i v i t i e s , corre- lations indicated that t h i s variable bore a s i g n i f i c a n t negative relationship to tasks associated with ethnic community involvement and r e g i s t e r i n g for s o c i a l insurance and car insurance. The num- ber of Canadian friends respondents had on a r r i v a l i n Vancouver appeared to have no p r e d i c t a b i l i t y for any task. Other re s u l t s of the regression analysis indicated, f i r s t l y , that as age increased, respondents appeared to have more d i f f i c u l - ty budgeting for l i f e on a d i f f e r e n t economic l e v e l , adjusting to climate, and using the postal system and, secondly, that those who spoke more languages perceived less d i f f i c u l t y e n r o l l i n g for job r e t r a i n i n g and applying for Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p . 60 While no variables appeared i n the regression equation for the most d i f f i c u l t task, finding a s a t i s f y i n g , career-oriented job, i t i s of i n t e r e s t that a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e correlation was found between t h i s task and occupational l e v e l . In other words, those with higher occupational levels perceived greater d i f f i c u l t y i n finding a career-oriented job. None of the socio-demographic variables i n the regression analysis appeared to have p r e d i c t a b i l i t y for any of the four em- ployment-related tasks: finding a job, finding a career-oriented job, getting occupational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s accepted and changing type of work. While the Manpower and Immigration (19 74) study concluded that employment was the most c r u c i a l variable to successful adaptation and th i s study supports that finding in that the most d i f f i c u l t task was finding a career-oriented job, none of the ten socio-demographic variables u t i l i z e d here appears to a s s i s t i n predicting who w i l l experience more or less d i f f i c u l t y i n resolving that task. While no one socio-demographic variable proved to be a good predictor for a l l t h i r t y - s i x tasks of adaptation, some predicta- b i l i t y and a number of strong relationships appeared between socio-demographic variables and d i f f i c u l t y of tasks of adaptation. In view of t h i s , i t must be concluded that individuals of varying socio-demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s experience varying levels of d i f f i c u l t y i n resolving tasks of adaptation, but t h i s conclusion does not apply for a l l t h i r t y - s i x tasks. Notably, no variables appeared i n the regression equations for the four tasks related 61 to employment which suggests t h a t the ten socio-demographic v a r i - a b l e s used i n the a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e no key to understanding the d i f f i c u l t y of employment-related t a s k s . The R e l a t i o n s h i p of D i f f i c u l t y t o Other F a c t o r s One major p o r t i o n of the study was an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of which f a c t o r s , other than socio-demographic ones, might have i n f l u e n c e d respondents' p e r c e p t i o n s of the d i f f i c u l t y of r e s o l v i n g tasks of a d a p t a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n to d i f f i c u l t y s c ores and socio-demogra- p h i c data, f o u r other f a c t o r s were measured independently: ex- t e n t of c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n r e q u i r e d by t a s k s , length of r e s o - l u t i o n time r e q u i r e d , importance of the task to the respondents when they f i r s t encountered i t , and the stage of task r e s o l u t i o n accomplished. G e n e r a l l y , the most s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s of t h i s p o r t i o n of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n were with regard t o the extent of c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n r e q u i r e d by t a s k s . T h i s f a c t o r appears to bear the s t r o n g e s t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o d i f f i c u l t y of t a s k s , both f o r the I s r a e l i s and f o r a mixed group of immigrants from a v a r i e t y of c o u n t r i e s . P e r c e i v e d importance of tasks appears to bear l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o d i f f i c u l t y and f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n seems un- necessary. While r e s o l u t i o n time and stage of r e s o l u t i o n accom- p l i s h e d appear t o shed l i t t l e l i g h t on the nature of d i f f i c u l t y , t a s k s r e q u i r i n g l i t t l e time to be r e s o l v e d were r e s o l v e d by most respondents and those r e q u i r i n g g r e a t e r lengths of time to be r e - s o l v e d were r e s o l v e d by fewer respondents. Herein f o l l o w s a more d e t a i l e d examination o f each of the f o u r f a c t o r s and i t s r e l a t i o n - s h i p to d i f f i c u l t y . 62 E x t e n t of C u l t u r a l Innovation Scores f o r exte n t o f c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n r e q u i r e d by each task were d e r i v e d by t a b u l a t i n g mean scores of f i f t y - t w o respon- dents who used the typology d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r (p. 35). These scores p r o v i d e d an independent measure of exte n t of c u l t u r a l inno- v a t i o n r e q u i r e d i n t h a t the respondents were a mixed group and not I s r a e l i s i n the sample. Two unexpected r e s u l t s o c c u r r e d when tasks were ordered a c c o r d i n g to mean scores (Table IX). F i r s t , u s i n g Canadian money r e c e i v e d the h i g h e s t mean score of any task. I t i s c o n c e i v - able t h a t , as one respondent remarked, t h i s task was understood to i n c l u d e a wide range of f i n a n c i a l matters r a t h e r than the i n - tended simple use of new c o i n s w i t h new v a l u e s . Second, w h i l e speaking good E n g l i s h might appear t o be a task r e q u i r i n g a g r e a t e x t e n t of i n n o v a t i o n , i t occurs f i f t e e n t h on the l i s t . T h i s may be due to the f a c t t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the expert-respondents were a d u l t students i n advanced E n g l i s h c l a s s e s and knew enough E n g l i s h t o p e r c e i v e t h i s as r e q u i r i n g l e s s i n n o v a t i o n on t h e i r p a r t than tasks r e l a t e d t o s t a t u s , employment, f i n a n c e s , and c i t i - z e nship which occur b e f o r e i t on the l i s t . These mean s c o r e s , as an independent measure of e x t e n t o f c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n r e q u i r e d by t a s k s , were c o r r e l a t e d a g a i n s t d i f f i c u l t y s c ores of the I s r a e l i respondents i n the sample. On a task-by-task b a s i s , r a t h e r than respondent-by-respondent, the o v e r a l l c o r r e l a t i o n was .3713 (p=.02) which appears t o i n d i c a t e t h a t task d i f f i c u l t y i n c r e a s e s i n r e l a t i o n t o the extent of 63 TABLE IX Extent of Innovation Required by Tasks of Adapt a t i o n A c c o r d i n g t o F i f t y - T w o "Expert" Respondents I Task Mean Standard Score Deviation Canadian Money 3.36 Status 3.09 .9 Career 3.06 .9 Canadian Citizenship 3.04 .8 Social Insurance 3.00 .9 Ethnic Shops 2.94 .9 Change Type of Work 2.92 1.0 Any Job 2.77 1.0 Budget 2.69 .9 Job Retraining 2.60 .9 Humour 2.44 .9 Permanent Residence 2.40 1.1 Local News 2.38 1.1 Canadian Friend 2.33 1.0 Good English 2.33 1.0 Different Measures 2.29 1.0 Vancouver Bus 2.23 .8 Climate 2.17 1.0 Enrol Kids 2.15 .8 Work Schedule 2.13 .9 Occupational Qualifications 2.12 .7 Getby English 2.12 1.0 Worship 2.08 1.1 Doctor 2.04 .9 Crjrminity and Educational Services 2.02 .9 Ethnic School 2.01 .9 Ethnic News 1.92 1.0 Medical Insurance 1.88 1.0 Temporary Residence 1.87 .9 Driver's Licence 1.87 .9 Alternate Products 1.69 .9 Meet Countrymen 1.69 1.0 Car Insurance 1.67 .8 Help Spouse 1.54 .8 Postal 1.51 .8 Bank 1.46 .8 c u l t u r a l innovation may be the single most important factor r e l a t - ing to d i f f i c u l t y of tasks of adaptation. In an attempt to corroborate t h i s f i n d i n g and ascertain whether or not t h i s relationship may be generalizable beyond the population of I s r a e l i immigrants i n Vancouver, a co r r e l a t i o n was also sought between the independent expert scores and d i f f i c u l t y scores of a mixed group of twenty-eight immigrants from a v a r i e t y of countries, a l l of whom were advanced students i n the English Language program at King Edward Campus, Vancouver Community College. In t h i s case, a correlation of .7969 (p<.001) was ob- tained, suggesting that the relationship between c u l t u r a l innova- t i o n and d i f f i c u l t y may be generalizable to populations other than I s r a e l i s and supporting the conclusion that extent of c u l t u r a l innovation required by a task of adaptation i s probably the most important factor a f f e c t i n g perceived d i f f i c u l t y i n resolving a task. Time of Task Resolution Respondents were queried as to the time at which they f i r s t became aware of a task as one to be resolved and the time at which they resolved or expected to resolve a task. Results of this por- t i o n of the inves t i g a t i o n must be observed cautiously because, due to the length of the interview, each respondent was asked to com- ment on resolution time with respect to only ten of the t h i r t y - s i x tasks. Of the seventy-two individuals interviewed, between eight and twenty-seven of them responded with regard to time f o r each task. At best then, 37.5 percent of the possible responses were gathered for each task with respect to the resolution time. 65 Generally, less d i f f i c u l t tasks were resolved f i r s t . With- in the f i r s t month afte r a r r i v a l , on the average, respondents had resolved using the postal system, finding a temporary residence, r e g i s t e r i n g for medical insurance and using Canadian money. With- in the f i r s t three months, they had resolved meeting other of t h e i r countrymen, speaking enough English to get by, using the bank and making t h e i r f i r s t Canadian friend. Within the f i r s t s i x months, two of the ten most d i f f i c u l t tasks had been resolved: finding a permanent residence and bud- geting for l i f e on a d i f f e r e n t economic l e v e l . By the end of the f i r s t year, on the average, respondents had resolved two more of the ten most d i f f i c u l t tasks: reading a l o c a l English-language newspaper and using a d i f f e r e n t system of s i z e s , weights and mea- sures. Since Canada has converted to the metric system, th i s task would probably no longer be among the most d i f f i c u l t . Five of the ten most d i f f i c u l t tasks, however, were not re- solved by the end of the second year a f t e r a r r i v a l : speaking good English, getting occupational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s accepted, adjusting to climate, getting used to Canadian sense of humour, and finding a s a t i s f y i n g , career-oriented job. I t i s noteworthy that of the ten tasks whose mean resolution time was longer than two years, four of them relate to employment: e n r o l l i n g for job r e t r a i n i n g , changing type of work, getting occupational q u a l i f i c a t i o n accep- ted, and finding a s a t i s f y i n g , career-oriented job. A f i f t h task, speaking good English, may also be considered employment-related. A s i x t h task, obtaining Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p , has no p o s s i b i l i t y 66 TABLE X Mean R e s o l u t i o n Time and D i f f i c u l t y Scores f o r Tasks L i s t e d i n Order of Mean R e s o l u t i o n Time Task Name Mean R e s o l u t i o n D i f f i c u l t y Score Time (in months) (Geometric Me an) 20. Postal System .3 31.1 35. Temporary Residence .4 41.3 2. Medical Insurance .9 48.6 33. Canadian Money .9 24.4 7. Meet Ccuntrymen 1.9 35.5 26. Getby English 2.6 40.2 21. Bank 2.8 32.6 12. Meet F i r s t Canadian Friend 2.9 65.9 1. Doctor 3.2 45.4 16. Permanent Residence 3.5 129.2 6. Get Any Job for Income 3.6 89.3 5. Budget 5.8 122.7 36. Community "& Educational Services 5.9 71.6 25. Alternate Products 6.3 78.7 34. Car Insurance 7.1 32.8 19. Vancouver Bus System 7.2 66.8 31. Work Schedule 7.4 64.6 15. Local News 7.5 134.2 9. Different Measures 11.7 135.5 29. Social Insurance 15.6 29.8 13. Worship 17.7 32.6 30. Driver's Licence 18.7 67.6 8. Enrol Kids 19.1 38.1 4. Status Change 20.4 103.5 17. Ethnic Newspaper 21.0 23.9 24. Ethnic Shops 21.1 64.6 11. Job Retraining 24.8 79.0 28. Change Type of Work 26.8 66.4 32. Good English 27.0 149.7 22. Help Spouse 29.8 46.2 23. Occupational Qualifications 31.0 119.9 3. Climate 32.7 114.0 14. Canadian Sense of Humour 32.7 131.9 6. Career-Oriented Job 34.4 210.3 27. Canadian Citizenship 48.1 69.3 18. Ethnic School 54.0 27.3 of being resolved before three to f i v e years residence i n the country, and therefore automatically f e l l i nto t h i s time category. While mean time of task resolution bore no s i g n i f i c a n t re- lationship to d i f f i c u l t y of tasks (r=-.1105, p=.52), the r e s u l t s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n of resolution time might serve to inform counsellors, course planners and curriculum designers who serve an immigrant population. As detailed elsewhere, more than eighty percent of the I s r a e l i s had resolved the f i r s t ten tasks within the f i r s t three months or so but less than f i f t y percent of re- spondents ever resolved the la s t ten tasks. Less than f o r t y per- cent of respondents resolved the employment-related tasks. While no firm conclusions may be drawn as to the r e l a t i o n - ship between time of task resolution and d i f f i c u l t y , some guide- lines may be suggested for those who counsel, advise, and design i n s t r u c t i o n for immigrants. Further discussion of the application of these guidelines may be found i n the l a s t chapter. Importance of Tasks The assumption underlying investigation of t h i s factor's re- lationship to d i f f i c u l t y was that perceived importance of a task when f i r s t encountered might have a bearing on perceptions of that task's d i f f i c u l t y . While there appears to be some s l i g h t evidence to support t h i s assumption, the data did not attain s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The ten most important tasks appear to be those which are important to an immigrant's security during his f i r s t days i n a new country such as finding a temporary residence, speaking enough 68 English to get by, finding any job, and r e g i s t e r i n g for medical insurance; and those which are most important to his l i f e in the new country over the long range such as finding a permanent r e s i - dence, speaking good English, finding a career-oriented job, and finding a doctor (Table XI). Of these ten tasks, f i v e were among the ones perceived as most d i f f i c u l t by respondents; f i n d - ing a permanent residence, speaking good English, finding any job for Income, finding a career-oriented job, and getting occupation- a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s accepted. With one exception, the most d i f f i - c u l t and important tasks related to employment and three of them were i d e n t i f i e d as requiring a mean of more than two years to resolve. Many of the l e a s t important tasks appear to relate to the immigrant's r e l a t i o n s h i p to his personal and ethnic group net- works: finding a suitable place of worship, helping one's spouse, finding ethnic shops, ethnic schools for children, and subscrib- ing to an ethnic newspaper. The l a s t two tasks are also among those perceived as least d i f f i c u l t (Table XI). An o v e r a l l c o r r e l a t i o n between mean importance and mean d i f f i c u l t y of tasks was sought, using tasks as the unit of analy- s i s . As the c o r r e l a t i o n (.2435) was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p=.15), the findings described above must remain mere observa- tions . Stage of Task Resolution Investigation of the stage of task resolution focused on whether there appeared to be any rel a t i o n s h i p between task d i f f i - culty and respondents' a b i l i t y to resolve tasks. While no 69 TABLE XI Mean Rank Order of Tasks A c c o r d i n g to Importance D i f f i c u l t y Task A r i t h m e t i c Standard Scores Mean D e v i a t i o n (geometric mean) 35. Temporary Residence 9.8 10.3 45.4 16. Permanent Residence 11.9 10.0 129.2 32. Good English 12.2 9.9 149.7 6. Any Job for Income 13.3 11.4 89.3 1. Doctor 13.5 8.5 45.4 26. Getby English 13.8 12.0 40.2 2. Medical Insurance 13.9 9.7 48.6 10. Career Job 14.3 10.8 210.3 7. Meet Countrymen 14.9 9.4 35.5 23. Recognize Occup. Quals. 16.3 10.8 119.9 3. Climate 16.7 9.2 114.0 5. Budget for Different Income 16.8 9.2 122.7 21. Bank 17.0 9.1 32.6 30. Driver's Licence 17.0 9.6 67.6 8. Enrol Kids 17.9 11.2 36.1 29. Social Insurance 18.0 9.7 29.6 12. Canadian Friend 18.1 9.8 65.9 33. Canadian Money 18.7 10.6 24.4 28. Change Type of Work 19.0 11.0 66.4 15. Read Local Newspaper 19.3 8.5 134.2 19. Vancouver Bus System 19.4 9.2 66.8 9. Different Measures 19.8 8.3 135.5 31. Change Work Schedule 20.5 9.7 64.6 4. Status Change 20.6 10.4 103.5 34. Car Insurance 20.9 8.9 32.8 36. (Zomrnunity & Ed. Serv. 20.9 8.3 71.6 20. Postal 21.0 8.2 31.1 25. Alternate Products 21.2 7.9 78.7 27. Canadian Citizenship 21.5 10.7 69.3 13. Place of Worship 22.7 9.9 32.6 22. Help Spouse 22.7 9.3 46.2 11. Job Retraining 23.0 10.5 79.0 24. Ethnic Shops 23.7 8.0 64.6 14. Can. Sense of Humour 24.1 8.6 131.9 18. Ethnic Schools for Kids 24.2 9.6 27.3 17. Ethnic Newspaper 25.4 7.4 23.0 70 generalizable o v e r a l l r e l a t i o n s h i p was apparent, a number of ob- servations may be made. Of the ten most d i f f i c u l t tasks, a majority of respondents (between f i f t y and seventy-nine percent) were able to resolve six of them: using a d i f f e r e n t system of sizes, weights and mea-̂ sures, reading a l o c a l English-language newspaper, finding a per- manent residence, budgeting for l i f e on a d i f f e r e n t economic l e v e l , adjusting to climate and adjusting to changes i n status. Only a small percentage of respondents (one to four percent) had t r i e d but f a i l e d to resolve tasks involving using a d i f f e r e n t system of sizes, weights and measures, finding a permanent residence, bud- geting for l i f e on a d i f f e r e n t economic l e v e l and accepting a change i n status i n the community. A s l i g h t l y larger percentage of respondents (8.3 percent) had t r i e d but f a i l e d to resolve the task of reading a l o c a l English language newspaper regularly and more than a quarter of respondents (26.4 percent) had not resolved adjusting to the climate i n Vancouver. Fewer than f i f t y percent of respondents had resolved the remaining four most d i f f i c u l t tasks: finding a s a t i s f y i n g career- oriented job, speaking good English, getting used to Canadian sense of humour and getting occupational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s accepted. In the case of the most d i f f i c u l t task, finding a career-oriented job, twenty-four respondents (33.3 percent) stated that they had resolved t h i s task. Of the forty-eight i n d i v i d u a l s who had not resolved i t , sixteen (22.2 percent) had t r i e d but f a i l e d and twelve (16.7 percent) were in the process of attempting to resolve 71 i t . Seven indivi d u a l s (9.1 percent) had not t r i e d to resolve i t and thirteen (18.1 percent), many of whom were housewives, stated that the task was not applicable to them. Two other job-related tasks, speaking good English and get- t i n g job q u a l i f i c a t i o n s accepted, were among the most d i f f i c u l t tasks that had low resolution rates. Thirty-nine percent of re- spondents reported that they had resolved the task of speaking good English. Forty-three percent of respondents stated that they were engaged i n resolving i t at the time of the study, eleven per- cent had t r i e d but f a i l e d to resolve i t and, for some reason, seven percent of respondents stated that t h i s task was not ap p l i c - able to them. When asked as to t h e i r present l e v e l of fluency, f i v e respondents (seven percent) stated that they could pass as native Canadians, t h i r t y - s i x respondents (50.7 percent) stated that they spoke well but with an accent, and eleven respondents (15.5 percent) stated that they spoke well but had trouble with tech- n i c a l and professional terms. In the case of getting occupational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s accepted, 41.7 percent of respondents said they had resolved this task ahd just over a quarter of them (26.4 percent) stated that t h i s task was not applicable to them. Nine respondents (12.5 percent) said that they were engaged i n resolving t h i s task at the time of the study and the same number responded that they had t r i e d unsuccess- f u l l y to resolve t h i s task. 72 Other tasks among the t h i r t y - s i x th,at had low resolution rates were e n r o l l i n g for job r e t r a i n i n g , applying for Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p , changing type of work, helping the spouse, and en- r o l l i n g children in regular and ethnic schools. In these cases, however, most respondents stated that these tasks were not app- l i c a b l e to them-or that they had not yet attempted to resolve them (Table XII). While no general, o v e r a l l relationship may be observed be- tween task resolution stage and d i f f i c u l t y , a c l e a r l y observable one appears to e x i s t between number of respondents resolving tasks and time of task resolution (Figure 1). On the whole, the l a r - gest percentage of individuals resolved early tasks and the per- centage declined over time, so that tasks requiring two years or more to resolve were resolved by the fewest respondents. In view of e a r l i e r observations, i t seems reasonable to assume that the two major reasons for th i s were that these tasks were either per- ceived as most d i f f i c u l t and took longer to resolve because of i t , or they f e l l into a group of tasks not applicable and not attempted. Examples of tasks not applicable and not attempted were helping your spouse and e n r o l l i n g children i n schools when respondents had neither spouse nor children. E n r o l l i n g for job re t r a i n i n g was also among those frequently not applicable or not attempted. Three tasks, however, were attempted but not resolved by respondents more frequently than they were resolved or not attempt- ed and these were among those tasks perceived as most d i f f i c u l t : 73 T7ABLE XII Number and Percentage of Interviewees Responding to Each R e s o l u t i o n Stage f o r Each Task ( l i s t e d i n or d e r of task d i f f i c u l t y ) . n=72 Task 10. Career Not /Applicable Not Tried Tried,Not Resolved Doing Now Re- solved n % n % n % n Q. *o n % 13 18.1 7 9.1 16 22.2 12 16.7 24 33.3 32. Good English 5 6.9 8 11.1 31 43.1 28 38.9 9. Different Measures 4 5.6 3 4.2 10 13.9 55 76.4 15. Local News 5 6.9 7 9.7 6 8.3 15 20.8 39 54.2 14. Sense of Humour 7 9.7 3 4.2 9 12.5 21 29.2 32 44.4 16. Permanent Residence 5 6.9 6 8.3 1 1.4 4 5.6 56 77.8 5. Budget 7 9.7 2 2.8 11 15.3 52 72.2 23. Occupational Quals. 19 26.4 5 6.9 9 12.5 9 12.5 30 41.7 3. Climate 2 2.8 19 26.4 9 12.5 42 58.3 4. Status 20 27.8 3 4.2 3 4.2 10 13.9 36 50.0 6. 7Any Job 19 26.4 7 9.7 2 2.8 8 11.1 36 50.0 11. Job Retraining 38 52.8 19 26.4 3 4.2 3 4.2 9 12.5 25. 7Altemate Products 8 11.1 7 9.7 57 79.2 36. Community & Educ. Serv. 6 8.3 11 15.3 3 4.2 16 22.2 36 50.0 27. Canadian Citizenship 17 23.6 17 23.6 2 2.8 7 9.7 29 40.3 30. Driver's Licence 8 11.1 9 12.5 3 4.2 6 8.3 46 63.9 19. Vancouver Buses 14 19.4 6 8.3 2 2.8 50 69.4 28. Change Work 22 30.6 9 12.5 5 6.9 8 11.1 28 38.9 12. Canadian Friend 5 6.9 1 1.4 2 2.8 6 8.3 58 80.6 31. Change Work Schedule 7 9.7 8 11.1 2 2.8 4 5.6 51 70.8 24. Ethnic Shops 8 11.1 7 9.7 2 2.8 5 6.9 50 69.4 2. Medical Insurance 1 1.4 1 1.4 70 97.2 22. Help Spouse 36 50.0 8 11.1 5 6.9 23 31.9 1. Doctor 2 2.8 3 4.2 5 6.9 62 86.1 35. Temporary Residence 6 8.3 2 2.8 64 88.9 26. Getby English 8 11.1 2 2.8 4 5.6 58 80.6 8. Enrol Kids 28 38.9 6 8.3 1 1.4 3 4.2 34 47.2 7. Meet Countrymen 3 4.2 1 1.4 11 15.3 57 79.2 34. Car Insurance 9 12.5 5 6.9 1 1.4 57 79.2 21. Bank 3 4.2 2 2.8 1 1.4 66 91.7 13. Worship 21 29.2 6 8.3 3 4.2 2 2.8 40 55.6 20. Postal 4 5.6 1 1.4 7 9.7 60 83.3 29. Social Insurance 5 6.9 2 2.8 1 1.4 64 88.9 18. Ethnic Schools 42 58.3 6 8.3 1 1.4 1 1.4 22 30.6 33. Canadian Money 2 2.8 1 1.4 9 12.5 60 83.3 17. Ethnic News 17 23.6 12 16.7 2 2.8 4 5.6 37 51.4| F i g u r e I Comparison i n Order of Mean Re s o l u t i o n Time of Percentage of Respondents Not Attempting, T r y i n g But Not Resolving and R e s o l v i n g Each Task of Adaptation Task Not Attempted Task Tried But Not Resolved Task Resolved 75 finding a career-oriented job, speaking good English and getting used to Canadian sense of humour. With regard to the most d i f f i - c u l t task, finding a career-oriented job, t h i s was attempted but not resolved by seven men and nine women. Those men who attempt- ed but did not resolve the task varied widely i n age and one could speculate a variety of reasons for t h e i r f a i l u r e to resolve t h i s task: incomplete education, i n a b i l i t y to receive recognition for occupational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s or age. A l l of the nine women who attempted but f a i l e d to resolve t h i s task, however, were be- tween the ages of twenty-five and thirty-two. Seven were married, one was single and one was divorced. Four of these women had children which may have prevented them from pursuing f u l l - t i m e employment. With respect to educational l e v e l , a l l but one had completed high school and six women had between one and eight years of university. Six of these women spoke excellent English though with an accent while the other three had high levels of fluency in English. While one may speculate that older women may not be seeking a career-oriented job or that younger women may be involved with c h i l d - r e a r i n g , i t i s curious and yet unexplained why this group of women, apparently q u a l i f i e d for employment, have f a i l e d to resolve that task. 76 The Relationship of D i f f i c u l t y to Sources of Information Employed The f i n a l research question queried how the use of adult education sources of information (i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n and i n - st r u c t i o n a l groups) for resolving tasks of adaptation related to d i f f i c u l t y of tasks. For the most part, adult education sources were used far less than personal sources and of the two adult education sources, i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n was used with greater frequency than i n s t r u c t i o n a l groups. For a l l tasks, personal sources of information were used more than any other ones and, for the easiest tasks, few other sources were employed. For the most d i f f i c u l t tasks, additional sources were generally in the group c l a s s i f i e d as mass media ex- cept for the two most d i f f i c u l t tasks, getting a s a t i s f y i n g career-oriented job and speaking good English. In these two cases, i n s t r u c t i o n a l groups were used with the greatest frequency. In the case of the most d i f f i c u l t task, getting a career-oriented job, in d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n was used with the greatest frequency and, in most cases, the in d i v i d u a l consulted was a counsellor or some- one serving a counselling function. It i s noteworthy that the category of personal sources i n - cluded t r i a l and error by the respondent himself as well as friends and r e l a t i v e s . These sources were used most frequently for tasks involving using a d i f f e r e n t system of sizes, weights and measures, finding a doctor, making their f i r s t Canadian fri e n d , finding a suitable place of worship, using Canadian money, getting used to a Canadian s t n s e of humour and finding alternate products for the household. Personal sources were used with least frequency for 77 e n r o l l i n g i n job re t r a i n i n g , helping spouses, using community and educational services, finding ethnic schools for children, getting a s a t i s f y i n g career-oriented job, finding any job for i n - come, and e n r o l l i n g children i n school. With regard to job- related tasks for which few personal sources were u t i l i z e d , a number of other types of sources were used. For tasks for which few personal sources were used that were not job-related, few Other sources were employed. Individual i n s t r u c t i o n was sought less frequently than per- sonal sources except for the most d i f f i c u l t task, finding a career-oriented job, for which i t was sought more than any other source. Generally speaking, the category of i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c - tion included sources such as counsellors, bank clerks, insurance agents, r e a l t o r s and others who provide procedural information. The tasks for which these sources were most frequently consulted were finding a career-oriented job, applying for Canadian c i t i z e n - ship, getting a driver's licence, getting any job for income, and r e g i s t e r i n g for medical insurance. Individual i n s t r u c t i o n was not c i t e d as a source at a l l for some tasks: speaking good English, reading a l o c a l English-language newspaper regularly, getting used to Canadian sense of humour, making your f i r s t Canadian f r i e n d , helping spouse, f i n d i n g a temporary residence, meeting countrymen, and finding a place of worship. Instruc t i o n a l groups were sought most frequently for the two most d i f f i c u l t tasks, finding a career-oriented job and speak- ing good English, and, i n general, for tasks associated with 78 TABLE XIII Frequency of Use of Sources of Information by Seventy-Two Interviewees for T h i r t y ^ s i x Tasks Tasks 10. Career Sources of Information Used for Task Resolution Personal Mass Individual Instruction Instruc- tional Groups Total Number of Individuals Responding 8 5 11 7 18 32. Good Oldish 12 5 7 17 1 9. Different Measures 25 7 1 2 27 15. Local News 13 4 1 18 1 14. Humour 18 3 1 19 ! 16. Perm. Residence 13 3 4 1 D j 5. Budget 16 2 16 i 23. Occup. Quals. 1U 2 b 4 " n - : 3. n i T n a t - P 13 1 14 ) 4. Status 10 3 1 12 ! 6. Any Job 8 4 9 2 15 ill. Job Retraining 6 2 4 4 12 (25. Alternate Products 18 6 3 18 ! J36. Comm. & Educ. Serv. 7 1 1 2 (Un iv) 7 ; .27. Can. Citizenship 12 3 11 1 19 [30. Driver's Licence 12 10 Other: MV Branch Driv. School 16 i 19. Vancouver Bus 9 8 Other: B.C.Hydro 14 .28. Change. Work 15 7 4 5 31 12. Canadian Friend 22 4 23 31. Work Schedule 17 1 18 24. Ethnic Shops 15 2 1 1 15 I 2. Medical Insurance 13 2 9 3 (Univ) 22 j 22. Help Spouse 6 2 1 6 ! 1. Doctor 23 1 2 (Univ) 23 j 35. Temp. Residence 10 3 (Univ) 12 26. Getby English 15 10 1 7 19 8. Enrol Kids 8 6 10 ; 7. Countrymen 10 6 15 34. Car Insurance 15 2 17 21. Bank 15 2 Other Bank Clerk . 15 13. Worship 21 2 21 20. Postal 13 1 14 29. Social Insurance •15 4 16 18. Ethnic School 7 1 1 8 33. Canadian Money 19 1 19 17. Ethnic News 11 1 1 13 * Each individual had the option of reporting more than one source for each task and each individual was asked to respond with regard to ten tasks rather than a l l thirty-six. 79 learning English, employment and making friends. Tasks for which i n s t r u c t i o n a l groups were never c i t e d as a source of information were: budgeting for l i f e on a d i f f e r e n t economic l e v e l , adjust- ing to climate, changing work schedule, helping spouse, e n r o l l i n g c h i l d i n school, getting a driver's l i c e n c e , finding alternate products for the household, using the bus system, r e g i s t e r i n g for car insurance, banking, using the postal system, r e g i s t e r i n g for s o c i a l insurance, and using Canadian money. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g i n view of the fact that the l a s t eight of these tasks are generally found in ESL c u r r i c u l a , materials and texts, e s p e c i a l l y for students at beginning l e v e l s . Mass media, such as newspapers, books (including d i c t i o n a r y ) , and brochures, were used least frequently on the whole and the task most frequently c i t e d for th i s source type was speaking enough English to get by. Respondents, then, used personal sources most frequently for a l l tasks and, where procedural information was required, i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n was sought. Only for tasks r e l a t i n g to em- ployment, language learning, and making friends were i n s t r u c t i o n a l groups sought and mass media were used infrequently and only for one-half of the tasks. Summary In r e l a t i o n to other immigrants to Canada, the respondents represented a well-educated group who had l i v e d i n two, three or four countries for s i x months or more and ranged i n age from t h e i r mid-twenties to s i x t y . As with most immigrant groups, married 80 women had less job experience and were less fluent in English than other respondents. Single men also reported low levels of fluency i n English but the widest range of job experience. In addition, they reported the lowest number of years of education and the most technical and vocational t r a i n i n g . Married men re- ported among the highest levels of fluency i n English and the greatest number of years of education with f i f t y percent of them reporting f i v e or more years of university education. The ten most d i f f i c u l t tasks were getting a s a t i s f y i n g career-oriented job, speaking good English, using a d i f f e r e n t system of s i z e s , weights and measures, reading a l o c a l English- language newspaper regularly, getting used to a d i f f e r e n t sense of humour i n Canada, finding a permanent place to l i v e , budgeting for l i f e on a d i f f e r e n t economic l e v e l , gaining acceptance of e x i s t i n g occupational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , adjusting to the climate in Vancouver and accepting a change of status i n the community. No one socio-demographic variable proved to be a good pre- d i c t o r of d i f f i c u l t y for a l l t h i r t y - s i x tasks and, i n the case of employment related tasks, no variables appeared i n the regression equation. On a task-by-task basis, some p r e d i c t a b i l i t y was deter- mined for seventeen of the t h i r t y - s i x tasks. Of the relationships between d i f f i c u l t y and other factors (extent of innovation, length of resolution time, importance and resolution stage), only extent of c u l t u r a l innovation required appeared to bear a relationship to d i f f i c u l t y and there i s reason to believe that the strong p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i f f i - culty and extent of innovation may also be generalizable to ethnic 81 groups other than I s r a e l i s . This r e l a t i o n s h i p c e r t a i n l y warrants further i n v e s t i g a t i o n . It may be the single most important fac- tor a f f e c t i n g r e s o c i a l i z a t i o n and might provide an excellent basis upon which to design programs for immigrant adults. Although only about one-third of the respondents provided information regarding time of task resolution, the mean scores may serve as a guide to counsellors, course planners and c u r r i c u - lum designers who serve adult immigrants. Perceived importance of tasks appears to bear l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p to d i f f i c u l t y . With regard to resolution stages, the most important finding was the c l e a r l y observable relationship between resolution stage and time of resolution. The largest percentage of individuals resolved early tasks and the percentage declined over time, so that l a t e r tasks appeared to be less frequently resolved. On the whole, respondents c i t e d personal sources of i n f o r - mation with s u b s t a n t i a l l y greater frequency than any other type of source for a l l of the t h i r t y - s i x tasks. Adult education sources (individual i n s t r u c t i o n and i n s t r u c t i o n a l groups) were used most frequently with regard to the most d i f f i c u l t task, getting a s a t i s f y i n g career-oriented job. Individual i n s t r u c t i o n was u t i l - ized more frequently for tasks requiring s p e c i f i c procedural information such as how to apply for medical insurance, get a driver's licence and use the bus system. Instructional groups were sought most frequently for tasks related to language learning, making friends, and finding employment. 82 Of the relationships between d i f f i c u l t y and other factors including extent of c u l t u r a l innovation, length of resolution time, importance and resolution stage, only extent of innovation appears to warrant further investigation as a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e correlation was found between the d i f f i c u l t y scores of the seventy-two I s r a e l i respondents and the c u l t u r a l innovation scores of fifty-two experts. The scores of the experts also correlated p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y with the d i f f i c u l t y scores of twenty- eight immigrants from a variety of countries who were members of an advanced English class at King Edward Campus, Vancouver Commun- i t y College. This suggests that the r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i f f i - c ulty and extent of c u l t u r a l innovation required by tasks may be generalizable to other non-English-speaking immigrants to Vancou- ver and t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s worthy of further i n v e s t i g a t i o n . While time of resolving tasks of adaptation did not appear, i n i t s e l f , to be related to d i f f i c u l t y , a r e l a t i o n s h i p did appear to e x i s t between mean resolution time and the number of respon- dents who resolved each task. Counsellors and teachers planning i n s t r u c t i o n for adult immigrants might use mean resolution time as a general guide i n that later tasks were actually resolved by less than forty percent of respondents. Certainly, further i n - vestigation of the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of these findings to other groups i s warranted. CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS This chapter draws o v e r a l l conclusions from the study and explores implications for the practice of adult education for immigrants, p a r t i c u l a r l y with regard to program planning for classes of English as a second language. Further research into tasks of adaptation and c u l t u r a l assumptions of North American adult educators i s suggested. Summary and Conclusions Migration to a new country i s a developmental event and adaptation i s the process by which individuals resolve that event. As immigrants adapt, they encounter a number of tasks of varying d i f f i c u l t y which force them to learn new information, procedures and customs. The learning required to resolve tasks of adaptation may be acquired i n the natural s o c i e t a l setting via personal and mass sources as well as i n the formal i n s t r u c t i o n a l setting through i n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n and i n s t r u c t i o n a l groups. The way i n which individuals resolve each task of adaptation may a f f e c t their motivation to continue t h e i r adaptation process. Adult edu- cation i s well suited to serve the remedial function and aid immi- 8 3 84 grants in r e s o c i a l i z a t i o n . At the present time, the major edu- ca t i o n a l o f f e r i n g for immigrants i s language i n s t r u c t i o n . The present format of English as a second language classes may be used to further a s s i s t the immigrant i f p r i n c i p l e s of needs assessment and program development are applied. With regard to the four research questions posed in the introduction, the following conclusions may be drawn from the data. 1. What kinds of tasks emerge during adaptation to l i f e in a new society? One major contribution of t h i s work i s i t s attempt to ar- t i c u l a t e an approach to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of learning needs for immigrants. Definitions of adaptation and tasks of adaptation brought some conceptual c l a r i t y to an i n t r i c a t e and complicated problem area. The major assumption i n i d e n t i f y i n g tasks of adap- tatio n was that new a r r i v a l s i n a country generally experience a s i m i l a r range of tasks to resolve i n order to survive in the new society. For the purposes of the study, a t t i t u d i n a l and psychological variables were not examined and the t h i r t y - s i x tasks employed focused on behaviours such as finding a place to l i v e , f i n d ing a job and speaking English. The tasks of adaptation used i n the study were drawn from a wide range of l i t e r a t u r e and per- sonal case h i s t o r i e s were subjected to magnitude estimations of r e l a t i v e d i f f i c u l t y . The ten most d i f f i c u l t tasks were getting a s a t i s f y i n g career-oriented job, speaking good English, using a d i f f e r e n t system of sizes, weights and measures, reading a l o c a l 85 English-language newspaper regularly, getting used to a d i f f e r e n t sense of humour i n Canada, finding a permanent place to l i v e , budgeting for l i f e on a d i f f e r e n t economic l e v e l , gaining accep- tance of e x i s t i n g occupational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , adjusting to the climate in Vancouver and accepting a change of status i n the community. The tasks of adaptation u t i l i z e d i n the study were gener- ated as examples of the use of the conceptual framework and to provide a basis for discussion, c r i t i c i s m and improvement of the application of thi s approach to adaptation and the rol e of adult education for immigrants. Further investigation into tasks of adaptation i s suggested as an area for future research. 2. Which, i f any, socio-demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a f f e c t perception of d i f f i c u l t y of tasks of adaptation? While a large number of socio-demographic variables were examined, three were considered with p a r t i c u l a r attention: l e v e l of education, number of countries l i v e d i n for six months or more, and size of primary group on a r r i v a l . A few more women than men were represented among the seventy- two respondents whose ages ranged from twenty-three to f i f t y - n i n e . In comparison to other ethnic groups i n Canada, they were a w e l l - educated group, p a r t i c u l a r l y the married men. About one-half the respondents were born in Is r a e l and most had l i v e d i n from two to four countries and in Vancouver from one to ten years. Married women reported more adult r e l a t i v e s residing i n Vancouver when they arrived than any of the other respondents and married people 86 i n general reported less English spoken at home than single ones. Married men and single women reported higher fluency l e v e l s i n English than single men and married women. Stepwise regression analysis was conducted using ten o r d i - nal socio-demographic variables including years of education, num- ber of countries l i v e d i n for six months or more and number of adult r e l a t i v e s on a r r i v a l . No one variable proved to be a good predictor for a l l t h i r t y - s i x tasks and, i n the case of employment- related tasks, no variables appeared i n the regression equation. Some p r e d i c t a b i l i t y was determined for seventeen of the t h i r t y - s i x tasks. Years of education and number of adult r e l a t i v e s on a r r i v a l each appeared to have p r e d i c t a b i l i t y for f i v e tasks. Num- ber of countries l i v e d i n for six months or more was o r i g i n a l l y chosen as a measure of a b i l i t y to learn a new culture but, i n the course of the research, i t became clear that number of countries l i v e d i n could just as readi l y indicate lack of a b i l i t y to learn a new culture so no conclusions were drawn with regard to t h i s v a r i a b l e . 3. What re l a t i o n s h i p , i f any, does d i f f i c u l t y of tasks of adaptation bear to the following factors: extent of c u l t u r a l innovation required by tasks, length of task resolution time required, importance of tasks to the immigrant when he f i r s t encounters them and stage of task resolution? 87 Of the relationships between d i f f i c u l t y and other factors including extent of c u l t u r a l innovation, length of resolution time, importance and resolution stage, only extent of innovation appears to warrant further investigation as a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n was found between the d i f f i c u l t y scores of the seventy-two I s r a e l i respondents and the c u l t u r a l innovation scores of fifty-two experts. The scores of the experts also correlated p o s i t i v e l y and s i g n i f i c a n t l y with the d i f f i c u l t y scores of twenty-eight immigrants from a variety of countries who were members of an advanced English class at King Edward Campus, Vancouver Community College. This suggests that the r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i f f i c u l t y and extent of c u l t u r a l innovation required by tasks may be generalizable to other non-English-speaking immigrants to Vancouver and t h i s relationship i s worthy of further investigation. While the time of resolving tasks of adaptation did not appear, i n i t s e l f , to be related to d i f f i c u l t y , a relationship did appear to e x i s t between mean resolution time and the number of respondents who resolved each task. Counsellors and teachers planning i n s t r u c t i o n for adult immigrants might use mean resolution time as a general guide i n that l a t e r tasks were actually resolved by less than forty percent of respondents. Certainly, further investigation of the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of these findings to other groups i s warranted. 88 4 . How i s the use of a d u l t education sources of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r r e s o l v i n g tasks of a d a p t a t i o n r e l a t e d to d i f f i c u l t y of tasks? P e r s o n a l sources of i n f o r m a t i o n were used with f a r g r e a t e r frequency than a d u l t e d u c a t i o n sources, except i n the case of the most d i f f i c u l t task which was g e t t i n g a s a t i s f y i n g c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d job. The I s r a e l i s i n the study d i d not r e g i s t e r f o r E n g l i s h c l a s s e s i n order to a c q u i r e the i n f o r m a t i o n to cope with most of t h e i r t asks of a d a p t a t i o n . They were p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n a s s i s t a n c e w i t h employment, an o p p o r t u n i t y to make f r i e n d s and to a c q u i r e a l e v e l of E n g l i s h competency commensurate with t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s . Although t h i s f i n d i n g i s p r e s e n t l y only a p p l i c a b l e t o I s r a e l i s , t h e r e i s no evidence to suggest t h a t i t might not be true f o r o t h e r immigrant groups and would suggest c o n s i d e r a t i o n of v o c a t i o n a l l y - o r i e n t e d , r a t h e r than s i t u a t i o n a l l y - o r i e n t e d E n g l i s h c l a s s e s . I n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n , which tended to be c o u n s e l l i n g on p r o c e d u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n , appears t o have been sought from sources i n the g e n e r a l community. T h i s may suggest a r o l e f o r i n s t r u c t o r s of E n g l i s h as a second language, not i n pro- v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n , but i n working with c o u n s e l l o r s i n i n s t i t u - t i o n s and agencies and a s s i s t i n g l e a r n e r s with the l i s t e n i n g com- prehension and o r a l p r o d u c t i o n s k i l l s they w i l l need i n order to be able to use community s e r v i c e s more e f f e c t i v e l y . 89 D i s c u s s i o n The two a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g t h i s s t u d y w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e r o l e o f e d u c a t i o n f o r i m m i g r a n t a d u l t s a r e : f i r s t , t h a t edu- c a t i o n f o r t h i s g r o u p must p r o v i d e l a n g u a g e and c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a - t i o n f o r l i f e i n a new s o c i e t y ; and s e c o n d , t h a t e d u c a t o r s must s e r v e t h e needs o f a d u l t l e a r n e r s as w e l l as t h o s e o f s o c i e t y . I n t h e c a s e o f i m m i g r a n t a d u l t s , i t i s t h e r o l e o f t h e e d u c a t o r t o a s s i s t newcomers i n n e g o t i a t i n g a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e i r e x p e c t a - t i o n s f o r l i f e i n Canada by d e t e r m i n i n g e d u c a t i o n a l gaps and p r o - v i d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n t o h e l p b r i d g e t h o s e g a p s . To do t h i s , e d u c a - t o r s o f a d u l t i m m i g r a n t s must c r i t i c a l l y e v a l u a t e t h e l a n g u a g e and p r o c e d u r e s , and t h e norms, v a l u e s and a s s u m p t i o n s o f C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . H e r e i n l i e s what P a u l s t o n (1977) has c a l l e d t h e dilemma o f u s i n g a d i a l e c t i c a l v i e w p o i n t ; t h a t i s , u s i n g a c o n f l i c t frame f o r d i a g n o s i s and an e q u i l i b r i u m w o r l d v i e w as t h e b a s i s f o r n o r m a t i v e s t a n d a r d s . W h i l e a c c e p t i n g t h e s t a n d a r d s o f C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y , an E S L programmer must d i a g n o s e them i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s and meet e d u c a t i o n a l needs o f t h e c l i e n t g r o u p . To d a t e , two c o n d i t i o n s have impeded r e a l i z a t i o n o f c o m p e t e n t , e f f e c t i v e ESL p r o g r a m d e s i g n : a p r e - o c c u p a t i o n , o n t h e p a r t o f t h o s e i n t h e f i e l d , w i t h l i n g u i s t i c q u e s t i o n s and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e m s e l v e s as l a n g u a g e t e a c h e r s b u t n o t , f o r t h e most p a r t , as a d u l t e d u c a t o r s . As a r e s u l t , E S L c o u r s e s a r e r a r e l y d e s i g n e d on t h e b a s i s o f s p e - c i f i c a d u l t d e v e l o p m e n t a l and community n e e d s . When t h i s s t u d y was begun i n 19 73, a u d i o - l i n g u a l methods and a s i t u a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h were p r e v a l e n t i n t h e E S L c l a s s r o o m . 90 Teachers appeared to attach l i t t l e importance to learning which occurred outside the classroom, except with respect to grammati- c a l mistakes being reinforced there. Few ESL instructors had received formal t r a i n i n g but, i f they had, i t was i n general edu- cational methodology (elementary or secondary), l i n g u i s t i c s and applied l i n g u i s t i c s . During the l a s t seven years, knowledge i n the f i e l d of ESL has accumulated quickly and researchers have moved from structur- a l (grammar-based) to functional (purpose-related) methods of language analysis and methodology development. Some researchers (Munby, 1978; Trim, 1977; van Ek, 1976; Wilkins, 1973) have moved from t h i s s t r u c t u r a l - f u n c t i o n a l paradigm to a systems approach and are currently investigating approaches to syllabus design i n order to create comprehensive systems, such as van Ek 1s threshold l e v e l system produced for the Council of Europe (19 76). Those conducting the research, however, have limited themselves to sug- gestion of l i n g u i s t i c r e a l i z a t i o n of communicative functions "made on the basis of introspection and not as the r e s u l t of objective, observational research" (Wilkins, 1972, p. 13). This follows the li n e of reasoning u t i l i z e d by Munby i n presuming a "participant stereotype" (1978) and by most classroom teachers and curriculum developers i n designing units and lessons on the basis of assump- tions about the needs of immigrant adults. A major contribution of t h i s study i s to undermine some of these assumptions. Empirical evidence has been provided which brings the following into question: 91 1. the explanatory function of socio-demographic data i n pre- d i c t i n g perceived d i f f i c u l t y of tasks of adaptation; 2 . the appropriateness of ordering curriculum on the basis of knowledge required by new a r r i v a l s so that beginning language learners concentrate on tasks such as renting accommodation or using the post o f f i c e when most of them have long resolved such tasks i n r e a l i t y ; 3. the necessity of providing "coping" s k i l l s to adult immigrants who seem to obtain required knowledge and assistance from personal sources of information. Some elaboration or q u a l i f i c a t i o n i s required.for each of the above three points. F i r s t , while the study findings implied that generalizations should not be drawn with respect to the a b i l i t y of socio-demographic variables to predict perceived d i f f i - culty, some attention must be paid to t h e i r relationship to task resolution. As noted e a r l i e r (p. 7 5 ), a p r o f i l e of those who attempted but f a i l e d to resolve the most d i f f i c u l t y task, finding a career-oriented job, raised further research questions. How i s i t that the majority of respondents i n this category were women between the ages of twenty-five and thirty-two who appeared to be q u a l i f i e d for desired employment? Is this phenomena generalizable to other ethnic groups? Is i t generalizable to Canadians as well? What factors, other than socio-demographic ones, influence success- f u l completion of th i s task? Rather than providing explanation or predicting perceived d i f f i c u l t y , socio-demographic p r o f i l e s 92 appear to be useful i n i n d i c a t i n g and suggesting areas for fur- ther research into task resolution. The second point does not mean to suggest that language or other communication s k i l l s relevant to tasks of new a r r i v a l s should never be taught. Rather, i t suggests that caution must be taken not to l e g i s l a t e such choices into curriculum so that be- ginning language learners must automatically learn language for tasks, such as renting accommodation, simply because they are beginners, i r r e s p e c t i v e of how long they have been i n the country or of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r developmental needs. The t h i r d point, s i m i l a r l y to the second, does not mean to imply that coping or orie n t a t i o n s k i l l s should never be taught. I t does suggest, however, that care must be taken not to impose this content on everyone via curriculum as the results of the study showed that the majority of tasks of adaptation were resolved by this group of respondents from within t h e i r personal informa- tion networks. For researchers, i t might be interesting and use- f u l to investigate personal and ethnic group information networks. For ESL instructors, i t might be more to the point to de-emphasize coping and orie n t a t i o n s k i l l s i n favour of employment-oriented s k i l l s for which education was a c t u a l l y being sought by these re- spondents. Further research i s required to establish whether or not this finding i s generalizable to ethnic groups other than the one studied here. The major contributions of t h i s study are: f i r s t , i n pro- viding a d e f i n i t i o n of adaptation that does not rely on l e g i s l a t - . ing end-states (successful adaptation) but rather, concentrates on 9 3 t h e p r o c e s s o f n e g o t i a t i n g a p l a c e i n t h e new s o c i e t y ; s e c o n d , t h e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f an a p p r o a c h t o a s s e s s i n g and p r i o r i t i z i n g needs o f i m m i g r a n t a d u l t s u s i n g m a g n i t u d e e s t i m a t i o n o f d i f f i c u l t y o f t a s k s o f a d a p t a t i o n ; and t h i r d , t h e f i n d i n g t h a t , o f t h e f o u r v a r i a b l e s examined/ e x t e n t o f c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n r e q u i r e d by t a s k s o f a d a p t a t i o n was t h e o n l y one w h i c h b o r e a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e and s e e m i n g l y g e n e r a l i z a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o d i f f i c u l t y . T h i s l e a d s t o t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e c o n s t r u c t " d i f f i c u l t y " m i g h t b e t t e r be renamed " e x t e n t o f c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n " and f u r t h e r r e - s e a r c h c o n c e n t r a t e on o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g and i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h i s more s p e c i f i c new c o n s t r u c t . The f i n d i n g s and c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e s t u d y d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n i n e v i t a b l y have i m p l i c a t i o n s b o t h f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h and f o r t h e f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e . I m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e S t u d y f o r R e s e a r c h e r s and P r a c t i t i o n e r s The m a j o r f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y i n f o r m t h r e e a r e a s o f f u r - t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n by r e s e a r c h e r s a n d p r a c t i t i o n e r s i n p r o v i d i n g e d u c a t i o n f o r a d u l t i m m i g r a n t s : a s s e s s m e n t o f e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s , p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t , and p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g . F o r p u r p o s e s o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n , p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g r e f e r s g e n e r a l l y t o t h e p r o c e s s o f d e v i s i n g e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h s y n t h e s i z e and a r e a p p r o p - r i a t e t o b o t h t h e needs o f t h e l e a r n e r s and t h e mandate o f t h e s p o n s o r i n g i n s t i t u t i o n . The n o t i o n o f p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g w o u l d i n - c l u d e v o c a t i o n a l E S L as i t i s c u r r e n t l y known and, i n v i e w o f t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y , v o c a t i o n a l ESL i s s u g g e s t e d as a m a j o r f o c u s f o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l programming. 94 . The P r o c e s s o f A s s e s s i n g E d u c a t i o n a l Needs The m e t h o d o l o g y u t i l i z e d i n a s s e s s i n g t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f t a s k s o f a d a p t a t i o n w i t h a sample o f I s r a e l i i m m i g r a n t s may be r e p l i c a t e d o r m o d i f i e d t o a s s e s s needs o f o t h e r i m m i g r a n t l e a r n e r s . The f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s w i l l be h e l p f u l t o t h o s e r e s e a r c h e r s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s w i s h i n g t o use t h i s p r o c e s s i n t h e f u t u r e . 1. The t a s k s o f a d a p t a t i o n u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y a r e n o t t h e f i n a l word, by any means. By c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g a d a p t a t i o n as a s e r i e s o f t a s k s o r p r o b l e m s t o be s o l v e d and f o l l o w i n g m e t h o d o l o g i c a l g u i d e l i n e s o u t l i n e d i n t h e s t u d y , s u c h as s t a t i n g t a s k s i n b e h a v i o u r a l t e r m s , t h e i t e m s o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t may be m o d i f i e d o r r e p l a c e d . The m e t h o d o l o g y f o r c o n d u c t i n g t h e a s s e s s m e n t w i l l s t i l l s t a n d . M o d i f i c a t i o n s m i g h t i n c l u d e : a) e x c l u d i n g some t a s k s ; b) g e n e r a t i n g more s p e c i f i c i t e m s r e l a t i n g t o employment; c) c o n c e n t r a t i n g on and g e n e r a t i n g more s p e c i f i c t a s k s f o r t h o s e i t e m s w h i c h r e p r e s e n t g r e a t e r e x t e n t s o f c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n ; d) g e n e r a t i n g t a s k s w h i c h a r e o r i e n t e d t o t h e c o m m u n i c a t i v e s i t u a t i o n s an i m m i g r a n t must m a s t e r f o r l i f e i n a p a r t i c u - l a r community. 2. M a g n i t u d e e s t i m a t i o n i s b a s e d on t h e a b i l i t y t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e r a t i o s and i s , i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , a human r a t h e r t h a n a c u l - t u r a l a b i l i t y . The f i n d i n g s o f Holmes and Masuda (1967), u s i n g m a g n i t u d e e s t i m a t i o n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l y , s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h i s i n s t r u m e n t has c r o s s - c u l t u r a l v a l i d i t y and, t h e r e f o r e , i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r use by E S L s t u d e n t s t o s e l f - a s s e s s t h e i r p r i o r i t y l e a r n i n g needs r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r c o u n t r y o f o r i g i n . 3. As needs a s s e s s m e n t may p r o v i d e t h e b a s i s f o r t h e c o n t e n t o r s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f E S L i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e r e i s no need f o r t h e a s s e s s m e n t t o be c o n d u c t e d i n E n g l i s h . U n l e s s one has r e a s o n t o q u e s t i o n t h e q u a l i t y o f t r a n s l a t i o n , t h e r e a p p e a r s t o be no argument a g a i n s t c o n d u c t i n g s u c h a s e l f - a s s e s s m e n t i n t h e l e a r n e r ' s n a t i v e l a n g u a g e , i f n e c e s s a r y . 4. M a g n i t u d e e s t i m a t i o n has t h r e e i m p o r t a n t p r o p e r t i e s as a measurement d e v i c e . F i r s t , i f e x p l a i n e d w e l l , i t i s e a s i l y u sed; s e c o n d , i t a l l o w s f o r t h e a d d i t i o n o f i t e m s ; and t h i r d , b e c a u s e i t i s a r a t i o - s c a l i n g d e v i c e , p a r a m e t r i c s t a t i s t i c s may be u s e d i n a n a l y z i n g h y p o t h e s i z e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s . P o l i c y D e v e l o p m e n t The d e v e l o p m e n t o f p o l i c y f o r d e l i v e r y o f e d u c a t i o n f o r i m m i g r a n t a d u l t s r e q u i r e s t h e a t t e n t i o n o f b o t h r e s e a r c h e r s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s . W h i l e e d u c a t i o n i s a p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , e x a m i n a t i o n o f f e d e r a l m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m and manpower t r a i n i n g p o l i c y i s n e c e s s a r y so t h a t p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t s c a n p r o - v i d e s u i t a b l e g u i d a n c e and d i r e c t i o n t o ESL p r o g r a m p l a n n e r s . A t the p r e s e n t t i m e t h r e e i s s u e s must be i n v e s t i g a t e d : p r o b l e m s o f t h e c u r r e n t t r e n d o f f i c i a l l y t o d e f i n e E S L as a d u l t b a s i c e d u c a - t i o n (ABE); t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f ESL c l a s s e s s p o n s o r e d by Canada Employment and I m m i g r a t i o n (CEIC) t o manpower t r a i n i n g p o l i c y and j o b m a r k e t t r e n d s ; a n d a n a l y s i s o f C a n a d i a n v a l u e s and a s s u m p t i o n s embued i n I m m i g r a t i o n and M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m p o l i c i e s . 96 The D r a f t P o l i c y on t h e P r o v i s i o n o f A d u l t B a s i c E d u c a t i o n Programs i s s u e d by t h e B.C. M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n i n A p r i l , 1980 c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e p r o b l e m s o f d e f i n i n g E S L as a d u l t b a s i c e d u c a - t i o n . W h i l e ESL programs do i n d e e d " p r e p a r e p e o p l e f o r f u r t h e r l e a r n i n g " ( p . l ) , t h e y need n o t " p r o v i d e n o n - E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g a d u l t s w i t h s u f f i c i e n t E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e and c i t i z e n s h i p s k i l l s to^ p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y as c i t i z e n s , p a r e n t s and l e a r n e r s " (p. 2 ) . As Richmond and K a l b a c h (1980) p o i n t o u t , a f t e r an i n i t i a l p e r i o d o f a d j u s t m e n t , i m m i g r a n t s ' a n d t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n 1971 had a c h i e v e d l e v e l s o f m a t e r i a l p r o s p e r i t y t h a t e q u a l l e d o r s u r p a s s e d l o n g e r - e s t a b l i s h e d C a n a d i a n s (p. 4 7 3 ) . I n a d d i t i o n , r e c e n t i m m i g r a n t s were b e t t e r e d u c a t e d on t h e a v e r a g e and t h e i r c h i l d r e n more l i k e l y t o r e m a i n i n s c h o o l b e y o n d minimum s c h o o l l e a v i n g age (p. 4 7 3 ) . S i n c e 19 71, however, i m m i g r a n t s a r r i v i n g d u r i n g t i m e s o f l e s s f a v o u r a b l e employment c o n d i t i o n s have e x p e r i e n c e d some ec o n o m i c d i f f i c u l t i e s and more s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s o f a d j u s t m e n t (p. 4 7 5 ) . These f i n d i n g s have b e e n c i t e d t o s u p p o r t t h e v i e w t h a t , r a t h e r t h a n n e e d i n g l a n g u a g e and c i t i z e n s h i p s k i l l s t o p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y a s c i t i z e n s , p a r e n t s and l e a r n e r s , i m m i g r a n t a d u l t s r e q u i r e s u f f i c i e n t E n g l i s h t o t r a n s f e r t h e i r a l r e a d y - h e l d compe- t e n c e as c i t i z e n s , p a r e n t s and l e a r n e r s t o t h e c u l t u r a l m i l i e u o f t h e new s o c i e t y . T h i s i s n o t m e r e l y an a c a d e m i c d i s t i n c t i o n . I t u n d e r c u t s t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a d u l t i m m i g r a n t s (ESL s t u d e n t s ) l a c k t h e a b i l i t y o r have f a i l e d t o s u c c e e d i n e f f e c t i v e l y r e a l i z - i n g t h e i r a d u l t r o l e s . W h i l e t h e f o c u s i m p l i e d by t h i s a s s u m p t i o n may be s u i t a b l e f o r ABE s t u d e n t s , i t i s n o t a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e 9 7 m a j o r i t y o f ESL s t u d e n t s . By d e f i n i n g ESL w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f ABE, l e g i s l a t o r s l a y t h e groundwork f o r m i s i n f o r m e d and i n a p p r o p - r i a t e ESL p r o g r a m d e v e l o p m e n t . The s e c o n d i s s u e r e q u i r i n g a t t e n t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f ESL c l a s s e s s p o n s o r e d by CEIC t o manpower t r a i n i n g p o l i c y and j o b m a r k e t t r e n d s . B r o a d l y s p e a k - i n g , p l a n n e d i m m i g r a t i o n i s g u i d e d by t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e l a b o u r m a r k e t . One w o u l d assume, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t C E I C - s p o n s o r e d ESL c l a s s e s w o u l d p r o v i d e l a n g u a g e o r s k i l l s o r i e n t e d i n some way t o employment - employment o r i e n t a t i o n , j o b m a r k e t a n a l y s i s , p r e - employment s k i l l s , i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e s and t h e l i k e . T h i s i s n o t , i n f a c t , t h e c a s e . F o r t h e most p a r t , C E I C - s p o n s o r e d c l a s s e s a p p e a r t o l a c k d i r e c t i o n and c o - o r d i n a t i o n . No c u r r i c u l u m e x i s t s f o r g u i d a n c e and none i s p r o v i d e d f r o m C E I C . I t seems t h a t t h e s e c l a s s e s s u f f e r f r o m t h e f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s p l i t i n j u r i s d i c t i o n . F e d e r a l money buys s e a t s i n i n s t i t u t i o n s f u n d e d by t h e p r o v i n c e . The f e d e r a l government does n o t w i s h t o a p p e a r t o be i n v o l v e d i n e d u c a t i o n and, t h e r e f o r e , does n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e c o n t e n t o r d i r e c t i o n o f t h e c l a s s e s t h e y s p o n s o r . L o c a l c o l l e g e ( o r o t h e r ) s t a f f , w h i l e w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d , a p p e a r , by o m i s s i o n , t o l a c k t h e o v e r v i e w t o p l a n and p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e l o c a l and r e g i o n a l manpower needs o r t o a s s i s t i n d i v i d u a l s t o d e v e l o p j o b - s e a r c h and o t h e r s k i l l s r e q u i r e d t o g e t and m a i n t a i n employment. U n o f f i c i a l r e p o r t s f r o m CEIC c o u n s e l l o r s who work w i t h g r a d u a t e s o f t h e s e p rograms have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n t h a t C E I C - s p o n s o r e d ESL c l a s s e s a r e m i s c o n c e i v e d , l a c k d i r e c t i o n and c o n t r i b u t e t o compounding s t u d e n t s ' d i f f i c u l t i e s by 98 p r o v i d i n g m i s i n f o r m a t i o n . The amount o f money b e i n g s p e n t on t h e s e c l a s s e s a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e i n Canada i s j u s t i f i c a t i o n enough t o w a r r a n t an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f ways and means t o p r o v i d e a b e t t e r e d u c a t i o n f o r i m m i g r a n t a d u l t s w i s h i n g t o e n t e r t h e l a b o u r f o r c e . F i n a l l y , one o f t h e m a j o r f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y i m p l i e s t h a t some d e f i n i t i o n o f C a n a d i a n c u l t u r a l a s s u m p t i o n s i s n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o a s s i s t i m m i g r a n t a d u l t s , t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n , t o a d a p t t o l i f e h e r e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between d i f f i c u l t y and t h e e x t e n t o f c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n r e q u i r e d by t a s k s o f a d a p t a t i o n l e d t o t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e c o n s t r u c t " d i f f i c u l t y " be renamed " e x t e n t o f c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n " t o f a c i l i t a t e more s p e c i f i c and a p p r o p r i a t e r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f t a s k s o f a d a p t a t i o n . T h i s u n d e r l i n e s t h e p r e d o m i n a n t i m p o r t a n c e o f c o n f l i c t i n g c u l t u r a l a s s u m p t i o n s t o t h e a d a p t a t i o n p r o c e s s . Those who come t o Canada from o t h e r c o u n - t r i e s b r i n g w i t h them t h e norms, v a l u e s and b e l i e f s o f t h e i r f o r - mer c u l t u r e s . When t h e y a r r i v e h e r e , t h e y e x p e r i e n c e t h a t c l a s h o f a s s u m p t i o n s known as c u l t u r e s h o c k . F o r t h e most p a r t , new- comers e x p e c t a n d seek t o a d o p t t h e c u l t u r e o f t h e new c o u n t r y as w i d e l y as t h e y p o s s i b l y c a n . The l i m i t s t o t h e i r a b i l i t y a r e i n - d i v i d u a l and d e f i n i n g a d a p t a t i o n as a p r o c e s s i s a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s as i s t h e f e d e r a l m u l t i c u l t u r a l p o l - i c y . A l t h o u g h much m a l i g n e d as a c a t c h p h r a s e , empty r h e t o r i c o r as e m p h a s i z i n g o u r d i f f e r e n c e s r a t h e r t h a n o u r s i m i l a r i t i e s , m u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m i s a s t a t e m e n t o f C a n a d i a n commitment t o c u l t u r a l p l u r a l i s m . I n h e r e n t i n t h e p o l i c y and i n t h e g u i d e l i n e s f o r d i s - 99 t r i b u t i o n o f f u n d s u n d e r S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e ' s m u l t i c u l t u r a l p r o - grams i s t h e b e l i e f t h a t e t h n i c g r o u p s h ave t h e r i g h t o f s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n w i t h i n o u r s o c i e t y a n d t h e v a l u e t h a t s u p p o r t f o r t h e i r e t h n i c i d e n t i t y w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s u c c e s s f u l a d a p t a t i o n o f e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s i n t o t h e f a b r i c o f C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . I n a d a p t i n g t o C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y , t h e y w i l l a l s o c h ange i t and, a t p r e s e n t , t h e p o l i c y a p p e a r s t o a l l o w a n d s u p p o r t t h e s e phenomena. I n t h e same way as t h e s e and o t h e r v a l u e s a r e t o be f o u n d i n t h e s u b - t e x t o f t h e f e d e r a l p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t on m u l t i c u l t u r a l - ' i s m , s o o t h e r p i e c e s o f l e g i s l a t i o n c a r r y a s s u m p t i o n s w i t h r e s p e c t t o " o u r " a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d new C a n a d i a n s an d e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s . I m m i g r a t i o n p o l i c y and r e g u l a t i o n s seem an o b v i o u s s o u r c e o f s u c h d a t a . P o l i c y r e s e a r c h f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f d e f i n i n g t h e p h i l o s o p h i - c a l p o s i t i o n and c u l t u r a l a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h e l e g i s l a t e d C a n a d i a n p o i n t o f v i e w t o w a r d i m m i g r a n t s an d e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s must be a p r i o r i t y f o r t h o s e e n g a g i n g i n t h e e d u c a t i o n o f i m m i g r a n t a d u l t s . W i t h o u t a c l e a r s e n s e o f common p u r p o s e , c l a s s e s w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be p r o v i d e d w h i c h do n o t meet e i t h e r t h e s h o r t o r l o n g r a n g e needs o f p a r t i c i p a n t s o r t h e c o u n t r y . P r o g r a m D e v e l o p m e n t I n g e n e r a l , t h e d e l i v e r y o f e d u c a t i o n f o r a d u l t i m m i g r a n t s has c e n t r e d o n p r o g r a m s o f E n g l i s h a s a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e , and l i n g u i s t i c c o n c e r n s h a ve f o r m e d t h e b a s i s f o r d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . The l a c k o f a s t u d e n t - c e n t r e d p h i l o s o p h i c a l a p p r o a c h and a p p r o p - r i a t e p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g m e t h o d o l o g i e s i s e v i d e n c e d by t h e f a c t t h a t no p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g l e v e l , a s a d u l t e d u c a t o r s d e s c r i b e i t , c u r r e n t - l y e x i s t s i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e f o r E S L p r o g r a m s i n 100 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Where p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g does e x i s t w i t h i n i n s t i - t u t i o n s o f f e r i n g ESL, i t i s c a l l e d c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t , i s c o n - d u c t e d by t e a c h e r s d o i n g s h o r t - t e r m p r o j e c t s , and t h e outcome o f s u c h p r o j e c t s i s u s u a l l y a s y l l a b u s o r c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e . W h i l e t h e s e g u i d e s a r e u s e f u l f o r i n s t r u c t o r s , e s p e c i a l l y i n e x p e r i e n c e d o n es, t h e p r o b l e m w i t h s u c h an a p p r o a c h f o r t h e i n s t i t u t i o n i s t h a t , once c o m p l e t e d , a c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e i s s t a t i c , r a r e l y m o di- f i e d e x c e p t by t e a c h i n g s t y l e , and i t s p r e s e n c e s u g g e s t s a s t a n - d a r d r a t h e r t h a n a g u i d e . Programs b a s e d on s u c h g u i d e s r e s p o n d w i t h d i f f i c u l t y t o c h a n g i n g needs, s h i f t s i n e m p h a s i s and e v a l u a - t i o n . The p r e s e n c e , w i t h i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , o f a p r o g r a m p l a n n e r t o c a r r y o u t t h e f u n c t i o n s o f c o u r s e e v a l u a t i o n and m o d i f i c a t i o n , w o u l d a s s i s t i n t h e d e v e l o p - ment and m a i n t e n a n c e o f w e l l - c o n c e i v e d and a p p r o p r i a t e ESL p r o - grams and c o u r s e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o l a c k i n g a permanent p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n w i t h i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e , few ESL p r o g r a m s a r e c o - o r d i - n a t e d w i t h t h e s p e c i a l i z e d l a b o u r m a r k e t f o c u s o f t h e h o s t i n s t i - t u t i o n . I n s t e a d o f d i r e c t l y p r e p a r i n g p e o p l e t o e n t e r t h e work f o r c e , ESL p rograms seem t o p r e p a r e p e o p l e t o t a k e f u r t h e r t r a i n - i n g . On t h e s u r f a c e , i t a p p e a r s t h a t ESL programs a r e c o n s t r u c t e d t o p o s t p o n e work f o r c e e n t r y i n d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e needs and d e s i r e s o f t h e l e a r n e r s . I n many c a s e s , newcomers a l r e a d y have j o b s k i l l s when t h e y a r r i v e i n Canada. I n v i e w o f t h i s s t u d y ' s f i n d i n g t h a t t h e most d i f f i c u l t t a s k (and, by i m p l i c a t i o n , one r e q u i r i n g a g r e a t e x t e n t o f c u l t u r a l i n n o v a t i o n ) was f i n d i n g a s a t i s f y i n g c a r e e r - o r i e n t e d j o b , and w h i l e t h e i s s u e o f i n s t i t u - 1 0 1 t i o n a l manadate f o r p r o g r a m s r e q u i r e s c l a r i f i c a t i o n v i a a p o l i c y s t a t e m e n t , t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e examples o f p rograms w h i c h m i g h t s u p p o r t work f o r c e e n t r y by a d u l t i m m i g r a n t s . 1. CEIC f u n d e d programs t h a t c o n c e n t r a t e on l a n g u a g e and c u l - t u r a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e s t r a t e g i e s f o r g e t t i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g employment; 2. p r o g r a m s i n - p r o f e s s i o n a l E n g l i s h f o r d o c t o r s , l a w y e r s , e n g i n e e r s and t h e l i k e w h i c h c o n c e n t r a t e on: a) p r o f e s s i o n a l t e r m i n o l o g y t o speak t o c o l l e a g u e s and r e a d i n p r o f e s s i o n a l p u b l i c a t i o n s ; b) t r a n s f e r r i n g d i s c o u r s e and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s k i l l s f r o m t h e n a t i v e l a n g u a g e t o E n g l i s h ; c) c u l t u r a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e p r o f e s s i o n a l s t r a t e g i e s and p r o - c e d u r e s ; d) b u i l d i n g l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y t o w a r d p a s s i n g p r o v i n c i a l p r o - f e s s i o n a l c e r t i f i c a t i o n e x a m i n a t i o n s ; 3. p r e - v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s d i r e c t e d t o w a r d t h e t e x t s and s t u d y s k i l l s t h a t w i l l b e . r e q u i r e d d u r i n g v o c a t i o n a l o r o t h e r r e t r a i n i n g ; 4 . o n - t h e - j o b v o c a t i o n a l ESL p r o g r a m s c o - o r d i n a t e d between e d u - c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and b u s i n e s s o r i n d u s t r y . I n a d d i t i o n t o e m p l o y m e n t - o r i e n t e d p r o g r a m s , a s s i s t a n c e t o a d u l t i m m i g r a n t s s h o u l d be a v a i l a b l e t o s u c c e s s f u l l y c o m p l e t e t h e c i t i z e n s h i p e x a m i n a t i o n , a r i t e o f p a s s a g e i n t o C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . F i n a l l y , i n t h e same way as c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs o f f e r c o u r s e s t o a s s i s t n a t i v e s p e a k e r s i n r e s o l v i n g t h e i r a d u l t d e v e l o p m e n t a l t a s k s , s e c o n d l a n g u a g e s p e a k e r s have the r i g h t o f 102 a c c e s s t o programs f o r them w h i c h p r o v i d e s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y o nes w h i c h c l a r i f y l e g a l and s o c i a l r i g h t s and r e s p o n - s i b i l i t i e s . I n s p e c i a l c a s e s , s u c h as t h e r e c e n t r e f u g e e i n f l u x , o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m s may be n e c e s s a r y . W h i l e i n u r b a n c e n t r e s t h e s e a r e p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h e t h n i c g r o u p , c h u r c h and s o c i a l s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e s e p r o g r a m s a r e b e i n g p r o v i d e d when and i f r e q u i r e d . I n c l o s i n g , i t s h o u l d be r e i t e r a t e d t h a t Canada i s a c o u n t r y o f i m m i g r a n t s and many more w i l l a r r i v e as w o r l d e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o b l i g e a d u l t s t o seek b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . Canada r e q u i r e s and e x p e c t s new c i t i z e n s f r o m a b r o a d b u t , i n t h e p a s t , o u r h i s t o r y shows t h a t many o f t h e s e c i t i z e n s have been e x p l o i t e d , a b u s e d and u s e d as s c a p e - g o a t s f o r ec o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l f e a r s . A p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n a l p r ograms c o n c e i v e d w i t h r e s p e c t f o r t h e needs o f a d u l t i m m i g r a n t l e a r n e r s a r e p r a g m a t i c and d e s i r a b l e f o r t h e gro w t h , c o h e s i v e n e s s and i n t e g r i t y o f C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y . 103 BIBLIOGRAPHY A l l e y n e , E. P a t r i c k and C o o l i e V e r n e r . P e r s o n a l C o n t a c t s and t h e A d o p t i o n o f I n n o v a t i o n s , R u r a l S o c i o l o g y . Monography No. 4, V a n c o u v e r , B.C.: U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C., 1969. A n d e r s o n , J.T.M. The E d u c a t i o n o f t h e New C a n a d i a n , L ondon: J . M . D e n t & Sons L t d . / 1918. B e n g s t o n , V e r n L. The S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y o f A g i n g , USA: Bobbs- M e r r i l l Co. L t d . , 1973. B e r w i c k , R i c h a r d . " A s s e s s i n g Needs i n E t h n i c C o m m u n i t i e s and P l a n n i n g f o r S p e c i f i c P u r p o s e I n s t r u c t i o n " , g r a d u a t i n g e s s a y , Department o f E n g l i s h E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C., 1979. B o r r i e , W.D. The C u l t u r a l I n t e g r a t i o n o f I m m i g r a n t s : A S u r v e y B a s e d Upon t h e P a p e r s and P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e UNESCO C o n f e r e n c e h e l d i n Havana - A p r i l , 1956, UNESCO, I m p r i m e r i e s R e u n i s de Chambery, 1959. B r e t o n , Raymond. " I n s t i t u t i o n a l C o m p l e t e n e s s o f E t h n i c C ommunities and t h e P e r s o n a l R e l a t i o n s o f I m m i g r a n t s " , C a n a d i a n S o c i e t y , B l i s h e n , J o n e s , N a i g e l e and P o r t e r ( e d s ) , T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n o f Canada, 1968. B r y s o n , Lyman. A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , A m e r i c a n Book Co., 1936. Buckingham, Thomas and W i l l i a m C. "An E x p e r i e n c e A p p r o a c h t o T e a c h i n g C o m p o s i t i o n : TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , V o l . 10, No. 1, 1976, pp. 56-65. D e p a r t m e n t o f Manpower and I m m i g r a t i o n . T h r e e Y e a r s i n Canada: F i r s t R e p o r t o f t h e L o n g i t u d i n a l S u r v e y on t h e E c o n o m i c and S o c i a l A d a p t a t i o n o f I m m i g r a n t s , C a n a d i a n I m m i g r a t i o n and P o p u l a t i o n S t u d y , O t t a w a : I n f o r m a t i o n Canada, 1974. Duncan, O t i s D u d l e y and S t a n l y L i e b e r s o n . . " E t h n i c S e g r e g a t i o n and A s s i m i l a t i o n " , A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y , V o l . 64, J a n u a r y , 1959, pp. 364-374. E i s e n s t a d t , S.N. The A b s o r p t i o n o f I m m i g r a n t s , London: R o u t l e d g e and Kegan P a u l L t d . , 1954. E l l i o t t , J e a n L e o n a r d (ed) Immigrant G r o u p s , M i n o r i t y C a n a d i a n s 2, S c a r b o r o u g h , O n t a r i o : P r e n t i c e - H a l l o f Canada L t d . , 1971. Gagne, R o b e r t . E s s e n t i a l s o f L e a r n i n g f o r I n s t r u c t i o n , H i n s d a l e , I l l i n o i s : D r y d e n P r e s s , 1975. 104 G o l d l u s t , J o h n and A n t h o n y H. Richmond. "A M u l t i v a r i a t e M odel o f Immigrant A d a p t a t i o n " , ' I n t e r n a t i o n a l M i g r a t i o n Review, V o l . 8, No. 1-4, 1974, pp. 193-225. G o r d o n , M i l t o n M. A s s i m i l a t i o n i n A m e r i c a n L i f e : The R o l e o f Race, R e l i g i o n and N a t i o n a l O r i g i n s , New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964. Gorman, Tom. " P r e l i m i n a r y O b s e r v a t i o n s on t h e D e v e l o p m e n t o f a N e e d s - B a s e d L i t e r a c y P r o g r a m " , i n BAAL ( B r i t i s h A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A p p l i e d L i n g u i s t i c s ) s e m i n a r r e p o r t , Languages f o r L i f e , . 1978, pp. IV 1-16. G r e e n b e r g , Zeev. " I s r a e l i I m migrants i n T o r o n t o " , u n p u b l i s h e d MA t h e s i s , Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y , T o r o n t o , 1971. H a l l e n b e c k , W i l b u r C. "The R o l e o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n S o c i e t y " , A d u l t E d u c a t i o n : O u t l i n e s o f an E m e r g i n g F i e l d o f U n i v e r s i t y S t u d y , J e n s e n , L i v e r i g h t and H a l l e n b e c k , USA: A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e USA, 1964. H a v i g h u r s t , R o b e r t J . D e v e l o p m e n t a l T a s k s and E d u c a t i o n , New Y o r k : D a v i d McKay, Co., 19 73. H e i s s , J e r o l d . " F a c t o r s R e l a t e d t o Immigrant A s s i m i l a t i o n : P r e - M i g r a t i o n T r a i t s " , S o c i a l F o r c e s , V o l . 47, 1969, pp. 420-428. « Holmes, Thomas H. and R i c h a r d H. Rahe. "The S o c i a l R e - A d j u s t m e n t R a t i n g S c a l e " , J o u r n a l o f P s y c h o s o m a t i c R e s e a r c h , V o l . 2, 1967, pp. 213-218. J e n s e n , G a l e E. "The N a t u r e o f E d u c a t i o n as a D i s c i p l i n e " , R e a d i n g s f o r E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h e r s , G a l e E. J e n s e n ( e d ) , Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n : Ann A r b o r P u b l i s h e r s , 1960. J e n s e n , G a l e E . , A.A. L i v e r i g h t and W i l b u r H a l l e n b e c k ( e d s ) . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n : O u t l i n e s o f an E m e r g i n g F i e l d o f U n i v e r s i t y S t u d y , A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e USA, 1964. J u p p , T.C. and S. H o d l i n . I n d u s t r i a l E n g l i s h : An Example o f T h e o r y and P r a c t i c e i n F u n c t i o n a l Language T e a c h i n g , London: Heinemann E d u c a t i o n a l Books, 19 75. K n o w l e s , M a l c o l m S. The Modern P r a c t i c e o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , New York:. A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , 1970. L a i , V i v i e n . "The New C h i n e s e Immigrants i n T o r o n t o " , Immigrant G r o u p s , M i n o r i t y C a n a d i a n s 2, J e a n L e o n a r d E l l i o t t ( e d ) , S c a r b o r o u g h , O n t a r i o : P r e n t i c e H a l l o f Canada L t d . , 1971, pp. 120-140. 105 La y l i n , Jan. "ESL on the Job: The Jantzen Experience", TEAL Occasional Papers, Vancouver: B.C. Association of Teachers of English as an Additional Language, Vol. 1, pp. 25-33, 1977. Lionberger, Herbert F. Adoption of New Ideas and Practices, Ames, Iowa: State University Press, 1960. Masuda, Minoru and Thomas H. Holmes. "Magnitude Estimations of Social Readjustments", Journal of Psychosomatic Research, Vol. 2, 1967, pp. 219-225. Masuda, Minoru and Thomas H. Holmes. "The Social Re-adjustment Rating Scale: A Cross-Cultural Study of Japanese and Americans", Journal of Psychosomatic Research, Vol. 2, 1967, pp. 227-237. Me r r i t t , J.E. "The Development of a Needs-Based Literacy Programme - a Comment", in BAAL ( B r i t i s h Association of Applied Linguistics) seminar report, Languages for L i f e , pp. IV 1-11, 1978. Ministry Advisory Committee on Continuing Education. A Draft Policy on the Provision of Adult Basic Education Programs, Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Ministry of Education, Post- Secondary Department, Continuing Education Division, V i c t o r i a , B.C., A p r i l , 1980. Mohan, Bernard. "Relating language teaching and content teaching", TESOL Quarterly, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1979. Munby, John. Communicative Syllabus Design, London: Cambridge University Press, 1978. Paulston, Rolland G. "Social and Educational Change: Conceptual Frameworks", Comparative Education Review, Volume 21, Nos. 2/3, June/October, 1977, pp. 370-395. Richmond, Anthony H. and Warren E. Kalbach. Factors in the Adjustment of Immigrants and Their Descendents, Ottawa: S t a t i s t i c s Canada, January, 1980. Richterich, Rene. "A Model for the D e f i n i t i o n of Language Needs of Adults", Systems Development i n Adult Language Learning, Strasbourg: Council of Europe, Council of Cultural Co-operation, pp. 31-62, 1973. Selman, Mary and Margaret Blackwell. "ESL: A Community-Based Program", TEAL Occasional Papers, Vancouver: B.C. Associa- tion of Teachers of English as an Additional Language, Vol. 1, pp. 74-85, 1977. 106 S t e r n , H.H.. "Mammoths o r M o d u l e s " , Times E d u c a t i o n a l Supplement, O c t o b e r 8, 1976, p. 44. S t e v e n s , S.S. "A M e t r i c f o r S o c i a l C o n s e n s u s " , S c i e n c e , V o l . 151, F e b r u a r y , 1966, pp. 530-541. S t e v e n s , S.S. " M a t c h i n g F u n c t i o n s Between L o u d n e s s and Ten O t h e r C o n t i n u a " , P e r c e p t i o n and P s y c h o p h y s i c s , V o l . 1, 1966, pp. 5-8. S t e v i c k , E a r l . A d a p t i n g and W r i t i n g Language L e s s o n s , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: F o r e i g n S e r v i c e I n s t i t u t e , D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e , 1971. T a f t , R o n a l d . C o p i n g W i t h U n f a m i l i a r C u l t u r e s , u n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , December, 1975. T r i m , J.L.M. G e n e r a l i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the'symposium. P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t a symposium on A E u r o p e a n u n i t / c r e d i t s y s t e m f o r modern l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g by a d u l t s , a t L u d w i g s h a f e n - a u r - R h e i n , S t r a s b o u r g , F r a n c e : C o u n c i l o f E u r o p e , September, 1977. Van Ek, J.A. The T h r e s h o l d L e v e l f o r Modern Language L e a r n i n g i n S c h o o l s , London: Longman, 197 6. V e r n e r , C o o l i e . A C o n c e p t u a l Scheme f o r t h e I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f P r o c e s s e s , C h i c a g o , I l l i n o i s : A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e U.S.A., 1962. W i l k i n s , D.A. "A C o m m u n i c a t i v e A p p r o a c h t o S y l l a b u s C o n s t r u c t i o n i n A d u l t Language L e a r n i n g " , p a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t a symposium on A U n i t / C r e d i t System f o r Modern L a n g u a g e s i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , S t . W o l f g a n g , A u s t r i a , J u n e , 1973. ( E r i c ED 086 012) . W o l f g a n g , A a r o n (ed) E d u c a t i o n o f Immigrant S t u d e n t s , Symposium S e r i e s 5, T o r o n t o : O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n , 1975. Wong, Wah. E n g l i s h as a Second Language Needs A s s e s s m e n t S u r v e y , u n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , V a n c o u v e r : B.C. M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n and B r i t a n n i a Community S e r v i c e s C e n t r e , 1977. Y i l d i z , Nancy. N i g h t S c h o o l ELT Program, V a n c o u v e r : V a n c o u v e r Community C o l l e g e , K i n g Edward Campus, 1977. 107 7APPENDIX I Respondent Number Respondent's Name: Address: Telephone: Record of V i s i t s Date Time Comments Ad d i t i o n a l Notes 108 1. Man Woman 2. Age 3. Single Married Divorced Upon A r r i v a l At Present Widowed 4. Place of B i r t h 5. F i r s t Language 6. Number of Languages (describe) 7. C i t i z e n s h i p 8. Spouse's Place of B i r t h 9. Spouse's F i r s t Language 10. Spouse's C i t i z e n s h i p 11. Last Places of Residence 12. Length of Residence i n Last Place years 13. Length of Residence i n Vancouver years 14. Did you ever v i s i t Vancouver before you came t o l i v e here? Yes No , 15. I f so, how long was your v i s i t here? 16. Present occupation (Be very s p e c i f i c such as owner of small r e t a i l business, sales manager of Sears Dept. store, secretary i n a r e a l estate o f f i c e , i r o n worker making car frames at General Motors) 109 17. I f presently unemployed or housewife, what was your l a s t occupation i n Canada? 18. What was your l a s t occupation i n I s r a e l ? 19. What other occupations have you had i n your l i f e ? 20. I f you have never worked at a l l what was your spouse's occupation when you l e f t I s r a e l ? 21. How many c h i l d r e n d i d you have? upon a r r i v a l at present 22. How o l d were your c h i l d r e n upon a r r i v a l at present c h i l d 1 c h i l d 2 c h i l d 3 c h i l d 4 23. How many years of formal schooling have you had? years. 24. Describe your l i f e ' s education i n d e t a i l (e.g. 10 years high school, 2 years i n army t e c h n i c a l school, worked f o r 5 years, 4 years univer- s i t y , 1 year teacher t r a i n i n g , worked f o r 10 years, 6 months job r e t r a i n i n g at an insurance company) Before a r r i v a l i n Canada A f t e r a r r i v a l i n Canada 25. How many countries have you l i v e d i n f o r s i x months or more i n c l u d i n g Canada and Is r a e l ? 110 26. Do you hold a B.C. Driver's Licence? Yes No 27. Did you hold a dri v e r ' s l i c e n c e before coming t o B.C.? Yes No . 28. When you a r r i v e d i n Vancouver, how many adult r e l a t i v e s d i d you have here? 29. How was each of them (from #28) r e l a t e d to you? 30. When you a r r i v e d i n Vancouver, how many fri e n d s d i d you already have l i v i n g here? (not r e l a t i v e s ) 31. How many of your fr i e n d s (from #30) were I s r a e l i s ? 32. How often d i d you see each of your I s r a e l i friends? F r i e n d During 1st 6 months i n Van. At present 3. 33. How many of your friends (from #30) were Canadians? 34. HOT often d i d you see each of your Canadian friends? F r i e n d During 1st 6 months i n Van. At present I l l 35. How often did you attend a synagogue? \ f Never [ | Now and then over the years 1 | At l e a s t y e a r l y | | At l e a s t monthly | | At l e a s t weekly ; J At l e a s t d a i l y 36. When d i d you l a s t attend the synagogue? Occasion: 37. When was the time before the l a s t time? ^ Occasion: 38. How often do you read the Jewish Western B u l l e t i n ? | | Never | | Now and then over the years | | At l e a s t y e a r l y [ | At l e a s t monthly | J At l e a s t weekly 39. When was the l a s t time you read i t ? Where? 40. When was the time before the l a s t time? Where? 41. How often do you go t o the Jewish Community Centre? | | Never | ~\ Now and then over the years [ | At l e a s t y e a r l y | | At l e a s t monthly | | At l e a s t weekly |~ | At l e a s t d a i l y 112 42. When was the l a s t time you went t o the Jewish ODrnmunity Centre? What for? 43. When was the time before the l a s t time? What for? 44. Here are some statements describing differences between l i f e i n I s r a e l and l i f e i n Canada. Read them and in d i c a t e how strongly you agree or disagree with each one: strongly agree, agree, n e u t r a l , disagree, strongly disagree. SA A N D SD L i f e i s l e s s expensive i n Canada. SA A N D SD There i s a b i g dif f e r e n c e i n Canadian food. SA A N D SD The Canadians are more f r i e n d l y than I s r a e l i s . SA A N D SD There i s no pressure from war and the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n Canada. SA A N D SD The climate i s very d i f f e r e n t i n Vancouver. SA A N D SD P o l i t i c a l l i f e i s more i n t e r e s t i n g i n I s r a e l . SA A N D SD There are more economic opportunities i n Canada. SA A N D SD There i s l e s s s o c i a l and family l i f e i n Canada. SA A N D SD Canadians are more p o l i t e than I s r a e l i s . SA A N D SD It ' s harder t o f i n d a job i n Canada. SA A N D SD People i n Canada l i v e i n bett e r housing. SA A N D SD Canadians are not as f r i e n d l y as I s r a e l i s . 45. I f you have noticed some di f f e r e n c e s between l i f e i n I s r a e l and l i f e i n Canada which do not appear i n #44, please state 46. How s a t i s f i e d are you with your l i f e i n Canada? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Not at a l l - i t ' s t e r r i b l e Much l e s s than I thought I would be Almost as much as I thought I would be As much as I thought I would be Better than I thought I would be More than I ever thought possible Completely - I love i t 113 47. Here are seme statements describing reasons why you might be d i s s a t i s f i e d with your l i f e i n Canada. Read them and i n d i c a t e how strongly you agree or disagree with each one: strongly agree, agree, n e u t r a l , disagree, strongly disagree. Canadians are too p r i v a t e . The climate i n Vancouver i s depressing. I p r e f e r a more s o c i a l i s t government. I t ' s d i f f i c u l t to make l o n g - l a s t i n g friends here. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the I s r a e l i s and the other Jews i n Vancouver i s not good. I can't get a good job here. I miss the I s r a e l i c u l t u r e . I miss my family i n I s r a e l . Canadian Jews aren't r e a l l y Jewish. 48. I f you are d i s s a t i s f i e d with scmetliing that i s not l i s t e d i n #47, please state i t . SA A N D SD SA A N D SD SA A N D SD SA A N D SD SA A N D SD SA A N D SD SA A N D SD SA A N D SD SA A N D SD 49. Did you come to Canada Alone With friends (no family) With your immediate family With your family and others Others 50. What was your c i t i z e n s h i p status Upon A r r i v a l At Present V i s i t o r ' s V i s a (no work permit) V i s i t o r ' s V i s a (& work permit) Employment V i s a Student V i s a (no work permit) Student V i s a (& work permit) Landed Immigrant: Independent Fiance (e) Sponsored Ncminated Other: Describe 114 51. (a) (b) Do you use En g l i s h at home 1 2 none at work 1 sometimes 2 h a l f the time 3 most of the time 4 a l l the time 5 none <• sometimes h a l f the time most of the time a l l the time 52. How w e l l d i d you speak E n g l i s h upon a r r i v a l i n Canada? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I could I could I could c o u l d n 1 t get by at a l l under- stand a l i t t l e but not speak under- stand a l o t and speak a l i t t l e understand everything and speak a l o t I spoke w e l l I spoke w e l l I could but had with an pass as a trouble with accent native t e c h n i c a l and Canadian p r o f e s s i o n a l terms 53. How w e l l do you speak E n g l i s h now? 1 2 3 4 5 7 I I can can't under- get by stand a at a l l l i t t l e but not speak I can under- stand a l o t and speak a l i t t l e I can understand everything and speak a l o t I speak w e l l I speak w e l l I can pass but have trouble with t e c h n i c a l and pr o f e s s i o n a l terms with an accent as a native Canadian 54. Interviewer's assessment of interviewee 1s English 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/he .; speaks w e l l with an accent I had to conduct the whole interview i n Hebrew. S/he does not know Englis h at" a l l S/he under- stands a l i t t l e Eng- l i s h but doesn't speak i t S/he under- stands a l o t of Eng- l i s h and speaks a l i t t l e S/he under- stands everything i n E n g l i s h and speaks a l o t of En g l i s h S/he speaks English w e l l but has trouble with tech- n i c a l and profession- a l terms S/he could pass as a native Canadian 116 APPENDIX I I I INTERVIEWERS* STEPS TO FOLLOW 1. Phone t h e p e r s o n y o u a r e t o i n t e r v i e w i n o r d e r t o make an a p p o i n t m e n t . Ask i f i t ' s a l r i g h t i f you speak i n Hebrew. Say s o m e t h i n g l i k e : "My name i s - I am p h o n i n g on b e h a l f o f J u d i t h M a s t a i , a s t u d e n t a t UBC, who i s d o i n g r e s e a r c h on I s r a e l i s who have come t o V a n c o u v e r o v e r t h e l a s t t e n y e a r s . Below i s a copy o f an a r t i c l e t h a t a p p e a r e d i n t h e J e w i s h W e s t e r n B u l l e t i n t h i s week. P l e a s e use t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t o g i v e some b a c k g r o u n d on what t h e r e s e a r c h i s a b o u t and what t h e r e s u l t s w i l l be u s e d f o r . T r y , a t a l l c o s t s , t o a v o i d u s i n g t h e word " i m m i g r a n t " . S u b s t i t u t e t h e word "newcomer". J u d i t h M a s t a i , a d o c t o r a l s t u d e n t i n t h e D epartment o f A d u l t E d u - c a t i o n a t UBC, i s c o n d u c t i n g r e s e a r c h on how p e o p l e a d a p t t o new p l a c e s . The e m p h a s i s i s on what t a s k s f a c e a newcomer and how t h e y a r e r e s o l v e d when one a r r i v e s i n a new c o u n t r y . The s u r v e y does n o t i n q u i r e why newcomers have chosen' t o come t o Canada o r how l o n g t h e y i n t e n d t o s t a y h e r e . The r e s u l t s o f t h e s u r v e y w i l l be u s e d t o i n f o r m t e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h as a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e as t o how t h e y can be more h e l p f u l t o newcomers and more e f f i c i e n t i n p r o v i d i n g m e a n i n g f u l c o n t e n t f o r t h e i r l e s s o n s . D i f f e r e n t e t h n i c g r o u p s w i l l be i n t e r v i e w e d and, d u r i n g t h e n e x t month, I s r a e l i members o f t h e community can e x p e c t a phone c a l l f r o m Mrs. M a s t a i o r one o f h e r i n t e r v i e w e r s : D v o r i B a l s h i n e , N a t h a n D a v i d o v i t c h , Yona F r i s h m a n , D a h l i a G o t t l i e b - T a n a k a , Ruth Kowarsky, Amos L a k o s , 117 Moshe M a s t a i , M i c h a l Nachmias, J o s e p h i n e N a d e l , L o i s P a r a g , H a r v e y Radman. Any i n q u i r i e s r e g a r d i n g t h e s t u d y can be d i r e c t e d t o M r s . M a s t a i (733-2003) and y o u r c o - o p e r a t i o n w i l l be g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . I n a d d i t i o n , i f y o u have r e c e n t l y a r r i v e d i n Van- c o u v e r o r know o f someone who h a s , p l e a s e phone, as t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e s t u d y depends on i n t e r v i e w i n g t h o s e who have been h e r e a s h o r t w h i l e as w e l l as t h o s e who have been h e r e f o r some t i m e . A good o p e n i n g on 'the phone m i g h t b e : " D i d y o u see t h e a r t i c l e i n t h e B u l l e t i n l a s t week?" B e f o r e g o i n g t o t h e i n t e r v i e w , w r i t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e number on b o t h t h e f i r s t page and t h e y e l l o w t o p c a r d on t h e deck o f c a r d s . 2. A t t h e i n t e r v i e w : I n t r o d u c e y o u r s e l f a g a i n and once more ex- p l a i n i n a few words t h a t you r e p r e s e n t a s t u d e n t who i s d o i n g r e s e a r c h a t UBC on newcomers t o V a n c o u v e r . She i s i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s o r t s o f t a s k s t h a t p e o p l e meet when t h e y come t o l i v e i n a new p l a c e . I f t h e p e o p l e seem s u s p i c i o u s , u p s e t o r u n w i l l i n g t o be much h e l p , t r y t o f i n d o u t why d u r - i n g t h e f i r s t few m i n u t e s . I f y o u need t o you c o u l d m e n t i o n any o f t h e s e t h i n g s : a) we a r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r r e a s o n s f o r l e a v i n g I s r a e l ; b) we a r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n how l o n g t h e y p l a n t o s t a y i n Canada; c) we a r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n w h e t h e r t h e y i n t e n d t o r e t u r n t o I s r a e l ; d) we a r e n o t f r o m any agency o r t h e government; e) t h i s i s a d o c t o r a l r e s e a r c h i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . S t r e s s t h a t we a r e o n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s o r t s o f t a s k s t h a t f a c e p e o p l e when t h e y come t o a new p l a c e . We have c h o s e n t o t a l k t o I s r a e l i s b e c a u s e t h e r e s e a r c h e r s p e a k s Hebrew and l i v e d i n I s r a e l f o r a number o f y e a r s . 113 Take some t i m e t o t e l l t h e p e o p l e what a l l y o u r p a p e r s f o r t h e i n t e r v i e w a r e : t h e c a r d s , t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , e t c . and t h a t t h e y w i l l be u s e d a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s d u r i n g t h e i n t e r - v i e w . When t h e i n t e r v i e w e e f e e l s a t e a s e , b e g i n t h e i n t e r - v i e w . Show t h e i n t e r v i e w e e t h e deck o f c a r d s . E x p l a i n t h a t t h e r e a r e 36 t a s k s t h a t p e o p l e meet when t h e y a r r i v e i n a new p l a c e . Have them r e a d t h r o u g h t h e c a r d s t o make s u r e t h a t t h e y u n d e r s t a n d e v e r y t h i n g . I f t h e r e i s a q u e s t i o n , t r a n s - l a t e t h e i t e m i n t o Hebrew. I f i t i s s t i l l a p r o b l e m , ask them what t h e y t h i n k i t means. T r y t o a v o i d g i v i n g examples o f an i t e m . Ask t h e i n t e r v i e w e e t o s h u f f l e t h e c a r d s . S/he a s s i g n s t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e t a s k on t h e f i r s t c a r d ( t h e c a r d on t o p o f t h e s h u f f l e d deck) a v a l u e o f 100. S/he a s s i g n s a number, any number g r e a t e r o r s m a l l e r t h a n 100 e x c e p t 0, t o e a c h s u b s e q u e n t c a r d t o i n d i c a t e i t s d i f f i c u l t y i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e f i r s t c a r d . The number s t a n d s f o r how d i f f i c u l t t h e t a s k was t h e f i r s t t i m e s/he was f a c e d w i t h i t . P o i n t o u t t h a t e a c h c a r d w i l l be "so many" t i m e s l e s s o r more d i f f i c u l t t h a n t h e f i r s t c a r d . I n t e r v i e w e e s c o u l d l e a v e t h e f i r s t c a r d on t h e t a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e . Ask them w h e t h e r t h e s e c o n d c a r d i s e a s i e r o r h a r d e r t h a n t h e f i r s t , how many t i m e s e a s i e r ( o r h a r d e r ) . Do t h e same f o r t h e n e x t c a r d and so on u n t i l t h e y u n d e r s t a n d what i s r e q u i r e d . S t r e s s t h a t we a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n r a t i o s , n o t p e r c e n t a g e s . E n c o u r a g e them t o che c k back and f o r t h among c a r d s i f t h e y w i s h . P l e a s e make s u r e t h a t t h e y a s s i g n a v a l u e t o e v e r y c a r d . Even i f i t ' s n o t a p p l i c a b l e t h e y c a n s t i l l i m a g i n e how d i f f i c u l t i t w o u l d be f o r them. 119 7. Have t h e i n t e r v i e w e e a r r a n g e a l l t h e t a s k s i n o r d e r o f t h e i r i m p o r t a n c e t h e f i r s t t i m e t h e y were f a c e d w i t h t h e t a s k . 8. You r e c o r d t h e i r o r d e r i n g by w r i t i n g l a r g e numbers on t h e c e n t r e f r o n t o f t h e c a r d s - 1 i s t h e i r most i m p o r t a n t , 2 t h e i r n e x t i n i m p o r t a n c e and so on down t o 36 f o r t h e l e a s t i m p o r t a n t . 9. S e l e c t y o u r t e n c a r d s f r o m t h e d e c k . 10. T u r n one c a r d o v e r . E x p l a i n t h e t i m e l i n e and t h a t a l l t h e l i n e s on i t s t a n d f o r d a y s , months, e t c . a f t e r a r r i v a l . R e f e r t o e a c h o f t h e 10 i t e m s , one a t a t i m e , r e m i n d t h e i n t e r v i e w e e s o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y v a l u e s/he gave i t and ask t h e f o l l o w i n g f o u r q u e s t i o n s a b o u t e a c h o f y o u r 10 i t e m s . 11. Ask t h e i n t e r v i e w e e a t what p o i n t i n t i m e s/he f i r s t t h o u g h t o f h a v i n g t o do t h a t t a s k and mark t h e t i m e p r e c i s e l y on t h e t i m e l i n e w i t h a d o t and t h e number 1. 12. Ask t h e i n t e r v i e w e e a t what p o i n t i n t i m e s/he r e s o l v e d t h a t t a s k ( o r , i f s/he h a s n ' t r e s o l v e d i t y e t , a t what p o i n t i n t i m e s/he e x p e c t s t o r e s o l v e i t ) and mark the t i m e p r e c i s e l y on t h e t i m e l i n e w i t h a d o t and t h e number 2. 13. Ask t h e i n t e r v i e w e e what made t h e t a s k d i f f i c u l t . T h e y c o u l d g i v e one o r a number o f answers t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . R e c o r d a l l t h e i r answers on t h e b a c k o f t h e c a r d a t t h e t o p . Some o f t h e i r answers m i g h t r e f e r t o : a) t h e t i m e t h e y a r r i v e d , e.g. a t a t i m e o f h i g h unemploy- ment ; b) no s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e o r knowledge o f where t o go f o r i n f o r m a t i o n ; c) wrong i n f o r m a t i o n ; d) s o m e t h i n g t h a t was, o f i t s e l f , h a r d t o l e a r n (Be s p e c i f i c a b o u t what t h a t h u r d l e was) 12 0 e) how l o n g i t t o o k t o r e s o l v e i t . 14. Ask t h e i n t e r v i e w e e where o r t o whom s/he went t o g e t i n f o r - m a t i o n on how t o r e s o l v e t h e t a s k . Show t h e l i s t o f s o u r c e s t o a i d t h e i n t e r v i e w e e . Mark t h e s o u r c e s by l e t t e r symbol on t h e b a c k o f t h e c a r d a t t h e b o t t o m . I f s/he went t o C f i r s t , t h e n t o Q and t h e n t o J , mark them C Q J . I n o t h e r words, t r y t o f i n d o u t t h e o r d e r i n w h i c h t h e y c o n s u l t e d e a c h s o u r c e . E n c o u r a g e them t o " t e l l y o u t h e s t o r y " o f how t h e y r e s o l v e d e a c h o f t h e s e t e n t a s k s . 15. Ask t h e i n t e r v i e w e e i f t h e r e a r e any t a s k s t h a t s/he had t o r e s o l v e t h a t a r e n o t l i s t e d on t h e c a r d s . W r i t e e a c h new t a s k on a c a r d w i t h a y e l l o w s t r i p e . You n e e d n o t ask any q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e new i t e m s . J u s t be s p e c i f i c when you w r i t e t h e i t e m down. 16. Show t h e d e c k o f c a r d s t o t h e i n t e r v i e w e e . Have him/her r e a d t h e c a r d s and s o r t them i n t o f i v e p i l e s : a) n o t a p p l i c a b l e t o me; b) I h a v e n ' t t r i e d t h i s one y e t ; c) I'm d o i n g t h i s now; d) I t r i e d t h i s b u t c o u l d n ' t r e s o l v e i t ; e) I've r e s o l v e d t h i s . 17. A f t e r s/he has s o r t e d them i n t o p i l e s , y o u mark e a c h p i l e w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c o l o u r p e n c i l . 18. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e : P l e a s e l e t t h e i n t e r v i e w e e see t h e q u e s t i o n - n a i r e . T h e r e i s n o t h i n g s e c r e t a b o u t i t . However, you ask t h e q u e s t i o n s and w r i t e i n t h e a n s w e r s . Don't l e t them j u s t . f i l l i t i n by t h e m s e l v e s . They can f i l l i n q u e s t i o n s 47 and 50. Make s u r e t h a t y ou g e t as s p e c i f i c i n f o r m a t i o n as p o s s i b l e , e s p e c i a l l y a b o u t employment. 121 19. F i n i s h y o u r c o f f e e and go home. 20. When y o u , g e t o u t s i d e , make any n o t e s a b o u t t h e i n t e r v i e w , p r o b l e m s you h a d , q u e s t i o n s , e t c . 21. When you g e t home c a l l J u d i t h t o d i s c u s s t h e i n t e r v i e w , q u e s t i o n s , p r o b l e m s . P l e a s e keep i n c l o s e c o n t a c t , e s p e c i a l l y i f you have any p r o b l e m s making appointments'. One f i n a l word. You w i l l f i n d t h a t t h e i n t e r v i e w s become e a s i e r and e a s i e r . P l e a s e t r y v e r y h a r d n o t t o change t h e p r e c i s i o n w i t h w h i c h y ou ask y o u r q u e s t i o n s and n o t t o e m b e l l i s h and g i v e e x a m p l e s . A l w a y s b e a r i n mind t h a t a l l o f you must ask t h e q u e s - t i o n s t h e same way and f o l l o w t h i s s c r i p t o r t h e r e s u l t s w i l l be u s e l e s s . Have f u n . Good l u c k .

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