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Adaptation tasks of Israeli immigrants to Vancouver Mastai, Judith 1980

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ADAPTATION TASKS OF ISRAELI IMMIGRANTS TO VANCOUVER by JUDITH MASTAI B.A. University of B.C., 1966 M.A. University of B.C., 1969 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Adult Education, Faculty of Education) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA © Judith Mastai, 19 80 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfillment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Judith Mastai Department of Adult Education The University of British Columbia Vancouver, B.C. ABSTRACT • /• At the macro-level, this study investigated the role of edu cation in the adaptation process of adult immigrants. Migration was defined as a developmental event, adaptation was described as the process by which that event is resolved, and learning and edu cation were differentiated using Alleyne and Verner's typology of sources of information. At the micro-level, these concepts were applied to the case of Israeli immigrants to Vancouver, B.C. Four general research questions were posed with respect to the kinds of tasks emerging during adaptation to life in a new society, the relationship of a variety of socio-demographic and other factors to the perceived difficulty of tasks and the use of adult education sources of information in resolving tasks of adaptation. An analytical survey, employing an interview schedule, a magnitude estimation scaling device to measure relative difficulty of tasks and a series of other measures of factors thought to be related to difficulty, was conducted early in 1977 with seventy-two respondents. Analysis included computation of geometric mean difficulty scores, calculation of univariate frequency distribu tion of socio-demographic variables and of scores of other factors as well as means and correlation co-efficients. Step-wise re gression analysis utilized difficulty scores as dependent variable and ten socio-demographic measures as independent variables in an attempt to ascertain the predictive ability of the socio-demogra phic variables with respect to difficulty. Results of the data analysis identified the most difficult task, finding a satisfying, career-oriented job, indicated that the majority of other tasks of adaptation were being resolved using non-educational sources of information, and that the con struct "difficulty" might better be renamed "extent of cultural innovation required" and further investigation of this factor be conducted. Implications were drawn regarding the use of magnitude esti mation to assess educational needs of adult immigrants, and the development of policy and programs which meet the needs and aims of both Canadian society and the immigrant learner. Dedicated with love and gratitude to Moshe Elan and Galit Leonore, Milton and Debby iv TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ii DEDICATION v TABLE OF CONTENTS v LIST OF TABLES vii LIST OF FIGURES viiACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ix CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1 Background 2 Purpose and Scope of Study 3 II BASIC CONCEPTS 6 Developmental Events 7 Adaptation 9 Learning, Adult Education and Adaptation . . 13 Immigrant Adult Education 16 III METHODOLOGY 19 Design of Instruments 1The Selection of Tasks of Adaptation ... 20 Magnitude Estimation of the Difficulty of Tasks of Adaptation 24 Reliability of Magnitude Estimation Items 2 6 Validity of Magnitude Estimation Items . 28 Factors Affecting Difficulty 32 Socio-Demographic VariablesExtent of Cultural Innovation 35 Time of Task Resolution 37 Perceived Importance of Tasks 38 Stage of Task ResolutionSources of Information 39 Population and Sample Design 41 The Pilot Study 43 Data Collection 4 Analysis of the Data 45 v IV RESULTS 46 Characteristics of Respondents 4Difficulty of Tasks of Adaptation 53 The Relationship Between Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Difficulty 4 The Relationship of Difficulty to Other Factors 61 Extent of Cultural Innovation 6 2 Time of Task Resolution 64 Importance of Tasks  7 Stage of Task Resolution  8 The Relationship of Difficulty to Sources of Information Employed ... 76 Summary 79 V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 8 3 Summary and Conclusions 8 3 Discussion 88 Implications of the Study for Researchers and Practitioners 92 The Process of Assessing Educational Needs . . 9 3 Policy Development  4 Program Development  8 BIBLIOGRAPHY 10 2 APPENDIX I INTERVIEW QUESTIONNAIRE 106 II LETTER FROM Jewish Social Studies 114 III INTERVIEWERS' Steps to Follow 115 vi LIST OF TABLES TABLE I Terms Used to Describe the Process of Immigrant Adjustment 10 II Tasks of Adaptation as Suggested by the Literature 21 III Correlation Co-efficients of Three Tests of Reliability for Magnitude Estimation Task Items 9 IV Geometric Mean Difficulty Scores on Tasks of Adaptation for an Israeli and a Mixed Group 3 3 V Summary Table of Socio-Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents 51 VI Difficulty Scores of Thirty-Six Task Items ... 52 VII Stepwise Regression Analysis of Ten Socio-Demographic Variables and their Relation . to Difficulty Scores 56 VIII Correlation Co-efficients of Difficulty Scores of Thirty-Six Tasks of Adaptation and Particular Socio-Demographic Variables . . 58 IX Extent of Innovation•Required by Tasks of Adaptation According to Fifty-Two "Expert" Respondents 6 3 X Mean Resolution Time and Difficulty Scores for Tasks Listed in Order of Mean Resolution Time 6 XI Mean Rank Order of Tasks According to Importance. 6 9 XII ' Number and Percentage of Interviewees Responding to Each Resolution Stage for Each Task .... 73 XIII Frequency of Use of Sources of Information by Seventy-two Interviewees for Thirty-Six Tasks . 78 vii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE I Comparison in Order of Mean Resolution Time of Percentage of Respondents Not Attempting, Trying But Not Resolving and Resolving Each Task of Adaptation 74 viii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank the following colleagues and members of my thesis committee, past and present, for their assistance, guidance and criticism during the development and realization of this work: Rick Bagnall, Roger Boshier, John Collins, Gary Dickinson, Bill Griffith, Terry Hull, Bernie Mohan, Wayne Schroeder, Mary Selman and Jim Thornton. In addition, I wish to acknowledge the guidance and influence of Dr. Coolie Verner who did not survive to celebrate the comple tion of this manuscript. I would also like to express my gratitude to the countless others who themselves know that they contributed to this work in a multitude of ways that are difficult to identify or express in words. Finally, it is impossible to ever fully thank my family for the support and help they have provided. Suffice to say I dedicate this work to them. ix CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Canada is a country created through the efforts of its immigrants, and this nation is a world leader in developing a model of integration - based on multiculturalism rather than assi milation. One of the major corollaries of the move away from the "melting pot" point of view has been the accompanying reduction of a predetermined end, successful assimilation, which implied that the identities of newcomers would eventually fade to be re placed by a new collective identity. Other than meeting estab lished requirements of age, length of residence, adequate know ledge of one of the national languages, knowledge about Canada, and the rights and duties of citizens, Canadian immigrants may become citizens and still retain the right to accept some aspects of the new culture and reject others. In many cases, individuals choose whether or not they will adapt, how they will resolve each task they encounter during adaptation, how successful they want to be, and how successful they have been. As adaptation requires learning, adult education appears to be a suitable and logical choice of activity for immigrants. Those planning educational programs for immigrants must maintain contact with the patterns 1 2 and needs of their clientele in order to serve them in a meaning ful and efficient manner. Background At the present time in Canada, the education of adult immigrants is conducted primarily by those teaching classes of English as a Second Language (ESL). While they have long been aware of the relationship between language and culture, these teachers often receive much of their basic training as linguists. In the last ten years, trends in ESL have suggested a situation al approach and functional competency with language instruction centering on the essential language the immigrant needs in order to function in specific situations. As informed intuition appears to have been the chief basis for choosing situations to use in language instruction, a number of problems have arisen. The first problem occurs in identifying the situations immigrants face when they arrive in a new country and determining which ones rely on language skills for their resolution. This is related to a second problem: at what point after arrival in the new country are the language skills and information required? In Vancouver, King Edward Campus of Vancouver Community College serves the majority of adult immigrants seeking instruction in English. The present curriculum at KEC reflects support of func tional competency as a basic approach by teachers and admini stration. Beginners cover topics such as shopping for food, using Canadian currency, filling out application forms such as 3 for medical insurance, and using the postal system. Between September and December 19 77, KEC reported that thirteen percent of their new enrollees had begun classes after their third month in the country, eleven percent had begun after six months in Canada and forty-seven percent had begun after one year. It is conceivable that, three months after arrival or more, immigrants would have found solutions to the problems posed by having to buy food, using Canadian currency, filling out medical insurance forms or using the post office. Furthermore, it seems possible that these tasks could have been accomplished through an inter preter or by using sign language, without the person actually speaking English. Thirdly, it is important to inquire whether the classroom is an appropriate place to introduce a wide range of situational topics. For many of the necessities and tasks of daily life, immigrants appear to turn to a variety of sources for information and assistance. Classroom time might best be spent on the most difficult tasks, on situations and problems appropriate to the length of time the immigrant has been in Canada, or on specific tasks for which immigrants are currently using educational insti tutions as a resource. Purpose and Scope of the Study At the present time, there is little agreement as to what constitutes successful integration or adaptation. For Canadians, whether or not an immigrant successfully adapts and the measure-4 ment of adaptation seem less useful questions than inquiring into the process of adapting and the kinds of tasks an immigrant en counters in entering a new society. The resolution of tasks re quires learning, but little information is available as to how and when this occurs. There is a lack of knowledge as to the nature of tasks of adaptation, what causes their difficulty for immigrants, how soon after arrival tasks are resolved, and what sources of information immigrants use in resolving or learning how to resolve tasks encountered. This study examined the adaptation process of Israeli immi grants to Vancouver in an attempt to determine a representative list of tasks which immigrants encounter upon arrival in a new country and to derive implications of those tasks for the design of educational programs for immigrant adults. Although intuition has been applied to this problem by.instructors and officials who work with newcomers daily, to date no empirical evidence has been gathered to support or deny their intuitions. This study was not concerned with the degree of adaptation of Israeli immigrants to Canadian life, their motivations for emigration, or prejudice they might have encountered in this society. Rather it addressed four general research questions: 1. What kinds of tasks emerge during adaptation to life in a new society? 2. Which, if any, socio-demographic characteristics affect perception of difficulty of tasks of adaptation? 5 3. What relationship, if any, does difficulty of tasks of adaptation bear to the following factors: extent of cultural innovation required by tasks, length of task resolution time required, importance of tasks to the immigrant when he first encounters them, and stage of task resolution? 4. How is the use of adult education sources of informa tion for resolving tasks of adaptation related to difficulty of tasks? The data obtained in seeking answers to those questions provided a basis for a discussion of the program planning process used in ESL classes. CHAPTER II BASIC CONCEPTS After an extensive search it became apparent that the body of adult education literature did little more than introduce immigrant education as one minor aspect of adult education. In the main, the literature consists of inadequate descriptions of isolated programs with little rationale and no follow-up. Few of the authors provided empirical evidence to support their opinions. It was therefore necessary to explore literature in a number of other fields as well, and many of the basic concepts used in this study arose from the field of sociology. This chapter describes migration to a new country as a developmental event and adaptation as the process by which indi viduals resolve that event. As immigrants adapt, they encounter a number of tasks of varying difficulty which impel them to learn new information, procedures and customs from personal sources and mass media or from educational sources. At the present time, the major educational offering for immigrants is language instruction. The application of a program-oriented, rather than curriculum-oriented approach to immigrant education by institutions might further assist the immigrant adult's adaptation. 6 7 Developmental Events Bengston (19 73) defines developmental events as occurrences experienced by individuals during the course of their lives and which have some systematic influence in the ordering of human behaviour, but the order in which they occur varies from person to person. Also, events experienced by one individual may not even occur for another. Developmental events may be biological, psychological or sociological in nature including growth, decline and change in the human body, development of mental capacities, changes in experience and goals, or entering and leaving social roles and social responsibilities. Developmental events are affected both by developmental time (maturation) and historical time so that while most individuals share some events of develop ment, the era during which they live may affect the occurrence of an event. The concept of developmental events has much in common with that of developmental tasks which Havighurst (19 73) describes as arising from physical maturation, from the pressure of cultural processes upon the individual, from the desires, aspirations and values of the emerging personality and from combinations of these factors acting together.' Havighurst points out that the indi vidual must master a series of developmental tasks to be a successful human being. The notion of developmental events incor porates Havighurst 's work and expands its focus in the following ways. Firstly, developmental tasks are categorized according to 8 age which presumes that they occur in a linear order. Develop mental events are not age-bound and no order is implied. Second ly, Havighurst's developmental tasks are culture-bound to North American society and presume the norms and values of that society. Developmental events are not culture-bound. Thirdly, Havighurst's term refers to those items that appear in his specific list of tasks whereas the definition of developmental events provides a basis for including any occurrence that meets the criteria. Fourthly, as Bengston (19 73) points out, Havighurst's notion of developmental tasks applies at the micro-level of sociological analysis, examining the social environment of a given individual, while the concept of developmental events can apply both at this micro-level and also at the macro-level, analysing "how large aggregates of human beings organize themselves over time in order to maintain the group's survival" (1973,, p.14). For the pur poses of this study, the concept will be applied at the micro-level to examine the way in which the individual resolves the developmental'event created by his migration. Migration is an occurrence which could be experienced by most individuals at some time during the course of life and which would have some systematic influence in ordering human behaviour. The influence is generally psychological or sociological in nature and is affected both by the historical time during which the indi vidual has migrated as well as the developmental time at which he migrates. Migration may therefore be termed a developmental event. 9 Adaptation Adaptation is the process by which the developmental event, migration, is resolved. A number of terms have been used to identify the process of adjustment to a new country and these include naturalization, absorption, assimilation, acculturation and adaptation (Table I). Borrie (1959) stated .-that these terms are synonomous but Duncan and Lieberson (1959) differentiated between terms on the basis of different observable outcomes. Naturalization was defined as the acquisition of legal citizen ship; absorption, as entrance into productive economic activity; assimilation, as integration into the social system more or less on terms of socio-economic equality; and acculturation, as adop tion of the local customs and relinquishing of such cultural characteristics as would identify the immigrants as a distinct ethnic group. Duncan and Lieberson's definitions are outcome-oriented but suggest a process in that these phenomena are said to occur in the order given. Gordon's (1964) typology provided an initial perspective; on possible components of a process model of adaptation. Two of his conclusions contributed to this study. First, structural assimilation (defined as large scale entrance into cliques, clubs and institutions of a host society on the primary group level) is the most important type of assimilation because, once it occurs, all of the other types will follow. Second, cultural assimilation (defined as change of cultural pat terns to those of a host society) may be the first to occur but it can occur alone, without any of the other types following. 10 10 Naturalization Absorption Assimilation Acculturation Adaptati on Eisenstadt (1954) the process of absorbing immigrants and integrating them into the society is the outcome of the interplay be tween the immigrant's own desires and expectations with regard to the new country and the extent to which these can be realized in terms of the var ious demands made on the immigrants by the institutional structure of the absorbing society  Borrie (1959) synonymous with assimilation, acculturation, adaptation Duncan and Lieberson (1959) the acquisition of legal citizenship entrance into produc-tive economic activity synonymous with absorption, assimilation, adaptation synonymous with absorption, assimilation, adaptation integration into the social system more or less on terms of socio economic equality synonymous with absorption, assimilation, acculturation the adoption of local customs and relinquish ing of such cultural characteristics as would identify the immigrants as a distinct ethnic group Gordon (1964) Anthro-pologist's term sociologist's term: 7 types - cultural, marital, structural, identificational, atti tude receptional, civic behaviour reoeptional cultural assimilation change of cultured patterns to those of host society Goldlust and Richmond . (1974) the mutual interaction of individuals and col lectives and their re sponse to particular physical and social environments 11 Aside from referring to absorption and integration rather than adaptation, Eisenstadt's (1954) definition has much in common with that of Goldlust and Richmond (19 74). Goldlust and Richmond define adaptation as a mutual interaction and Eisenstadt refers to the negotiation between the immigrant's own desires and expectations with regard to the new country and the extent to which these can be realized.in view of the various demands made on immigrants by the institutional structure of the absorbing society. Goldlust and Richmond include in their definition that adaptation is a response to particular physical and social environ ments. While reference to it is not made in their definitions, Eisenstadt, Goldlust and Richmond agree in the body of their writing that lack of adaptation leads to deviance within the new society or re-migration to another one. For the purposes of this study, the major components of a definition of adaptation are: 1. adaptation is a process, rather than an outcome or a goal; 2. adaptation is a negotiation between the desires and expecta tions of those immigrating and the extent of cultural plural ism which the institutional structure of the receiving society can allow; 3. adaptation is a mutual interaction in which both the immigrat ing individuals or groups and the members of the receiving society (individually and collectively) are changed; 4. adaptation is a response to particular physical and social environments by all individuals and collectivities involved in migration even as they are negotiating their mutual interaction; 12 5. adaptation is dynamic, contributing to and affected by chang ing conditions over time. Adaptation, then, is a dynamic process in which individuals and collectivities (including those who have migrated and members of the receiving society) mutually interact, respond to physical and environmental conditions and negotiate a degree of cultural pluralism. For the purposes of the present study, it is important to consider adaptation at the micro-level from the point of view of the individual immigrant because, in this way, the notion of developmental events may be used to inform adaptation. As adap tation is a complex process, it is comprised of a number and variety of tasks which individuals must resolve. A task of adap tation is defined here as one which arises out of the migration of an individual from one society to another, achievement of which affects success with subsequent tasks. Clearly not every individual will encounter the same tasks, nor will tasks arise for every one at the same time. The present study is not directed toward testing this operational definition by investigating how achievement or failure with tasks affects motivation to adapt or any of the consequences of lack of adaptation. Rather, this study focuses on determining what the tasks might be, asks some specific questions about their nature, investigates how one group of immi grants resolves them, and proposes a role for education in their resolution. 13 Learning, Adult Education and Adaptation An.individual may "resolve" a task of adaptation by com pleting it, failing it, ignoring it, or postponing it. The successful resolution of any task requires that learning takes place. The adult's readiness to learn is considered to be a func tion of critical periods in life which produce teachable moments. Whether or not an adult is able to resolve a teachable moment successfully affects his future motivation to learn (Havighurst, 1973). His ability to learn is affected by his experience as a learner, his previous level of knowledge about the content he is trying to master, and his knowledge of the availability of the information he requires. Learning is said to occur in two settings, the natural societal setting and the formal instructional setting (Jensen, 1960). In the former, learning is more or less by chance, while in the latter, an instructional agent systematically diffuses information. The instructor employs knowledge of the learning process and of instruction to design and manage a learning ex perience for the learner. Information is acquired in the natural societal setting through personal or mass sources (Alleyne and Verner; 1969). Personal sources are those which involve direct face-to-face com munication between the communicator and the receiver where the receiver may question the communicator. These information sources lie within the individual's personal orbit and include observa tions and experiences as well as friends, relatives, and children. Mass sources include information available to everyone at the same time with little provision for two-way communication. With neither 14 personal nor mass sources is there immediate and continuing supervision by an instructional agent who manages the conditions for learning. Information in the formal instructional setting is acquired via individual instruction and instructional groups (Alleyne and Verner, 1969). Individual instruction is an educational activity conducted on a one-to-one basis. An instructional group is an educational activity in which information is presented to a.num ber of individuals simultaneously with an opportunity for two-way communication. According to Verner and Alleyne, adult education takes place when learning occurs in this setting through these sources. An individual may utilize both the natural societal and the formal instructional settings in the resolution of any learning task. He may acquire information in the natural societal setting from personal and mass sources, he may acquire information there which leads him to a formal instructional setting using individual instruction or instructional group sources, or he may go immediate ly to the formal instructional setting. Any of these routes may lead to the resolution of the task. The choices that the indi vidual makes,during the resolution of the task will be affected by all of his characteristics as a unique human, an immigrant, and a learner. Hallenbeck (1964) stated that whereas the social function of pre-adult education is to provide cultural conditioning, the social function of adult education is to promote adaptation to social change. While this may be true of the general function of 15 adult education in society, it is less true in the case of immi grant adult education. Here it is necessary to serve a remedial function (Bryson, 19 36) for the individual since the immigrant is lacking the cultural conditioning normally provided by pre-school, elementary, and secondary school in the culture to which he has emigrated. Many adult educators favor a problem-centered approach served by programs; rather than the knowledge-centered curricula of pre-adult education (Knowles, 19 70). The problem-centered approach allows adult educators to meet immediate and specific educational needs of learners as they arise. Verner (in Jensen, et al, 1964) distinguishes between program and curriculum on the basis of the educational goals. A curriculum is designed to pro vide learning experiences that deal simultaneously with immediate developmental tasks and anticipated responsibilities while a pro gram is functionally related to an immediate need for specific learning arising out of an adult's changing roles in society. A program concentrates on a limited number of instructional objectives. Each objective may be seen as compromising a number of learning tasks which may be classified according to the types of learning outcomes they represent (Gagne, 19 74). The adult's developmental tasks and events create specific problems and the individual requires information to resolve them. Thus, the learn ing necessary to acquire this information may be logically struc tured into a program. 16 Taft (1975) has taken the view that adaptation is a result of successful learning by the immigrant. As learning is argued to be generally more efficient in the formal instructional setting (Verner, 1964), education appears to be a logical process and pro grams seem to be a suitable format with which to aid the immigrant learner in accomplishing resocialization. Immigrant Adult Education The focus of education for immigrant adults has changed over the last fifty years from citizenship education to English lang uage training. For a long time English language training meant instruction in grammatical structures and memorizing vocabulary. In the last ten years, the situational approach has enjoyed a great deal of popularity as intuition and experience have led many instructors to conclude that situations provide a meaningful con text for language learning. Using this approach, situations that immigrants would find themselves in, such as meeting Canadians in social situations or being interviewed for a job, were used as the context for teaching grammatical structures. Jupp and Hodlin (1975) pointed out that using situations is a useful technique, but it is still only a context for a structural approach. These two authors suggest a functional approach based on the underlying purposes of and inferences in our language. This is not to be con fused with functional competency which refers to baseline ability to perform in specific situations. Jupp and Hodlin's notion of language functions appears to be that actual language used in situations of all kinds contains not only structures and vocabulary, but underlying meanings, purposes and non-verbal implications as well. ESL students must be able to comprehend and use a variety of messages containing specific information, attitudes, emotions, non-verbal cues and cultural habits implicit in speech. To this end, using job-related situa tions as their context, Jupp and Hodlin suggest that instructors familiarize themselves with the roles and other functions for which language is used in particular work environments. Struc tures are selected from recorded language data and an instruction al outline may be planned based on language functions and struc tures used for particular functions, rather than on structures alone. In adult education terms, Jupp and Hodlin appear to be ad vising the instructor to conduct a needs assessment at the pro gram planning stage (collecting data on what the learners require) and design the course around the learning needs identified. The congruence of this functional approach with principles of program planning, coupled with its growing popularity in the field of ESL, supports the need for further investigation of the learning needs of immigrant adults. Berwick (1978) reviewed the literature on needs assessment, particularly related to the design of courses in English for spe cific purposes, and concluded that needs assessment, as a means of obtaining information about learning purposes, is a relatively novel concept in the field of second language instructional plan ning. He reported methods employed to assess needs (Selman and Blackwell, 1977; Stevick, 1971; Buckingham and Pech, 1976; 18 Wong, 1977; Ricterich, 19 73; Munby, 1978; Stevens, 1977; Laylin, 1977) as well as approaches to the development of curricula from learner needs (Gorman, 19 78; Merritt, 19 78; Mohan, 19 79; Munby, 1978; Stern, 1978; Stevick, 1971). One problem common to the literature Berwick reports, however, is the assumption that edu cation must provide language to suit all immigrant needs and that a syllabus or curriculum stipulates target competencies of a par ticular participant or participant stereo-type (Munby, 1978) with out differentiating between the sources of information sought by the immigrant. Investigation of sources used by immigrants to resolve tasks of adaptation may clarify the role of education in the adaptation process and the tasks for which education is re quired and sought. As immigrants embark upon the process of adapting to a new society, they encounter many tasks which may be resolved by ac quiring 'information in the natural societal and formal instruc tional settings. Individuals may experience varying degrees of difficulty with tasks of adaptation and the way in which they resolve or fail to resolve each task may affect their motivation to continue their adaptation process. Adult education may serve a remedial function and aid the immigrant in resocialization through programs. The present format of ESL classes is well suited to deliver instruction, and investigation of sources of information utilized, but application of principles of needs assessment might further assist the immigrant learner. This study proposes that identifying tasks of adaptation can assist in the development of programs offered to adult immigrants. CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY An analytical survey was conducted from January to April 19 77 with seventy-two Israeli immigrants to Vancouver. Eleven bilingual (Hebrew and English) interviewers questioned partici pants regarding their socio-demographic characteristics, identi fication of tasks of adaptation, relative difficulty of tasks, time required to resolve them, relative importance of tasks, stages of task resolution, and sources of information used to re solve them. The procedures used in developing the instruments and collecting and analyzing the data are discussed in this chapter. Design of Instruments This section outlines the design of the instruments used in the study. It describes the development of a magnitude estimation scaling device used to measure difficulty of tasks of adaptation including selection of tasks used as items in the instrument as well as reliability testing and establishment of validity for the items. In order to identify factors affecting difficulty, a number of other instruments were used to collect data regarding socio-demographic characteristics of respondents, time of task resolu tion, relative importance of tasks of adaptation, stages of task resolution and sources of information used in resolving tasks, 19 20 and all of these comprised the interview schedule. In addition, a typology employed using a group of independent experts to assess extent of cultural innovation required by tasks of adapta tion is outlined. Descriptions of these instruments and proced ures employed in applying them follow. The Selection of Tasks of Adaptation Thirty-six tasks of adaptation were used in the study. The procedure for identifying these tasks involved four phases. The first was an exploratory phase during which discussions were held with random individuals who had lived in another country for one year or more. Among these were Canadians who had either lived abroad or who had immigrated to Canada. All were fluent in English. In addition, novels depicting the experiences of immigrants and written case histories were explored. A long list of tasks re sulted and these were grouped under more generalized task headings (Table II). During the second phase, a wide range of literature was con sulted, primarily in the field of sociology. Nowhere was the problem of adaptation described as tasks to be resolved but often the variables used implied tasks, and results were reported. All of the sources chosen were Canadian, except Borrie (1959) and Taft (1975). Anderson (1918) was one of the first Canadian books to deal with both the subjects of immigration and the education of immigrant adults, and it is the only book whose intent was to influence educational policy. The other sources were chosen to represent different views of adaptation and immigrant groups such as the views of government (Department of Manpower and Immigra-2 1 TABLE II Tasks of Adaptation as Suggested by the Literature * - Indicates identification of a task by a source (*) - Indicates that the source assumed or implied the task Tasks of Adaptation Anderson (1918) Borrie (1959) Dept. of Manpower & Imm. (1974), Elliott (1971) Goldlust & Richmond (1974) Lai (1971) Taft (197 Wolfgang (1975) Personal Case Histories 1. Find a doctor (*) *. 2. Register for mad. insurance * 3. Adjust to climate * 4. Accept change in status * * * (*) * * (*) 5. Budget for diff. ec. level (*) * (*) (*) (*) 6. Get any job for income * * (*) * (*) 7. Meet countryman (*) (*) * (*) (*) 8. Enrol children * * (*) * 9. Use different measures * 10. Get a career job * * (*) '(*) * 11. Enrol in job retraining * (*) 12. Make first Cdn. friend (*) * (*) * 13. Find place of worship * 14. Get used to Cdn. sense of humom (*) * 15. Read local newspaper (*) * * 16. Find permanent residence * * (*) (*) 17. Subscribe to ethnic press (*) * * (*) * (*) (*) 18. Find ethnic school for kids * * (*) 19. Use Vancouver buses * 20. Use postal system * 21. Open a bank account * 22. Help spouse (*) (*) 23. Gain acceptance of occ. quals. * (*) (*) * 24. Find ethnic stores (*) * * (*) (*) 25. Identify alternate products (*) (*) * 26. Speak English to get by (*) (*) * (*) (*) * * 27. Apply for Cdn. citizenship * (*) * (*) * * 28. Change type of work * * 29. Register for social insurance * 30. Get drivers' licence * 31. Change workday schedule * * 32. Speak good English * (*) * * (*) * * 33. Use Canadian money * 34. Register for car insurance * 35. Find temporary residence * (*) 36. Use community & ed. services * * (*) (*) 37. Change style of doing business * * 22 tion, 1974), Canadian sociologists (Elliott, 1971, Goldlust and Richmond, 19 74; Lai, 1975) and educators (Wolfgang, 1975). In the case of Wolfgang (1975), those historians, sociologists anthro pologists, teachers and policy-makers who contributed to the book were primarily concerned with pre-adult education but many of their remarks about problems of adaptation seemed appropriate for adult education as well. Borrie (1959), a UNESCO publication, was chosen because it represented a world view and Taft (19 76) was selected because it presented a recent discussion on the problems of adaptation from the point of view of a psychologist. Once again, the list of tasks generated by the readings were grouped under headings. During the third phase, advisors in the Department of Adult Education and English Education at the University of British Col umbia and the Department of English Language Training at the King Edward Campus of Vancouver Community College suggested two cri teria for excluding potential tasks from the list. The first cri terion excluded tasks dealing with psychological variables such as prejudice as in the task "dealing with prejudice against my ethnic group." Using the second criterion, very specific tasks such as "buying clothes" or "using the public library" were excluded as discrete task items and the difficulties inherent in them were re phrased into more comprehensive task statements such as "using a different system of weights and measures" and "using community and educational services." In addition, all tasks were restated in behavioural terms using active verbs such as "use", "find", "enrol", rather than verbs which suggested psychological variables such as "adjust to", "deal with", "cope with" and "get used to." Table II 23 lists tasks of adaptation used in the study and the major sources in which each task was stated or implied. Phase four included the preparation of sets of thirty-seven cards, one card per task, for use by a variety of individuals in testing the clarity and inclusiveness of the items. Twenty adult education graduate students were asked to imagine themselves as new arrivals in a country whose language they did not know and to sort the cards into five categories of difficulty, using a Q-sort procedure. An additional fifty adult education students were asked to imagine the same conditions and assign a difficulty score of between zero and one hundred to each task. After each application, participants were asked to write on blank cards any additional tasks that did not seem to be represented. During the reliability testing with twenty-four immigrant students at Van couver Community College, the pilot study with fourteen Israeli subjects, and the actual study, the same additions were requested. Additional tasks suggested were: 1. Bureaucratic problems with federal agencies. 2. Difficulty in making lasting friendships. 3. Separation from family. 4. Get used to hospital system. 5. Learn Canadian laws. 6. Get used to a different crime rate. 7. Learn Canadian history. 8. Learn how government works. 9. Get to know the education system. 10. Find daycare centres. 11. Get used to different food. As none of these was cited more than once, none were included as discrete tasks. However, some were included in the interview questions regarding satisfaction with life in Canada (2,3) and differences between life in Canada and life in Israel (2,8,11), 24 and others were believed to be components of tasks already on the list. (1,5,7,8,9,10) One task which was originally included in the list of tasks ("change your style of doing business") was eliminated due to problems translating the word "business" into Hebrew, so the final list contained thirty-six tasks. Magnitude Estimation of the Difficulty of Tasks of Adaptation The construct "difficulty" is a global term that refers to the magnitude of the overall problematic condition of resolving tasks of adaptation as perceived by the immigrant. It was used in this study to allow tasks to be measured by a magnitude esti mation technique. It is apparent that difficulty may be composed of many factors, some of which were suggested by the literature: socio-demographic variables (Department of Manpower and Immigra tion, 1974; Goldlust and Richmond, 1974; Heiss, 1969), extent of innovation required (Lionberger, 1960) and sources of information available and utilized (Alleyne and Verner, 1969). Others arose in the course of considering the problem: perceived importance of the task, stage of task resolution and time required to resolve each task. Rather than compile a difficulty score from scores on each factor, an overall score of difficulty was sought for each task which was correlated with scores for each factor. Magnitude estimation is one of several techniques developed by psycho-physicists in order to link the psychological experience of any judgement to the magnitude of physical stimulus producing that experience. Subject's perceptions of the ratios among changes in stimulus intensity (such as pressure and light inten-25 sity) were found to be accurate. This led experimenters to be lieve that magnitude estimation would be a useful instrument for social scientists concerned with attitude measurement. Among others, studies of the seriousness of offences of juvenile de linquents, occupational prestige and life changes have provided evidence to substantiate this belief (Stevens, 1966; Holmes and Rahi, 1967; Masuda and Holmes, 1967). Magnitude estimation was chosen for this study for two rea sons. Firstly, it preserves the actual assigned ratios between items and these ratios are generated from the respondents' per ceptions of the data, not from the instrument. Secondly, it allows items to be added by interviewees. This latter property is especially desirable in a study such as this where no list of tasks has ever been ascertained and the tasks of adaptation --identified by the author may not be complete. The following thirty-seven task items were used in develop ing the magnitude estimation. 1. Find a doctor whom you trust and are satisfied with. 2. Register for medical insurance. 3. Adjust to climate in Vancouver. 4. Accept a change in status in the community (up or down). 5. Budget for life on a different economic level. 6. Get any job for income until you get a satisfactory job. 7. Meet other of your countrymen. 8. Enrol children in school and community activities. 9. Use a different system of sizes, weights and measures. 10. Get a satisfying career-oriented job. 11. Enrol in a job retraining program. 12. Make your first Canadian friend. 13. Find a suitable place of worship. 14. Get used to a different sense of humour in Canada. 15. Read a local English-language newspaper regularly. 16. Find a permanent place to live. 17. Subscribe to an ethnic newspaper. 18. Find a suitable ethnic school for your children. 19. Use the Vancouver bus system. 20. Use the Canadian postal system. 26 21. Open a bank account. 22. Help your spouse to use community and educational services. 23. Gain acceptance of existing occupational qualifications. 24. Find ethnic stores and restaurants. 25. Identify alternate products for the household. 26. Speak enough English to get by. 27. Apply for Canadian citizenship. 28. Change type of work. 29. Register for a social insurance number. 30. Get a B.C. driver's licence. 31. Change your workday schedule. 32. Speak good English. 33. Use Canadian money. 34. Register for car insurance. 35. Find some temporary place to live when you first arrive. 36. Use available community and educational services. 37. Change your style of doing business. A few items (meet other of your countrymen, subscribe to an eth nic newspaper, find a suitable ethnic school for your children, find ethnic shops and restaurants) may appear to refer to factors which would impede adaptation, but were included for several rea sons. Upon arrival in a new country of residence, immigrants tend to seek out links to provide a sense of continuity and rootedness and accomplishing them may free the newcomers to accom plish other tasks of adaptation. In addition, those ties to the ethnic community provide much of the information needed to accom plish the tasks. Failure to accomplish the linking tasks seems to impede the accomplishment of other tasks of adaptation. Be cause no empirical evidence was found to contradict or support this view, these tasks were included as items. Reliability of Magnitude Estimation Items The thirty-seven items were subjected to tests of reliabil ity with twenty-four immigrants from a variety of countries in two advanced classes in English Language Training at King Edward Campus, Vancouver Community College. 27 The respondents were asked to examine the items and, when necessary, words were translated or explained. Each item appeared on a separate card and one item, chosen randomly by each subject, was assigned an arbitrary standard difficulty value of 100. Each subject then compared the remaining items against this standard item and assigned values to them. The same procedure was followed on test and retest occasions. While explanations were given and the subjects were judged by their instructors to be competent enough to use the instrument, it is possible a lot of confusion could have arisen as to the meaning of a word or phrase. Three measures of reliability were used to examine the ex tent to which each of the thirty-seven items measured the con struct "difficulty" and whether any of those items were unreliable measures of the construct. The three procedures used for estimat ing reliability were mean predictivity, highest simple correlation with any other item, and test-retest. Mean predictivity is the mean correlation of one item with all other items and represents a generalized reliability estimate in that it estimates the degree to which the other thirty-six items predict the one item's diffi culty. Highest simple correlation (Highest r) is a lower-bound estimate of the item's own reliability and test-retest reliability examines item stability over time. Mean predictivity firmly supports the retention of nineteen of the thirty-seven items and, in some cases, augments low test-retest reliability in that a mean predictivity score of between .3 and .5 suggests that the individuals rather than the items have changed over time. A further nine items are firmly supported by 28 test-retest correlations significant at the .05 level or better and the remaining nine items are supported by acceptable highest correlations with another item. (Table III) One item "change your style of doing business" was excluded, not because of reliability measures but rather because there appeared to be semantic confusion in the translation of the word "business" due to its wide and varied use in Hebrew, both formal ly and as slang. Validity of Magnitude Estimation Items Four types of validity were examined for the magnitude est imation items; face, predictive, convergent and criterion group validity. Face validity was judged to be present in that items were selected from literature and personal interviews because they appeared to pose difficulty to immigrants. Predictive validity was illustrated in two ways. In the first place, it is suggested by the correlation between diffi culty scores and scores for extent of cultural innovation. (r=.37 p=.02) It appears logical that degree of difficulty and cultural innovation would be predictive of each other in that a more extensive cultural change would pose a greater degree of difficulty to the immigrant. In the second place, stepwise re gression yielded socio-demographic variables accounting for the variance in difficulty expressed by respondents on a task-by-task basis for seventeen of the thirty-six tasks. It appears, there fore, that difficulty and specific socio-demographic variables, depending on the task in question, tended to be predictive of each other. 29 TABLE III Correlation Co-efficients of Three Tests of Reliability for Magnitude Estimation Task Items Item Names Mean Highest r Test-Retest Predictivity r 15. Local Newspaper .4223 * -.7829 * .8890 * 23. Occupational Qualifications .3786 * -.6555 * .7557 * 7. Meet Countrymen .3307 * .6711 * .7264 * 9. Different Measures .4104 * -.7231 * .6704 * 36. Ctoniminity & Ed. Services .2247 -.4347 * .6564 * 27. Canadian Citizenship .3814 * .3817 * .6457 * 10. Career Job .3740 * .7003 * .5916 * 32. Good English .4079 * .7035 * .5874 * 8. Enrol Kids .4097 * .6612 * .5860 * 11. Job Retraining .4385 * -.7799 * .5830 * 33. Canadian Money .0370 -.5269 * .5793 * 17. Ethnic Newspaper .3270 -.6600 * .5676 * 12. Canadian Friend .2752 -.5666 * .5258 * 16. Personal Residence .3334 .5412 * .5101 * 20. Postal System .4085 * .7334 * .5008 * 31. Workday Schedule .3801 * -.7448 * .4939 * 26. Getby English .2871 .5736 * .4800 * 14. Canadian Sense of Humour .3344 -.6476 * .4561 * 13. Place of Worship .2604 .4769 * .4460 * 2. Medical Insurance .3683 * .6623 * .4417 * 34. Car Insurance .4629 * .8539 * .4386 * 35. Temporary Residence .2233 -.4903 * .4301 * 30. Driver's Licence .4409 * .8539 * .4901 * 22. Help Spouse .3546 * -.6333 * .4072 * 1. Find a Doctor .4045 * -.7829 * .3026 24. Ethnic Shcps .2910 .6711 * .2677 18. Ethnic School for Kids .3236 .6612 * .2489 6. Any Job for Income .4114 * -.7050 * .1859 21. Bank .2848 .6042 * .1844 3. Climate .3739 * -.6875 * .1384 29. Social Insurance .4838 * .7930 * .1329 25. Alternate Products .3321 -.6557 * .1249 5. Budget .2312 -.4950 * .1051 4. Status .2666 -.5371 * .0984 19. Vancouver Bus .2453 -.4977 * .0860 28. Change Work .3316 -.5628 * .0501 37. Change Style of Business .3418 -.6010 * .0081 * Correlations significant at the .05 level. 30 Convergent validity was shown in the agreement between two or more attempts to measure the same trait. On the face of it, this appears to refer only to agreement between separate instru ments measuring the same trait. However, by using a common fac tor approach, the mean predictivity scores, calculated by averag ing correlations between each item and the other thirty-seven items, may be used to show convergent validity. In this case, the trait being measured is difficulty and the mean predictivity scores (Table III) are thirty-six separate and independent mea sures of it. As the criterion for assessment was difficulty and subjects were able to assess each item, the mean predictivity scores indicate varying degrees of each item's ability to mea sure difficulty. Some of the items such as registering for social insurance (r=.48) and getting a driver's licence (r=.44) measure that trait better than others such as using Canadian money (r=.04) or using community and educational services (r=.22). In that each item appears to operationalize difficulty to a grea ter or lesser degree and all the items received scores, they are all measuring the same trait, difficulty, and may be said to con verge on that trait. In this way, convergent validity operates to support the overall validity of the instrument. Criterion group validity is evidenced by the appearance of differences in scores between groups which are known to be differ ent. The difficulty scores of twenty-eight advanced English Language Training students from a variety of countries were com pared to the scores of the seventy-two Israeli respondents and a number of differences appeared in the rank ordering of items, in 31 that the first group was composed of individuals from many ethnic backgrounds, no cultural interpretation of the differences between the groups could be applied. The expected differences arose from the fact that members of the mixed group were all students who had enrolled in an advanced level English course and those in the Israeli group had not. In that the mixed group were students in an advanced class, one may assume that they were there not to learn enought English to get by, but rather to upgrade their English to a level commensurate with their occupational aspira tions. Therefore, it was to be expected that employment-oriented tasks would, in general, be among those perceived as most diffi cult by the mixed group and this occurred. It was also to be ex pected that finding a career-oriented job would be one of the most difficult tasks for a group of Israelis representing a spectrum of socio-demographic characteristics. In addition, as they repre sented a variety of fluency levels in English compared with the advanced ELT group, speaking good English would also be perceived as a difficult task and this occurred. Some of the other tasks perceived as most difficult by the Israeli group were also to be expected. Israelis experience an extreme difference in climate in coming to Canada, often comment on the problems of understand ing the Canadian sense of humour, and, while accustomed to metric measures, arrived before metric conversion in Canada. The mixed group experienced much greater difficulty with using Canadian money than the Israeli group and the Israelis indicated greater difficulty with budgeting for life on a different economic level. It is possible that the first group understood the task, "use Canadian money", in its wider sense of financial matters in general in which case both groups placed financial concerns among their most difficult tasks, and this was to be expected (Table IV). These two groups, then, were known to be different and their scores using the magnitude estimation instrument reflected anti cipated differences so that criterion group validity was demon strated. Factors Affecting Difficulty Six types of factors were expected to influence difficulty scores, and the development of instruments to collect data per taining to each type is described below. Socio-Demographic Variables A large number of socio-demographic variables were examined in this study but the three which were considered with greatest attention were level of education, number of countries lived in for six months or more, and size of primary group on arrival. The first, level of education, was referred to by Taft (1975) and Goldlust and Richmond (19 74) stated that their results indi cated education was the most important single determinant of acculturation. In addition, they claimed that the better educa ted the immigrants, the less likely they were to be involved with close kin, the more satisfied they were with life in Canada, and the stronger was their commitment to permanent residence and citizenship. 33 TABLE IV Geometric Mean Difficulty Scores on Tasks of Adaptation for an Israeli and a Mixed Group Difficulty Scores (geometric means) Task Items Israelis Mixed Group 10. Career Job 210.3 237.2 32. Good English 149.7 117.0 9. Different Measures 135.5 58.2 15. Local News 134.2 129.6 14. Canadian Sense of Humour 131.9 100.1 16. Permanent Residence 129.2 85.4 5. Budget 122.7 89.8 23. Occupational Qualifications 119.9 81.6 3. Climate 114.0 92.5 4. Status 103.5 117.8 6. Get Any Job for Income 89.3 146.3 11. Job Retraining 79.0 198.4 25. Alternate Products 78.7 33.6 36. Ctnmunity & Educational Services 71.6 72.2 27. Canadian Citizenship 69.3 209.6 30. Driver's Licence 67.6 40.6 19. Vancouver Bus 66.8 61.4 28. Change Work 66.4 129.9 12. Canadian Friend 65.9 67.6 31. Workday Schedule 64.6 71.6 24. Ethnic Shops 64.6 241.4 2. Medical Insurance 48.6 32.0 22. Help Spouse 46.2 33.7 1. Find a Doctor 45.4 61.4 35. Temporary Residence 41.3 60.4 26. Getby English 40.2 108.5 8. Enrol Kids 38.1 56.5 7. Meet Countrymen 35.5 42.5 34. Car Insurance 32.8 22.1 21. Bank 32.6 47.4 13. Place of Worship 32.6 175.6 20. Postal System 31.1 52.3 29. Social Insurance 29.8 196.8 18. Ethnic School for Kids 27.3 43.8 33. Canadian Money 24.4 227.5 17. Ethnic News 23.9 158.2 The second socio-demographic variable was suggested by Heiss' (1969) hypothesis that the association between pre-migra-tion traits and assimilation was due to the association between pre-migration traits and the ability to learn a new culture (p. 427). Taft (1975) appeared to concur that culture learning is an important variable in investigating adaptation as did Eisenstadt (195 4) who referred to adaptation as resocialization. The number of countries individuals had lived in for six months or more was the variable chosen to inquire into culture-learning experience in this study as it was taken to indicate the frequency with which resocialization had occurred. The third socio-demographic variable, size of primary group on arrival, was chosen to examine the extent of personal sources of information available to immigrants upon arrival in Vancouver and their dependence on ethnic group and societal institutions at that time. The more complete the institutional networks of their own ethnic group, the less likely they are to turn to institutions and sources of other ethnic groups or the host society in seeking the resolution of tasks (Breton, 1968). The questionnaire portion of the interview was designed to collect other socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects as well as the three noted above. Questions were asked regarding sex, age, marital status, place of birth, occupation, first lang uage, spouse's birth place and first language, citizenship status, English fluency, number of languages spoken, number of previous occupations, education, length of residence in Vancouver, fre quency of use of ethnic community facilities, number of adult relatives and friends on arrival, and satisfaction with life in Canada (See Appendix I). Those data permitted a more complete description of the sample and the testing of additional variables to determine factors influencing difficulty. Interviewers were instructed to allow the interviewees to see the questionnaires, but to ask the questions orally and write in the responses rather than allowing interviewees to fill them out. They were encouraged to press for detailed specific infor mation, especially with regard to employment and education. Extent of Cultural Innovation The importance of the extent of cultural innovation required by each task was suggested by Lionberger's four types of innova tion (1960). His typology indicated that innovations have differ ent degrees of complexity and it has been used by rural sociolo gists to examine why some innovations are adopted with more or less difficulty than others. Parallels may be drawn between the adoption of a new farming practice, which requires learning and accomplishment of the new practice on the part of the adopter, and the resolution of the task of adaptation. Because of this similarity, a typology based on extent of cultural innovation re quired by a task was employed, and four types of tasks were de scribed in the following manner. Type 1 This task represents a change in materials and equipment only, without a change in techniques or operations. An example of this would be a change from an aluminum fry ing pan to a cast-iron one for cooking. 36 Type 2 This task represents a change in existing operations with or without a change in materials or equipment. An exam ple of this would be a change from Canadian to Chinese style cooking procedures with or without a change from a frying pan to a wok. Type 3 This task represents a change involving new techniques or operations, for example, a factory worker changing his job on the assembly line. This type of change involved no threat to the individual's socio-economic status and no conflict with his cultural values. Type 4 This task represents a change in the total experience. An example of this would be the case of a Moslem, Jew or Christian being required to work on his holy day (Friday, Saturday, Sunday). This type of change could involve a threat to the individual's socio-economic status or a conflict with his cultural values. This typology was used to tabulate extent of innovation scores for the thirty-six tasks of adaptation used in the study. A mixed group of experts was asked to assign a number from 1 to 4 (corresponding to the typology) to each of the tasks. Some of the experts were contacted by mail, including adult education doc toral students who cited Lionberger in their thesis bibliographies, administrators of English Language Training programs, and pro fessors of English as a Second Language. Others were fifty ad vanced ELT students from a variety of countries contacted person ally at King Edward Campus, Vancouver Community College. Teachers assisted them with translation and procedural problems in assign-37 ing scores to the tasks. Mean scores were tabulated for each task and those scores were used as an independent measure of extent of cultural innovation required by tasks of adaptation used in the study. Time of Task Resolution In some cases, the amount of time required to resolve a task of adaptation could conceivably account for its perceived difficulty. Tasks which were resolved a long time after arrival could have been perceived as more difficult simply because a long period of time had elapsed and tasks that were resolved soon after arrival could have been perceived as less difficult simply because they were resolved in less time. Two points in time, corresponding to first awareness of the task and task resolution, were considered in the study and their relationship to difficulty was examined. On the back of each task item card, the following time line appeaj:|Bdt j | [l|. r^prejsenjted tdm^> 'befjorje janjd jsincjs ' th^ ' imtnigrant' s BEFORE WK • MO MO MO YR YR YR YR YR MORE ARRIVAL 1 1 3 6 1 2 3 4 5 THAN * 5 YRS arrival in Vancouver and served as a vehicle for displaying the answers to the two questions: 1) At what point in time did you first think of having to do this task? 2) At what point in time did you resolve this task? If the task had not yet been resolved, interviewees were asked when they expected to resolve it. Interviewers recorded responses 38 to the questions by marking two dots precisely on the time line and the numbers 1 and 2. Perceived Importance of Tasks Although no literature mentions this, it is conceivable that a task of adaptation may or may not be difficult simply because of its importance to the individual. For example, unmarried immigrants may attach no importance to finding a suitable ethnic school for children, simply because it is not relevant. Such a perception would affect the difficulty scores they assign to that item. Each of the thirty-six task items appears on a separate ' card. After completing the magnitude estimation, subjects were asked to arrange all thirty-six cards according to the order of their importance the first time they were faced with the tasks. Interviewers recorded the order using number one for the most important item and thirty-six for the least important one. Stage of Task Resolution Whether or not a task of adaptation has been attempted or resolved by an immigrant might affect the difficulty score the item receives. For instance, if a task had not yet been attempted or is not applicable, the individuals could have a much different perception of its difficulty than if they had resolved it or tried to and failed. In addition, some tasks could, by their nature, be more or less resolvable than others which might affect their difficulty scores. 39 Subjects were asked to sort all thirty-six task items into five piles according to the following classification. 1. Not applicable to me. 2. I haven't tried this yet. 3. I tried this but couldn't resolve it. 4. I'm doing this now. 5. I've resolved this. Interviewers marked each pile with a different color to facilitate coding. Sources of Information An individual may utilize a great variety of sources in his search for the particular information he requires. Some of those sources are within his personal or community network and others are more distant from his personal sphere. The following system modified from Alleyne and Verner (1969) was employed to classify the sources of information used by immigrants in resolving the tasks of adaptation. 1. Personal sources are those which involve face-to-face communi cation between the communicator and the receiver where the receiver may question the communicator. These sources gener ally lie within the individual's personal orbit; that is, his own observations and experiences or contact with a friend, relative, or acquaintance. 2. Mass sources are those through which information is available to any and every one at the same time with no provision for two-way communication. 3. Individual instruction is an educational activity conducted on a one-to-one basis. 4. Instructional group is an educational activity in which infor-mation is presented to a number of individuals simultaneously with an opportunity for two-way communication. The first two refer to sources of information available in the natural societal setting while the last two are in the formal instructional setting. Using this classification system and Alleyne and Verner's (1969) list of sources as a guideline, the following list of in formation sources was developed for interviewees to use as a ref erence when answering the question: What sources of information did you use to help you resolve this task? The actual reference list that was given to interviewees did not indicate categories of sources. / Personal Sources Friend Relative Neighbour Spouse Child Fellow Employee Mass Sources Radio Newspaper (eg. Sun, Jewish Western Bulletin) Television Brochures (eg. from Manpower) Government Pamphlets Books (including dictionary) Individual Instruction Doctor Teacher or principal at child's school College Counsellor Immigrant Reception Centre Counsellor Employer Jewish Information Centre x Manpower Counsellor Jewish Family Service Agency Counsellor 41 Immigration Counsellor Other (eg. Shopkeeper, B.C. Hydro • Bus Information, MSA, Bank Manager, Insurance Agent) Instructional Group Community College Night School at a high school University Meeting of a Jewish organization (eg. Hadassah, ORT, Synagogue, Men's Club) Interviewers were asked to encourage the interviewees to describe how each task was resolved and each information source was re corded as it was mentioned. Population and Sample Design Identifying the population and selecting a random sample for the study were complicated by two factors. The first was the safety Of the population. Both Employment and Immigration Canada and the Israeli community are reluctant to provide information about Israeli citizens. Employment and Immigration Canada do not generally allow investigation of their records, particularly in the case of Israelis who are under high security because of the numerous letter bombs sent to Israelis living abroad. The only list of countrymen ever compiled by the Israeli community was completed in 19 73 at the outbreak of the October War. As it con tained information regarding military duties, the list was de stroyed when it was no longer needed and more permanent arrange ments for locating servicemen were made subsequently through the Israeli embassy in Toronto. Consequently, the Israeli community has no official list of its membership and would prefer that no such list be compiled. The second factor influencing the sampling procedures is a prevailing negative attitude among both Jews and Israelis toward emigration from Israel. Two indications of this are the lack of studies of Israeli immigrants (see Appendix II) and the repeated statements, even by Israelis who hold Canadian citizenship and have lived in Vancouver for twenty-five years, that they are re turning to Israel at the earliest possible moment. It is the author's experience that Israelis tend to protect each other from any inquiries about themselves, their reasons for emigrating, or suggestions that they are intending to remain permanently in any country other than Israel. Why then was this population chosen for study? The strong est reason is that the most reliable information is gathered when the interviewee has the option of responding in his native tongue. The author and the interviewers were fluent in both Hebrew and English and the conceptualization and design of the study, as well as the analysis of the data, benefitted from the author's familiarity with the native culture. In addition, the interviewers already enjoyed a degree of acceptance by the popu lation which may have contributed to eliminating suspicion re garding the study and to increasing the reliability of the data (Greenberg, 1971). Because of the various positive and negative factors affec ting the identification of the population, personal contacts seemed to be the only way to compile a list from which to choose a sample. A variety of schools, institutions, organizations and individuals were approached and asked ior lists of names, addresses and phone numbers of people known to be of Israeli ori-gin. Key contact people in the Israeli community were identified and asked to add to the list. One hundred and forty-five Israeli immigrants were identified, but there was no indication of what percentage of the entire population this represented. Therefore, it appeared necessary to approach the entire "snowball" sample (Greenberg, 1971) for the study. No additional names were collected once the interviewing had begun. Fourteen subjects, chosen randomly, were interviewed during the pilot study and the remaining subjects were approached during the data collection. Seventy-two individuals agreed to be inter viewed for the study. The Pilot Study The purpose of the pilot study was to test the instruments and the methods by which they would be administered for the data collection. It was conducted in August, 1976 by four bilingual (Hebrew and English) interviewers, including the author. Thirty individuals were selected randomly from a list of 145 and four teen of them consented to be interviewed. Interviewer objectivity was tested by comparing the results of interviews conducted by each interviewer with the same Israeli subject. The only differences which appeared were on the inter views conducted by the author and, on the basis of time con straints and her lesser degree of fluency in Hebrew, it was de cided that the author should not conduct any of the interviews during the data collection. 44 A number of modifications were made to the instruments and method of administration as a result of the pilot study. First, modifications were made to the questionnaire: explanations were added to scale items which previously had only numbers, and ques tions were added to clarify the nature of the primary group of the interviewee upon arrival in Vancouver. Second, one task of adaptation (change your style of doing business) was eliminated due to the problem of translating the word, business, into Hebrew. Third, with regard to the time line and sources of information questions, ten task items were chosen on a rotational basis to be administered to each subject for this portion of the interview instead of questioning each subject for all thirty-six task items. This reduced the interview time from two and a half to one and a half hours. Fourth, modifications and clarifications were made to the method of administering the interview as shown in Appendix III. Data Collection The interviews were conducted by ten interviewers who were fluent in both Hebrew and English. Eight were of Israeli origin and two were Canadian-born. Interviewers were trained in four two-hour meetings in January, 1977. During the first and second meetings, the instru ments and method of administration were tried and discussed. During the third meeting, interviewers interviewed each other and discussed problems that arose. The fourth meeting consisted of role playing initial telephone calls to subjects, requesting an interview. Interviewers then made arrangements to meet on a one-to-one basis in their homes to conduct the interviews with each other. Finally, interviewers were tested for objectivity in a mock interview situation. An actor-respondent with a standard script was interviewed separately by each of the inter viewers. Their interview results were compared and no notable differences appeared. Analysis of the Data The statistics reported included univariate frequency dis tributions, means, bivariate frequency distributions, and corre lation coefficients. As the data included nominal, ordinal and interval variables, the correlation coefficient in any particular case was obtained with the appropriate method for the type of data: 1) for interval-interval variables, Pearson's product moment coefficient, r; 2) for interval-nominal variables, corre lation ratio R; 3) for interval-ordinal variables, Jaspen's co efficient of multiserial correlation, M; 4) for nominal-nominal variables, Guttman's symmetric coefficient of predictability, ; 5) for nominal-ordinal variables, Freeman's coefficient of deter mination ; 6) and for ordinal-ordinal variables, Goodman's and Kruskal's coefficient of rank association, G. (CORN Manual, UBC Computing Centre) Task difficulty scores were derived from computing geomet ric means, and regression analyses utilized difficulty scores as the dependent variables and ten socio-demographic measures as the independent variables. CHAPTER IV RESULTS This chapter discusses the characteristics of the sample, reports difficulty of tasks, and explores relationships between socio-demographic characteristics and difficulty. In addition, data are analyzed with a view to examining relationships between difficulty and each of the following factors: extent of cultural innovation required, length of resolution time required, impor tance to the immigrant when the task is first encountered, and stage of task resolution. Finally, the relationship between use of adult education sources of information and difficulty is examined. Characteristics of the Respondents More women than men were represented among the seventy-two persons interviewed during the study. Ages ranged from twenty-three to fifty-nine and more than two-thirds of those interviewed were married upon arrival in Canada. Since arrival, eleven of the twenty-one single respondents had married and five of the married respondents had divorced. About the same percentage of men were married on arrival (25%) as were single (19.4%) while approximately four times as many women were married on arrival (44.4%) as were single (9.7%). Considering that married people 46 47 in general reported less English spoken at home than single ones, that married women reported low levels of English comprehension and fluency on arrival, that married women were the only indi viduals reporting no job experience and that they also reported more adult relatives on arrival in Vancouver than any of the other respondents, it may be surmised that married Israeli women experience a somewhat insulated community life, having little contact with Canadian society. However, many of their relatives and community contacts are Canadian Jews, rather than Israelis, so their lives may actually be less insulated than those of women of other ethnic groups. The majority of respondents (57%) were born in Israel. As Israel is a relatively new state with one of the highest percen tages of immigration in the world, it is to be expected that many Israelis were actually born in other places. Twenty per cent of the respondents were born in Eastern Europe or Russia and the remaining 23% were born in a variety of other countries: North Africa, Western Europe, Asia, and North and South America. Sixty-seven percent stated that their first language was Hebrew, three respondents (4.2%) gave English as their first language, and twenty-one (29.2%) replied that their first language had been one other than Hebrew or English. Almost one-quarter of the re spondents stated that their spouse's first language was English. These respondents may have been assisted greatly in their adap tation by their spouses' ability to communicate and comprehend systems and inferences here in Canada. 48 The majority of interviewees had completed high school (80.3%). In addition, more than fifty percent had completed one to four years of university and twenty percent had engaged in more than five years of university training. Twenty-three indi viduals of the seventy-two respondents (31.9%) reported vocation al or technical training. These figures compare favourably with those reported by the Department of Manpower and Immigration (1974). In that study which excluded married women, 339 indi viduals (16.6%)in a multi-ethnic sample registered twelve to thirteen years of schooling and 213 individuals (10.5%) reported sixteen or seventeen years of schooling. ResDondents' education level also compares favourably with the study of ethnic popula tions in Toronto by Goldlust and Richmond (1974) which reported nineteen percent of their sample completing twelve or thirteen years of education and eighteen percent completing sixteen years. In view of these results, Israeli immigrants in this study were a comparatively well-educated group. While all of the single women had completed high school, only fifty percent of the single men had done so. In addition, single men had the highest percentage of vocational and technical training (57.1%) and the lowest percentage of one to four years of university (42.9%). Married men, however, indicated the high est percentage of one to four years university (66.7%) and, of these, fifty percent had completed five or more years of uni versity. No single females had completed five or more years of university. 49 Single men who ranged between twenty-five and thirty-three years of age reported two to five occupations during their work ing lives. Others in the sample indicated greater occupational stability, reporting one to three occupations. Among the married women were the only individuals reporting no job experience, but "housewife" was not recorded as an occupation. Most respondents (86.9%) spoke only English at work but just eleven (15.5%) spoke only English at home. Thirty-two respon dents (45%) spoke a mixture of English and Hebrew in their homes and about forty percent spoke mainly Hebrew.at home. The lar gest number of married individuals (73.5%) reported speaking English at home half the time or less and the largest number of single people (6 8.4%) reported speaking it there most or all of the time. Of the sample, thirty-seven individuals (51.3%) re ported that they could speak little English or none on arrival. Thirty-four individuals (47.1%) reported that they could under stand everything and speak with varying degrees of fluency. Comparison of fluency levels with the 1974 study by the Depart ment of Manpower and Immigration is limited because their figures represented only men and single women in the labour force. That study reported sixty-nine percent of the men and eighty-two per cent of the women indicating good or perfect knowledge of English after six months in Canada. Of the thirty-four Israelis in this study reporting some level of fluency on arrival, twenty-seven 50 (79%) were married. Thirty-two percent of the single men and forty-six percent of the married women reported low levels of comprehension and fluency on arrival. While individuals who had been in Vancouver up to fifteen years were approached for the study, the majority of respondents had lived here for ten years or less. All the individuals in the sample had lived in at least two countries, Canada and Israel, for six months or more and no one reported more than four coun tries of residence. Fifty-seven persons (80.3%) stated that they attended one of the local synagogues about once a year, six (8.4%) attended regu larly on a weekly or monthly basis and eight never attended. About half of the participants in the study (49.3%) never read the local weekly ethnic newspaper, The Jewish Western Bulletin. Of those who did, sixteen (22.5%) read it on a weekly basis. Fifty-seven (89.2%) persons attended the Jewish Community Centre, few with regularity. Fifty respondents (70.4%) replied that their degree of sat isfaction with life in Canada met their previous expectations or was better than they had expected. Single women were less satis fied, on the whole, than they had expected to be. Married men responded favourably but without high degrees of satisfaction while married women and single women expressed a wide range of feelings about satisfaction with their lives. 51 TABLE V Summary of Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Seventy-Two Respondents Characteristics Number % Sex: Male 32 • 44.4 Female 40 55.6 Marital Status on Arrival: Married 50 69.4 Single 21 29.2 Place of Birth: Israel 41 56.9 Eastern Europe/Russia 15 20.8 Western Europe 5 6.8 North Africa 4 5.5 Asia/Iraq 4 5.5 North America 2 2.7 South America 1 1.3 First Language: Hebrew 48 67.0 English 3 4.2 Other 21 29.2 Spouse's First Language English 17 23.6 Education: (respondents marked all applicable categories) High School Completion 57 80.3 Vocational/Technical Training 23 31.9 1-4 Years University 39 54.2 5 or more Years University 15 20.8 Language Spoken: Only English at Work 63 86.9 Only English at Home 11 15.5 Hebrew and English at Home 32 45.0 Only Hebrew at Home 27 40.0 Synagogue Attendance: Yearly 57 80.3 Monthly/Weekly 6 8.4 Never 8 11.3 Read Weekly Ethnic Newspaper: Weekly 16 22.5 Never 36 49.3 52 TABLE VI Difficulty Scores of Thirty-Six Task Items Task Items Difficulty Scores (Geometric Means) 10. Career Job 210.3 32. Good English 149.7 9. Different Measures 135.5 15. Read Local News 134.2 14. Canadian Sense of Humour 131.9 16. Permanent Residence 129.5. Budget 122.7 23. Occupational Qualifications 119.9 3. Climate 114.0 4. Status 103.5 6. Get Any Job for Income 89.3 11. Job Retraining 79.25. Alternate Household Products 78.7 36. Ctntnunity and Educational Services 71.6 27. Canadian Citizenship 69.3 30. Driver's Licence 67.19. Vancouver Bus System 66.8 28. Change Type of Work 4 12. Canadian Friend 65.9 31. Change Work Schedule 64.6 24. Find Ethnic Shops2. Medical Insurance 48.22. Help Spouse 46.2 1. Find a Doctor 45.4 35. Temporary Residence 41.3 26. Getby English 40.8. Enrol Kids 38.1 7. Meet Comtrymen 35.5 34. Car Insurance 32.8 21. Bank 32.6 13. Worship20. Postal System 31.1 29. Social Insurance 29.8 18. Ethnic School 27.3 33. Canadian Money 24.4 17. Ethnic News 23.9 53 Difficulty of Tasks of Adaptation Magnitude estimation scaling of thirty-six tasks by seventy-two respondents resulted in each task being assigned a value that corresponded to the geometric mean of all scores for that item. Geometric means were employed according to Stevens' (1966) sugges tion. The most difficult task identified by respondents was getting a satisfying, career-oriented job. This item's difficulty score was 210.3, approximately ten times more difficult than the easiest task item, subscribing to an ethnic newspaper. Finding a career-oriented job was als.o substantially more difficult than the second most difficult task, speaking good English, which re ceived a score of 149.7. The score for this second most difficult task, using a different system of sizes, weights, and measures, and the remaining seven of the ten most difficult tasks were with in a range of thirty points (Table VI). That these ten tasks pose the most difficulty for immigrants is supported by the data from the Canada Manpower and Immigration report on a three-year survey of economic and social adaptation of 2,037 immigrants to Canada from a variety of countries (Depart ment of Manpower and Immigration, 19 74) . That study reported 1) that the availability of jobs, type of work and earnings were a major pre-occupation of immigrants; 2) that after three years in this country almost one-third of the sample had not achieved their occupational goals; 3) that 54 twenty percent of the individuals in the sample said they were prevented from entering their intended occupational field because professional and trade associations or Canadian employers did not recognize or accept their qualifications; 4) that language was a barrier to intended occupation for sixteen percent; 5) that eco nomic level had increased rapidly while, at the same time, a sub stantial percentage of the sample had remained below poverty level; and 6) that thirty-one percent of the sample believed that their social position had improved while twenty percent felt that it was lower than in their former country. These points, taken from among the results of that study, support the choice by re spondents of tasks relating to occupation, language, status and budget as being the most difficult ones. It was of interest that using a different system of sizes, weights and measures and ad justing to the climate in Vancouver were also perceived by Israelis as being among the most difficult tasks. The Relationship Between Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Difficulty The research question addressed here is to what extent socio-demographic variables may be predictors of the difficulty individuals experience in resolving tasks of adaptation. Step-f wise regression analysis was conducted utilizing ten ordinal variables: years of education, number of countries lived in for six months of more, number of adult relatives on arrival, number of Israeli friends on arrival, number of Canadian friends on arri-55 val, age, occupational level, number of languages spoken and pre sent level of English. Of these, the relationships of the first five to difficulty were of particular interest for reasons out lined previously (Chapter II). In cases where the regression coefficients yielded limited or no significant results, correla tion coefficients were also examined and both are reported here for each variable. The analysis yielded no significant variables for a total of nineteen of the thirty-six tasks (Table VII). Years of education appeared to have predictability for five tasks: speaking good English, using a different system of weights and measures, reading a local English-language newspaper, apply ing for Canadian citizenship and using Canadian money. The first three were among the most difficult tasks and two of them related to using English.• In each case, the task was perceived to be easier as years of education increased and, in the case of apply ing for Canadian citizenship, the task was further simplified as the number of languages respondents spoke increased (Table VIII). More education would appear to ease the most difficult tasks, especially those related to learning English. Correlations indicated a significant positive relationship between years of education and the difficulty of tasks associated with family life, ethnic group associations, budgeting and adjust ing to climate. This finding with regard to family life and eth nic group associations would appear to be substantiated by Goldlust and Richmond's finding (19 74) that the better educated the immigrants, the less likely they were to be involved with 56 TABLE VII Summary of Regression Analyses of Ten Socio-Demographic Variables and their Relation to Difficulty Scores Tasks Variables in Regression Equation Normalized Regression Coefficient Signif. Level Percentage of variance (r2) Career none Good English Yrs. of Ed. -.40 .00 .16 Different Measures Yrs. of Ed. -.24 .04 .06 Local News Yrs. of Ed. -.35 .00 .12 Humour none Permanent Residence none Budget Age .31 .00 .10 Occupational Quals. none Climate Age # of countries .28 -.38 .01 .00 .22 Status # Adult Rels. -.34 .00 .11 Find Any Job none Job Retraining # of Languages -.26 .02 .07 Alternate Products none (Zonraunity & Ed. Serv. Occ. level # of countries -.37 -.30 .00 .01 .22 Canadian Citizenship # of Languages Yrs. of Ed. -.26 -.26 .02 .02 .13 Driver's Licence none Vancouver Buses none Change Work none Canadian Friend none Work Schedule none Ethnic Shops Occ. level # Adult Rels. -.31 -.32 .00 .00 .19 Medical Insurance none Help Spouse # Adult Rels. -.35 .00 .13 Doctor # of Occs. .28 .01 .08 Temporary Residence . none Getby English none Enrol Kids # Israeli Friends .24 .04 .06 Meet Crjuntxymen none Car Insurance # Adult Rels. -.27 .02 .07 Bank none Worship none Postal Age .27 .02 .07 Social Insurance none Ethnic School none Canadian Money Yrs. of Ed. -.27 .02 .08 Ethnic News # of Languages # Adult Rels. . -.32 -.29 .00 .01 .18 57 close kin. As years of education increased, so did respondents' perception of the difficulty of helping their spouse, enrolling children in public and ethnic schools, subscribing to an ethnic newspaper, finding ethnic shops and restaurants, budgeting for life on a different economic level and adjusting to the climate in Vancouver. It is interesting to note that with tasks related to ethnic group associations, perception of difficulty was re duced as number of Israeli friends on arrival increased (Table VIII). Regardless of educational level, newcomers appear to have been assisted by the presence of Israeli friends who presumably had resolved some of the initial tasks of adaptation. Number of countries lived in for six months or more showed predictability for adjusting to climate and using community and educational services. Those who had lived in more countries ex pressed less difficulty in adjusting to the climate. However, as respondents' ages increased, this task seemed to become more difficult. Respondents with higher occupational levels expressed less difficulty than others in using available community and edu cational services and the difficulty of this task was further re duced for those who had lived in a greater number of countries (Table VII). Correlation coefficients further indicated that those with experience of living in different countries perceived less difficulty with two tasks which are required immediately upon arrival in a hew country: speaking enough English to get by and finding a temporary residence (Table VIII). 58 TABLE VIII Correlation Co-efficients of Difficulty Scores and Particular Socio-Demographic Variables of Thirty-Six Tasks of ** * Adaptation Values significant at the .05 Values sianificant at the .01 level level Tasks Years of (in order of difficulty) Education # Countries for 6 months + # Adult Relatives # Israeli Friends # Canadian Friends Occupational Level # Languages English at Present 1. Career -.0552 .0569 .0779 .0909 .0608 .2609** -.0913 .3150 2. Good English -.0842 -.2010 -.0645 -.0810 -.0188 -.1919 .0259 .4791* 3. Different Measures .1751 -.2056 -.1151 .0438 .1430 -.1764 .1036 .3522 4. Local News .0681 -.1870 .0917 -.0562 -.0641 -.0348 -.0255 .3411 5. Humour -.0652 -.1410 -.0097 -.0210 -.0364 -.0843 -.0046 .2571 6. Permanent Residence .1524 -.1198 .0490 -.0000 .0204 .0301 -.1604 .1554 7. Budget .2263* -.1442 -.1003 -.0078 .1333 -.0737 -.0446 .1530 8. Occupational Qualifications .0706 .0989 .0203 -.2047 -.1738 .0865 -.0735 .3141 9. Climate .3066* -.0905 -.0453 .1952 .0203 -.0550 -.1003 .1959 10. Status .0229 -.0913 .0193 -.3394* -.0596 -.0610 .1411 .2813 11. Find Any Jcb .0194 -.1277 -.1385 .1477 .1538 .0815 -.0649 .1702 12. Job Retraining .0505 .0764 .0199 .1445 .1237 .0725 -.2501** .3193 13. Alternate Products .1452 .0566 .0012 .0444 .1465 -.1249 .0289 .2175 14. Comm. S Educ. Serv. .1989 -.1211 .0589 .1195 -.0029 -.1493 -.1050 .4152* 15. Canadian Citizenship .0588 -.0167 .1609 .1212 .2250** -.0063 -.2574** .3716** 16. Driver's Licence -.1034 -.0787 -.1161 -.0973 .1911 .0916 -.0820 .2528 17. Vancouver Bus .0775 -.0322 -.0507 -.0837 .0428 -.0430 .0341 .1253 18. Change Work .0436 -.0311 .0310 .0342 .0312 .0546 -.1979 .1169 19. Canadian Friend .0529 -.1294 .0240 -.6317 .0168 .0962 -.0556 .1089 20. Work Schedule -.0372 .0233 -.2497** .0398 .0382 -.0390 .0604 .2042 21. Ethnic Shops .2432** -.1496 .2001 -.3246* .1053 -.2958* -.1550 .2170 22. Medical Insurance -.0004 -.0441 -.1657 -.0251 .2424** -.1956 .0852 .2147 23. Help Spouse .3059* -.1200 -.1285 -.3489* .1151 .1193 -.1405 .2772 24. Doctor -.0654 -.1475 -.0241 -.0792 .0018 -.0389 .0275 .2093 25. Tenporary Residence .0001 .2362** .0556 -.1100 -.0984 .0151 -.1013 .1067 26. Getby English .1676 -.2465** -.0250 -.6097 -.0014 -.1400 .0234 .3495 27. Enrol Kics .2456* -.0762 -.1463 .0363 .1857 -.0241 -.1649 .2113 AX I l\ 28. Meet Countrymen -.1505 -.0486 .0744 -.6605 -.1073 .0638 .1412 .2943 29. Car Insurance .2140 -.1100 -.0496 -.2618** .0941 .0152 .0796 .1626 30. Bank -.1209 .0968 -.1824 -.0128 .0003 -.0594 -.1853 .1796 31. Worship .0728 -.1582 .0404 .1784 .1319 .1150 -.1075 .1131 32. Postal .1639 -.1775 -.2114 -.1781 .0621 -.1123 .0431 .2450 33. Social Insurance .0476 -.2009 -.1379 -.2297** .1371 -.2368** .0795 .1505 34. Ethnic School .2928* -.1265 .2072 -.1804 — 1 C\A£L .0798 0122 -.0681 -.1744 -.1708 .0995 .1514 .1422 35. Canadian Money 36. Ethnic News .2357** .2754* -.1598 -.1590 -.2909* .05J3 .0647 -.2579** .2635 59 Of the three types of primary group relations about which respondents were questioned, only number of adult relatives on arrival showed predictability in regression analysis, and this occurred for five tasks. Those respondents with greater numbers of adult relatives in Vancouver when they arrived expressed less difficulty with accepting a change in status in the community, helping their spouse and registering for car insurance. The same was true for finding ethnic shops and restaurants and subscribing to an ethnic newspaper but the former was further simplified as occupational level increased and the latter was easier for those who spoke a number of languages. While regression analysis showed more Israeli friends on arrival as only predicting more difficulty with enrolling children in school and community activities, corre lations indicated that this variable bore a significant negative relationship to tasks associated with ethnic community involvement and registering for social insurance and car insurance. The num ber of Canadian friends respondents had on arrival in Vancouver appeared to have no predictability for any task. Other results of the regression analysis indicated, firstly, that as age increased, respondents appeared to have more difficul ty budgeting for life on a different economic level, adjusting to climate, and using the postal system and, secondly, that those who spoke more languages perceived less difficulty enrolling for job retraining and applying for Canadian citizenship. 60 While no variables appeared in the regression equation for the most difficult task, finding a satisfying, career-oriented job, it is of interest that a significant positive correlation was found between this task and occupational level. In other words, those with higher occupational levels perceived greater difficulty in finding a career-oriented job. None of the socio-demographic variables in the regression analysis appeared to have predictability for any of the four em ployment-related tasks: finding a job, finding a career-oriented job, getting occupational qualifications accepted and changing type of work. While the Manpower and Immigration (19 74) study concluded that employment was the most crucial variable to successful adaptation and this study supports that finding in that the most difficult task was finding a career-oriented job, none of the ten socio-demographic variables utilized here appears to assist in predicting who will experience more or less difficulty in resolving that task. While no one socio-demographic variable proved to be a good predictor for all thirty-six tasks of adaptation, some predicta bility and a number of strong relationships appeared between socio-demographic variables and difficulty of tasks of adaptation. In view of this, it must be concluded that individuals of varying socio-demographic characteristics experience varying levels of difficulty in resolving tasks of adaptation, but this conclusion does not apply for all thirty-six tasks. Notably, no variables appeared in the regression equations for the four tasks related 61 to employment which suggests that the ten socio-demographic vari ables used in the analysis provide no key to understanding the difficulty of employment-related tasks. The Relationship of Difficulty to Other Factors One major portion of the study was an investigation of which factors, other than socio-demographic ones, might have influenced respondents' perceptions of the difficulty of resolving tasks of adaptation. In addition to difficulty scores and socio-demogra phic data, four other factors were measured independently: ex tent of cultural innovation required by tasks, length of reso lution time required, importance of the task to the respondents when they first encountered it, and the stage of task resolution accomplished. Generally, the most significant results of this portion of the investigation were with regard to the extent of cultural innovation required by tasks. This factor appears to bear the strongest relationship to difficulty of tasks, both for the Israelis and for a mixed group of immigrants from a variety of countries. Perceived importance of tasks appears to bear little relationship to difficulty and further investigation seems un necessary. While resolution time and stage of resolution accom plished appear to shed little light on the nature of difficulty, tasks requiring little time to be resolved were resolved by most respondents and those requiring greater lengths of time to be re solved were resolved by fewer respondents. Herein follows a more detailed examination of each of the four factors and its relation ship to difficulty. 62 Extent of Cultural Innovation Scores for extent of cultural innovation required by each task were derived by tabulating mean scores of fifty-two respon dents who used the typology described earlier (p. 35). These scores provided an independent measure of extent of cultural inno vation required in that the respondents were a mixed group and not Israelis in the sample. Two unexpected results occurred when tasks were ordered according to mean scores (Table IX). First, using Canadian money received the highest mean score of any task. It is conceiv able that, as one respondent remarked, this task was understood to include a wide range of financial matters rather than the in tended simple use of new coins with new values. Second, while speaking good English might appear to be a task requiring a great extent of innovation, it occurs fifteenth on the list. This may be due to the fact that the majority of the expert-respondents were adult students in advanced English classes and knew enough English to perceive this as requiring less innovation on their part than tasks related to status, employment, finances, and citi zenship which occur before it on the list. These mean scores, as an independent measure of extent of cultural innovation required by tasks, were correlated against difficulty scores of the Israeli respondents in the sample. On a task-by-task basis, rather than respondent-by-respondent, the overall correlation was .3713 (p=.02) which appears to indicate that task difficulty increases in relation to the extent of 63 TABLE IX Extent of Innovation Required by Tasks of Adaptation According to Fifty-Two "Expert" Respondents I Task Mean Standard Score Deviation Canadian Money 3.36 Status 3.09 .9 Career 3.06 .9 Canadian Citizenship 3.04 .8 Social Insurance 3.00 .9 Ethnic Shops 2.94 .9 Change Type of Work 2.92 1.0 Any Job 2.77 1.0 Budget 2.69 .9 Job Retraining 2.60 .9 Humour 2.44 .9 Permanent Residence 2.40 1.1 Local News 2.38 1.1 Canadian Friend 2.33 1.0 Good English 2.33 1.0 Different Measures 2.29 1.0 Vancouver Bus 2.23 .8 Climate 2.17 1.0 Enrol Kids 2.15 .8 Work Schedule 2.13 .9 Occupational Qualifications 2.12 .7 Getby English 2.12 1.0 Worship 2.08 1.1 Doctor 2.04 .9 Crjrminity and Educational Services 2.02 .9 Ethnic School 2.01 .9 Ethnic News 1.92 1.0 Medical Insurance 1.88 1.0 Temporary Residence 1.87 .9 Driver's Licence 1.87 .9 Alternate Products 1.69 .9 Meet Countrymen 1.69 1.0 Car Insurance 1.67 .8 Help Spouse 1.54 .8 Postal 1.51 .8 Bank 1.46 .8 cultural innovation may be the single most important factor relat ing to difficulty of tasks of adaptation. In an attempt to corroborate this finding and ascertain whether or not this relationship may be generalizable beyond the population of Israeli immigrants in Vancouver, a correlation was also sought between the independent expert scores and difficulty scores of a mixed group of twenty-eight immigrants from a variety of countries, all of whom were advanced students in the English Language program at King Edward Campus, Vancouver Community College. In this case, a correlation of .7969 (p<.001) was ob tained, suggesting that the relationship between cultural innova tion and difficulty may be generalizable to populations other than Israelis and supporting the conclusion that extent of cultural innovation required by a task of adaptation is probably the most important factor affecting perceived difficulty in resolving a task. Time of Task Resolution Respondents were queried as to the time at which they first became aware of a task as one to be resolved and the time at which they resolved or expected to resolve a task. Results of this por tion of the investigation must be observed cautiously because, due to the length of the interview, each respondent was asked to com ment on resolution time with respect to only ten of the thirty-six tasks. Of the seventy-two individuals interviewed, between eight and twenty-seven of them responded with regard to time for each task. At best then, 37.5 percent of the possible responses were gathered for each task with respect to the resolution time. 65 Generally, less difficult tasks were resolved first. With in the first month after arrival, on the average, respondents had resolved using the postal system, finding a temporary residence, registering for medical insurance and using Canadian money. With in the first three months, they had resolved meeting other of their countrymen, speaking enough English to get by, using the bank and making their first Canadian friend. Within the first six months, two of the ten most difficult tasks had been resolved: finding a permanent residence and bud geting for life on a different economic level. By the end of the first year, on the average, respondents had resolved two more of the ten most difficult tasks: reading a local English-language newspaper and using a different system of sizes, weights and mea sures. Since Canada has converted to the metric system, this task would probably no longer be among the most difficult. Five of the ten most difficult tasks, however, were not re solved by the end of the second year after arrival: speaking good English, getting occupational qualifications accepted, adjusting to climate, getting used to Canadian sense of humour, and finding a satisfying, career-oriented job. It is noteworthy that of the ten tasks whose mean resolution time was longer than two years, four of them relate to employment: enrolling for job retraining, changing type of work, getting occupational qualification accep ted, and finding a satisfying, career-oriented job. A fifth task, speaking good English, may also be considered employment-related. A sixth task, obtaining Canadian citizenship, has no possibility 66 TABLE X Mean Resolution Time and Difficulty Scores for Tasks Listed in Order of Mean Resolution Time Task Name Mean Resolution Difficulty Score Time (in months) (Geometric Me an) 20. Postal System .3 31.1 35. Temporary Residence .4 41.3 2. Medical Insurance .9 48.6 33. Canadian Money .9 24.4 7. Meet Ccuntrymen 1.9 35.5 26. Getby English 2.6 40.2 21. Bank 2.8 32.6 12. Meet First Canadian Friend 2.9 65.9 1. Doctor 3.2 45.4 16. Permanent Residence 3.5 129.2 6. Get Any Job for Income 3.6 89.3 5. Budget 5.8 122.7 36. Community "& Educational Services 5.9 71.6 25. Alternate Products 6.3 78.7 34. Car Insurance 7.1 32.8 19. Vancouver Bus System 7.2 66.8 31. Work Schedule 7.4 64.6 15. Local News 7.5 134.2 9. Different Measures 11.7 135.5 29. Social Insurance 15.6 29.8 13. Worship 17.7 32.6 30. Driver's Licence 18.7 67.6 8. Enrol Kids 19.1 38.1 4. Status Change 20.4 103.5 17. Ethnic Newspaper 21.0 23.9 24. Ethnic Shops 21.1 64.6 11. Job Retraining 24.8 79.0 28. Change Type of Work 26.8 66.4 32. Good English 27.0 149.7 22. Help Spouse 29.8 46.2 23. Occupational Qualifications 31.0 119.9 3. Climate 32.7 114.0 14. Canadian Sense of Humour 32.7 131.9 6. Career-Oriented Job 34.4 210.3 27. Canadian Citizenship 48.1 69.3 18. Ethnic School 54.0 27.3 of being resolved before three to five years residence in the country, and therefore automatically fell into this time category. While mean time of task resolution bore no significant re lationship to difficulty of tasks (r=-.1105, p=.52), the results of this investigation of resolution time might serve to inform counsellors, course planners and curriculum designers who serve an immigrant population. As detailed elsewhere, more than eighty percent of the Israelis had resolved the first ten tasks within the first three months or so but less than fifty percent of re spondents ever resolved the last ten tasks. Less than forty per cent of respondents resolved the employment-related tasks. While no firm conclusions may be drawn as to the relation ship between time of task resolution and difficulty, some guide lines may be suggested for those who counsel, advise, and design instruction for immigrants. Further discussion of the application of these guidelines may be found in the last chapter. Importance of Tasks The assumption underlying investigation of this factor's re lationship to difficulty was that perceived importance of a task when first encountered might have a bearing on perceptions of that task's difficulty. While there appears to be some slight evidence to support this assumption, the data did not attain statistical significance. The ten most important tasks appear to be those which are important to an immigrant's security during his first days in a new country such as finding a temporary residence, speaking enough 68 English to get by, finding any job, and registering for medical insurance; and those which are most important to his life in the new country over the long range such as finding a permanent resi dence, speaking good English, finding a career-oriented job, and finding a doctor (Table XI). Of these ten tasks, five were among the ones perceived as most difficult by respondents; find ing a permanent residence, speaking good English, finding any job for Income, finding a career-oriented job, and getting occupation al qualifications accepted. With one exception, the most diffi cult and important tasks related to employment and three of them were identified as requiring a mean of more than two years to resolve. Many of the least important tasks appear to relate to the immigrant's relationship to his personal and ethnic group net works: finding a suitable place of worship, helping one's spouse, finding ethnic shops, ethnic schools for children, and subscrib ing to an ethnic newspaper. The last two tasks are also among those perceived as least difficult (Table XI). An overall correlation between mean importance and mean difficulty of tasks was sought, using tasks as the unit of analy sis. As the correlation (.2435) was not statistically significant (p=.15), the findings described above must remain mere observa tions . Stage of Task Resolution Investigation of the stage of task resolution focused on whether there appeared to be any relationship between task diffi culty and respondents' ability to resolve tasks. While no 69 TABLE XI Mean Rank Order of Tasks According to Importance Difficulty Task Arithmetic Standard Scores Mean Deviation (geometric mean) 35. Temporary Residence 9.8 10.3 45.4 16. Permanent Residence 11.9 10.0 129.2 32. Good English 12.2 9.9 149.7 6. Any Job for Income 13.3 11.4 89.3 1. Doctor 13.5 8.5 45.4 26. Getby English 13.8 12.0 40.2 2. Medical Insurance 13.9 9.7 48.6 10. Career Job 14.3 10.8 210.3 7. Meet Countrymen 14.9 9.4 35.5 23. Recognize Occup. Quals. 16.3 10.8 119.9 3. Climate 16.7 9.2 114.0 5. Budget for Different Income 16.8 9.2 122.7 21. Bank 17.0 9.1 32.6 30. Driver's Licence 17.0 9.6 67.6 8. Enrol Kids 17.9 11.2 36.1 29. Social Insurance 18.0 9.7 29.6 12. Canadian Friend 18.1 9.8 65.9 33. Canadian Money 18.7 10.6 24.4 28. Change Type of Work 19.0 11.0 66.4 15. Read Local Newspaper 19.3 8.5 134.2 19. Vancouver Bus System 19.4 9.2 66.8 9. Different Measures 19.8 8.3 135.5 31. Change Work Schedule 20.5 9.7 64.6 4. Status Change 20.6 10.4 103.5 34. Car Insurance 20.9 8.9 32.8 36. (Zomrnunity & Ed. Serv. 20.9 8.3 71.6 20. Postal 21.0 8.2 31.1 25. Alternate Products 21.2 7.9 78.7 27. Canadian Citizenship 21.5 10.7 69.3 13. Place of Worship 22.7 9.9 32.6 22. Help Spouse 22.7 9.3 46.2 11. Job Retraining 23.0 10.5 79.0 24. Ethnic Shops 23.7 8.0 64.6 14. Can. Sense of Humour 24.1 8.6 131.9 18. Ethnic Schools for Kids 24.2 9.6 27.3 17. Ethnic Newspaper 25.4 7.4 23.0 70 generalizable overall relationship was apparent, a number of ob servations may be made. Of the ten most difficult tasks, a majority of respondents (between fifty and seventy-nine percent) were able to resolve six of them: using a different system of sizes, weights and mea-^ sures, reading a local English-language newspaper, finding a per manent residence, budgeting for life on a different economic level, adjusting to climate and adjusting to changes in status. Only a small percentage of respondents (one to four percent) had tried but failed to resolve tasks involving using a different system of sizes, weights and measures, finding a permanent residence, bud geting for life on a different economic level and accepting a change in status in the community. A slightly larger percentage of respondents (8.3 percent) had tried but failed to resolve the task of reading a local English language newspaper regularly and more than a quarter of respondents (26.4 percent) had not resolved adjusting to the climate in Vancouver. Fewer than fifty percent of respondents had resolved the remaining four most difficult tasks: finding a satisfying career-oriented job, speaking good English, getting used to Canadian sense of humour and getting occupational qualifications accepted. In the case of the most difficult task, finding a career-oriented job, twenty-four respondents (33.3 percent) stated that they had resolved this task. Of the forty-eight individuals who had not resolved it, sixteen (22.2 percent) had tried but failed and twelve (16.7 percent) were in the process of attempting to resolve 71 it. Seven individuals (9.1 percent) had not tried to resolve it and thirteen (18.1 percent), many of whom were housewives, stated that the task was not applicable to them. Two other job-related tasks, speaking good English and get ting job qualifications accepted, were among the most difficult tasks that had low resolution rates. Thirty-nine percent of re spondents reported that they had resolved the task of speaking good English. Forty-three percent of respondents stated that they were engaged in resolving it at the time of the study, eleven per cent had tried but failed to resolve it and, for some reason, seven percent of respondents stated that this task was not applic able to them. When asked as to their present level of fluency, five respondents (seven percent) stated that they could pass as native Canadians, thirty-six respondents (50.7 percent) stated that they spoke well but with an accent, and eleven respondents (15.5 percent) stated that they spoke well but had trouble with tech nical and professional terms. In the case of getting occupational qualifications accepted, 41.7 percent of respondents said they had resolved this task ahd just over a quarter of them (26.4 percent) stated that this task was not applicable to them. Nine respondents (12.5 percent) said that they were engaged in resolving this task at the time of the study and the same number responded that they had tried unsuccess fully to resolve this task. 72 Other tasks among the thirty-six th,at had low resolution rates were enrolling for job retraining, applying for Canadian citizenship, changing type of work, helping the spouse, and en rolling children in regular and ethnic schools. In these cases, however, most respondents stated that these tasks were not app licable to them-or that they had not yet attempted to resolve them (Table XII). While no general, overall relationship may be observed be tween task resolution stage and difficulty, a clearly observable one appears to exist between number of respondents resolving tasks and time of task resolution (Figure 1). On the whole, the lar gest percentage of individuals resolved early tasks and the per centage declined over time, so that tasks requiring two years or more to resolve were resolved by the fewest respondents. In view of earlier observations, it seems reasonable to assume that the two major reasons for this were that these tasks were either per ceived as most difficult and took longer to resolve because of it, or they fell into a group of tasks not applicable and not attempted. Examples of tasks not applicable and not attempted were helping your spouse and enrolling children in schools when respondents had neither spouse nor children. Enrolling for job retraining was also among those frequently not applicable or not attempted. Three tasks, however, were attempted but not resolved by respondents more frequently than they were resolved or not attempt ed and these were among those tasks perceived as most difficult: 73 T7ABLE XII Number and Percentage of Interviewees Responding to Each Resolution Stage for Each Task (listed in order of task difficulty). n=72 Task 10. Career Not /Applicable Not Tried Tried,Not Resolved Doing Now Re solved n % n % n % n Q. *o n % 13 18.1 7 9.1 16 22.2 12 16.7 24 33.3 32. Good English 5 6.9 8 11.1 31 43.1 28 38.9 9. Different Measures 4 5.6 3 4.2 10 13.9 55 76.4 15. Local News 5 6.9 7 9.7 6 8.3 15 20.8 39 54.2 14. Sense of Humour 7 9.7 3 4.2 9 12.5 21 29.2 32 44.4 16. Permanent Residence 5 6.9 6 8.3 1 1.4 4 5.6 56 77.8 5. Budget 7 9.7 2 2.8 11 15.3 52 72.2 23. Occupational Quals. 19 26.4 5 6.9 9 12.5 9 12.5 30 41.7 3. Climate 2 2.8 19 26.4 9 12.5 42 58.3 4. Status 20 27.8 3 4.2 3 4.2 10 13.9 36 50.0 6. 7Any Job 19 26.4 7 9.7 2 2.8 8 11.1 36 50.0 11. Job Retraining 38 52.8 19 26.4 3 4.2 3 4.2 9 12.5 25. 7Altemate Products 8 11.1 7 9.7 57 79.2 36. Community & Educ. Serv. 6 8.3 11 15.3 3 4.2 16 22.2 36 50.0 27. Canadian Citizenship 17 23.6 17 23.6 2 2.8 7 9.7 29 40.3 30. Driver's Licence 8 11.1 9 12.5 3 4.2 6 8.3 46 63.9 19. Vancouver Buses 14 19.4 6 8.3 2 2.8 50 69.4 28. Change Work 22 30.6 9 12.5 5 6.9 8 11.1 28 38.9 12. Canadian Friend 5 6.9 1 1.4 2 2.8 6 8.3 58 80.6 31. Change Work Schedule 7 9.7 8 11.1 2 2.8 4 5.6 51 70.8 24. Ethnic Shops 8 11.1 7 9.7 2 2.8 5 6.9 50 69.4 2. Medical Insurance 1 1.4 1 1.4 70 97.2 22. Help Spouse 36 50.0 8 11.1 5 6.9 23 31.9 1. Doctor 2 2.8 3 4.2 5 6.9 62 86.1 35. Temporary Residence 6 8.3 2 2.8 64 88.9 26. Getby English 8 11.1 2 2.8 4 5.6 58 80.6 8. Enrol Kids 28 38.9 6 8.3 1 1.4 3 4.2 34 47.2 7. Meet Countrymen 3 4.2 1 1.4 11 15.3 57 79.2 34. Car Insurance 9 12.5 5 6.9 1 1.4 57 79.2 21. Bank 3 4.2 2 2.8 1 1.4 66 91.7 13. Worship 21 29.2 6 8.3 3 4.2 2 2.8 40 55.6 20. Postal 4 5.6 1 1.4 7 9.7 60 83.3 29. Social Insurance 5 6.9 2 2.8 1 1.4 64 88.9 18. Ethnic Schools 42 58.3 6 8.3 1 1.4 1 1.4 22 30.6 33. Canadian Money 2 2.8 1 1.4 9 12.5 60 83.3 17. Ethnic News 17 23.6 12 16.7 2 2.8 4 5.6 37 51.4| Figure I Comparison in Order of Mean Resolution Time of Percentage of Respondents Not Attempting, Trying But Not Resolving and Resolving Each Task of Adaptation Task Not Attempted Task Tried But Not Resolved Task Resolved 75 finding a career-oriented job, speaking good English and getting used to Canadian sense of humour. With regard to the most diffi cult task, finding a career-oriented job, this was attempted but not resolved by seven men and nine women. Those men who attempt ed but did not resolve the task varied widely in age and one could speculate a variety of reasons for their failure to resolve this task: incomplete education, inability to receive recognition for occupational qualifications or age. All of the nine women who attempted but failed to resolve this task, however, were be tween the ages of twenty-five and thirty-two. Seven were married, one was single and one was divorced. Four of these women had children which may have prevented them from pursuing full-time employment. With respect to educational level, all but one had completed high school and six women had between one and eight years of university. Six of these women spoke excellent English though with an accent while the other three had high levels of fluency in English. While one may speculate that older women may not be seeking a career-oriented job or that younger women may be involved with child-rearing, it is curious and yet unexplained why this group of women, apparently qualified for employment, have failed to resolve that task. 76 The Relationship of Difficulty to Sources of Information Employed The final research question queried how the use of adult education sources of information (individual instruction and in structional groups) for resolving tasks of adaptation related to difficulty of tasks. For the most part, adult education sources were used far less than personal sources and of the two adult education sources, individual instruction was used with greater frequency than instructional groups. For all tasks, personal sources of information were used more than any other ones and, for the easiest tasks, few other sources were employed. For the most difficult tasks, additional sources were generally in the group classified as mass media ex cept for the two most difficult tasks, getting a satisfying career-oriented job and speaking good English. In these two cases, instructional groups were used with the greatest frequency. In the case of the most difficult task, getting a career-oriented job, individual instruction was used with the greatest frequency and, in most cases, the individual consulted was a counsellor or some one serving a counselling function. It is noteworthy that the category of personal sources in cluded trial and error by the respondent himself as well as friends and relatives. These sources were used most frequently for tasks involving using a different system of sizes, weights and measures, finding a doctor, making their first Canadian friend, finding a suitable place of worship, using Canadian money, getting used to a Canadian stnse of humour and finding alternate products for the household. Personal sources were used with least frequency for 77 enrolling in job retraining, helping spouses, using community and educational services, finding ethnic schools for children, getting a satisfying career-oriented job, finding any job for in come, and enrolling children in school. With regard to job-related tasks for which few personal sources were utilized, a number of other types of sources were used. For tasks for which few personal sources were used that were not job-related, few Other sources were employed. Individual instruction was sought less frequently than per sonal sources except for the most difficult task, finding a career-oriented job, for which it was sought more than any other source. Generally speaking, the category of individual instruc tion included sources such as counsellors, bank clerks, insurance agents, realtors and others who provide procedural information. The tasks for which these sources were most frequently consulted were finding a career-oriented job, applying for Canadian citizen ship, getting a driver's licence, getting any job for income, and registering for medical insurance. Individual instruction was not cited as a source at all for some tasks: speaking good English, reading a local English-language newspaper regularly, getting used to Canadian sense of humour, making your first Canadian friend, helping spouse, finding a temporary residence, meeting countrymen, and finding a place of worship. Instructional groups were sought most frequently for the two most difficult tasks, finding a career-oriented job and speak ing good English, and, in general, for tasks associated with 78 TABLE XIII Frequency of Use of Sources of Information by Seventy-Two Interviewees for Thirty^six Tasks Tasks 10. Career Sources of Information Used for Task Resolution Personal Mass Individual Instruction Instruc tional Groups Total Number of Individuals Responding 8 5 11 7 18 32. Good Oldish 12 5 7 17 1 9. Different Measures 25 7 1 2 27 15. Local News 13 4 1 18 1 14. Humour 18 3 1 19 ! 16. Perm. Residence 13 3 4 1 D j 5. Budget 16 2 16 i 23. Occup. Quals. 1U 2 b 4 " n - : 3. niTnat-P 13 1 14 ) 4. Status 10 3 1 12 ! 6. Any Job 8 4 9 2 15 ill. Job Retraining 6 2 4 4 12 (25. Alternate Products 18 6 3 18 ! J36. Comm. & Educ. Serv. 7 1 1 2 (Un iv) 7 ; .27. Can. Citizenship 12 3 11 1 19 [30. Driver's Licence 12 10 Other: MV Branch Driv. School 16 i 19. Vancouver Bus 9 8 Other: B.C.Hydro 14 .28. Change. Work 15 7 4 5 31 12. Canadian Friend 22 4 23 31. Work Schedule 17 1 18 24. Ethnic Shops 15 2 1 1 15 I 2. Medical Insurance 13 2 9 3 (Univ) 22 j 22. Help Spouse 6 2 1 6 ! 1. Doctor 23 1 2 (Univ) 23 j 35. Temp. Residence 10 3 (Univ) 12 26. Getby English 15 10 1 7 19 8. Enrol Kids 8 6 10 ; 7. Countrymen 10 6 15 34. Car Insurance 15 2 17 21. Bank 15 2 Other Bank Clerk . 15 13. Worship 21 2 21 20. Postal 13 1 14 29. Social Insurance •15 4 16 18. Ethnic School 7 1 1 8 33. Canadian Money 19 1 19 17. Ethnic News 11 1 1 13 * Each individual had the option of reporting more than one source for each task and each individual was asked to respond with regard to ten tasks rather than all thirty-six. 79 learning English, employment and making friends. Tasks for which instructional groups were never cited as a source of information were: budgeting for life on a different economic level, adjust ing to climate, changing work schedule, helping spouse, enrolling child in school, getting a driver's licence, finding alternate products for the household, using the bus system, registering for car insurance, banking, using the postal system, registering for social insurance, and using Canadian money. This is particularly interesting in view of the fact that the last eight of these tasks are generally found in ESL curricula, materials and texts, especially for students at beginning levels. Mass media, such as newspapers, books (including dictionary), and brochures, were used least frequently on the whole and the task most frequently cited for this source type was speaking enough English to get by. Respondents, then, used personal sources most frequently for all tasks and, where procedural information was required, individual instruction was sought. Only for tasks relating to em ployment, language learning, and making friends were instructional groups sought and mass media were used infrequently and only for one-half of the tasks. Summary In relation to other immigrants to Canada, the respondents represented a well-educated group who had lived in two, three or four countries for six months or more and ranged in age from their mid-twenties to sixty. As with most immigrant groups, married 80 women had less job experience and were less fluent in English than other respondents. Single men also reported low levels of fluency in English but the widest range of job experience. In addition, they reported the lowest number of years of education and the most technical and vocational training. Married men re ported among the highest levels of fluency in English and the greatest number of years of education with fifty percent of them reporting five or more years of university education. The ten most difficult tasks were getting a satisfying career-oriented job, speaking good English, using a different system of sizes, weights and measures, reading a local English-language newspaper regularly, getting used to a different sense of humour in Canada, finding a permanent place to live, budgeting for life on a different economic level, gaining acceptance of existing occupational qualifications, adjusting to the climate in Vancouver and accepting a change of status in the community. No one socio-demographic variable proved to be a good pre dictor of difficulty for all thirty-six tasks and, in the case of employment related tasks, no variables appeared in the regression equation. On a task-by-task basis, some predictability was deter mined for seventeen of the thirty-six tasks. Of the relationships between difficulty and other factors (extent of innovation, length of resolution time, importance and resolution stage), only extent of cultural innovation required appeared to bear a relationship to difficulty and there is reason to believe that the strong positive relationship between diffi culty and extent of innovation may also be generalizable to ethnic 81 groups other than Israelis. This relationship certainly warrants further investigation. It may be the single most important fac tor affecting resocialization and might provide an excellent basis upon which to design programs for immigrant adults. Although only about one-third of the respondents provided information regarding time of task resolution, the mean scores may serve as a guide to counsellors, course planners and curricu lum designers who serve adult immigrants. Perceived importance of tasks appears to bear little relationship to difficulty. With regard to resolution stages, the most important finding was the clearly observable relationship between resolution stage and time of resolution. The largest percentage of individuals resolved early tasks and the percentage declined over time, so that later tasks appeared to be less frequently resolved. On the whole, respondents cited personal sources of infor mation with substantially greater frequency than any other type of source for all of the thirty-six tasks. Adult education sources (individual instruction and instructional groups) were used most frequently with regard to the most difficult task, getting a satisfying career-oriented job. Individual instruction was util ized more frequently for tasks requiring specific procedural information such as how to apply for medical insurance, get a driver's licence and use the bus system. Instructional groups were sought most frequently for tasks related to language learning, making friends, and finding employment. 82 Of the relationships between difficulty and other factors including extent of cultural innovation, length of resolution time, importance and resolution stage, only extent of innovation appears to warrant further investigation as a significant positive correlation was found between the difficulty scores of the seventy-two Israeli respondents and the cultural innovation scores of fifty-two experts. The scores of the experts also correlated positively and significantly with the difficulty scores of twenty-eight immigrants from a variety of countries who were members of an advanced English class at King Edward Campus, Vancouver Commun ity College. This suggests that the relationship between diffi culty and extent of cultural innovation required by tasks may be generalizable to other non-English-speaking immigrants to Vancou ver and this relationship is worthy of further investigation. While time of resolving tasks of adaptation did not appear, in itself, to be related to difficulty, a relationship did appear to exist between mean resolution time and the number of respon dents who resolved each task. Counsellors and teachers planning instruction for adult immigrants might use mean resolution time as a general guide in that later tasks were actually resolved by less than forty percent of respondents. Certainly, further in vestigation of the generalizability of these findings to other groups is warranted. CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS This chapter draws overall conclusions from the study and explores implications for the practice of adult education for immigrants, particularly with regard to program planning for classes of English as a second language. Further research into tasks of adaptation and cultural assumptions of North American adult educators is suggested. Summary and Conclusions Migration to a new country is a developmental event and adaptation is the process by which individuals resolve that event. As immigrants adapt, they encounter a number of tasks of varying difficulty which force them to learn new information, procedures and customs. The learning required to resolve tasks of adaptation may be acquired in the natural societal setting via personal and mass sources as well as in the formal instructional setting through individual instruction and instructional groups. The way in which individuals resolve each task of adaptation may affect their motivation to continue their adaptation process. Adult edu cation is well suited to serve the remedial function and aid immi-83 84 grants in resocialization. At the present time, the major edu cational offering for immigrants is language instruction. The present format of English as a second language classes may be used to further assist the immigrant if principles of needs assessment and program development are applied. With regard to the four research questions posed in the introduction, the following conclusions may be drawn from the data. 1. What kinds of tasks emerge during adaptation to life in a new society? One major contribution of this work is its attempt to ar ticulate an approach to the identification of learning needs for immigrants. Definitions of adaptation and tasks of adaptation brought some conceptual clarity to an intricate and complicated problem area. The major assumption in identifying tasks of adap tation was that new arrivals in a country generally experience a similar range of tasks to resolve in order to survive in the new society. For the purposes of the study, attitudinal and psychological variables were not examined and the thirty-six tasks employed focused on behaviours such as finding a place to live, finding a job and speaking English. The tasks of adaptation used in the study were drawn from a wide range of literature and per sonal case histories were subjected to magnitude estimations of relative difficulty. The ten most difficult tasks were getting a satisfying career-oriented job, speaking good English, using a different system of sizes, weights and measures, reading a local 85 English-language newspaper regularly, getting used to a different sense of humour in Canada, finding a permanent place to live, budgeting for life on a different economic level, gaining accep tance of existing occupational qualifications, adjusting to the climate in Vancouver and accepting a change of status in the community. The tasks of adaptation utilized in the study were gener ated as examples of the use of the conceptual framework and to provide a basis for discussion, criticism and improvement of the application of this approach to adaptation and the role of adult education for immigrants. Further investigation into tasks of adaptation is suggested as an area for future research. 2. Which, if any, socio-demographic characteristics affect perception of difficulty of tasks of adaptation? While a large number of socio-demographic variables were examined, three were considered with particular attention: level of education, number of countries lived in for six months or more, and size of primary group on arrival. A few more women than men were represented among the seventy-two respondents whose ages ranged from twenty-three to fifty-nine. In comparison to other ethnic groups in Canada, they were a well-educated group, particularly the married men. About one-half the respondents were born in Israel and most had lived in from two to four countries and in Vancouver from one to ten years. Married women reported more adult relatives residing in Vancouver when they arrived than any of the other respondents and married people 86 in general reported less English spoken at home than single ones. Married men and single women reported higher fluency levels in English than single men and married women. Stepwise regression analysis was conducted using ten ordi nal socio-demographic variables including years of education, num ber of countries lived in for six months or more and number of adult relatives on arrival. No one variable proved to be a good predictor for all thirty-six tasks and, in the case of employment-related tasks, no variables appeared in the regression equation. Some predictability was determined for seventeen of the thirty-six tasks. Years of education and number of adult relatives on arrival each appeared to have predictability for five tasks. Num ber of countries lived in for six months or more was originally chosen as a measure of ability to learn a new culture but, in the course of the research, it became clear that number of countries lived in could just as readily indicate lack of ability to learn a new culture so no conclusions were drawn with regard to this variable. 3. What relationship, if any, does difficulty of tasks of adaptation bear to the following factors: extent of cultural innovation required by tasks, length of task resolution time required, importance of tasks to the immigrant when he first encounters them and stage of task resolution? 87 Of the relationships between difficulty and other factors including extent of cultural innovation, length of resolution time, importance and resolution stage, only extent of innovation appears to warrant further investigation as a significant positive correlation was found between the difficulty scores of the seventy-two Israeli respondents and the cultural innovation scores of fifty-two experts. The scores of the experts also correlated positively and significantly with the difficulty scores of twenty-eight immigrants from a variety of countries who were members of an advanced English class at King Edward Campus, Vancouver Community College. This suggests that the relationship between difficulty and extent of cultural innovation required by tasks may be generalizable to other non-English-speaking immigrants to Vancouver and this relationship is worthy of further investigation. While the time of resolving tasks of adaptation did not appear, in itself, to be related to difficulty, a relationship did appear to exist between mean resolution time and the number of respondents who resolved each task. Counsellors and teachers planning instruction for adult immigrants might use mean resolution time as a general guide in that later tasks were actually resolved by less than forty percent of respondents. Certainly, further investigation of the generalizability of these findings to other groups is warranted. 88 4. How is the use of adult education sources of information for resolving tasks of adaptation related to difficulty of tasks? Personal sources of information were used with far greater frequency than adult education sources, except in the case of the most difficult task which was getting a satisfying career-oriented job. The Israelis in the study did not register for English classes in order to acquire the information to cope with most of their tasks of adaptation. They were primarily interested in assistance with employment, an opportunity to make friends and to acquire a level of English competency commensurate with their occupational aspirations. Although this finding is presently only applicable to Israelis, there is no evidence to suggest that it might not be true for other immigrant groups and would suggest consideration of vocationally-oriented, rather than situationally-oriented English classes. Individual instruction, which tended to be counselling on procedural information, appears to have been sought from sources in the general community. This may suggest a role for instructors of English as a second language, not in pro viding information, but in working with counsellors in institu tions and agencies and assisting learners with the listening com prehension and oral production skills they will need in order to be able to use community services more effectively. 89 Discussion The two assumptions underlying this study with respect to the role of education for immigrant adults are: first, that edu cation for this group must provide language and cultural orienta tion for life in a new society; and second, that educators must serve the needs of adult learners as well as those of society. In the case of immigrant adults, it is the role of the educator to assist newcomers in negotiating achievement of their expecta tions for life in Canada by determining educational gaps and pro viding instruction to help bridge those gaps. To do this, educa tors of adult immigrants must critically evaluate the language and procedures, and the norms, values and assumptions of Canadian society. Herein lies what Paulston (1977) has called the dilemma of using a dialectical viewpoint; that is, using a conflict frame for diagnosis and an equilibrium world view as the basis for normative standards. While accepting the standards of Canadian society, an ESL programmer must diagnose them in order to assess and meet educational needs of the client group. To date, two conditions have impeded realization of competent, effective ESL program design: a pre-occupation, on the part of those in the field, with linguistic questions and identification of themselves as language teachers but not, for the most part, as adult educators. As a result, ESL courses are rarely designed on the basis of spe cific adult developmental and community needs. When this study was begun in 19 73, audio-lingual methods and a situational approach were prevalent in the ESL classroom. 90 Teachers appeared to attach little importance to learning which occurred outside the classroom, except with respect to grammati cal mistakes being reinforced there. Few ESL instructors had received formal training but, if they had, it was in general edu cational methodology (elementary or secondary), linguistics and applied linguistics. During the last seven years, knowledge in the field of ESL has accumulated quickly and researchers have moved from structur al (grammar-based) to functional (purpose-related) methods of language analysis and methodology development. Some researchers (Munby, 1978; Trim, 1977; van Ek, 1976; Wilkins, 1973) have moved from this structural-functional paradigm to a systems approach and are currently investigating approaches to syllabus design in order to create comprehensive systems, such as van Ek1s threshold level system produced for the Council of Europe (19 76). Those conducting the research, however, have limited themselves to sug gestion of linguistic realization of communicative functions "made on the basis of introspection and not as the result of objective, observational research" (Wilkins, 1972, p. 13). This follows the line of reasoning utilized by Munby in presuming a "participant stereotype" (1978) and by most classroom teachers and curriculum developers in designing units and lessons on the basis of assump tions about the needs of immigrant adults. A major contribution of this study is to undermine some of these assumptions. Empirical evidence has been provided which brings the following into question: 91 1. the explanatory function of socio-demographic data in pre dicting perceived difficulty of tasks of adaptation; 2. the appropriateness of ordering curriculum on the basis of knowledge required by new arrivals so that beginning language learners concentrate on tasks such as renting accommodation or using the post office when most of them have long resolved such tasks in reality; 3. the necessity of providing "coping" skills to adult immigrants who seem to obtain required knowledge and assistance from personal sources of information. Some elaboration or qualification is required.for each of the above three points. First, while the study findings implied that generalizations should not be drawn with respect to the ability of socio-demographic variables to predict perceived diffi culty, some attention must be paid to their relationship to task resolution. As noted earlier (p. 75 ), a profile of those who attempted but failed to resolve the most difficulty task, finding a career-oriented job, raised further research questions. How is it that the majority of respondents in this category were women between the ages of twenty-five and thirty-two who appeared to be qualified for desired employment? Is this phenomena generalizable to other ethnic groups? Is it generalizable to Canadians as well? What factors, other than socio-demographic ones, influence success ful completion of this task? Rather than providing explanation or predicting perceived difficulty, socio-demographic profiles 92 appear to be useful in indicating and suggesting areas for fur ther research into task resolution. The second point does not mean to suggest that language or other communication skills relevant to tasks of new arrivals should never be taught. Rather, it suggests that caution must be taken not to legislate such choices into curriculum so that be ginning language learners must automatically learn language for tasks, such as renting accommodation, simply because they are beginners, irrespective of how long they have been in the country or of their particular developmental needs. The third point, similarly to the second, does not mean to imply that coping or orientation skills should never be taught. It does suggest, however, that care must be taken not to impose this content on everyone via curriculum as the results of the study showed that the majority of tasks of adaptation were resolved by this group of respondents from within their personal informa tion networks. For researchers, it might be interesting and use ful to investigate personal and ethnic group information networks. For ESL instructors, it might be more to the point to de-emphasize coping and orientation skills in favour of employment-oriented skills for which education was actually being sought by these re spondents. Further research is required to establish whether or not this finding is generalizable to ethnic groups other than the one studied here. The major contributions of this study are: first, in pro viding a definition of adaptation that does not rely on legislat- . ing end-states (successful adaptation) but rather, concentrates on 93 the process of negotiating a place in the new society; second, the conceptualization of an approach to assessing and prioritizing needs of immigrant adults using magnitude estimation of difficulty of tasks of adaptation; and third, the finding that, of the four variables examined/ extent of cultural innovation required by tasks of adaptation was the only one which bore a significant positive and seemingly generalizable relationship to difficulty. This leads to the suggestion that the construct "difficulty" might better be renamed "extent of cultural innovation" and further re search concentrate on operationalizing and investigating this more specific new construct. The findings and conclusions of the study discussed in this section inevitably have implications both for further research and for the field of practice. Implications of the Study for Researchers and Practitioners The major findings of the study inform three areas of fur ther investigation by researchers and practitioners in providing education for adult immigrants: assessment of educational needs, policy development, and program planning. For purposes of this discussion, program planning refers generally to the process of devising educational activities which synthesize and are approp riate to both the needs of the learners and the mandate of the sponsoring institution. The notion of program planning would in clude vocational ESL as it is currently known and, in view of the findings of the study, vocational ESL is suggested as a major focus for institutional programming. 94 . The Process of Assessing Educational Needs The methodology utilized in assessing the difficulty of tasks of adaptation with a sample of Israeli immigrants may be replicated or modified to assess needs of other immigrant learners. The following points will be helpful to those researchers and practitioners wishing to use this process in the future. 1. The tasks of adaptation used in this study are not the final word, by any means. By conceptualizing adaptation as a series of tasks or problems to be solved and following methodological guidelines outlined in the study, such as stating tasks in behavioural terms, the items of the instrument may be modified or replaced. The methodology for conducting the assessment will still stand. Modifications might include: a) excluding some tasks; b) generating more specific items relating to employment; c) concentrating on and generating more specific tasks for those items which represent greater extents of cultural innovation; d) generating tasks which are oriented to the communicative situations an immigrant must master for life in a particu lar community. 2. Magnitude estimation is based on the ability to conceptualize ratios and is, in all likelihood, a human rather than a cul tural ability. The findings of Holmes and Masuda (1967), using magnitude estimation cross-culturally, substantiate the notion that this instrument has cross-cultural validity and, therefore, is appropriate for use by ESL students to self-assess their priority learning needs regardless of their country of origin. 3. As needs assessment may provide the basis for the content or starting point of ESL instruction, there is no need for the assessment to be conducted in English. Unless one has reason to question the quality of translation, there appears to be no argument against conducting such a self-assessment in the learner's native language, if necessary. 4. Magnitude estimation has three important properties as a measurement device. First, if explained well, it is easily used; second, it allows for the addition of items; and third, because it is a ratio-scaling device, parametric statistics may be used in analyzing hypothesized relationships. Policy Development The development of policy for delivery of education for immigrant adults requires the attention of both researchers and practitioners. While education is a provincial responsibility, examination of federal multiculturalism and manpower training policy is necessary so that provincial policy statements can pro vide suitable guidance and direction to ESL program planners. At the present time three issues must be investigated: problems of the current trend officially to define ESL as adult basic educa tion (ABE); the relationship of ESL classes sponsored by Canada Employment and Immigration (CEIC) to manpower training policy and job market trends; and analysis of Canadian values and assumptions embued in Immigration and Multiculturalism policies. 96 The Draft Policy on the Provision of Adult Basic Education  Programs issued by the B.C. Ministry of Education in April, 1980 characterizes the problems of defining ESL as adult basic educa tion. While ESL programs do indeed "prepare people for further learning" (p.l), they need not "provide non-English speaking adults with sufficient English language and citizenship skills to^ participate effectively as citizens, parents and learners" (p. 2). As Richmond and Kalbach (1980) point out, after an initial period of adjustment, immigrants'and their children in 1971 had achieved levels of material prosperity that equalled or surpassed longer-established Canadians (p. 473). In addition, recent immigrants were better educated on the average and their children more likely to remain in school beyond minimum school leaving age (p. 473). Since 19 71, however, immigrants arriving during times of less favourable employment conditions have experienced some economic difficulties and more serious problems of adjustment (p. 475). These findings have been cited to support the view that, rather than needing language and citizenship skills to participate effectively as citizens, parents and learners, immigrant adults require sufficient English to transfer their already-held compe tence as citizens, parents and learners to the cultural milieu of the new society. This is not merely an academic distinction. It undercuts the assumption that adult immigrants (ESL students) lack the ability or have failed to succeed in effectively realiz ing their adult roles. While the focus implied by this assumption may be suitable for ABE students, it is not appropriate for the 97 majority of ESL students. By defining ESL within the context of ABE, legislators lay the groundwork for misinformed and inapprop riate ESL program development. The second issue requiring attention with respect to policy development is the relationship of ESL classes sponsored by CEIC to manpower training policy and job market trends. Broadly speak ing, planned immigration is guided by the requirements of the labour market. One would assume, therefore, that CEIC-sponsored ESL classes would provide language or skills oriented in some way to employment - employment orientation, job market analysis, pre-employment skills, interview techniques and the like. This is not, in fact, the case. For the most part, CEIC-sponsored classes appear to lack direction and co-ordination. No curriculum exists for guidance and none is provided from CEIC. It seems that these classes suffer from the federal-provincial split in jurisdiction. Federal money buys seats in institutions funded by the province. The federal government does not wish to appear to be involved in education and, therefore, does not participate in determining the content or direction of the classes they sponsor. Local college (or other) staff, while well-intentioned, appear, by omission, to lack the overview to plan and provide education appropriate to the local and regional manpower needs or to assist individuals to develop job-search and other skills required to get and maintain employment. Unofficial reports from CEIC counsellors who work with graduates of these programs have contributed to the general impression that CEIC-sponsored ESL classes are misconceived, lack direction and contribute to compounding students' difficulties by 98 providing misinformation. The amount of money being spent on these classes at the present time in Canada is justification enough to warrant an investigation of ways and means to provide a better education for immigrant adults wishing to enter the labour force. Finally, one of the major findings of the study implies that some definition of Canadian cultural assumptions is necessary in order to assist immigrant adults, through education, to adapt to life here. The relationship between difficulty and the extent of cultural innovation required by tasks of adaptation led to the suggestion that the construct "difficulty" be renamed "extent of cultural innovation" to facilitate more specific and appropriate research into the nature of tasks of adaptation. This underlines the predominant importance of conflicting cultural assumptions to the adaptation process. Those who come to Canada from other coun tries bring with them the norms, values and beliefs of their for mer cultures. When they arrive here, they experience that clash of assumptions known as culture shock. For the most part, new comers expect and seek to adopt the culture of the new country as widely as they possibly can. The limits to their ability are in dividual and defining adaptation as a process is a recognition of these individual differences as is the federal multicultural pol icy . Although much maligned as a catch phrase, empty rhetoric or as emphasizing our differences rather than our similarities, multiculturalism is a statement of Canadian commitment to cultural pluralism. Inherent in the policy and in the guidelines for dis-99 tribution of funds under Secretary of State's multicultural pro grams is the belief that ethnic groups have the right of self-determination within our society and the value that support for their ethnic identity will contribute to the successful adaptation of ethnic minorities into the fabric of Canadian society. In adapting to Canadian society, they will also change it and, at present, the policy appears to allow and support these phenomena. In the same way as these and other values are to be found in the sub-text of the federal policy statement on multicultural- ' ism, so other pieces of legislation carry assumptions with respect to "our" attitudes toward new Canadians and ethnic minorities. Immigration policy and regulations seem an obvious source of such data. Policy research for the purpose of defining the philosophi cal position and cultural assumptions of the legislated Canadian point of view toward immigrants and ethnic minorities must be a priority for those engaging in the education of immigrant adults. Without a clear sense of common purpose, classes will continue to be provided which do not meet either the short or long range needs of participants or the country. Program Development In general, the delivery of education for adult immigrants has centred on programs of English as a second language, and linguistic concerns have formed the basis for decision-making. The lack of a student-centred philosophical approach and approp riate program planning methodologies is evidenced by the fact that no program planning level, as adult educators describe it, current ly exists in the administrative structure for ESL programs in 100 British Columbia. Where program planning does exist within insti tutions offering ESL, it is called curriculum development, is con ducted by teachers doing short-term projects, and the outcome of such projects is usually a syllabus or curriculum guide. While these guides are useful for instructors, especially inexperienced ones, the problem with such an approach for the institution is that, once completed, a curriculum guide is static, rarely modi fied except by teaching style, and its presence suggests a stan dard rather than a guide. Programs based on such guides respond with difficulty to changing needs, shifts in emphasis and evalua tion. The presence, within the administrative structure of the institution, of a program planner to carry out the functions of course evaluation and modification, would assist in the develop ment and maintenance of well-conceived and appropriate ESL pro grams and courses. In addition to lacking a permanent program planning function within the administrative structure, few ESL programs are co-ordi nated with the specialized labour market focus of the host insti tution. Instead of directly preparing people to enter the work force, ESL programs seem to prepare people to take further train ing. On the surface, it appears that ESL programs are constructed to postpone work force entry in direct opposition to the needs and desires of the learners. In many cases, newcomers already have job skills when they arrive in Canada. In view of this study's finding that the most difficult task (and, by implication, one requiring a great extent of cultural innovation) was finding a satisfying career-oriented job, and while the issue of institu-101 tional manadate for programs requires clarification via a policy statement, the following are examples of programs which might support work force entry by adult immigrants. 1. CEIC funded programs that concentrate on language and cul turally appropriate strategies for getting and maintaining employment; 2. programs in-professional English for doctors, lawyers, engineers and the like which concentrate on: a) professional terminology to speak to colleagues and read in professional publications; b) transferring discourse and communication skills from the native language to English; c) culturally appropriate professional strategies and pro cedures; d) building language ability toward passing provincial pro fessional certification examinations; 3. pre-vocational training programs directed toward the texts and study skills that will be.required during vocational or other retraining; 4. on-the-job vocational ESL programs co-ordinated between edu cational institutions and business or industry. In addition to employment-oriented programs, assistance to adult immigrants should be available to successfully complete the citizenship examination, a rite of passage into Canadian society. Finally, in the same way as continuing education programs offer courses to assist native speakers in resolving their adult developmental tasks, second language speakers have the right of 102 access to programs for them which provide such information, especially ones which clarify legal and social rights and respon sibilities. In special cases, such as the recent refugee influx, orientation programs may be necessary. While in urban centres these are provided through ethnic group, church and social service organizations, educational institutions have a responsibility to ensure that these programs are being provided when and if required. In closing, it should be reiterated that Canada is a country of immigrants and many more will arrive as world economic and social conditions oblige adults to seek better opportunities for themselves and their families. Canada requires and expects new citizens from abroad but, in the past, our history shows that many of these citizens have been exploited, abused and used as scape goats for economic and political fears. Appropriate educational programs conceived with respect for the needs of adult immigrant learners are pragmatic and desirable for the growth, cohesiveness and integrity of Canadian society. 103 BIBLIOGRAPHY Alleyne, E. Patrick and Coolie Verner. Personal Contacts and the  Adoption of Innovations, Rural Sociology. Monography No. 4, Vancouver, B.C.: University of B.C., 1969. Anderson, J.T.M. The Education of the New Canadian, London: J.M.Dent & Sons Ltd./ 1918. Bengston, Vern L. The Social Psychology of Aging, USA: Bobbs-Merrill Co. Ltd., 1973. Berwick, Richard. 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"Israeli Immigrants in Toronto", unpublished MA thesis, York University, Toronto, 1971. Hallenbeck, Wilbur C. "The Role of Adult Education in Society", Adult Education: Outlines of an Emerging Field of University  Study, Jensen, Liveright and Hallenbeck, USA: Adult Education Association of the USA, 1964. Havighurst, Robert J. Developmental Tasks and Education, New York: David McKay, Co., 19 73. Heiss, Jerold. "Factors Related to Immigrant Assimilation: Pre-Migration Traits", Social Forces, Vol. 47, 1969, pp. 420-428. « Holmes, Thomas H. and Richard H. Rahe. "The Social Re-Adjustment Rating Scale", Journal of Psychosomatic Research, Vol. 2, 1967, pp. 213-218. Jensen, Gale E. "The Nature of Education as a Discipline", Readings for Educational Researchers, Gale E. Jensen (ed), Ann Arbor, Michigan: Ann Arbor Publishers, 1960. Jensen, Gale E., A.A. Liveright and Wilbur Hallenbeck (eds). Adult Education: Outlines of an Emerging Field of University  Study, Adult Education Association of the USA, 1964. Jupp, T.C. and S. Hodlin. Industrial English: An Example of Theory and Practice in Functional Language Teaching, London: Heinemann Educational Books, 19 75. Knowles, Malcolm S. The Modern Practice of Adult Education, New York:. Association Press, 1970. Lai, Vivien. "The New Chinese Immigrants in Toronto", Immigrant  Groups, Minority Canadians 2, Jean Leonard Elliott (ed), Scarborough, Ontario: Prentice Hall of Canada Ltd., 1971, pp. 120-140. 105 Laylin, Jan. "ESL on the Job: The Jantzen Experience", TEAL  Occasional Papers, Vancouver: B.C. Association of Teachers of English as an Additional Language, Vol. 1, pp. 25-33, 1977. Lionberger, Herbert F. Adoption of New Ideas and Practices, Ames, Iowa: State University Press, 1960. Masuda, Minoru and Thomas H. Holmes. "Magnitude Estimations of Social Readjustments", Journal of Psychosomatic Research, Vol. 2, 1967, pp. 219-225. Masuda, Minoru and Thomas H. Holmes. "The Social Re-adjustment Rating Scale: A Cross-Cultural Study of Japanese and Americans", Journal of Psychosomatic Research, Vol. 2, 1967, pp. 227-237. Merritt, J.E. "The Development of a Needs-Based Literacy Programme - a Comment", in BAAL (British Association of Applied Linguistics) seminar report, Languages for Life, pp. IV 1-11, 1978. Ministry Advisory Committee on Continuing Education. A Draft Policy on the Provision of Adult Basic Education Programs, Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Education, Post-Secondary Department, Continuing Education Division, Victoria, B.C., April, 1980. Mohan, Bernard. "Relating language teaching and content teaching", TESOL Quarterly, Vol. 13, No. 2, 1979. Munby, John. Communicative Syllabus Design, London: Cambridge University Press, 1978. Paulston, Rolland G. "Social and Educational Change: Conceptual Frameworks", Comparative Education Review, Volume 21, Nos. 2/3, June/October, 1977, pp. 370-395. Richmond, Anthony H. and Warren E. Kalbach. Factors in the Adjustment of Immigrants and Their Descendents, Ottawa: Statistics Canada, January, 1980. Richterich, Rene. "A Model for the Definition of Language Needs of Adults", Systems Development in Adult Language Learning, Strasbourg: Council of Europe, Council of Cultural Co-operation, pp. 31-62, 1973. Selman, Mary and Margaret Blackwell. "ESL: A Community-Based Program", TEAL Occasional Papers, Vancouver: B.C. Associa tion of Teachers of English as an Additional Language, Vol. 1, pp. 74-85, 1977. 106 Stern, H.H.. "Mammoths or Modules", Times Educational Supplement, October 8, 1976, p. 44. Stevens, S.S. "A Metric for Social Consensus", Science, Vol. 151, February, 1966, pp. 530-541. Stevens, S.S. "Matching Functions Between Loudness and Ten Other Continua", Perception and Psychophysics, Vol. 1, 1966, pp. 5-8. Stevick, Earl. Adapting and Writing Language Lessons, Washington, D.C.: Foreign Service Institute, Department of State, 1971. Taft, Ronald. Coping With Unfamiliar Cultures, unpublished manuscript, December, 1975. Trim, J.L.M. General introduction to the'symposium. Paper presented at a symposium on A European unit/credit system  for modern language learning by adults, at Ludwigshafen-aur-Rhein, Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe, September, 1977. Van Ek, J.A. The Threshold Level for Modern Language Learning in  Schools, London: Longman, 197 6. Verner, Coolie. A Conceptual Scheme for the Identification and  Classification of Processes, Chicago, Illinois: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1962. Wilkins, D.A. "A Communicative Approach to Syllabus Construction in Adult Language Learning", paper presented at a symposium on A Unit/Credit System for Modern Languages in Adult  Education, St. Wolfgang, Austria, June, 1973. (Eric ED 086 012) . Wolfgang, Aaron (ed) Education of Immigrant Students, Symposium Series 5, Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, 1975. Wong, Wah. English as a Second Language Needs Assessment Survey, unpublished manuscript, Vancouver: B.C. Ministry of Education and Britannia Community Services Centre, 1977. Yildiz, Nancy. Night School ELT Program, Vancouver: Vancouver Community College, King Edward Campus, 1977. 107 7APPENDIX I Respondent Number Respondent's Name: Address: Telephone: Record of Visits Date Time Comments Additional Notes 108 1. Man Woman 2. Age 3. Single Married Divorced Upon Arrival At Present Widowed 4. Place of Birth 5. First Language 6. Number of Languages (describe) 7. Citizenship 8. Spouse's Place of Birth 9. Spouse's First Language 10. Spouse's Citizenship 11. Last Places of Residence 12. Length of Residence in Last Place years 13. Length of Residence in Vancouver year14. Did you ever visit Vancouver before you came to live here? Yes No , 15. If so, how long was your visit here? 16. Present occupation (Be very specific such as owner of small retail business, sales manager of Sears Dept. store, secretary in a real estate office, iron worker making car frames at General Motors) 109 17. If presently unemployed or housewife, what was your last occupation in Canada? 18. What was your last occupation in Israel? 19. What other occupations have you had in your life? 20. If you have never worked at all what was your spouse's occupation when you left Israel? 21. How many children did you have? upon arrival at present 22. How old were your children upon arrival at present child 1 child 2 child 3 child 4 23. How many years of formal schooling have you had? years. 24. Describe your life's education in detail (e.g. 10 years high school, 2 years in army technical school, worked for 5 years, 4 years univer sity, 1 year teacher training, worked for 10 years, 6 months job retraining at an insurance company) Before arrival in Canada After arrival in Canada 25. How many countries have you lived in for six months or more including Canada and Israel? 110 26. Do you hold a B.C. Driver's Licence? Yes No 27. Did you hold a driver's licence before coming to B.C.? Yes No . 28. When you arrived in Vancouver, how many adult relatives did you have here? 29. How was each of them (from #28) related to you? 30. When you arrived in Vancouver, how many friends did you already have living here? (not relatives) 31. How many of your friends (from #30) were Israelis? 32. How often did you see each of your Israeli friends? Friend During 1st 6 months in Van. At present 3. 33. How many of your friends (from #30) were Canadians? 34. HOT often did you see each of your Canadian friends? Friend During 1st 6 months in Van. At present Ill 35. How often did you attend a synagogue? \ f Never [ | Now and then over the years 1 | At least yearly | | At least monthly | | At least weekly ; J At least daily 36. When did you last attend the synagogue? Occasion: 37. When was the time before the last time? ^ Occasion: 38. How often do you read the Jewish Western Bulletin? | | Never | | Now and then over the years | | At least yearly [ | At least monthly | J At least weekly 39. When was the last time you read it? Where? 40. When was the time before the last time? Where? 41. How often do you go to the Jewish Community Centre? | | Never | ~\ Now and then over the years [ | At least yearly | | At least monthly | | At least weekly |~ | At least daily 112 42. When was the last time you went to the Jewish ODrnmunity Centre? What for? 43. When was the time before the last time? What for? 44. Here are some statements describing differences between life in Israel and life in Canada. Read them and indicate how strongly you agree or disagree with each one: strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, strongly disagree. SA A N D SD Life is less expensive in Canada. SA A N D SD There is a big difference in Canadian food. SA A N D SD The Canadians are more friendly than Israelis. SA A N D SD There is no pressure from war and the political situation in Canada. SA A N D SD The climate is very different in Vancouver. SA A N D SD Political life is more interesting in Israel. SA A N D SD There are more economic opportunities in Canada. SA A N D SD There is less social and family life in Canada. SA A N D SD Canadians are more polite than Israelis. SA A N D SD It's harder to find a job in Canada. SA A N D SD People in Canada live in better housing. SA A N D SD Canadians are not as friendly as Israelis. 45. If you have noticed some differences between life in Israel and life in Canada which do not appear in #44, please state 46. How satisfied are you with your life in Canada? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Not at all - it's terrible Much less than I thought I would be Almost as much as I thought I would be As much as I thought I would be Better than I thought I would be More than I ever thought possible Completely - I love it 113 47. Here are seme statements describing reasons why you might be dissatisfied with your life in Canada. Read them and indicate how strongly you agree or disagree with each one: strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, strongly disagree. Canadians are too private. The climate in Vancouver is depressing. I prefer a more socialist government. It's difficult to make long-lasting friends here. The relationship between the Israelis and the other Jews in Vancouver is not good. I can't get a good job here. I miss the Israeli culture. I miss my family in Israel. Canadian Jews aren't really Jewish. 48. If you are dissatisfied with scmetliing that is not listed in #47, please state it. SA A N D SD SA A N D SD SA A N D SD SA A N D SD SA A N D SD SA A N D SD SA A N D SD SA A N D SD SA A N D SD 49. Did you come to Canada Alone With friends (no family) With your immediate family With your family and others Others 50. What was your citizenship status Upon Arrival At Present Visitor's Visa (no work permit) Visitor's Visa (& work permit) Employment Visa Student Visa (no work permit) Student Visa (& work permit) Landed Immigrant: Independent Fiance (e) Sponsored Ncminated Other: Describe 114 51. (a) (b) Do you use English at home 1 2 none at work 1 sometimes 2 half the time 3 most of the time 4 all the time 5 none <• sometimes half the time most of the time all the time 52. How well did you speak English upon arrival in Canada? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 I could I could I could couldn1t get by at all under stand a little but not speak under stand a lot and speak a little understand everything and speak a lot I spoke well I spoke well I could but had with an pass as a trouble with accent native technical and Canadian professional terms 53. How well do you speak English now? 1 2 3 4 5 7 I I can can't under-get by stand a at all little but not speak I can under stand a lot and speak a little I can understand everything and speak a lot I speak well I speak well I can pass but have trouble with technical and professional terms with an accent as a native Canadian 54. Interviewer's assessment of interviewee1s English 1 2 3 4 5 6 S/he .; speaks well with an accent I had to conduct the whole interview in Hebrew. S/he does not know English at" all S/he under-stands a little Eng lish but doesn't speak it S/he under-stands a lot of Eng lish and speaks a little S/he under-stands everything in English and speaks a lot of English S/he speaks English well but has trouble with tech nical and profession al terms S/he could pass as a native Canadian 116 APPENDIX III INTERVIEWERS* STEPS TO FOLLOW 1. Phone the person you are to interview in order to make an appointment. Ask if it's alright if you speak in Hebrew. Say something like: "My name is - I am phoning on behalf of Judith Mastai, a student at UBC, who is doing research on Israelis who have come to Vancouver over the last ten years. Below is a copy of an article that appeared in the Jewish Western Bulletin this week. Please use the information to give some background on what the research is about and what the results will be used for. Try, at all costs, to avoid using the word "immigrant". Substitute the word "newcomer". Judith Mastai, a doctoral student in the Department of Adult Edu cation at UBC, is conducting research on how people adapt to new places. The emphasis is on what tasks face a newcomer and how they are resolved when one arrives in a new country. The survey does not inquire why newcomers have chosen' to come to Canada or how long they intend to stay here. The results of the survey will be used to inform teachers of English as a second language as to how they can be more helpful to newcomers and more efficient in providing meaningful content for their lessons. Different ethnic groups will be interviewed and, during the next month, Israeli members of the community can expect a phone call from Mrs. Mastai or one of her interviewers: Dvori Balshine, Nathan Davidovitch, Yona Frishman, Dahlia Gottlieb-Tanaka, Ruth Kowarsky, Amos Lakos, 117 Moshe Mastai, Michal Nachmias, Josephine Nadel, Lois Parag, Harvey Radman. Any inquiries regarding the study can be directed to Mrs. Mastai (733-2003) and your co-operation will be greatly appreciated. In addition, if you have recently arrived in Van couver or know of someone who has, please phone, as the success of the study depends on interviewing those who have been here a short while as well as those who have been here for some time. A good opening on 'the phone might be: "Did you see the article in the Bulletin last week?" Before going to the interview, write the questionnaire number on both the first page and the yellow top card on the deck of cards. 2. At the interview: Introduce yourself again and once more ex plain in a few words that you represent a student who is doing research at UBC on newcomers to Vancouver. She is interested in the sorts of tasks that people meet when they come to live in a new place. If the people seem suspicious, upset or unwilling to be much help, try to find out why dur ing the first few minutes. If you need to you could mention any of these things: a) we are not interested in their reasons for leaving Israel; b) we are not interested in how long they plan to stay in Canada; c) we are not interested in whether they intend to return to Israel; d) we are not from any agency or the government; e) this is a doctoral research in Adult Education. Stress that we are only interested in the sorts of tasks that face people when they come to a new place. We have chosen to talk to Israelis because the researcher speaks Hebrew and lived in Israel for a number of years. 113 Take some time to tell the people what all your papers for the interview are: the cards, the questionnaire, etc. and that they will be used at different points during the inter view. When the interviewee feels at ease, begin the inter view. Show the interviewee the deck of cards. Explain that there are 36 tasks that people meet when they arrive in a new place. Have them read through the cards to make sure that they understand everything. If there is a question, trans late the item into Hebrew. If it is still a problem, ask them what they think it means. Try to avoid giving examples of an item. Ask the interviewee to shuffle the cards. S/he assigns the difficulty of the task on the first card (the card on top of the shuffled deck) a value of 100. S/he assigns a number, any number greater or smaller than 100 except 0, to each subsequent card to indicate its difficulty in relation to the first card. The number stands for how difficult the task was the first time s/he was faced with it. Point out that each card will be "so many" times less or more difficult than the first card. Interviewees could leave the first card on the table for reference. Ask them whether the second card is easier or harder than the first, how many times easier (or harder). Do the same for the next card and so on until they understand what is required. Stress that we are interested in ratios, not percentages. Encourage them to check back and forth among cards if they wish. Please make sure that they assign a value to every card. Even if it's not applicable they can still imagine how difficult it would be for them. 119 7. Have the interviewee arrange all the tasks in order of their importance the first time they were faced with the task. 8. You record their ordering by writing large numbers on the centre front of the cards - 1 is their most important, 2 their next in importance and so on down to 36 for the least important. 9. Select your ten cards from the deck. 10. Turn one card over. Explain the time line and that all the lines on it stand for days, months, etc. after arrival. Refer to each of the 10 items, one at a time, remind the interviewees of the difficulty value s/he gave it and ask the following four questions about each of your 10 items. 11. Ask the interviewee at what point in time s/he first thought  of having to do that task and mark the time precisely on the time line with a dot and the number 1. 12. Ask the interviewee at what point in time s/he resolved that task (or, if s/he hasn't resolved it yet, at what point in time s/he expects to resolve it) and mark the time precisely on the time line with a dot and the number 2. 13. Ask the interviewee what made the task difficult. They could give one or a number of answers to this question. Record all their answers on the back of the card at the top. Some of their answers might refer to: a) the time they arrived, e.g. at a time of high unemploy ment ; b) no source of information available or knowledge of where to go for information; c) wrong information; d) something that was, of itself, hard to learn (Be specific about what that hurdle was) 12 0 e) how long it took to resolve it. 14. Ask the interviewee where or to whom s/he went to get infor  mation on how to resolve the task. Show the list of sources to aid the interviewee. Mark the sources by letter symbol on the back of the card at the bottom. If s/he went to C first, then to Q and then to J, mark them C Q J. In other words, try to find out the order in which they consulted each source. Encourage them to "tell you the story" of how they resolved each of these ten tasks. 15. Ask the interviewee if there are any tasks that s/he had to resolve that are not listed on the cards. Write each new task on a card with a yellow stripe. You need not ask any questions about the new items. Just be specific when you write the item down. 16. Show the deck of cards to the interviewee. Have him/her read the cards and sort them into five piles: a) not applicable to me; b) I haven't tried this one yet; c) I'm doing this now; d) I tried this but couldn't resolve it; e) I've resolved this. 17. After s/he has sorted them into piles, you mark each pile with the appropriate colour pencil. 18. Questionnaire: Please let the interviewee see the question naire. There is nothing secret about it. However, you ask the questions and write in the answers. Don't let them just . fill it in by themselves. They can fill in questions 47 and 50. Make sure that you get as specific information as possible, especially about employment. 121 19. Finish your coffee and go home. 20. When you,get outside, make any notes about the interview, problems you had, questions, etc. 21. When you get home call Judith to discuss the interview, questions, problems. Please keep in close contact, especially if you have any problems making appointments'. One final word. You will find that the interviews become easier and easier. Please try very hard not to change the precision with which you ask your questions and not to embellish and give examples. Always bear in mind that all of you must ask the ques tions the same way and follow this script or the results will be useless. Have fun. Good luck. 

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