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Description and analysis of homemaker training programs in British Columbia community colleges Ryan, Eileen Brigid 1983

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DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS OF HOMEMAKER TRAINING PROGRAMS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA COMMUNITY COLLEGES by  EILEEN BRIGID RYAN B.Sc.N., University of Alberta, 1972  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF EDUCATION in ADULT EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF ADMINISTRATIVE, ADULT AND HIGHER EDUCATION THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES  Vfe accept this thesis as conforming to the required standards  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 1983 ©  EILEEN BRIGID RYAN  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  be granted by the head o f my  department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . understood t h a t  It is  c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s  for f i n a n c i a l gain  s h a l l not be allowed without my  written  permission.  Department o f  A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , Adult and H i g h e r t d u c a t i o n , Ihe h a c u l t y o f G r a d u a t e S t u d i e s  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date  Columbia  11  ABSTRACT  The purpose of t h i s survey was to compare and contrast homemaker t r a i n i n g programs i n f i f t e e n community colleges in B r i t i s h Columbia. Program aspects examined were the types of homemaker programs o f f e r e d , sequences of the classroom, laboratory and f i e l d experiences, occupational competencies and o b j e c t i v e s , prerequisites for entry of student homemakers and i n s t r u c t o r s '  perceptions of a trained homemaker..  The data were  c o l l e c t e d between January 29, 1982 and February 22, 1982. The a n a l y s i s of the data showed that of the t h i r t e e n colleges conducting homemaker programs, eleven offered f u l l - t i m e pre-employment day programs, seven o f f e r e d part-time upgrading evening programs, with one of these colleges o f f e r i n g a combined pre-employment program, and s i x colleges offered f u l l - t i m e and part-time upgrading day programs. There were v a r i a t i o n s in the t o t a l program hours and in the hours spent by homemaker students i n classroom, laboratory and f i e l d experiences. There was not consistency i n the opinions of i n s t r u c t o r s about desired competencies or c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of trained homemakers and the process of student s e l e c t i o n was not standardized.  In addition to the discussions  of these f i n d i n g s , suggested recommendations are included.  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS Section I.  INTRDLXJCTION TO THE SURVEY  1  Rationale f o r the Survey Purpose of the Survey Divisions of the Paper  II.  HISTORY OF HOMEMAKER SERVICE AND TRAINING IN B.C  6  The History of Homemaker Service The Development of Training f o r Homemakers Homemaker Training i n Community Colleges  III.  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  15  Adult Education and Homemaker Training International Council of Homehelp Services European Countries United States of America Canada  TV.  THE SURVEY  27  Design Data C o l l e c t i o n V.  FINDINGS  31  Types o f Programs Competencies and Objectives Prerequisites f o r Entry Training Sequences Instructors' Perceptions of a Trained Homemaker  VI.  SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS  48  REFERENCES  54  iv  APPENDICES Page 1  2  Proposed Changes to the Homemaker (Basic) S k i l l P r o f i l e Chart (Working Draft) October 1980  . 57  Questionnaire, Prerequisites for Entry o f Homemaker Students and Delivery Models f o r Homemaker Training Courses  60  3  Letter t o Community Colleges Regarding the Survey  68  4  L i s t of Community Colleges i n B r i t i s h Columbia  5  Letter of acknowledgement of receipt of the Questionnaire L e t t e r which accompanied the d r a f t copy of the information c o l l e c t e d from the responses t o the Questionnaire, sent for v e r i f i c a t i o n and r e v i s i o n  6  7  8 9  70  73  75  Types of Homemaker Programs i n B r i t i s h Columbia Community Colleges  77  Homemaker (Basic) S k i l l P r o f i l e Chart (Working Draft) October 1980 .  79  Basic Homemaker Program 1981, Overview of Units and General Objectives  81  10  P r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r Entry f o r Homemaker Students  83  11  Training Sequences f o r Homemaker Training Programs  86  12  Community College Instructors' Perceptions of a Trained Homemaker P r o v i n c i a l Homemaker Curriculum, Framework of Objectives, February 1982  13  88 90  V  LIST OF TABLES  Table 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  Page B r i t i s h Columbia Colleges conducting Homemaker training  30  Prerequisites f o r Student Homemakers entering Community College Training Programs  36  Use of Personal Interviews of Prospective Students i n Selection Process i n Homemakers' Pre-employment and Upgrading Programs  39  Daytime Pre-employment Programs: Total Time of Program i n Weeks and Hours, Sequence i n Weeks, Hours of Classroom, Laboratory and Field/Practicum Experiences  41  Full-time and Part-time Upgrading Programs Total Time of Program i n Weeks and Hours Sequence by Weeks, Hours of Classroom, Laboratory and F i e l d / P r a c t icum Experiences  42  Part-time Upgrading Evening Programs, Length of Program i n Weeks and Hours, Sequence of Programs by Weeks, Classroom, Laboratory and Field/Practicum Experiences  43  The most frequently used adjectives l i s t e d by College Instructors to describe a trained homemaker  46  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  Thanks are given to my essay advisors. Dr. J . Thornton, Dr. T. Sork and Ms. S. Nebocat for their interest, assistance and support.  Thanks are also given to the Homemaker Co-ordinators of the Community Colleges whose co-operation enabled the survey to be accomplished.  1 SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE SURVEY Rationale f o r the Survey  One of the s o c i a l  and health issues which confront national and  international s o c i e t i e s and governments i s the care of e l d e r l y people. Today i n the western world, the r a t i o of people over 65 years to those under 65 years  i s 1 to 10.  The number of people  over 65 years i s  increasing to the extent that i n 50 years there w i l l be a r a t i o of one person over 65 years to f i v e persons under 65 years; therefore both the care of e l d e r l y people  i n need and the t r a i n i n g  of providers of t h i s  service are under c r i t i c a l analysis by health educators.  During regarding  the past the care  ten years, of  elderly  there  has been  people;  rather  a change than  i n focus  placement  in  i n s t i t u t i o n s , the emphasis now i s the provision of necessary services i n e l d e r l y people's own homes. their  The a b i l i t y of e l d e r l y people to remain i n  own homes depends upon the a v a i l a b i l i t y  of the provision of a  range of services such as the homemaker service, homecare nursing and meals-on-wheels.  The B r i t i s h Columbia government, i n 1978, introduced the Long Term Care Program which included the provision of assistance to c h r o n i c a l l y health impaired e l d e r l y people was  included  as  one  service  i n t h e i r own homes. providing  Homemaker  assistance  with  service cooking,  2  housecleaning, laundry, ironing, shopping for groceries, and personal assistance.  The homemaker working with elderly people aims to provide a  supportive and sustaining service to allow clients to continue living in their familiar surroundings as long as possible.  There are two main issues related to the increased homemaker services. required  One issue  i s about the complexity of care now  by the elderly in their homes.  personal assistance  such as assistance with  development of  They often need complicated  with mobilization, medications,  nutrition,  and coping  isolation, in addition  to housekeeping  services.  The other issue i s related to the development of training  programs necessary for the providers of these services.  There  are no  compulsory  Columbia for the homemaker who  educational i s employed  requirements  in British  by a homemaker agency.  Homemaker training may be a brief orientation period, or an orientation and  ongoing  inservice  program taught by agency supervisors  with a  variety of educational and professional backgrounds, or the homemaker's attendance at a community college homemaker training program, including orientation to the employing agency.  Since 1978, after  the Long Term Care Program was introduced,  additional homemaker training programs have been implemented in British Columbia's community colleges.  The programs prepare homemakers for  employment by agencies who provide homemaker services to the elderly in their homes and also to families in need identified by the Ministry of  3  Human Resources. in  community  Program;  colleges since  however,  available. in  There has not been a survey of these training programs  One  Greater  for  reports  introduction of and  a  survey  the  compiled  preparation  Co-ordinating  of Home  provided to families i n need.  by  Mary  a  report  about  Aging, S o c i a l Planning examined  the  and  need  Mercer by  Services  In 1977,  Long Term Care homemakers  are  the  which  prepared  Review Council for setting  in  1974.  Mercer  Greater  Vancouver  described  services  another report, "The Homemaker  Service for E l d e r l y Persons i n B.C.", was  report  the  report i s the "Report on Homemaker and Related Services  Vancouver"  co-ordinated Society  some  the  by the Committee on  (S.P.A.R.C.) of B.C.  priorities  f o r the  This  care of  the  e l d e r l y i n the community.  Sage (1981) conducted a survey t i t l e d "Homemaker Training Program: Follow-up  Study"  which  was  authorized  by  the  Program  Research  and  Development Department of B r i t i s h Columbia's Ministry of Education.  The  survey  and  obtained  "follow-up"  information  from graduates of  pilot  ongoing homemaker training programs.  In 1981 Auman, i n a "Study of the Role, Theory and Practice of the Occupation of  Homemaker", attempted  occurred i n the years from 1976  to examine the role  to 1980  changes that  and the discrepancy that existed  between the p r a c t i c e of homemakers i n an agency and the theory taught to homemakers by one client smaller  i n 1980 family  Community College.  as  being  unit  and  The  older than the had  a  study revealed the homemaker client  significantly  i n 1976, higher  was  from  percentage  a of  4  psychiatric and medical problems. with  child  care  in the  home.  Clients requested The  areas  of  less assistance  practice and  theory  discrepancy occurred in categories of monitoring the state of health of the client, assisting the client with medication and replacing Homecare nurses on a temporary basis. These three areas were not included in the colleges' curriculum.  "A  Review  of  Homemaker Services  in  British  Columbia"  (1981)  submitted to the Director of the Home Care/Long Term Care Program, Ministry of Health, was a study of the organizational structure and the financial aspects of homemaker agencies,  conducted by Western Health  Care Associates Ltd. and the management consultants Deloitte, Haskins and Sells Associates.  The targets of the organizational analysis were  the Community Homemaker Service Association of Greater Vancouver, and eight other homemaker services, "including a mix of sizes, proprietary and non-profit organizations, and agencies from both the Lower Mainland and other regions of the Province"  (p.2).  The findings from the study  were to develop "a prescription of the type of services and functions, as well as administrative structures for the purposes of cost-effective funding" (p.3).  The  above reports  and  homemaker training programs.  surveys did not  examine aspects  of  the  The Ministry of Education expected that  educational institutions responsible for delivery of homemaker training programs would respond to local need requirements and "modify and adapt the curriculum to meet those expressed needs" (P.H.T.P., 1980,  p.4).  5  It  would  appear to be timely  to examine some aspects of the  homemaker training programs developed in community colleges as they have modified and adapted the curricula to meet local community needs.  Purpose of the Survey  The  purpose of the survey was to compare and contrast homemaker  training programs in British Columbia's community colleges.  Program  aspects examined were the types of homemaker programs offered, the occupational  competencies  and  objectives,  the  sequences  of the  classroom, laboratory and field experiences, the prerequisites for entry and instructors' perceptions of a trained homemaker.  Divisions of the Paper  The remainder of this paper is divided into five sections. II  provides  a brief history of homemaker services  British,Columbia.  Section  and training in  Section III presents a literature review of M u l t  Education and Homemaker training, the International Council of Homehelp Services, and homemaker training i n European countries, United States of America and Canada.  Section IV contains  design and data collection procedures. of  the types of programs, occupational  a description of the survey  Section V provides the findings competencies and objectives,  prerequisites, training sequences and instructors' perceptions trained homemaker. and recommendations.  of a  The final section presents a summary, conclusions  6  SECTION II HISTORY OF HOMEMAKER SERVICE AND TRAINING IN BRITISH COLUMBIA The History of Homemaker Service  In 1978 when British Columbia's Ministry of Health created the Long Term Care Program, the growth and development of the occupation and the training of homemakers were accelerated.  The historical development of homemaker service and training, up to the introduction of the Long Term Care Program, is not well documented or recorded.  In an unpublished thesis, a Study of the Role, Theory and  Practice of the Occupation of Homemaker, Auman (1981), verifies this statement.  In  1938,  Family  Services  of  Greater  Vancouver  established  a  homemaker service, employing nine homemakers to assist families who were receiving counselling from that agency or receiving help from the Social Welfare Department (now Children's Aid Society.  called the Human Resources Department) or  the  As funds were in limited supply, the services  offered were on a short-term basis to families of two or more children. In 1966, the Provincial government agreed to an expansion of the service to persons of a l l ages and  families of  legislated Canada Assistance Plan. means test and the cost was governments.  a l l sizes under the  newly  The fees were set by a predetermined  shared between the Provincial and  Federal  7  By 1973, the Family Service's Homemaker Department had grown to such an extent that i t separated  from the agency and formed the Greater  Vancouver Area Homemaker Association, employing 280 homemakers.  The  role of the homemaker was to do housekeeping tasks and to give relief to parents.  In 1977 the agency changed i t s name to the present one, the  Community  Homemaker Service  Association  of Greater  Vancouver, and  employed 390 community homemakers.  Homemakers were selected for employment because of qualities such as  warmth of personality,  homemaking. laundry  and  adaptability and practical  knowledge of  Duties included cooking, cleaning, shopping for groceries, ironing.  As  the demand  for service  increased,  the  homemaker's role expanded to include personal assistance provided under medical supervision, including the care of babies, sick children, the chronically i l l ,  the f r a i l elderly and those who were physically and  mentally disabled.  Service was provided to families and individuals who  were unable to manage satisfactorily in their own homes due to a health or social problem.  In 1978, when the creation of the Long Term Care Program occurred, there were 69 non-profit and proprietary (profit) homemaker agencies in the Province.  By 1981, there were 79 non-profit homemaker  with membership in the Community Homemaker Services  agencies,  Association of  British Columbia, plus an additional 10 non-profit agencies which were not  members,  and 11 proprietary  employed by the 79 non-profit  agencies.  Over 6,000 homemakers  agencies provided  4,400,000 hours of  8  service per year to clients, most of whom were over the age of 65 (The Community Homemaker, March  1981).  The Development of Training for Homemakers  In the years  from 1938 to 1 9 6 5 ,  homemakers, under the Welfare  Department's (now Human Resources) Social Assistance Plan (now GAIN Guaranteed Available Income for Need), were hired  from the Family  Services of Greater Vancouver, or the family i n need would find a private  homemaker and the Department of Welfare  funding for the salary.  would provide the  Agencies provided orientation and inservice  training for staff; however, there was a lack of trained housekeepers to give aid to families.  In May 1 9 6 5 a program was offered by the  Vancouver Community  College  Institute,  women to be housekeepers.  to train  on the campus of Vancouver Vocational In June  1965  the  Provincial government approved this Trained Family Aide Program. The program was four months in length and included the following topics: - Food preparation and service - Basic cleaning and laundry - Home nursing - Human behaviour and working with people - Home training placements  Because of the expansion of homemaker services, the Trained Family Aide Program was no longer suitable, as i t only stressed practical  9  s k i l l s already known by most mature women, and neglected approach.  a theoretical  In November 1966 the f i r s t Trained Homemaker Program of s i x  weeks duration,  funded by the Federal  government's  Canada  Assistance  Plan, was i n i t i a t e d by Vancouver Vocational Institute to meet the needs of homemakers who were already employed.  The curriculum included:  - Human growth and development - Food preparation and serving - Home nursing - Communication - Community resources  In  1969 the homemaker  program  was  include an expanded learning experience  extended  to eight  weeks t o  i n human growth and development  and information about the needs of c l i e n t s with mental health problems. As demands increased f o r personal assistance, the course was extended to 12 weeks  i n 1975.  In addition, p r a c t i c a l  learning  situations i n  homemaking became more necessary as i t became evident that the homemaker of 1976 d i d not always have experience,  the knowledge  as had her peer of 1966.  gained  from previous  home  In 1976 Vancouver Community  College commenced a complete r e v i s i o n of the Trained Homemaker Program "which would allow a greater f l e x i b i l i t y of programming needs of both f u l l - t i m e varying  degrees  of  and part-time  previous  learners  learning  and  i n meeting the  and homemakers  experience"  with  (Cornish  &  Cranstoun, 1978).  By  1980 the Homemaker Training  Program  a t Vancouver Community  College was increased to 13 weeks f o r those enrolled i n the f u l l - t i m e  10  day  sessions.  Evening  courses  consisting  of one  session a week f o r  approximately one year were also o f f e r e d .  The  Annual Report  (1980-81) of  the Community Homemakers Service  Association of Greater Vancouver states: We continue to encourage homemakers to complete the homemaker t r a i n i n g program offered by Vancouver Community College, King Edward Campus. Currently, 50% of the s t a f f i s trained or undergoing training and we are pleased that there i s v i r t u a l l y a zero turnover among t h i s group. Training i s provided i n evening classes now given i n three locations: the King Edward Campus and two off-campus l o c a t i o n s . Evening classes, which cover the same curriculum as the daytime three month program, are well attended. It i s a tough schedule f o r a homemaker to attend a weekly three hour class at the end of a working day and, i n addition, complete s i x to twelve hours of homework to prepare f o r the next class. The College has offered to consider alternative methods of providing t r a i n i n g , such as short-term daytime courses, i f there i s s u f f i c i e n t demand. Attendance i n the 13 week daytime program has dropped. This, to a large extent, i s due to the decreased l i v i n g allowance available through Employment Canada (p.18).  It was not u n t i l 1979,  after the introduction of the Long Term Care  Program, that other community colleges began to d i r e c t l y o f f e r training programs f o r homemakers.  At that time, Douglas and Okanagan Colleges  conducted p i l o t projects to test a new curriculum.  11  Homemaker Training i n Ctammunity Colleges  The in  the  involvement of Vancouver Community College, from 1965 training  of  homemakers has  been noted.  The  to  1980,  commencement  of  t r a i n i n g programs in other community colleges i s a recent development.  In 1974 the  a P r o v i n c i a l Homemaker Training Committee was  auspices  developed  an  of  the  Ministry  outline  of  of  topics  Human Resources. to  be  taught  and  i n s t r u c t o r s , many of whom were registered nurses who involved course  i n the profession of nursing, to  employed  experience in the  Individual private  the  agencies,  committee  recruited were not  local  actively  to teach a f i v e week homemaker  had  graduates services  educational of  the  encouraged  Committee, i n the f a l l of 1977, develop a  who  This  a  minimum  of  120  hours  of  members  of  the  field.  sector,  purchasing  homemakers  formed under  institutions,  courses the  and  government  agencies  P r o v i n c i a l Homemaker Training  to request the Ministry of Education to  competence-based program using  the  Developing  a  Curriculum  (DACUM) System.  According to the introduction i n the "Provincial Homemaker Training Program,  1st  February 1978  Working and  were i d e n t i f i e d .  Draft"  basic s k i l l s The  (1980),  a  required  introduction  also  DACUM workshop  was  held  in  f o r employment as a homemaker states  that  i n January  1979  12  Douglas College, under contract to the Ministry of Education, commenced the  development  of objectives  and  instructional materials.  The  development team, with the assistance of an "ad hoc" curriculum advisory committee, homemaker instructors and other resource  people, analyzed,  wrote and revised the objectives and instructional materials based on the S k i l l Profile originating from the DACUM workshop.  A direct quote from this introduction describes an important period for homemaker training in community colleges: During the months prior to January 1979, the impact on training of the new Long Term Care legislation had become apparent. It was decided to link the development of homemaker training objectives with those of the "core" s k i l l s required for other trainees at the "aide" level i n Long Term Care programs. Development of these "core" areas was undertaken by Camosun College at the request of the Ministry and was carried out concurrent with the homemaker project at Douglas College. Many of the objectives and curricular materials i n this "Instructor's Guide to the Provincial Homemaker Training Program" are therefore similar to the objectives for the Long Term Care Aide programs. Emphasis, however, has been placed on those areas which are peculiar to the needs of the homemaker. It i s anticipated that, in time, the areas of the homemaker program related to communication, ethics, and human growth and development, will be integrated in the learning environment as part of core s k i l l s training for a l l students involved in Long Term Care Aide programs. In May 1979 the Provincial Report Committee, reporting to the Provincial Homemaker Training Committee and the Education Advisory Committee to the Provincial Adult Care Facilities Licensing Board, Ministry of Health, reviewed the objectives and materials, and recommended the two pilot projects suggested by the Ministry be carried out starting September 1979 (p.2).  13  The minutes of the Regional Homemaker Meeting (November 15, 1979) regarding the Provincial Homemaker Training Program, include Nebocat's explanation  about  the new curriculum  being  tested  by Douglas and  Okanagan Colleges, and another pilot project to commence in January 1980 at Fraser Valley College.  The latter project would be the f i r s t test of  the new curriculum with a l l students being inexperienced pre-employment trainees.  This new curriculum resulted in the Ministry of Education's draft  of the Provincial Homemaker, Training Program  1980.  first  (Basic Level),  It served as an Instructor's Guide to the Provincial Homemaker  Training Program and included a Homemaker S k i l l Profile Chart (Appendix 8) and a Homemaker Competence Chart instructional  objectives  developed  included, as were suggestions  (Appendix 9). General, main and from  the Competence  for learning activities,  aides and descriptions of instructional techniques.  Chart  were  instructional  At this time, the  goal of the Homemaker Training Program was stated "to prepare a graduate who w i l l  be competent and confident  in performing  listed in the Homemaker S k i l l Profile Chart"  specified  skills  (Regional Meeting, August  1980).  Furthermore,  the minutes  of  the Regional  Homemaker  Meeting  (November 15, 1979) include a statement indicating that evaluation of the two pilot programs at Douglas and Okanagan Colleges was discussed; however, no published evaluations are available. Dr. Sheilah Thompson, Co-ordinator Health and Human Service Programs, Ministry of Education,  14  notified the participants that commencing in December 1979, the Ministry of  Education would  fund meetings  three or four  times a year for  homemaker and long term aide instructors from each college.  This action  brought about the formation of the Articulation Committee, described by Thompson as an opportunity to share information, problems, solutions and ideas, and to examine curricula in order to compare similarities and differences of the training programs.  Fiscal restraints have reduced  these meetings to once a year commencing September 1982.  Since 1979, the Articulation Committee has been aware that staff i n the thirteen community colleges conducting homemaker training programs and staff in service agencies do not agree as to the suitability of the Homemaker S k i l l s Profile Chart. As a result, according to Nebocat (July 1982), two sub-committees of the Articulation Committee were established to work on the development of new statements of s k i l l s and competencies and to revise the learning modules, test materials, and the instructor's guideline manual.  In August 1982, the Director of Academic/Technical  Programs, Ministry of Education, requested from non-profit homemaker societies and proprietary homemaker agencies comments about the proposed changes to the Homemaker S k i l l Profile (Appendix 1).  The fact that there is not general agreement  in British Columbia  about the s k i l l s and competencies of a trained homemaker, nor the goals and objectives of training programs, i s not unique to this Province. The following review of the literature would suggest there i s also a diversity of opinion about homemaker training programs in a number of other countries, as well as Canada.  15  SECTION III REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  Current  literature  was  reviewed  to  characterize  of homemaker training programs in Canada and other review  focused  on standards,  criteria  countries.  and objectives  programs.  The available literature provided  homemaker  training programs and standards,  the  status The  of training  limited information about criteria  and objectives  regarding such training.  The review is organized into five parts.  Part one presents a brief  review of adult education literature related to homemaker training. The next part includes a review of the International Council of ' Homehelp Services, a world-wide organization that supports the development of homehelp services.  In part three the review focuses on literature about  homemaker training in specific countries in Europe.  Part four reviews  the literature related to homemaker training programs in the United States of America, and the last part reviews Canadian literature related to homemakers.  Adult Education and Homemaker Training  Three of the books reviewed  identify  education  principles and practices  According  to Staropoli  and Waltz  related (1978),  the importance  of adult  to homemaker training. the investment  in human  16  resources  through the provision of training programs will benefit the  individual and the community.  The  authors state that the planning of  such programs should include consideration of the learners in order to accommodate their responsibilities to earn a living, care for families and  participate in community  affairs,  as  well  as  being  Another point of view is expressed by Reisser (1980), who  students.  states that  many adult learners who attend colleges are academically and financially disadvantaged. inadequate  They are, he says, likely to be females handicapped by  verbal  Hutchinson and  skills  and  Hutchinson  also  fearful  (1978) say  that  of  failure.  because  adult  However, learners,  particularly women, live below the level of their learning potential, i t is  necessary  to  seek  out  and  then  develop  this  under-utilized  competence.  International Council of Homehelp Services  The  International  founded in The  Council  of  Homehelp Services  Netherlands (Holland) in May  countries represented  1959  (I.C.H.S.)  (Hole, 1981).  was The  in the International Council of Homehelp Services  are Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Israel, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States of America.  The duties of homemakers  in these countries vary depending upon the customs, needs, climate and housing. 1981,  At the 6th International Congress held in Sweden on May 11-15,  i t was  agreed that recognized  standards and criteria should  be  17  established for homemaker training and that research studies related to the evaluation of training programs should be conducted.  European Countries  Hole  (1981) documents that there are European governments which  support the growth and development of homemaker training and require training programs to be a 15 to 20 months experience. at  the completion  students  then  of one  spend  a  year's training second  year  under  In West Germany,  in a residential school, supervision working  as  homemakers, before graduation (p.24).  In  France, according to a brochure  (undated), homemaker training  programs of eight months duration are conducted.  Before being accepted  into a program, the student must spend a preliminary probation period with families in need.  The experience i s monitored  by the homemaker  recruiting agency. The sequence of a student's training i s three months in the classroom with lectures about such topics as family and social l i f e , health, housing, linen and clothing, organization of family l i f e and  professional  life.  The  classroom  sequence  i s followed  by  a  practicum experience in homes or institutions, after which there i s a six week period which includes an expansion of the lectures presented in the f i r s t  three months.  After successfully completing an examination,  the student spends a probation year of practice  in the f i e l d .  An  o f f i c i a l certificate i s granted by the French Ministry of Health upon completion of the probation year.  18  The National Board of Health  and Welfare i n Sweden i n i t s report  "Home Help Service i n Sweden" (1979), states that although by the middle of  the 1970's  assistance  to the e l d e r l y  accounted  f o r 90% of  homehelp service, only 25% of the homehelpers had received  all  training.  There are no recognized t r a i n i n g requirements for homehelpers i n Sweden, but  training  people  with  programs of ten weeks duration experience  i n the f i e l d .  are available f o r those Homehelpers  experience may attend a program of twenty weeks duration. Board of Health training  without  such  The National  and Welfare's report also states that a l l aspects of  f o r homehelpers i n Sweden are being  reviewed,  including the  classroom subjects of psychology, s o c i a l medicine, s o c i a l s e r v i c e , basic medicine and nursing, housing, environment, d i e t e t i c s and management.  In Norway, according t o the National Report (May 1977), there are four  categories  o f Home Help  Service  workers.  They are homemakers  (housewives' substitutes) who serve f a m i l i e s with c h i l d r e n , homehelpers who a s s i s t the aged and disabled, homehelpers who do housecleaning, and farm helpers who a s s i s t on farms i f there i s a need due t o an i l l n e s s i n the family. is  The t r a i n i n g period f o r homemakers who a s s i s t the e l d e r l y  four weeks t h e o r e t i c a l  training,  with  practical  experience  i n an  institution.  United States of America  Hole  (1981) states that Homemaker - Home Health  Services  i n the  United States of America began i n the e a r l y 1900's i n New York C i t y .  In  19  the 1920's in Detroit, a program for "visiting housekeepers", who taught food  preparation  and nutrition  deprived mothers, was developed.  to inexperienced  and  economically  It was, he writes, not until 1972 that  a standard for training by the National Council for Homemaker - Home Health Aide Services, was formalized.  This standard required homemakers  and home health aides to be trained before being employed to carry out both homemaking and personal assistance duties (p.56).  Dewald  (1978) describes the Instructional Program for Certified  Homemakers in Virginia.  This occupational home economics adult program  is sponsored jointly by the Virginia Department of Home Economics and the Department of Education.  The program includes topics related to the  care of children, nutrition, management practices, accident prevention, care of the aged, and employer-employee relationships. admission  to  pre-entrance  the 300 tests,  physical health. are  certified  hour  program  satisfactory  include  references  Requirements for  personal  interviews,  and "good" mental and  Upon satisfactory completion of the course, graduates  as Certified  Homemakers  Assistants by the Virginia  Department of Education.  An  article  by Hanson et al (1980) discusses the training and  supervision of homecare workers in a number of the States in the United States of America.  According to Hanson, training for home care workers  has varied widely and the length of training programs ranges from 40 hours to 300 hours.  Training has generally been designed and provided  by employing agencies, primarily directed by nurses or social workers.  20  More recently,  two year  colleges and vocational technical  responded to the demands for occupational courses.  schools  State and federally  reimbursed  homemaker service programs require homecare workers to have  completed  an approved  training  program.  Hanson  points  out the  complexities involved in planning, developing and implementing  training  programs for employees with limited formal education. the ability either to read or write. sixth grade education.  Some may not have  Others may have a minimum of a  There are also retired men and women who find  home care work a way to supplement their income. There are also college students who are entering the field because of the flexible hours or because  of their  studies  in such  disciplines  as sociology, home  economics, health sciences, gerontology, and other human service areas.  Hanson suggests that training programs should be flexible to meet a variety of student needs, including the avoidance of boring^ and costly repetition of knowledge and s k i l l s already learned. demonstration Education  projects funded  in 1978.  by the Maryland  The purpose  She identifies two  State Department of  of one project  was to identify  competencies needed by home care workers and the purpose of the second project was to develop a system for assessing competencies that mature workers have acquired through l i f e experiences.  Hendrickson  and David  (1980) state  that a study of vocational  education, including homemaker training, was requested by the Congress of  the U.S.A. in 1976 i n order  Vocational Education Act in 1982.  to assist  in re-authorizing the  The Congress requested a study that  21  would "provide  i t with facts, insights, judgments and analysis to use  during the hearings on vocational education  legislation"  (p.14).  The  National Institute of Education (N.I.E.) was requested to undertake the study, which Hendrickson and David say examined funding,  legislation,  assessment of program quality and effectiveness, especially in relation to consumer and homemaker educational (C. & H.E.) programs.  Hole (1981) published assist  agencies  a curriculum  and educational  model and teaching  institutions  guide to  to plan, organize and  provide i n i t i a l training required by homemaker - home health aides in the State of Pennsylvania. ment, personal nutrition.  care,  The curriculum  working  with  older  includes household managepeople,  child  care  and  Hole believes that in response to further identified needs  of society, teachers and students, other curriculum models may need to be developed.  According to Ryan (1982), Medicare-certified agencies require homemakers to have some training and supervision.  However, non-certified  agencies and individuals may employ homemakers with or without training.  Kerstell and Unge (1981) believe that factors influencing the  future development of training homemakers require analysis and that before organizations change their objectives, educational  experts and  administrators should examine issues such as the function of pre-service training, the training needs that exist after the commencement of the work experience and the validity of a system of recurrent  education.  22  Canada  There would appear to be a paucity of published documentation about homemakers or homemaker t r a i n i n g programs i n Canada.  Responses to t h i s  w r i t e r ' s requests f o r information to i n d i v i d u a l s and a number of s e r v i c e and  educational  comments  in  agencies and  regard  to  a s s o c i a t i o n s were few.  British  s i t u a t i o n i n a l l Provinces.  She  Columbia  appear  to  Auman's (1982) illustrate  the  says:  H i s t o r i c a l documentary accounts of the o r i g i n s and development of the homemakers o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n B r i t i s h Columbia e x i s t i n a l i m i t e d form that i s not e a s i l y researchable. There are few published articles or unpublished studies related to homemakers. The h i s t o r i c a l information that does e x i s t i s u s u a l l y found i n the form of primary o r secondary sources, with the majority of documents situated in files of homemaker agencies or governmental bodies associated with the purchasing of homemaker s e r v i c e (pp. 3-4). The  most u s e f u l  document was  a  report  of  Homemaker Services i n Canada, published i n 1982. conducted by  the  Canadian Council  on  a  survey,  Visiting  I t was constructed  Homemaker Services  (CCHS)  and and  funded by the National Welfare Grants D i r e c t o r a t e Department of National Health  and  Welfare.  The  CCHS i s a  non-profit  membership of n o n - p r o f i t , governmental and the homemaking f i e l d . 1.  To  promote  o r g a n i z a t i o n with  commercial organizations i n  I t i s committed to the f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i v e s : the  development  and  d e l i v e r y of  homemaker s e r v i c e s to a l l who need i t . 2.  To develop common:  a.  standards of s e r v i c e  b.  standards of t r a i n i n g  c.  a  terminology  quality  23  3.  To  act  as  a  consultant  to  individuals,  agencies,  P r o v i n c i a l associations and government at a l l l e v e l s on issues r e l a t e d to homemaker s e r v i c e s . 4.  To gather and  disseminate  information about homemaker  s e r v i c e s i n Canada. 5.  To represent Canada at the i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l .  The purpose of the survey was to c o l l e c t data from a l l homemaking agencies  i n Canada and  use  the  compiled  data  to  "develop  national  g u i d e l i n e s i n order t o improve homemaker t r a i n i n g and p r a c t i c e , and t o r a i s e the q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e provided" (p.5).  Responses to a questionnaire d i s t r i b u t e d to 464 agencies revealed that there were a c t u a l l y 540 homemaker agencies operating i n Canada i n 1982 compared with 121 established agencies i n 1969.  According to the  respondents' information, over three-quarters of a l l homemaking s e r v i c e s began since 1970 years.  and of t h i s group, one-fourth began i n the past  two  The l a r g e s t p o r t i o n of new agencies was s t a r t e d i n communities  serving under 10,000 people, where 97% of a l l t h e i r homemaker agencies began since 1970.  In community s i z e s of 10-50,000 persons, 86%  homemaker agencies started since 1970.  of  I t i s recorded that the growth  areas of homemaker agencies would appear to be the government d i r e c t e d agencies i n a l l Provinces, other than Ontario and B r i t i s h Columbia, and a l s o i n communities of l e s s than 50,000 people (p.8).  Other f i n d i n g s a r i s i n g out of the completed questionnaires by the  24  307  agencies showed that there were, i n Canada i n 1981,  11,114  people  employed  i n homemaker  agencies.  The  a total  307  of  agencies  represent 57% o f the t o t a l homemaking agencies i n Canada and the report projected that f o r the t o t a l 540 agencies there could be a t o t a l 19,498 homemakers employed; t h a t persons. worked  i s , one  homemaker f o r every  of  1,231  However, o n l y 28% of a l l homemakers i d e n t i f i e d i n the study full-time,  so  the  translation  into  full-time  equivalents,  counting two part-time homemakers as equivalent to one f u l l - t i m e person, changed the r a t i o to one f u l l - t i m e person per 1,927 people (p.9).  In the study, a l l the responding agencies indicated that t r a i n i n g i s necessary, but the main problems  identified  i n providing  training  were l a c k of money (50%), l a c k of time (41%), l a c k of resources (34%), and taking s t a f f away from the job as w e l l ' a s lack of s t a f f  interest.  Over h a l f of the agencies indicated that there was a homemaking course i n t h e i r l o c a l i t y provided by a community c o l l e g e or "other resource." However, more than h a l f of the agencies i n Newfoundland, Nova S c o t i a , Saskatchewan, A l b e r t a and the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s indicated there was no  course  available.  Only  i n New  Brunswick  respondents i n d i c a t e a course was a v a i l a b l e .  and  Manitoba  did a l l  Agencies s a i d that where  there was a course a v a i l a b l e , i t was u s u a l l y run by a community c o l l e g e , was  apt  to  be  conducted  for  eight  weeks  in  the  daytime,  with  approximately 2/3 of the homemakers attending the course (p.16).  The  three  main  problems  identifed  by  agencies  in  providing  homemaker s e r v i c e s were i n r e l a t i o n to recruitment, lack of funding and  25  l a c k o f adequate t r a i n i n g .  Some of the suggestions t o the CCHS frcm the  agencies were that the c o u n c i l could develop a set of minimum standards about t r a i n i n g , hold workshops and conferences to improve develop s t a f f education  standards,  programs, and s e t up an a c c r e d i t a t i o n program  f o r agencies (p.4).  The report of the study includes a reference t o the address t o the f i r s t National Conference i n A p r i l 1982 by the M i n i s t e r o f Health and Welfare  who i s s a i d  homemaker s e r v i c e  t o have given  a c l e a r s i g n a l that growth i n  i s i n e v i t a b l e , f o r three  groups  i n particular  -  f a m i l i e s with c h i l d r e n , p h y s i c a l l y handicapped persons, and the e l d e r l y (P.3).  The  p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s i s r e l a t e d c l o s e l y t o the t r a i n i n g o f  homemakers, and a conclusion  drawn from  the r e s u l t s of the survey  regarding s e r v i c e s and t r a i n i n g i s that "Even where t r a i n i n g courses are i n p l a c e , o n l y 32.1% o f agencies can a f f o r d t o pay t h e i r s t a f f t o attend them.  This i s s u e , combined with matters about finance and standards,  has an important bearing on the q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e . " (p.4).  The report  f u r t h e r s t a t e s that the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r education and t r a i n i n g and for  financing  service  provision  M i n i s t r i e s i n each Province.  are u s u a l l y  handled  by d i f f e r e n t  The question i s asked "What changes are  needed i n order t o have t h i s matter become a j o i n t l y understood p r i o r i t y i n a Province?"  The  (p.4).  CCHS b e l i e v e s that the survey has accumulated  r e l i a b l e data  t o present  sufficiently  a current p i c t u r e of the homemaker s e r v i c e  26  field  i n Canada which should enable both agencies  and governments to  plan f o r the future of education and s e r v i c e s " i n the l i g h t of present realities",  (p.l).  In summary, the review of the l i t e r a t u r e shows that i n a number of countries there are t r a i n i n g programs f o r homemakers.  The curriculum,  the competencies of homemakers, the p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r students'  entry  i n t o programs, and the length of the programs are v a r i e d and d i v e r s e . Furthermore, i n s t r u c t o r s ' educational and p r a c t i c e preparation are not the  same.  The  programs  may  be  i n s t i t u t i o n s o r by s e r v i c e agencies.  conducted  either  by  educational  27  SECTION IV THE SURVEY Design  F i f t e e n community c o l l e g e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia were surveyed. purpose  of the survey  was t o determine  i n which  The  of the community  colleges there are homemaker t r a i n i n g programs, what types of homemaker programs are o f f e r e d , what the goals and o b j e c t i v e s are of each program, and  what the classroom,  sequences are of each about  prerequisites  l a b o r a t o r y and f i e l d  program. f o r entry  experiences  training  In a d d i t i o n , information was into  perceptions of a trained homemaker.  programs,  and  sought  instructors'  The data were c o l l e c t e d between  January 29, 1982 and February 22, 1982.  A mailed questionnaire was used  to collect  objective  s u b j e c t i v e information of opinions and impressions. was  designed  i n order  t o acquire  data  related  data and  The questionnaire t o the f o l l o w i n g  questions: 1.  How many community c o l l e g e s conducted homemaker t r a i n i n g programs?  2.  What were the types of programs each c o l l e g e offered?  3.  When were the programs offered?  4.  What were the goals and o b j e c t i v e s of each program?  5.  What were the t r a i n i n g sequences of classroom, l a b o r a t o r y and f i e l d experiences of each program?  28  6.  What were the prerequisites for entry into each program?  7.  How did instructors perceive a trained homemaker?  The  questionnaire  was  pretested  by  the  instructor  at Douglas  College and the Education Co-ordinator of the Long Term Care Program. After corrections were made, the covering  letter  (Appendix  colleges (Appendix 4). from the  thirteen  questionnaire  3) were mailed  to  (Appendix  the  2)  and  a  fifteen community  Upon receipt of the completed questionnaires  colleges offering  homemaker training  programs, a  letter of acknowledgement (Appendix 5) was mailed on May 8, 1982.  Data Collection  A draft  copy of  the  completed  data was  returned  to community  college homemaker co-ordinators with a covering letter (Appendix 6) on June 30, 1982 for verification and additional information.  After corrections were made, the data was reorganized and  compiled  in five sections: 1.  Types of programs (Appendix 7)  2.  Goals and objectives (Appendices 8 and 9)  3.  Prerequisites for entry (Appendix 10)  4.  Training sequences (Appendix 11)  5.  Instructors' perceptions of a trained homemaker (Appendix 12)  29  The  following  table  (Table 1) i d e n t i f i e s  which conducted homemaker t r a i n i n g homemaker evening  training  programs,  programs with  programs i n February 1982.  comprised  the daytime  the community colleges  both  programs  pre-employment being  The  day and  conducted  on a  f u l l - t i m e basis and the evening programs being conducted on a part-time basis.  In a d d i t i o n , there were upgrading daytime and evening programs,  with the daytime programs being conducted on both a f u l l - t i m e and a part-time b a s i s and the evening programs being conducted on a part-time basis.  M l but two of the f i f t e e n colleges conducted homemaker t r a i n i n g  programs.  The two colleges which d i d not conduct programs were Kwantlen  and New Caledonia.  TABLE COLLEGES  CONDUCTING  Pre-employment  1  HOMEMAKING  Day  PROGRAMS  Upgrading  Programs  College Full-Time  TRAINING  Evening Part-Time  P r o g r ams  Day Full-Time & P a r t - T ime  Evening P a r t - T ime  Camosum  Yes  No  Yes  No  Capilano  yes  No  No  Yes  Cariboo  Yes  No  Yes  No  Douglas  No  Yes  No  Yes  Yes  No  Yes  No  Yes  No  Yes  Yes  No  No  No  No  Yes  No  Yes  No  No  No  No  No  Yes  No  No  Yes  Yes  No  No  No  N o r t hwes t  Yes  No  No  Yes  •kanagan  Yes  No  Yes  No  No  No  No  Yes  Yes  No  No  Yes  East  Kootenay  F rase r  Valley  Kwantle n Malaspina New  Caledonia  North  Island  Northern  Lights  Selkirk VCC  (King  Edward  Campus)  31  SECTION V FINDINGS Types of Programs  Thirteen  (87%)  of  the  fifteen  community  colleges  in  British  Columbia were conducting homemaker t r a i n i n g programs at the time of the survey  (see  Table  pre-employment Kootenay,  day  1).  Eleven  programs  Fraser V a l l e y ,  (73%)  were  colleges  Camosun,  Malaspina,  North  offering  Capilano, Cariboo, Island,  Northwest, Okanagan and V.C.C. (King Edward Campus). offering  full-time  Northern  Lights,  S i x (40%) c o l l e g e s  f u l l - t i m e or part-time upgrading day programs were Camosun,  Cariboo, East Kootenay, Fraser V a l l e y , Malaspina and Okanagan. (47%)  offering  part-time upgrading  evening  Fraser V a l l e y , North I s l a n d , Northwest, Campus)  East  and  Douglas.  Douglas  offered  programs  Seven  were Capilano,  S e l k i r k , V.C.C. (King Edward a  combined  upgrading  and  pre-employment program.  The eleven c o l l e g e s o f f e r i n g f u l l - t i m e pre-employment day programs included classroom hours ranging from 90 at Northwest  t o 266 a t V.C.C.  (King Edward Campus), and l a b o r a t o r y experiences ranging from 30 hours a t Okanagan t o 142 hours at Capilano. ranged  The t o t a l number of program hours  from 210 at East Kootenay to 480 at Malaspina and North I s l a n d .  Malaspina's second program's hours were 300. for  the  remaining  (Appendix 7 ) .  e i g h t colleges  The t o t a l program hours  were i n the range  of 360  to  450  32  Six  full-time  and  part-time upgrading  day  programs  included  classroom hours ranging from 90 at East Kootenay to 150 at Cariboo and Okanagan, and laboratory experiences ranging from 30 hours a t Cariboo, East Kootenay and Okanagan to 120 hours at Camosun. o n l y college to document a f i e l d number of program Malaspina, with  hours ranged  Fraser V a l l e y  Malaspina was the  experience of 90 hours.  The  from 120 at East Kootenay program  hours  being 165;  total  t o 300 at Cariboo and  Okanagan, 180; and Camosun, 240 (Appendix 7 ) .  Seven  colleges  offering  part-time upgrading  evening  programs  included classroom hours ranging from 90'at Northwest to 216 a t S e l k i r k , and laboratory experiences ranging from 12 hours at Douglas t o 90 hours at  Northwest.  North Island was the only college to document a f i e l d  experience of 30 hours.  The t o t a l number of program hours ranged from  120 a t North Island to 288 a t S e l k i r k , with Fraser V a l l e y program hours being 170; Capilano, Northwest and V.C.C. (King Edward Campus), 180; and Douglas, 192 (Appendix 7 ) .  All  c o l l e g e s recorded that the programs were designed to prepare  students to achieve the competencies l i s t e d i n The P r o v i n c i a l Homemaker S k i l l P r o f i l e D r a f t dated October 1980.  However, i t i s noteworthy that  there are v a r i a t i o n s i n t o t a l number of program hours, and even more variations  i n the hours a l l o c a t e d  experiences.  to classroom, laboratory and  field  33  Competencies and Objectives  The  thirteen colleges  said  their  programs were r e l a t e d  t o the  P r o v i n c i a l Homemaker S k i l l P r o f i l e D r a f t dated October 1980, prepared by the M i n i s t r y o f Education (Appendix 8 ) . V.C.C. (King Edward Campus), however, i n answer t o the question " I s the program r e l a t e d P r o v i n c i a l Homemaker S k i l l "Yes"  and "No."  t o the  P r o f i l e Draft dated October 1980?" r e p l i e d  An explanation was provided  that  the d r a f t  was  considered t o be out of date and that the c o l l e g e was using "a new statement  of competencies  sub-committee was  that the P r o v i n c i a l Homemaker A r t i c u l a t i o n  'working  on'" (Cornish,  February  9, 1982).  The  co-ordinator of the Fraser V a l l e y program (Simonsen, February 5, 1982) commented about  "the very d i f f i c u l t  time" that  people  i n homemaker  t r a i n i n g programs had " i n e s t a b l i s h i n g competencies" and that although The  Skill  Profile  Draft of 1980 was accepted  by the M i n i s t r y o f  Education "there has been serious questioning of the v a l i d i t y of the chart."  A review of the course o u t l i n e s submitted by the t h i r t e e n c o l l e g e s suggests that Camosun, Cariboo, Douglas, East Kootenay, Malaspina, North Island,  Northern  Lights,  Northwest  and  Selkirk  colleges  designed  programs t o meet the o b j e c t i v e s l i s t e d i n the Basic Homemaker Program, Overview  o f Units and General Objectives 1981 (Appendix  Capilano,  Fraser V a l l e y ,  Okanagan  developed  programs  the o b j e c t i v e s  from  and V.C.C.  Homemaker Curriculum Framework, June developed by the A r t i c u l a t i o n  listed  (King Edward i n the  1981 (Appendix  sub-committee.  8 ) , whereas Campus)  Provincial  13), which  was  34  I t was not * a n t i c i p a t e d that some c o l l e g e s would change d i r e c t i o n before changes i n competencies M i n i s t r y of Education. statement (King  Education  However, the s i t u a t i o n may be explained by the  i n the l e t t e r  Edward  Campus)  to revise  and o b j e c t i v e s received approval by the  from J . Cornish, the Co-ordinator o f V.C.C.  "KEC  i s currently  funded  a l l of the r e l a t e d  by the M i n i s t r y of  modules, t e s t  manuals and  i n s t r u c t o r s ' g u i d e l i n e manuals."  P r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r Entry  Seven of the twelve  c o l l e g e s who conducted  upgrading  programs  expected  that  interested  completed  a homemaker work experience.  daytime  candidates  and evening would  have  The hours of work experience  required by Cariboo, Douglas, East Kootenay, Fraser V a l l e y , Malaspina, North Island and S e l k i r k ranged from 100 hours to 3,600 hours. Capilano, Northwest,  Camosun,  Okanagan and V.C.C. (King Edward Campus) d i d not  expect work experience as an entry requirement (see Table 2 ) .  Requirements f o r h e a l t h c e r t i f i c a t e s by the t h i r t e e n c o l l e g e s f o r a student's entry i n t o programs v a r i e d .  Requirements of f i v e c o l l e g e s -  Camosun, Cariboo, Malaspina, S e l k i r k and V.C.C. (King Edward Campus), included medical, t u b e r c u l o s i s screening and immunization  certificates.  Two  medical  colleges -  Capilano  and Okanagan,  tuberculosis  screening  certificates.  tuberculosis  screening  and  immunization  required North  only  Island  certificates.  required A  and only  medical  c e r t i f i c a t e was the only h e a l t h c e r t i f i c a t e required by East Kootenay,  35  Fraser V a l l e y and Northwest, while Douglas and Northern L i g h t s d i d not require any health c e r t i i f i c a t e s (see Table 2 ) .  Although seven c o l l e g e s d i d not t e s t students f o r e i t h e r reading o r writing  comprehension,  three  c o l l e g e s - Camosun,  East Kootenay and  V.C.C. (King Edward Campus), tested f o r both, while Fraser V a l l e y , North Island and Northwest tested only f o r reading comprehension (See Table 2).  Malaspina  and V.C.C.  (King  Edward  Campus) were  the only  two  c o l l e g e s who requested students to provide w r i t t e n reasons f o r wishing to be homemakers.  On the other hand, nine c o l l e g e s - Capilano, Douglas,  East Kootenay, Malaspina, Northern L i g h t s , Northwest, Okanagan, S e l k i r k and  V.C.C.  histories.  (King Edward Campus), required employment  and volunteer  Camosun requested only an employment h i s t o r y while Cariboo,  Fraser V a l l e y and North Island required n e i t h e r employment nor volunteer h i s t o r i e s (See Table 2 ) .  In  response  to the question about  students entering homemaker t r a i n i n g affirmatively. citizenship, students  additional  requirements f o r  programs, f i v e  colleges replied  For instance, while East Kootenay required evidence of Northern  t o possess  Lights,  Northwest  "appropriate  and Okanagan  attitudes."  V.C.C.  required the (King Edward  Campus) l i s t e d four f a c t o r s t o be considered f o r requirements f o r e n t r y into  a homemaker t r a i n i n g  program.  The focus was on a student's  f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n , l i f e s t y l e , time management s k i l l s , and c h i l d arrangements.  care  ON  3>  CL  3s > 3> O C/l = o z H- H- 2 3 O O ID to O rr X 01 CD 1 s CD • 01 H- 3 rr I— 3 o I-! N 3 •< >< 3 CD C a H- CD O CD CD 3 3 3 O 01 rj Q. N in 3 01 in oi rr r) rj 3 CD CD rr 3- 3" rr 0) H-01 01CD ro H- H- 3 T> o XI Hrr Q. CD 3 C ITJ rr C XI CD 01 3 " -n CD a. H- C rr rr i — r) CD 3 01 *< CD 01 3 CD rr rr CD O. 01 01 CD CD 01 1 3 rr 1-3 a. <trt" CD O 01 O 73 H- H- 01 rr 5 1-5 03 rr o CD CD rt h-' 3 " CO CD1 %• a. O CD CD a c O 3 I— rt 01 O 01 ~& rr H- •D rr 3 - rt -h H- rr 3 " CD O O CD H- o a C verr 0] in c in 3 rr C n ri- 01 CD 3 v< Q. al o CD rr rt 3  CL  Hrr Ho 3  01  rt >1  CD  XI  C Hrj • CD  <  o  rt c 3  rr CD CD r> 3-  H01 rr  O  m 3 -D  rt'  O •< 3 CD 3 rr 3-  H01 rr O  >-) •<  3  CD 3 rial  r) Hrr rr  CD  3  •1 CD 01 01 O 3  01 rr O CT CD 01 3"  O 3 CD 3 01 TT CD  —1  —1  1—1  CD 01 rr  CO 01 rr  3 3 C 3 HN 01 rr HO  O i-l  -h o I")  rj Hrr H-  i-l CD 03 CL H-  ca  lO  o o 3 -D r) C D 3CD 3 01 H-  O  -•>  3  • 3  3  •  3 T> 1-3 C D 3CD 3 01 Ho  3  O CD n rr  rt -<i rt n 01 rial  —1 c oC D •-J  o c rt o 01 H01 o CD 1-3 rr H-«l Hn 03 rr CD  3  CD a HO 01 h-  1  n CD  <1 rr  H-l) Ho 01 rr CD  3;  o c 1-3 01 o  "0 •-3 CD rs CD  -11  XI  C H01 Hrr CD 01  TJ n CD <  Ho c 01  70  m  70 m  CD 3  T3  rt o  C3  I—i  ^<  Ul l—i —I m oi  3 CD 3  rr  -n o 33 C/l —f c:  3  1-3  CD  03 O rr O T) 01 «•  ZT  o  c 01  rr H-  -D n o in I-I 01 3 O  3 1—'  z o  z o  z  -<  •  CD 01  -<  ~<  CD 01  Z •  -<  CD 01  ~<  CD 01  CD 01  CD 01  z o  Z  Z o  z o  •  CD 03 -<  CD 01  -<  CD 01 -<  CD 01  z o  z o  z o  z o  z  z o  -<  CD 01  -<  -<  •  z o  Ye  Ye  01  01  z o  z o  z o  z o  z o  z o  Ye  Ye  Ye  Ye  Ye  01  01  z •  z o  z  Ye  -<  z o  z o  CD 01  CD 01  Camosum  z o  m z  -1  3;  z o  Capilano  O o  Cariboo  Douglas  o  m J> m 70 C/l EN  01 3 01  -<  0T  ON O o  -1  m CD CD  —i m si i—i z CI o o 2 2  o I--  3  z o  z  z  z o  Ye 01  z o  z o  East  Kootenay  C 3 1—  C3  VAI  •  •  01  01  Ye  Ye  Ye  01  01  01  01  rro 4> o  z o  z  Ye  •  z o  Ye  01  Ul  z o Ye  01 V/i  Ye  3-  z o  01  01  01  z o  CD o o  Ye  o  Ye  a.  Ye  3  01  01  z o  z o  z o  z o  z a  z o  \>  z  Fraser  Valley  r-  -<  -<  -<  CD 01  CD 01  z •  z o  z o  z o  z o -<  -c  CD 01  01  CD 01  01  z o  z o  Ye  CO  z o  Ye  9£  •  Ye  CD 01 CO  z  Ye  -<  01  Ye  z o  CD 01  z o  01  01  01  -<  -<  -<  -<  -<  -<  -<  •<  CD 01  CD 01  CD CO  CD 01  CD 01  CD 01  CD co  CD 01  •<  tr>  n  r~ m cn m North  Island  33 3> i—i Z  *  Northern  Lights  in T3 70  z  Northwest  •  0G  3  z o  Ye  Ye 01  Ye  Ye 01  Ye CO ON  —i  T~  m  Malaspina  3  in CD 3 CD  CO  •  Ye  01  o o ro  IN  Z o  01  co o  OL  01  Ye  01 J> CO  Ye  01 7T  z o  IN  CO  70  >  2 Ul z o  Okanagan  o a vsj  Selkirk  z o  V.C.C.  > 03  37  Regarding permitted  students'  students  ability  t o challenge  to  challenge  a course  courses,  i f previous  Capilano  training  was  a p p l i c a b l e , while Douglas, East Kootenay and Malaspina gave r e c o g n i t i o n f o r previous work experience and t r a i n i n g .  Of i n t e r e s t i s the f a c t that p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r entry were not the same f o r a l l c o l l e g e s .  Furthermore,  required hours of previous work  experience ranged from zero t o 3,600; h e a l t h requirements v a r i e d ; t e s t s of students f o r reading and w r i t i n g comprehension were not c o n s i s t e n t , nor were use of s e l e c t i o n i n t e r v i e w s .  Camosun,  Capilano,  Malaspina, North  Cariboo,  East  I s l a n d , Northwest,  Students  Fraser  Valley,  Okanagan and V.C.C. (King Edward  Campus), interviewed a p p l i c a n t s p r i o r pre-employment programs.  Kootenay,  to their  registration  i n the  i n the pre-employment program a t  Northern L i g h t s were not interviewed nor were students i n the combined pre-employment and upgrading program a t Douglas College. a  pre-employment program  at Selkirk  Camosun, Capilano, Malaspina, North Campus)  interviewed  registration. College. conducting  There  applicants was  College Island  (see Table  and V.C.C.  f o r upgrading  no upgrading  There was not  program  3).  Only  (King Edward  programs  prior  at Northern  to  Lights  Only Cariboo and North I s l a n d , i n the group of ten c o l l e g e s pre-employment  and upgrading  programs, d i d not use the  i n t e r v i e w as one p a r t of the s e l e c t i o n process (see Table 3 ) .  38  Members of college candidates  a t Capilano,  Co-ordinator Program. at  of Health  staffs East  who  interviewed  Kootenay  prospective  and Fraser  Valley  student were the  Programs and the I n s t r u c t o r of the Homemaker  At Camosun, the interviewer was the Faculty Co-ordinator, and  Cariboo  i t was the Counsellor  i n the Registrar's  office.  At  Malaspina, the Department Head o r a f a c u l t y member of the Long Term Homemaker Program conducted interviews, while North Island were conducted  by the Co-ordinator  of Human Services  Tutor-in-Charge of the Homemaker Program. Counsellor  c o l l e g e representative  and also the  At Northwest the Manpower  and the I n s t r u c t o r of the Homemaker  Program conducted the interviews. Homemaker Program interviewed  interviews  At Okanagan the I n s t r u c t o r of the  a p p l i c a n t s , and a t V.C.C. (King Edward  Campus) a p p l i c a n t s were interviewed by the Program A s s i s t a n t and/or the Co-ordinator  The  of the Homemaker Program (See Table 3 ) .  interview process conducted by community c o l l e g e s may o r may  not have influenced the s e l e c t i o n of a p p l i c a n t s . interview prospective students.  Three colleges d i d not  Two of the ten colleges which conducted  interviews d i d not use t h i s information  f o r s e l e c t i o n purposes.  The  s t a f f o f the ten c o l l e g e s conducting interviews had a v a r i e t y of t i t l e s , indicating experiences.  the p o s s i b i l i t y These  of d i f f e r e n t educational  differences  may  have  provided  backgrounds and a  variety of  i n f l u e n c e s , knowledge and a t t i t u d e s i n the s e l e c t i o n process.  I t i s of importance t o record that according t o the f i n d i n g s i n the Instructors'  Perceptions  of a  Trained  Homemaker, the i n s t r u c t o r s '  TABLE USE  OF  P E R S O N A L I N T E R V I E W S OF P R O S P E C T I V E S T U D E N T S I N S E L E C T I O N HOMEMAKERS PRE-EMPLOYMENT AND U P G R A D I N G PROGRAMS Interviews  College  3  UG  PE1  PROCESS IN  Select ion Pr o c e s s  2  Title  of  Interviewers  Camosun  Yes  Yes  Yes  Faculty  Capilano  Yes  Yes  Yes  Co-ordinator of Health Programs I n s t r u c t o r of Homemaker P r o g r a m  Cariboo  Yes  No  No  Douglas  No  No  No  Yes  No  Yes  C o - o r d i n a t o r of H e a l t h Programs I n s t r u c t o r o f Homemaker P r o g r a m  Yes  No  Yes  Co-ordinator of Health Programs I n s t r u c t o r of Homemaker Program'  Malaspina  Yes  Yes  Yes  D e p a r t m e n t Head o r F a c u l t y L.T.C./H.M. P r o g r a m  North  Yes  Yes  No  East  Kootenay  Fraser  Valley  Island  Northern  Lights  Co-ordinator  Counsellor,  Registrar's  Office  -  Member  of t h e  C o - o r d i n a t o r o f Human S e r v i c e s T u t o r - i n - C h a r g e , Homemaker P r o g r a m  -  No  No  N/P  Northwest  Yes  No  yes  Manpower c o u n s e l l o r c o l l e g e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e I n s t r u c t o r of Homemaker P r o g r a m  Okanagan  Yes  No  Yes  Instructor  Selkirk  N/P  No  No  Yes  Yes  V.C.C. K i n g  1 2 3  Edward  3  Yes  PE - P r e - e m p l o y m e n t program UG - U p g r a d i n g p r o g r a m N/P - No p r o g r a m  3  of Homemaker  Program  Program A s s i s t a n t and/or Homemaker P r o g r a m  Co-ordinator  of  40  responses suggest t h a t there was no concensus regarding the i n s t r u c t o r s ' perceptions of a t r a i n e d homemaker.  I t i s therefore d i f f i c u l t to assess  c o r r e l a t i o n between an interviewer's perceptions of a trained homemaker and the s e l e c t i o n of an a p p l i c a n t .  T r a i n i n g Sequences  The  information presented  by the eleven c o l l e g e s that  conducted  f u l l - t i m e pre-employment day programs was not s u f f i c i e n t l y e x p l i c i t t o identify  whether o r not the sequences f o r classroom, l a b o r a t o r y and  f i e l d experiences f o r homemaker students were i d e n t i c a l (see Table 4 ) . For  example,  some  c o l l e g e s combined  laboratory experiences  the hours  instead of i d e n t i f y i n g hours  hours of l a b o r a t o r y experiences. i d e n t i f y the number of hours  of  classroom  and  of classroom and  There were other c o l l e g e s that d i d not  specified  f o r classroom,  laboratory o r  f i e l d experiences by sequence of each week.  The  information provided .was not s u f f i c i e n t l y e x p l i c i t to i d e n t i f y  whether o r not the sequences experiences  were  identical  f o r classroom,  f o r students  laboratory and  field  attending the s i x c o l l e g e s  o f f e r i n g f u l l - t i m e and part-time upgrading day programs (see Table 5 ) . Again, there were c o l l e g e s that combined classroom and l a b o r a t o r y hours of experiences and d i d not i d e n t i f y the number of hours s p e c i f i e d f o r classroom, l a b o r a t o r y o r f i e l d experiences by sequences of each week.  TABLE  um.nr  ^  HOURS OF  D A Y T I M E P R E - E M P L O Y M E N T PROGRAMS: TOTAL TIME OF PROGRAM I N WEEKS AND HOURS SEQUENCE BY WEEKS C L A S S R O O M , L A B O R A T O R Y AND F I E L D / P R A C T I C U M E X P E R I E N C E S  COLLEGE Length of Program Weeks ( h o u r s )  in  Classroom, Laboratory, Field/Practicum Experiences i n hours  Seq uence by Weeks  Malaspina P r o g r a m #1 10 w e e k s ( 3 0 0 h r s . )  1-5 6-8 9-10  80 20 42  40 10 18  P r o g r a m #2 16 w e e k s ( 4 8 0 h r s . )  1-5 6-9 10-13 14-16  80 16 20 42  40 8 10 18  North Island 16 w e e k s ( 4 8 0 h r s . )  1-5 6-7 8 9-16  150  _  30  _  Northern 14 w e e k s  Lights (420 h r s . )  12  1-12  weeks  (360 h r s . )  Okanagan 12 w e e k s  (360 h r s . )  V.C.C. 12 2/3  weeks  CR Lab CR/Lab CR/P Fld/P Hrs  -  *  program  This  (379  1-3 4-6 7-9 10-12  h o u r s ) 1-12  2/3  30 96 90 30  60  -  240 276  10-14  Northwest  4  144 90  90  180 90 90  90  a Long  Term  Specific week ident i fied . CR/Lab  shown  experiences as  not  combined  90 266  47  66  Classroom Laboratory Classroom/Laboratory Classroom/Practicum Field/Practicum Hours awards  CR/Lab shown as c o m b i n e d . Specific week e x p e r i e n c e s n o t i d e n t i f i e d .  Care  Aide  and  a Homemaker  Certificate.  Specific week identified.  experiences  not  TABLE  5  F U L L - T I M E AND TOTAL TIME HOURS  OF  P A R T - T I M E U P G R A D I N G DAY P R O G R A M S : OF PROGRAM IN WEEKS AND HOURS SEQUENCE BY WEEKS C L A S S R O O M , L A B O R A T O R Y AND F I E L D / P R A C T I C U M EXPERIENCES  Classroom, Laboratory, Field/Pra-cticum Experiences i n Hours  COLLEGE Length of Program Weeks ( h o u r s )  in  Sequence by Weeks  CR  Lab  1-8  Camosun 8 weeks  (240 h r s . )  Car i b o o 6 weeks  (180 h r s.)  East Kootenay 4 weeks (120 h r s . ) Fraser Valle y 5 1/6 w e e k s ( 1 6 5 h r s . )  30  1/6  Fld/P  -  -  -  115  50  -  -  -  1-5 6-8 9-10  80 20 42  40 10 18  -  -  30 30 30  Okanagan 6 weeks (180 h r s . )  1-3 4-6  90  -  90 -  -  -  -  *  a 5 hour  Plus  Classroom Laboratory Classroom/Laboratory Classroom/Practicum Field/Practicum learning  package.  S p e c i f i c week ide nt i f i e d .  experiences  CR/Lab shown as c o m b i n e d . week e x p e r i e n c e s n o t ide nt i f i e d .  Malaspina 10 w e e k s ( 3 0 0 h r s . )  CR Lab CR/Lab CR/P Fld/P  Com me n t s CR/Lab shown as c o m b i n e d . Specific week e x p e r i e n c e s n o t i d e n t i f i e d .  120  1-4  1-5  CR/P  240 150  1-6  CR/Lab  S p e c i f i c week ident ifi e d . *  experiences  not Specific  not  CR/Lab shown as c o m b i n e d . Specific week e x p e r i e n c e s n o t i d e n t i f i e d .  43  The  information provided was not s u f f i c i e n t l y e x p l i c i t to i d e n t i f y  whether or  not  the  sequences  experiences were i d e n t i c a l  f o r classroom,  evening programs (see Table 6).  there were c o l l e g e s t h a t combined and  d i d not  field  f o r students attending the seven c o l l e g e s  o f f e r i n g part-time upgrading  experiences  laboratory and  identify  classroom  and  Again,  laboratory hours  the number of hours  specified  of for  classroom, l a b o r a t o r y or f i e l d experiences by sequences of each week.  The f i n d i n g s , from the a v a i l a b l e information, show that there were variations  for  the  sequences  for  classroom,  r o t a t i o n s f o r the m a j o r i t y of the programs. were not identify  available i f local  from  the data, but  s i t u a t i o n s and  laboratory and  Reasons f o r the v a r i a t i o n s i t would be  events have an  sequence and hours i n these r o t a t i o n s .  field  of  interest  to  influence upon the  There i s no doubt t h a t factors  such as student t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , a v a i l a b i l i t y of i n s t r u c t o r s and domestic arrangements, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n country areas, may on the f l e x i b i l i t y of the program sequences.  have had an influence  TABLE  6  P A R T - T I M E U P G R A D I N G E V E N I N G PROGRAMS L E N G T H OF PROGRAM I N WEEKS AND HOURS SEQUENCE BY WEEKS C L A S S R O O M , L A B O R A T O R Y AND F I E L D / P R A C T I CUM E X P E R I E N C E S  Classroom,  COLLEGE Length o f Program Weeks ( h o u r s )  i n  Capilano 6 weeks (180 h r s . ) Douglas 6 3/5 w e e k s  Sequence b y Weeks  Fld/P  One 6 h o u r weeks.  3/5  180  12  Program i s d i v i d e d i n t o Each s t e p i s one 3 hour weekly f o r 15 w e e k s .  1-5 2/3  120  50  S p e c i f i c week i d e n t i f i ed .  1-6  Northwest 6 weeks ( 1 8 0 h r s . )  1-6 1-9 3/5  90 30 90  90  216  72  -  1-6  session  180  weekly  f o r 30  4 steps. session  experiences not  CR/Lab shown as c o m b i n e d . Specific week e x p e r i e n c e s n o t i d e n t i f i e d . One 3 h o u r weeks.  session  S p e c i f i c week ident i f i e d .  (288 h r s . )  (180 h r s . )  Comments  50  1-3 4  CR Lab CR/Lab CR/P Fld/P Hrs  CR/Lab  130  1-6  North Island 4 weeks (120 h r s . )  V.C.C. 6 weeks  Lab  (192 h r s . )  Fraser Valley 5 2/3 w e e k s ( 1 7 0 h r s . )  Selkirk 9 3/5 w e e k s  CR  Laboratory, Field/Practicum Experiences i n Hours  weekly  f o r 60  experiences not  Program i s d i v i d e d i n t o 4 b l o c k s . Each b l o c k i s one 3 hour s e s s i o n weekly f o r 15 w e e k s . CR/Lab shown a s c omb i n e d .  - Classroom - Laboratory Classroom/Laboratory - Practicum - Field/Practicum - Hours  \  45  I n s t r u c t o r s ' Perceptions of a Trained Homemaker  The most  frequent  adjectives  a d j e c t i v e s (Appendix 12) submitted  i n the l i s t  o f the seventy-two  by the Co-ordinators of the t h i r t e e n  community colleges d e s c r i b i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t r a i n e d homemakers, were: c a r i n g , r e s p o n s i b l e , empathetic, healthy,  confident, competent,  organized, and knowledgeable (See Table 7 ) .  An unanticipated different  f i n d i n g was the presentation of a t o t a l o f 72  adjectives  to describe  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a trained  homemaker.  Although  caring,  competent, organized  responsible,  empathetic,  healthy,  confident,  and knowledgeable were the most frequently used  a d j e c t i v e s , only the i n s t r u c t o r s from Capilano and Okanagan included the two  adjectives l i s t e d  i n the goal statement of the Homemaker Training  Program " t o prepare a graduate who w i l l performing and  specified s k i l l s . . . "  (p.  V.C.C. (King Edward Campus)  be competent and confident i n  of t h i s r e p o r t ) .  included  Camosun, S e l k i r k  the a d j e c t i v e  "confident,"  while East Kootenay, North Island and Northwest included the a d j e c t i v e "competent."  If some of the adjectives describe important by  homemakers,  accomplish  what  the desired  i n s t r u c t i o n i s necessary states?  According  states t o be achieved f o r homemakers  to Mager  (1972),  a  to goal  46  analysis  would be a useful  stated abstract goals.  procedure  i n operationally  d e f i n i n g the  The function of a goal a n a l y s i s , he says, i s t o  h e l p one say what one means i n the use of abstract goals and would "describe  the performances that represent your meaning of the goal"  (p.ll.).  Therefore, when an i n s t r u c t o r perceives  a trained homemaker,  f o r example, t o be empathetic, a goal a n a l y s i s would i d e n t i f y the main performances that go t o make up the meaning of the outcome - t o be empathetic.  TABLE THE  MOST  7  F R E Q U E N T L Y USED A D J E C T I V E S L I S T E D BY C O L L E G E TO D E S C R I B E A T R A I N E D HOMEMAKER  INSTRUCTORS  COLLEGES  ADJECTIVES Car i n g  Camosun, Okanagan  Capilano,  Cariboo,  Douglas,  East  Respons i b l e  Camosun,  Capilano,  Cariboo,  Douglas,  Northern  Empathet i c  Camosun,  Capilano,  Cariboo,  Douglas,  East  Healthy  Cariboo,  Fraser  Confident  Camosun,  Capilano,  C ompe t e n t  Capilano,  Organized  Knowledgeable  Valley,  Malaspina,  North  Okanagan, S e l k i r k ,  East  Kootenay,  Camosun,  Fraser  Valley,  Camosun,  Cariboo,  North  Island,  Kootenay,  Selkirk,  Lights,  Kootenay,  Island,  Lights,  Northwest,  Fraser  Northern  Okanagan,  Valley,  Lights,  Northwest,  Selkirk  Selkirk  Selkirk  V.C.C.  Northwest,  Okanagan, S e l k i r k ,  Douglas,  Northern  Okanagan  V.C.C.  V.C.C.  4*.  48  SECTION VI Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations  A survey was c a r r i e d out i n an attempt to compare and some s p e c i f i c aspects colleges  in British  of homemaker Columbia.  contrast  t r a i n i n g programs i n community  The  survey  examined the types of  programs, the competencies and o b j e c t i v e s , the t r a i n i n g sequences, the prerequisites homemaker.  f o r entry,  and  i n s t r u c t o r s ' perceptions  of a trained  I t d i d not attempt t o examine curriculum, i n s t r u c t i o n a l  design and management, o r any aspects of the learning experiences.  The  findings  similarities.  demonstrate  that  there  were more v a r i a t i o n s  than  F i r s t , there were s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n s i n t o t a l program  hours and a l s o i n the hours students spent i n classroom, l a b o r a t o r y and f i e l d experiences. standardized,  Secondly, the process of student s e l e c t i o n was not  and the use of interviews may or may not have influenced  s e l e c t i o n of a p p l i c a n t s . colleges  as  to  the  T h i r d l y , there were diverse opinions among the  desired  competencies  f o r trained  homemakers.  Fourthly, the t r a i n i n g sequences f o r r o t a t i o n s o f classroom, laboratory and  field  indicated  experiences that  varied  considerably;  i n s t r u c t o r s ' perceptions  and  finally,  the  data  of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a  t r a i n e d homemaker were not c o n s i s t e n t .  The a n a l y s i s of the processes i m p l i c i t i n the information  provided  during the period of the survey showed a l a c k of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n .  This  49  i s exemplified by the data about the p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r students* e n t r y and the hours of classroom, l a b o r a t o r y and f i e l d experiences required t o accomplish the o b j e c t i v e s , and to meet requirements f o r acccmplishing the  competencies.  colleges  to  The  develop  standards of  overall  flexibility  programs  which  which  determine  criteria  are  would  not  the  appear  subjected  hours  of  to  to  permit specific  instruction  or  experience i n the t r a i n i n g program.  The  l i m i t a t i o n s i n g e n e r a l i z i n g from t h i s survey were recognized.  However, i t i s suggested  that the survey provides i n s i g h t s f o r adult  educators,  in  specifically  demonstrating comparisons conducted  the  area  of  program  and c o n t r a s t s i n one  i n a number of s i m i l a r agencies.  development,  by  type of program being  Furthermore, i t indicates  useful d i r e c t i o n f o r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s r e l a t e d to a t r a i n i n g program f o r adult l e a r n e r s and provides information which might be used f o r f u r t h e r examination and d i s c u s s i o n s .  50  I t i s recommended: 1.  THAT COMMUNITY COLLEGES CONDUCTING FULL-TIME AND/OR PART-TIME TRAINING PROGRAMS OF HOMEMAKERS FOR STUDENTS, WHO MEET STANDARD PREREQUISITES FOR ENTRY, ESTABLISH: - THE SAME NUMBER OF HOURS FOR EACH PROGRAM - EQUIVALENT RATIOS OF THEORY, LABORATORY AND PRACTICUM EXPERIENCES FOR EACH PROGRAM - CRITERIA FOR THE SEQUENCES OF ROTATIONS OF THEORY, LABORATORY AND PRACTICUM EXPERIENCE FOR EACH PROGRAM  The i m p l i c a t i o n of t h i s recommendation would provide students with the opportunity t o o b t a i n the same t r a i n i n g i n community c o l l e g e s conducting homemaker t r a i n i n g programs.  Furthermore, students would be able to  t r a n s f e r from one c o l l e g e t o another with c r e d i t f o r t r a i n i n g completed.  already  Employers would be able t o expect t r a i n e d homemakers with  s i m i l a r preparation and uniformity of t r a i n i n g .  I t i s recommended: 2.  THAT GUIDELINES OF PREREQUISITE ENTRY REQUIREMENTS FOR STUDENT HOMEMAKERS BE ESTABLISHED.  Established  g u i d e l i n e s would enable prospective  themselves to meet the p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r entry.  students  t o prepare  The g u i d e l i n e s would  provide c o l l e g e s with d i r e c t i o n f o r s e l e c t i o n of prospective  students  because they would include expectations about candidates' competencies r e l a t e d t o previous l i f e , work and t r a i n i n g experiences. requirements f o r h e a l t h , reading  For example,  and w r i t i n g comprehension, hours of  previous employment and previous employers' references about characteristics  should  program.  assist  i n the s e l e c t i o n process  f o r entry  into the  51 It is recommended: 3.  THAT OCCUPATIONAL COMPETENCIES AND SKILLS, VALIDATED IN THE FIELD, BE AGREED UPON BY THE ARTICULATION COMMITTEE MEMBERS AND ACCEPTED BY THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION.  The  use of agreed  upon occupational  competencies and s k i l l s  would  provide program planners and instructors with the specific information necessary  for program developments.  Employers and clients could be  assured that a l l homemakers trained in community colleges had equivalent preparation  in acquiring occupational competencies  and s k i l l s .  At  present, because of the diversity in training programs, homemakers may not possess adequate s k i l l s and knowledge or appropriate attitudes. It i s recommended: 4.  THAT BEHAVIOURAL DESCRIPTIONS BE DEVELOPED OF THE DESIRED CHARACTERISTICS OF A TRAINED HOMEMAKER TO GUIDE INSTRUCTORS AND STUDENTS TOWARD THE ATTAINMENT OF ATTITUDES DESIRED AT THE COMPLETION OF TRAINING.  The  selection of specific desirable characteristics, agreed  consumers,  employing  agencies,  the Articulation  Committee  upon by and the  Ministry of Education and described in behavioural terminology, would assist instructors in the guidance of students toward the attainment of attitudes appropriate in the work situation. It is recommended: 5.  THAT A CONFERENCE BE CONVENED WITH REPRESENTATION FROM THE MINISTRIES OF EDUCATION AND HEALTH, COMMUNITY COLLEGES, HOMEMAKER SERVICE AGENCIES, CONSUMERS, INTERESTED PROFESSIONALS AND VOLUNTARY ASSOCIATIONS IN ORDER TO PROVIDE FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR THE TRAINING OF HOMEMAKERS.  The primary purpose of the conference would be the consideration of the means of promoting and facilitating  the above recommendations developed  52  from the f i n d i n g s of t h i s survey. that  greater  coordination  homemakers i s d e s i r a b l e .  The  between  f i n d i n g s of the survey i n d i c a t e college  training  programs  of  I m p l i c i t i n the a n a l y s i s of the f i n d i n g s i s  that t r a i n e d homemakers are expected to be  able  to perform  specific  occupational s k i l l s and have a v a r i e t y of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; however, the v a r i a t i o n s i n length of the programs and i n the admission requirements r e s u l t i n many expectations of consumers, employers and homemakers being unmet.  In conclusion, the focus of the proposed recommendations i s toward the search f o r p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s to some of the problems i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s survey.  The survey suggests the nature and extent of the problems  of s p e c i f i c aspects of homemaker t r a i n i n g programs.  In 1978,  the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the Long Term Care Program i n B r i t i s h  Columbia stimulated the need f o r an increased number of homemakers. i s t i m e l y to consider the future d i r e c t i o n s f o r the o v e r a l l  It  coordinated  planning of homemaker t r a i n i n g programs, address the funding sources f o r students  i n need of f i n a n c i a l  assistance  process by which programs would be assessed  and  consider  an  evaluation  on a continuing b a s i s .  An  emphasis should be placed upon the necessity to have s t a b i l i z e d programs w i t h the development of a competency based curriculum agreed upon by appropriate agencies and M i n i s t r i e s .  53  The recommendations, i t i s hoped, point the way to f u r t h e r a c t i o n required  t o provide  an  improved  homemakers i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  educational  training  program f o r  54  REFERENCES  Annual Report, 1980-1981. Providing homemaker service to the community for 48 years: Community Homemaker Service Association. Annual Meeting, September 26, 1981. Auman, J . Study of the role, theory and practice of the occupation of homemaker. Unpublished thesis. U.B.C., 1981. Cornish, J. Letter to E.B. Ryan dated February 9, 1982 from the Co-ordinator of the Homemaker Training Program, V.C.C. (King Edward Campus). Cornish, J . & Cranstoun, J. Report of phase III, implementation of revised homemaker program, class of January, 1978. Homemaker program, Vancouver Community College, King Edward Campus, June 1978. The Community Homemaker. Community homemaker services association of British Columbia, Vancouver. Vol. 1, Number 9, March 1981. Dewald, M.R. Vocational home economics education. Handbook for Adult Education, Resources in Education (RIE). September 1978. Hanson, D. et a l . Training Economics, Spring 1980 27-30  home care workers,  Hendrickson, G. & David, H. A policy inquiry: study. Journal of Home Economics, Spring 1980.  Journal of Home  Vocational education  Hole, F.M. A model curriculum and teaching guide for the instruction of the homemaker - home health aide. Bureau of Community Health Services (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, Md. Resources i n Education RIE 1981. Home help service i n Sweden in 1979. A summary. Socialstyrelsen. The National Board of Health and Welfare S-106 30 Stockholm, Sweden, 1979. The homemaker service for elderly persons in B.C. Prepared by the Committee on Aging, Social Planning and Review Council. (S.P.A.R.C.) 1977.  Homemaker training in France Brochure (undated). Hutchinson, E. & Hutchinson, E. Kegan Paul, 1978.  Learning later.  London.  Routledge &  International council of homehelp services, associate member of the international council on social welfare with consultative status of the council of Europe. Founded 1959. Brochure (undated).  55  Kerstell, T. & Unge, C. Home help educational problems. Group discussion paper for use at the International Council of Homehelp Services Congress in Stockholm, Sweden, May 11-15, 1981. Mager, R.F.  Goal Analysis.  Belmont:Fearon Publishers, Inc., 1972.  Mercer, M. Report on homemaker and related services. Compiled by M. Mercer for the Greater Vancouver Society for Coordinating Home Services, 1974. National report for the international congress of the I.C.H.S. in Montrose, Switzerland, May 15-21, 1977. Nebocat, S. Personal communication, July 18, 1982. (P.H.T.P.) Provincial homemaker training program (basic level) 1st working draft, Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Program Research and Development, Richmond, B.C., 1980. Regional meeting, the Provincial homemaker training program. Basic Level, New Curriculum, Richmond, B.C. November 15, 1979 and August 1980. Reisser, L. Approaches to recruiting the adult learner. In New Decisions for Community Colleges Serving Lifelong Learners. San Francisco. Jossey-Bass Inc., 1980. Ryan, N. Service co-ordination and monitoring. In J . Quinn et a l (Eds.) Co-ordinating Community Services for the Elderly. New York: Springer Publishing Company, Inc., 1982. Sage, D.C. Homemaker training program. Follow-up study. Program research and development. Department of British Columbia's Department of Education, February 1981. Simonsen, S. Letter to E.B. Ryan dated February 5, 1982 from the Co-ordinator of the Homemaker Training Program, Fraser Valley College. Staropoli, C.J. & Waltz, C.F. Developing and evaluating educational programs for health care providers^ Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company, 1978. Visiting homemakers service in Canada survey 1982. Homemaker Services, Ontario, 1982.  Canadian Council on  Western Health Care Associates and Deloitte, Haskins and Sells. A review of Homemaker Service in British Columbia. A study presented to the Director, Home Care/Long Term Care, Ministry of Health, 1981.  56  APPENDIX 1  57  Proposed Changes t o the HOMEMAKER (BASIC) SKILL PROFILE CHART October 1980 Working Draft  A l t o read  -  Plan meals t o meet basic food requirements, g i v i n g consideration t o personal and c u l t u r a l preferences.  A6 t o read  -  Demonstrate understanding of emotional s i g n i f i c a n c e o f food and of meal s e r v i c e t o i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s .  Items Bl-10 i n c l u s i v e and B14-17 i n c l u s i v e might be covered by an o v e r a l l statement - plan with the c l i e n t and implement a home cleaning and maintenance plan which maximizes c l i e n t independence. B l l - 1 3 i n c l u s i v e might be s u f f i c i e n t l y covered by the present B12 - take appropriate precautions t o prevent f i r e and accident. CI becomes  -  I d e n t i f y and describe ( a t the l e v e l of the informed consumer) common problems leading t o a need f o r assistance with ADL. Other items i n C t r a c t t o be renumbered a p p r o p r i a t e l y . No changes  D  Maintain good p h y s i c a l and mental h e a l t h and practices.  E l t o read  -  E3 t o read  Perform d u t i e s with regard mental health safety. -  E l l t o read -  t o personal  hygiene  p h y s i c a l and  I d e n t i f y the nature of the h e a l t h and human s e r v i c e s systems i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Appropriate renumbering t o be given t o present E l l - 1 6 i n c l u s i v e .  F  No changes  New Tract G -  General t i t l e "Helping Meet Human Needs".  Gl t o read  -  I d e n t i f y b a s i c human needs a r i s i n g from each stage o f normal human growth and development.  G2 t o read  -  I d e n t i f y the s i g n i f i c a n c e of basic human needs i n determining how a person behaves (e.g. s e p a r a t i o n / l o s s ; fear of apprehension; s e x u a l i t y ) .  58  G3 t o read  -  I d e n t i f y key f a c t o r s which a f f e c t how a family meets i t s needs (e.g. c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s , family r o l e s and a u t h o r i t y patterns).  G4 t o read  -  Describe common dysfunctional family patterns (e.g. drug and alcohol abuse, neglect o r abuse of a family member, f a i l u r e t o perform f a m i l y r o l e s , depression).  G5 t o read  -  Demonstrate a helping response f a m i l i e s consistent with:  to  i n d i v i d u a l s and  - basic human needs - f a m i l y needs - needs a r i s i n g from stages o f normal human growth and development - needs a r i s i n g from a c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n - reactions (such as s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n , sibling response, sexual identity concerns) t o d i s a b l i n g c o n d i t i o n s .  59  APPENDIX 2  60  QUESTIONNAIRE PREREQUISITES FOR ENTRY OF HOMEMAKER STUDENTS AND DELIVERY MODELS FOR HOMEMAKER TRAINING COURSES  This questionnaire i s about the prerequisites for homemaker aide students entering community college programs and the models of delivery for these training programs. Please respond by circling the appropriate answer or by supplying the appropriate information. Do you have a Homemaker Training Program?  YES  NO  Is the program related to the Provincial Homemaker S k i l l Profile Draft dated October 1980?  YES  NO  YES YES YES YES YES YES  NO NO NO NO NO NO  Is the program a pre-employment training program?  YES  NO  Is the program an upgrading program for those persons already employed as homemakers?  YES  NO  If yes to #5 are there a minimal number of hours of previous employment required in a homemaker agency?  YES  NO  If yes to #6, please state how many hours  Hours  Is the same program used for both pre-employment training and upgrading?  YES  NO  YES YES YES  NO NO NO  If yes to #2, please check specifically the sections of the Homemaker (Basic) S k i l l Profile Chart which are related to your program: a) b) c) d) e) f)  Prepare and serve nutritious meals Promote household safety and cleanliness Provide assistance in activities of daily living Communicate with clients and family Work responsibly Handle emergency situations  f  Can candidates challenge any of the courses for: a) b) c)  Previous work experience Personal experience Other training  61  10.  Please i d e n t i f y the challenge c r i t e r i a you use f o r the students: (a)  Previous work experience:  (b)  Personal experience:  (c)  Other t r a i n i n g :  62  11.  Please place an X i n a l l the boxes t h a t apply. FULL TIME  TYPES OF PROGRAM  PART PRE-EMPLOYUPTIME MENT GRADING  a) Regular day courses b) Regular evening courses c) Correspondence  courses  d) Intensive short courses or workshops e) Other please name 12.  13.  14.  Is each applicant interviewed before being accepted i n t o the program(s) you have marked i n Question 11? Program a)  YES  NO  Program b)  YES  NO  Program c)  YES  NO  Program d)  YES  NO  Program e)  YES  NO  Are the r e s u l t s of the interview a c r i t e r i o n f o r s e l e c t i o n o r r e j e c t i o n of the a p p l i c a n t ? Who conducts the interview? P o s i t i o n of person(s)  YES  NO  63  22.  Do you ask f o r an employment h i s t o r y ?  YES  NO  23.  Do you ask f o r a volunteer work h i s t o r y ?  YES  NO  The above questions i d e n t i f y h e a l t h , educational and employment h i s t o r y and the reasons f o r wanting to be a homemaker. 24.  Are there other  25.  Please l i s t 12 a d j e c t i v e s which best describe a t r a i n e d homemaker. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.  9. 10. 11. 12.  requirements?  .64  15.  Do you ask f o r : a)  Medical doctor's c e r t i f i c a t e regarding general s t a t e of health?  YES  NO  b)  Tuberculosis screening c e r t i f i c a t e ?  YES  NO  c)  Immunization c e r t i f i c a t e ?  YES  NO  YES  NO  YES  NO  16.  Do you ask f o r evidence of reading comprehension?  17.  I f yes t o #16, how do you t e s t f o r reading comprehens ion?  18.  Do you ask f o r evidence of w r i t i n g comprehension?  19.  I f yes to #18, how do you t e s t f o r w r i t i n g comprehension?  20.  Do you ask f o r the a p p l i c a n t ' s w r i t t e n reasons f o r wanting homemaker t r a i n i n g ?  21.  I f yes t o #20, please e x p l a i n f o r what reasons you request t h i s information.  YES  NO  26.  Please complete i n the appropriate space, the d i s t r i b u t i o n i n hours o f college and f i e l d experiences required f o r a student t o complete each type of program(s) conducted at your c o l l e g e (50 minutes of i n s t r u c t i o n i s taken t o be equivalent t o one hour). College Experience  Types o f Program  Classroom Experience ( i n hours)  Laboratory Experience ( i n hours)  F i e l d Experience Supervision by Homemaker Agency Supervision by Personnel College Instructor ( i n hours) ( i n hours)  F i e l d Demonstration by College I n s t r u c t o r ( i n hours)  Total Course Hours  Pre-employment Regular day courses Regular evening courses Correspondence courses Intensive short courses or workshops Other Name Upgrading Regular day courses Regular evening courses Correspondence courses Intensive short courses or workshops Other Name Combined pre-employment and upgrading Regular day courses Regular evening courses Correspondence courses Intensive short courses or workshops Other Name ON.  .6-7  APPENDIX 3  69,  APPENDIX 4  70  LIST OF COMMUNITY COLLEGES  COLLEGES  CO-ORDINATORS OF HOMEMAKER AND/OR LONG TEFM CARE AIDE TRAINING PROGRAMS  CAMOSUN COLLEGE Junction Campus 1627 Fort Street VICTORIA, B.C. V8R 1H8 498-5211  HELEN MALLET  CAPILANO COLLEGE Main Campus 2055 Purcell Way NORTH VANCOUVER, B.C. V7J 3H5 986-1911  TERRY ALDER  CARIBOO COLLEGE P.O. Box 3010 900 McGill Road KAMLOOPS, B.C. V2C 5N3 374-0123  JUDY WILBEE  DOUGLAS COLLEGE - Coquitlam c/o Box 2503 NEW WESTMINSTER, B.C. V3L 5B2 939-6611  BETTY EMERY  KWANTLEN COLLEGE (formerly Douglas) 9260 - 140th Street SURREY, B.C. 588-4411  JAN CARRUTHERS  EAST KOOTENAY COMMUNITY COLLEGE Box 8500 CRANBROOK, B.C. VIC 5L7 489-2751  JOAN PAWESKA  FRASER VALLEY COLLEGE 45600 Airport Road CHILLIWACK, B.C. V2B 6T4 792-0025  SUE SIMONSEN  MALASPINA COLLEGE 900 - 5th Street NANAIMO, B.C. V9R 5S5 753-3245  ETHEL TURNER  COLLEGE OP NEW CALEDONIA 3330 - 22nd Avenue PRINCE GEORGE, B.C. .V2N 1P8 562-2131  GLORIA HEINZMAN  NORTH ISLAND COLLEGE 156 Manor Drive COMOX, B.C. V9N 6P7 339-5551  LINDA RYEHLEN  NORTHERN LIGHTS COLLEGE 11401 - 8th Street DAWSON CREEK, B.C. V l G 4G2 782-5251  THELMA IRVING  NORTHWEST COMMUNITY COLLEGE Box 726 TERRACE, B.C. V8G 4C2 635-6511  FRED HISLOP  OKANAGAN COLLEGE 1000 KID Road KELOWNA, B.C. V l Y 4X8 762-5445  MARY ANNE DAY  SELKIRK COLLEGE 2201 S i l v e r King Road NELSON, B.C. VIL 1C8 352-6601  PHYLLIS HILTZ-BONTJE  VANCOUVER COMMUNITY COLLEGE King Edward Campus 2750 Oak Street VANCOUVER, B.C. V6H 3N2 731-4614  JOAN CORNISH  72  APPENDIX  5  74  APPENDIX 6  76  APPENDIX  7  APPENDIX 7 TYPES  College Exp.  420  120  120  -  240  7  Douglas *1 East Kootenay Fraser Valley  200  142  180  -  450  -  -  -  -  v  -  7  -  180  48  126  96  -  450  150  30  -  -  v  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  V  V  120  60  *2 6  24  210  90  V  v  7  v  7  7  V  -  170  40  5  150  360  -  142 158  68 76  180  60  240  192  84  7  90  -  150  v  7  V  7  -  North Island  V  -  -  v  Northern Lights  v  7  -  -  -  Northwest  s/  -  -  Okanagan  s/  v  7  -  -  -  V  -  -  •/  Selkirk VCC King Edward *1  7  V  7  Douglas  *2 E a s t K o o t e n a y *3 F r a s e r Valley *4 *5 M a l a s p i n a *6  Northern  Lights  7  v  7  -  -  -  130  50  -  180  180  -  -  -  -  -  -  180  12  -  192  30  -  120  -  -  -  -  115  *3 50  -  165  120  142  68  90  300  -  *2 6  10  50  *4  - .  170  90 246  If  Malaspina *5  -  -  Field Total E x p . Hours  Supervision by College Instructor  -  College Exp.  Laboratory  ' 180  Upgrading Evening Programs ( P T )  Classroom  120  -  Field demo, by College Instructor  Supervision by HM Agency Personnel  Cariboo  -'  Field Total E x p . Hours  Laboratory  7  -  College Exp.  Classroom  V  s/  Total Hours  Supervision by College Instructor  Capilano  7  Upgrading Day Programs (FT,PT)  120  UG PE UG (FT) (FT) (PT) (PT) (PT) v  Field Experience  (FT)  E O  Eveninc Programs  PE  Camosun  DayPrograms  Laboratory  Day  P r e - e m p l o yment  Supervision by HM Agency Personnel  - Pre-employment - Upgrading - F u l l - t ime - Part-time  FOR HOMEMAKERS  Classro  PE UG FT PT  OF PROGRAMS  300 480  -  -  480  -  -  -  -  90  30  90  *6 24  420  -  -  -  -  -  -  90  90  90  -  360  -  -  -  -  90  90  30  155  25  50  360  150  30  -  180  -  -  -  -  72  -  288  -  180  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  216  266  47  66  -  -  379  -  -  -  -  180  -  30  One s t u d e n t w a s i n a d i r e c t e d s t u d y p r o g r a m . The p r o g r a m i s a c o m b i n e d u p g r a d i n g / p r e - e m p l o y m e n t program. E i t h e r 6 hours o f s u p e r v i s i o n o r 6 hours f i e l d d e m o n s t r a t i o n by i n s t r u c t o r . S t u d e n t s a l s o r e c e i v e d a 5 hour l e a r n i n g package. S t u d e n t s h a d 1 3 0 h o u r s of. s u p e r v i s e d w o r k e x p e r i e n c e . C o l l e g e a s s i s t s homemaker a g e n c i e s w i t h 30 hour o r i e n t a t i o n program. C o l l e g e h a d d u e l L T C / H M p r o g r a m a s w e l l a s a c o m b i n e d HM p r e - e m p l o y m e n t / u p g r a d i n g F i e l d t r i p s r e p l a c e d f i e l d d e m o n s t r a t i o n by c o l l e g e instructor.  120  -  180  program,  78  APPENDIX 8  APPENDIX 8  WMEIiMKER (BASIC) OF THE  PROVINCIAL-  PLAN  PREPARE  AND  SERVE  NUTRITIOUS HEALS  A  •  PRaiwoTS \HOUSE HOLD A W O CLEAN  3  /  \ SAFLTT? £./N£~3ty  _lv  PROVIDE tiS&SrBNCE. IN ACTIvines OF PAILY LIVING \C  HOME MAKER  NEALS  PURCHASE  n  \vse COMMON \CLEANINb [APPLIANCES \AND SUPPLIES  ASSIST WITH \(£6. INb  CLIENT PERSONAL HAiR.SIIAIDKCSSING)/  (E.G. FLU.  SLOEEP. VACUUM f\ND WASH FLOORS  CLEAN BATHROOM UNP KITCHEN  ASSIST CLIENT WITH ORAL HYGIENE \(/KCL'JOINn.  COLDS.  INTRODUCE  '  3?LF\  AND EXPLAIN ROLE \AND SERVICES  MAKE OCCUPIED BED  ASSIST  CLIENT  WITH TCILETTINCP ( A S PTR GlttOiTL/H^sJ-^  lUlTH  TRANSFERRING  OBSERVE COMMON COURTESIES  VTSSIST CLIENT \CLEAH U)INDOil)S\ C.UPSOARDS. TO TIPY mAToR [AND DUST "APPLIANCES  EFFecriv^l  ME.G.  ResTumnm.  meoicAL  HELP)I  RESPECT PERSONAL UEi-ONGINGS  y  CtiRE  MAKE BEDS  Rap.  FURNISHINC' S  COOK-  ING, iERVIHtr AND CLEAN UP ACTIVITIES LTFFIClENTLYy] /IPRANGE FURNISHINGS FOR CU ENT CcTNI'SNlENCE' AND  [PREPARE [INFANT \FORPIOLA FAX-; UJRTTTEN INSTRUCTIONS  P/fiVS  2  •  LFtVNPSR )NPCAREPCR QLCIHES Hotl$£RoLL\  Wl> r  SAFSFYQ  PREPARE SPECIAL. \"RCM tVRlTTLzN yNSTPllCTTONS  LINEN  PLfi/O TNTAKC ,AHO SoiINO \NurRiTloN  PifPXE. SAUSAGE  AND  REFUSE  9  \*!IHNWHVfN<*  \DIET/)KY A»o FLUID  II  10  CF  \ASSlST IN  \HANDLE  ANP—I  \STCRE \RC£NTS  CLEANINE INFLAMH-  UgLES, POISONS WHP PESTIOJPES ]£TC,  SAFEL-Y  TAKE APPROPRIATE PRECAUTION* TO PREVENT FlfiS AND ACCIDENTS 12  yntDiFicorioMi HRICH MitKS IND£-purND^N'0£  STRAIGHTEN \CCCUPlED BED AND MAKE UNOCCUPIED BED  ASSIST WITH  WALKING  (.HOVERINb) 4  ASSIST kl/Th * SEP BATH, SHOWER OR TVS BATH  PROVIDE I ftZZlST WITH COMFORT ANP ASSISTANCE •SAFETY FOR THE >IN fOSmCNINb IN 8EDCRCHHIH CLl&vTlN HEP ORCHHlR y 6 ASSISTlUrry* \2ARE OF NAILS  PROVIDE TO  CARE  T1AINTAIN  \I£ALTHY  SKIN  i&A  IM  SPEAK IN A LISTEN TO ANP CONVERSE U)ITh\ \MANNER TO BE\ RP SPPCTCUENT\ CLIENT/') IN A READILY 3 A THEN PLY AND FtrtlL i o 'JNDERSTCOO APPROPItl'TTE lMll£3 1« 'ES. VOCH&UlAKf\ MANNER £ CoNCHKHS 4 Q-lTlCN \DLL>n£ D  PERFORM PunES IUITH REGARD Tc PERSONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY %  MAINTAIN APPROPRIATE  UPCOMING AND APPEARANCE-  UlCPK RECORDS  ACTIONS  Ave OBSERVATIONS  IS  IT  EMERGENCY SITUATIONS  SELECT AND FCUOlV SIMPLE RECIPES  \ORMNIZS SHOPPING  m  ENCCVRASE RECREATIONAL ANP PIVEPS.'O.VAL. /ACTIVITIES  C3SEAVE AND REPCATCHANi  3  VNAOPVTTY AND  ,6£-tfAVioKI*rTSfih±.  g  tT.,V/V.  £llMf»HTlOH.\  ,j:wr*>*T  BATHS AND CHANGE INFAmS 10  IJ  ASSIST WlTH*\ GENERAL MO&IL.TTY VE.G. ICALKIN^)_  WSSIST INFANTA "CHILDREN AND 'IC PER ATELY [INCAPACITATED \ADULTS UIITH FEEDING 2H  SUPfORT CLl£NT\ ACH/£i£,fE.\HS, STRENGTHS ANINDEPENDENCE]  INVOLVE CLIENT IN DECISION MAKING, PLANNING llN'.\ ACTIVITIES 9|  OR6ANIZE PERSONAL ASSISTANCE ROUTINES lOTTH CLIENT  It  TAKE TEMPERATURE BY FIOUTH OR AXIU-A II  RETIINP /V/VOIH EnPTY ANP K lApfLY ANP #r ASSIST CLIENT] MEASi'RE USINL REMOVEI TO TAKE PRES FR.OM PRAINAU NON-STERILE CRlBED ORAL BAGS PRESSINGS MEDIO^TION^ 2-h 23_  -ft  COMF1 £T£  APPLY GENERAL. FlRST AID PROCEDURES  Cfc/obcr RVO CLEAN UP AFrE-l />.V.VIr:s« (••••i. PiPllES. *FOOD, tUASTE>. ETC.)  TESTOSINE \FOR plA BETICS  USE TELEPHONE FSPPFPPAIATELY  Jo  WRAME MEALOPERATE AND \riMES AND CARS FCR KERVlCE OONLia COMMON \/VE TO ENJOYKITCHEN APPLIANCES. . MENT AND \DI(-l-::TX)N t> Si  PROVIDE ij? PYSSISTANCe TO -raiLET OR COMMODE. CHAIR ^  ASSIST  __rt  MAINTA/N GOOP HEALTH AND HYGIENIC PRACTICES  Alio  PLAN IICV^E KEf-PlNt* ROUTINE WITH CLIENT IS  Ere.) /3  ASSIST  HANDLE  WILL BE MLE  s  OUT  WITH PROSTHESES  £  (PflSlC)  3  IDENTIFY AND ORGANIZE REPORTHAZARDS] {CLEANING AND Ti> HEALTH MNP MAINTENANCE SHF£TY(£', trxu% ACTIVITIES TUFAL.PESTS. 12., EFFICIENTLY. FAULTY £GjiPri£Hr\ 2il  CAAAY  WORK RESPONSIBLY  PR06HAM  L  RECom/neNOJ-D\ \/RoC£liu£cz f°* \CoM/nc* MAIAPISS  D  TRAINING  HANDLE AND STORE POOP SAFELY  seiEC MEEI'BA-IC fct>e\ \fcops \TIVELY /ffTOU/lENENTS /E.G. sipisr AND PERSONAL NUTRITION) . PR£F£R£NCESf  &RCCMIN6 /  ConnoNicmE WITH c u e NTS Ano FAMit-j  Program nojcnruh and povelapmon} Posl Socoudr.ry Division, Mlnlulry al Education  8COII PROFILE C H A R T  British Columbia  /? GRAPOHT£  Davoloped by;  ATTEND-re AND REFKKT  ».'HCR  INJUPES  (E.G. -riribS 3RVICSS, 3L,1PS CUTS Era.)  X  REPbRT ABNORMAL ACTIONS. SYMPTOMS.  pgRFann  i\riEs\  WITHIN ROLE AND PEASONHI  CoriPEfENCE  GIVE  FIRST  PXioRnY TO THE u/ElFARE \OF THE CLIENT  £  ±  RESPOND TO i\pp,?3i'Rinri LY PERSONAL REQUESTS PEtKNSTKATE PUNCTUALITY, PEPENPABII I'lT, ^ANO  MAKE SU&bESTlONS TASTFVLLY  £EKCAS77?Ar£ LTTI/OliL APPSt/C TC SERVICES  INTZ&RITY  b  RECCiNlZE ANP MAINTAIN CONFIPEVTIAL.  INFORMATICNC  RECCiNlZE LEGAL RE^nxwsiX'Lfi:;  .<ycc*ir.;:i:ji; FoK CtjxNfl *ltr» i-PXClAL W--5S(Vo VM*. l i t * SH-cai I'Mli'ro cf  RESPOND IN HELPFUL IUAYS IN SMOriCNAL. SlTUATIONS IC  PECaSNIlE CLIENTS/ • FADlUr-*  rCUOU) /<\-SrHUCT.V.\£  F?LLOtl> 'cENOY IPLIClES  AVP  D:#ECT:CNS  B  AND  PfiOCEtX 'KES II  REPORT TO IANP CONSULT ItUlTH SUPER\VISoH AP.'RCPRlATELY 12  Wo It K CooPUKfl TIV<?LY flHO ^HARC INFOKMFI'ON WiTH TtTAtA., MeMAEffS Ho ASSIST CHOKING OA CONVULSING INDIVIDUAL-*  CONTROL EXTERNAL BLP'L'-PING  SUAIMOH APP/tol°Kll}T£ ASSISTANCE CE.G. RID no.  COPE UIITH VNANWCIPATED  OCCURIUNCiTS fob. P&>rll. Fifies? FA tlUAE.  VD  80  A P P E N D I X  9  APPENDIX BASIC O V E R V I E W OF I.  DEMONSTRATES I .1  SKILLS  Demonstrates communication 1.1 1.2  IN  HUMAN  SUPPORTS  1.2  skills.  D e m o n s t r a t e s use o f oral & written English, Demonstrates interpersonal skills.  II.1  INDIVIDUAL  AND  FAMILY  Describes basic human n e e d s . 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5  PROGRAM GENERAL  1981 OBJECTIVES  RELATIONS Demonstrates basic components of a helping/caring relat ionsh i p . 2.1 2.2 2.3  II.  HOMEMAKER U N I T S AND  9  GROWTH AND II.2  D e s c r i b e s need f o r survival. D e s c r i b e s need f o r s e c u r i t y. D e s c r i b e s need f o r st imulat i o n . D e s c r i b e s need f o r love & belonging. D e s c r i b e s need f o r esteem & achievement  Respects i n d i v i d u a l and promotes self-esteem. Promotes independence. R e c o g n i z e s own limitations. DEVELOPMENT  Describes structure 2.1 2.2 2.3  b a s i c body & functions.  II.3  D e s c r i b e s how the bod y m e e t s t h e need f o r s u r v i v a l . D e s c r i b e s how t h e body meets the need For s e c u r i t y . D e s c i b e s how t h e body meets the need for stimulation.  D e s c r i b e s g r o w t h and development from b i r t h t o o l d age . 3.1  3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7  III.  DEMONSTRATES III.l  JOB-RELATED  SKILLS  Assumes r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a s an employee. 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4  AND III  Demonstrates j o b finding skills. Describes policies & procedures related to employment. Demonstrates a responsible approach t o own work. Demonstrates o r g a n i z a t i o n skills .  RESPONSIBILITIES  PROVIDES IV.1  2.1  2.2 2.3  Describes growth & development during prenatal infancy & early childhood. Describes growth & development during middle c h i l d h o o d . D e s c r i b e s growth & development during ado l e s c e n c e . Describes growth & development during early adulthood. D e s c r i b e s g r o w t h A: development during middle age. D e s c r i b e s growth & development during old age. Describes dying.  SOLVING  III.3  Describes family development . 4.1  D e s c r i b e s the f a m i l y r o l e i n growth & de ve 1 op me n t .  1  SKILLS  Demonstrates problem solving skills. A p p l i e s the problem s o l v i n g proc ess . A p p l i es t h e p r o b l e m solving process in groups.  Comprehends the n a t u r e of h e a l t h / human s e r v i c e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. D e m o n s t r a t e s an e t h i c a l approach to own work. Identifies legal responsibilities. Maintains standards of h e a l t h , p e r s o n a l hygiene & grooming.  CARE  Maintains 1.1  PROBLEM  Assumes r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as a h e a l t h / human s e r v i c e s w o r k e r ,  2.4  IV.  AND  II.4  environment.  Promotes a clean environment. 1 .2 P r o m o t e s a comfortable & a t t r a c t i v e environment 1.3 P r o m o t e s safety. 1.4 U s e s & c a r e s f o r equipment & s u p p l i e s . 1.5 C o p e s w i t h emergency situations.  IV.2  Promotes activity and comfort. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4  IV .3 P r ov i d e s pe r s o n a l care.  Applies principles of b o d y m e c h a n i c s . Promotes e x e r c i s e and activity. Encourages diversional & recreational act i v i t i e s . Promotes comfort, rest & sleep.  3.1 3.2  IV .4 A t t e n d s needs.  Provides personal hygiene . Pr omot es e l i m i n a t i o n ,  4.1 4.2 4.3  to  nutritional  P r omot es Promotes balance . Provides  nutrit ion. fluid for  nutrition,  82  APPENDIX 10  APPENDIX 10 PREREQUISITES FOR ENTRY OF HOMiMAKER STUDENTS PE - Pre-enploynent  College  PE UG  1. Program related t o P r o v i n c i a l Homemaker S k i l l P r o f i l e Draft October 1980  5 CO o e  CO CJ  PE UG  o c CO  rt •H  Cu  CJ CO  PE UG  o o  XI •H CH CO CJ  PE UG  PE UG  cn  >* CO  cn => o  £ cn o CO o  CO rt  Q  PE UG  PE UG  CD C •H fH >, CD CD —1 CO rt fH CD  cn Lu  >  Cu  cn CO  rt CD X  PE UG  -o x: c - P CO fH rt  o cnrt  Z  PE UG  CD  cn  SZ  4->  4-i  x: cn  fn O -H  z  _l  PE UG  -P CO CD  S  SZ H-> fH  PE UG  c CO cn CD c  CO j^  PE UG  J^ fH •H J*  rt  PE UG  CJ CJ  zo  o  CD CO  >  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  2. Sections of the P.H.S.P.D. related t o program: a) prepare and serve n u t r i t i o u s meal b) promote household safety and cleanliness c) provide assistance i n a c t i v i t i e s of d a i l y l i v i n g d) communicate with c l i e n t s and family e) work r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f) handle emergency situations  Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  Yes Yes Yes YesYes Yes  Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  Yes Yes Yes  Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  *1 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  3. Pre-employment t r a i n i n g program  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  *2 No  Yes  4. Upgrading program  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  No  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  5. Minimal hours of previous employment i n H.M. agency  Yes  No  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  -  No  No  Yes  No  *3 -  -  500  100  »4 1800  *5 3600  1240  800  _  _  _  Yes  Yes  Yes  -  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  -  No  Yes  No  No  No  *8a Yes  No  *9a Yes  No  No  No  No  No  No  No  No *10 Yes  No  Yes Yes Yes  Yes Yes No  Yes Yes Yes  No No No No  10. Evidence of reading comprehension  Yes  *11 No  *12a No  11. Evidence of w r i t i n g comprehension  Yes  No  No  6. Minimal hours required 7. Same program used f o r pre-employment & upgrading t r a i n i n g 8. Can candidates challenge courses f o r : a) previous work experience  No  *7 Yes  *a>  *6 900  _  -  No  No  No  No  No  No  No  No  No  No  No  No  No  No Yes Yes  No No No  Yes No No  Yes Yes No  Yes Yes Yes  Yes Yes Yes  Yes *8= Yes  No No  No *9b Yes  Yes No No  Yes No No  Yes Yes Yes  No  *13a Yes  •14 Yes  No  *15 Yes  No  •16 Yes  *17a No  No  *18a Yes  *12b No  No  *13b Yes  No  No  No  No  No  ,*17b No  No  *18b Yes  *19 No  No  No  *20 No  *21 No  *22 Yes  No  No  No  No  No  *23 Yes  Yes  Yes  No  Yes  Yes  No  Yes  No  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  14. Volunteer h i s t o r y  No  Yes  No  Yes  Yes  No  Yes  No  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  Yes  15. Other requirements  -  -  -  -  *24 Yes  -  -  •25 Yes  *26 Yes  *27 Yes  _  *2B Yes  16. Interviewed  *29 Yes  *30 Yes  *31 Yes  *35 Yes  No  *36 Yes  No  *38 Yes  17. Interview c r i t e r i o n for selection  Yes  Yes  No  -  Yes  -  Yes  b) personal experience c) other t r a i n i n g 9. a) Medical doctor's c e r t i f i c a t e b) Tuberculosis screening c e r t i f i c a t e c) Immunization c e r t i f i c a t e  12. Written reasons f o r wanting homemaker t r a i n i n g 13. Employment h i s t o r y  No  No  No  -  -  *32 *33 *34 Yes(PE) Yes(PE) Yes No(UG) No(UG) Yes  Yes  Yes  No  *37 Yes(PE) No(UG) Yes  • co CO  APPENDIX 10 (cont'd) *  3  CAMOSUN  * 29 * 10  A recommendation from a homemaker agency was required. Faculty Co-ordinator  CAPILANO  Evidence of previous t r a i n i n g ( i . e . c e r t f i c a t e , t r a n s c r i p t , course o u t l i n e ) .  * 11  Reading t e s t s were supplied by the basic t r a i n i n g s k i l l s development department for some E.S.L. (English as a second language) students.  * 19  Received o r a l l y .  * 30  Co-ordinator of Health Programs, Instructor o f Homemaker Program  * 12a, b  CARIBOO  * 31 *  7  * 4 *  TOEFEL (Tests of Equivalents for English Language) w i l l be used. Counsellor, Registrar's o f f i c e .  DOUGLAS  The challenge c r i t e r i a for previous work experience was 100 hours plus the homemaker agency's affirmation of s k i l l s learned. I f a student had no experience, he/she may r e g i s t e r , but must complete 100 hours f i e l d experience o r a practicum ccmponert derranstrating competency i n required s k i l l s , before the program ends.  EAST KOOTENAY  One year was equated to 1,800 hours.  8a, b, c  Students for upgrading program must be recommended by a homemaker agency or a Long Term Care F a c i l i t y . present a resume.  Pre-employment students must  * 13a, b  Evidence of reading and w r i t i n g comprehension by completion of an application form was a requirement f o r pre-employment students.  * 20  Received o r a l l y .  * 24  Citizenship.  * 32  Co-ordinator of Health Programs, Instructor of Homemaker Program  *  5  FRASER VALLEY  Many (or some) years equated to 3,600 hours.  * 14  Grade 10 high school c r e d e n t i a l s .  * 21  Received o r a l l y . Co-ordinator o f Health Programs, Instructor o f Homemaker Program.  * 33 *  9a, b  MALASPINA  Students were then aware of having s u i t a b l e transportation, s a l a r i e s , and perhaps the necessity of f u l l - t i m e work for one-parent families  * 22  Department Head or Faculty member, LTC Program.  * 34 * 15  Students who had work experience of 1,2450 hours, an orientation program and a "good" evaluation.  NORTH ISLAND  Grade 10 or below, do not read f o r plesure, a student i s referred to G.E.D. (General Education Department). Tutor-in-charge o f Homemaker Program.  * 35  Co-ordinator of Human Service Program. * 25  NORTHERN LIGHTS  A caring and interested a t t i t u d e .  * 16  NORTHWEST  Read and w r i t e E n g l i s h .  * 26  A good a t t i t u d e .  * 36  Instructor, Manpower Counsellor (College Representative)  * 17a, b  OKANAGAN  Grade 8.  * 27  A genuine interest i n helping.  * 37  Instructor.  *  2  *  6  *  1  SELKIRK  A pre-employment program date was set t e n t a t i v e l y for A p r i l 1982. Six months was equated t o 900 hours.  V.C.C.  The P r o v i n c i a l Homemaker S k i l l P r o f i l e Draft, October 1980, i s outdated.  The new statement of competencies i s used.  * 18a, b  Tested informally during s e l e c t i o n process, also by formal t e s t s .  * 28  F i n a n c i a l and l i f e s t y l e f a c t o r s , time management s k i l l s and c h i l d care arrangements.  * 39  Program Assistant and/or Co-ordinator Homemaker Program.  85--  APPENDIX 11  APPENDIX 11 TRAINING SEQUENCES  College Camosun  Type o f Program  Length o f Program i n Weeks  Classroom/Laboratory/Practicum & F i e l d  PE Day  14  UG Day  8  Capilano  PE Day UG Ev  15 6  No s e t sequence One 6 hour s e s s i o n a week f o r 30 weeks  Cariboo  PE Day  15  UG Day  6  Weeks 1-3 4-9 10 11-15 1-6  Douglas  PE/UG Ev  East Kootenay  PE Day  7  UG Day  4  PE Day  12  Fraser V a l l e y  UG Day UG Ev Malaspina  PE Day UG Day PE Day (LTC/HM double certificate)  North Island  PE Day  UG Ev  6 3/5  5 1/6 5 2/3 10 10 16  16  4  Weeks 1-8 9-14 1-8  Experiences  CR/Lab (240 h r s ) FE (180 h r s ) CR/Lab (240 h r s )  CR CR CR FE CR  (80 h r s ) Lab (10 h r s ) (90 h r s ) Lab (18 h r s ) FE (72 h r s ) (30 h r s ) (150 h r s ) (150 h r s ) Lab (30 h r s )  Program i s d i v i d e d i n t o 4 s t e p s . Each s t e p i s 15 w e e k l y s e s s i o n s of one 3 h r . n i g h t p e r week Weeks 1-6 7 1-4  CR/Lab (180 h r s ) P r a c t i c u m (30 h r s ) CR/Lab (120 h r s )  Weeks 1-2 3-5 6-7 8-10 11-12 1-6 1-6  CR (30 h r s ) P r a c t i c u m (30 h r s ) CR (70 h r s ) Lab (20 h r s ) P r a c t i c u m (60 h r s ) CR (70 h r s ) Lab (20 h r s ) P r a c t icum (60 h r s ) CR (115 h r s ) Lab (50 h r s ) CR (10 h r s ) Lab (50 h r s )  Weeks 1-5 6-8 9-10 Weeks 1-5 6-9 10-13 14-16  CR (80 h r s ) Lab (40 h r s ) P r a c t i c u m (30 h r s ) CR (20 h r s ) Lab (10 h r s ) P r a c t i c u m (30 h r s ) CR (42 h r s ) Lab (18 h r s ) P r a c t i c u m (30 h r s ) Same as f o r PE Day Program CR (80 h r s ) Lab (40 h r s ) P r a c t i c u m (30 h r s ) CR (16 h r s ) Lab (8 h r s ) P r a c t i c u m (96 h r s ) CR (20 h r s ) Lab (20 h r s ) P r a c t i c u m (90 h r s ) CR (42 h r s ) Lab (18 h r s ) P r a c t i c u m (30 h r s )  Weeks 1-5 6-7 8 9-16 1-3 4  CR (150 h r s ) Lab (60 h r s ) Lab (60 h r s ) CR (30 h r s ) P r a c t i c u m (240 h r s ) CR/Lab (90 h r s ) P r a c t i c u m (30 h r s )  Northern L i g h t s  PE Day  14  Weeks 1-9 10-14  CR/Lab (276 h r s ) P r a c t i c u m (144 h r s )  Northwest  PE Day UG Ev  12 6  Weeks 1-12 Program i s 1 n i g h t 3 h r s . p e r week f o r 60 weeks  CR (90 h r s ) Lab (90 h r s ) P r a c t i c u m (180 h r s )  Okanagan  PE Day  12  UG Day  6  Weeks 1-3 4-5 7-9 10-12 1-3 4-6  CR/Lab (90 h r s ) P r a c t i c u m (90 h r s ) CR (90 h r s ) CR/Practicum (90 h r s ) CR/Lab (90 h r s ) CR (90 h r s )  Weeks 1-9 3/5  CR (216 h r s ) Lab (72 h r s )  Weeks 1-12 2/3 Program i s d i v i d e d i n t o 4 b l o c k s . Each b l o c k i s 15 weekly s e s s i o n s o f one 3 h r . n i g h t per week  CR (265.15) Lab (47.45) P r a c t i c u m (66 h r s )  Selkirk  UG Ev  V.C.C.  PE Day UG Ev  9 3/5 12 2/3 6  oo  87  A P P E N D I X  12  APPENDIX  COMMUNITY  COLLEGES OF  College  12  INSTRUCTORS'  A TRAINED  PERCEPTIONS  HOMEMAKER  Adjectives  Describing  Trained  Camosun  Responsible, accountable, organized, adaptable, empathetic, caring, positive, well-groomed  Capilano  Responsible, professional,  Cariboo  Empathetic, responsible,  Douglas  Empathetic, caring, honest, self-reliant, assertive, accurate, reliable, knowledgeable, responsible  East  Informed, independent, conscientious, concerned, competent, helping, caring  Kootenay  Fraser  Valley  Capable, healthy, s t a b l e , competent, organized, decisive, sensitive  North  Honest, dependable, courteous, friendly,  Lights  courteous,  clean,  observant, punctual, reliable, non-judgmental , communicative, ethical, patient,  independent, competent  interested,  empathetic,  healthy,  Caring, conscientious, reliable, pleasant, stable, r e s p e c t f u l , concerned, independent, resourceful  Northwest  Interested, competent, kind, c a r i n g , pleasant, industrious, understanding, compassionate, firm  Okanagan  Mature, caring, dependable, trustworthy, organized, observant, i n d u s t r i o u s , competent,  Selkirk  Dependable, knowledgeable, empathetic, f l e x i b l e , outgoing, dexterous, organized,  V.C.C, King E d w a r d Campus  Confident, flexible, resourceful, motivated,  responsible, reputable  nurturing, responsible  observant,  strong,  honest,  humourous,  independent,  practical,  communicative,  interested,  responsible,  responsible,  self-reliant,  well-groomed,  friendly,  reliable, organized, punctual, co-operative, objective, tactful  flexible,  reliable,  articulate,  healthy,  efficient,  confident,  concise,  kind,  honest, flexible, understanding clean,  confident  knowledgeable,  thorough,  informed,  safe,  understanding,  humourous, se1f-directed, caring, patient, e t h i c a l , open-minded, r e s p e c t f u l , healthy  Healthy, discreet,  Northern  knowledgeable,  competent, flexible, efficient, caring, accepting, e t h i c a l , empathetic, co-operative  Malaspina  Island  skilled,  Homemakers  confident,  knowledgeable,  confident,  healthy,  efficient,  89  APPENDIX  13  APPENDIX PROVINCIAL  HOMEMAKER  TERMINAL  A.  TRACK  -  TRACK  -  principles  HUMAN  GROWTH  of communication AND  Demonstrate a development. C.  TRACK  -  OCCUPATIONAL Perform ethical  D.  E.  TRACK  TRACK  -  -  TRACK  -  ROLE  TRACK  -  i n job  AND  response  to  Meet  f o r p r o t e c t i o n i n t h e home.  MEAL  ACTIVITIES  EMPLOYMENT Oriented  stages  of  growth  to  commonly  accepted  legal,  MANAGEMENT of n u t r i t i o n  and  meal  management  t o meet  needs  for  nutrition  LIVING  i n t h e home  to maintain  activities  of d a i l y  living.  MARKET  t o t h e employment  market.  February 2GPA-PH0-2  and  HOME  OF D A I L Y  clients  various  according  I N THE  FOOD AND  at  FUNCTION  the role of t h e homemaker and o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s .  needs  situations.  clients  PROTECTION  Assist G.  OBJECTIVES  DEVELOPMENT  helping  Use p r i n c i p l e s i n t h e home . F.  CURRICULUM  COMMUNICATIONS Use  B.  13  3, 1982 -O  

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