UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The clinical supervision conference : an exploratory study 1982

You don't seem to have a PDF reader installed, try download the pdf

Item Metadata

Download

Media
UBC_1982_A2 G75.pdf [ 20.51MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 1.0055879.json
JSON-LD: 1.0055879+ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 1.0055879.xml
RDF/JSON: 1.0055879+rdf.json
Turtle: 1.0055879+rdf-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 1.0055879+rdf-ntriples.txt
Citation
1.0055879.ris

Full Text

THE CLINICAL SUPERVISION CONFERENCE: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY by PETER PHILIP GRIMMETT B.A. (Hons) The Univ e r s i t y of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, U.K., 1969 Dip.Ed. The Univ e r s i t y of Keele, U.K., 1971 M.A. The Un i v e r s i t y of Alberta, 1974 M.Ed. The Univ e r s i t y of Alberta, 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION m THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Administrative, Adult and Higher Education) We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard The UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1982 (c) Peter P h i l i p Grimmett, 1982 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t , and Higher Education The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date A p r i l 19, 1982. DE-6 (3/81) ABSTRACT The l i t e r a t u r e characterizes current supervision practices as involving l i t t l e r e f l e c t i o n . C l i n i c a l supervision was proposed to pro- vide opportunities for conceptual-analytical thought. Despite i t s apparent popularity, empirical knowledge of the process i s inadequate. Writers nevertheless expound the approach's a d a p t a b i l i t y to supervisee needs. Yet we know l i t t l e about how f l e x i b l e c l i n i c a l supervisors are i n t h e i r attempts to influence supervisees towards i n s t r u c t i o n a l improvement. The purpose of the study was to explore the c l i n i c a l supervision r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the n a t u r a l i s t i c s e t t i n g of the conference. Predicated on a view of "supervision as teaching" (Goldhammer et a l . , 1980), the i n v e s t i g a t i o n focussed on conference communication, on the s t r u c t u r a l v a r i a t i o n s i n p a r t i c i p a n t s ' dialogue and i n t e r a c t i v e thoughts and on the possible i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between overt and covert p a r t i c i p a n t behaviour. Four volunteer supervisors completed two c l i n i c a l cycles with t h e i r respective supervisees. The videotaped conferences were replayed to dyad p a r t i c i p a n t s at separate times to stimulate r e c a l l of t h e i r i n t e r a c t i v e thoughts. Preactive data were also gathered to a i d the examination of overt and covert conference behaviour. Preliminary data analysis found differences i n performance to be more r e a d i l y explainable by the " s t r u c t u r a l v a r i a t i o n s " i n p a r t i c i p a n t s dialogue and thoughts. These v a r i a t i o n s occurred as p a r t i c i p a n t s d i f f e r - entiated and integrated events experienced i n the conference and served as i n d i c a t o r s of conceptual functioning. The current l i n k i n research on teaching between conceptual l e v e l and teacher f l e x i b i l i t y suggested a p o t e n t i a l connection between c l i n i c a l supervision p a r t i c i p a n t s ' confer- ence behaviour and t h e i r conceptual development. The study's conceptual framework integrated Harvey et a l . ' s (1961) l e v e l s of conceptual development with Wallen's (1972) l e v e l s of con- s t r u c t i v e openness, influence processes, and supervisee r o l e s , adding one further influence process and one further supervisee r o l e to cause a r e - i n t e g r a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between supervisor influence and supervisee behaviour posited by Wallen. Transcripts of conference dialogue and p a r t i c i p a n t s ' thoughts were then analysed on two l e v e l s . At a micro-level, t r a n s c r i p t s were coded using a s t r u c t u r a l v a r i a t i o n s analysis system developed by the researcher. A case study approach was used to demonstrate how d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of conceptual functioning affected the supervisory r e l a t i o n s h i p . Two supervisors functioned more a b s t r a c t l y , t h e i r verbal behaviour characterized by high l e v e l s of constructive openness. The other two functioned more concretely, espousing lower l e v e l s of constructive open- ness . Supervisee growth occurred only i n dyads involving supervisors f o s t e r i n g high constructive openness and functioning conceptually i n a more abstract fashion. These supervisors, whilst " f l e x i n g " to the " p u l l " of supervisee i n i t i a t i v e , also appeared to influence supervisees p o s i t i v e l y . A lowering of supervisee conceptual functioning occurred i n dyads invo l v i n g more concrete functioning supervisors who appeared to force supervisees to " f l e x " i n the d i r e c t i o n of supervisory " p u l l " . Associations between preactive and i n t e r a c t i v e data were found, suggesting a p o t e n t i a l means of diagnostic assessment for would-be supervisors. i i i At a macro-level, general patterns of thought and behaviour associating with more abstract and more concrete functioning supervisors were derived. More abstract functioning supervisors used questioning strategies and exploration procedures that f a c i l i t a t e d supervisee lesson appraisal. Their supervisees reported deriving insights and expressed appreciation of the intervention's e f f e c t i v e n e s s . More concrete functioning supervisors emphasized the giving of feedback over the encouragement of c o l l a b o r a t i v e exploration of i n s t r u c t i o n . Their super- visees reported experiencing confusion and ro l e discomfort, and were i n d i f f e r e n t to the usefulness of c l i n i c a l supervision. The study's findings would imply that c l i n i c a l supervision requires supervisors capable of functioning at high conceptual l e v e l s . Research i n d i c a t e s , however, that most p r a c t i t i o n e r s function at low l e v e l s . This study then suggests p o t e n t i a l areas of development that could be incorporated into the pre-service and i n - s e r v i c e education of c l i n i c a l supervisors. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES x i v LIST OF FIGURES x v i Chapter 1. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 Background to the Study 1 Purposes of the Study 4 THE PROBLEM 5 Research Questions 6 B r i e f O u t l i n e of the Study 8 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 9 DELIMITATIONS 13 DEFINITION OF TERMS 13 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY 15 2. SUPERVISION OF TEACHING: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 17 THE CONTEXT AND PRACTICE OF SUPERVISION 17 The Context of Supervision 17 Current Supervision P r a c t i c e 21 CLINICAL SUPERVISION 25 The R a t i o n a l e f o r and Purpose of C l i n i c a l S u p e r v ision 26 The C l i n i c a l Cycle 28 The pre-observation conference 28 Observation of teaching 29 v Chapter Page Analysis and strategy 29 Post-observation conference 29 "Post-mortem" analysis of supervisory performance 30 RESEARCH CONCERNING CLINICAL SUPERVISION 30 Studies Based on P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Perceptions 32 Tests of the Effectiveness of C l i n i c a l Supervision 34 Exploratory Studies 39 Summary 42 STUDIES OF CONCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT 43 Rationale f o r Conceptual Development 43 Str u c t u r a l organization 45 Developmental sequence 45 Interactionalism 46 Conceptual Level as a Variable i n Teaching 47 CONCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE SUPERVISION OF TEACHING 50 SUMMARY 53 3. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 55 STRUCTURAL VARIATIONS IN CONCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT 56 Levels of Conceptual Development 59 Level I: u n i l a t e r a l dependence 60 Level I I : negative dependence 61 Level I I I : c o n d i t i o n a l dependence and mutuality 62 Level IV: interdependence (integration of. mutuality and autonomy) 64 v i Chapter Page The Sequence of Conceptual Development 65 SUPERVISION CONDITIONS AND CONCEPTUAL LEVEL 67 Unilateral-Interdependent Dimension 69 U n i l a t e r a l conditions 70 Interdependent conditions 70 Dimensions of Imposition 71 Rel i a b l e u n i l a t e r a l conditions 72 Unreliable u n i l a t e r a l conditions 72 Protective interdependent conditions 73 Informational interdependent conditions 74 CONSTRUCTIVE OPENNESS IN CLINICAL SUPERVISION 75 The Interpersonal E f f e c t of Various Responses 76 Interactive Level of Constructive Openness 79 Preactive Level of Constructive Openness 80 INTERPERSONAL INFLUENCE PROCESS 81 SUPERVISEE DEVELOPMENTAL GROWTH 85 Supervisee Roles 85 R e a l i s t i c dependency 85 U n r e a l i s t i c dependency 86 Counterdependency 86 Independence . 86 Po t e n t i a l Links between Influence Processes and Supervisee Role Behaviour 87 Supervisee Role Behaviour and Profe s s i o n a l Growth 88 v i i Chapter Page SUMMARY 93 4. PROCEDURES AND ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES 98 STUDY DESIGN 98 An Exploratory Study 98 Grounded theory 100 Stimulated r e c a l l 101 Sample 103 Assumptions 103 Limitations 104 DATA SOURCES ' 105 Videotape Recordings of Conferences 105 Audiotape Recordings of Verbal Reports of I n t e r a c t i v e Thought Processes . 106 Preactive Behaviour Instrument and Supervisee Role Behaviour Prognostication 107 EVOLUTION OF THE STUDY 108 P i l o t Testing Phase 108 Preactive behaviour instrument: design and t r i a l 108 Stimulated r e c a l l sessions 109 Verbal analysis of conferences 110 Ac c l i m a t i z a t i o n and F i n a l Procedures 110 Data Gathering I l l Conference videotaping I l l Stimulated r e c a l l interviews I l l Data Analysis Phase 113 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES 118 v i i i Chapter Page Analysis of Conference Verbal Behaviour 118 Analysis of Conference Dialogue and Thought Process Transcripts 119 ClinSuPICLAS 120 Examples of u n i t i z a t i o n and categorization 123 R e l i a b i l i t y 126 5. COMMUNICATION IN CONFERENCE INTERACTION 128 CONSTRUCTIVE OPENNESS LEVELS 130 Preactive Level 130 Interactive Level 132 CONFERENCE CASE STUDIES 1 3 5 A-L Pre-conference #1 135 A-L Post-conference #1 140 B-M Pre-conference #1 146 B-M Post-conference #1 152 C-0 Post-conference #1 157 C-0 Post-conference #2 162 D-P Pre-conf erence #1 166 D-P Post-conference #1 174 SUMMARY 185 6 . STRUCTURAL VARIATIONS IN CONFERENCE INTERACTION . . . . 136 METHOD OF ANALYSIS 186 CASE EXAMPLE: A-L PRE-CONFERENCE #1 191 Supervisor 'A' 191 Supervisee 'L' 200 Summary 209 ix Chapter Page CASE EXAMPLE: A-L POST-CONFERENCE #1 211 Supervisor 'A' 211 Supervisee 'L' 221 Summary 232 CASE EXAMPLE: B-M PRE-CONFERENCE #1 234 Supervisor 'B' 234 Supervisee 'M' 246 Summary 252 CASE EXAMPLE: C-0 POST-CONFERENCE #1 254 Supervisor 'C 254 Supervisee '0' 269 Summary 275 7. CONSTRUCTIVE OPENNESS AND CONCEPTUAL FUNCTIONING . . . . 277 CONSTRUCTIVE OPENNESS AND LEVELS OF CONCEPTUAL FUNCTIONING 278 Supervisor Interactive Constructive Openness and Conceptual Functioning 278 Supervisor Interactive Constructive Openness and Supervisee Conceptual Functioning 280 SUPERVISOR AND SUPERVISEE CONCEPTUAL FUNCTIONING . . . 282 PREACTIVE CONSTRUCTIVE OPENNESS SCORES AS PREDICTORS OF INTERACTIVE CONSTRUCTIVE OPENNESS AND CONCEPTUAL FUNCTIONING 289 Supervisor Preactive and Interactive Levels of Constructive Openness 289 Preactive Constructive Openness and Inte r a c t i v e Conceptual Functioning 292 THE IMPACT OF CLINICAL SUPERVISION INTERVENTION . . . 295 The Evidences for Cause and E f f e c t 295 Hypotheses Suggested by the Analysis 298 x Chapter Page 8. GENERAL PATTERNS OF THOUGHT AND BEHAVIOUR 300 SUPERVISEE APPRECIATION OF INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS 300 MORE ABSTRACT FUNCTIONING SUPERVISORS 310 Questioning Strategies 310 Information-seeking questions 311 Information-giving questions 312 Delimiting questions 313 Guiding questions 314 Exploration Procedures 315 Holding questions i n abeyance 315 Retrieving questions to be probed 316 Probing for c l a r i f i c a t i o n and supervisee i n s i g h t 319 Supervisor "press" f o r autonomy and deep in s i g h t i n supervisee 323 Withholding expertise but not support 327 Sharing Feedback: Pre-conference Agreement Focus 329 MORE CONCRETE FUNCTIONING SUPERVISORS 329 Inappropriate Exploration Techniques 329 Supervisor use of yes-no questions instead of probing 330 Supervisor use of open question when s p e c i f i c focus required 332 D i f f i c u l t i e s i n Giving Feedback 334 Supervisor use of untrue statements to disarm c o r r e c t i v e feedback 334 Supervisor confounding of straightforward issue 337 x i Chapter Page Opportunities f o r f e i t e d through "stimulus boundedness" 339 SUMMARY 3 4 0 9. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND TENTATIVE RECOMMENDATIONS 342 SUMMARY 342 Problem and Purposes 342 Methodological Procedures 344 Data Analysis Process 345 CONCLUSIONS 3 4 6 S t r u c t u r a l V a r i a t i o n s Analysis Findings 3^6 Pa r t i c i p a n t i n t e r a c t i v e conceptual functioning 3 4 ? Impact of c l i n i c a l supervision 3 4 ? Preactive and i n t e r a c t i v e associations 3 4 8 General Patterns of Thought and Behaviour 349 Questioning strategies 3^9 Exploration procedures 3 4 9 Rendering feedback 3 ^ u IMPLICATIONS 3 5 0 Administrator Preparation Programmes 351 C l i n i c a l Supervision P r a c t i c e 3^2 TENTATIVE RECOMMENDATIONS 355 Administrator Preparation Programmes 355 Future Research 356 C l i n i c a l Supervision P r a c t i c e 361 BIBLIOGRAPHY 3& 3 x i i 0 Appendices Page A. CONSTRUCTIVE OPENNESS INSTRUMENTS 378 B. SUPERVISEE ROLE BEHAVIOUR QUESTIONNAIRE 388 C. TUCKWELL'S (1980b) PROCEDURES FOR CONDUCTING STIMULATED RECALL INTERVIEWS 390 D. CLINICAL SUPERVISION PARTICIPANTS' INTERACTIVE CONCEPTUAL LEVEL ANALYSIS SYSTEM AND THE MOTIVATIONAL PRINCIPLES AND SUPERVISION CONDITIONS ON WHICH ClinSuPICLAS IS BASED 394 E. TUCKWELL'S (1980a) GUIDELINES FOR THE DIFFERENTIATION OF INTERACTIVE FROM NON-INTERACTIVE THOUGHTS 408 F. PEARSON PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS CALCULATED BY THE RAW SCORE METHOD 414 x i i i LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1. Stages of Data A n a l y s i s i n the Study 114 2. C l i n i c a l S u p e r vision P a r t i c i p a n t s ' I n t e r a c t i v e Conceptual L e v e l A n a l y s i s System 124 3. Experience of C l i n i c a l S upervision P a r t i c i p a n t s and P r e a c t i v e Levels of C o n s t r u c t i v e Openness 131 4. P r e a c t i v e , I n t e r a c t i v e Levels of Co n s t r u c t i v e Openness and Corresponding Influence Processes i n Conference 133 5. Basis f o r T r a n s p o s i t i o n of I n t e r a c t i v e Conceptual Fu n c t i o n i n g C a t e g o r i z a t i o n s onto C o n s t r u c t i v e Openness Scale 188 6. I n t e r a c t i v e Conceptual Functioning Mean Scores of Supervision P a r t i c i p a n t s i n Each Conference 189 7. S t r u c t u r a l V a r i a t i o n C a t e g o r i z a t i o n s f o r A-L Pre-conference #1 and P a r t i c i p a n t Conceptual L e v e l Mean 210 8. S t r u c t u r a l V a r i a t i o n C a t e g o r i z a t i o n s f o r A-L Post-conference #1 and P a r t i c i p a n t Conceptual L e v e l Mean • 233 9. S t r u c t u r a l V a r i a t i o n C a t e g o r i z a t i o n s f o r B-M Pre-conference #1 and P a r t i c i p a n t Conceptual L e v e l Mean 253 10. S t r u c t u r a l V a r i a t i o n C a t e g o r i z a t i o n s ! f o r C-0 Post-conference #1 and P a r t i c i p a n t Conceptual L e v e l Mean 276 11. P a r t i c i p a n t P r e a c t i v e , I n t e r a c t i v e Levels of Co n s t r u c t i v e Openness w i t h Mean Levels of I n t e r a c t i v e Conceptual Functioning per Conference 279 12. Comparison of Pre-conference Supervisor Conceptual Functioning w i t h Post-conference Supervisee Conceptual Functioning 284 x i v Table Page 13. Arithmetic Differences between Supervisor Preactive and Interactive Levels of Constructive Openness 290 14. Supervisee Growth as Measured by Increase or Reduction i n Conceptual Functioning Level 296 xv LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page •1. V a r i a t i o n i n Level of Conceptual Structure 58 2. Sequence of Conceptual Development 66 3. Supervision Conditions 68 4. Interpersonal E f f e c t of Various Responses 77 5. Possible I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of Supervision Conditions, Communication Patterns and Processes of Influence 85 6. Influence Processes and Supervisee Role E f f e c t s 89 7. Supervisee Role Behaviour and Professional Growth 90 8. Diagrammatic Summary of Conceptual Framework 94 9. Conceptual Basis for the Study 96 xv i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to acknowledge my immense debt and gratitude to the members of my examining committee: - Dr. Ian E. Housego, research supervisor, whose perceptive c r i t i c i s m , insight and encouragement complemented the p r a c t i c a l and authentic modelling of c l i n i c a l supervision that had f i r s t roused my c u r i o s i t y , then f i r e d my research i n t e r e s t , and ultim a t e l y provided a l i v i n g e x h i b it of the process I was attempting to explore. - Dr. J . Graham T. Kelsey, whose penetrating questions and ana- lyses helped me to focus the issues i n the study more concisely and con- tr i b u t e d a great deal to the d i s s e r t a t i o n ' s c l a r i t y and flow. - Dr. Daniel J . Brown, whose knowledge of research design and methodology enabled me to grasp the tentativeness of the study's findings and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the implications for c l i n i c a l supervision prac- t i c e . - Dr. P. James Gaskell and Dr. Jerry Wiggins who, as u n i v e r s i t y examiners, displayed a sound grasp of a very lengthy d i s s e r t a t i o n that evidenced i t s e l f i n pertinent, searching questioning. - Dr. D.A. MacKay, external examiner, who brought the wealth of his phenomenal knowledge and experience i n the area of research on teach- ing and i n s t r u c t i o n a l supervision to bear on t h i s ambitious study and was most supportive i n doing so. x v i i I also wish to acknowledge the u n f a i l i n g support extended to me by Dr. Lesley E. Haley, Chair of the Department of Education, Dalhousie University, who never doubted my a b i l i t y to f i n i s h t h i s project whilst carrying my f u l l load as a u n i v e r s i t y professor. And f i n a l l y my wife, Maureen, and Stephen and A b i g a i l , our c h i l d r e n . What can a person say when the love and support he i s given f ar surpasses anything he could ever have imagined p o s s i b l e . To Stephen and A b i g a i l : may they quickly forget the orphan-like existence they pursued f or the f i n a l eight months and rest contently i n the knowledge that "Daddy's d i s s e r t a t i o n i s r e a l l y done and Mommy won't be typing any more". To Maureen, "mein Schatzel", without whose love and tangible support I could not have f i n i s h e d t h i s project: whilst f u l f i l l i n g the r o l e s r of wife, mother, homemaker, and u n i v e r s i t y student, she indomit- ably found the time and energy to l i s t e n sympathetically, to discuss the data i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and ulti m a t e l y to type the numerous d r a f t s and the f i n a l examination and l i b r a r y copies of the d i s s e r t a t i o n . Truly we did i t together and I want to record my deep gratitude to her drive, her determination and her w i l l i n g and s a c r i f i c i a l sharing: of a task that took on mammoth proportions. x v i i i Chapter 1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Background to the Study C l i n i c a l supervision has been used successfully for many years i n the t r a i n i n g of psychotherapists. D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n over educational supervision practices p r i o r to the 1950's caused a group of educators at Harvard to adopt the c l i n i c a l model as an a l t e r n a t i v e approach to i n s t r u c t i o n a l supervision. This d e c i s i o n was based not on empirical research but on t h e i r understanding of p r a c t i c e and the conviction that i t was "a method which meets the c r i t e r i o n of best e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e " (Cogan, 1961, p. 12). Since that time, many writers''' have attempted to a r t i c u l a t e the ideas contained i n the c l i n i c a l conception and suggest ways i n which the approach could be put into p r a c t i c e . Some twenty years l a t e r , however, empirical support i s s t i l l lacking. Some of the research on c l i n i c a l supervision i n education (Eaker, 1972; L o v e l l et a l . , 1976; Arbucci, 1978) r e l i e s heavily on perceptual data, while other studies (Coffey, 1967; Garman, 1971; B.J. Kerr, 1976; Skrak, 1973; Shuma, 1973; Krajewski, 1976a; Turner, 1976; Reavis, 1977) attempt to test the effectiveness of c l i n i c a l supervision i n improving classroom i n s t r u c t i o n . The remaining studies (Zonca, 1972; Mershon, 1972; Pierce, 1975; Cook, Blumberg, 1974; Cogan, 1958, 1961, 1968, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1976; Champagne and Hogan, 1977; Flanders, 1976; Goldhammer, 1969; Goldhammer et a l . , 1980; Housego, 1973; Krajewski, 1976(b); Krey et a l . , 1977; MacKay, 1971; McCleary, 1976; McGee and Eaker, 1977; Mosher and Purpel, 1972; Reavis, 1976; Sergiovanni, 1975,!1976, 1977; Sergiovanni and S t a r r a t t , 1979. : 2 1976; T.G. Kerr, 1976; Squires, 1978) are l a r g e l y exploratory, seeking to understand the roles and r e l a t i o n s h i p s that emerge i n the prac t i c e of c l i n i c a l supervision. Because of the p o s s i b i l i t y of the Hawthorne e f f e c t being associated with some of the data-gathering devices used i n studies to test the effectiveness of the c l i n i c a l approach (Reavis, 1978), any differences i n r e s u l t s must be interpreted with care. As a consequence, S u l l i v a n (1980, pp. 14-15) asserts that "research on i n - c l a s s j j c l i n i c a l j supervision as a s p e c i f i c area i s ... inadequate". During t h i s period, there was an upsurge i n research on teaching. Excellent reviews (Dunkin and Biddle, 1974; Good and Power, 1976; Rosenshine, 1976; Good and Brophy, 1978; Brophy, 1979; Good, 1979; Peterson and Walberg, 1979; Hogben, 1980) record the recent f i n d i n g s . One aspect of t h i s p r o l i f e r a t i o n of research has been the l o n g i t u d i n a l attempt of Joyce and h i s colleagues to address the question of what to do about students who are made uncomfortable by new teaching behaviours. This d e l i b e r a t i o n has led to the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e models of teaching (Joyce and Weil, 1980) and to the research-based premise that e f f e c t i v e teaching involves searching f o r the amount of structure that a student needs and s e l e c t i n g models of teaching closest to the needed degree (Joyce, 1980, p. 24). In other words, f l e x i b i l i t y and a d a p t a b i l i t y , which Joyce (1980) associates with l e v e l s of conceptual development and complexity, have come to be regarded as s i g n i f i c a n t c r i t e r i a of teaching effectiveness. In order to understand how teachers t r a n s l a t e research- derived knowledge of teacher e f f e c t s into the p r a c t i c a l r e a l i t i e s of classrooms, i . e . , how f l e x i b l e teachers are i n t h e i r use of acquired t e c h n i c a l knowledge, a d i f f e r e n t o r i e n t a t i o n i n research on teaching has 3 emerged. This trend i s towards the study of teacher thinking and decision-making i n both the preactive and i n t e r a c t i v e phases of teaching. I t appears to be part of a general renewal of i n t e r e s t i n the analysis of the mediating process of thought as i t influences and a f f e c t s overt behaviour. If the r e s u l t s of such research [on teaching^ are to be applied by i n d i v i d u a l teachers i n t h e i r classroom, however, adaptations must be made. Each class consists of a unique combination of person- a l i t i e s , constraints, and opportunities. Behavior that i s sensible and e f f e c t i v e i n one s e t t i n g may be inappropriate i n a second s e t t i n g , and i t i s the i n d i v i d u a l teacher who decides what i s appropriate and defines the teaching s i t u a t i o n . And so, i f research i s to be put into p r a c t i c e — i f general rules are to be applied to p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n s — t h e n we must know more about how teachers exercise judg- ment, make decisions, define appropriateness, and express t h e i r thoughts i n t h e i r actions (Clark and Yinger, 1979, pp. 231-232). The cognitive information-processing approach to research on t e a c h i n g — concerned with how teachers gather, organize, i n t e r p r e t , and evaluate information—developed as a l o g i c a l outgrowth of the behavioural approaches that have contributed so much to knowledge of teaching e f f e c t - iveness. Using t h i s approach, Marland (1977) conducted i n A l b e r t a a study of teachers' i n t e r a c t i v e thoughts. I t was an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the conscious thoughts and fee l i n g s of s i x teachers-in-action designed to redress the imbalance caused by the observational bias i n classroom studies and to add new dimensions to the meaning and understanding of teaching. He saw the l i g h t that h i s study cast on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the cognitive functioning of teachers and the demands of t h e i r task environments as helping to "close the gap between educational theory and p r a c t i c e " (1977, p. 5). This tentative claim was based on the recognition that "teacher cognitions are an important mediating l i n k between curriculum intent and classroom p r a c t i c e , between antecedent and consequential events i n the classrooms, or between what i s , at one moment 4'- i n the classroom, and what comes next" (1977, p. 3). What i s d i s c e r n i b l e i n recent research on teaching could become an appropriate trend i n research into c l i n i c a l supervision. I t would seem that what goes on i n the heads of c l i n i c a l supervision p a r t i c i p a n t s during conference i n t e r a c t i o n may provide the l i n k between the conceptual model and p r a c t i c e of c l i n i c a l supervision. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n into how c l i n i c a l supervision p a r t i c i p a n t s construct the r e a l i t y of t h i s approach i n p r a c t i c e could provide the opportunity to discover "grounded theory which i s derived from data and then i l l u s t r a t e d by c h a r a c t e r i s t i c examples of data" (Glaser and Strauss, 1967, p. 5). Purposes of the Study The basic purpose of the study was to explore the c l i n i c a l supervision r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the n a t u r a l i s t i c s e t t i n g of the pre- and post-conference. The s p e c i f i c purposes of the study were: 1. to investigate the dialogue and i n t e r a c t i v e thought processes of c l i n i c a l supervision p a r t i c i p a n t s i n terms of the content and s t r u c t u r a l v a r i a t i o n s , i . e . , the l e v e l of conceptual functioning. 2. to develop and assess techniques for r a t i n g c l i n i c a l supervision p a r t i c i p a n t s ' preactive and i n t e r a c t i v e verbal communication behaviour i n terms of l e v e l s of constructive openness. 3. to observe and understand the dynamic i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s present i n the conference between p a r t i c i p a n t s ' overt communication behaviours and covert cognitive processes. 5 THE PROBLEM The d i f f i c u l t y of experimentally proving the effectiveness of c l i n i c a l supervision i n education i s l a r g e l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to the fac t that there i s i n s u f f i c i e n t empirical knowledge about the c l i n i c a l app- roach. I f , as Mosher and Purpel maintained i n 1972, "the l i t e r a t u r e i s devoid of research" (p. 60), S u l l i v a n (1980) confirms that t h i s i s s t i l l the case. Consequently, one of the basic components of the c l i n i c a l model—the supervisory r e l a t i o n s h i p — h a s yet to be operationalized i n a cont r o l l e d experimental design where i t s e f f e c t s could be at le a s t part- i a l l y assessed. Yet Goldhammer (1969) asserts that " i t i s the r e l a t i o n - ship that teaches" (p. 365) and that the conference i n t e r a c t i o n between supervisor and supervisee i s c r i t i c a l to the effectiveness of supervisory intervention. Indeed, Preston (1975), i n examining the e f f e c t s of the t r a d i t i o n a l student-teaching supervision r e l a t i o n s h i p on p u p i l classroom achievement, t e n t a t i v e l y concludes that the q u a l i t y of the r e l a t i o n s h i p , which he found to be dependent upon the cooperating-teacher 1s perceptions of the student teacher and the l e v e l of self-confidence c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the student teacher, may be associated with p u p i l learning gains. Increased demand f o r c l i n i c a l supervision to come out of the womb and "be f u l l y born to the world of public education" (Krajewski, 1977, p. 2), and the r o l e played by u n i v e r s i t i e s i n preparing supervisors and teachers a l i k e f o r such an advent, require a clearer understanding of the educative influence exercised by the interpersonal r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the c l i n i c a l approach to i n s t r u c t i o n a l improvement. Mosher and Purpel (1972) describe the c l i n i c a l supervisor as "a teacher of teachers, concerned with the content, method, and e f f e c t s of 6 classroom teaching" (p. 64). They further emphasize the need for c l i n i c a l supervision to espouse a rigorous analysis of teaching. Consequently, research-derived knowledge about e f f e c t i v e classroom practices can provide a useful framework for supervisor-supervisee conference discussion (Grimmett, 1981a). More important, however, i s the p o s s i b i l i t y that recent teaching effectiveness findings can apply equally to c l i n i c a l supervisors as they do to classroom teachers. Yet we know very l i t t l e about how f l e x i b l e and adaptable c l i n i c a l supervisors are to the needs of the teachers with whom they i n t e r a c t . Blumberg (1974, pp. 167-168) attempts to address t h i s issue by developing a conception of the supervisor as "interpersonal diagnostician" involved i n r e c i p r o c i t y . Interpersonal diagnostician r e f e r s to the sensing of teacher need for and tolerance of closeness, support, and guidance during supervision. I t includes the supervisor's adaptation of h i s r o l e s as f a c i l i t a t o r , counsellor, and evaluator to f u l f i l teacher needs for p r o f e s s i o n a l maturation i n and mastery of the s k i l l s they perceive as contributing to the creation of more e f f e c t i v e learning experiences. Yet we know so l i t t l e about how supervisors render diagnostic judgments and how they select from among a l t e r n a t i v e teaching behaviours. It would appear then that no previous research i n c l i n i c a l supervision has investigated how f l e x i b l e supervisors are i n diagnosing and influencing the a c q u i s i t i o n of teaching behaviour a l t e r n a t i v e s that meet the personal, p r o f e s s i o n a l , and s i t u a t i o n a l needs of supervisees. Research Questions The study i s p r i m a r i l y concerned with one research question which encompasses the purposes previously stated. The question i s : 7 How do c l i n i c a l supervision p a r t i c i p a n t s r e l a t e to each other during the conference? Sub-questions generated from the main research question are: 1. What i s the nature of the verbal communication during confer- ence interaction? 2. What i s the nature of the information processing approach used by c l i n i c a l supervision p a r t i c i p a n t s during conference i n t e r - action? 2.1 .What comprises the substantive content of p a r t i c i p a n t s ! thoughts and dialogue before, during, and a f t e r c r i t i c a l incidents of conference interaction? 2.2 What i s the nature of the s t r u c t u r a l v a r i a t i o n s i n each p a r t i c i p a n t ' s dialogue and i n t e r a c t i v e thought processes i n terms of conceptual functioning l e v e l during confer- ence interaction? 2.3 What patterns of thought and behaviour generally asso- c i a t e with d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of conceptual functioning i n c l i n i c a l supervision participants? 3. What i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s are present between the overt verbal behaviours and covert thought processes of supervisors and supervisees? 3.1 What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r t i c i p a n t s ' preactive thinking about constructive openness and t h e i r i n t e r - a c t i v e l e v e l of verbal communication? 3.2 What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between supervisor i n t e r a c t i v e l e v e l of conceptual functioning and supervisor i n t e r - a c t i v e l e v e l of constructive openness? 8 3.3 What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between supervisor i n t e r a c t i v e l e v e l of constructive openness and supervisee l e v e l of • conceptual functioning and r o l e behaviour? 3.4 What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r t i c i p a n t s ' preactive thinking about constructive openness and t h e i r i n t e r - a c t i v e l e v e l of conceptual functioning? 3.5 What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between supervisee r o l e behaviour and supervisor i n t e r a c t i v e thought processes? B r i e f Outline of the Study This study was primarily concerned with supervisor-supervisee i n t e r a c t i o n i n the c l i n i c a l conference. I t involved the c o l l e c t i o n , by stimulated r e c a l l , of supervision p a r t i c i p a n t s ' accounts of t h e i r conscious thoughts during the pre- and post-conferences of the c l i n i c a l c y cle. Four supervisors, a l l previously exposed to the c l i n i c a l approach, and t h e i r respective supervisees p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the project. Each super- v i s o r completed two cycles of the c l i n i c a l model. Two pre-conferences and two post-conferences were videotaped and subsequently shown to both p a r t i c i p a n t s at separate times to stimulate t h e i r r e c a l l of the thoughts they were having during conference i n t e r a c t i o n . The p a r t i c i p a n t s ' verbal a r t i c u l a t i o n of thoughts was recorded on audiotape and these in t r o s p e c t i v e recordings, together with the videotapes of the conferences, represent the s i g n i f i c a n t data i n t h i s study. P r i o r to the two month period of conference data gathering, the following data were c o l l e c t e d : supervision p a r t i c i p a n t s completed a Preactive Behaviour Instrument, r a t i n g how they think they would behave ve r b a l l y i n the conference. The r a t i n g i n d i c a t e s , before the conference, the l e v e l of constructive openness at which c l i n i c a l supervision 9 p a r t i c i p a n t s ' think they w i l l subsequently function. In addition, super- visees completed a b r i e f questionnaire designed to characterize the ro l e they had adopted i n previous supervisory intervention. These a d d i t i o n a l data, together with the analysis of the verbal behaviour exhibited i n the videotaped conferences, a s s i s t e d i n the analysis and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the t r a n s c r i p t s of c l i n i c a l supervision p a r t i c i p a n t s ' conference dilaogue and i n t e r a c t i v e thoughts. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY What do we know empi r i c a l l y about the process c a l l e d c l i n i c a l supervision? What do we know about what c l i n i c a l supervisors a c t u a l l y do? More i n t r i g u i n g l y , what do we know about t h e i r thought processes and communication behaviours while engaging i n conference a c t i v i t i e s ? Why i s there, as Blumberg (1974) and Mosher and Purpel (1972) suggest, a gap between the t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge of helping r e l a t i o n s h i p s and the p r a c t i c e of supervisory behaviour, leading them to question the ultimate product- i v i t y of supervision? It would appear that, i n many cases, supervisory p r a c t i c e i s deemed les s than s a t i s f a c t o r y . Teachers c r i t i c i z e supervisors for being out of touch with the classroom, for communicating procedural t r i v i a , and for engaging i n a democratic game which makes the whole process a r t i f i c i a l (Blumberg, 1974, pp. 16-18). P r i n c i p a l s i n ten B r i t i s h Columbia school d i s t r i c t s reported supervision-related topics as top p r i o r i t i e s for learning i n a study that analysed t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l development needs (Storey, 1978, pp. 92-93). And educators i n administ- rator preparation programmes would l i k e to provide p r i n c i p a l s and supervisors with r e s e a r c h - v e r i f i e d knowledge and s k i l l s that would stand 10 the test of p r a c t i c e ( H i l l s , 1975, p. 1). Yet substantive knowledge about c l i n i c a l supervision appears to be scarce. Most of the questions l i k e l y to be asked by teachers, supervisors, and u n i v e r s i t y - l e v e l educators have yet to be studied, and much of the current research into c l i n i c a l supervision does not provide adequate i n s i g h t s or conclusive p r i n c i p l e s . Much of what has been written i n the area of i n s t r u c t i o n a l supervision r e s t s , as Pohland points out (1976, p. 9), not on research findings but on personal conviction and experience. Given the sparseness of current empirical knowledge about c l i n i c a l supervision, there would appear to be a need for exploratory studies which describe and analyse the process. The c l i n i c a l model consistently emphasizes the supervisory r e l a t i o n s h i p as a key to e f f e c t i v e i n t e r - vention. The pre- and post-conference phases of the c l i n i c a l cycle provide opportunities for the researcher, through an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of conscious thoughts, f e e l i n g s and behaviours experienced during the i n t e r a c t i o n , to begin to penetrate beyond the more immediate apprehensions of the interpersonal r e l a t i o n s h i p into the deep structures of that i n t e r a c t i o n where both p a r t i c i p a n t s experience the conference experience and ultimately constitute i t s meaning and s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the improve- ment of i n s t r u c t i o n . An understanding of how supervision p a r t i c i p a n t s conceptually construct the r e a l i t y of the c l i n i c a l approach i n p r a c t i c e would seem to be a necessary p r e r e q u i s i t e to developing a p r a c t i c a l theory that would serve to improve the provision, maintenance, and u t i l i z a t i o n of high q u a l i t y supervisory personnel. For example, c l i n i c a l supervisors may possess a broad range of relevant interpersonal and a n a l y t i c a l s k i l l s but, i f they are unable to "read" s i t u a t i o n s i n which p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s are required or cannot s e l e c t the s i t u a t i o n a l l y appropriate s k i l l s , super- v i s o r y intervention may be less than e f f e c t i v e . S i m i l a r l y , i n t e l l i g e n t a p p l i c a t i o n of interpersonal communication s k i l l s depends l a r g e l y upon accurate supervisor perceptions of supervisee behaviour, and vice-versa, and upon warranted judgments and int e r p r e t a t i o n s of i t s meaning. Such perceptions, then, are c r u c i a l to the outcome of supervisory intervention. It may indeed be argued that, i n many instances, supervisees' willingness to experiment with d i f f e r e n t teaching behaviours u l t i m a t e l y depends upon the verbal and nonverbal behaviour of supervisors which e s s e n t i a l l y emanates from t h e i r covert cognitive processes. This study, then, could provide new understandings of and insig h t s into the conference process which may eventually contribute towards the development of a p r a c t i c a l theory of c l i n i c a l supervision. This knowledge, shared with p r a c t i t i o n e r s through i n - s e r v i c e education, could enable supervision p a r t i c i p a n t s to progress beyond a "democratic game" and could s a t i s f y the perceived need of p r i n c i p a l s for pro f e s s i o n a l development i n supervision-related areas. In addition, i t could expand the e x i s t i n g body of r e s e a r c h - v e r i f i e d knowledge and s k i l l s i n a way that reinforces the propensity of administrator/supervisor preparation programmes towards the development of conceptual-analytical s k i l l s but also c r i t i q u e s the nature of that propensity. The study may also have a further s i g n i f i c a n c e for the c l i n i c a l model. E s s e n t i a l l y , the c l i n i c a l approach presupposes that supervisors can approach the observation and analysis of teaching i n d u c t i v e l y i . e . , that supervisor a p p r a i s a l of preactive and i n t e r a c t i v e teaching can be withheld u n t i l evidence has been c o l l e c t e d . In other words, c l i n i c a l supervisors can be trained to come to a judgment of i n s t r u c t i o n a l 12 performance post facto, without being predisposed towards t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r mesh of preferences i n teaching behaviours. This study may confirm t h i s inductive p r i n c i p l e ; or i t may demonstrate, as E l s t e i n et a l . (1972, 1979) found i n t h e i r work with physicians, that supervisors have a propensity to diagnose deductively. E l s t e i n et a l . (1972, 1979) discovered, through an analysis of physician thought processes, that most medical p r a c t i t i o n e r s s e l e c t from among four or f i v e hypotheses, acquired from experience and thoroughly i n t e r n a l i z e d , when making a diagnosis about a patient's i l l n e s s . I t may be possible that c l i n i c a l supervisors function i n a s i m i l a r l y deductive fashion, i . e . , they carry around i n t h e i r heads a l i m i t e d number of teaching effectiveness p r o f i l e s which t a c i t l y structure t h e i r observation and analysis of teaching. In other words, they unwittingly look for c e r t a i n behaviours i n classroom i n s t r u c t i o n and render judgments, i n t h e i r thoughts at l e a s t , which are more representative of these t a c i t l y held p r o f i l e s than of what was discussed and agreed upon during the pre-conference with the supervisee. Although much has been written i n the l i t e r a t u r e about the interpersonal e f f e c t s of overt behaviours practiced i n the supervisory r e l a t i o n s h i p , l i t t l e mention has been made of conceiving of supervision p a r t i c i p a n t thought processes as the c r i t i c a l antecedents of such behaviours. The focus i n previous research has been on the expressive behaviour system of supervisors with scant reference to t h e i r cognitive map. Consequently, the question of the nature of the information that supervision p a r t i c i p a n t s process during the pre- and post-conference of the c l i n i c a l cycle has not been the subject of any research study to date. Nor has any project attempted to determine the l e v e l s of con- ceptual development at which c l i n i c a l supervision p a r t i c i p a n t s function 13 when processing information i n t e r a c t i v e l y and expressing overt verbal and nonverbal behaviour. This area of inquiry may then be considered to be a p o t e n t i a l l y r i c h source of knowledge for improving the q u a l i t y of supervisory pr a c t i c e and redressing the inadequate empirical knowledge a v a i l a b l e to supervisor preparation programmes. DELIMITATIONS The study w i l l be r e s t r i c t e d to a preliminary i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the events of the supervisory conference as demonstrated i n pa r t i c i p a n t verbal behaviour and as recorded i n p a r t i c i p a n t thought processes. The study w i l l further be delimited to an examination of conference dialogue and p a r t i c i p a n t thought processes according to the s t r u c t u r a l v a r i a t i o n s that account for d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of conceptual functioning. No attempt w i l l be made to follow the process tra c i n g approach (see E l s t e i n et a l . , 1979, p. l l f f . ) where the content of p a r t i c i p a n t thoughts would be s p e c i f i c a l l y analysed for the purpose of describing and understanding the nature of the problem-solving and decision-making processes at work i n the conference. DEFINITION OF TERMS C l i n i c a l Supervision: a f i v e phase model for i n s t r u c t i o n a l supervision, f i r s t described by Goldhammer (1969), that combines the analysis of teaching with the helping r e l a t i o n s h i p . P a r t i c i p a n t s : supervisor and supervisee (teacher). Pre-conference: Post-conference: Preactive: Interactive: Stimulated r e c a l l : Overt behaviour: Covert behaviour: Levels of constructive openness: 14 the supervisor-supervisee i n t e r a c t i o n before observation of classroom i n s t r u c t i o n . the supervisor-supervisee i n t e r a c t i o n a f t e r observation. a term used to denote behaviours and thoughts that occur p r i o r to conference i n t e r a c t i o n . a term used to denote behaviours and thoughts that occur during pre- or post- conference i n t e r a c t i o n . a branch of in t r o s p e c t i v e methodology i n which videotape recordings of conference behaviour are used to f a c i l i t a t e part- i c i p a n t s ' r e c a l l of the covert mental a c t i v i t y which was occurring simultan- eously with the recorded overt behaviour. observable verbal and nonverbal comm- unication. thoughts e l i c i t e d by stimulated r e c a l l . the degree of p a r t i c i p a n t p r e d i s p o s i t i o n towards freeing communication behaviours. 15 Levels of conceptual the current, but dynamic, degree of functioning: p a r t i c i p a n t p r e d i s p o s i t i o n towards abstractness and complexity of thought. ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY In Chapter 1 the problem and o v e r a l l purpose of the study have been presented i n the context of a b r i e f , supporting background of l i t e r - ature. Three sub-questions derived from the main research question, have been delineated. The s i g n i f i c a n c e and delimitations of the study have been described and c e r t a i n terms defined. Chapter 2 comprises a review of l i t e r a t u r e and rel a t e d research pertaining to c l i n i c a l supervision and conceptual development. The d e s i r a b i l i t y of the c l i n i c a l approach i s examined and current l i t e r a t u r e and research r e l a t i n g to the r a t i o n a l e , purposes, and process of the model i s reviewed. The t h e o r e t i c a l underpinnings of conceptual development, together with teaching-learning r e l a t e d research, are outlined to sub- st a n t i a t e the need to explore how supervision p a r t i c i p a n t s conceptually construct the r e a l i t y of the c l i n i c a l approach i n p r a c t i c e . Chapter 3 provides a conceptual framework for the study. Four conceptual l e v e l s and t h e i r respective supervision conditions are described. Levels of constructive openness i n conference verbal behaviour are discussed i n terms of t h e i r respective influence process. Supervisee developmental growth i s delineated i n terms of conference r o l e behaviour and conceptual l e v e l . P o t e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s are proposed between super- v i s i o n conditions and supervisor constructive openness and between supervisor influence and supervisee conceptual l e v e l . Chapter 4 describes the methods of i n v e s t i g a t i o n and research 16 procedures applied. The exploratory nature of the study design, together with i t s assumptions and l i m i t a t i o n s are discussed. The data sources and the technique of stimulated r e c a l l are also expounded. The various phases i n the evolution of the study are outlined and the techniques used to analyse c l i n i c a l supervision p a r t i c i p a n t s ' conference dialogue and thought processes are documented. Chapter 5 presents the data i n the form of eight representative case studies. Each case study contains a focus upon c r i t i c a l incidents that occurred during conference i n t e r a c t i o n . In addition, the data pertaining to conference verbal behaviour i s presented i n terms of con- s t r u c t i v e openness l e v e l s . Chapter 6 comprises the s t r u c t u r a l v a r i a t i o n s analysis of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' dialogue and i n t e r a c t i v e thoughts i n four conferences selected f o r t h e i r representativeness. This micro-level analysis uncovers differences i n supervisory performance and supervisee growth that varied according to supervisor conceptual l e v e l . Chapter 7 reports the analysis of the study's data for possible r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p a r t i c i p a n t s ' overt and covert conference behaviour. Chapter 8 presents a macro-level analysis of the general patterns of behaviour that associate with d i f f e r i n g l e v e l s of supervisors' con- ceptual functioning. In addition, supervisee dialogue and thoughts i n d i c a t i n g appreciation of the interpersonal r e l a t i o n s h i p are reported. Chapter 9 provides a summary of the study, a discussion of the findings and conclusions, together with the implications and recommend- ations derived from the research. Chapter 2 THE SUPERVISION OF TEACHING: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE This review f i r s t examines research which helps us to understand the background to, and the current p r a c t i c e of the supervision of teaching. Two main themes emerge from t h i s review which are pursued through the remainder of the chapter: (1) the importance of the part- i c u l a r kind of supervision known as c l i n i c a l supervision and (2) the relevance of work on human conceptual development. The a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s work to i n s t r u c t i o n a l supervision i s also discussed. THE CONTEXT AND PRACTICE OF SUPERVISION The context i n which i n s t r u c t i o n a l supervision occurs can be seen to encourage c e r t a i n orientations i n teachers and supervisors and to i n h i b i t others. The e f f e c t s of t h i s are often seen i n current super- v i s i o n p r a c t i c e . The following paragraphs amplify each of these two assertions. The Context of Supervision A tentative look at present day p r a c t i c e i n both teaching and supervision suggests that neither teachers nor supervisors engage i n much r e f l e c t i o n about t h e i r approach to professional a c t i v i t i e s . Four important studies not only confirm t h i s impression but help to show why i t should be so. Jackson's (1968) L i f e i n Classrooms was one of the f i r s t attempts of i t s kind to disregard any p a r t i c u l a r theory as a basis for 17 looking at classroom l i f e . Rather than adopting a pre-conceived set of constructs as to how l i f e i n classrooms ought to be, he chose to describe classroom l i f e as he a c t u a l l y observed i t . E s s e n t i a l l y , he pinpoints the t r i v i a of classroom l i f e f o r both teachers and students. His research shows how many of the day-to-day proceedings within the c l a s s - room are mandatory, ro u t i n i z e d , r e p e t i t i v e and boring. Teachers are mostly preoccupied with immediate events and needs and have l i t t l e time or i n c l i n a t i o n for long-range thinking and analysing; they are caught up i n "a here-and-now urgency and a spontaneous q u a l i t y " (Jackson, 1968, p. 119). It.i.is t h i s factor that leads Jackson to conclude that "as t y p i c a l l y conducted, teaching i s an opportunistic process" (1968, p.166). L o r t i e ' s (1975) s o c i o l o g i c a l study of the teaching occupation, Schoolteacher, reinforces the theme of immediacy. He sees the system of career rewards i n teaching breeding a presentist o r i e n t a t i o n i n teachers. Since there are few stages to the classroom teacher's career, and therefore few prospects of promotion within the classroom, the primary rewards sought by teachers are psychic, found i n the immediacy of classroom encounters. Consequently, long-term benefits are often s a c r i f i c e d for short-term effectiveness, making presentism a very r e a l o r i e n t a t i o n f or the classroom teacher. The following excerpt summarizes L o r t i e ' s f i n d i n g s : The ways teachers define t h e i r tasks and the f e e l i n g s they attach to them are l a r g e l y congruent with the orientations induced by recruitment, s o c i a l i z a t i o n , and career rewards. Approaching the ethos _of teachersj from two d i f f e r e n t perspectives, we f i n d the same themes. Conservatism, individualism and presentism are s i g n i f i c a n t components i n the ethos of American classroom teachers (1975, p. 212). L o r t i e also found that teachers are prone to individualism and conserv- atism. The impact of s o c i a l i z a t i o n into teaching, he p o s i t s , i s 19 individualism, brought about by easy entry into the occupation and the lack of technical knowledge for dealing with the problems that d a i l y confront the teacher. Patterns of teacher recruitment, L o r t i e concludes, perpetuate an occupational conservatism because they favour a t t r a c t i n g women, young persons already disposed to schools as they know them, and persons who have only marginal i n t e r e s t i n teaching but chose i t because of i t s compatibility with other i n t e r e s t s . As a consequence, "the ways of teachers are deeply rooted i n t r a d i t i o n a l patterns of thought and p r a c t i c e " (1975, p. 2). Wolcott's (1973) ethnographic d e s c r i p t i o n of the administrator r o l e , The Man i n the P r i n c i p a l ' s O f f i c e , demonstrates that p r i n c i p a l s are equally prone to dealing with the problems and pressures of the immediate moment. Wolcott (1973, p. 316) notes that the p r i n c i p a l ' s behaviour "seemed to be guided by an unwritten r u l e that i s at once the 'raison d'etre' for the r o l e of the elementary school p r i n c i p a l and the perfect obstacle to ever achieving a r a d i c a l change i n that r o l e : every problem i s important." Wolcott's d e s c r i p t i o n of the p r i n c i p a l s h i p portrays the school adminstrator as a petty p r a c t i t i o n e r immersed i n the t r i v i a that comprise the d a i l y l i f e of schools; he i s constantly responding to "one emergency a f t e r another ... l i k e an off-duty fireman" (1973, p. 314), re s o l v i n g minor c o n f l i c t s , adjusting to i n t e r n a l and external forces, c o n t i n u a l l y buffeted by immediate problems, and lacking any cogent conception of long-range plans or goals. School superintendents and executive o f f i c e r s are no more fortunate than administrators and supervisors i n other i n s t i t u t i o n s i n f i n d i n g time to examine the nature of t h e i r work and the d i r e c t i o n they think i t should take. Mintzberg (1973) contends that, i f managers are 20 to become more e f f e c t i v e , they ..must recognize what t h e i r job r e a l l y involves and then use the resources at hand appropriately. Mintzberg found that the job of executive o f f i c e r s i s often characterized by quantity and pace; managers tended to adopt an open-ended workload at an unrelenting pace. Further, the patterns of job a c t i v i t y tended to be b r i e f and fragmented; managers displayed a preference for b r e v i t y and fragmented a c t i v i t y which lent i t s e l f to s u p e r f i c i a l i t y and lack of thought. In the r e l a t i o n s h i p between action and r e f l e c t i o n , he found that managers demonstrated a c l e a r preference for l i v e action. He concludes: The pressure of the fob does not encourage the development of a planner, but an adaptive information manipulator who works i n a stimulus-response environment and who favours l i v e action (Mintzberg, 1973, p. 52). In the research c i t e d , there are two d i s t i n c t points of s i m i l a r - i t y . F i r s t , the research of Jackson (1968), Wolcott (1973), Mintzberg (1973), and, to a l e s s e r extent, L o r t i e (1975), attempts to move away from a t h e o r e t i c a l l y based, deductive approach to one that describes and analyses the s i t u a t i o n and phenomena under study as they a c t u a l l y appear to be. The researchers were les s interested i n exploring the discrepancy between what i s and what ought to be than they were i n developing a study which would y i e l d fresh understandings out of which a body of t h e o r e t i c a l knowledge could eventually be derived. As such, t h e i r inquiry i s o r i g i n a l and l a r g e l y exploratory. Second, running through the studies of a l l four researchers i s the f i n d i n g that both classroom teachers and administrators as supervisors are caught up i n a f l u r r y of a c t i v i t y that appears to proceed at an unrelenting pace. This encourages a strong presentist o r i e n t a t i o n which causes teachers and supervisors a l i k e to work i n an opportunistic manner. This p a r t i c u l a r 21 "modus operandi" leaves l i t t l e or no time for r e f l e c t i o n about the respective roles that teachers and supervisors have to play. With l i t t l e time for conceptual analysis and r e f l e c t i o n , super- v i s o r y p r a c t i c e might be prone to follow t r a d i t i o n a l patterns which would not encourage supervisors to develop a freeing atmosphere for teachers to exercise i n i t i a t i v e . Such a context would seem to influence the nature of current supervision p r a c t i c e . Current Supervision Practice Blumberg (1974), i n a systematic reporting of four research projects examining supervisory behaviour, confirms that current super- v i s i o n p r a c t i c e i s characterized by t r a d i t i o n a l patterns. A study by Blumberg and Amidon (1965) attempted to discover whether or not the perceptions of teachers concerning the s t y l e of supervisors i n super- v i s o r y conferences were related to the manner i n which teachers viewed c e r t a i n other dimensions of these conferences, e.g., communicative freedom, amount of learning, o v e r a l l p r o d u c t i v i t y . Four supervisory s t y l e s were i d e n t i f i e d : A. High-direct, h i g h - i n d i r e c t : high emphasis on t e l l i n g , suggesting, c r i t i c i z i n g and asking for information, opinions etc. B. High-direct, low-indirect: heavy emphasis on t e l l i n g , l i t t l e on e l i c i t i n g information, opinions. C. Low-direct, h i g h - i n d i r e c t : l i t t l e stress on t e l l i n g , but heavy emphasis on asking and r e f l e c t i n g . D. Low-direct, low-indirect: a r e l a t i v e l y passive supervisory stance, o f f e r i n g l i t t l e d i r e c t i o n , asking few questions. (1965, p. 4). Blumberg (1968) used these findings related to perceived supervisory s t y l e s to hypothesize c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the perceived s t y l e s and the q u a l i t y of interpersonal r e l a t i o n s h i p s that were seen to e x i s t between teachers and supervisors. The findings indicated a p o s i t i v e evaluation by teachers of t h e i r supervisory interpersonal r e l a t i o n s h i p s 22 when they perceived either (a) a heavy emphasis on t e l l i n g and asking, or (b) a low emphasis on t e l l i n g but a high emphasis on asking. Nega- t i v e evaluations came when teachers perceived the supervisor as (c) t e l l i n g but not plac i n g much stress on asking, and (d) neither t e l l i n g nor asking. Blumberg and Weber (1968) analysed the r e l a t i o n s h i p between supervisors' s t y l e s and t h e i r concerns f o r con t r o l , engagement (problem- solving by c o l l a b o r a t i o n ) , personal consideration, exclusion (problem- sol v i n g without c o l l a b o r a t i o n ) , and evaluation. From t h i s a n alysis, they derived conclusions r e l a t i n g to the e f f e c t of perceived super- v i s o r y s t y l e upon teacher morale. A ranking of high to low morale scores was rela t e d to perceptions of supervisory s t y l e s i n the following order: low-direct, h i g h - i n d i r e c t (C); h i g h - d i r e c t , h i g h - i n d i r e c t (A); high-direct, low-indirect (B); and low-direct, low-indirect (D). Whilst noting that i t would be presumptuous to assert that the s t y l e of the supervisor i s the most e s s e n t i a l factor i n teachers' professional f u l - filment, Blumberg (1974, p. 67) cautiously suggests that the supervisor's behaviour i s c r u c i a l . Blumberg (1970) reports a study which examined what took place during the supervisory conference. Because h i s previous research had been based on the perceptions of p a r t i c i p a n t s , he recognized the need to pursue a study of supervisory behaviour based on d i r e c t observation. As a consequence, Blumberg and Cusick (1970) used Blumberg's (1970) "System for Analysing Supervisor-Teacher Interaction" instrument, and analysed tape recordings of f i f t y conferences between supervisors and teachers. The findings indicated that supervisors were b a s i c a l l y d i r e c t i v e i n t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n rather than attempting to e s t a b l i s h a 23 c o l l a b o r a t i v e atmosphere. Supervisors spent f o r t y - f i v e percent of the conference period t a l k i n g , and during t h i s phase of the i n t e r a c t i o n t h e i r verbal behaviour was d i r e c t i v e sixty-three percent of the time. Super- v i s o r y personnel engaged i n t e l l i n g four times more frequently than they did i n asking and were seven times more l i k e l y to d i r e c t teachers than to ask them about possible a l t e r n a t i v e s . Blumberg comments: Supervisors r a r e l y made statements which could help b u i l d a healthy climate between themselves and the teachers involved i n the conferences. There was l i t t l e encouragement by the supervisor; supervisors said l i t t l e which conveyed any acceptance of f e e l i n g s . When teachers exhibited defensive behavior during the conference, supervisors t y p i c a l l y ignored t h i s form of reaction (1970, p. 2). The data from the 1970 study forced Blumberg to conclude that the super- vi s o r y conference i s u n l i k e l y to be an occasion that produces growth i n the teacher: Supervisors behave i n ways which are a n t i t h e t i c a l to our accumulated knowledge about helping r e l a t i o n s h i p s . They do not seem to communicate the desire to understand the teachers with whom they work, nor do supervisors s t r i v e to develop a c o l l a b o r a t i v e , problem-centred r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r teachers (1970, p. 3). The 1970 study not only suggests a strong tendency on the part of super- vi s o r s to control teacher behaviour during the conference but also indicates that teachers appeared reluctant to ask any kind of question of the supervisor. Noting that the supervisor expends a good deal of energy attempting to induce a p o s i t i v e social-emotional climate, Blumberg (1974, p. 108) poses the question: " P o s i t i v e social-emotional climate for what?"—since "only 2% percent of the supervisor's behavior i s devoted to ac t i o n . " He continues: The data gave r i s e to a number of questions about the nature of in t e r a c t i o n between supervisors and teachers, about supervisors' s t y l e s of solving problems, about the pro d u c t i v i t y of supervision, and about the assumptions that underlie i t (1974, p. 108). Blumberg and Cusick's (1970) study demonstrated that supervisors seldom ask teachers for ideas about action or problem solving, with the r e s u l t that teachers are not engaged by the supervisor i n t r y i n g to solve the problems they face i n the classroom. The i n t e r a c t i o n does not appear to be c o l l a b o r a t i v e . The findings of t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n analysis of the supervisory conference, together with previous studies (Blumberg and Amidon, 1965; Blumberg, 1968; Blumberg and Weber, 1968) led Blumberg "to question the ultimate p r o d u c t i v i t y of i n t e r a c t i o n between supervisors and teachers" (1974, p. 110). It was on the basis of these research studies that Blumberg (1974) developed his t h e s i s : that supervisors and teachers f i n d themselves i n an impasse which he terms "a private cold war" and that the crux of the problem and consequently, the p o t e n t i a l s o l u t i o n , i s the supervisor-teacher r e l a t i o n s h i p . The cold war has i t s roots i n two problems: f i r s t , teachers view supervision as "a waste of time", and second, teachers and supervisors do not t r u s t one another. Blumberg concludes that i t i s the supervisor-teacher r e l a t i o n s h i p that constitutes the c r u c i a l problem i n supervision and proposes p o t e n t i a l ways of minimizing the c o n f l i c t . Far too ofteny the interpersonal transactions of supervisor and teacher are seen as subtle and s t r a t e g i c gamesmanship. Blumberg proposes a change towards a r e l a t i o n s h i p that i s characterized by openness and supportiveness, so that a supervisor's encounter with a teacher becomes a matter not of "who w i l l win?" but of "can we solve the problem together?" (1974, p. 3). One way of answering t h i s question i s provided by c l i n i c a l supervision. The c l i n i c a l conception i s based on a tenet that charact- erized the 1950s and 1960s—the p r i n c i p l e of c o l l a b o r a t i o n . Teachers and supervisors are expected to analyse the teaching-learning s i t u a t i o n c o n j o i n t l y , the c l i n i c a l approach r e s t i n g "on the conviction that 25 i n s t r u c t i o n can only be improved by d i r e c t feedback to a teacher on aspects of his or her teaching that are of concern to that teacher (rather than items on an evaluation form or items that are pet concerns of the supervisor only)" (Reavis, 1976, p. 360). C l i n i c a l supervision, however, d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the thinking of the 1950s and 1960s i n that i t proposes a conceptual framework for i n s t r u c t i o n a l supervision (see Goldhammer et a l . 1980, Chapters 1 and 3) and places " i t s emphasis on analysis rather than inspection" and presents "a model rather than the smorgasbord of l i s t s , charts, tables and examples which so often occur i n supervision l i t e r a t u r e " ( S u l l i v a n , 1980, p. 6). CLINICAL SUPERVISION C l i n i c a l supervision i s a field-based approach designed to help teachers improve i n s t r u c t i o n . It i s "supervision up close" (Goldhammer, 1969, p. 54) i n the " c l i n i c of the classroom" (Wilhelms i n Cogan, 1973, i x ) , where teacher and c l i n i c a l supervisor work together productively i n "colleagueship" bound by the common purpose of enhancing student learning through improving the teacher's i n s t r u c t i o n (Cogan, 1973, p. 68). It represents an approach to supervision that i s " b a s i c a l l y a n a l y t i c a l and whose p r i n c i p a l mode of analysis comprises highly d e t a i l e d examination of teaching behavior" (Goldhammer, 1969, p. 368). The emphasis i n c l i n i c a l supervision has tended away from summative ev a l - uation towards the "analysis of teaching materials and p r a c t i c e s " based on the view that "the analysis of teaching can be rigorous and systematic, that i t should be ongoing, that i t requires s p e c i f i c a n a l y t i c a l s k i l l s and that the pro f e s s i o n a l teacher should be a c a r e f u l c r i t i c of his own pr a c t i c e " (Mosher and Purpel, 1972, p. 79). The analysis of teaching 26 therefore constitutes a s i g n i f i c a n t component of the c l i n i c a l conception (see Cogan, Chapter 13; Goldhammer, Chapter 4: Mosher and Purpel, Chapter 5). The Rationale for and Purpose of C l i n i c a l Supervision Cogan (1973) defines c l i n i c a l supervision in. the following way: C l i n i c a l supervision i s focused upon the improvement of the teacher's classroom i n s t r u c t i o n . The p r i n c i p a l data of c l i n i c a l supervision include records of classroom events: what the teacher and students do i n the classroom during the teaching-learning process. These data are supplemented by information about the teacher's and students' perceptions, b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s , and know- ledge relevant to the i n s t r u c t i o n . Such information may r e l a t e to states and events occurring p r i o r to, during, and following any segment of i n s t r u c t i o n to be analysed. The c l i n i c a l domain i s the i n t e r a c t i o n between a s p e c i f i c teacher or team of teachers and s p e c i f i c students, both as a group and as i n d i v i d u a l s . C l i n i c a l supervision may, therefore, be defined as the ra t i o n a l e and prac t i c e designed to improve the teacher's classroom performance. It takes i t s p r i n c i p a l data from the events of the classroom. The analysis of these data and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between teacher and supervisor form the basis of the program, procedure, and strategies designed to improve the students' learning by improving the teacher's classroom behavior (p. 9). Goldhammer et a l . (1980) see c l i n i c a l supervision as: ... that phase of i n s t r u c t i o n a l supervision which draws i t s data from f i r s t - h a n d observation of actual teaching events, and involves face-to-face (and other associated) i n t e r a c t i o n between the supervisor and teacher i n the analysis of teaching behaviors and a c t i v i t i e s for i n s t r u c t i o n a l improvement (pp. 19-20). Sergiovanni and Sta r r a t t (1979) describe c l i n i c a l supervision as r e f e r r i n g to: ... face-to-face encounters with teachers about teaching, usually i n classrooms, with the double-barreled intent of pro- f e s s i o n a l development and improvement of i n s t r u c t i o n (p. 305). MacKay (1971) views c l i n i c a l supervision as: ... a blend of t r a d i t i o n a l administrative s k i l l s i n human r e l a t i o n s , organization, and interpersonal communication, and the s k i l l s of the psychological counsellor who works i n the c l i n i c a l s e t t i n g i n a c o u n s e l l o r - c l i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p (p. 28). 27 The c l i n i c a l approach sets out to help teachers to become responsible for t h e i r own professional improvement. Krajewski (1976a) suggests that " c l i n i c a l supervision i s the support mechanism which 1 i f effected properly should eventually leave the teacher more s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n implementing c u r r i c u l a r changes and better able a n a l y t i c a l l y to improve h i s or her own teaching behavior" (p. 376). Simon (1977) i s equally convinced that the c l i n i c a l conception enhances pr o f e s s i o n a l e f f e c t i v e - ness through teacher s e l f - d i r e c t i o n : C l i n i c a l supervision i s based on the assumption that enhancing pro f e s s i o n a l effectiveness i s contingent upon the in t e g r a t i o n of thought and action .... The strategy of c l i n i c a l supervision involves a r e l a t i o n s h i p based on observation of teaching and dedicated to the welfare of the students. The focus of that r e l a t i o n s h i p i s on observing teacher strengths and the c u l t i v a t i o n of teacher s e l f - d i r e c t i o n (p. 580, 582). Cogan (1973, p. 12) s i m i l a r l y emphasizes the c u l t i v a t i o n of the super- visor-teacher r e l a t i o n s h i p , seeing the purpose of c l i n i c a l supervision as "the development of a p r o f e s s i o n a l l y responsible teacher who i s a n a l y t i c a l of h i s own performance, open to help from others, and withal s e l f - d i r e c t i n g " (p. 12). E s s e n t i a l l y , c l i n i c a l supervision makes the assumption that intervention w i l l lead to an improvement of i n s t r u c t i o n when the supervisor-teacher r e l a t i o n s h i p i s a healthy one and where the atmosphere i s non-threatening enough f or teachers to take r i s k s without fear of f a i l u r e or recrimination. Reavis (1976) sees the two primary goals of c l i n i c a l supervision as the supervisor f a c i l i t a t i n g improved i n s t r u c t i o n and teacher growth towards s e l f - s u p e r v i s i o n : The emphasis i n c l i n i c a l supervision i s on enhancing the pro- f e s s i o n a l status of the teacher i n the supervisor-teacher r e l a t i o n - ship. It i s the teacher who i d e n t i f i e s the focuses of the observation, orients the supervisor to the class and the preceding lessons. The subsequent analysis and strategy, conferences, and even the evaluation stage are guided by the concern to give the teacher the information requested about teaching (p. 361). 28 Cogan (1976) stresses the primary emphasis accorded i n c l i n i c a l super- v i s i o n to the e s t a b l i s h i n g of a s p e c i f i c kind of r e l a t i o n s h i p ; the reason for i t , he argues, derives from the fact that i n - c l a s s super- v i s i o n tends to generate high l e v e l s of anxiety among many teachers and too much stress defeats the purposes of c l i n i c a l supervision (p. 15). In h i s view, the most productive r e l a t i o n s h i p between the teacher and the c l i n i c a l supervisor i s the c o l l e g i a l type (p.16). This i s not d i s s i m i l a r to h i s 1973 emphasis on colleagueship: This r e l a t i o n s h i p between teacher and c l i n i c a l supervisor i s maintained i n force as long as they can work together productively as colleagues. It deteriorates s i g n i f i c a n t l y or ceases to exist when e i t h e r assumes an ascendant r o l e or i s accorded an ascendant r o l e by the other. This d e l i c a t e balance i n working together as equals does not imply that teacher and supervisor have s i m i l a r and equal professional competences. On the contrary, they commonly have d i s s i m i l a r and unequal competences. This heterogeneity i s nurtured i n t h e i r a ssociation and constitutes one of i t s p r i n c i p a l strengths. In c l i n i c a l supervision the i n t e r a c t i o n of s i m i l a r competences at equal l e v e l s i s generally l e s s productive than the i n t e r a c t i o n of unequal l e v e l s of competence and d i s s i m i l a r compet- ences. Such productive heterogeneity may be observed when the c l i n i c a l supervisor, highly competent i n observation, the analysis of teaching, and the processes connected with the cycle of super- v i s i o n , works with a teacher who i s more competent i n knowledge of the curriculum, h i s students, t h e i r learning c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and transient and p e r s i s t e n t problems, and the school sub-societies to which they belong (Cogan, 1973, p. 68). The advantage of t h i s type of supervisor-supervisee r e l a t i o n s h i p i s that i t establishes a freeing atmosphere i n which teachers fear neither innovation nor f a i l u r e . The c l i n i c a l cycle was the mechanism designed to foster t h i s kind of r e l a t i o n s h i p . The C l i n i c a l Cycle The dominant pattern that has emerged appears to be the f i v e step process proposed by Goldhammer (1969). The pre-observation conference. This conference i s intended 29 to provide the framework for the supervisory sequence to follow. As such, the supervisor i s oriented to the c l a s s , teaching objectives and st r a t e g i e s , and lesson plan by the teacher. Ultimately, supervisor and teacher come to an agreement on t h e i r respective operational strategies i n the form of a "contract" (Goldhammer, 1969, p. 60), which structures the subsequent observation, analysis, and post-conference phases. Observation of teaching. The purpose of t h i s phase i s to enable the supervisor as a disengaged p a r t i c i p a n t to c o l l e c t accurate data about the teaching-learning s i t u a t i o n . Data can be gathered using a research-based instrument, taking verbatim notes of the lesson's events, or using an instrument which supervisor and teacher design c o n j o i n t l y . Analysis and strategy. This phase has two general purposes: f i r s t , a n a lysis, to make sense of the observation data, to make them i n t e l l i g i b l e and manageable i n l i g h t of the pre-conference agreement; second, strategy, to plan for the post-observation conference that i s to follow. The analysis consists of discovering any patterns that might characterize the teacher's behaviour. The strategy planning involves a consideration of the supervisee's maturity and experience i n determining the nature and timing of the c r i t i c a l feedback to be given. Post-observation conference. The supervisor implements the strategy, dealing f i r s t with items pertaining to the pre-conference agreement and then, with the teacher's consent, introducing comments on patterns not part of the o r i g i n a l contract that were i d e n t i f i e d during the analysis of the classroom data. This phase generally con- cludes with j o i n t planning f o r the next lesson where supervisor and 30 teacher think through how mutually agreed-upon changes can be implemented. "Post-mortem" analysis of supervisory performance. E i t h e r c o n j o i n t l y with the teacher or alone, the supervisor analyses his or her performance i n the process and accordingly modifies the i n t e r - vention strategy i n ways that f a c i l i t a t e a more professional and pro- ductive supervision experience for both p a r t i c i p a n t s . RESEARCH CONCERNING CLINICAL SUPERVISION Much has been written about c l i n i c a l supervision, yet l i t t l e research has been c a r r i e d out into the p r a c t i c a l operation of the cycle. Harris (1963, p. 86) reports that from 1953 to 1963 an average of t h i r t y - s i x a r t i c l e s per year was l i s t e d under "Supervision and Supervisors" i n the Education Index. Most of that which i s a v a i l a b l e does not focus on the actual process or a c t i v i t y of supervision. Harris and Hartgraves (1972) , i n a more recent review of research into super- v i s i o n , stress that t h e i r search through the l i t e r a t u r e of the past years for studies dealing with the effectiveness of supervisors i n improving i n s t r u c t i o n "reveals a paucity of reports" (p. 73). Heald (1969), i n the supervision a r t i c l e that appeared i n Encyclopedia of Educational Research, c i t e s only f i v e a r t i c l e s that p e r t a i n to i n - c l a s s supervision: Amidon, Kies and P a l i s i (1966); B r a d f i e l d (1959); Columbro (1964); Coody (1967); and Downing (1964). Of these, only Coody and Downing give reports of research; and t h e i r studies focus on general supervision conditions as opposed to the s p e c i f i c ones espoused by the c l i n i c a l approach. Crosby (1969) studied Educational Leadership 1960-1968 and found only 60 a r t i c l e s published during that period that concerned supervision, an average of fewer than seven per year. Few of these a r t i c l e s a c t u a l l y used research or p r a c t i c a l bases, leading her to conclude that most of the publications had l i t t l e or no p r a c t i c a l value to the working supervisor (1969, p. 51). Leeper (1970) looked at Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD) p u b l i c - ations from; 1943 to 1971•and Tound>that a r t i c l e s on curriculum, i n s t r u c t i o n and media strongly predominated over supervision and pro- fessionalism. c l i n i c a l supervision, suggesting that Goldhammer's (1969) i d e n t i f - i c a t i o n of c l i n i c a l supervision as a d i s c i p l i n e i n i t s adolescence now seems overly o p t i m i s t i c . She goes on to state: Since the appearance of Goldhammer's book only two s i g n i f i c a n t pieces have been added to the l i t e r a t u r e of the d i s c i p l i n e : devoted to the topic ... only a few other a r t i c l e s on aspects of c l i n i c a l supervision have appeared and ... v i r t u a l l y no research studies have been conducted i n supervision (1977, p. 33). She supports t h i s contention by reviewing the publications from 1970 onwards i n the Review of Educational Research. She finds no a r t i c l e s which contain "reviews of studies on supervision, improvement of i n s t r u c t i o n , ..or e f f o r t s of any kind to help teachers change or improve" (1977, p. 34). In a search of Contemporary Education she found three a r t i c l e s , i n addition to her own, that had the word supervision i n t h e i r t i t l e s : Bloom and Seager (1971); Myers (1973); Ohleson (1974). Bloom and Seager's a r t i c l e concerned only the use of videotape recording i n teacher education, Myers' contribution was about supervision of student teachers, and Ohleson described a programme for prospective counsellor Denham (1977) draws attention to the neglect of research i n 32 educators and guidance programme supervisors (Denham, 1977, p. 34). Comfort, Bowen and Gansneder (1974) surveyed a r t i c l e s published i n Educational Leadership, Phi Delta Kappan, Today's Education, NASSP B u l l e t i n , and Harvard Educational Review from 1971 to 1973 and reported that only two percent of the t o t a l publications dealt with supervision. It i s l i t t l e wonder, therefore, that Krajewski (1976b) made such a strongly worded plea for input from the members of the American national organization of supervisors, c a l l i n g on them to put the 'S' back into the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. The lack of knowledge about i n s t r u c t i o n a l supervision has only been minimally redressed by the l i m i t e d research on c l i n i c a l supervision a v a i l a b l e . Such research as has been conducted f a l l s i n t o three categories; studies based on p a r t i c i p a n t s ' perceptions, studies designed to test the effectiveness of the c l i n i c a l approach, and studies which are explor- atory. Each of these i s described under a separate heading i n the following pages. Studies Based on P a r t i c i p a n t s ' Perceptions Eaker (1972) surveyed teachers and administrators i n Tennessee i n order to determine the extent to which the basic assumptions and procedures were accepted. His findings were that: 1. Most teachers and administrators agreed with the basic assumptions of c l i n i c a l supervision. 2. Although the teachers tended to agree with the procedure of c l i n i c a l supervision, they agreed more strongly with the assumptions than with the s p e c i f i c procedures. 3. Administrators tended to agree more strongly with the assumptions and procedures of c l i n i c a l supervision than did teachers (p. 3998-A). Although Eaker's (1972) study contributes to our knowledge about the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of the c l i n i c a l model, i t merely measures p a r t i c i p a n t s ' reactions to the researcher's hypothetical description of c l i n i c a l supervision (as d i s t i n c t from measuring p a r t i c i p a n t s ' reactions to actual experience of the approach) which was not contrasted with any other form of supervisory intervention. A more c a r e f u l l y designed study was c a r r i e d out by Myers (1975) who surveyed teachers to determine the e f f e c t s of two supervisory app- roaches on t h e i r a t t i t u d e towards evaluation. Thirty-two respondents answered questions about teacher self-image and t h e i r attitudes towards supervision. Before completing the questionnaire, members of the experimental group attended a two-day workshop session i n c l i n i c a l supervision. At the end of the project more p o s i t i v e attitudes towards evaluation were found i n the experimental group than i n the control group. L o v e l l et a l . (1976) studied the perceptions of teachers, p r i n c i p a l s , and supervisors on the p r a c t i c e of supervision i n Tennessee to a s c e r t a i n the e f f e c t s of c l i n i c a l supervisor concern over teacher anxiety during classroom observation v i s i t s . They found that over eighty percent of the teachers surveyed reported no observations by or conferences with general or s p e c i a l supervisors. Of those conferences and observations reported, over ninety-three percent lasted between one and t h i r t y minutes (p. 106). Only sixty-two percent of the teachers surveyed f e l t confident during observation. Sixty-nine percent of the teachers surveyed reported that they did not view observation v i s i t s as d i s r u p t i v e whereas t h i r t e e n percent did (p. 148). The r e s u l t s of t h i s study suggest that, although the assumptions and procedures of c l i n i c a l 34 supervision are acceptable to most teachers and administrators, they u are acceptable at the l e v e l of l o g i c rather than i n actual p r a c t i c e . Arbucci (1978) attempted to correct f o r t h i s when studying the attit u d e s of teachers towards c l i n i c a l supervision. Using q u a l i t a t i v e and quantitative analysis of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' perceptions to examine the re l a t i o n s h i p between c l i n i c a l supervision and teacher attitudes towards i n s t r u c t i o n a l supervision, he found that, while there was a s i g n i f i c a n t difference between control and experimental groups i n the amount of supervision a c t u a l l y undertaken, no s i g n i f i c a n t difference was found i n att i t u d e scores. Witt (1977) analysed teacher perceptions f o r a r e l a t - ionship between supervisory behaviour and leadership s t y l e as exhibited i n the conference phase of c l i n i c a l supervision. Using supervisors s i m i l a r i n leadership s t y l e , he found that teacher perceptions showed no r e l a t i o n s h i p between supervisor conference behaviour and supervisor leadership s t y l e as measured by the LBDQ instrument. Tests of the Effectiveness of C l i n i c a l Supervision Studies based on perceptual data, however, contribute l i t t l e to knowledge of what supervisors a c t u a l l y do whilst involved i n the c l i n i c a l process. Eight researchers have attempted to examine the procedures and a c t i v i t i e s of the c l i n i c a l approach with a view to te s t i n g i t s e f f e c t - iveness i n i n s t r u c t i o n a l supervision. Coffey (1967) reported on an i n - service t r a i n i n g programme where seventeen elementary teachers were supervised along c l i n i c a l l i n e s . The s p e c i f i c objective was the achievement of performance s k i l l s acquired during the t r a i n i n g programme, and evidenced by a change i n the teachers' verbal classroom behaviour as measured by Flanders' (1960) Categories f o r Interaction A n a l y s i s . 35 S i g n i f i c a n t changes i n teacher behaviour were found i n only four of the ten categories on Flanders' instrument. Although h i s intent was to study the e f f e c t of supervisors on teacher behaviour, Coffey analysed that behaviour only i n terms of what changes would take place as a r e s u l t of a four-week long i n - s e r v i c e programme. E s s e n t i a l l y , he was more interested i n changes i n teaching methods to s u i t new course content i n an elementary science programme rather than i n analysing supervisory influence upon teacher behaviour during on-going c l i n i c a l cycles. Garman (1971) reported a study of f i v e teaching assistants i n college l e v e l English who received c l i n i c a l supervision and lectures on teaching methods and f i v e others who received only lectures on teaching methods. Four of the f i v e r e c e i v i n g c l i n i c a l supervision were able to implement behaviours covered i n the l e c t u r e s , but only one of the f i v e r e c eiving lectures only was able to implement the desired behaviours. Although t h i s study set out to test s u c c e s s f u l l y the c l i n i c a l approach to educational supervision, i t was, on close examination, a demonstration of the usefulness of some supervision as opposed to no supervision at a l l . Skrak (1973) attempted to test whether the supplemental use of immediate secondary reinforcement during classroom observations effected a greater change i n teacher behaviour than the normal c l i n i c a l super- v i s i o n p r a c t i c e s . The experiment was conducted i n two phases. F i r s t , the teacher and supervisor preselected a teaching behaviour. During f i v e subsequent observation cycles, the supervisor produced an o r a l or v i s u a l r e i n f o r c e r every time the teacher enacted the desired behaviour. The second phase involved a s i m i l a r s e l e c t i o n of teaching behaviour but during the next f i v e observation cycles, no reinforcement was given. 36 C l i n i c a l supervision was practiced during both phases of the project. Although four of the f i v e teachers p a r t i c i p a t i n g had successful r e s u l t s with the secondary r e i n f o r c e r s , Skrak concludes that c l i n i c a l super- v i s i o n used without r e i n f o r c e r s appears to be j u s t as e f f e c t i v e i n bringing about teaching behaviour change. Shuma (1973) conducted a study of nine teachers, three re c e i v i n g c l i n i c a l supervision and s i x receiving the more conventional approach. S i g n i f i c a n t differences were found i n the students' perception of changes i n teacher behaviour within the experimental group. Since, however, the students i n the experimental groups were aware that t h e i r teacher was r e c e i v i n g s p e c i a l supervision, the p o s s i b i l i t y of the Hawthorne e f f e c t cannot be discounted. Moreover, differences reported between the respective supervisor-teacher r e l a t i o n s h i p s of control and experimental groups were based on Shuma's own perceptions rather than on objective, r e l i a b l e observations of trained judges or e m p i r i c a l l y v e r i f i a b l e p a r t i c i p a n t r e f l e c t i o n s . B.J. Kerr's (1976) study investigated the use of feedback within the c l i n i c a l process to f a c i l i t a t e the diagnosis, implementation, and evaluation of i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n by four elementary teachers. The r e s u l t s showed that supervisory feedback was v i t a l i n helping three out of the four teachers p a r t i c i p a t i n g to evaluate the i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n they had achieved and also a s s i s t e d them i n s e l e c t i n g teaching behaviours and strategies f or further i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n . Turner (1976) set out to test the usefulness of the c l i n i c a l cycle. Using a case study approach, she, as supervisor, used Goldhammer's (1969) emphasis on the supervisory r e l a t i o n s h i p . The methodological inadequacies of t h i s study, however, undermines the c r e d i b i l i t y of the researcher's 37 attempt to v a l i d a t e the c l i n i c a l model. Krajewski (1976a) reports a study of two groups of twenty teachers. The experimental group received t r a i n i n g i n Flanders' (1970) Interaction Analysis and received c l i n i c a l supervision. Lessons were videotaped and analysed using the Flanders' categories. The control group received regular supervisory v i s i t s but no videotaping or t r a i n i n g i n i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s . At the end of the project, the experimental group showed s i g n i f i c a n t gains i n i n d i r e c t verbal patterns (the desired behaviour), p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e gains, and better p u p i l ratings, where the control group did not. Although the researcher con- cluded that c l i n i c a l supervision helped to e f f e c t such changes, the research design was such that any r e s u l t s could be a t t r i b u t e d to the t r a i n i n g i n the Flanders' system and the use of i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s . These methods can indeed be incorporated into the c l i n i c a l model; but a study that sets out to test the effectiveness of c l i n i c a l supervision must have a t i g h t e r design than one which measures the r e s u l t s of t r a i n i n g versus no t r a i n i n g i n the Flanders' system. Reavis (1977) conducted a study to investigate possible d i f f - erences i n verbal exchanges between supervisors and teachers contrasting c l i n i c a l supervision and t r a d i t i o n a l supervision. Since previous research had indicated that supervisors were predominantly a u t h o r i t a r i a n i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with teachers, Reavis hypothesized that c l i n i c a l supervision would create a more democratic r e l a t i o n s h i p which would be observable i n the verbal i n t e r a c t i o n . Seven supervisors each worked • with one teacher i n the c l i n i c a l pattern and one i n the t r a d i t i o n a l pattern. The post-observation conferences were taped and analysed by trained observers using Blumberg's (1970) "A System for Analysing Supervisor-Teacher Interaction". The r e s u l t s of t h i s study revealed a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e favouring c l i n i c a l supervision on Blumberg category 3 — " j s u p e r v i s o r j accepts or uses teacher's ideas". Because Blumberg's system was based upon Flanders' instrument and because Flanders found the accepting of student ideas to be a teacher behaviour that related s i g n i f i c a n t l y to pu p i l achievement, Reavis p o s i t s that t h i s f i n d i n g has great importance for supervision. The only other Blumberg category approaching s i g n i f - icance was category 6—"^Supervisor} asks for opinions"—which also favoured the c l i n i c a l approach. From these r e s u l t s Reavis i n f e r s that c l i n i c a l supervision builds "more p o s i t i v e communication between super- v i s o r s and teachers" (1977, p. 315), a fi n d i n g which, upon closer examination, appears tenuous and inconclusive. The study purports to test c l i n i c a l supervision by contrasting i t s effectiveness with t r a d i t i o n a l patterns of supervision. Since the analysis of the verbal i n t e r a c t i o n during the conference was based on a system adapted from Flanders' instrument, and since the teachers' i n s t r u c t i o n a l performance was also observed, the speculation that the s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g r e l a t i n g to Blumberg category 3 ind i c a t e s a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t by c l i n i c a l supervision on teaching behaviour could have been proven e m p i r i c a l l y . By comparing i n t e r a c t i o n analyses of the actual i n s t r u c t i o n using Flanders with those of the conference based on Blumberg, Reavis could have tested the v a l i d i t y of h i s assumption that indirectness on the part of the supervisor fosters i n d i r e c t teaching behaviours during i n s t r u c t i o n . But t h i s i s a mere l i m i t a t i o n of the study; there are also weaknesses. Because of the research design, the study was not comparing 39 varied supervisors e x h i b i t i n g two d i f f e r e n t approaches to supervision but rather two a l t e r n a t i v e patterns exhibited by the same supervisors. Since the c l i n i c a l supervision pattern had been taught to the part- i c i p a t i n g supervisors, they would be conscious of the behaviours expected when asked to supervise along c l i n i c a l l i n e s . When supervising i n the c l i n i c a l mould, they would tend to ask more questions because they had been taught t h i s behaviour i n the pattern. When supervising i n the t r a d i t i o n a l mould (for which they had received no training) t h i s part- i c u l a r behaviour did not concern them at the conscious l e v e l of t h e i r thinking. It i s possible, therefore, that, when placed i n the c l i n i c a l supervision s i t u a t i o n , the supervisors were prone to r o l e play what was expected of them as a r e s u l t of p r i o r t r a i n i n g and that t h e i r behaviour was l e s s r e a l i s t i c than when they were operating i n the n o n - c l i n i c a l mould. This l i n e of argument i s reinforced by the fac t that Reavis dropped two supervisors from the study because they were not following the patterns c o r r e c t l y . This research may not be a test of d i f f e r e n t approaches to supervision but a test of whether the supervisors i n the sample could adopt d i f f e r e n t patterns of behaviour when asked to do so by the researcher. Exploratory Studies Most of the studies that set out to test the effectiveness of c l i n i c a l supervision are either subject to methodological weaknesses or to the p o s s i b i l i t y of the Hawthorne e f f e c t . This state of a f f a i r s may be a t t r i b u t a b l e to the fact that our current knowledge about the c l i n i c a l model i s not adequate to mount a rigorous experimental-design study. This would seem to c a l l for further exploration of the process and the remaining seven studies that have examined c l i n i c a l supervision attempt 40 to generate t h i s much-needed knowledge. Mershon (1972) explored the concept of analysis as i t i s used i n the c l i n i c a l supervision process. Interviewing twenty-seven graduate students and four f a c u l t y members about how they analysed teaching- learning s i t u a t i o n s , he came up with fourteen a n a l y t i c a l s u b - s k i l l s . Mershon concluded that, while t h i s set of s u b - s k i l l s could be used to develop supervisor awareness and could compensate for d i f f i c u l t i e s a r i s i n g from i n s u f f i c i e n t data, nevertheless "the q u a l i t y and character- i s t i c s of each person's a n a l y t i c 'process are unique" (p. 6793-A). Mattalino's (1977) study explored the key competencies required for e f f e c t i v e p r a c t i c e i n c l i n i c a l supervision. Where Mershon (1972) had tapped the minds of p r a c t i t i o n e r s , Mattalino (1977) used the t h e o r e t i c a l framework of c l i n i c a l supervision to derive the required competencies that e f f e c t i v e supervisors would possess. He concludes by suggesting that the lack of d e f i n i t i v e competencies and the paucity of empirical research combine to make c l i n i c a l supervision l e s s accepted than i t could be. Five studies have explored the supervisor-teacher r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the s e t t i n g of the c l i n i c a l supervision conference. Pierce (1978) examined the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the verbal behaviour (defined as pedagogical moves) of twenty-eight supervisors during c l i n i c a l confer- ences and aspects of t h e i r managerial a b i l i t i e s , motivational needs and personality t r a i t s as indicated by G h i s e l l i ' s Self-Inventory of Managerial Talent. Structuring and reacting, the two moves consistent with the assumptions of c l i n i c a l supervision, were found to be s i g n i f - i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to a supervisor's decisiveness and self-confidence. Cook (1976) examined the question of whether supervisors evidenced 41 changes i n perception and behaviour i n terms of genuineness, empathy, and respect while undergoing t r a i n i n g i n c l i n i c a l supervision. In addition, she was interested i n detecting any trend i n the changes that were observed. Five of the s i x supervisors i n the sample gave evidence of i n c r e a s i n g l y accurate perceptions of classroom events and demonstrated developmental changes such as 'other-centredness' i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with the teacher as they accepted the complex supervisory r o l e . Accept- ance of the supervisory r o l e was also found to enhance the supervisors' self-concept. Zonca (1972) explored the e f f e c t s of openness i n a c l i n i c a l supervision r e l a t i o n s h i p on one student te