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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Learning assistance services for adult basic education in British Columbia Lee, Jo-Anne 1982

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LEARNING ASSISTANCE SERVICES FOR ADULT BASIC EDUCATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA by JO-ANNE LEE B. A. Simon F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( D i v i s i o n of Adult Education, Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , Adult and Higher Education, F a c u l t y of Education) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standards: THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA JANUARY 1982 © Jo-Anne Lee, 1982 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of £ The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 2075 Wesbrook P l a c e Vancouver, Canada V6T 1W5 D F - f i ( 2 / 7 9 ) LEARNING ASSISTANCE SERVICES FOR ADULT BASIC EDUCATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  ABSTRACT The main purpose of t h i s t h e s i s was to i n v e s t i g a t e c u r r e n t p r o v i s i o n s f o r l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e to a d u l t b a s i c education (ABE) students i n B r i t i s h Columbia's c o l l e g e s and p r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t e s . A review of the l i t e r a t u r e i n both a d u l t b a s i c education and l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e r e v e a l e d l i t t l e that was r e l a t e d to the t o p i c d e l i n e a t e d . Because of the lack of a t t e n t i o n p a i d to the t o p i c , the review of l i t e r a t u r e examined present knowledge about the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of ABE students and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r program p l a n n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n i n ABE. F o l l o w i n g a review of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e l i t e r a t u r e , i t was concluded that there i s at best, l i m i t e d r e c o g n i t i o n of the a d u l t b a s i c education students' need f o r l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e . Some c o n c l u s i o n s f o r g u i d i n g the development of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s to ABE students were formulated. The study i n c l u d e d a n a l y s i s of the need f o r ABE programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia using Census data. Current p r o v i s i o n s f o r ABE programs i n B.C. post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s ( e x c l u d i n g u n i v e r s i t i e s ) were a l s o examined. While a need c l e a r l y e x i s t s , p r o v i n c i a l ABE programs were found to be unorganized and d i s j o i n t e d so that programs d i d not match the documented needs. Comparison of ABE programs acr o s s i n s t i t u t i o n s was l i m i t e d because of d i f f e r e n c e s i n program o b j e c t i v e s , r e c o r d keeping procedures and program d e l i v e r y . The nature and extent of ABE programs c u r r e n t l y o f f e r e d by B.C. post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s , on a system-wide b a s i s , were found to bear l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p to the p r o v i n c i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the undereducated p o p u l a t i o n . Data on those c u r r e n t l y being served by ABE programs were found to be fragmented and u n r e l i a b l e , t h e r e f o r e few g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s c o u l d be made about those c u r r e n t l y being served in ABE programs and the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n as a whole. Having e s t a b l i s h e d a context of ABE programs in B.C., the c u r r e n t p r o v i s i o n s f o r l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e were i n v e s t i g a t e d . A survey of 17 post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s was conducted u t i l i z i n g p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s and o n - s i t e v i s i t s . L earning a s s i s t a n c e o f f e r i n g s were compared a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s , s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d , f a c i l i t i e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n , funding sources, c o s t s , and s t a f f i n g arrangements. F i n d i n g s were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o three c a t e g o r i e s : 1) campus l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s (seven i n s t i t u t i o n s ) , 2) off-campus l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s ( e i g h t i n s t i t u t i o n s ) , and 3) ABE programs without l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s (four i n s t i t u t i o n s ) . Two i v i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r e d both a campus-based as w e l l as an off-campus l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e . Several problems were i d e n t i f i e d i n c l u d i n g : 1) lack of a un i f o r m l y accepted d e f i n i t i o n f o r learning' a s s i s t a n c e , 2) lack of purposive funding, 3) a confused d i s t i n c t i o n between t r a d i t i o n a l ABE i n s t r u c t i o n , n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l ABE i n s t r u c t i o n and l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s , 4) v a r y i n g degrees of i n s t i t u t i o n a l support and 5) an i n a b i l i t y to r e p o r t and r a t i o n a l i z e a c t i v i t i e s as a c t u a l l y conducted. S e v e r a l suggestions f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h were o f f e r e d . V TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES ' ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENT . x CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1 Background And Need For The Study 5 The P o l i c y Context In B.C 8 Purpose Of The Study , 10 Procedure 11 L i m i t a t i o n s Of The Study 15 D e f i n i t i o n Of Terms 16 Plan Of The Report 20 I I . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 22 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Of The E d u c a t i o n a l l y Disadvantaged . 24 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Of ABE Students 28 I m p l i c a t i o n s Of The C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Of ABE Students For Program Planning And I n s t r u c t i o n 37 D e l i v e r i n g L earning A s s i s t a n c e S e r v i c e s To ABE Students 49 The Nature Of Lea r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e S e r v i c e s .... 50 Models of D e l i v e r i n g L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e to ABE 56 I I I . ADULT BASIC EDUCATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA .. 63 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Of The Undereducated 64 Current P r o v i s i o n s 86 ABE Student C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 98 Summary 102 IV. SURVEY FINDINGS 106 Campus Learning A s s i s t a n c e Centres 108 Off-Campus Le a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e S e r v i c e s 122 ABE Learning A s s i s t a n c e S e r v i c e s 122 D e c e n t r a l i z e d Learning A s s i s t a n c e S e r v i c e s ....130 ABE Programs Without L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e S e r v i c e s 135 Summary 137 V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMENDATIONS 140 Con c l u s i o n s 146 Suggestions For Further Research 150 APPENDIX A: ON-SITE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS 156 APPENDIX B: INDEX OF NAMES 157 APPENDIX C: A BREAKDOWN OF ADULT BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMS BY INSTITUTION 160 REFERENCES 168 REFERENCE NOTES 175 v i i LIST OF TABLES 1. Adult I l l i t e r a c y In B r i t i s h Columbia 1921 -1971 67 2. P o p u l a t i o n Aged 15 And Over Not Att e n d i n g School F u l l - t i m e By Age Group And E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l , 1976 71 3. P o p u l a t i o n Aged 15 And Over Not Att e n d i n g School F u l l - t i m e By Sex And E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l , 1 976 71 4. Labour Force P a r t i c i p a t i o n And Unemployment L e v e l s By E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l 74 5. L e v e l s Of Unemployment By Age Group And E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l 76 6. B.C. T o t a l , Years Of Sc h o o l i n g By Income, 1971 79 7. B.C. T o t a l , Years Of Sc h o o l i n g By E t h n i c i t y , 1971 ... 81 8. Rank Order Of C o l l e g e Regions By Number Of A d u l t s With Grade E i g h t Or Less, 1976 83 9. P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates And Rank Order In P a r t -time ABE Programs And F u l l And Part-time Academic Upgrading Courses 93 v i i i 10. Academic Upgrading Courses, 1980; Number Of ABE Program Types By I n s t i t u t i o n 94 11. Planned C o l l e g e C a p a c i t y 1979-80 For F u l l -time ABE Oc c u p a t i o n a l Upgrading Courses By Student Contact Months 96 12. F u l l - t i m e And Part-time Enrollment In C o l l e g e Preparatory Programs In B.C. Community C o l l e g e s And P r o v i n c i a l I n s t i t u t e s By Age, 1968-69 To 1978-79 98 LIST OF FIGURES I n d i v i d u a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Of A d u l t s With Less Than High School Vs. P u b l i c S e r v i c e s D e l i v e r y Systems Designs 38 L e a r n i n g Needs Of E d u c a t i o n a l l y Disadvantaged A d u l t s And Learning A s s i s t a n c e A c t i v i t i e s ... 60 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to g r a t e f u l l y acknowledge the support and guidance of the f o l l o w i n g i n d i v i d u a l s : my t h e s i s committee chairman,. Dr. Peter Cookson, f o r h i s kind words and pa t i e n c e ; committee members, Dr. W i l l i a m G r i f f i t h ; , f o r h i s d i l i g e n c e in e d i t i n g the t h e s i s ; and p a r t i c u l a r l y , Dr. Gary D i c k i n s o n , to whom I am indebted f o r my s a n i t y as a graduate student. Dr. Di c k i n s o n was my f a c u l t y a d v i s o r as w e l l as my t h e s i s committee chairman u n t i l h i s departure from the U n i v e r s i t y . He has c o n s i s t e n t l y given me sound, pragmatic advice tempered with humour. I s h a l l always remember h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n to my academic development. I would l i k e to acknowledge the support of the M i n i s t r y of Education, Continuing Education D i v i s i o n f o r funding of p a r t s of the study. To my c o l l e a g u e s , Mardel P a r i s h and Dennis Kong, I wish to express deepest g r a t i t u d e f o r t h e i r computer s k i l l s . Without t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e , the p r o d u c t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s would have been much more d i f f i c u l t . F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to thank my fa m i l y f o r t h e i r many s a c r i f i c e s , t h e i r support, understanding, and love without which t h i s t h e s i s might not have come to pass. 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Growing r e c o g n i t i o n that l e a r n i n g i s a l i f e l o n g process e s s e n t i a l to the s o c i a l and economic h e a l t h of a n a t i o n has i n f l u e n c e d e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s to address the needs of e d u c a t i o n a l l y disadvantaged a d u l t s . Many of these a d u l t s have entered post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s through an "open door" p o l i c y , e n r o l l i n g i n ba s i c education programs such as a d u l t b a s i c education (ABE). These a d u l t students do not f i t the t r a d i t i o n a l mold of c o l l e g e student. Many of these " n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l " students r e q u i r e a wide range of su p p o r t i v e s e r v i c e s as w e l l as e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s e s p e c i a l l y designed to s u i t " t h e i r needs. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , such s u p p o r t i v e s e r v i c e s are r a r e l y a v a i l a b l e and many students f a i l to progress i n t o r e g u l a r c o l l e g e or t r a i n i n g programs ( T r u e s d e l l , 1975; Seaman,1971). 2 One means of p r e v e n t i n g the "open door" from becoming a " r e v o l v i n g door" i s through the p r o v i s i o n of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e . Learning a s s i s t a n c e c o n s i s t s of v a r i o u s kinds of s u p p o r t i v e s e r v i c e s to a s s i s t students in overcoming l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s . The a v a i l a b i l i t y of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e may mean the d i f f e r e n c e between a s u c c e s s f u l a d u l t education experience and r e t e n t i o n , and an a d u l t education f a i l u r e and drop-out. E d u c a t i o n a l planners have shown that p r e d i c t e d demographic changes in the p o p u l a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y those which are age r e l a t e d , w i l l i n f l u e n c e the nature of the c l i e n t e l e of post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s (Morrison, 1976). In s e v e r a l areas of B r i t i s h Columbia, the numbers of t r a d i t i o n a l , younger, f u l l -time students between the ages of eighteen and twenty-four years w i l l d e c l i n e i n the next decade. T h i s d e c l i n e c o u l d be compensated f o r by i n c r e a s e s i n the number of other groups of consumers of post-secondary s e r v i c e s . One l a r g e s e c t o r of p o t e n t i a l consumers i s the e d u c a t i o n a l l y disadvantaged. In B r i t i s h Columbia, a c c o r d i n g to the 1.976 Census, one a d u l t i n f i v e has grade nine or l e s s years of s c h o o l i n g and one i n t w e n t y - f i v e a d u l t s has l e s s than f i v e years of s c h o o l i n g ( D i c k i n s o n , 1978b). More than h a l f a m i l l i o n of B.C.'s a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n have l e s s than nine years of 3 s c h o o l i n g . Another p o t e n t i a l s e c t o r i s the l a r g e number of se n i o r secondary school students dropping out with a Grade 10 or l e s s e d u c a t i o n . In 1978-1979, 12 out of every 100 students i n senior secondary schools dropped out ( M i n i s t r y of Education, 1980c). Not only must post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s be prepared to serve a d u l t s who are p r e s e n t l y undereducated, but they must a l s o recognize that many high school students p r e s e n t l y dropping out with Grade 10 education or l e s s w i l l , at some f u t u r e time, r e t u r n to some form of post-secondary education and w i l l need an a l t e r n a t i v e program to compensate f o r having f a i l e d to complete t h e i r secondary education ( M i n i s t r y of Education, 1980b). These adolescent dropouts may r e t u r n to school as a d u l t s , having experienced success and f a i l u r e s i n a d u l t l i f e . In Canadian s o c i e t y , e d u c a t i o n a l attainment i s valued not only f o r i t s b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t s i n promoting s o c i a l and economic m o b i l i t y , but a l s o f o r coping with r a p i d t e c h n o l o g i c a l change ( P o r t e r , 1965). The h i g h l y educated are known to take advantage of o p p o r t u n i t i e s to p a r t i c i p a t e in e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , while the l e s s e r educated tend not to take advantage of s i m i l a r o p p o r t u n i t i e s and thus continue to remain i n a low p o s i t i o n or to drop f u r t h e r behind (Johnstone & R i v e r a , 1965; Verner & D i c k i n s o n , 1974). The e d u c a t i o n a l l y 4 disadvantaged face many b a r r i e r s to f u r t h e r i n g t h e i r e d u c a t i o n . Some of these b a r r i e r s r e l a t e to the extent to which p r e v a i l i n g s o c i e t a l values towards education are shared or not shared by e d u c a t i o n a l l y disadvantaged a d u l t s . Other b a r r i e r s are r e l a t e d to c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s shared with other disadvantaged groups i n s o c i e t y : low income, l a r g e f a m i l i e s , inadequate housing and a high i n c i d e n c e of poor h e a l t h (Anderson & Niemi, 1969). In a d d i t i o n , many have a poor s e l f - c o n c e p t and lack s e l f -c o n f i d e n c e i n u n f a m i l i a r surroundings (Puder & Hand, 1968). The e d u c a t i o n a l l y disadvantaged are f u r t h e r handicapped by poor v e r b a l s k i l l s which l i m i t t h e i r a b i l i t y to communicate e f f e c t i v e l y with other groups i n s o c i e t y (Verner, 1970). I n s t i t u t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s may a l s o c o n t r i b u t e to the ongoing i n c i d e n c e of low l e v e l s of education among a d u l t s . Many post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s have a l i m i t e d program commitment to serve " n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l " a d u l t l e a r n e r s . F r e q u e n t l y programs intended to serve these students f a i l to do so and many ABE programs t a r g e t e d to reach the e d u c a t i o n a l l y disadvantaged have been shown to be s u c c e s s f u l in s e r v i n g and reaching only the most h i g h l y educated and the most h i g h l y motivated of the p o t e n t i a l ABE c l i e n t e l e (Mezirow, Darkenwald & Knox, 1975). Many f a c t o r s are thought to c o a l e s c e to b u i l d 5 b a r r i e r s to l e a r n i n g f o r the e d u c a t i o n a l l y disadvantaged. C l e a r l y , e f f o r t s such as l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e , which seek to reduce b a r r i e r s to l e a r n i n g , should be i n v e s t i g a t e d . Background and Need for the Study T r a d i t i o n a l l y , l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e has been concerned with remediating d e f i c i e n t academic s k i l l s i n c o l l e g e students e n r o l l e d i n u n i v e r s i t y t r a n s f e r and career programs. The concept of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e in c u r r e n t use has now been expanded to i n c l u d e the concept of developmental education as w e l l as remediation (Roueche, 1977). Remediation i m p l i e s c o r r e c t i o n of student d e f i c i e n c i e s i n b a s i c s k i l l s i n order to make up f o r p r e r e q u i s i t e s r e q u i r e d f o r admission i n t o a program of study. Developmental education i m p l i e s compensation or development of s k i l l s or a t t i t u d e s , and may not have any r e l a t i o n to making a student e l i g i b l e for e n t r y i n t o a s p e c i f i c program (Roueche & Wheeler, 1973). The t a r g e t groups for l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e have expanded to i n c l u d e a l l e d u c a t i o n a l l y disadvantaged students, i n c l u d i n g ABE students, and not o n l y e d u c a t i o n a l l y d e f i c i e n t " r e g u l a r " c o l l e g e students (Lombardi, 1979). Much of t h i s expansion has been a t t r i b u t e d to i n c r e a s e d access to post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s by 6 e d u c a t i o n a l l y disadvantaged a d u l t s as a r e s u l t of n a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l goals f o r l i f e l o n g education and open admission both i n Canada and the Un i t e d S t a t e s (Cross, 1971). In a d d i t i o n , the need to r e t r a i n the labour f o r c e in higher s k i l l e d occupations has been taken up by post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s and t h i s i n turn has brought many a d u l t s who are a c a d e m i c a l l y underprepared i n t o the i n s t i t u t i o n s . L i t t l e has been w r i t t e n about the l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e needs of ABE students. Current knowledge about the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of ABE students, t h e i r l e a r n i n g needs and e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s , has not been f u l l y e x p l o r e d in r e l a t i o n to the p r o v i s i o n of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e . There i s a p a u c i t y of l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s f i e l d . Cross (1977) conducted an h i s t o r i c a l review of re s e a r c h concerning remediation and developmental education f o r disadvantaged students and concluded that the r e s e a r c h has been i n t u r n , u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d , e m o t i o n a l l y charged, and of l i m i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n . S i m i l a r statements may be made of e v a l u a t i o n s t u d i e s of remediation programs i n United S t a t e s ' j u n i o r c o l l e g e s (Roueche, 1968). L i t t l e r esearch has been conducted on l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e f o r a d u l t b a s i c education and there are few d e s c r i p t i v e a r t i c l e s which have i n v e s t i g a t e d the Canadian experience i n t h i s f i e l d . 7 In B r i t i s h Columbia, l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s to a d u l t b a s i c education students has r e c e n t l y been recognized as a r a p i d l y expanding area of s e r v i c e in post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s . The p r o v i s i o n o f ' ABE programs to a d u l t s with l e s s than Grade 12 education has been sporadic and ad hoc ( M i n i s t r y of Education, 1979). L i k e ABE programs, l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e to ABE students has developed at d i f f e r e n t r a t e s and i n d i f f e r e n t forms. Requests f o r funds for c a p i t a l and o p e r a t i n g expenditures have been made under d i f f e r e n t g u i s e s , with a v a r i e t y of g o a l s , c l i e n t groups, and s e r v i c e s being proposed. Funding bodies such as the Management Advisory C o u n c i l and the M i n i s t r y of Education's Standing Committee have experienced d i f f i c u l t y in responding to an i n c r e a s e d demand for funds, because the need, nature and extent of programs of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e f o r ABE students has not been w e l l documented. As a r e s u l t , a r a t i o n a l e f o r an e q u i t a b l e d i s t r i b u t i o n of funds based upon e s t a b l i s h e d c r i t e r i a of e f f e c t i v e n e s s has not been formulated. The need fo r the present study on the p r o v i s i o n of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e f o r ABE students was sparked by lack of a p o l i c y which c o u l d provide d i r e c t i o n and support to guide the development of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e programs in B r i t i s h Columbia's post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s . I t was f u r t h e r r e i n f o r c e d a f t e r the 8 present study undertook a p r e l i m i n a r y review of the l i t e r a t u r e — which uncovered l i t t l e that was d i r e c t l y a p p l i c a b l e to the t o p i c d e l i n e a t e d : l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e and a d u l t b a s i c e d u c a t i o n . The l i t e r a t u r e d i d support the p o t e n t i a l of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s i n addres s i n g the l e a r n i n g problems faced by many e d u c a t i o n a l l y disadvantaged students, but the absence of r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s a need f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . The P o l i c y Context i n B.C. The need f o r ba s i c education of a d u l t s has been recognized i n s e v e r a l p o l i c y statements i s s u e d r e c e n t l y by the M i n i s t r y of Education. In 1974, the Task Force on the Community C o l l e g e (Department of Education, 1974) recommended t u i t i o n f r e e education f o r a l l B r i t i s h Columbia r e s i d e n t s up to and i n c l u d i n g the Grade 12 l e v e l . The Report of the Committee on  Cont i n u i n g and Community Education ( M i n i s t r y of Education, 1976) spoke d i r e c t l y to e s t a b l i s h i n g a d u l t b a s i c education as a high p r i o r i t y . Not only d i d i t r e i t e r a t e the recommendation f o r f r e e t u i t i o n f o r education to the Grade 12 l e v e l , but s e v e r a l recommendations concerning the d e l i v e r y and content of ba s i c education programs were made. R e l a t i n g to l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e , i t was recommended t h a t : (2.5) I n f o r m a t i o n a l and c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s 9 be t a i l o r e d to the needs of s p e c i f i c c l i e n t groups. (p. 61 ) (2.7) D i a g n o s t i c and remedial c a p a b i l i t i e s of e x i s t i n g c o u n s e l l i n g c e n t r e s be upgraded to i n c l u d e a p p r o p r i a t e up-to-date m a t e r i a l s and r e s o u r c e s f o r a d u l t s . (p. 61) (3.6) R e c o g n i t i o n be given to the f a c t that many a d u l t s have l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s that must be accommodated through s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques. (p. 61) (3.12) Adult b a s i c education programs encompass s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l development s k i l l s , as w e l l as academic i n s t r u c t i o n . (p. 63) D e s p i t e s u p p o r t i v e p o l i c y statements, a d u l t b a s i c education has remained an area of r e l a t i v e n e g l e c t and low p r i o r i t y . The s i t u a t i o n prompted the Committee on Adult B a s i c Education to i s s u e a study of the p r o v i n c e ' s need which r e s u l t e d i n an o f f i c i a l statement of p o l i c y from the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . In a document, A M i n i s t e r i a l Pol i c y on the P r o v i s i o n of  Adult B a s i c Educat ion Programs i n c l u d i n g E n g l i s h  Language T r a i n i n g i n the P u b l i c Educat ion System of 10 B r i t i s h Columbia ( M i n i s t r y of Education, 1980b) a d e c l a r e d M i n i s t r y p o l i c y was, "to pr o v i d e to a l l a d u l t c i t i z e n s and landed immigrants r e s i d i n g i n the pro v i n c e access to a d u l t b a s i c education programs of high q u a l i t y . " (p. 1) The statement a l s o a r t i c u l a t e d the M i n i s t r y ' s i n t e n t to provide s u p p o r t i v e s e r v i c e s as being: - t o provide f i n a n c i a l support f o r programs which meet the s p e c i f i c need of the d i s a b l e d a d u l t i n c l u d i n g the l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d . -to provide funding to ensure an adequate l e v e l of support s e r v i c e s such as l i b r a r i e s , c o u n s e l l i n g , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and assessment of l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s . (p. 1) Within the p o l i c y statements arid recommendations on a d u l t b a s i c education, one may p e r c e i v e an i n d i c a t i o n of i n t e n t to support l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s . T h e r e f o r e , the i n t r o d u c t i o n of p o l i c y to guide the development of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e to ABE students would be congruent with ABE p o l i c y p r o v i s i o n s c u r r e n t l y i n p l a c e . The Purpose of the Study purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s , 1 ) to i n v e s t i g a t e the c u r r e n t p r o v i s i o n s f o r l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e to a d u l t b a s i c education students i n B.C. post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s , 2) to a s s i s t i n development of a p o l i c y on l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s f o r ABE students by a) e s t a b l i s h i n g a r a t i o n a l e f o r M i n i s t r y involvement and b) i d e n t i f y i n g key areas f o r program management and d e l i v e r y d e c i s i o n s i n post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s . Procedure An e x p l o r a t o r y review of l i t e r a t u r e about the p r o v i s i o n of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s f o r ABE students was undertaken. In a d d i t i o n , - a survey of B.C. post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s ( e x c l u d i n g u n i v e r s i t i e s ) was conducted with s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s being used to gather data from c o l l e g e p e r s o n n e l . The study was designed to provide answers to the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. How many l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s are there? 2. What l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s or f u n c t i o n s are being provided? 3. How are l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s , s e r v i c e s or f u n c t i o n s a d m i n i s t e r e d and s t a f f e d ? 4. Where are l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s , s e r v i c e s or f u n c t i o n s located? 5. How are the c e n t r e s , s e r v i c e s or f u n c t i o n s 1 2 funded? 6. What are the o b j e c t i v e s of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e o f f e r i n g s ? 7. What are the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of students served? 8. What co s t s and b e n e f i t s are a s s o c i a t e d with the p r o v i s i o n of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s ? 9. How are these c o s t s and b e n e f i t s measured? 10. What problems are encountered i n the short term and long term o p e r a t i o n s of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s , s e r v i c e s or f u n c t i o n s ? 1 1 . How were the p r o v i s i o n s i n i t i a t e d and supported? 12. What are the measures of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e e f f e c t i v e n e s s ? The study was undertaken as part of a M i n i s t r y of Education funded study of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e a c t i v i t i e s provided f o r a d u l t b a s i c education students i n c o l l e g e s and p r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t e s . An a d v i s o r y committee was formed whose members i n c l u d e d M i n i s t r y o f f i c i a l s and c o l l e g e ABE p r a c t i t i o n e r s . The Ad v i s o r y Committee met twice, once at the i n c e p t i o n of the study and once f o l l o w i n g completion of the o n - s i t e v i s i t s . During the i n i t i a l meeting committee members a s s i s t e d in c l a r i f y i n g the purposes and l i m i t a t i o n s of the study 1 3 and in i d e n t i f y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n sources, key i s s u e s and d e t a i l e d q u e s t i o n s to be answered by the study. At the f i n a l meeting, members r e f l e c t e d upon study f i n d i n g s and c o n c l u s i o n s and a s s i s t e d i n h i g h l i g h t i n g important r e s u l t s on the b a s i s of which recommendations to the M i n i s t r y of Education c o u l d be formulated. The study began with a l e t t e r sent by the M i n i s t r y to the p r i n c i p a l s of B.C.'s 14 community c o l l e g e s and three p r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t e s informing them of the purpose and need for the study and asking f o r t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n ' s c o o p e r a t i o n . Two telephone surveys were undertaken. The f i r s t was to follow-up the l e t t e r of n o t i f i c a t i o n and to e l i c i t the names of c o l l e g e personnel who were knowledgeable about the f u l l range of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e o f f e r i n g s w i t h i n t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n . A t o t a l of 15 such i n d i v i d u a l s were in t e r v i e w e d in the second telephone survey and i n f o r m a t i o n was requested on the f o l l o w i n g t o p i c s : 1) the name of the l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e ( i f any) and i t s c o o r d i n a t o r , 2) the name(s) of any other i n d i v i d u a l ( s ) with r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for p r o v i d i n g l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e , 3) the o b j e c t i v e s of the program, 4) a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d , c l i e n t groups, f a c i l i t i e s , s t a f f i n g arrangements, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , sources of funding, budget, e v a l u a t i o n methods and l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e 1 4 m a t e r i a l s and equipment. Responses were recorded on a guided i n t e r v i e w response sheet. v -From the r e s u l t s of the telephone surveys, a p r o f i l e of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e a c t i v i t i e s was compiled d e s c r i b i n g the range of f u n c t i o n s o f f e r e d . The study o r i g i n a l l y intended to sample a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e number of i n s t i t u t i o n s . However, the d i v e r s i t y of range of s e r v i c e s was such t h a t a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of i n s t i t u t i o n s c o u l d not be made and i t was decid e d to survey a l l of the i n s t i t u t i o n s . Arrangements f o r o n - s i t e v i s i t s were made by telephone with the c o l l e g e c o n t a c t . Information r e c e i v e d i n the telephone i n t e r v i e w s formed the b a s i s for s t r u c t u r e d o n - s i t e i n t e r v i e w s (Appendix A). A d e t a i l e d l i s t of q u e s t i o n s was developed and p i l o t t e s t e d at Northwest Community C o l l e g e . Subsequently the number of in t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s was shortened, open-ended q u e s t i o n s were introduced and the i n t e r v i e w was made l e s s s t r u c t u r e d . F i e l d v i s i t s were conducted between January and March, 1981 and a t o t a l of 57 i n d i v i d u a l s were i n t e r v i e w e d (Appendix B). Of those, 23 were se n i o r l e v e l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n c l u d i n g c o l l e g e deans, 27 were program s t a f f (mainly f a c u l t y members), and 7 were management personnel i n c l u d i n g b u r s a r s . An attempt was made to ensure r e l i a b i l i t y and accuracy of responses by ensuring that at l e a s t two i n d i v i d u a l s 1 5 were in t e r v i e w e d i n each i n s t i t u t i o n . In a d d i t i o n to i n t e r v i e w s , data were a l s o recorded about the p h y s i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e f a c i l i t i e s through d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n wherever p o s s i b l e . For each f i e l d v i s i t , the i n t e r v i e w e r wrote a summary report of data c o l l e c t e d through i n t e r v i e w s and f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n s . F i e l d v i s i t s were conducted by two i n t e r v i e w e r s o p e r a t i n g independently: a p r o f e s s o r of a d u l t education who v i s i t e d f i v e i n s t i t u t i o n s and the w r i t e r who v i s i t e d 12 i n s t i t u t i o n s . Data were analyzed by e s t a b l i s h i n g c a t e g o r i e s and comparing data w i t h i n these c a t e g o r i e s f o l l o w i n g a procedure suggested by H o l s t i (1969). The c o n s t r u c t i o n of summary t a b l e s a s s i s t e d i n t h i s t a s k . Major c a t e g o r i e s f o r comparison were: models of s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y , o r g a n i z a t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , s t a f f c o s t s , sources of funding and c l i e n t groups. L i m i t a t i o n s of the Study S e v e r a l l i m i t a t i o n s should be noted i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the study f i n d i n g s . One l i m i t a t i o n i s i n the study's scope. While l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s are p r o v i d e d not only to ABE students but a l s o to other students i n the c o l l e g e , t h i s study was only concerned with s e r v i c e s provided to ABE students. However, where 16 a college or i n s t i t u t e provided service to a l l students, the range and nature of such services were investigated. As an exploratory survey, interview questions had to be s u f f i c i e n t l y open-ended to permit interviews of administrators, instructors and management personnel. L i t t l e information was obtained which could be subjected to s t a t i s t i c a l analysis. F i n a l l y , the term, "learning assistance" was not adequately defined at the beginning of the project. The d e f i n i t i o n was developed after preliminary f i e l d testing as: "any a c t i v i t y or service supportive of learning, conducted outside a regular program of instruction by someone other than the instructor." This d e f i n i t i o n permitted interviewees to describe learning assistance services as they perceived them without the l i m i t a t i o n s of an imposed d e f i n i t i o n . This was important because of the investigative nature of the study and because prior information about the nature and extent of services to ABE students was not ava i l a b l e . D e f i n i t i o n of Terms The following terms are c l a r i f i e d and defined for the purpose of their use in the thesis. 1 7 Adult B a s i c Education (ABE)--The d e f i n i t i o n used h e r e i n i s taken from the M i n i s t r y of Education's p o l i c y statement on ABE, A M i n i s t e r i a l Pol i c y on the P r o v i s i o n  of Adult B a s i c Educat ion Programs I n c l u d i n g E n g l i sh  Language T r a i n i n g i n the P u b l i c Educat ion System of  B r i t i s h Columbia, ( M i n i s t r y of Education, 1980b). Basic Education i s the p r o v i s i o n of s c h o o l i n g up to Grade 12 f o r a d u l t s . In general a d u l t b a s i c education programs comprise a c t i v i t i e s through which p a r t i c i p a n t s a c q u i r e the b a s i c s k i l l s i n l e a r n i n g , reading, w r i t i n g , s p e l l i n g , l i s t e n i n g , speaking, computation, and c u l t u r a l comprehension which are r e q u i r e d by a d u l t s to f u n c t i o n i n a complex s o c i e t y , (p. 1 ) A d u l t b a s i c education programs may be grouped i n t o four c a t e g o r i e s : 1 . Basic L i t e r a c y : Programs designed to provide a d u l t s with s k i l l s i n l e a r n i n g , reading, w r i t i n g , L s p e l l i n g , l i s t e n i n g , speaking and computation, to the Grade 8 l e v e l , together with the coping and i n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s that w i l l a s s i s t a d u l t s to d e a l with r e a l l i f e s i tuat ions. Academic Upgrading: Programs designed to provide the p r e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s and c e r t i f i c a t i o n r e q u i r e d by a d u l t s to achieve t h e i r p e r s o n a l or c a r e e r goals (e.g., a d u l t secondary completion, B a s i c T r a i n i n g f o r S k i l l s Development, C o l l e g e P r e p a r a t i o n or F oundations). Pre-Vocat i o n a l : Programs designed to f a c i l i t a t e a d u l t entry i n t o the labour f o r c e or v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g (e.g., Basic Employment S k i l l s T r a i n i n g , - B a s i c T r a i n i n g f o r S k i l l s Development, Employment O r i e n t a t i o n f o r Women). E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g : Programs designed to p r o v i d e non-English speaking a d u l t s with s u f f i c i e n t s k i l l s i n E n g l i s h language, c i t i z e n s h i p and c u l t u r a l comprehension to p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y as c i t i z e n s , workers, parents, and l e a r n e r s . (p. 1) 19 L e a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e - - t h i s d e f i n i t i o n i s taken from the M i n i s t r y of Education's Post-Secondary A c t i v i t y  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n S t r u c t u r e Manual (PACS) ( M i n i s t r y of Education, I980d). i d e n t i f i e s those s e r v i c e s which are designed to help students develop, or improve b a s i c s k i l l s r e q u i r e d f o r s u c c e s s f u l l y completing t h e i r c o u r s e s . (p. 5.7) N o n - t r a d i t i o n a l Students - - i s used to d e s c r i b e students who are not between the ages of 18 and 21 a t t e n d i n g f u l l - t i m e and f o r whom education i s a primary f u n c t i o n . The term r e f e r s to a d u l t part-time l e a r n e r s f o r whom education i s a secondary r a t h e r than a primary a c t i v i t y . The n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l student c l i e n t e l e i n c l u d e s e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s , low income students, women, low academic, the handicapped, as w e l l as a d u l t p a r t -time l e a r n e r s (Cross, 1979). E d u c a t i o n a l l y Disadvantaged Adult -- d e s c r i b e s a d u l t s who have a l e v e l of education l e s s than i s recognized as needed to be a c o n t r i b u t i n g member of Canadian s o c i e t y . In B.C., the l e v e l g e n e r a l l y recognized as r e q u i r e d i s a Grade 12 l e v e l of ed u c a t i o n . The term, undereducated a d u l t d e s c r i b e s a d u l t s with 8 years or l e s s of s c h o o l i n g . 20 Plan of the Report The thesis comprises five chapters. The f i r s t chapter presents an introduction, background and need for the study. A description of the procedure followed to conduct the study i s presented as well as steps used in analyzing data. D e f i n i t i o n s of key terminology employed in the study are stated and selected policy statements related to adult basic education are reviewed. The f i n a l section of the introductory chapter presents a plan of the report b r i e f l y describing each of the fiv e chapters and their contents. The second chapter consists of a l i t e r a t u r e review examining three major subject areas. F i r s t , the psychological and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of educationally disadvantaged adults are discussed from two orientations: a) a r t i c l e s based upon studies of populations defined as "disadvantaged", of which educational disadvantage is seen, to be part, and b) a r t i c l e s based upon studies of ABE students. Differences are drawn between the two orientations. The second area of l i t e r a t u r e reviewed relates to the implications which c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the undereducated have for program planning and i n s t r u c t i o n . The f i n a l area of l i t e r a t u r e reviewed concerns methods of delivery of learning assistance services to ABE 21 students. In summary, Chapter Two e s t a b l i s h e s a r a t i o n a l e f o r ^providing l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e to e d u c a t i o n a l l y disadvantaged a d u l t s e n r o l l e d i n ABE programs and exp l o r e s e f f o r t s i n d e l i v e r i n g such s e r v i c e s . Chapter Three e s t a b l i s h e s the l o c a l context of need by examining s o c i a l demographic s t u d i e s concerned with the extent of undereducation i n B r i t i s h Columbia. F a c t o r s such as e t h n i c i t y , o c c u p a t i o n , age, sex and labour f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n are examined i n l i g h t of demographic s t a t i s t i c s of undereducation. Enrollment and program s t a t i s t i c s f o r a d u l t b a s i c education i n B.C. post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s are re p o r t e d to d e s c r i b e the extent of e f f o r t undertaken to serve the needs of a region's undereducated p o p u l a t i o n . The study f i n d i n g s are presented i n the f o u r t h chapter. The f i n d i n g s are organized under three major headings, campus-based l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s , off-campus l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s and ABE programs without l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s . The f i n a l chapter presents a summary, c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations. 2 2 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Knowledge about the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of ABE students, t h e i r l e a r n i n g needs and t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l goals has not been r e l a t e d to the p r o v i s i o n of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s . No s t u d i e s were found which addressed the t o p i c d i r e c t l y . In l i g h t of the absence of p e r t i n e n t l i t e r a t u r e , t h i s chapter reviews s e l e c t e d l i t e r a t u r e on 1) the s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n f o r ABE programs; 2 ) i m p l i c a t i o n s which the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of ABE t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n s may have f o r program planning and i n s t r u c t i o n ; and 3 ) .suggested models f o r d e l i v e r i n g l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s to ABE students. F o l l o w i n g from the l i t e r a t u r e review, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of e d u c a t i o n a l l y disadvantaged a d u l t s are d i s c u s s e d i n terms of how such knowledge may i n f l u e n c e the design and d e l i v e r y of l e a r n i n g 23 a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s . The term "disadvantaged" has been used to d e s c r i b e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of groups i n a s t a t e of need or want. One of the most powerful, and the most commonly used i n d i c a t o r , has been economic d e p r i v a t i o n as measured by l e v e l of income, unemployment and dependency upon government a s s i s t a n c e . By adding a d j e c t i v e s such as " c u l t u r a l l y " disadvantaged or " e d u c a t i o n a l l y " disadvantaged, the term "disadvantaged" takes on gre a t e r meaning (Anderson & Niemi, 1969). These d e s c r i p t o r s begin to e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n s h i p between c e r t a i n antecedent c o n d i t i o n s which have been a s s o c i a t e d with economic d e p r i v a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the term "disadvantaged" has been widely accepted to i n c l u d e persons who are e d u c a t i o n a l l y disadvantaged. T h i s chapter i s most concerned with those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the disadvantaged which are congruent with the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of ABE students. L i t e r a t u r e on the s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of ABE students may be grouped i n t o two main c a t e g o r i e s : 1) s t u d i e s of disadvantaged groups as a whole and 2) s t u d i e s of ABE program p a r t i c i p a n t s . The f o l l o w i n g paragraphs reviews l i t e r a t u r e on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the disadvantaged a d u l t and on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of ABE s t u d e n t s . C o n c l u s i o n s f o r program pla n n i n g are drawn by comparing and c o n t r a s t i n g 24 the two o r i e n t a t i o n s . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Educat i o n a l l y Disadvantaged Anderson and Niemi (1969) conducted a major review of l i t e r a t u r e concerning the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of disadvantaged a d u l t s and concluded that the disadvantaged were members of a s u b - c u l t u r a l group who shared values and norms which were d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t from the dominant c u l t u r a l group in North American s o c i e t y . The term, "disadvantaged" was a p p l i e d to members of a poverty s u b - c u l t u r e . Poverty was d e f i n e d as a s t a t e of economic need or want (Anderson & Niemi, 1969, p. 4). Two dimensions of disadvantagement i d e n t i f i e d were: 1) a s t a t e of economic d e p r i v a t i o n and 2) a person's s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n of him/herself as poor (Whyte, 1971). Anderson and Niemi then used a two-dimensional c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n , which c o n s i s t e d of o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e measures, to d e s c r i b e f e a t u r e s that d i s t i n g u i s h e d the disadvantaged poor from others in s o c i e t y . T h e i r monograph d e s c r i b e d these d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g f e a t u r e s i n socio-economic as w e l l as s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l terms. Anderson and Niemi (1969) found that the disadvantaged g e n e r a l l y l a c k e d s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e ; had a poor s e l f - c o n c e p t and a high degree of dependency upon government a s s i s t a n c e ; were p a s s i v e i n a c c e p t i n g t h e i r 25 disadvantaged s t a t u s ; but had developed behaviour p a t t e r n s which attempted to d i s g u i s e t h e i r low s t a t u s . The disadvantaged showed l i t t l e awareness of the value of education i n a l t e r i n g t h e i r disadvantaged s t a t e nor were there m o t i v a t i o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s very w e l l developed. One study by Barnes and Hendrickson (1968) found that men e n r o l l e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s f o r v o c a t i o n a l g o a l s and women l e s s f o r v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s than f o r p e r s o n a l needs fo r self-improvement. The disadvantaged p r e f e r r e d non-v e r b a l forms of communication over v e r b a l forms and responded more r e a d i l y to f a c i a l and t a c t i l e s i g n a l s . T h e i r poor v e r b a l s k i l l s l i m i t e d t h e i r a b i l i t y to communicate with those o u t s i d e of t h e i r environment, thus encouraging them to r e t r e a t f u r t h e r i n t o t h e i r f a m i l i a r c u l t u r a l environment (Anderson & Niemi, 1969). Derbyshire (1966) s t a t e d that a d u l t i l l i t e r a t e s were members of an excluded m i n o r i t y group comprised of r a c i a l and e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s , the unemployed, the unschooled and the t r a n s i e n t . Because of t h e i r c u l t u r a l e x c l u s i v i t y , b a r r i e r s to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the dominant s o c i a l l i f e of a community were e r e c t e d by both the excluded and the dominant groups. From a study of black i l l i t e r a t e s i n an urban American s e t t i n g , s e v e r a l p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s were summarized by D e r b y s h i r e . The t r a i t s i d e n t i f i e d were thought to stem 26 from i n t e r a c t i n g with a r e s t r i c t i v e and neg a t i v e s o c i a l environment which had c o n d i t i o n e d the e d u c a t i o n a l l y disadvantaged a d u l t ' s responses to o t h e r s . B r i e f l y , these were: i n s e c u r i t y , tendency, towards p h y s i c a l a g r e s s i o n , l e t h a r g y , f o r c e d independence at a young age, a present o r i e n t a t i o n , l a c k of m o t i v a t i o n , p a s s i v e acceptance of t h e i r l a c k of s t a t u s , high degree of s e n s i t i v i t y to non-verbal c l u e s and co n c r e t e r a t h e r than a b s t r a c t t h i n k i n g . S i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of disadvantaged a d u l t s were i d e n t i f i e d i n a survey of res e a r c h conducted by Skene (1966). Surveying the l i t e r a t u r e i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h Puder and Hand (1968) i d e n t i f i e d some of the p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which may i n t e r f e r e with the l e a r n i n g processes of ABE students. A c l o s e d s o c i a l environment i n which many ABE students l i v e was found to gi v e r i s e to a close-mindedness and dogmatism. The p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d by Puder and Hand which impair l e a r n i n g i n c l u d e d : " a l i e n a t i o n , avoidance, h o s t i l i t y toward a u t h o r i t y , withdrawal, v i o l e n t a g g r e s s i o n , fear of s c h o o l s , s e l f - i m a g e as an i l l i t e r a t e , r e j e c t i o n of the d e s i r e ' to develop i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , mental b l o c k s a g a i n s t the world, r i g i d value systems and ot h e r s " (Puder & Hand, 1968, p. 91). Davison (1972) suggested that the academic f u n c t i o n i n g of the disadvantaged a d u l t i s handicapped 27 due to " c o n d i t i o n s of s o c i a l pathology, economic i n s u f f i c i e n c y and d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u l t u r a l e x p e r i e n c e s " (Davison, 1972, p. 162). F u r t h e r , she s t a t e d that among the disadvantaged, a r e a d i n e s s to l e a r n was hindered because of a depressed innate l e a r n i n g a b i l i t y , p o o r l y developed communication s k i l l s and u n f a m i l a r i t y ;with t h i n k i n g s t r a t e g i e s . Davison's review of r e s e a r c h concluded that disadvantaged a d u l t s have experienced constant f a i l u r e i n l i f e , f e e l inadequate, are unable to l e a r n and have a low e x p e c t a t i o n of e x i s t e n c e (Davison, 1972, p. 162). C o n c l u s i o n s The l i t e r a t u r e reviewed has p e r c e i v e d the disadvantaged from a t h e o r e t i c a l stance i n which disadvantaged a d u l t s belong to a s u b - c u l t u r a l group h o l d i n g d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s , b e l i e f s and norms from the dominant or middle c l a s s group (Blum, 1970). From t h i s assumption followed another, that the disadvantaged r e s i d e i n a markedly d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l environment devoid of p o s i t i v e reinforcements from the behaviours valued by the dominant c u l t u r e . The absence of such support, i n t u r n , f o s t e r e d c e r t a i n a l l e g e d p a t h o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s and p s y c h o l o g i c a l t r a i t s i n the disadvantaged which impeded t h e i r a b i l i t y to l e a r n . Consequently, a t y p i c a l ABE student was viewed as 28 a l i e n a t e d from the t r a d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l system by a vast c u l t u r a l gap. Only by r e c o g n i z i n g h i s c u l t u r a l uniqueness formed through i n t e r a c t i n g with a harsh s o c i a l , p h y s i c a l and economic environment, c o u l d members of the e d u c a t i o n a l system, i n c l u d i n g ABE i n s t r u c t o r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and c o u n s e l l o r s , meet the l e a r n i n g needs of ABE students ( B u r r i c h t e r & Ulmer, 1972) . These e a r l i e r s t u d i e s tended to p e r c e i v e the disadvantaged as a homogeneous group. L a t e r s t u d i e s of ABE students concluded that a wide range of i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s may be found among the e d u c a t i o n a l l y disadvantaged. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of ABE Students R e l a t i v e l y few s t u d i e s have documented the s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of ABE students. However, f i v e r e l a t e d s t u d i e s were reviewed. A seven year study of both ABE students and the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n f o r ABE programs, conducted by the Appalachian Adult Education Centre (AAEC) ( E y s t e r , 1973) i s o l a t e d four s e r v i c e groups among a d u l t s with l e s s than high school education i n the United S t a t e s . Group I have a high b e l i e f i n themselves and i n p u b l i c s e r v i c e s , are p e r s o n a l l y and economically secure, are r e l a t i v e l y easy to r e c r u i t through media methods, can be served i n groups and have higher 29 academic s k i l l s . T h e r e f o r e , they are able to manage p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l , and are c o s t - b e n e f i c i a l to serve because they can be r e c r u i t e d and taught through group methods. Group II i n c l u d e those who have f e l t the d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s of t h e i r l a c k of educat i o n , are a l s o r e l a t i v e l y easy and c o s t - b e n e f i c i a l to serve, and have time c o n s t r a i n t s due to t h e i r employment p a t t e r n s of s h i f t work, overtime and seasonal l a b o u r . As a group, they achieve the g r e a t e s t economic and academic gain as a r e s u l t of i n s t r u c t i o n . The main adjustment in s e r v i c e r e q u i r e d to serve t h i s group i s f l e x i b l e s c h e d u l i n g as r i g i d s c h e d u l i n g i s v i r t u a l l y unusable. Group III have a low l e v e l of computational and c r i t i c a l reading s k i l l s r e q u i r e d f o r a c h i e v i n g a high school e quivalency and a l i v i n g wage. They are underemployed or s p o r a d i c a l l y employed and can only be reached through p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t . Group IV i s the s m a l l e s t group yet hi g h e s t i n p r i o r i t y of need. They are unemployed and unemployable and may be termed the " s t a t i o n a r y poor". T h e i r s e l f concept i s f a t a l i s t i c and they are p e r s o n a l l y powerless in a l t e r i n g t h e i r s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n of inadequacy. They r e q u i r e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c h i l d - c a r e , c o u n s e l l i n g , one to one s e r v i c e s and home d e l i v e r y of s e r v i c e . They are, t h e r e f o r e , expensive to serve. The Appalachian study 30 found Groups III and IV l e a s t o f t e n approached p u b l i c agencies f o r i n f o r m a t i o n or e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . While Groups I and II were w e l l represented i n almost a l l ABE c l a s s e s , Groups III and IV tended to r e l y h e a v i l y on in f o r m a l networks of communication among f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s ( C h i l d e r s , 1973, p. 25) as t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n sources and were p o o r l y represented i n ABE programs. A n a t i o n a l sample of urban ABE _ programs was surveyed by Mezirow, Darkenwald and Knox (1975) to examine the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p e r s p e c t i v e s of the students i n v o l v e d . The study found that the most d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of ABE c l a s s e s was "a range of d i v e r s i t y of student p a r t i c i p a n t s probably unprecedented i n American e d u c a t i o n " (Mezirow, Darkenwald and Knox, 1975, p. 11). In few ABE c l a s s e s were students found to form true groups, share experiences or i n any way c o n t r i b u t e to a s o c i a l i z i n g process among t h e i r peers. The groupings which operated w i t h i n and without the ABE classroom were based on e t h n i c group, sex, age, country of o r i g i n and o c c a s i o n a l l y p r i o r a s s o c i a t i o n . The study observed that the t y p i c a l ABE student was low on almost any index of s o c i a l w e l l - b e i n g (Mezirow, Darkenwald and Knox, 1975, p. 38). However, a n a t i o n a l survey of ABE students was c i t e d which r e v e a l e d only 14% were 31 unemployed and seeking work (Kent, 1973). Those who were employed h e l d u n s k i l l e d , s e m i - s k i l l e d or domestic j o b s . Only one i n seven was c l a s s i f i e d as s k i l l e d . Mezirow, Darkenwald and Knox suggested a typo l o g y to c l a s s i f y m o t i v a t i o n s f o r attendance: 1. The Job C a r e e r i s t - - t h e l a r g e s t d i s t i n c t category comprised of predominantly young men and women who e n r o l l to o b t a i n the high s c h o o l e q u i v a l e n c y diploma i n order to improve t h e i r c o m p e t i t i v e n e s s i n the job market. However, i t was noted t h a t job ca r e e r i s m f o r ABE students meant a patchwork of d i s c r e t e jobs, r a t h e r than the middle c l a s s p r o g r e s s i o n through a h i e r a r c h y of i n c r e a s i n g l y higher paying and higher s t a t u s j o b s . 2. The Concerned Mother--a second major c a t e g o r y c o n s i s t s of women who at t e n d to become b e t t e r mothers as w e l l as to improve t h e i r job p r o s p e c t s . 3. The S e l f - I m p r o v e r - - t h i s category tends to be o l d e r , o f t e n s o c i a l l y i s o l a t e d and i n t e r e s t e d i n self-improvement f o r s o c i a l reasons. These i n d i v i d u a l s o f t e n a t t e n d ABE c l a s s e s to 32 make up f o r missed s c h o o l i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n t h e i r youth. 4 . The E d u c a t i o n a l C a r e e r i s t - - p l a c e s a hi g h value on education and has a strong f u t u r e o r i e n t a t i o n . I n d i v i d u a l s i n t h i s group are of t e n f i n a n c e d by immigrant parents who support t h e i r p u r s u i t of higher e d u c a t i o n . Those who want to go on to c o l l e g e represent a small m i n o r i t y i n ABE. 5. Troubled Youth--are u s u a l l y under age twenty and are " s o c i a l l y d e v i a n t " i n some way. They i n c l u d e the e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d or r e t a r d e d adolescent who may have u n r e a l i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s of h i s / h e r l e a r n i n g a b i l i t y , and high school "pushouts" who are angry, r e s e n t f u l and represent a d i s c i p l i n e problem for the ABE teacher. Although a very small m i n o r i t y , t r o u b l e d youth are l i k e l y found i n daytime c l a s s e s , are a d i s r u p t i o n to mixed c l a s s e s and demand a great d e a l of i n s t r u c t o r a t t e n t i o n . The mass media were found to be i n e f f e c t i v e as a means of recruitment i n the Mezirow study s i n c e ABE students p r e f e r i n f o r m a l , n a t u r a l networks of 33 communication, and f r e q u e n t l y c i t e f r i e n d s and r e l a t i v e s as i n f o r m a t i o n sources. The e x p e c t a t i o n s of ABE s t u d e n t s about b a s i c e d u c a t i o n were confused and uninformed. C o n t r a r y to the l i t e r a t u r e ' on the disadvantaged, Mezirow and a s s o c i a t e s d i d not f i n d any examples of c u l t u r a l or group c o h e s i v e n e s s . Moreover, most ABE students were found to possess a m i d d l e - c l a s s outlook and were to a l i m i t e d extent upwardly s o c i a l l y mobile. Kent (1973) conducted the f i r s t U n i t e d S t a t e s n a t i o n a l l o n g i t u d i n a l study of ABE s t u d e n t s . Although Kent's sample excluded students over 44 years of age, there were more younger (16 to 29 y e a r s of age) students than o l d e r students (30 to 44 years of age), female students outnumbered male students by 62% to 38%, whites outnumbered b l a c k s , and more than h a l f the students had p r e v i o u s l y completed nine grades or more of s c h o o l i n g d e s p i t e e n r o l l i n g i n s t u d i e s p r i m a r i l y designed f o r the e i g h t h grade and below. F u n c t i o n a l l y , they were s t i l l i l l i t e r a t e . At the i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w the student e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s were h i g h with the m a j o r i t y e x p e c t i n g to complete h i g h s c h o o l e q u i v a l e n c y and more than h a l f hoping to a t t e n d c o l l e g e . About 70% expected to e n r o l l f o r a d d i t i o n a l t e c h n i c a l or v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . In Kent's study, ABE s t u d e n t s were d e s c r i b e d as motivated to a t t e n d p r i m a r i l y f o r 34 e d u c a t i o n a l r ather than j o b - r e l a t e d reasons. D e s p i t e r e g u l a r attendance and continuous i n t a k e , turnover was h i g h - - l e s s than 40% of students surveyed i n i t i a l l y were s t i l l e n r o l l e d and a t t e n d i n g s i x months l a t e r . A Canadian study conducted by Thomas in 1976 i n c l u d e d a n a t i o n a l survey of ABE programs and p a r t i c i p a n t s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the f i n d i n g s on student c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were l i m i t e d to i n t e r v i e w s with ABE students e n r o l l e d i n Canada Manpower sponsored programs in the province of O n t a r i o . Despite the l i m i t e d sample, i t remains a benchmark study i n d e s c r i b i n g the extent of demand as w e l l as the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of ABE students and programs i n Canada. Thomas noted t h a t : 1) there were more male students than female; 2) there were more younger (under 30 years of age) students than o l d e r students; 3) that government agencies were the main source of r e f e r r a l ; 4) that e d u c a t i o n a l reasons were given as m o t i v a t i o n to p a r t i c i p a t e ; 5) the m a j o r i t y of students were unemployed or r e c e i v i n g government a s s i s t a n c e at the time of e n t r y ; and 6) the m a j o r i t y had e x p e c t a t i o n s and goals which were v o c a t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d (Thomas, 1976, pp. 102-111). Two s t u d i e s of p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and l e a r n i n g s t y l e p r e f e r e n c e s of ABE students concluded that i n the areas t e s t e d , ABE students appear to d i f f e r s l i g h t l y from other segments in the American p o p u l a t i o n 35 (Martin, Note 1; Manzo, et a l , 1975). Manzo, et a l found that ABE students were not u n l i k e students w r i t i n g the GED, st o c k b r o k e r s , and elementary school c h i l d r e n , --other groups who were t e s t e d with i d e n t i c a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l t e s t s . I t was concluded that newly heightened a s p i r a t i o n s appear to give r i s e to p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s such as a g g r e s s i o n , i n t e n s i t y , task o r i e n t a t i o n , a u t h o r i t y , tendency toward c o n f l i c t , and v u l n e r a b i l i t y . These t r a i t s are not as commonly found among more re s i g n e d i n d i v i d u a l s i n the p o p u l a t i o n . Martin (1978) r e p o r t e d that although ABE students have a negative sense of i n i t i a t i v e , they d i d not lack a sense of i n d u s t r y and i n many re s p e c t s e x h i b i t e d a p o s i t i v e and healthy ego s t a t e . F i n d i n g s such as these should suggest that ABE students, i n t h e i r e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , are l i k e the m a j o r i t y i n the p o p u l a t i o n . F u r t h e r evidence that the m a j o r i t y of ABE students may not r e f l e c t the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the disadvantaged p o p u l a t i o n d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter, can be found i n a study of e d u c a t i o n a l values of a d u l t r u r a l disadvantaged students (Conrad, 1974). Sixteen e d u c a t i o n a l aims were rank ordered by 188 a d u l t r u r a l disadvantaged students e n r o l l e d i n a Mountain P l a i n s program. The students ranked a f e e l i n g for other people, a c o n t i n u i n g d e s i r e f o r knowledge, and 36 emotional s t a b i l i t y as t h e i r most important aims and a sense of c i v i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and l o y a l t y to America as l e a s t important. The authors of the study f e l t that the high ranking of s e l f / p e r s o n a l / i n t e r p e r s o n a l aims appeared c o n t r a r y to an assumption that v o c a t i o n a l aims were most dominant among r u r a l disadvantaged groups. C o n c l u s i o n s ABE students appear to occupy the upper s t r a t a w i t h i n the disadvantaged p o p u l a t i o n . Research f i n d i n g s about s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are oft e n c o n t r a d i c t o r y , i n d i c a t i n g a need f o r f u r t h e r study. However, a growing consensus i n resea r c h i s that ABE students as a group are d i v e r s e and not u n l i k e the middle c l a s s i n t h e i r e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; t h e r e f o r e , s i m i l a r to those a t t r i b u t e d to the segment of the a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n who have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been acknowledged as the major consumers of a d u l t education programs. As the Appalachian study has suggested ( E y s t e r , 1973), Group I and Group I I , those e a s i e s t to reach and to serve, appear to comprise the bulk of the ABE student p o p u l a t i o n . Groups I I I and IV, those most disadvantaged and most in need, are under-represented i n the m a j o r i t y of ABE programs, and are t h e r e f o r e not repr e s e n t e d i n the p o p u l a t i o n s s t u d i e d when i n v e s t i g a t i o n s of ABE student c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have been 37 undertaken. I m p l i c a t i o n s of the C h a r a c t e r i s t i e s  of ABE Students  f o r Program Planning and I n s t r u c t i o n The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the ABE p o p u l a t i o n have s e v e r a l broad i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r program p l a n n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n . The AAEC study ( E y s t e r , 1973) d e s c r i b e s how the s e r v i c e needs f o r each of the four ABE groups may be used as the b a s i s for program p l a n n i n g . Each of the four groups i d e n t i f i e d r e q u i r e s a s p e c i f i c s t r a t e g y with ABE programs t a i l o r e d to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of • i n d i v i d u a l s found w i t h i n each of the four groups. F i g u r e 1 summarizes the four groups and shows the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and the design of d e l i v e r y systems. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the undereducated p o p u l a t i o n have s e v e r a l broad i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r program plann i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n . The l i t e r a t u r e review i n d i c a t e d that ABE students appear to occupy the upper s t r a t a w i t h i n the ABE p o p u l a t i o n , an i m p l i c a t i o n i s that there are groups of e d u c a t i o n a l l y disadvantaged a d u l t s who are not being served by c u r r e n t ABE program o f f e r i n g s . Both ABE program p l a n n i n g and i n s t i t u t i o n a l management d e c i s i o n s can have a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on who gets in and who stays i n ABE programs. The 3 8 FIGURE 1 R e l a t i o n s h i p Between I n d i v i d u a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f A d u l t s with Less Than High School and the Design of D e l i v e r y Systems of P u b l i c S e r v i c e s HIGH 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7 . 1. 2. B e l i e f i n r e t u r n from education, l i b r a r y , and other p u b l i c s e r v i c e s B e l i e f i n s e l f Can be served i n groups Energe l e v e l A b i l i t y to pay f o r i n s t r u c t i o n Use of media and other formal sources o f information S k i l l s l e v e l s Costs of q u a l i t y program Needs f o r : T r a n s p o r t a t i o n C h i l d care Other supportive s e r v i c e s One-to-one recruitment and s e r v i c e s Adjustments i n time Home s e r v i c e s Nonprint a. b. c. d. e. f . LOW LOW .roup 1 economically and Pe r s o n a l l y Secure Group II Problems from Undereducation Continuously Underemployed Group III Far from High School Completion S p o r a d i c a l l y Employed Group IV F a t a l i s t i c Unemployed Unemployable" S o u r c e : SUMMARY OF FOUR GROUPS E y s t e r , 1973 : 39 method of d e l i v e r y should be compatible with the c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l p a t t e r n s of program p a r t i c i p a n t s (Verner, 1971). At the b a s i s of program plan n i n g i s needs i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . Many of the assumptions about the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , needs, and i n s t i t u t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s of ABE students are beginning to be r e f u t e d i n r e s e a r c h . For example, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of e d u c a t i o n a l l y disadvantaged a d u l t s are not those of a l a r g e homogeneous group as e a r l i e r d e s c r i b e d . S t u d i e s have shown the p o t e n t i a l ABE p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i s t s of s e v e r a l sub-groups p o s s e s s i n g d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l needs. The f o l l o w i n g paragraphs explore s e v e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s which l e a r n i n g needs of these component groups i n the ABE p o p u l a t i o n may have f o r program planning and i n s t r u c t i o n . R etention and recruitment p r a c t i c e s i n ABE programs are r e f l e c t e d i n the nature of t h e i r c l i e n t e l e (Mezirow, Darkenwald & Knox, 1975, p. 144). In many s i t u a t i o n s , program management p r a c t i c e s r e f l e c t the extent of an i n s t i t u t i o n ' s commitment to serve the e d u c a t i o n a l l y disadvantaged. The programs of most e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s employ o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques s u i t e d only to the s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l needs of the m a j o r i t y groups i n s o c i e t y . Many i n s t i t u t i o n s demonstrate that they have problems adapting or c r e a t i n g programs which serve the 40 needs of the disadvantaged (Haggstrom, 1966; Davison, 1972). De s p i t e a l a r g e and r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n a c t u a l numbers and types of ABE programs and d e s p i t e major e f f o r t s to disseminate ' e d u c a t i o n a l i n n o v a t i o n s among educators, recent e v a l u a t i o n s t u d i e s have shown that the most needy remain unserved (Mezirow, 1974; N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l on Adult Education, 1974). Cook (1977) suggested that the e a r l y l i t e r a c y programs of the s i x t i e s were designed f o r a homogeneous t a r g e t group and followed a s p e c i f i c model. New i n f o r m a t i o n about the nature and needs of the undereducated i n s o c i e t y has i d e n t i f i e d the need f o r a v a r i e t y of models s u i t e d to the demands of a d i v e r s e ABE c l i e n t e l e . Since most ABE programs can be s u c c e s s f u l l y accessed by i n d i v i d u a l s who are e m o t i o n a l l y and economically secure, t r a d i t i o n a l a d u l t education program p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s appear to be s u c c e s s f u l i n d e l i v e r i n g b a s i c education s e r v i c e s to i n d i v i d u a l s i n Group I. Methods of a d u l t education, employing group i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques have been used s u c c e s s f u l l y with i n c r e a s e d e f f i c i e n c y i n l e a r n i n g being r e p o r t e d i n programs using contemporary techniques of i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n ( E y s t e r , 1973, p. 3). Because Group I i n d i v i d u a l s p l a c e value on educa t i o n , have high l e v e l s of m o t i v a t i o n , have a p o s i t i v e s e l f -concept, and are p u r p o s e f u l i n the p u r s u i t of t h e i r 41 e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s , they tend to a t t a i n and achieve gains i n l e a r n i n g . A d u l t s who have Group II c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s comprise the m a j o r i t y of students i n the ABE classroom. They have s u f f e r e d from undereducation i n terms of t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l development but s t i l l p l a c e a high value on f u r t h e r i n g t h e i r education as a means of r e s o l v i n g t h e i r f e e l i n g s of s o c i a l inadequacy. T h i s group are a l s o r e l a t i v e l y easy to serve i n groups but they r e q u i r e f l e x i b l e time s c h e d u l i ng as t h e i r employment p a t t e r n s are sporadic or include s h i f t work. They respond to group methods such as the c l a s s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques such as the l e c t u r e and are r e l a t i v e l y easy f o r the i n s t i t u t i o n to reach. To e n r o l l students i n t h i s group, mass communication methods may be e f f e c t i v e , however, many con t a c t the i n s t i t u t i o n through r e f e r r a l s from f r i e n d s , r e l a t i v e s or s o c i a l s e r v i c e a gencies. The pe r s o n a l needs of t h i s group are o f t e n a s s i s t e d through government support agencies and s e r v i c e s . Because they have experienced some pers o n a l f a i l u r e as a r e s u l t of t h e i r undereducation, an important p r e r e q u i s i t e in pla n n i n g i n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h i s group i s to s t r u c t u r e l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s whereby the student can experience success at l e a r n i n g and thus a l l e v i a t e some of h i s p r e v i o u s l y e s t a b l i s h e d f e a r s and a n x i e t y about 42 c o n t i n u i n g f a i l u r e ( D i c k i n s o n , 1972). Group III and IV i n c l u d e those who are hardest to reach and serve. Group III i n d i v i d u a l s are f a r from mastery i n those computational and c r i t i c a l reading s k i l l s t h a t are r e q u i r e d f o r f u n c t i o n a l competency. They are c h r o n i c a l l y unemployed and, i f working, are r a r e l y c o n t i n u o u s l y employed. T h i s group i s t y p i f i e d by a w i l l i n g n e s s to p a r t i c i p a t e i n government or s o c i a l s e r v i c e programs aimed at combatting undereducation and poverty which c o n t r a s t s with the f a t a l i s m t y p i f i e d by members of Group IV. Group IV, the " s t a t i o n a r y poor", r e q u i r e a c t i v e attempts on the part of the i n s t i t u t i o n to reach them in t h e i r homes, and a p e r s o n a l i z e d c o n t a c t , i f not one-to-one s e r v i c e s . Door-knocking appears to be the only e f f e c t i v e recruitment approach. With t h i s group, f a t a l i s m i s the o v e r r i d i n g group c h a r a c t e r i s t i c ; hope appears l o s t to them and they o f t e n exhort t h e i r c h i l d r e n not to have e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r improvement. They model r e s i g n a t i o n , thereby p e r p e t u a t i n g the c y c l e of poverty. Members of t h i s group are the "hard-core" d i sadvantaged. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s common to both Group III and IV are an o r i e n t a t i o n toward p e r s o n a l i z e d f a c e - t o - f a c e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a tendency to r e l y on i n f o r m a l i n f o r m a t i o n channels ( f r i e n d s , r e l a t i v e s and 43 neighbours), d i s i n c l i n a t i o n to i n t e r p r e t t h e i r problems as i n f o r m a t i o n needs, or when they do, to take a l e s s a c t i v e r o l e i n pursuing i n f o r m a t i o n sources. T h e i r needs tend to be immediate or c r i s i s o r i e n t e d and they lack a f u t u r e o r i e n t a t i o n ( E y s t e r , 1973, pp. 4-5). Because of the depths of t h e i r disadvantagement, l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s must pr o v i d e c l e a r l y s t a t e d sub-goals which they can recognize and work towards as w e l l as the major goals of improving t h e i r economic c o n d i t i o n through development of t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l s k i l l s ( E y s t e r , 1973, p. 4). An i n s t i t u t i o n p l a n n i n g to meet the needs of these a d u l t s must e s t a b l i s h s u p p o r t i v e s e r v i c e s which i n c l u d e , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c h i l d c a r e , and c o u n s e l l i n g . I n s t r u c t i o n should be i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s t a f f must be prepared to r e l a t e to Group IV i n d i v i d u a l s as people, not as p r o f e s s i o n a l s , t e c h n o c r a t s or as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of an agency. F a c i l i t i e s to serve these groups must be a c c e s s i b l e and f a m i l i a r such as churches, neighbourhood c e n t r e s , and the o f f i c e s of e t h n i c a s s o c i a t i o n s . Thus the d i f f e r e n t component sub-groups w i t h i n the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n f o r ABE possess d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and have s p e c i a l s e r v i c e needs. E f f e c t i v e ABE- programming f o r these groups need to be t a i l o r e d to these s p e c i a l f e a t u r e s and s e r v i c e needs. 44 I m p l i c a t i o n s for I n s t r u c t i o n a l Techniques Mezirow, Darkenwald and Knox (1975) observed the most common method of o r g a n i z i n g ABE students f o r i n s t r u c t i o n to be the t r a d i t i o n a l c l a s s method. I n s t r u c t i o n tended to r e l y h e a v i l y upon accepted pre-adu l t teacher-student t r a n s a c t i o n s such as "present-r e c i t e / t e s t - c o r r e c t , searching out and t u r n - t a k i n g " (Mezirow, Darkenwald & Knox, 1975, p. 150). T h e i r study i d e n t i f i e d s e v e r a l i n n o v a t i v e program d e l i v e r y methods i n a d d i t i o n to those employing t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques which were i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y based. These i n n o v a t i v e programs were o f t e n i n p i l o t demonstration phases and had as t h e i r o b j e c t i v e the recruitment of those ABE students who were the hardest to reach. Among the i n n o v a t i v e p r a c t i c e s d e s c r i b e d were s i t u a t i o n s in which the teacher responded to small groups and i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the classroom r a t h e r than the c l a s s as a whole, and when the i n s t r u c t i o n a l content was guided by classroom i n t e r a c t i o n r a t h e r than by p u b l i s h e d c u r r i c u l u m . Other i n n o v a t i v e programs employed e d u c a t i o n a l technology or i n s t r u c t i o n a l systems such as the use of computer a s s i s t e d i n s t r u c t i o n , t e a c h i n g machines or e d u c a t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n , the use of l e a r n i n g l a b s or c e n t r e s as an a l t e r n a t i v e or supplement to r e g u l a r classroom a c t i v i t y , and "armchair" or home l e a r n i n g and mobile 45 l e a r n i n g u n i t s . These approaches attempted to take ABE out of a i n s t i t u t i o n a l base i n t o the homes or neighbourhoods of ABE students. F r e q u e n t l y indigenous, t r a i n e d p a r a - p r o f e s s i o n a l s were employed i n these outreach a c t i v i t i e s . Although there i s a high l e v e l of i n t e r e s t i n these i n n o v a t i o n s i n the f i e l d of ABE because they h o l d promise f o r groups who r e q u i r e one-to-one i n s t r u c t i o n (Cross & V a l l e y , 1974), there i s l i t t l e p u b l i s h e d r e s e a r c h a v a i l a b l e on t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Extant r e s e a r c h on three i n n o v a t i o n s , computer a s s i s t e d i n s t r u c t i o n (CAI), t e l e v i s i o n and i n d i v i d u a l p r e s c r i b e d i n s t r u c t i o n u s ing ABE students as s u b j e c t s has p r o v i d e d both p o s i t i v e and negative evidence (Cross, 1976). The s t u d i e s have, t h e r e f o r e , been the s u b j e c t of some c o n t r o v e r s y . A review of the r e s e a r c h i n these three areas was undertaken by Wanda Cook (1977). According to Cook, immediate feedback, s e l f - p a c i n g and a c t i v e response of the student were i d e n t i f i e d as p o s i t i v e f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g l e a r n i n g but CAI might be b e t t e r s u i t e d to some students than to others s i n c e i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of students have been found to have an i n f l u e n c e on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of CAI. Even s i m p l i f i e d CAI systems were more expensive to operate than c o n v e n t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques, they were 46 i n t i m i d a t i n g to students and d i d not r e s u l t i n improved l e a r n i n g g a i n s . The s i x t i e s , Cook r e p o r t s , exposed t e l e v i s i o n as an inadequate method of promoting l i t e r a c y but i n t e r e s t in i t s use has p e r s i s t e d through the s e v e n t i e s . The use of t e l e v i s i o n as an e d u c a t i o n a l medium for t e a c h i n g a d u l t s b a s i c education must "overcome problems of time, funding, follow-up and apathy on the part of p o t e n t i a l s tudents" (Cook, 1977, p. 114). I n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n v o l v e s d i a g n o s i n g a student's l e a r n i n g problems and p r e s c r i b i n g an i n d i v i d u a l l y t a i l o r e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l program s u i t e d to the l e a r n e r ' s i n t e r e s t s and l e v e l of achievement. The d i a g n o s t i c approach r e q u i r e s constant i n f o r m a l e v a l u a t i o n and f i n e t u n i n g of the p r e s c r i b e d i n s t r u c t i o n a l program. Two s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d s i g n i f i c a n t gains in ABE s t u dents' achievement with t h i s approach ( C o l l i n g s , 1971; Nevada, 1971). I n d i v i d u a l i z e d p r e s c r i b e d i n s t r u c t i o n holds promise f o r some ABE students but Cook i d e n t i f i e d two problems with t h i s approach, a lack of s u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l s and a need for t r a i n e d i n s t r u c t o r s i n d i a g n o s i n g and p r e s c r i b i n g i n s t r u c t i o n (Cook, 1977, p. 121). The present s t a t e of ABE program d e l i v e r y may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as emerging chameleon-like, slowly changing and adapting to the needs of i t s c l i e n t e l e . 47 While t r a d i t i o n a l d e l i v e r y methods s t i l l predominate, there i s i n t e r e s t in new d e l i v e r y methods that promise to take ABE to a d u l t s who have not yet been adequately served. There i s i n s u f f i c i e n t data to make a d e f i n i t i v e statement about any p a r t i c u l a r ABE s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y model or i n s t r u c t i o n a l technique ( N a t i o n a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l on Adult Education, 1974; Mezirow, Darkenwald & Knox, 1975; Cook, 1977). The present s i t u a t i o n of experimentation and e c l e c t i s m i s l i k e l y to continue f o r some time. N e v e r t h e l e s s , present knowledge about ABE student c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s has s e v e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r program p l a n n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n : 1. The e d u c a t i o n a l l y disadvantaged are not a m o n o l i t h i c group; an "average" ABE student may e x i s t s t a t i s t i c a l l y , but i n no other realm. At l e a s t four d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s e r v i c e groups have been i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n f o r ABE. 2. The method of ABE d e l i v e r y should be determined by the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the group i t i s designed to serve. 3. The method chosen to d e l i v e r ABE programs l a r g e l y determines who gets i n and who s t a y s i n . 48 A d u l t s r e q u i r e i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques and m a t e r i a l s which are s p e c i a l l y designed to s u i t t h e i r immediate needs and which are r e l e v a n t t o t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of r e a l i t y (Cass, 1971; D i c k i n s o n , 1972). Group i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques and mass communication methods are the most commonly used i n s t r u c t i o n a l and recruitment methods in ABE. But these recruitment methods and i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques are not responsive to the l i f e s t y l e and needs of the l e a s t l i t e r a t e and most needy groups. One to one approaches and p e r s o n a l , face to face communication are recommended i f these groups are to be served. I n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques must be chosen with c a r e . Group techniques are a p p r o p r i a t e only f o r the most l i t e r a t e and h i g h l y motivated ABE student groups. I n i t i a l approaches to the l e a s t l i t e r a t e and p o o r l y motivated r e q u i r e i n d i v i d u a l i z e d i n s t r u c t i o n , e a s i l y recognized and a t t a i n e d sub-goals and the p r o v i s i o n of s u p p o r t i v e s e r v i c e s such as c h i l d care, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and c o u n s e l l i n g . 49 D e l i v e r i n g Learning A s s i s t a n c e S e r v i c e s  to ABE Students The m a j o r i t y of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s i n community c o l l e g e s have emerged in response to developmental education programs. Lombardi (1979) reviewed recent l i t e r a t u r e on developmental education and concluded that the term r e f e r r e d to four phases of programs which were designed to h e l p students overcome or compensate f o r : 1. D e f i c i e n c i e s i n grades or s u b j e c t s r e q u i r e d f o r admission to a s e n i o r i n s t i t u t i o n or to c o l l e g e s and t r a n s f e r programs [ p r e - t r a n s f e r ] . 2. D e f i c i e n c i e s i n r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g , speech, a r i t h m e t i c , study h a b i t s , m o t i v a t i o n and other p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s [remedial] 3. D e f i c i e n c i e s in l i t e r a c y and b a s i c s k i l l s u b j e c t s necessary fo r a high school diploma [ABE]. 4. P h y s i c a l or mental handicaps that impose l i m i t a t i o n s on the f u n c t i o n i n g of students [handicapped]. (Lombardi, 1979, p. 1) Supportive l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s f o r ABE 50 has been a neglected area of study. A search of the l i t e r a t u r e in the areas of ABE, developmental education and l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e r e v e a l e d no s t u d i e s f o c u s i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y on the t o p i c . The major emphasis of r e l a t e d extant r e s e a r c h has remained with remedial and p r e t r a n s f e r programs, the t r a d i t i o n a l domain of c o l l e g e s . The q u e s t i o n of how to d e l i v e r l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s to the d i v e r s e range of ABE programs has simply not been i n v e s t i g a t e d . One reason for t h i s n e g l e c t may be that r e l a t i v e to other programs in post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s , both l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s and ABE are r e l a t i v e l y recent e d u c a t i o n a l i n n o v a t i o n s . Deviran and a s s o c i a t e s have documented that 56% of the c e n t r e s now o p e r a t i n g i n the United S t a t e s have been developed s i n c e 1970 (Deviran, Enwright & Smith, 1975). S i m i l a r l y , ABE programs have a r e l a t i v e l y recent membership i n the c o l l e g e f r a t e r n i t y , with most of the ABE programs being e s t a b l i s h e d i n post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s w i t h i n the l a s t decade. The Nature of Learning A s s i s t a n c e S e r v i c e s Learning a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s may be very u s e f u l to ABE students because i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n i s provided through t u t o r i n g , i n d i v i d u a l i z e d p r e s c r i b e d 51 i n s t r u c t i o n , an emphasis on f u l f i l l i n g student needs and goals rather than course requirements and o b j e c t i v e s , d i a g n o s t i c and p r e s c r i p t i v e t e s t s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s , and the use of para-p r o f e s s i o n a l s as t u t o r s . In some l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s , a v a r i e t y of i n s t r u c t i o n a l systems are used i n c l u d i n g e l e c t r o n i c technology, t u t o r i n g s e s s i o n s , n o n - c r e d i t c l a s s e s which may be of short or long d u r a t i o n , group study rooms and c o u n s e l l i n g (Roueche & Snow, 1977, p. 124). Most l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s t a f f f u n c t i o n as an extension of the course i n s t r u c t o r , and supplement or augment r e g u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n . Roueche and Snow (1977) have found that l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s a t t r a c t students who are e d u c a t i o n a l l y "high r i s k " as we l l as students who perform w e l l and want to do b e t t e r . S t i g m a t i z a t i o n of a t t e n d i n g , a p o s s i b l e consequence of a combination of high remedial o r i e n t a t i o n combined with low achievements, i s thus avoided. Learning a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s are u s u a l l y s t a f f e d by g e n e r a l i s t s who have r e c e i v e d t r a i n i n g i n the d i a g n o s i s of l e a r n i n g needs and development of i n d i v i d u a l i z e d plans to remedy student problems. Within a c o l l e g e s e t t i n g , a l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e b r i d g e s a s t r u c t u r a l gap between developmental l a b o r a t o r i e s , t r a d i t i o n a l l i b r a r i e s and 52 the classroom (Roueche & Snow, 1977). C o u n s e l l i n g and I n s t r u c t i o n There a l s o appears to be a trend towards the melding of c o u n s e l l i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Many l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s i n c l u d e c o u n s e l l o r s as part of the core support s e r v i c e . A growing r e c o g n i t i o n among educators that p e r s o n a l growth and self-development l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s are an e s s e n t i a l part of dev e l o p i n g a person's t o t a l a b i l i t y to f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y can be seen r e f l e c t e d i n the management of many l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s . In t h i s r e s p e c t , ABE programs and l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s share a common experience. Students who possess poor s e l f - e s t e e m as a r e s u l t of years of f a i l u r e need l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s which are designed to help in the development of s e l f - e s t e e m as wel l as a c h i e v i n g i n c r e a s e d c o g n i t i v e knowledge i n bas i c s k i l l s . S u c c e s s f u l support s e r v i c e s appear to have implemented s t r a t e g i e s which combine e f f e c t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n (Roueche & Snow, 1977; Mink, 1977). A number of s t a f f i n g s t r a t e g i e s have been t r i e d i n c l u d i n g , team te a c h i n g approaches with i n s t r u c t o r s and c o u n s e l l o r s merging r o l e s and f u n c t i o n s ; peer h e l p e r s f o r c o u n s e l l i n g and t u t o r i n g ; and p a r a - p r o f e s s i o n a l s who work under p r o f e s s i o n a l 53 s u p e r v i s i o n . Roueche and Snow (1977) c a u t i o n that not a l l of the v a r i o u s s t a f f i n g approaches have r e c e i v e d unanimous support by the f i e l d or have been supported by r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s . These s t a f f i n g s t r a t e g i e s , while not yet confirmed as e f f e c t i v e , represent p r a c t i c e s which are based on the widely h e l d b e l i e f that students with l i m i t e d success in p r e v i o u s s c h o o l i n g experience need to f e e l p e r s o n a l l y secure before they can achieve gains i n academic achievement (Cross, 1976; 1979; 1981). S t a f f i n g C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s According to Deviran, E n r i g h t & Smith (1975) a noteworthy c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s i s s t a f f i n g . The use of p a r a - p r o f e s s i o n a l , part-time and peer t u t o r s as we l l as f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the m a j o r i t y of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s . Roueche and Snow (1977) have made s i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n s , and have concluded that a combination of f u l l - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r s and part-time peer t u t o r s appeared to be the most p r e v a l e n t and a l s o the most e f f e c t i v e form of s t a f f i n g (Roueche & Snow, 1977, p. 91). In a d d i t i o n to f u l l -time i n s t r u c t i o n a l s t a f f , f u l l - t i m e p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u n s e l l o r s have been found to be more e f f e c t i v e than pa r t - t i m e s t a f f i n g . The most s u c c e s s f u l l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e programs i d e n t i f i e d i n c o l l e g e s where 70% of 54 high r i s k students completed an a c c r e d i t e d program of v- study i n v e s t i g a t e d by Roueche and Snow possessed s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t i v e s t a f f i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : 1) i n s t r u c t i o n a l l y , the s e p a r a t i o n of c o u n s e l l o r and i n s t r u c t o r i s unwise; 2) i n s t r u c t o r s who are t r a i n e d i n c o u n s e l l i n g are more e f f e c t i v e ; and 3) c o u n s e l l o r s who teach human development and a s s i s t f a c u l t y through c o n s u l t a t i o n i n t h e i r c u r r i c u l u m development make a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n . Peer t u t o r s and c o u n s e l l o r s who are t r a i n e d i n s e l f - c o n c e p t development techniques have a l s o been repo r t e d to c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the success r a t e of low s e l f - e s t e e m students (Roueche & Snow, 1977, p. 97). The l e a s t e f f e c t i v e s t a f f i n g arrangement, a c c o r d i n g to Roueche and Snow (1977), i s that of r e l y i n g on p a r a - p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f i n g . Three p o s s i b l e reasons were suggested f o r t h i s f i n d i n g : 1) p a r a - p r o f e s s i o n a l s tend to r e p l a c e f u l l - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r s i n s t a f f i n g c e n t r e s , 2) p a r a - p r o f e s s i o n a l s possess inadequate s k i l l s thus l i m i t i n g t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s , and 3) s t a f f problems are c r e a t e d as a r e s u l t of r o l e c o n f l i c t s (Roueche & Snow, 1977, p. 92) . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e In a d d i t i o n to s t a f f i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , Roueche and Snow a l s o found that o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s had a strong i n f l u e n c e on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of l e a r n i n g 55 a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s (Roueche & Snow, 1977, p. 92). E f f e c t i v e c e n t r e s were found to have a st r o n g i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p with both academic departments and student s e r v i c e s . Beyond these s p e c i f i c elements of s t a f f i n g and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , Roueche and Snow concluded that l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s comprise only a p a r t of a c o l l e g e ' s t o t a l e f f o r t s to a s s i s t students with a high p r e d i s p o s i t i o n to f a i l u r e . Roueche and Snow (1977) suggested that f o r a c o l l e g e to be s u c c e s s f u l i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e , c o n s i d e r a t i o n must be given t o : 1. The teacher--who decides what i s to be le a r n e d , how the subj e c t matter i s to be taught and what the l e a r n i n g environment w i l l be; 2. Supportive s e r v i c e s — p r o v i d i n g a s u p p o r t i v e l e a r n i n g c l i m a t e i s everyone's bu s i n e s s , i n c l u d i n g a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , c o u n s e l l o r s and stud e n t s . Each of these p a r t i e s may be a h e l p or a hindrance to the teacher who i s the main manager of the l e a r n i n g c l i m a t e . Supportive s e r v i c e s i n a c o l l e g e i n c l u d e c o u n s e l l o r s , peer t u t o r s as we l l as the l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e . 3. Proper o r g a n i z a t i o n a l support — i n c l u d i n g the 56 establishment of a department or d i v i s i o n of developmental s t u d i e s , developing e f f e c t i v e comunication paths f o r recruitment and p u b l i c i t y , o r g a n i z i n g simple but meaningful r e g i s t r a t i o n and o r i e n t a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , s e l e c t i n g competent s t a f f members, p r o v i d i n g ongoing s t a f f development, s y s t e m a t i z i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods, e s t a b l i s h i n g course o b j e c t i v e s and i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques which r e f l e c t an i n t e g r a t i o n of c o g n i t i v e , a f f e c t i v e and psychomotor s k i l l s , ensuring systematic e v a l u a t i o n , and the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of e v a l u a t i o n r e p o r t s . The elements comprising l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e d e s c r i b e d i n the preceding paragraphs would be of obvious support to many ABE students who have experienced previous academic f a i l u r e . I t i s c l e a r , however, that g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n needs to be p a i d to ensure that ABE students have e f f e c t i v e access to such support. Models of D e l i v e r i n g L e a r n i n g -Assistance to ABE At present, one predominant o r g a n i z a t i o n a l model fo r the d e l i v e r y of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e - - t h e campus-based l e a r n i n g 57 a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e . For campus-based ABE programs, access to these c e n t r e s may r e q u i r e f l e x i b l e s c h e d u l i n g , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e support and f a c u l t y c o o p e r a t i o n . ABE student p a r t i c i p a t i o n should not, however, be l e f t to s e l f - s e l e c t i o n on the b a s i s of t r a d i t i o n a l p u b l i c i t y and recruitment methods. Immediate and personal recruitment approaches w i l l l i k e l y be more e f f e c t i v e in r e a c h i n g ABE students than the t r a d i t i o n a l p u b l i c i t y methods of p o s t e r s , handouts and advertisements in the c o l l e g e newspapers. Other p o s s i b l e d e l i v e r y modes need to be c o n s i d e r e d when d e s i g n i n g l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s for ABE programs. As d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter, ABE programs may be d e l i v e r e d through o f f -campus l o c a t i o n s i n neighbourhoods, i s o l a t e d communities, homes and mobile l e a r n i n g u n i t s . Many of these methods of o r g a n i z i n g ABE l e a r n e r s do not lend themselves to the t r a d i t i o n a l campus-based l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e . But at the present time, few exemplary models for the d e l i v e r y of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s to ABE d e c e n t r a l i z e d programs e x i s t . Consequently more demonstration p r o j e c t s must be implemented and s t u d i e d before c l e a r d i r e c t i o n s f o r the d e l i v e r y of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s can be i d e n t i f i e d . Two e f f o r t s which have been documented are the Camden and Newark 58 ABE Learning Centres (Sourifman, 1970). The Appalachian Adult Education Centre's four models f o r i n t e r r e l a t i n g l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s and ABE programs may a l s o c o n t a i n h e l p f u l g u i d e l i n e s f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g such s e r v i c e s . Summary In summary, some l i m i t e d c o n c l u s i o n s which may guide the development of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s for ABE a r e : 1. Learning a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s should . be t a i l o r e d to the d i v e r s i t y of i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h i n component groups i n the ABE t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n . 2. Learning a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s should be coupled with ABE d e l i v e r y modes. These s e r v i c e s should be a v a i l a b l e to students and i n s t r u c t o r s wherever and whenever the ABE programs are d e l i v e r e d . ABE programs designed to reach the most needy are o f t e n scheduled i n the evenings and are l o c a t e d i n outreach l o c a t i o n s . C a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n needs to be given to the range and extent of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s which can be prov i d e d at the r e q u i r e d times i n such l o c a t i o n s . 3. Some l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e a c t i v i t i e s may not 59 meet the needs of a l l ABE students. Research has shown that mediated methods, p a r t i c u l a r l y those r e l y i n g on e d u c a t i o n a l technology may i n i t i a l l y t h r e a t e n ABE students with low l i t e r a c y l e v e l s . These t e c h n o l o g i c a l a i d s should be i n t r o d u c e d slowly and with c a r e . Both i n d i v i d u a l y p r e s c r i b e d i n s t r u c t i o n and s e l f - p a c e d i n s t r u c t i o n are p r e s e n t l y used i n ABE classrooms. Learning a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s should supplement these e x i s t i n g e f f o r t s to i n d i v i d u a l i z e ABE i n s t r u c t i o n by p r o v i d i n g support i n d i a g n o s t i c and p r e s c r i p t i v e t e s t i n g and i n h e l p i n g to i n t e g r a t e human development techniques i n c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s and in the c u r r i c u l u m . Some of the needs of e d u c a t i o n a l l y disadvantaged a d u l t s which cannot always be e f f e c t i v e l y met i n the course of normal ABE i n s t r u c t i o n , together with a c t i v i t i e s which c o u l d support these needs are i d e n t i f i e d i n Fi g u r e 2. 60 F i g u r e 2 Learning Needs of E d u c a t i o n a l l y Disadvantaq^d A d u l t s  and Learning A s s i s t a n c e A c t i v i t i e s L e a r n i n g Needs Learning A s s i s t a n c e A c t i v i t i e s Fundamental l e a r n i n g d e f i c i e n c y : reading, w r i t i n g , computation. Inadequate study s k i l l s . P r e p a r a t i o n f o r and w r i t i n g t e s t s , n o t e - t a k i n g , time management. Focused d i a g n o s t i c assessment and t e s t i n g . I n t e n s i v e t u t o r i a l i n s t r u c t i o n focused on p a r t i c u l a r problems. Short courses and workshops on r e l e v a n t t o p i c s . P r e p a r a t i o n of l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s , t u t o r i n g i n study-reading, l i s t e n i n g , l i b r a r y use, vocabulary development. Emotional problems a s s o c i a t e d with low s e l f - e s t e e m and poor m o t i v a t i o n . Personal and group c o u n s e l l i n g . Human r e l a t i o n s s k i l l b u i l d i n g a c t i v i t i e s . 61 Short term c o r r e c t a b l e C o n s u l t a t i o n between l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s l e a r n i n g s p e c i a l i s t and beyond s k i l l l e v e l of re g u l a r ABE i n s t r u c t o r . i n s t r u c t o r . Unclear e d u c a t i o n a l or In t e n s i v e one-to-one group v o c a t i o n a l goals and c o u n s e l l i n g . Career o b j e c t i v e s . e x p l o r a t i o n c o u r s e s . L e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s can not only support ABE students but i n s t r u c t o r s as w e l l . Many i n s t r u c t o r s i n ABE have been performing s e v e r a l of the l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d i n F i g u r e 2 as part of t h e i r r e g u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n a l d u t i e s . The a v a i l a b i l i t y of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s may provide them with the support to more e f f e c t i v e l y manage the l e a r n i n g c l i m a t e . In the past , ABE i n s t r u c t o r s have been t r a i n e d to be "jack of a l l t r a d e s " , and have been expected to cope with a wide range of i n d i v i d u a l s e n t e r i n g t h e i r classroom. Very l i t t l e support has been a v a i l a b l e e i t h e r to teacher or student. As ABE programs become part of a comprehensive developmental program i n post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s , s e r v i c e s such as l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e may become more r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . I t w i l l then be p o s s i b l e • to 62 evaluate the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s to determine whether they are as b e n e f i c i a l to the ABE student as they appear to be f o r other non-t r a d i t i o n a l s tudents. 63 CHAPTER III ADULT BASIC EDUCATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA Chapter Three examines the need f o r and p r o v i s i o n of Adult Basic Education (ABE) i n B r i t i s h Columbia through an a n a l y s i s of demographic data concerning the extent of undereducation i n B r i t i s h Columbia and data on community c o l l e g e ABE programs. The e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s of B r i t i s h Columbia's p o p u l a t i o n a c c o r d i n g to the 1971 and 1976 Census i s d e s c r i b e d i n r e l a t i o n to the demographic v a r i a b l e s of sex, age, labour f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n , income and e t h n i c i t y . C o l l e g e and school d i s t r i c t d i s t r i b u t i o n s are a l s o examined. Current p r o v i s i o n f o r ABE are documented through program enrollment s t a t i s t i c s and number and type of ABE programs o f f e r e d i n the c o l l e g e r e g i o n s . F i n a l l y c o n c l u s i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the p r o v i s i o n of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s to ABE programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia are presented. 64 The sources of demographic data f o r t h i s chapter are the analyses of the 1971 and 1976 Census data conducted by D i c k i n s o n and p u b l i s h e d in 1978 and 1979. Other s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n was obtained from the S t a t i s t i e s Canada Yearbook on V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s (Canada 1976). For data on ABE programs and student e n r o l l m e n t s , the sources were annual r e p o r t s of the M i n i s t r y of Education p u b l i s h e d by E d u c a t i o n a l Data S e r v i c e s ( M i n i s t r y of Education, 1980c) and s p e c i a l t a b u l a t i o n s prepared by the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . One major l i m i t a t i o n of the ABE student enrollment data i s the lack of a s i n g l e coherent system f o r the documentation of the a c t i v i t i e s of a l l p r o v i n c i a l p r o v i d e r s of ABE and r e l a t e d programs. At best, the l i m i t e d data p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e are an approximation of p a r t i c i p a t i o n that does not permit a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Undereducated Broad r e c o g n i t i o n over the l a s t twenty years has been given to the extent of undereducation i n Canadian s o c i e t y . An assumption which has p r e v a i l e d and given impetus to t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n , has been that t e c h n i c a l and s o c i a l changes i n c r e a s e the need f o r a l i t e r a t e work f o r c e . The l e v e l of education r e q u i r e d f o r 65 minimal labour f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y p r o g r e s s i v e s o c i e t y has been g e n e r a l l y recognized to be completion of e i g h t years of s c h o o l i n g (Thomas, 1976). Years of s c h o o l i n g completed i s the one o f f i c i a l measure of the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n . The Census category of l e s s than f i v e years of s c h o o l i n g has been widely accepted as a d e f i n i t i o n of f u n c t i o n a l i l l i t e r a c y (Verner, 1964). The B.C. M i n i s t r y of Education's p o l i c y on ABE d e c l a r e s education up to and i n c l u d i n g the Grade 12 l e v e l as b a s i c education f o r a d u l t s . The ABE Consortium at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (1979) and the Committee on ABE ( M i n i s t r y of Education, 1979) n e v e r t h e l e s s c o n s i d e r e d those a d u l t s who have not a t t a i n e d the e i g h t h grade l e v e l as the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n of highest p r i o r i t y . T h i s study has been developed with a s i m i l a r view. Years of S c h o o l i n g Data on the e d u a t i o n a l l e v e l s of the undereducated p o p u l a t i o n in B r i t i s h Columbia, are reported aggregated to the category of completion of e i g h t years of s c h o o l i n g or l e s s . In B r i t i s h Columbia at the time of the 1971 Census, there were 378,695 a d u l t s or 24.0% of the p o p u l a t i o n with l e s s than nine years of s c h o o l i n g while the 1976 Census recorded 326,415 a d u l t s r e p r e s e n t i n g 19.1% of the p o p u l a t i o n . Since the 66 e a r l i e s t Census r e p o r t i n g l e v e l s of education conducted in 1921, there has been a p e r s i s t e n t p r o p o r t i o n of the a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n which has not a t t a i n e d more than f i v e years of s c h o o l i n g (Verner, 1964). TABLE 1 ADULT ILLITERACY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 1921 - 1971 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 Urban Population aged 20+ 157,761 260,425 325,506 552,954 742,672 1,069,705 No. of I l l i t e r a t e s 5,975 5,802 18,034 26,545 36,033 43,135 % I l l i t e r a t e s 3.78 2.20 5.54 4.80 5.55 4.31 Rural Population aged 20+ 171,690 187,813 250,602 229,950 248,262 304,340 No. of I l l i t e r a t e s 16,718 15,038 30,838 26,391 21,662 16,395 % I l l i t e r a t e s 9.78 8.00 12.30 11.47 8.72 5.39 Total Population aged 20+ 329,449 448,238 576,108 782,904 990,934 1,374,045 No. of I l l i t e r a t e s 22,693 20,840 40,872 52,936 57,695 59,530 % I l l i t e r a t e s . 6.88 4.65 8.48 6.76 5.82 4.33 Source: Dickinson, 1978a 68 For the 50 year p e r i o d , 1921-1971, the p r o p o r t i o n of a d u l t s with l e s s than f i v e years of s c h o o l i n g in B.C. has ranged from 6.9% i n 1921, to 4.3% in 1971 with a high of 8.5% i n 1941. While there has been a gradual d e c l i n e i n the p r o p o r t i o n of a d u l t s with l e s s than Grade 5 i n the p o p u l a t i o n s i n c e 1941, there has been an in c r e a s e i n the a c t u a l numbers of a d u l t s from 22,693 i n 1921 to 59,530 in 1971. The p o p u l a t i o n of i l l i t e r a t e a d u l t s has more than doubled while t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n i n the p o p u l a t i o n has d e c l i n e d by o n e - t h i r d over t h i s p e r i o d (Table 1). Data from the 1976 Census show a d u l t s aged 15 years and over with l e s s than f i v e years of s c h o o l i n g to be 3.9% of the p o p u l a t i o n and the t o t a l number of such i l l i t e r a t e s to be 56,620 as compared to a t o t a l of 59,530 (4.3%) in 1971. T h i s i s the f i r s t observed d e c l i n e i n r e a l terms in the growth of the i l l i t e r a t e p o p u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n over 50 years. While these f i g u r e s are not d i r e c t l y comparable, because the d e c e n n i a l Census r e p o r t s on the p o p u l a t i o n aged 20 years and over and the 1976 Census data r e p o r t s on the p o p u l a t i o n aged 15 years and over, i t i s h i g h l y l i k e l y that m o r t a l i t y r a t e s account f o r a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of the d e c l i n e . Age One i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of 69 l e v e l s of education, i s the r e l a t i o n between education and age. As might be expected, o l d e r a d u l t s have fewer years of s c h o o l i n g than younger a d u l t s . According to the 1971 Census, 41,255 a d u l t s aged 50 and over h a l f completed l e s s than f i v e years of s c h o o l i n g . T h i s group r e p r e s e n t s 66% of a l l those with l e s s than f i v e years of s c h o o l i n g . Among those a d u l t s with f i v e to e i g h t years of s c h o o l i n g , there were 171,280 i n d i v i d u a l s aged 50 years and over. T h i s number rep r e s e n t s approximately 54% of a l l a d u l t s with t h i s l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n . In 1976, 64.05% or 36,265 of those with l e s s than f i v e years of s c h o o l i n g were over the age of 55 and 141,600 or 52.5% i n t h i s age group had between f i v e to e i g h t years of s c h o o l i n g . The most severe l i t e r a c y problems are to found with the p r o v i n c e ' s o l d e r a d u l t s . Two-thirds of the l e a s t l i t e r a t e group are comprised of those 55 years and o l d e r and over h a l f of those with f i v e to e i g h t years of s c h o o l i n g are i n t h i s age grouping (Table 2). Since the o l d e r age group accounts f o r a l a r g e percentage of the l e a s t educated p o p u l a t i o n , the decrease i n the extent of undereducation f o r a d u l t s with l e s s than f i v e years of s c h o o l i n g between the 1971 Census and the 1976 Census, from 62,070 to 56,620, i s most l i k e l y a t t r i b u t a b l e to the e f f e c t s of m o r t a l i t y . S i m i l a r l y , the d e c l i n e in the rate of undereducation 70 f o r a d u l t s with f i v e to e i g h t years of s c h o o l i n g from 20.1% i n 1971 to 15.8% i n 1976 i s a l s o i n l a r g e p a r t a t t r i b u t a b l e to the e f f e c t s of m o r t a l i t y . Young a d u l t s between the ages of 15 and 24 represent 0.7% of those with l e s s than f i v e years of sc h o o l i n g and 5.4% of those with f i v e to eig h t years of s c h o o l i n g . T h i s age group c o n t a i n e d the lowest percentage (6.1%) of those i n the p o p u l a t i o n with l e s s than nine years of s c h o o l i n g (Table 2). Sex According to the 1976 Census, a s l i g h t l y l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of women (3.4%) than men (3.2%) had completed l e s s than f i v e years of s c h o o l i n g (Table 3). However, a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of men (16.9%) than women (14.2%) had completed between f i v e and e i g h t years of s c h o o l i n g . Between the 1971 and 1976 Census, a g r e a t e r d e c l i n e was observed i n the p r o p o r t i o n of males i n the po p u l a t i o n with l e s s than f i v e years of s c h o o l i n g (5,340 or .91%) than females with l e s s than f i v e years of s c h o o l i n g (105 or .37%). S i m i l a r l y there was a gre a t e r decrease in the p r o p o r t i o n of males with l e s s than nine years of s c h o o l i n g (5.9%) than females with l e s s than nine years of s c h o o l i n g (3.9%) i n the same time p e r i o d . Males, t h e r e f o r e , appeared to experience a gain of 6% i n the p r o p o r t i o n of those completing more than e i g h t years of s c h o o l i n g while females r e p o r t e d an Table 2 71 Pop i l l a t i o n Aged 1 15 and Over, Not A t t e n d i n g School F u l l -Time, by Age Group and E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l , 1976 Age T o t a l A d u l t Below Grade 5 Grade 5-8 T o t a l Group P o p u l a t i o n No. % No. % No. I f 15 -24 315,520 2,235 0.7 16,890 5.4 19,125 6. 1 25 - 34 381,790 3,560 0.9 22,775 6.0 26,335 6. 9 35 - 44 276,775 6,290 2.3 36,590 13.2 42,880 15. 5 45 - 54 267,045 8,270 3.1 51,940 19.4 60,210 22. 5 55 - 64 225,320 9,020 4.0 58,130 25.8 67,150 29. 8 65 or more 241,815 27,245 11.3 83,470 34.5 110,715 45. 8 TOTAL 1,708,265 56,620 3.3 269,795 15.8 326,415 19. 1 S o u r c e : D i c k i n s o n , 1978a Table 3 P o p u l a t i o n Aged 15 and Over » Not A t t e n d i n g School F u l l - T i m e , By Sex and E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l 3 1976 T o t a l A d u l t Sex P o p u l a t i o n Below Grade No. "A 5 t Grade No. 5-8 2 t T o t a l No. % Male 842,190 27,130 3. 2 142,065 16. 9 169,195 20. 1 Female 866,070 29,490 3. 4 127,730 14. 7 157,220 18. 1 TOTAL 1,708,265 56,620 3. 3 269,795 15. 8 326,415 19. 1 S o u r c e : Source: D i c k i n s o n , 1978a. D i c k i n s o n , 1978 72 increase of only 4%. In l i g h t of the f a c t that there was l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n i n the numbers of women with l e s s than f i v e years of s c h o o l i n g , i t i s unclear why there i s such a l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e f o r males with the same l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g , unless the d i f f e r e n c e i s once again a t t r i b u t a b l e to m o r t a l i t y . In Canada, the trend has been that the m o r t a l i t y rate f o r males in t h i s age group i s c o n s i d e r a b l y higher than f o r females, and that the m o r t a l i t y rate f o r males over time has been i n c r e a s i n g while the females m o r t a l i t y r a t e has remained f a i r l y s t a b l e . For B r i t i s h Columbia, the v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s show that between the ages of 50 and 75, almost twice as many males d i e as females. A f t e r the age of 79, men and women approach a more equal d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the number of deaths. These s t a t i s t i c s and m o r t a l i t y trends present evidence that m o r t a l i t y i s a major v a r i a b l e i n e x p l a i n i n g the gr e a t e r decrease i n the p r o p o r t i o n of males completing nine years of s c h o o l i n g than women completing the same number of years between the times of the 1971 and 1976 Censuses. Labour Force P a r t i c i p a t i o n There i s evidence that a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g and labour f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The higher the number of years of sc h o o l i n g completed, the grea t e r the l e v e l of labour 73 f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Conversely, the lower the number of years of s c h o o l i n g completed, the lower the l e v e l ''of labour f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the higher the i n c i d e n c e of unemployment. For those who have a t t a i n e d a u n i v e r s i t y degree, labour f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n reaches 79.7% and unemployment i s a low 3.3%. In c o n t r a s t , labour f o r c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s only 42.6%, and unemployment in 1976 was as hi g h as 12.7% f o r those with e i g h t years of s c h o o l i n g or l e s s (Table 4). 7 4 Table 4 L e v e l of Labour Force P a r t i c i p a t i o n , and Unemployment By Educational L e v e l % Labour % Lev e l of Education No. i n Pop. Force Part. Unemployed 0-8 years of schooling 312,000 42.6 12.7 Some high school 1,008,000 60.8 11.5 Some post-secondary 224,000 66.8 6.9 Post-secondary c e r t i f i c a t e or diploma 180,000 71.8 5.8 U n i v e r s i t y degree 149,000 79.9 3.3 TOTAL 1,873,000 61.1 9.5 No t e ; Labour f o r c e data i s obtained by sampling techniques. The estimates obtained are f o r the t o t a l p o p u l ation aged 15 years and olde r not j u s t those out of sc h o o l . Source: 01/79 Report of the Committee on ABE, M i n i s t r y of Education. 75 The consequences of a lac k of education are widely recognized to be lower l e v e l s of income, dependence on government support, lack of economic and employment pr o s p e c t s , and fewer job c h o i c e s . The highest r a t e s of undereducation r e p o r t e d i n the 1971 Census are f o r those a d u l t s employed in 1) the primary i n d u s t r i e s of f i s h i n g and t r a p p i n g where 38% of the work f o r c e has l e s s than nine years of s c h o o l i n g , 2) a g r i c u l t u r e with 34.2%; and 3) f o r e s t r y with 33.4% of i t s work f o r c e r e p o r t i n g l e s s than nine years of s c h o o l i n g ( D i c k i n s o n , 1978a, p. 16) A d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number of undereducated young a d u l t s are found among the unemployed, i n d i c a t i n g that undereducated youth are more l i k e l y to b e n e f i t from higher l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n . Lack of education i s a g r e a t e r b a r r i e r to the employment of youth than i t i s to o l d e r a d u l t s (Table 5). Income Income l e v e l s as r e p o r t e d i n the 1971 Census bear l i t t l e r e l a t i o n to e x i s t i n g income l e v e l s i n 1981 and are extremely outdated. However, i t i s s t i l l i n t e r e s t i n g to note that almost 75% of those with l e s s than f i v e years of s c h o o l i n g had an annual income in the lowest recorded income c a t e g o r i e s (0-$2,000), while only 2% of t h i s group r e p o r t e d annual incomes g r e a t e r than $10,000 per annum, the highest income category 7 6 Table 5 L e v e l s of Unemployment By Age Group And E d u c a t i o n a l L e v e l Percentage Unemployed Education L e v e l 1 5 - 2 4 years 2 5 + y e a r s 0 to 8 y e a r s 2 0 . 9 7 . 1 Some h i g h s c h o o l 1 2 . 9 5 . 7 Some post-secondary 1 2 . 7 5 . 2 Post-secondary diploma 1 2 . 0 3 . 9 U n i v e r s i t y degree 1 0 . 8 2 . 5 A l l l e v e l s 1 3 . 2 5 . 3 Sources Labour Force Survey D i v i s i o n , S t a t i s t i c s Canada, May, 1 9 7 9 . 0 1 / 7 9 Report of the Committee on ABE, M i n i s t r y of Education. 77 re p o r t e d i n the 1971 Census (Table 6). Years of s c h o o l i n g appears to be s t r o n g l y and p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d with income l e v e l s . I n d i v i d u a l s with more than e i g h t years of s c h o o l i n g completed are h i g h l y represented i n the $10,000 per annum and over category (85.66%) while i n d i v i d u a l s with l e s s than f i v e years of s c h o o l i n g are p o o r l y represented i n t h i s income range (0.92%). I t i s h i g h l y l i k e l y t h a t t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n p e r s i s t s i n contemporary terms and w i l l be r e p o r t e d s i m i l a r l y i n the 1981 census. As noted i n the r e p o r t of the S p e c i a l Senate Committee on Poverty i n Canada (Canada, 1971), there i s a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l and poverty. The Report of the Committee on Adult Basic  Education ( M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , 1979), a l s o remarked on t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p and noted that a study of w e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t s i n East Vancouver r e p o r t e d more than 52% of those on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e had completed nine or l e s s years of s c h o o l i n g . The study concluded that l a c k of education i s probably a major b a r r i e r to employment f o r more than 50% of those on welfare a s s i s t a n c e i n East Vancouver. The study f i n d i n g s must be tempered, however, by other s t u d i e s which show that the great m a j o r i t y of welfare r e c i p i e n t s r e c e i v e a s s i s t a n c e because they are e i t h e r permanently d i s a b l e d , s i n g l e parents with young c h i l d r e n or i l l (The F e d e r a l -78 P r o v i n c i a l Study Group on A l i e n a t i o n , 1971). I t i s unknown e x a c t l y how many of those with l e s s than nine years of s c h o o l i n g face insurmountable s o c i a l or h e a l t h b a r r i e r s to t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the labour f o r c e . In the l i t e r a t u r e , i t i s now g e n e r a l l y accepted that low l e v e l s of education c o n t r i b u t e towards a dependency syndrome and i t i s p o s s i b l e that f o r those who s u c c e s s f u l l y complete ABE programs, the change i n l e v e l of education alone may not be s u f f i c i e n t to ensure t h e i r c o m p e t i t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the marketplace. One a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g to the a s s o c i a t i o n between low l e v e l s of income and few years of s c h o o l i n g i s that a l a r g e percentage of i n d i v i d u a l s in the lowest income c a t e g o r i e s l i k e l y c o n s i s t of sen i o r c i t i z e n s r e c e i v i n g r e tirement pensions and forms of government a s s i s t a n c e or income support. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , data are not a v a i l a b l e to c o n f i r m or d i s c o n f i r m t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y . However, S t a t i s t i c s Canada r e p o r t s that i n 1971 more than 65% of those with l e s s than f i v e years of s c h o o l i n g are over age 60 and are not i n t h e i r h i g h e s t income earning y e a r s . If one examines only those i n t h e i r e c o nomically p r o d u c t i v e years and not r e c e i v i n g government income a s s i s t a n c e , then i t i s obvious that higher years of s c h o o l i n g enable one to accrue g r e a t e r f i n a n c i a l b e n e f i t s i n Canadian s o c i e t y . Since "need" i s a 79 Table 6 B.C. T o t a l Years of Schooling by Income, 1971 Income LT 5 5 - 8 MT 8 T o t a l No. % No. % No. % No. % None 39,875 2.53 148,200 9.40 395,520 25.11 583,590 37.05 6.83 25.39 67.77 100 64.25 46.80 33.05 37.05 Under $2,000 6,515 .41 37,435 2.37 212,650 13.50 256,590 16.29 2.53 14.58 82.87 100 10.49 11.82 17.77 16.29 $2,000-$2,999 2,570 .16 13,930 .88 62,825 3.98 79,330 5.04 3.23 17.55 79.19 100 4.14 .4.39 5.25 5.04 $3,000-$5,999 6,365 .40 41,520 2.63 188,920 11.99 236,795 15.03 2.68 17.53 79.78 100 10.25 13.11 15.79 15.03 $6,000-$9,999 5,480 .34 57,325 3.63 220,125 13.97 282,940 17.96 1.93 20.26 77.79 100 8.83 18.10 18.39 17.96 $10,000 or more 1,260 .07 18,210 1.15 116,340 7.38 135,805 8.62 .92 13.40 85.66 100 2.03 5.75 9.72 8.62 TOTAL 62,060 3.94 316,625 20.10 1,196,380 75.95 1,575,065 100 3.94 20.10 75.95 100 ' ' 100 ' 100 100 100 Source: Dick i n s o n , 1978 a N o t e ; LT= L e s s Than; MT= More Than 80 r e l a t i v e concept, o f t e n t i e d to income and a b i l i t y to earn in&ome, those a d u l t s with l e s s than e i g h t years of s c h o o l i n g d e f i n i t e l y c o n s t i t u t e a "needy" group i n s o c i e t y i n terms of t h e i r a b i l i t y to a c q u i r e p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l c a p i t a l . Ethn i c i ty The data on l e v e l s of s c h o o l i n g and e t h n i c i t y r e p o r t e d i n the 1971 Census r e v e a l that the h i g h e s t l e v e l s of undereducation are to be found among those a d u l t s whose et h n i c o r i g i n s are Native Indian, I n n u i t (Eskimo) and European. More than h a l f of the Native Indian a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n (58.6%) were repo r t e d to have l e s s than nine years of s c h o o l i n g . Almost h a l f of the Innu i t p o p u l a t i o n (47.05%) were a l s o in t h i s category and almost o n e - t h i r d (31.6%) of the European e t h n i c p o p u l a t i o n had completed l e s s than nine years of s c h o o l i n g . These three e t h n i c groups combined had a t o t a l of 123,945 a d u l t s with l e s s than nine years of s c h o o l i n g . However the B r i t i s h I s l e s e t h n i c group which had only 17.9% of i t s p o p u l a t i o n with l e s s than nine years of s c h o o l i n g , because of i t s predominant m a j o r i t y had 166,250 a d u l t s i n t h i s category of undereducated. (Table 7) In urban areas, the l a r g e s t group of people with l e s s than f i v e years of s c h o o l i n g c o n s i s t e d of those from European backgrounds ( D i c k i n s o n , 1978a). 8 1 Table 7 B.C. T o t a l Years of Schooling by E t h n i c i t y , 1971 E t h n i c i t y (LT 5 No. 5 - 8 iMT/8 T o t a l No. No. % No. B r i t i s h I s l e s 15,860 1.00 150,390 9.54 763,640 48.48 929,885 59.03 1.70 16.17 82.12 100 25.55 47.49 63.82 59.03 European 17,285 1.09 88,965 5.64 229,495 14.57 335,745 21.31 5.14 26.49 68.35 100 27.84 28.09 19.18 21.31 Native Indians 5,670 .35 11,925 .75 12,415 .78 30,010 1.90 18.89 39.73 41.36 100 9.13 3.76 1.03 1.90 Eskimo 20 .00 60 .00 90 .00 170 .01 11.76 35.29 52.94 100 .03 .01 .00 .01 Asian 8,790 .55 10,515 .66 36,055 2.28 55,360 3.51 15.87 18.99 65.12 100 14.16 3.32 3.01 3.51 Other 14,475 .91 54,757 3.47 154,645 9.81 223,895 14.21 6.46 24.45 69.07 100 23.32 17.29 12.92 14.21 TOTAL 62,065 3.94 316,625 20.10 1,196,375 75.95 1,575,060 100 3.94 20.10 75.95 100 100 100 100 100 Source: D i c k i n s o n , 1978a Note.; ' LT= L e s s Than MT= More Than 82 In r u r a l areas, n a t i v e Indians were the l a r g e s t group with l e s s than f i v e years of s c h o o l i n g (4,435 or 25.95% of that c a t e g o r y ) . The highest p r o p o r t i o n of r u r a l a d u l t s with f i v e to e i g h t years of s c h o o l i n g was a l s o found among n a t i v e Indian a d u l t s with 42.46% of n a t i v e Indians reported in t h i s category. During the ten year p e r i o d 1961 to 1971, there has been a major improvement in the percentage of the p o p u l a t i o n with more than e i g h t years of s c h o o l i n g , from 18.9% in 1961 to 41.4% i n 1971. T h i s has been matched with a corresp o n d i n g r e d u c t i o n in the percentage of the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n with l e s s than f i v e years of s c h o o l i n g , from 26.7% i n 1961 to 18.9%' i n 1971 (Blunt & Middleton, 1978). The r u r a l n a t i v e a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n remains the s i n g l e most e d u c a t i o n a l l y disadvantaged group i n B r i t i s h Columbia. They are observed as the l a r g e s t e t h n i c group i n s p e c i a l ABE c l a s s e s ( M i n i s t r y of Educ a t i o n , 1979). L e v e l s of Educat ion by C o l l e g e Region D i c k i n s o n (1979) examined 1976 Census data and re p o r t e d l e v e l s of education f o r a d u l t s with l e s s than nine years of s c h o o l i n g by school d i s t r i c t and c o l l e g e r e g i o n . Table 8 presents t h i s data from the D i c k i n s o n (1979) study. The data shows great v a r i a t i o n among c o l l e g e regions with respect to the i n c i d e n c e of undereducation and i l l i t e r a c y . Within a c o l l e g e r e gion 83 Table 8 Rank Order of College Regions by Number of Adults with Grade Eight or Less, 1976 College Region Number of Adults With Grades: 4 or l e s s 5 - 8 8 or l e s s Vancouver 16,750 51,210 67,960 Douglas 9,655 57,645 67,300 Okanagan 5,495 27,585 33,080 Camosun 3,470 21,840 25,310 Malaspina 2,730 19,175 21,905 Fraser V a l l e y 2,645 16,250 18,895 Cariboo 3,290 14,085 17,375 New Caledonia 2,635 14,480 17,115 S e l k i r k 3,115 8,750 11,865 Northwest 2,135 8,435 10,570 Capilano 1,155 8,850 10,005 East Kootenay 1,415 8,225 9,640 North I s l a n d 965 6,885 7,850 Northern L i g h t s 1,165 6,390 7,555 Source: D i c k i n s o n , 1978 84 there is a tendency for higher lev e l s of undereducation to occur in areas of population concentration, therefore great v a r i a t i o n exists amongst school d i s t r i c t s within a college region. Even within a single school d i s t r i c t , such as Vancouver School D i s t r i c t 39, concentrations of low levels of education in certain geographically d i s t i n c t neighbourhoods can be i d e n t i f i e d . The incidence of low levels of education in Vancouver i s highest in the older, inner c i t y core neighbourhoods. Information which helps to c l a r i f y and define location, levels of schooling and concentrations of the undereducated population in a college region a s s i s t s in planning and a l l o c a t i n g resources for f a c i l i t i e s and programs in ABE. Another s i g n i f i c a n t phenomenon with respect to the geographic d i s t r i b u t i o n of undereducated adults is that in 1971, almost three-quarters of the undereducated l i v e d in urban centres, but the rates of undereducation were almost i d e n t i c a l for both urban and rural centres. The highest incidence of undereducation was found amongst rural males (33.3%) and the lowest amongst urban females (21.1%). In every age group, there was a higher proportion of rural than urban residents with lower levels of education. However, in actual numbers, more adults with eight years of schooling or less were enumerated in urban areas (Dickinson, 1979). 85 The c o l l e g e r e g i o n s of Vancouver (67,960) and Douglas ( i n c l u d i n g Kwantlen) Community C o l l e g e s (67,300) had more than double the numbers of a d u l t s with e i g h t or l e s s years of s c h o o l i n g than a l l other c o l l e g e r e g i o n s . However in terms of r a t e s of undereducation, Northern L i g h t s had the fewest in a c t u a l numbers (7,555), but ranked the h i g h e s t among c o l l e g e r e g i o n s in terms of the percentage of i t s p o p u l a t i o n with l e s s than nine years of s c h o o l i n g (26.1%). Okanagan C o l l e g e a l s o has a s i g n i f i c a n t p o p u l a t i o n i n need of a d u l t b a s i c education and ranked t h i r d i n a c t u a l numbers (33,080) and f o u r t h i n terms of percentage of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n with l e s s than nine years of s c h o o l i n g (23.8%). S e l k i r k (6.7%) and Vancouver Community C o l l e g e s (5.3%) had the two h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n s of c o l l e g e region p o p u l a t i o n s with f i v e years of s c h o o l i n g or l e s s . An examination of school d i s t r i c t s f o r l e v e l s of undereducation r e v e a l s a d i s t u r b i n g p i c t u r e . The h i g h e s t r a t e of i l l i t e r a c y i n the p r o v i n c e , a c c o r d i n g to 1976 Census data, e x i s t s in the Nishga School D i s t r i c t i n the Northwest C o l l e g e r e g i o n . There, 39% or the a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n have completed only e i g h t years or l e s s of s c h o o l i n g . In the S e l k i r k C o l l e g e r e g i o n , there i s an i l l i t e r a c y r a t e of 36.1% i n the Grand Forks School D i s t r i c t , which a l s o has the highest p r o v i n c i a l 86 rate of i l l i t e r a c y among a d u l t s with l e s s than f i v e years of s c h o o l i n g (6.7%). C a s t l e g a r , another school \~ d i s t r i c t w i t h i n the same c o l l e g e r e g i o n , not only has the' second highest i l l i t e r a c y r a t e i n the p r o v i n c e of 11.2%, but a l s o has the f o u r t h h i g h e s t percentage of a d u l t s with e i g h t or l e s s years of s c h o o l i n g (31.3%). Okanagan C o l l e g e d i s t r i c t e x periences a higher l e v e l of undereducation i n two school d i s t r i c t s , Keremeos (33.8%) and South Okanagan (32.4%). The three c o l l e g e d i s t r i c t s , S e l k i r k , Northwest and Okanagan c o n t a i n between them, f i v e school d i s t r i c t s where more than 30% of t h e i r a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n have completed l e s s than nine years of s c h o o l i n g . Vancouver c o l l e g e region c o n t a i n s the highest number of undereducated a d u l t s i n the p r o v i n c e . Current P r o v i s i o n s V a r i o u s ABE programs have been pr o v i d e d by the M i n i s t r y of Education through community c o l l e g e s , p r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t e s , approved programs d e l i v e r e d through l o c a l school d i s t r i c t s and the Correspondence Branch. High school equivalency may only be obtained a f t e r s u c c e s s f u l completion of the General E d u c a t i o n a l Development (GED) examination. T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l r e p o r t mainly on community c o l l e g e p r o v i s i o n s i n ABE. 87 There i s a p r o l i f e r a t i o n of names, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s and c a t e g o r i e s by which a d u l t b a s i c education i s d e s c r i b e d in B r i t i s h Columbia. The M i n i s t r y of Education c l a s s i f i e s b a s i c education and development r e l a t e d programs o f f e r e d through c o l l e g e s and p r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t e s , under one " a c t i v i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " f o r purposes of budgeting and f i n a n c i a l p l a n n i n g . That c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n c l u d e s seven c a t e g o r i e s : E n g l i s h Language and C i t i z e n s h i p , Basic T r a i n i n g , O r i e n t a t i o n Programs, Programs f o r the Handicapped, Basi c Academic, Learning S k i l l s and Personal Development. However f o r p o l i c y purposes, ABE programs are d e f i n e d by the M i n i s t r y to i n c l u d e : Basic L i t e r a c y , Academic Upgrading, P r e - V o c a t i o n a l and E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g . ABE programs are funded by a number of d i f f e r e n t M i n i s t r y sources, as w e l l as by the f e d e r a l government through the Canada Employment and Immigration Commission (CEIC). These d i f f e r e n t funding sources are concerned with d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s . Moreover, these d i v e r s e funding sources request d i f f e r e n t a c c o u n t a b i l i t y c r i t e r i a , thus data c o l l e c t i o n by which comparison across types of programs can be made i s v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e . A f u r t h e r three c a t e g o r i e s of programs have, been developed fo r the purposes of d e s c r i b i n g c u r r e n t types 88 and numbers of ABE programs o f f e r e d i n post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s ( M i n i s t r y of Education, 1980a). These are : 1) Academic Upgrading and Related, 2) Employment  O r i e n t a t i o n and 3) E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g . Under Academic Upgrading and R e l a t e d there are p r e s e n t l y r e p o r t e d 43 d i f f e r e n t programs o f f e r e d by B.C. post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g 15 programs t i t l e d "Basic T r a i n i n g [ f o r ] S k i l l s Development", 11 programs named, "C o l l e g e / Achievement / Foundations / P r e p a r a t o r y " , and only seven programs d e s c r i b e d as Adult Literacy/Academic Upgrading/Basic Ed u c a t i o n . Under the heading Employment Or i e n t a t ion Programs, there are a t o t a l of 31 d i f f e r e n t program d e s c r i p t i o n s i n c l u d i n g , B a s i c Employment S k i l l s T r a i n i n g ( e i g h t ) , B a s i c Job Readiness T r a i n i n g ( f i v e ) , Employment O r i e n t a t i o n f o r Women ( s i x ) and nine other r e l a t e d program t i t l e s . In the t h i r d and s m a l l e s t category of programs, E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g Programs, a t o t a l of 16 d i f f e r e n t programs are o f f e r e d , with the m a j o r i t y (11) l a b e l l e d , " E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g " . There at l e a s t appears to be more c o n s i s t e n c y i n l a b e l l i n g E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g programs than i n the other program c a t e g o r i e s (Appendix C). An a n a l y s i s of types of programs pro v i d e d by i n s t i t u t i o n s i n 1980 showed that S e l k i r k C o l l e g e o f f e r e d the g r e a t e s t number of Academic Upgrading and 89 Related programs ( s i x ) , North I s l a n d C o l l e g e f o l l o w e d with f i v e , and F r a s e r V a l l e y , Northern L i g h t s and Vancouver each o f f e r e d four programs i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . Capilano, Cariboo, Douglas and Northwest C o l l e g e s each o f f e r e d one program under t h i s c a t e g o r y . For Employment O r i e n t a t i o n programs, Vancouver o f f e r e d s i x types, while three i n s t i t u t i o n s , North I s l a n d , S e l k i r k and the Open Learning I n s t i t u t e d i d not o f f e r any. Under the category, E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g , the main post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n a l p r o v i d e r was Vancouver Community C o l l e g e which o f f e r e d 10 of the t o t a l 16 programs i n the p r o v i n c e . Thus the range and nature of ABE programs vary g r e a t l y among the c o l l e g e regions i n B.C. S i m i l a r programs are o f f e r e d under d i f f e r e n t t i t l e s , with d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s and f o r v a r y i n g lengths of time. A survey of e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s for ABE programs i n d i c a t e s that there are two main goals, entry i n t o the work f o r c e and entry i n t o f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g or education ( M i n i s t r y of Education, 1980a). Accurate data d e s c r i b i n g number of a c t u a l c l a s s e s and student enrollments i n these c l a s s e s are impossible to a s c e r t a i n due to the d e a r t h of r e l i a b l e data. The Report of the Committee on Adult Basic Educat ion ( M i n i s t r y of Education, 1979), d e s c r i b e d ABE i n B r i t i s h Columbia as "ad hoc and spasmodic". I t f u r t h e r 90 commented on the inadequacy of data by s t a t i n g : R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r programming i s o f t e n d i f f u s e d throughout an i n s t i t u t i o n so that records are r a r e l y a v a i l a b l e in one p l a c e . Both students and i n s t i t u t i o n s tend to be t r a n s i e n t , which complicates the r e c o r d keeping p r o c e s s . S i m i l a r programs are o f f e r e d under d i f f e r e n t t i t l e s , and use of t r a d i t i o n a l classroom method i s by no means u n i v e r s a l , so data on student enrollments are not always c o n s i s t e n t . ( M i n i s t r y of Education, 1979, p. 11) One estimate of c l a s s e s and enrollments was p r o v i d e d i n a survey undertaken by the Committee on Adult B a s i c Education ( M i n i s t r y of Education, 1979). It was estimated that ABE c u r r e n t l y i n v o l v e s more than 500 c l a s s e s and 6,000 students per year. But t h i s f i g u r e r e p o r t s mainly Canada Manpower (Canada Employment and Immigration Commission) r e l a t e d courses and enrollments i n 1976-77. Completion r a t e s i n these programs ranged from 51.4% f o r BTSD to 90.9% f o r Employment O r i e n t a t i o n courses for women, A t o t a l of 529 c l a s s e s were conducted i n the p r o v i n c e during 1976-77, with 117 a v a i l a b l e f o r f u l l - t i m e students, 185 f o r p a r t - t i m e and 227 f o r e i t h e r f u l l or p a r t - t i m e students. The m a j o r i t y (344) of these c l a s s e s were 91 conducted i n the Lower Mainland and F r a s e r V a l l e y Regions of the p r o v i n c e . A t o t a l of 6,588 students were reported i n the survey although not a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s were ab l e to provide enrollment f i g u r e s . A t o t a l of 1,987 students were r e p o r t e d e n r o l l e d as f u l l - t i m e , 2,793 as part-time and 1,808 as e i t h e r f u l l - t i m e or part-time students. The M i n i s t e r i a l statement of p o l i c y on ABE ( M i n i s t r y of Education, 1980b) r e p o r t e d a f i g u r e of student p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n ABE programs almost s i x times the t o t a l estimated by the Committee on ABE: "In 1978-1979, approximately 40,000 men and women p a r t i c i p a t e d in a d u l t b a s i c education, i n c l u d i n g E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g " ( M i n i s t r y of Education, 1980b, p.1). " P a r t i c i p a t i o n " was not d e f i n e d i n the statement, although i t i s l i k e l y that the f i g u r e accounts f o r the f u l l range of ABE programs and p r o v i d e r s i n the p r o v i n c e f o r that year. C o l l e g e p r o v i s i o n s f o r ABE vary widely and r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n appears u n r e l a t e d to the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n i d e n t i f i e d i n Census data. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to draw comparisons between d i f f e r e n t c o l l e g e regions in terms of the extent c o l l e g e ABE programs have been able to meet r e g i o n a l needs of undereducation because of inadequate and i n c o n s i s t e n t data. Enrollment i n f o r m a t i o n was obtained from the M i n i s t r y of Education 92 f o r 1979-80 f o r part-time ABE courses d e l i v e r e d through c o n t i n u i n g education programs and pa r t - t i m e and f u l l -time academic upgrading courses (Table 9). In a d d i t i o n , i n f o r m a t i o n about c o l l e g e - p l a n n e d c a p a c i t y i n ABE o c c u p a t i o n a l upgrading courses was obtained (Table 10). These sources p o r t r a y a snapshot of p a r t i c i p a t i o n in ABE. Northern L i g h t s C o l l e g e c o n t a i n e d the highest p r o v i n c i a l p r o p o r t i o n of i t s a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n with l e s s than nine years of s c h o o l i n g (26.1%) of any of the c o l l e g e r e g i o n s . However, i t ranked f o u r t e e n t h out of a t o t a l of 15 c o l l e g e s i n terms of t h i s p o p u l a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n pa r t - t i m e ABE courses, with a p a r t i c i p a t i o n rate of s i x f o r every 1,000 a d u l t s in the c o l l e g e r e g i o n with l e s s than nine years of s c h o o l i n g . Northwest and Okanagan C o l l e g e each had 23.8% of t h e i r t o t a l a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n with l e s s than nine years of s c h o o l i n g , but where Northwest C o l l e g e had a p a r t i c i p a t i o n rate of 35 per 1,000 i n par t - t i m e ABE programs, which was the hi g h e s t r a t e of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e , Okanagan's r a t e of p a r t i c i p a t i o n was seven per 1,000 f o r a ranking of t w e l f t h out of 15 p r o v i d e r s . North I s l a n d o u t s t r i p p e d a l l other c o l l e g e s i n p a r t-time and f u l l - t i m e Academic Upgrading Courses i n 1979-80 with a r a t e of p a r t i c i p a t i o n of 40 per 1,000 p o p u l a t i o n . Camosun C o l l e g e ranked second with a 93 Table 9 P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates and Rank Order i n P a r t - t i m e ABE Programs and. F u l l and P a r t - t i m e Academic Upgrading Courses 1 P r o v i d e r C o l l e g e Region 2 Part-Time ABE Programs Rank 3 F u l l - T i m e and Part-Time Academic Programs Rank CAMOSUN (SD) ' 11 9 22.5 2 CAPILANO (SD) 8 11 - -CARIBOO (C) 7 13 15.6 4 DOUGLAS (SD) 31 2 - -DOUGLAS (Kwantlen) - - - -EAST KOOTENAY (C) 26 5 8.3 5 FRASER VALLEY (C) 15 8 2.3 11 MALASPINA (C) 10 10 7 NEW CALEDONIA (C & SD) 23 16 - -NORTH ISLAND (C) . 30 3 40.0 1 NORTHERN LIGHTS (C) 19 7 2.5 10 • NORTHWEST (C) 6 14 3.0 9 OKANAGAN (C & SD) 35 1 7.6 6 SELKIRK (C) 7 12 3.1 8 VANCOUVER (C) 28 4 16.8 3 PACIFIC VOCATIONAL 5 15 — _ NOTE: 1. C = C o l l e g e p r o v i d e r SD = School D i s t r i c t p r o v i d e r 2. Source: 1979 - 1980 Enrolment Data from C o n t i n u i n g Education D i v i s i o n and 1976 Census Data 3. Source: 1979 - 1980 Enrolment Data, Post-Secondary s t a t i s t i c s and C o l l e g e S t a t i s t i c a l Reports TV27 and TV27A. 94 Table 10 1980 Number of ABE Program Types by I n s t i t u t i o n s P r - o v i d e r Academic Upgrading and R e l a t e d Program Employment O r i e n t a t i o n E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g 1. CAMOSUN 2. CAPILANO 3. CARIBOO 4. NEW CALEDONIA 5. DOUGLAS 6. EAST K00TENAY 7. FRASER VALLEY 8. MALASPINA 9. NORTH ISLAND 10. NORTHERN LIGHTS 11. NORTHWEST 12. OKANAGAN 13. PACIFIC VOCATIONAL 14. SELKIRK 15. VANCOUVER (KEC) 16. OPEN LEARNING INSTITUTE 2 1 1 3 1 • 3 4 3 5 4 1 2 2 6 4 2 3 1 2 1 2 4 1 1 0 3 4 1 1 0 6 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 10 0 TOTAL 44 30 16 Source: A C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of ABE Programs, M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , Post-Secondary Department, 1980. 95 p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e of 22.5%. The lowest p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e i n 1979-80 f o r academic upgrading courses was F r a s e r V a l l e y C o l l e g e (2.3%) (Table 9). Douglas, Kwantlen and New Caledonia data were not a v a i l a b l e . C a l c u l a t i o n s on s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y i n f u l l - t i m e o c c u p a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g courses showed Vancouver Community C o l l e g e with the l a r g e s t student c a p a c i t y of 2,516 student contact months (SCM) (SCM= number of students times the number of months of t r a i n i n g ) , f o l l o w e d by Kwantlen with 1,864 SCM, and P a c i f i c V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e with 1,780 SCM. The lowest planned c a p a c i t y was found i n Camosun C o l l e g e which planned only 120 student contact'months. For f i s c a l year 1979-80, the t o t a l planned c a p a c i t y f o r o c c u p a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g in the province amounted to 10,198 student c o n t a c t months (Table 11). O c c u p a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g was the second l a r g e s t category of ABE programs documented for the involvement of post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s i n ABE. Since 1968-1969, enrollments i n c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t o r y programs has a t t r a c t e d a younger (under age 25) a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n . However, numbers of a d u l t s over age 25 began to show sha r p l y i n c r e a s e d enrollments i n 1974 and t h i s i n c r e a s e has remained f a i r l y s t a b l e up to the p r e s e n t . Enrollments over a ten year p e r i o d s i n c e 1968-69, show a p a t t e r n of growth t y p i f i e d by a three year 9 6 Table 11 Planned C o l l e g e Capacity 1979 - 1980 For F u l l - T i m e ABE Occupational Upgrading Courses by Student Contact Months Number of Student P r o v i d e r Contact Months (SCM) Rank CAMOSUN 120 15 CAPILANO 1,500 8 CARIBOO 1,524 7 DOUGLAS 460 14 (KWANTLEN) 1,864 2 EAST KOOTENAY 330 . 11 FRASER VALLEY 690 13 MALASPINA 690 13 NEW CALEDONIA 1,763 4 NORTH ISLAND 864 9 NORTHERN LIGHTS 800 12. NORTHWEST 1,726 5 OKANAGAN 830 10 SELKIRK 1,701 6 VANCOUVER 2,516 1 PACIFIC VOCATIONAL INSTITUTE 1,780 3 Source: From 1979 - 1980 Colour Charts, M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , V i c t o r i a . 97 p l a t e a u f o l l o w e d by a spurt in enrollment, f o l l o w e d again by a p l a t e a u . The g r e a t e s t i n c r e a s e i n enrollments occured i n the 1974-1975, an i n c r e a s e of 2,669 e n r o l l e e s over the p r e v i o u s year (Table 12). Tabl« 12 Full-time and Part-time Enrolment i n College Prepatory Programa i n B.C. Community Colleges and Provincial Institute, by Age, 1968.69 to 1978-79 1968-Age Total 1969 17 and under 1,229 18 18 2,123 22 19 1.705 30 20 1.497 11 21 1,171 7 22 883 9 23 689 3 24 551 2 25 - 29 1,781 2 30 - 34 898 0 35 - 39 550 0 40 and over 865 0 Not Reported 1,730 25 Sub-Total: 129 1969- 1970- 1971- 1972-1970 1971 •1972 1973 16 14 6 23 67 64 84 120 84 77 130 139 58 61 105 85 45 34 74 72 42 34 55 37 20 23 49 38 18 22 26 22 42 39 77 75 20 17 44 27 15 7 22 15 16 11 14 27 35 0 46 20 478 403 732 700 1973- 1974- 1975-1974 1975 1976 16 282 265 71 311 351 69 295 280 75 204 230 49 186 181 49 117 152 31 95 U l 16 66 106 63 274 299 22 128 164 13 75 96 34 132 177 141 1,153 7 649 3,318 2,419 1976- 1977- 1978-1977 1978 1979 212 203 174 336 358 339 292 261 308 251 219 198 183 179 161 132 124 132 118 98 103 97 82 94 289 308 313 154 151 171 93 110 104 148 137 169 92 119 92 2.397 2.349 2.358 Source: College S t a t i s t i c a l Reports. B. C. Post-Secondary Stati s t i c s Enrolment Data, 1978 99 ABE Student C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Only one study of ABE students i n B.C. was found and t h i s study was r e s t r i c t e d to Canada Manpower sponsored BTSD e n r o l l e e s f o r the p e r i o d 1972-1977 (Blunt and Middleton, 1978). Ne v e r t h e l e s s i t remains the only l o n g i t u d i n a l study of ABE p a r t i c i p a n t s to date. I t i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t because i t c l e a r l y shows how employment p o l i c i e s have i n f l u e n c e d the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s over time of BTSD (Basic T r a i n i n g f o r S k i l l s Development) e n r o l l e e s i n the p r o v i n c e . The study a l s o commented on r e g i o n a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l v a r i a t i o n i n r e t e n t i o n and completion r a t e s of BTSD students and i d e n t i f i e d student c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o n t r i b u t i n g to s u c c e s s f u l completion. BTSD courses are designed to provide o c c u p a t i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d s k i l l s and knowledge through academic upgrading so that students may enter d i r e c t l y i n t o employment or v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s t r a i n i n g . In 1978 Canada Manpower-sponsored students accounted f o r approximately 75% of the t o t a l student enrollment in BTSD courses. A n a l y s i s of data showed an o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e i n enrollments from 3,164 i n f i s c a l year 1972-73 to 4,930 in 1975-76, an in c r e a s e of 1,766 enrollments or 55.8%. T h i s growth was a t t r i b u t e d to the i n c r e a s e d purchases of t r a i n i n g days from the pro v i n c e and the i n c r e a s e d p r o v i s i o n f o r continuous intake i n t o BTSD cou r s e s . 100 S e v e r a l changes i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of BTSD e n r o l l e e s , i n c l u d i n g an i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n of young a d u l t s , females, and s i n g l e a d u l t s were found. A d d i t i o n a l l y there was an observed i n c r e a s e i n mature women r e t u r n i n g to the labour market as w e l l as a d e c l i n e i n the numbers of e n r o l l e e s who were p r e v i o u s l y employed p r i o r to e n t e r i n g t r a i n i n g . The income l e v e l s of most students were on or below the poverty l i n e i n 1976-77. Immigrant e n r o l l e e s were observed to have higher l e v e l s of academic s c h o o l i n g and had s u p e r i o r work experience than Canada-born e n r o l l e e s . A d e c l i n e in the p r o p o r t i o n of immigrant e n r o l l e e s was observed over the four year p e r i o d s t u d i e d . Most of the changes in e n r o l l e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were a t t r i b u t e d to three f a c t o r s : 1) 1972 amendments to the Adult O c c u p a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g Act (AOTA) to enable younger and l e s s experienced a d u l t s to enter t r a i n i n g , 2) changes i n the purchasing p a t t e r n s of BTSD which r e s u l t e d i n fewer t r a i n i n g spaces i n lower l e v e l BTSD courses which had tended to provide t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r o l d e r rather than younger a d u l t s and 3) i n c r e a s e s in i n f l a t i o n and unemployment r a t e s which caused an i n f l u x of young unemployed a d u l t s i n t o BTSD and a l s o encouraged the r e t u r n of women to the labour f o r c e . Student c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i d e n t i f i e d with b e t t e r 101 completion r a t e s i n c l u d e d females r a t h e r than males; married or p r e v i o u s l y married, r a t h e r than never married; o l d e r r a t h e r than younger; more ra t h e r than l e s s education; work experienced r a t h e r than i n e x p e r i e n c e d ; and f o r e i g n - b o r n rather than n a t i v e - b o r n Canadian. Large v a r i a t i o n s i n completion s t a t u s of students between i n s t i t u t i o n s were noted, and f u r t h e r v a r i a t i o n s were found over time w i t h i n the same i n s t i t u t i o n . For example, Northern L i g h t s c o n s i s t e n t l y had high non-completion r a t e s , ranging from 70% to 46%, while C a p i l a n o C o l l e g e had c o n s i s t e n t l y lower non-completion r a t e s ranging from 34% to 12%. Seven i n s t i t u t i o n s had annual v a r i a t i o n s i n completion r a t e s of ten per cent or g r e a t e r . The study concluded that BTSD d i d not appear to be a p r o v i n c i a l program, but r a t h e r a c o l l e c t i o n of d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n a l programs with v a r y i n g p r e - r e q u i s i t e s for e n t ry and standards f o r completion (Blunt and Middleton, 1978, p. 49). The study a l s o found that BTSD programs were not meeting the s t a t e d goal of p r e p a r i n g students to enter i n t o s k i l l s t r a i n i n g as only s i x of every 100 BTSD e n r o l l e e s s u c c e s s f u l l y completed a s k i l l s t r a i n i n g course d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1973-1977. For those that d i d enter t r a i n i n g , t h e i r performance was found to be lower 1 02 than students who had never p a r t i c i p a t e d i n BTSD. Reasons f o r non-pe r s i s t e n c e i n t r a i n i n g were recommended as an area f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y reasons f o r withdrawal, t r a i n e e m o t i v a t i o n , need f o r c o u n s e l l i n g , and the e f f e c t s of v a r i o u s i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques. V a r i a t i o n s i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l programming were a l s o i d e n t i f i e d as being worthy of i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Summary An attempt has been made i n t h i s chapter to provide an a n a l y s i s of the need f o r p r o v i s i o n of ABE i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n f o r ABE was d e f i n e d as those a d u l t s over the age of 15 who had not a t t a i n e d high school completion. S e v e r a l demographic trends were found to i n f l u e n c e the d e c l i n e i n the numbers of the undereducated i n the years between 1971 and 1976, i n c l u d i n g an aging p o p u l a t i o n and the concomitant e f f e c t s of m o r t a l i t y . Within the d e f i n e d t a r g e t group f o r ABE, a p r i o r i t y p o p u l a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d as those with l e s s than nine years of s c h o o l i n g . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s group were that they were o l d e r , female, unemployed, had low incomes and had European and Native Indian e t h n i c backgrounds. In r u r a l areas, Native Indians were the l a r g e s t group 103 of undereducated, while i n urban communities a d u l t s from European backgrounds comprised the most s i g n i f i c a n t group. Data on those c u r r e n t l y being served by ABE programs were found to be fragmented and u n r e l i a b l e . Few comparisons c o u l d t h e r e f o r e be made between the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the undereducated p o p u l a t i o n and those students c u r r e n t l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n ABE programs. An examination of ABE program o f f e r i n g s i n post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s r e v e a l e d that there was l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the numbers and types of programs o f f e r e d and the s i z e and nature of the undereducated p o p u l a t i o n i n a c o l l e g e r e g i o n . The goals f o r the m a j o r i t y of ABE programs c e n t r e d around f a c i l i t a t i n g entry i n t o s k i l l s t r a i n i n g or employment, or f a c i l i t a t i n g e n t ry i n t o higher education o p p o r t u n i t i e s . These program goals were found to determine the demand p o p u l a t i o n f o r ABE, and to a l a r g e extent, the nature of the present ABE c l i e n t e l e . An a n a l y s i s of program enrollments i n c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t o r y courses i d e n t i f i e d the m a j o r i t y of students to be under 25 years of age. An a n a l y s i s of student c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s over a four year p e r i o d of Manpower-sponsored BTSD e n r o l l e e s , r e v e a l e d that younger s i n g l e male a d u l t s predominate. It may be t e n t a t i v e l y concluded that present ABE 1 04 programs are geared predominately to serve the needs of younger a d u l t s , aged between 15 and 24, who are p o t e n t i a l l y good c a n d i d a t e s f o r d i r e c t entry i n t o the labour f o r c e , d e s p i t e being the sm a l l e s t group of undereducated i n the p o p u l a t i o n . Those not w e l l served were o l d e r a d u l t s and Native a d u l t s r e s i d i n g i n r u r a l communities. The age c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the undereducated p o p u l a t i o n was one of i t s most d i s t i n g u i s h i n g demographic f e a t u r e s and appeared to account f o r other dimensions as w e l l . Due to the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of o l d e r persons, the undereducated p o p u l a t i o n was more l i k e l y to be, out of the work f o r c e , female, i l l or p h y s i c a l l y d i s a b l e d and poor or r e c e i v i n g government a s s i s t a n c e . Given these age c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i t may be u n r e a l i s t i c to expect that a l a r g e p o r t i o n of the undereducated p o p u l a t i o n can be served through present ABE o f f e r i n g s . ABE programs geared toward v o c a t i o n a l or academic goals may a l s o not be a p p r o p r i a t e responses to the needs of Native r u r a l a d u l t s . In many r u r a l communities, slow economic . growth i s a f a c t , and in c r e a s e d l e v e l of b a s i c education alone may not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t the income l e v e l or e m p l o y a b i l i t y of t h i s t a r g e t group. T h e r e f o r e present ABE programs may not prove a t t r a c t i v e to any but younger Native a d u l t s who are prepared to move from the s o c i a l and 1 05 f a m i l y networks of t h e i r communities to take up employment or f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g elsewhere i n the p r o v i n c e . L i m i t e d data on completion r a t e s w i t h i n ABE programs were examined. While a d m i t t e d l y u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the e n t i r e o p e r a t i o n , two s t u d i e s found i n s t i t u t i o n a l v a r i a t i o n i n completion r a t e s as w e l l as major r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n . Very low completion r a t e s were evidenced in some ABE programs. I t i s c l e a r t h a t f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s necessary to i d e n t i f y the primary causes of non-completion and dropout. 106 CHAPTER IV SURVEY FINDINGS T h i s chapter r e p o r t s f i n d i n g s from an e x p l o r a t o r y survey of 17 post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia ( D i c k i n s o n , Cookson and Lee, Note 2), which was undertaken to d e s c r i b e c u r r e n t p r o v i s i o n s f o r l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s to ABE stud e n t s . The study employed s t r u c t u r e d telephone and o n - s i t e i n t e r v i e w s of c o l l e g e p e r s o n n e l . The l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e a c t i v i t i e s observed are c l a s s i f i e d i n t o three c a t e g o r i e s : 1) campus l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s , 2) off-campus l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s and 3) ABE programs without l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s . The b a s i s of c a t e g o r i z a t i o n was the method of d e l i v e r y and o r g a n i z a t i o n u t i l i z e d by post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s to pr o v i d e l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s to ABE programs. The f i r s t c ategory d e s c r i b e s l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s 107 o r g a n i z e d f o r m a l l y as a d i s t i n c t f u n c t i o n a l u n i t or c e n t r e f o r r e p o r t i n g , program d e l i v e r y , p l a n n i n g and c o s t i n g purposes. T h i s category accounts f o r the m a j o r i t y of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s to ABE students. Of a t o t a l of seventeen post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s surveyed, seven had l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s s e r v i n g the e n t i r e c o l l e g e ; Camosun, C a p i l a n o , East Kootenay, P a c i f i c V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e (PVI), S e l k i r k , North I s l a n d , and Vancouver Community C o l l e g e (VCC, King Edward campus), four had ABE l e a r n i n g c e n t r e s ; Cariboo, F r a s e r V a l l e y , S e l k i r k , and VCC (King Edward campus), and two i n s t i t u t i o n s , Vancouver Community C o l l e g e and S e l k i r k C o l l e g e , had ABE as w e l l as campus l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s . Four post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s ; Douglas, Malaspina, Northern L i g h t s , and the C o l l e g e of New Caledonia, d e l i v e r e d d e c e n t r a l i z e d l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s . The t h i r d category was comprised of four i n s t i t u t i o n s which d i d not p r o v i d e any s p e c i a l i z e d l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s f o r t h e i r ABE students; Northwest and Okanagan C o l l e g e , the Open Lea r n i n g I n s t i t u t e (OLI) and the B r i t i s h Columbia I n s t i t u t e of Technology (BCIT). Due to the g e n e r a l lack of documentation of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e a c t i v i t i e s , c o l l e g e s were not always a b l e to provide r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n under each heading. Moreover, off-campus l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e 108 s e r v i c e s tended to be temporary i n nature and r e l a t i v e l y l e s s w e l l documented. Thus s t r i c t comparisions among the three c a t e g o r i e s which f o l l o w i s d i f f i c u l t . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s are presented i n an order which best f i t s i n f o r m a t i o n obtained by the study. Campus Learning A s s i s t a n c e Centres Locat ion The seven c e n t r e s i n t h i s category are r e f e r r e d to as campus l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s although some were t i t l e d d i f f e r e n t l y by the i n s t i t u t i o n s . On Vancouver I s l a n d and in the Lower Mainland area, c o l l e g e l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s . were l o c a t e d at Camosun C o l l e g e , North I s l a n d C o l l e g e , Vancouver Community C o l l e g e , King Edward Campus (KEC), Capilano C o l l e g e and P a c i f i c V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e . In southeastern B.C., they were at East Kootenay C o l l e g e and S e l k i r k C o l l e g e . Camosun C o l l e g e d i d not operate i t s . l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e i n 1980-81. However, i t s Board had s t a t e d an i n t e n t i o n to r e i n s t a t e the s e r v i c e i n 1981-82, t h e r e f o r e , i t was i n c l u d e d and d e s c r i b e d as i t operated i n 1979-80. Both Vancouver Community C o l l e g e 109 (KEC) and S e l k i r k C o l l e g e operated a campus l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e and an ABE l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e . North I s l a n d C o l l e g e p e r c e i v e d i t s e n t i r e c o l l e g e o p e r a t i o n to c o n s i s t of " l e a r n i n g c e n t r e s " s e r v i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l needs of i t s r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n . Because i t s o p e r a t i o n s and philosophy are unique, i t s l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s and c e n t r e s are d e s c r i b e d s e p a r a t e l y where a p p r o p r i a t e . Object i v e s The o b j e c t i v e s of campus l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s were: 1) to provide support s e r v i c e s f o r •accessing l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and 2) to remove b a r r i e r s to l e a r n i n g f o r the e n t i r e student p o p u l a t i o n . A c t i v i t i e s were viewed as an adjunct to r e g u l a r c o l l e g e i n s t r u c t i o n in that the s e r v i c e s and programs were not u s u a l l y part of a r e g u l a r c o l l e g e c r e d i t program. The nature of s e r v i c e s was predominantly i n s t r u c t i o n a l , aimed at d e v e l o p i n g b a s i c s k i l l s i n mathematics, E n g l i s h , reading and study s k i l l s . P r i o r i t y was p l a c e d on s e r v i c e s a d d r e s s i n g s t u d e n t - c e n t r e d and student-i d e n t i f i e d needs. The purposes and aims of s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by campus l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as f o l l o w s : 1 10 1. D i a g n o s i s and a s s e s s m e n t - - ! a c i l i t a t i n g an a p p r o p r i a t e e n t r y l e v e l as a means of ensuring r e a l i s t i c student p r o g r e s s , i n c l u d i n g i d e n t i f y i n g l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s and p h y s i o l o g i c a l weaknesses a f f e c t i n g l e a r n i n g a b i l i t y . 2. R e m e d i a l — e n s u r i n g the development of weak or d e f i c i e n t b a s i c l e a r n i n g s k i l l s and a t t i t u d e s . 3. D e v e l o p m e n t a l — p r o v i d i n g resources and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r developing a l e a r n e r ' s c a p a b i l i t i e s or p o t e n t i a l . 4. S u p p o r t i v e - - p r o v i d i n g a s u p p o r t i v e environment f o r s e l f - a p p r a i s a l and e s t a b l i s h i n g r e a l i s t i c l e a r n i n g g o a l s , and 5. P r e v e n t i v e - - h e l p i n g r e t u r n i n g and non-t r a d i t i o n a l students a d j u s t to demands of c o l l e g e l i f e . Any one above. s e r v i c e may meet s e v e r a l of the purposes l i s t e d 111 S e r v i c e s and Functions S e r v i c e s r e p o r t e d by a l l seven campus l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g : d r o p - i n and scheduled one-to-one t u t o r i n g , small group t u t o r i n g , d i a g n o s t i c and assessment t e s t i n g f o r placement l e v e l , r e f e r r a l s e r v i c e s , access to commercially-prepared and cent r e - p r e p a r e d m a t e r i a l s , q u i e t , s u p e r v i s e d study areas, and s e l f - p a c e d l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s . In a d d i t i o n to s e r v i c e s l i s t e d above, four c o l l e g e l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s a l s o p r o v i d e d c r e d i t and no n - c r e d i t courses, workshops or seminars of v a r y i n g lengths on t o p i c s such as: w r i t i n g the c o l l e g e essay, vocabulary development, t h i n k i n g with c l a r i t y , c onceptual b l o c k b u s t i n g , s p e l l i n g improvement, study s k i l l s (time management), reading improvement, communication s k i l l s , and s t r e s s management. Informal i n q u i r i e s r e v e a l e d no evident p a t t e r n among c o l l e g e l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s as to the l e n g t h of the workshops, seminars and courses on the b a s i s of sub j e c t matter. Courses on s i m i l a r t o p i c s v a r i e d g r e a t l y in len g t h , ranging from one one-hour s e s s i o n to 18 one-hour s e s s i o n s . Some l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s provided d i a g n o s t i c and assessment t e s t i n g s e r v i c e s f o r : 1) dia g n o s i n g l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s , 2) w r i t i n g p r e s c r i p t i o n s f o r teaching purposes, 3) a s s e s s i n g entry l e v e l i n E n g l i s h competency and mathematics competency, 1 1 2 and 4) remedial t e s t i n g at an i n s t r u c t o r ' s request. F i v e c e n t r e s a l s o had a c a p a c i t y f o r programmed i n s t r u c t i o n employing a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s i n mathematics, readi n g , and s p e l l i n g ^ Three c e n t r e s used computer-a s s i s t e d i n s t r u c t i o n and a f o u r t h c e n t r e expected to purchase a computer t e r m i n a l f o r i t s l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e in 1980-81. The c e n t r e s at C a p i l a n o , S e l k i r k , and Camosun c o l l e g e s were de v e l o p i n g or d e l i v e r i n g s e r v i c e s to l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d a d u l t s on a p i l o t b a s i s . S p e c i a l S e r v i c e s f o r ABE. S p e c i a l programming e f f o r t s observed for ABE i n c l u d e d p r o v i d i n g outreach s e r v i c e s i n l o c a t i o n s where c l a s s e s were conducted. Drop-in t u t o r i n g was a v a i l a b l e on a l i m i t e d b a s i s to off-campus ABE students, but at S e l k i r k , C a p i l a n o , East Kootenay and Camosun c o l l e g e s , l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e personnel made scheduled v i s i t s to o u t l y i n g ABE c e n t e r s . I n - c l a s s p r e s e n t a t i o n s and workshops was another method of s e r v i n g the ABE student. I n d i r e c t s e r v i c e s i n c l u d e d f a c u l t y c o n s u l t a t i o n which i n v o l v e d a d v i s i n g on reading and l e a r n i n g problems and conducting r e a d a b i l i t y a n a l yses of textbooks on request. ABE programs a l s o made use of d i a g n o s t i c and assessment s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s . . G e n e r a l l y , c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s were a v a i l a b l e through r e f e r r a l to a c o u n s e l l o r . 1 13 F a c i l i t i e s Campus l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s were u s u a l l y l o c a t e d on the main campus. F a c i l i t i e s v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y in s i z e , f u r n i s h i n g s , and equipment. Camosun C o l l e g e and P a c i f i c V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e ' s l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s were t e m p o r a r i l y housed in unused classroom space. C a p i l a n o , Vancouver (KEC), S e l k i r k ( C a s t l e g a r ) , and North I s l a n d had permanently a l l o c a t e d space and t h i s appeared to have r e s u l t e d i n f a c i l i t i e s that were b e t t e r planned and equipped f o r the s p e c i f i c use. East Kootenay had l o c a t e d i t s l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e i n a p o r t i o n of the c o l l e g e l i b r a r y . North I s l a n d f a c i l i t i e s i n c l u d e d mobile vans and a s h i p as w e l l as c o n v e n t i o n a l b u i l d i n g s i t e s . F u r n i s h i n g s i n the t e m p o r a r i l y - s i t e d c e n t r e s were b a s i c , c o n s i s t i n g of a group work t a b l e s and c h a i r s , a desk f o r the i n s t r u c t o r , blackboards, s h e l v i n g , b u l l e t i n boards and racks f o r handout m a t e r i a l s . In the more permanent f a c i l i t i e s , f u r n i s h i n g s a l s o i n c l u d e d a lounge area with comfortable c h a i r s , c o f f e e t a b l e s , and lamps; a r e c e p t i o n area with desk, t y p e w r i t e r , and f i l e c a b i n e t s ; a study area with c a r r e l s f o r i n d i v i d u a l work and f o r work with AV and VTR m a t e r i a l s , group work t a b l e s , c h a i r s , s h e l v i n g and other d i s p l a y f u r n i s h i n g s ; and a separated o f f i c e area f o r t u t o r s and i n s t r u c t o r s . Some • c e n t r e s had 1 1 4 t y p e w r i t e r s a v a i l a b l e f o r student use. Computer t e r m i n a l s were a v a i l a b l e at North I s l a n d , Vancouver (KEC), and P a c i f i c V o c a t i o n a l , while C a p i l a n o C o l l e g e had budgeted f o r a computer t e r m i n a l i n i t s 1980/81 budget. S i z e of f a c i l i t y ranged from a low of 500 sq. f t . at C a p i l a n o C o l l e g e , to as much as 2,000 sq. f t . at Vancouver Community C o l l e g e (KEC). S i z e d i d not seem as important a f a c t o r as use of the space i n terms of f u r n i s h i n g s and equipment pr o v i d e d and atmosphere c r e a t e d . A l l in t e r v i e w e d expressed d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the amount of space a v a i l a b l e f o r l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e o p e r a t i o n s , and most of the c e n t r e s had proposed expansion and redevelopment. O r g a n i z a t i o n Three of the seven campus l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s were l o c a t e d f o r budgeting purposes i n the Student S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n , two i n the Community Education D i v i s i o n , and one each in Academic S e r v i c e s and I n s t r u c t i o n a l S e r v i c e s . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r S e l k i r k C o l l e g e ' s c e n t r e was s p l i t and i n a s t a t e of f l u x . The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l o c a t i o n of campus l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s w i t h i n an a c a d e m i c a l l y " n e u t r a l " a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t such as student s e r v i c e s appeared 115 to have important consequences f o r the c e n t r e ' s a b i l i t y to serve the e n t i r e student p o p u l a t i o n . By not being too c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with one p a r t i c u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n a l d i v i s i o n , campus l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s seemed b e t t e r a b l e to surmount "image" problems that c o u l d have been b a r r i e r s to the p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s to students i n a wide range of programs. Costs and Funding Sources C a p i l a n o C o l l e g e had the h i g h e s t t o t a l c o s t f o r l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e personnel ($101,700) in 1980-81 fol l o w e d by Vancouver Community C o l l e g e (KEC) ($70,850), P a c i f i c V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e ($60,000), East Kootenay Community C o l l e g e ($12,261), and S e l k i r k C o l l e g e ( C a s t l e g a r ) ($8,000). A personnel c o s t of $56,612 was p r o j e c t e d f o r Camosun C o l l e g e had i t been o p e r a t i n g with the same s t a f f and a 10% budget i n c r e a s e in 1980-81 compared with 1979-80. Data were not o b t a i n a b l e f o r North I s l a n d C o l l e g e . Personnel c o s t s for f u l l — t i m e e q u i v a l e n t s t a f f were as f o l l o w s : 1 1 6 I n s t i t u t i o n FTE Cost per FTE Camosun C o l l e g e ( e s t . ) 1.75 $30,635 P a c i f i c V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e S e l k i r k C o l l e g e ( C a s t l e g a r ) C a p i l a n o C o l l e g e Vancouver Community C o l l e g e 2.00 30,000 1.50 30,000 4.15 24,506 3.00 23,617 East Kootenay Community C o l l e g e 0.50 23,322 The m a j o r i t y of the c o l l e g e l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s i d e n t i f i e d i n the study were funded from the ongoing c o l l e g e budget. With the exception of North I s l a n d C o l l e g e which had requested monies f o r l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e from the Academic C o u n c i l under A c t i v i t y Code 111, Function 1, and East Kootenay's c e n t r e which was funded i n t e r n a l l y , the remaining f i v e c o l l e g e s had been or would be re q u e s t i n g support from the Management Advi s o r y C o u n c i l under A c t i v i t y Code 814, Fu n c t i o n 8, Student Support or Function 7, I n s t r u c t i o n a l Support. 1 1 7 (see M i n i s t r y of Education, I980d f o r e x p l a n a t i o n of codes) P a c i f i c V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e ' s l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e program was funded from the Academic C o u n c i l under A c t i v i t y Code 110, Function 1, D i s c i p l i n e C l u s t e r 6100. T h i s funding arrangement was not expected to continue i n the f u t u r e . I t arose when there was a drop i n BTSD enrollments and two BTSD i n s t r u c t o r s were assig n e d to s t a f f the l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e . The D i r e c t o r of Student S e r v i c e s s t a t e d that i n the coming f i s c a l year, l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e requests would be submitted to the Management Advisory C o u n c i l . Costs of o p e r a t i o n s other than s a l a r i e s v a r i e d widely among c e n t r e s . Higher c o s t s of o p e r a t i o n may r e f l e c t major purchases planned such as computer or a u d i o - v i s u a l equipment. The range of non-personnel c o s t s f o r 1980-81 was as f o l l o w s : 1 18 I n s t i t u t i o n Cost P a c i f i c V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e $15,000 Cap i l a n o C o l l e g e 14,000 S e l k i r k C o l l e g e ( C a s t l e g a r ) 13,000 Camosun C o l l e g e (est.) 3,353 Vancouver Community C o l l e g e (KEC) 2, 500 East Kootenay Community C o l l e g e 600 Staf f ing A common e d u c a t i o n a l background among campus l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e personnel was not found. Four of the seven c e n t r e s were s t a f f e d by personnel t r a i n e d to the graduate l e v e l , i n d i c a t i n g that a Master's degree may be p e r c e i v e d as d e s i r a b l e although not r e q u i r e d . E d u c a t i o n a l background of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e personnel i n c l u d e d p r o f e s s i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n in s p e c i a l education, psychology, e d u c a t i o n a l and pe r s o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g , mathematics, reading, E n g l i s h and s c i e n c e education, ABE or ESL i n s t r u c t i o n , as w e l l as the more g e n e r a l i z e d a r t s , humanities and s c i e n c e s programs. Centres extended t h e i r c a p a c i t y to provide s e r v i c e s by using f u l l - t i m e and part-time p r o f e s s i o n a l , p a r a - p r o f e s s i o n a l , and v o l u n t e e r s t a f f . North I s l a n d 1 19 C o l l e g e l e a r n i n g c e n t r e personnel were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o v i d i n g the f u l l range of c o l l e g e - s e r v i c e s i n c l u d i n g l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e . Vancouver Community C o l l e g e (KEC) employed ten i n d i v i d u a l s i n pa r t - t i m e p o s i t i o n s , and S e l k i r k C o l l e g e ( C a s t l e g a r ) had f i v e p a r t - t i m e p o s i t i o n s . In s m a l l e r c e n t r e s where few people were i n v o l v e d in the d e l i v e r y of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s were not f o r m a l l y d e s i g n a t e d . The l a r g e r programs had des i g n a t e d planning and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s to an i n d i v i d u a l s t a f f member as part of t h e i r formal job r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . At Ca p i l a n o C o l l e g e , f o r example, the c o o r d i n a t i o n r o l e had been d i v i d e d i n t o two p o s i t i o n s : an i n t e r n a l c o o r d i n a t o r whose main r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was to oversee day-to-day a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the c e n t r e , and an e x t e r n a l c o o r d i n a t o r whose main r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was program development and pl a n n i n g . Measure of Usage A d a i l y record of student c o n t a c t s , requests f o r s e r v i c e s , and a " . t u r n s t i l e " count was not kept on a r o u t i n e b a s i s i n most c e n t r e s . Because of t h i s l a c k of info r m a t i o n and a lack of s t a n d a r d i z e d r e c o r d keeping procedures, an a n a l y s i s of usage acr o s s a l l c e n t r e s was imp o s s i b l e . Some ce n t r e s p r o v i d e d estimates on 1) 1 20 i n d i v i d u a l weekly usage, 2) d u r a t i o n of an average c o n t a c t , and 3) percentage of students seeking t u t o r i n g a s s i s t a n c e . These were re p o r t e d i n four c a t e g o r i e s : ABE/ESL, U n i v e r s i t y T r a n s f e r / C a r e e r , V o c a t i o n a l , and Non-college or Community. Some c e n t r e s were unable to compile t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n time fo r t h i s r e p o r t . For f i v e c e n t r e s r e p o r t i n g , the median number of students c o n t a c t e d on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s was 60 per week. The median d u r a t i o n of a student contact was 45 minutes. Those f i g u r e s are not too u s e f u l because they mask major d i f f e r e n c e s i n the nature of the s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and needs of the students served. One campus l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e r e p o r t e d that the d u r a t i o n of c o n t a c t f o r a b a s i c l i t e r a c y student was one hour compared with ten minutes f o r a c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t o r y student. On an hourly b a s i s , the c e n t r e s r e p o r t e d an average of 1.33 students served every 60 minutes. However, Vancouver Community C o l l e g e (KEC) r e p o r t e d s e r v i n g as many as 10 students every 60 minutes and more than 1,100 per week. ABE Users. ABE students comprised the m a j o r i t y of c l i e n t s f o r Vancouver Community C o l l e g e (KEC), 60% of the users of the c e n t r e were e n r o l l e d i n Academic Grades 9-12 programs and 30% i n ESL programs, a l l of whom were part-time students. Both P a c i f i c V o c a t i o n a l 121 I n s t i t u t e and East Kootenay Community C o l l e g e reported that 30% of t h e i r users c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as ABE students, while S e l k i r k C o l l e g e ( C a s t l e g a r ) r e p o r t e d that o n l y 10% of i t s users c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as ABE students. On the b a s i s of these estimates i t appears t h a t , with the exception of Vancouver Community C o l l e g e (KEC) and P a c i f i c V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e , where there were c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of ABE c l a s s e s , ABE students were not major users of campus l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s . Contacts i n the i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r e d s e v e r a l e x p l a n a t i o n s of the low usage: 1) many ABE programs are conducted i n off-campus l o c a t i o n s , t h e r e f o r e access to main campus l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s i s d i f f i c u l t , 2) ABE programs p r o v i d e s i m i l a r a s s i s t a n c e as p a r t of the c u r r i c u l u m design and many of i t s program goals are i d e n t i c a l with l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e centre g o a l s , 3) the l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s operated on a demand b a s i s and many ABE students may l a c k the i n i t i a l s e l f -c o n f i d e n c e to ask f o r help , 4") campus l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e centres served the h i g h l y motivated student who wants to do b e t t e r , 5) l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s had t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l r o o t s i n reading and study s k i l l s c e n t r e s which were t r a d i t i o n a l l y designed to a s s i s t u n i v e r s i t y t r a n s f e r and car e e r t e c h n i c a l students and t h i s t r a d i t i o n a l view may have had a negative i n f l u e n c e on how s e r v i c e s were p e r c e i v e d by some ABE students, 1 22 and 6) lower requests f o r s e r v i c e s by ABE students may have r e f l e c t e d a lower per c a p i t a enrollment i n c o l l e g e programs or a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l e r per c a p i t a percentage of the a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n i n a c o l l e g e r e g i o n . Off-Campus Learning A s s i s t a n c e S e r v i c e s Two forms of d e c e n t r a l i z e d l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s were found. The f i r s t model i n v o l v e d s e r v i c i n g a c l u s t e r of ABE programs in off-campus or multi-campus l o c a l e s . Learning a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s i n t h i s model resembled campus l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s . The second model c o n s i s t e d of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e to ABE provided through informal methods i n v o l v i n g l e s s s t r u c t u r e d and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d or reduced s t a f f i n g arrangements. A. ABE Learning A s s i s t a n c e S e r v i c e s Four c o l l e g e s i n c l u d i n g Cariboo, F r a s e r V a l l e y , Vancouver Community C o l l e g e (KEC) Neighbourhood Learning Centres (KEC) and S e l k i r k ( T r a i l ) had developed a n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l approach to ABE i n s t r u c t i o n with a c a p a c i t y to p rovide l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s . Most of these c e n t r e s were in a r e l a t i v e l y e a r l y stage of development, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by temporary funding sources, experimental s t r a t e g i e s , and t e n t a t i v e 1 23 o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s . A d e s c r i p t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n as i t e x i s t e d in e a r l y 1981 may not, t h e r e f o r e , h o l d f o r long i n t o the f u t u r e . Moreover, these c e n t r e s experienced d i f f i c u l t y i n responding to s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s about the nature of s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d , student usage and c o s t s because of the c l o s e i n t e g r a t i o n between l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s and ABE i n s t r u c t i o n . Thus the f i n d i n g s are l e s s d e t a i l e d than the preceding s e c t i o n . Object i v e s Not a l l c e n t r e s were able to p r o v i d e c l e a r l y s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s , but t h e i r program goals seemed to cen t r e around: 1. P r o v i d i n g an a l t e r n a t i v e to t r a d i t i o n a l classroom i n s t r u c t i o n i n ABE, 2. O f f e r i n g a more, a c c e s s i b l e and f l e x i b l e method of ABE i n s t r u c t i o n b e t t e r s u i t e d to the needs of many undereducated a d u l t s , 3. Paying g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n to teaching processes of " l e a r n i n g how to l e a r n , " 4. P r o v i d i n g expert c o n s u l t a t i o n to ABE i n s t r u c t o r s working with students with l e a r n i n g problems or d i s a b i l i t i e s as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g f o r such students, 5. P r o v i d i n g r e f e r r a l and academic c o u n s e l l i n g 1 24 s e r v i c e s to undereducated a d u l t s seeking a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n a l routes f o r a t t a i n i n g t h e i r p e r s o n a l g o a l s . Locat ion L e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s were d e l i v e r e d i n l o c a t i o n s c e n t r a l t o ABE program p a r t i c i p a n t s . At Cariboo C o l l e g e , the l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e program was housed i n the basement of the ABE b u i l d i n g i n downtown Kamloops, at S e l k i r k C o l l e g e the s e r v i c e s were l o c a t e d in the T r a i l e xtension c e n t r e , and at F r a s e r V a l l e y C o l l e g e the s e r v i c e s were a v a i l a b l e in the ABE Learning Centres at C h i l l i w a c k , Abbotsford, and M i s s i o n . Vancouver Community C o l l e g e ' s (KEC) c e n t r e s were l o c a t e d i n neighbourhood p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s at B r i t a n n i a , South H i l l , Mount Pleasant and Hastings L i b r a r y . F a c i l i t i e s The f a c i l i t i e s v a r i e d g r e a t l y i n s i z e from as l a r g e as 2,500 sq. f t . to as small as 204 sq. f t . The f a c i l i t i e s p r ovided the b a s i c requirements of q u i e t study areas, group work areas, and m a t e r i a l s d i s p l a y a r e a s . F u r n i s h i n g s i n c l u d e d work t a b l e s and c h a i r s , study c a r r e l s , blackboards, b u l l e t i n boards, s h e l v i n g , 1 25 and a u d i o - v i s u a l equipment. Costs and Funding Sources The M i n i s t r y of Education, D i v i s i o n of C ontinuing Education Standing Committee s u p p l i e d funding f o r three l e a r n i n g c e n t r e s through a l l o c a t i o n s of "VN-1" and Request f o r A d d i t i o n a l Course (RAC) funds. Of the four c e n t r e s , only Vancouver's KEC Neighbourhood Learning Centres r e c e i v e d ongoing support through the r e g u l a r c o l l e g e budget. I t s submission was rep o r t e d to the M i n i s t r y under F u n c t i o n 1, Major Program 30, A c t i v i t y Code 111, P.D.C. 6111. However, the most recent a d d i t i o n to the s e r i e s of neighbourhood c e n t r e s , at Hastings L i b r a r y , was supported i n t e r n a l l y w i t h i n the c o l l e g e through r e d i r e c t e d o p e r a t i n g budget and s u r p l u s funds. The major p o r t i o n of program c o s t s f o r these s e r v i c e s was absorbed in s a l a r i e s and b e n e f i t s . A problem encountered by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n the area of funding was expressed as an i n a b i l i t y to r e p o r t l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e a c t i v i t i e s as a c t u a l l y conducted. The problem appeared to stem from s e v e r a l sources, i n c l u d i n g c o n f u s i o n over the use of M i n i s t r y forms and documents for r e p o r t i n g purposes, d e f i n i t i o n of the term " l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e " and a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i v i t i e s under t h i s term, lack of understanding as to the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of r e q u e s t i n g funds from a p a r t i c u l a r 1 26 funding C o u n c i l versus another, and the p e r c e i v e d s i m i l a r i t y between ABE programs and l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s . An o f t e n - v o i c e d request was f o r M i n i s t r y o f f i c i a l s to provide funding g u i d e l i n e s , and once having e s t a b l i s h e d them, to organize o r i e n t a t i o n workshops f o r the f i e l d . O r g a n i z a t i o n The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l o c a t i o n of ABE l e a r n i n g c e n t r e s by three c o l l e g e s was under an ABE c o o r d i n a t i n g d i v i s i o n which c e n t r a l i z e d a l l ABE and ABE-related programs. In Fraser V a l l e y C o l l e g e , the d i v i s i o n was l a b e l l e d "Developmental S t u d i e s " ; at Vancouver i t was "Communication A r t s " ; and at S e l k i r k , p r e s e n t l y undergoing r e o r g a n i z a t i o n to b r i n g about c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n of t h e i r ABE programs, "Programmed S t u d i e s " under an ABE c o o r d i n a t o r . At Cariboo C o l l e g e , the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l o c a t i o n was under a c o o r d i n a t o r of ABE w i t h i n the "Education" d i v i s i o n with the s e r v i c e s a c t u a l l y s u p p l i e d through the P r e t e c h n i c a l Program. S t a f f i n g ABE i n s t r u c t o r s were employed to s t a f f ABE l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s on a part-time or f u l l - t i m e b a s i s . Cariboo C o l l e g e had 0.5 FTE s t a f f members 127 working on ABE l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e compared with 2.0 at S e l k i r k C o l l e g e ( T r a i l ) , 4.0 at Vancouver Community C o l l e g e (KEC) Neighbourhood Learning Centres, and 4.5 at F r a s e r V a l l e y C o l l e g e . P a r a p r o f e s s i o n a l s and v o l u n t e e r s were used to augment s t a f f i n g l e v e l s , but only one c o l l e g e p r o v i d e d i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g f o r v o l u n t e e r s . F a m i l i a r i t y with ABE c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s and the l e a r n i n g needs of undereducated a d u l t s appeared to be the main requirements f o r employment i n the ABE l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s . S e r v i c e s and Functions I n d i v i d u a l i z e d p r e s c r i b e d i n s t r u c t i o n appeared to be the main s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d , followed by d r o p - i n and scheduled one-to-one t u t o r i n g . A l l c e n t r e s had a c a p a c i t y f o r t e s t i n g s e r v i c e s which were used f o r a s s e s s i n g e n t r y placement l e v e l i n work m a t e r i a l s , f o r d i a g n o s i n g l e a r n i n g problems, and f o r p l a n n i n g i n s t r u c t i o n . Remedial i n s t r u c t i o n i n b a s i c mathematics, reading, s p e l l i n g , and E n g l i s h was o f f e r e d p r i m a r i l y to students e n r o l l e d i n ABE programs but o c c a s i o n a l l y to students from other programs on a drop-i n , r e f e r r a l , or f o r m a l l y agreed upon b a s i s between departments. M a t e r i a l s and s u b j e c t matter were o f t e n designed to meet the immediate c o u r s e - r e l a t e d or p e r s o n a l 128 l e a r n i n g problems of students. For example, the KEC Neighbourhood Learning Centres of Vancouver Community C o l l e g e t u t o r e d i n immediate s u r v i v a l tasks such as how to f i l l out forms, how to w r i t e l e t t e r s , or how to apply f o r a job. Academic c o u n s e l l i n g and r e f e r r a l to a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n a l programs or community s e r v i c e agencies was a l s o a v a i l a b l e . T h i s was r e c i p r o c a t e d by community agencies r e f e r r i n g i n d i v i d u a l s to these c e n t r e s f o r a s s i s t a n c e with l e a r n i n g problems. N o n - i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e r v i c e s were provided w i t h i n a context of removing economic, p s y c h o l o g i c a l or c u l t u r a l b a r r i e r s to l e a r n i n g . Personal c o u n s e l l i n g and r e f e r r a l s to other agencies would f a l l w i t h i n t h i s c ategory. I t was noted that l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s were not meant to r e p l a c e t r a d i t i o n a l methods of i n s t r u c t i o n but were designed to augment r e g u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n . Often i n s t r u c t o r s were not able to d e a l adequately with students who r e q u i r e d i n t e n s i v e t u t o r i n g or who showed sign s of a l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t y . The s e r v i c e s were aimed at p r o v i d i n g i n c r e a s e d entry and c o n t i n u a t i o n i n t o ABE programs and at r e t a i n i n g "marginal" students. Only Vancouver Community C o l l e g e o f f e r e d f r e e s e r v i c e s to the community. In other c o l l e g e s the 129 p o l i c y regarding fees was that a l l c l i e n t s were fee-paying or sponsored. Only i n e x c e p t i o n a l cases were fees waived. Users The t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n f o r ABE l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s c o n s i s t e d o f : 1. those who cannot a t t e n d ABE c l a s s e s on a f u l l - t i m e or p a r t - t i m e b a s i s , 2. those with s p e c i f i c remedial problems, 3. those who r e q u i r e s p e c i f i c d i a g n o s t i c and p r e s c r i p t i v e i n s t r u c t i o n , 4. those e n r o l l e d students who are d e f i c i e n t i n a b a s i c s k i l l s area r e q u i r e d f o r competency i n t h e i r program area, 5. those who are e x p e r i e n c i n g d i f f i c u l t y i n course work, who r e q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e i n the form of short-term t u t o r i n g , and 6. those in the community who by c h o i c e p r e f e r an open d r o p - i n l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . Measure of Usage A c t u a l enrollment s t a t i s t i c s f o r l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e were d i f f i c u l t to o b t a i n . An i n d i c a t i o n of 1 30 usage was obtained f o r Cariboo C o l l e g e which estimated 60 students per week. The s e r v i c e was a v a i l a b l e 40 hours per week from 0900 to 1700. The Neighbourhood Learning Centres at Vancouver Community C o l l e g e r e p o r t e d that extended hours of o p e r a t i o n i n c r e a s e d usage. At the B r i t a n n i a Centre, which was open s i x and one h a l f hours i n the day and two and one h a l f hours i n the evenings, the average number of students served was 150 per week f o r an average d u r a t i o n of 5 to 15 minutes with one t u t o r p r e s e n t . If two t u t o r s were present, the average d u r a t i o n of con t a c t was lengthened. At the c e n t r e s open only i n the mornings, 20 to 25 people were rep o r t e d to use the s e r v i c e in an average week. D e c e n t r a l i z e d Learning A s s i s t a n c e S e r v i c e s Of the seventeen i n s t i t u t i o n s v i s i t e d , four r e p o r t e d l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s d e l i v e r e d through methods not using a c e n t r e . These were Douglas, Malaspina and Northern L i g h t s C o l l e g e and the C o l l e g e of New Ca l e d o n i a . At Douglas C o l l e g e , l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e has not been d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the i n d i v i d u a l i z e d and s e l f -paced ABE i n s t r u c t i o n a l program. Functions that were performed s e p a r a t e l y i n other c o l l e g e s were c o n s i d e r e d part of the ABE i n s t r u c t o r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . At the Coquitlam campus the ABE s t a f f p rovided t u t o r i n g f o r 131 students e n r o l l e d i n other program areas on an i r r e g u l a r and i n f o r m a l b a s i s . The f u l l - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r at the Newton campus spent the e q u i v a l e n t of h a l f - t i m e p r o v i d i n g t u t o r i n g and t e s t i n g s e r v i c e s f o r both ABE and v o c a t i o n a l s t u d e n t s . Malaspina C o l l e g e had not always operated without a l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e . For two y e a r s , i t had operated a Downtown Study Centre i n a shopping m a l l . When P r o v i n c i a l s p e c i a l p r o j e c t and F e d e r a l monies were withdrawn, the d e c i s i o n was made not to fund i t in the base budget. L e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e i s now c o n f i n e d to two ABE courses conducted f o r three hours on two evenings a week. Students e n r o l l e d i n ABE who were i n need of s p e c i a l h e l p were r e f e r r e d to the mathematics course or to the E n g l i s h improvement course on a drop-i n b a s i s . Although not c o n s i d e r e d in t h i s study as l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e for ABE program p a r t i c i p a n t s , the C o l l e g e sponsored a small study s k i l l s program. The bulk of the f u l l - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r ' s time was devoted to t e a c h i n g s e v e r a l s e c t i o n s of an E n g l i s h improvement course. U n i v e r s i t y t r a n s f e r students were the main users of the d r o p - i n study s k i l l s c e n t r e , which was l o c a t e d i n the l i b r a r y . P a r t i c i p a t i o n from other areas of the c o l l e g e has been n e g l i g i b l e thus f a r . Learning a s s i s t a n c e a c t i v i t i e s at the C o l l e g e of New C a l e d o n i a , P r i n c e George campus, p r i m a r i l y 1 32 supported f u l l - t i m e students e n r o l l e d i n the Basic T r a i n i n g f o r S k i l l Development (BTSD) program and the Volunteer Adult L i t e r a c y T r a i n i n g (VALT) program. The h a l f - t i m e VALT c o o r d i n a t o r p r o v i d e d o r i e n t a t i o n to i l l i t e r a t e and s e m i - i l l i t e r a t e a d u l t s , conducted d i a g n o s t i c reading t e s t s , p r o v i d e d r e g u l a r i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g of volunteer t u t o r s , and c o n s u l t e d with t u t o r s about s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g problems encountered by the adu l t l e a r n e r s . The BTSD program was expanded i n f a l l , 1980. Part of the VALT c o o r d i n a t o r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n c l u d e d recruitment e f f o r t s d i r e c t e d not only at the VALT program, but a l s o f o r BTSD L e v e l I. As a consequence, almost a l l of the 18 f u l l - t i m e L e v e l I students e n r o l l e d i n January, 1981 had been r e c r u i t e d by the VALT C o o r d i n a t o r . L e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e f o r f u l l - t i m e students i n the BTSD program was provided or c o o r d i n a t e d by an ABE Coordi n a t o r who repo r t e d working t h r e e - q u a r t e r time although employed h a l f - t i m e . Approximately o n e - t h i r d of her time was devoted to pre - e n t r y t e s t i n g , three times per month f o r three to four hours. T e s t s were scored and the r e s u l t s sent to Student S e r v i c e s who then n o t i f i e d a p p l i c a n t s about the time and p l a c e to appear f o r i n s t r u c t i o n . A two-day o r i e n t a t i o n f o r new students admitted to the program at the beginning of 133 each month i n c l u d e d a tour of c o l l e g e f a c i l i t i e s and an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the v a r i e t y of c o l l e g e programs and to s e l f - p a c e d l e a r n i n g packages used f o r BTSD i n s t r u c t i o n . A short one to one and one h a l f hour study s k i l l s s e s s i o n was taught i n the i n i t i a l three days a f t e r entry to the BTSD program by the s t a f f . The ABE Coordinator at the C o l l e g e of New Caledonia c o u n s e l l e d students whose academic performance may be l a g g i n g . Regular c o l l e g e c o u n s e l l o r s were not normally a v a i l a b l e to ABE students as these c o u n s e l l o r s ' time was spent almost e n t i r e l y with students from other program areas. A short meeting once a month with a l l BTSD i n s t r u c t o r s was hel d to i d e n t i f y students i n need of c o u n s e l l i n g . D i f f i c u l t l e a r n i n g problems were r e f e r r e d to Student C o u n s e l l i n g or to v a r i o u s community agen c i e s . Besides t e s t i n g , o r i e n t a t i o n , c o u n s e l l i n g students, and c o n s u l t i n g with i n s t r u c t o r s , the ABE Coordi n a t o r was a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r completing a l l paperwork f o r r e p o r t s of the BTSD department. I n s t r u c t o r s at a l l l e v e l s of the BTSD program mentioned the need to boost students' reading comprehension s k i l l s . R ecognizing the n o n a v a i l a b i l i t y of the c o l l e g e c o u n s e l l o r s and the r e l u c t a n c e of BTSD students to go to them, s e v e r a l of the i n s t r u c t o r s agreed that there was a d e f i n i t e need for a d d i t i o n a l 134 c o u n s e l l i n g a s s i s t a n c e . Learning a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s were funded with unused Request f o r A d d i t i o n a l Course (RAC) funds from other programs. At Northern L i g h t s C o l l e g e , l i m i t e d l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e f u n c t i o n s were c a r r i e d out both i n the daytime and evening hours in Dawson Creek. Very l i t t l e l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e was a v a i l a b l e at s a t e l l i t e c e n t r e s . L earning a s s i s t a n c e f o r the daytime ABE program was l i m i t e d to c o u n s e l l i n g . A f u l l - t i m e person worked mornings te a c h i n g i n the BTSD program and afternoons c o u n s e l l i n g i n the o f f i c e of E d u c a t i o n a l Support S e r v i c e s . Approximately one-half hour was spent each morning c o u n s e l l i n g new and p r o s p e c t i v e BTSD students as w e l l as e n r o l l e d students. Approximately one hour each afternoon was spent c o u n s e l l i n g BTSD students. S a l a r y was d e r i v e d from both BTSD i n s t r u c t i o n a l and c o u n s e l l i n g budgets. Learning a s s i s t a n c e was a l s o o f f e r e d to a p a r t -time academic upgrading program sponsored by the Community S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n at the F r i e n d s h i p Centre i n downtown Dawson Creek. T h i s program ran three evenings per week. T h i s s e r v i c e was designed to meet a v a r i e t y of l e a r n i n g needs on a drop-in b a s i s f o r part-time l e a r n e r s seeking academic work in b a s i c l i t e r a c y , BTSD, b a s i c job rea d i n e s s t r a i n i n g , and s e l f - p a c e d academic i n s t r u c t i o n . One part-time i n s t r u c t o r , h e r s e l f a 1 35 recent BTSD program graduate, and two v o l u n t e e r a i d e s comprised the s t a f f . Approximately twelve people e n r o l l e d i n January of 1981. ABE Programs Wi thout Learn ing A s s i s t a n c e S e r v i c e s No s p e c i a l e f f o r t s i n programming f o r l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e were provided by Northwest and Okanagan C o l l e g e , the Open Lea r n i n g I n s t i t u t e and B r i t i s h Columbia I n s t i t u t e of Technology (BCIT). Learning a s s i s t a n c e was not p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e f o r ABE students at Northwest Community C o l l e g e . Because of the c o l l e g e ' s emphasis on d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n p l a n s , student support s e r v i c e s , i n c l u d i n g c o u n s e l l i n g and l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s , have been secondary p r i o r i t y . Those c o l l e g e personnel i n t e r v i e w e d saw a p o t e n t i a l f o r c r e a t i n g a l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c a p a b i l i t y w i t h i n the Learning Resources Centres which are being developed i n the smaller c o l l e g e c e n t r e s . A Technology Fundamentals Program begun at the B.C. I n s t i t u t e of Technology in January, 1981, o f f e r s l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s to c o n d i t i o n a l e n t r y students. I t s i n t e n t was not to serve ABE students but to p r o v i d e remediation i n b a s i c s k i l l s f o r p r e - e n t r y students. I t s t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n was mainly mature students who had been out of school f o r a s u b s t a n t i a l p e r i o d of time. These students were c o n s i d e r e d to have 136 s u f f i c i e n t maturity, m o t i v a t i o n , and work experience to be c o n s i d e r e d p o t e n t i a l l y good technology students. The 28 students e n r o l l e d i n the program were s p e c i a l l y screened and s e l e c t e d . They were not accepted as r e g u l a r students because they l a c k e d the necessary pre-r e q u i s i t e s i n b a s i c s k i l l s . The program was supported by cost recovery and by each of the core academic departments c o n t r i b u t i n g s t a f f time. The students were e n r o l l e d as c o n t i n u i n g education students and not as r e g u l a r day students. Although there i s a mathematics l e a r n i n g c e n t r e for u n i v e r s i t y t r a n s f e r students at Okanagan C o l l e g e , l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e i s not p r o v i d e d f o r ABE students. One e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the apparent lack of such a c t i v i t i e s may be found i n the d e c e n t r a l i z e d and s e p a r a t e l y a d m i n i s t e r e d o r g a n i z a t i o n of the v a r i e t y of ABE programs which i n c l u d e c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t o r y courses, BTSD, b a s i c l i t e r a c y , BEST, ESL, and BJRT. There was no c o o r d i n a t i o n among the programs i n the d i f f e r e n t g e o g r a p h i c a l areas w i t h i n the c o l l e g e d i s t r i c t or between the Kelowna campus ABE program and the e x t e n s i v e part-time evening high school completion program maintained by the Community Education S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n or the GED t e s t i n g program conducted by the C o l l e g e F i n a n c i a l Awards O f f i c e r . The a c t i n g Dean of the V o c a t i o n a l Education D i v i s i o n , however, was i n the 1 37 midst of a review of a l l ABE programs p r i o r to making recommendations to the Education V i c e - P r e s i d e n t f o r appointment of a f u l l - t i m e ABE Coord i n a t o r to b r i n g together a l l of the v a r i o u s progrms f o r a d u l t s with l e s s than twelve years of s c h o o l i n g . T h i s c o u l d set the stage f o r eventual p r o v i s i o n of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s . Perhaps as a r e f l e c t i o n of i t s r e l a t i v e newness to the arena of s e r v i c e to a d u l t s with l e s s than 12 years of formal e d u c a t i o n a l attainment, as w e l l as some of the s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s imposed by i t s d i s t a n c e l e a r n i n g format, the Open Learning I n s t i t u t e r e p o r t e d no formal l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e a c t i v i t i e s f o r students e n r o l l e d i n i t s b a s i c education programs. Because p r o v i s i o n of telephone t u t o r i a l a s s i s t a n c e was seen to be c e n t r a l and i n t e g r a l to the i n s t r u c t i o n a l d e l i v e r y format, i t was not c o n s i d e r e d a p r o v i d e r of separate or f o r m a l l y s t r u c t u r e d l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s . Summary Lear n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s f o r ABE students were found to vary c o n s i d e r a b l y among p r o v i n c i a l post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s ( e x c l u d i n g u n i v e r s i t i e s ) . Most noteworthy was the absence of standard measures of s e r v i c e which c o u l d be used to compare l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s a c r o s s post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s . 138 At t h i s p o i n t , i t i s not p o s s i b l e to make comments as to the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the v a r i o u s l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e programs p r e s e n t l y i n o p e r a t i o n . I t i s p o s s i b l e to d i f f e r e n t i a t e among the cu r r e n t l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e e f f o r t s on the b a s i s of t h e i r d e l i v e r y mode and c l i e n t focus. Four types of d e l i v e r y modes r e p r e s e n t i n g a range of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s may be i d e n t i f i e d : 1) u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , 2) i s o l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , 3) planned c l u s t e r of a c t i v i t i e s , and 4) org a n i z e d programs. Of the four d e l i v e r y modes, u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d and i s o l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s represent r e l a t i v e l y poor s e r v i c e to ABE. Learning a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s are pr o v i d e d on a low p r i o r i t y , ad hoc b a s i s ; thus the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of such e f f o r t s may be qu e s t i o n e d . Planned c l u s t e r of a c t i v i t i e s and organized programs represent a l a r g e r commitment by the i n s t i t u t i o n to provide l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s to i t s ABE students, and may be co n s i d e r e d a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d and comprehensive approach. On the b a s i s of c l i e n t focus, l e a r n i n g ' a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s may be d i s t i n g u i s h e d as e i t h e r , 1) non-ABE focused or 2) ABE focused. ABE-focused programs were based w i t h i n the ABE programs and had l i t t l e c onnection with other c o l l e g e programs. Non-ABE focused programs comprised s e r v i c e s mainly a v a i l a b l e to students i n 1 39 programs of study other than ABE and most of the v- assumptions of student needs u n d e r l y i n g the p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s , were those o r i g i n a t i n g from the t r a d i t i o n a l c o l l e g e p e r c e p t i o n of needs f o r younger, f u l l - t i m e , day students. These d i s t i n c t i o n s are not pure ones, and v a r i o u s combinations and permutations of c l i e n t - f o c u s may be found. However, the study found that the m a j o r i t y of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s to ABE students tended to f a l l in the ABE-focused c a t e g o r y . The f o l l o w i n g chapter presents c o n c l u s i o n s and recommendations based on the review of l i t e r a t u r e and the study findings.. 1 40 CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary The purpose of t h i s study was to investigate current provisions for learning assistance for ABE students in B.C. . post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s . The post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s surveyed included a l l pro v i n c i a l colleges and i n s t i t u t e s , but excluded u n i v e r s i t i e s . Learning assistance refers to those supportive services supplementary to regular instruction in ABE programs and may include the following services: orientation to educational programs and services, diagnostic assessment and placement testing, intensive tutoring and self-paced instruction, educational guidance and counselling, and consultation with learning s p e c i a l i s t s on learning problems and teaching strategies. Seventeen B.C. post-secondary 141 i n s t i t u t i o n s were surveyed u t i l i z i n g p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s and o n - s i t e o b s e r v a t i o n s . Three areas o f . l i t e r a t u r e were reviewed, (1) s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n for ABE programs; (2) i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r program plann i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n ; and (3) suggested models f o r d e l i v e r i n g l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s to ABE students. S e v e r a l important f i n d i n g s were noted, i n c l u d i n g a growing consensus i n re s e a r c h that the ABE t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n does not c o n s t i t u t e a homogeneous s u b - c u l t u r a l group i n s o c i e t y , r a t h e r there are many sub-groups, each having unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s e r v i c e needs. S u f f i c i e n t accumulated r e s e a r c h and documented evidence to i n d i c a t e c l e a r d i r e c t i o n s f o r more e f f e c t i v e programming f o r ABE were a l s o noted. In s e v e r a l n a t i o n a l s t u d i e s , i t was re p o r t e d that the m a j o r i t y of ABE programs reached only a f r a c t i o n of the undereducated and i l l i t e r a t e p o p u l a t i o n (Mezirow, Darkenwald & Knox, 1975). While very l i t t l e s p e c i f i c l i t e r a t u r e was uncovered p e r t a i n i n g to ABE and l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s , i n the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed i t was suggested that l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e may hold promise f o r suppor t i n g the l e a r n i n g needs of ABE stud e n t s . C o l l e g e s with l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t e r s r e p o r t e d higher l e v e l s of student p e r s i s t e n c e than c o l l e g e s without these c e n t e r s (Roueche & Snow, 1977). 142 The need f o r and p r o v i s i o n of ABE i n B r i t i s h Columbia was d e s c r i b e d through an a n a l y s i s of demographic data and data on community c o l l e g e ABE programs. An i n t e r e s t i n g f e a t u r e of the undereducated p o p u l a t i o n i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between education and age. The l a r g e s t group of undereducated a d u l t s were rep o r t e d to be s i x t y years and over. The s m a l l e s t group was repo r t e d i n the 15-24 age category. While r a t e s of undereducation were s i m i l a r f o r urban and r u r a l areas, almost t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of the undereducated l i v e d i n urban c e n t e r s . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l e a s t educated group were: (1) o l d e r , (2) r u r a l r e s i d e n t s , (3) Native Indian or European i n background and (4) low income e a r n e r s . ABE enrollment data were found to be i n c o n s i s t e n t and u n r e l i a b l e , t h e r e f o r e few comparisons among program types and i n s t i t u t i o n s c o u l d be made. ABE programs were examined and three types of ABE o f f e r i n g s were c l a s s i f i e d . Of these, the l a r g e s t number of program types was found i n Academic Upgrading and Related Courses, f o l l o w e d by Employment O r i e n t a t i o n Courses and E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g programs. The range and nature of ABE programs v a r i e d widely among c o l l e g e regions i n B r i t i s h Columbia. But t h i s v a r i a t i o n bore l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p to r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the undereducated. 143 According to the 1976 Census s t a t i s t i c s , c o l l e g e regions p o s s e s s i n g high l e v e l s of undereducated in t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n were: Northern L i g h t s , Okanagan, S e l k i r k and Vancouver Community C o l l e g e . Examination of school d i s t r i c t s w i t h i n a c o l l e g e region a s s i s t e d i n i d e n t i f y i n g s p e c i f i c areas with high r a t e s of undereducation. The highest r a t e of i l l i t e r a c y i n the province was found i n the Nishga School D i s t r i c t i n the Northwest C o l l e g e r e g i o n ; Grand Forks and C a s t l e g a r School D i s t r i c t s i n the S e l k i r k C o l l e g e Region a l s o showed high r a t e s of i l l i t e r a c y and undereducation. A v a i l a b l e ABE enrollment data were ana l y z e d . The a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d that Northwest C o l l e g e had the highest r a t e of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n part-time ABE courses in the p r o v i n c e (35/1,000) while the lowest r a t e was found in Vancouver Community C o l l e g e (5/1,000). In f u l l and part-time academic upgrading co u r s e s , North I s l a n d C o l l e g e (40/1,000) r e p o r t e d the h i g h e s t r a t e of p a r t i c i p a t i o n while F r a s e r V a l l e y C o l l e g e r e p o r t e d the lowest (2.3/1,000). For three c o l l e g e s , Douglas, Kwantlen and New C a l e d o n i a , enrollment data on academic upgrading courses were not a v a i l a b l e . Planned s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y i n f u l l - t i m e o c c u p a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g courses was examined in terms of student c o n t a c t months (SCM). Vancouver Community C o l l e g e r e p o r t e d the l a r g e s t planned s e a t i n g c a p a c i t y (2,516 SCM) f o l l o w e d by 1 44 Kwantlen (1,864 SCM) and P a c i f i c Vocational Institute (1,780 SCM). The lowest planned capacity was found at Camosun College with only 120 SCM. Enrollment data in college preparatory programs were examined for h i s t o r i c a l trends. Since 1968-69, enrollments in college preparatory programs had consistently attracted a younger (under age 25) adult population. However, numbers of adults over age 25 began to show sharp increased enrollments in 1974 and this increase has remained f a i r l y stable up to the present. An examination of enrollments also revealed an interesting pattern of growth with rapid increases, followed by three-year plateaus. The greatest increase occurred in 1974-75, possibly a result of increased recruitment e f f o r t s by community colleges. In summary, an examination of available ABE enrollment data and descriptions of courses or programs offered at B.C. colleges showed l i t t l e o v e r a l l coherence. Some colleges programmed at the higher academic leve l s in ABE while others were more vocationally oriented. In college preparatory courses, an older c l i e n t e l e was noted as a strong, stable trend, which appears l i k e l y to continue. The d i v e r s i t y in range of program goals makes i t v i r t u a l l y impossible to draw conclusions about p r o v i n c i a l goals for ABE which may be applicable across a l l o f f e r i n g s . 1 45 The Survey The study surveyed seventeen post-secon&arry i n s t i t u t i o n s through i n t e r v i e w s with c o l l e g e personnel and f i e l d o b s e r v a t i o n . The p r o v i s i o n s f o r d e l i v e r i n g l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s to ABE programs ranged from a f u l l and comprehensively planned s e r v i c e to u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d , ad hoc s e r v i c e . S e v e r a l problems were i d e n t i f i e d i n c l u d i n g : (1) a lack of a widely understood d e f i n i t i o n of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e , (2) lack of purposive funding, (3) confused d i s t i n c t i o n s between t r a d i t i o n a l ABE i n s t r u c t i o n , n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l ABE i n s t r u c t i o n and l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s , (4) v a r y i n g degrees of i n s t i t u t i o n a l support and (5) an i n a b i l i t y to report and r a t i o n a l i z e a c t i v i t i e s as a c t u a l l y conducted. The f i n d i n g s were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o three c a t e g o r i e s : ( l ) campus l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t r e s , (2) off-campus l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s and (3) ABE programs without l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s . In category one, seven post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s had e s t a b l i s h e d a campus-based l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e center s e r v i c i n g the needs of the e n t i r e c o l l e g e . ABE students represented a m i n o r i t y of users i n most of these c e n t e r s . The second category was comprised of e i g h t c o l l e g e s which had e s t a b l i s h e d a n o n - t r a d i t i o n a l approach to ABE i n s t r u c t i o n that had a c a p a c i t y to 1 46 p r o v i d e l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s . These s e r v i c e s were o f f e r e d i n off-campus l o c a t i o n s in c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to ABE programs. Of the e i g h t c o l l e g e s i n t h i s c ategory, four o f f e r e d l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s through a l e s s s p e c i a l i z e d and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d model. The f i n a l category c o n s i s t e d of four post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s which d i d not at the time provide l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s to ABE programs. Since Vancouver Community C o l l e g e (KEC) and S e l k i r k provided both c o l l e g e - w i d e campus based and ABE only l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s , the t o t a l number of programs i d e n t i f i e d (19) exceeds the t o t a l number of i n s t i t u t i o n s surveyed (17). C o n c l u s i o n s Learning a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s to ABE students in B r i t i s h Columbia post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s appear in need of d i r e c t i o n and l e a d e r s h i p . While some admirable e f f o r t s were found in a handful of post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s , the general s i t u a t i o n throughout the p r o v i n c e r e v e a l e d a l a r g e number of a d u l t l e a r n i n g needs were not being adequately met and many i n s t i t u t i o n s p r o v i d i n g l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s to ABE students have s t r u g g l e d to do so. No p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y e x i s t s to ensure that ABE students w i l l have s u p p o r t i v e s e r v i c e s such as l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e in 1 47 t h e i r l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n . Funding and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e support was found to be both f r a g i l e and temporary, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n those programs s p e c i f i c a l l y t a r g e t e d at ABE students. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s to ABE students appears to be f o l l o w i n g the same h i s t o r i c a l ad hoc and spasmodic growth p a t t e r n of other p r o v i n c i a l ABE programs. I t would be a detriment to ABE students i f t h i s were to co n t i n u e . A tendency was observed f o r i n s t i t u t i o n s that had a strong ABE t h r u s t to pr o v i d e s p e c i a l i z e d l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s . L e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t e r s s e r v i n g the e n t i r e c o l l e g e appeared to provide somewhat more comprehensive s e r v i c e s than those s e r v i c i n g only ABE programs, but the p r o p o r t i o n of ABE students using these l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t e r s was observed to be lower than those using ABE-focused l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s . Programs which focused on ABE students as a c l i e n t group o f f e r e d a more l i m i t e d range of s e r v i c e but had the advantage of c a t e r i n g s o l e l y to ABE students, teachers and programs, thus i n s u r i n g g r e a t e r c o n t a c t and more i n t e n s i v e ABE student usage. U n f o r t u n a t e l y c o n c l u s i v e evidence to s u b s t a n t i a t e such a statement cannot be made due to poor enrollment records and a lack of s t a n d a r d i z e d s e r v i c e measures. Comparative data were simply u n a v a i l a b l e . The method s e l e c t e d f o r program d e l i v e r y appeared 1 48 to have a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on usage by ABE students. L o c a t i n g l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s both s p a t i a l l y and temporally i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to ABE students, appeared to increase usage. Extended hours of ope r a t i o n were a l s o r e p o r t e d as having a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on ABE student usage. F i n d i n g s i n the l i t e r a t u r e g e n e r a l l y s u b s t a n t i a t e these " s u c c e s s f u l " program p l a n n i n g p r a c t i c e s . Because i n d i v i d u a l i z e d p r e s c r i b e d i n s t r u c t i o n was the most common s e r v i c e found i n ABE-focused l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s , there appeared to be an o v e r l a p between r e g u l a r ABE i n s t r u c t i o n and l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s . An unclear d i s t i n c t i o n was found between l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s as (1) supplemental to t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n or (2) an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques. Lack of c l e a r l y d e f i n e d o b j e c t i v e s and a lack of consensus as to what c o n s t i t u t e d l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e caused problems for funding and management support p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the ABE-focused programs. Le a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e l i t e r a t u r e c l e a r l y d e s c r i b e d the a c t i v i t y as augmenting r e g u l a r i n s t r u c t i o n and su p p o r t i v e of both teacher and l e a r n e r . The d i s t i n c t i o n i n p r a c t i c e needs to be examined and a d e c i s i o n made as to the f u n c t i o n s which should be c o n s i d e r e d as l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s . 149 While concern f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a. c l i m a t e f o r p e r s o n a l growth was o f t e n v o i c e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e both i n ABE and l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e , a strong comitment to t h i s concept was not noted i n t h i s study. C o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s were not observed to be an i n t e g r a l core s e r v i c e i n the m a j o r i t y of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e o f f e r i n g s i n v e s t i g a t e d . Roueche and Snow (1977) and Cross (1976) c i t e d r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t i n g that s u c c e s s f u l developmental programs had a strong concern f o r p e r s o n a l growth as w e l l as academic performance. Perhaps t h i s concern f o r p e r s o n a l growth i s r e l a t e d to a more mature stage of development. Most B.C. l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e p r o v i s i o n s are in an emergent stage of development and an o r i e n t a t i o n to p e r s o n a l as w e l l as academic growth may be observed i n subsequent y e a r s . S t a f f i n g arrangements were a noteworthy f e a t u r e of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s throughout the p r o v i n c e . Few programs had permanent f u l l - t i m e s t a f f a s s i g n e d to p l a n , c o o r d i n a t e and d e l i v e r l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s . The m a j o r i t y of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s , r e g a r d l e s s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e , u t i l i z e d temporary, part-time or seconded p e r s o n e l to s t a f f t h e i r programs. At i n s t i t u t i o n s v i s i t e d , l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s t a f f possessed v a r y i n g l e v e l s of c r e d e n t i a l s f o r s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e f u n c t i o n s . 150 Few had r e c e i v e d s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g . The tendency to employ v o l u n t e e r , temporary, part-time and seconded s t a f f as a way of extending s e r v i c e s exacerbates the problem of lack of p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l . F u r t h e r , few i n s t i t u t i o n s had organized i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g programs. There i s a need to develop p r o f e s s i o n a l development programs for l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e p e r s o n n e l . Moreover, there i s a d e f i n i t e need to provide l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e personnel with t r a i n i n g and i n f o r m a t i o n about the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and needs of ABE students. The range of s e r v i c e s i n many i n s t i t u t i o n s were l i m i t e d . The most comprehensive s e r v i c e s were o f f e r e d through campus-based l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t e r s s e r v i n g the e n t i r e c o l l e g e community. However, as mentioned e a r l i e r , ABE student users c o n s t i t u t e d a small p r o p o r t i o n of the consuming group in these c e n t e r s . C l e a r l y , there i s a need to o f f e r a comprehensive range of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s which meets the needs of ABE students. How t h i s may be accomplished i s a s u b j e c t of the next s e c t i o n . Suggest ions f o r Further Research One of the obvious p r e l i m i n a r y steps to beginning r e s e a r c h on the s u b j e c t of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e and ABE i s the need to implement and document programs which 151 demonstrate e f f e c t i v e methods of d e l i v e r i n g l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s . The l i t e r a t u r e search found a dearth of d e s c r i p t i v e m a t e r i a l on t h i s t o p i c . These demonstration p r o j e c t s should be designed so that f u l l documentation, e v a l u a t i o n and d i s s e m i n a t i o n of f i n d i n g s are p o s s i b l e . The demonstration p r o j e c t s should b u i l d upon proven methods of re a c h i n g ABE students. P r i o r r e s e a r c h i n the f i e l d of a d u l t b a s i c education suggests that d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n among major ABE ta r g e t groups f o r recrui t m e n t , program planni n g , development and r e p o r t i n g purposes i s r e q u i r e d . One best program d e l i v e r y mode . for rea c h i n g a l l groups i n the ABE t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n does not e x i s t and i t i s d o u b t f u l , given t h e i r h e t e r o g e n i t y , t h a t one w i l l be found. I t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y , t h e r e f o r e , that one best method f o r d e l i v e r i n g l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e to ABE w i l l be developed. But q u a l i t i e s , elements and components of exemplary models may be developed which w i l l serve to i n c r e a s e the knowledge base. At present, i n B r i t i s h Columbia, post-secondary l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e o f f e r i n g s may be grouped i n t o three d i s t i n c t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s comprised of s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t program d e l i v e r y methods. The f i e l d has responded to a s e r v i c e demand, however, there i s now a need to move beyond t h i s stage i n t o one concerned with c o n s o l i d a t i o n and improvement. Three or four of these 1 52 program e f f o r t s c o u l d now be s e l e c t e d f o r a re s e a r c h and demonstration p r o j e c t . Questions which c o u l d be posed f o r resea r c h might i n c l u d e : 1. Does the p r o v i s i o n of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s reduce the dropout and turnover r a t e s of ABE students? 2. Which s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y methods are s u c c e s s f u l with which groups of ABE students? 3. What standards of e f f e c t i v e n e s s are a p p r o p r i a t e to which s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y method aimed at which ABE t a r g e t group? 4. What are the program desi.gn c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and how are judgements made? 5. What o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s w i t h i n the i n s t i t u t i o n are a p p r o p r i a t e f o r s p e c i f i c program d e l i v e r y methods? 6. What are the p e r c e i v e d b a r r i e r s to implementation of the " i d e a l " s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y approach i n any given case? 7. What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between program d e l i v e r y methods i n ABE and methods i n d e l i v e r i n g l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e ? e.g. c e n t r a l i z e d , m u l t i - c l a s s s i t e s , s c a t t e r e d c l a s s s i t e s , mobile l e a r n i n g s i t e s , d i s t a n c e education, l e a r n i n g c e n t e r s , e t c . ? 8. What i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l e a r n i n g 1 53 a s s i s t a n c e and student performance? Few c o n s i s t e n t r e c o r d keeping procedures or s e r v i c e i n d i c a t o r s e x i s t e d to report student usage or s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d . T h e r e f o r e comparisons ac r o s s c e n t e r s by s e l e c t e d i n d i c a t o r s was not p o s s i b l e . Research i s needed on the development of a p p r o p r i a t e r e c o r d keeping procedures as w e l l as s e r v i c e i n d i c a t o r s which a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t the nature of s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d . L e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s tended to r e l y h e a v i l y on p a r t - t i m e , temporary, and seconded personnel for s t a f f i n g purposes. There was l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n of core competencies which should be a v a i l a b l e i n the s t a f f i n g complement comprising l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s . Research i s r e q u i r e d on the impact of v a r i o u s s t a f f i n g s t r a t e g i e s on program e f f e c t i v e n e s s and v i t a l i t y . Secondly, an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of core competencies r e q u i r e d in the establishment of any l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e i s needed. T h i r d l y , t r a i n i n g needs; p r e - s e r v i c e and i n -s e r v i c e , should be i d e n t i f i e d . L e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s not only support the needs of l e a r n e r s but a l s o p r o v i d e support f o r the ABE i n s t r u c t o r through expert c o n s u l t a t i o n on matters such as t e s t i n g f o r l e a r n i n g d i s a b i l i t i e s and i n d e s i g n i n g and d e v e l o p i n g l e a r n i n g m a t e r i a l s or s t r a t e g i e s f o r 1 54 s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g problems. If c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s are a l s o a v a i l a b l e as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e , then the i n s t r u c t o r has an a d d i t i o n a l resource a v a i l a b l e f o r d e a l i n g with many of the p e r s o n a l , s o c i a l , h e a l t h and f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s e xperienced by many ABE students. S t r e s s and burnout have been mentioned as an o c c u p a t i o n a l by-product i n ABE. Does the p r o v i s i o n of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e reduce the l e v e l of s t r e s s experienced by ABE i n s t r u c t o r s ? If the answer i s a f f i r m a t i v e , then f e a t u r e s of a r e c i p r o c a l supportive r e l a t i o n s h i p can be i d e n t i f i e d and r e i n f o r c e d . An important r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n i n terms of i n s t i t u t i o n a l planning i s whether the p r o v i s i o n of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s to ABE students i s best p r o v i d e d through a c e n t r a l i z e d , campus based center s e r v i n g the e n t i r e student body or through a s e r v i c e which focuses upon and i s d e l i v e r e d through the ABE program s t r u c t u r e . Even more fundamental i s the ques t i o n of whether i n s t i t u t i o n s which p r o v i d e l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e to t h e i r ABE students can demonstrate gr e a t e r b e n e f i t s and r e t u r n s over i n s t i t u t i o n s that do not p r o v i d e such a s u p p o r t i v e s e r v i c e . The p r o v i s i o n of l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e may make a d i f f e r e n c e to student performance, however, these q u e s t i o n s can only be answered with f u r t h e r experimentation and 155 documentation. I t i s hoped that t h i s study was a b l e to c o n t r i b u t e to the beginning of e f f o r t s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. 156 APPENDIX A L i s t of O n - S l t e I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n s A. F i n a n c i a l What a r e the f u n d i n g s o u r c e s f o r the l e a r n i n g flBflistance o p e r a t i o n ? How much was spent a n n u a l l y over the past few yearB t o s u p p o r t l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e ? Can you p r o v i d e c o p i e s o f budget s u b m i s s i o n s and e x p e n d i -t u r e s ? How would you l i k e to Bee fu n d i n g s u p p o r t changed? What M i n i s t r y o f E d u c a t i o n budget c a t e g o r i e s and codes a r e employed by y o u r C o l l e g e f o r s u b m i t t i n g f u n d i n g r e q u e B t s 7 Have t h e s e o r w i l l t hese b u d g e t c a t e g o r i e s change7 Why7 What problems a r e e n c o u n t e r e d , I n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l , In o b t a i n i n g funds to s u p p o r t l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e o p e r a t i o n s ? What a c c o u n t a b i l i t y measures a r e used and a r e t h e s e a d e q u a t e ? B. F a c i l i t i e s I n how many l o c a t i o n s on and o f f campus are l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d ? D e s c r i b e p h y s i c a l l a y o u t s , r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e and room d i m e n s i o n s ( s q . f t . ) o f the space a l l o c a t e d t o l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e i n each o f t h e s e l o c a t i o n s . Are space and f a c i l i t i e s adequate? What p l a n s f o r e x p a n s i o n do you have? C. O r g a n i z a t i o n Who h a s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e ? Can y o u show o r draw an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r t i n d i c a t i n g the l o c a t i o n o f l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e o p e r a t i o n s ? How many areas o f the C o l l e g e a r e 1) o f f e r i n g -l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s or 2) r e c e i v i n g l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s ? I s t h e r e more t h a n one a d m i n i s t r a t o r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r v a r i o u s l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s ? How would t h i s a f f e c t f u n d l n g 7 What, i f l t h e n a t u r e o f l i n k a g e s between l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e and o t h e r a r e a s of t h e C o l l e g e and between l o c a l community o r p r o v i n c i a l g roups? D. S t a f f i n g D e s c r i b e t h e s t a f f i n g o f l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e o p e r a t i o n s i n y o u r C o l l e g e (numbers, j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s , q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f p r e s e n t s t a f f , d e s i r e d q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , s t a f f i n g s t r a t e g y , p a r t - t i m e / f u l l - t i m e , s econded, v o l u n t e e r , p a r a - p r o f e s s i o n a l , e t c . ) . What a r e the adva n t a g e s and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f y o u r p r e s e n t s t a f f i n g s t r a t e g y ? What would be i d e a l ? What p r o f e s s i o n a l development o p p o r t u n i t i e s do s t a f f h a ve? What a r e t r a i n i n g needs o f l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e p e r s o n n e l ? E. Usage Who a r e t h e u s e r s o f l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e s e r v i c e s ? What a r e t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s by program a r e a , s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d , needs7 What p r o -p o r t i o n o f t o t a l u s e r s do ABE s t u d e n t s c o m p r i s e ? Do ABE s t u d e n t s h a v e s p e c i a l o r unique l e a r n i n g needs? Can you p r o v i d e d o c u m e n t a t i o n o r r e c o r d s o f usage? F. S e r v i c e s What p r o g r a m d e l i v e r y s t r a t e g i e s a r e used7 What i n s t r u c t i o n a l and c o u n s e l l i n g s t r a t e g i e s a r e used? D e s c r i b e a l l s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e and v h e n a v a i l a b l e . What s e r v i c e needs do ABE s t u d e n t s h a v e and how a r e t h e s e roet7 What s u g g e s t i o n s f o r change and Improvement do you have w h i c h t h e M i n i s t r y o f : E d u c a t i o n can a s s i s t ? A P P E N D I X B 157 INDEX OF NAMES A l l p r i n c i p a l s and c h i e f executive o f f i c e r s i n the f o l l o w i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s were contacted by m a i l . Persons interviewed f o r the study are l i s t e d under t h e i r a f f i l i a t e d i n s t i t u t i o n s . Those with program r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e are marked with an a s t e r i s k . Name of I n s t i t u t i o n Camosun C o l l e g e Lansdowne Campus (Main Campus) 1950 Lansdowne Road V i c t o r i a , B.C. V8P 5J2 592-1281 Capilano C o l l e g e North Vancouver Campus (Main Campus) 2055 P u r c e l l Way North Vancouver, B.C. V7J 3H5 986-1911 Cariboo C o l l e g e Kamloops Centre P.O. Box 3010 900 M c G i l l Road Kamloops, B.C. V2C 5N3 374-0123 Douglas C o l l e g e Winslow Campus (Coquitlam) 1100 Winslow Avenue Coquitlam, B.C. V3J 2G3 939-6611 East Kootenay,Community College Cranbrook Centre (Main Centre) Box 8500 Cranbrook, B.C. VIC 5L7 489-2751 Persons Contacted * Ann Fo r e s t e r , Learning A s s i s t a n c e Centre, Counsellor and I n s t r u c t o r A l F r a s e r , D i r e c t o r of Student S e r v i c e s Doug J a r d i n e , Dean of I n s t r u c t i o n a l S e r v i c e s Marie Jessup, D i r e c t o r of F i n a n c i a l S e r v i c e s * B a l j e e t Toor, I n t e r n a l Coordinator Learning A s s i s t a n c e Center * Donna Van Norman, E x t e r n a l Coordinator, Learning A s s i s t a n c e Centre * Betty Kuhn, BTSD and Le a r n i n g A s s i s t a n c e I n s t r u c t o r * Reg McNamara, ABE Coordinator Bob Ramrattan, D i r e c t o r , Community Education S e r v i c e s Susie S a f f o r d , A s s i s t a n t ABE Coordinator Jim Wright, V i c e - P r i n c i p a l , , Education * A l Atkinson, D i r e c t o r , C o u n s e l l i n g and Student Support Connie Broatch, ABE Convenor, Winslow Campus Ann K i t c h i n g , P r i n c i p a l , Winslow Campus * Sherry Ladbrook, New Westminster Campus Rick Constantineau, Accountant * Don C r a f t , Coordinator, ABE Dale F i k e , Dean, Community Education S e r v i c e s * Ken Wiens, I n s t r u c t o r , Learning S k i l l s Centre 158 F r a s e r V a l l e y C o l l e g e East Campus 45600 A i r p o r t . R o a d C h i l l i w a c k , B.C. V2P 6T4 M a l a s p i n a C o l l e g e , Nanalmo Centre 900 - 5th S t r e e t Nanaimo, B.C. V9R 5S5 753-3245 C o l l e g e of New C a l e d o n i a 3330 - 22nd Avenue P r i n c e George, B.C. V2N 1P8 562-2131 North I s l a n d C o l l e g e * Comox Centre (Main Centre) 156 Manor D r i v e * Comox, B.C. V9N 6P7 339-5551 * * N o r t h e r n L i g h t s C o l l e g e Dawson Creek Campus and R e g i o n a l O f f i c e 11401 - 8 t h S t r e e t Dawson Creek, B.C. V1G 4G2 782-5251 Northwest Community C o l l e g e Terrace Campus (Main Campus) 5331 McConnell Avenue Box 726 T e r r a c e , B.C. V8G 4C2 635-6511 Dic k Bate, Dean of I n s t r u c t i o n Doug Thorpe, D i r e c t o r , Management Systems Don T u n s t a l l , D i r e c t o r , Develop-mental S t u d i e s B r i a n C o l b y , ABE C o o r d i n a t o r , Nanaimo Andy M a r t i n , Study S k i l l s C o o r d i n a t o r / I n s t r u e t o r John R o s t r o n , A s s i s t a n t Dean of Community E d u c a t i o n S e r v i c e s B i l l Conrod, Dean of C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n Rindy Crampton, ABE C o o r d i n a t o r F r a n Gee, V o l u n t e e r A d u l t L i t e r a c y Program C o o r d i n a t o r M i c h a e l Gee, BTSD I n s t r u c t o r P a u l Ramsay, D i r e c t o r of ABE Hadley W i l l i a m s , BTSD I n s t r u c t o r Adele and N i g e l B a i l e y , T u t o r s , Woss Lake M o b i l e L e a r n i n g Centre Sandy H u t c h i s o n , L o c a l T u t o r , Campbell R i v e r C h r i s L a i t h w a i t e , B u r s a r C o l i n M. L i s k e , Centre D i r e c t o r , Campbell R i v e r John T a y l e s s , D i r e c t o r , Academic Program C h r i s D i x o n , Chairman, Academic, Ca r e e r and T e c h n i c a l Programs Blanche Guam, C o u n s e l l o r , BTSD I n s t r u c t o r Sandy Goa, Dean of E d u c a t i o n a l Support S e r v i c e s R i c h a r d Lee, Chairman, Community E d u c a t i o n S e r v i c e s Don W a l k er, Campus P r i n c i p a l , F o r t N e l s o n A l W e s t c o t t , Dean o f I n s t r u c t i o n David Thomas, ABE I n s t r u c t o r , F o r t S t . John Gary Baker, D i r e c t o r o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n Geoff H a r r i s , B u r s a r B r i a n Lopson, R e g i s t r a r I a n S t a n l e y , ABE C o o r d i n a t o r 159 Okanagan College Kelowna Centre (Main Centre) 1000 KLO Road Kelowna, B.C. V1Y 4X8 762-5445 B i l l Bowering, Academic V i c e P r i n c i p a l & A c t i n g P r i n c i p a l Wayne Davidson, F i n a n c i a l Awards O f f i c e r and GED Examiner Marian E. Fazan, Coordinator, Community Education S e r v i c e s B i l l McCloud, A c t i n g Dean, V o c a t i o n a l and Trades T r a i n i n g , Health Programs, and ABE Byron W i l t s e , ABE Coordinator Dave Wood, D i r e c t o r , Community Education S e r v i c e s S e l k i r k College Castlegar Campus (Main Campus) Box 1200 Castlegar, B.C. V1N 3J1 365-7392 * Gwen Armstrong, ABE Area Coordinator * J e r r y Ehman,' Coordinator, Student S e r v i c e s Vancouver Community College King Edward Campus 2750 Oak S t r e e t Vancouver, B.C. V6H 3N2 731-4614 B r i t i s h Columbia I n s t i t u t e of Technology 3700 W i l l i n g d o n Avenue Burnaby, B.C. V5G 3H2 434-5734 Open Learning I n s t i t u t e 7671 Alderbridge Way Richmond, B.C. V6X 1Z9 270-4131 P a c i f i c V o c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e Burnaby Campus 3650 W i l l i n g d o n Avenue Burnaby, B.C. V5G 3H1 434-5722 Barb Bowers, Chairman, Communication A r t s D i v i s i o n * Grant K e l l y , I n s t r u c t o r , Learning A s s i s t a n c e Centre * Maureen Sawkins, Coordinator, Neighbourhood Learning Centres Rosemary Watson, E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g Department * Henry Arthur, A c t i n g Dean, Core Programs. Grant Douglas, Chairman, E n g l i s h Department * May Archer Young, E n g l i s h Department, Learning Centre Rosemary Cunningham, L i b r a r i a n A l l a n Dawe.Dean, Adult B a s i c Education Programs * Dave Armstrong, D i r e c t o r , Career Advisory^and Student S e r v i c e s 1 60 APPENDIX C A BREAKDOWN OF ADULT BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMS BY INSTITUTION 1. CAMOSUN COLLEGE Academic Upgrading and Re l a t e d Programs Adult Academic Upgrading C o l l e g e Preparatory Employment O r i e n t a t i o n Programs Basic Employment S k i l l s T r a i n i n g (BEST) Basic Job Readiness T r a i n i n g (BJRT) Employment O r i e n t a t i o n f o r Women 2. CAPILANO COLLEGE Academic Upgrading and Re l a t e d Programs Basic T r a i n i n g f o r S k i l l Development Employment O r i e n t a t i o n Programs Basic Employment S k i l l s T r a i n i n g Career A l t e r n a t i v e s E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g Programs E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g f o r Employment CARIBOO COLLEGE Academic Upgrading and Related Programs Adult Basic Education Employment O r i e n t a t i o n Programs Basic Employment S k i l l s T r a i n i n g Employment O r i e n t a t i o n f o r Women E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g Programs E n g l i s h as a Second Language COLLEGE OF NEW CALEDONIA Academic Upgrading and Re l a t e d Programs Basic T r a i n i n g f o r S k i l l Development C o l l e g e P reparatory Volunteer Adult L i t e r a c y T u t o r i n g Employment Or i e n t a t ion Programs Basic Job Readiness T r a i n i n g E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g Programs E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g DOUGLAS COLLEGE Academic Upgrading and Related Programs Basic T r a i n i n g for S k i l l Development Employment O r i e n t a t i o n Programs Basic Employment S k i l l s T r a i n i n g Employment O r i e n t a t i o n f o r Women EAST KOOTENAY COLLEGE Academic Upgrading and Related Programs Basic T r a i n i n g f o r S k i l l s Development C o l l e g e Foundations General Education Development Employment O r i e n t a t i o n Programs Basic Employment S k i l l s T r a i n i n g Employment O r i e n t a t i o n f o r Women Occ u p a t i o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n Pre-technology T r a i n i n g FRASER VALLEY COLLEGE Academic Upgrading and Related Programs Academic Upgrading General Education Development T e s t i n g Program C o l l e g e Achievement Program C o l l e g e Preparatory Employment O r i e n t a t i o n Programs Employment P r e p a r a t i o n T r a i n i n g MALASPINA COLLEGE Academic Upgrading and Related Programs Adult Basic Education B a s i c T r a i n i n g f o r S k i l l Development C o l l e g e Foundations Employment Or i e n t a t ion Programs Career Choices NORTH ISLAND COLLEGE Academic Upgrading and Related Programs Adu l t B a s i c Education Adult L i t e r a c y Basic T r a i n i n g f o r S k i l l Development C o l l e g e P r e p a r a t i o n General Education Development Test 1 64 E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g Programs E n g l i s h as a Second Language 10. NORTHERN LIGHTS COLLEGE Academic Upgrading and Re l a t e d Programs Adul t Basic Education B a s i c T r a i n i n g f o r S k i l l Development C o l l e g e P r e p a r a t i o n Upgrading at the F r i e n d s h i p Centre Employment O r i e n t a t i o n Programs Basic Job Readiness T r a i n i n g Employment O r i e n t a t i o n f o r Women Pr e - T e c h n i c a l C l a s s 11. NORTHWEST COLLEGE Academic Upgrading and Re l a t e d Programs Basic T r a i n i n g f o r S k i l l s Development Employment O r i e n t a t i o n Programs Basic Employment S k i l l s T r a i n i n g Career E x p l o r a t i o n Employment O r i e n t a t i o n f o r Women Workers Education 165 12. OKANAGAN COLLEGE V-Academic Upgrading and Rel a t e d Programs Basic T r a i n i n g f o r S k i l l Development C o l l e g e P r e p a r a t i o n Employment O r i e n t a t i o n Programs Basic Employment S k i l l s T r a i n i n g 13. PACIFIC VOCATIONAL INSTITUTE Academic Upgrading and Related Programs Advanced Placement Basic T r a i n i n g f o r S k i l l Development Employment Or i e n t a t ion Programs Women's E x p l o r a t o r y A p p r e n t i c e s h i p T r a i n i n g (Pre-employment ) 14. SELKIRK COLLEGE Academic Upgrading and Related Programs Adult Basic Education I Adult Basic Education II Basic S k i l l s Improvement Basic T r a i n i n g f o r S k i l l Development 1 66 C o l l e g e Preparatory General Education Development E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g Programs E n g l i s h as a Second Language VANCOUVER COMMUNITY COLLEGE: KING EDWARD CENTRE Academic Upgrading and R e l a t e d Programs Ba s i c T r a i n i n g f o r S k i l l Development ( L e v e l 1) Basic T r a i n i n g f o r S k i l l Development ( L e v e l 2/3) Bas i c T r a i n i n g f o r S k i l l Development (Le v e l 4) C o l l e g e Foundations Employment O r i e n t a t i o n Programs Ba s i c Employment S k i l l s T r a i n i n g B a s i c Job Readiness T r a i n i n g B a s i c Job Readiness T r a i n i n g Outreach Centres Employment O r i e n t a t i o n f o r Women Voc a t i o n O r i e n t a t i o n f o r the Hearing-Impaired V o c a t i o n O r i e n t a t i o n f o r Youth E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g Programs E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g - - B r i t a n n i a Community S e r v i c e s Centre 167 E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g — E x t e n s i o n Programs, Evening C l a s s e s E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g — H a l f - t i m e and Remedial C l a s s e s E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g — H o m e f r o n t Learning E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g — I m p r o v e Your P r o n u n c i a t i o n E n g l i s h Language T r a i n i n g i n L i b r a r y E n g l i s h Language Training—Manpower Neighbourhood E n g l i s h C l a s s e s School Canadiana 16. 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