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Description and analysis of homemaker training programs in British Columbia community colleges Ryan, Eileen Brigid 1983

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DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS OF HOMEMAKER TRAINING PROGRAMS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA COMMUNITY COLLEGES by EILEEN BRIGID RYAN B.Sc.N., University of Alberta, 1972 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION in ADULT EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF ADMINISTRATIVE, ADULT AND HIGHER EDUCATION THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Vfe accept this thesis as conforming to the required standards THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 1983 © EILEEN BRIGID RYAN In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Adult Education, Department of Administrative, Adult and Higher tducation, Ihe haculty of Graduate Studies The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date 11 ABSTRACT The purpose of this survey was to compare and contrast homemaker training programs in fifteen community colleges in British Columbia. Program aspects examined were the types of homemaker programs offered, sequences of the classroom, laboratory and field experiences, occupational competencies and objectives, prerequisites for entry of student homemakers and instructors' perceptions of a trained homemaker.. The data were collected between January 29, 1982 and February 22, 1982. The analysis of the data showed that of the thirteen colleges conducting homemaker programs, eleven offered full-time pre-employment day programs, seven offered part-time upgrading evening programs, with one of these colleges offering a combined pre-employment program, and six colleges offered full-time and part-time upgrading day programs. There were variations in the total program hours and in the hours spent by homemaker students in classroom, laboratory and field experiences. There was not consistency in the opinions of instructors about desired competencies or characteristics of trained homemakers and the process of student selection was not standardized. In addition to the discussions of these findings, suggested recommendations are included. iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Section I. INTRDLXJCTION TO THE SURVEY 1 Rationale for the Survey Purpose of the Survey Divisions of the Paper II. HISTORY OF HOMEMAKER SERVICE AND TRAINING IN B.C 6 The History of Homemaker Service The Development of Training for Homemakers Homemaker Training in Community Colleges III. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 15 Adult Education and Homemaker Training International Council of Homehelp Services European Countries United States of America Canada TV. THE SURVEY 27 Design Data Collection V. FINDINGS 31 Types of Programs Competencies and Objectives Prerequisites for Entry Training Sequences Instructors' Perceptions of a Trained Homemaker VI. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 48 REFERENCES 54 i v APPENDICES Page 1 Proposed Changes to the Homemaker (Basic) Skill Profile Chart (Working Draft) October 1980 . 57 2 Questionnaire, Prerequisites for Entry of Homemaker Students and Delivery Models for Homemaker Training Courses 60 3 Letter to Community Colleges Regarding the Survey 68 4 List of Community Colleges in British Columbia 70 5 Letter of acknowledgement of receipt of the Questionnaire 73 6 Letter which accompanied the draft copy of the information collected from the responses to the Questionnaire, sent for verification and revision 75 7 Types of Homemaker Programs in British Columbia Community Colleges 77 8 Homemaker (Basic) Skill Profile Chart (Working Draft) October 1980 . 9 9 Basic Homemaker Program 1981, Overview of Units and General Objectives 81 10 Prerequisites for Entry for Homemaker Students 83 11 Training Sequences for Homemaker Training Programs 86 12 Community College Instructors' Perceptions of a Trained Homemaker 88 13 Provincial Homemaker Curriculum, Framework of Objectives, February 1982 90 V LIST OF TABLES Table Page 1 British Columbia Colleges conducting Homemaker training 30 2 Prerequisites for Student Homemakers entering Community College Training Programs 36 3 Use of Personal Interviews of Prospective Students in Selection Process in Homemakers' Pre-employment and Upgrading Programs 39 4 Daytime Pre-employment Programs: Total Time of Program in Weeks and Hours, Sequence in Weeks, Hours of Classroom, Laboratory and Field/Practicum Experiences 41 5 Full-time and Part-time Upgrading Programs Total Time of Program in Weeks and Hours Sequence by Weeks, Hours of Classroom, Laboratory and Field/Pract icum Experiences 42 6 Part-time Upgrading Evening Programs, Length of Program in Weeks and Hours, Sequence of Programs by Weeks, Classroom, Laboratory and Field/Practicum Experiences 43 7 The most frequently used adjectives listed by College Instructors to describe a trained homemaker 46 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks are given to my essay advisors. Dr. J. Thornton, Dr. T. Sork and Ms. S. Nebocat for their interest, assistance and support. Thanks are also given to the Homemaker Co-ordinators of the Community Colleges whose co-operation enabled the survey to be accomplished. 1 SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE SURVEY Rationale for the Survey One of the social and health issues which confront national and international societies and governments is the care of elderly people. Today in the western world, the ratio of people over 65 years to those under 65 years is 1 to 10. The number of people over 65 years is increasing to the extent that in 50 years there will be a ratio of one person over 65 years to five persons under 65 years; therefore both the care of elderly people in need and the training of providers of this service are under critical analysis by health educators. During the past ten years, there has been a change in focus regarding the care of elderly people; rather than placement in institutions, the emphasis now is the provision of necessary services in elderly people's own homes. The ability of elderly people to remain in their own homes depends upon the availability of the provision of a range of services such as the homemaker service, homecare nursing and meals-on-wheels. The British Columbia government, in 1978, introduced the Long Term Care Program which included the provision of assistance to chronically health impaired elderly people in their own homes. Homemaker service was included as one service providing assistance with cooking, 2 housecleaning, laundry, ironing, shopping for groceries, and personal assistance. The homemaker working with elderly people aims to provide a supportive and sustaining service to allow clients to continue living in their familiar surroundings as long as possible. There are two main issues related to the increased development of homemaker services. One issue is about the complexity of care now required by the elderly in their homes. They often need complicated personal assistance such as assistance with mobilization, medications, nutrition, and coping with isolation, in addition to housekeeping services. The other issue is related to the development of training programs necessary for the providers of these services. There are no compulsory educational requirements in British Columbia for the homemaker who is employed by a homemaker agency. Homemaker training may be a brief orientation period, or an orientation and ongoing inservice program taught by agency supervisors with a variety of educational and professional backgrounds, or the homemaker's attendance at a community college homemaker training program, including orientation to the employing agency. Since 1978, after the Long Term Care Program was introduced, additional homemaker training programs have been implemented in British Columbia's community colleges. The programs prepare homemakers for employment by agencies who provide homemaker services to the elderly in their homes and also to families in need identified by the Ministry of 3 Human Resources. There has not been a survey of these training programs in community colleges since the introduction of the Long Term Care Program; however, some reports and a survey about homemakers are available. One report is the "Report on Homemaker and Related Services in Greater Vancouver" compiled by Mary Mercer in 1974. Mercer co-ordinated the preparation of a report by the Greater Vancouver Society for Co-ordinating Home Services which described services provided to families in need. In 1977, another report, "The Homemaker Service for Elderly Persons in B.C.", was prepared by the Committee on Aging, Social Planning and Review Council (S.P.A.R.C.) of B.C. This report examined the need for setting priorities for the care of the elderly in the community. Sage (1981) conducted a survey titled "Homemaker Training Program: Follow-up Study" which was authorized by the Program Research and Development Department of British Columbia's Ministry of Education. The survey obtained "follow-up" information from graduates of pilot and ongoing homemaker training programs. In 1981 Auman, in a "Study of the Role, Theory and Practice of the Occupation of Homemaker", attempted to examine the role changes that occurred in the years from 1976 to 1980 and the discrepancy that existed between the practice of homemakers in an agency and the theory taught to homemakers by one Community College. The study revealed the homemaker client in 1980 as being older than the client in 1976, was from a smaller family unit and had a significantly higher percentage of 4 psychiatric and medical problems. Clients requested less assistance with child care in the home. The areas of practice and theory discrepancy occurred in categories of monitoring the state of health of the client, assisting the client with medication and replacing Homecare nurses on a temporary basis. These three areas were not included in the colleges' curriculum. "A Review of Homemaker Services in British Columbia" (1981) submitted to the Director of the Home Care/Long Term Care Program, Ministry of Health, was a study of the organizational structure and the financial aspects of homemaker agencies, conducted by Western Health Care Associates Ltd. and the management consultants Deloitte, Haskins and Sells Associates. The targets of the organizational analysis were the Community Homemaker Service Association of Greater Vancouver, and eight other homemaker services, "including a mix of sizes, proprietary and non-profit organizations, and agencies from both the Lower Mainland and other regions of the Province" (p.2). The findings from the study were to develop "a prescription of the type of services and functions, as well as administrative structures for the purposes of cost-effective funding" (p.3). The above reports and surveys did not examine aspects of the homemaker training programs. The Ministry of Education expected that educational institutions responsible for delivery of homemaker training programs would respond to local need requirements and "modify and adapt the curriculum to meet those expressed needs" (P.H.T.P., 1980, p.4). 5 It would appear to be timely to examine some aspects of the homemaker training programs developed in community colleges as they have modified and adapted the curricula to meet local community needs. Purpose of the Survey The purpose of the survey was to compare and contrast homemaker training programs in British Columbia's community colleges. Program aspects examined were the types of homemaker programs offered, the occupational competencies and objectives, the sequences of the classroom, laboratory and field experiences, the prerequisites for entry and instructors' perceptions of a trained homemaker. Divisions of the Paper The remainder of this paper is divided into five sections. Section II provides a brief history of homemaker services and training in British,Columbia. Section III presents a literature review of Mult Education and Homemaker training, the International Council of Homehelp Services, and homemaker training in European countries, United States of America and Canada. Section IV contains a description of the survey design and data collection procedures. Section V provides the findings of the types of programs, occupational competencies and objectives, prerequisites, training sequences and instructors' perceptions of a trained homemaker. The final section presents a summary, conclusions and recommendations. 6 SECTION II HISTORY OF HOMEMAKER SERVICE AND TRAINING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA The History of Homemaker Service In 1978 when British Columbia's Ministry of Health created the Long Term Care Program, the growth and development of the occupation and the training of homemakers were accelerated. The historical development of homemaker service and training, up to the introduction of the Long Term Care Program, is not well documented or recorded. In an unpublished thesis, a Study of the Role, Theory and Practice of the Occupation of Homemaker, Auman (1981), verifies this statement. In 1938, Family Services of Greater Vancouver established a homemaker service, employing nine homemakers to assist families who were receiving counselling from that agency or receiving help from the Social Welfare Department (now called the Human Resources Department) or the Children's Aid Society. As funds were in limited supply, the services offered were on a short-term basis to families of two or more children. In 1966, the Provincial government agreed to an expansion of the service to persons of all ages and families of all sizes under the newly legislated Canada Assistance Plan. The fees were set by a predetermined means test and the cost was shared between the Provincial and Federal governments. 7 By 1973, the Family Service's Homemaker Department had grown to such an extent that it separated from the agency and formed the Greater Vancouver Area Homemaker Association, employing 280 homemakers. The role of the homemaker was to do housekeeping tasks and to give relief to parents. In 1977 the agency changed its name to the present one, the Community Homemaker Service Association of Greater Vancouver, and employed 390 community homemakers. Homemakers were selected for employment because of qualities such as warmth of personality, adaptability and practical knowledge of homemaking. Duties included cooking, cleaning, shopping for groceries, laundry and ironing. As the demand for service increased, the homemaker's role expanded to include personal assistance provided under medical supervision, including the care of babies, sick children, the chronically ill, the frail elderly and those who were physically and mentally disabled. Service was provided to families and individuals who were unable to manage satisfactorily in their own homes due to a health or social problem. In 1978, when the creation of the Long Term Care Program occurred, there were 69 non-profit and proprietary (profit) homemaker agencies in the Province. By 1981, there were 79 non-profit homemaker agencies, with membership in the Community Homemaker Services Association of British Columbia, plus an additional 10 non-profit agencies which were not members, and 11 proprietary agencies. Over 6,000 homemakers employed by the 79 non-profit agencies provided 4,400,000 hours of 8 service per year to clients, most of whom were over the age of 65 (The Community Homemaker, March 1981). The Development of Training for Homemakers In the years from 1938 to 1965, homemakers, under the Welfare Department's (now Human Resources) Social Assistance Plan (now GAIN -Guaranteed Available Income for Need), were hired from the Family Services of Greater Vancouver, or the family in need would find a private homemaker and the Department of Welfare would provide the funding for the salary. Agencies provided orientation and inservice training for staff; however, there was a lack of trained housekeepers to give aid to families. In May 1965 a program was offered by the Vancouver Community College on the campus of Vancouver Vocational Institute, to train women to be housekeepers. In June 1965 the Provincial government approved this Trained Family Aide Program. The program was four months in length and included the following topics: - Food preparation and service - Basic cleaning and laundry - Home nursing - Human behaviour and working with people - Home training placements Because of the expansion of homemaker services, the Trained Family Aide Program was no longer suitable, as it only stressed practical 9 skills already known by most mature women, and neglected a theoretical approach. In November 1966 the first Trained Homemaker Program of six weeks duration, funded by the Federal government's Canada Assistance Plan, was initiated by Vancouver Vocational Institute to meet the needs of homemakers who were already employed. The curriculum included: - Human growth and development - Food preparation and serving - Home nursing - Communication - Community resources In 1969 the homemaker program was extended to eight weeks to include an expanded learning experience in human growth and development and information about the needs of clients with mental health problems. As demands increased for personal assistance, the course was extended to 12 weeks in 1975. In addition, practical learning situations in homemaking became more necessary as it became evident that the homemaker of 1976 did not always have the knowledge gained from previous home experience, as had her peer of 1966. In 1976 Vancouver Community College commenced a complete revision of the Trained Homemaker Program "which would allow a greater flexibility of programming in meeting the needs of both full-time and part-time learners and homemakers with varying degrees of previous learning and experience" (Cornish & Cranstoun, 1978). By 1980 the Homemaker Training Program at Vancouver Community College was increased to 13 weeks for those enrolled in the full-time 10 day sessions. Evening courses consisting of one session a week for approximately one year were also offered. The Annual Report (1980-81) of the Community Homemakers Service Association of Greater Vancouver states: We continue to encourage homemakers to complete the homemaker training program offered by Vancouver Community College, King Edward Campus. Currently, 50% of the staff is trained or undergoing training and we are pleased that there is virtually a zero turnover among this group. Training is provided in evening classes now given in three locations: the King Edward Campus and two off-campus locations. Evening classes, which cover the same curriculum as the daytime three month program, are well attended. It is a tough schedule for a homemaker to attend a weekly three hour class at the end of a working day and, in addition, complete six to twelve hours of homework to prepare for the next class. The College has offered to consider alternative methods of providing training, such as short-term daytime courses, if there is sufficient demand. Attendance in the 13 week daytime program has dropped. This, to a large extent, is due to the decreased living allowance available through Employment Canada (p.18). It was not until 1979, after the introduction of the Long Term Care Program, that other community colleges began to directly offer training programs for homemakers. At that time, Douglas and Okanagan Colleges conducted pilot projects to test a new curriculum. 11 Homemaker Training in Ctammunity Colleges The involvement of Vancouver Community College, from 1965 to 1980, in the training of homemakers has been noted. The commencement of training programs in other community colleges is a recent development. In 1974 a Provincial Homemaker Training Committee was formed under the auspices of the Ministry of Human Resources. This committee developed an outline of topics to be taught and recruited local instructors, many of whom were registered nurses who were not actively involved in the profession of nursing, to teach a five week homemaker course to employed homemakers who had a minimum of 120 hours of experience in the field. Individual agencies, educational institutions, members of the private sector, graduates of the courses and government agencies purchasing the services encouraged the Provincial Homemaker Training Committee, in the fall of 1977, to request the Ministry of Education to develop a competence-based program using the Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) System. According to the introduction in the "Provincial Homemaker Training Program, 1st Working Draft" (1980), a DACUM workshop was held in February 1978 and basic skills required for employment as a homemaker were identified. The introduction also states that in January 1979 12 Douglas College, under contract to the Ministry of Education, commenced the development of objectives and instructional materials. The development team, with the assistance of an "ad hoc" curriculum advisory committee, homemaker instructors and other resource people, analyzed, wrote and revised the objectives and instructional materials based on the Skill Profile originating from the DACUM workshop. A direct quote from this introduction describes an important period for homemaker training in community colleges: During the months prior to January 1979, the impact on training of the new Long Term Care legislation had become apparent. It was decided to link the development of homemaker training objectives with those of the "core" skills required for other trainees at the "aide" level in Long Term Care programs. Development of these "core" areas was undertaken by Camosun College at the request of the Ministry and was carried out concurrent with the homemaker project at Douglas College. Many of the objectives and curricular materials in this "Instructor's Guide to the Provincial Homemaker Training Program" are therefore similar to the objectives for the Long Term Care Aide programs. Emphasis, however, has been placed on those areas which are peculiar to the needs of the homemaker. It is anticipated that, in time, the areas of the homemaker program related to communication, ethics, and human growth and development, will be integrated in the learning environment as part of core skills training for all students involved in Long Term Care Aide programs. In May 1979 the Provincial Report Committee, reporting to the Provincial Homemaker Training Committee and the Education Advisory Committee to the Provincial Adult Care Facilities Licensing Board, Ministry of Health, reviewed the objectives and materials, and recommended the two pilot projects suggested by the Ministry be carried out starting September 1979 (p.2). 13 The minutes of the Regional Homemaker Meeting (November 15, 1979) regarding the Provincial Homemaker Training Program, include Nebocat's explanation about the new curriculum being tested by Douglas and Okanagan Colleges, and another pilot project to commence in January 1980 at Fraser Valley College. The latter project would be the first test of the new curriculum with all students being inexperienced pre-employment trainees. This new curriculum resulted in the Ministry of Education's first draft of the Provincial Homemaker, Training Program (Basic Level), 1980. It served as an Instructor's Guide to the Provincial Homemaker Training Program and included a Homemaker Skill Profile Chart (Appendix 8) and a Homemaker Competence Chart (Appendix 9). General, main and instructional objectives developed from the Competence Chart were included, as were suggestions for learning activities, instructional aides and descriptions of instructional techniques. At this time, the goal of the Homemaker Training Program was stated "to prepare a graduate who will be competent and confident in performing specified skills listed in the Homemaker Skill Profile Chart" (Regional Meeting, August 1980). Furthermore, the minutes of the Regional Homemaker Meeting (November 15, 1979) include a statement indicating that evaluation of the two pilot programs at Douglas and Okanagan Colleges was discussed; however, no published evaluations are available. Dr. Sheilah Thompson, Co-ordinator Health and Human Service Programs, Ministry of Education, 14 notified the participants that commencing in December 1979, the Ministry of Education would fund meetings three or four times a year for homemaker and long term aide instructors from each college. This action brought about the formation of the Articulation Committee, described by Thompson as an opportunity to share information, problems, solutions and ideas, and to examine curricula in order to compare similarities and differences of the training programs. Fiscal restraints have reduced these meetings to once a year commencing September 1982. Since 1979, the Articulation Committee has been aware that staff in the thirteen community colleges conducting homemaker training programs and staff in service agencies do not agree as to the suitability of the Homemaker Skills Profile Chart. As a result, according to Nebocat (July 1982), two sub-committees of the Articulation Committee were established to work on the development of new statements of skills and competencies and to revise the learning modules, test materials, and the instructor's guideline manual. In August 1982, the Director of Academic/Technical Programs, Ministry of Education, requested from non-profit homemaker societies and proprietary homemaker agencies comments about the proposed changes to the Homemaker Skill Profile (Appendix 1). The fact that there is not general agreement in British Columbia about the skills and competencies of a trained homemaker, nor the goals and objectives of training programs, is not unique to this Province. The following review of the literature would suggest there is also a diversity of opinion about homemaker training programs in a number of other countries, as well as Canada. 15 SECTION III REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Current literature was reviewed to characterize the status of homemaker training programs in Canada and other countries. The review focused on standards, criteria and objectives of training programs. The available literature provided limited information about homemaker training programs and standards, criteria and objectives regarding such training. The review is organized into five parts. Part one presents a brief review of adult education literature related to homemaker training. The next part includes a review of the International Council of ' Homehelp Services, a world-wide organization that supports the development of homehelp services. In part three the review focuses on literature about homemaker training in specific countries in Europe. Part four reviews the literature related to homemaker training programs in the United States of America, and the last part reviews Canadian literature related to homemakers. Adult Education and Homemaker Training Three of the books reviewed identify the importance of adult education principles and practices related to homemaker training. According to Staropoli and Waltz (1978), the investment in human 16 resources through the provision of training programs will benefit the individual and the community. The authors state that the planning of such programs should include consideration of the learners in order to accommodate their responsibilities to earn a living, care for families and participate in community affairs, as well as being students. Another point of view is expressed by Reisser (1980), who states that many adult learners who attend colleges are academically and financially disadvantaged. They are, he says, likely to be females handicapped by inadequate verbal skills and also fearful of failure. However, Hutchinson and Hutchinson (1978) say that because adult learners, particularly women, live below the level of their learning potential, it is necessary to seek out and then develop this under-utilized competence. International Council of Homehelp Services The International Council of Homehelp Services (I.C.H.S.) was founded in The Netherlands (Holland) in May 1959 (Hole, 1981). The countries represented in the International Council of Homehelp Services are Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Israel, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States of America. The duties of homemakers in these countries vary depending upon the customs, needs, climate and housing. At the 6th International Congress held in Sweden on May 11-15, 1981, it was agreed that recognized standards and criteria should be 17 established for homemaker training and that research studies related to the evaluation of training programs should be conducted. European Countries Hole (1981) documents that there are European governments which support the growth and development of homemaker training and require training programs to be a 15 to 20 months experience. In West Germany, at the completion of one year's training in a residential school, students then spend a second year under supervision working as homemakers, before graduation (p.24). In France, according to a brochure (undated), homemaker training programs of eight months duration are conducted. Before being accepted into a program, the student must spend a preliminary probation period with families in need. The experience is monitored by the homemaker recruiting agency. The sequence of a student's training is three months in the classroom with lectures about such topics as family and social life, health, housing, linen and clothing, organization of family life and professional life. The classroom sequence is followed by a practicum experience in homes or institutions, after which there is a six week period which includes an expansion of the lectures presented in the first three months. After successfully completing an examination, the student spends a probation year of practice in the field. An official certificate is granted by the French Ministry of Health upon completion of the probation year. 18 The National Board of Health and Welfare in Sweden in its report "Home Help Service in Sweden" (1979), states that although by the middle of the 1970's assistance to the elderly accounted for 90% of all homehelp service, only 25% of the homehelpers had received training. There are no recognized training requirements for homehelpers in Sweden, but training programs of ten weeks duration are available for those people with experience in the field. Homehelpers without such experience may attend a program of twenty weeks duration. The National Board of Health and Welfare's report also states that all aspects of training for homehelpers in Sweden are being reviewed, including the classroom subjects of psychology, social medicine, social service, basic medicine and nursing, housing, environment, dietetics and management. In Norway, according to the National Report (May 1977), there are four categories of Home Help Service workers. They are homemakers (housewives' substitutes) who serve families with children, homehelpers who assist the aged and disabled, homehelpers who do housecleaning, and farm helpers who assist on farms if there is a need due to an illness in the family. The training period for homemakers who assist the elderly is four weeks theoretical training, with practical experience in an institution. United States of America Hole (1981) states that Homemaker - Home Health Services in the United States of America began in the early 1900's in New York City. In 19 the 1920's in Detroit, a program for "visiting housekeepers", who taught food preparation and nutrition to inexperienced and economically deprived mothers, was developed. It was, he writes, not until 1972 that a standard for training by the National Council for Homemaker - Home Health Aide Services, was formalized. This standard required homemakers and home health aides to be trained before being employed to carry out both homemaking and personal assistance duties (p.56). Dewald (1978) describes the Instructional Program for Certified Homemakers in Virginia. This occupational home economics adult program is sponsored jointly by the Virginia Department of Home Economics and the Department of Education. The program includes topics related to the care of children, nutrition, management practices, accident prevention, care of the aged, and employer-employee relationships. Requirements for admission to the 300 hour program include personal interviews, pre-entrance tests, satisfactory references and "good" mental and physical health. Upon satisfactory completion of the course, graduates are certified as Certified Homemakers Assistants by the Virginia Department of Education. An article by Hanson et al (1980) discusses the training and supervision of homecare workers in a number of the States in the United States of America. According to Hanson, training for home care workers has varied widely and the length of training programs ranges from 40 hours to 300 hours. Training has generally been designed and provided by employing agencies, primarily directed by nurses or social workers. 20 More recently, two year colleges and vocational technical schools responded to the demands for occupational courses. State and federally reimbursed homemaker service programs require homecare workers to have completed an approved training program. Hanson points out the complexities involved in planning, developing and implementing training programs for employees with limited formal education. Some may not have the ability either to read or write. Others may have a minimum of a sixth grade education. There are also retired men and women who find home care work a way to supplement their income. There are also college students who are entering the field because of the flexible hours or because of their studies in such disciplines as sociology, home economics, health sciences, gerontology, and other human service areas. Hanson suggests that training programs should be flexible to meet a variety of student needs, including the avoidance of boring^ and costly repetition of knowledge and skills already learned. She identifies two demonstration projects funded by the Maryland State Department of Education in 1978. The purpose of one project was to identify competencies needed by home care workers and the purpose of the second project was to develop a system for assessing competencies that mature workers have acquired through life experiences. Hendrickson and David (1980) state that a study of vocational education, including homemaker training, was requested by the Congress of the U.S.A. in 1976 in order to assist in re-authorizing the Vocational Education Act in 1982. The Congress requested a study that 21 would "provide it with facts, insights, judgments and analysis to use during the hearings on vocational education legislation" (p.14). The National Institute of Education (N.I.E.) was requested to undertake the study, which Hendrickson and David say examined funding, legislation, assessment of program quality and effectiveness, especially in relation to consumer and homemaker educational (C. & H.E.) programs. Hole (1981) published a curriculum model and teaching guide to assist agencies and educational institutions to plan, organize and provide initial training required by homemaker - home health aides in the State of Pennsylvania. The curriculum includes household manage ment, personal care, working with older people, child care and nutrition. Hole believes that in response to further identified needs of society, teachers and students, other curriculum models may need to be developed. According to Ryan (1982), Medicare-certified agencies require home-makers to have some training and supervision. However, non-certified agencies and individuals may employ homemakers with or without train ing. Kerstell and Unge (1981) believe that factors influencing the future development of training homemakers require analysis and that before organizations change their objectives, educational experts and administrators should examine issues such as the function of pre-service training, the training needs that exist after the commencement of the work experience and the validity of a system of recurrent education. 22 Canada There would appear to be a paucity of published documentation about homemakers or homemaker training programs in Canada. Responses to this writer's requests for information to individuals and a number of service and educational agencies and associations were few. Auman's (1982) comments in regard to British Columbia appear to illustrate the situation in all Provinces. She says: Historical documentary accounts of the origins and development of the homemakers organization within British Columbia exist in a limited form that is not easily researchable. There are few published articles or unpublished studies related to homemakers. The historical information that does exist is usually found in the form of primary or secondary sources, with the majority of documents situated in files of homemaker agencies or governmental bodies associated with the purchasing of homemaker service (pp. 3-4). The most useful document was a report of a survey, Visiting Homemaker Services in Canada, published in 1982. It was constructed and conducted by the Canadian Council on Homemaker Services (CCHS) and funded by the National Welfare Grants Directorate Department of National Health and Welfare. The CCHS is a non-profit organization with a membership of non-profit, governmental and commercial organizations in the homemaking field. It is committed to the following objectives: 1. To promote the development and delivery of quality homemaker services to all who need it. 2. To develop common: a. standards of service b. standards of training c. terminology 23 3. To act as a consultant to individuals, agencies, Provincial associations and government at all levels on issues related to homemaker services. 4. To gather and disseminate information about homemaker services in Canada. 5. To represent Canada at the international level. The purpose of the survey was to collect data from all homemaking agencies in Canada and use the compiled data to "develop national guidelines in order to improve homemaker training and practice, and to raise the quality of service provided" (p.5). Responses to a questionnaire distributed to 464 agencies revealed that there were actually 540 homemaker agencies operating in Canada in 1982 compared with 121 established agencies in 1969. According to the respondents' information, over three-quarters of all homemaking services began since 1970 and of this group, one-fourth began in the past two years. The largest portion of new agencies was started in communities serving under 10,000 people, where 97% of all their homemaker agencies began since 1970. In community sizes of 10-50,000 persons, 86% of homemaker agencies started since 1970. It is recorded that the growth areas of homemaker agencies would appear to be the government directed agencies in all Provinces, other than Ontario and British Columbia, and also in communities of less than 50,000 people (p.8). Other findings arising out of the completed questionnaires by the 24 307 agencies showed that there were, in Canada in 1981, a total of 11,114 people employed in homemaker agencies. The 307 agencies represent 57% of the total homemaking agencies in Canada and the report projected that for the total 540 agencies there could be a total of 19,498 homemakers employed; that is, one homemaker for every 1,231 persons. However, only 28% of all homemakers identified in the study worked full-time, so the translation into full-time equivalents, counting two part-time homemakers as equivalent to one full-time person, changed the ratio to one full-time person per 1,927 people (p.9). In the study, all the responding agencies indicated that training is necessary, but the main problems identified in providing training were lack of money (50%), lack of time (41%), lack of resources (34%), and taking staff away from the job as well'as lack of staff interest. Over half of the agencies indicated that there was a homemaking course in their locality provided by a community college or "other resource." However, more than half of the agencies in Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan, Alberta and the Northwest Territories indicated there was no course available. Only in New Brunswick and Manitoba did all respondents indicate a course was available. Agencies said that where there was a course available, it was usually run by a community college, was apt to be conducted for eight weeks in the daytime, with approximately 2/3 of the homemakers attending the course (p.16). The three main problems identifed by agencies in providing homemaker services were in relation to recruitment, lack of funding and 25 lack of adequate training. Some of the suggestions to the CCHS frcm the agencies were that the council could develop a set of minimum standards about training, hold workshops and conferences to improve standards, develop staff education programs, and set up an accreditation program for agencies (p.4). The report of the study includes a reference to the address to the first National Conference in April 1982 by the Minister of Health and Welfare who is said to have given a clear signal that growth in homemaker service is inevitable, for three groups in particular -families with children, physically handicapped persons, and the elderly (P.3). The provision of services is related closely to the training of homemakers, and a conclusion drawn from the results of the survey regarding services and training is that "Even where training courses are in place, only 32.1% of agencies can afford to pay their staff to attend them. This issue, combined with matters about finance and standards, has an important bearing on the quality of service." (p.4). The report further states that the responsibilities for education and training and for financing service provision are usually handled by different Ministries in each Province. The question is asked "What changes are needed in order to have this matter become a jointly understood priority in a Province?" (p.4). The CCHS believes that the survey has accumulated sufficiently reliable data to present a current picture of the homemaker service 26 field in Canada which should enable both agencies and governments to plan for the future of education and services "in the light of present realities", (p.l). In summary, the review of the literature shows that in a number of countries there are training programs for homemakers. The curriculum, the competencies of homemakers, the prerequisites for students' entry into programs, and the length of the programs are varied and diverse. Furthermore, instructors' educational and practice preparation are not the same. The programs may be conducted either by educational institutions or by service agencies. 27 SECTION IV THE SURVEY Design Fifteen community colleges in British Columbia were surveyed. The purpose of the survey was to determine in which of the community colleges there are homemaker training programs, what types of homemaker programs are offered, what the goals and objectives are of each program, and what the classroom, laboratory and field experiences training sequences are of each program. In addition, information was sought about prerequisites for entry into programs, and instructors' perceptions of a trained homemaker. The data were collected between January 29, 1982 and February 22, 1982. A mailed questionnaire was used to collect objective data and subjective information of opinions and impressions. The questionnaire was designed in order to acquire data related to the following questions: 1. How many community colleges conducted homemaker training programs? 2. What were the types of programs each college offered? 3. When were the programs offered? 4. What were the goals and objectives of each program? 5. What were the training sequences of classroom, laboratory and field experiences of each program? 28 6. What were the prerequisites for entry into each program? 7. How did instructors perceive a trained homemaker? The questionnaire was pretested by the instructor at Douglas College and the Education Co-ordinator of the Long Term Care Program. After corrections were made, the questionnaire (Appendix 2) and a covering letter (Appendix 3) were mailed to the fifteen community colleges (Appendix 4). Upon receipt of the completed questionnaires from the thirteen colleges offering homemaker training programs, a letter of acknowledgement (Appendix 5) was mailed on May 8, 1982. Data Collection A draft copy of the completed data was returned to community college homemaker co-ordinators with a covering letter (Appendix 6) on June 30, 1982 for verification and additional information. After corrections were made, the data was reorganized and compiled in five sections: 1. Types of programs (Appendix 7) 2. Goals and objectives (Appendices 8 and 9) 3. Prerequisites for entry (Appendix 10) 4. Training sequences (Appendix 11) 5. Instructors' perceptions of a trained homemaker (Appendix 12) 29 The following table (Table 1) identifies the community colleges which conducted homemaker training programs in February 1982. The homemaker training programs comprised both pre-employment day and evening programs, with the daytime programs being conducted on a full-time basis and the evening programs being conducted on a part-time basis. In addition, there were upgrading daytime and evening programs, with the daytime programs being conducted on both a full-time and a part-time basis and the evening programs being conducted on a part-time basis. Ml but two of the fifteen colleges conducted homemaker training programs. The two colleges which did not conduct programs were Kwantlen and New Caledonia. TABLE 1 COLLEGES CONDUCTING HOMEMAKING TRAINING PROGRAMS College Pre-employment Programs Upgrading Progr ams Day Full-Time Evening Part-Time Day Full-Time & Part-T ime Evening Part-T ime Camosum Yes No Yes No Capilano yes No No Yes Cariboo Yes No Yes No Douglas No Yes No Yes East Kootenay Yes No Yes No F rase r Valley Yes No Yes Yes K wantle n No No No No Malaspina Yes No Yes No New Caledonia No No No No North Island Yes No No Yes Northern Lights Yes No No No Nort hwes t Yes No No Yes •kanagan Yes No Yes No Selkirk No No No Yes VCC (King Edward Campus) Yes No No Yes 31 SECTION V FINDINGS Types of Programs Thirteen (87%) of the fifteen community colleges in British Columbia were conducting homemaker training programs at the time of the survey (see Table 1). Eleven (73%) colleges offering full-time pre-employment day programs were Camosun, Capilano, Cariboo, East Kootenay, Fraser Valley, Malaspina, North Island, Northern Lights, Northwest, Okanagan and V.C.C. (King Edward Campus). Six (40%) colleges offering full-time or part-time upgrading day programs were Camosun, Cariboo, East Kootenay, Fraser Valley, Malaspina and Okanagan. Seven (47%) offering part-time upgrading evening programs were Capilano, Fraser Valley, North Island, Northwest, Selkirk, V.C.C. (King Edward Campus) and Douglas. Douglas offered a combined upgrading and pre-employment program. The eleven colleges offering full-time pre-employment day programs included classroom hours ranging from 90 at Northwest to 266 at V.C.C. (King Edward Campus), and laboratory experiences ranging from 30 hours at Okanagan to 142 hours at Capilano. The total number of program hours ranged from 210 at East Kootenay to 480 at Malaspina and North Island. Malaspina's second program's hours were 300. The total program hours for the remaining eight colleges were in the range of 360 to 450 (Appendix 7). 32 Six full-time and part-time upgrading day programs included classroom hours ranging from 90 at East Kootenay to 150 at Cariboo and Okanagan, and laboratory experiences ranging from 30 hours at Cariboo, East Kootenay and Okanagan to 120 hours at Camosun. Malaspina was the only college to document a field experience of 90 hours. The total number of program hours ranged from 120 at East Kootenay to 300 at Malaspina, with Fraser Valley program hours being 165; Cariboo and Okanagan, 180; and Camosun, 240 (Appendix 7). Seven colleges offering part-time upgrading evening programs included classroom hours ranging from 90'at Northwest to 216 at Selkirk, and laboratory experiences ranging from 12 hours at Douglas to 90 hours at Northwest. North Island was the only college to document a field experience of 30 hours. The total number of program hours ranged from 120 at North Island to 288 at Selkirk, with Fraser Valley program hours being 170; Capilano, Northwest and V.C.C. (King Edward Campus), 180; and Douglas, 192 (Appendix 7). All colleges recorded that the programs were designed to prepare students to achieve the competencies listed in The Provincial Homemaker Skill Profile Draft dated October 1980. However, it is noteworthy that there are variations in total number of program hours, and even more variations in the hours allocated to classroom, laboratory and field experiences. 33 Competencies and Objectives The thirteen colleges said their programs were related to the Provincial Homemaker Skill Profile Draft dated October 1980, prepared by the Ministry of Education (Appendix 8). V.C.C. (King Edward Campus), however, in answer to the question "Is the program related to the Provincial Homemaker Skill Profile Draft dated October 1980?" replied "Yes" and "No." An explanation was provided that the draft was considered to be out of date and that the college was using "a new statement of competencies that the Provincial Homemaker Articulation sub-committee was 'working on'" (Cornish, February 9, 1982). The co-ordinator of the Fraser Valley program (Simonsen, February 5, 1982) commented about "the very difficult time" that people in homemaker training programs had "in establishing competencies" and that although The Skill Profile Draft of 1980 was accepted by the Ministry of Education "there has been serious questioning of the validity of the chart." A review of the course outlines submitted by the thirteen colleges suggests that Camosun, Cariboo, Douglas, East Kootenay, Malaspina, North Island, Northern Lights, Northwest and Selkirk colleges designed programs to meet the objectives listed in the Basic Homemaker Program, Overview of Units and General Objectives 1981 (Appendix 8), whereas Capilano, Fraser Valley, Okanagan and V.C.C. (King Edward Campus) developed programs from the objectives listed in the Provincial Homemaker Curriculum Framework, June 1981 (Appendix 13), which was developed by the Articulation sub-committee. 34 It was not * anticipated that some colleges would change direction before changes in competencies and objectives received approval by the Ministry of Education. However, the situation may be explained by the statement in the letter from J. Cornish, the Co-ordinator of V.C.C. (King Edward Campus) "KEC is currently funded by the Ministry of Education to revise all of the related modules, test manuals and instructors' guideline manuals." Prerequisites for Entry Seven of the twelve colleges who conducted daytime and evening upgrading programs expected that interested candidates would have completed a homemaker work experience. The hours of work experience required by Cariboo, Douglas, East Kootenay, Fraser Valley, Malaspina, North Island and Selkirk ranged from 100 hours to 3,600 hours. Camosun, Capilano, Northwest, Okanagan and V.C.C. (King Edward Campus) did not expect work experience as an entry requirement (see Table 2). Requirements for health certificates by the thirteen colleges for a student's entry into programs varied. Requirements of five colleges -Camosun, Cariboo, Malaspina, Selkirk and V.C.C. (King Edward Campus), included medical, tuberculosis screening and immunization certificates. Two colleges - Capilano and Okanagan, required only medical and tuberculosis screening certificates. North Island required only tuberculosis screening and immunization certificates. A medical certificate was the only health certificate required by East Kootenay, 35 Fraser Valley and Northwest, while Douglas and Northern Lights did not require any health certiificates (see Table 2). Although seven colleges did not test students for either reading or writing comprehension, three colleges - Camosun, East Kootenay and V.C.C. (King Edward Campus), tested for both, while Fraser Valley, North Island and Northwest tested only for reading comprehension (See Table 2). Malaspina and V.C.C. (King Edward Campus) were the only two colleges who requested students to provide written reasons for wishing to be homemakers. On the other hand, nine colleges - Capilano, Douglas, East Kootenay, Malaspina, Northern Lights, Northwest, Okanagan, Selkirk and V.C.C. (King Edward Campus), required employment and volunteer histories. Camosun requested only an employment history while Cariboo, Fraser Valley and North Island required neither employment nor volunteer histories (See Table 2). In response to the question about additional requirements for students entering homemaker training programs, five colleges replied affirmatively. For instance, while East Kootenay required evidence of citizenship, Northern Lights, Northwest and Okanagan required the students to possess "appropriate attitudes." V.C.C. (King Edward Campus) listed four factors to be considered for requirements for entry into a homemaker training program. The focus was on a student's financial situation, lifestyle, time management skills, and child care arrangements. CO ON 3s > 3> O C/l = o z 3 H-H- 2 3 O O ID to O rr X 01 CD 1 s CD • 01 H- 3 rr I— 3 o I-! N 3 •< >< 3-CD C a H- CD O CD CD Q. 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Of interest is the fact that prerequisites for entry were not the same for all colleges. Furthermore, required hours of previous work experience ranged from zero to 3,600; health requirements varied; tests of students for reading and writing comprehension were not consistent, nor were use of selection interviews. Camosun, Capilano, Cariboo, East Kootenay, Fraser Valley, Malaspina, North Island, Northwest, Okanagan and V.C.C. (King Edward Campus), interviewed applicants prior to their registration in the pre-employment programs. Students in the pre-employment program at Northern Lights were not interviewed nor were students in the combined pre-employment and upgrading program at Douglas College. There was not a pre-employment program at Selkirk College (see Table 3). Only Camosun, Capilano, Malaspina, North Island and V.C.C. (King Edward Campus) interviewed applicants for upgrading programs prior to registration. There was no upgrading program at Northern Lights College. Only Cariboo and North Island, in the group of ten colleges conducting pre-employment and upgrading programs, did not use the interview as one part of the selection process (see Table 3). 38 Members of college staffs who interviewed prospective student candidates at Capilano, East Kootenay and Fraser Valley were the Co-ordinator of Health Programs and the Instructor of the Homemaker Program. At Camosun, the interviewer was the Faculty Co-ordinator, and at Cariboo it was the Counsellor in the Registrar's office. At Malaspina, the Department Head or a faculty member of the Long Term Homemaker Program conducted interviews, while North Island interviews were conducted by the Co-ordinator of Human Services and also the Tutor-in-Charge of the Homemaker Program. At Northwest the Manpower Counsellor college representative and the Instructor of the Homemaker Program conducted the interviews. At Okanagan the Instructor of the Homemaker Program interviewed applicants, and at V.C.C. (King Edward Campus) applicants were interviewed by the Program Assistant and/or the Co-ordinator of the Homemaker Program (See Table 3). The interview process conducted by community colleges may or may not have influenced the selection of applicants. Three colleges did not interview prospective students. Two of the ten colleges which conducted interviews did not use this information for selection purposes. The staff of the ten colleges conducting interviews had a variety of titles, indicating the possibility of different educational backgrounds and experiences. These differences may have provided a variety of influences, knowledge and attitudes in the selection process. It is of importance to record that according to the findings in the Instructors' Perceptions of a Trained Homemaker, the instructors' TABLE 3 USE OF PERSONAL INTERVIEWS OF PROSPECTIVE STUDENTS IN SELECTION PROCESS IN HOMEMAKERS PRE-EMPLOYMENT AND UPGRADING PROGRAMS Interviews Select ion College PE1 UG2 Pr oces s Title of Interviewers Camosun Yes Yes Yes Faculty Co-ordinator Capilano Yes Yes Yes Co-ordinator of Health Programs Instructor of Homemaker Program Cariboo Yes No No Counsellor, Registrar's Office Douglas No No No -East Kootenay Yes No Yes Co-ordinator of Health Programs Instructor of Homemaker Program Fraser Valley Yes No Yes Co-ordinator of Health Programs Instructor of Homemaker Program' Malaspina Yes Yes Yes Department Head or Faculty Member of the L.T.C./H.M. Program North Island Yes Yes No Co-ordinator of Human Services Tutor-in-Charge, Homemaker Program Northern Lights No N/P3 No -Northwest Yes No yes Manpower counsellor college representative Instructor of Homemaker Program Okanagan Yes No Yes Instructor of Homemaker Program Selkirk N/P3 No No -V.C.C. King Edward Yes Yes Yes Program Assistant and/or Co-ordinator of Homemaker Program 1 2 3 PE -UG -N/P -Pre-employment program Upgrading program No program 40 responses suggest that there was no concensus regarding the instructors' perceptions of a trained homemaker. It is therefore difficult to assess correlation between an interviewer's perceptions of a trained homemaker and the selection of an applicant. Training Sequences The information presented by the eleven colleges that conducted full-time pre-employment day programs was not sufficiently explicit to identify whether or not the sequences for classroom, laboratory and field experiences for homemaker students were identical (see Table 4). For example, some colleges combined the hours of classroom and laboratory experiences instead of identifying hours of classroom and hours of laboratory experiences. There were other colleges that did not identify the number of hours specified for classroom, laboratory or field experiences by sequence of each week. The information provided .was not sufficiently explicit to identify whether or not the sequences for classroom, laboratory and field experiences were identical for students attending the six colleges offering full-time and part-time upgrading day programs (see Table 5). Again, there were colleges that combined classroom and laboratory hours of experiences and did not identify the number of hours specified for classroom, laboratory or field experiences by sequences of each week. TABLE 4 DAYTIME PRE-EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMS: TOTAL TIME OF PROGRAM IN WEEKS AND HOURS ^ SEQUENCE BY WEEKS HOURS OF CLASSROOM, LABORATORY AND FIELD/PRACT ICUM EXPERIENCES COLLEGE Length of Program in Weeks (hours) Malaspina Program #1 10 weeks (300 hrs.) Program #2 16 weeks (480 hrs.) North Island 16 weeks (480 hrs.) Northern Lights 14 weeks (420 hrs.) Northwest 12 weeks (360 hrs.) Okanagan 12 weeks (360 hrs.) Seq uence by Weeks Classroom, Laboratory, Field/Practicum Experiences in hours 10-14 1-12 V.C.C. 12 2/3 weeks (379 hours) 1-3 4-6 7-9 10-12 1-12 2/3 CR - Classroom Lab - Laboratory CR/Lab - Classroom/Laboratory CR/P - Classroom/Practicum Fld/P - Field/Practicum Hrs - Hours 1-5 80 40 6-8 20 10 9-10 42 18 1-5 80 40 6-9 16 8 10-13 20 10 14-16 42 18 1-5 150 _ 6-7 60 8 30 _ 9-16 -30 96 90 30 240 276 144 90 90 180 90 90 90 90 266 47 66 CR/Lab shown as combined. Specific week experiences not identified. Specific week experiences not ident if ied . CR/Lab shown as combined Specific week experiences not identified. * This program awards a Long Term Care Aide and a Homemaker Certificate. TABLE 5 FULL-TIME AND PART-TIME UPGRADING DAY PROGRAMS: TOTAL TIME OF PROGRAM IN WEEKS AND HOURS SEQUENCE BY WEEKS HOURS OF CLASSROOM, LABORATORY AND FIELD/PRACTICUM EXPERIENCES COLLEGE Length of Program in Weeks (hours) Sequence by Weeks Classroom, Laboratory, Field/Pra-cticum Experiences in Hours CR Lab CR/Lab CR/P Fld/P Com me nt s Camosun 8 weeks (240 hrs.) 1-8 240 CR/Lab shown as combined. Specific week experiences not identified. Car iboo 6 weeks (180 hrs . ) 1-6 150 30 - - - Specific week experiences not ide nt if ied . East Kootenay 4 weeks (120 hrs. ) 1-4 120 CR/Lab shown as combined. Specific week experiences not ide nt ified . Fraser Valle y 5 1/6 weeks (165 hrs.) 1-5 1/6 115 50 - - - Specific week experiences not ident i f ied. * Malaspina 10 weeks (300 hrs.) 1-5 6-8 9-10 80 40 30 20 10 - - 30 42 18 - - 30 Okanagan 6 weeks (180 hrs.) 1-3 4-6 90 90 - - - -CR/Lab shown as combined. Specific week experiences not identified. CR - Classroom Lab - Laboratory CR/Lab - Classroom/Laboratory CR/P - Classroom/Practicum Fld/P - Field/Practicum * Plus a 5 hour learning package. 43 The information provided was not sufficiently explicit to identify whether or not the sequences for classroom, laboratory and field experiences were identical for students attending the seven colleges offering part-time upgrading evening programs (see Table 6). Again, there were colleges that combined classroom and laboratory hours of experiences and did not identify the number of hours specified for classroom, laboratory or field experiences by sequences of each week. The findings, from the available information, show that there were variations for the sequences for classroom, laboratory and field rotations for the majority of the programs. Reasons for the variations were not available from the data, but it would be of interest to identify if local situations and events have an influence upon the sequence and hours in these rotations. There is no doubt that factors such as student transportation, availability of instructors and domestic arrangements, particularly in country areas, may have had an influence on the flexibility of the program sequences. TABLE 6 PART-TIME UPGRADING EVENING PROGRAMS LENGTH OF PROGRAM IN WEEKS AND HOURS SEQUENCE BY WEEKS CLASSROOM, LABORATORY AND FI ELD/PRACTI CUM EXPERIENCES COLLEGE Length of Program in Sequence Weeks (hours) by Weeks Classroom, Laboratory, Field/Practicum Experiences in Hours CR Lab CR/Lab Fld/P Comments Capilano 1-6 6 weeks (180 hrs.) 130 50 One 6 hour session weekly for 30 weeks. Douglas 1-6 3/5 6 3/5 weeks (192 hrs.) 180 12 Program is divided into 4 steps. Each step is one 3 hour session weekly for 15 weeks. Fraser Valley 1-5 2/3 5 2/3 weeks (170 hrs.) 120 50 Specific week experiences not ide nt i f i ed . North Island 1-3 4 weeks (120 hrs.) 4 90 30 CR/Lab shown as combined. Specific week experiences not identified. Northwest 1-6 6 weeks (180 hrs.) 90 90 - One 3 hour session weekly for 60 weeks. Selkirk 1-9 3/5 9 3/5 weeks (288 hrs.) 216 72 Specific week experiences not ident ified. V.C.C. 1-6 6 weeks (180 hrs.) 180 Program is divided into 4 blocks. Each block is one 3 hour session weekly for 15 weeks. CR/Lab shown a s c omb i ned. CR - Classroom Lab - Laboratory CR/Lab - Classroom/Laboratory CR/P - Practicum Fld/P - Field/Practicum Hrs - Hours \ 45 Instructors' Perceptions of a Trained Homemaker The most frequent adjectives in the list of the seventy-two adjectives (Appendix 12) submitted by the Co-ordinators of the thirteen community colleges describing the characteristics of trained homemakers, were: caring, responsible, empathetic, healthy, confident, competent, organized, and knowledgeable (See Table 7). An unanticipated finding was the presentation of a total of 72 different adjectives to describe the characteristics of a trained homemaker. Although caring, responsible, empathetic, healthy, confident, competent, organized and knowledgeable were the most frequently used adjectives, only the instructors from Capilano and Okanagan included the two adjectives listed in the goal statement of the Homemaker Training Program "to prepare a graduate who will be competent and confident in performing specified skills..." (p. of this report). Camosun, Selkirk and V.C.C. (King Edward Campus) included the adjective "confident," while East Kootenay, North Island and Northwest included the adjective "competent." If some of the adjectives describe important states to be achieved by homemakers, what instruction is necessary for homemakers to accomplish the desired states? According to Mager (1972), a goal 46 analysis would be a useful procedure in operationally defining the stated abstract goals. The function of a goal analysis, he says, is to help one say what one means in the use of abstract goals and would "describe the performances that represent your meaning of the goal" (p.ll.). Therefore, when an instructor perceives a trained homemaker, for example, to be empathetic, a goal analysis would identify the main performances that go to make up the meaning of the outcome - to be empathetic. TABLE 7 THE MOST FREQUENTLY USED ADJECTIVES LISTED BY COLLEGE INSTRUCTORS TO DESCRIBE A TRAINED HOMEMAKER ADJECTIVES COLLEGES Car ing Camosun, Capilano, Cariboo, Douglas, East Kootenay, Northern Lights, Northwest, Okanagan Respons ible Camosun, Capilano, Cariboo, Douglas, Northern Lights, Northwest, Okanagan, Selkirk Empathet ic Camosun, Capilano, Cariboo, Douglas, East Kootenay, Fraser Valley, Selkirk Healthy Cariboo, Fraser Valley, Malaspina, North Island, Northern Lights, Selkirk Confident Camosun, Capilano, Okanagan, Selkirk, V.C.C. C ompe tent Capilano, East Kootenay, North Island, Northwest, Okanagan Organized Camosun, Fraser Valley, Okanagan, Selkirk, V.C.C. Knowledgeable Camosun, Cariboo, Douglas, Selkirk, V.C.C. 4*. 48 SECTION VI Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations A survey was carried out in an attempt to compare and contrast some specific aspects of homemaker training programs in community colleges in British Columbia. The survey examined the types of programs, the competencies and objectives, the training sequences, the prerequisites for entry, and instructors' perceptions of a trained homemaker. It did not attempt to examine curriculum, instructional design and management, or any aspects of the learning experiences. The findings demonstrate that there were more variations than similarities. First, there were significant variations in total program hours and also in the hours students spent in classroom, laboratory and field experiences. Secondly, the process of student selection was not standardized, and the use of interviews may or may not have influenced selection of applicants. Thirdly, there were diverse opinions among the colleges as to the desired competencies for trained homemakers. Fourthly, the training sequences for rotations of classroom, laboratory and field experiences varied considerably; and finally, the data indicated that instructors' perceptions of the characteristics of a trained homemaker were not consistent. The analysis of the processes implicit in the information provided during the period of the survey showed a lack of standardization. This 49 is exemplified by the data about the prerequisites for students* entry and the hours of classroom, laboratory and field experiences required to accomplish the objectives, and to meet requirements for acccmplishing the competencies. The overall flexibility would appear to permit colleges to develop programs which are not subjected to specific standards of criteria which determine the hours of instruction or experience in the training program. The limitations in generalizing from this survey were recognized. However, it is suggested that the survey provides insights for adult educators, specifically in the area of program development, by demonstrating comparisons and contrasts in one type of program being conducted in a number of similar agencies. Furthermore, it indicates useful direction for further studies related to a training program for adult learners and provides information which might be used for further examination and discussions. 50 It is recommended: 1. THAT COMMUNITY COLLEGES CONDUCTING FULL-TIME AND/OR PART-TIME TRAINING PROGRAMS OF HOMEMAKERS FOR STUDENTS, WHO MEET STANDARD PREREQUISITES FOR ENTRY, ESTABLISH: - THE SAME NUMBER OF HOURS FOR EACH PROGRAM - EQUIVALENT RATIOS OF THEORY, LABORATORY AND PRACTICUM EXPERIENCES FOR EACH PROGRAM - CRITERIA FOR THE SEQUENCES OF ROTATIONS OF THEORY, LABORATORY AND PRACTICUM EXPERIENCE FOR EACH PROGRAM The implication of this recommendation would provide students with the opportunity to obtain the same training in community colleges conducting homemaker training programs. Furthermore, students would be able to transfer from one college to another with credit for training already completed. Employers would be able to expect trained homemakers with similar preparation and uniformity of training. It is recommended: 2. THAT GUIDELINES OF PREREQUISITE ENTRY REQUIREMENTS FOR STUDENT HOMEMAKERS BE ESTABLISHED. Established guidelines would enable prospective students to prepare themselves to meet the prerequisites for entry. The guidelines would provide colleges with direction for selection of prospective students because they would include expectations about candidates' competencies related to previous life, work and training experiences. For example, requirements for health, reading and writing comprehension, hours of previous employment and previous employers' references about character istics should assist in the selection process for entry into the program. 51 It is recommended: 3. THAT OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCIES AND SKILLS, VALIDATED IN THE FIELD, BE AGREED UPON BY THE ARTICULATION COMMITTEE MEMBERS AND ACCEPTED BY THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION. The use of agreed upon occupational competencies and skills would provide program planners and instructors with the specific information necessary for program developments. Employers and clients could be assured that all homemakers trained in community colleges had equivalent preparation in acquiring occupational competencies and skills. At present, because of the diversity in training programs, homemakers may not possess adequate skills and knowledge or appropriate attitudes. It is recommended: 4. THAT BEHAVIOURAL DESCRIPTIONS BE DEVELOPED OF THE DESIRED CHARACTERISTICS OF A TRAINED HOMEMAKER TO GUIDE INSTRUCTORS AND STUDENTS TOWARD THE ATTAINMENT OF ATTITUDES DESIRED AT THE COMPLETION OF TRAINING. The selection of specific desirable characteristics, agreed upon by consumers, employing agencies, the Articulation Committee and the Ministry of Education and described in behavioural terminology, would assist instructors in the guidance of students toward the attainment of attitudes appropriate in the work situation. It is recommended: 5. THAT A CONFERENCE BE CONVENED WITH REPRESENTATION FROM THE MINISTRIES OF EDUCATION AND HEALTH, COMMUNITY COLLEGES, HOMEMAKER SERVICE AGENCIES, CONSUMERS, INTERESTED PROFESSIONALS AND VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS IN ORDER TO PROVIDE FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR THE TRAINING OF HOMEMAKERS. The primary purpose of the conference would be the consideration of the means of promoting and facilitating the above recommendations developed 52 from the findings of this survey. The findings of the survey indicate that greater coordination between college training programs of homemakers is desirable. Implicit in the analysis of the findings is that trained homemakers are expected to be able to perform specific occupational skills and have a variety of characteristics; however, the variations in length of the programs and in the admission requirements result in many expectations of consumers, employers and homemakers being unmet. In conclusion, the focus of the proposed recommendations is toward the search for possible solutions to some of the problems identified in this survey. The survey suggests the nature and extent of the problems of specific aspects of homemaker training programs. In 1978, the introduction of the Long Term Care Program in British Columbia stimulated the need for an increased number of homemakers. It is timely to consider the future directions for the overall coordinated planning of homemaker training programs, address the funding sources for students in need of financial assistance and consider an evaluation process by which programs would be assessed on a continuing basis. An emphasis should be placed upon the necessity to have stabilized programs with the development of a competency based curriculum agreed upon by appropriate agencies and Ministries. 53 The recommendations, it is hoped, point the way to further action required to provide an improved educational training program for homemakers in British Columbia. 54 REFERENCES Annual Report, 1980-1981. Providing homemaker service to the community for 48 years: Community Homemaker Service Association. Annual Meeting, September 26, 1981. Auman, J. Study of the role, theory and practice of the occupation of homemaker. Unpublished thesis. U.B.C., 1981. Cornish, J. Letter to E.B. Ryan dated February 9, 1982 from the Co-ordinator of the Homemaker Training Program, V.C.C. (King Edward Campus). Cornish, J. & Cranstoun, J. Report of phase III, implementation of revised homemaker program, class of January, 1978. Homemaker program, Vancouver Community College, King Edward Campus, June 1978. The Community Homemaker. Community homemaker services association of British Columbia, Vancouver. Vol. 1, Number 9, March 1981. Dewald, M.R. Vocational home economics education. Handbook for Adult  Education, Resources in Education (RIE). September 1978. Hanson, D. et al. Training home care workers, Journal of Home  Economics, Spring 1980 27-30 Hendrickson, G. & David, H. A policy inquiry: Vocational education study. Journal of Home Economics, Spring 1980. Hole, F.M. A model curriculum and teaching guide for the instruction of the homemaker - home health aide. Bureau of Community Health Services (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, Md. Resources in Education RIE 1981. Home help service in Sweden in 1979. A summary. Socialstyrelsen. The National Board of Health and Welfare S-106 30 Stockholm, Sweden, 1979. The homemaker service for elderly persons in B.C. Prepared by the Committee on Aging, Social Planning and Review Council. (S.P.A.R.C.) 1977. Homemaker training in France Brochure (undated). Hutchinson, E. & Hutchinson, E. Learning later. London. Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1978. International council of homehelp services, associate member of the international council on social welfare with consultative status of the council of Europe. Founded 1959. Brochure (undated). 55 Kerstell, T. & Unge, C. Home help educational problems. Group discussion paper for use at the International Council of Homehelp Services Congress in Stockholm, Sweden, May 11-15, 1981. Mager, R.F. Goal Analysis. Belmont:Fearon Publishers, Inc., 1972. Mercer, M. Report on homemaker and related services. Compiled by M. Mercer for the Greater Vancouver Society for Coordinating Home Services, 1974. National report for the international congress of the I.C.H.S. in Montrose, Switzerland, May 15-21, 1977. Nebocat, S. Personal communication, July 18, 1982. (P.H.T.P.) Provincial homemaker training program (basic level) 1st working draft, Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Program Research and Development, Richmond, B.C., 1980. Regional meeting, the Provincial homemaker training program. Basic Level, New Curriculum, Richmond, B.C. November 15, 1979 and August 1980. Reisser, L. Approaches to recruiting the adult learner. In New  Decisions for Community Colleges Serving Lifelong Learners. San Francisco. Jossey-Bass Inc., 1980. Ryan, N. Service co-ordination and monitoring. In J. Quinn et al (Eds.) Co-ordinating Community Services for the Elderly. New York: Springer Publishing Company, Inc., 1982. Sage, D.C. Homemaker training program. Follow-up study. Program research and development. Department of British Columbia's Department of Education, February 1981. Simonsen, S. Letter to E.B. Ryan dated February 5, 1982 from the Co-ordinator of the Homemaker Training Program, Fraser Valley College. Staropoli, C.J. & Waltz, C.F. Developing and evaluating educational  programs for health care providers^ Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company, 1978. Visiting homemakers service in Canada survey 1982. Canadian Council on Homemaker Services, Ontario, 1982. Western Health Care Associates and Deloitte, Haskins and Sells. A review of Homemaker Service in British Columbia. A study presented to the Director, Home Care/Long Term Care, Ministry of Health, 1981. 56 APPENDIX 1 57 Proposed Changes to the HOMEMAKER (BASIC) SKILL PROFILE CHART October 1980 Working Draft Al to read - Plan meals to meet basic food requirements, giving consideration to personal and cultural preferences. A6 to read - Demonstrate understanding of emotional significance of food and of meal service to individuals and families. Items Bl-10 inclusive and B14-17 inclusive might be covered by an overall statement - plan with the client and implement a home cleaning and maintenance plan which maximizes client independence. Bll-13 inclusive might be sufficiently covered by the present B12 - take appropriate precautions to prevent fire and accident. Identify and describe (at the level of the informed consumer) common problems leading to a need for assistance with ADL. Other items in C tract to be renumbered appropriately. No changes Maintain good physical and mental health and hygiene practices. Perform duties with regard to personal physical and mental health safety. Identify the nature of the health and human services systems in British Columbia. Appropriate renumbering to be given to present Ell-16 inclusive. No changes General title "Helping Meet Human Needs". Identify basic human needs arising from each stage of normal human growth and development. CI becomes -D El to read -E3 to read -Ell to read -F New Tract G -Gl to read -G2 to read - Identify the significance of basic human needs in determining how a person behaves (e.g. separation/loss; fear of apprehension; sexuality). 58 G3 to read - Identify key factors which affect how a family meets its needs (e.g. cultural patterns, family roles and authority patterns). G4 to read - Describe common dysfunctional family patterns (e.g. drug and alcohol abuse, neglect or abuse of a family member, failure to perform family roles, depression). G5 to read - Demonstrate a helping response to individuals and families consistent with: - basic human needs - family needs - needs arising from stages of normal human growth and development - needs arising from a crisis situation - reactions (such as social isolation, sibling response, sexual identity concerns) to disabling conditions. 59 APPENDIX 2 60 QUESTIONNAIRE PREREQUISITES FOR ENTRY OF HOMEMAKER STUDENTS AND DELIVERY MODELS FOR HOMEMAKER TRAINING COURSES This questionnaire is about the prerequisites for homemaker aide students entering community college programs and the models of delivery for these training programs. Please respond by circling the appropriate answer or by supplying the appropriate information. Do you have a Homemaker Training Program? YES NO Is the program related to the Provincial Homemaker Skill Profile Draft dated October 1980? YES NO If yes to #2, please check specifically the sections of the Homemaker (Basic) Skill Profile Chart which are related to your program: a) Prepare and serve nutritious meals YES NO b) Promote household safety and cleanliness YES NO c) Provide assistance in activities of daily living YES NO d) Communicate with clients and family YES NO e) Work responsibly YES NO f) Handle emergency situations YES NO Is the program a pre-employment training program? YES NO Is the program an upgrading program for those persons already employed as homemakers? YES NO If yes to #5f are there a minimal number of hours of previous employment required in a homemaker agency? YES NO If yes to #6, please state how many hours Hours Is the same program used for both pre-employment training and upgrading? YES NO Can candidates challenge any of the courses for: a) Previous work experience YES NO b) Personal experience YES NO c) Other training YES NO 61 10. Please identify the challenge criteria you use for the students: (a) Previous work experience: (b) Personal experience: (c) Other training: 62 11. Please place an X in all the boxes that apply. TYPES OF PROGRAM a) Regular day courses b) Regular evening courses c) Correspondence courses d) Intensive short courses or workshops e) Other please name 12. Is each applicant interviewed before being accepted into the program(s) you have marked in Question 11? Program a) YES NO Program b) YES NO Program c) YES NO Program d) YES NO Program e) YES NO 13. Are the results of the interview a criterion for selection or rejection of the applicant? YES NO 14. Who conducts the interview? Position of person(s) FULL TIME PART TIME PRE-EMPLOY MENT UP GRADING 63 22. Do you ask for an employment history? YES NO 23. Do you ask for a volunteer work history? YES NO The above questions identify health, educational and employment history and the reasons for wanting to be a homemaker. 24. Are there other requirements? 25. Please list 12 adjectives which best describe a trained homemaker. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. .64 15. Do you ask for: a) Medical doctor's certificate regarding general state of health? YES NO b) Tuberculosis screening certificate? YES NO c) Immunization certificate? YES NO 16. Do you ask for evidence of reading comprehension? YES NO 17. If yes to #16, how do you test for reading comprehens ion? 18. Do you ask for evidence of writing comprehension? YES NO 19. If yes to #18, how do you test for writing comprehension? 20. Do you ask for the applicant's written reasons for wanting homemaker training? YES NO 21. If yes to #20, please explain for what reasons you request this information. 26. Please complete in the appropriate space, the distribution in hours of college and field experiences required for a student to complete each type of program(s) conducted at your college (50 minutes of instruction is taken to be equivalent to one hour). Types of Program Pre-employment Regular day courses Regular evening courses Correspondence courses Intensive short courses or workshops Other Name Upgrading Regular day courses Regular evening courses Correspondence courses Intensive short courses or workshops Other Name Combined pre-employment and upgrading  Regular day courses Regular evening courses Correspondence courses Intensive short courses or workshops Other Name College Experience Field Experience Classroom Experience (in hours) Laboratory Experience (in hours) Supervision by College Instructor (in hours) Supervision by Homemaker Agency Personnel (in hours) Field Demonstration by College Instructor (in hours) Total Course Hours ON. .6-7 APPENDIX 3 69, APPENDIX 4 70 LIST OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES COLLEGES CO-ORDINATORS OF HOMEMAKER AND/OR LONG TEFM CARE AIDE TRAINING PROGRAMS CAMOSUN COLLEGE Junction Campus 1627 Fort Street VICTORIA, B.C. V8R 1H8 498-5211 CAPILANO COLLEGE Main Campus 2055 Purcell Way NORTH VANCOUVER, B.C. V7J 3H5 986-1911 CARIBOO COLLEGE P.O. Box 3010 900 McGill Road KAMLOOPS, B.C. V2C 5N3 374-0123 DOUGLAS COLLEGE - Coquitlam c/o Box 2503 NEW WESTMINSTER, B.C. V3L 5B2 939-6611 KWANTLEN COLLEGE (formerly Douglas) 9260 - 140th Street SURREY, B.C. 588-4411 EAST KOOTENAY COMMUNITY COLLEGE Box 8500 CRANBROOK, B.C. VIC 5L7 489-2751 FRASER VALLEY COLLEGE 45600 Airport Road CHILLIWACK, B.C. V2B 6T4 792-0025 HELEN MALLET TERRY ALDER JUDY WILBEE BETTY EMERY JAN CARRUTHERS JOAN PAWESKA SUE SIMONSEN MALASPINA COLLEGE 900 - 5th Street NANAIMO, B.C. V9R 5S5 753-3245 ETHEL TURNER COLLEGE OP NEW CALEDONIA 3330 - 22nd Avenue PRINCE GEORGE, B.C. .V2N 1P8 562-2131 NORTH ISLAND COLLEGE 156 Manor Drive COMOX, B.C. V9N 6P7 339-5551 NORTHERN LIGHTS COLLEGE 11401 - 8th Street DAWSON CREEK, B.C. VlG 4G2 782-5251 NORTHWEST COMMUNITY COLLEGE Box 726 TERRACE, B.C. V8G 4C2 635-6511 OKANAGAN COLLEGE 1000 KID Road KELOWNA, B.C. VlY 4X8 762-5445 SELKIRK COLLEGE 2201 Silver King Road NELSON, B.C. VIL 1C8 352-6601 VANCOUVER COMMUNITY COLLEGE King Edward Campus 2750 Oak Street VANCOUVER, B.C. V6H 3N2 731-4614 GLORIA HEINZMAN LINDA RYEHLEN THELMA IRVING FRED HISLOP MARY ANNE DAY PHYLLIS HILTZ-BONTJE JOAN CORNISH 72 APPENDIX 5 74 APPENDIX 6 76 APPENDIX 7 APPENDIX 7 TYPES OF PROGRAMS FOR HOMEMAKERS PE - Pre-employment UG - Upgrading FT - Full-t ime PT - Part-time Pre-emplo Upgrading Day Programs Upgrading Evening yment Day Programs (FT) (FT,PT) Programs (PT) College Exp. Field Total College Field Total College Field Total Experience Hours Exp. Exp. Hours Exp. Exp. Hours Day Eveninc Programs E O Laboratory Supervision by College Instructor Supervision by HM Agency Personnel Field demo, by College Instructor Classroom Laboratory Supervision by HM Agency Personnel Classroom Laboratory Supervision by College Instructor PE (FT) UG (FT) (PT) PE (PT) UG (PT) Classro Laboratory Supervision by College Instructor Supervision by HM Agency Personnel Field demo, by College Instructor Classroom Laboratory Supervision by HM Agency Personnel Classroom Laboratory Supervision by College Instructor Camosun v7 s/ - - 120 120 ' 180 - 420 120 120 - 240 - - - - . Capilano V7 -' - v7 200 142 180 - 450 - - - - 130 50 - 180 Cariboo v7 - - 180 48 126 96 - 450 150 30 - 180 - - - -Douglas *1 - - v7 - - - - - - - - - - 180 12 - 192 East Kootenay V V - - 120 60 *2 6 24 *2 6 210 90 30 - 120 - - - -Fraser Valley V7 v7 - V7 170 40 5 150 10 360 115 *3 50 - 165 120 50 *4 170 Malaspina *5 V v7 - - 142 158 68 76 90 246 If 300 480 142 68 90 300 - - - -North Island V7 - - v7 180 60 240 - - 480 - - - - 90 30 120 Northern Lights v7 - - - 192 84 30 90 *6 24 420 - - - - - - - -Northwest s/ - - v7 90 90 90 90 - 360 - - - - 90 90 180 Okanagan s/ v7 - - 150 30 155 25 50 360 150 30 - 180 - - - -Selkirk - - - V7 - - - - - - - - - - 216 72 - 288 VCC King Edward V7 - - •/ 266 47 66 - - 379 - - - - 180 - 180 *1 Douglas *2 East Kootenay *3 Fraser Valley *4 *5 Malaspina *6 Northern Lights One student was in a directed study program. The program is a combined upgrading/pre-employment program. Either 6 hours of supervision or 6 hours field demonstration by instructor. Students also received a 5 hour learning package. Students had 130 hours of. supervised work experience. College assists homemaker agencies with 30 hour orientation program. College had duel LTC/HM program as well as a combined HM pre-employment/upgrading program, Field trips replaced field demonstration by college instructor. 78 APPENDIX 8 British Columbia APPENDIX 8 WMEIiMKER (BASIC) 8COII PROFILE CHART Davoloped by; Program nojcnruh and povelapmon} Posl Socoudr.ry Division, Mlnlulry al Education /? GRAPOHT£ OF THE PROVINCIAL- HOME MAKER TRAINING PR06HAM (PflSlC) WILL BE MLE Jo Cfc/obcr RVO PREPARE AND SERVE NUTRITIOUS HEALS A • / PRaiwoTS \ \HOUSE HOLD SAFLTT? AWO CLEAN £./N£~3ty 3 _lv PROVIDE tiS&SrBNCE. IN ACTIvines OF PAILY LIVING \C / ConnoNicmE WITH cue NTS D Ano FAMit-j WORK RESPONSIBLY £ HANDLE EMERGENCY SITUATIONS PLAN NEALS n MEEI'BA-IC fct>e\ /ffTOU/lENENTS AND PERSONAL PR£F£R£NCESf \vse COMMON \CLEANINb [APPLIANCES \AND SUPPLIES L IDENTIFY AND REPORTHAZARDS] Ti> HEALTH MNP SHF£TY(£', trxu% TUFAL.PESTS. 12., FAULTY £GjiPri£Hr\ ASSIST CLIENT WITH PERSONAL &RCCMIN6 \(£6. HAiR.SIIAI-INb DKCSSING)/ CAAAY OUT RECom/neNOJ-D\ \/RoC£liu£cz f°* \CoM/nc* MAIAPISS (E.G. COLDS. FLU. Ere.) /3 ASSIST ' WITH PROSTHESES INTRODUCE 3?LF\ AND EXPLAIN ROLE \AND SERVICES __rt MAINTA/N GOOP HEALTH AND HYGIENIC PRACTICES USE TELEPHONE FSPPFPPAIATELY Alio EFFecriv^l APPLY GENERAL. FlRST AID PROCEDURES ME.G. ResTumnm. meoicAL HELP)I PURCHASE \fcops seiEC \TIVELY /E.G. sipisr NUTRITION) . SLOEEP. VACUUM f\ND WASH FLOORS ORGANIZE {CLEANING AND MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES EFFICIENTLY. 2il ASSIST CLIENT WITH ORAL HYGIENE \(/KCL'JOINn. MAKE OCCUPIED BED -ft TESTOSINE \FOR plA BETICS OBSERVE COMMON COURTESIES MAINTAIN APPROPRIATE UPCOMING AND APPEARANCE-ACTIONS Ave OBSERVATIONS IT ATTEND-re AND REFKKT ».'HCR INJUPES (E.G. -riribS 3RVICSS, 3L,1PS CUTS Era.) X HANDLE AND STORE POOP SAFELY 3 SELECT AND FCUOlV SIMPLE RECIPES OPERATE AND CARS FCR COMMON KITCHEN APPLIANCES. . Si CLEAN BATHROOM UNP KITCHEN PLAN IICV^E KEf-PlNt* ROUTINE WITH CLIENT IS VTSSIST CLIENT TO TIPY [AND DUST ASSIST CLIENT WITH TCILETTINCP (AS PTR GlttOiTL/H^sJ-^ ASSIST lUlTH TRANSFERRING SPEAK IN A \MANNER TO BE\ READILY 3 'JNDERSTCOO 'ES. VOCH&UlAKf\ Q-lTlCN \DLL>n£ PERFORM PunES IUITH REGARD Tc PERSONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY % COMF1 £T£ UlCPK RECORDS IS REPbRT ABNORMAL ACTIONS. SYMPTOMS. \CLEAH U)INDOil)S\ C.UPSOARDS. mAToR "APPLIANCES s RESPECT PERSONAL UEi-ONGINGS yntDiFicorioMi HRICH MitKS IND£-purND^N'0£ STRAIGHTEN \CCCUPlED BED AND MAKE UNOCCUPIED BED 4 ASSIST WITH WALKING (.HOVERINb) PROVIDE ij? PYSSISTANCe TO -raiLET OR COMMODE. CHAIR ^ ASSIST kl/Th * SEP BATH, SHOWER OR TVS BATH IM LISTEN TO ANP RP SPPCTCUENT\ FtrtlL i o lMll£3 1«D CoNCHKHS 4 CONVERSE U)ITh\ CLIENT/') IN A A THEN PLY AND APPROPItl'TTE MANNER £ pgRFann i\riEs\ WITHIN ROLE AND PEASONHI CoriPEfENCE ± GIVE FIRST PXioRnY TO THE u/ElFARE \OF THE CLIENT £ Wo It K CooPUKfl TIV<?LY flHO ^HARC INFOKMFI'ON WiTH TtTAtA., MeMAEffS Ho ASSIST CHOKING OA CONVULSING INDIVIDUAL-* CONTROL EXTERNAL BLP'L'-PING WRAME MEAL-\riMES AND KERVlCE OONLia \/VE TO ENJOY MENT AND \DI(-l-::TX)N t> CLEAN UP AFrE-l />.V.VIr:s« (••••i. PiPllES. *FOOD, tUASTE>. ETC.) y MAKE BEDS CtiRE Rap. FURNISHINC' S PROVIDE I ASSISTANCE >IN fOSmCNINb IN 8EDCRCHHIH 6 ftZZlST WITH COMFORT ANP •SAFETY FOR THE CLl&vTlN HEP ORCHHlR y ASSISTlUrry* \2ARE OF NAILS i&A PROVIDE CARE TO T1AINTAIN \I£ALTHY SKIN m RESPOND TO i\pp,?3i'Rinri LY PERSONAL REQUESTS MAKE SU&bESTlONS TASTFVLLY PEtKNSTKATE PUNCTUALITY, PEPENPABII I'lT, ^ANO INTZ&RITY b £EKCAS77?Ar£ LTTI/OliL APPSt/C TC SERVICES SUAIMOH APP/tol°Kll}T£ ASSISTANCE CE.G. RID no. COPE UIITH VNANWCIPATED OCCURIUNCiTS fob. P&>rll. Fifies? FA tlUAE. \ORMNIZS  SHOPPING COOK ING, iERVIHtr AND CLEAN UP ACTIVITIES LTFFIClENTLYy] /IPRANGE FURNISHINGS FOR CU ENT CcTNI'SNlENCE' AND SAFSFYQ ENCCVRASE RECREATIONAL ANP PIVEPS.'O.VAL. /ACTIVITIES g ASSIST WlTH*\ GENERAL MO&IL.TTY VE.G. ICALKIN^)_ SUPfORT CLl£NT\ ACH/£i£,fE.\HS, STRENGTHS AN-INDEPENDENCE] RECCiNlZE ANP MAINTAIN CONFIPEVTIAL. INFORMATICN-C [PREPARE [INFANT \FORPIOLA FAX-; UJRTTTEN INSTRUCTIONS 2 PREPARE SPECIAL. P/fiVS \"RCM tVRlTTLzN yNSTPllCTTONS 10 LFtVNPSR • )NPCAREPCR QLCIHES rWl> Hotl$£RoLL\ LINEN 9 3 C3SEAVE AND REPCATCHANi VNAOPVTTY AND ,6£-tfAVioKI*rTSfih±. tT.,V/V. £llMf»HTlOH.\ ,j:wr*>*T IJ WSSIST INFANTA "CHILDREN AND 'IC PER ATELY [INCAPACITATED \ADULTS UIITH FEEDING 2H INVOLVE CLIENT IN DECISION -MAKING, PLANNING llN'.\ ACTIVITIES 9| RECCiNlZE LEGAL RE^nxwsiX'Lfi:; PLfi/O TNTAKC ,AHO SoiINO \NurRiTloN II \ASSlST IN \*!IHNWHVfN<* \DIET/)KY A»o FLUID PifPXE. CF SAUSAGE AND REFUSE \HANDLE ANP—I \STCRE CLEANINE \RC£NTS INFLAMH-UgLES, POISONS WHP PESTIOJPES ]£TC, SAFEL-Y TAKE APPROPRIATE PRECAUTION* TO PREVENT FlfiS AND ACCIDENTS 12 BATHS AND CHANGE INFAmS 10 OR6ANIZE PERSONAL ASSISTANCE ROUTINES lOTTH CLIENT It TAKE TEMPERATURE BY FIOUTH OR AXIU-A II RETIINP /V/VOIH ASSIST CLIENT] TO TAKE PRES CRlBED ORAL MEDIO^TION^ EnPTY ANP K MEASi'RE USINL FR.OM PRAINAU BAGS 23_ lApfLY ANP #r REMOVEI NON-STERILE PRESSINGS 2-h RESPOND IN HELPFUL IUAYS IN SMOriCNAL. SlTUATIONS IC PECaSNIlE CLIENTS/ • FADlUr-* .<ycc*ir.;:i:ji; FoK CtjxNfl *ltr» i-PXClAL W--5S(Vo VM*. lit*B SH-cai I'Mli'ro cf rCUOU) /<\-SrHUCT.V.\£ AVP D:#ECT:CNS F?LLOtl> 'cENOY IPLIClES AND PfiOCEtX 'KES II REPORT TO IANP CONSULT ItUlTH SUPER-\VISoH AP.'RCP-RlATELY 12 VD 80 APPENDIX 9 APPENDIX 9 BASIC HOMEMAKER PROGRAM 1981 OVERVIEW OF UNITS AND GENERAL OBJECTIVES I. DEMONSTRATES SKILLS IN HUMAN RELATIONS I . 1 Demonstrates communication skills. 1.1 Demonstrates use of oral & written English, 1.2 Demonstrates interpersonal skills. 1.2 Demonstrates basic components of a helping/caring relat ionsh ip. 2.1 Respects individual and promotes self-esteem. 2.2 Promotes independence. 2.3 Recognizes own limitations. II. SUPPORTS INDIVIDUAL AND FAMILY GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT II.1 Describes basic human needs. 1.1 Describes need for survival. 1.2 Describes need for securit y. 1.3 Describes need for st imulat ion. 1.4 Describes need for love & belonging. 1.5 Describes need for esteem & achievement II.2 Describes basic body structure & functions. 2.1 Describes how the bod y meets the need for survival. 2.2 Describes how the body meets the need For security. 2.3 Descibes how the body meets the need for stimulation. II.3 Describes growth and development from birth to old age . 3.1 Describes growth & development during prenatal infancy & early childhood. 3.2 Describes growth & development during middle childhood. 3.3 Describes growth & development during ado lescence. 3.4 Describes growth & development during early adulthood. 3.5 Describes growth A: development during middle age. 3.6 Describes growth & development during old age. 3.7 Describes dying. III. DEMONSTRATES JOB-RELATED SKILLS AND RESPONSIBILITIES AND PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS III.l Assumes responsibilities III as an employee. 1.1 Demonstrates job-finding skills. 1.2 Describes policies & procedures related to employment. 1.3 Demonstrates a responsible approach to own work. 1.4 Demonstrates organization skills . IV. PROVIDES CARE Assumes responsibil ities as a health/ human services worker, III.3 Demonstrates problem solving skills. 2.1 Comprehends the nature of health/ human services in British Columbia. 2.2 Demonstrates an ethical approach to own work. 2.3 Identifies legal responsibilities. 2.4 Maintains standards of health, personal hygiene & grooming. Applies solving Appli es solving the problem proc ess . the problem process in groups. II.4 Describes family development . 4.1 Describes the family1 role in growth & de ve 1 op me nt. IV.1 Maintains environment. 1.1 Promotes a clean environment. 1 .2 Promotes a comfortable & attractive environment 1.3 Promotes safety. 1.4 Uses & cares for equipment & supplies. 1.5 Copes with emergency situations. IV.2 Promotes activity and comfort. IV .3 2.1 Applies principles of body mechanics. 2.2 Promotes exercise and activity. 2.3 Encourages diversional & recreational act ivit ies. 2.4 Promotes comfort, rest & sleep. Pr ov ide s care. pe rsonal IV .4 3.1 3.2 Provides hygiene . Pr omot es personal eliminat ion, Attends needs. to nutritional 4.1 4.2 4.3 Pr omot es Promotes balance . Provides nutrit ion. fluid for nutrition, 82 APPENDIX 10 APPENDIX 10 PREREQUISITES FOR ENTRY OF HOMiMAKER STUDENTS PE - Pre-enploynent PE UG PE UG PE UG PE UG PE UG PE UG PE UG PE UG PE UG PE UG PE UG PE UG PE UG College 5 CO o e CO o c CO rt •H Cu CO o o XI •H CH CO cn CO rt cn => o >* CO £ cn o CO o fH >, CD CD cn —1 CO rt fH CD CD C •H Cu cn CO rt CD -o x: c -P CO fH rt o cn CD cn SZ 4-> 4-i x: fn cn O -H -P CO CD S SZ H-> fH o c CO cn CD c CO j^ J^ fH •H J* rt CD CJ CJ 1. Program related to Provincial Homemaker Skill Profile Draft October 1980 CJ CJ CJ Q Lu > X Z rt z _l z o CO > Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 2. Sections of the P.H.S.P.D. related to program: a) prepare and serve nutritious meal b) promote household safety and cleanliness c) provide assistance in activities of daily living d) communicate with clients and family e) work responsibility f) handle emergency situations Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes-Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes *1 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 3. Pre-employment training program Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes *2 No Yes 4. Upgrading program Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes 5. Minimal hours of previous employment in H.M. agency Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes - No No Yes No 6. Minimal hours required *3 - - 500 100 »4 1800 *5 3600 1240 800 _ _ _ *6 900 _ 7. Same program used for pre-employment & upgrading training Yes Yes Yes - Yes Yes Yes Yes - No Yes - No 8. Can candidates challenge courses for: a) previous work experience b) personal experience c) other training No No No No No *10 Yes No No No *7 Yes No No *8a Yes *a> Yes *8= Yes No No No *9a Yes No *9b Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No 9. a) Medical doctor's certificate b) Tuberculosis screening certificate c) Immunization certificate Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 10. Evidence of reading comprehension Yes *11 No *12a No No *13a Yes •14 Yes No *15 Yes No •16 Yes *17a No No *18a Yes 11. Evidence of writing comprehension Yes No *12b No No *13b Yes No No No No No ,*17b No No *18b Yes 12. Written reasons for wanting homemaker training No *19 No No No *20 No *21 No *22 Yes No No No No No *23 Yes 13. Employment history Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 14. Volunteer history No Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 15. Other requirements - - - - *24 Yes - - - •25 Yes *26 Yes *27 Yes _ *2B Yes 16. Interviewed *29 Yes *30 Yes *31 Yes No *32 Yes(PE) No(UG) *33 Yes(PE) No(UG) *34 Yes *35 Yes No *36 Yes *37 Yes(PE) No(UG) No *38 Yes 17. Interview criterion for selection Yes Yes No - Yes Yes Yes No - Yes Yes - Yes • co CO APPENDIX 10 (cont'd) * 3 * 29 * 10 * 11 * 19 * 30 * 12a, b * 31 * 7 * 4 * 8a, b, c * 13a, b * 20 * 24 * 32 * 5 * 14 * 21 * 33 * 9a, b * 22 * 34 * 15 * 35 * 25 * 16 * 26 * 36 * 17a, b * 27 * 37 * 2 * 6 * 1 * 18a, b * 28 * 39 CAMOSUN CAPILANO CARIBOO DOUGLAS EAST KOOTENAY FRASER VALLEY MALASPINA NORTH ISLAND NORTHERN LIGHTS NORTHWEST OKANAGAN SELKIRK V.C.C. A recommendation from a homemaker agency was required. Faculty Co-ordinator Evidence of previous training (i.e. certficate, transcript, course outline). Reading tests were supplied by the basic training skills development department for some E.S.L. (English as a second language) students. Received orally. Co-ordinator of Health Programs, Instructor of Homemaker Program TOEFEL (Tests of Equivalents for English Language) will be used. Counsellor, Registrar's office. The challenge criteria for previous work experience was 100 hours plus the homemaker agency's affirmation of skills learned. If a student had no experience, he/she may register, but must complete 100 hours field experience or a practicum ccmponert derranstrating competency in required skills, before the program ends. One year was equated to 1,800 hours. Students for upgrading program must be recommended by a homemaker agency or a Long Term Care Facility. Pre-employment students must present a resume. Evidence of reading and writing comprehension by completion of an application form was a requirement for pre-employment students. Received orally. Citizenship. Co-ordinator of Health Programs, Instructor of Homemaker Program Many (or some) years equated to 3,600 hours. Grade 10 high school credentials. Received orally. Co-ordinator of Health Programs, Instructor of Homemaker Program. Students who had work experience of 1,2450 hours, an orientation program and a "good" evaluation. Students were then aware of having suitable transportation, salaries, and perhaps the necessity of full-time work for one-parent families Department Head or Faculty member, LTC Program. Grade 10 or below, do not read for plesure, a student is referred to G.E.D. (General Education Department). Tutor-in-charge of Homemaker Program. Co-ordinator of Human Service Program. A caring and interested attitude. Read and write English. A good attitude. Instructor, Manpower Counsellor (College Representative) Grade 8. A genuine interest in helping. Instructor. A pre-employment program date was set tentatively for April 1982. Six months was equated to 900 hours. The Provincial Homemaker Skill Profile Draft, October 1980, is outdated. The new statement of competencies is used. Tested informally during selection process, also by formal tests. Financial and lifestyle factors, time management skills and child care arrangements. Program Assistant and/or Co-ordinator Homemaker Program. 85--APPENDIX 11 APPENDIX 11 TRAINING SEQUENCES Type of Length of Program College Program in Weeks Classroom/Laboratory/Practicum & Field Experiences Camosun PE Day 14 Weeks 1-8 CR/Lab (240 hrs) 9-14 FE (180 hrs) UG Day 8 1-8 CR/Lab (240 hrs) Capilano PE Day 15 No set sequence UG Ev 6 One 6 hour session a week for 30 weeks Cariboo PE Day 15 Weeks 1-3 CR (80 hrs) Lab (10 hrs) 4-9 CR (90 hrs) Lab (18 hrs) FE (72 hrs) 10 CR (30 hrs) 11-15 FE (150 hrs) UG Day 6 1-6 CR (150 hrs) Lab (30 hrs) Douglas PE/UG Ev 6 3/5 Program is divided into 4 steps. Each step is 15 weekly sessions of one 3 hr. night per week East Kootenay PE Day 7 Weeks 1-6 CR/Lab (180 hrs) 7 Practicum (30 hrs) UG Day 4 1-4 CR/Lab (120 hrs) Fraser Valley PE Day 12 Weeks 1-2 CR (30 hrs) Practicum (30 hrs) 3-5 CR (70 hrs) Lab (20 hrs) 6-7 Practicum (60 hrs) 8-10 CR (70 hrs) Lab (20 hrs) 11-12 Pract icum (60 hrs) UG Day 5 1/6 1-6 CR (115 hrs) Lab (50 hrs) UG Ev 5 2/3 1-6 CR (10 hrs) Lab (50 hrs) Malaspina PE Day 10 Weeks 1-5 CR (80 hrs) Lab (40 hrs) Practicum (30 hrs) 6-8 CR (20 hrs) Lab (10 hrs) Practicum (30 hrs) 9-10 CR (42 hrs) Lab (18 hrs) Practicum (30 hrs) UG Day 10 Same as for PE Day Program PE Day 16 Weeks 1-5 CR (80 hrs) Lab (40 hrs) Practicum (30 hrs) (LTC/HM 6-9 CR (16 hrs) Lab (8 hrs) Practicum (96 hrs) double 10-13 CR (20 hrs) Lab (20 hrs) Practicum (90 hrs) certificate) 14-16 CR (42 hrs) Lab (18 hrs) Practicum (30 hrs) North Island PE Day 16 Weeks 1-5 CR (150 hrs) Lab (60 hrs) 6-7 Lab (60 hrs) 8 CR (30 hrs) 9-16 Practicum (240 hrs) UG Ev 4 1-3 CR/Lab (90 hrs) 4 Practicum (30 hrs) Northern Lights PE Day 14 Weeks 1-9 CR/Lab (276 hrs) 10-14 Practicum (144 hrs) Northwest PE Day 12 Weeks 1-12 CR (90 hrs) Lab (90 hrs) Practicum (180 hrs) UG Ev 6 Program is 1 night 3 hrs. per week for 60 weeks Okanagan PE Day 12 Weeks 1-3 CR/Lab (90 hrs) 4-5 Practicum (90 hrs) 7-9 CR (90 hrs) 10-12 CR/Practicum (90 hrs) UG Day 6 1-3 CR/Lab (90 hrs) 4-6 CR (90 hrs) Selkirk UG Ev 9 3/5 Weeks 1-9 3/5 CR (216 hrs) Lab (72 hrs) V.C.C. PE Day 12 2/3 Weeks 1-12 2/3 CR (265.15) Lab (47.45) Practicum (66 hrs) UG Ev 6 Program is divided into 4 blocks. Each block is 15 weekly sessions of one 3 hr. night per week oo 87 APPENDIX 12 APPENDIX 12 COMMUNITY COLLEGES INSTRUCTORS' PERCEPTIONS OF A TRAINED HOMEMAKER College Adjectives Describing Trained Homemakers  Camosun Responsible, accountable, organized, adaptable, skilled, knowledgeable, safe, confident empathetic, caring, positive, well-groomed Capilano Responsible, competent, flexible, efficient, caring, understanding, confident, professional, accepting, ethical, empathetic, co-operative Cariboo Empathetic, humourous, se1f-directed, caring, patient, knowledgeable, flexible, responsible, ethical, open-minded, respectful, healthy Douglas Empathetic, caring, honest, self-reliant, assertive, interested, concise, observant, accurate, reliable, knowledgeable, responsible East Kootenay Informed, independent, conscientious, courteous, thorough, kind, reliable, honest, concerned, competent, helping, caring Fraser Valley Capable, healthy, stable, competent, clean, informed, empathetic, strong, humourous, organized, decisive, sensitive Malaspina Healthy, observant, punctual, reliable, honest, flexible, independent, practical, discreet, non-judgmental , communicative, understanding North Island Honest, dependable, ethical, independent, clean, healthy, articulate, communicative, courteous, friendly, patient, competent Northern Lights Caring, conscientious, reliable, pleasant, stable, healthy, interested, responsible, respectful, concerned, independent, resourceful Northwest Interested, competent, kind, caring, pleasant, efficient, responsible, self-reliant, industrious, understanding, compassionate, firm Okanagan Mature, caring, dependable, trustworthy, responsible, well-groomed, confident, organized, observant, industrious, competent, reputable Selkirk Dependable, knowledgeable, empathetic, nurturing, friendly, confident, healthy, flexible, outgoing, dexterous, organized, responsible V.C.C, King Confident, flexible, reliable, organized, punctual, knowledgeable, efficient, Edward Campus resourceful, motivated, co-operative, objective, tactful 89 APPENDIX 13 APPENDIX 13 PROVINCIAL HOMEMAKER CURRICULUM TERMINAL OBJECTIVES A. TRACK - COMMUNICATIONS Use principles of communication in job situations. B. TRACK - HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT Demonstrate a helping response to clients at various stages of growth and development. C. TRACK - OCCUPATIONAL ROLE AND FUNCTION Perform the role of the homemaker according to commonly accepted legal, ethical and occupational standards. D. TRACK - PROTECTION IN THE HOME Meet needs for protection in the home. E. TRACK - FOOD AND MEAL MANAGEMENT Use principles of nutrition and meal management to meet needs for nutrition in the home . F. TRACK - ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING Assist clients in the home to maintain activities of daily living. G. TRACK - EMPLOYMENT MARKET Oriented to the employment market. 2GPA-PH0-2 February 3, 1982 -O 


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