UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Agricultural extension agent roles in Canada and the United States 1982

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AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AGENT ROLES IN CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES by AYELE YESHEWALUL B . S c , C o l l e g e of A g r i c u l t u r e , E t h i o p i a , 1957 M . S c , U n i v e r s i t y of N e b r a s k a , U.S.A., 1959 M.P.A., H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y , U.S.A., 1970 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES ( A d u l t E d u c a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1982 © A y e l e Y e s h e w a l u l , 1982 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6 (3/81) i i ABSTRACT Modern s o c i e t i e s make v a r i o u s p r o v i s i o n s f o r t h e e d u c a t i o n of a d u l t s engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r e . I n d i v i d u a l a d u l t e d u c a t o r s i n v o l v e d i n such e d u c a t i o n a l work a r e known by d i f f e r e n t t i t l e s d e p e n d ing upon the c o u n t r y . How t h e s e a d u l t e d u c a t o r s ( a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s ) p e r c e i v e t h e i r r o l e and c a r r y i t out appears t o be a f f e c t e d by t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e i r e m p l o y i n g agency and the c l i e n t e l e whom th e y s e r v e . The purpose of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t o compare the r o l e p e r c e p t i o n . and r o l e p e r f o r m a n c e of l o c a l e x t e n s i o n w o r kers employed by e i t h e r a u n i v e r s i t y o r a go v e r n m e n t a l department of a g r i c u l t u r e . R o l e t h e o r y was s e l e c t e d as t h e c o n c e p t u a l framework f o r t h i s s t u d y because of i t s c a p a c i t y t o accommodate an e x t e n s i o n w o rker's p e r c e p t i o n s of e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g h i s d u t i e s h e l d by h i s employer and h i s c l i e n t e l e . The p r o v i s i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e i n Canada (government model) i s p r i m a r i l y a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r i e s of A g r i c u l t u r e . I n c o m p a r i s o n , the C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ( u n i v e r s i t y model) i n v o l v e s the F e d e r a l Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , the Land-Grant U n i v e r s i t i e s , and c o u n t y governments. The f o l l o w i n g a s p e c t s of e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s and t h e i r r o l e s were i n v e s t i g a t e d : p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p r o f e s s i o n a l development, a t t i t u d e t o w a r d r e g u l a t o r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , use of methods and s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n , c h o i c e of methods and t e c h n i q u e s and e x t e n s i o n r o l e f u n c t i o n s . Data were o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h a m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o m p l e t e d by 69 d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and 84 c o u n t y e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n t s i n Idaho and Washington. The r e s u l t s of t h i s r e s e a r c h , w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n s of the s t u d y , i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n w o r kers employed i n the two k i n d s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l models on most of the v a r i a b l e s i n v e s t i g a t e d . The most s t r i k i n g f i n d i n g was t h e b e l i e f of t h e two groups t h a t p e r f o r m i n g r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s has a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s ' performance as e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t o r s . I m p l i c a t i o n s and recommendations f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h a r e d i s c u s s e d . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS iv LIST OF TABLES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xiv CHAPTER I 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Statement Of The Problem 4 Significance Of The Study 5 Design Of The Study 6 Site And Population 7 Organization Of The Dissertation 9 CHAPTER II 10 BACKGROUND OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES 10 Ag r i c u l t u r a l Extension Service In Canada 11 Alberta A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension Service 16 Scope And Purpose 16 Structure And Organization 20 B r i t i s h Columbia A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension Service 25 Scope And Purpose 25 Structure And Organization 29 Cooperative Extension Service In The United States .... 34 Scope And Purpose 36 Structure And Organization 45 Federal Extension Service 46 The Cooperative Extension Service 47 V Idaho C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . . 47 Washington C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e 49 Summary 54 CHAPTER I I I 56 THEORETICAL FOUNDATION 56 Role Theory 56 U t i l i t y Of R o l e Theory 60 Research Q u e s t i o n s 66 CHAPTER IV 69 RESEARCH DESIGN 69 Data C o l l e c t i o n P r o c e d u r e s 69 Development Of Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 71 P r e - t e s t i n g Of Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 80 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Of Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 82 F i e l d V i s i t s 83 A n a l y s i s P r o c e d u r e s 84 CHAPTER V 86 DESCRIPTIVE CHARACTERISTICS AND REGULATORY DUTIES 86 P e r s o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 86 P r o f e s s i o n a l Development 89 R e g u l a t o r y F u n c t i o n s 108 Summary 124 CHAPTER VI 127 METHODS AND EXTENSION ROLE FUNCTIONS 127 Methods And Sources Of I n f o r m a t i o n 127 E x t e n s i o n Methods And Techn i q u e s 130 E x t e n s i o n R o l e F u n c t i o n s 135 v i Summary 177 CHAPTER VII 179 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 179 Purpose 179 Research Design 181 Findings 182 Conclusions 1 92 Research Question 1 192 Research Question 2 193 Research Question 3 194 Research Question 4 194 Summary 195 An Overview 196 Limitations 198 Implications 200 Recommendations For Further Research 202 A Concluding Note 204 BIBLIOGRAPHY 206 APPENDIX I 215 THE QUESTIONNAIRE 215 APPENDIX II 226 SUPPLEMENTARY TABLES 226 APPENDIX III 283 CORRESPONDENCE 283 v i i LIST OF TABLES T a b l e 1 '. Survey P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates . 83 T a b l e 2 D i s t r i b u t i o n Of Respondents By Age 87 T a b l e 3 D i s t r i b u t i o n Of Respondents By Y e a r s Of E x t e n s i o n E x p e r i e n c e 88 T a b l e 4 D i s t r i b u t i o n Of Respondents By Y e a r s Of Employment In C u r r e n t P o s i t i o n 88 T a b l e 5 D i s t r i b u t i o n Of Respondents By F u r t h e r Formal Study .... 91 T a b l e 6a D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s ' Rankings Of F i e l d Of I n t e r e s t For P r o f e s s i o n a l And I n - S e r v i c e T r a i n i n g Programs 95 T a b l e 6b County E x t e n s i o n A g r i c u l t u r a l A g ents' Ranking Of F i e l d Of I n t e r e s t For P r o f e s s i o n a l And I n - S e r v i c e T r a i n i n g Programs 95 T a b l e 7 D i s t r i b u t i o n Of Respondents By Frequency Of Occurrence Of V a r i o u s P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Ideas 97 T a b l e 8a D i s t r i b u t i o n And Mean S c o r e s Of D i s t r i c t v i i i A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s ' Agreement With V a r i o u s Statements On A t t i t u d e Towards R e g u l a t o r y F u n c t i o n s ' 109 Table 8b D i s t r i b u t i o n And Mean Scores Of County E x t e n s i o n A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents' Agreement W i t h V a r i o u s Statements On A t t i t u d e Towards R e g u l a t o r y F u n c t i o n s 111 Ta b l e 9 D i s t r i b u t i o n Of Respondents As Members In P r o f e s s i o n a l S o c i e t i e s 128 Table 10 D i s t r i b u t i o n Of Respondents By Reading Of Research J o u r n a l s 129 Tab l e 11 D i s t r i b u t i o n Of Respondents By Frequency Of Use Of V a r i o u s Methods And Techniques 132 Table 12 D i s t r i b u t i o n Of Respondents By T h e i r P e r c e i v e d R a t i n g Of The Importance Of E x t e n s i o n R o l e F u n c t i o n s To T h e i r O r g a n i z a t i o n 137 Table 13 D i s t r i b u t i o n Of Respondents By T h e i r P e r c e i v e d R a t i n g Of The Importance Of E x t e n s i o n R o l e F u n c t i o n s To T h e i r C l i e n t e l e 142 Table 14 D i s t r i b u t i o n Of Respondents By T h e i r R a t i n g Of The Importance Of E x t e n s i o n Role F u n c t i o n s For Role Performance 147 T a b l e 15 D i s t r i b u t i o n Of Respondents By Time Spent On E x t e n s i o n R o l e F u n c t i o n s 152 T a b l e 16 D i s t r i b u t i o n Of Respondents By Academic Q u a l i f i c a t i o n ..227 T a b l e 17 D i s t r i b u t i o n Of Respondents By F i e l d Of S p e c i a l i z a t i o n .227 T a b l e 18 D i s t r i b u t i o n Of Respondents By U n i v e r s i t i e s A t t e n d e d ...228 T a b l e 19 D i s t r i b u t i o n Of Respondents By Diplomas Or Degrees R e c e i v e d A f t e r J o i n i n g E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e ....229 T a b l e 20 D i s t r i b u t i o n Of Respondents By F u r t h e r Formal Study S p e c i a l i z a t i o n 229 T a b l e 21 D i s t r i b u t i o n Of Respondents By C o l l e g e s And U n i v e r s i t i e s A t t e n d e d For F u r t h e r Formal Study 230 T a b l e 22 Comparison Of D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s And County E x t e n s i o n A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents On P r o f e s s i o n a l Development I d e a s : L e v e l Of S i g n i f i c a n c e 231 T a b l e 23 Comparison Of D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s And County E x t e n s i o n A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents On P r o f e s s i o n a l Development I d e a s : Oneway ANOVA 233 T a b l e 24 X Comparison Of D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s And County Extension A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents On Attitude Towards Regulatory Functions: Level Of Significance ....236 Table 25 Comparison Of D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s And County Extension A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents On Attitude Toward Regulatory Functions: Oneway ANOVA 238 Table 26 Di s t r i b u t i o n Of Respondents By Membership In Professional Societies 241 Table 27 Respondents' Rankings of Sources Of Research Information 242 Table 28 Comparison Of D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s And County Extension A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents On Sources Of Research Information: Level Of Significance 242 Table 29 Comparison Of D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s And County Extension A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents On Sources Of Research Information: Oneway ANOVA 243 Table 30 Comparison Of D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s And County Extension A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents On Their Ratings Of Extension Role Functions: Oneway ANOVA 244 Table 31 Comparison Of The Respondents' Three Ratings Of E x t e n s i o n R o l e F u n c t i o n s : A N O V A R ( F P r o b . ) 2 4 6 T a b l e 3 2 C o m p a r i s o n O f T h e R e s p o n d e n t s ' R a t i n g s O f T h e P e r c e i v e d I m p o r t a n c e O f E x t e n s i o n R o l e F u n c t i o n s T o T h e i r O r g a n i z a t i o n : L e v e l O f S i g n i f i c a n c e 2 4 7 T a b l e 3 3 C o m p a r i s o n O f T h e R e s p o n d e n t s ' R a t i n g s O f T h e P e r c e i v e d I m p o r t a n c e O f E x t e n s i o n R o l e F u n c t i o n s T o T h e i r O r g a n i z a t i o n : O n e w a y A N O V A 2 4 8 T a b l e 3 4 C o m p a r i s o n O f T h e R e s p o n d e n t s ' R a t i n g s O f T h e P e r c e i v e d I m p o r t a n c e O f E x t e n s i o n R o l e F u n c t i o n s . T o T h e i r C l i e n t e l e : L e v e l O f S i g n i f i c a n c e 2 5 1 T a b l e 3 5 C o m p a r i s o n O f T h e R e s p o n d e n t s ' R a t i n g s O f T h e P e r c e i v e d I m p o r t a n c e O f E x t e n s i o n R o l e F u n c t i o n s T o T h e i r C l i e n t e l e : O n e w a y A N O V A 2 5 2 T a b l e 3 6 C o m p a r i s o n O f T h e R e s p o n d e n t s ' R a t i n g s O f T h e I m p o r t a n c e O f E x t e n s i o n R o l e F u n c t i o n s T o T h e m s e l v e s : L e v e l O f S i g n i f i c a n c e 2 5 5 T a b l e 3 7 C o m p a r i s o n O f T h e R e s p o n d e n t s ' R a t i n g s O f T h e I m p o r t a n c e O f E x t e n s i o n R o l e F u n c t i o n s T o T h e m s e l v e s : O n e w a y A N O V A 2 5 6 T a b l e 3 8 C o m p a r i s o n O f D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s W i t h C o u n t y E x t e n s i o n A g r i c u l t u r a l A g e n t s O n P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Ideas: T-Test 259 Table 39 Comparison Of D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s With County Ext e n s i o n A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents On A t t i t u d e Towards Regulatory F u n c t i o n s : T-Test 261 Table 40 Comparison Of D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s With County Ext e n s i o n A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents On Sources Of Research Information: Oneway ANOVA (Between C o u n t r i e s ) 264 Table 41 Comparison Of The Respondents' Three Ratings Of Exten s i o n Role F u n c t i o n s : ANOVAR 265 Table 42 Comparison Of D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s With County E x t e n s i o n Agents By Frequency Of Use Of V a r i o u s Methods And Techniques: Chi-square 274 Table 43 Comparison Of D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s With County E x t e n s i o n A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents Based On Rated E f f i c i e n c y Of V a r i o u s Methods And Techniques: Chi-Square 275 Table 44 Comparison Of D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s With County Ext e n s i o n A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents By Time Spent On Exte n s i o n Role F u n c t i o n s : Chi-square 276 Table 45 D i s t r i b u t i o n Of Respondents Based On Rated E f f i c i e n c y Of Va r i o u s Methods And Techniques 277 x i i i Table 46 D i s t r i b u t i o n Of Respondents By Extension Role Functions As Ranked By Mean Scores 280 x i v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS No r e s e a r c h e r c o u l d have had f i n e r c o o p e r a t i o n than t h i s a u t h o r r e c e i v e d from the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h Columbia; and from the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a gents i n Idaho and Washington, who w i l l i n g l y shared t h e i r v a l u a b l e time t o complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The t e n d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a , who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the p r e - t e s t i n g of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were v e r y c o o p e r a t i v e and h e l p f u l . The r e s e a r c h e r e x p r e s s e s h i s f u l l e s t a p p r e c i a t i o n t o a l l of them. The c o o p e r a t i o n of many i n d i v i d u a l s and i n s t i t u t i o n s was e s s e n t i a l i n c a r r y i n g out the s t u d y . The s t a f f a t the E x t e n s i o n D i v i s i o n of A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e , the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e of B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food, and the C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e of the U n i v e r s i t i e s of Idaho and Washington S t a t e were most h e l p f u l . P a r t i c u l a r acknowledgement goes t o Mr. John G. C a l p a s , D i r e c t o r of A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e E x t e n s i o n D i v i s i o n . The r e s e a r c h e r g r a t e f u l l y acknowledges h i s i n d e b t e d n e s s t o h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n s u p e r v i s o r y committee. The r e s e a r c h e r b e n e f i t e d g r e a t l y from the i n v a l u a b l e a d v i c e and h e l p of P r o f e s s o r James F. R i c h a r d s i n sh a p i n g the s t u d y . H i s encouragement and u n t i r i n g r e a d i n e s s t o h e l p , even i n the m i d d l e of a busy s c h e d u l e , a r e a p p r e c i a t e d . Dr. George Win t e r was p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l i n i d e n t i f y i n g r e p o r t s and o t h e r u s e f u l m a t e r i a l s on e x t e n s i o n i n Canada. The r e s e a r c h e r i s a l s o a p p r e c i a t e of Dr. LeRoy T r a v i s ' h e l p f u l c r i t i c i s m and guidance XV i n d e a l i n g w i t h the t h e o r e t i c a l framework. The r e s e a r c h e r i s g r a t e f u l t o Ms. J . M. K a p e l u s , Computer Accounts Manager, f o r her c o n s t a n t s u p p o r t and e f f i c i e n t a c t i o n s i n r e s o l v i n g the computing f a c i l i t i e s need. A p p r e c i a t i o n i s a l s o e x p r e s s e d t o Dr. Malcolm G r i e g , S e n i o r A n a l y s t , f o r h i s i n v a l u a b l e c o n s u l t a t i o n i n u s i n g the SPSS program t o a n a l y z e the r e s e a r c h d a t a . A v o t e of thanks goes t o P r o f e s s o r K j e l l Rubenson and f a m i l y f o r t h e i r warm h o s p i t a l i t y . P r o f e s s o r Rubenson's ecouragement i s g r e a t l y acknowledged. The c o n c e r n and encouragement of my c o l l e a g u e s Jo Ann A l b e r s and Jan D. N u q u i s t i s a l s o g r a t e f u l l y a p p r e c i a t e d . They and t h e i r f a m i l i e s were e x t r e m e l y h e l p f u l and p r o v i d e d h o s p i t a b l e s u r r o u n d i n g s . To them warm and a f f e c t i o n a t e t h a n k s . A s p e c i a l v o t e of thanks goes t o my s i s t e r , S ablewongel Y e s h e w a l u l , b r o t h e r - i n - l a w Dr. D e m i s s i e Habte, and my n i e c e s Hamere and P u p i , f o r t i m e l y encouragement, u n t i r i n g a s s i s t a n c e and support so t h a t t h i s u n d e r t a k i n g might be s u c c e s s f u l l y completed. Above a l l t h i s r e s e a r c h e r wishes t o e x p r e s s h i s s i n c e r e a p p r e c i a t i o n t o an o u t s t a n d i n g s c h o l a r and t e a c h e r , P r o f e s s o r W i l l i a m S. G r i f f i t h , whose p a t i e n c e , i n t e r e s t and g uidance made t h i s s t u d y p o s s i b l e . The r e s u l t a n t e x p e r i e n c e s a r e of immeasurable p e r s o n a l v a l u e . F i n a l l y , the r e s e a r c h e r w i s h e s t o acknowledge the governments of E t h i o p i a and Canada f o r t h e i r c o l l a b o r a t i o n which made t h i s s tudy p o s s i b l e . A p p r e c i a t i o n i s e x p r e s s e d t o x v i Mr. A. F. S h i r r a n l o r h i s c o o p e r a t i o n and warmness. x v i i To my always supportive parents W/Yemenushal Damtew G/Yeshewalul Melke Tsedik •1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION [ A g r i c u l t u r a l ] d e v e l o p m e n t . . . i s not a ma t t e r of i s o l a t e d p l a n s and s t a t i s t i c s , t a r g e t s and budgets, t e c h n o l o g y and method, m a t e r i a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f , or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a g e n c i e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . R a t h e r , i t i s an e f f e c t i v e use of the s e e d u c a t i o n a l means f o r c h a n g i n g the minds and a c t i o n s of p e o p l e so they h e l p t h e m s e l v e s . Hence, the p r o c e s s i s one of working w i t h p e o p l e , not f o r them; of h e l p i n g p e o p l e become s e l f - r e l i a n t , not dependent; of making peo p l e the a c t o r s i n the drama, not the s p e c t a t o r s ; i n s h o r t , of h e l p i n g people put u s e f u l knowledge t o work f o r them [ l i n k i n g a c t i o n problems w i t h knowledge r e s o u r c e s or t e c h n o l o g y t r a n s f e r ] . T h i s i s the essence of [ a g r i c u l t u r a l ] e x t e n s i o n . . . (Leagans, 1963 : 6) An a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e i s an agency f o r change and a c a t a l y s t f o r i n d i v i d u a l and group a c t i o n (Mulcahy, 1979). E x t e n s i o n ' s fundamental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c has been t o adapt programs and methods t o meet e v e r - c h a n g i n g c o n d i t i o n s and demands. One of i t s v a l u e s c e n t e r s i n i t s p h i l o s o p h y , t o a s s i s t p e o p l e t o h e l p t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s a s s i s t a n c e can be d e l i v e r e d (1) as an economic and t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e ; (2) as a s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e ; or (3) b o t h . However, Brunner and Yang (1949 : 176) c a u t i o n t h a t " t h e r e i s no g r e a t e r m i s t a k e than t o assume t h a t t e c h n i c a l 'know-how' unaided by s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l 'know-how' w i l l s o l v e the problems of the farmers of the w o r l d . " A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s i n the w o r l d have commonly 2 been p r o v i d e d e i t h e r d i r e c t l y by government departments of a g r i c u l t u r e or by c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h a government department of a g r i c u l t u r e . These two prominent o r g a n i z a t i o n a l models f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n e x i s t i n N o r t h America J 1 ) . They may be d e s c r i b e d as the government and the u n i v e r s i t y models. The Government Model : the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e i s p r o v i d e d d i r e c t l y by a department of a g r i c u l t u r e . The model i n c o r p o r a t e s the e x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r government i n s p e c t i o n and r e g u l a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s . These r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n v o l v e e s t a b l i s h i n g a p p r o p r i a t e p r o f e s s i o n a l r e l a t i o n s between the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e and r e s e a r c h and t e a c h i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . W i l l i a m s (1968 : 130), who s t u d i e d the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s i n A u s t r a l i a , B r i t a i n and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , argues t h a t r e g u l a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s may c o n t r i b u t e s u b s t a n t i a l l y t o i n n o v a t i o n s , but " i f e x t e n s i o n ' s purpose i s p r i m a r i l y an e d u c a t i o n a l one, t h e r e may w e l l be a more l i m i t e d range of r e g u l a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s which c o n t r i b u t e t o the s e e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . " He su g g e s t s t h a t s t u d i e s a r e needed t o determine the e f f e c t s of r e g u l a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s on a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s (p.131). Some a d u l t e d u c a t o r s have a l s o q u e s t i o n e d the e f f e c t of r e g u l a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s on a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n work. (1) In t h i s s t u d y , N o r t h America means Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s of Am e r i c a . 3 Brunner and Yang (1949 : 182) a s s e r t e d t h a t : The E x t e n s i o n worker i s an e d u c a t o r . He s h o u l d have no r e g u l a t o r y or p o l i c e d u t i e s . These f u n c t i o n s a r e u t t e r l y i n c o m p a t i b l e . When f o r purposes of economy they a r e c o mbined...education always s u f f e r s . The U n i v e r s i t y Model : The C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i s p r o v i d e d i n a c o o p e r a t i v e f i n a n c i a l arrangement i n which the f e d e r a l department of a g r i c u l t u r e , the l a n d - g r a n t u n i v e r s i t i e s and the county government a r e s p o n s o r s . The model has i n t e n t i o n a l l y e x c l u d e d the performance of r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n s from the l i s t of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of e x t e n s i o n p e r s o n n e l . In t h i s model the e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n i s a p a r t of the l a n d - g r a n t u n i v e r s i t i e s system c o n c e p t , which i s a U n i t e d S t a t e s i n n o v a t i o n . I t grew out of the need f o r the a p p l i c a t i o n of s c i e n t i f i c knowledge i n a g r i c u l t u r e i n the 19th c e n t u r y . D i s t i n g u i s h i n g F a c t o r s : The absence of r e g u l a t o r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s has been r e g a r d e d as one of the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f a c t o r s between the u n i v e r s i t y and the government models. Another d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f a c t o r between the two models i s the f a c t t h a t one i s l a n d - g r a n t u n i v e r s i t y based and the o t h e r i s based i n an e x e c u t i v e department of government. Of p r i m a r y concern t o the f i e l d of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s the e f f e c t of t h e s e two d i s t i n c t forms of o r g a n i z a t i o n on the r o l e p e r c e p t i o n and performance of the i n d i v i d u a l a d u l t e d u c a t o r s who a r e working d i r e c t l y w i t h the a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c e r s of the n a t i o n . 4 Statement of the Problem The a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e i s an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n which p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a l , n o n - c r e d i t e d u c a t i o n conducted p r i m a r i l y beyond the f o r m a l c l a s s r o o m . I t has been c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as e d u c a t i o n a l i n program c o n t e n t and methodology; and i t i s t y p i c a l l y r e s e a r c h - b a s e d w i t h a f r e e f l o w of communication between i n d i v i d u a l s engaged i n r e s e a r c h and t h o s e engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c a t i o n . The p r o c e s s by which t h e s e f u n c t i o n a l l i n k s i s o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d i s the c r u c i a l component of an e x t e n s i o n system f o r e f f e c t i v e d i s s e m i n a t i o n of knowledge and i n f o r m a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s i n any c o u n t r y . The g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e of e x t e n s i o n i s " h e l p i n g people t o h e l p t h e m s e l v e s " , and i t s t r i v e s t o s e r v e as a c o n d u i t f o r c l i e n t needs t o be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o r e s e a r c h p r i o r i t i e s . The p h i l o s o p h y of A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e has been implemented i n N o r t h America under two o r g a n i z a t i o n a l models. I t has been w i d e l y r e p o r t e d t h a t e f f e c t i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n work i s conducted by the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n b o t h government and u n i v e r s i t y models. P r i o r s t u d i e s of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e have a l s o d e a l t w i t h a v a r i e t y of problems r e l a t e d t o a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n work w i t h i n systems based on each model. However, a t l e a s t one i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e has gone u n e x p l o r e d : the d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t of the two forms of o r g a n i z a t i o n on the r o l e p e r c e p t i o n and r o l e performance of the i n d i v i d u a l a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n worker. 5 Most d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s ' economic c o n d i t i o n s depend on t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r e . T h e i r t o t a l economy i s made up of a l a r g e t r a d i t i o n a l s e c t o r and v e r y s m a l l modern s e c t o r . The e f f o r t t o i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i v i t y i n a g r i c u l t u r e r e q u i r e s the e x t e n s i o n of new i d e a s and p r a c t i c e s . In e s t a b l i s h i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e e x t e n s i o n system t o d i s s e m i n a t e the knowledge ( i n f o r m a t i o n ) f o r p r o m o t i n g the development of a g r i c u l t u r e , some d e v e l o p i n g n a t i o n s choose between t h e s e two models, i n the absence of any r i g o r o u s a n a l y s i s of t h e i r d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s on the performance and r o l e p e r c e p t i o n of the f i e l d l e v e l a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n worker. The purpose of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s t o e x p l o r e the d i f f e r e n c e s i n r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s and r o l e performance of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the two k i n d s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l models. S i g n i f i c a n c e of the Study The e s t a b l i s h m e n t of an a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e l a i d the f o u n d a t i o n f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n a g r i c u l t u r e t o - d a y . A c c o r d i n g t o Boone (1970 : 266), e x t e n s i o n denotes the " p r o c e s s of e x t e n d i n g e d u c a t i o n r e s o u r c e s " and s e r v i c e stands f o r " e d u c a t i o n a l r o l e " . To be e f f e c t i v e , r u r a l a d u l t e d u c a t o r s must be concerned w i t h the a d o p t i o n of new a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s i n s e r v i n g t h e i r c l i e n t e l e . The g e n e r a t i o n of new knowledge i n i t s e l f i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e t o the f a r m e r s ; i t i s the a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s new knowledge and the i n t e g r a t i o n of t h e s e 6 new f i n d i n g s i n t o the o p e r a t i o n a l a s p e c t s of a g r i c u l t u r e which has i t s impact on f a r m e r s . The problem, however, i s how t o choose between the two o r g a n i z a t i o n a l mechanisms t h a t have been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n so as t o produce the d e s i r e d r o l e p e r c e p t i o n and performance of the i n d i v i d u a l a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n worker. T h i s study i s a modest e f f o r t towards u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two N o r t h American o r g a n i z a t i o n a l models f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n terms of t h e i r impact on r o l e p e r c e p t i o n and performance of t h e i n d i v i d u a l a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n worker. The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study may s e r v e s e v e r a l p u r p o s e s . 1. They w i l l make a v a i l a b l e some p e r s p e c t i v e s by which a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n work can be o r g a n i z e d . 2. They w i l l i d e n t i f y and a n a l y z e the r o l e s t h a t a g ents p e r f o r m and may assume i n e x t e n s i o n work. 3 . The f i n d i n g s can a l s o be used as a guide i n d e v e l o p i n g and c o n d u c t i n g t r a i n i n g programs t o h e l p e x t e n s i o n workers b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r r o l e s . Such t r a i n i n g may u l t i m a t e l y c o n t r i b u t e t o i n c r e a s e d e f f e c t i v e n e s s and e f f i c i e n c y i n e x t e n s i o n work. Design of t h e Study The r e s e a r c h e r used r o l e t h e o r y as a t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r e xamining d i f f e r e n c e s i n r o l e p e r c e p t i o n and performance of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed w i t h i n the government 7 and the u n i v e r s i t y models. The r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e and s t u d i e s which were r e v i e w e d t o d e v e l o p the framework f o r the study a r e d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I I . S i x major v a r i a b l e s were s e l e c t e d as p o t e n t i a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f a c t o r s i n r o l e p e r c e p t i o n and r o l e performance of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed w i t h i n the government and the u n i v e r s i t y models. The v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y i n c l u d e : p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , p r o f e s s i o n a l development, methods and s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n , r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n s , methods and t e c h n i q u e s , and e x t e n s i o n r o l e f u n c t i o n s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s i g n e d t o c o l l e c t the d a t a on t h e s e v a r i a b l e s i s d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter IV. S i t e and P o p u l a t i o n The r e s e a r c h was conducted i n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s of A m e r i c a . The data were o b t a i n e d i n A l b e r t a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Idaho and Washington. The r e s e a r c h e r assumed the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c l i e n t e l e and the g e n e r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s t o be s i m i l a r f o r the two p r o v i n c e s and the two a d j a c e n t s t a t e s . Thus, th e s e c o n d i t i o n s g e n e r a t e s i m i l a r needs of s e r v i c e s by the c l i e n t e l e as w e l l as s i m i l a r responses t o the needs by the e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s . These p r o v i n c e s and s t a t e s were s e l e c t e d i n o r d e r t o : 1 . t a k e i n t o account the g e o g r a p h i c a l p r o x i m i t y t o the r e s e a r c h e r who i s l o c a t e d i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, 2. m i n i m i z e the c o s t and time t o conduct the r e s e a r c h , and 8 3. take i n t o account any d i f f e r e n c e s i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s between p r o v i n c e s and between s t a t e s . To o b t a i n as broad and comprehensive a p i c t u r e as p o s s i b l e of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n systems and t o reduce the i n f l u e n c e of f a c t o r s beyond the scope of t h i s s t u d y , the d a t a were o b t a i n e d from the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s , known as d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n Canada, and county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Home Economics and 4- H a g e n t s were e x c l u d e d from t h i s s t u d y . However, the s e r v i c e s p erformed by t h e s e agents a r e p a r t of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n ' s f u n c t i o n s i n A l b e r t a , Idaho, and Washington, though not i n B r i t i s h C olumbia. The B r i t i s h Columbia R e g i o n a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e had e l i m i n a t e d the s e r v i c e s of home economics a g e n t s ; and the 4-H f u n c t i o n i s performed as p a r t of the Youth Development Branch under the S p e c i a l i s t and R e g u l a t o r y S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n ( B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food, Annual R e p o r t , 1980). D i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s and county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e nts who s a t i s f i e d the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a were s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y : 1. were employed as d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s and county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n t s ; and 2. had had two or more y e a r s of 'experience as d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s or county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n t s . These c r i t e r i a s e r v e d as a b a s i s f o r e l i m i n a t i n g the l e s s 9 e x p e r i e n c e d agents from the s t u d y . O r g a n i z a t i o n of the D i s s e r t a t i o n The background of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s i n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s of America i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter I I . Chapter I I I i s concerned w i t h the t h e o r e t i c a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h i s s t u d y . Chapter IV d e s c r i b e s the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n adopted, w h i l e C h a p t e r s V and VI d i s c u s s the f i n d i n g s from the s t u d y . A summary of f i n d i n g s , c o n c l u s i o n s , and i m p l i c a t i o n s are s e t f o r t h i n Chapter V I I . 10 CHAPTER I I BACKGROUND OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES As a f i r s t s t e p i n the study of the r o l e p e r c e p t i o n and r o l e performance of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed w i t h i n the two models f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e , t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l r e v i ew the scope and purpose, and the s t r u c t u r e and o r g a n i z a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s i n Canada, the government model, and i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the u n i v e r s i t y model. The c h a p t e r i s d i v i d e d i n t o two s e c t i o n s . Because of the two d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l models f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e , the format of the two s e c t i o n s d i f f e r s . In the f i r s t s e c t i o n (1) the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e i n Canada i s r e v i e w e d b r i e f l y ; (2) the scope and pur p o s e , and the s t r u c t u r e and o r g a n i z a t i o n of the A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e a r e d i s c u s s e d ; and (3) the scope and pur p o s e , and the s t r u c t u r e and o r g a n i z a t i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia A g r i c u l t u r e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e are p r e s e n t e d . In the second s e c t i o n (1) the scope and purpose of the C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s a re d i s c u s s e d ; and (2) the s t r u c t u r e and o r g a n i z a t i o n of the F e d e r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e ; and the C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e , i n p a r t i c u l a r , the Idaho C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e and the Washington C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e a re p r e s e n t e d . T h i s background w i l l be u s e f u l i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g how the two models dev e l o p e d i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . 11 A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n Canada The Canadian F e d e r a l Department of A g r i c u l t u r e was formed i n 1867, the year of C o n f e d e r a t i o n , w i t h l i m i t e d powers (Canada A g r i c u l t u r e P u b l i c a t i o n No. 1123, 1975). In 1906, the department o r g a n i z e d and i n a u g u r a t e d a s p e c i a l e x t e n s i o n campaign c o n s i s t i n g of t r a i n s equipped w i t h m a t e r i a l s f o r d e m o n s t r a t i o n , t r a v e l l i n g a c r o s s Canada, and s t o p p i n g a t s p e c i f i e d p o i n t s t o e x p l a i n wheat smut and i t s c o n t r o l , and t o e x h i b i t samples of good seeds t o farmers ( P a r l i a m e n t of Canada, 1906 and K e e s i n g , 1965). The F e d e r a l Government A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n Act of June 6, 1913 was a m i l e s t o n e i n the development of Canadian A g r i c u l t u r e . The Act was passed f o r " a i d i n g and a d v a n c i n g the f a r m i n g i n d u s t r y by i n s t r u c t i o n i n a g r i c u l t u r e . . . " The purpose of the Act was t o g i v e encouragement " t o a g r i c u l t u r e i n a l l p r o v i n c e s [so t h a t ] g r e a t and permanent b e n e f i t w i l l r e s u l t t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n , i n s t r u c t i o n and d e m o n s t r a t i o n c a r r i e d on a l o n g l i n e s w e l l d e v i s e d and of a c o n t i n u o u s n a t u r e " ( S t a t u t e s , 1913, c.5 : J 3 5 ) . The A c t g r a n t e d f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e t o the p r o v i n c e s f o r a p e r i o d of ten y e a r s " f o r the purpose of s u p p l e m e n t i n g and e x t e n d i n g the work of a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n and f o r the improvement of a g r i c u l t u r e " (Report on A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n A c t , 1915 : 5 ) . C o n f r o n t e d w i t h a l a c k of r e l e v a n t source m a t e r i a l , the i n v e s t i g a t o r was not a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h the s t a t u s of the Act a f t e r the ten year p e r i o d t o h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . However, a f t e r s e a r c h i n g and i n q u i r i n g of p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s , such as the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h 12 Columbia Law L i b r a r y and F a c u l t y of A g r i c u l t u r a l S c i e n c e s , B r i t i s h Columbia R e g i o n a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n V i c t o r i a , A g r i c u l t u r e Canada P a c i f i c R e g i o n a l O f f i c e i n Vancouver, A g r i c u l t u r e Canada R e g i o n a l O f f i c e i n V i c t o r i a , and A g r i c u l t u r e Canada L i b r a r y i n Ottawa, the i n v e s t i g a t o r c o n c l u d e d t h a t the A c t e x p i r e d and was not extended at the end of the t e n year p e r i o d f o r reasons which have not been c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d . The C o n s t i t u t i o n of Canada ( C o n s t i t u t i o n A c t s , 1867 t o 1982) a l l o c a t e s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n t o the p r o v i n c e s . In p r a c t i c e , b o t h l e v e l s of government a r e s h a r i n g the work i n a g r i c u l t u r a l development. Both the F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l Departments of A g r i c u l t u r e a l s o have r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r i n s p e c t i o n and r e g u l a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s i n a g r i c u l t u r e . An E x p e r i m e n t a l Farms System had been e s t a b l i s h e d by the F e d e r a l Department of A g r i c u l t u r e " i n 1886 as a means of d i s c o v e r i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s of v a r i o u s r e g i o n s , and t o a s s i s t farmers i n making the best use of t h e i r r e s o u r c e s " (Canada A g r i c u l t u r e P u b l i c a t i o n No. 1123, 1975 : 5 ) . The F e d e r a l Department of A g r i c u l t u r e c o n d u c t s 51 p e r c e n t of the a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h program and i s i n v o l v e d " i n e x t e n s i o n work because i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o break the c y c l e between r e s e a r c h , i t s t r a n s f e r t o farmer and h i s a p p l i c a t i o n of i t " (Task Fo r c e R e p o r t , 1977 : 210-215). A Canada A g r i c u l t u r e Task Force (1977) r e p o r t e d t h a t the F e d e r a l R esearch Branch devotes about 5 p e r c e n t of i t s a c t i v i t i e s t o e x t e n s i o n . The l i n k between r e s e a r c h and e x t e n s i o n as b e i n g a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r the 13 a p p l i c a t i o n and a d o p t i o n of improved a g r i c u l t u r a l t e c h n o l o g y has a l s o been emphasized i n t h a t same Task F o r c e r e p o r t by A g r i c u l t u r e Canada (1977 : 222): . . . u n t i l r e s e a r c h i s a p p l i e d t h r o u g h e f f e c t i v e e x t e n s i o n , i t has no a c t u a l economic s i g n i f i c a n c e . On the o t h e r hand, e x t e n s i o n , w i t h o u t the backup a f f o r d e d by the s c i e n t i s t s and e n g i n e e r s , has v e r y l i m i t e d p o t e n t i a l . The F e d e r a l Department of A g r i c u l t u r e p e r f o r m s a l i m i t e d e x t e n s i o n r o l e a t each e x p e r i m e n t a l farm or r e s e a r c h s t a t i o n . I t s main r o l e i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n has been " i n the a p p r a i s a l of the whole e x t e n s i o n system, and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of d e f i c i e n c i e s . Where such d e f i c i e n c i e s e x i s t , . . . t o i n d i c a t e s o l u t i o n s " (Task F o r c e R e p o r t , 1977 : 215). In 1932, the F e d e r a l government e s t a b l i s h e d the Canadian A g r i c u l t u r a l S e r v i c e s C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee (CASCC) as the major f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l c o o r d i n a t i o n mechanism i n a g r i c u l t u r a l m a t t e r s (Task F o r c e R e p o r t , 1977). CASCC (Task F o r c e R e p o r t , 1977 : 252) i s p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o : c o o r d i n a t e the t o t a l n a t i o n a l e f f o r t toward the economic and s o c i a l development of the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y and t o promote the optimum u t i l i z a t i o n of manpower and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n and between the v a r i o u s o p e r a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s . S i n c e 1964 the CASCC has been s p o n s o r i n g p r o v i n c i a l and r e g i o n a l A g r i c u l t u r a l S e r v i c e s C o o r d i n a t i o n Committees. The p r o v i n c i a l Departments of A g r i c u l t u r e a re r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s and p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y 14 l i n k between the r e s e a r c h a g e n c i e s and the farmer ( A l l i n , 1964). The departments a l s o assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e s e a r c h of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t t o a p r o v i n c e and the e f f o r t s v a r y among p r o v i n c e s a c c o r d i n g l y . The Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r f a c u l t i e s of a g r i c u l t u r e , are r e s p o n s i b l e o n l y f o r r e s i d e n t i a l i n s t r u c t i o n and r e s e a r c h . Some of them, such as the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia F a c u l t y of A g r i c u l t u r a l S c i e n c e s , do conduct a l i m i t e d amount of e x t e n s i o n work as an a u x i l i a r y a c t i v i t y . The u n i v e r s i t i e s conduct about 30 p e r c e n t of the n a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h program (Task F o r c e R e p o r t , 1977). T h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t i n r e s e a r c h and the amount of r e s e a r c h g r a n t s they r e c e i v e from p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l s o u r c e s v a r y from p r o v i n c e t o p r o v i n c e . The government model i n c o r p o r a t e s r e g u l a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s . E x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n s o r i g i n a t e i n a l l D i v i s i o n s of M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e , as an a d j u n c t t o t h e i r p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n s (Job, 1965; Akinbode, 1969; T r a d i t i o n and T r a n s i t i o n , 1970; and A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e Annual R e p o r t , 1979-80). Akinbode (1969 : 5 ) , i n h i s study of the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of farmers i n B r i t i s h Columbia and t h e i r c o n t a c t s w i t h d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s , a s s e r t e d t h a t "the p o l i c i n g f u n c t i o n which the f i e l d worker i n t h e s e branches must p e r f o r m i s undoubtedly a b a r r i e r t o e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . " An A l b e r t a Government Study of a l l A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s i n A l b e r t a ( T r a d i t i o n and T r a n s i t i o n , 1970 : 5-65) recommended t h a t : 15 A c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t has t o be made t o c o n s o l i d a t e a l l e x t e n s i o n a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the E x t e n s i o n D i v i s i o n [so t h a t ] o t h e r D i v i s i o n s would be f r e e d t o c o n c e n t r a t e upon r e g u l a t o r y and n o n - e x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n s . The D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t has a l s o been g i v e n a d d i t i o n a l d u t i e s , such as p l a n n i n g and g r a n t i n g farm c r e d i t , e n s u r i n g t h a t l a n d c l e a r i n g or d r a i n i n g has been done i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h r e g u l a t i o n s , and implementing p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l programs and p o l i c y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (Task Fo r c e R e p o r t , 1977; W i n t e r and A s s o c i a t e s , 1979; and E x t e n s i o n P e r s p e c t i v e s , n.d.). W i n t e r and A s s o c i a t e s (1979 : 4) b e l i e v e d t h a t : These r e g u l a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s may o c c a s i o n a l l y i m p a i r the image of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t i n the farm community. I n s t e a d of b e i n g r e g a r d e d as a source of h e l p and i n f o r m a t i o n , he i s sometimes c o n s i d e r e d t o be a 'programme p o l i c e m a n ' . Lamble (1980 : 133), i n h i s study of r o l e c o n f l i c t and r o l e a m b i g u i t y i n the E x t e n s i o n D i v i s i o n of A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e , has a l s o found out t h a t " [ D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s ] a re e s p e c i a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h c o n f l i c t s between the e d u c a t i o n a l and s e r v i c e a s p e c t s of t h e i r j o b " . He (1980 : 133,139) i d e n t i f i e d and recommended t h a t : Program and p o l i c y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ... can and does c o n f l i c t w i t h the e d u c a t i o n a l a s p e c t of e x t e n s i o n and the s e l f - i m p r o v e m e n t of the e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s ; [and] c o n s i d e r a t i o n [ s h o u l d ] be g i v e n t o r e a s s i g n i n g D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t d u t i e s which a r e p r i m a r i l y of a s e r v i c e or a d m i n i s t r a t i v e n a t u r e t o o t h e r p e r s o n n e l [ a p p r o p r i a t e d i v i s i o n ] . 16 S i n c e t h e p r o v i s i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e i n Canada i s a p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , the scope and p u r p o s e , and the s t r u c t u r e and o r g a n i z a t i o n of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s of A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h C olumbia, where the d a t a f o r the s t u d y were o b t a i n e d , are p r e s e n t e d n e x t . A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e T h i s s e c t i o n i s concerned w i t h the scope and purpose, and the s t r u c t u r e and o r g a n i z a t i o n of the A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . Scope and Purpose The A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , now known as A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e , i n the e a r l y y e a r s was e x t e n s i o n o r i e n t e d though 'those, d o i n g t h e work were p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and i n s p e c t i o n m a t t e r s . The f i r s t r e f e r e n c e t o ' A g r i c u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n Work' d a t e s back t o the Department's f i r s t annual r e p o r t of 1905. The e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , s p onsored by a g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s , c o v e r e d a g r i c u l t u r a l and r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s , and were p r o v i d e d by v a r i o u s l e c t u r e s , m e e t i n g s , and d e m o n s t r a t i o n s . In 1906 the Department's p h i l o s o p h y of a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n work was e x p r e s s e d as t o i n s t r u c t the farmer i n "the l a t e s t and most improved methods of p u r s u i n g h i s work and of p r e p a r i n g and m a r k e t i n g h i s p r o d u c t s . Having t h i s knowledge he then i s i n a p o s i t i o n t o make the b e s t of the s i t u a t i o n " (Annual R e p o r t , 1906 : 105). E x t e n s i o n was 17 p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h v a r i o u s meetings and l e c t u r e s , d e m o n s t r a t i o n t r a i n s , summer f a i r s , a g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s , women's i n s t i t u t e s , and s t o c k j u d g i n g s c h o o l s . A l t h o u g h the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e was not e s t a b l i s h e d as a branch of A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e u n t i l 1938, the f i r s t d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t had been a p p o i n t e d i n 1920. He was employed f u l l - t i m e and was r e s p o n s i b l e t o the L i v e s t o c k B ranch. Agents' d u t i e s i n c l u d e v i s i t i n g f a r m e r s , making p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t , f i n d i n g and s o l v i n g problems, h o l d i n g m e e t i n g s , and a s s i s t i n g i n boys' and g i r l s ' work ( T r a d i t i o n and T r a n s i t i o n R e p o r t , 1970). I t s l o n g term o b j e c t i v e i s t o improve a g r i c u l t u r a l and r u r a l l i f e . The f u n c t i o n of the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e as s t a t e d i n the 1938 Annual Report (p. 62) was: to c o - o r d i n a t e the e x t e n s i o n program of ev e r y branch of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e and i n s o f a r as p o s s i b l e t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h a l l o t h e r e x t e n s i o n a g e n c i e s t o e f f e c t the most e c o n o m i c a l and e f f e c t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n of the e f f o r t s of a l l workers i n t h i s f i e l d . I t s main purpose was "the d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o a g r i c u l t u r e and home economics and...the improvement of a g r i c u l t u r a l and r u r a l l i f e . " The 1961 Annual Report of A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e extended the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the agent t o i n c l u d e the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h and e x p e r i m e n t a l work r e s u l t s and gui d a n c e . By 1970 f i v e e x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n s had emerged. These were ( T r a d i t i o n and T r a n s i t i o n R e p o r t , 1970: 5- 21 t o 5-44) : 1. d i s t r i b u t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n , 18 2. i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r e s u l t s , 3. guidance t o farm f a m i l i e s , 4. s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n , and, 5. program achievement e v a l u a t i o n . The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s were a l s o e x p e c t e d " t o s e r v e as l i n e s of communication between f a r m e r s , the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , and r e s e a r c h i n s t i t u t i o n s . . . " (Annual R e p o r t , 1961 : 137). They a l s o performed a l i a i s o n r o l e which i n v o l v e s : the farm f a m i l i e s on the l a n d and the s o u r c e of r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d i n g the A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , the F a c u l t y of A g r i c u l t u r e a t the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a and the Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e (Annual R e p o r t , 1959 : 149). The 1970 Annual Report of A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e s t a t e d a broader purpose of the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n . .The D i v i s i o n ' s (Annual R e p o r t , 1970 : 55) main purpose was " t o h e l p people h e l p t h e m s e l v e s , t h r o u g h programs of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n , t o a c h i e v e t h e i r economic and s o c i a l g o a l s . " The 1971 Annual Report (p.53) has c l a r i f i e d and r e d e f i n e d t h i s purpose of the d i v i s i o n t o emphasize the f o l l o w i n g g o a l s f o r the e x t e n s i o n programs: 1. The s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y of farm f a m i l i e s and o p e r a t o r s as managers, i n a l l a s p e c t s of a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e s . . . 2. The promotion and maintenance of community and i n d i v i d u a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n among r u r a l p e o p l e . . . 3. E x t e n s i o n programs a t t e m p t e d t o f o s t e r s y s t e m a t i c e d u c a t i o n i n a g r i c u l t u r e and a s s o c i a t e d t e c h n i c a l and b u s i n e s s s k i l l s a t the v o c a t i o n a l l e v e l f o r both y o u ths and a d u l t s . 19 The E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n c o n t i n u e d t o assume " i n c r e a s e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n a g r i c u l t u r a l development, farm l a b o r , farm c r e d i t , farm management, consumer e d u c a t i o n , n u t r i t i o n , h o u s i n g , market e d u c a t i o n and r u r a l c o u n s e l l i n g " (Annual R e p o r t , 1973 : 10). I t s e d u c a t i o n and s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s became " a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n and management; home economics and home management; and r u r a l r e s o u r c e s and community development" (Annual R e p o r t , 1974 : 18). In 1976 A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e d e f i n e d a b a s i c concept f o r i t s a g r i c u l t u r a l development. I t s d e f i n i t i o n of t h e b a s i c concept of a g r i c u l t u r a l development (Annual R e p o r t , 1976 : 11) was: t o improve human, l a n d and c a p i t a l r e s o u r c e s t h r o u g h p h y s i c a l l y i n c r e a s i n g the p r o d u c t i v e c a p a b i l i t y of l a n d , a d d i n g f i n a n c i a l i n p u t s t o farm and r e l a t e d e n t e r p r i s e s , and adv a n c i n g i n d i v i d u a l and f a m i l y management, a l l of which c o n t r i b u t e t o the b u i l d i n g of independent farm f a m i l y u n i t s which i n t e g r a t e m u t u a l l y t o support v i a b l e communities and a s t r o n g and s t a b l e a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y . The E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n c o n t i n u e d t o m a i n t a i n i t s r o l e as the d e l i v e r y system and o f f e r e d i n t e n s i f i e d e x t e n s i o n of t e c h n i c a l , p r o d u c t i o n and management i n f o r m a t i o n . John G. C a l p a s , D i r e c t o r of A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e E x t e n s i o n D i v i s i o n , ( E x t e n s i o n I n f o r m a t i o n B u l l e t i n , 1981 : 19) d e s c r i b e s the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t : as a s p e c i a l i s t i n the p r o c e s s of e x t e n s i o n and as a g e n e r a l p r a c t i t i o n e r i n the f u l l range a g r i c u l t u r a l t e c h n o l o g y , i s w e l l backed by the r e s o u r c e s of the Department [ A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e ] , A g r i c u l t u r e Canada, 20 u n i v e r s i t i e s and a g r i b u s i n e s s . He sees the p r e s e n t and f u t u r e r o l e s of the E x t e n s i o n D i v i s i o n t o be - the f o l l o w i n g f o u r main f u n c t i o n s ( E x t e n s i o n I n f o r m a t i o n B u l l e t i n , 1981 : 2 0 ) : 1. i n f o r m a t i o n t r a n s f e r , 2. inducement t o change, 3. i n f o r m a t i o n v a l i d a t i o n , and, 4. h e l p i n g .groups and i n d i v i d u a l s t hroughout the a g r i c u l t u r a l community t o d e v e l o p a r a t i o n a l e f o r sound d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . In summary, the scope and purpose of the A l b e r t a E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e are the e f f i c i e n t d e l i v e r y of t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n and p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s d e a l i n g w i t h a g r i c u l t u r e t o f a r m e r s , i n o r d e r t o h e l p them t o a c h i e v e t h e i r economic and s o c i a l g o a l s . S t r u c t u r e and O r g a n i z a t i o n T h i s s e c t i o n c o v e r s how the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n work i s o r g a n i z e d i n A l b e r t a so as t o d e l i v e r the i n t e n d e d s e r v i c e s t o f a r m e r s . D i s c u s s i o n i s on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the r e g i o n a l d i r e c t o r s and d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s , and the c o o r d i n a t i o n s t r u c t u r e f o r o v e r a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l development programs, i n c l u d i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n work. In 1916, the ' D i s t r i c t A gents' d i v i s i o n was formed and agents were a p p o i n t e d and c a r r i e d out t h e i r work. By 1920 the agents were employed f u l l - t i m e and were r e s p o n s i b l e t o the L i v e s t o c k Branch o f A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e . In 1942 the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s was t r a n s f e r r e d 21 from the L i v e s t o c k Branch t o the newly c r e a t e d A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e Branch whose main f u n c t i o n was the d i s t r i b u t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n . In 1966, A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e was r e o r g a n i z e d i n t o seven d i v i s i o n s . The A g r i c u l t u r e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e Branch was r a i s e d t o d i v i s i o n a l l e v e l , adopted the concept of r e g i o n a l i z a t i o n , and began t o d e c e n t r a l i z e e x t e n s i o n a c t i v i t i e s by d i v i d i n g the P r o v i n c e i n t o s i x r e g i o n s . The A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n i s d i r e c t l y sponsored by the P r o v i n c i a l Government t h r o u g h the M i n i s t e r of A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e . The Deputy M i n i s t e r , s e n i o r p u b l i c s e r v a n t , i s the e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r of A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e and has f i v e a s s i s t a n t deputy m i n i s t e r s who are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o d u c t i o n ; economic and m a r k e t i n g s e r v i c e s ; development; r e s e a r c h and o p e r a t i o n ; and i n t e r n a t i o n a l m a r k e t i n g . The A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r f o r Development has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s e v e r a l d i v i s i o n s , i n c l u d i n g E x t e n s i o n , t h a t a r e c o n cerned w i t h the d e l i v e r y of i n f o r m a t i o n and s e r v i c e s t o farms and communities. S e v e r a l d i v i s i o n s which a r e p r i m a r i l y s e r v i c e o r i e n t e d p r o v i d e the s u b j e c t m atter s p e c i a l i s t e x p e r t i s e f o r the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n . " Each r e g i o n a l o f f i c e i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by a R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r who i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o the D i r e c t o r of the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n . Some of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the r e g i o n a l d i r e c t o r (Memorandum, 1977 : 1) i n c l u d e : 1. [ b e i n g ] s e n i o r r e g i o n a l department r e p r e s e n t a t i v e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n , 22 2. [ t a k i n g ] i n i t i a t i v e i n c o o r d i n a t i o n and e n s u r i n g c o o p e r a t i o n i n the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of programs i n a r e g i o n , 3. [ b e i n g ] s e n i o r r e g i o n a l spokesman and a r b i t e r f o r s t a f f i n the r e g i o n i n t h e i r i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h o t h e r a g e n c i e s . The r e g i o n a l s t a f f c o n s i s t s of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s and r e g i o n a l s p e c i a l i s t s . W h i l e the r e g i o n a l s p e c i a l i s t s r e p r e s e n t and are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r d i v i s i o n ' s programs and p o l i c i e s , the r e g i o n a l d i r e c t o r c o o r d i n a t e s t h e i r s e r v i c e s as r e s o u r c e s p e c i a l i s t s w i t h i n the r e g i o n . The f o c a l p o i n t and the d e l i v e r y system t h r o u g h which e x t e n s i o n programs r e a c h the c l i e n t e l e i s the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e . Each of 64 d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s throughout the P r o v i n c e s e r v i c e s an average of 1000 farm f a m i l i e s . The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t i s the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n worker a t the d i s t r i c t l e v e l . The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t c a r r i e s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of k e e p i n g a b r e a s t of a wide range of s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l knowledge of a g r i c u l t u r a l development as w e l l as of f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l government p o l i c y . In the p r o c e s s of farm management c o u n s e l l i n g he i n t e r p r e t s the i m p l i c a t i o n of the s e p o l i c i e s and f i n d i n g s f o r the d i s t r i c t and i n d i v i d u a l farm s i t u a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , he i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o n d u c t i n g an e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n program. Some of t h e p o s i t i o n d u t i e s of a d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t ( P o s i t i o n D e s c r i p t i o n f o r A g r o l o g i s t I I ) i n c l u d e : 1. p r o v i d e s p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u n s e l t o farmers and a g r i - b u s i n e s s i n the a r e a of a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , management, m a r k e t i n g , c r e d i t , and the i m p l i c a t i o n s of 23 government p o l i c y . 2. p a r t i c i p a t e s and c a r r i e s out p r o j e c t s w i t h i n the t e c h n i c a l and a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n a l program u n i q u e l y s u i t e d t o the d i s t r i c t . 3. i n d e p e n d e n t l y i n t e r p r e t s p o l i c y and e x p e d i t e s p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l programs i n a d e f i n e d g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a . 4. r e p r e s e n t s the Department and a d v i s e s v a r i o u s commissions, b o a r d s , a g r i - b u s i n e s s , e t c . , and r e p o r t s t o s u p e r i o r s . 5. r e v i e w s l e g i s l a t i o n , p o l i c i e s , a g r i c u l t u r a l and e x t e n s i o n l i t e r a t u r e and r e s e a r c h . The s e n i o r d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t ( P o s i t i o n D e s c r i p t i o n f o r A g r o l o g i s t I I I ) has the added p o s i t i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of managing s t a f f and programs w i t h i n a d e f i n e d g e o g r a p h i c a l r e g i o n . T h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n v o l v e s the p r o v i s i o n of l e a d e r s h i p i n e x t e n s i o n program development and d e l i v e r y t o s t a f f i n h i s d e f i n e d a r e a . The o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s t r u c t u r e i n a g r i c u l t u r a l m a t t e r s , i n c l u d i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s , i s the A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r a l C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee (AACC). The AACC (Terms of R e f e r e n c e , 1976) was e s t a b l i s h e d p r i m a r i l y t o c o o r d i n a t e the p r o v i n c i a l e f f o r t toward economic and s o c i a l development of the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y and t o promote the optimum u t i l i z a t i o n of manpower and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s among the v a r i o u s o p e r a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s i n A l b e r t a . T h i s c o o r d i n a t i o n s t r u c t u r e (Terms of R e f e r e n c e , 1976 : 1) s h a l l : 1. p r o v i d e a forum f o r d i s c u s s i o n of p o l i c y and program a r e a s of i n t e r e s t t o A l b e r t a a g r i c u l t u r e , 2. on. m a t t e r s r e l a t e d t o a g r i c u l t u r e programs and p o l i c i e s , a d v i s e the A l b e r t a 24 M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e and where n e c e s s a r y , t h r o u g h him a d v i s e the F e d e r a l M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e , P r e s i d e n t s of U n i v e r s i t i e s and o t h e r a g e n c i e s , 3. keep under r e g u l a r r e v i e w the broad a s p e c t s of a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h , e x t e n s i o n and e d u c a t i o n i n A l b e r t a w i t h the o b j e c t o f : a. f a c i l i t a t i n g i n t e r - g r o u p communi- c a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n management l e v e l s , b. a s s e s s i n g immediate and f u t u r e needs and d e v e l o p i n g p r o p o s a l s t o meet them, c. a d v i s i n g on j o i n t uses of a v a i l a b l e f a c i l i t i e s and p e r s o n n e l , d. c o n t r i b u t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s b e a r i n g on r e g i o n a l and n a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s a f f e c t i n g a g r i c u l t u r e , e. c a r r y out s p e c i a l a s signments on b e h a l f of Canadian A g r i c u l t u r a l S e r v i c e s C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee (CASCC) a p p r o p r i a t e t o the above o b j e c t i v e s . The AACC (Terms of R e f e r e n c e , 1976), c o n s i s t s of the Deputy M i n i s t e r of A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e (Chairman); the Dean and a n o t h e r member of the F a c u l t y of A g r i c u l t u r e and F o r e s t r y of the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a ; the A s s i s t a n t M i n i s t e r s of P r o d u c t i o n , Economic and M a r k e t i n g S e r v i c e s , and Development of A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e ; the D i r e c t o r s of the A g r i c u l t u r e Canada Research S t a t i o n s a t L e t h b r i d g e , Lacombe, and Beaver lodge;., and an ex o f f i c i o member as S e c r e t a r y . The quorum of AACC c o n s i s t s of t h r e e v o t i n g members r e p r e s e n t i n g each of A g r i c u l t u r e Canada, U n i v e r s i t y , and A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e . The AACC i s s u p p o r t e d by A d v i s o r y Committees which a r e s t r u c t u r e d on a commodity or s u b j e c t matter b a s i s . Each A d v i s o r y Committee may e s t a b l i s h ad hoc committees as r e q u i r e d t o d e a l w i t h s p e c i f i c problems. In summary, the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e i n A l b e r t a i s o r g a n i z e d under s i x r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s . Each r e g i o n a l o f f i c e 25 i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by a r e g i o n a l d i r e c t o r who i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o the D i r e c t o r of the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n . The A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r a l C o o r d i n a t i n g Committee was e s t a b l i s h e d t o c o o r d i n a t e the p r o v i n c i a l programs of economic and s o c i a l development of the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y and t o u t i l i z e e f f e c t i v e l y the manpower and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s among the v a r i o u s o p e r a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s i n A l b e r t a . The next s e c t i o n d e a l s w i t h another example of the government model f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e , the B r i t i s h Columbia E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . B r i t i s h Columbia A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e T h i s s e c t i o n of t h i s c h a p t e r f o c u s e s on t h e scope and p urpose, and the s t r u c t u r e and o r g a n i z a t i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . Scope and Purpose The B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , now known as B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food, was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1893 (Wales, 1964). I t s p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e was t o a s c e r t a i n the needs of the f a r m i n g p o p u l a t i o n , and t o a d v i s e , c o n s u l t and g u i d e f a r m e r s . The scope of the Department was t o work towards the development and e x t e n s i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e (Annual R e p o r t , 1913/14). The e x t e n s i o n work was o r g a n i z e d under the L i v e s t o c k Branch. The f i r s t r e c o r d e d appointment of a d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t appears i n the 1913/14 Annual Report of 26 the Department. The L i v e s t o c k Branch (Annual R e p o r t , 1913/14 : 66) has r e p o r t e d t h a t the work conducted by the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s was of g r e a t importance and " e s s e n t i a l t h a t e d u c a t i v e work be c a r r i e d out i n o r d e r t o show farmers how they may most p r o f i t a b l y c a r r y out t h e i r work." In 1947 the Development and E x t e n s i o n Branch was c r e a t e d (Annual R e p o r t , 1947). The scope of the Branch was e n l a r g e d t o i n c l u d e e x t e n s i o n work, a g r i c u l t u r a l e n g i n e e r i n g , l a n d c l e a r i n g , and farm l a b o r . E x t e n s i o n has been the fundamental r o l e of the Branch, p r o v i d i n g the major d e l i v e r y system and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s . The Branch has p r o v i d e d " a d v i c e and guidance i n the p r o d u c t i o n of a g r e a t e r d i v e r s i t y of farm commodities..." (Annual R e p o r t , 1959 : 5 0 ) . I t s p r i m a r y purposes were " t o encourage improved farm p r a c t i c e s and t o h e l p r u r a l p e o p l e t o h e l p t h e m s e l v e s " (Annual R e p o r t , 1961 : 4 5 ) . E x t e n s i o n work was a l s o performed by s e v e r a l branches of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food, but o n l y as an a d j u n c t t o the s e v e r a l r o l e s performed by each branch (Job, 1965). Job (1965 : 3) s t a t e d the f u n c t i o n of each branch t o be "a c o m b i n a t i o n of r e g u l a t o r y and e d u c a t i o n a l work". The Development and E x t e n s i o n Branch " i s the branch whose f u n c t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y e d u c a t i o n a l , and i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e x t e n s i o n work of a g e n e r a l n a t u r e . . . " (Job, 1965 : 3 ) . The e x t e n s i o n methods and t e c h n i q u e s used by the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n c l u d e p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s , m e e t i n g s , f i e l d - d ays, d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , b u l l e t i n s , and n e w s l e t t e r s (Annual R e p o r t , 1951). The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t has been d e s c r i b e d as the 27 'key' man i n e x t e n s i o n and the p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Department i n h i s d i s t r i c t . H i s jo b s a r e t o c o o r d i n a t e the a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n h i s d i s t r i c t ; t o pass on the f i n d i n g s of r e s e a r c h and e x p e r i m e n t s t o the f a r m e r s ; t o p l a n programs w i t h l o c a l a g r i c u l t u r a l committees; and t o r e p r e s e n t the Department i n h i s community (Annual R e p o r t , 1954/1957). The 1957 Annual Report of the Department has l i n k e d e x t e n s i o n a c t i v i t i e s w i t h p l a n n e d programs i n each d i s t r i c t d e s i g n e d t o emphasize the problems of p r o d u c t i o n and m a r k e t i n g i n each community. D u r i n g the 1960's the A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Branch expanded i t s scope of e x t e n s i o n programs, w i t h i n c r e a s i n g emphasis on farm management and the development of economic u n i t s . The 1965 Annual Report of the Department (1965 : 16) s t a t e d t h a t : R e c o g n i t i o n of the need f o r e x t e n s i o n programmes t o be more c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d w i t h economic e x a m i n a t i o n of the t o t a l farm e n t e r p r i s e produced changes i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of the [Development and E x t e n s i o n ] Branch's p o l i c i e s . . . i n i t i a l moves were made toward the development of package- s t y l e farm recommmendations a f f e c t i n g management d e c i s i o n s a t the t o t a l farm o p e r a t i o n s l e v e l . As a p a r t of t h i s s h i f t , g r e a t e r emphasis was p l a c e d upon c l o s e r c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h o t h e r a g e n c i e s , p a r t i c u l a r the Canada Department of A g r i c u l t u r e and the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C olumbia... the changes w i l l r e p r e s e n t an a d j u n c t t o r a t h e r than a replacement of p r e v i o u s p r a c t i c e s . The Branch has implemented t h i s approach of a g r i c u l t u r a l development t h r o u g h a m u l t i p l i c i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l and s e r v i c e programs. The Branch (Annual R e p o r t , 1977 : 20-21) has a c t e d 28 as : 1. c o o r d i n a t o r f o r i n t e g r a t e d r e s o u r c e p l a n n i n g i n c o n c e r t w i t h o t h e r r e s o u r c e m i n i s t r i e s a t the p r o v i n c i a l , r e g i o n a l , and l o c a l l e v e l s ; 2. f a c i l i t a t o r f o r ^ e x t e n s i o n programs i n d e a l i n g w i t h f a r m e r s ; 3. c o o r d i n a t o r f o r a number of s p e c i a l p r o j e c t s and s t u d i e s r e l a t e d t o a g r i c u l t u r a l development; and 4. l o c a l r e f e r e n c e p o i n t f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l l e g i s l a t i o n and department programs. As p a r t of the Department's r e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n 1980, the A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e adopted a r e g i o n a l approach t o program d e l i v e r y (Annual R e p o r t , 1980). The scope and purpose of the ' R e g i o n a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e ' i s t o ensure a more b a l a n c e d development of the p r o v i n c e ' s a g r i c u l t u r e and food i n d u s t r y w i t h d i r e c t i n v o l v e m e n t of farmers (Annual R e p o r t , 1980 : 5 ) . E x t e n s i o n program p l a n n i n g w i l l o c c u r a t p r o v i n c i a l , r e g i o n a l and d i s t r i c t l e v e l s . The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t w i l l c o n s t i t u t e the b a s i c s t a f f of the r e g i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and w i l l c o n t i n u e t o p r o v i d e the major e x t e n s i o n c o n t a c t w i t h farmers (A New Mandate, 1980). The p r i m a r y purpose of r e o r g a n i z i n g the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e w i l l be t o f a c i l i t a t e e f f e c t i v e e x t e n s i o n program p l a n n i n g , d e l i v e r y and e v a l u a t i o n a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l ; and t o accommodate o t h e r s e r v i c e s of the department t o the f a r m i n g p u b l i c ( G u i d e l i n e s f o r E x t e n s i o n Programming, 1980 : i i i ) . In summary, the scope and purpose of the R e g i o n a l E x t e n s i o n 29 S e r v i c e of the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food i s t o f a c i l i t a t e e f f e c t i v e e x t e n s i o n program p l a n n i n g , d e l i v e r y and e v a l u a t i o n a t the r e g i o n a l l e v e l , and t o ensure a more b a l a n c e d development of the p r o v i n c e ' s a g r i c u l t u r e and food i n d u s t r y w i t h d i r e c t i n volvement of f a r m e r s . The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t c o n t i n u e s t o be the major e x t e n s i o n l i n k w i t h f a r m e r s . S t r u c t u r e and O r g a n i z a t i o n T h i s s e c t i o n i s concerned w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e ; d u t i e s of the r e g i o n a l d i r e c t o r s and d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s ; and the c o o r d i n a t i o n mechanism f o r o v e r a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l programs, i n c l u d i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e , a l l w i t h i n the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia. The B r i t i s h Columbia A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e was o r g a n i z e d as a d i v i s i o n of the L i v e s t o c k Branch i n the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e . In 1947 a s e p a r a t e E x t e n s i o n Branch was c r e a t e d under the name 'Development and E x t e n s i o n ' . By 1966 the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e was r e o r g a n i z e d as a d i v i s i o n under P r o d u c t i o n S e r v i c e s i n the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e . T h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e c o n t i n u e d up t o 1980, when the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food implemented a new r e g i o n a l s t r u c t u r e f o r the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n the p r o v i n c e . The major reasons g i v e n by the M i n i s t r y f o r the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e (A New Mandate, 1980 : 4-5; and G u i d e l i n e s f o r E x t e n s i o n Programming, 1980 : 1-2) were: 30 1. t o ensure e f f e c t i v e d e l i v e r y of the m i n i s t r y ' s program and s e r v i c e s t o f a r m e r s ; 2. t o encourage p a r t i c i p a t i o n of p r o d u c e r s i n the d e s i g n i n g of s p e c i f i c c o m m o d i t y - r e l a t e d programs of a r e g i o n ; and 3. t o encourage g r e a t e r c o o p e r a t i o n and c o o r d i n a t i o n among a g e n c i e s i n p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s . The M i n i s t r y d e c e n t r a l i z e d i t s e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s w i t h i n c r e a s i n g emphasis on r e g i o n a l i z a t i o n of i t s program development and d e l i v e r y . The R e g i o n a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i s d i r e c t l y under an A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r f o r F i e l d O p e r a t i o n s (Annual R e p o r t , 1980). F i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g i o n s have been e s t a b l i s h e d based on a g r i c u l t u r a l c r o p p i n g a r e a s and n a t u r a l b o u n d a r i e s (A New Mandate, 1980). Each r e g i o n a l o f f i c e i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by a R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s r e g i o n ' s d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s and who d i r e c t s e x t e n s i o n program development and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n the r e g i o n (Annual R e p o r t , 1980). Each R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r r e p o r t s d i r e c t l y and i s a c c o u n t a b l e t o the A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r f o r F i e l d O p e r a t i o n s , who has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o d u c t i o n and r e g u l a t o r y s e r v i c e s , i n c l u d i n g E x t e n s i o n . Some of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r ( G u i d e l i n e s t o E x t e n s i o n Programming, 1980:6-7) i n c l u d e : 1. s e r v e as the s e n i o r M i n i s t r y spokesman i n the r e g i o n . 2. g i v e . . . d i r e c t i o n t o s t a f f s e r v i n g a r e g i o n r e l a t i v e t o the development and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of r e g i o n a l e x t e n s i o n programs. 3. c o o r d i n a t e r e g i o n a l program p l a n n i n g 31 i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h r e g i o n a l and s p e c i a l i s t s t a f f ; commodity groups and a g r i c u l t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 4. r e p r e s e n t , or a r r a n g e f o r the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f , a g r i c u l t u r e on r e g i o n a l i n t e r a g e n c y r e s o u r c e committees. 5. e v a l u a t e the c o s t and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of r e g i o n a l programs. The d e l i v e r y system through which e x t e n s i o n programs r e a c h t h e p r i m a r y p r o d u c e r s a r e 18 d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e . The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s c o n t i n u e t o p r o v i d e the major e x t e n s i o n l i n k w i t h farmers and r e p o r t s t o one of f i v e R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r s . H i s p r i m a r y r o l e i s t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r improvement of g e n e r a l farm management s k i l l s and t e c h n i c a l knowledge of p r o d u c t i o n f a c t o r s t o p r i m a r y p r o d u c e r s . He ( L i c e n s e d S c i e n c e O f f i c e r P o s i t i o n D e s c r i p t i o n : D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t , 1981) a c t s as an a d v i s o r , e d u c a t o r and o r g a n i z e r i n the p l a n n i n g and d e l i v e r y of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n / e d u c a t i o n programs a t the d i s t r i c t and r e g i o n a l l e v e l . The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t ' s p o s i t i o n f u n c t i o n s i n c l u d e : 1. o r g a n i z e and conduct a d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n / e d u c a t i o n program; 2. a d v i s e i n d i v i d u a l or groups of p r i m a r y p r o d u c e r s i n m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g t o g e n e r a l farm b u s i n e s s management and t e c h n i c a l p r o d u c t i o n s k i l l s i n t e n d e d t o improve e f f i c i e n c y and p r o f i t a b i l i t y of p r o d u c t i o n ; 3. p a r t i c i p a t e i n r e g i o n a l e x t e n s i o n programming a c t i v i t i e s ; 4. p r o t e c t the p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s o u r c e s ; 5. promote sound a g r i c u l t u r a l development. The o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e i n a g r i c u l t u r a l m a t t e r s , i n c l u d i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e , i s the B r i t i s h 32 Columbia A g r i c u l t u r a l S e r v i c e s C o o r d i n a t i o n Committee (BCASCC) (Task F o r c e R e p o r t , 1977). The Committee was e s t a b l i s h e d p r i m a r i l y t o c o o r d i n a t e t h e p r o v i n c i a l e f f o r t toward development of the a g r i c u l t u r a l s e c t o r and t o promote the optimum u t i l i z a t i o n of manpower and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s among the v a r i o u s o p e r a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Task F o r c e R e p o r t , 1977). The B r i t i s h Columbia ASCC (Task F o r c e R e p o r t , 1977) c o n s i s t s of the Deputy M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food (Chairman); the Dean and another member of the F a c u l t y of A g r i c u l t u r a l S c i e n c e s of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia; and the D i r e c t o r s of the A g r i c u l t u r e Canada Research S t a t i o n s a t A g a s s i z and Vancouver. The B r i t i s h Columbia ASCC i s s u p p o r t e d by l e a d committees on a n i m a l s c i e n c e , e n g i n e e r i n g s c i e n c e , food s c i e n c e , p l a n t s c i e n c e , s o i l s s c i e n c e , and s o c i a l s c i e n c e . Each l e a d committee can e s t a b l i s h ad hoc committees as r e q u i r e d t o d e a l w i t h s p e c i f i c problems. In summary, the R e g i o n a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s d i r e c t l y under an A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r f o r F i e l d O p e r a t i o n s . There a r e f i v e e x t e n s i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n r e g i o n s . Each r e g i o n a l o f f i c e i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by a R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r who r e p o r t s d i r e c t l y and i s a c c o u n t a b l e t o one of the A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r s . The o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e i n a g r i c u l t u r a l m a t t e r s , i n c l u d i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e , i s the B r i t i s h Columbia A g r i c u l t u r a l S e r v i c e s C o o r d i n a t i o n Committee. The Committee i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o c o o r d i n a t e the p r o v i n c i a l e f f o r t toward development of the 33 a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y s e c t o r and t o promote the optimum u t i l i z a t i o n of manpower and f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s among the v a r i o u s o p e r a t i o n a l a g e n c i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In v i e w i n g Canada as whole, the p r o v i s i o n of a g r i c u l t u r e e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e i n Canada i s a p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The F e d e r a l Department of A g r i c u l t u r e performs a l i m i t e d e x t e n s i o n r o l e a t e x p e r i m e n t a l farms or r e s e a r c h s t a t i o n s . I t s main r o l e i s the e v a l u a t i o n of the whole e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e and i n d i c a t i o n of s o l u t i o n s . The. Canadian u n i v e r s i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f a c u l t i e s of a g r i c u l t u r e , have r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o n l y f o r r e s i d e n t i a l i n s t r u c t i o n and r e s e a r c h . The p r o v i n c i a l A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e ' s scope and purpose a r e the d e l i v e r y of t e c h n i c a l and economic i n f o r m a t i o n and p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s on a g r i c u l t u r e t o f a r m e r s . I t i s o r g a n i z e d under r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s w i t h i n an e x e c u t i v e branch of the Government, the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e . Each r e g i o n a l o f f i c e i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by a R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r who i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o the D i r e c t o r of E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e or t o an A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r who has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s e v e r a l d i v i s i o n s , i n c l u d i n g E x t e n s i o n , t h a t a r e concerned w i t h p r o d u c t i o n and r e g u l a t o r y s e r v i c e s . The D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t i s the major l i n k w i t h f a r m ers and r e p o r t s t o one of the R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r s . The D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t has been g i v e n a d d i t i o n a l d u t i e s , such as p l a n n i n g and g r a n t i n g farm c r e d i t , e n s u r i n g t h a t l a n d c l e a r i n g or d r a i n i n g has been done i n c o m p l i a n c e w i t h r e g u l a t i o n s , and implementing p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l programs and p o l i c y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . 34 A l t h o u g h A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h Columbia have s i m i l a r scope and purpose f o r t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s , they d i f f e r some on t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . The D i r e c t o r of the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e D i v i s i o n of A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e i s s o l e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e x t e n s i o n m a t t e r s i n the p r o v i n c e . Each R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r r e p o r t s d i r e c t l y and i s a c c o u n t a b l e t o the D i r e c t o r of E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . The D i r e c t o r , i n t u r n , i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o the A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r f o r Development who has no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e g u l a t o r y s e r v i c e but d i r e c t s s e v e r a l d i v i s i o n s , i n c l u d i n g E x t e n s i o n , t h a t a r e concerned w i t h the d e l i v e r y of i n f o r m a t i o n and s e r v i c e s t o farms and communities. The B r i t i s h Columbia R e g i o n a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s , however, i s d i r e c t l y under the A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r f o r F i e l d O p e r a t i o n s who has r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s e v e r a l d i v i s i o n s , i n c l u d i n g R e g i o n a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e s , t h a t a re concerned w i t h p r o d u c t i o n and r e g u l a t o r y s e r v i c e s . A l l the R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r s r e p o r t d i r e c t l y and are r e s p o n s i b l e t o the A s s i s t a n t Deputy M i n i s t e r . C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s The C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e , u n i v e r s i t y model, i s an American i n n o v a t i o n . W i l l i a m s (1968:21) noted t h a t : Much of what has happened i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s has been used as g u i d e l i n e s f o r the r e v i e w , r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , and redevelopment of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . . . . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t the U n i t e d S t a t e s e x p e r i e n c e a p p l i e s many p r i n c i p l e s 35 b e a r i n g on f e d e r a l - s t a t e r e l a t i o n s and on the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a p r o f e s s i o n a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e . T h i s s e c t i o n f o c u s e s on the development of the C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The d i s c u s s i o n i n c l u d e s (1) the development and scope and purpose of the C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e as a n a t i o n w i d e i n s t i t u t i o n , and (2) the s t r u c t u r e and o r g a n i z a t i o n of the F e d e r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e , the Idaho C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e and the Washington C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . The C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n work i n a g r i c u l t u r e and home economics i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the Land-Grant U n i v e r s i t i e s system. The Land-Grant U n i v e r s i t i e s system r e s u l t e d from a g r a d u a l but stea d y r e v o l u t i o n r e f l e c t i n g t he needs of the .n a t i o n . I t was the pr o d u c t of many f o r c e s , economic, p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l (Eddy, 1957). The i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s e s which i n c l u d e d f a r m e r s , mechanics, a r t i s a n s and l a b o u r e r s , became c l a s s c o n s c i o u s and wanted t o share the e d u c a t i o n a l w e a l t h . Edward D.. Eddy, J r . (1957 : 9) has noted t h a t " u t i l i t a r i a n i s m found no s a t i s f a c t i o n i n e x i s t i n g p a t t e r n s of e d u c a t i o n . ' P r o g r e s s ' was a p r a c t i c a l concept and needed a p r a c t i c a l e d u c a t i o n t o h e l p r e a l i z e i t s aims." Everywhere, the i n d u s t r i a l c l a s s e s began t o v o i c e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e i r economic p l i g h t , t h e i r s o c i a l i n e q u a l i t y , and t h e i r p o l i t i c a l i n f i r m i t y . The p o l i t i c a l g o s p e l of the p e r i o d was "the worth and d i g n i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l and the r i g h t of the common man t o be r u l e d by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and not by 'gentlemen-statesman' " ( R i l e y , 1965 : 19). One of 36 the most s i g n i f i c a n t outcomes of the movement was the emergence of a unique p h i l o s o p h y of u n i v e r s i t y s e r v i c e , which i s the t r i p o d of i n s t r u c t i o n , r e s e a r c h and e x t e n s i o n ( i . e . , the Land- Grant U n i v e r s i t i e s system) (Eddy, 1957). The i n s t i t u t i o n s p r e s c r i b e d by the l e g i s l a t i o n were not o n l y new i n c o n c e p t , but a l s o v e r y d i f f e r e n t i n scope of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s from the c l a s s i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s of t h a t time which were i n v o l v e d almost e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h the p r e p a r a t i o n of "the needed men of l e a r n i n g : s c h o o l m a s t e r s , d o c t o r s , l a w y e r s , and o c c a s i o n a l men of b u s i n e s s and commerce" (Eddy, 1957 : 3 ) . The new i n s t i t u t i o n s were committed t o the concept t h a t the n a t i o n and s t a t e p r o s p e r i n p r o p o r t i o n t o the development of the common p e o p l e . R i l e y (1965 : 19) has s t a t e d t h a t i t was " h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n f o r the masses,... thus a n a t i o n had s e t i t s stamp of a p p r o v a l on the i d e a t h a t one aim of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d be the p r a c t i c a l . . . " Scope and Purpose S e v e r a l b a s i c l e g i s l a t i v e a c t s were i m p o r t a n t t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e : t h e M o r r i l l Act of 1862, the Hatch Act of 1887, and the Smith-Lever Act of 1914 which, r e s p e c t i v e l y , e s t a b l i s h e d the Land-Grant U n i v e r s i t i e s , the A g r i c u l t u r a l Experiment S t a t i o n s ( r e s e a r c h ) and the C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . The M o r r i l l Act of 1862 was an e d u c a t i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n , marking the f i r s t m i l e s t o n e i n the growth of an i d e a , the 37 d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n of h i g h e r l e a r n i n g f i t t e d t o an emerging s o c i a l o r d e r . The A c t e s t a b l i s h e d the Land-Grant U n i v e r s i t i e s f o r the purpose of p r o v i d i n g l i b e r a l and p r a c t i c a l e d u c a t i o n f o r f a r m e r s and workers i n the i n d u s t r i e s and m e c h a n i c a l t r a d e s , w i t h o u t e x c l u d i n g o t h e r s c i e n t i f i c and c l a s s i c a l s t u d i e s . The M o r r i l l Act marks the b e g i n n i n g of s y s t e m a t i c a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n and s e r v e s as a landmark i n the development of s c i e n t i f i c as d i s t i n g u i s h e d from c l a s s i c a l and l i b e r a l a r t s e d u c a t i o n (Baker, 1939). In s p i t e of the n a t i o n a l o r i g i n and c h a r a c t e r , the Land- Grant U n i v e r s i t i e s are i n t e g r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s of the s t a t e government. Thus the i n t e n t of the M o r r i l l A c t was i n k e e p i n g w i t h the C o n s t i t u t i o n f o r l o c a l c o n t r o l of e d u c a t i o n (Eddy, 1957). T h i s was the f i r s t s t a g e where f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n was p r o v i d e d t o farmers and a g r i c u l t u r a l s c i e n t i s t s The second stage of the a g r i c u l t u r a l development was the a d d i t i o n of r e s e a r c h t o i n s t r u c t i o n . As the s u b j e c t - m a t t e r became more f o r m a l i z e d , the f a c u l t y found many q u e s t i o n s w i t h o u t answers. T h e i r own dilemmas were compounded by the number of r e q u e s t s from farmers who wanted answers t o a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n q u e s t i o n s . To respond t o t h i s demand, the Hatch Act of 1887 was passed i n o r d e r t o s e t up a n a t i o n - w i d e system of a g r i c u l t u r a l experiment s t a t i o n s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the Land- Grant U n i v e r s i t i e s (Eddy, 1957). Under t h i s a c t , funds were a p p r o p r i a t e d : t o conduct o r i g i n a l and o t h e r r e s e a r c h e s , i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and e x p e r i m e n t s b e a r i n g 38 d i r e c t l y on and c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the e s t a b l i s h m e n t and maintenance of a permanent and e f f e c t i v e a g r i c u l t u r e i n d u s t r y (24 S t a t . 440).. The r o l e f i r s t i d e n t i f i e d f o r the experiment s t a t i o n s was "the c o m p i l i n g . . . a n d the d i s s e m i n a t i o n . . . of the s u b j e c t matter of s c i e n c e and i t s p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n t o the v o c a t i o n s of r u r a l s o c i e t y " ( R i l e y , 1956 : 117). Baker (1939 : 3) s t a t e d t h a t " t h i s e x p e r i m e n t a l work i n a g r i c u l t u r e l a t e r s e r v e d as the b a s i s f o r the county a g e n t s ' a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs." The t h i r d stage of the movement was the a d d i t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the Land-Grant i n s t i t u t i o n s and of the U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of A g r i c u l t u r e (USDA). By the t u r n of the c e n t u r y the experiment s t a t i o n s had been w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d and on t h e i r way toward an e v e n t u a l a c c u m u l a t i o n of a v a s t body of e s s e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n . I t became d e s i r a b l e t o f i n d a method of p r o v i d i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n t o the f a r m e r s . In 1903, the USDA s t a r t e d the Farmers' C o o p e r a t i v e D e m o n s t r a t i o n Work under Seaman A. Knapp's s u p e r v i s i o n , and employed a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n t s t o conduct d e m o n s t r a t i o n s of recommended p r a c t i c e s t o the farmers i n the Southern S t a t e s (Simons, 1962 : 5-8). T h i s e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t i o n work was s t r i c t l y a F e d e r a l p r o j e c t and was a f o r e r u n n e r of C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . A l t h o u g h t h e r e were some c o o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t s i n e a r l y A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n Work i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d from 1862 u n t i l 1914 were s t r i c t l y under a government model and "the Land-Grant C o l l e g e s not o n l y d i d not c o o p e r a t e o f f i c i a l l y but i n a few c a s e s were e i t h e r i n d i f f e r e n t 39 t o or c r i t i c a l of i t " (Simons, 1962 : 8).. R i l e y (1965 : 268) a l s o s t r e s s e d t h a t "the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n work of Knapp and h i s agents was not con n e c t e d w i t h the l a n d - g r a n t i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h e s e b e g i n n i n g y e a r s " . N e v e r t h e l e s s s e v e r a l c o l l e g e s of a g r i c u l t u r e had begun o f f e r i n g f o r m a l c l a s s e s f o r farmers i n response t o the farmer s ' e x p r e s s e d i n t e r e s t s . The County Farm Bureau has p l a y e d a l a r g e r p a r t i n the development of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n programs than a l l o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s combined (Eddy, 1957). The County Farm Bureau was f i r s t sponsored as l o c a l f a r m e r s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The e x t e n s i o n and the Farm Bureau movement grew up t o g e t h e r . The p r i m a r y purpose of the Farm Bureau was t o p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p and a d d i t i o n a l funds f o r e x t e n s i o n work on a county b a s i s ( L a n c a s t e r , 1966). The Smi t h - L e v e r A c t r e c o g n i z e s " c o n t r i b u t i o n s from p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s as a l e g i t i m a t e p a r t of s t a t e matching funds" (Baker, 1939 : 16). Many s t a t e governments promoted the Farm Bureaus as a p a r t of t h e i r e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n and made the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a Farm Bureau a p r e r e q u i s i t e c o n d i t i o n f o r i n s t a l l a t i o n of a county e x t e n s i o n agent (Baker, 1939). The County Farm Bureaus were f e d e r a t e d i n t o s t a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o p l a n and c a r r y on a s t a t e a g r i c u l t u r a l program. In 1919 the s e s t a t e Farm Bureaus were a g a i n f e d e r a t e d t o become the American Farm Bureau F e d e r a t i o n , a g e n e r a l farm o r g a n i z a t i o n . The American Farm Bureau F e d e r a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d t o (Baker, 1939 : 19): 1. c o r r e l a t e and s t r e n g t h e n the s t a t e farm bureaus and s i m i l a r s t a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s 40 of the s e v e r a l s t a t e s i n the n a t i o n a l f e d e r a t i o n ; 2. promote, p r o t e c t , and r e p r e s e n t the b u s i n e s s , economic, s o c i a l , and e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s of the farmers of the n a t i o n ; and 3. d e v e l o p a g r i c u l t u r e . Because of the s e broad o b j e c t i v e s , many s t a t e s have changed t h e i r emphasis i n the program of the Farm Bureau from e d u c a t i o n t o l e g i s l a t i v e and b u s i n e s s a c t i v i t i e s ( B a k e r , 1939). T h i s brought a new r e l a t i o n s h i p between the farmer and the c o u n t y , s t a t e and f e d e r a l governments. And the county e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s d i s c o n t i n u e d t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s w i t h the county Farm Bureaus "because they b e l i e v e d t h a t such a r e l a t i o n s h i p would i n t e r f e r e w i t h the e d u c a t i o n a l n a t u r e of t h e i r work" ( B a k e r , 1939 : 9 6 ) . Thus, the county e x t e n s i o n agent emerged as an e d u c a t i o n a l agent u n i t i n g the s e r v i c e s of the f e d e r a l , s t a t e , and county governments. The agent p r o v i d e s " d i r e c t s e r v i c e t o [ f a r m e r s ] , ans w e r i n g r e q u e s t s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n and p r o v i d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n t o groups and i n d i v i d u a l s " (Darkenwald and Merriam, 1982 : 165). As p r e s s u r e s on the need t o d i f f u s e p r a c t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o farmers d e v e l o p e d , the U.S. Congress a c t e d by p a s s i n g the Smith-Lever Act i n 1914, c r e a t i n g the C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the Land-Grant U n i v e r s i t i e s and of the U.S. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . A c c o r d i n g t o Malone and F l o w e r s (1980 : 134), the passage of the Smith-Lever Act i n 1914 was the r e s u l t of "subsequent r a p i d d i s c o v e r y and a c c u m u l a t i o n of r e s e a r c h - b a s e d knowledge r e l a t e d t o a g r i c u l t u r e and r u r a l l i v i n g , c o u p l e d w i t h some p r e s s i n g problems b e i n g f a c e d by the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n " . The C o o p e r a t i v e 41 E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e A c t , as amended i n 1977, l i s t e d t he purposes of the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e as t o : a i d i n d i f f u s i n g among the pe o p l e of the U n i t e d S t a t e s u s e f u l and p r a c t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on s u b j e c t s r e l a t i n g t o a g r i c u l t u r e , uses of s o l a r energy w i t h r e s p e c t t o a g r i c u l t u r e , and home economics, and t o encourage the a p p l i c a t i o n of the same (91 S t a t . 1011). T h i s marks "the b e g i n n i n g of o r g a n i z e d , non-formal u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n e f f o r t s and the b e g i n n i n g of a t r e n d towards b r i n g i n g the u n i v e r s i t y i n t o the p u b l i c domain as a s o c i a l a c t o r a c c o u n t a b l e t o the s o c i a l system i t h e l p s t o produce" (Fox, 1982 : 163). As noted i n the 1958 r e p o r t on Scope and R e s p o s i b i l i t y of the C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e , known as Scope Report (1958), t h i s broad c h a r t e r c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e s E x t e n s i o n ' s f u n c t i o n as e d u c a t i o n f o r a c t i o n d i r e c t e d towards h e l p i n g p e o p l e t o h e l p t h e m s e l v e s . In p e r f o r m i n g t h i s f u n c t i o n , f o u r -general o b j e c t i v e s f o r the C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e a r e d e s c r i b e d i n r e l a t i o n t o the needs of the pe o p l e (Scope R e p o r t , 1958 : 3 ) : 1. G r e a t e r a b i l i t y i n m a i n t a i n i n g more e f f i c i e n t farms and b e t t e r homes. 2. G r e a t e r a b i l i t y i n a c q u i r i n g h i g h e r incomes and l e v e l s of l i v i n g on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s . 3. I n c r e a s e d competency and w i l l i n g n e s s , by both a d u l t s and y o u t h , t o assume l e a d e r s h i p and c i t i z e n s h i p r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . 4. I n c r e a s e d a b i l i t y and w i l l i n g n e s s t o undertake o r g a n i z e d group a c t i o n when such a c t i o n w i l l c o n t r i b u t e e f f e c t i v e l y t o im p r o v i n g t h e i r w e l f a r e . These o b j e c t i v e s a r e a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h : 42 g i v i n g of i n s t r u c t i o n and p r a c t i c a l d e m o n s t r a t i o n s i n a g r i c u l t u r e , uses of s o l a r energy w i t h r e s p e c t t o a g r i c u l t u r e , a n d home economics and s u b j e c t s r e l a t i n g t h e r e t o t o pers o n s not a t t e n d i n g or r e s i d e n t i n s a i d c o l l e g e s . . . and i m p a r t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on s a i d s u b j e c t s through d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , p u b l i c a t i o n s , and o t h e r w i s e ... (91 S t a t . 1011). The Scope Report (1958) has i d e n t i f i e d the ha r d c o r e of an adequate program of i n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n , t o be g i v e n h i g h p r i o r i t y a t t e n t i o n by the C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . The ni n e a r e a s so i d e n t i f i e d i n the Scope Report (1958) were: -1. E f f i c i e n c y i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n 2. E f f i c i e n c y i n the m a r k e t i n g , d i s t r i b u t i o n , and consumption of a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s 3. C o n s e r v a t i o n , development, and use of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s 4. Management on the farm and i n the home 5. F a m i l y l i v i n g 6. Youth development 7. L e a d e r s h i p development 8. Community improvement and r e s o u r c e development 9. P u b l i c a f f a i r s The Scope Report (1958 : 8) has recommended t h a t : a l t h o u g h the degree of emphasis w i t h r e s p e c t t o each of these a r e a s may v a r y from one cqunty or one s t a t e t o a n o t h e r , the t o t a l e f f o r t of e x t e n s i o n work i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s s h o u l d f u l l y r e c o g n i z e these a r e a s of emphasi s. The S m i t h - L e v e r A c t was a p a r t of the p a t t e r n of p r e v i o u s Land- Grant U n i v e r s i t i e s l e g i s l a t i o n . And the C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n 43 S e r v i c e i s the o n l y n a t i o n w i d e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n t h a t has a t l e a s t one r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n e s s e n t i a l l y every c o u n t y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . " I t s unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are d i v e r s i t y , c o mprehensiveness, and i t s academic base" (Greenwood, 1981- 82 : 6 ) . . The u n i v e r s i t y model does not i n c o r p o r a t e r e g u l a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n has been f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d by two s e p a r a t e agreements reached i n 1919 and 1938. The c o n f e r e n c e between the committees of the Land-Grant A s s o c i a t i o n and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Commissioners of A g r i c u l t u r e r e ached an agreement i n 1919 t h a t "the c o l l e g e s s h o u l d be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e s e a r c h and e x t e n s i o n work and the s t a t e departments f o r r e g u l a t o r y work and law enforcement" (Bak e r , 1939 : 9 ) . T h i s agreement was f o r m a l l y a c c e p t e d by the U n i t e d S t a t e s Department of A g r i c u l t u r e i n a l e t t e r sent by the S e c r e t a r y of A g r i c u l t u r e t o a l l s t a t e g o v e r n o r s i n 1923 o u t l i n i n g the p o l i c y of the Department i n i t s c o o p e r a t i v e arrangements w i t h the c o l l e g e s and the s t a t e departments. The l e t t e r w r i t t e n by the S e c r e t a r y of A g r i c u l t u r e as quoted by Baker (1939 : 9-10) was as f o l l o w s : 'In a l l r e g u l a t o r y work and m a t t e r s of law enforcement, we c o o p e r a t e w i t h the S t a t e department of a g r i c u l t u r e , or such law enforcement a g e n c i e s as the S t a t e may have c r e a t e d . Our r e s e a r c h work, i f done i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h the S t a t e s , i s c a r r i e d on w i t h the experiment s t a t i o n s of the l a n d - g r a n t c o l l e g e s . Our e x t e n s i o n work i n a g r i c u l t u r e and home economics i s c a r r i e d on w i t h the e x t e n s i o n d i v i s i o n s of the a g r i c u l t u r a l 44 c o l l e g e s .... I am inf o r m e d t h a t the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of Commissioners, S e c r e t a r i e s , and Departments of A g r i c u l t u r e and the A s s o c i a t i o n of Land-Grant C o l l e g e s have endorsed and recommended the g e n e r a l p l a n of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t h a t i t i s s p r e a d i n g r a p i d l y . G e n e r a l development a l o n g t h i s l i n e , i t a p p e a r s , w i l l e n a b l e the F e d e r a l government t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h d i f f e r e n t S t a t e a g e n c i e s w i t h o u t c o n f u s i o n of f u n c t i o n s . ' The second agreement was e s t a b l i s h e d because of the U n i t e d S t a t e s ' e x p e r i e n c e i n i t s a g r i c u l t u r a l development d u r i n g the 1930's. The severe d r o u g h t s and du s t storms of 1934 h e l p e d t o focu s p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n i n d r a m a t i c ways on n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s and r e g u l a t o r y problems. The development of v a r i o u s forms of r e l i e f a s s i s t a n c e as w e l l as c o n s e r v a t i o n and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programs had brought the U.S.D.A. i n t o i m p o r t a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r departments. S i n c e t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s of the d i f f e r e n t u n i t s a r e so s e n s i t i v e l y i n t e r d e p e n d e n t , p r o v i s i o n was needed f o r new arrangements and o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g t o gui d e the i n t e g r a t i o n of a l l e f f o r t s . In 1936, the A s s o c i a t i o n of Land- Grant U n i v e r s i t i e s a p p o i n t e d a Committee t o study new arrangements of F e d e r a l - S t a t e R e l a t i o n s (Gaus and W a l c o t t , 1940 : 157). An agreement was reached on J u l y 8, 1938 a t Mt. Weather, V i r g i n i a , t o e s t a b l i s h a system of c o - o r d i n a t i o n as w e l l as c o l l a b o r a t i o n between the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e and s t a t e a g e n c i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the Land-Grant U n i v e r s i t i e s (Gaus and W a l c o t t , 1940 : 156-157). In the Mt. Weather Agreement many r e a l i g n m e n t s were made i n o r d e r t o b r i n g r e l a t e d f u n c t i o n s t o g e t h e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y t o keep e x t e n s i o n purposes s e p a r a t e from r e g u l a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s , and t o p r o v i d e u n i f i e d p l a n n i n g as a 45 g u i d e t o a c t i o n , i n t e g r a t i o n and c o l l a b o r a t i o n . The agreement has a l s o r e a f f i r m e d t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e f i e l d of r e s e a r c h and e x t e n s i o n have been c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n memoranda and a r e m u t u a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y (Gaus and W a l c o t t , 1940 : 463). These agreements c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d the u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n p e r s o n n e l would not be r e q u i r e d t o perfo r m i n s p e c t i o n and o t h e r r e g u l a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s . A c c o r d i n g l y , the most w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d d i f f e r e n c e between the government and the u n i v e r s i t y models was e s t a b l i s h e d f o r m a l l y i n 1923, some 9 y e a r s a f t e r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . In summary, t h r e e l e g i s l a t i v e a c t s i n f l u e n c e d the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of the C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . However, the Smith-Lever A c t of 1914 was the b a s i c l e g i s l a t i o n which c r e a t e d t h i s n a t i o n w i d e C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The scope and purpose of the C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i s t o d i f f u s e u s e f u l and p r a c t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on s u b j e c t s r e l a t i n g t o a g r i c u l t u r e and t o encourage t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n . S t r u c t u r e and O r g a n i z a t i o n The C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i s a j o i n t u n d e r t a k i n g i n c l u d i n g the Land-Grant U n i v e r s i t i e s and f e d e r a l and l o c a l governments. The o r g a n i z a t i o n s t r u c t u r e has been e s t a b l i s h e d by a 'Memorandum of U n d e r s t a n d i n g ' between the USDA and the v a r i o u s Land-Grant i n s t i t u t i o n s i n l i n e w i t h the b a s i c f e d e r a l e x t e n s i o n 46 l e g i s l a t i o n , t h e Smith-Lever A c t . In a d d i t i o n t o the memorandum of agreement, t h e r e i s a l s o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g between each s t a t e and i t s c o u n t i e s . In some s t a t e s t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g i s i n f o r m a l ; i n o t h e r s i t i s i n the form of a d e f i n i t e memorandum. The agreement d e f i n e s each p a r t n e r ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and j o i n t o b l i g a t i o n s . F e d e r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e The USDA has agreed t o m a i n t a i n a c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t , F e d e r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . The F e d e r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e , under the d i r e c t i o n of the S e c r e t a r y of A g r i c u l t u r e , i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Smith-Lever A c t and of o t h e r laws and r e g u l a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g c o o p e r a t i v e e x t e n s i o n work ( W i l l i a m s , 1968). A c c o r d i n g t o the memorandum of u n d e r s t a n d i n g a l l e x t e n s i o n work i n a g r i c u l t u r e and home economics i s con d u c t e d t h r o u g h the l a n d - g r a n t i n s t i t u t i o n s . The F e d e r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e ' s major r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ( K e l s e y and Hearne, 1963; C l a r k , 1966; W i l l i a m s , 1968) a r e as f o l l o w s : 1. p r o v i d e n a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p and s t i m u l a t i o n ; 2. examine and approve the an n u a l p l a n s of work and budgets s u b m i t t e d by the d i r e c t o r s of e x t e n s i o n a t the Land-Grant i n s t i t u t i o n s , t o r e l e a s e f e d e r a l g r a n t s - i n - a i d f o r the approved p l a n s , and t o r e c e i v e r e p o r t s on the y e a r ' s work; 3. conduct such a c t i v i t i e s as a r e of a n a t i o n a l n a t u r e , or can b e t t e r be done on a n a t i o n w i d e b a s i s ; 4. serve as the e d u c a t i o n a l arm of the USDA; and 47 5. a s s i s t s t a t e e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s i n program development and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e As s t a t e d i n the memorandum of u n d e r s t a n d i n g , the Land- Grant i n s t i t u t i o n s have agreed t o o r g a n i z e and m a i n t a i n a d i s t i n c t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i v i s i o n f o r the conduct and management of e x t e n s i o n work i n a g r i c u l t u r e and home economics w i t h a d i r e c t o r s e l e c t e d by the i n s t i t u t i o n and a c c e p t a b l e t o the USDA. T h i s s e c t i o n f o c u s e s on the d i s t i n c t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery e s t a b l i s h e d by the Land-Grant U n i v e r s i t i e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r " , the s t r u c t u r e and o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Idaho C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e and the Washington C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e f o r p r o v i d i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n work. Idaho C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e The C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i s the off-campus e d u c a t i o n a l arm of the C o l l e g e of A g r i c u l t u r e of the U n i v e r s i t y of Idaho, the s t a t e ' s l a n d - g r a n t i n s t i t u t i o n , as w e l l as an a f f i l i a t e of the F e d e r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . (Guide t o E x t e n s i o n Program Development i n Idaho, 1976). The f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e f o r the U n i v e r s i t y of Idaho C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e ( O r g a n i z a t i o n , 1977) may be d e s c r i b e d i n terms of ' l i n e ' and ' s t a f f ' . The E x t e n s i o n D i r e c t o r i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o the Dean of the C o l l e g e of A g r i c u l t u r e and t o the A d m i n i s t r a t o r of the F e d e r a l E x t e n s i o n 48 S e r v i c e . The l i n e o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n s i s t s of the D i r e c t o r , f o u r d i s t r i c t s u p e r v i s o r s , and county s t a f f . The l i n e o r g a n i z a t i o n h a n d l e s the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n f u n c t i o n s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n ; the s t a f f o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o v i d e s s p e c i a l i z e d a s s i s t a n c e t h r o u g h the v a r i o u s s t a f f u n i t s . The county e x t e n s i o n o f f i c e s a r e the b a s i c program u n i t s of the C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . There a r e agreements between t h e U n i v e r s i t y and the i n d i v i d u a l boards of c o u n t y commissioners f o r the conduct of e x t e n s i o n work i n the v a r i o u s c o u n t i e s . The Idaho C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e ( O r g a n i z a t i o n , 1977) has f o u r k i n d s of e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s : 1. D i s t r i c t S u p e r v i s o r s 2. County E x t e n s i o n S t a f f Chairmen 3. County E x t e n s i o n A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents 4. S p e c i a l i s t s The f o u r D i s t r i c t S u p e r v i s o r s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e t o the E x t e n s i o n D i r e c t o r f o r managing groups of county u n i t s . They a r e a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e t o a s s i s t i n c o o r d i n a t i n g programs w i t h i n t h e i r d i s t r i c t ( O r g a n i z a t i o n , 1977). The county E x t e n s i o n S t a f f Chairman p r o v i d e s l e a d e r s h i p t o the s t a f f i n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p an e f f e c t i v e c o o r d i n a t e d c o u n t y E x t e n s i o n program. The Chairman i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o t h e r c o u n t y s t a f f w i t h r e s p e c t t o c o o r d i n a t i n g county programs, o f f i c e management, and o f f i c i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h the board of county c o m m i s s i o n e r s (Job D e s c r i p t i o n : County E x t e n s i o n S t a f f Chairman, 1971 ) . 49 The County E x t e n s i o n A g r i c u l t u r a l Agent i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o a D i s t r i c t S u p e r v i s o r f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and f o r o v e r a l l s u p e r v i s i o n of program development and t r a i n i n g . In p a r t i c u l a r , the agent p l a n s , c o n d u c t s , r e p o r t s and e v a l u a t e s e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n a l programs i n the a s s i g n e d g e o g r a p h i c a r e a (Job D e s c r i p t i o n : County E x t e n s i o n Agent, 1971). The s p e c i a l i s t s p e r f o r m a s t a f f f u n c t i o n and a r e r e s p o n s i b l e t o the E x t e n s i o n D i r e c t o r t h r o u g h department heads or program l e a d e r s . The program l e a d e r s have c o o r d i n a t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and r e p o r t t o the E x t e n s i o n D i r e c t o r ( O r g a n i z a t i o n , 1977). Washington C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e The g e n e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery f o r the Washington C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e was " s e t f o r t h i n the f e d e r a l S mith-Lever Act of 1914 and the s t a t e law passed i n 1913" ( T u r n e r , 1961 : 102). The f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of Washington S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e may a l s o be d e s c r i b e d i n terms of ' l i n e ' and ' s t a f f ' . The E x t e n s i o n D i r e c t o r (Job D e s c r i p t i o n , 1977) i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e : 1. Dean of the C o l l e g e of A g r i c u l t u r e and t h r o u g h him t o the P r e s i d e n t of the U n i v e r s i t y ; and 2. S e c r e t a r y of A g r i c u l t u r e , USDA, through the A d m i n i s t r a t o r of the F e d e r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . The l i n e o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n s i s t s of the D i r e c t o r , A s s o c i a t e 50 D i r e c t o r , E x t e n s i o n S u p e r v i s o r s ( s i x d i s t r i c t s ) and county s t a f f . The A s s o c i a t e D i r e c t o r (Job" D e s c r i p t i o n , 1977) i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o the E x t e n s i o n D i r e c t o r . In p a r t i c u l a r , he i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e management, i n c l u d i n g the p e r s o n n e l , o p e r a t i o n , and f i n a n c i a l management phases of the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . The l i n e o r g a n i z a t i o n u n d e r t a k e s the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n f u n c t i o n s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n ; the s t a f f o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o v i d e s s p e c i a l i z e d a s s i s t a n c e t h r o u g h the v a r i o u s s t a f f u n i t s . The county e x t e n s i o n o f f i c e s a r e the b a s i c program u n i t s of the e x t e n s i o n work. The U n i v e r s i t y has s i g n e d agreements w i t h the i n d i v i d u a l boards of county c o m m i s s i o n e r s f o r the conduct of E x t e n s i o n work i n the v a r i o u s c o u n t i e s . The Washington C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e has f o u r k i n d s of e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s : 1. E x t e n s i o n S u p e r v i s o r 2. County or Area E x t e n s i o n C h a i r p e r s o n 3. County or Area E x t e n s i o n Agent 4. E x t e n s i o n S p e c i a l i s t The E x t e n s i o n S u p e r v i s o r (Job D e s c r i p t i o n , 1977), i s named by and i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o the E x t e n s i o n D i r e c t o r . H i s g e n e r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n c l u d e : 1. r e p r e s e n t the E x t e n s i o n D i r e c t o r on p e r s o n n e l and f i s c a l m a t t e r s a t the county or a r e a l e v e l ; 2. r e p r e s e n t the county or a r e a c h a i r p e r s o n s and s t a f f t o the E x t e n s i o n D i r e c t o r ; and 51 3.. work w i t h county or a r e a e x t e n s i o n c h a i r p e r s o n s and s t a f f t o i n s u r e a b a l a n c e d county or a r e a E x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n e f f o r t t h a t r e f l e c t s a p p r o p r i a t e a u d i e n c e and s o c i e t a l needs. The c o u n t y or ar e a e x t e n s i o n c h a i r p e r s o n (Job D e s c r i p t i o n , 1977) i s named by the E x t e n s i o n D i r e c t o r i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h the board of county c o m m i s s i o n e r s t o s e r v i c e as s t a f f c h a i r p e r s o n f o r a s p e c i f i c c o u n t y or a r e a . He i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o the E x t e n s i o n S u p e r v i s o r a s s i g n e d t o t h a t d i s t r i c t . The t h r e e major r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the c h a i r p e r s o n (Job D e s c r i p t i o n , 1977) a r e : 1. i n s u r e t h a t s t a f f members a r e e f f e c t i v e e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t o r s ; 2. d e v e l o p a p r o c e s s t o i n s u r e t h a t the county e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t r e f l e c t s a p p r o p r i a t e a u d i e n c e and s o c i e t a l needs;-and 3. e f f e c t i v e l y i n t e g r a t e program i n p u t s from the s t a t e program l e a d e r ( s ) , s p e c i a l i s t s and s u p e r v i s o r s . The county c h a i r p e r s o n i s a t e a m - b u i l d e r and the t e a m - b u i l d i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y e xtends beyond the c o u n t y . The county e x t e n s i o n agent i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o the C h a i r p e r s o n of the cou n t y . The Area E x t e n s i o n Agent i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e : 1. county c h a i r p e r s o n f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e m a t t e r ; and 2. a l l c o u n t y c h a i r p e r s o n s i n the ar e a f o r program. The county or ar e a e x t e n s i o n a g ent's r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s (Job 52 D e s c r i p t i o n , 1977) i n c l u d e : A. d e v e l o p i n g and c a r r y i n g out county or a r e a e d u c a t i o n a l program(s) c o n s i s t e n t w i t h c l i e n t e l e needs and e x t e n s i o n programs and p o l i c i e s ; B. d e v e l o p i n g m a t e r i a l s t o support e d u c a t i o n a l programs where needed; and C. u n d e r s t a n d i n g and d e m o n s t r a t i n g the f o l l o w i n g f i v e phases of program development p r o c e s s : (1) . a u d i e n c e needs assessment (2) . o b j e c t i v e s e t t i n g (3) . e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n development (4) . i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t r a t e g i e s and methods (5) . e v a l u a t i o n The e x t e n s i o n s p e c i a l i s t (Job D e s c r i p t i o n , 1977) i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o the s t a t e program l e a d e r t h r o u g h the a p p r o p r i a t e department chairman. The e x t e n s i o n s p e c i a l i s t (Job D e s c r i p t i o n , 1977) has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o : 1. e v a l u a t e , a p p r a i s e , and i n t e r p r e t s u b j e c t - m a t t e r i n f o r m a t i o n , p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l e n vironment, and c l i e n t e l e needs as a b a s i s f o r e f f e c t i v e p r ograming; 2.. p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p by: a. combining t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t s w i t h c o u n t y e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s , o t h e r s p e c i a l i s t s , and r e s e a r c h workers i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g j o i n t p r o j e c t s . b. e x t e n d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l programs d i r e c t l y t o c l i e n t e l e - - p r o f e s s i o n a l and n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l . 53 3. p r o v i d e county e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s a s s i s t a n c e i n p r o j e c t p l a n n i n g , d e t e r m i n i n g i n d i c a t o r s of p r o g r e s s , and measuring r e s u l t s ; and 4. p r e p a r e and s t i m u l a t e p r e p a r a t i o n of t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s and p u b l i c a t i o n s r e l e v a n t t o s u b j e c t - m a t t e r assignment f o r both y o u t h and a d u l t s . In summary, the C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i s a c o o p e r a t i v e f i n a n c i a l arrangement i n which the F e d e r a l Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , the Land-Grant U n i v e r s i t i e s , and county governments are s p o n s o r s . The o r g a n i z a t i o n s t r u c t u r e has been e s t a b l i s h e d by a 'Memorandum of U n d e r s t a n d i n g ' between the USDA and the v a r i o u s l a n d - g r a n t i n s t i t u t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s a l s o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g between each s t a t e and i t s c o u n t i e s . The F e d e r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Smi t h - L e v e r A c t and of o t h e r laws and r e g u l a t i o n s i n v o l v i n g C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n Work. The U n i v e r s i t y of Idaho and Washington S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , as l a n d - g r a n t i n s t i t u t i o n s , u n dertake the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o o r g a n i z e and m a i n t a i n a d i s t i n c t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i v i s i o n f o r the conduct and management of e x t e n s i o n work. E x t e n s i o n work i s o r g a n i z e d on d i s t r i c t b a s i s , but h a v i n g the county e x t e n s i o n o f f i c e as the b a s i c program u n i t . The scope and purpose of the C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i s t o d i f f u s e u s e f u l and p r a c t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on s u b j e c t s r e l a t i n g t o a g r i c u l t u r e and t o encourage t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n . 54 Summary Ag r i c u l t u r a l extension services in North America are provided either d i r e c t l y by government - departments of agriculture, or by colleges and u n i v e r s i t i e s in cooperation with government departments of a g r i c u l t u r e . The provision of A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension Service in Canada i s a p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The scope and purpose of the A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension Service are the delivery of technical and economic information and professional services on agriculture to farmers. It i s organized under regional o f f i c e s within an executive branch of the Government, the Ministry of Agriculture. The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t i s the major link with farmers. In addition to his normal extension duties, the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t has been given other duties, such as planning and approving farm cre d i t grants, ensuring that land clearing or draining has been in compliance with regulations, and implementing p r o v i n c i a l and federal programs and policy admini strat ion. In comparison, the Cooperative Extension Service i s a cooperative arrangement in which the Federal Department of Agriculture, the Land-Grant U n i v e r s i t i e s , and county governments are p a r t i c i p a n t s . It i s a nationwide adult education i n s t i t u t i o n and is an integral part of the Land-Grant Un i v e r s i t i e s system. Its unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s i t s academic base. Its scope and purpose is to d i f f u s e useful and p r a c t i c a l information on subjects r e l a t i n g to agriculture and encourage 55 t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n . T h e E x t e n s i o n w o r k i s o r g a n i z e d o n d i s t r i c t b a s i s , b u t h a v i n g t h e c o u n t y e x t e n s i o n o f f i c e a s t h e b a s i c p r o g r a m u n i t . T h e c o u n t y e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n t ' i s t h e m a i n l i n k w i t h f a r m e r s . T h e a g e n t i s n o t r e q u i r e d t o p e r f o r m a n y r e g u l a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s , a p o l i c y t h a t h a s b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d b y t w o s e p a r a t e a g r e e m e n t s r e a c h e d i n 1 9 1 9 a n d 1 9 3 8 . 56 CHAPTER I I I THEORETICAL FOUNDATION I t has been w i d e l y r e p o r t e d t h a t e f f e c t i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n work i s conducted by the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n both government and u n i v e r s i t y models. P r i o r s t u d i e s i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e have a l s o d e a l t w i t h a v a r i e t y of problems r e l a t e d t o a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n work w i t h i n systems based on each model. However, the r e s e a r c h e r i s i n t e r e s t e d i n the e f f e c t of these two major forms of o r g a n i z i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n work on the way the i n d i v i d u a l e x t e n s i o n worker p e r f o r m s h i s r o l e . I t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t how an e x t e n s i o n worker c a r r i e s out h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i s i n f l u e n c e d by h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what h i s e m p l o y i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n e x p e c t s him t o do and by what the people he seeks t o ser v e expect of him. The study of such v a r i a b l e s has been d e a l t w i t h by r o l e t h e o r y r e s e a r c h e r s . The t h e o r e t i c a l frame of r e f e r e n c e f o r t h i s study i s based on r o l e t h e o r y . T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l (1) d i s c u s s r o l e t h e o r y as i t p e r t a i n s t o t h i s s t u d y ; (2) review i n v e s t i g a t i o n s which used r o l e t h e o r y t o study v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s i n t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e ; and (3) p r e s e n t the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s f o r the s t u d y . R o l e Theory An a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e as an o r g a n i z a t i o n can be 57 c o n s i d e r e d a s o c i a l system encompassing many p o s i t i o n s , s t a t u s e s , and r o l e s which a re i n f l u e n c e d by the o r g a n i z a t i o n as w e l l as by i t s c l i e n t e l e ( A b d u l l a h , 1964). An e x t e n s i o n worker must t a k e account of the p e r c e p t i o n s and the o f t e n c o n f l i c t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n s of h i s employer and h i s c l i e n t e l e v i s a v i s the e x t e n s i o n worker's r o l e and determine how much weight he w i l l g i v e them i n d e c i d i n g h i s own r o l e performance. A t h e o r y which e x p l i c i t l y r e c o g n i z e s t h e s e f a c t s and g i v e s emphasis t o them was r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e an a p p r o p r i a t e c o n c e p t u a l framework. R o l e t h e o r y as c o n c e i v e d by Parsons seemed v e r y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r p r e s e n t purposes g i v e n these c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . P a rsons (1956/57 : 63-85; 1968 : 24-67) has suggested t h a t the s t r u c t u r e of an o r g a n i z a t i o n may be a n a l y z e d from a ' r o l e ' p o i n t of view which f o c u s e s on s o c i a l subsystems and the r o l e s of i n d i v i d u a l s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the f u n c t i o n i n g of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . The system of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n s i s t s of t h r e e subsystems: the e x t e n s i o n agent, the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and the c l i e n t e l e . The l a s t two subsystems, which Parsons r e f e r s t o as the ' a l t e r s ' , i n f l u e n c e the b e h a v i o u r of the e x t e n s i o n worker, who i s r e f e r e d t o by Parsons as ' a c t o r ' , ego. A c c o r d i n g t o W i l k e n i n g (1957) each of the subsystems may have d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s of the r o l e of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n worker, and the s e e x p e c t a t i o n s i n f l u e n c e the a c t i v i t i e s of >the e x t e n s i o n worker. P a r s o n s (1951 : 38) r e f e r s t o the r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s as t w o - f o l d . The a c t o r has a s e t of s e l f e x p e c t a t i o n s which must be met, and the per s o n s he i s i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h a l s o have a s e t of e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r him. 58 The e x t e n s i o n worker f i l l s a r o l e p o s i t i o n i n the e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e . He has h i s s e l f - r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s which conform t o h i s own s t a n d a r d s of b e l i e f s and v a l u e s , which Parsons r e f e r s t o as 'ego'. A l t e r , as used by P a r s o n s , i s the p r o b a b l e r e a c t i o n of o t h e r s , and i f t h e s e r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e i n a c c o r d w i t h ego's p e r c e p t i o n s of the e x p e c t a t i o n s of a l t e r , a l t e r w i l l s a n c t i o n ego and t h e s e e x p e c t a t i o n s become g r a t i f i c a t i o n , t h u s r e w a r d i n g ego. I f , on the o t h e r hand, ego does not r e c e i v e the s a n c t i o n of a l t e r , ' r o l e - c o n f l i c t ' a r i s e s . G r o s s , Mason and McEachern (1958) c a r r i e d out a study of the s c h o o l s u p e r i n t e n d e n c y r o l e i n M a s s a c h u s e t t s ; they d i s p e l l e d the n o t i o n t h a t t h e r e i s a complete consensus on r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s among the incumbents of p o s i t i o n s i n a s o c i a l system. R a t h e r , they saw the concept of consensus on r o l e d e f i n i t i o n as a v a r i a b l e among s e t s of r o l e d e f i n e r s where p e r c e p t i o n s a r e f o c u s e d on s i n g l e r o l e d e f i n i t i o n i t e m s . A c c o r d i n g t o Rogers and Burdge (1972 : 329-330) the e x t e n s i o n worker's s o c i a l p o s i t i o n i s l o c a t e d between h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n and c l i e n t e l e . The e x t e n s i o n worker "has m a i n l y p r i m a r y - g r o u p r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h h i s c l i e n t e l e and m a i n l y secondary-group r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h h i s [ o r g a n i z a t i o n ] " . They (1972) a l s o s t a t e d t h a t the e x t e n s i o n worker i s o f t e n expected t o engage i n c e r t a i n b e h a v i o r by h i s employing o r g a n i z a t i o n subsystem, and a t the same t i m e , he i s e x p e c t e d t o c a r r y out q u i t e d i f f e r e n t a c t i o n s by h i s c l i e n t subsystem. I t seems apparent t h a t the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers have 59 i m p r e s s i o n s or p e r c e p t i o n s r a t h e r than complete knowledge of the e x p e c t a t i o n s of t h e i r e m p loying o r g a n i z a t i o n and of the c l i e n t e l e t hey s e r v e . These - p e r c e p t i o n s may i n f l u e n c e the e x t e n s i o n worker's performance. At l e a s t they p r o v i d e the b a s i s on which he compares h i s a c t u a l performance w i t h what he b e l i e v e s o t h e r s expect of him. So f a r as h i s b e h a v i o r i s c o n c e r n e d , h i s p e r c e p t i o n s of a l t e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s r a t h e r than a l t e r s ' a c t u a l e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e what he can use t o compare h i s p e r c e p t i o n of h i s own r o l e performance w i t h the e x p e c t a t i o n s of o t h e r s c o n c e r n i n g what he s h o u l d be d o i n g . The c o n c e p t s used i n t h i s s t u d y w i t h i n the r o l e t h e o r y framework a r e d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : 1. r o l e p e r c e p t i o n : the p e r c e p t i o n which one has of the n o r m a t i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s of a p o s i t i o n as w e l l as the p e r c e p t i o n of the way o t h e r s expect one t o p e r f o r m ( M a r t i n and M a c d o n e l l , 1978 : 6 9 ) . 2. r o l e performance: the a c t u a l enactment of b e h a v i o r s i n the s i t u a t i o n ( I b i d . , p. 7 0 ) . 3. r o l e c o n f l i c t : any s i t u a t i o n i n which the incumbent of a f o c a l p o s i t i o n p e r c e i v e s t h a t he i s c o n f r o n t e d w i t h i n c o m p a t i b l e e x p e c t a t i o n s ( G r o s s , Mason and McEachern, 1965 : 248). 4. i n t e r - r o l e c o n f l i c t : an i n d i v i d u a l p e r - c e i v e s t h a t o t h e r s h o l d d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r him as the incumbent of two or more p o s i t i o n s ( I b i d . , p. 249). 5. i n t r a - r o l e c o n f l i c t : [an i n d i v i d u a l ] p e r - c e i v e s t h a t o t h e r s [ w i t h i n and o u t s i d e the o r g a n i z a t i o n ] h o l d d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r him as the incumbent of a s i n g l e p o s i t i o n ( I b i d . , p. 248-249). 6. r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s : the p r e s c r i p t i o n s and p r o s c r i p t i o n s h e l d [ f o r the b e h a v i o r of an 60 i n d i v i d u a l who o c c u p i e s a p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n ] (Kahn, et a l . , 1964 : 14). Based upon the f o r e g o i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , t h i s study f o c u s e s on the r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s and r o l e performance of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the two k i n d s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l models. The study assumes t h a t the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers are l o c a t e d i n both the o r g a n i z a t i o n subsystem which employs them and the c l i e n t e l e subsystem which they s e r v e . R o l e t h e o r y p r o v i d e s a t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s f o r t h i s s t u d y . I t would have been p o s s i b l e t o i n t e r v i e w the i n d i v i d u a l e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s ' s u p e r v i s o r s w i t h i n the e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n and the c l i e n t e l e s e r v e d by the workers t o o b t a i n t e s t i m o n y on t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s of the w o r k e r s . A l t h o u g h such a p r o c e s s would have r e q u i r e d a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of t i m e , t h i s f a c t o r was not the b a s i s f o r u s i n g an a l t e r n a t e approach. Because the e x t e n s i o n worker a c t s i n terms of h i s p e r c e p t i o n of a l t e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s , whether or not h i s p e r c e p t i o n s a r e a c c u r a t e , and because i t was not e s s e n t i a l t o the study t o determine the a c c u r a c y of h i s p e r c e p t i o n s , no p r o v i s i o n s were made f o r c o l l e c t i n g d a t a on e x p e c t a t i o n s from the e x t e n s i o n workers' s u p e r v i s o r s or c l i e n t e l e . U t i l i t y of Role Theory The a p p l i c a t i o n of r o l e t h e o r y t o the s t u d y of v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e has been used i n c r e a s i n g l y i n r e c e n t y e a r s t o g a i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n . A few s t u d i e s which used 6.1 r o l e t h e o r y t o a n a l y z e the A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e were r e v i e w e d t o d e v e l o p a t h e o r e t i c a l framework a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h i s r e s e a r c h . W i l k e n i n g (1957 : 2 ) , i n h i s stu d y of the county e x t e n s i o n a g e nt's r o l e , s t a t e d t h a t "The concept r o l e can be used i n a g e n e r a l sense as the r o l e of the e x t e n s i o n agent, r e f e r r i n g t o the f u n c t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the agent i n the community...". In h i s a n a l y s i s , r o l e d e f i n i t i o n becomes a ma t t e r of i d e n t i f y i n g what e x t e n s i o n s p e c i a l i s t s do and what they s h o u l d do i n p l a n n i n g , e x e c u t i n g , and e v a l u a t i n g the e x t e n s i o n program. W i l k e n i n g (1957) used r o l e t h e o r y and s t u d i e d the s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n of county e x t e n s i o n agents i n W i s c o n s i n i n an attempt t o dete r m i n e how the agents had performed t h e i r r o l e s i n the p a s t and how they f e e l they s h o u l d be p e rformed. Comparisons were made among the a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n t s , home economics a g e n t s , and 4-H Clu b a g e n t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o r o l e d e f i n i t i o n , c o n s e n s u s , and f u l f i l l m e n t . H i s f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t : t h e . degree of r o l e f u l f i l l m e n t of the i n d i v i d u a l agent v a r i e s w i t h h i s own p e r s o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , whether w i t h t h o s e w i t h whom he works or w i t h those i n s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n s , and w i t h the degree of c o n t r o l over h i s a c t i v i t i e s , as i n d i c a t e d by h i s s t a t u s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . An h y p o t h e s i s i s s uggested t h a t persons i n i n t e r m e d i a t e p o s i t i o n s such as county e x t e n s i o n workers w i l l t end t o conform t o the e x p e c t a t i o n s of tho s e w i t h whom they work a t the l o c a l l e v e l or w i t h those a t h i g h e r l e v e l s , depending upon the n a t u r e of rewards they a re s e e k i n g and upon t h e i r c o n t r o l of r e l a t i o n s h i p s a t the r e s p e c t i v e l e v e l s ( W i l k e n i n g , 1957 : 49) . 62 In o t h e r words, each of the subsystems may have d i f f e r e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s of the r o l e of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r , and these- e x p e c t a t i o n s presumably i n f l u e n c e the a c t i v i t i e s of the e x t e n s i o n worker. Brown and Deekens (1958) s t u d i e d the r o l e of the s u b j e c t matter s p e c i a l i s t s i n the P e n n s y l v a n i a C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . The study i s s i m i l a r i n approach t o the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h . I t f o c u s e d on the r o l e of e x t e n s i o n s p e c i a l i s t s as c o n c e i v e d by themselves and the p e r c e p t i o n s of r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s h e l d by the a l t e r s . They (1958 : 263) r e p o r t e d t h a t : L i t t l e e v i d e n c e was found t h a t s p e c i a l i s t s d e f i n e t h e i r j o b as communicators of problems t o the r e s e a r c h e r ; predominant i n t e r e s t i s i n communicating knowledge of s u b j e c t matter t o c o u n t i e s . S p e c i a l i s t s p e r c e i v e a l t e r groups as h a v i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s but a r e o r i e n t e d p r i m a r i l y t o county agents and a r e m o t i v a t e d t o conform t o t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s . W i l k e n i n g and Smith (1958) s t u d i e d the r o l e of e x t e n s i o n agents w o r k i n g on Farm and Home Development i n W i s c o n s i n . T h e i r study was c o n cerned w i t h the problem of r o l e d e f i n i t i o n of county e x t e n s i o n agents a p p o i n t e d t o g i v e g r e a t e r emphasis t o i n t e n s i v e work w i t h farm f a m i l i e s . W i l k e n i n g and Smith i d e n t i f i e d a t l e a s t f o u r a s p e c t s of r o l e which can be s t u d i e d . These a r e : 1. the f u n c t i o n s performed by the r o l e o c c u p a n t , 2. the n a t u r e of the i n t e r a c t i o n between the r o l e occupant and o t h e r s , 3. consensus w i t h r e s p e c t t o e x p e c t e d b e h a v i o r and the conformance or d e v i a n c e 63 from t h i s e x p e c t e d b e h a v i o r (norms), and 4. the s i t u a t i o n a l c o n t e x t i n v o l v i n g p ersons and r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e t o the r o l e occupant ( W i l k e n i n g and Smith, 1958 :19). T h e i r study was most concerned w i t h the f u n c t i o n s performed by the e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s . W i l k e n i n g and Smith (1958 : 26) c o n c l u d e d from t h e i r study of the e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s ' r o l e d e f i n i t i o n t h a t : r o l e d e f i n i t i o n w i t h a system of p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e i s a p r o c e s s which i n v o l v e s commitment t o the j o b . . . s e l e c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n toward the c l i e n t e l e or t o the 'system'... They (1958 :26) have a l s o found e v i d e n c e t h a t : the performance of c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s r e q u i r e s an o r i e n t a t i o n toward the h i e r a r c h i c a l system, w h i l e the performance of o t h e r s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h an o r i e n t a t i o n toward the ' c l i e n t e l e ' , or a t l e a s t t o the l o c a l l e v e l of the system. In the case of f u n c t i o n s performed by the E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e , W i l k e n i n g and Smith (1958 : 27) suggested t h a t : the performance of the ' t e a c h i n g ' f u n c t i o n , s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , r e q u i r e s a system of rewards and c o n t r o l s above the c l i e n t or l o c a l l e v e l . . . t h e performance of f u n c t i o n s such as p r o v i d i n g t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e and i n f o r m a t i o n and c o n s u l t i n g i n the problems of management of the farm and home have t h e i r immediate rewards t o the i n d i v i d u a l , hence, r e q u i r e a minimum of c o n t r o l of s t a t e and n a t i o n a l l e v e l s . T h i s i s e v i d e n t i n the g e n e r a l l a c k of s u p e r v i s i o n of the e x t e n s i o n program on the p a r t of the f e d e r a l o f f i c e and the h i g h degree of autonomy on the p a r t of the c o u n t y o f f i c e s w i t h i n the s t a t e . B i b l e and Brown (1963) have used r o l e t h e o r y t o a s s e s s the e x t e n t of r o l e consensus (on e x p e c t a t i o n s and performances) 64 among and between e x t e n s i o n a d v i s o r y committee members and e x t e n s i o n a gents i n P e n n s y l v a n i a . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s s i m i l a r i n t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n t o the p r e s e n t s t u d y , but the d a t a were c o l l e c t e d from two groups. They (1963 : 81) r e p o r t e d t h a t : consensus on r o l e d e f i n i t i o n and r o l e performance was r e l a t i v e l y low among committee members and among county e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s . . . . Both committee members and e x t e n s i o n agents had h i g h e r consensus on p e r c e p t i o n of r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s than on p e r c e p t i o n of r o l e performance. Job (1965) s t u d i e d the r o l e s of s e l e c t e d d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia. H i s d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i d e n t i f i e d t h e i r major e x t e n s i o n r o l e f u n c t i o n s as ' c o n s u l t a n t ' , 'source of i n f o r m a t i o n ' , and ' s t u d e n t ' . B i b l e and McNabb (1966) examined both the r e l a t i o n s h i p of p o s i t i o n t o consensus on r o l e d e f i n i t i o n , and the r o l e performance of county e x t e n s i o n d i r e c t o r s i n M i s s o u r i as p e r c e i v e d by d i r e c t o r s and t h e i r county e x t e n s i o n s t a f f . They found t h a t the county e x t e n s i o n d i r e c t o r s had g r e a t e r agreement on p e r c e p t i o n of r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s and r o l e performances than d i d t h e i r county s t a f f . B i b l e and McNabb (1966 :14) suggest t h a t : where t h e r e e x i s t s a d u a l s t r u c t u r a l arrangement f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e purposes l i k e the s t a t e and county o r g a n i z a t i o n s , adequate communication i n r o l e d e f i n i t i o n t o a l l concerned i s d o u b l y i m p o r t a n t . . . f o r e f f e e t i v e . . . r o l e p erformance... Morehouse (.1968 : i i ) , i n h i s study of r o l e p e r c e p t i o n and 65 performance among a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n p e r s o n n e l i n Nova S c o t i a , found t h a t agents "are c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e i r e x p e c t e d r o l e s but t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n a r e a s w i t h i n the g e n e r a l scope of t h e i r work where they would l i k e t o change emphasis." McNaughton (1970) s t u d i e d the e d u c a t i o n a l r o l e of a d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t i n the Peace R i v e r E x t e n s i o n D i s t r i c t i n n o r t h e r n A l b e r t a . He found t h a t about h a l f of the c l i e n t e l e c o n t a c t s of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t were e d u c a t i o n a l . R e c e n t l y , Lamble (1980 : 16) viewed o r g a n i z a t i o n as a s o c i a l system and e x p l o r e d "the p o t e n t i a l u t i l i t y of r o l e t h e o r y i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r phenomena" i n r e l a t i o n t o r o l e - c o n f l i c t and r o l e a m b i g u i t y a t the f u n c t i o n a l l e v e l s f o r d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n the E x t e n s i o n D i v i s i o n of A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e . Lamble (1980 : 117) c o n c e p t u a l i z e d the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t ' s p o s i t i o n as "the f o c a l p o i n t f o r c l i e n t - a g e n c y c o n t a c t and the d e l i v e r y agent f o r the programs and s e r v i c e s of the agency." These i n v e s t i g a t o r s used r o l e t h e o r y t o study a v a r i e t y of problems r e l a t e d t o e x t e n s i o n work w i t h i n systems based i n each model. However, no r e s e a r c h e r had a t t e m p t e d t o a s s e s s the e f f e c t of p e r f o r m i n g r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s on the e x t e n s i o n worker's e d u c a t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s , a l i m i t a t i o n which was a l s o e n c o u n t e r e d i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y . The next s e c t i o n of t h i s c h a p t e r d e a l s w i t h the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s which the s t u d y w i l l a ttempt t o answer. 66 Research Q u e s t i o n s In t h i s r e s e a r c h r o l e t h e o r y as c o n c e i v e d by Parsons was s e l e c t e d t o study the f u n c t i o n s of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers i n the government and u n i v e r s i t y models. The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s which f o l l o w have been f o r m u l a t e d and w i l l be answered t o d e t e r m i n e the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two models. 1. What a r e the d i f f e r e n c e s between the p o s i t i o n s of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers i n the government and the u n i v e r s i t y models? A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s were born out of r e c o g n i t i o n of the f a c t t h a t r e s e a r c h based knowledge i n a g r i c u l t u r e and o t h e r r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s has broad a p p l i c a t i o n s , and out of a con c e r n t h a t r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s s h o u l d be extended t o p o t e n t i a l u s e r s a l o n g w i t h encouragement t o adopt such i n f o r m a t i o n . A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v e s not o n l y t o ex t e n d these r e s o u r c e s but a l s o t o h e l p r e l a t e the t e a c h i n g and r e s e a r c h programs of the i n s t i t u t i o n t o the needs of the peopl e ( K e l l o g g and Knapp, 1966). I t i s based on the p h i l o s o p h y of h e l p i n g people t o improve themselves through a c t i o n - o r i e n t e d and p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g t y p e s of e d u c a t i o n a l programs. Because the two models have d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s , t h e r e a r e l i k e l y t o be d i f f e r e n c e s i n e x t e n s i o n workers' p o s i t i o n s . 2. What i s the r e l a t i v e importance of d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of p r o f e s s i o n a l development i n the two models? 67 A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i s an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n program. The e x t e n s i o n worker i s "an a d v i s e r , a t e a c h e r of farm t e c h n o l o g y , and an o r g a n i z e r " ( K e l l o g g and Knapp, 1966 : 187). The p r o c e s s of c a r r y i n g out an e x t e n s i o n program c o n s i s t s of f o u r r e l a t e d s t a g e s : knowing the community, program p l a n n i n g , i n s t r u c t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n . These r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s r e q u i r e p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s and c o m p e t e n c i e s . T h i s f a c t emphasizes the importance and need f o r sound p r o f e s s i o n a l development. 3. What e f f e c t s does an e x t e n s i o n worker's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p e r f o r m i n g r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n s have on h i s r o l e performance? The a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n a g ent's i n f l u e n c e has not been one of f o r m a l a u t h o r i t y but r a t h e r one of p e r s u a s i o n . H i s main r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s the communication of i n f o r m a t i o n , as an e d u c a t o r , f r e e of any st i g m a t h a t might be a t t a c h e d t o some o t h e r o f f i c i a l f u n c t i o n s . T h i s e d u c a t i o n a l approach f o s t e r s a d e s i r e f o r change among peopl e and m o t i v a t e s them t o a c t i o n t h a t l e a d s t o d e s i r a b l e change (Leagans, 1963). S i n c e r e g u l a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s a r e the f u n c t i o n of an o r g a n i z a t i o n which has c o n t r o l of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of laws and implements them by l e g a l a u t h o r i t y r a t h e r than t h r o u g h e d u c a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p , some o b s e r v e r s b e l i e v e they might be i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n a l s t r a t e g y . T h e r e f o r e , the performance of the r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n w i t h i n the government model may be e x p e c t e d t o have an e f f e c t on the ag e n t ' s e d u c a t i o n a l performance. Such 68 an i n f l u e n c e might be absent from the u n i v e r s i t y model. 4 . What a r e the d i f f e r e n c e s between government and u n i v e r s i t y models w i t h r e g a r d t o e x t e n s i o n workers' : a. s e l e c t i o n of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n methods and t e c h n i q u e s ? b. scope of e d u c a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ? c. i n t e r e s t i n r e s e a r c h ? d. i n t e r e s t i n k i n d s of p r o f e s s i o n a l u p g r a d i n g ? e. membership i n p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s ? f. r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t s ? The ' t r i p l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e s i d e n t i n s t r u c t i o n , r e s e a r c h and e x t e n s i o n has g i v e n the Land-Grant U n i v e r s i t i e s a key r o l e i n development of the C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . One e x p e c t s a s t r o n g l y based p r o f e s s i o n a l development and c l o s e l i n k s of r e s e a r c h and e x t e n s i o n p r a c t i c e s i n the u n i v e r s i t y model more than i n the government model. T h e r e f o r e , the b e h a v i o r of the e x t e n s i o n workers can be e x p e c t e d t o be d i f f e r e n t between government and u n i v e r s i t y models w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e s e s i x v a r i a b l e s . These r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d t o e x p l o r e the d i f f e r e n c e s i n r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s and r o l e performance of e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government and u n i v e r s i t y models. The r e s e a r c h d e s i g n f o r the study w i l l be deve l o p e d i n the next c h a p t e r . 69 CHAPTER IV RESEARCH DESIGN In the p e r v i o u s c h a p t e r t h e t h e o r e t i c a l framework and the r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s f o r t h i s s tudy were de v e l o p e d and r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e were r e v i e w e d . T h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n used i n the s t u d y . I t i s c o m p r i s e d of two s e c t i o n s : d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s p r o c e d u r e s . The f i r s t s e c t i o n of the c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s the development, p r e - t e s t i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and f i e l d v i s i t s . The second s e c t i o n d e s c r i b e s the s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s used t o a n a l y z e the d a t a . The s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o c o l l e c t d ata from the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h C olumbia, and from the cou n t y e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents i n Idaho and Washington so as t o e x p l o r e the d i f f e r e n c e s i n r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s and r o l e performance of the s e a d u l t e d u c a t o r s w o r k i n g i n systems which a r e r e p r e s e n t e d by government and u n i v e r s i t y models. Data C o l l e c t i o n P r o c e d u r e s The b a s i c d a t a c o l l e c t i o n method of t h i s study i s a m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e was chosen due t o the d i s t a n c e , expense and time i n v o l v e d w i t h u s i n g any f a c e - t o - f a c e i n t e r v i e w methods. T h i s survey method i s sometimes c r i t i c i z e d as not b e i n g as e x a c t as o t h e r methods, but K e r l i n g e r (1973 : 410-411) s t a t e s t h a t "survey r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s l a r g e and s m a l l 7.0 p o p u l a t i o n s t o d i s c o v e r the r e l a t i v e i n c i d e n c e , d i s t r i b u t i o n and i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f . . . v a r i a b l e s . " He c o n t i n u e s : a l t h o u g h the approach and the t e c h n i q u e s of sur v e y r e s e a r c h can be used on any s e t of o b j e c t s t h a t can be w e l l - d e f i n e d , s u r v e y r e s e a r c h f o c u s e s on p e o p l e , the v i t a l f a c t s of p e o p l e , and t h e i r b e l i e f s , o p i n i o n s , a t t i t u d e s , m o t i v a t i o n s , and b e h a v i o r . D i l l m a n (1978) notes t h a t m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e has been one of the s t e p c h i l d r e n of survey r e s e a r c h , and d a t a c o l l e c t e d by t h i s method have always been c o n s i d e r e d s u s p e c t . However, a c c o r d i n g t o D i l l m a n (1978 : 2) r e c e n t developments "have brought i t [ m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e ] t o the p o i n t of b e i n g c o m p e t i t i v e w i t h f a c e - t o - f a c e i n t e r v i e w s f o r many k i n d s of s t u d i e s . " D i l l m a n (1978) a l s o r e p o r t s t h a t r e t u r n r a t e s f o r m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e can be i n c r e a s e d by i n c o r p o r a t i n g rewards, t r u s t and some measure t o m i n i m i z e the c o s t s f o r r e s p o n d e n t s . The r e s e a r c h e r , f o l l o w i n g D i l l m a n ' s i n s i g h t s , took the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e approaches t o i n s u r e h i g h r e t u r n r a t e s f o r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . 1. The c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y of the e x t e n s i o n worker's answers was e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d a t the b e g i n n i n g of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n or d e r t o d e v e l o p t r u s t between the r e s p o n d e n t s and the r e s e a r c h e r . 2. A stamped s e l f - a d d r e s s e d r e t u r n envelope was sent t o f a c i l i t a t e ease of r e s p o n d i n g and t o a v o i d postage c o s t t o the r e s p o n d e n t s . 3. Cover l e t t e r s from the heads of e x t e n s i o n d i v i s i o n s and 71 the r e s e a r c h e r e x p l a i n i n g the s t u d y were sent so as t o i n d i c a t e the purpose and p o t e n t i a l v a l u e of the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h i s s e c t i o n i s f o c u s e d on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e used t o o b t a i n d a t a p e r t a i n i n g t o the v a r i a b l e s of the s t u d y . S p e c i f i c a l l y , the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d : (1) development of q u e s t i o n n a i r e , (2) p r e - t e s t i n g of q u e s t i o n n a i r e , (3) a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and (4) f i e l d v i s i t s . Development of Q u e s t i o n n a i r e A q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e s i g n e d t o c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n on s i x major v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d f o r s t u d y . These v a r i a b l e s were s e l e c t e d because they were e x p e c t e d t o be d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f a c t o r s between the government and the u n i v e r s i t y models. For some q u e s t i o n s the L i k e r t - t y p e r a t i n g s c a l e i s used because i t i s "the most u s e f u l [and w i d e l y used method of a t t i t u d e measurement] i n b e h a v i o r a l r e s e a r c h " ( I s a a c and M i c h a e l , 1979 : 100). The nine-page q u e s t i o n n a i r e (Appendix I ) c o n s i s t e d of the f o l l o w i n g s i x p a r t s : P e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : The f o l l o w i n g items of p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were asked: age, y e a r s of e x t e n s i o n e x p e r i e n c e , and y e a r s of e x p e r i e n c e i n c u r r e n t p o s i t i o n (employment). T h i s p a r t of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e s i g n e d t o s e c u r e demographic i n f o r m a t i o n t o d e s c r i b e the p o p u l a t i o n s t u d i e d . Age was s e l e c t e d because i t i s a common v a r i a b l e asked i n almost a l l survey r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f o r d e s c r i p t i v e p u r p o s e s . 72 Y e a r s of e x t e n s i o n was s e l e c t e d t o d e s c r i b e the y e a r s of s e r v i c e of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers i n each c o u n t r y . Y e a r s of e x p e r i e n c e i n c u r r e n t p o s i t i o n was s e l e c t e d t o d e s c r i b e the number of y e a r s a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers have been i n t h e i r c u r r e n t employment i n each c o u n t r y . P r o f e s s i o n a l development: The items i n c l u d e : (a) academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s when a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers s t a r t e d w o r k i n g i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n , major f i e l d of s t u d y , and c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s from which di p l o m a s or degrees were o b t a i n e d ; and (b) f u r t h e r f o r m a l study a f t e r the e x t e n s i o n workers had s t a r t e d w o r k i ng i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n , diploma r e c e i v e d , study s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s a t t e n d e d , f i e l d of i n t e r e s t f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l competence and i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g programs, and o p i n i o n on v a r i o u s p r o f e s s i o n a l development i d e a s . The e i g h t items of the o p i n i o n q u e s t i o n were measured on a f i v e - p o i n t L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e which respondents were t o r e p l y t o as 'Always', ' O f t e n * , 'Seldom', 'Never', and ' U n c e r t a i n ' f o r each i t e m . T h i s p a r t of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e s i g n e d t o s e c u r e d a t a on academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and p r o f e s s i o n a l development of e x t e n s i o n workers i n the two c o u n t r i e s . I t i s assumed t h a t a u n i v e r s i t y , as an i n s t i t u t i o n of h i g h e r l e a r n i n g , m a i n t a i n s a c e r t a i n l e v e l of academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and c o n t i n u o u s p r o f e s s i o n a l development of i t s p e r s o n n e l more than a government i n s t i t u t i o n . Thus, i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o expect d i f f e r e n c e s between the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model and t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed 73 i n the government model on t h e s e v a r i a b l e s . Academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n was s e l e c t e d t o i n d i c a t e the g e n e r a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r employing e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t the u n i v e r s i t y model might r e q u i r e h i g h e r academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s than the government model a t the time of employment. F i e l d of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , a t the time of employment, was s e l e c t e d because i t has a b e a r i n g upon the k i n d s of t r a i n i n g e x t e n s i o n w o r kers had a t the time they s t a r t e d work i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model s p e c i a l i z e i n e x t e n s i o n , whereas t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the government model major i n s p e c i a l i z e d a g r i c u l t u r e . C o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s a t t e n d e d were s e l e c t e d because they i n d i c a t e the u n i v e r s i t i e s which a r e the major s u p p l i e r s of e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s . S i n c e e x t e n s i o n i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the l a n d - g r a n t u n i v e r s i t i e s , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t the u n i v e r s i t i e s e s t a b l i s h both undergraduate and g r a d u a t e programs i n e x t e n s i o n f o r the e x t e n s i o n workers' needs. In the government model t h i s may not e x i s t , because the u n i v e r s i t y and the department of a g r i c u l t u r e a r e two s e p a r a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s where the u n i v e r s i t y may not assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o d e v e l o p programs which the department of a g r i c u l t u r e needs f o r i t s e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s . Thus, i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model may be more l i k e l y t o a t t e n d u n i v e r s i t i e s which have e s t a b l i s h e d programs i n e x t e n s i o n o u t s i d e t h e i r c o u n t r y than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed 74 i n the u n i v e r s i t y model do. F u r t h e r f o r m a l study was s e l e c t e d because i t i s one of t h e i n d i c a t i o n s f o r c o n t i n u i n g a t t i t u d e toward l e a r n i n g of the e x t e n s i o n p e r s o n n e l . E x t e n s i o n work cannot w h o l l y depend upon the knowledge and s k i l l s o b t a i n e d i n p r i o r y e a r s t o meet the demands of toda y . S i n c e a u n i v e r s i t y , as an i n s t i t u t i o n of h i g h e r l e a r n i n g , may be ex p e c t e d t o have more of c o n s t a n t s t i m u l u s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l development than a department of a g r i c u l t u r e , i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model would un d e r t a k e more f u r t h e r f o r m a l study than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the government model. Diploma r e c e i v e d was s e l e c t e d as an i n d i c a t o r because i t has a b e a r i n g upon the l e v e l of q u a l i f i c a t i o n a t t a i n e d . Because of h i g h e r academic e x p e c t a t i o n s i n the u n i v e r s i t y than i n the department of a g r i c u l t u r e , the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model would be ex p e c t e d t o earn h i g h e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s than the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model. Study s p e c i a l i z a t i o n was s e l e c t e d because i t i n d i c a t e s a r e a s of i n t e r e s t i n which an agent f e l t he needed t o posses s competence. Because of g r e a t e r p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m e x p e c t a t i o n s i n the u n i v e r s i t y than i n the department of a g r i c u l t u r e , e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model may s p e c i a l i z e i n e x t e n s i o n f o r t h e i r r o l e as a d u l t e d u c a t o r s , w h i l e t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the government model may s p e c i a l i z e i n a g r i c u l t u r e or r e l a t e d f i e l d s f o r t h e i r r o l e as i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e r s . C o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s which the respond e n t s a t t e n d e d 75 f o r f u r t h e r f o r m a l study were s e l e c t e d because they i n d i c a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s which a r e s o u r c e s of e x t e n s i o n p r o f e s s i o n a l u p g r a d i n g programs. I t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t more e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model may a t t e n d u n i v e r s i t i e s o u t s i d e t h e i r c o u n t r y than t h o s e e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model, because i n the l a n d - g r a n t u n i v e r s i t i e s e x t e n s i o n i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of r e s i d e n t i a l i n s t r u c t i o n which n e c e s s i t a t e s the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of p r o f e s s i o n a l u p g r a d i n g programs f o r e x t e n s i o n workers more than the government model. F i e l d of i n t e r e s t f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l competence and i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g programs were s e l e c t e d because they i n d i c a t e s e l f - p e r c e i v e d t r a i n i n g needs of e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model would e x p r e s s an i n t e r e s t i n p r o f e s s i o n a l competence and i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g programs i n e x t e n s i o n , whereas t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the government model would e x p r e s s an i n t e r e s t i n s p e c i a l i z e d a g r i c u l t u r e because they may assume t h e i r r o l e as p r o v i d e r s of i n f o r m a t i o n more than a d u l t e d u c t o r s . O p i n i o n s on v a r i o u s p r o f e s s i o n a l development i d e a s were s e l e c t e d because they have a b e a r i n g upon the type of p o l i c i e s or g u i d e l i n e s the A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e might have i n p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r e x t e n s i o n workers t o c o n t i n u o u s l y up-date t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l competence. A u n i v e r s i t y , as an i n s t i t u t i o n of h i g h e r l e a r n i n g , i s e x p e c t e d t o p r o v i d e more o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c o n t i n u o u s p r o f e s s i o n a l development of i t s e x t e n s i o n workers than a department of a g r i c u l t u r e does, i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n i t s h i g h academic e x p e c t a t i o n s . 76 Methods and so u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n : The items i n c l u d e : membership i n p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s , r e a d i n g of r e s e a r c h j o u r n a l s or o t h e r r e s e a r c h p u b l i c a t i o n s , and s o u r c e s of r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n . These items were asked t o determine how e x t e n s i o n workers i n the two models update t h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n . The e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e i s a l i n k between r e s e a r c h and the f a r m e r s . In the u n i v e r s i t y , e x t e n s i o n and r e s e a r c h a r e w i t h i n the u n i v e r s i t y system, whereas t h i s s i t u a t i o n may not e x i s t i n the p r o v i n c i a l department of a g r i c u l t u r e . Thus, f o r the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model t h e i r main sou r c e of i n f o r m a t i o n was e x p e c t e d t o be the u n i v e r s i t y , w h i l e f o r t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the government model t h e i r main sou r c e of i n f o r m a t i o n was expected t o be the p r o v i n c i a l department of a g r i c u l t u r e . In a d d i t i o n , a u n i v e r s i t y , as an i n s t i t u t i o n of h i g h e r l e a r n i n g , may have h i g h e r e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r i t s e x t e n s i o n workers t o have membership i n p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s and t o re a d r e s e a r c h p u b l i c a t i o n s so as t o remain up t o date i n t h e i r s p e c i a l t i e s , than those e x p e c t a t i o n s h e l d by a department of a g r i c u l t u r e . Membership i n p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s was s e l e c t e d t o r e f l e c t an i n t e r e s t i n p r o f e s s i o n a l improvement and u p - d a t i n g of i n f o r m a t i o n . I t was expected t h a t more e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model w i l l be members of p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the government model. Reading of r e s e a r c h j o u r n a l s or o t h e r r e s e a r c h p u b l i c a t i o n s was s e l e c t e d because i t i n d i c a t e s the e x t e n t of c o n t i n u o u s 77 i n t e r e s t i n the p r o f e s s i o n as w e l l as the l e v e l of c o n c e r n f o r r e m a i n i n g up t o date i n t h e i r s p e c i a l t i e s . Because of the u n i v e r s i t y e x p e c t a t i o n of h i g h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l competence f o r i t s p e r s o n n e l , i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t more of the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y read r e s e a r c h p u b l i c a t i o n s than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the government model. So u r c e s of r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n were s e l e c t e d because they have a b e a r i n g upon the p r i m a r y l i n k of the a g r i c u l t u r e e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e workers f o r r e s e a r c h d a t a . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t the main source of r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n f o r e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model would be P r o v i n c i a l Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , and f o r t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model, the Land-Grant U n i v e r s i t y . R e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n s : The q u e s t i o n t o a s s e s s a t t i t u d e toward p e r f o r m i n g r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s had f i v e p o s i t i v e and f i v e n e g a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s . A L i k e r t - t y p e r a t i n g s c a l e ( S t r o n g l y Agree = SA; Agree = A; Undecided = U; D i s a g r e e = D; and S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e = SD) was used f o r responses t o the q u e s t i o n . V a l u e s of 5 = SA; 4 = A; 3 = U; 2 = D; and 1 = SD were a s s i g n e d t o the f i v e p o s i t i o n s i n t h a t o r d e r f o r p o s i t i v e s t a t e m e n t s ; and the v a l u e s were r e v e r s e d ( 1 = SA; 2 = A; 3 = U; 4 = D; and 5 = SD) f o r n e g a t i v e s t a t e m e n t s . The reason f o r r e v e r s i n g the s c o r i n g of n e g a t i v e statements was t o p r o v i d e a t o t a l s c o r e t h a t r e f l e c t s the respondent's degree of p o s i t i v e n e s s toward the p e r f o r m i n g of r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s . S c o r e s above 3.0 i n d i c a t e a p o s i t i v e o p i n i o n and t h o s e below show a n e g a t i v e o p i n i o n . T h i s 78 p a r t of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e s i g n e d t o s e c u r e s c o r e s on each agent's a t t i t u d e s toward r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s . The l i t e r a t u r e on e x t e n s i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model do p e r f o r m r e g u l a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s , w h i l e t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model do n o t . The r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n s a r e s e l e c t e d because they may have a b e a r i n g upon the e x t e n s i o n worker's performance of h i s e x t e n s i o n d u t i e s . Methods and t e c h n i q u e s : A t t i t u d e s toward e i g h t e e n methods and t e c h n i q u e were a s s e s s e d t o determine the f r e q u e n c y and e f f i c i e n c y of each method and t e c h n i q u e used by agents i n the two models. The f r e q u e n c y of use of each method and t e c h n i q u e was asked on a f o u r - p o i n t s c a l e which respondents were t o answer t o as ' O f t e n ' , 'Sometimes', ' R a r e l y ' , and 'Never'. A f o u r - p o i n t s c a l e ('Very E f f i c i e n t ' , ' E f f i c i e n t ' , 'Somewhat E f f i c i e n t ' , and ' I n e f f i c i e n t ' ) was a l s o used t o measure the e x t e n s i o n worker's o p i n i o n r e g a r d i n g how e f f i c i e n t each method and t e c h n i q u e i s i n p e r s u a d i n g farmers t o adopt recommended p r a c t i c e s . Methods and t e c h n i q u e s were s e l e c t e d because they i n d i c a t e the i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods and t e c h n i q u e s which the e x t e n s i o n workers might use i n a way t h a t w i l l most l i k e l y r e s u l t i n the a d o p t i o n of new i d e a s by t h e i r c l i e n t e l e . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model use a wider v a r i e t y of methods and t e c h n i q u e s than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the government model because the u n i v e r s i t y , more than the p r o v i n c i a l department of a g r i c u l t u r e , e x p e c t s the e x t e n s i o n 7.9 workers t o p e r f o r m as a d u l t e d u c a t o r s , and t h u s , they can be ex p e c t e d t o know more methods and t e c h n i q u e s t o t e a c h t h e i r c l i e n t e l e t o adopt new p r a c t i c e s . E x t e n s i o n r o l e f u n c t i o n s : F o u r t e e n e x t e n s i o n r o l e f u n c t i o n s were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . The respondents were r e q u e s t e d to ( 1 ) r a t e v a r i o u s e x t e n s i o n r o l e f u n c t i o n s i n o r d e r of importance t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e i r c l i e n t e l e and t o th e m s e l v e s , and ( 2 ) i n d i c a t e how much time they spent on each r o l e f u n c t i o n . The f i r s t q u e s t i o n was r a t e d on a f i v e - p o i n t L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e r a n g i n g from 'Not A p p l i c a b l e ' t o 'Very Important' f u n c t i o n of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e . The q u e s t i o n on how much time i s spent on each e x t e n s i o n r o l e f u n c t i o n was i n d i c a t e d on a f o u r - p o i n t s c a l e which r e s p o n d e n t s were t o respond t o as 'Much', 'Some', ' L i t t l e ' , and 'None' f o r each. T h i s p a r t of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e s i g n e d t o s e c u r e d a t a on a g e n t s ' e x t e n s i o n r o l e . E x t e n s i o n r o l e f u n c t i o n s were s e l e c t e d because they i n d i c a t e how e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n each model saw t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e as a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s . An a l t e r n a t i v e way of g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o st u d y e x t e n s i o n r o l e f u n c t i o n s i s t o c o l l e c t d a t a from the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s and c l i e n t e l e on the ex p e c t e d b e h a v i o r of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s . T h i s approach was not s e l e c t e d because the r e s e a r c h e r was i n t e r e s t e d i n s t u d y i n g the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers' p e r c e p t i o n s of demensions of t h e i r r o l e which may a f f e c t the r o l e performance. B e f o r e the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was p r e t e s t e d , the members of the 8 0 r e s e a r c h e r ' s s u p e r v i s o r y committee were r e q u e s t e d t o examine i t f o r f a c e v a l i d i t y . The committee e v a l u a t e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and suggested some major r e v i s i o n s , and minor rearrangement and r e w o r d i n g of i t e m s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r had d i v i d e d the f i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n t o s i x s e c t i o n s because he found t h a t t o he a c o n v e n i e n t way t o o r g a n i z e the i n f o r m a t i o n . The s i x s e c t i o n s were: S e c t i o n I : ' P e r s o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ' ; S e c t i o n I I : ' P r o f e s s i o n a l Development'; S e c t i o n I I I : 'Methods and Sources of I n f o r m a t i o n ' ; S e c t i o n IV : ' R e g u l a t o r y F u n c t i o n ' ; S e c t i o n V : 'Methods and T e c h n i q u e s ' ; S e c t i o n VI : ' E x t e n s i o n Role F u n c t i o n s ' . A t o t a l of twenty q u e s t i o n s appear i n the r e v i s e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The amended q u e s t i o n n a i r e was approved by the r e s e a r c h e r ' s s u p e r v i s o r y committee f o r f i e l d p r e - t e s t i n g . P r e - t e s t i n g of Q u e s t i o n n a i r e The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was p r e - t e s t e d f o r c o n t e n t and f a c e v a l i d i t y w i t h t e n d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a who were s e l e c t e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the D i r e c t o r of the E x t e n s i o n D i v i s i o n of A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e from f o u r of the s i x a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n r e g i o n s . The s e l e c t e d d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s were l o c a t e d i n ten d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s w i t h i n the f o u r e x t e n s i o n r e g i o n s . The r e s e a r c h e r s e t p r i o r appointments by t e l e p h o n e w i t h each d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t i n o r d e r t o conduct a p r e - t e s t f i e l d i n t e r v i e w and t o v i s i t the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e . The i n v e s t i g a t o r p e r s o n a l l y p r e s e n t e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o each d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t and r e q u e s t e d each respondent 81 t o complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A f t e r each respondent had completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e he was then i n t e r v i e w e d t o i d e n t i f y q u e s t i o n s which he c o n s i d e r e d t o be ambiguous, i r r e l e v a n t t o h i s work s i t u a t i o n s , or u n c l e a r . The r e s p o n d e n t s f e l t t h a t some of the p r e - t e s t e d q u e s t i o n s : (1) d i d not c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e c h o i c e s , (2) were r e s t r i c t e d , or (3) were not s p e c i f i c . On the b a s i s of the s u g g e s t i o n s and comments some major m o d i f i c a t i o n s were made i n some of the q u e s t i o n s . The major changes made i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e between the p r e - t e s t i n g and f i n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n were the f o l l o w i n g : P r e - t e s t e d Q u e s t i o n I f you were g i v e n study l e a v e a t f u l l s a l a r y t o improve your p r o f e s s i o n a l competence and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , how would you rank the f o l l o w i n g i n o r d e r of t h e i r i n t e r e s t t o you i n t h i s r e g a r d . I f you c o u l d arrange i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g f o r y o u r s e l f how would you rank the f o l l o w i n g i n o r d e r of t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s t o you. Are you a s u b s c r i b e r t o any r e s e a r c h j o u r n a l s or p u b l i c a t i o n s ? An agent who s e c u r e s an advanced degree i s o f f e r e d a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . Q u e s t i o n F i n a l l y A d m i n i s t e r e d I f you were g i v e n s t u d y l e a v e at f u l l s a l a r y t o improve your p r o f e s s i o n a l competence and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , how would you rank the f o l l o w i n g i n o r d e r of t h e i r i n t e r e s t t o you i n t h i s r e g a r d . Use an X t o i n d i c a t e t h o s e c h o i c e s which a r e of no i n t e r e s t whatsoever t o you. I f you c o u l d a r r a n g e i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g f o r y o u r s e l f how would you rank the f o l l o w i n g i n o r d e r of t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s t o you. Use an X t o i n d i c a t e those c h o i c e s which a r e of no i n t e r e s t whatsoever t o you. Do you read or l o o k over any r e s e a r c h j o u r n a l s or o t h e r r e s e a r c h p u b l i c a t i o n s r e g u l a r l y ? An agent who s e c u r e s an advanced degree i s o f f e r e d a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . 82 An agent w i t h an advanced degree i s p a i d a h i g h e r s a l a r y than an agent w i t h o u t an advanced degree i f both have the same e x p e r i e n c e . An agent w i t h an advanced degree i s p a i d a h i g h e r s a l a r y than an agent w i t h o u t an advanced degree i f b o t h have the same e x p e r i e n c e and j o b r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . One w i l l r e c o g n i z e r e a d i l y t h a t the a m b i g u i t y was reduced i n the f i n a l form. A r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t was c a l c u l a t e d on the q u e s t i o n of a t t i t u d e s toward p e r f o r m i n g the r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n , because many r e s e a r c h e r s recommend the c a l c u l a t i o n of r e l i a b i l i t y e v i d e n c e on a t t i t u d e measurement i n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ( H i l l and K e r b e r , 1967; Borg and G a l l , 1971). The s p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t based on the Spearman-Brown f o r m u l a was 0.85, a l e v e l t h a t i n d i c a t e s a good degree of i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y on the q u e s t i o n of a t t i t u d e s toward t h e r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n . In a d d i t i o n the c o m p u t a t i o n of Cronbach's a l p h a and s t a n d a r d i z e d i t e m a l p h a c o e f f i c i e n t s were 0.88 and 0.89, r e s p e c t i v e l y , which a g a i n c o n f i r m the r e l i a b i l i t y of the q u e s t i o n of a t t i t u d e s toward p e r f o r m i n g r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n . As has been s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , the s u b j e c t s were t h e d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s and county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n t s from A l b e r t a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Idaho and Washington. The names and a d d r e s s e s were o b t a i n e d from the p r o v i n c i a l Departments of A g r i c u l t u r e and the Land-Grant U n i v e r s i t i e s . A t o t a l of 192 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were sent out and 153 were completed and r e t u r n e d . The e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n r a t e was 79.7 p e r c e n t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 83 ( T a b l e 1 ) . T h i s was an e x c e l l e n t r a t e of r e t u r n , c o n s i d e r i n g the six-week p o s t a l s t r i k e which, d e l a y e d the r e t u r n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . T a b l e 1 Survey P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates P r o v i n c e s / S t a t e s Sample S i z e R eturned %Return A l b e r t a 63 52 82.5 B r i t i s h Columbia 21 1 7 80.9 S u b - t o t a l 84 69 82. 1 Idaho 49 34 69.4 Washington 59 50 84.7 S u b - t o t a l 1 08 84 77.8 G r a n d - t o t a l 1 92 1 53 79.7 Each d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t and county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agent who s a t i s f i e d the c r i t e r i a , except th o s e ten d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the p i l o t s t u d y , was sent the q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h c o v e r l e t t e r s (Appendix I I I ) from the r e s e a r c h e r and the heads of e x t e n s i o n d i v i s i o n s e x p l a i n i n g the s t u d y , a l o n g w i t h a stamped s e l f - a d d r e s s e d r e t u r n e n v e l o p e . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was x e r o x e d i n f o u r d i f f e r e n t c o l o r s f o r r e t u r n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n from the two p r o v i n c e s and two s t a t e s w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g the anonymity of i n d i v i d u a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . F i e l d V i s i t s The r e s e a r c h e r c o n d u c t e d f i e l d v i s i t s to A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e d u r i n g the p r e - t e s t i n g of q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and t o the B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and Food as w e l l as t o the U n i v e r s i t i e s of Idaho and Washington S t a t e d u r i n g the d a t a 84 c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d . D u r i n g the f i e l d v i s i t s , the r e s e a r c h e r i n t e r v i e w e d s e v e r a l s t a f f a t h e a d q u a r t e r s ; met w i t h s e v e r a l R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r s and D i s t r i c t S u p e r v i s o r s ; and spent a good d e a l of h i s time i n the l i b r a r i e s c o l l e c t i n g a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the s t u d y . The f i e l d study a l s o p r o v i d e d the r e s e a r c h e r the o p p o r t u n i t y t o become f a i r l y knowledgeable about the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s i n the two p r o v i n c e s and two s t a t e s . A n a l y s i s P r o c e d u r e s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e d a t a were a n a l y z e d u s i n g the UBC S t a t i s t i c a l Package f o r the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , UBC : SPSS (1980). The f o l l o w i n g programs from UBC : SPSS package were used f o r computer a n a l y s i s : SPSS pr o c e d u r e FREQUENCIES was used t o o b t a i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each of the v a r i a b l e s under s t u d y . T h i s p r o c e d u r e p r o v i d e d the common d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s of c e n t r a l tendency and of d i s p e r s i o n . The CROSSTABS procedure was used t o produce two-way j o i n t f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n . The degree of a s s o c a t i o n of each of the v a r i a b l e s : age, academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , y e a r s of e x t e n s i o n e x p e r i e n c e , y e a r s of c u r r e n t employment, f u r t h e r f o r m a l s t u d y , d i p l o m a r e c e i v e d , membership i n p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s , r e a d i n g of r e s e a r c h j o u r n a l s or o t h e r r e s e a r c h p u b l i c a t i o n s , methods and t e c h n i q u e s , and time spent on e x t e n s i o n r o l e f u n c t i o n s , based on d i s t r i b u t i o n of frequency c o u n t s i n the t a b l e s , was measured by 85 the c h i - s q u a r e s t a t i s t i c . SPSS procedure ONEWAY ANOVA was used t o examine r e l a t i o n s h i p among independent groups w i t h o p t i o n s f o r c o n t r a s t s of group means, and m u l t i p l e comparisons of group means. T h i s p r o c e d u r e was used on the v a r i a b l e s of p r o f e s s i o n a l development i d e a s , s o u r c e s of r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n , r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n s , and e x t e n s i o n r o l e f u n c t i o n s . The T-TEST p r o c e d u r e was used f o r t e s t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s of the group means between Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s on the v a r i a b l e s of p r o f e s s i o n a l development i d e a s and r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n s . SPSS p r o c e d u r e ANOVAR was used t o examine r e l a t i o n s h i p s among dependent ( w i t h i n group) f a c t o r s ( v a r i a b l e s ) . The proced u r e p r o v i d e s a d e s i g n f o r a n a l y z i n g f a c t o r s i n v o l v i n g r e p e a t e d measures. T h i s p r o c e d u r e was used t o . dete r m i n e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the t h r e e r a t i n g s on the v a r i a b l e s of e x t e n s i o n r o l e f u n c t i o n s . The p r o c e d u r e s used i n d e v e l o p i n g and r e f i n i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r the r e s e a r c h have been d e s c r i b e d i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n of t h i s c h a p t e r and the p r o c e d u r e s f o r t h e " a n a l y s i s of the d a t a a r e d e s c r i b e d i n the second s e c t i o n . The a n a l y s e s of the d a t a , f i n d i n g s and d i s c u s s i o n a r e p r e s e n t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g two c h a p t e r s . 8 6 CHAPTER V DESCRIPTIVE CHARACTERISTICS AND REGULATORY DUTIES The purposes of t h i s and the s u c c e e d i n g c h a p t e r a r e t o p r e s e n t and d i s c u s s the f i n d i n g s of the s t u d y . S t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g , the f i n d i n g s may o n l y be a p p l i c a b l e t o two p r o v i n c e s i n Canada and two s t a t e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . A l t h o u g h , the two p r o v i n c e s and the two s t a t e s o p e r a t e under the government and the u n i v e r s i t y models, r e s p e c t i v e l y , g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of the f i n d i n g s r e q u i r e s p r e c a u t i o n because the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s and the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents of th e s e p r o v i n c e s and s t a t e s may not be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of o t h e r e x t e n s i o n workers i n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t a d i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s on t h r e e of the v a r i a b l e s i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the s t u d y : agents' p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a g e n t s ' p r o f e s s i o n a l development and age n t s ' a t t i t u d e toward r e g u l a t o r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . P e r s o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s In t h i s s e c t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the responde n t s were asked t o d e c l a r e t h e i r age, y e a r s of e x t e n s i o n e x p e r i e n c e and y e a r s of c u r r e n t employment. The age ranged from 24 t o 65 y e a r s w i t h the mean age f o r d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s b e i n g 3 8 . 9 y e a r s and f o r the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g ents 42.1 (Table 2 ) . There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the age d i s t r i b u t i o n 87 T a b l e 2 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Age B r i t i s h U n i t e d Age A l b e r t a Columbia Canada Idaho Washington S t a t e s i n (N=51) (N=17) (N=68) (N=33) (N=50) (N=83) Years P e r c e n t P e r c e n t P e r c e n t P e r c e n t P e r c e n t P e r c e n t 21-35 64.7 52.9 61 .8* 36.4 38.0 37.3* 36-50 23.5 17.6 22. 1* 33.3 38.0 36.1* 51-65 11.8 29.4 16.2* 30.3 24.0 26.5* mean(yrs) 35.7 40.4 38.9 42.7 41 .7 42. 1 s.d. 10.7 12.3 11.2 11.0 11.0 11.0 *A c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e of 8.9 was o b t a i n e d . T h i s i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 0.01 l e v e l . between the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the two k i n d s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l models f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s . The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y younger than the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n t s . Because i n the u n i v e r s i t y model t h e r e i s a tendency t o employ agents w i t h a master's degree and e a r n i n g a master's degree t a k e s t i m e , the American agents tend t o be o l d e r when h i r e d than the Canadian a g e n t s . In a d d i t i o n the i n v e s t i g a t o r l e a r n e d d u r i n g h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h e x t e n s i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n Edmonton t h a t A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e E x t e n s i o n D i v i s i o n has been e x p e r i e n c i n g a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h t u r n o v e r r a t e among i t s younger d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s who are moving t o o t h e r d i v i s i o n s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . The r e s p o n d e n t s were asked t o r e p o r t how many y e a r s they had been w o r k i n g i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n as w e l l as how l o n g they had been employed by t h e i r c u r r e n t e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 88 Ta b l e 3 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Years of E x t e n s i o n E x p e r i e n c e B r i t i s h U n i t e d A l b e r t a Columbia Canada Idaho Washington S t a t e s (N=52) (N=17) (N=69) (N=34) (N=50) (N=84) Yea r s P e r c e n t P e r c e n t P e r c e n t P e r c e n t P e r c e n t P e r c e n t 1-5 36.5 23.5 33.3 20.6 40.0 32. 1 6-10 38.5 29.4 36.2 20.6 16.0 17.9 11-15 15.4 5.9 13.0 26.5 8.0 15.5 1 6-20 - 11.8 2.9 14.7 16.0 15.5 21-25 3.8 23.5 8.7 5.9 10.0 8.3 26-30 3.8 5.9 4.3 8.8 4.0 6.0 31-35 1 .9 — 1 .4 2.9 6.0 4.8 mean(yrs) 8.4 1 2.6 9.5 13.1 11.7 12.3 s .d. 6.7 8.5 7.4 7.8 9.6 8.9 A c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e of 12.6 was o b t a i n e d . T h i s i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 0.05 l e v e l . T a b l e 4 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Years of Employment i n C u r r e n t P o s i t i o n B r i t i s h U n i t e d A l b e r t a Columbia Canada Idaho Washington S t a t e s (N=51) (N=17) (N=68) (N=33) (N=49) (N=82) Years P e r c e n t P e r c e n t P e r c e n t P e r c e n t P e r c e n t P e r c e n t 1-5 60.8 58.8 60.3 30.3 57. 1 46.3 6-10 29.4 23.5 27.9 42.4 14.3 25.6 11-15 2.0 5.9 2.9 12.1 14.3 13.4 1 6-20 2.0 5.9 2.9 3.0 14.3 9.8 21-25 3.9 5.9 4.4 6.1 - 2.4 26-30 - - - 6.1 - 2.4 31-35 2.0 — 1 .5 — — — mean(yrs) 6.1 6.9 6.3 9.2 7.1 8.0 s .d. 6.3 6.3 . 6.2 6.8 5.6 6.2 A c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e of 12.6 was o b t a i n e d . T h i s i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 0.05 l e v e l . 89 As shown i n T a b l e 3, the number of y e a r s of work ranged from 2 t o 35 y e a r s w i t h the mean y e a r f o r county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n t s b e i n g 12.3 y e a r s and f o r d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s 9.5. One-half of t h e county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u a l a g ents and about s e v e n - t e n t h of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s had fewer than 10 y e a r s of s e r v i c e . There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s and county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents by y e a r s of e x t e n s i o n e x p e r i e n c e . O v e r a l l , the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents had r e l a t i v e l y l o n g e r t e n u r e than the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s . The d a t a i n Table 4 show t h a t 60.3 p e r c e n t of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s and 46.3 p e r c e n t of the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g ents had been w i t h t h e i r c u r r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r f i v e or fewer y e a r s . The number of y e a r s of work w i t h t h e i r c u r r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s ranged from 2 t o 34 y e a r s w i t h the mean year f o r d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s b e i n g 6.3 y e a r s and f o r the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents 8.0. There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the Canadian and American a g e n t s i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n by y e a r s of c u r r e n t employment w i t h the Canadian agents t e n d i n g t o be newer t o e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e employment. P r o f e s s i o n a l Development The respon d e n t s were asked t o d e c l a r e t h e i r h i g h e s t academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s when they s t a r t e d w o r k i n g i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n ; t h e i r major f i e l d s of s t u d y ; and the 90 i n s t i t u t i o n s from which t h e i r d i p l o m a s or degrees were o b t a i n e d . The d a t a as r e p o r t e d i n Appendix I I , Table 16 show t h a t a l l the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents have a b a c h e l o r ' s degree and f o r 36.9 p e r c e n t t h i s was t h e i r h i g h e s t academic degree. The m a j o r i t y of the agents have master's degrees and v e r y few have d o c t o r ' s degrees. In c o n t r a s t , 98.6 p e r c e n t of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s have a b a c h e l o r ' s degree and f o r 85.4 p e r c e n t t h i s was t h e i r h i g h e s t academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n . Few of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s have a master's degree. The a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model po s s e s s h i g h e r academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n the government model at the time of employment, which was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . These d i f f e r e n c e s i n e d u c a t i o n might be a p o s s i b l e f a c t o r t o produce an impact on t h e i r e x t e n s i o n r o l e p erformance. The d i s t r i b u t i o n as r e p o r t e d i n Appendix I I , T a b l e 17 shows t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s s p e c i a l i z e d i n a n i m a l s c i e n c e w h i l e 36.8 p e r c e n t of the c o u n t y e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents majored i n the same f i e l d . G e n e r a l a g r i c u l t u r e and a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n were the next most f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d majors by the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s and the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . No respondents had s p e c i a l i z e d i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n e i t h e r c o u n t r y a t the time they had s t a r t e d w o r k i n g i n e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e . T h i s r e s u l t i n d i c a t e s t h a t the two k i n d s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l models f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n h i r e d t h e i r e x t e n s i o n workers from a l l a r e a s of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n 91 a g r i c u l t u r e r a t h e r than r e s t r i c t i n g t h e i r employment p o l i c y o n l y t o those a p p l i c a n t s who had s p e c i a l i z e d i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n or c l o s e l y r e l a t e d a r e a s . The d a t a i n T a b l e 18 i n Appendix I I show t h a t most of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h Columbia r e c e i v e d t h e i r d i p l o m a s or degrees i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p r o v i n c e s or from o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s i n Canada. Few of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a have taken t h e i r t r a i n i n g i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s ; one i n d i v i d u a l from B r i t i s h Columbia was t r a i n e d i n B r i t a i n . A l l the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents i n Idaho and Washington had r e c e i v e d t h e i r degrees from i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Most of the agents i n Idaho had been t r a i n e d a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Idaho, w h i l e most of the agents i n Washington had earned t h e i r degrees o u t s i d e of the s t a t e , a l t h o u g h none had done so i n Canada. The respondents were r e q u e s t e d t o r e p o r t whether or not they had pursued f u r t h e r f o r m a l study a f t e r they had s t a r t e d w o r k i n g i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e . T a b l e 5 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by F u r t h e r Formal Study Formal Study A l b e r t a (N=51 ) P e r c e n t B r i t i s h Columbia (N=16) P e r c e n t Canada (N=67) P e r c e n t Idaho (N=34) P e r c e n t Washington (N=50) P e r c e n t U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=84) P e r c e n t No Yes 56.9 43. 1 56.3 43.7 56.7 43.3 47. 1 52.9 58.0 42.0 53.6 46.4 A c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e of 0.15 was o b t a i n e d . T h i s i s not s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 0.05 l e v e l . 92 The d a t a i n T a b l e 5 show t h a t l e s s than 50 p e r c e n t of t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the two k i n d s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l models have pursued f u r t h e r f o r m a l s t u d y . There was no a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups who r e p o r t e d t h a t they had pursued f u r t h e r s t u d i e s . T a b l e 19 i n Appendix I I i n d i c a t e s the t y p e s of d i p l o m a s and degrees they r e c e i v e d a f t e r t h e i r t r a i n i n g programs. A l l the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents had completed programs of g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s ; most of them had earned t h e i r master's degree and a few t h e i r d o c t o r a l degree. In c o n t r a s t , a p p r o x i m a t e l y 55 p e r c e n t of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s had completed g r a d u a t e programs and r e c e i v e d t h e i r master's d e g r e e s . There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government and u n i v e r s i t y models i n t h e i r study q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y models had completed more grad u a t e programs than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the government models. The respondents who had e x p r e s s e d an i n t e r e s t i n f u r t h e r f o r m a l study were a l s o asked t o i n d i c a t e t h e i r major f i e l d of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n f o r such program. The d a t a as r e p o r t e d i n Appendix I I , T a b l e 20 r e v e a l e d t h a t most of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia and o n e - q u a r t e r i n A l b e r t a have s p e c i a l i z e d i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and E x t e n s i o n E d u c a t i o n , r e s p e c t i v e l y . Fewer county e x t e n s i o n agents i n Idaho and Washington have s p e c i a l i z e d i n the same a r e a s . W h i l e the t a s k s of the respondents appear t o be c l e a r l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h 93 e d u c a t i o n , most of the r e s p o n d e n t s i n both models were i n t e r e s t e d i n a r e a s of s p e c i a l i z e d a g r i c u l t u r e because i t appears t h a t they saw t h e i r p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n not as e d u c a t o r s , but as p r o v i d e r s of t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s t o t h e i r - c l i e n t e l e . A c c o r d i n g t o M e t c a l f e (1965: 163), some a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model do not i d e n t i f y t hemselves as i n f o r m a l a d u l t e d u c a t o r s , because (1) " t h e i r e d u c a t i o n o r i e n t a t i o n [toward e x t e n s i o n w o r k ] " and (2) "the b r e a d t h of t h e i r e d u c a t i o n c o n c e p t s " have been l i m i t e d o n l y t o the f o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e t t i n g s . He (1965: 163) c o n t i n u e d , " i n o r d e r t o g a i n a broader view of e d u c a t i o n a d u l t e d u c a t o r s [ e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s ] must c o n c e i v e of e d u c a t i o n as t a k i n g p l a c e o u t s i d e the t r a d i t i o n a l c l a s s r o o m s e t t i n g s . " The f i n d i n g i n t h i s s tudy s u g g e s t s t h a t the same phenomenon i d e n t i f i e d by M e t c a l f e (1965) i s a l s o apparent i n the government model f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e . The i n s t i t u t i o n s r e s p o n d e n t s have a t t e n d e d f o r f u r t h e r f o r m a l study a r e r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 21 i n Appendix I I . The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h Columbia have a t t e n d e d i n s t i t u t i o n s o u t s i d e t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p r o v i n c e s i n Canada and i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . However, both the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a and the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia do o f f e r g raduate programs i n A d u l t and E x t e n s i o n E d u c a t i o n ( B l a c k b u r n , 1981). Most of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s took t h e i r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and the U n i v e r s i t y of A r i z o n a was the major source of e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n . The U n i v e r s i t y of Idaho p r o v i d e s e x t e n s i o n t r a i n i n g f o r most of i t s county 94 extension a g r i c u l t u r a l agents, and again the next most popular source of extension education for Idaho agents was the University of Arizona. Most of the agents in Washington took their t r a i n i n g in i n s t i t u t i o n s in the United States. No agents from Washington have attended the University of Arizona for further s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . Respondents who were interested in graduate studies were asked to rank their major areas of interest for such a program. These areas of interest are shown in Tables 6a and 6b. The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s were more interested in studying extension education than the county extension a g r i c u l t u r a l agents. They ranked extension education as their second area of interest for both professional competence and in-service t r a i n i n g programs. The county extension a g r i c u l t u r a l agents were most interested in areas of specialized a g r i c u l t u r e . They ranked specialized agriculture higher than extension education or adult education as areas of interest for their professional competence and in-service t r a i n i n g programs. It i s interesting to note that the highest interest in pursuing graduate studies in extension came from the agents employed in the government model. Eight statements were presented, in the questionnaire and. respondents were asked to give their opinion on. how frequently these professional development ideas occur in their a g r i c u l t u r a l extension organizations. This question was asked because i t was f e l t that the responses might be a r e f l e c t i o n of the type of p o l i c i e s the A g r i c u l t u r a l Extension Service has in providing Table 6a D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s ' Rankings of F i e l d of I n t e r e s t f o r P r o f e s s i o n a l and I n - S e r v i c e T r a i n i n g Programs A1berta B r i t i s h Columbia Canada F i e l d of Study P r o f e s s i o n a l Competence In-Serv i ce T r a i n i ng P r o f e s s i ona1 Competence I n - S e r v i c e Tra1n i ng P r o f e s s i o n a l Competence In-Serv i ce T r a i n i n g Mean Rank Mean Rank Mean Rank Mean Rank Mean Rank Mean Rant Adu1t Educat i on 5 . 7 6 6 . 1 6 6 .2 5 5 .5 4 5, .8 6 6 .0 6 A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics 5 . 1 5 5 .3 5 4. .0 4 5 . 8 5 4 .8 4 5 .4 5 A g r i c u l t u r a l Mechanics 10 .8 8 9 .9 8 15. . 1 10 15 . 3 10 11 . 8 8 11 . 2 8 Animal S c i e n c e 4 .8 3 •4 .9 3 3, , 2 2 3 .4 2 4 . 4 3 4 .5 3 E x t e n s i o n E d u c a t i o n 3 .8 2 4 . 1 2 2 . 8 1 3 . 1 1 3 . 5 2 3 .9 2 F o r e s t r y 16 . 3 10 16 .0 10 14 . 7 9 13 .6 9 15 . 9 10 15 .4 10 P l a n t S c i e n c e 3 .5 1 3 .2 1 3 . ,6 3 3 .8 3 3 . 5 1 3 . 3 1 Pou1 t r y Sc i ence 14 .6 9 14 .2 9 13. .4 8 13 .0 8 14 . 3 9 13 .9 9 Rural S o c i o l o g y 8 .4 7 8 .2 7 9. .4 7 9 .6 7 8. .6 7 8 . 6 7 So i1 Sc i ence 5 . 1 4 4 .9 4 6 . 2 5 6. .9 6 5 . 4 5 5 . ,4 4 Tab l e 6b County E x t e n s i o n A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents' Rankings of F i e l d of I n t e r e s t f o r P r o f e s s i o n a l and I n - S e r v i c e T r a i n i n g Programs Idaho Wash i ngton U n i t e d S t a t e s F i e l d of Study P r o f e s s i onal Competence In-Serv i ce T r a i n i n g P r o f e s s i ona1 Competence In-Serv i ce T r a i n i ng P r o f e s s i ona1 Competence In-Serv i c e T r a i n i ng Mean Rank Mean Rank Mean Rank Mean Rank Mean Rank Mean Rant Adu1t Educat i on 9 . 1 6 8 .9 6 10. 1 6 9 .9 6 9 . 7 6 9 .5 6 A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics 5 . 1 3 4. .5 3 5.0 1 5 .6 2 5 .0 2 5 . 1 2 A g r i c u l t u r a l Mechanics 13 . 9 8 1 1 .5 7 12.2 8 10 .9 7 12 .8 8 1 1 . 1 7 Animal S c i e n c e 3 . 9 1 3 .9 2 7.6 5 7 . 7 5 6 . 1 3 6. . 1 4 E x t e n s i o n E d u c a t i o n 6 . 2 4 5. .7 5 7.0 3 6 . 6 4 6 . 7 4 6. . 2 5 F o r e s t r y 12 . 7 7 1 1 . .6 8 12.0 7 13 . 2 8 12 . 2 7 12 . 5 8 P l a n t S c i e n c e 4 . 2 2 3. ,8 1 5. 1 2 4 , . 7 1 4. .7 1 4 . 3 1 P o u l t r y S c i e n c e 16 . 1 10 14, . 2 10 17.2 10 15 . 9 9 16 . 7 10 15 . 2 9 Rural S o c i o l o g y 15 . 0 9 14 , . 1 9 15.6 9 16 . 1 10 15. .3 9 15 . 3 10 S o i l S c i e n c e 6 . 6 5 5. .6 4 7.3 4 6 . 2 3 7. .0 5 6 . 0 3 96 o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r agents t o c o n t i n u o u s l y up-date t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l competence. The responses are p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 7. In o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the two k i n d s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l models f o r . a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n works, a t - t e s t a n a l y s i s was performed on each s t a t e m e n t . In a d d i t i o n , the d a t a were s u b j e c t e d t o one-way ANOVA a n a l y s i s f o r c o n t r a s t s and m u l t i p l e comparisons of group means on each s t a t e m e n t . Statement j_ : An agent who s e c u r e s an advanced degree i s o f f e r e d a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e . Most of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s and the c o u n t y e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f f e r a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n f o r an agent who s e c u r e s an advanced degree. There was no a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n w o r k ers employed i n the two o r g a n i z a t i o n a l models f o r e x t e n s i o n on t h e i r o p i n i o n s of t h i s statement ( T a b l e s 23 and 38, i n Appendix I I ) . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t both o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s o f f e r b e t t e r p o s i t i o n s t o t h o s e e x t e n s i o n workers who s e c u r e d advanced d e g r e e s . Statement 2 : E a r n i n g an advanced degree i s c o n s i d e r e d by the o r g a n i z a t i o n as the most i m p o r t a n t method an agent can use t o improve h i s competence. As i n d i c a t e d i n Table 7, 95.1 p e r c e n t of the county T a b l e 7 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Frequency of Occurrence of V a r i o u s P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Ideas P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Ideas A1 ways O f t e n Seldom Never U n c e r t a i n 1 . An agent who s e c u r e s an advanced A l b e r t a (N=51) - 56 .9 31 . . 4 2 .0 9 . 8 degree i s o f f e r e d a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n B r i t i s h Columbia (N=17) - 29 .4 58 . 8 5 .9 5 .9 w i t h i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n Canada (N=68) - 50 .0 38 . 2 2 .9 8 .8 s e r v i ce. Idaho (N=34) 8 .8 50 .0 29 . 4 - 1 1 . 8 Washington (N=48) 6 . 3 45. .8 27 , . 1 4 . 2 16. .7 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=82) 7. . 3 47 .6 28 . 1 2 .4 14 . 6 2 . E a r n i n g an advanced degree i s A l b e r t a (N=51) - 35 . 3 • 47. . 1 5 .9 1 1 . 8 c o n s i d e r e d by the o r g a n i z a t i o n B r i t i s h Columbia (N=17) 5 .9 29 .4 35 . 3 23 .5 5 . 9 as the most important method an Canada (N=G8) 1 . 5 33 . 8 44 . 1 10 . 3 10 .3 agent can use to improve h i s Idaho (N=34) 26 .5 58 .8 11 . 8 - 2 . 9 competence. Washington (N=48) 10 .4 56 . 3 27 . 1 2 .0 4 . 2 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=82) 17 . 1 57 . 3 20. . 7 1 . 2 3 . 7 3 . An agent who r e t u r n s f o r an A l b e r t a (N=48) - 35 .4 25 . 0 22 .9 16. .7 advanced degree i s p a i d well enough B r i t i s h Columbia (N=17) - 1 1 .8 35 . 3 29 .4 23 .5 th r o u g h f e l l o w s h i p s , s c h o l a r s h i p s . Canada (N=65) - 29 . 2 27 , . 7 24 .6 18, .5 or s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e to almost equal Idaho (N=32) 3 . 1 37 . 5 21 . .9 31 . 3 6. .3 h i s r e g u l a r annual s a l a r y . Washington (N=48) - 4 . 2 45 . 8 35 .4 14 . 6 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=80) 1 . 2 17 . 5 36 , . 2 33 . 7 1 1 . 2 4 . An agent w i t h an advanced degree A l b e r t a (N=50) 4 .0 36 .0 20. .0 30 .0 10. O i s p a i d a h i g h e r s a l a r y than an B r i t i s h Columbia (N=16) - 18 .8 18 , 8 62 .4 - agent w i t h o u t an advanced degree Canada (N=66) 3 .0 31 .8 19 . 7 37 . 9 7 . 6 i f b o th have the same e x p e r i e n c e Idaho (N=34) 47 . 1 44 . 1 5 . 9 - 2. .9 and j o b r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . Washington (N=48) 39 .6 41 . . 7 6 . 3 2 . 1 10 .4 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=82) 42 .7 42 . 7 6 . 1 1 . 2 7. . 3 T a b l e 7-- Continued P r o f e s s i o n a l Development Ideas A1 ways O f t e n Seldom Never Uncerta1n 5 . An agent who r e t u r n s f o r an A l b e r t a (N=50) 4 .0 24 .0 8 .0 6 .0 58 .0 advanced degree w i l l c o n t i n u e B r i t i s h Columbia (N= 17) - 29 . 4 - 5 .9 64, . 7 to be e n t i t l e d to s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s Canada (N=67) 3 .0 25 .4 6 .0 6 .0 59 . 7 d e s p i t e h i s absence. Idaho (N=33) 30 . 3 18 . 2 6 . 1 3 .0 42 .4 Washington (N=48) 4 . 2 16 . 7 20 .8 6 . 3 52 . 1 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=81) 14 .8 17 . 3 14 .8 4 .9 48 . 1 6 . An agent who earns an advanced A l b e r t a (N-50) 2 .0 32 .0 38 .0 8 .0 20, .0 degree g e t s a h i g h e r p o s i t i o n B r i t i s h Columbia (N= 17) - 29 .4 41 . 2 1 1 . 8 17, .6 than an agent of s i m i l a r p r o f e s s i o n a l Canada (N=67) 1 . 5 31 . 3 38 .8 9 .0 19, . 4 e x p e r i e n c e who does not have an Idaho (N=34) 1 1 .8 58 .8 20 .6 - 8 . 8 advanced degree. Washington (N=48) 8 . 3 58 . 3 12 .5 4 . 2 16, . 7 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=82) 9 .8 58 . 5 15 .9 2 .4 13, . 4 7 . When an ag e n t ' s work begins to A l b e r t a (N=47) - 4 . 3 46. .8 29 .8 19, ; 1 d e c r e a s e i n q u a n t i t y and/or q u a l i t y , B r i t i s h Columbia (N= 17) - - 23. .5 64 .7 1 1 , .8 the o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l suggest Canada (N=64) - 3 . 1 40. .6 39, , 1 17 , . 2 g r a d u a t e study. Idaho (N=33) - 21 . 2 39. .4 12 , 1 27 . 3 Washington (N=47) - 8 .5 36 . 2 17 .0 38 . , 3 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=80) - 13 . 7 37 . 5 15 .0 33 . , 7 8 . C o n s i d e r i n g both the c o s t s A l b e r t a (N=51) - 33 . 3 39 . 2 9, .8 17 . 7 and b e n e f i t s of o b t a i n i n g an B r i t i s h Columbia (N= 17) - 35 . 3 23 . 5 35 . , 3 5. ,9 advanced degree an agent makes Canada (N=G8) - 33 . 8 35 , . 3 16 . 2 14. . 7 a f i n a n c i a l g a i n by g e t t i n g Idaho (N=34) 14 . 7 38 . 2 32 . 4 2 . 9 1 1 . 8 an advanced degree. Washington (N=48) 12 . 5 37 . 5 35 . 5 4 , .2 10. ,4 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=82) 13 . 4 37 . 8 34 . 1 3 , .7 1 1 . 0 99 e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n t s , and 79.4 p e r c e n t of t h e d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n s i d e r the e a r n i n g of an advanced degree t o be the most i m p o r t a n t method t o improve competence. The t - t e s t a n a l y s i s f o r t h i s statement r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the responses of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the two models (Table 38, i n Appendix I I ) . The r e s u l t s of the one-way ANOVA a n a l y s i s a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers of the two p r o v i n c e s and between the two s t a t e s ( T a b l e 23, i n Appendix I I ) . A c c o r d i n g l y , almost a l l the agents employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e i r e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n s i d e r s an advanced degree as the most i m p o r t a n t way t o improve competence and encourages the agents t o o b t a i n advanced degrees by o f f e r i n g b e t t e r p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h most of the agents employed i n the government model have the same p e r c e p t i o n as t h a t of t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s t h a t t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n o f f e r s b e t t e r p o s i t i o n s f o r agents who s e c u r e d advanced deg r e e s , a l e s s e r p e r c e n t of the agents b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n s i d e r an advanced degree t o be the most i m p o r t a n t method a g e n t s can use t o improve t h e i r competence. Statement 3_ : An agent who r e t u r n s f o r an advanced degree i s p a i d w e l l enough t h r o u g h f e l l o w s h i p s , s c h o l a r s h i p s , or s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e t o almost e q u a l h i s r e g u l a r a n n u a l s a l a r y . 100 Most of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s and c o u n t y e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g ents p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h i s statement o c c u r s ' o f t e n or seldom' i n t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( T a b l e 7 ) . The t - t e s t a n a l y s i s showed t h a t t h e r e was no a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the two models on t h e i r r e s p o n s e s ( T a b l e 38, i n Appendix I I ) . The one-way ANOVA r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the r e s p o n s e s of the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g ents i n Washington and Idaho; between the county e x t e n s i o n agents i n Idaho and the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia; and between the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a and the c o u nty e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g ents i n Washington (Table 23, i n Appendix I I ) . Most of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t the statement o c c u r s ' o f t e n or seldom' i n t h e i r e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; w h i l e most of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia e x p r e s s e d t h a t t h i s statement 'never' o c c u r s or t h a t they were ' u n c e r t a i n ' about the o c c u r r e n c e i n t h e i r e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n . The Washington a g e n t s were e q u a l l y d i v i d e d on t h e i r r esponses t o t h i s s t a tement. F i f t y p e r c e n t of the a g ents p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h i s statement 'never' o c c u r s or were ' u n c e r t a i n ' about the o c c u r r e n c e ; the remainder of the a g e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the statement o c c u r s ' o f t e n or seldom' i n t h e i r e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n . Most of the Idaho a g e n t s , however, p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h i s statement does occur 'always, o f t e n or seldom' i n t h e i r e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n . These a n a l y s e s show 101 t h a t over f i f t y p e r c e n t of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n both models p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e i r e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n encouraged agents t o get advanced degrees by p r o v i d i n g f e l l o w s h i p s , s c h o l a r s h i p s , or s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e . However, the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers i n each p r o v i n c e and each s t a t e seem t o v a r y i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of t h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l development i n c e n t i v e . A c c o r d i n g l y , the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n A l b e r t a and Idaho seem t o encourage t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers by implementing t h i s i n c e n t i v e more than the e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Washington, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n the models a r e g r e a t e r than between the models. Statement <| : An agent w i t h an advanced degree i s p a i d a h i g h e r s a l a r y than agent w i t h o u t an advanced degree i f both have the same e x p e r i e n c e and j o b r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . As i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 7, 85.4 p e r c e n t of the county e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s , and 34.8 p e r c e n t of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h i s statement o c c u r s 'always or o f t e n ' i n t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The t - t e s t a n a l y s i s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the two models on t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of t h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l development i d e a ( T a b l e 38, i n Appendix I I ) . S i m i l a r l y , the one-way ANOVA a n a l y s i s a l s o showed t h a t t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s on the p e r c e i v e d r esponses between the s t a t e s and the p r o v i n c e s (Table 23, i n 102 Appendix 11) . One notes t h a t 62.4 p e r c e n t of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h i s statement 'never' o c c u r s i n t h e i r e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n ( T a ble 7 ) . A l t h o u g h both the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l systems p r o v i d e i n c e n t i v e s , such as f e l l o w s h i p s , s c h o l a r s h i p s or s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e , and b e t t e r p o s i t i o n s t o t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers who work f o r an advanced degree, the u n i v e r s i t y model f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n work seems t o p r o v i d e more encouragement by p a y i n g h i g h e r s a l a r i e s t o agents who earn advanced degrees and by g i v i n g r e c o g n i t i o n of improved competence. Statement 5 : An agent who r e t u r n s f o r an advanced degree w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be e n t i t l e d t o s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s d e s p i t e h i s absence. The d a t a i n T a b l e 7 show t h a t 65.7 p e r c e n t of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model and 53.0 p e r c e n t of t h o s e employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model p e r c e i v e d t h a t an agent who r e t u r n s f o r an advanced degree i s not e n t i t l e d t o s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s d u r i n g h i s absence. The t - t e s t a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was no a_ s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on the p e r c e p t i o n between the two models (Table 38, i n Appendix I I ) . But the one-way ANOVA a n a l y s i s showed t h a t t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s on the responses between the respondents i n A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h Columbia and those i n Idaho and Washington ( T a b l e 23, i n Appendix I I ) . Idaho's county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents 103 d i f f e r on t h e i r r esponses from the respondents i n Washington, A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h Columbia. Most of the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents i n Idaho p e r c e i v e d t h a t an agent who r e t u r n s f o r an advanced degree c o n t i n u e s t o be e n t i t l e d t o s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s d e s p i t e h i s absence. However, most of the r e s p o n d e n t s i n Washington, A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h Columbia were u n c e r t a i n i f an agent who r e t u r n s f o r an advanced degree w i l l c o n t i n u e t o be e n t i t l e d t o s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s d e s p i t e h i s absence. The a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e t h a t most of t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the two e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l systems p e r c e i v e d t h a t e x t e n s i o n workers who a r e p u r s u i n g f u l l t ime g r a d u a t e programs a r e not e n t i t l e d t o s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s d u r i n g the time they are o f f the j o b . However, t h e r e were more d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n the u n i v e r s i t y model than w i t h i n the government model. Statement 6 : An agent who e a r n s an advanced degree g e t s a h i g h e r p o s i t i o n than an agent of s i m i l a r p r o f e s s i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e who does not have an advanced degree. The d a t a i n Table 7 show t h a t 68.3 p e r c e n t of the county e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s , and 32.8 p e r c e n t of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s have e x p r e s s e d t h e i r p e r c e i v e d o p i n i o n t h a t t h i s statement o c c u r s 'always or o f t e n ' i n t h e i r e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s , a d i f f e r e n c e which was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ( T a b l e 38, i n Appendix I I ) . The one-way ANOVA a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s on t h e s e responses between the re s p o n d e n t s i n the p r o v i n c e s and i n the s t a t e s ( T a ble 23, i n Appendix I I ) . 1 04 A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y models a r e encouraged t o get advanced degrees by b e i n g o f f e r e d h i g h e r p o s i t i o n s f o r t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . There were 70.6 p e r c e n t of the respondents i n Idaho, 34.0 p e r c e n t i n A l b e r t a and 29.4 p e r c e n t i n B r i t i s h Columbia who have i n d i c a t e d t h a t the statement o c c u r s 'always or o f t e n ' i n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s r e s u l t i n d i c a t e s t h a t Idaho's a g e n t s a r e encouraged more than the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h Columbia t o earn advanced degrees by b e i n g o f f e r e d h i g h e r p o s i t i o n s f o r t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . There were 66.6 p e r c e n t of the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents i n Washington and 34.0 p e r c e n t of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a who have i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s statement o c c u r s 'always or o f t e n ' i n t h e i r e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y , the agents i n Washington a r e encouraged more than the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a t o earn advanced degrees by b e i n g o f f e r e d h i g h e r p o s i t i o n s which r e c o g n i z e f o r t h e i r i n c r e a s e d q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . O v e r a l l , the u n i v e r s i t y model f o r o r g a n i z i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e appears t o c o n s i d e r the e a r n i n g of an advanced degree t o be the most i m p o r t a n t way t o improve the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n worker's competence. In o r d e r t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s o b j e c t i v e , the o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o v i d e s f e l l o w s h i p s , s c h o l a r s h i p s , or s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e f o r f u r t h e r s t u d i e s , and rewards those who have earned the advanced degree by o f f e r i n g b e t t e r and h i g h e r p o s i t i o n s and h i g h e r s a l a r i e s . The government model f o r o r g a n i z i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e a l s o p r o v i d e s 105 f e l l o w s h i p s , s c h o l a r s h i p s , or s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e f o r those a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers who d e s i r e t o get advanced d e g r e e s , and rewards them by o f f e r i n g b e t t e r p o s i t i o n s . I t seems, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the r e c o g n i t i o n of an advanced degree as '• the most i m p o r t a n t way t o improve a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n w o rkers' competence, and the p r o v i s i o n of o t h e r p e r c e i v e d i n c e n t i v e s a r e g r e a t e r i n the u n i v e r s i t y model than i n the government model. Statement 1_ : When an a g ent's work b e g i n s t o d e c r e a s e i n q u a n t i t y and/or q u a l i t y , the o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l suggest graduate s t u d y . The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s and the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g ents were e q u a l l y d i v i d e d on t h e i r r e sponses t o t h i s s t a t e m e n t . The d a t a i n T a b l e 7 show t h a t 43.7 p e r c e n t of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s and 51.3 p e r c e n t of the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g ents i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s statement o c c u r s ' o f t e n or seldom' i n t h e i r e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n . The remainder of t h e s e r e s p o n d e n t s have e x p r e s s e d the view t h a t t h i s statement 'never' o c c u r s or t h a t they were ' u n c e r t a i n ' about the i t e m . There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s on t h e s e responses between the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the two models or between agents employed i n the p r o v i n c e s or i n the s t a t e s as r e p o r t e d i n Appendix I I , T a b l e s 23 t o 28. A c c o r d i n g l y , i f most of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model p e r c e v e d t h a t t h e i r e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o n s i d e r s an advanced degree as the most i m p o r t a n t 106 way f o r i m p r o v i n g competency, then one e x p e c t s a t l e a s t the same number of e x t e n s i o n workers t o p e r c e i v e q u a n t i t y and/or q u a l i t y of work t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h competency. But, the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers i n both e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l systems were e q u a l l y d i v i d e d on the i d e a t h a t e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s use q u a n t i t y and/or q u a l i t y of work as one of the c r i t e r i a f o r a d v i s i n g the e x t e n s i o n worker t o update h i s competency i n e x t e n s i o n work. A p p a r e n t l y g r a d u a t e study i s not seen by a m a j o r i t y of e x t e n s i o n workers as a means employed by t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n as a remedy f o r u n s a t i s f a c t o r y performance of e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s . Statement 8 : C o n s i d e r i n g both the c o s t s and b e n e f i t s of o b t a i n i n g an advanced degree an agent makes a f i n a n c i a l g a i n by g e t t i n g an advanced degree. As i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 7, 85.3 p e r c e n t and 69.1 p e r c e n t of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y and government models, r e s p e c t i v e l y , r e p o r t e d t h a t c o n s i d e r i n g the c o s t s and b e n e f i t s , a f i n a n c i a l g a i n r e s u l t s from g e t t i n g an advanced degree. The t - t e s t showed t h a t t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e on the r e s p o n s e s between the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the two models (T a b l e 38, i n Appendix I I ) . More of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model responded t h a t t h e r e i s a f i n a n c i a l g a i n by g e t t i n g an advanced degree than those employed i n the government model. The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a and the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g ents i n Idaho and Washington i n d i c a t e d 107 d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n s on t h i s i t e m . Over 85 p e r c e n t of the respondents i n Idaho and Washington, and about 72 p e r c e n t i n A l b e r t a have e x p r e s s e d t h a t the statement o c c u r s i n t h e i r e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s 'always, o f t e n , or seldom', d i f f e r e n c e s which were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t ( T a ble 23, i n Appendix I I ) . A c c o r d i n g l y , the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g ents i n Idaho and Washington are c o n v i n c e d more than the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a t h a t t h e r e i s a f i n a n c i a l g a i n which r e s u l t s from g e t t i n g an advanced degree. In summary, a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers i n the u n i v e r s i t y model b e l i e v e t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n ' c o n s i d e r s an advanced degree as the most i m p o r t a n t way t o improve the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n worker's r o l e performance. To a c c o m p l i s h t h i s , the e x t e n s i o n workers p e r c e i v e t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n encourages i t s a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers by p r o v i d i n g f e l l o w s h i p s , s c h o l a r s h i p s , or s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e f o r those i n t e r e s t e d i n a c q u i r i n g an advanced degree, and r e w a r d i n g those e x t e n s i o n workers who s e c u r e an advanced degree w i t h b e t t e r and h i g h e r p o s i t i o n s , as w e l l as h i g h e r s a l a r i e s . A l t h o u g h the i d e a of c o n s i d e r i n g the e a r n i n g of an advanced degree as the most i m p o r t a n t way t o improve an e x t e n s i o n worker's r o l e performance, and the i d e a of r e w a r d i n g the e x t e n s i o n worker who o b t a i n s an advanced degree w i t h a h i g h e r p o s i t i o n and s a l a r y are l e s s pronounced i n the government model f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e , the o r g a n i z a t i o n , however, encourages i t s e x t e n s i o n workers t o o b t a i n an advanced degree by p r o v i d i n g f e l l o w s h i p s , s c h o l a r s h i p s , or s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e and o f f e r i n g a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n 108 w i t h i n the e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n . I n d i v i d u a l s w o r k i ng i n each model p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s do not make a l l o w a n c e s f o r e x t e n s i o n workers t o get s a l a r y i n c r e a s e s d u r i n g the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d as an i n c e n t i v e t o r e t u r n f o r an advanced degree. A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n both models were e q u a l l y d i v i d e d on the o p i n i o n t h a t the o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l suggest g r a d u a t e study f o r an e x t e n s i o n worker when h i s r o l e performance d e c r e a s e s i n q u a n t i t y and/or q u a l i t y . The a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model a r e c o n v i n c e d , more than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the government model, t h a t t h e r e i s a f i n a n c i a l g a i n which r e s u l t s from o b t a i n i n g an advanced degree. R e g u l a t o r y F u n c t i o n s Respondents were r e q u e s t e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e i r agreement w i t h t e n s t a t e m e n t s d e s c r i b i n g p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s of an e x t e n s i o n worker's p e r f o r m i n g r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s as p a r t of h i s e x t e n s i o n r o l e on h i s e f f e c t i v e n e s s as an e d u c a t o r , by c i r c l i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e response t o each s t a t e m e n t . These responses a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e s 8a and 8b. To det e r m i n e i f t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the two o r g a n i z a t i o n a l models on t h e i r a t t i t u d e towards r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s , a t - t e s t a n a l y s i s was performed on each r e g u l a t o r y s t a t e m e n t . In a d d i t i o n , one-way ANOVA a n a l y s i s was c a l c u l a t e d f o r c o n t r a s t s and m u l t i p l e comparisons of group means of the responses on each r e g u l a t o r y T a b l e 8a D i s t r i b u t i o n and Mean Scores of D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s ' Agreement with V a r i o u s Statements on A t t i t u d e towards R e g u l a t o r y F u n c t i o n s Statements 1. An agent who has r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s i s not as f r e e to examine a l l problems o b j e c t i v e l y as he would be without such d u t i e s . 2. P e r f o r m i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l a s p e c t of r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n s f o r another o f f i c e or agency has a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on the ag e n t ' s a b i l i t y to c a r r y out h i s o t h e r e x t e n s i o n d u t i e s . 3. R e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s may d i s c o u r a g e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of people i n a program which the agent o r g a n i z e s . 4. R e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s which p r o v i d e f o r s p e c i f i e d c o n t r o l of s t o c k i n g , or of l a n d improvement and land use, or f o r the c o n t r o l of p e s t s or weeds may f a c i l i t a t e an agent's e f f o r t to persuade h i s c l i e n t e l e to adopt the r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n . R e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s a g ent's i n f l u e n c e may d e c r e a s e the on h i s c l i e n t e l e . A l b e r t a Agree D i s a g r e e Mean 82 .0 48 .0 82 .0 44 .0 70.0 14.0 2. 16 28.0 3.16* 10.0 2.16 32.0 3.12* 12.0 2.34 B r i t i s h Columbia Agree D i s a g r ee Mean 62 . 5 25.0 2.31 50.0 18.8 3.31* 62.5 31.3 2.31 50.1 31.3 3.25* 68.8 25.0 2.44 Canada Agree D i s a g r e e Mean 77.3 16.7 2.20 48.5 25.7 3.20* 77.3 15.1 2.20 45.4 31.8 3.15* 69.7 15.1 2.36 O T a b l e 8a-- Cont inued Statements 6. R e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s may i n c r e a s e the age n t ' s s t a t u s i n h i s farm community, thus can f a c i l i t a t e h i s e f f o r t to i n f l u e n c e h i s c l i e n t e l e to ac c e p t the a p p r o p r i a t e i n n o v a t i o n s . 7. An agent's r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s may f a c i l i t a t e h i s e f f o r t s to perform the o t h e r d u t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i th h i s pos i t i on. 8. R e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s which p r e s c r i b e s p e c i f i e d grades of commodities o r i n s p e c t i o n of premises may f a c i l i t a t e an agent's e d u c a t i o n a l performance by p r o v i d i n g a t e a c h a b l e moment f o r h i s c l i e n t e l e t o a c q u i r e a g i v e n i nformat i on. 9. R e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s may i n t e r f e r e w i t h an agent's a b i l i t y to m o t i v a t e h i s c l i e n t e l e to adopt new knowledge or s k i l l . 10. An agent needs to remain c l e a r of any type of r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s i n o r d e r to be e f f e c t i v e i n h i s e x t e n s i o n work. A l b e r t a Agree D i sagree Mean 16.0 36.7 61.2 71.4 59 .6 74 .0 42 .9 20.4 18.3 29.8 2.30 2.88 3 . 35* 2 . 39 2.55 B r i t i s h Columbia Agree D i s a g r e e Mean 25.0 62.5 2.38 31.3 62.5 2.44 33.3 33.3 2.87 62.5 31.3 2.38 62.5 25.0 2.38 Canada Agree Di s a g r e e Mean 18.2 71.2 2.32 35.3 • 47.7 2.77 54.7 23.4 3.23* 69.2 21.5 2.39 60.3 28.6 2.51 •Mean s c o r e s above 3.00 i n d i c a t e a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards R e g u l a t o r y F u n c t i o n s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of "Agree" e q u a l s the responses of S t r o n g l y Agree and Agree; and " D i s a g r e e " e q u a l s the responses of D i s a g r e e and S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e . The m i s s i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n i s the responses of the Undecided. T a b l e 8b D i s t r i b u t i o n and Mean Scores of County E x t e n s i o n A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents' Agreement with V a r i o u s Statements on A t t i t u d e towards R e g u l a t o r y F u n c t i o n s Statements An agent who has r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s i s not as f r e e to examine a l l problems o b j e c t i v e l y as he would be without such d u t i e s . P e r f o r m i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l a s p e c t of r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n s f o r another o f f i c e o r agency has a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on the agent's a b i l i t y to c a r r y out h i s o t h e r e x t e n s i o n d u t i e s . R e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s may d i s c o u r a g e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of people i n a program which the agent o r g a n i z e s . R e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s which p r o v i d e f o r ' s p e c i f i e d c o n t r o l of s t o c k i n g , or of l a n d improvement and land use, or f o r the c o n t r o l of p e s t s or weeds may f a c i l i t a t e an agent's e f f o r t to persuade h i s c l i e n t e l e to adopt the r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n . R e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s may d e c r e a s e the age n t ' s i n f l u e n c e on h i s c l i e n t e l e . Idaho Agree D i sagree Mean 84 .8 60.6 84 . 8 57 .6 78.8 9. 1 21.2 9. 1 27 . 3 12.1 Washington Agree Di sagree Mean 1 . 79 3.46* 1 . 88 93 . 8 3 . 39* 2 .06 4 . 2 1 . 54 40.4 46.8 2.87 84.8 6.5 1.85 30.4 45.7 2.80 82.6 8.7 1.94 U n i t e d S t a t e s Agree D i s a g r e e Mean 90.1 6.1 1.64 48.7 36.2 3.11* 84.8 7.6 1.86 41.8 38.0 3.05* 81.0 10.1 1.99 T a b l e 8b-- Cont i nued I d a h o Washington U n i t e d S t a t e s Statements Agree' D i s a g r e e Mean Agree D i s a g r e e Mean Agree D i s a g r e e Mean 6. R e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s may i n c r e a s e the age n t ' s s t a t u s i n h i s farm community, thus can f a c i l i t a t e h i s e f f o r t to i n f l u e n c e h i s c l i e n t e l e t o a c c e p t the a p p r o p r i a t e i n n o v a t i o n s . 15.6 71.9 2.22 6.4 85.1 1.96 10.2 79.7 2.06 An agent's r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s may f a c i l i t a t e h i s e f f o r t s to perform the o t h e r d u t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i s p o s i t i o n . 18.2 60.6 2.39 8.5 78.7 2.15 12.5 71.2 2.25 8. R e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s which p r e s c r i b e s p e c i f i e d grades of commodities or i n s p e c t i o n of premises may f a c i l i t a t e an a gent's e d u c a t i o n a l performance by p r o v i d i n g a t e a c h a b l e moment f o r h i s c l i e n t e l e to a c q u i r e a g i v e n i n f o r m a t i o n . 39.4 42.4 2.85 21.2 48.9 2.64 28.7 46.2 2.73 9. R e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s may i n t e r f e r e w i th an agent's a b i l i t y to m o t i v a t e h i s c l i e n t e l e to adopt new knowledge or s k i l l . 81.8 9.1 2.03 74.5 8.5 2.06 77.5 8.7 2.05 10. An agent needs to remain c l e a r of any type of r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s i n o r d e r to be e f f e c t i v e i n h i s e x t e n s i o n work. 72.7 15.2 2.03 83.0 6.4 1.68 78.7 10.0 1.83 *Mean s c o r e s above 3.00 i n d i c a t e a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards R e g u l a t o r y F u n c t i o n s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n of "Agree" e q u a l s the responses of S t r o n g l y Agree and Agree; and " D i s a g r e e " e q u a l s the responses of D i s a g r e e and S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e . The m i s s i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n i s the responses of the Undecided. •1 1 3 s t a t e m e n t . The a n a l y s e s f o r each r e g u l a t o r y statement were d i s c u s s e d (a) i f t h e r e was a d i f f e r e n c e between the two c o u n t r i e s , and (b) i f t h e r e were d i f f e r e n c e s among the f o u r groups. Statement J_ : An agent who has r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s i s not as f r e e t o examine a l l problems o b j e c t i v e l y as he would w i t h o u t such dut i e s . There were 77.3 p e r c e n t of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s , and 90.1 p e r c e n t of the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents who agreed w i t h statement 1 ( T a b l e s 8a and 8 b ) . There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the two models on t h i s statement w i t h those employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model t e n d i n g t o b e l i e v e more than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n the government model t h a t p e r f o r m i n g r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s may c r e a t e r o l e - c o n f l i c t ( T a ble 39, i n Appendix I I ) . T h i s r e s u l t i n d i c a t e s t h a t more e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model have n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards r e g u l a t o r y duty than the e x t e n s i o n workers who were employed i n the government model. The one-way ANOVA a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s as r e p o r t e d i n Appendix I I , T a b l e 25 i n d i c a t e t h a t the responses of county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n t s i n Washington d i f f e r from those of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h C olumbia. There were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between Washington and A l b e r t a ; and between Washington and B r i t i s h Columbia on t h e i r r e s p o n s e s . These f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t Washington agents b e l i e v e , more than the d i s t r i c t 1 14 a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s of A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h C olumbia, t h a t an e x t e n s i o n worker who performs r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s may not be as f r e e t o examine a l l problems as o b j e c t i v e l y as he might be w i t h o u t such d u t i e s , thus c r e a t i n g r o l e - c o n f l i c t . The Washington a g e n t s ' a t t i t u d e d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from t h a t of t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n Idaho. Statement 2 : P e r f o r m i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l a s p e c t of r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n s f o r another o f f i c e or agency has a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on the agent's a b i l i t y t o c a r r y out h i s o t h e r e x t e n s i o n d u t i e s . A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n both models i n d i c a t e a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards t h i s r e g u l a t o r y duty ( T a b l e s 8a and 8 b ) . There was no a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between e x t e n s i o n workers i n the two c o u n t r i e s on t h e i r r e s p o n s e s (Table 39, i n Appendix I I ) . However, the one-way ANOVA a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t Idaho agents d i f f e r i n t h e i r r e sponses from the agents i n Washington (Table 25, i n Appendix I I ) . There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the agents i n the two s t a t e s , w i t h Idaho agents t e n d i n g t o have a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards t h i s r e g u l a t o r y duty than Washington a g e n t s . O v e r a l l , t hese f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t w i t h i n the government model more than the u n i v e r s i t y model t h e r e seems t o be consensus on the p o s i t i v e e f f e c t of t h i s f u n c t i o n on a g e n t s ' r o l e performance. Statement 3 : R e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s may d i s c o u r a g e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of peopl e i n a program which the agent o r g a n i z e s . There were 84.8 p e r c e n t of the county e x t e n s i o n 115 a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n t s , and 77.3 p e r c e n t of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s who agreed w i t h statement 3 ( T a b l e s 8a and 8 b ) . There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers . employed i n the two o r g a n i z a t i o n a l models on t h i s i t e m , w i t h the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model e x p r e s s i n g a h i g h e r l e v e l of agreement than the agents employed i n the government model (Ta b l e 39, i n Appendix I I ) . A l t h o u g h over t h r e e - f o u r t h s of the r e s p o n d e n t s agreed w i t h the s t a t e m e n t s , e x t e n s i o n agents employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model have a more n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e towards t h i s r e g u l a t o r y duty than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n the government model. The one-way ANOVA a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s as r e p o r t e d i n Appendix I I , T a b l e 25 i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between any two of the f o u r groups on t h i s i t e m . They a l l agreed t h a t r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s may d i s c o u r a g e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of p e o p l e i n a program which the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n worker o r g a n i z e s . So, the c o n d i t i o n s f o r i n t r a - r o l e c o n f l i c t appear t o be p r e s e n t f o r the r o l e performance of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n worker who i s o b l i g a t e d t o conduct r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n s and who p e r c e i v e s the e d u c a t i o n a l and r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n s c o n f l i c t . Statement 4 : R e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s which p r o v i d e f o r s p e c i f i e d c o n t r o l of s t o c k i n g , or of l a n d improvement and l a n d use, or f o r the c o n t r o l of p e s t s or weeds may f a c i l i t a t e an agent's e f f o r t t o persuade h i s c l i e n t e l e t o adopt the r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n . The d a t a i n T a b l e s 8a and 8b i n d i c a t e t h a t agents employed 1 16 i n b o t h o r g a n i z a t i o n a l models f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s have a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e towards t h i s r e g u l a t o r y d u t y . There was no a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers i n the two c o u n t r i e s i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e s on t h i s item (Table 39, i n Appendix I I ) . E x t e n s i o n workers employed i n both e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l models b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s s p e c i f i c r e g u l a t o r y d u t y may have a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on the e x t e n s i o n worker's r o l e p e rformance. However, the one-way ANOVA a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s as r e p o r t e d i n Appendix I I , T a b l e 25 shows t h a t Idaho's agents d i f f e r i n t h e i r r e s p o n s e s from Washington's a g e n t s . There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the agents employed i n the two s t a t e s w i t h Washington agents t e n d i n g t o d i s a g r e e more than than Idaho a g e n t s . A c c o r d i n g l y , Washington's agents seem t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s s p e c i f i c r e g u l a t o r y d u t y may have a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on the e x t e n s i o n worker's r o l e performance. Statement 5_ : R e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s may d e c r e a s e the agent's i n f l u e n c e on h i s c l i e n t s . There were 81.0 p e r c e n t of the c o u n t y e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g ents and 69.7 p e r c e n t of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s who agreed t h a t p e r f o r m i n g r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s may d e c r e a s e the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n worker's i n f l u e n c e on h i s c l i e n t s ( T a b l e s 8a and 8 b ) . There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the two o r g a n i z a t i o n a l models, w i t h those employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model t e n d i n g t o agree more w i t h t h i s statement than 1 17 d i d those employed i n the government model (Table 39, i n Appendix I I ) . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model b e l i e v e t h a t r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s may r e s u l t i n i n t r a - r o l e c o n f l i c t on the e x t e n s i o n worker's r o l e p e rformance. The one-way ANOVA a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a d i f f e r i n t h e i r responses from the c o u n t y e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g ents i n Washington. Agents i n Washington have i n d i c a t e d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t s t r o n g e r n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e towards r e g u l a t o r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n A l b e r t a and they appear t o b e l i e v e t h a t r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s may d e c r e a s e an a g ent's communication w i t h h i s c l i e n t e l e . Statement 6 : R e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s may i n c r e a s e the a g e n t ' s s t a t u s i n h i s farm community, thus can f a c i l i t a t e h i s e f f o r t t o i n f l u e n c e h i s c l i e n t e l e t o a c c e p t the a p p r o p r i a t e i n n o v a t i o n s . There were 71.2 p e r c e n t of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s and 79.7 p e r c e n t of the c o u n t y e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents who d i s a g r e e d w i t h statement 6 ( T a b l e s 8a and 8 b ) . There were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the Canadian and American a g e n t s , or between any two of the f o u r groups i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e towards p e r f o r m i n g r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s ( T a b l e s 25 and 39, i n Appendix I I ) . T h i s f i n d i n g , t h a t m a j o r i t y of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n both models b e l i e v e p e r f o r m i n g r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s may d e c r e a s e the e x t e n s i o n worker's a b i l i t y t o i n f l u e n c e h i s c l i e n t e l e t o a c c e p t i n n o v a t i o n s , i n d i c a t e s t h a t the performance of r e g u l a t o r y duty may l e a d t o 118 i n t r a - r o l e c o n f l i c t f o r the e x t e n s i o n worker. Statement 7 : An agent's r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s may f a c i l i t a t e h i s e f f o r t t o p e r f o r m the o t h e r d u t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i s p o s i t i o n . The d a t a i n T a b l e s 8a and 8b show t h a t 47.7 p e r c e n t of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s and 71.2 p e r c e n t of the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n t s d i s a g r e e d w i t h statement 7. There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the responses between the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the two models, w i t h the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model t e n d i n g t o d i s a g r e e more than the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model (Table 39, i n Appendix I I ) . The r e s u l t may l e a d t o i n t r a - r o l e c o n f l i c t which i s more pronounced i n the case of the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model. The one-way ANOVA a n a l y s i s , as r e p o r t e d i n Appendix I I , Table- 25 showed A l b e r t a ' s d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s d i f f e r i n t h e i r responses from the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents i n Idaho and Washington. There were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the o p i n i o n s of d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a and the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g ents i n Idaho, and between the o p i n i o n s of d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a and the county e x t e n s i o n agents i n Washington. The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a tended t o have a more p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward t h i s advantage of p e r f o r m i n g r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s than d i d the agents employed i n the two s t a t e s . T h i s f i n d i n g s u g g e s t s t h a t the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g ents i n the 119 two states believe that performing regulatory functions may lead to i n t e r - r o l e c o n f l i c t with other duties associated with the extension worker's p o s i t i o n . Statement 8 : Regulatory duties which prescribe s p e c i f i e d grades of commodities or inspection of premises may f a c i l i t a t e an agent's educational performance by providing a teachable moment for his c l i e n t e l e to acquire given information. There were 28.7 percent of the county extension a g r i c u l t u r a l agents, and 54.7 percent of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s who agreed with statement 8 (Tables 8a and 8b). There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the a g r i c u l t u r a l extension workers employed in the two organization models, with the extension workers employed in the government model having a positive attitude and those employed in the the university model having a negative attitude towards th i s regulatory duty (Table 39, in Appendix I I ) . Accordingly, the a g r i c u l t u r a l extension workers employed in the university model believe that these s p e c i f i c regulatory duties may not f a c i l i t a t e the extension worker's educational role performance, but may result in i n t r a - r o l e c o n f l i c t . The a g r i c u l t u r a l extension workers employed in the government model were, more inclined to see positive benefits from performing t h i s regulatory duties. The one-way analysis of variance results revealed that the opinions of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s in Alberta were di f f e r e n t from those of the county extension a g r i c u l t u r a l agents in Idaho and Washington. There were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t differences on their responses between the d i s t r i c t 120 a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a and the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g ents i n Idaho and Washington. The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a i n d i c a t e d a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e w h i l e the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n t s i n Idaho and Washington i n d i c a t e d a n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e toward t h i s r e g u l a t o r y duty ( T a b l e 25, i n Appendix I I ) . These f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a e x p r e s s e d t h e i r view t h a t r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s , such as g r a d i n g of com m o d i t i e s , or i n s p e c t i o n of p r e m i s e s , may p r o v i d e a t e a c h a b l e moment, and, t h u s , may f a c i l i t a t e t he d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t ' s e d u c a t i o n a l r o l e p erformance. T h i s view was not e x p r e s s e d by the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents i n Idaho and Washington, t h u s one may c o n c l u d e t h a t e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model b e l i e v e t h a t t h e s e r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s may l e a d t o i n t e r - r o l e c o n f l i c t w i t h the agent's e d u c a t i o n a l r o l e p erformance. The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia were e q u a l l y d i v i d e d on t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward t h i s r e g u l a t o r y d u t y . Statement 9 : R e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s may i n t e r f e r e w i t h an a g e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o m o t i v a t e h i s c l i e n t e l e t o adopt new knowledge or s k i l l . The d a t a i n T a b l e s 8a and 8b show t h a t 69.2 p e r c e n t of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s , and 77.5 p e r c e n t of the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents agreed w i t h statement 9. There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the o p i n i o n s of the agents w o r k i n g under the two models, w i t h the agents employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model t e n d i n g t o have a more n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e towards t h i s r e g u l a t o r y duty than d i d the agents 1.21 employed i n the government model (Table 39, i n Appendix I I ) . The one-way ANOVA r e s u l t s as re p o r t e d , i n Appendix I I , T a b l e 25 i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between any of the f o u r groups. However, a l l the f o u r groups have e x p r e s s e d a n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards t h i s d u t y . The r e s u l t s c l e a r l y show t h a t agents employed i n both models b e l i e v e t h a t p e r f o r m i n g r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s may i n t e r f e r e w i t h an agent's a b i l i t y t o m o t i v a t e h i s c l i e n t e l e t o adopt new knowledge or t o d e v e l o p a new s k i l l . Statement 10 : An agent needs t o remain c l e a r of any type of r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s i n o r d e r t o be e f f e c t i v e i n h i s e x t e n s i o n work. There were 78.7 p e r c e n t of the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n t s , and 60.3 p e r c e n t of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s who have agreed w i t h statement 10 ( T a b l e s 8a and 8 b ) . The e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model have i n d i c a t e d a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t more n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e towards p e r f o r m i n g r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s than the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model ( T a b l e 39, i n Appendix I I ) . The one-way ANOVA a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a - d i f f e r i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward t h i s i t e m from^the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g ents i n Idaho and Washington. The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia a l s o d i f f e r i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s from the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g ents i n Washington. There were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s on the s e f i n d i n g s ( T a b l e 25, i n Appendix 1 22 I I ) . The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a tended t o have l e s s n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards p e r f o r m i n g t h i s r e g u l a t o r y duty than d i d t h e county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents i n Idaho and Washington. S i m i l a r l y , the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n B r i t i s h C olumbia-tended t o have l e s s n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s than the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents i n Washington. These f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model p e r c e i v e r o l e c o n f l i c t s between the e d u c a t i o n a l and r e g u l a t o r y a s p e c t s of e x t e n s i o n work. In p a r t i c u l a r , the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents i n Washington have s t r o n g l y e x p r e s s e d t h e i r c o n c e r n w i t h r o l e c o n f l i c t s between the p e r f o r m i n g of r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s and the agent's e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n e x t e n s i o n work. In summary, p e r c e p t i o n s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r p e r f o r m i n g r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n s suggest t h a t the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers' e d u c a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s may be i n c o n f l i c t w i t h such r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n s and hence be a f f e c t e d by them. The a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government and the u n i v e r s i t y models e x p r e s s e d the f o l l o w i n g o p i n i o n s on v a r i o u s r e g u l a t o r y s t a t e m e n t s . O p p o s i t e v i e w s : There was disagreement between the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model and t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y on the f o l l o w i n g i t e m s . The a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n w o r kers employed i n the government model b e l i e v e t h a t s p e c i f i c r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s , such as g r a d i n g of commodities or i n s p e c t i n g of p r e m i s e s , may p r o v i d e 123 a t e a c h a b l e moment, thus f a c i l i t a t i n g the e x t e n s i o n worker's e d u c a t i o n a l r o l e performance. Whereas, the o p p o s i t e view was e x p r e s s e d by t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model, who a p p a r e n t l y b e l i e v e t h a t the e x t e n s i o n worker's e d u c a t i o n a l r o l e f u n c t i o n may be i n c o n f l i c t w i t h r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n , the source Of i n t r a - r o l e c o n f l i c t . D i f f e r e n t v i e w s : The a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model e x p r e s s e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t s t r o n g e r p o s i t i v e views on the f o l l o w i n g s i x st a t e m e n t s d e a l i n g w i t h the e f f e c t s of p e r f o r m i n g r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n s than d i d the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s . T h e i r r e sponses may suggest r o l e c o n f l i c t which may a f f e c t r o l e performance and hence some e v i d e n c e s t o su p p o r t the s e p a r a t i o n of the f u n c t i o n s . Both groups e x p r e s s e d the o p i n i o n s t h a t r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s may: 1. d e c r e a s e agent's o b j e c t i v i t y i n examining a l l problems i n e x t e n s i o n work. 2. d i s c o u r a g e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of c l i e n t e l e . 3. d e c r e a s e the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n worker's i n f l u e n c e on h i s c l i e n t e l e . 4. not f a c i l i t a t e t he a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n worker's e f f o r t s t o p e r f o r m the o t h e r d u t i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i s p o s i t i o n . 5. i n t e r f e r e w i t h the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n worker's a b i l i t y t o m o t i v a t e h i s c l i e n t e l e . 6. d e c r e a s e the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n worker's e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n h i s e x t e n s i o n work. 124 S i m i l a r v i e w s : A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n bo t h models agreed t h a t : 1. p e r f o r m i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l a s p e c t of r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n s f o r another agency, and p e r f o r m i n g r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s w hich p r o v i d e f o r s p e c i f i e d c o n t r o l of s t o c k i n g , or of l a n d improvement and l a n d use, or f o r the c o n t r o l of p e s t s or weeds may not l e a d t o r o l e c o n f l i c t . 2. r e g u l a t o r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s may d e c r e a s e the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n worker's s t a t u s i n h i s farm community, thus may l e a d t o a source of c o n f l i c t w i t h the e x p e c t a t i o n s the c l i e n t e l e may have w i t h r e g a r d t o the p o s i t i o n . T h i s c o n f l i c t i n g e x p e c t a t i o n i s the source of i n t r a - r o l e c o n f l i c t . Summary P e r s o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s were younger, had s h o r t e r t e n u r e and were newer t o e x t e n s i o n work than the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n t s . P r o f e s s i o n a l Development The a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model p o s s e s s e d h i g h e r academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n the government model a t the time of employment. No respondents had s p e c i a l i z e d i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n e i t h e r c o u n t r y a t the time they had s t a r t e d working 125 i n e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e . So, the two o r g a n i z a t i o n a l models d i d not r e s t r i c t t h e i r employment p o l i c y o n l y t o those e x t e n s i o n workers who had s p e c i a l i z e d in- e x t e n s i o n or c l o s e l y r e l a t e d a r e a s . A l l the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l , agents have completed programs of graduate s t u d i e s ; most of them have r e c e i v e d t h e i r m a s ter's degree and a few t h e i r d o c t o r a l degrees. In c o n t r a s t , 55.6 p e r c e n t of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s have completed g r a d u a t e programs and r e c e i v e d t h e i r master's d e g r e e s . The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s were more i n t e r e s t e d i n s t u d y i n g e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n than the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents who were most i n t e r e s t e d i n a r e a s of s p e c i a l i z e d a g r i c u l t u r e . The a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model b e l i e v e more than those employed i n the government model t h a t t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n s i d e r s an advanced degree as the most i m p o r t a n t way t o improve t h e i r r o l e performance and encourages i t s e x t e n s i o n workers by p r o v i d i n g v a r i o u s t y p e s of a s s i s t a n c e and rewards those e x t e n s i o n workers who s e c u r e an advanced degree w i t h b e t t e r and h i g h e r p o s i t i o n s , as w e l l as h i g h e r s a l a r i e s . R e g u l a t o r y F u n c t i o n s Even though i t had been a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t a l l e x t e n s i o n workers i n the u n i v e r s i t y model would have n e g a t i v e views of the e f f e c t s of p e r f o r m i n g r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n s on t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l work, i t had been thought t h a t e x t e n s i o n workers i n the government model would r e g a r d the performance of r e g u l a t o r y 126 f u n c t i o n s as h a v i n g e i t h e r a n e u t r a l or a p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l work. The i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g i s t h a t even though those who have l i t t l e or no r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s t o p e r f o r m have s t r o n g n e g a t i v e views on the e f f e c t s of p e r f o r m i n g such d u t i e s as would be e x p e c t e d , those who have r o u t i n e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r c a r r y i n g out such r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s a l s o p e r c e i v e t h a t p e r f o r m i n g such d u t i e s has a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t s though they do not f e e l as s t r o n g l y about t h i s e f f e c t as do the former group. 127 CHAPTER VI METHODS AND EXTENSION ROLE FUNCTIONS In t h i s c h a p t e r , the f i n d i n g s on agents' use of methods and s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n , agents' c h o i c e of methods and t e c h n i q u e s and a g e n t s ' e x t e n s i o n r o l e f u n c t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d and d i s c u s s e d . Methods and Sources of I n f o r m a t i o n Respondents were asked t o d e c l a r e t h e i r membership i n p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s , and a l s o whether they read or l o o k over any r e s e a r c h j o u r n a l s or o t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , they were r e q u e s t e d t o rank v a r i o u s s u p p l i e r s of r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n i n terms of t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s as s o u r c e s f o r the l a t e s t r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s . The d a t a i n T a b l e 9 show t h a t 62.7 p e r c e n t of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s have membership i n p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s . Less than 25.0 p e r c e n t of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s a r e members of the Canadian S o c i e t y of E x t e n s i o n , and 53.7 p e r c e n t have memberships i n the A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t i t u t e of Canada (Table 26, i n Appendix I I ) . When asked t o l i s t t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s 31.1 p e r c e n t of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia and 9.8 p e r c e n t i n A l b e r t a l i s t e d t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e I n s t i t u t e s of A g r o l o g i s t s . The I n s t i t u t e of A g r o l o g i s t s i s a p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t y e s t a b l i s h e d as a c o r p o r a t i o n i n each p r o v i n c e , which encompasses a l l d i s c i p l i n e s 128 i n a g r i c u l t u r e , which i s unique t o Canada. In c o n t r a s t , 96.3 p e r c e n t of the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents have memberships i n p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s (Table 9 ) . T a b l e 9 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents as Members i n P r o f e s s i o n a l S o c i e t i e s A l b e r t a (N=51) Member P e r c e n t No Yes 49.0 51 .0 B r i t i s h Columbia Canada (N=16) (N=67) P e r c e n t P e r c e n t 100.0 37.3 62.7 Idaho Washington (N=33) (N=49) P e r c e n t P e r c e n t 3.0 97.0 4.1 95.9 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=82) P e r c e n t 3.7 96.3 A c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e of 27.4 was o b t a i n e d . T h i s i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 0.01 l e v e l . There a r e 82.9 p e r c e n t of the agents who a r e members of the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of County A g r i c u l t u r a l Agents (Table 26, i n Appendix I I ) . There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s and county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g ents by membership i n p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s . More of the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents tended t o be members i n p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s than the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s . However, when one ob s e r v e s the d a t a of each p r o v i n c e and s t a t e , one notes t h a t a l l d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s from B r i t i s h Columbia have membership i n p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s . The B r i t i s h Columbia s i t u a t i o n may be e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t o n l y a p p l i c a n t s who a r e members of B r i t i s h Columbia I n s t i t u t e of A g r o l o g i s t s a r e e l i g i b l e f o r employment i n the e x t e n s i o n work of the M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e 129 and Food, a c o n d i t i o n which may l e a d some of them t o r e g a r d the i n s t i t u t e as something o t h e r than p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s . . As i n d i c a t e d i n Ta b l e 10, 58.2 p e r c e n t of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s and 85.4 p e r c e n t of the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g ents have r e p o r t e d t h a t they r e a d or lo o k over r e s e a r c h j o u r n a l s or o t h e r r e s e a r c h p u b l i c a t i o n s . There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s and county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e nts by r e a d i n g i n t e r e s t , w i t h more county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n t s t e n d i n g t o read r e s e a r c h j o u r n a l s or o t h e r r e s e a r c h p u b l i c a t i o n s than the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s . I t i s not d e t e r m i n e d the e x t e n t t o which the o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o v i d e d such r e s e a r c h p u b l i c a t i o n s or r e i m b u r s e d i f purchased by the e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s . T a b l e 10 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Reading of Research J o u r n a l s A l b e r t a (N=51 ) B r i t i s h Columbia (N=16) Canada (N=67) I daho (N=33) Washington (N=49) P e r c e n t U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=82) P e r c e n t Read P e r c e n t P e r c e n t P e r c e n t P e r c e n t No Yes 45. 1 54.9 31.3 68.7 41.8 58.2 21.2 78.8 10.2 89.8 14.6 85.4 A c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e of 13.8 was o b t a i n e d . T h i s i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t the 0.01 l e v e l . The r e s p o n d e n t s ' r a n k i n g s of s o u r c e s of r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n a r e r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 27 i n Appendix I I . The d a t a 1 30 show .that the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s have ranked P r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e f i r s t ; F e d e r a l M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e second; U n i v e r s i t i e s t h i r d ; and B u s i n e s s or I n d u s t r y f o u r t h . In c o n t r a s t , the county e x t e n s i o n agents have ranked U n i v e r s i t i e s f i r s t ; B u s i n e s s or I n d u s t r y second; F e d e r a l Department of A g r i c u l t u r e t h i r d ; and S t a t e Department of A g r i c u l t u r e f o u r t h . There were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r a n k i n g s of s o u r c e s of r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n between the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s and county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents ( T a b l e s 29 and 40, i n Appendix I I ) . These f i n d i n g s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the models. For the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers i n the government model, the main sou r c e of r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n i s the P r o v i n c i a l Department of A g r i c u l t u r e ; and the u n i v e r s i t y i s of a p p r e c i a b l y l e s s i m p o r t a n t as a s o u r c e of r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n f o r them. In c o m p a r i s o n , i n the u n i v e r s i t y model the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n worker's main source of r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n i s the l a n d - g r a n t u n i v e r s i t y ; and the S t a t e Department of A g r i c u l t u r e has low s t a t u s as a s o u r c e of r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n . E x t e n s i o n Methods and Techniques A l i s t of e i g h t e e n e x t e n s i o n methods and t e c h n i q u e s was p r e s e n t e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Respondents were asked (a) to i n d i c a t e how f r e q u e n t l y they use each method and t e c h n i q u e as w e l l as (b) t o r a t e how e f f i c i e n t each method and t e c h n i q u e was i n p e r s u a d i n g farmers t o adopt recommended p r a c t i c e s . These 131 q u e s t i o n s were asked because they i n d i c a t e the i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods and t e c h n i q u e s which agents use i n a way t h a t w i l l most l i k e l y r e s u l t i n the a d o p t i o n of new i d e a s by t h e i r c l i e n t e l e . The responses were t a b u l a t e d i n T a b l e 11 and i n Appendix I I i n T a b l e 42. A c h i - s q u a r e s t a t i s t i c was computed t o determine the degree of a s s o c i a t i o n between the responses of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model and those employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model on each method and t e c h n i q u e . As i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 11, t e l e p h o n e c a l l s , farm v i s i t s and newspaper a r t i c l e s were the t h r e e l e a d i n g methods and t e c h n i q u e s used ' o f t e n ' by the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s . Telephone c a l l s , farm v i s i t s and b u l l e t i n s were the t h r e e l e a d i n g methods and t e c h n i q u e s used by the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents w i t h the same f r e q u e n c y . There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e (Table 42, i n Appendix I I ) between the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the two e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n models i n t h e i r f r e q u e n c y of use of b u l l e t i n s , c i r c u l a r l e t t e r s , e x t e n s i o n n e w s l e t t e r s , group d i s c u s s i o n s , newspaper a r t i c l e s , p o s t e r s , p r o c e s s d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , and r a d i o . The e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model tended t o make more f r e q u e n t use of b u l l e t i n s , c i r c u l a r l e t t e r s , e x t e n s i o n n e w s l e t t e r s , group d i s c u s s i o n s and p r o c e s s d e m o n s t r a t i o n s than d i d t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the government model. More f r e q u e n t use of newspaper a r t i c l e s , p o s t e r and r a d i o was r e p o r t e d by a g e n t s i n the government model than i n the u n i v e r s i t y model. The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the Table 11 Dis t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Frequency of Use of Various Methods and Techniques Alberta Methods and Techniques Often Somet imes Rarely A g r i c u l t u r a l Fairs 2.0 14.0 78.0 A g r i c u l t u r a l f i e l d days - 36.5 63.5 Bullet ins 39.2 25.5 23.5 C i r c u l a r Letters 8.0 42.0 34.0 Extension newsletters 8.2 34.7 40.8 Farm v i s i t s 92.0 8.0 - Group discussions 18.0 48.0 34.0 Lectures 4.0 54.0 38.0 Meetings 31.4 64.7 3.9 Messages and announcements 26.5 46.9 22.4 Newspaper a r t i c l e s 71.2 21 .2 7.7 Posters 10.0 48.0 40.0 Process demonstrations - 29.2 50.0 Radio 13.5 57.7 25.0 Result demonstrations 4.0 24.0 64.0 Telephone c a l l s 96. 1 2.0 2.0 Television - 8.0 20.0 Workshops 9.8 39.2 47. 1 B r i t i s h Columbia Methods and Techniques Often Somet imes Rarely A g r i c u l t u r a l Fairs 5.9 17.6 76.5 A g r i c u l t u r a l f i e l d days 35.3 23.5 41 .2 Bullet ins 29.4 35.3 35.3 C i r c u l a r Letters 6.3 50.0 43.8 Extension newsletters 23.5 41.2 29.4 Farm v i s i t s 58.5 41.2 - Group discussions 17.6 29.4 35.3 Lectures - 11.8 88.2 Meetings 41 .2 41.2 17.6 Messages and announcements 17.6 64.7 \ 1 7.6 Newspaper a r t i c l e s 11.8 41.2 47. 1 Posters - 17.6 58.8 Process demonstrations - 29.4 52.9 Radio 23.5 23.5 52.9 Result demonstrations 17.6 17.6 58.8 Telephone c a l l s 88.2 5.9 5.9 Televis i o n - 5.9 • 35.3 Workshops 11.8 41.2 47. 1 133 Table 11— Continued Idaho Methods and Techniques Often Sometimes Rarely Never' A g r i c u l t u r a l F a i r s 5.9 20.6 67.6 5.9 A g r i c u l t u r a l f i e l d days 8.8 47. 1 44. 1 - B u l l e t i n s 66.7 27.3 6.1 - Ci r c u l a r Letters 29.4 55.9 11.8 2.9 Extension newsletters 24.2 60.6 12.1 3.0 Farm v i s i t s 94. 1 5.9 - - Group discussions 30.3 54.5 15.2 - Lectures 9.1 48.5 36.4 6.1 Meetings 32.4 61 .8 5.9 - Messages and announcements 47. 1 38.2 14.7 - Newspaper a r t i c l e s 38.2 52.9 5.9 2.9 Posters 6.5 16.1 58. 1 19.4 Process demonstrations 8.8 29.4 61 .8 - Radio 32.4 35.3 17.6 14.7 Result demonstrations 9.4 31.3 56.3 3.1 Telephone c a l l s 94. 1 2.9 2.9 - Television 3.1 9.4 28. 1 59.4 Workshops 8.8 55.9 35.3 " Washington Methods and Techniques Often Somet imes Ra r e1y Never A g r i c u l t u r a l F a i r s 10.0 12.0 74.0 4.0 A g r i c u l t u r a l f i e l d days 10.0 44.0 44.0 2.0 B u l l e t i n s 69.4 26.5 4.1 - C i r c u l a r Letters 26.5 51 .0 12.2 10.2 Extension newsletters 28.6 65.3 4. 1 2.0 Farm v i s i t s 74.0 26.0 - - Group discussions 38.8 51 .0 10.2 - Lectures 8.2 59.2 30.6 2.0 Meet ings 36.7 55. 1 8.2 - Messages and announcements 25.0 66.7 8.3 - Newspaper a r t i c l e s 27.7 66.0 6.4 - Posters 2. 1 14.6 52. 1 31 .3 Process demonstrations 4.2 18.8 64.6 12.5 Radio 27.7 27.7 27.7 17.0 Result demonstrations 8.0 28.0 58.0 6.0 Telephone c a l l s 94.0 4.0 4.0 - Television 2.2 10.9 30.4 56.5 Workshops 16.3 36.7 44.9 2.0 1 34 Table 11— Continued Canada Methods and Techniques Often Somet imes Rarely Never Ag r i c u l t u r a l F a i r s 3.0 14.9 77.6 4.5 Ag r i c u l t u r a l f i e l d days 8.7 33.3 58.0 - Bul l e t i n s 36.8 27.9 26.5 8.8 Circular Letters 7.6 43.9 36.4 12.1 Extension newsletters 12.1 36.4 37.9 13.6 Farm v i s i t s 83.6 16.4 - - Group discussions 17.9 43.4 34.3 4.5 Lectures 3.0 43.4 50.7 3.0 Meetings 33.8 58.8 7.4 - Messages and announcements 24.2 51.5 21.2 3.0 Newspaper a r t i c l e s 56.5 26. 1 17.4 - Posters 7.5 40.3 44.8 7.5 Process demonstrations - 29.2 50.8 20.0 Radio 15.9 49.3 31.9 2.9 Result demonstrations 7.5 22.4 62.7 7.5 Telephone c a l l s 94. 1 2.9 2.9 - Television - 7.5 23.9 68.7 Workshops 10.3 39.7 47. 1 2.9 Uinted States Methods and Techniques Often Somet imes Rarely Never A g r i c u l t u r a l F a i r s 8.3 15.5 71.4 4.8 A g r i c u l t u r a l f i e l d days 9.5 45.2 44.0 1 .2 Bul l e t i n s 68.3 26.8 4.9 - Circular Letters 27.7 53.0 12.0 7.2 Extension newsletters 26.8 63.4 7.3 2.4 Farm v i s i t s 82. 1 17.9 - - Group discussions 35.4 52.4 12.2 - Lectures 8.5 54.9 32.9 3.7 Meetings 34.9 57.8 7.2 - Messages and announcements 34. 1 54.9 11.0 - Newspaper a r t i c l e s 32. 1 60.5 6.2 1 .2 Posters . 3.8 15.2 54.4. 26.6 Process demonstrations 6. 1 23.2 63.4 7.3 Radio 29.6 „ 30.9 23.5 16.0 Result demonstrations 8.5 29.3 57.3 4.9 Telephone c a l l s 94.0 3.6 2.4 - Televi sion 2.6 10.3 29.5 57.7 Workshops 13.3 44.6 41 .0 1 .2 135 u n i v e r s i t y model were more i n c l i n e d t o use f o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s than were t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the government model, as s t i p u l a t e d i n the Smi t h - L e v e r A c t of 1914. Telephone c a l l s have been r a t e d as ' e f f i c i e n t ' t e c h n i q u e s by 50.7 p e r c e n t of the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s and by 45.8 p e r c e n t of the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n t s (Table 45, i n Appendix I I ) . As r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 43 i n Appendix I I , t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government and u n i v e r s i t y models on t h e i r r a t i n g s of e f f i c i e n c y of b u l l e t i n s , farm v i s i t s and r e s u l t d e m o n s t r a t i o n s . E x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model tended t o g i v e h i g h e r r a t i n g s f o r b u l l e t i n s and r e s u l t d e m o n s t r a t i o n s than d i d t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the government model. On the o t h e r hand , the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model tended t o g i v e h i g h e r r a t i n g s f o r farm v i s i t s t h an d i d t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n u n i v e r s i t y model ( T a b l e 43, i n Appendix I I ) . In summary, the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model use more v a r i o u s t y p e s of methods and t e c h n i q u e s t o t e a c h t h e i r c l i e n t e l e t o adopt new p r a c t i c e s than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the government model do. E x t e n s i o n R o l e F u n c t i o n s The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s and the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents were r e q u e s t e d t o (1) r a t e f o u r t e e n 136 e x t e n s i o n r o l e f u n c t i o n s i n o r d e r of importance t o t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n , t o t h e i r c l i e n t e l e ( r o l e p e r c e p t i o n ) and t o themselves ( r o l e p e r f o r m a n c e ) , and (2) i n d i c a t e how much time they spent on p e r f o r m i n g each f u n c t i o n . T h i s q u e s t i o n was asked t o f i n d out ^what f u n c t i o n s agents p e r f o r m and what they p e r c e i v e t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and c l i e n t e l e expect them t o pe r f o r m as occupants of the p o s i t i o n . These responses a r e t a b u l a t e d i n T a b l e s 12 t o 15. The mean s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d t o rank o r d e r the r o l e f u n c t i o n s and determine r o l e agreement among the t h r e e r a t i n g s on each e x t e n s i o n r o l e f u n c t i o n . One-way ANOVA a n a l y s i s was performed t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government and u n i v e r s i t y models as w e l l as among the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s of the two p r o v i n c e s and the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a gents of the two s t a t e s on each r a t i n g of the e x t e n s i o n r o l e f u n c t i o n s . ANOVAR a n a l y s i s was c a l c u l a t e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the t h r e e r a t i n g s on each e x t e n s i o n r o l e f u n c t i o n . A c h i - s q u a r e t e s t was a l s o c a l c u l a t e d t o det e r m i n e i f t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the amounts of time the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s and the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e nts s a i d they spent on p e r f o r m i n g each e x t e n s i o n r o l e f u n c t i o n . The f i n d i n g s on age n t s ' r o l e performance, a g e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of the e x p e c t a t i o n s of t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and T a b l e 12 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by t h e i r P e r c e i v e d R a t i n g of the Importance of E x t e n s i o n Role F u n c t i o n s to t h e i r O r g a n i z a t i o n F u n c t i o n s Very Important Important Somewhat Important L e a s t Important Not A p p l i c a b l e Adu1t e d u c a t o r A l b e r t a (N=52) 48 . 1 38 .4 13 . 5 - B r i t i s h Columbia (N=17) 41 .2 41 . 2 17 .6 - Canada (N=69) 46 . 4 39 . 1 14 .5 - Idaho (N=31) 51 .6 45 . 2 3 . 2 - Washington (N=48) 75 .0 20 . 8 4 . 2 - U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=79) 65 .8 30 .4 3 .8 A d v i s e r / C o n s u l t a n t A l b e r t a (N=52) 44 .2 46 . 2 9 .6 - B r i t i s h Columbia (N=17) 52 .9 41 . 2 5 .9 - Canada (N=69) 46 .4 44 . 9 8 . 7 - Idaho (N=33) 57 .6 27 .2 9 . 1 6 . 1 - Washington (N=49) 40 .8 28 .6 28 .6 2.0 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=82) 47 .6 28 . ,0 20 . 7 2 .5 1 . 2 A g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t A l b e r t a (N=51) 2 .0 9 . 8 25, . 5 19 .6 43 . 1 program a d m i n i s t r a t o r B r i t i s h Columbia (N=17) 17 . 6 35 . 3 1 1 .8 35.3 Canada (N=68) 1 .5 1 1 . 8 27 . 9 17 .6 41.2 Idaho (N=33) 3. .0 27 . 3 12 . 1 57.6 Washington (N=49) 10. . 2 4 , . 1 10 .2 75 . 5 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=82) 1 . 2 6 . 1 13. .4 1 1 . 0 68.3 A g r i c u l t u r a l r e g u l a t i o n s A l b e r t a (N=52) 1 1 . 5 9. .6 32 . 7 46. 2 enforcement o f f i c e r B r i t i s h Columbia (N=16) 12. 5 18 . 7 25 .0 43 . 8 Canada (N=68) 1 1 . 8 1 1 . 8 30. 8 45.6 Idaho (N=33) 6. . 1 21 . . 2 72 . 7 Washington (N=49) 2 . 0 10. . 2 14 . 3 73.5 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=82) 1 . . 2 8 . 5 17 . 1 73.2 Emergency measures A l b e r t a (N=52) 3 , 8 19 . 3 17 . 3 19 . 2 40.4 program a d m i n i s t r a t o r B r i t i s h Columbia (N=17) 23. 5 1 1 . 8 17 , .6 47. 1 Canada (N=69) 2 . 9 20. 3 15 . 9 18 . 9 42.0 Idaho (N=32) 15. 6 18. .8 43 . 8 21.9 Washington (N=48) 12 . 5 16 . 7 33 , . 3 37.5 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=80) 13 . 7 17. .5 37 . 5 31.3 T a b l e 12-- Cont i nued Very Somewhat L e a s t Not Funct i o n s Important Important Important Important A p p l i c a b l e Fac i 1 i t a t o r or A l b e r t a (N=51) 21 .6 49 .0 21 .6 5 .8 2.0 s e r v i c e agent B r i t i s h Columbia (N=17) 17 .6 47 . 1 17 .6 5 .9 11.8 Canada (N=G8) 20 .6 48 . 5 20 .6 5 .9 4.4 Idaho (N=32) 15 .6 28 . 1 34 .4 18 .8 3. 1 Washington (N=49) 16 .3 34 . 7 34 .7 6 . 1 8 . 2 Uni ted S t a t e s (N=81) 16 .0 32 . 1 34 .6 1 1 . 1 6 . 2 I n s p e c t i o n a c t s A l b e r t a (N=52) 7 . 7 7 .7 26 .9 57.7 enforcement o f f i c e r B r i t i s h Columbia (N=17) 5 .9 5 .9 23 . 5 64 . 7 Canada (N=69) 7 . 2 7 .2 26 . 2 59.4 Idaho (N=33) 9 . 1 18 . 2 72.7 Washington (N=49) 2 .0 14 . 3 83.7 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=82) 1 . 2 3 . 7 15, .9 79.2 O r g a n i z e r and A l b e r t a (N=49) 20 .4 46 .9 22 . 5 8 . 2 2.0 s u p e r v i s o r of e v e n t s B r i t i s h Columbia (N=17) 41 . 2 47 .0 1 1 .8 - Canada (N=66) 25 . 7 47 .0 19 . 7 6 . 1 1 . 5 Idaho (N=33) 21 .2 36 .4 24 , .2 18 , . 2 - Washington (N=49) 34 . 7 38 .8 16, .3 8 , 2 2.0 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=82) 29 .3 37 .8 19, .5 12 . 2 1 . 2 O r g a n i z e r of groups A l b e r t a (N=52) 13 . 5 44 . 2 40, ,4 . 1 . ,9 - B r i t i s h Columbia (N=17) 35. . 3 52 .9 1 1 . 8 - Canada (N=69) 18 . 8 46 . 5 33 , 3 1 . ,4 - Idaho (N=33) 30. . 3 36. ,4 24 , 2 9. , 1 -Washington (N=49) 36 . 7 49. .0 10. , 2 4 . 1 - U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=82) 34 . 1 43, .9 15. ,9 6. 1 - Program a d m i n i s t r a t o r A l b e r t a (N=52) 36 . 5 26 . 9 28. ,9 7 . 7 - B r i t i s h Columbia (N=17) 23 , 5 47 , . 1 23 . 5 5 . 9 -Canada (N=69) 33 . 3 31 , .9 27 . ,6 7 . 2 - Idaho (N=33) 21 . .2 42, .4 21 . , 2 12 . 1 3.0 Washington (N=47) 21 . .3 38 , . 3 23. 4 8 . 5 8.5 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=80) 21 . .2 40. .0 22. 5 10. 0 6.3 T a b l e 12-- Cont i nued Very Somewhat L e a s t Not Funct ions Important Important Important Important A p p l i c a b l e Program p l a n n e r A l b e r t a (N=51) 35, , 3 41 .2 17 .6 5 .9 - B r i t i s h Columbia (N=17) 23 . 5 53 .0 23 . 5 - Canada (N=68) 32 , .4 44 . 1 19 . 1 4 .4 - Idaho (N=32) 50, .0 28 . 1 12 . 5 6 .3 3 . 1 Washington (N=48) 52 , 1 37 . 5 4 . 1 4 . 2 2 . 1 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=80) 51 , 3 33 . 7 7 . 5 5 .0 2.5 P u b l i c r e l a t i ons A l b e r t a (N=51) 43 . , 1 43 . 1 1 1 .8 2 .0 - B r i t i s h Columbia (N=17) 64 , 7 23 .5 1 1 .8 - Canada (N=68) 48 . 5 38 . 2 1 1 .8 1 . 5 - Idaho (N=33) 48 . 5 39 .4 6 .0 6 . 1 - Washington (N=49) 38 . 8 46 .9 12, .2 2 . 1 - U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=82) 42 . 7 43 .9 9 .7 3 . 7 - Sources of i n f o r m a t i o n A l b e r t a (N=52) 46. 2 36 .5 17, .3 - and ideas B r i t i s h Columbia (N=17) 64. 7 29 .4 5, .9 - Canada (N=69) 50. 7 34 , .8 14, . 5 - Idaho (N=33) 54 . 5 36 .4 9, . 1 - Washington (N=49) 57 . 1 28 .6 10 . 2 2 .0 2.0 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=82) 56. 1 31 , .7 9, .8 1 , . 2 1.2 Student A l b e r t a (N=45) 4 . 4 15 , .6 37 , 8 22 . 2 20.0 B r i t i s h Columbia (N=15) 20, ,0 6, , 7 40, .0 33.3 Canada (N=60) 3 . 3 16 , . 7 30, .0 26 , .7 23.3 Idaho (N=32) 15 . 6 25 . 0 15, .6 9 , .4 34 .4 Washington (N=45) 8 . 9 1 1 . , 1 35, ,6 17 , . 7 26.7 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=77) 1 1 . 7 16 . 9 27 , 2 14 , . 3 29 .9 140 c l i e n t e l e , and time s p e n t , f o r each e x t e n s i o n r o l e f u n c t i o n a r e d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s . A d u l t e d u c a t o r : The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s ranked the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n as f o u r t h , t o t h e i r c l i e n t e l e as s i x t h ; and t o themselves as f o u r t h . I n c o n t r a s t , the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents ranked the same f u n c t i o n as f i r s t t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n , f i f t h t o t h e i r c l i e n t e l e and t h i r d t o themselves (Table 46, i n Appendix I I ) . The one-way ANOVA a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the American and the Canadian agents on t h e i r r a t i n g s of importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o th e m s e l v e s . However, t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia and the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents i n Idaho and Washington ( T a b l e s 30 and 37, i n Appendix I I ) . The co u n t y e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents i n Idaho and Washington see t h e i r e x t e n s i o n r o l e as a d u l t e d u c a t o r s more than the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia do ( T a b l e 46, i n Appendix I I ) . The one-way ANOVA a n a l y s i s on the re s p o n d e n t s ' p e r c e i v e d importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s shows t h a t t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the Canadian and American a g e n t s , as w e l l as between A l b e r t a and Washington, and between B r i t i s h Columbia and Washington ( T a b l e s 30 and 33, i n Appendix I I ) . The American agents and p a r t i c u l a r l y the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents i n 141 Washington b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i r e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n p l a c e d g r e a t e r emphasis on p e r f o r m i n g as an a d u l t e d u c a t o r than d i d the Canadian agents i n each p r o v i n c e ( T a b l e 46, i n Appendix I I ) . The American agents c o l l e c t i v e l y and the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents i n Washington t o a marked degree view t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n as an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n more than the Canadian agents c o l l e c t i v e l y and i n each p r o v i n c e . A l t h o u g h the Canadian and American agents d i d not d i f f e r on t h e i r r a t i n g s of the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n as p e r c e i v e d by t h e i r c l i e n t e l e , t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s and the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Idaho; and between those i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Washington. There was a l s o a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h Columbia ( T a b l e s 30 and 35, i n Appendix I I ) . The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia d i d not p e r c e i v e t h e i r c l i e n t e l e e x p e c t e d them t o pe r f o r m as a d u l t e d u c a t o r s as much as was the case w i t h t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n A l b e r t a and i n each s t a t e ( T a b l e 46, i n Appendix I I ) . The ANOVAR a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the t h r e e r a t i n g s w i t h i n each c o u n t r y as w e l l as w i t h i n each p r o v i n c e and each s t a t e ( T a ble 41, i n Appendix I I ) . The r e s u l t s as r e p o r t e d i n Appendix I I i n Ta b l e 46 i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was r o l e c o n f l i c t between the e x p e c t a t i o n s of the agents employed i n both models and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s of t h e i r c l i e n t e l e . T a b l e 13 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by t h e i r P e r c e i v e d R a t i n g of the Importance of E x t e n s i o n Role F u n c t i o n s to t h e i r C l i e n t e l e , Very Somewhat L e a s t Not Funct i ons Important Important Important Important A p p l i c a b l e Adu1t e d u c a t o r A l b e r t a (N=52) 25 .0 • 38 . 5 26 .9 9 .6 - B r i t i s h Columbia (N=16) 31 . 3 31 . 3 37 .4 -Canada (N=68) 19 . 1 36 .8 27 .9 16 . 2 - Idaho (N=32) 31 . 3 40 .6 18 .8 9 .3 - Washington (N=48) 27 . 1 29 . 1 37 . 5 6 .3 - U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=80) 28 . 7 33 . 8 30 .0 7 .5 - Adv i s e r / C o n s u l t a n t A l b e r t a (N=51) 43 . 1 45' . 1 1 1 .8 - B r i t i s h Columbia (N=16) 37 .5 62 . 5 -Canada (N=67) 41 .8 49 . 2 9 .0 - Idaho (N=33) 60 .6 33 . 4 3 .0 3 .0 - Washington (N=48) 75 .0 25 .0 - U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=81) 69 . 1 28 . 5 1 . 2 1 .2 • A g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t A l b e r t a (N=49) 2 .0 16 .4 26 .5 18 .4 36.7 program a d m i n i s t r a t o r B r i t i s h Columbia (N=16) 12 . 5 18 .8 18 .8 12 .5 37.4 Canada (N=65) 4 .6 16 .9 24 . 7 16 . 9 36.9 Idaho (N=32) 3. . 1 25 .0 25 .0 46.9 Washington (N=49) 2 .0 6. . 2 12 . 2 6 . 1 73.5 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=81) 2 .5 3 , . 6 17 . 3 13 .6 63 .0 A g r i c u l t u r a l r e g u l a t i o n s A l b e r t a (N=51) 2. .0 27 . 5 27 . 5 43.0 enforcement o f f i c e r B r i t i s h Columbia (N=16) 18. . 7 12 . 5 25 . 0 43.8 Canada (N=67) 6. .0 23 . 9 26 .8 43.3 Idaho (N=32) 3, . 1 9 . 4 12 . 5 75.0 Washington (N=49) 2 . 0 2 .0 8 . 2 14 . 3 73.5 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=81) • 1 . . 2 2. . 5 8 . 6 13 . 6 74. 1 Emergency measures A l b e r t a (N=50) 12 . 0 16. .0 10. .0 24 . 0 38.0 program a d m i n i s t r a t o r B r i t i s h Columbia (N=1G) 6 . 3 6 . 3 6 . 3 31 . 1 50.0 Canada (N=66) 10. .6 13. .6 9 . 1 25 . 8 40.9 Idaho (N=32) 3. .0 18 . 8 18 . 8 34 . ,4 25.0 Washington (N=49) 6. . 1 14 . 3 18 . 4 20. .4 40.8 Uni t e d S t a t e s (N=81) 4 . 9 16. . 1 18 . 5 25 . ,9 34.6 4>- N3 T a b l e 13-- Cont inued Very Somewhat L e a s t Not Funct i o n s Important Important Important Important A p p l i c a b l e F a c i 1 i t a t o r o r A l b e r t a (N=51) 25 .5 39. 2 21 .6 11.7 2.0 s e r v i c e agent B r i t i s h Columbia (N=16) 31 . 2 43.8 18 . 7 - 6 . 3 Canada (N=67) 26 .9 40. 3 20 .9 9.0 3.0 Idaho (N=31) 16 . 1 51.6 22 .6 9.7 - Washington (N=49) 22 .4 36 . 7 28 .6 4. 1 8.2 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=80) 20 .0 42 . 5 26 .2 6.3 5.0 I n s p e c t i o n a c t s A l b e r t a (N=51) 2 .0 - 17 .6 21.6 58.8 enforcement o f f i c e r B r i t i s h Columbia (N=16.) 12.5 18 . 7 68.8 Canada (N=67) 1 .5 3.0 13 .4 20.9 61.2 Idaho (N=33) 3 .0 6 . 1 3 .0 18 . 2 69.7 Washington (N=49) 4 . 1 - 4 . 1 10. 2 81.6 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=82) 3 .7 2.4 3 . 7 13.4 76.8 O r g a n i z e r and A l b e r t a (N=51) 31 .4 39.2 21 .6 2.0 5.8 s u p e r v i s o r of e v e n t s B r i t i s h Columbia (N=16) 37 .5 43.7 12 .5 6 . 3 - Canada (N=67) 32 .8 40. 3 19. .4 3.0 4 . 5 Idaho (N=33) 39 .4 45.4 9, . 1 6 . 1 - Washington (N=47) 34 .0 42.6 21 . 3 2 . 1 - U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=80) 36 . 2 43 . 8 16 . 3 3.7 - O r g a n i z e r of groups A l b e r t a ( N = 51) 1 1 .8 41.1 37 . 3 7.8 2.0 B r i t i s h Columbia (N=16) 18 .8 18.8 43 . 6 18.8 - Canada (N=67) 13 .4 35.8 38 . 9 10.4 1 .5 Idaho (N=33) 39 .4 51.5 6 . 1 3.0 - Washington (N=48) 25 . 0 43 . 7 29 . 2 - 2. 1 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=81) 30. .9 46 .9 19. .8 1 . 2 1 . 2 Program a d m i n i s t r a t o r A l b e r t a (N=52) 17 . , 3 21.2 34 . 6 23 . 1 3.8 B r i t i s h Columbia (N=16) 12 . 4 25.0 31 . 3 31.3 - Canada (N=68) 16 . 2 22 . 1 33. .8 25 .0 2.9 Idaho (N=33) 21 . 2 39.4 27 . 3 9. 1 3.0 Washington (N=47) 12 . 8 29 .8 27 . 6 21.3 8.5 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=80) 16. , 3 33 . 7 27 . 5 16.2 6.3 T a b l e 13-- Cont i nued Very Somewhat Least Not Funct ions Important Important Important Important A p p l i c a b l e Program p l a n n e r A l b e r t a (N=51) 15.7 31 .4 43 . 1 9 . 8 - B r i t i s h Columbia (N=16) 18.8 31 . 2 31 . 2 18 . 8 - Canada (N=67) 16.4 31 .4 40. . 3 - 11 .9 - Idaho (N=33) 30. 3 21 .2 39 .4 6 . 1 3.0 Washington (N=48) 18.8 31 . 2 33 .3 14 .6 2. 1 Uni ted S t a t e s (N=81) 23.5 27 . 1 35 .8 1 1 . 1 2.5 Publ i c r e l a t i ons A l b e r t a (N=49) 36 . 7 34 . 7 20. .4 8 . 2 - B r i t i s h Columbia (N=14) 42.9 21 .4 21 .4 14 . 3 - Canada (N=G3) 38 . 1 31 . 7. 20. .6 9 .6 - Idaho (N=33) 24.2 45 . 5 18 . 2 12 . 1 - Washington (N=48) 16.7 39 . 5 29. .2 12 . 5 2. 1 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=81) 19.8 42 .0 24 . 7 12. .3 1.2 So u r c e s of I n f o r m a t i o n A l b e r t a (N=50) 54.0 36 .0 8 . 0 2. .0 - and ideas B r i t i s h Columbia (N=16) 75.0 25 • O - Canada (N=66) 59. 1 33 . 3 6 . 1 1 . .5 - Idaho (N=33) 57 . 6 42. . 4 - Washington (N=48) 72.9 22 .9 2 , . 1 2. 1 Uni ted S t a t e s (N=81) 66.7 30 .9 1 . 2 1 . 2 Student A l b e r t a (N=43) 9.3 7. .0 23. .3 30. . 2 30. 2 B r i t i s h Columbia (N=14) 7 . 1 7 . 1 50. .0 35.8 Canada (N=57) 8.8 7 . 0 17. 5 35. . 1 31.6 Idaho (N=31) 16 . 1 9. . 7 22 . 6 19. . 3 32 . 3 Washington (N=44) 2.3 4 , 5 25. 0 40. ,9 27 . 3 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=75) 8.0 6 . , 7 24 . 0 32 . 0 29.3 145 The American and the Canadian agents both p e r c e i v e d t h a t (a) t h e i r e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s e xpect them t o p l a c e a h i g h p r i o r i t y on p e r f o r m i n g as a d u l t e d u c a t o r s and hence tended t o g i v e h i g h e r r a t i n g s of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h a t (b) t h e i r c l i e n t e l e would g i v e i t a lower r a t i n g . Over 53 p e r c e n t of the a g e n t s employed i n both models spent 'much' time p e r f o r m i n g t h i s f u n c t i o n . There was no a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the Canadian and American agents on time spent on t h i s f u n c t i o n ( T a b l e 15 and Table 44, i n Appendix I I ) . These f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e are some agents i n both models who do not i d e n t i f y t h emselves as a d u l t e d u c a t o r s . O v e r a l l , i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t the agents employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model would i d e n t i f y t h emselves as a d u l t e d u c a t o r s more than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s would who a r e employed i n the government model; however, t h e s e r e s u l t s do not s u p p o r t t h a t e x p e c t a t i o n . A d v i s e r / C o n s u l t a n t : The county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents r a t e d the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n as f i f t h , t o t h e i r c l i e n t e l e as f i r s t , and t o themselves as second. In c o m p a r i s o n , the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s ranked the f u n c t i o n as f i r s t t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and t o t h e m s e l v e s ; and second t o t h e i r c l i e n t e l e ( Table 46, i n Appendix I I ) . The one-way ANOVA a n a l y s e s r e s u l t s show t h a t t h e r e were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between any groups on 146 t h e i r r a t i n g s of the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and t o themselves ( T a b l e s 3 0 , 3 3 , and 3 7 , i n Appendix I I ) . There were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the Canadian and American a g e n t s , and between the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g ents i n Washington and the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h Columbia on t h e i r r a t i n g s of the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r c l i e n t e l e ( T a b l e s 30 and 3 5 , in. Appendix I I ) . The e x t e n s i o n workers i n Canada, c o l l e c t i v e l y , and i n each p r o v i n c e , s i n g l y , d i d not p e r c e i v e t h e i r c l i e n t e l e e x p e c t e d them t o behave as a d v i s e r s / c o n s u l t a n t s as much as was the case w i t h t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n America and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , i n Washington (Table 46, i n Appendix I I ) . The ANOVAR a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the t h r e e r a t i n g s i n each c o u n t r y ; and i n each p r o v i n c e , and i n the s t a t e of Washington (Table 41, i n Appendix I I ) . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was r o l e c o n f l i c t , and o v e r a l l the Canadian agents and i n p a r t i c u l a r b o th d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a and i n B r i t i s h Columbia gave a h i g h e r r a t i n g of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o them s e l v e s than they gave t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and c l i e n t e l e . The American agents and i n p a r t i c u l a r the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents i n Washington p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e i r c l i e n t e l e e x pect them t o behave as a d v i s e r s / c o n s u l t a n t s and gave a h i g h e r r a t i n g t o t h e i r c l i e n t e l e than they gave t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and t o themselves ( T a b l e 46, i n Appendix I I ) . These d a t a suggest t h a t the Funct i ons Adu1t e d u c a t o r A d v i s e r / C o n s u l t a n t A g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t program a d m i n i s t r a t o r A g r i c u l t u r a l r e g u l a t i o n s enforcement o f f i c e r Emergency measures program a d m i n i s t r a t o r T a b l e 14 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by t h e i r R a t i n g of the Importance of E x t e n s i o n Role F u n c t i o n s f o r Role Performance Very Important Important A l b e r t a (N=50) 46 .0 44 .0 B r i t i s h Columbia (N=17) 47 .0 1 1 .8 Canada (N=67) 46 . 3 35 .8 Idaho (N=33) 48 .5 42 .4 Washington (N=50) 60 .0 32 .0 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=83) 55 .4 36 .2 A l b e r t a (N=50) 68 .0 22 .0 B r i t i s h Columbia (N=17) 82 .4 17 .6 Canada (N=67) 71 .6 20 .9 Idaho (N=33) 66 .7 27 . 3 Washington (N=50) 66 .0 28 .0 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=83) 66 .3 27 . 7 A l b e r t a (N=50) 2 .0 10 .0 B r i t i s h Columbia (N=17) 5 .9 5 .9 Canada (N=67) 3. .0 9 .0 Idaho (N=34) 2 .9 5 .9 Washington (N=49) 2 .0 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=83) 1 . 2 3 .6 A l b e r t a (N=49) 4 . 1 B r i t i s h Columbia (N=17) 1 1 . 9 Canada (N=66) 6 . 1 Idaho (N=34) 2 . 9 Washington (N=49) 2. .0 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=83) 2 .4 A l b e r t a (N=50) 4. .0 14 . 0 B r i t i s h Columbia (N=17) 5. .9 5 . 9 Canada (N=67) 4. . 5 1 1 . 9 Idaho (N=34) 8 . 8 Washington (N=49) 6 . 1 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=83) 7 . 2 Somewhat Least Not Important Important A p p l i c a b l e 8.0 2.0 29.4 11.8 13.4 4.5 9.1 8.0 8.4 10.0 7.5 3.0 3.0 4.0 - 2.0 3.6 1.2 1.2 20.0 24.0 44.0 17.6 35.3 35.3 19.3 26.9 41.8 8.8 23.6 58.8 2.0 20.5 75.5 4.8 21.7 68.7 8.2 36.7 51.0 17.6 17.6 52.9 10.6 31.8 51.5 5.9 20.6 70.6 2.0 12.3 83.7 3.6 15.7 78.3 20.0 22.0 40.0 5.9 35.3 47.0 16.4 25.4 41.8 20.6 35.3 35.3 10.2 34.7 49.0 14.5 34.9 43.4 T a b l e 14-- Continued Very Somewhat Least Not Funct ions Important Important Important Important A p p l i c a b l e Fac i 1 i t a t o r or A l b e r t a (N=50) 24 .0 34 .0 32 .0 6 .0 4.0 s e r v i c e agent B r i t i s h Columbia (N=16) 18.8 43 .6 25 .0 6 .3 6 . 3 Canada (N=66) 22.7 36 .4 30 . 3 6 . 1 4 . 5 Idaho (N=33) 15.2 39 .4 24 . 2 • ' 18 . 2 3.0 Washington (N=49) 16 . 3 55 . 1 18 .4 6 . 1 4 . 1 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=82) 15.9 48 .8 20 . 7 1 1 .0 3.6 I n s p e c t i o n a c t s A l b e r t a (N=50) - 4 .0 8 .0 32 .0 56 .0 enforcement o f f i c e r B r i t i s h Columbia (N=17) - 1 1 .8 1 1 .8 23 . 5 52 .9 Canada (N=67) - 6 .0 9 .0 29 .9 55. 1 Idaho (N=33) - 6 . 1 12 . 1 81.8 Washington (N=49) - 2 .0 2 .0 8 . 2 87.8 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=82) - 1 . 2 3 .7 9. .8 85.4 O r g a n i z e r and A l b e r t a (N=50) 18.0 50 .0 18 .0 10 .0 4.0 s u p e r v i s o r of e v e n t s B r i t i s h Columbia (N=16) 37 . 4 50 .0 6 .3 6 . 3 -Canada (N=66) 22.7 50. .0 15 . 2. 9 . 1 3 .O Idaho (N=34) 20.6 38. . 2 32 .4 8. .8 - Washington (N=49) 30.6 49. .0 18 .4 2 .0 - U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=83) 26.5 44 . 6 24 . 1 4 . 8 - O r g a n i z e r of groups A l b e r t a (N=50) 16.0 36 .0 36. .0 8 . 0 4.0 B r i t i s h Columbia (N=17) 29.4 • 23 . 5 35 .3 1 1 . 8 - Canada (N=67) 19.4 32 . 8 35 . 8 9 . 0 3.0 Idaho (N=34) 23.5 52 . 9 20. . 7 2 . 9 - Washington (N=49) 30.6 40. .8 24 . 5 4 . , 1 - U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=83) 27 .7 45 . 8 22 , .9 3 . 6 - Program a d m i n i s t r a t o r A l b e r t a (N=50) 22 .0 32 . 0 32 . 0 10. .0 4 .O B r i t i s h Columbia (N=17) 23.5 23 , .5 41 . .2 1 1 . ,8 -Canada (N=67) 22.4 29 . 9 34 . 3 10. .4 3.0 Idaho (N=34) 20.6 38. 2 29 . 4 8 . 9 2.9 Washington (N=49) 12.2 40. 9 26 . 5 8 . , 2 12.2 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=83) 15.7 39. 8 27 . 7 8. . 4 8.4 T a b l e 14-- Cont1nued Very Somewhat L e a s t Not Funct ions Important Important Important Important A p p l i c a b l e Program p l a n n e r A l b e r t a (N=49) 38 .8 40 . 8 18 .4 2 .O - B r i t i s h Columbia (N=17) 35 . 3 35 . 3 23 . 5 5 .9 - Canada (N=66) 37 .9 39 .4 19 . 7 3 .0 - Idaho (N=34) 35 . 3 44 . 1 1 1 .8 5 .9 2.9 Washington (N=49) 44 . 9 44 .9 8 . 2 2.0 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=83) 41 .0 44 .6 9 .6 2 .4 2.4 Pub l i e r e l a t i ens A l b e r t a CN=50) 56 .0 30 .0 10 .0 4 .0 - B r i t i s h Columbia (N=17) 58 .8 35 . 3 5 .9 -Canada (N=67) 56 . 7 31 . 3 9 .0 3 .0 Idaho (N=34) 58 .8 32 .4 8 , . 8 -Washington (N=48) 41 . 7 41 .7 16 .6 - U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=82) 48 .8 37 .8 9 . 7 3 .7 - S o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n A l b e r t a (N=50) 74 .0 16 . 0 8 .0 2 . 0 - and i d e a s B r i t i s h Columbia (N=17) 70 .6 23. . 5 5 .9 - Canada (N=67) 73. . 1 17 . 9 7 .5 1 , , 5 - Idaho (N=34) 70 .6 26 . 5 2 .9 - Washington (N=50) 76 .0 22 . 0 2 .0 - U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=84) 73 . 8 23 . 8 2 .4 - Student A l b e r t a (N=43) 7 . 0 20. .9 25, .6 1 1 . ,6 34 .9 B r i t i s h Columbia (N=16) 6. . 3 . 31 . , 2 12. . 5 6. . 3 43.7 Canada (N=59) 6. .8 23 . 7 22, .0 10. , 2 37 .3 Idaho (N=31) 19, .4 32. .2 19. ,4 9. ,6 19.4 Washington (N=45) 15 . 6 26 . 7 24 , .4 1 1 . 1 22.2 U n i t e d S t a t e s (N=7G) 17 . 1 28 . 9 22 , .4 10. 5 21.1 150 Canadian agents i n each p r o v i n c e a re i n c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e i r a l t e r s and c o n s i d e r a d v i s e r / c o n s u l t a n t as one of the f u n c t i o n s e x t e n s i o n workers p e r f o r m . The. American a g e n t s , i n g e n e r a l , and the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents i n Washington, i n p a r t i c u l a r , have r o l e c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n t h a t they p e r c e i v e t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n d i d not expect them t o behave as a d v i s e r s / c o n s u l t a n t s . There was no a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the American and the Canadian agents on time spent on t h i s f u n c t i o n (Table 44, i n Appendix I I ) . One n o t e s t h a t over 73 p e r c e n t of the Canadian and American agents spent 'much' time p e r f o r m i n g t h i s e x t e n s i o n r o l e f u n c t i o n (Table 15). A l t h o u g h , a l m o s t no agents employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model c o n s i d e r p e r f o r m i n g as an a d v i s e r / c o n s u l t a n t as one of t h e i r f u n c t i o n s , they spent as much time as the agents employed i n the government model p e r f o r m i n g t h i s f u n c t i o n . Agents employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model conform t o t h e i r p e r c e i v e d e x p e c t a t i o n s of t h e i r c l i e n t e l e t o behave as a d v i s e r / c o n s u l t a n t , and spend as much time p e r f o r m i n g t h i s f u n c t i o n as t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the government model, who c o n s i d e r a d v i s e r / c o n s u l t a n t as one of t h e i r e x t e n s i o n r o l e f u n c t i o n s d e s p i t e the r o l e c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e i r a l t e r s . A g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t program a d m i n i s t r a t o r : The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s r a t e d the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and t o them s e l v e s as t w e l f t h , and t o t h e i r c l i e n t e l e as t e n t h . In c o n t r a s t , the American a g e n t s r a t e d the 151 f u n c t i o n as t w e l f t h t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e i r c l i e n t e l e and t o themselves (Table 46, i n Appendix I I ) . . The one-way ANOVA a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the American and the Canadian agents on the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and c l i e n t e l e , and t o thems e l v e s (Table 30, i n Appendix I I ) . The American agents o v e r a l l and the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g ents i n Washington, i n p a r t i c u l a r , r a t e d t h i s f u n c t i o n lower than the Canadian agents i n each p r o v i n c e ( T a b l e s 30, 33, 35, and 37, i n Appendix I I ) . So, the Canadian agents i n each p r o v i n c e c o n s i d e r a g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t program d u t i e s as one of the e x t e n s i o n r o l e f u n c t i o n s t hey p e r f o r m more than the American a g e n t s , i n g e n e r a l , and the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g ents i n Washington, i n p a r t i c u l a r , do. There was a l s o a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia and the c o u n t y e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g ents i n Idaho on t h e i r p e r c e i v e d r a t i n g s of the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r c l i e n t e l e ( T a b l e 35). The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia tended t o r a t e t h i s f u n c t i o n h i g h e r than the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g ents i n Idaho (Table 4 6 ) . The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia b e l i e v e t h e i r c l i e n t e l e e x p ect them t o pe r f o r m the r o l e of a g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t program a d m i n i s t r a t o r more than the agents i n Idaho b e l i e v e t h e i r c l i e n t e l e e x pect them t o do so. The ANOVAR a n a l y s i s shows t h a t t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y T a b l e 15 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents by Time Spent on E x t e n s i o n R o l e F u n c t i o n s A l b e r t a F u n c t i o n s Much Some L i t t l e None A d u l t e d u c a t o r 62.0 : 28.0 10.0 _ A d v i s e r / C o n s u l t a n t 78.0 20.0 2.0 - A g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t program a d m i n i s t r a t o r - 20.0 44.4 35.6 A g r i c u l t u r a l r e g u l a t i o n s enforcement o f f i c e r - 6.8 45.5 47.7 Emergency measures program a d m i n i s t r a t o r 2.3 18.2 38.6 40.9 F a c i l i t a t o r or s e r v i c e agent 30.0 46.0 18.0 6.0 I n s p e c t i o n a c t s enforcement o f f i c e r - 4.5 40.9 54.5 O r g a n i z e r and s u p e r v i s o r of ev e n t s 32.7 53. 1 12.2 2.0 O r g a n i z e r of groups 20.4 49.0 28.6 2.0 Program a d m i n i s t r a t o r 26.5 53. 1 18.4 2.0 Program p l a n n e r 41 .7 50.0 8.3 - P u b l i c r e l a t i o n s 56.0 34.0 10.0 - Source of i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s 77 . 1 20.8 34.2 23.7 Student 10.5 31.6 34.2 23.7 B r i t i s h Columbia Funct i o n s Much Some L i t t l e None A d u l t e d u c a t o r 29.4 35.3 35.3 — A d v i s e r / C o n s u l t a n t 70.6 29.4 - - A g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t program a d m i n i s t r a t o r 6.7 20.0 46.7 26.7 A g r i c u l t u r a l r e g u l a t i o n s enforcement o f f i c e r - 26.7 26.7 46.7 Emergency measures program a d m i n i s t r a t o r 6.7 - . 26.7 66.7 F a c i l i t a t o r or s e r v i c e agent 43.8 43.8 12.5 - I n s p e c t i o n a c t s enforcement o f f i c e r - 7.1 42.9 50.0 O r g a n i z e r and s u p e r v i s o r of events 47. 1 47. 1 5.9 - O r g a n i z e r of groups 23.5 52.9 23.5 - Program a d m i n i s t r a t o r 23.5 52.9 23.5 - Program p l a n n e r 23.5 47.1 29.4 - P u b l i c r e l a t i o n s 41 .2 35.3 23.5 - Source of i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s 64.7 23.5 11.8 - Student - 15.4 53.8 30.8 T a b l e 15— C o n t i n u e d Idaho F u n c t i o n s Much Some L i t t l e None A d u l t e d u c a t o r 47. 1 -41.2 11.8 _ A d v i s e r / C o n s u l t a n t 70.6 26.5 2.9 - A g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t program a d m i n i s t r a t o r - - 39.3 60.7 A g r i c u l t u r a l r e g u l a t i o n s enforcement o f f i c e r - 7.1 10.7 82. 1 Emergency measures program a d m i n i s t r a t o r - 13.3 50.0 36.7 F a c i l i t a t o r or s e r v i c e agent 23.5 61 .8 14.7 - I n s p e c t i o n a c t s enforcement o f f i c e r - - 14.8 85.2 O r g a n i z e r and s u p e r v i s o r of events 38.2 50.0 11.8 - O r g a n i z e r of groups 29.4 64.7 5.9 - Program a d m i n i s t r a t o r 20.6 50.0 26.5 2.9 Program p l a n n e r 29.4 52.9 14.7 2.9 P u b l i c r e l a t i o n s 52.9 35.3 11.8 - Source of i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s 61.8 35.3 2.9 - Student 17.9 42.9 21.9 17.9 Washington Funct i o n s Much Some L i t t l e None A d u l t e d u c a t o r 68. 1 29.8 2.1 _ A d v i s e r / C o n s u l t a n t 75.0 22.9 - 2.1 A g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t program a d m i n i s t r a t o r - 12.8 87.2 A g r i c u l t u r a l r e g u l a t i o n s enforcement o f f i c e r - - 5.3 94.7 Emergency measures program a d m i n i s t r a t o r - 2.6 53.8 43.6 F a c i l i t a t o r or s e r v i c e agent 17.8 64.4 15.6 2.2 I n s p e c t i o n a c t s enforcement o f f i c e r - - 2.6 97.4 O r g a n i z e r and s u p e r v i s o r of events 34.8 50.0 15.2 - O r g a n i z e r of groups 21 .7 54.3 23.9 - Program a d m i n i s t r a t o r 18.6 41 .9 30.2 9.3 Program p l a n n e r 36.2 53.2 8.5 2.1 P u b l i c r e l a t i o n s 19.6 58.7 21.7 - Source of i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s 66.7 .33.3 - - Student 5.4 32.4 51 .4 10.8 1 54 Ta b l e 15-- C o n t i n u e d Canada F u n c t i o n s Much Some L i t t l e None A d u l t e d u c a t o r 53.7 29.9 16.4 - A d v i s e r / C o n s u i t a n t 76.1 22.4 1 .5 - A g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t program a d m i n i s t r a t o r 1 .7 20.0 45.0 33.3 A g r i c u l t u r a l r e g u l a t i o n s enforcement o f f i c e r - 11.9 40.7 47.4 Emergency measures program a d m i n i s t r a t o r 3.4 13.6 35.6 47.4 F a c i l i t a t o r or s e r v i c e agent 33.3 45.5 16.7 4.5 I n s p e c t i o n a c t s enforcement o f f i c e r - 5.2 41 .4 53.4 O r g a n i z e r and s u p e r v i s o r of e v e n t s 36.4 51 .5 10.2 1 .9 O r g a n i z e r of groups 21.2 50.0 27.3 1 .5 Program a d m i n i s t r a t o r 25.8 53.0 19.7 1 .5 Program p l a n n e r 36.9 49.2 13.9 - P u b l i c r e l a t i o n s 52.2 34.3 13.5 - Source of i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s 73.8 21.5 4.6 - Student 7.8 27.5 39.2 25.5 U n i t e d S t a t e s F u n c t i o n s Much Some L i t t l e None A d u l t e d u c a t o r 59.3 34.6 6.1 - A d v i s e r / C o n s u l t a n t 73.2 24.4 1 .2 1 .2 A g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t program a d m i n i s t r a t o r - - 23.9 76. 1 A g r i c u l t u r a l r e g u l a t i o n s enforcement o f f i c e r - 3.0 7.6 89.4 Emergency measures program a d m i n i s t r a t o r - 7.2 52.2 40.6 F a c i l i t a t o r or s e r v i c e agent 20.3 63.3 15.2 1 .2 I n s p e c t i o n a c t s enforcement o f f i c e r - - 7.7 92.3 O r g a n i z e r and s u p e r v i s o r of e v e n t s 36.3 50.0 13.7 - O r g a n i z e r of groups 25.0 58.8 16.2 - Program a d m i n i s t r a t o r 19.5 45.5 28.5 6.5 Program p l a n n e r 33.3 53. 1 11.1 2.5 P u b l i c r e l a t i o n s 33.7 48.7 17.6 - Source of i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s 64.6 34.2 1 .2 - Student 10.8 36.9 38.5 13.8 155 s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the t h r e e r a t i n g s of each c o u n t r y and Washington s t a t e ( T a b l e 4 1 ) . The r e s u l t s as r e p o r t e d i n Appendix I I i n T a b l e 46 show t h a t t h e r e was r o l e c o n f l i c t i n Canada between the agents and t h e i r c l i e n t e l e ; and i n America and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , i n Washington s t a t e between the agents and t h e i r a l t e r s . The Canadian a g e n t s p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e i r c l i e n t e l e expect them t o pe r f o r m as a g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t program a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than they p e r c e i v e d t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n e x p e c t s them t o p e r f o r m i n t h i s way. The American a g e n t s and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , the c o u n t y e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e nts i n Washington, p e r f o r m as a g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t program a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o a l e s s e r degree than they p e r c e i v e d t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and c l i e n t e l e expect them t o p e r f o r m . There was r o l e agreement on t h i s f u n c t i o n w i t h i n A l b e r t a , B r i t i s h Columbia and Idaho (Table 4 1 ) . There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the Canadian and American agents on the time spent on t h i s f u n c t i o n w i t h the Canadian agents t e n d i n g t o spend more time than the American agents (Table 15 and T a b l e 44, i n Appendix I I ) . Over 66.0 p e r c e n t of the Canadian agents and about 24.0 p e r c e n t of . the American agents spent time p e r f o r m i n g t h i s f u n c t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e s e r e s u l t s a g a i n i n d i c a t e t h a t a gents employed i n the government model p e r f o r m a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t programs, the f i n d i n g s a l s o show t h a t t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n the u n i v e r s i t y model and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , over 39.0 p e r c e n t of the agents i n Idaho, r e p o r t e d t h a t they engage i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g 156 some a g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t programs. O v e r a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t program a d m i n i s t r a t o r has a lower s t a t u s as an e x t e n s i o n r o l e f u n c t i o n i n the u n i v e r s i t y model than i n the government one. A g r i c u l t u r a l r e g u l a t i o n s enforcement o f f i c e r : Both the Canadian and American agents gave the same r a n k i n g s ( t h i r t e e n t h out of f o u r t e e n t h ) t o the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and c l i e n t e l e , and t o themselves (Table 46, i n Appendix I I ) . There were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the c o u n t r i e s , between Washington and A l b e r t a , between Washington and B r i t i s h Columbia, and between B r i t i s h Columbia and Idaho on t h e i r r a t i n g s of importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o themselves (Table 37, i n Appendix I I ) . The Canadian agents tended t o r a t e the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o themselves h i g h e r than the American agents d i d . The c o u n t y e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents i n Washington tended £o g i v e lower r a t i n g s of the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e m s e l v e s than the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a or B r i t i s h Columbia d i d . S i m i l a r l y , the agents i n Idaho tended t o g i v e n lower r a t i n g s of the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o themselves than the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia d i d (Table 46, i n Appendix I I ) . A c c o r d i n g l y , the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the Canadian agents i n each p r o v i n c e view the a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g u l a t i o n s enforcement f u n c t i o n as an e x t e n s i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y more than the American a g e n t s , c o l l e c t i v e l y , and i n each s t a t e . The one-way ANOVA a n a l y s e s r e s u l t s show t h a t t h e r e were 157 s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the c o u n t r i e s and between p r o v i n c e s and s t a t e s on t h e i r r a t i n g s of the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and c l i e n t e l e ( T a b l e s 33 and 35, i n Appendix I I ) . The Canadian agents i n each p r o v i n c e tended t o g i v e h i g h e r r a t i n g s of the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r c l i e n t e l e than the American agents i n each s t a t e d i d ( T a b l e 46, i n Appendix I I ) . These d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t the Canadian agents p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e i r c l i e n t e l e expect them t o p e r f o r m as a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g u l a t i o n s enforcement o f f i c e r s more than American agents' c l i e n t e l e expect them t o p e r f o r m i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . As i n d i c a t e d by the ANOVAR a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s , t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the t h r e e r a t i n g s i n Canada, A l b e r t a and Washington, ( T a b l e s 41 and 46, i n Appendix I I ) . The a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was r o l e c o n f l i c t between the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers i n Canada, i n p a r t i c u l a r , i n A l b e r t a , and Washington and t h e i r a l t e r s . So, the e x t e n s i o n workers i n Canada and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , the e x t e n s i o n workers i n A l b e r t a as w e l l as e x t e n s i o n workers i n Washington do not c o n s i d e r a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g u l a t i o n s enforcement d u t i e s as t h e duty of e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s . There was r o l e agreement on t h i s f u n c t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , o v e r a l l , i n Idaho and i n B r i t i s h Columbia (Table 41, i n Appendix I I ) . As i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 15 and i n Appendix I I i n T a b l e 44, t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the time Canadian and American a g e n t s spent on t h i s f u n c t i o n w i t h the Canadians t e n d i n g t o spend more time than the Americans. 1 58 A c c o r d i n g l y , .52.6 p e r c e n t of the agents employed i n the government model and 10.6 p e r c e n t of the agents employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model model r e p o r t e d spending time p e r f o r m i n g t h i s f u n c t i o n . A l t h o u g h when t h i s s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n i t was assumed t h a t no American agents performed r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n s and a l l Canadian agents d i d , t h e s e f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t some a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n both models p e r f o r m r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s . About h a l f of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model r e p o r t e d t h a t they p e r f o r m a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g u l a t i o n s enforcement d u t i e s , such as weed c o n t r o l , l i v e s t o c k r e g u l a t i o n ( b u l l c o n t r o l ) , water c o n t r o l , a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d development, as p a r t of t h e i r e x t e n s i o n r o l e performance. S i m i l a r l y , about o n e - t e n t h of t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model v e r i f i e d t h a t they p e r f o r m some r e g u l a t o r y enforcement r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , such as weed c o n t r o l , a n i m a l h e a l t h r e q u i r e m e n t c h e c k i n g f o r l o c a l f a i r s , measuring weaning w e i g h t s of p u r e b r e d s t o c k and r e g i s t e r i n g p e s t i c i d e a p p l i c a t i o n , as p a r t of t h e i r e x t e n s i o n r o l e performance. In c o n c l u s i o n , these f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t i t seems c o r r e c t t o assume t h a t the performance of r e g u l a t o r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s may not be r e g a r d e d as one of the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f a c t o r s between the u n i v e r s i t y and the government models. Emergency measures program a d m i n i s t r a t o r : Agents employed i n b o th o r g a n i z a t i o n a l models gave the same r a n k i n g s ( e l e v e n t h 159 out of f o u r t e e n t h ) t o the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and c l i e n t e l e , and t o themselves ( T a b l e 46 i n Appendix I I ) . The one-way ANOVA a n a l y s e s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between A l b e r t a and Washington e x t e n s i o n workers on t h e i r r a t i n g s of importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o themselves w i t h A l b e r t a n s r a t i n g t h i s f u n c t i o n h i g h e r than W a s h i n g t o n i a n s ( T a b l e s 37 and 46 i n Appendix I I ) . The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a view t h i s f u n c t i o n as p a r t of t h e i r e x t e n s i o n d u t i e s ( r o l e performance) more than the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents i n Washington do. The ANOVAR a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the t h r e e r a t i n g s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , Idaho and Washington ( T a b l e s 41 and 46 i n Appendix I I ) . The r e s u l t s show t h a t t h e r e was r o l e c o n f l i c t between the American agents i n each s t a t e and t h e i r a l t e r s . The American agents i n each s t a t e seem not t o c o n s i d e r emergency measures program a d m i n i s t r a t o r as one of t h e i r e x t e n s i o n r o l e f u n c t i o n s . There was r o l e agreement on t h i s f u n c t i o n i n each p r o v i n c e and f o r Canada as a whole. There were no a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two c o u n t r i e s on the amount of time spent on t h i s f u n c t i o n ( T a b l e 43 i n Appendix I I ) . These f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t over 40 p e r c e n t of the agents employed i n both models f e e l t h i s f u n c t i o n not t o be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s , and y e t the da t a i n T a b l e 15 show t h a t 52.6 p e r c e n t of the Canadian agents and 59.4 p e r c e n t of the American agents 160 spent time p e r f o r m i n g t h i s f u n c t i o n . F a c i l i t a t o r o r s e r v i c e agent: The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s r a t e d the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n as n i n t h , t o t h e i r c l i e n t e l e as f i f t h , and t o themselves as s e v e n t h . In compar i s o n , the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n t s ranked the f u n c t i o n as n i n t h t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n , s e v e n t h t o t h e i r c l i e n t e l e , and e i g h t h t o themselves ( T a b l e 46 i n Appendix I I ) . The one-way ANOVA a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between e x t e n s i o n workers i n the two c o u n t r i e s , and between e x t e n s i o n workers i n A l b e r t a and Idaho on t h e i r r a t i n g s of the importance of p e r f o r m i n g as f a c i l i t a t o r or s e r v i c e agent t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n ( T a b l e s 30 and 33 i n Appendix I I ) . The Canadian agents c o l l e c t i v e l y and the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a i n p a r t i c u l a r gave h i g h e r r a t i n g s t o the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n than d i d the American a g e n t s c o l l e c t i v e l y and the e x t e n s i o n workers i n Idaho i n p a r t i c u l a r . These f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t the Canadian agents and the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a t o a marked degree p e r c e i v e t h a t t h a t t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n e x p e c t s them t o p e r f o r m as f a c i l i t a t o r or s e r v i c e agent more than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n i n America and i n the s t a t e of Idaho (Table 46, i n Appendix I I ) . The ANOVAR a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e were no r o l e 1.61 c o n f l i c t s on t h i s f u n c t i o n w i t h i n each p r o v i n c e , s t a t e and n a t i o n (Table 41, i n Appendix I I ) . The data i n T a b l e 15 i n d i c a t e t h a t 94.5 p e r c e n t of t h e Canadian agents and 98.8 p e r c e n t of the American agents spent time p e r f o r m i n g as f a c i l i t a t o r s or s e r v i c e a g e n t s . _There was no a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two c o u n t r i e s on time spent on t h i s f u n c t i o n ( T a b l e 44, i n Appendix I I ) . So, the f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e the s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n t o be one of the f u n c t i o n s which a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers p e r f o r m i n bo t h models. I n s p e c t i o n a c t s enforcement o f f i c e r : The Canadian and the American agents r a t e d the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n , c l i e n t e l e and f o r t h e i r r o l e performance as l a s t ( f o u r t e e n t h ) ( T a b l e 46, i n Appendix I I ) . The One-way ANOVA a n a l y s e s r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two c o u n t r i e s on t h e i r r a t i n g s of importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o themselves and t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n . There were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between each p r o v i n c e and each s t a t e on t h e i r r a t i n g s of importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e m s e l v e s (Table 37, i n Appendix I I ) . The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n each p r o v i n c e gave h i g h e r r a t i n g s t o the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o th e m s e l v e s than d i d the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents i n each s t a t e ( T a ble 46, i n Appendix I I ) . These f i n d i n g s show t h a t the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n each p r o v i n c e c o n s i d e r i n s p e c t i o n a c t s enforcement duty t o be p a r t of t h e i r r o l e 162 performance more than the ag e n t s i n each s t a t e do, a f i n d i n g t h a t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the o r i g i n a l a ssumptions c o n c e r n i n g between the two models. The Canadian agents and the e x t e n s i o n workers i n A l b e r t a gave a h i g h e r r a t i n g t o the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n than the agents i n America and i n the s t a t e of Washington. A c c o r d i n g l y , the Canadian agents and the e x t e n s i o n workers i n A l b e r t a p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e i r e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n e x p e c t s them t o p e r f o r m i n s p e c t i o n d u t i e s more than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n America, i n g e n e r a l , and i n Washington s t a t e , i n p a r t i c u l a r , ( T a b l e s 30, 33 and 46, i n Appendix I I ) . The ANOVAR a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s show t h a t t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the t h r e e r a t i n g s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s ( T a b l e s 41 and 46, i n Appendix I I ) . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e was r o l e - c o n f l i c t between the American a g e n t s and t h e i r c l i e n t e l e who e x p e c t them t o p e r f o r m i n s p e c t i o n d u t i e s . There was r o l e agreement on t h i s f u n c t i o n i n each p r o v i n c e i n Canada. The d a t a i n Table 15 and i n Appendix I I i n T a b l e 44 show t h a t t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e d i f f e r e n c e s between the Canadian and American agents on the time spent on t h i s f u n c t i o n w i t h the Canadian agents t e n d i n g t o spend more time than the American a g e n t s . These d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t 7.7 p e r c e n t of the American a g e n t s , and 46.6 p e r c e n t of the Canadian a g e n t s spent 'some or l i t t l e ' time p e r f o r m i n g as i n s p e c t i o n a c t s enforcement o f f i c e r s . The a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n w o rkers employed i n the government model l i s t e d some 163 i n s p e c t i o n d u t i e s , such as c r e d i t program i n s p e c t i o n , s h e l t e r b e l t program i n s p e c t i o n , d a i r y development l o a n i n s p e c t i o n , weed i n s p e c t i o n , n a t i v e range improvement program i n s p e c t i o n , farm i n s p e c t i o n , as p a r t of t h e i r r o l e performance. However, t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model d i d not l i s t any i n s p e c t i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s except some a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g u l a t i o n s enforcement d u t i e s , and hence t h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t they may have c o n s i d e r e d a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g u l a t i o n s enforcement and i n s p e c t i o n as h a v i n g the same meaning and r e p o r t e d t h a t they performed i n s p e c t i o n d u t i e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s 92.3 p e r c e n t of the agents w o r k i n g i n the u n i v e r s i t y model d i d not p e r c e i v e t hemselves as p e r f o r m i n g i n s p e c t i o n or enforcement a c t s , a f i n d i n g t h a t i s i n harmony w i t h the assumptions of t h i s s t u d y and the l i t e r a t u r e on e x t e n s i o n . O v e r a l l , these f i n d i n g s show t h a t a few e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model p e r f o r m i n s p e c t i o n d u t i e s , and hence t h i s f u n c t i o n may not be r e g a r d e d as one of the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f a c t o r s between the government model and the u n i v e r s i t y model. O r g a n i z e r and s u p e r v i s o r of e v e n t s : The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s r a t e d the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n as s e v e n t h , t o t h e i r c l i e n t e l e as f o u r t h , and t o themselves as s i x t h . In c o n t r a s t , the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents ranked the f u n c t i o n as s e v e n t h t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and t o t h e m s e l v e s , and t h i r d t o t h e i r c l i e n t e l e ( T a b l e 46, i n Appendix I I ) . 164 There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between Washington and A l b e r t a e x t e n s i o n workers on t h e i r r a t i n g s on the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e m s e l v e s , w i t h the agents i n Washington t e n d i n g t o r a t e t h i s f u n c t i o n h i g h e r than the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a ( T a b l e s 37 and 46, i n Appendix I I ) . A c c o r d i n g l y , the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a gents i n Washington c o n s i d e r ' o r g a n i z e r and s u p e r v i s o r of e v e n t s ' a more i m p o r t a n t e x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n t o be performed than do the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a . The one-way ANOVA a n a l y s e s r e s u l t s show t h a t were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between e x t e n s i o n workers i n A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h Columbia on t h e i r r a t i n g s of the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and t o t h e m s e l v e s , w i t h the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia t e n d i n g t o r a t e t h i s f u n c t i o n h i g h e r than the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a ( T a b l e s 33, 37 and 46, i n Appendix I I ) . So, the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia p e r f o r m and they p e r c e i v e t h e i r e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n e x p e c t s them t o perfo r m as o r g a n i z e r s and s u p e r v i s o r s of events more than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n A l b e r t a . There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between e x t e n s i o n workers i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Idaho on t h e i r r a t i n g s of the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia t e n d i n g t o r a t e t h i s f u n c t i o n h i g h e r than the agents i n Idaho ( T a b l e s 33 and 46, i n Appendix I I ) . . The e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia e x p e c t s i t s d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s t o p e r f o r m as o r g a n i z e r s 165 and s u p e r v i s o r s of e v e n t s more than the e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n i n Idaho. The ANOVAR a n a l y s i s shows t h a t t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the t h r e e r a t i n g s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s as a whole and i n Idaho (Table 41, i n Appendix I I ) . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e r o l e - c o n f l i c t between the e x t e n s i o n workers i n Idaho and i n American as a whole and t h e i r c l i e n t e l e ( T a ble 46, i n Appendix I I ) . A c c o r d i n g l y , the American a g e n t s , as whole, and e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e i n Idaho p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e i r c l i e n t e l e e x p ect them t o p e r f o r m as o r g a n i z e r s and s u p e r v i s o r s of e v e n t s . There was r o l e agreement on t h i s f u n c t i o n i n each p r o v i n c e i n Canada and i n Washington s t a t e ( T a b l e s 41 and 46, i n Appendix I I ) . Over 86 p e r c e n t of the a gents employed i n both models spent 'much or some' time p e r f o r m i n g as o r g a n i z e r s or s u p e r v i s o r s of e v e n t s (Table 15). There was no a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the Canadian and American a g e n t s on the time spent on t h i s f u n c t i o n (Table 44, i n Appendix I I ) . These f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t ' o r g a n i z e r and s u p e r v i s o r of e v e n t s ' f u n c t i o n was c o n s i d e r e d by the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n both models as one of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s . O r g a n i z e r of groups: The county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a gents r a t e d the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and t o themselves as s i x t h , and t o t h e i r c l i e n t e l e as f o u r t h . In c o n t r a s t , the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s ranked 166 the f u n c t i o n as e i g h t h t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and c l i e n t e l e , and as n i n t h t o themselves (Table 46, i n Appendix I I ) . The one-way ANOVA a n a l y s e s r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between agents i n the two c o u n t r i e s , and between A l b e r t a and Idaho or Washington on t h e i r r a t i n g s of importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o themselves ( T a b l e s 30 and 3 7 ) . The American agents i n each s t a t e gave h i g h e r r a t i n g t o the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o themselves than the Canadian a g e n t s , as a whole, and the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a ( T able 46, i n Appendix I I ) . So, the American agents i n each s t a t e c o n s i d e r p e r f o r m i n g as an ' o r g a n i z e r of groups' as a more i m p o r t a n t duty than do t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n A l b e r t a or i n Canada as a whole. There were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the e x t e n s i o n workers i n A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h Columbia and Washington on t h e i r r a t i n g s of importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n ( T a b l e 33, i n Appendix I I ) . The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a r a t e d the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n lower than the e x t e n s i o n workers i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Washington (Table 32, i n Appendix I I ) . Thus, the e x t e n s i o n workers i n Washington and B r i t i s h Columbia p e r c e i v e ' o r g a n i z e r of groups' t o be a more i m p o r t a n t e x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n i n the o p i n i o n of t h e i r e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n than i s the case f o r t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n A l b e r t a . The one-way ANOVA a n a l y s e s r e s u l t s a l s o show t h a t t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two c o u n t r i e s , and between each p r o v i n c e and each s t a t e , as w e l l as 167 between Idaho and Washington on t h e i r r a t i n g s of importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r c l i e n t e l e ( T a b l e s 30 and 35, i n Appendix I I ) . Both w i t h i n s t a t e s and a n a l y z e d as a s i n g l e group, the agents i n Idaho and Washington tended t o irate the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r c l i e n t e l e h i g h e r than the Canadian agents as a s i n g l e group or when a n a l y z e d on a p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s . Thus, the e x t e n s i o n agents employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model p e r c e i v e t h a t t h e i r c l i e n t e l e expect them t o p e r f o r m as o r g a n i z e r s of groups more than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the government model ( T a b l e 46, i n Appendix I I ) . The ANOVAR a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the t h r e e r a t i n g s i n Canada, B r i t i s h Columbia and Washington, w i t h a l l t e n d i n g t o g i v e h i g h e r r a t i n g s t o the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and lower r a t i n g s t o t h e i r c l i e n t e l e ( T a b l e s 41 and 46, i n Appendix I I ) . These f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e r o l e c o n f l i c t between the e x t e n s i o n workers i n B r i t i s h Columbia and i n Canada as a whole and t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n . So, the e x t e n s i o n workers i n B r i t i s h Columbia and i n Canada as a whole p e r c e i v e t h a t t h e i r e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s expect them t o p e r f o r m as o r g a n i z e r s of groups more than t h e i r c l i e n t e l e do. A l t h o u g h t h e r e was r o l e c o n f l i c t between the e x t e n s i o n workers i n Washington and t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e r e were r o l e agreements on t h i s f u n c t i o n i n Idaho and i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s as a whole. The d a t a i n T a b l e 15 show t h a t 71.2 p e r c e n t of the agents employed i n the government model and 83.8 p e r c e n t of those 168 employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model spent 'much or some' time p e r f o r m i n g as o r g a n i z e r s of groups. There was no a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the American and the Canadian agents on the time spent on t h i s f u n c t i o n ( T able 44, i n Appendix I I ) . Program a d m i n i s t r a t o r : The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s r a t e d the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n as s i x t h , t o t h e i r c l i e n t e l e as n i n t h , and t o themselves as e i g h t h . In c o n t r a s t , the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents r a t e d the f u n c t i o n as e i g h t h t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n , and as n i n t h t o t h e i r c l i e n t e l e and t o themselves (Table 46, i n Appendix I I ) . The one-way ANOVA a n a l y s e s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between any groups on t h e i r r a t i n g s of importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and c l i e n t e l e , and t o themselves ( T a b l e s 30, 33, 35, 37 and 46, i n Appendix I I ) . The ANOVAR a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the t h r e e r a t i n g s i n Canada as a s i n g l e group and when a n a l y z e d on a p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s . There was r o l e c o n f l i c t between the e x t e n s i o n workers and t h e i r c l i e n t e l e ( T a b l e s 41 and 46, i n Appendix I I ) . Hence, the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model p e r c e i v e t h a t t h e i r c l i e n t e l e expect them t o pe r f o r m as program a d m i n i s t r a t o r s l e s s than they a c t u a l l y do. There was r o l e agreement on t h i s f u n c t i o n i n Idaho and f o r the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n g e n e r a l . 169 The d a t a i n T a b l e 15 i n d i c a t e t h a t over 65 p e r c e n t of the agents employed i n the two models spent 'much or some' time p e r f o r m i n g as program a d m i n i s t r a t o r . There was no a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the Canadian and American agents on the time spent on t h i s f u n c t i o n ( T a ble 44, i n Appendix I I ) . These f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t what a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model perf o r m and what they p e r c e i v e d t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s and c l i e n t e l e expect them t o p e r f o r m a r e s i m i l a r . However, t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n the government model e x p e r i e n c e r o l e c o n f l i c t , where they p e r c e i v e t h a t t h e i r c l i e n t e l e e x pect them t o p e r f o r m l e s s as program a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . In c o n c l u s i o n , e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model have been g i v e n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o a d m i n i s t e r p r o v i n c i a l as w e l l as f e d e r a l programs. However, th e s e f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t the c l i e n t e l e a r e not i n agreement w i t h such k i n d of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangements w i t h the r e s u l t s t h a t the e x t e n s i o n worker can not s a t i s f y both groups. Program p l a n n e r : The county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents r a t e d the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n as t h i r d , t o t h e i r c l i e n t e l e as e i g h t h , and t o themselves as f i f t h . In c o m p a r i s o n , the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s r a t e d the f u n c t i o n as f i f t h t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and t o t h e m s e l v e s , and seventh t o t h e i r c l i e n t e l e ( T a ble 46, i n Appendix I I ) . The one-way ANOVA a n a l y s e s r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between any groups on 170 t h e i r r a t i n g s of importance of program p l a n n e r f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and c l i e n t e l e , and t o themselves ( T a b l e s 30, 33, 35, 37 and 46, i n Appendix I I ) . The ANOVAR a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s show t h a t t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the t h r e e r a t i n g s i n A l b e r t a and i n Canada as a whole, i n Washington and i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s as a whole. The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e were r o l e c o n f l i c t s between the e x t e n s i o n agents employed i n b o t h models and t h e i r c l i e n t e l e . So, the e x t e n s i o n agents employed i n both models p e r c e i v e t h a t t h e i r c l i e n t e l e expect them t o p e r f o r m as program p l a n n e r s l e s s than the r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s from t h e i r e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s as w e l l as t h e i r own r o l e performance ( T a b l e s 41 and 46, i n Appendix I I ) . The d a t a i n T able 15 show t h a t over 86 p e r c e n t of the Canadian and American agents spent 'much or some' time p e r f o r m i n g as program p l a n n e r s . There was no a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the American and Canadian agents on the time spent on t h i s f u n c t i o n ( T able 44, i n Appendix I I ) . The o v e r a l l a n a l y s e s suggest t h a t the program p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n i s one of the i m p o r t a n t d u t i e s which the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n both models p e r f o r m . P u b l i c r e l a t i o n s : The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s r a t e d the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n , t o t h e i r c l i e n t e l e , and t o themselves as t h i r d . In c o n t r a s t , the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents r a t e d the f u n c t i o n as t h i r d t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n , s i x t h t o t h e i r c l i e n t e l e and f o u r t h t o 171 themselves ( T a b l e 46, i n Appendix I I ) . The one-way ANOVA a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between any groups on t h e i r r a t i n g s of importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and t o themselves ( T a b l e 30, i n Appendix I I ) . However, t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a and the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents i n Washington on t h e i r r a t i n g s of importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r c l i e n t e l e w i t h the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s t e n d i n g t o g i v e h i g h e r r a t i n g s than the agents i n Washington ( T a b l e 35, i n Appendix I I ) . A c c o r d i n g l y , the e x t e n s i o n workers i n A l b e r t a p r e c e i v e d more than those i n Washington t h a t ' p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s ' as one of the more i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n s of e x t e n s i o n work, which t h e i r c l i e n t e l e e x pect them to p e r f o r m . The ANOVAR a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the t h r e e r a t i n g s i n each c o u n t r y as w e l l as w i t h i n each p r o v i n c e and each s t a t e ( T a b l e s 41 and 46, i n Appendix I I ) . There was r o l e - c o n f l i c t between the e x t e n s i o n workers and t h e i r c l i e n t e l e i n each c o u n t r y as w e l l as w i t h i n each p r o v i n c e and s t a t e . Respondents employed i n both models p e r c e i v e t h a t t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n e x p e c t s t h a t they p e r f o r m the f u n c t i o n of p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s more than t h e i r c l i e n t e l e do. Over 82 p e r c e n t of the agents employed i n both models spent 'much or some' time p e r f o r m i n g p u b l i c r e l a t i o n f u n c t i o n s ( T a b l e 15). There was no a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e 17.2 between the American and Canadian a g e n t s on the time spent on t h i s f u n c t i o n (Table 44, i n Appendix I I ) . In summary, respond e n t s i n each c o u n t r y p e r c e i v e d the p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s f u n c t i o n as one of the i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n s which t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s expect them t o p e r f o r m . Source of i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s : The county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents r a t e d the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and c l i e n t e l e as second, and t o themselves as f i r s t . In compa r i s o n , the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s r a t e d t h i s f u n c t i o n as second t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and t o themselves,- and f i r s t t o t h e i r c l i e n t e l e ( T able 46, i n Appendix I I ) . The one-way ANOVA a n a l y s e s r e s u l t s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e were no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between any groups on t h e i r r a t i n g s of importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n , t o t h e i r c l i e n t e l e and t o thems e l v e s ( T a b l e s 30, 33, 35, 37 and 46, i n Appendix I I ) . The ANOVAR a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s show t h a t t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the t h r e e r a t i n g s i n A l b e r t a and i n Canada as a whole, and i n Washington and the U n i t e d S t a t e s as a whole. There was r o l e - c o n f l i c t between the e x t e n s i o n workers and t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n i n A l b e r t a and i n Canada as a whole, as w e l l as between the e x t e n s i o n workers and t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n i n Washington or the U n i t e d S t a t e s as a whole. Thus, these suggest t h a t a l l the respond e n t s p e r c e i v e t h a t t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s expect them t o p e r f o r m l e s s as a source of i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s than do t h e i r c l i e n t e l e ( T a b l e s 41 and 173 46, i n Appendix I I ) . There was r o l e agreement on the p e r c e i v e d importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n s , c l i e n t e l e and i n d i v i d u a l e x t e n s i o n workers i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Idaho. Over 95 p e r c e n t of the Canadian and American agents spent 'much or some' time p e r f o r m i n g as sources of i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s ( T a b l e 15). There was no a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the Canadian and the American agents on the time spent on t h i s f u n c t i o n ( T a b l e 4 4 ) . So, the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n both e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l models c o n s i d e r s e r v i n g as s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s as one of t h e i r major r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ( r o l e performance) and they a l s o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e i r c l i e n t e l e , and t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t t h e i r employers, agree w i t h t h i s assessment, thus almost a l l the respondents p e r f o r m the f u n c t i o n . S t u d e n t : The d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s r a t e d the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and t o themselves as t e n t h , and t o t h e i r c l i e n t e l e as t w e l f t h . In c o n t r a s t , the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n t s r a t e d the same f u n c t i o n as t e n t h t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n , c l i e n t e l e , and t o themselves ( T a b l e 46, i n Appendix I I ) . The one-way ANOVA a n a l y s e s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the American and Canadian a g e n t s , and between the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a and the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g ents i n Idaho on t h e i r r a t i n g s of importance on t h i s f u n c t i o n t o t h e m s e l v e s . The 174 county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l agents i n Idaho tended t o r a t e the importance of t h i s f u n c t i o n t o themselves h i g h e r than d i d the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n A l b e r t a ; and the Canadian agents tended t o r a t e the same f u n c t i o n t o themselves h i g h e r than the American agents ( T a b l e s 30, 37 and 46, i n Appendix I I ) . A c c o r d i n g l y , i t appears t h a t the Canadian more than the American agents c o n s i d e r p e r f o r m i n g the s t u d e n t f u n c t i o n as a l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e u s e f u l f o r a c q u i r i n g f a c t s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l improvement. However the e x t e n s i o n workers i n Idaho t o a g r e a t e r degree appear t o c o n s i d e r p e r f o r m i n g the s t u d e n t f u n c t i o n more i m p o r t a n t than do t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n A l b e r t a . The ANOVAR a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s among the t h r e e r a t i n g s i n Canada, i n Idaho, i n Washington, and i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s as a whole. There was r o l e c o n f l i c t between the e x t e n s i o n workers i n Idaho, i n Washington and i n America as a whole and t h e i r a l t e r s ; as w e l l as between the Canadian agents and t h e i r c l i e n t e l e . The a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers i n Idaho, i n Washington and i n America as a whole p e r c e i v e t h a t they p e r f o r m t h i s f u n c t i o n more than t h e i r a l t e r s expect them t o p e r f o r m . S i m i l a r l y , the Canadian e x t e n s i o n workers as a whole gave a h i g h e r r a t i n g t o the same f u n c t i o n t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and t o themselves than they b e l i e v e t h e i r c l i e n t e l e would g i v e . There was r o l e agreement on t h i s f u n c t i o n i n A l b e r t a and i n B r i t i s h Columbia, s i n g l y ( T a b l e s 41 and 46, i n Appendix I I ) . The d a t a i n T a b l e 15 show t h a t over 74.5 p e r c e n t of the agents employed i n b o t h models spent time as s t u d e n t s l e a r n i n g 175 new i d e a s . There was no a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e Canadian and American agents on t h e time spent on t h i s f u n c t i o n ( T a b l e 44, i n Appendix I I ) . The o v e r a l l a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e t h a t i n the u n i v e r s i t y model e x t e n s i o n workers c o n s i d e r p e r f o r m i n g the s t u d e n t f u n c t i o n more i m p o r t a n t than both t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and c l i e n t e l e do, and th o s e employed i n the government model c o n s i d e r the stude n t f u n c t i o n more i m p o r t a n t than t h e i r c l i e n t e l e do. In summary, the r o l e p e r c e p t i o n and r o l e performance of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government and u n i v e r s i t y models were e x p l o r e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . The agents employed i n both models r e p o r t e d t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of importance of the f o l l o w i n g e x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n s t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n , t o t h e i r c l i e n t e l e and t o t h e m s e l v e s . In t h e u n i v e r s i t y model, the American e x t e n s i o n workers p e r f o r m a s : - a g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t and emergency measures programs a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o a l e s s e r degree than t h e i r a l t e r s expect them t o p e r f o r m . - s t u d e n t t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than t h e i r a l t e r s expect them t o p e r f o r m . - a d v i s e r / c o n s u l t a n t and sou r c e of i n f o r m a t i o n and i d e a s t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n expect them t o p e r f o r m . - a d u l t e d u c a t o r , program p l a n n e r and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s o f f i c e r t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n t h e i r c l i e n t e l e e x pect them t o p e r f o r m . 176 - i n s p e c t i o n a c t s e n f o r c e m e n t o f f i c e r a n d o r g a n i z e r a n d s u p e r v i s o r o f e v e n t s t o a l e s s e r d e g r e e t h a n t h e i r c l i e n t e l e e x p e c t t h e m t o p e r f o r m . I n t h e g o v e r n m e n t m o d e l , t h e C a n a d i a n e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s p e r f o r m a s : - a d v i s e r / c o n s u l t a n t t o g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n t h e i r a l t e r s e x p e c t t h e m t o p e r f o r m . - a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g u l a t i o n s e n f o r c e m e n t o f f i c e r t o a l e s s e r d e g r e e t h a n t h e i r a l t e r s e x p e c t t h e m t o p e r f o m . - o r g a n i z e r o f g r o u p s t o a l e s s e r d e g r e e t h a n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n e x p e c t s t h e m t o p e r f o r m . - s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n a n d i d e a s t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n e x p e c t s t h e m t o p e r f o r m . - a d u l t e d u c a t o r , p r o g r a m a d m i n i s t r a t o r , p r o g r a m p l a n n e r , p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s o f f i c e r a n d s t u d e n t t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n t h e i r c l i e n t e l e e x p e c t t h e m t o p e r f o r m . - a g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t p r o g r a m a d m i n i s t r a t o r t o a l e s s e r d e g r e e t h a n t h e i r c l i e n t e l e e x p e c t t h e m t o p e r f o m . T h e e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d i n b o t h m o d e l s p e r c e i v e d t h e s a m e r a n k i n g o f i m p o r t a n c e o n a f e w o f t h e e x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n s t o t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e i r c l i e n t e l e a n d t o t h e m s e l v e s , a f i n d i n g w h i c h i n d i c a t e s n o r o l e - c o n f l i c t . T h e s e f u n c t i o n s f o r t h e g o v e r n m e n t m o d e l a r e : 1 . e m e r g e n c y m e a s u r e s p r o g r a m a d m i n i s t r a t o r 2. i n s p e c t i o n a c t s e n f o r c e m e n t o f f i c e r 177 3. f a c i l i t a t o r or s e r v i c e agents 4. o r g a n i z e r and s u p e r v i s o r of e v e n t s And f o r the u n i v e r s i t y model the f u n c t i o n s a r e : 1. a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g u l a t i o n s enforcement o f f i c e r 2. o r g a n i z e r of groups 3. f a c i l i t a t o r or s e r v i c e agent 4. program a d m i n i s t r a t o r One no t e s t h a t ' f a c i l i t a t o r or s e r v i c e agent' seems t o be an a c c e p t a b l e e x t e n s i o n r o l e f u n c t i o n f o r both o r g a n i z a t i o n a l models f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e . Summary Methods and Sources of I n f o r m a t i o n More of the county e x t e n s i o n a g r i c u l t u r a l a g e n t s tended t o be members i n p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s and read r e s e a r c h j o u r n a l s or o t h e r r e s e a r c h p u b l i c a t i o n s than the d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s . The e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model c o n s i d e r the P r o v i n c i a l Department of A g r i c u l t u r e as t h e i r main sour c e of r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n , w h i l e those employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model c o n s i d e r the Land-Grant U n i v e r s i t y as t h e i r main source of r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n . E x t e n s i o n Methods and Techniques The a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n w o r kers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model use a wider v a r i e t y of methods and t e c h n i q u e s 178 than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the government model. The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h a t e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model a p p a r e n t l y know more methods and t e c h n i q u e s t o e f f e c t i v e l y t e a c h t h e i r c l i e n t e l e t o adopt new p r a c t i c e s . E x t e n s i o n R o l e F u n c t i o n s A l t h o u g h e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n b o t h o r g a n i z a t i o n a l models p e r c e i v e d r o l e - c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n , or c l i e n t e l e or both on most of the e x t e n s i o n r o l e f u n c t i o n s , they seem t o agree on t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of no r o l e - c o n f l i c t on ' f a c i l i t a t o r or s e r v i c e agent' f u n c t i o n . The summary and c o n c l u s i o n s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , a l o n g w i t h o t h e r i s s u e s t h a t have been i d e n t i f i e d i n the c o u r s e of the d i s c u s s i o n , w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n the next c h a p t e r . 1 7 9 CHAPTER VII SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS This chapter draws together the previous six chapters through a summary of the presented material. It covers the purpose of the study, research design, findings and conclusions. An overview, l i m i t a t i o n s and implications of the study and recommendations for further research as well as a concluding note are also presented. Purpose A g r i c u l t u r a l extension services in North America are provided either d i r e c t l y by government departments of agriculture, or by colleges and u n i v e r s i t i e s in cooperation with government departments of ag r i c u l t u r e . The organizational structures may be described as the government model, in Canada, and the university model, in the United States. The provision of a g r i c u l t u r a l extension service in Canada i s a p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . It is organized within an executive branch of the Government, the Ministry of Agriculture. The Cooperative Extension Service in the United States i s a cooperatively funded and managed arrangement in which the Federal Department of Agriculture, the Land-Grant U n i v e r s i t i e s , and county governments are partners. It i s an integral part of the Land-Grant Un i v e r s i t i e s system. The government and the university models for organizing 180 a g r i c u l t u r a l extension services have been in use for over half a century in North America. Researchers have investigated a variety of problems related to a g r i c u l t u r a l extension work within systems based on each model. However, the d i f f e r e n t i a l effect of these two forms of a g r i c u l t u r a l extension' organization on the role perception and role performance of the individual a g r i c u l t u r a l extension worker has gone unexplored. It i s assumed that how an extension worker c a r r i e s out his r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i s influenced by his understanding of what his employing organization expects him to do and by what the farmers he seeks to serve expect of him. The purpose of t h i s study was to explore the differences in role perceptions and role performance of a g r i c u l t u r a l extension workers employed in the two kinds of organizational models for a g r i c u l t u r a l extension services. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the research questions addressed in t h i s study were: 1 . What are the differences between the positions of a g r i c u l t u r a l extension workers in the government and the university models? 2. What i s the r e l a t i v e importance of d i f f e r e n t kinds of professional development in the two models? 3. What effects does an extension worker's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for performing regulatory functions have on his role performance? 4. What are the differences between government and university models with regard to extension workers': a. selection of adult education methods and techniques? 181 b. scope of educational r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ? c. interest in research? d. interest in kinds of professional upgrading? e. membership in professional societies? f. reading interests? Research Design This study used role theory as the conceptual framework for examining extension workers' roles in systems which are represented by government and university models. It seems reasonable to assume that an extension worker takes account of the perceptions of the often c o n f l i c t i n g expectations of his organization and c l i e n t e l e v i s a v i s his role and determines how much weight he w i l l give them in deciding his own role performance. Role theory as conceived by Parsons was selected because i t e x p l i c i t l y recognizes these multiple expectations and gives emphasis to them. The variables studied include agents' personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , agents' professional development, agents' use of methods and sources of information, agents' attitude toward regulatory r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , agents' choice . of methods and techniques, and agents' extension role functions. The data were obtained through a mail questionnaire completed by 69 d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s in Alberta and B r i t i s h Columbia, and 84 county extension a g r i c u l t u r a l agents in Idaho and Washington. The e f f e c t i v e return rate for the questionnaire 182 was 79.7 percent. These provinces and states were selected to (a) take into account the geographical proximity to the researcher who i s located in Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, (b) take into account any differences in administration of a g r i c u l t u r a l extension services between provinces.and between states, and (c) minimize the cost and time to conduct the research. The data were analyzed using the UBC S t a t i s t i c a l Package for Social Sciences to produce various descriptive s t a t i s t i c s ; chi-squares to examine the degree of association; t-test for testing differences of group means; one-way ANOVA analysis to examine relationship among independent groups with options for contrasts of group means and multiple comparisons of group means; and ANOVAR analysis to examine relationships among dependent (within group) variables. Findings The extension workers employed in the university model were older than their counterparts employed in the government model. The higher percentages of extension workers in the youngest age category in Alberta and B r i t i s h Columbia may be accounted for by the r e l a t i v e l y higher turnover rate of people in t h i s age group in these provinces than in the two states. The extension workers employed in the government model had shorter tenure and were newer to extension work than the extension workers employed in the university model. These 183 f i n d i n g s may have been due, a t l e a s t i n p a r t , t o the h i g h e r t u r n o v e r r a t e among the youngest age group i n the p r o v i n c e s i n comparison t o the s t a t e s . A l s o the u n i v e r s i t y environment may m o t i v a t e the e x t e n s i o n workers t o seek t o improve t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l competence t o p e r f o r m t h e i r e x t e n s i o n r o l e , l e a d i n g t o the s i t u a t i o n i n which the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model had l o n g e r t e n u r e and had been a s s o c i a t e d l o n g e r w i t h t h e i r c u r r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the government model. More of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model p o s s e s s e d h i g h e r academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n the government model at the time of employment. The u n i v e r s i t y model r e q u i r e s h i g h e r academic q u a l i f i c a t i o n s than the government model at the time of employment, which i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n . No respondents had s p e c i a l i z e d i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n e i t h e r c o u n t r y a t the time they had s t a r t e d w o r k i ng i n e x t e n s i o n work. A l t h o u g h i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model would have s p e c i a l i z e d i n e x t e n s i o n and t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the government model have majored i n s p e c i a l i z e d a g r i c u l t u r e , the r e s u l t s i n t h i s s tudy support o n l y the assumption t h a t the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model would major i n o t h e r a r e a s of a g r i c u l t u r a l s c i e n c e s . The two k i n d s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l models f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n h i r e d t h e i r e x t e n s i o n workers from a l l a r e a s of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n a g r i c u l t u r e r a t h e r than r e s t r i c t i n g 184 t h e i r employment p o l i c y t o o n l y those e x t e n s i o n workers who had s p e c i a l i z e d i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n or c l o s e l y r e l a t e d a r e a s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e seems t o be encouragement f o r c o n t i n u o u s p r o f e s s i o n a l development t o improve the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers' r o l e performance i n e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e i n b o th models, the support appears t o be somewhat s t r o n g e r i n the u n i v e r s i t y model. T h i s h i g h e r l e v e l of support may be due t o the f a c t t h a t a u n i v e r s i t y , i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n i t s h i g h academic e x p e c t a t i o n s as an i n s t i t u t i o n of h i g h e r l e a r n i n g , p r o v i d e s more o p p o r t u n i t i e s and encouragement f o r c o n t i n u o u s p r o f e s s i o n a l development of i t s e x t e n s i o n workers than a department of a g r i c u l t u r e . The r e s u l t s a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t more e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model have completed programs of graduate s t u d i e s than the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model, which i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s e x p e c t a t i o n . E x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n and s p e c i a l i z e d a g r i c u l t u r e appear t o be the p r i m a r y a r e a s of i n t e r e s t f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l development i n the government and u n i v e r s i t y models, r e s p e c t i v e l y , a f i n d i n g which i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the a s s u mption. I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model would s p e c i a l i z e i n e x t e n s i o n because they might assume t h e i r r o l e as a d u l t e d u c a t o r s , w h i l e t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s would major i n s p e c i a l i z e d a g r i c u l t u r e i n o r d e r t o assume t h e i r r o l e as p r o v i d e r s of i n f o r m a t i o n . A l t h o u g h the r e s u l t s show t h a t e x t e n s i o n workers i n the u n i v e r s i t y model were not p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g i n e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n , the 185 r e s u l t may be e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n i s an emerging f i e l d of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n u n i v e r s i t y programs and thus e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model might be i n c l i n e d t o pursue g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s i n the more e s t a b l i s h e d a r e a s of a g r i c u l t u r a l s c i e n c e s . Most of the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model took f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g o u t s i d e t h e i r c o u n t r y , w h i l e t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y took t h e i r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g i n t h e i r own c o u n t r y . T h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the assumption t h a t i n the l a n d - g r a n t u n i v e r s i t i e s e x t e n s i o n i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of r e s i d e n t i a l i n s t r u c t i o n which n e c e s s i t a t e s the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of p r o f e s s i o n a l u p g r a d i n g programs f o r e x t e n s i o n workers more than the government model. Moreover, many of the l a n d - g r a n t u n i v e r s i t i e s have e s t a b l i s h e d t h r e e weeks e x t e n s i o n summer s c h o o l t r a i n i n g programs f o r e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s . Because such programs a r e few i n Canada, most of the Canadian e x t e n s i o n workers tend t o ta k e t h e s e s h o r t c o u r s e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model have s t r o n g e r n e g a t i v e views than do thos e working i n the government model c o n c e r n i n g the e f f e c t s of p e r f o r m i n g r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s has on t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l work. Whil e i t had been a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the Amercian agents would be n e g a t i v e l y p r e d i s p o s e d r e g a r d i n g the performance of r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s because of t h e i r t r a d i t i o n of s e p a r a t i n g r e g u l a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n , i t had been a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t the Canadian a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s would have p e r c e i v e d t h e i r r e g u l a t o r y and e d u c a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as complementary. 186 However, members of b o t h groups r e p o r t e d t h a t they saw an i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y between p e r f o r m i n g the two f u n c t i o n s , w i t h the American e x t e n s i o n workers r e p o r t i n g a s t o r n g e r n e g a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n . There were unexpected f i n d i n g s f o r both the Amercian and the Canadian e x t e n s i o n workers r e g a r d i n g the performance of r e g u l a t o r y and i n s p e c t i o n d u t i e s . About one- t e n t h of the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model c l a i m e d t h a t they were p e r f o r m i n g such d u t i e s , a c l a i m which appears t o be q u e s t i o n a b l e inasmuch as the n a t i o n a l agreements reached i n 1919 and 1938 c l e a r l y s t a t e t h a t they s h a l l not be r e q u i r e d t o p e r f o r m such d u t i e s . Furthermore i t seems h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t agents would be a s s i g n e d such o f f i c i a l d u t i e s w i t h o u t t h e i r e mploying o r g a n i z a t i o n becoming i n v o l v e d i n the d e c i s i o n . In c o n t r a s t , almost h a l f of the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model s a i d t h a t they spent no time p e r f o r m i n g such d u t i e s , a r r a n g i n g i n s t e a d t o have them performed by v a r i o u s o t h e r o f f i c i a l s . A c c o r d i n g l y the performance of i n s p e c t i o n and r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s i s not such a c l e a r c u t d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e between the two models as had been p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d . More of the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model tended t o be members of p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i e t i e s and read r e s e a r c h j o u r n a l s or o t h e r r e s e a r c h p u b l i c a t i o n s than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the government model. These f i n d i n g s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the assumption t h a t a u n i v e r s i t y , as an i n s t i t u t i o n of h i g h e r l e a r n i n g , may have h i g h e r e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r i t s e x t e n s i o n workers t o have membership i n p r o f e s s i o n a l 187 s o c i e t i e s and t o read r e s e a r c h p u b l i c a t i o n s so as t o remain up t o d a t e i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n s than a department of a g r i c u l t u r e . The main source of r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n f o r e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model i s the Land-Grant U n i v e r s i t y , and f o r t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the government model, the P r o v i n c i a l Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . These f i n d i n g s are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the a ssumptions f o r the models. More of the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model tended t o use v a r i o u s t y p e s of methods and t e c h n i q u e s than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n t h e government model do. The f i n d i n g i s i n harmony w i t h the e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t the u n i v e r s i t y , more than the p r o v i n c i a l department of a g r i c u l t u r e , e x p e c t s the e x t e n s i o n workers t o p e r f o r m as a d u l t e d u c a t o r s , and t h u s they a r e e x p e c t e d t o know more methods and t e c h n i q u e s t o t e a c h t h e i r c l i e n t e l e t o adopt new p r a c t i c e s . The a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n w o r kers a r e m e n - i n - t h e - m i d d l e , between t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and c l i e n t e l e , who have t o l i n k d i f f e r e n t w o r l d s , i f not r e c o n c i l e c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s . T h e i r r o l e p e rformances might be a f f e c t e d by the e x p e c t a t i o n s of t h e i r a l t e r s , t h u s l e a d i n g t o r o l e - c o n f l i c t . In t h i s s tudy r o l e - c o n f l i c t r e f e r s t o the s i t u a t i o n i n which the e x t e n s i o n worker p e r c e i v e s h i s j o b performance i s i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h h i s p e r c e p t i o n of the e x p e c t a t i o n s of e i t h e r h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , or c l i e n t e l e or both on any of the e x t e n s i o n r o l e f u n c t i o n s . The a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model p e r c e i v e d r o l e - c o n f l i c t on ten of the e x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n s . S i x 188 of the c o n f l i c t s were w i t h t h e i r c l i e n t e l e , two w i t h t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and two w i t h both the o r g a n i z a t i o n and c l i e n t e l e . In c o n t r a s t , t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model p e r c e i v e d the same number of r o l e - c o n f l i c t s , but i n d i f f e r e n t p r o p o r t i o n s . F i v e of the r o l e - c o n f l i c t s were w i t h t h e i r c l i e n t e l e , two w i t h t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h r e e w i t h both groups. Both the American and the Canadian e x t e n s i o n workers p e r c e i v e d fewer c o n f l i c t s w i t h t h e i r employing o r g a n z a t i o n s than they d i d w i t h t h e i r c l i e n t e l e , a f i n d i n g t h a t s u g g e s t s these a d u l t e d u c a t o r s i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o a g r e a t e r degree than they i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e i r c l i e n t e l e . No r o l e c o n f l i c t on f o u r of the e x t e n s i o n r o l e f u n c t i o n s was p e r c e i v e d by e i t h e r group of e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s . A l t h o u g h , the f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e t h e s e r o l e - c o n f l i c t s f o r b o t h groups, t h e r e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government and the u n i v e r s i t y models on t h e i r r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s and r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s on the f o l l o w i n g e i g h t e x t e n s i o n r o l e f u n c t i o n s . A d u l t e d u c a t o r : A l t h o u g h the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model view t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n as an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n more than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the government model, they d i d not i d e n t i f y themselves as a d u l t e d u c a t o r s more than the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model. The f i n d i n g i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the a s sumptions of t h i s s t u d y ; however, i t i s i n harmony w i t h a p r e v i o u s study conducted by M e t c a l f e (1965). 189 A d v i s e r / C o n s u l t a n t ; E x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e i r c l i e n t e l e e x p e c t them t o behave as a d v i s e r s / c o n s u l t a n t s more than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the government model d i d . The e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model conform t o t h e i r p e r c e i v e d e x p e c t a t i o n s of t h e i r c l i e n t e l e t o behave as a d v i s e r / c o n s u l t a n t , and spend as much time p e r f o r m i n g t h i s f u n c t i o n as t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the government model. A g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t program a d m i n i s t r a t o r : A g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n w o r k ers employed i n t h e government model p e r f o r m a g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t program d u t i e s as one of t h e i r e x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n s more than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model do. T h i s r e s u l t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e l i t e r a t u r e on e x t e n s i o n . There were 66.7 p e r c e n t of the the e x t e n s i o n w o r k ers employed i n the government model who r e p o r t e d s p e n d i n g t i m e p e r f o r m i n g t h e f u n c t i o n . Whereas, 23.9 p e r c e n t o f t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t employed i n u n i v e r s i t y model d e c l a r e d t h a t t h e y spent ' l i t t l e ' t i m e p e r f o r m i n g t h i s f u n c t i o n . There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s employed i n the government and u n i v e r s i t y models on t h e time they spent p e r f o r m i n g t h i s f u n c t i o n . E x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e i r employers do not ex p e c t them t o p e r f o r m a g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t program a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w h i l e t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model p e r c e i v e d t h a t t h e i r employers e x p e c t them t o p e r f o r m the same f u n c t i o n . A g r i c u l t u r a l r e g u l a t i o n s enforcement o f f i c e r : E x t e n s i o n 190 w o r k ers employed i n the government model view a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g u l a t i o n s enforcement d u t i e s as one of t h e i r e x t e n s i o n f u n c t i o n s more th a n t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n t h e u n i v e r s i t y model. A l t h o u g h the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model do e x p e r i e n c e r o l e - c o n f l i c t s w i t h t h e i r employer and c l i e n t e l e , 52.6 p e r c e n t of them r e p o r t e d spending 'some or l i t t l e ' time p e r f o r m i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g u l a t i o n s enforcement d u t i e s , and the r e m a i n i n g e x t e n s i o n workers a p p a r e n t l y have found a way of i n s u r i n g t h a t the r e g u l a t o r y work i s done by someone e l s e so t h a t any a n t i c i p a t e d c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e i r e x t e n s i o n work i s e l i m i n a t e d . S i m i l a r l y , 10.6 p e r c e n t of the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model r e p o r t e d s p ending 'some or l i t t l e ' time p e r f o r m i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g u l a t i o n s enforcement d u t i e s . These f i n d i n g s a r e i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the l i t e r a t u r e on e x t e n s i o n . There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups on the time they spent p e r f o r m i n g t h i s f u n c t i o n . As has been a l l u d e d t o p r e v i o u s l y , t h e s e f i n d i n g s l e a d the r e s e a r c h e r t o b e l i e v e t h a t the performance of r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s may not be such a c l e a r c u t d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f a c t o r between the u n i v e r s i t y and the government models. F a c i l i t a t o r or s e r v i c e agent: E x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model p e r c e i v e t h a t t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n e x p e c t s them t o p e r f o r m as f a c i l i t a t o r or s e r v i c e agent more than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model do. More of t h e e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model have p e r c e i v e d t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as p r o v i d e r s of s e r v i c e s t o t h e i r 191 c l i e n t e l e , a f i n d i n g t h a t i s i n harmony w i t h the l i t e r a t u r e on e x t e n s i o n . I n s p e c t i o n a c t s enforcement o f f i c e r : E x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model c o n s i d e r i n s p e c t i o n a c t s enforcement dut y t o be p a r t of t h e i r r o l e performance more than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model do. There was no p e r c e i v e d r o l e - c o n f l i c t and 46.6 p e r c e n t of the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model r e p o r t e d spending 'some or l i t t l e ' time p e r f o r m i n g i n s p e c t i o n d u t i e s , whereas the r e m a i n i n g e x t e n s i o n workers have managed not t o assume the s e f u n c t i o n s . A l t h o u g h t h e r e was e x t e n s i o n workers p e r c e i v e d r o l e - c o n f l i c t between the American agents and t h e i r c l i e n t e l e who expect them t o p e r f o r m i n s p e c t i o n d u t i e s , 7.7 p e r c e n t of the e x t e n s i o n workers r e p o r t e d spending ' l i t t l e ' time p e r f o r m i n g i n s p e c t i o n d u t i e s , a f i n d i n g t h a t i s not i n harmony w i t h the a s sumptions of t h i s study and the l i t e r a t u r e on e x t e n s i o n . There was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the two groups on the time they spent p e r f o r m i n g t h i s f u n c t i o n . O r g a n i z e r of groups: E x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model c o n s i d e r p e r f o r m i n g the o r g a n i z e r of groups f u n c t i o n as one of t h e i r e x t e n s i o n d u t i e s more than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the government model. T h i s f i n d i n g i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the assumptions of t h i s s t u d y and the l i t e r a t u r e on e x t e n s i o n . The e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model seem t o encourage and a c t i v e l y h e l p groups of p e o p l e o r g a n i z e themselves f o r c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n as a means of h e l p i n g p e o p l e t o h e l p themselves and t o c a r r y out v a r i o u s phases of 1 92 e x t e n s i o n work. S t u d e n t : The e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model c o n s i d e r p e r f o r m i n g the s t u d e n t f u n c t i o n as a l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e , u s e f u l f o r a c q u i r i n g f a c t s f o r t e a c h i n g p e o p l e , more than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model. The e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model get most of the r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n they d i s s e m i n a t e t o farmers from o u t s i d e t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n , whereas t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model d i s s e m i n a t e r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n t o fa r m e r s from the r e s e a r c h s t a t i o n s w i t h i n the u n i v e r s i t y . T h i s s i t u a t i o n may e x p l a i n the f a c t t h a t s t u d e n t f u n c t i o n i s seen as more i m p o r t a n t f o r e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model more than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model. C o n c l u s i o n s The major c o n c l u s i o n s of t h i s s tudy were c e n t e r e d around the f o u r r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s t h a t were e s t a b l i s h e d . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n 1 What are the d i f f e r e n c e s between the p o s i t i o n s of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers i n the government and the u n i v e r s i t y models? The study d i d show d i f f e r e n c e s between the p o s i t i o n s of the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government and u n i v e r s i t y 193 models on eight of the fourteen extension role functions. The extension workers employed in the government model view a g r i c u l t u r a l c r e d i t programs, regulations, inspections, f a c i l i t a t o r or service function, and student function to be important extension role functions more than do their counterparts employed in the univer s i t y model. Si m i l a r l y , the extension workers employed in the university model consider adult educator, adviser/consultant, and organizer of groups to be important extension role functions more than do their counterparts employed in the government model. The detailed discussions are presented in Chapter 6 and on pages 185 to 190 in Chapter 7. • Research Question 2 What i s the r e l a t i v e importance of d i f f e r e n t kinds of professional development in the two models? The findings indicate that although there seems to be encouragement for continuous professional development to improve the a g r i c u l t u r a l extension workers' role performance in extension service in both the university and the government models, the support appears to be somewhat stronger in the university than in the government model. The findings also indicate that extension education and specialized agriculture appear to be important areas of interest for professional development in the government and university models, respectively. Findings and discussions are presented in Chapter 194 5 and on pages 182 to 183 in Chapter 7. Research Question 3 What eff e c t s does an extension worker's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for performing regulatory functions have on his role performance? The findings show that a g r i c u l t u r a l extension workers employed in the university model tended to believe more than their counterparts employed in the government model that regulatory duties may lead to role c o n f l i c t and hence aff e c t the extension workers' role performance. The detailed discussions are presented in Chapter 5 and on pages 183 to 184 in Chapter 7. Research Question 4 What are the differences between government and university models with regard to extension workers': a. selection of adult education methods and techniques? b. scope of educational r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ? c. interest in research? d. interest in kinds of professional upgrading? e. membership in professional societies? f. reading interests? Extension workers employed in the university model use a wider variety of methods and techniques, read or look over more research journals or other research publications, and have more memberships in professional s o c i e t i e s than their counterparts 195 employed in the government model. The extension workers employed in the university model have a wider scope of educational r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , as stipulated in the Smith-Lever Act of 1914, than their counterparts employed in the government model. The extension workers employed in the university model were primarily interested in specialized agriculture, while their counterparts in the government model show major interest in extension education as a f i e l d for further study. The findings and discussions are presented in Chapters 5 and 6 and on pages 184 to 185 in Chapter 7. Summary There were differences between the positions of the extension workers employed in the government and university models on eight of the fourteen extension role functions. The perceptions of the extension workers employed in the two models indicate that the university model appears to offer greater encouragement than the government model to i t s extension workers to continue professional development in order to improve their role performance. The extension workers employed in the government and in the university models appear to give importance to extension education and specialized agriculture, respectively, for their professional development. The extension workers employed in the university model tended to believe more than their counterparts employed in the government model that performing regulatory duties may lea:d to 196 r o l e c o n f l i c t and hence a f f e c t r o l e performance. The e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model tended t o use more v a r i o u s t y p e s of methods and t e c h n i q u e s than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the government model do. The e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model seem t o have a wider scope of e d u c a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the government model. An Overview The government and the u n i v e r s i t y models f o r o r g a n i z i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s have been i n use f o r over h a l f a c e n t u r y i n N o r t h A merica. The r e s e a r c h e r was i n t e r e s t e d i n the e f f e c t of these two major forms of o r g a n i z i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e on the way the i n d i v i d u a l e x t e n s i o n worker performs h i s r o l e . The purpose of the study was t o e x p l o r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n r o l e p e r c e p t i o n s and r o l e performance of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n two forms of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l models f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s . E x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model d i f f e r e d from those employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model w i t h r e g a r d t o the answers t o the f o u r r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The i n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g s were t h a t about o n e - t e n t h of the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model r e p o r t e d spending time p e r f o r m i n g i n s p e c t i o n and r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s , which they were not r e q u i r e d t o p e r f o r m a c c o r d i n g t o a l o n g e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i c y of the C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e . 197 . S i m i l a r l y , about h a l f of the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model r e p o r t e d not p e r f o r m i n g i n s p e c t i o n and r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s . A p p a r e n t l y they were a b l e t o f i n d an a l t e r n a t i v e way of i n s u r i n g t h a t t h e s e d u t i e s a r e done by someone e l s e , a f i n d i n g which i s i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the l i t e r a t u r e . These r e s u l t s show t h a t the performance of r e g u l a t o r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s may not be such a c l e a r c u t d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e between the government and u n i v e r s i t y models f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s as has been r e p o r t e d i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s of e x t e n s i o n workers. D u r i n g the f i e l d v i s i t s , the r e s e a r c h e r met w i t h s e v e r a l s t a f f a t h e a d q u a r t e r s , i n c l u d i n g many of the r e g i o n a l d i r e c t o r s and d i s t r i c t s u p e r v i s o r s , i n the two p r o v i n c e s and two s t a t e s . The two fundamental c o n c e p t s of e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n , p r e v a l e n t i n b o t h systems, which s t r u c k the r e s e a r c h e r most d u r i n g h i s f i e l d v i s i t s were: ( 1 ) the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of s e r v i c e s a t the d i s t r i c t or r e g i o n a l l e v e l s , and ( 2 ) the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of c l i e n t e l e i n t h e i r own e x t e n s i o n programs. A l t h o u g h , the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of c l i e n t e l e and the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e a t the d i s t r i c t l e v e l were the p r i m a r y mandates and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s i n the u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n system s i n c e the i n c e p t i o n of the C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e , the p r i n c i p l e s a r e b e i n g g r a d u a l l y implemented i n the government model f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e . The p r i m a r y reasons f o r the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of e x t e n s i o n programs and s e r v i c e s a t the d i s t r i c t or r e g i o n a l l e v e l s were t o encourage the p a r t i c i p a t i o n 198 of c l i e n t e l e i n p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e i r own e x t e n s i o n programs and t o ensure e f f e c t i v e d e l i v e r y of e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s t o c l i e n t e l e . The ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n ' c o n c e p t b r i n g s a more p e o p l e - c e n t e r e d p e r s p e c t i v e t o a g r i c u l t u r a l development and t r e a t s the c l i e n t e l e as s u b j e c t s who c o n t r o l t h e i r own l i v e s , i . e . ' h e l p i n g p e o p l e t o h e l p t h e m s e l v e s ' , which i s the p h i l o s o p h i c a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e . The c o n c e p t s of d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of s e r v i c e s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n of c l i e n t e l e i n t h e i r own e x t e n s i o n programs may a l s o be a way t o m i n i m i z e or e l i m i n a t e r o l e - c o n f l i c t s between an e x t e n s i o n worker and h i s employer and c l i e n t e l e . The d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n can h e l p t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r the r e g i o n a l d i r e c t o r or d i s t r i c t s u p e r v i s o r and the l o c a l e x t e n s i o n worker so t h a t they have a c l o s e r w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s l i k e l y t o i n v o l v e d i s c u s s i o n on p o l i c i e s and programs, t h e r e b y r e d u c i n g the l i k e l i h o o d of c o n f l i c t and enhancing c o n s i s t e n t r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s from the s u p e r v i s o r or r e g i o n a l d i r e c t o r f o r the e x t e n s i o n worker. S i m i l a r l y , p a r t i c i p a t i o n of c l i e n t e l e i n e x t e n s i o n program p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n f a c i l i t a t e s c l o s e c o o p e r a t i o n between the e x t e n s i o n worker and c l i e n t e l e , and may a l s o reduce the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t they w i l l h o l d c o n f l i c t i n g r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r the e x t e n s i o n worker. L i m i t a t i o n s The a b i l i t y t o g e n e r a l i z e the r e s u l t s of t h i s r e s e a r c h i s r e s t r i c t e d by the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s . 199 The f i r s t l i m i t a t i o n was the use of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n workers from l i m i t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a s . The c o l l e c t i o n of d a t a from the e x t e n s i o n workers i n the two a d j a c e n t p r o v i n c e s and two a d j a c e n t s t a t e s does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t the responde n t s were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the p o p u l a t i o n of e x t e n s i o n workers i n o t h e r p r o v i n c e s and s t a t e s . T h i s l i m i t s the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the r e s u l t s . A f u r t h e r l i m i t a t i o n r e s u l t e d from the i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n of the i n s p e c t i o n and r e g u l a t i o n q u e s t i o n s . The e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model r e p o r t e d t h a t they spent time p e r f o r m i n g i n s p e c t i o n and r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s . However, they d i d not l i s t any i n s p e c t i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s except some r e g u l a t o r y enforcement d u t i e s , such as a n i m a l h e a l t h r e q u i r e m e n t s c h e c k i n g f o r l o c a l f a i r s , measuring weaning w e i g h t s of p u r e b r e d s t o c k and r e g i s t e r i n g p e s t i c i d e a p p l i c a t i o n s , which may not be s t r i c t l y c o n s i d e r e d as r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s . Moreover, the e x t e n s i o n workers may have c o n s i d e r e d a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g u l a t i o n s enforcement and i n s p e c t i o n as h a v i n g the same meaning when they d i d not l i s t any i n s p e c t i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . T h i s study a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the two o r g a n i z a t i o n a l models see t h a t p e r f o r m i n g r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s has a n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t , which l e a d s the i n v e s t i g a t o r t o b e l i e v e t h a t r e g u l a t o r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ought t o be d i v o r c e d from e d u c a t i o n a l work i n o r d e r t o a v o i d r o l e - c o n f l i c t . However, the e f f e c t s of p e r f o r m i n g r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s on the e x t e n s i o n worker's e d u c a t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s has not been a s s e s s e d t o determine the most e f f e c t i v e ways of f a c i l i t a t i n g the 200 performance of the e d u c a t i o n a l and r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n s . In a d d i t i o n , i t must be remembered t h a t f o r most of the e x t e n s i o n workers i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s the performance of r e g u l a t o r y and i n s p e c t i o n d u t i e s was h y p o t h e t i c a l , t h a t i s , t h e y had no a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e i n c a r r y i n g ouf such d u t i e s and hence were o n l y t r y i n g t o p r e d i c t the p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e of such work on t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l r o l e . On the o t h e r hand, the e x t e n s i o n workers i n Canada were a c q u a i n t e d w i t h the impact p e r f o r m i n g such d u t i e s appears t o have on t h e i r c l i e n t e l e ' s a c c e p t a n c e of them as e d u c a t o r s . A c c o r d i n g l y , a l t h o u g h both groups responded t o the same s e t of q u e s t i o n s , they d i d so from d i f f e r e n c e e x p e r i e n t i a l b a s e s , t h e r e b y y i e l d i n g answers t h a t were not p e r f e c t l y comparable. I m p l i c a t i o n s The f i n d i n g s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t o g e t h e r w i t h r e s u l t i n g i n s i g h t s , suggest some i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r e x t e n s i o n . W h i l e the t a s k s of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n w o r kers appear t o be c l e a r l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e d u c a t i o n , most of the respond e n t s were more i n t e r e s t e d i n a r e a s of s p e c i a l i z e d a g r i c u l t u r e than i n e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n . I t appears t h a t t h e y saw t h e i r p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n not as e d u c a t o r s , but as p r o v i d e r s of t e c h n i c a l s e r v i c e s to t h e i r c l i e n t e l e . A c c o r d i n g t o a p r e v i o u s s t u d y ( M e t c a l f e , 1965), some e x t e n s i o n workers do not i d e n t i f y t h e mselves as i n f o r m a l a d u l t e d u c a t o r s because they do not c o n c e i v e of e d u c a t i o n as t a k i n g p l a c e i n the n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l 201 s e t t i n g . S u c h a b e l i e f a b o u t e d u c a t i o n m a y a f f e c t t h e e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s ' j o b p e r f o r m a n c e . T h i s s i t u a t i o n p l a c e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o n p r o f e s s o r s o f e x t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n t o e x p a n d t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s t o i m p r o v e e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s ' c o n c e p t i o n o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . T h i s e n l a r g e d c o n c e p t i o n o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n m i g h t l e a d t o i n c r e a s e d e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s a s t h e y c a r r y o u t t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . A b o u t h a l f o f t h e e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d i n t h e g o v e r n m e n t m o d e l h a v e r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y d o n o t s p e n d t i m e p e r f o r m i n g r e g u l a t o r y a n d i n s p e c t i o n d u t i e s , y e t a p p a r e n t l y t h e y w e r e a b l e t o f i n d w a y s o f i n s u r i n g t h a t t h e s e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w e r e p e r f o r m e d b y s o m e o n e e l s e s o t h a t a n y a n t i c i p a t e d r o l e - c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e i r e x t e n s i o n w o r k w a s e l i m i n a t e d . I t w o u l d b e t i m e l y t h a t i n o r d e r t o r e d u c e p e r c e i v e d r o l e - c o n f l i c t f o r e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s t h e D e p a r t m e n t s o f A g r i c u l t u r e i n A l b e r t a a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a g i v e p r i o r i t y t o s t u d y i n g w h y h a l f o f t h e e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s c o n t i n u e t o p e r f o r m r e g u l a t o r y a n d i n s p e c t i o n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s d i r e c t l y e v e n t h o u g h t h e y s e e s u c h a c t i v i t y a s i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l d u t i e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n l i g h t o f t h e f i n d i n g t h a t t h e o t h e r h a l f o f t h e e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s h a v e e v i d e n t l y d e v i s e d a l t e r n a t e m e a n s f o r f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y , o n . e - t e n t h o f t h e e x t e n s i o n w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d i n t h e u n i v e r s i t y m o d e l h a v e r e p o r t e d s p e n d i n g t i m e p e r f o r m i n g s o m e r e g u l a t o r y a n d i n s p e c t i o n d u t i e s , w h i c h i s n o t i n h a r m o n y w i t h a p o l i c y t h a t h a s b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d b y t w o s e p a r a t e a g r e e m e n t s r e a c h e d i n 1 9 1 9 a n d 1 9 3 8 . T h e s e a g r e e m e n t s c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d 202 the u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n p e r s o n n e l would not be r e q u i r e d t o p e r f o r m i n s p e c t i o n and o t h e r r e g u l a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s . I t might be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the U n i v e r s i t i e s of Idaho and Washington S t a t e t o i n v e s t i g a t e the r e g u l a t o r y and i n s p e c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s of t h e i r e x t e n s i o n workers i n o r d e r t o comprehend why a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e of them have a p p a r e n t l y assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p e r f o r m i n g such r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s v o l u n t a r i l y d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t t h e i r employers do not r e q u i r e them t o do so. Recommendations f o r F u r t h e r R esearch An e f f e c t i v e a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e i s of major importance f o r p r o g r e s s of a g r i c u l t u r a l development. A l t h o u g h r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s f o r each of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e numerous, c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d i e s of the two models ar e s c a r c e . There i s a need f o r f o l l o w up on t h i s s t u d y t o s u b s t a n t i a t e or v e r i f y i t s f i n d i n g s . T h i s study p o i n t s t o needed s t u d i e s and r e f i n e m e n t of p r o c e d u r e s t o use i n c o n d u c t i n g them. A l t h o u g h r o l e - c o n f l i c t has been i d e n t i f i e d f o r e x t e n s i o n workers i n each model, the impact of such c o n f l i c t on the performance of t h e i r d u t i e s has not been documented. A c c o r d i n g l y , b e f o r e any major e f f o r t s a r e undertaken to a m e l i o r a t e the documented r o l e - c o n f l i c t , i t would seem j u d i c i o u s t o f i r s t a s s e s s i t s i n f l u e n c e on the workers' e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Then, when the p r a c t i c a l importance of r o l e - c o n f l i c t has been 203 a s c e r t a i n e d , the a p p r o p r i a t e c o r r e c t i v e a c t i o n w i l l become a p p a r e n t . The p o p u l a t i o n s s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h were not n e c e s s a r i l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the two k i n d s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l models f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s , which t h u s l i m i t s the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the s t u d y f i n d i n g s . I t i s recommended t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h be done by u s i n g l a r g e r randomly s e l e c t e d samples of e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government and u n i v e r s i t y models and i n c o r p o r a t i n g measures of e f f e c t i v e n e s s . T h i s study has p r o v i d e d some i n s i g h t s on the e f f e c t s of r e g u l a t o r y duty on the e x t e n s i o n workers' r o l e performance i n the two models f o r o r g a n i z i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n work. However, the r e s u l t s i n t h i s study d i d not support the a ssumption t h a t p e r f o r m i n g r e g u l a t o r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i s the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f a c t o r between the u n i v e r s i t y and government models f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e . About h a l f of the e x t e n s i o n workers employed i n the government model r e p o r t e d t h a t they d i d not p e r f o r m r e g u l a t o r y d u t i e s , and a l s o about o n e - t e n t h of t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s employed i n the u n i v e r s i t y model d e c l a r e d t h a t they spent time p e r f o r m i n g r e g u l a t o r y and i n s p e c t i o n d u t i e s . The r e s e a r c h e r b e l i e v e s t h a t such r e s u l t s might have been produced by i n a d e q u a c i e s of i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . I t i s s u g g e sted t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h be conducted by r e f i n i n g the i n s t r u m e n t s f o r r e g u l a t o r y f u n c t i o n s t o i n c l u d e p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n s of r e g u l a t i o n and i n s p e c t i o n and s p e c i f i c examples of the d u t i e s . 204 The study of a g r i c u l t u r a l extension organizations are complex due to the many int e r r e l a t e d variables which act upon each other in time. Consequently i t becomes d i f f i c u l t to c l a r i f y the differences between t