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Prediction of adult learner dropout using a psychosocial system model Garrison, Donn Randy 1983

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P r e d i c t i o n of A d u l t L e a r n e r Dropout U s i n g a P s y c h o s o c i a l System Model by Donn Randy G a r r i s o n B.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y of C a l g a r y , 1969 M.Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y of C a l g a r y , 1972" A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t and H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1 983 © Donn Randy G a r r i s o n , 1983 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i m p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permission f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p ermission. Department of Administrative, Adult and Higher Education The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date January 24, 1983 ABSTRACT-S t u d i e s of dropout have r e p e a t e d l y shown a v a r i e t y of n o n s c h o o l r e l a t e d reasons f o r not p e r s i s t i n g i n the f o r m a l l e a r n i n g s e t t i n g . However, some r e s e a r c h e r s have q u e s t i o n e d the v a l i d i t y of t h o s e f i n d i n g s . In o r d e r t o b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d and p r e d i c t dropout i n a d u l t b a s i c e d u c a t i o n , t h i s s t u d y i d e n t i f i e d two q u e s t i o n s . The f i r s t c o n c e r n e d whether a h y p o t h e s i z e d t y p o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e of a complex a r r a y of p s y c h o s o c i a l c o r r e l a t e s of dropout was i s o m o r p h i c w i t h a s e t of e m p i r i c a l r e f e r e n t s . • The second q u e s t i o n concerned the a b i l i t y of the independent v a r i a b l e s ( f a c t o r s c o r e s ) i d e n t i f i e d i n the f i r s t p a r t of the s t u d y t o p r e d i c t p e r s i s t e n c e / d r o p o u t . G e n e r a l system t h e o r y formed the b a s i s of an a b s t r a c t s o c i a l system model t o view t h e a d u l t l e a r n e r and t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g environment. T h i s model i n t u r n was used t o h e l p i d e n t i f y the a d u l t l e a r n e r - e n v i r o n m e n t t y p o l o g y h y p o t h e s i z e d i n the f i r s t s t a g e of the s t u d y . The f i v e f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d were l a b e l e d i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l t e n s i o n s , c a p a b i l i t i e s , and i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s . V a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d t o r e p r e s e n t the f i v e c a t e g o r i e s were the S o c i a l Readjustment R a t i n g S c a l e , D i f f e r e n t i a l A p t i t u d e Test ( V e r b a l ) , A d j e c t i v e Check L i s t , Tennessee S e l f Concept S c a l e , and two i n s t r u m e n t s ( s t u d y time and f i n a n c i a l c oncern) d e s i g n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h i s s t u d y . V a r i a b l e s r e p r e s e n t i n g the s t r u c t u r a l c a t e g o r i e s of the t y p o l o g y were then combined l i n e a r l y as the r e s i l i e n c e model used t o p r e d i c t p e r s i s t e n c e / d r o p o u t . Common f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the 18 p s y c h o s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d i n the model l e d t o the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of f i v e f a c t o r s congruent w i t h the h y p o t h e s i z e d a d u l t l e a r n e r - e n v i r o n m e n t t y p o l o g y . However, the h y p o t h e s i z e d l o a d i n g of the v a r i a b l e s on these f i v e f a c t o r s showed c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c o n g r u e n c e w i t h the p r o j e c t e d l o a d i n g s . The v a r i a b l e s were t h e r e f o r e r e i n t e r p r e t e d i n l i g h t of the h y p o t h e s i z e d t y p o l o g y and the f a c t o r a n a l y t i c r e s u l t s . C a l c u l a t e d f a c t o r s c o r e s were then used as measures t o p r e d i c t dropout f o r a sample of a d u l t b a s i c e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s . The e x t e r n a l t e n s i o n and c o n s t r a i n t v a r i a b l e s were s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r s of dropout a c c o u n t i n g f o r 11.4 p e r c e n t of the dropout v a r i a n c e . When m a n i f e s t v a r i a b l e s were used as p r e d i c t o r s , the S o c i a l Readjustment R a t i n g S c a l e ( l i f e changes) and " s e l f c o n t r o l " were found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r s of dropout and they a c c o u n t e d f o r 15.6 p e r c e n t of the dropout v a r i a n c e . The c o n c l u s i o n s were t h a t the a d u l t l e a r n e r - e n v i r o n m e n t t y p o l o g y showed promise i n o r d e r i n g the many v a r i a b l e s and the a b s t r a c t s o c i a l systems model demonstrated i t s u s e f u l n e s s as a p h i l o s o p h i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e and a n a l y t i c a l method. In a d d i t i o n , c o n f i r m a t i o n was p r o v i d e d f o r p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h t h a t i d e n t i f i e d s o c i o e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s as s i g n i f i c a n t b a r r i e r s t o c o n t i n u a t i o n i n a f o r m a l a d u l t b a s i c e d u c a t i o n program. The recommendation f o r the p r a c t i t i o n e r was t o b e g i n t o d i r e c t a t t e n t i o n t o v a r i a b l e s exogenous t o the l e a r n i n g s e t t i n g . For the r e s e a r c h e r , the s u g g e s t i o n was t o d e s i g n s t u d i e s w i t h b oth l e a r n i n g s e t t i n g and p s y c h o s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s as p r e d i c t o r s of dropout i n the quest t o dete r m i n e r e l a t i v e p r e d i c t a b i l i t y as i v w e l l as attempt t o account f o r a g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e of dropout v a r i a n c e than p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h has done. V TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i i i LIST OF FIGURES i x ACKNOWLEDGEMENT X CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1 The A d u l t L e a r n e r 3 A System P e r s p e c t i v e 5 A d u l t T r a n s i t i o n s 6 The Problem 8 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 13 Dropout Research B e f o r e 1964 14 Dropout Research In ABE A f t e r 1964 ' 15 Dropout Research In Higher E d u c a t i o n A f t e r 1964 21 Summary 28 CHAPTER 3: THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK • AND DEVELOPMENT OF HYPOTHESES 31 G e n e r a l System Theory 32 A Morphogenetic ( H o l i s t i c ) System Model 37 A Typology Of System V a r i a b l e s 42 A C o n c e p t u a l Model For A s s e s s i n g S t a b i l i t y 49 Hypotheses 54 Summary ., '55 CHAPTER 4: METHODOLOGY 56 Des i g n 56 v i P r o c e d u r e 65 Data P r e p a r a t i o n And S c o r i n g 79 A n a l y s e s 80 Summary 83 CHAPTER 5: RESULTS 84 Sample D e s c r i p t i o n 84 A d u l t L e a r n e r - E n v i r o n m e n t Typology 87 P e r s i s t e r / D r o p o u t D i s c r i m i n a t i o n 97 Summary 106 CHAPTER 6: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION 108 V a r i a n c e E x p l a i n e d ....111 T h e o r e t i c a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n 112 L i m i t a t i o n s I 115 T h e o r e t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s 117 I m p l i c a t i o n s For P r a c t i c e ' 120 C o n c l u s i o n s ....123 F u t u r e R e s e a r c h 126 REFERENCES ......131 REFERENCE NOTES 139 APPENDIX A: QUESTIONNAIRE 140 APPENDIX B: VARIABLE INTERCORRELATION MATRIX 147 APPENDIX C: SALIENT FACTOR LOADINGS AFTER ORTHOGONAL ROTATION OF THE FOUR FACTOR UNWEIGHTED LEAST SQUARES SOLUTION 149 APPENDIX D: SALIENT FACTOR LOADINGS AFTER OBLIQUE TRANSFORMATION OF THE FIVE FACTOR UNWEIGHTED LEAST SQUARES SOLUTION 150 APPENDIX E: SALIENT FACTOR LOADINGS AFTER OBLIQUE TRANSFORMATION OF THE FOUR FACTOR UNWEIGHTED LEAST SQUARES SOLUTION 151 APPENDIX F: INTERCORRELATION OF FACTORS AFTER OBLIQUE TRANSFORMATION OF THE FIVE FACTOR SOLUTION 152 APPENDIX G: INTERCORRELATION OF FACTORS AFTER OBLIQUE TRANSFORMATION OF THE FOUR FACTOR SOLUTION 153 v i i i LIST OF TABLES 1 : Sample Data R e l i a b i l i t i e s 87 2: E i g e n v a l u e s From P r i n c i p a l Component A n a l y s i s 89 3: S a l i e n t F a c t o r L o a d i n g s A f t e r O r t h o g o n a l R o t a t i o n Of The Unweighted L e a s t Squares S o l u t i o n 92 4: Means And S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s Of P r e d i c t o r V a r i a b l e s For C r i t e r i o n Groups 98 5: Order Of E n t r y Of F a c t o r Score Independent V a r i a b l e s ( F i r s t A n a l y s i s : No C r i t e r i o n ) . . . ... 99 6: Summary S t a t i s t i c s : F a c t o r Score D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s (Second A n a l y s i s : S i g n i f i c a n c e C r i t e r i o n ) 100 7: C l a s s i f i c a t i o n R e s u l t s For P e r s i s t e r s / D r o p o u t s ( F i r s t A n a l y s i s : No C r i t e r i o n And Second A n a l y s i s : S i g n i f i c a n c e C r i t e r i o n ) 102 8: Order Of E n t r y Of M a n i f e s t Independent V a r i a b l e s ( F i r s t A n a l y s i s : No C r i t e r i o n ) ....104 9: Summary S t a t i s t i c s : M a n i f e s t V a r i a b l e D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s (Second A n a l y s i s : S i g n i f i c a n c e C r i t e r i o n ) 105 10: C l a s s i f i c a t i o n R e s u l t s For P e r s i s t e r s / D r o p o u t s U s i n g M a n i f e s t V a r i a b l e s ( F i r s t A n a l y s i s : No C r i t e r i o n And Second A n a l y s i s : S i g n i f i c a n c e C r i t e r i o n ) 106 LIST OF FIGURES Scree Test X ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would be r e m i s s i f I d i d not be g i n by t h a n k i n g Gary D i c k i n s o n f o r h i s guidance and i n t e r e s t i n e x p e d i t i n g the p r o g r e s s of t h i s r e s e a r c h i n i t s d e v e l o p m e n t a l phases. N e x t , I would l i k e t o g r a t e f u l l y acknowledge the many h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s of my committee d u r i n g the a n a l y s i s of the dat a and the w r i t i n g of the m a n u s c r i p t . A l s o , a s p e c i a l thanks t o the s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y and the t e a c h e r s who g r a t i o u s l y a c c e p t e d the d i s r u p t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . C e r t a i n l y t h i s s t udy would not have been p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n and pat i e n c e . F i n a l l y , I wi s h t o acknowledge the E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r t h e i r f i n a n c i a l s u p port p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h a g r a n t f o r t e s t i n g m a t e r i a l s . 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION I t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t the t a s k of a d u l t b a s i c e d u c a t i o n (ABE) i s both f o r m i d a b l e and worthy of the h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y (Anderson & Darkenwald, 1979; Mezirow, Darkenwald, & Knox, 1975). The need and importance of b a s i c e d u c a t i o n i n a ch a n g i n g and i n c r e a s i n g l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y cannot be u n d e r s c o r e d too h e a v i l y . To i g n o r e the needs of the undereducated and s o c i o e c o n o m i c a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d a d u l t i s t o e x c l u d e him from a f u l l and p r o d u c t i v e r o l e i n s o c i e t y . The importance and d i f f i c u l t y of the problem of the undereducated a r e r e f l e c t e d i n the l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of a d u l t s who have not completed secondary s c h o o l . Adams (1979, p. 119) c i t e s Canadian census d a t a f o r 1976 t h a t i n d i c a t e d 60 p e r c e n t of a d u l t s not a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l f u l l time had not f i n i s h e d secondary s c h o o l . C o r r e s p o n d i n g e s t i m a t e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s a r e around 40 p e r c e n t ( C r o s s , 1981, p. 4 7 ) . What c o n s t i t u t e s b a s i c e d u c a t i o n i s not always c l e a r . F r e q u e n t l y ABE i s d e f i n e d as i n c l u d i n g programs up t o the grade n i n e l e v e l ; however, an e i g h t h grade e d u c a t i o n i s not l i k e l y t o be an a s s e t i n the j o b market or meet f u n c t i o n a l l i t e r a c y r e q u i r e m e n t s c o n s i d e r i n g the demands made upon a d u l t s i n t o d a y ' s c h a n g i n g t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y . ABE i s used here as the o v e r a r c h i n g term f o r a l l e d u c a t i o n a l programs up t o the c o m p l e t i o n of h i g h s c h o o l . In a d d i t i o n , the terms undereducated and e d u c a t i o n a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d w i l l be used t o r e f e r t o p o t e n t i a l ABE s t u d e n t s . 2 The p o t e n t i a l ABE student i s not only d i f f i c u l t to reach but d i f f i c u l t to r e t a i n i n the program. The d i f f i c u l t y of a t t r a c t i n g these students to ABE programs has been w e l l documented (Anderson & Darkenwald, 1979; G r i f f i t h & Cervero, 1977; Harman & Hunter, 1979). When i t comes to the problem of keeping them i n the program Anderson and Darkenwald (1979) st a t e d that a d u l t s "who e n r o l l i n adult basic education and high school completion programs are four times more l i k e l y to drop out than other adult education p a r t i c i p a n t s " (p. 5). They a l s o concluded that the s o c i a l and personal c o s t s of a t t r i t i o n i n ABE are enormous and that l i t t l e i s known about why one student drops out while another p e r s i s t s . In order to s u r v i v e , ABE programs must a t t r a c t and r e t a i n s u f f i c i e n t numbers of students. The f i n a n c i a l cost to s o c i e t y for ABE programs i s high. Dropouts represent l o s s of time, e f f o r t , and money which are often not t o l e r a t e d for long by sponsoring agencies before programs are replaced or terminated. Sponsoring agencies expect to see a payoff i n s u c c e s s f u l completion. Due to the m a r g i n a l i t y of many ABE programs and the need to maintain enrollment for funding, s u r v i v a l can often be l i n k e d to reducing dropout. Considering the d i f f i c u l t y of a t t r a c t i n g students who are in need of basic education, to lose them to a t t r i t i o n i s t r a g i c , not only i n terms of the cost to s o c i e t y , but a l s o to the students themselves because the l i k e l i h o o d of t h e i r ever, r e t u r n i n g a second time i s minimal. I t i s t h e r e f o r e imperative that gaining an understanding of the ABE student be given a high 3 p r i o r i t y i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n r e s e a r c h . The a b i l i t y t o r e t a i n ABE s t u d e n t s i n the program cannot be seen o n l y from the p e r s p e c t i v e of the l e a r n i n g s e t t i n g . Because of the d i f f i c u l t y of s u s t a i n i n g a t t e n d a n c e i n ABE, i t would seem a p p r o p r i a t e t o i n c l u d e s o c i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and economic f a c t o r s as p o s s i b l e c o r r e l a t e s of d r o p o u t . L i t t l e r e s e a r c h has been c o n d u c t e d i n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p of p s y c h o s o c i a l b a r r i e r s and d r o p o u t . Mezirow, Darkenwald and Knox (1975) emphasize t h a t problems " r e l a t i n g t o h e a l t h , j o b s , h o u s i n g and f a m i l y l i f e appear t o a f f e c t dropout r a t e s as much or more than i n a d e q u a c i e s i n the program i t s e l f " (p. 109). T h i s l a c k of u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the impact of p s y c h o s o c i a l b a r r i e r s i s e s p e c i a l l y r e l e v a n t f o r the ABE s t u d e n t who must cope w i t h many p s y c h o s o c i a l d i s a d v a n t a g e s . The r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of a d u l t l i f e appear t o be an i m p o r t a n t component i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g a d u l t l e a r n e r b e h a v i o r . F o c u s i n g on the broader i s s u e s such as socioeconomic and p s y c h o l o g i c a l b a r r i e r s may p r o v i d e a p e r s p e c t i v e of the a d u l t l e a r n e r which w i l l a i d i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g and f o r m u l a t i n g r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the problem of dropout i n ABE. The A d u l t L e a r n e r Some of the more apparent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a d u l t h o o d are the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and commitments assumed by the a d u l t . I t would be r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t t h e s e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and commitments would have i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the a d u l t who has r e c e n t l y assumed the r o l e of l e a r n e r . McClusky (1971) 4 r e f l e c t e d t h i s c o n c e r n w h e n h e s t a t e d " t h a t a n y g i v e n l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e o c c u r s a g a i n s t t h e b a c k g r o u n d o f a l i f e s t a g e , t h e u r g e n t c o n c e r n s o f w h i c h m a y i n f l u e n c e t h e l e a r n e r ' s r e s p o n s e m o r e p e r v a s i v e l y t h a n m a y a p p e a r t o b e t h e c a s e a t t h e t i m e i t t a k e s p l a c e " ( p p . 4 2 0 - 4 2 1 ) . T h e i m p o r t a n c e o f n o t i s o l a t i n g t h e l e a r n i n g s e t t i n g f r o m t h e t o t a l s o c i a l m i l i e u i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n t h e f i r s t a s s u m p t i o n o f a n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m d e s i g n p r o p o s e d b y H o u l e (.1974). E v e r y h u m a n b e i n g l i v e s i n a c o m p l e x p e r s o n a l a n d s o c i a l m i l i e u w h i c h i s . u n i q u e t o h i m , w h i c h c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g e s , a n d w h i c h i n f l u e n c e s a l l h i s e x p e r i e n c e . A n y s e g m e n t o f t h a t e x p e r i e n c e d e v o t e d t o l e a r n i n g o c c u r s i n a d i s t i n c t i v e a n d s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n w h i c h c a n b e s e p a r a t e d o u t f o r a n a l y s i s b u t w h i c h i s i n h e r e n t l y p a r t o f h i s t o t a l m i l i e u . ( p . 3 2 ) O n e o f t h e d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s o f s y s t e m t h e o r y i s t o a s s u m e a h o l i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e . T h e f i r s t a s s u m p t i o n o f H o u l e ' s " s y s t e m " a p p r o p r i a t e l y v i e w s t h e a d u l t l e a r n e r w i t h i n a b r o a d s o c i a l m i l i e u . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n p o i n t s t o t h e n e c e s s i t y o f v i e w i n g t h e a d u l t n o t j u s t i n t h e l e a r n i n g s e t t i n g b u t a l s o o f a p p r e c i a t i n g t h e o t h e r e l e m e n t s a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t a r e p a r t o f a n i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e . T o a t t e m p t t o s t u d y t h e a d u l t l e a r n e r w i t h o u t s u c h a p e r s p e c t i v e s e r i o u s l y l i m i t s t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d a n d e x p l a i n a d u l t l e a r n e r b e h a v i o r . T h e n e c e s s i t y o f i n c l u d i n g t h e d y n a m i c s o f e x t e r n a l e n v i r o n m e n t s i n a t h e o r y o f h u m a n b e h a v i o r w a s e m p h a s i z e d a n d c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n M u r r a y ' s ( 1 9 3 8 ) n e e d s - p r e s s t h e o r y o f p e r s o n a l i t y . M u r r a y ( 1 9 3 8 ) c o n s t r u c t e d " a s c h e m e o f c o n c e p t s 5 f o r p o r t r a y i n g the e n t i r e course of i n d i v i d u a l development" (p. 4). T h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n i n c l u d e s not only a h i e r a r c h i c a l system of need complexes (general t r a i t s ) but a l s o a f o r m u l a t i o n of the nature of the environment. The environmental o b j e c t s or s i t u a t i o n s that may f a c i l i t a t e or o b s t r u c t the attainment of a goal ( i . e . need) are designated by Murray as " p r e s s " . In s h o r t , understanding behavior r e q u i r e s a p e r s p e c t i v e which i n c l u d e s both p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l components, " f o r without some no t i o n of the whole there can be no assurance that the processes s e l e c t e d f o r i n t e n s i v e study are s i g n i f i c a n t c o n s t i t u e n t s " (Murray, 1938, p.4). A System P e r s p e c t i v e The r e d u c t i o n i s t approach to r e s e a r c h employed i n the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s has not always been s u c c e s s f u l l y adapted to the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . Ludwig von B e r t a l a n f f y (1968) c o n t r a s t s r e d u c t i o n i s m with p e r s p e c t i v i s m . He b e l i e v e s p e r s p e c t i v i s m i s necessary f o r the study of l i v i n g t h i n g s because the b i o l o g i c a l , b e h a v i o r a l , and s o c i a l cannot be reduced to the lowest l e v e l . O r g a n i z a t i o n i s the fundamental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the l i v i n g organism and of s o c i e t y . Such n o t i o n s as wholeness, growth, d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , h i e r a r c h i c a l order, dominance, and c o m p e t i t i o n are e s s e n t i a l to the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s and t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e a paradigm that can cope wi t h complexity and begin to e x p l a i n l i v i n g systems. A paradigm with t h i s c a p a b i l i t y and p o t e n t i a l i s General System Theory. Growth w i t h i n a l i v i n g system i s seen as l e a d i n g to 6 i n c r e a s e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o m p l e x i t y . The r e s u l t i n g r e o r g a n i z a t i o n and r e s t r u c t u r i n g of r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n and among l i v i n g systems d u r i n g p e r i o d s of growth a r e i d e n t i f i e d as t r a n s i t i o n a l phases. U n d e r s t a n d i n g the t r a n s i t i o n of the a d u l t who i s r e t u r n i n g t o s c h o o l i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t i n e x p l a i n i n g and p r e d i c t i n g d r o p o u t . A d u l t T r a n s i t i o n s Phases of r e l a t i v e s t a b i l i t y and change a r e the norm i n the a d u l t l i f e c y c l e . A d u l t s p r o g r e s s t h r o u g h many t r a n s i t i o n s i n l i f e . Some a r e due t o p e r s o n a l , development w h i l e o t h e r s a r e a r e s u l t of s o c i a l change. A d u l t d e v e l o p m e n t a l i s t s see t r a n s i t i o n s as a s i g n of growth, and growth i n t u r n r e q u i r e s l e a r n i n g (Sheehy, 1976, p. 13; H a v i g h u r s t , 1971, p. 1 ) . The a s s o c i a t i o n of t r a n s i t i o n s , growth, and l e a r n i n g has been s t u d i e d by A s l a n i a n and B r i c k e l l (1980). They have s t a t e d t h a t l i f e t r a n s i t i o n s c h a l l e n g e a d u l t s t o grow and they have h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t r a n s i t i o n s prompt a d u l t s t o engage i n a l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e t o h e l p them manage t h i s t r a n s i t i o n ( A s l a n i a n and B r i c k e l l , 1980, p. 52). A sample of 2000 American a d u l t s 25 y e a r s of age and o l d e r were asked t h r o u g h f a c e - t o - f a c e and t e l e p h o n e i n t e r v i e w s " t o e x p l a i n why they had gone back t o s c h o o l or d e c i d e d t o st u d y on t h e i r own" ( A s l a n i a n and B r i c k e l l , 1980, p. x i i ) . The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e d t h a t 83 p e r c e n t of the l e a r n e r s d e s c r i b e d a l i f e change as the reason f o r r e t u r n i n g t o s c h o o l . C r o s s ( I 9 8 l ) h a s s u g g ested t h a t "the g r e a t e s t o p p o r t u n i t i e s 7 f o r l e a r n i n g o c c u r a t t r a n s i t i o n p o i n t s . . . " (p. 240). T h i s may be t r u e , but a d j u s t i n g t o a f o r m a l l e a r n i n g s e t t i n g i s i t s e l f a t r a n s i t i o n . Not o n l y must a d u l t s cope w i t h the o r i g i n a l t r a n s i t i o n t h a t p r e c i p i t a t e d the need t o l e a r n , but they must a l s o cope w i t h a second t r a n s i t i o n t o the r o l e of s t u d e n t which c a r r i e s w i t h i t the p o t e n t i a l f o r a v a r i e t y of p s y c h o s o c i a l problems. The r e s u l t of t h i s d ouble t r a n s i t i o n may be t h a t the a d u l t l e a r n e r w i l l not have the p s y c h o l o g i c a l c a p a b i l i t y ( e . g . , s e l f c o n f i d e n c e and c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y ) and s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y ( e . g . , few l i f e changes and f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y ) t o complete a f o r m a l academic program. M a r g i n i s a concept used by McClusky (1963) t o r e f e r t o the e x c e s s of p e r s o n a l and s o c i o e c o n o m i c a b i l i t i e s over the p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l demands r e q u i r e d i n growth t r a n s i t i o n s . I t i s the e x c e s s c a p a c i t y of t h e s e a b i l i t i e s over the v a r i o u s demands t h a t p r o v i d e s the c a p a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h l i f e ' s t r a n s i t i o n s and i t s many unexpected demands. Main (1979) r e l a t e d t h i s concept of margin t o the a d u l t ' s a b i l i t y t o l e a r n and grow. He d e s c r i b e d margin as a c o n d i t i o n of l e a r n i n g which " a l l o w s a p e r s o n t o i n v e s t i n l i f e e x p a n s i o n p r o j e c t s and e x p e r i e n c e s i n c l u d i n g l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s " (Main, 1979, p. 2 3 ) . The g e n e r i c c oncept of m a r g i n , i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the t r a n s i t i o n s t a k i n g p l a c e i n an a d u l t ' s l i f e , h o l d s c o n s i d e r a b l e promise i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g and e x p l a i n i n g a d u l t l e a r n e r b e h a v i o r . The. problem of a d u l t l e a r n e r dropout must be seen i n the broad c o n t e x t of the a d u l t ' s p s y c h o s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and of the p e r s o n a l t r a n s i t i o n s t h a t a r e l i k e l y o c c u r r i n g d u r i n g the 8 l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s i f dropout i s t o be b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d and p r e d i c t e d . The need t o t a k e i n t o account the t o t a l s o c i a l m i l i e u of the a d u l t l e a r n e r i s not o n l y i n d i c a t e d by the t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n s of the p r e v i o u s a u t h o r s , but a l s o by e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h on d r o p o u t . These s t u d i e s have c o n s i s t e n t l y r e p o r t e d v a r i o u s p e r s o n a l and economic d i f f i c u l t i e s as p r e c i p i t a t o r s of d r o p o u t . Y e t , f o r reasons t o be d i s c u s s e d n e x t , t h e t r u e impact of t h e s e f a c t o r s on the a d u l t l e a r n e r i s s t i l l i n q u e s t i o n . The Problem When a d u l t s a r e asked why they dropped out of a f o r m a l l e a r n i n g s e t t i n g , the t y p i c a l r easons g i v e n a r e r e l a t e d t o f i n a n c i a l , f a m i l y , and h e a l t h problems. However, t h e no n s c h o o l f a c t o r s a r e o f t e n seen as e g o - s u s t a i n i n g r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s . Some r e s e a r c h e r s i n t o a d u l t l e a r n e r dropout downplay or r e j e c t o u t r i g h t such f a c t o r s as v a l i d r e a s o n s ( B o s h i e r , 1972; M i l l e r , 1970; Zahn, 1964)." E x p l a n a t i o n s of the impact of non s c h o o l f a c t o r s (both s o c i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l ) upon the a d u l t l e a r n e r t e n d t o be i n t u i t i v e and s p e c u l a t i v e , a l t h o u g h , c o n s i d e r i n g the c o m p l e x i t y of the r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of most a d u l t s , i t would seem u n r e a s o n a b l e t o d i s m i s s t h e p o t e n t i a l impact of such f a c t o r s . Due p r i m a r i l y t o m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d e f i c i e n c i e s , the t r u e i n f l u e n c e of non s c h o o l f a c t o r s upon dropout has y e t t o be e m p i r i c a l l y a s s e s s e d . Among t h e more apparent d e f i c i e n c i e s , t h e most s e r i o u s i s t h a t dropout s t u d i e s have u s u a l l y been conducted 9 a f t e r the s t u d e n t s have q u i t the program. That i s , a f t e r the f a c t s t u d e n t responses r e g a r d i n g reasons f o r dropout open the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t some s t u d e n t s may r a t i o n a l i z e t h e i r b e h a v i o r by g i v i n g more s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e r e a s o n s i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n s e l f esteem. T h i s has l e f t the f i n d i n g s open t o the charge t h a t most n o n s c h o o l reasons f o r dropout a r e s i m p l y r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s . Another d e f i c i e n c y i s t h a t most r e s e a r c h has been c o n d u c t e d on one or two v a r i a b l e s , or e l s e one c l u s t e r of v a r i a b l e s . A t h i r d d e f i c i e n c y c o n c e r n s the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of d r o p o u t . O f t e n no c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n has been made between d r o p o u t s who may have o n l y a t t e n d e d one or two c l a s s e s and those who c o n t i n u e f o r a l o n g e r p e r i o d . Perhaps d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t s may r e s u l t from the impact of nonschool f a c t o r s on t h e s e two c a t e g o r i e s of d r o p o u t s . Because of these d e f i c i e n c i e s , the q u e s t i o n remains as t o whether such n o n s c h o o l f a c t o r s can c r e a t e s u f f i c i e n t t e n s i o n i n the l i f e of the a d u l t l e a r n e r t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d r o p o u t . The c e n t r a l g o a l of t h i s study was t o e l i m i n a t e such d e f i c i e n c i e s w i t h the e x p r e s s e d purpose of d e t e r m i n i n g which of a s e t of independent s o c i o e c o n o m i c and p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s can s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i s c r i m i n a t e between p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s a f t e r the second c l a s s r o o m s e s s i o n . As i m p o r t a n t as the e l i m i n a t i o n of t h e s e d e f i c i e n c i e s i s , i t i s s t i l l not s u f f i c i e n t t o advance the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the complex problem of a d u l t dropout i n a s y s t e m a t i c manner. Any attempt t o r e s o l v e t h i s problem must b e g i n by v i e w i n g the a d u l t l e a r n e r i n a h o l i s t i c manner, and most i m p o r t a n t l y , w i t h i n a t h e o r e t i c a l framework. Anderson and Darkenwald (1979), i n a 10 p l e a f o r g r e a t e r r e s e a r c h support f o r dropout s t u d i e s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , r e f e r t o the need t o ta k e a broader c o n c e p t u a l approach: What i s needed now a r e not more d e s c r i p t i v e s u r v e y s comparing d r o p o u t s and p e r s i s t e r s on v a r i a b l e s t h a t may or may not be m e a n i n g f u l , but r e s e a r c h t h a t a t t e m p t s t o d e v e l o p or t e s t c o n c e p t u a l frameworks t h a t have e x p l a n a t o r y and p r e d i c t i v e u t i l i t y . (p. 8) C o n s i d e r i n g the p r e v i o u s comments, t h i s study proceeded t h r o u g h t h r e e phases w i t h the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of two r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . The f i r s t phase of t h i s study was t o d e s c r i b e a p h i l o s o p h i c p e r s p e c t i v e and c o n c e p t u a l framework t h a t would a s s i s t i n the s y s t e m a t i c a n a l y s i s of the v a s t number of s o c i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h dropout i n ABE. W i t h i n t h i s framework, the second phase of t h i s s t u d y was t o d e v e l o p a t y p o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e t o p r o v i d e some o r d e r t o the s e e m i n g l y e n d l e s s a r r a y of v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o d r o p o u t . Hence, the f i r s t q u e s t i o n t o be a d d r e s s e d concerned the v a l i d a t i o n of the a d u l t l e a r n e r - e n v i r o n m e n t t y p o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e of v a r i a b l e s r e l e v a n t t o ABE d r o p o u t . The v a l i d i t y of the proposed t y p o l o g y was t o be judged f i r s t on i t s l o g i c a l c o n s i s t e n c y deduced from t h e assumptions of an a b s t r a c t s o c i a l systems model; and s e c o n d l y , by the e m p i r i c a l s e p a r a b i l i t y and i d e n t i f i a b i 1 i t y of the u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e of measures r e l e v a n t t o dropout i n ABE. F o l l o w i n g t h i s , the t h i r d phase of the st u d y was t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e the r e s u l t i n g t y p o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e u s i n g the r e s i l i e n c e c o n c e p t u a l model t o be proposed i n Chapter 3 and which was a l o g i c a l c o r o l l a r y of the t y p o l o g y . The second 11 q u e s t i o n of t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e f o r e , concerned which f a c t o r s ( i . e . , r e s i l i e n c e model components), i d e n t i f i e d i n the f i r s t p a r t of the s t u d y , s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i s c r i m i n a t e d between p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s f o r a sample of ABE s t u d e n t s . In summary, the f o l l o w i n g two r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s were the f o c u s of t h i s s t u d y : 1) I s the h y p o t h e s i z e d a d u l t l e a r n e r - e n v i r o n m e n t t y p o l o g y s e p a r a b l e and i d e n t i f i a b l e as an u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e of s e l e c t e d measures r e l e v a n t t o d r o p o u t i n ABE? 2 ) Can the f a c t o r s i d e n t i f i e d i n the f i r s t s t a g e of a n a l y s i s as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e components of the r e s i l i e n c e model s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i s c r i m i n a t e between p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s i n ABE? The t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n f o r t h i s s tudy was c o m p r i s e d of s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n an academic u p g r a d i n g program at the K i n g Edward Campus of the Vancouver Community C o l l e g e . I n s t r u m e n t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d d u r i n g the t h i r d c l a s s s e s s i o n t o s t u d e n t s a t t e n d i n g grade t e n math and E n g l i s h c o u r s e s l e a d i n g t o h i g h s c h o o l c o m p l e t i o n . Summary The need t o u n d e r s t a n d the ABE s t u d e n t so as t o be a b l e t o a t t r a c t and r e t a i n the a d u l t l e a r n e r has been o u t l i n e d . In p a r t i c u l a r the enormous p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l c o s t of l o s i n g an ABE s t u d e n t t o d r o p o u t was emphasized. I n l i g h t of the many p o t e n t i a l b a r r i e r s t h a t f a c e the ABE s t u d e n t , i t would seem 1 2 e x t r e m e l y v a l u a b l e t o view the a d u l t l e a r n e r w i t h i n the broad p s y c h o s o c i a l m i l i e u . The systems paradigm was suggested t o p r o v i d e t h e p e r s p e c t i v e t o d e a l w i t h the complex f o r c e s and r e s u l t i n g t r a n s i t i o n s i n the a d u l t ' s l i f e . F i n a l l y , i t was s uggested t h a t growth n e c e s s i t a t e s a c e r t a i n p s y c h o s o c i a l r e s e r v e which the ABE s t u d e n t i s not l i k e l y t o p o s s e s s . The importance of p r o v i d i n g programs f o r the undereducated and s o c i o e c o n o m i c a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d a d u l t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d i s p u t e . But p r o v i d i n g programs i n t e l l i g e n t l y and e f f i c i e n t l y r e q u i r e s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the ABE s t u d e n t , e s p e c i a l l y i n terms of the. many p s y c h o s o c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s he must overcome i n a d d i t i o n t o h i s assuming the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of a f o r m a l program of s t u d i e s . The purpose of t h i s s tudy was t o d etermine the e x t e n t of the combined e f f e c t s of s o c i o e c o n o m i c and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s upon ABE d r o p o u t . The r e s u l t s c o u l d p r o v i d e s i g n i f i c a n t i n s i g h t i n t o the needs and problems of the ABE l e a r n e r by f o c u s i n g a t t e n t i o n on the whole p e r s o n . In o r d e r t h a t t h i s s tudy be c o g n i z a n t of p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , a r e view of s e l e c t e d dropout s t u d i e s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n w i l l be p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter 2 . The t h i r d c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s the t h e o r e t i c a l framework, t y p o l o g y , c o n c e p t u a l model, and h y p o t h e s e s . Chapter 4 i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of the s t u d y ' s d e s i g n , p r o c e d u r e , and a n a l y s e s . Chapter 5 p r e s e n t s the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s e s and i s f o l l o w e d by the c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r which d i s c u s s e s the r e s u l t s , l i m i t a t i o n s , i m p l i c a t i o n s , and p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s of the s t u d y . 13 CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Dropout i s commonly seen as a c l e a r and p u r p o s e f u l w i t h d r a w a l from a c o u r s e of s t u d i e s such t h a t the l e a r n e r does not c o n t i n u e t o a t t e n d c l a s s e s r e s u l t i n g i n a f a i l u r e t o meet the c o u r s e r e q u i r e m e n t s and o b j e c t i v e s . The d i f f i c u l t y , however, i s t h a t dropout i s l a b e l e d and o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o a v a r i e t y of c r i t e r i a . S e v e r a l terms have been used t o d e s c r i b e and d e f i n e what i s g e n e r a l l y r e f e r r e d t o as d r o p o u t . D i s c o n t i n u a n c e , n o n c o m p l e t i o n , and n o n p e r s i s t e n c e a r e o t h e r terms t h a t have been used t o s t u d y problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e a r l y w i t h d r a w a l . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of what c o n s t i t u t e s dropout v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y depending on the e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g , what c o m b i n a t i o n of v a r i a b l e s a r e b e i n g s t u d i e d , and the p h i l o s o p h i c p e r s p e c t i v e of the r e s e a r c h e r . For t h i s r e a s o n , some c a u t i o n must be e x e r c i s e d when r e v i e w i n g and comparing dropout s t u d i e s . T h i s c h a p t e r b e g i n s w i t h a review of a meta r e s e a r c h a b s t r a c t on dropout i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r e p a r e d by V e r n e r and D a v i s (1964) and i n which v a r i o u s s t u d i e s b e f o r e 1964 a r e o r g a n i z e d and summarized. R e s e a r c h a b s t r a c t s a f t e r 1964 were o r g a n i z e d i n t o c a t e g o r i e s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o ABE and h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n p o p u l a t i o n s . The s t u d i e s s e l e c t e d f o c u s p r i m a r i l y upon the i n f l u e n c e of n o n s c h o o l dropout f a c t o r s on a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p o p u l a t i o n s . 14 Dropout Re s e a r c h B e f o r e 1964 The need f o r s y s t e m a t i c and c r e a t i v e r e s e a r c h i n t o the problem of dropout was emphasized by Verner and D a v i s (1964) who r e v i e w e d r e s e a r c h on c o m p l e t i o n s and d r o p o u t s . They drew a t t e n t i o n t o p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h and o r g a n i z e d i t i n a comprehensive manner. The d a t a were c l a s s i f i e d i n t o p e r s o n a l and s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . P e r s o n a l f a c t o r s were f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d i n t o s o c i o e c o n o m ic f a c t o r s (e.g. age, sex, and e d u c a t i o n ) and p s y c h o s o c i a l f a c t o r s (e.g. i n t e l l i g e n c e and m o t i v a t i o n ) , w h i l e s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s were s u b d i v i d e d i n t o i n s t i t u t i o n a l and n o n i n s t i t u t i o n a l f a c t o r s . V e r n e r ' s and D a v i s ' (1964) c o n c l u s i o n s were t h a t 26 p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s had been t e s t e d w i t h i n c o n c l u s i v e r e s u l t s , a l t h o u g h "age, e d u c a t i o n , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , o c c u p a t i o n , income, and r a t e of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n appear t o be r e l a t e d t o p e r s i s t e n c e of a t t e n d a n c e " (p. 172). Of the 18 s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s t h a t . had been s t u d i e d , none had been t e s t e d c o n c l u s i v e l y . F i n a l l y , they s t a t e d t h a t from "the s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d , i t i s c l e a r t h a t f u t u r e r e s e a r c h s h o u l d be d e s i g n e d so as t o c o l l e c t the n e c e s s a r y d a t a b e f o r e d i s c o n t i n u a n c e o c c u r s and t h u s a v o i d some of the weaknesses i n h e r e n t i n a de p o s t f a c t o r e s e a r c h " (Verner and D a v i s , 1964, p. 173). A s e l e c t i o n of r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s on dropout s i n c e V e r n e r ' s and D a v i s ' review f o l l o w s . The r e s e a r c h a b s t r a c t s a r e o r g a n i z e d b r o a d l y a c c o r d i n g t o (1) s t u d i e s on ABE p o p u l a t i o n s , and, (2) s t u d i e s on a d u l t h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n p o p u l a t i o n s . 15 Dropout R e s e a r c h i n ABE A f t e r 1964 A common m e t h o d o l o g i c a l approach i n r e s e a r c h i n g dropout i s to use an open ended q u e s t i o n n a i r e or i n t e r v i e w t o su r v e y the a d u l t l e a r n e r a f t e r dropout has o c c u r e d . One study of t h i s type was c o nducted by La y t o n (1976) w i t h f u l l - t i m e a d u l t h i g h s c h o o l c o m p l e t i o n s t u d e n t s . He i n t e r v i e w e d 58 d r o p o u t s t h a t c o u l d be l o c a t e d out of a t o t a l of 121 from an a d u l t academic u p g r a d i n g i n s t i t u t e . When the d r o p o u t s were asked t o s p e c i f y the major reason f o r d r o p p i n g o u t , many i n d i c a t e d an a c c u m u l a t i o n of a number of p r e s s u r e s . However, w i t h c a r e f u l p r o b i n g , major rea s o n s were e l i c i t e d w i t h the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s : e d u c a t i o n a l p r oblems, 29%; f i n a n c i a l problems, 24%; h e a l t h problems, 23%; f a m i l y and home problems, 17%; l e f t town, 5%; l o s s of i n t e r e s t , 2%. I t s h o u l d be emphasized t h a t even w i t h c a r e f u l p r o b i n g the v a l i d i t y of these r e s u l t s , as w i t h any a f t e r the f a c t d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , i s dependent upon the p e r c e p t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e i r a b i l i t y t o r e c a l l a c c u r a t e l y the " t r u e " reasons f o r d r o p o u t . Borgstrom (1976) r e p o r t e d on a study of Swedish a d u l t s l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h , mathematics, and Swedish i n the e v e n i n g s . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were sent t o 1265 d r o p o u t s w i t h an 89 p e r c e n t response r a t e . S e v e n t y - f o u r p e r c e n t of the p o p u l a t i o n were females and the average age was 41 y e a r s . Dropouts i n c l u d e d t h o s e s t u d e n t s who a t t e n d e d the f i r s t c l a s s but l e f t w i t h o u t c o m p l e t i n g the program. A p p r o x i m a t e l y t w o - t h i r d s of the s t u d e n t s l e f t the program over two terms a l t h o u g h most dropped out d u r i n g the f i r s t term. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were f o l l o w e d up 16 w i t h 25 p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s of d r o p o u t s d u r i n g the f i r s t term and 28 i n t e r v i e w s d u r i n g the second term. The r e s u l t s emphasized the need t o q u e s t i o n the v a l i d i t y of e x t e r n a l ( i . e . n o n s c h o o l ) r e a s o n s a l o n e f o r d r o p p i n g out and r e v e a l e d t h e p o s s i b l e i n t e r a c t i o n between e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n v a r i a b l e s . B orgstrom s t a t e d t h a t "even i f the p e r s o n s i n t e r v i e w e d g i v e e x t e r n a l reasons such as i l l n e s s , o v e r t i m e , e t c . f o r the d i s c o n t i n u a n c e of t h e i r s t u d i e s , the i n t e r v i e w s show t h a t d r o p o u t s are v e r y o f t e n bound up w i t h d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n over d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of the t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n . S e v e r a l i n t e r v i e w s conveyed the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t the e x t e r n a l reason had s i m p l y been the f i n a l f a c t o r p rompting the d i s c o n t i n u a n c e of s t u d i e s . ... T h i s s u p p o r t s the view t h a t d r o p o u t s a r e g e n e r a l l y due t o a c o m b i n a t i o n of c a u s e s " (Borgstrom, 1976, p . 3 9 ) . In a r e c e n t and e x t e n s i v e s t u d y , Anderson and Darkenwald (1979) a t t e m p t e d t o d e t e r m i n e the independent s o c i o d e m o g r a p h i c e f f e c t s upon p a r t i c i p a t i o n and p e r s i s t e n c e . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e s were o b t a i n e d from a sample of 9,173 a d u l t p a r t - t i m e l e a r n e r s i d e n t i f i e d from a t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of 79,631 p a r t - t i m e l e a r n e r s . Dropouts were th o s e respondents who s a i d they had not completed an o r g a n i z e d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e i n which they had e n r o l l e d . M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n was the p r i m a r y method of s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . The major f i n d i n g , based upon s t a n d a r d i z e d r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s , was t h a t " s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y i n terms of i t s ' h e l p f u l n e s s ' i n meeting one's o b j e c t i v e s " (Anderson & Darkenwald, 1979, p. 5) 17 was the s t r o n g e s t p r e d i c t o r (p<.0l) of p e r s i s t e n c e a l t h o u g h i t e x p l a i n e d o n l y two p e r c e n t of the dropout v a r i a n c e . Other v a r i a b l e s such as age and e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t showed a modest p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h p e r s i s t e n c e but t o g e t h e r a c c o u n t e d f o r o n l y 1.6 p e r c e n t of the dropout v a r i a n c e . In a d d i t i o n , d e s p i t e a l a r g e d a t a base and the use of 21 v a r i a b l e s , " o n l y 10 p e r c e n t of the v a r i a n c e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p a r t i c i p a t i o n and w i t h p e r s i s t e n c e c o u l d be a c c o u n t e d f o r s t a t i s t i c a l l y " (Anderson and Darkenwald, 1979, p. 5 ) . The a u t h o r s a l s o c o n c l u d e d t h a t d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the c o u r s e was a poor p r e d i c t o r of dropout s i n c e i t was e s t i m a t e d t o be such a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e of the v a r i a n c e . The p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s r e p r e s e n t e d examples of what Ver n e r and D a v i s (1964) r e f e r r e d t o as de p o s t f a c t o r e s e a r c h . T h i s type of r e s e a r c h i s not o n l y l i m i t e d i n the t y p e s of v a r i a b l e s t h a t can be s t u d i e d but a l s o i n terms of the v a l i d i t y of a f t e r the f a c t r e s p o n s e s . Assessment of v a l i d i t y i n de p o s t f a c t o r e s e a r c h can be e x t r e m e l y p e r p l e x i n g and time consuming. To overcome t h i s d i f f i c u l t y o t h e r ABE s t u d i e s have used s t a n d a r d i z e d p s y c h o s o c i a l measures as c o r r e l a t e s of d r o p o u t . However, a p r i o r i d a t a g a t h e r i n g m e t h o d o l o g i e s c a r r y w i t h them o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n s , the most i m p o r t a n t b e i n g the d i f f i c u l t y i n a c c o u n t i n g f o r e v e nts between assessment and d r o p o u t . P r e f e r e n c e s f o r i n t e r n a l l y and e x t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d g o a l s were s t u d i e d by Londoner (1972) t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o p e r s e v e r e n c e i n an a d u l t h i g h s c h o o l program. The t o t a l sample of 134 a d u l t academic h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s was asked t o 18 r a t e i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l r e a s o n s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g . The r e s u l t s of a s e r i e s of C h i square and F i s h e r E x a c t T e s t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the p e r s e v e r e r r a t e d e x t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d g o a l s h i g h i n i m p o r t a n c e , was over 20 y e a r s of age, and was u s u a l l y employed. The n o n p e r s e v e r e r on the o t h e r hand tended t o r a t e i n t e r n a l l y o r i e n t e d g o a l s h i g h e r and was younger a l t h o u g h t h e t e s t s were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t the .05 p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l . Based on these s t a t i s t i c a l l y n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s Londoner (1972) s t a t e d t h a t "as age, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , employment, and income i n c r e a s e s the importance of the e x t e r n a l g o a l s i n c r e a s e s " ( p. 193). S i n c e s t u d e n t s under 20 y e a r s of age r a t e d h i g h e r on i n t e r n a l g o a l s i t was reasoned by Londoner t h a t the young a d u l t was l i k e l y s t r u g g l i n g t o d e v e l o p a s e l f - c o n c e p t and i d e n t i t y . W i l s o n (1980) l o o k e d a t p e r s o n o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s and p e r s i s t e n c e of a d u l t s t u d e n t s i n a h i g h s c h o o l e q u i v a l e n c y program. The A d j e c t i v e Check L i s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o a l l 142 s t u d e n t s and the s c o r e s of the p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s on the 24 s u b s c a l e s were compared. S t u d e n t s were c o n s i d e r e d d r o p o u t s i f they had f o r m a l l y withdrawn or i f they had "missed more than t h r e e of the weekly s e s s i o n s i n any f o u r week p e r i o d " ( W i l s o n , 1980, p.177). Twenty n i n e s t u d e n t s or 20 p e r c e n t of the sample were c l a s s i f i e d as d r o p o u t s . To overcome c o n f o u n d i n g due t o c l a s s l o c a t i o n , sex, and age, two s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s were used ( p r i n c i p a l component a n a l y s i s and m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of c o v a r i a n c e ) . Two p r i n c i p a l components a c c o u n t i n g f o r 63 p e r c e n t of the ACL v a r i a n c e were r e t a i n e d . The m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s 19 u s i n g age as a c o v a r i a t e i n d i c a t e d t h a t the f i r s t p r i n c i p a l component s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s . S i n c e no o t h e r subgroups showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , i t was assumed t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s based upon c l a s s l o c a t i o n and sex d i d not e x i s t . U n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s of the 24 ACL s c a l e s c o r e s r e v e a l e d t h a t e i g h t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s . P e r s i s t e r s s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than d r o p o u t s on S e l f - c o n t r o l , Endurance, N u r t u r a n c e , and D e f e r e n c e w h i l e " d ropouts s c o r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r than p e r s i s t e r s i n the Number of U n f a v o r a b l e A d j e c t i v e s Checked, Autonomy, Change, and S u c c o r a n c e " ( W i l s o n , 1980, p. 179). Dropouts were seen as b e i n g more r e b e l l i o u s , h o s t i l e , and i m p u l s i v e . P e r s i s t e r s were d e s c r i b e d as o b l i g i n g , t a c t f u l , and i n t e r e s t e d i n s t a b i l i t y . Conrad (1974) s t u d i e d t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of 26 n o n c o m p l e t i n g a d u l t s w i t h spouses. The a d u l t s were s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of a v a i l a b l e P e r s o n a l O r i e n t a t i o n I n v e n t o r y and 16 P e r s o n a l i t y F a c t o r Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c o r e s . . The purpose was t o e x p l o r e the e f f e c t s of p e r s o n a l and f a m i l y d i f f i c u l t i e s of d r o p o u t s compared t o the o v e r a l l e n t e r i n g group of s t u d e n t s . The r e s u l t s showed a "preponderance of n e g a t i v e - d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r b o t h male and female d r o p o u t s on th o s e v a r i a b l e s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g d r o p o u t s from the o v e r a l l s t u d e n t norms" (Conrad, 1974, p. 12), i n d i c a t i n g p e r s o n a l development d i f f i c u l t i e s . I n a d d i t i o n , Conrad f o l l o w e d up w i t h an i n t e r v i e w t o o b t a i n reasons f o r d r o p p i n g o u t . He r e p o r t e d t h a t "whereas s t u d e n t s t e n d t o r e p o r t more ' s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e ' reasons ( e . g . , money and 20 i n s t i t u t i o n a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n ) on t h e i r w r i t t e n s t a t e m e n t s , the i n t e r v i e w and s t a f f and peer r e p o r t s i n d i c a t e t h a t most d r o p o u t s (as many as 80%) r e s u l t from p e r s o n a l and f a m i l y problems" (Conrad, 1974, p. 4 ) . T h i s f i n d i n g by Conrad p o i n t s out the p o s s i b l e d i s c r e p a n c y between d a t a g a t h e r e d u s i n g d i f f e r e n t m e t h o d o l o g i e s and the reasons i d e n t i f i e d f o r d r o p o u t , a l t h o u g h both d i d r e p o r t nonschool f a c t o r s as reasons f o r d r o p p i n g o u t . However, the need s t i l l e x i s t s t o e l i m i n a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y of dropout r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n and p r o v i d e f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g n o n s c h o o l f a c t o r s by u s i n g an a p r i o r i d a t a g a t h e r i n g methodology. S o c i a l s u p port v a r i a b l e s a l o n g w i t h s o c i o d e m o g r a p h i c and p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s were the f o c u s of a s t u d y by Jones, Schulman, and S t u b b l e f i e l d (1978) i n d e f i n i n g p r e d i c t o r s of a t t e n d a n c e i n a d u l t b a s i c . e d u c a t i o n . F i v e p e r s i s t e n c e c a t e g o r i e s were d e f i n e d based upon l e n g t h of e n r o l l m e n t and r e g u l a r i t y of a t t e n d a n c e . Three i n s t r u m e n t s (a s o c i o d e m o g r a p h i c q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the A d j e c t i v e Check L i s t , and the S o c i a l C l i m a t e S c a l e s ) w e r e - a d m i n i s t e r e d t o 163 s t u d e n t s , however, o n l y 70 S t u d e n t s completed a l l the s c a l e s . The s o c i a l s u p p o r t systems p e r c e i v e d by the s t u d e n t s i n the f a m i l y , work, and c h u r c h environments were compared t o sociodemographic and p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the p r e d i c t i o n of p e r s i s t e r s u s i n g a m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . S e v e r a l r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s were performed u s i n g the complete s e t s of s u b s c a l e s f o r each of the t h r e e i n s t r u m e n t s as w e l l as d e t e r m i n i n g the b e s t subset of v a r i a b l e s f o r each i n s t r u m e n t . The a u t h o r s r e p o r t e d t h a t p r e d i c t i o n of p e r s i s t e n c e by the best subset of s o c i a l s u p p o r t measures 21 s u r p a s s e d the b e s t subset of the o t h e r two i n s t r u m e n t s a l t h o u g h s i g n i f i c a n c e (p<.05) was o n l y o b t a i n e d when the best subset of s o c i a l s u p p o r t measures were combined w i t h the b e s t subset of sociod e m o g r a p h i c measures. The a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e d " t h a t some components of p e r c e i v e d s u p p o r t i v e n e s s a r e more c l o s e l y t i e d t o p e r s e v e r a n c e i n A d u l t B a s i c E d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s than t h e most commonly i n v e s t i g a t e d s o c i o d e m o g r a p h i c and p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s " ( J o n e s , Schulman, & S t u b b l e f i e l d , 1978, p. 4 7 ) . Cunningham (1973) s t u d i e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p of s e l f - e s t e e m and program u t i l i t y t o p e r s i s t e n c e among 200 b l a c k ABE s t u d e n t s i n t he Chica g o a r e a . E f f e c t s of age, s p e c i f i c i t y i n s t a t i n g p e r s o n a l g o a l s , and g e n e r a l mental a b i l i t y were c o n t r o l l e d f o r . The a u t h o r r e p o r t e d t h a t the " l e v e l of s t u d e n t s e l f - e s t e e m and the l e v e l of program u t i l i t y , as judged by the s t u d e n t , were p o s i t i v e l y but not s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e t e n t i o n ..." (Cunningham, 1973, p. 260). When t h e sex v a r i a b l e was c o n s i d e r e d i t was found t h a t p e r s i s t e n c e f o r men was i n f l u e n c e d ( n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t l y ) by the u t i l i t y of the program w h i l e p e r s i s t e n c e f o r women was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d ( n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t l y ) t o t he l e v e l of s e l f esteem. The o n l y p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e t e n t i o n and a t t e n d a n c e was sex. In a d d i t i o n , women were r e t a i n e d and had h i g h e r a t t e n d a n c e r a t e s than men. Dropout R e s e a r c h i n H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n A f t e r 1964 Keeping w i t h the s t u d y ' s assumption of v i e w i n g problems i n i t i a l l y from a broad p e r s p e c t i v e , dropout r e s e a r c h i n h i g h e r 22 e d u c a t i o n was a l s o examined. The r e s u l t of such an approach not o n l y i n c l u d e s a g r e a t e r s a m p l i n g of p o t e n t i a l l y r e l e v a n t v a r i a b l e s but a l s o p r e s e n t s a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y of r e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g i e s than would be found by c o n f i n i n g the r e v i e w t o ABE s t u d i e s . These r e s e a r c h a b s t r a c t s from h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a r e o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o , (1) s o c i o l o g i c a l and demographic v a r i a b l e s , and, (2) p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s . Soc i o l o g i c a l and demographic v a r i a b l e s . G a r r y (1975) examined l i f e changes and accompanying c o p i n g b e h a v i o r of 100 freshman a d u l t c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s . He a d m i n i s t e r e d a l i f e change q u e s t i o n n a i r e a t the b e g i n n i n g of the c o u r s e t o see i f t h e r e was a " r e l a t i o n s h i p between c e r t a i n a c t u a l s t r e s s and a n x i e t y p r o d u c i n g e v e n t s i n a n o n s c h o o l environment and dropout b e h a v i o r i n a d u l t s t u d e n t s " ( G a r r y , 1975, p. 13). G a r r y f i r s t t e s t e d t o see i f t h e r e e x i s t e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r e v i o u s h i g h s c h o o l grades ( i . e . , academic ex p e c t a n c y ) and l i f e changes. No s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found. There was, however, a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r number of l i f e changes f o r d r o p o u t s as compared t o p e r s i s t e r s , t h u s r e v e a l i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l n e g a t i v e impact upon the a d u l t l e a r n e r from e v e n t s i n the n o n s c h o o l environment. The e f f e c t s of e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r e s s upon c o l l e g e s t u d e n t dropout was the f o c u s of a s t u d y by Cope and H e w i t t (1969). They m a i l e d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o 1131 s t u d e n t s who had withdrawn from a l a r g e u n i v e r s i t y d u r i n g the f i r s t two y e a r s . A sample of 659 r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s of former s t u d e n t s were used i n the s t u d y . S t u d e n t s responded t o 20 "problem d i m e n s i o n " s t a t e m e n t s 23 r e f l e c t i n g academic and s o c i a l problems o f t e n e x p e r i e n c e d by c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . Here a g a i n i t must be kept i n mind t h a t t h e s e "problem d i m e n s i o n s " were f i l l e d out a f t e r dropout had o c c u r r e d . A p r i n c i p a l f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of t h e s e problem d i m e n s i o n s i d e n t i f i e d f o u r e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r e s s e s ; s o c i a l , academic, f a m i l y , and r e l i g i o u s . The a u t h o r s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e a r e major p r e s s e s w i t h i n the environment of i n s t i t u t i o n s and w i t h d r a w a l may r e s u l t from " e n c o u n t e r s w i t h any of the s e p r e s s e s s e p a r a t e l y or w i t h a l l of them s i m u l t a n e o u s l y " (Cope & H e w i t t , 1969, p. 14). A B r i t i s h study by Glynn and Jones (1967) s u r v e y e d d r o p o u t s from n o n v o c a t i o n a l e v e n i n g c l a s s e s t o determine reasons f o r not c o n t i n u i n g . A random sample of 1049 s t u d e n t s was sent q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and 472 (44%) were r e t u r n e d . The see m i n g l y low r a t e of r e t u r n was judged by the a u t h o r s as " g r a t i f y i n g l y h i g h i n view of the l a p s e of time s i n c e some had ceased a t t e n d a n c e " . (Glyn & J o n e s , 1967, p. 140). S i x t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t of the respondents were women and 94% were over 21 y e a r s of age. The a u t h o r s r e p o r t e d t h a t "73% of a l l r e s p o n d e n t s l e f t t h e i r c l a s s f o r reasons unconnected w i t h the c o u r s e or the I n s t i t u t e - such as changes i n p e r s o n a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i l l n e s s , removal - and o n l y 33% because of d i s a p p o i n t m e n t w i t h the c o u r s e " (Glynn & Jones, 1967, p. 144). I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t the t o t a l exceeds 100% because some re s p o n d e n t s gave both answers. The s u g g e s t i o n was t h a t a d u l t s t u d e n t s a r e f a c e d w i t h " c o m p l i c a t i o n s of l i f e " t h a t f o r c e them t o g i v e up "through c i r c u m s t a n c e s beyond t h e i r c o n t r o l " (Glynn & Jo n e s , 1967, p. 148). 24 A t t e n d a n c e p a t t e r n s of 2075 s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n 98 a d u l t e v e n i n g c l a s s e s were s t u d i e d by D i c k i n s o n and V e r n e r (1967). Academic, v o c a t i o n a l , and g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t c o u r s e s were i d e n t i f i e d and grouped by l e n g t h . They r e p o r t e d t h a t g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t c o u r s e s had the h i g h e s t average d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e and academic c o u r s e s had the l o w e s t . D a i l y a t t e n d a n c e f o r the v o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e s was c l o s e t o t h e a v e r a g e . There was a wide a t t e n d a n c e d i s c r e p a n c y between c o u r s e s w i t h 10 or fewer meetings and those w i t h 11 t o 20 s e s s i o n s . The average d a i l y a t t e n d a n c e f o r the c o u r s e s w i t h 10 or fewer s e s s i o n s was 83.7 p e r c e n t but o n l y 55.5 p e r c e n t f o r the c o u r s e s w i t h 11 t o 20 s e s s i o n s . Twelve p e r c e n t of the s t u d e n t s dropped out ( i . e . , d i d not a t t e n d f i n a l two s e s s i o n s ) of the c o u r s e s w i t h 10 or fewer s e s s i o n s w h i l e 44 p e r c e n t dropped out of the 11 t o 20 s e s s i o n c o u r s e s . Demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of age, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , dependents, o c c u p a t i o n , and p r e v i o u s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n were found t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e p e r s i s t e r s from d r o p o u t s . That i s , younger s i n g l e s t u d e n t s w i t h fewer dependent c h i l d r e n who had not p r e v i o u s l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n showed d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y h i g h e r numbers of d r o p o u t s . A l s o , housewives tende d t o be p e r s i s t e r s w h i l e c l e r i c a l w orkers and l a b o r e r s had a h i g h e r dropout r a t e . R o e s l e r (1970) r e p o r t e d a study of a t t r i t i o n w i t h community c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . One hundred q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were sent out t o a sample of d r o p o u t s ( r e p r e s e n t i n g 19% of the a t t r i t i o n p o p u l a t i o n ) r e q u e s t i n g them t o d e s i g n a t e the most i m p o r t a n t reason f o r w i t h d r a w i n g . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e t u r n r a t e was 92%. 25 The r e s u l t s r e v e a l e d the f o l l o w i n g rank o r d e r i n g of the most i m p o r t a n t reasons f o r w i t h d r a w i n g : f a m i l y or p e r s o n a l , 16%; employment, 11%; d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h c o l l e g e ( e . g . , i n s t r u c t i o n , s c h e d u l e , and e n v i r o n m e n t ) , 10%; h e a l t h , 10%; temporary, 4%; m i l i t a r y , 4%; m a r r i a g e , 4%; and m i s c e l l a n e o u s , 6%. The r e m a i n i n g 35% d i d not r e p l y t o t h i s q u e s t i o n . The l i s t d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t many a d u l t l e a r n e r s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y c oncerned w i t h f a c t o r s e x t e r n a l t o the l e a r n i n g s e t t i n g . A l t h o u g h the r e s u l t s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d s t u d i e s , the methodology ( i . e . , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u r v e y ) n e c e s s i t a t e s c a u t i o n i n g e n e r a l i z i n g the r e s u l t s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s . The r e s u l t s of the s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d p r e v i o u s l y drew a t t e n t i o n t o s o c i o e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s a l t h o u g h the l i m i t a t i o n s of a f t e r the f a c t d a t a c o l l e c t i o n must be kept i n - mind. T h i s i s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h s e v e r a l s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d next t h a t emphasize v a r i o u s p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s as d e t e r m i n a n t s of d r o p o u t . In a d d i t i o n , the f i r s t two s t u d i e s q u e s t i o n the t r u e impact of s o c i o e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s on d r o p o u t . B o s h i e r (1973) d e v e l o p e d a model w i t h s u p p o r t i n g d a t a t o e x p l a i n and account f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n and dropout i n the a d u l t l e a r n i n g s e t t i n g . He b e l i e v e d t h a t v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h dropout a r e a l s o r e l a t e d t o n o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . In b r i e f the model a s s e r t s t h a t 'congruence 1 both w i t h i n the p a r t i c i p a n t and between the p a r t i c i p a n t and h i s e d u c a t i o n a l environment d e t e r m i n e p a r t i c i p a t i o n / n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n and d r o p o u t / p e r s i s t e n c e . ( B o s h i e r , 1973, p. 256) 26 The d a t a suggested t h a t d r o p o u t s m a n i f e s t g r e a t e r i n t r a s e l f and s e l f / o t h e r i n c o n g r u e n c e and " t h a t i n congruence i n i t i a l l y r e s i d e s w i t h i n t h e p a r t i c i p a n t and i s ' p r o j e c t e d ' or ' g e n e r a l i z e d ' ( the s e l f b e i n g the i n i t i a l - s t i m u l u s ) onto or i n t o the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s i t u a t i o n " ( B o s h i e r , 1973, p. 274). The r e s u l t i n g s t u d e n t / e d u c a t i o n a l environment incongruence i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h d r o p p i n g out of the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c l a s s ( c o r r e l a t i o n s range from -.43 t o - . 5 9 ) . B o s h i e r (1973) c o n c l u d e d t h a t s e l f / o t h e r d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s "account f o r over 30 per c e n t of v a r i a n c e i n the dropout c r i t e r i o n " (p. 275). U s i n g a comparison of mean s c a l e r a t i n g s on i n t r a s e l f and s e l f / o t h e r f o r c o u r s e and noncourse r e l a t e d d r o p o u t s w i t h p e r s i s t e r s demonstrated t h a t r a t i n g s by the noncourse r e l a t e d d r o p o u t s were more n e g a t i v e which " s u g g e s t s t h a t noncourse and co u r s e r e a s o n s i n t e r a c t and t h a t many dropout p a r t i c i p a n t s a re d e f e n s i v e about t e l l i n g t he t r u t h about why they dropped o u t " ( B o s h i e r , 1973, 276). B o s h i e r — ( 1 9 7 3 ) s u g g e s t e d the f o l l o w i n g i n t e r a c t i o n s c e n a r i o : . ..dropouts a re i n c l i n e d t o d w e l l on one i n c i d e n t , the l a s t i n a l o n g s e r i e s of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s , and a r e d e f e n s i v e i n t e l l i n g t he t r u t h (the term dropout may imp l y a s t i g m a ) . A p a r t i c i p a n t ' s s e l f - c o n c e p t can a l s o more e a s i l y accommodate a non-course reason f o r dropout than a c o u r s e - r e l a t e d reason (such as the f a c t the p a r t i c i p a n t c o u l d not l e a r n ) . In our view, c o u r s e and non-course reasons f o r dropout u s u a l l y i n t e r a c t , (p. 261) Zahn (1964) s t u d i e d 415 c r e d i t and n o n c r e d i t u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n d r o p o u t s . Dropouts were d e f i n e d as those s t u d e n t s who 27 d i d not a t t e n d the l a s t t h r e e c l a s s e s and made no attempt t o make up the work. The s t u d e n t s were g i v e n academic a b i l i t y and a n x i e t y t e s t s on the t h i r d meeting of the c l a s s . No r e l a t i o n s h i p t o dropout was found w i t h the a n x i e t y v a r i a b l e . I t was shown t h a t c r e d i t and n o n c r e d i t c l a s s e s d i d not a t t r a c t s t u d e n t s w i t h d i f f e r i n g academic a b i l i t i e s , however, s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found between c o m p l e t e r s and d r o p o u t s of c r e d i t c l a s s e s when academic a b i l i t y was considered'. Zahn (1964) s t a t e d t h a t the " s t u d e n t s w i t h low academic a b i l i t y d r o p out of c r e d i t c l a s s e s more o f t e n than s t u d e n t s w i t h h i g h academic a b i l i t y " (p. 3 9 ) . In a d d i t i o n , i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t low-a b i l i t y s t u d e n t s would a l s o d r o p out of n o n - c r e d i t c l a s s e s a t the same r a t e as they would i n c r e d i t c l a s s e s , but t h i s was not found t o be the c a s e . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found on a b i l i t y f o r c o m p l e t e r s and d r o p o u t s i n n o n c r e d i t c l a s s e s . Zahn s p e c u l a t e d t h a t the cause of dropout i s the i n t e r a c t i o n of s t u d e n t a b i l i t y and m o t i v a t i o n w i t h elements i n the e d u c a t i o n s e t t i n g . She went on to' suggest t h a t reasons g i v e n by s t u d e n t s a r e o f t e n e g o - s u s t a i n i n g r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s . S t u d e n t s w i t h low academic a b i l i t y may g i v e o t h e r , more s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e or e g o - s u s t a i n i n g r esponses t o q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , r a t h e r than admit or even r e a l i z e t h a t they were embarrassed and d i s c o u r a g e d by i n a d e q u a t e performance d u r i n g the c l a s s . I t i s much more p l e a s i n g t o one's s e l f - i m a g e t o p l e a d ' l a c k of t i m e , f a m i l y i l l n e s s , or v o c a t i o n a l demands as a reason f o r n o n - c o m p l e t i o n of a d e s i r e d c o u r s e of a c t i o n than t o say the c o u r s e r e q u i r e d performance beyond one's c a p a b i l i t i e s . (Zahn, 1964,- p. 43) A s t u d y by Knox and S j o g r e n (1965) l o o k e d a t both p e r s o n a l and demographic f a c t o r s as p r e d i c t o r s of achievement and 28 w i t h d r a w a l u s i n g h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s . The p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s were age, v e r b a l a b i l i t y , y e a r s out of s c h o o l , e d u c a t i o n l e v e l , o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s , a n x i e t y , and p o l i t i c a l e f f i c a c y . S i x i n s t i t u t i o n s were used and 3475 s t u d e n t s were s e l e c t e d . M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was done f o r each of the i n s t i t u t i o n s i n d e p e n d e n t l y u s i n g achievement grades as the c r i t e r i o n v a r i a b l e . The r e s u l t s showed t h a t the l a r g e s t i n s t i t u t i o n a l m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t a c c o u n t e d f o r o n l y 18 p e r c e n t of the v a r i a n c e i n achievement. S i m i l a r l y , d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s was performed f o r each i n s t i t u t i o n u s i n g the dependent v a r i a b l e c o m p l e t i o n / d r o p o u t . Here a g a i n , the best p r e d i c t i o n c o u l d account f o r o n l y 12 p e r c e n t of the v a r i a n c e on the dependent v a r i a b l e . They c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h i s was somewhat unexpected and p r o v i d e d t h e f o l l o w i n g e x p l a n a t i o n : I t may be t h a t the measures of many of the v a r i a b l e s were not s e n s i t i v e enough t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e i n d i v i d u a l s on t h e s e v a r i a b l e s , or i t may be t h a t s i t u a t i o n a l o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s l a r g e l y beyond the c o n t r o l of the s t u d e n t a r e more i n f l u e n t i a l on d r o p - o u t s t h a n i s o f t e n assumed. (Knox and S j o g r e n , 1965, p. 85) Summary The dropout problem i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n has been approached from many d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s l o o k i n g a t a broad range of a d u l t s t u d e n t s i n d i v e r s e l e a r n i n g s e t t i n g s . C o n s i d e r i n g the complex i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the many v a r i a b l e s s t u d i e d and the l a c k of consensus and u n r e p o r t e d d e f i n i t i o n s of what dropout i s , i t s h o u l d not be s u r p r i s i n g t h a t few d e f i n i t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s about dropout can be s u r m i s e d . In f a c t , because of the 29 c o m p l e x i t y of a d u l t l e a r n e r b e h a v i o r , the d i s j o i n t e d and fragmented approach t o s t u d y i n g t h e problem, and t h e overdependence upon u n i v a r i a t e a n a l y s e s , the r e s u l t i n g p r e d i c t i o n and c o n t r o l of dropout i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n remain a t a p r i m i t i v e s t a g e . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the above, an i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h seems a p p a r e n t . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t most r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s of a d u l t dropout have g a t h e r e d t h e i r d a t a a f t e r dropout has o c c u r r e d . As s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , t h e s e r e s p o n s e s a r e o f t e n seen as r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s f o r purposes of m a i n t a i n i n g s e l f - e s t e e m . Whether q u e s t i o n n a i r e s or i n t e r v i e w s a r e used t o g a t h e r d a t a on d r o p o u t , the p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l may employ ego defense mechanisms e i t h e r c o n s c i o u s l y or u n c o n s c i o u s l y which l e a v e s open a q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the v a l i d i t y of the responses o b t a i n e d i n t h i s manner. I t would seem c l e a r t h a t t o get around t h i s problem r e q u i r e s d a t a t o be g a t h e r e d b e f o r e dropout o c c u r s as suggested by V e r n e r and D a v i s (1964). The importance of s t u d y i n g the e f f e c t s of a p a r t i c u l a r v a r i a b l e on dropout can o n l y be d e t e r m i n e d i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r v a r i a b l e s , o t h e r w i s e , r e s e a r c h e r s a r e l e f t wondering i f a p a r t i c u l a r v a r i a b l e has more than s i m p l y a t r i g g e r i n g e f f e c t r e s u l t i n g i n d r o p o u t . The dropout problem must be s t u d i e d w i t h a p e r s p e c t i v e t h a t views the a d u l t l e a r n e r h o l i s t i c a l l y such t h a t the e f f e c t of v a r i a b l e s r e l a t i v e t o , and i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h o t h e r v a r i a b l e s , can be d e t e r m i n e d . W i t h problems as complex as dropout i n terms of the 30 innumerable i n t e r a c t i n g v a r i a b l e s , the be s t g u i d e t o v i a b l e r e s e a r c h i s t h e o r y . T h i s means t h a t s t u d i e s of dropout must be con d u c t e d w i t h i n a t h e o r e t i c a l framework t o ensure • c o o r d i n a t e d and s y s t e m a t i c r e s e a r c h t h a t can be u n d e r s t o o d , i n t e r p r e t e d , and r e p l i c a t e d . I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t , o t h e r than s t u d i e s c o n d u c t e d by B o s h i e r (1973), no dropout r e s e a r c h has been co n d u c t e d w i t h i n a broad t h e o r e t i c a l framework. T h i s perhaps e x p l a i n s why so much of the r e s e a r c h has been f r a g m e n t a r y and has not c o n t r i b u t e d t o a s y s t e m a t i c and c o h e r e n t t h e o r y of a d u l t l e a r n e r dropout b e h a v i o r . The t h e o r e t i c a l framework, t y p o l o g y , and c o n c e p t u a l model d e s c r i b e d i n the next c h a p t e r p r o v i d e a framework and c o n c e p t u a l o r d e r , which i s an e s s e n t i a l f i r s t s t e p , f o r an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the dropout problem i n ABE. 31 CHAPTER 3 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK AND DEVELOPMENT OF HYPOTHESES The b a s i c premise u n d e r l y i n g the p r e s e n t study i s t h a t ABE dropout cannot be a d e q u a t e l y e x p l a i n e d and p r e d i c t e d w i t h o u t a p e r s p e c t i v e encompassing a l a r g e p o r t i o n of the a d u l t ' s l i f e s pace. W i t h such a p e r s p e c t i v e the fundamental i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e the p u r p o s e f u l and s o c i a l n a t u r e of mankind can b e g i n t o be mapped. In a d d i t i o n , the phases of change and s t a b i l i t y t h a t r e s u l t from the dynamics of a d u l t l i v i n g r e v e a l the n e c e s s i t y of u n d e r s t a n d i n g t r a n s i t i o n a l phases as the a d u l t d e v e l o p s . To p r o v i d e the t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e and c o n c e p t u a l f o c u s n e c e s s a r y t o guide the r e s e a r c h of t h i s s tudy t h r o u g h the m y s t i f y i n g c o m p l e x i t i e s of ABE s t u d e n t b e h a v i o r , t h r e e l e v e l s of t h e o r e t i c a l a b s t r a c t i o n were d e l i n e a t e d . F i r s t , g e n e r a l system t h e o r y was used t o g i v e the p h i l o s o p h i c frame of r e f e r e n c e . S e c o n d l y , congruent w i t h t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e was a s o c i a l system t h e o r y which formed the b a s i s f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and e x p l a n a t i o n of the problem s i t u a t i o n as w e l l as f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of the f i n d i n g s . F i n a l l y , a t y p o l o g y and c o n c e p t u a l model of the a d u l t l e a r n e r were used as a r e q u i r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the r e l e v a n t phenomena i n o r d e r t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e the p r e v i o u s t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n s and t o p r o v i d e f o r p o s s i b l e p r e d i c t i o n and c o n t r o l of the e m p i r i c a l s i t u a t i o n . At the b e g i n n i n g of t h i s c h a p t e r an o u t l i n e of g e n e r a l system t h e o r y i s proposed as a p h i l o s o p h i c frame of r e f e r e n c e f o r the a n a l y s i s of the problem of dropout i n ABE. A more 32 d e t a i l e d t h e o r e t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n of a s o c i a l system f o l l o w s t o p r o v i d e the p e r s p e c t i v e and f o c u s n e c e s s a r y t o study the dynamic c o m p l e x i t y of the a d u l t l e a r n e r . F l o w i n g from the s o c i a l system i s a t y p o l o g y and c o n c e p t u a l model h y p o t h e s i z e d t o c a p t u r e the i n t e r - and i n t r a - s y s t e m i c f a c t o r s i n the a d u l t l e a r n e r s ' e n v i ronment. G e n e r a l System Theory G e n e r a l system t h e o r y e v o l v e d l a r g e l y from the work of Ludwig von B e r t a l a n f f y (1950) who proposed t h a t " t h e r e a r e p r i n c i p l e s w hich a p p l y t o systems i n g e n e r a l , whatever the n a t u r e of t h e i r component elements or the r e l a t i o n s or ' f o r c e s ' between them" (p. 139). T h i s concept s e r v e d as the b a s i s f o r a new d i s c i p l i n e which a t t e m p t e d t o form laws t h a t a p p l y t o a l l systems. Rapaport (1978) s t a t e d t h a t g e n e r a l system t h e o r y " i s p r i m a r i l y c o n c erned w i t h the s t r u c t u r e s of systems as d e f i n e d by t h e r e l a t i o n s which the p a r t s of a system have t o each o t h e r , i n t h e way t h e s e r e l a t i o n s d e t e r m i n e the dynamic b e h a v i o r of the system ( i t s passage from s t a t e t o s t a t e ) , and the h i s t o r y of the system, i . e . , i t s own development as a r e s u l t of the i n t e r a c t i o n s between i t and i t s environment" (p. 145). T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of g e n e r a l system t h e o r y has p a r t i c u l a r importance and r e l e v a n c e here because of i t s emphasis on the r e l a t i o n s and t r a n s i t i o n a l b e h a v i o r of systems. A system i s d e f i n e d by von B e r t a l a n f f y (1950) as "a complex of i n t e r a c t i n g e l e m e n t s " (p. 143). H a l l and Fagan (1956) 33 p r e s e n t e d a s l i g h t l y more e l a b o r a t e d e f i n i t i o n as b e i n g "a s e t of o b j e c t s t o g e t h e r w i t h r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the o b j e c t s and between t h e i r a t t r i b u t e s " (p. 18). T h i s d e f i n i t i o n , w i t h the i n c l u s i o n of a t t r i b u t e s , seems t o have more r e l e v a n c e f o r l i v i n g organisms than von B e r t a l a n f f y ' s d e f i n i t i o n . A more d e t a i l e d d e f i n i t i o n used t o st u d y s o c i a l systems was g i v e n by B u c k l e y (1967): ...a complex of elements or components d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d i n a c a u s a l network, such t h a t each component i s r e l a t e d t o a t l e a s t some o t h e r s i n a more or l e s s s t a b l e way w i t h i n any p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d of t i m e . (p. 41) S t i l l a n o t h e r d e f i n i t i o n of a system was g i v e n by B a t t i s t a ( 1977). He s t a t e d t h a t "the term system i s used i n g e n e r a l system t h e o r y t o r e f e r t o any s e t of i n t e r d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s " (p. 6 6 ) . The advantage of t h i s d e f i n i t i o n may be i n d e a l i n g w i t h a t t r i b u t e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s a t an a b s t r a c t l e v e l ( i . e . , t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t s ) and where the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of o n l y p h y s i c a l o b j e c t s and t h e i r a t t r i b u t e s would l i m i t the a n a l y s i s . The common t h r e a d among t h e s e d e f i n i t i o n s of a system i s the p r i n c i p l e of a h o l i s t i c i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of e l e m e n t s . However, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t these d e f i n i t i o n s e x h i b i t c o n s i d e r a b l e g e n e r a l i t y which can add t o the d i f f i c u l t y of u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a p p r e c i a t i n g system t h e o r y . B u r r e l l and Morgan (1979) s t a t e d t h a t " d e s p i t e i t s p o p u l a r i t y , however, the n o t i o n of 'system' i s an e l u s i v e one" (p. 5 7 ) . Gaines (1979) su g g e s t e d t h a t "the power of the concept i s i t s sheer g e n e r a l i t y " (p. 1) and t h a t f o r t h i s reason no d e f i n i t i o n can 34 ever be s a t i s f a c t o r y . He went on t o say t h a t the essence of the s u b j e c t a r e a i s the systems approach: ... i t i s the systems approach - e m p h a s i z i n g l a c k of d i s c i p l i n a r y b o u n d r i e s , the freedom t o a p p l y knowledge and t e c h n i q u e s g a t h e r e d i n one f i e l d t o problems i n a n o t h e r , or t o suggest t h a t two d i s t i n c t f i e l d s a r e i n f a c t one, the d i s c i p l i n a r y freedom of the u n c o n s t r a i n e d i n t e l l e c t - t h a t has been the source of dynamism and p r o g r e s s . ( G a i n e s , 1979, p. 1) Because of the "sheer g e n e r a l i t y " of the system approach, i t s r o l e i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y i s t o p r o v i d e the r a t i o n a l e f o r the a s s u m p t i o n s used t o view the problem of d r o p o u t . From th e s e a s s u m p t i o n s , a system t h e o r y may r e s u l t w hich i n t u r n may p r o v i d e the guidance t o i n t e r p r e t and u n d e r s t a n d the dropout phenomena under s t u d y . Systems may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as b e i n g e i t h e r open or c l o s e d . An' open system has i n p u t and ou t p u t of m a t e r i a l s or i n f o r m a t i o n ; i n a c l o s e d system t h e r e i s no exchange of m a t e r i a l s or i n f o r m a t i o n e x t e r n a l l y . A c l o s e d system t e n d s •toward e n t r o p y ' (death) w h i l e an open system tends toward negentropy ( l i f e ) . I t i s of c o u r s e the open system t h a t i s of i n t e r e s t when d e a l i n g w i t h humans and t h e i r c o n c o m i t a n t s o c i a l m i l i e u . A nother i m p o r t a n t concept f o r the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of system t h e o r y i s t h a t of environment. Systems a r e s a i d t o e x i s t w i t h i n an environment which " c o n s i s t s of a l l t h i n g s which a r e not p a r t o f the system but which can a f f e c t the f u n c t i o n of the system i n some way" ( D i c k e r s o n and Robertshaw, 1975, p. 19). The system and i t s environment may be thought of as a suprasy s t e m ; systems 35 w i t h i n systems may be thought of as subsystems. S t u d e r (1971), i n a d i s c u s s i o n of human systems, s t a t e d t h a t the term environment i s s i m p l y a " c o n c e p t u a l c o n v e n i e n c e t o study the e f f e c t s of one system upon a n o t h e r " , and went on t o say t h a t " t h e r e i s not one human environment, but many; i t can be p a r t i t i o n e d i n t o i n f i n i t e sub-environments depending upon the o b j e c t i v e s of the a n a l y s i s i n q u e s t i o n " (p. 132). He d e f i n e d e x t e r n a l environment as " t h a t w i t h i n which the system under a n a l y s i s i s t o f u n c t i o n " , and i n t e r n a l environment as " t h a t which i s t o be o r g a n i z e d i n o r d e r t o a t t a i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r g o a l s the system i s i n t e n d e d t o a t t a i n " ( S t u d e r , 1971, p.133). P h i l o s o p h i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s . Three d i s t i n c t system o r i e n t a t i o n s a re i d e n t i f i e d as m e c h a n i s t i c , o r g a n i s m i c ( v i t a l i s t i c ) , and h o l i s t i c ( m o r p h o g e n e t i c ) . System models or o r i e n t a t i o n s can be d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e i r assumptions about r e a l i t y , knowledge, and change and s t a b i l i t y . The m e c h a n i s t i c model views the system as c o n s i s t i n g of matter and energy, t r u t h as b e i n g o b j e c t i v e and e m p i r i c a l l y d i s c o v e r a b l e , and as r e l a t i v e l y s t a t i c . The o r g a n i s m i c model v i e w s the system as c o n s i s t i n g of l i v i n g and n o n l i v i n g e l e m e n t s , knowledge as b e i n g o b t a i n e d t h rough e x p e r i e n c e , and as b e i n g r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e . The h o l i s t i c model v i e w s the system as an i n t e r c o n n e c t e d u n i t y , t r u t h as e x i s t i n g i n the p r o c e s s of i n t e r a c t i o n and i n v o l v i n g b o t h i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l v e r i f i c a t i o n , and as b e i n g d y n a m i c a l l y s t a b l e ( B a t t i s t a , 1977, p. 6 7 ) . The p h i l o s o p h i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s of the h o l i s t i c model have s e v e r a l advantages over those of the m e c h a n i s t i c and o r g a n i s m i c 36 models. F i r s t , the h o l i s t i c model r e j e c t s the d u a l i s t i c p o s i t i o n c o n c e r n i n g r e a l i t y . Such p o s i t i o n s t h a t s e p a r a t e m a t t e r / e n e r g y , mind/body, and i n d i v i d u a l / s o c i e t y , as examples, a r e e m p i r i c a l l y and l o g i c a l l y v u l n e r a b l e . Modern subatomic p h y s i c s has demonstrated the f a l l a c y of the m a t t e r / e n e r g y d u a l i t y , and as f a r as the o t h e r two examples are c o n c e r n e d , one would not e x i s t w i t h o u t the o t h e r and t h e r e f o r e they can o n l y be s e p a r a t e d i n the a b s t r a c t i o n s of the mind. C o n s i d e r i n g the second assumption r e g a r d i n g the a c q u i s i t i o n and v a l i d i t y of knowledge, the h o l i s t i c p o s i t i o n i s t h a t knowledge i s o b t a i n e d and i s v e r i f i a b l e by the p r o c e s s of i n t e r a c t i o n of both the s u b j e c t i v e and o b j e c t i v e elements of a system. The o b v i o u s advantage i s t h a t the h o l i s t i c view c o n s i d e r s b o t h p o s i t i o n s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , whereas t h e m e c h a n i s t i c view i s p r i m a r i l y o b j e c t i v e and the o r g a n i s m i c view i s p r i m a r i l y s u b j e c t i v e . The t h i r d a s sumption of the h o l i s t i c model c o n c e r n s change and s t a b i l i t y . The h o l i s t i c model does not e x p l a i n change s o l e l y i n terms of energy but i n terms of the complex m y r i a d of f o r c e s e x i s t i n g b o t h i n t e r n a l l y and e x t e r n a l l y t o the system. The p r o c e s s of a d a p t i n g t o t h e s e f o r c e s and r e s u l t i n g d i s t u r b a n c e s i s n a t u r a l and o f t e n h e a l t h y f o r the system. S t a b i l i t y i s r e l a t e d t o the b a s i c s t r u c t u r e and o r g a n i z a t i o n of the system which can e x i s t d u r i n g change. Models based upon m e c h a n i s t i c and o r g a n i s m i c assumptions view the system as b e i n g c o n s i d e r a b l y more s t a t i c compared t o the h o l i s t i c model ( B a t t i s t a , 1977, pp. 65-66) . B a t t i s t a (1977) b e l i e v e s t h a t i t i s the h o l i s t i c paradigm 37 t h a t best r e f l e c t s the b a s i c a s sumptions of g e n e r a l system t h e o r y . F o r t h i s r e a s o n , and because i t i s more a p p l i c a b l e t o the problem a t hand, the assumptions of the h o l i s t i c paradigm form the t h e o r e t i c a l framework of t h i s s t u d y . B e f o r e d i s c u s s i n g a h o l i s t i c s o c i a l system model, i t may be v a l u a b l e t o note one more a s p e c t of g e n e r a l system t h e o r y . G e n e r a l system t h e o r y i s a method of a p p r o a c h i n g a problem w i t h the p e r s p e c t i v e of f i r s t h a v i n g a n a l y z e d the whole i n o r d e r t o a p p r e c i a t e the s t r u c t u r e , o r g a n i z a t i o n , and dynamic i n t e r a c t i o n of the many v a r i a b l e s . I t i s a means of a n a l y z i n g a complex s i t u a t i o n or problem by f i r s t l o o k i n g at i t s c o n t e x t u a l t o t a l i t y . However, t h i s does not p r e c l u d e the study of v a r i o u s a t t r i b u t e s or p a r t s of the t o t a l s i t u a t i o n ; i n s t e a d , i t p r e v e n t s the r e s e a r c h e r from b e i n g m i s l e d by one or more elements i n the system when they a r e s t u d i e d i n i s o l a t i o n . T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e and methodology of g e n e r a l system t h e o r y p r o v i d e s the p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a s i s f o r a s o c i a l system model used t o a n a l y z e the a d u l t l e a r n e r . A Morphogenetic ( H o l i s t i c ) System Model The model d e s c r i b e d next i s adapted from an a b s t r a c t s o c i a l systems model dev e l o p e d by B u c k l e y (1967) and w i l l be used t o h e l p i d e n t i f y b e h a v i o r a l a n t e c e d e n t s and growth p r o c e s s e s of the a d u l t l e a r n e r . I t i s a p r o c e s s model t h a t a t t e m p t s t o e x p l a i n how systems change and i n c r e a s e t h e i r s t r u c t u r a l c o m p l e x i t y ( i . e . , h i e r a r c h i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n ) . The t h e o r e t i c a l framework of t h i s model i s t h a t of a complex, a d a p t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n "of 38 i n t e r a c t i n g components w i t h an i n t e r n a l s o u r c e of t e n s i o n , the whole engaged i n c o n t i n u o u s t r a n s a c t i o n w i t h i t s v a r y i n g e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l environment, such t h a t " ( B u c k l e y , 1967, p.128) t h e r e i s an a c c u m u l a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n , meanings, a t t r i b u t e s , and t e n d e n c i e s r e s u l t i n g i n g r e a t e r h i e r a r c h i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and c o m p l e x i t y . S t r u c t u r e i s not s i m p l y a s e t of i n t e r r e l a t e d e l e m e n t s . I t i s an o r g a n i z a t i o n r e f l e c t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s and c o r r e s p o n d i n g c o n s t r a i n t s . N e i t h e r f u n c t i o n a l autonomy nor e x t e r n a l c o n t i n g e n c i e s i s overemphasized. Both the system and i t s environment t r a n s f o r m each o t h e r t h r o u g h the p r o c e s s of c o n s t a n t i n t e r a c t i o n . The b a s i s of t h i s model i s i t s emphasis on s t a b i l i t y and change. Morphogenetic i s a term t h a t b e s t r e f l e c t s t h i s p r o c e s s of change and i s d e f i n e d as "those p r o c e s s e s which t e n d t o e l a b o r a t e or change a system's g i v e n form, s t r u c t u r e , or s t a t e " ( B u c k l e y , 1967, p. 5 8 ) . An i n h e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a morphogenetic system i s the t e n s i o n o r s t r e s s w i t h i n and among the i n t e r a c t i n g components. T h i s n e c e s s i t a t e s c o n s t a n t adjustment and a d a p t a t i o n f o r the system which r e s u l t s i n c y c l i c a l f l u c t u a t i o n s . The system i s . never i n a s t a t e of e q u i l i b r i u m but i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be d y n a m i c a l l y s t a b l e . The i n h e r e n t t e n s i o n s may l e a d t o g r e a t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and s t r u c t u r a l c o m p l e x i t y , or t o a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n and r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the system a t the same or a lower h i e r a r c h i c a l l e v e l . In terms of the i n d i v i d u a l , the former may be r e g a r d e d as growth or development, whereas the l a t t e r may l e a d t o f i x a t i o n or r e g r e s s i o n . Change i s c o n s i d e r e d an 39 e s s e n t i a l c o n c o m i t a n t and c o r o l l a r y of s t a b i l i t y . The e s s e n t i a l problem i s how t o account f o r the b e h a v i o r a l s t a b i l i t y and change of the a d u l t l e a r n e r . To s t a r t w i t h , i t must be a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t change i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t a b i l i t y . H i e r a r c h i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and growth may o c c u r w h i l e the system i s i n a s t a t e of dynamic s t a b i l i t y . I n s t a b i l i t y w i l l o c c u r when the system cannot cope or adapt a d e q u a t e l y w i t h i n t e r - and i n t r a - s y s t e m i c t e n s i o n s r e s u l t i n g i n a r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the system or the suprasystem. S t u d e r ' s ( 1 9 7 1 ) account of change i n a human system r e f l e c t s the p r e v i o u s d e s c r i p t i o n of s t a b i l i t y and change: Human systems, i . e . , man-environment ensembles, a r e s u b j e c t t o c o n s t a n t change as a r e s u l t of exogenous e v e n t s . These changes i n s t a t e r e q u i r e adjustment i n the - i n t e r n a l environment a l o n g s e v e r a l d i m e n s i o n s and time s c a l e s . In the c o n t e x t of p r e v i o u s f o r m u l a t i o n s , the s o u r c e s of v a r i a b i l i t y can be r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d . F i r s t of a l l , g o a l s a r e s u b j e c t t o change i n an open l i v i n g system i f t h a t system happens t o be human. When t h e s e g o a l s change , new b e h a v i o r a l and, t h u s , e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t a t e s a r e r e q u i r e d ; — T o the e x t e n t t h a t g o a l s change w i t h o u t the r e q u i r e d adjustment i n a f f e c t e d a s p e c t s , d i s s o n a n c e r e s u l t s . A second s o u r c e of v a r i a b i l i t y i s i n the i m p i n g i n g e x t e r n a l e n vironment, i . e . , i t s c o n s t r a i n t s on the i n t e r n a l e nvironment. These a r e i n c o n s t a n t f l u x , and when the i m p i n g i n g v a r i a b l e s r e a c h s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l s of change - when the i n t e r f a c e between i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l environment i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y a l t e r e d - the i n t e r n a l s u p p o r t i n g s t r u c t u r e s , ... r e q u i r e a d j u s t m e n t . I f t h e r e i s no such a d j u s t m e n t , a s t a t e of bad f i t or d i s s o n a n c e o c c u r s between e x t e r n a l impingements and the b e h a v i o r g o a l s . (p. 138) The morphogenetic model of the a d u l t l e a r n e r and the c o r r e s p o n d i n g environment p r e s e n t e d here suggest a complex of f o r c e s and t e n s i o n s w i t h a m u l t i p l i c i t y of i n t e r a c t i o n s . The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the system and i t s environment 40 w i l l depend upon the degree of s t r e s s t h a t r e s u l t s from these f o r c e s and t e n s i o n s , and the i n t e r n a l c a p a b i l i t i e s of the system t o adapt t o them. Thus, i t i s the assumption of t h i s model t h a t when the morphogenetic f o r c e s exceed the system's c a p a c i t y t o ada p t , a r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the system's r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r systems w i l l o c cur such t h a t they a r e l e s s complex and t e n s i o n and d i s s o n a n c e i s reduced. I t i s a l s o c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t an i n t e r n a l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n c o u l d o c c u r c o n c o m i t a n t l y . T h e r e f o r e , t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of the morphogenetic f o r c e s (change) and the i n t e r n a l c a p a c i t y t o adapt and grow as a r e s u l t of i t ( s t a b i l i t y ) i s c e n t r a l t o u n d e r s t a n d i n g and e x p l a i n i n g the b e h a v i o r of the system. Growth and the a b i l i t y t o adapt are s i g n s t h a t a system has m a i n t a i n e d i t s dynamic s t a b i l i t y amid t h e i n e x o r a b l e f o r c e s of change. G e n e r a l a s s u m p t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l assumptions c o n c e r n i n g the p r o p e r t i e s of systems r e f l e c t the e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the model. The assumptions a r e those g i v e n by B a t t i s t a (1977, pp. 67-68) as a b a s i s f o r the' g e n e r a l system paradigm. They a r e a l s o c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a morphogenetic or h o l i s t i c model of a human system. (1) Wholeness: the p r o p e r t i e s of a system depend upon the a t t r i b u t e s of i t s p a r t s and the o r g a n i z a t i o n or r e l a t i o n s h i p of thos e p a r t s ( i . e . , the whole i s g r e a t e r than the sum o f i t s p a r t s ) . (2) H i e r a r c h i c a l O r g a n i z a t i o n : the v a r i o u s l e v e l s of c o m p l e x i t y c o n s i s t of systems w i t h i n systems. (3) S t r u c t u r a l A n a l y s i s : the c o o r d i n a t i o n of the v a r i o u s 41 p a r t s of a system ( i . e . , i t s s t r u c t u r e ) i s the key f o r the a n a l y s i s and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of a system. (4) I n t e r d e p e n d e n c e : a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s among a l l v a r i a b l e s a t a g i v e n h i e r a r c h i c a l l e v e l ; the a l t e r i n g of one v a r i a b l e a f f e c t s a l l o t h e r s a t t h a t l e v e l . (5) A c t i v i t y : the system i s i n a p r o c e s s of c o n s t a n t t r a n s f o r m a t i o n d e m o n s t r a t i n g i t s dynamic n a t u r e . (6) S e l f - m a i n t e n a n c e : systems have the a b i l i t y t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r form and p r o p e r t i e s over time and e n v i r o n m e n t a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . (7) S e l f - t r a n s f o r m a t i o n : systems have t h e a b i l i t y t o change t h e i r form and p r o p e r t i e s over t i m e . S p e c i f i c a s s u m p t i o n s . B o u l d i n g ( 1956), i n a d i s c u s s i o n of g e n e r a l system t h e o r y , s t a t e d t h a t somewhere "between the s p e c i f i c t h a t has no meaning and t h e g e n e r a l t h a t has no c o n t e n t t h e r e must be, f o r each purpose and a t each l e v e l of a b s t r a c t i o n , an optimum degree of g e n e r a l i t y " (p. 11). For t h e purposes of t h i s s tudy a minimum number of s p e c i f i c assumptions were d e l i n e a t e d . Too many s p e c i f i c a s s u m p t i o n s f o r such a complex problem as p r e d i c t i n g dropout would o n l y s e r v e t o r e s t r i c t t h e model and c r e a t e i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s . (8) G o al D i r e c t i o n : systems t e n d by v i r t u e of t h e i r s t r u c t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n toward an end s t a t e ( R a p a p o r t , 1978, p. 144) . (9) M u l t i f i n a l i t y : s i m i l a r b e g i n n i n g s t a t e s may l e a d t o d i f f e r e n t outcomes ( B u c k l e y , 1967, p. 6 0 ) . (10) S t r u c t u r a l C o n t e x t : the environment e x e r t s a m o d i f y i n g 42 and c o n s t r a i n i n g i n f l u e n c e upon the p r o c e s s e s of the system (Sztompka, 1974, p. 6 9 ) . To t h i s p o i n t , g e n e r a l system t h e o r y was used as a frame of r e f e r e n c e because of i t s a b i l i t y t o h e l p r e v e a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n and among systems. A s o c i a l system t h e o r y ( i . e . , morphogenetic model) was p r e s e n t e d as a means t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e the s t a b i l i t y and change dynamics among the complex systems of the a d u l t l e a r n e r . The i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of the a d u l t l e a r n e r as a system w i t h o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t systems such as f a m i l y , work, and s c h o o l must be d e l i n e a t e d . The next s e c t i o n w i l l d e f i n e a n d . s t r u c t u r e t h e s e systems such .that the f o r c e s a c t i n g w i t h i n the environment may be o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d , and thus p r o v i d e a means of p r e d i c t i n g d r o p o u t . A Typology of System V a r i a b l e s I t i s now n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v i d e a " c o n s t i t u t i v e c o n n e c t i o n " between the a b s t r a c t morphogenetic model and the b e h a v i o r of the a d u l t l e a r n e r . T h i s p r o c e s s r e q u i r e s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c l u s t e r s of v a r i a b l e s and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e s e v a r i a b l e s such t h a t they may be used t o e x p l a i n and p r e d i c t the dynamics of s t a b i l i t y and change c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o p e r s i s t e n c e and dropout i n ABE. A d u l t l e a r n e r - e n v i r o n m e n t t y p o l o g y . B e f o r e the l e a r n e r -environment t y p o l o g y c o u l d be d e f i n e d f o r m a l l y i t was n e c e s s a r y t o e x p l i c a t e the r e l a t i o n s h i p s and c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s between the system and t h e t y p o l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e the t h e o r e t i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g as t o the t y p o l o g y ' s g e n e s i s . 43 T h i s a n a l y s i s was done by c o n s i d e r i n g a system as a s e t of i n t e r d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s ( B a t t i s t a , 1977). The f i r s t t h r e e a s s u m p t i o n s ("wholeness", " h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n " , and " s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s " ) d e f i n e d the h o l i s t i c p h i l o s o p h i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n which t o view the problem. Wholeness answers the m e t a p h y s i c a l q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the n a t u r e of r e a l i t y . In b r i e f , i t r e j e c t s a d u a l i s t i c u n i v e r s e and views r e a l i t y as an i n t e r c o n n e c t e d m o n i s t i c system. The second a s s u m p t i o n , h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , i s an e x t e n s i o n of the f i r s t a s sumption i n t h a t i t a l s o d e s c r i b e s r e a l i t y not o n l y as i n t e r c o n n e c t e d systems but h i e r a r c h i c a l l y a r r a n g e d . The s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s assumption speaks t o the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n i n g what i s t r u t h and knowledge. T h i s t h i r d a s s u m p t i o n s u g g e s t s t h a t t r u t h , knowledge, and u n d e r s t a n d i n g a r e found t h r o u g h s t u d y i n g the i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n and i n t e r a c t i o n of systems. The r e m a i n i n g seven a s s u m p t i o n s , a l t h o u g h i n h e r e n t l y r e l a t e d t o the f i r s t t h r e e , a r e more concerned w i t h a n s w e r i n g the q u e s t i o n of how t o account f o r the change and s t a b i l i t y of a system. I t i s t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s t h a t l e d t o the development of the t y p o l o g y . In f a c t , t h e s e assumptions h e l p e d i d e n t i f y t h r e e broad c l a s s e s of v a r i a b l e s ( t e n s i o n s , c a p a b i l i t i e s , and c o n s t r a i n t s ) t h a t may e x i s t w i t h i n a l i v i n g system and i t s environment. I t was apparent t h a t the assumptions of " i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e " , " a c t i v i t y " , " g o a l d i r e c t i o n " , and " m u l t i f i n a l i t y " a l l s e r v e d t o r e f l e c t the morphogenetic f o r c e s t h a t e x i s t w i t h i n a l i v i n g 44 system and i t s environment. A l t h o u g h i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e f o l l o w s from the s t r u c t u r a l a n a l y s i s a s s u m p t i o n , i t a l s o emphasized the i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e of a l l v a r i a b l e s , b oth i n t e r - and i n t r a -s y t e m i c a l l y , and t h a t a f o r c e or t e n s i o n w i l l be c r e a t e d when one p a r t of a system changes. The a c t i v i t y a s sumption i s more co n c e r n e d w i t h g e n e r a l f l u x and s t a t e s t h a t f o r c e s a r e c o n s t a n t l y t r a n s f o r m i n g the system. Goal d i r e c t i o n r e f l e c t s the b a s i c need d i s p o s i t i o n s and p u r p o s e f u l b e h a v i o r e x i s t i n g w i t h i n a l i v i n g system. T h i s emphasizes the i n t r a - s y s t e m i c f o r c e s of change t h a t a re so i m p o r t a n t i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g a l i v i n g system. F i n a l l y , the f a c t . t h a t s i m i l a r systems may l e a d t o d i s s i m i l a r end s t a t e s ( m u l t i f i n a l i t y ) s u g g e s t e d t h a t the morphogenetic p r o c e s s or i n t e r a c t i o n i t s e l f can c r e a t e t e n s i o n s unique t o the system. The f i r s t c l a s s of morphogenetic f o r c e s r e f l e c t e d i n the p r e v i o u s assumptions are l a b e l e d t e n s i o n s i n the l e a r n e r -environment t y p o l o g y . Another s e t of a s s u m p t i o n s , " s e l f - m a i n t e n a n c e " and " s e l f -t r a n s f o r m a t i o n " , speaks d i r e c t l y t o a system's a b i l i t y t o m a i n t a i n s t a b i l i t y and c o n t r o l change. S e l f - m a i n t e n a n c e r e p r e s e n t s those v a r i a b l e s which have the c a p a b i l i t y t o r e a c t t o bo t h i n t e r - and i n t r a - s y s t e m i c t e n s i o n s and y e t m a i n t a i n s t a b i l i t y . On the o t h e r hand, s e l f - t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s the c a p a b i l i t y of the system t o p r o a c t i v e l y change i t s s t r u c t u r e w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g s t a b i l i t y . T h i s second c l a s s of v a r i a b l e s i s l a b e l e d c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r the purpose of t y p o l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The " s t r u c t u r a l c o n t e x t " assumption r e v e a l e d a t h i r d c l a s s 45 of v a r i a b l e s t h a t may be b a r r i e r s t o a c h i e v i n g d e s i r e d g o a l s . S t r u c t u r a l c o n t e x t suggested t h a t d u r i n g the p u r s u i t of a g o a l some v a r i a b l e s may l i m i t the a t t a i n m e n t of the g o a l , a l t h o u g h t h e s e v a r i a b l e s may not be c o n s i d e r e d as p o s s e s s i n g some v a l e n c e f o r t he system. These v a r i a b l e s may be s i m p l y b a r r i e r s t o r e a c h i n g a g o a l or e l s e they a r e n e u t r a l . T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of v a r i a b l e s was l a b e l e d c o n s t r a i n t s . C o n s i d e r i n g the p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n , i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the change and s t a b i l i t y of the system can be u n d e r s t o o d u s i n g the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e p r i m a r y s e t s of v a r i a b l e s : t e n s i o n s , c a p a b i l i t i e s , and c o n s t r a i n t s . I t i s the s e groups of v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n the a d u l t l e a r n e r ' s p s y c h o s o c i a l environment t h a t a r e seen as b e i n g r e l e v a n t i n i n d i c a t i n g the a b i l i t y t o adapt s u c c e s s f u l l y t o change. The a b s t r a c t morphogenetic system model s u g g e s t e d t h a t change i s caused by both i n t e r - and i n t r a - s y s t e m i c f o r c e s and t e n s i o n s . The a b i l i t y of the system t o cope w i t h s y s t e m i c t e n s i o n s i s p r i m a r i l y dependent upon the e x i s t i n g system's h i e r a r c h i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . The system's h i e r a r c h i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s the d e v e l o p m e n t a l stage of the system and r e f l e c t s i t s c a p a b i l i t i e s . I f the system s u c c e s s f u l l y copes w i t h the s y s t e m i c t e n s i o n s , then a f u r t h e r h i e r a r c h i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of the system and the suprasystem may take p l a c e . However, the o r g a n i z a t i o n and s t r u c t u r e of the system and the suprasystem suggest t h a t perhaps a n o t h e r s e t of v a r i a b l e s e x e r t s an i n f l u e n c e d u r i n g the system's attempt t o ada p t . T h i s o t h e r s e t of v a r i a b l e s c o n s i s t of the v a r i o u s 46 c o n s t r a i n t s t h a t e x i s t b o th i n t e r n a l l y and e x t e r n a l l y t o the system and r e s t r i c t the system's a b i l i t y t o adapt t o s y s t e m i c f o r c e s and t e n s i o n s . T e n s i o n s and c o n s t r a i n t s a r e both viewed as b e i n g i n t e r -and i n t r a - s y s t e m i c f o r c e s , t h a t i s , they may e x i s t i n the system's environment or w i t h i n the system i t s e l f . T h i s i s not the case f o r the system's c a p a b i l i t i e s , however, s i n c e they a r e seen as i n h e r e n t t o the system. F u r t h e r , c a p a b i l i t i e s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the a b i l i t y t o adapt whereas t e n s i o n s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f o r c e s of change. C o n s t r a i n t s may be thought of as m e d i a t i n g v a r i a b l e s s i n c e t h e y do not c r e a t e change but have an i n f l u e n c e on how much change w i l l t ake p l a c e and how w e l l the system can adapt. The f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s s e r v e t o e x p l i c a t e t h i s t y p o l o g y : ( 1 ) T e n s i o n s : the c o m b i n a t i o n of i n t e r - and i n t r a - s y s t e m i c f o r c e s which r e s u l t from need and a t t i t u d i n a l d i s p o s i t i o n s t h a t o r i g i n a t e e i t h e r i n t e r n a l l y o r e x t e r n a l l y and m a n i f e s t t h e m s e l v e s i n b e h a v i o r t o i n i t i a t e change. T e n s i o n s a r e t h o s e f o r c e s of change t h a t have an impact upon the i n d i v i d u a l . They a r e t h e p e r c e i v e d needs and a t t i t u d e s of the i n d i v i d u a l r e s u l t i n g from changes w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l and the environment. T e n s i o n s a r e the demands made by and upon the i n d i v i d u a l t h a t must be r e s o l v e d . ( 2 ) C a p a b i l i t y : the i n t r a - s y s t e m i c h i e r a r c h i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n which i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a b i l i t y t o adapt t o the f o r c e s of change and the maintenance of s t a b i l i t y i n the system. 47 C a p a b i l i t i e s a r e the knowledge, s k i l l s , and problem s o l v i n g a b i l i t i e s g a i n e d from e x p e r i e n c e as w e l l as the i n n a t e i n t e l l i g e n c e of the i n d i v i d u a l . (3) C o n s t r a i n t s : the i n t e r - and i n t r a - s y s t e m i c s t r u c t u r e s and a t t r i b u t e s which may r e s t r i c t t h e system's a b i l i t y t o adapt t o s y s t e m i c f o r c e s . C o n s t r a i n t s a r e t h o s e b a r r i e r s and d i s p o s i t i o n s which impede the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y t o cope. V a r i a b l e s such as income and time are o f t e n d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s s i n c e they never c r e a t e change or s t a b i l i t y i n t h e m s e l v e s but a r e most o f t e n c i t e d by a d u l t s t u d e n t s as reasons f o r d r o p p i n g out of a f o r m a l l e a r n i n g s e t t i n g . R e l e v a n t systems and a t t r i b u t e s . S i n c e t h i s s t u d y was c o n c e r n e d w i t h the b e h a v i o r of t h e ABE s t u d e n t , the c e n t r a l system of t h i s model was the i n d i v i d u a l . Other systems w i t h i n the environment were the s o c i a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , and economic systems-. A l t h o u g h systems t h e o r y may t h e o r e t i c a l l y i d e n t i f y any number of systems, c o n s i d e r i n g the e x p l o r a t o r y n a t u r e of t h i s r e s e a r c h o n l y systems a t the macro l e v e l were d e f i n e d . S i n c e the o r i g i n a l i n t e n t of t h i s r e s e a r c h was t o s t u d y n o n s c h o o l c o r r e l a t e s of d r o p o u t , the f o c u s was upon the a d u l t , s o c i a l , and economic systems. Through the mapping out of the i n t e r a c t i o n s of t h e s e systems and r e f e r e n c e t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e on d r o p o u t , r e l e v a n t a t t r i b u t e s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each system were i d e n t i f i e d t h a t c o u l d i n f l u e n c e the b e h a v i o r of the ABE s t u d e n t . A t t r i b u t e s of the a d u l t system i d e n t i f i e d were need and a t t i t u d i n a l d i s p o s i t i o n s , s c h o l a s t i c a b i l i t y , and s e l f c o n c e p t . 48 P e r s o n a l need d i s p o s i t i o n s were c o n s i d e r e d i n t e r n a l t e n s i o n s r e s u l t i n g from l o n g h e l d p e r s o n a l v a l u e s . A t t i t u d e s a r e d i s p o s i t i o n s towards f a c t o r s i n the e x t e r n a l environment and were t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r e d e x t e r n a l t e n s i o n s . S c h o l a s t i c a b i l i t y i s a combined measure of knowledge and c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y and t h e r e f o r e was seen as r e f l e c t i n g the a d u l t ' s c a p a b i l i t i e s . A r e l e v a n t i n t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t of the a d u l t system was c o n s i d e r e d t o be s e l f c o n c e p t . S e l f c oncept i s seen as an i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e c a p a b l e of i n f l u e n c i n g the d e c i s i o n t o drop out but not c a p a b l e of c o n t r i b u t i n g d i r e c t l y t o the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s i t s e l f . In o t h e r words, h a v i n g a good s e l f concept does not ensure t h a t the l e a r n e r w i l l g r a s p a d i f f i c u l t concept any q u i c k e r than h a v i n g a p o o r " s e l f c o n c e p t . The s o c i a l system i n c l u d e d t h e a t t r i b u t e s of e x p e c t a t i o n s of o t h e r s and s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y ( l i f e c h a n g e s ) . P e r c e i v e d e x p e c t a t i o n s of f a m i l y and f r i e n d s were viewed as an e x t e r n a l t e n s i o n s i n c e they were i n i t i a t e d and shaped by e x t e r n a l e v e n t s . The a t t r i b u t e s of the economic system which were i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g r e l e v a n t t o the problem a t hand were f i n a n c i a l c o n c e r n and time a v a i l a b l e f o r s t u d y . Both of t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s were c o n s i d e r e d t o be e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t v a r i a b l e s s i n c e , as w i t h i n t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s , they were seen as o n l y p r o v i d i n g a d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t and i n t h e m s e l v e s not d i r e c t l y a f f e c t i n g the a b i l i t y t o l e a r n . To t h i s p o i n t an attempt has been made t o show the c o r r e s p o n d e n c e between the a b s t r a c t morphogenetic system model and the deduced a d u l t l e a r n e r - e n v i r o n m e n t t y p o l o g y . Keeping i n 49 mind t h a t the s t u d y ' s u l t i m a t e g o a l was the p r e d i c t i o n of dropout i n ABE, the next s t e p was t o p r o v i d e an e m p i r i c a l r e l a t i o n ( i . e . , e p i s t e m i c c o n n e c t i o n ) between the t y p o l o g y and the s t a b i l i t y or c o p i n g a b i l i t y of the a d u l t l e a r n e r . T h i s c o n n e c t i o n was p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h the use of the r e s i l i e n c e c o n c e p t u a l model. A C o n c e p t u a l Model f o r A s s e s s i n g S t a b i l i t y B e f o r e d e f i n i n g the r e s i l i e n c e c o n c e p t u a l model i t may be w o r t h w h i l e , f o r the sake of c l a r i t y , t o b r i e f l y d i s c u s s the p r i n c i p l e , of margin as r e p r e s e n t e d by McClusky's PLM f o r m u l a . Three components of the PLM f o r m u l a c o r r e s p o n d t o the c o n c e p t s p o w e r ( P ) , l o a d ( L ) , and margin(M). McClusky (1963) d e f i n e s power as • the sum of the a b i l i t i e s and r e s o u r c e s p o s s e s s e d by an i n d i v i d u a l w h i l e l o a d r e p r e s e n t s the demands t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l must bear up t o . The t h i r d component of the PLM f o r m u l a , m a r g i n , i s f o r m a l l y d e f i n e d as the r a t i o of power t o l o a d . M a r g i n i s t h a t e x c e s s of power over l o a d which a s s i s t s the i n d i v i d u a l i n c o p i n g w i t h l i f e and i t s unexpected demands. The PLM f o r m u l a was an attempt t o r e f l e c t t h e many demands and changes, both p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y , t h a t may have an impact upon an i n d i v i d u a l d u r i n g the a d u l t y e a r s . M a r g i n was o r i g i n a l l y proposed by McClusky (1963) w i t h i n a d e v e l o p m e n t a l framework. He d e s c r i b e d the t e n d e n c i e s of s e l f p r o t e c t i o n and g o a l s e e k i n g as b e i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a d u l t h o o d , which p a r e n t h e t i c a l l y p a r a l l e l the c o n d i t i o n s of s t a b i l i t y and change i d e n t i f i e d p r e v i o u s l y w i t h i n the 50 morphogenetic system model. The i m p l i c a t i o n by McClusky i s t h a t s e l f p r o t e c t i o n or s t a b i l i t y i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e x c e s s i v e l o a d demands w h i l e g o a l s e e k i n g or change i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a margin of power. F u r t h e r t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a l paradigm, an i n s u f f i c i e n t margin of power over l o a d reduces the number of c h o i c e s or a l t e r n a t i v e s p o s s e s s e d by the a d u l t and the p o t e n t i a l f o r growth i s t h e r e f o r e l i m i t e d . C o n v e r s e l y , s i n c e ' m a r g i n g i v e s the power of c h o i c e over a wide range of a l t e r n a t i v e s , the more margin a person p o s s e s s e s , the g r e a t e r the freedom and autonomy w i t h i n h i s l i f e space. T h i s autonomy i n t u r n p r o v i d e s the c a p a b i l i t y f o r the i n d i v i d u a l t o i n v e s t i n l i f e e x p a n s i o n p r o j e c t s such as a l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e . The u s e f u l n e s s of the PLM fo r m u l a i s dependent upon whether i t can be o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d . In f a c t , i t appears t h a t o n l y one attempt has been made t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e t h i s c o n c e p t and even then the f o r m u l a i t s e l f was not t e s t e d (Baum, 1980). The main d i f f i c u l t y of e x p l i c a t i n g and o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g the c o n c e p t s of power and l o a d i s t h a t they do not appear t o be d i s t i n c t c o n c e p t s . Many of the v a r i a b l e s c o u l d be c o n c e i v e d of as c o n t r i b u t i n g b oth t o e f f e c t i v e performance of l i f e t a s k s and as demands made upon a p e r s o n . For example, i n a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y can be seen as a power f a c t o r f o r one perso n but as a l o a d f a c t o r f o r a n o t h e r , depending on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s f u n c t i o n a l i n t e l l i g e n c e . V a r i a b l e s such as a b i l i t y e x i s t on a continuum w i t h power and l o a d a t the extremes and t h e r e f o r e cannot be c l a s s i f i e d c l e a r l y and c o n s i s t e n t l y u s i n g power and l o a d as d e f i n e d by McClusky. I t would seem t h a t few 51 v a r i a b l e s c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d v a l i d l y a c c o r d i n g t o such a dichotomy as power and l o a d . Another d i f f i c u l t y i s t o c o n c e i v e of r e s o u r c e s ( i . e . , power) such as income and time as making a p o s i t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o performance. I t would appear t h a t some f a c t o r s may i n h i b i t p erformance by t h e i r p r e s e n c e or absence, but can have no d i r e c t p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e upon t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of s k i l l s , knowledge, or c o n c e p t s . A l t h o u g h the PLM f o r m u l a was d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n a d e v e l o p m e n t a l framework i t remains an i n t u i t i v e i s o l a t e d concept s i n c e i t i s not embedded i n a f o r m a l t h e o r e t i c a l model. Because of t h i s , d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e e n c o u n t e r e d i n a t t e m p t i n g t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e the PLM f o r m u l a . Dumont and W i l s o n (1967), i n t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n of concept f o r m a t i o n , s u g g ested t h a t i n t u i t i v e i s o l a t e d c o n c e p t s cannot be' e v a l u a t e d "because they do not o p e r a t e w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of a f o r m a l t h e o r y " (p. 998), and t h e r e f o r e , t e n d t o be ambiguous. T h i s seems t o be a p p l i c a b l e t o the PLM f o r m u l a , a l t h o u g h , t h i s i s not t o say t h a t i t h o l d s l i t t l e p r o m i s e . The g e n e r i c concept of margin c e r t a i n l y has g r e a t p o t e n t i a l i n a t t e m p t i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d the b e h a v i o r of the a d u l t l e a r n e r . I n g e n e r a l , i t emphasizes the need t o a p p r e c i a t e the e n v i r o n m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s t h a t may s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e the a d u l t l e a r n e r ' s p e r s i s t e n c e , and i n p a r t i c u l a r , i t s u g g e s t s t h a t a v a r i e t y of a b i l i t i e s and demands may p r e d i s p o s e the l e a r n e r t o s u c c e s s or f a i l u r e i n the l e a r n i n g s e t t i n g . In c o n t r a s t t o margin the r e s i l i e n c e c o n c e p t u a l model i s more c o n s i s t e n t and p r e c i s e i n terms of i t s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n 52 and s t a t i s t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n . T h i s c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n i s not t o be c o n s t r u e d as a r e f i n e m e n t of the PLM f o r m u l a s i n c e the PLM f o r m u l a i s an i s o l a t e d concept and r e s i l i e n c e i s o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d . In a d d i t i o n , t h e r e e x i s t s no r e l a t i o n s h i p bet-ween power and l o a d , as d e f i n e d by McClusky (1963), and the f i v e elements of the r e s i l i e n c e concept which e v o l v e d from a systems a n a l y s i s . R e s i l i e n c e c o n c e p t . The manner i n which a system copes w i t h change ( i . e . , i t s s t a b i l i t y ) was h y p o t h e s i z e d t o be d e t e r m i n e d by f i v e s e t s of v a r i a b l e s ; t e n s i o n s ( i n t e r - and i n t r a - s y s t e m i c ) , c a p a b i l i t i e s , and c o n s t r a i n t s ( i n t e r - and i n t r a - s y s t e m i c ) . I t was f u r t h e r h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t a s i m u l t a n e o u s assessment of t h e s e v a r i a b l e s would produce a measure of t h e system's a b i l i t y t o m a i n t a i n i t s e l f . T h i s measure i s r e f e r r e d t o as r e s i l i e n c e . I f the r e s i l i e n c e of the system i s such t h a t i t cannot m a i n t a i n i t s e l f w i t h i n the e x i s t i n g environment, then a l e s s complex r e s t r u c t u r i n g of t h e s u p r a s y s t e m and perhaps a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the system i t s e l f a t a lower h i e r a r c h i c a l l e v e l w i l l t a k e p l a c e . C o n v e r s e l y , g r e a t e r r e s i l i e n c e w i l l a l l o w the system t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e i t s e l f h i e r a r c h i c a l l y ( i . e . , d e v e l o p ) . R e s i l i e n c e i s a h y p o t h e s i z e d measure of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h the many demands d u r i n g p e r i o d s of t r a n s i t i o n and development. P e r i o d s of t r a n s i t i o n r e q u i r e a r e s e r v e ' t o m a i n t a i n s t a b i l i t y w h i l e development, whether i t be economic or p e r s o n a l , r e q u i r e s a c e r t a i n c a p a c i t y ( i . e . , r e s i l i e n c e ) f o r s e l f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t a 53 l i n e a r c o m b i n a t i o n of v a r i o u s t e n s i o n , c a p a b i l i t y , and c o n s t r a i n t v a r i a b l e s w i l l d e f i n e t h i s r e s i l i e n c e . The d e f i n i t i o n and f o r m u l a t i o n f o r r e s i l i e n c e f o l l o w s : R e s i l i e n c e : the l i n e a r c o m b i n a t i o n of t e n s i o n , c a p a b i l i t y , and c o n s t r a i n t v a r i a b l e s . R j - T i j + T^ + Cp..+ Cn- i + Cn' u R: r e s i l i e n c e i - p e r s o n T: t e n s i o n ( i n t e r - s y s t e m i c ) j - v a r i a b l e T': t e n s i o n ( i n t r a - s y s t e m i c ) Cp: c a p a b i l i t y Cn: c o n s t r a i n t ( i n t e r - s y s t e m i c ) Cn': c o n s t r a i n t ( i n t r a - s y s t e m i c ) Development r e q u i r e s the n e c e s s a r y r e s i l i e n c e t o w i t h s t a n d p s y c h o s o c i a l d i s r u p t i o n and i t s c o n c o m i t a n t c o s t s . In a d d i t i o n t o the c o s t of p e r s o n a l development, the t r a n s i t i o n t o the r o l e of s t u d e n t n e c e s s i t a t e s c o n s i d e r a b l e adjustment f o r most a d u l t s . The a b i l i t y t o a d j u s t t o change i s dependent upon a v a r i e t y of i n t e r - and i n t r a - s y s t e m i c f a c t o r s and t h e r e f o r e t o u n d e r s t a n d why a d u l t s t u d e n t s drop out of a f o r m a l l e a r n i n g program i s t o u n d e r s t a n d the t o t a l sphere of t e n s i o n s , c a p a b i l i t i e s , and c o n s t r a i n t s t h a t impinge on t h e a d u l t l e a r n e r . The c oncept of r e s i l i e n c e i m p l i e s a c a p a c i t y t o cope w i t h s y s t e m i c f l u c t u a t i o n s . These changes r e f l e c t the c y c l i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of systems and a r e t h e r e f o r e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the s tudy of v a r i o u s t r a n s i t i o n s i n a p e r s o n ' s l i f e . More 54 i m p o r t a n t l y f o r t h i s s t u d y , r e s i l i e n c e a l l o w s d a t a t o be g a t h e r e d as the a d u l t l e a r n e r b e g i n s the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s , p r o v i d i n g a m e t h o d o l o g i c a l advantage of g a t h e r i n g d a t a r e l a t e d t o dropout a t the o u t s e t of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l p r o c e s s . . A l t h o u g h the development of t h e r e s i l i e n c e concept perhaps has the appearance of a g e n e r a l i z a b l e c o n s t r u c t (which p o t e n t i a l l y i t may b e ) , t h e purpose of t h i s concept i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was t o p r o v i d e a c o n c e p t u a l b a s i s f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g dropout and a means of o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g the a d u l t l e a r n e r - e n v i r o n m e n t t y p o l o g y t o determine the r e l a t i v e p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of a v a r i e t y of v a r i a b l e s i n ABE d r o p o u t . T h i s c o n c e p t u a l model i s s i m p l y a l o g i c a l c o r o l l a r y t o the system t h e o r y and t y p o l o g y which may prove t o have some p r e d i c t i v e v a l i d i t y f o r a p o p u l a t i o n of ABE s t u d e n t s . In f a c t , b e f o r e r e s i l i e n c e as a c o n s t r u c t can be c o n t e m p l a t e d the c o n t e n t and c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of the t y p o l o g y i t s e l f w i l l have t o be d e t e r m i n e d . Hypotheses The two f o c a l p o i n t s of t h i s s t u d y were the a d u l t l e a r n e r -environment t y p o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e and t h e r e s i l i e n c e c o n s t r u c t . The f i r s t q u e s t i o n a d d r e s s e d by t h i s r e s e a r c h concerned the s e p a r a b i l i t y and i d e n t i f i a b i l i t y of the h y p o t h e s i z e d l e a r n e r -environment t y p o l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . In s h o r t , i s the t y p o l o g y i s o m o r p h i c w i t h e m p i r i c a l r e a l i t y ? The second q u e s t i o n a d d r e s s e d c o n c e r n e d the a b i l i t y of the t y p o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e , as r e p r e s e n t e d by the r e s i l i e n c e model, t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between 55 p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s . The hypotheses were: H1. For a sample of a d u l t b a s i c e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s , the t e n s i o n ( i n t e r - and i n t r a - s y s t e m i c ) , c a p a b i l i t y , and c o n s t r a i n t ( i n t e r - and i n t r a - s y s t e m i c ) f a c t o r s of the a d u l t l e a r n e r -environment t y p o l o g y a r e s e p a r a b l e and i d e n t i f i a b l e as an u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e of the s e l e c t e d measures r e l e v a n t t o dropout i n ABE. H2. G i v e n the e x i s t e n c e of the h y p o t h e s i z e d l e a r n e r -environment t y p o l o g y , the t e n s i o n ( i n t e r - and i n t r a - s y s t e m i c ) , c a p a b i l i t y , and c o n s t r a i n t ( i n t e r - and i n t r a - s y s t e m i c ) f a c t o r s c o r e s as r e p r e s e n t e d by the r e s i l i e n c e c o n c e p t u a l model w i l l s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i s c r i m i n a t e , a t the .05 l e v e l , between a d u l t p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s i n ABE. Summary G e n e r a l system t h e o r y was used as the framework f o r the c r e a t i o n of a t h e o r e t i c a l model ( i . e . , morphogenetic model) of the a d u l t l e a r n e r and the c o r r e s p o n d i n g environment. T h i s model was used t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e the change and s t a b i l i t y dynamics of the a d u l t l e a r n e r . From t h i s r e s u l t e d a t y p o l o g y of i n t e r - and i n t r a - s y s t e m i c f a c t o r s as w e l l as the r e s i l i e n c e model t o e x p l a i n and p r e d i c t a d u l t l e a r n e r d r o p o u t . The r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s of t h i s study concern the v a l i d i t y of the h y p o t h e s i z e d t y p o l o g y and the a b i l i t y of the r e s i l i e n c e model t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between p e r s i s t e r s / d r o p o u t s i n ABE. 56 CHAPTER 4 METHODOLOGY The two hypotheses of t h i s s tudy f o c u s upon the v a l i d i t y of the a d u l t l e a r n e r - e n v i r o n m e n t t y p o l o g y u n d e r l y i n g the r e s i l i e n c e model proposed i n the p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r and t h e a b i l i t y of t h i s model t o s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i s c r i m i n a t e between p e r s i s t e r s and dr o p o u t s i n ABE. T h i s c h a p t e r d e s c r i b e s the d e s i g n , p r o c e d u r e , and a n a l y s e s used t o t e s t t h e s e two hy p o t h e s e s . D e s i g n D i s c u s s i o n of the d e s i g n w i l l c e n t e r around the v a r i a b l e s s t u d i e d , t h e i n s t r u m e n t s used t o measure t h e v a r i a b l e s , and a d e s c r i p t i o n of the e d u c a t i o n a l program from which the s t u d y ' s sample was s e l e c t e d . V a r i a b l e s s t u d i e d . The v a r i a b l e s of i n t e r e s t f o r the f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s f e l l w i t h i n the p r e v i o u s l y d e f i n e d c a t e g o r i e s of i n t e r - and i n t r a - s y s t e m i c t e n s i o n s , c a p a b i l i t i e s , and i n t e r - and i n t r a - s y s t e m i c c o n s t r a i n t s . R e l e v a n t a t t r i b u t e s of the systems i n q u e s t i o n were a l s o i d e n t i f i e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r as c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the f i v e t y p o l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . The . h y p o t h e s i s e d t e n s i o n c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was d e r i v e d p r i m a r i l y from the i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e , a c t i v i t y , g o a l d i r e c t i o n , and m u l t i f i n a l i t y a ssumptions and i n c l u d e d v a r i o u s need and a t t i t u d i n a l d i s p o s i t i o n s shaped by p e r s o n a l ( i n t e r n a l ) or s o c i a l ( e x t e r n a l ) e v e n t s . A t t r i b u t e s chosen t o r e p r e s e n t i n t e r - and i n t r a - s y s t e m i c t e n s i o n s were d e r i v e d from the t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n s as w e l l as v a r i a b l e s i d e n t i f i e d i n the dropout 57 l i t e r a t u r e . E x p e c t a t i o n s of o t h e r s ( a t t i t u d e s ) were viewed as e x t e r n a l t e n s i o n s s i n c e t h e s e e x p e c t a t i o n s o r i g i n a t e d i n t h e a d u l t ' s environment. The e x p e c t a t i o n s of o t h e r s a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the assumption of i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e . I t s h o u l d be kept i n mind t h a t even though e x p e c t a t i o n s of o t h e r s i s an e n v i r o n m e n t a l t e n s i o n i t must e v e n t u a l l y be i n t e r n a l i z e d t o become an a t t i t u d e , o t h e r w i s e , i t would be s i m p l y an e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t . E x t e r n a l t e n s i o n s a r e c o n t r a s t e d w i t h i n t e r n a l t e n s i o n s i n t h a t the l a t t e r a r e l o n g h e l d v a l u e s and b e l i e f s t h a t m a n i f e s t themselves as needs. For t h i s r e a son c e r t a i n need d i s p o s i t i o n s t h a t r e f l e c t b a s i c v a l u e s and b e l i e f s were seen as i n t e r n a l t e n s i o n s . The g o a l d i r e c t i o n assumption i s perhaps b e s t e x e m p l i f i e d by i n t e r n a l need d i s p o s i t i o n s . An i n s t r u m e n t used i n p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h on dropout and w h i c h i n c l u d e d s u b s c a l e s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e s e t y p o l o g i c a l a t t r i b u t e s i s t h e A d j e c t i v e Check L i s t (ACL). An example of a s u b s c a l e of the ACL c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o an e x p e c t a t i o n of o t h e r s ( i . e . , e x t e r n a l t e n s i o n ) i s " d e f e r e n c e " . A need d i s p o s i t i o n c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o i n t e r n a l t e n s i o n found i n the l i s t of ACL s u b s c a l e s i s "endurance", which i s the i n t e r n a l d r i v e t o p e r s i s t and see a t a s k t o c o m p l e t i o n . The c a p a b i l i t y t y p o l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was d e f i n e d as r e p r e s e n t i n g a c q u i r e d knowledge and s k i l l s ( i . e . , c r y s t a l l i z e d i n t e l l i g e n c e ) as w e l l as i n n a t e a b i l i t y ( i . e . , f l u i d i n t e l l i g e n c e ) . These two t y p e s of a b i l i t y r e l a t e t o the s t a b i l i t y and change of the system and were d e r i v e d d i r e c t l y from the s e l f maintenance and s e l f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a s s u m p t i o n s . 58 S i n c e most t e s t s of c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a b l e time t o a d m i n i s t e r , i t was deemed i m p r a c t i c a l t o s e l e c t more than one i n s t r u m e n t as an index of c a p a b i l i t y . The i n s t r u m e n t chosen was the V e r b a l A b i l i t y T e st of the D i f f e r e n t i a l A p t i t u d e B a t t e r y . The t e s t d e v e l o p e r s c l a i m i t r e l i a b l y p r e d i c t s s c h o l a s t i c s u c c e s s and t h e r e f o r e i t was used as a measure of the a d u l t l e a r n e r ' s a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . In a d d i t i o n , i t r e f l e c t e d a combined s c o r e of a c q u i r e d and i n n a t e a b i l i t y . I n t e r - s y s t e m i c c o n s t r a i n t s a r e those e n v i r o n m e n t a l b a r r i e r s t h a t r e s t r i c t the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h change and ar e seen as i n t e r v e n i n g v a r i a b l e s . I n t e r - s y s t e m i c c o n s t r a i n t s r e p r e s e n t the e x t e r n a l s t r u c t u r a l c o n t e x t of any s i t u a t i o n t h a t e i t h e r n e g a t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e s the a t t a i n m e n t of a d e s i r e d g o a l or i s n e u t r a l . The i n d i c e s chosen t o r e p r e s e n t e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s were l i f e changes, f i n a n c i a l c o n c e r n s , and a v a i l a b l e s tudy t i m e . L i f e changes i s a measure of the s t r e s s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i m p o r t a n t changes i n the l i f e of the i n d i v i d u a l such as a move or d i v o r c e . These e x t e r n a l changes i n the l i f e of the i n d i v i d u a l , whether they be d e s i r a b l e or n o t , r e q u i r e time and a t t e n t i o n i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n s t a b i l i t y . . C l e a r l y , i f t h e s e changes become e x c e s s i v e they may overcome the d e s i r e and a b i l i t y t o c o n t i n u e i n a f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l program. L i f e changes were a s s e s s e d u s i n g the S o c i a l Readjustment R a t i n g S c a l e . In c o n s i d e r i n g c o n t i n u e d p r o g r e s s i n s c h o o l by the a d u l t l e a r n e r , time and money v a r i a b l e s may a l s o s e r i o u s l y l i m i t the a b i l i t y t o p e r s i s t . I t s h o u l d be emphasized t h a t the absence of 59 l i f e changes, f i n a n c i a l c o n c e r n s , and study time do not c o n t r i b u t e i n a d i r e c t and p o s i t i v e manner t o l e a r n i n g . O n l y the absence of t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s as w e l l as the need t o a c h i e v e and an adequate l e v e l of a b i l i t y can ensure s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n of a program of s t u d i e s . The p r e v i o u s arguments a l s o h o l d f o r those i n t r a - s y s t e m i c c o n s t r a i n t s or p s y c h o l o g i c a l a t t r i b u t e s which s e r v e t o impede the g o a l a s p i r a t i o n s of the a d u l t l e a r n e r . An example i d e n t i f i e d i n the dropout l i t e r a t u r e i s t h a t of s e l f c o n c e p t . S e l f c oncept i s seen as an i n t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t because i t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o s p e c u l a t e t h a t a poor s e l f concept may i n t e r f e r e w i t h the b e l i e f t h a t one w i l l be s u c c e s s f u l i n the p u r s u i t of f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n . However, as w i t h i n t e r - s y s t e m i c c o n s t r a i n t s , a p o s i t i v e s e l f concept cannot d i r e c t l y ensure s u c c e s s i n s c h o o l i f the c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y and need t o complete a r e not commensurate w i t h the t a s k . Measures of s e l f concept were o b t a i n e d from the Tennessee S e l f Concept S c a l e . I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . The A d j e c t i v e Check L i s t (ACL) c o n s i s t s of t h r e e hundred a d j e c t i v e s used as a s e l f d e s c r i p t i v e assessment of the p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s of an i n d i v i d u a l . S i n c e the i n s t r u m e n t y i e l d s a d i v e r s i t y (37 s c a l e s ) of p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i b u t e s r e l a t i n g t o human b e h a v i o r s , i t was used as the s o u r c e f o r i n t e r - and i n t r a - s y s t e m i c t e n s i o n v a r i a b l e s . In a d d i t i o n , i t had been shown t h a t e i g h t of the s c a l e s c o r e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s ( W i l s o n , 1980). The r a t i o n a l e f o r the s e l e c t i o n of t h e p a r t i c u l a r ACL s c a l e s i s p r e s e n t e d i n the p r o c e d u r e s e c t i o n of 60 t h i s c h a p t e r . The median a l p h a r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t (Cronbach, 1951) a c r o s s s u b s c a l e s of the ACL f o r males was .76, w h i l e f o r females the median was .75. T e s t - r e t e s t median ( a c r o s s s u b s c a l e s ) r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s were r e p o r t e d t o be .65 and .71 f o r males and females r e s p e c t i v e l y . The a u t h o r s s t a t e t h a t t h e s e " r e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e s based on s i n g l e t r i a l d a t a a r e i n the r e g i o n of c o r r e l a t i o n s commonly found f o r s e l f - r e p o r t i n v e n t o r i e s " (Gough & H e i l b r u n , 1980, p. 3 0 ) . The c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of t h i s t e s t was based upon c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h e x t e r n a l or n o n t e s t c r i t e r i a as w e l l as i n f e r r e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l meaning "of the c o n c e p t u a l s t r u c t u r e assumed t o u n d e r l i e the b e h a v i o r s " (Gough & H e i l b r u n , 1980, p. 2 ) . The i n s t r u m e n t used t o measure the c a p a b i l i t y f a c t o r was the V e r b a l Reasoning s u b t e s t (Form T) of the D i f f e r e n t i a l A p t i t u d e T e s t B a t t e r y (DAT), ( B e n n e t t , Seashore & Wesman, 1972). T h i s t e s t p u r p o r t s t o measure how w e l l an i n d i v i d u a l can u n d e r s t a n d , think,- and reason v e r b a l l y . S p l i t - h a l f r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s ranged from .90 t o .95 f o r bo t h male and female r e s p o n d e n t s a c r o s s each grade l e v e l (grades 8 t o 12). The v a l i d i t y of the DAT i s based upon t h e e x t e n t t o which i t i s a b l e t o p r e d i c t s c h o l a s t i c performance. V a l i d i t y c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s show the DAT t o be a v e r y good p r e d i c t o r of e d u c a t i o n a l performance ( B e n n e t t , Seashore & Wesman, 1972, p. 110). A l t o u g h t e s t d a t a were g a t h e r e d u s i n g secondary s c h o o l s t u d e n t s and the DAT has not been s t a n d a r d i z e d on an a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n , c o n s i d e r i n g the academic l e v e l of the s t u d e n t and 61 the f a c t t h a t no b e t t e r group t e s t was a v a i l a b l e f o r p r e d i c t i n g s c h o l a s t i c performance f o r ABE s t u d e n t s , t h i s t e s t was chosen. E x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s were measured by the S o c i a l Readjustment R a t i n g S c a l e (Holmes & Rahe, 1967), an e s t i m a t e of t i m e over and above commitments t o n o n s c h o o l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and a s u b j e c t i v e r a t i n g s c a l e of p e r c e i v e d f i n a n c i a l c o ncern (see Appendix A ) . The S o c i a l Readjustment R a t i n g S c a l e (SRRS) i s a measure of r e c e n t l y e x p e r i e n c e d l i f e changes t h a t r e s u l t i n s t r e s s . The s c a l e c o n s i s t s of 43 items s c a l e d i n terms of the i n t e n s i t y and l e n g t h of time n e c e s s a r y t o accommodate t o a l i f e event "whose advent i s e i t h e r i n d i c a t i v e of or r e q u i r e s a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n the ongoing l i f e p a t t e r n of the i n d i v i d u a l " (Holmes & Rahe, 1967, p. 217). Changes a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o r e q u i r e adjustment " r e g a r d l e s s of the d e s i r a b i l i t y of t h i s e v e n t " (Holmes & Masuda, 1974). D e s i r a b l e or p o s i t i v e l i f e - c h a n g e e v e n t s were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s c a l e because s u b j e c t s r e p o r t e d p o s i t i v e e v e n t s p r i o r t o onset of i l l n e s s (Rahe, 1974). A l t h o u g h the i s s u e of i n c l u d i n g b o t h d e s i r a b l e and u n d e s i r a b l e e v e n t s remains u n r e s o l v e d , i n c l u s i o n of b o t h i n t h i s study was judged a p p r o p r i a t e s i n c e even p o s i t i v e changes o f t e n make a demand on the time and r e s o u r c e s of the i n d i v i d u a l which may r e n der the person more v u l n e r a b l e t o subsequent e v e n t s such as r e t u r n i n g t o s c h o o l . For the purposes of t h i s s t u d y one i t e m (42. C h r i s t m a s ) was e l i m i n a t e d c o n s i d e r i n g the i n s t r u m e n t was a d m i n i s t e r e d t h r e e weeks a f t e r C h r i s t m a s and would have been e x p e r i e n c e d i n some manner by the m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s . A l t h o u g h r e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e s have ranged c o n s i d e r a b l y f o r 62 the SRRS, Rahe (1974) r e p o r t e d t h a t "when the time i n t e r v a l between q u e s t i o n n a i r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s was two weeks, the t e s t -r e t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n was .90" (p. 8 3 ) . R e l i a b i l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s were r e p o r t e d by Rahe (1974) t o be p r i m a r i l y r e l a t e d t o time i n t e r v a l , e d u c a t i o n l e v e l , and the w ording of the l i f e event q u e s t i o n s . The c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was e s t a b l i s h e d t h r o u g h i n t e r v i e w s t o a s s e s s the meaning of the e v e n t s f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . Each event i t e m of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was then c o n s t r u c t e d based upon the common theme of the i n t e r v i e w s t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t change r e s u l t s i n some a d a p t i v e or c o p i n g b e h a v i o r i n . t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e p a t t e r n . The magnitude of adjustment was q u a n t i f i e d from the r e s u l t s of a second study u s i n g 394 s u b j e c t s who r a t e d each event i t e m a c c o r d i n g t o the n e c e s s a r y r e a d j u s t m e n t demanded (Holmes & Masuda, 1974, p. 4 6 ) . The e s t i m a t e of time commitment was o b t a i n e d on a q u e s t i o n n a i r e a s k i n g the s t u d e n t t o e s t i m a t e , f o r each day of t h e week, the time a v a i l a b l e f o r homework a f t e r c l a s s e s and o t h e r n o n s c h o o l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y of the q u e s t i o n was a s s e s s e d and judged t o be h i g h by t h r e e e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r s (two i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and one i n e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g y ) a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C olumbia. P e r c e i v e d f i n a n c i a l c o n c e r n was measured u s i n g a L i k e r t - t y p e s c a l e q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s i g n e d t o e l i c i t r e s ponses r e g a r d i n g f i n a n c i a l c o n c e r n s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a copy of which i s p r o v i d e d i n Appendix A, was p i l o t t e s t e d on a sample of 22 n i n t h and t e n t h grade a d u l t s t u d e n t s i n an i n s t i t u t i o n s i m i l a r t o the one used i n the main s t u d y . To reduce the l e n g t h of the t e s t , and hence, 63 t o reduce a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t i m e , the o r i g i n a l 17 i t e m q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a n a l y z e d u s i n g the program LERTAP ( N e l s o n , 1974) and those items w i t h a c o r r e l a t i o n (product-moment c o r r e c t e d f o r p a r t / w h o l e i n f l a t i o n ) of l e s s than .7 were e l i m i n a t e d . Through t h i s p r o c e d u r e the t e s t was reduced t o e i g h t items h a v i n g a Hoyt's (1941) r e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e of .95. Content v a l i d i t y of the t e s t was a s s e s s e d by f i v e j u d g e s . Two judges were r e s e a r c h e r s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n w h i l e the r e m a i n i n g t h r e e were a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i t i o n e r s . Judges were p r e s e n t e d w i t h the reduced q u e s t i o n n a i r e and asked t o mark tho s e items t h a t d i d not r e f l e c t a f i n a n c i a l c o n c e r n . From the e x a m i n a t i o n of each q u e s t i o n by the judges i t was d e t e r m i n e d t h a t the c o n t e n t v a l i d i t y was h i g h . I n t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t measures were o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h the Tennessee S e l f Concept S c a l e ( F i t t s , 1965). The Tennessee S e l f Concept S c a l e (TSCS) measures t h r e e p r i m a r y d i m e n s i o n s of s e l f c o n cept r e l a t i n g t o "what I am", "how I f e e l " , and "what I do" and t h u s r e p r e s e n t s an i n t e r n a l frame of r e f e r e n c e . - The 100 s e l f d e s c r i p t i v e items a r e a l s o c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o an e x t e r n a l frame of r e f e r e n c e i n c l u d i n g p h y s i c a l , m o r a l - e t h i c a l , p e r s o n a l , f a m i l y , and s o c i a l s e l f . A d i s c u s s i o n of the s e l e c t i o n of the s e l f concept d i m e n s i o n s i s p r e s e n t e d i n the next s e c t i o n . T e s t - r e t e s t r e l i a b i l i t y c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the s u b s c a l e s a r e a l l over .90. C o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y was d e t e r m i n e d t h r o u g h unanimous agreement by judges t h a t items were c l a s s i f i e d c o r r e c t l y . The t e s t has a l s o been v a l i d a t e d u s i n g d i s c r i m i n a t i o n among groups, c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h o t h e r p e r s o n a l i t y 64 measures, and p e r s o n a l i t y changes under p a r t i c u l a r c o n d i t i o n s . Program and Sample. A d u l t l e a r n e r s i n grade ten E n g l i s h and math c l a s s e s from the K i n g Edward Campus of Vancouver Community C o l l e g e l o c a t e d i n Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia s e r v e d as s u b j e c t s . These c o u r s e s were p a r t of the program o f f e r e d by the C o l l e g e F o u n d a t i o n D i v i s i o n ( i . e . , h i g h s c h o o l c o m p l e t i o n ) which s e r v e s the g r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a . The h i g h s c h o o l c o m p l e t i o n c o u r s e s (grades n i n e t o tw e l v e ) a r e o f f e r e d by way of a f o u r month t r a d i t i o n a l c l a s s r o o m method w i t h 100 minute c l a s s e s . C l a s s e s a r e o f f e r e d d u r i n g the day and the e v e n i n g u s i n g the same c u r r i c u l u m c o n t e n t . No d i s t i n c t i o n i s made between day and evenin g i n s t r u c t o r s s i n c e most t e a c h d u r i n g both t i m e s . The C o l l e g e F o u n d a t i o n D i v i s i o n has and does e x e r c i s e the a u t h o r i t y t o d e v e l o p t h e i r own c o u r s e s , a l t h o u g h they were judged by the D i v i s i o n Head t o be s i m i l a r t o the c o u r s e s o f f e r e d by the P r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n i n the secondary program and a r e a c c e p t e d by most a r t i c u l a t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . The program a t K i n g Edward Campus i s open t o a l l s t u d e n t s 18 y e a r s of age or o l d e r who have been out of s c h o o l a t l e a s t one f u l l y e a r . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 1200 s t u d e n t s a r e e n r o l l e d i n the C o l l e g e F o u n d a t i o n s D i v i s i o n each September and January and from 800 t o 900 d u r i n g the s p r i n g term i n May. Daytime s t u d e n t s t a k e from one t o f o u r c o u r s e s , w h i l e the m a j o r i t y of s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n the ev e n i n g c l a s s e s t a k e one c o u r s e . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 65 p e r c e n t of the s t u d e n t body a r e day s t u d e n t s . A l a r g e m a j o r i t y of the t o t a l s t u d e n t body have had some c o n t a c t w i t h c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s . The c o u n s e l l i n g department has f i v e 6 5 regular c o u n s e l l o r s and three h a l f - t i m e personnel who a l s o provide c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s to the students. Roughly equal amounts of time are spent by the s t a f f i n the areas of car e e r , course, and personal c o u n s e l l i n g . A t o t a l of s i x E n g l i s h and math c l a s s e s was used i n the study. Four were day c l a s s e s and two were evening c l a s s e s . The t o t a l population of grade 10 E n g l i s h c l a s s e s at the c o l l e g e c o n s i s t e d of two day c l a s s e s and one evening c l a s s . The grade 10 math c l a s s e s c o n s i s t e d of two day c l a s s e s and two evening c l a s s e s ; however, one of the evening c l a s s e s was omitted due to a scheduling c o n f l i c t ( i . e . , same evening and same time) with the evening c l a s s i n E n g l i s h and the f a c t that only the author administered the que s t i o n n a i r e s to ensure a standardized procedure. Procedure The procedural t o p i c s t o be discussed here concern the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n of dropout, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the instrument to the sample of ABE students, and f i n a l s e l e c t i o n of the v a r i a b l e s from a l l the s c a l e s and subscales administered. D e f i n i t i o n of dropout. Considering the pl e t h o r a of dropout d e f i n i t i o n s i t i s v i t a l l y important i n t h i s study to o p e r a t i o n a l l y define dropout and c l e a r l y s t a t e the l i m i t i n g c r i t e r i a of t h i s d e f i n i t i o n . As f i r s t i n d i c a t e d i n Chapter 1, dropout i s here defined as those students who attended the t h i r d c l a s s session but d i d not complete the course requirements based upon the c o l l e g e ' s o f f i c i a l t r a n s c r i p t s . I t should be 66 emphasized t h a t s t u d e n t s who o n l y r e g i s t e r e d or a t t e n d e d the f i r s t two c l a s s e s were not c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n the p urview of t h e s t u d y . The reason f o r t h i s was t h a t program a d m i n i s t r a t o r s d i d not c o n s i d e r i t a d v i s a b l e t o t e s t on the f i r s t day of c l a s s e s . C o n s i d e r i n g the problems of l a t e a r r i v a l s , c o u r s e l e v e l p lacement, and c o u r s e c o n f l i c t s i t was judged t h a t the t h i r d c l a s s s e s s i o n would be the e a r l i e s t a v a i l a b l e d a t e f o r t e s t i n g . T h i s of c o u r s e meant t h a t a number of e a r l y d r o p o u t s were e x c l u d e d from the s t u d y , but i t must be emphasized t h a t t h i s by no means i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the d i s r e g a r d f o r the importance of s t u d y i n g the reasons why these a d u l t s t u d e n t s would l e a v e t h e program so soon. T h i s was s i m p l y a p r a g m a t i c d e c i s i o n based upon the c o n s t r a i n t s of the s i t u a t i o n . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Assessments were taken d u r i n g t h e s p r i n g term, 1981. The t h i r d c l a s s meeting of the term was chosen f o r assessment based m a i n l y on the p r a g m a t i c r e a s o n s s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y . By the t h i r d s e s s i o n s t u d e n t s who had been r e g i s t e r e d i n the wrong c o u r s e or s e c t i o n had been s o r t e d out and c o u r s e r e q u i r e m e n t s and e x p e c t a t i o n s had been communicated. F u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s group of e a r l y d r o p o u t s or "would-be-l e a r n e r s " and whether they r e p r e s e n t a s p e c i a l c l a s s of dropout i s p r e s e n t e d i n the f i n a l c h a p t e r . A l s o , i t s h o u l d be mentioned t h a t d a t a on dropout were g a t h e r e d o n l y a t the b e g i n n i n g of the program. A l t h o u g h the p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t e d t h a t i n c l u s i o n of f o l l o w - u p i n t e r v i e w s or q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a l o n g w i t h a p r i o r i d a t a c o n c e r n i n g dropout may have appeared t o s t r e n g t h e n the s t u d y , the s a l i e n t dropout f i n d i n g s of both i n t e r v i e w and q u e s t i o n n a i r e 67 t e c h n i q u e s c o n s i s t e n t l y have p o i n t e d t o n o n s c h o o l f a c t o r s as reasons f o r d r o p p i n g o u t . C o n s i d e r i n g the m a r g i n a l advantage of a t t e m p t i n g t o r e p l i c a t e t h e s e f i n d i n g s i t was d e c i d e d t o c o n c e n t r a t e on g a t h e r i n g d a t a a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of the program and judge the r e s u l t s i n l i g h t of p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d r e s e a r c h . Four s e t s of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d by the a u t h o r t o the s i x c l a s s e s over a two day p e r i o d . Two days were r e q u i r e d because c l a s s e s were s c h e d u l e d on a l t e r n a t i n g d a y s . P r i n t e d e x p l a n a t i o n s as t o the purpose of the s t u d y were g i v e n and r e a d t o each c l a s s and any c o n c e r n s e x p r e s s e d by the s t u d e n t s were a d d r e s s e d . The i n s t r u m e n t s were o r d e r e d a c c o r d i n g t o the d i f f i c u l t y and time r e q u i r e d t o complete ( i . e . , the e a s i e s t and q u i c k e s t f i r s t ) . The composite q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n t a i n i n g a s u b j e c t c o n s e n t form, demographic q u e s t i o n s , a time e s t i m a t e , the S o c i a l Readjustment R a t i n g S c a l e , and the p e r c e i v e d f i n a n c i a l need s c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d f i r s t and took about 10 minutes t o c o m p l e t e . The A d j e c t i v e Check L i s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d next and r e q u i r e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 minutes t o do. The t h i r d q u e s t i o n n a i r e g i v e n was the Tennessee S e l f Concept S c a l e and took a p p r o x i m a t e l y 25 m i n u t e s . A maximum of 30 minutes was a l l o w e d f o r the D i f f e r e n t i a l A p t i t u d e T e s t , and s i n c e t h i s was the o n l y t e s t w i t h a time l i m i t , i t was a d m i n i s t e r e d l a s t . W i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n time added i n , the t o t a l time f o r assessment was an hour and a h a l f . V a r i a b l e s e l e c t i o n . The A d j e c t i v e Check L i s t . (ACL) y i e l d s 37 s c o r e s and the Tennessee S e l f Concept S c a l e (TSCS) c o n s i s t s of 25 s c o r e s which n e c e s s i t a t e d an a p r i o r i s e l e c t i o n of 68 v a r i a b l e s f o r a n a l y s i s due to the sample s i z e . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t suggested that f a c t o r a n a l y s i s necessary to t e s t the f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s , r e q u i r e d a r a t i o of f i v e s u b j e c t s to each v a r i a b l e (Gorsuch, 1974, p.333). Since the f i n a l sample s i z e was 92, t h i s allowed f o r a maximum of 18 v a r i a b l e s to enter the a n a l y s i s phase. Since four other v a r i a b l e s (study time, SRRS, f i n a n c i a l concern and DAT) were designated to be i n c l u d e d as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of s p e c i f i c typology c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , t h i s r e q u i r e d s e l e c t i o n of 14 v a r i a b l e s from the ACL and the TSCS. The f o l l o w i n g i s a l i s t of a l l the ACL subscales from which s i x were s e l e c t e d as r e f l e c t i n g both e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l t e n s i o n . A seventh subscale was s e l e c t e d as an index of i n t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t . 1. Modus Operandi s c a l e s -number of a d j e c t i v e s checked -number of f a v o r a b l e a d j e c t i v e s -number of unfavorable a d j e c t i v e s -communality 2. Need s c a l e s -achievement -dominance -endurance -order - i n t r a c e p t i o n -nurturance - a f f i l i a t i o n - h e t e r o s e x u a l i t y - e x h i b i t i o n -autonomy -ag g r e s s i o n -change -succorance -abasement -deference 69 3. T o p i c a l s c a l e s - c o u n s e l i n g r e a d i n e s s - s e l f c o n t r o l - s e l f c o n f i d e n c e - p e r s o n a l adjustment - i d e a l s e l f - c r e a t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y - m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s h i p - m a s c u l i n e a t t r i b u t e s - f e m i n i n e a t t r i b u t e s 4. T r a n s a c t i o n a l A n a l y s i s s c a l e s - c r i t i c a l p a r e n t - n u r t u r i n g p a r e n t - a d u l t - f r e e c h i l d -adapted c h i l d 5. O r i g e n c e - I n t e l l e c t a n c e s c a l e s - h i g h o r i g e n c e , low i n t e l l e c t a n c e - h i g h o r i g e n c e , h i g h i n t e l l e c t a n c e -low o r i g e n c e , low i n t e l l e c t a n c e -low o r i g e n c e , h i g h i n t e l l e c t a n c e S c r e e n i n g of the ACL f o r p o t e n t i a l v a r i a b l e s was based upon p r e v i o u s t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n s and f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e on d r o p o u t . The ACL s c a l e s were f i r s t s t u d i e d f o r measures of i n t e r - and i n t r a - s y s t e m i c t e n s i o n . That i s , v a r i a b l e s which were seen as r e f l e c t i n g e x p e c t a n c i e s of o t h e r s and need d i s p o s i t i o n s m a n i f e s t e d and shaped by e v e n t s b o t h e x t e r n a l l y and i n t e r n a l l y were c o n s i d e r e d f o r a n a l y s i s . Because of the f o c u s on t e n s i o n the s u b s e t of the f i v e ACL s c a l e c l u s t e r s t h a t was. of i n i t i a l c o n c e r n was the 15 "need s c a l e s " . The need s c a l e s are " a d d r essed t o d i s p o s i t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d as i m p o r t a n t i n Murray's (1938) need-press t h e o r y of p e r s o n a l i t y " (Gough & H e i l b r u n , 1980, p. 8 ) . Murray (1938) d e f i n e s a need as a f o r c e d i r e c t e d toward an e x i s t i n g , u n s a t i s f i e d s i t u a t i o n w h i l e a p r e s s i s a d i r e c t i o n a l tendency i n an o b j e c t or s i t u a t i o n r e q u i r i n g a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r . T h i s c o r r e s p o n d s t o an 70 i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l o r i e n t a t i o n r e s p e c t i v e l y which made these s c a l e s the p r i m a r y f o c u s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g t e n s i o n i n d i c e s . A r a t i o n a l e f o r s e l e c t i o n or r e j e c t i o n of the s c a l e s f o r a n a l y s i s f o l l o w s . Three v a r i a b l e s (achievement, change, and d e f e r e n c e ) were s e l e c t e d as b e s t r e p r e s e n t i n g the i n t e r - s y s t e m i c t e n s i o n c o n s t r u c t . Two o t h e r v a r i a b l e s (endurance and i n t r a c e p t i o n ) were a l s o s e l e c t e d from t h i s s u b s e t as i n d i c e s of i n t r a - s y s t e m i c t e n s i o n . A t h i r d i n d e x of i n t r a - s y s t e m i c t e n s i o n ( s e l f c o n t r o l ) was s e l e c t e d from another c l u s t e r of ACL s c a l e s ( t o p i c a l s c a l e s ) and i t s j u s t i f i c a t i o n w i l l f o l l o w a d i s c u s s i o n of the s e l e c t i o n of the p r e v i o u s t e n s i o n v a r i a b l e s . The f i r s t i n t e r - s y s t e m i c t e n s i o n v a r i a b l e s e l e c t e d was achievement need. T h i s seemed an o b v i o u s c h o i c e c o n s i d e r i n g the n a t u r e of the study ( i . e . , dropout i n ABE) b u t , more i m p o r t a n t l y , i t r e f l e c t e d the need " t o s t r i v e t o be o u t s t a n d i n g i n p u r s u i t s of s o c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d s i g n i f i c a n c e " (Gough & H e i l b r u n , 1980, p. 8) which was seen as a r e a c t i o n t o the p r e s s of o t h e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s . The second v a r i a b l e s e l e c t e d t o r e p r e s e n t t h i s t y p o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t was change. Low s c o r e r s on t h i s s c a l e a r e much more s u s c e p t i b l e t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r e s s i n t h a t t hey seek s t a b i l i t y and c o n t i n u i t y i n the environment. T h i s d e f i n i t i o n appeared t o be congruent w i t h the i n t e r - s y s t e m i c t e n s i o n c o n s t r u c t . Another reason f o r i n c l u s i o n was t h a t change had been i d e n t i f i e d by W i l s o n (1980) as b e i n g a b l e t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s . The l a s t i n t e r -s y s t e m i c t e n s i o n v a r i a b l e s e l e c t e d was d e f e r e n c e which was 71 d e f i n e d as s e e k i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g s u b o r d i n a t e r o l e s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s . T h i s a g a i n seemed t o c o r r e s p o n d w i t h the need t o conform t o the e x p e c t a t i o n s of o t h e r s . I t was a l s o found t o be a good p r e d i c t o r of p e r s i s t e n c e by W i l s o n (1980). - Endurance was the f i r s t need s c a l e chosen t o r e p r e s e n t i n t r a - s y s t e m i c t e n s i o n . T h i s s c a l e r e f l e c t e d the need " t o p e r s i s t i n any t a s k u n d e r t a k e n " (Gough & H e i l b r u n , 1980, p. 9 ) . I n c l u s i o n of endurance was based upon the b e l i e f t h a t i t r e f l e c t e d s t r o n g l y h e l d v a l u e s which appear t o shape b e h a v i o r . In a d d i t i o n , W i l s o n (1980) had i d e n t i f i e d endurance as b e i n g a b l e t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s . The second s c a l e s e l e c t e d as an index of i n t r a - s y s t e m i c t e n s i o n was i n t r a c e p t i o n . I n t r a c e p t i o n i s d e f i n e d as the need t o t r y " t o u n d e r s t a n d one's own b e h a v i o r or t h e b e h a v i o r of o t h e r s " (Gough & H e i l b r u n , 1980, p. 10). T h i s s c a l e was chosen over o t h e r p o t e n t i a l l y i n c l u d a b l e s c a l e s because of i t s c o g n i t i v e component of p e r s o n a l i t y . T h i s c o g n i t i v e element i s r e f l e c t e d by h i g h s c o r e r s on t h i s s c a l e v a l u i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l m a t t e r s and low s c o r e r s p o s s e s s i n g a narrow range of i n t e r e s t s . When d i s c u s s i n g the e x c l u s i o n of ACL "need s c a l e s " i t must be remembered t h a t the l i m i t e d number of v a r i a b l e s a l l o w e d t o e n t e r the a n a l y s i s phase was an o v e r i d i n g c o n s t r a i n t . Most s c a l e s were e x c l u d e d because of t h e i r h i g h i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s c a l e s (as r e p o r t e d i n the manual), and i n a d d i t i o n , were judged t o be l e s s e a s i l y i n t e r p r e t a b l e r e g a r d i n g i n t e r - and i n t r a - s y s t e m i c t e n s i o n s . The f i n a l g e n e r a l c r i t e r i a was the r e l e v a n c e of the s c a l e t o dropout i n ABE. 72 The f i r s t v a r i a b l e i n the l i s t of need s c a l e s t o be e x c l u d e d was dominance. Dominance r e f l e c t e d a need t o be i n c o n t r o l and was e x c l u d e d because i t was c o r r e l a t e d h i g h l y w i t h s e l f c o n t r o l which had been i n c l u d e d f o r reasons t o be d i s c u s s e d below. Order was e x c l u d e d because of i t s h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n (r=.85) w i t h endurance which was a more r e a d i l y i n t e r p r e t a b l e s c a l e r e g a r d i n g dropout i n ABE. A l t h o u g h n u r t u r a n c e , the need t o p r o v i d e m a t e r i a l or e m o t i o n a l b e n e f i t s t o o t h e r s , was found t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s by W i l s o n (1980), i t was not c o n s i d e r e d t o be h i g h l y r e l e v a n t t o t e n s i o n and s i n c e i t was c o r r e l a t e d w i t h u n f a v o r a b l e a d j e c t i v e s ( t o be i n c l u d e d as an i n t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t ) i t was not c o n s i d e r e d a good index of i n t e r - s y s t e m i c t e n s i o n . A l s o , c o n s i d e r i n g the f a c t t h a t a f f i l i a t i o n was h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d (r=.76) w i t h n u r t u r a n c e , they were judged t o be s i m i l a r v a r i a b l e s and t h e r e f o r e the p r e v i o u s argument f o r r e j e c t i n g n u r t u r a n c e was used. H e t e r o s e x u a l i t y a l s o appeared t o have l e s s d i r e c t r e l e v a n c e than o t h e r s c a l e s and t h e r e f o r e was e x c l u d e d . E x h i b i t i o n i s d e f i n e d as the need t o e l i c i t the immediate a t t e n t i o n of o t h e r s and s i n c e i t appeared t o r e f l e c t the n e g a t i v e p o l a r i t y (r=-.78) of ano t h e r more e a s i l y i n t e r p r e t a b l e v a r i a b l e ( s e l f c o n t r o l ) i t was e l i m i n a t e d . R e j e c t i o n of autonomy was based upon the f a c t t h a t i t was c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s e l f c o n t r o l and was the weakest of the e i g h t ACL s c a l e s c o r e s t h a t W i l s o n (1980) found t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s . The i n c l u s i o n of s e l f c o n t r o l made autonomy expendable. A n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n (-.76) of a g g r e s s i o n w i t h d e f e r e n c e , a more e a s i l y i n t e r p r e t a b l e s c a l e , 73 l e d t o the r e j e c t i o n of a g g r e s s i o n . Succorance i s the need t o s o l i c i t e m o t i o n a l support from o t h e r s and was judged as b e i n g not as r e l e v a n t a c o r r e l a t e of dropout as the o t h e r s e l e c t e d s c a l e s . In a d d i t i o n , a l t h o u g h W i l s o n (1980) had shown i t t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s , i t was not one of the s t r o n g e r v a r i a b l e s . The abasement s c a l e r e p r e s e n t s e x p r e s s e d f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y and as such c l e a r l y does not r e f l e c t the t e n s i o n c o n s t r u c t . The t h i r d i n t r a - s y s t e m i c t e n s i o n v a r i a b l e , s e l f c o n t r o l , was not chosen from the c l u s t e r of need s c a l e s but from the c l u s t e r of n i n e " t o p i c a l s c a l e s " measuring " v a r i o u s f a c e t s of p e r s o n a l i t y and s o c i a l d i s p o s i t i o n s not drawn from a s i n g l e t h e o r y or u n i t a r y c o n t e x t " (Gough & H e i l b r u n , 1980, p. 15). In o t h e r words, the n i n e t o p i c a l s c a l e s measure p e r s o n a l i t y d i s p o s i t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o r s i m i l a r t o the need s c a l e s . S e l f c o n t r o l was s e l e c t e d because i t r e f l e c t e d a t t r i b u t e s such as d i l i g e n c e and a t t e n t i o n t o duty which appeared t o be an i n t e r n a l v a l u e or b e l i e f and t h e r e f o r e i n t e r p r e t a b l e as an i n t r a - s y s t e m i c t e n s i o n . In a d d i t i o n , i t has been shown t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p e r s i s t e n c e i n ABE ( W i l s o n , 1980). In c o n s i d e r i n g the r e m a i n i n g t o p i c a l s c a l e s , t h r e e ( s e l f c o n f i d e n c e , p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t , and i d e a l s e l f ) were i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d and c l e a r l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the s e l f concept a t t r i b u t e ( i n t r a - s y s t e m i c - c o n s t r a i n t ) . S i n c e a nother measure (TSCS) was used t o a s s e s s t h i s c o n s t r u c t , t h e y were e x c l u d e d from the a n a l y s i s phase. The c r e a t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y and m i l i t a r y 74 l e a d e r s h i p s c a l e s , a l t h o u g h i n t e r e s t i n g and perhaps r e l e v a n t t o d r o p o u t , were not i n c l u d e d because more i n t e r p r e t a b l e s c a l e s were a v a i l a b l e and o n l y a l i m i t e d number of s c a l e s c o u l d be i n c l u d e d . The r e m a i n i n g t o p i c a l s c a l e s , m a s c u l i n e and f e m i n i n e a t t r i b u t e s , c o n c erned sex d i f f e r e n c e s and p r e f e r e n c e s which were not r e l e v a n t t o the s t u d y . The f i n a l s c a l e s e l e c t e d from the ACL was the number of u n f a v o r a b l e a d j e c t i v e s checked (modus o p e r a n d i s c a l e s ) and was p r o j e c t e d t o c o r r e s p o n d t o the i n t r a - s y s t e m i c c o n s t r a i n t c o n s t r u c t . T h i s s c a l e was s e l e c t e d because i t had been shown t o be the second best d i s c r i m i n a t o r between p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s of the ACL s c a l e s ( W i l s o n , 1980). A secondary c o n s i d e r a t i o n was whether t h i s s c a l e was measuring a s i m i l a r s e l f concept d i m e n s i o n as the TSCS. I f so, perhaps i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h the TSCS c o u l d be r e p l a c e d by c e r t a i n ACL s c a l e s . Other s c a l e s w i t h i n the "modus o p e r a n d i " c l u s t e r such as number of a d j e c t i v e s checked and communality were not c o n s i d e r e d f o r i n c l u s i o n because of t h e d i f f i c u l t y of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and l a c k of congruence w i t h the t y p o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t s . An example i s t h a t communality i s used as an a i d t o i d e n t i f y u n r e l i a b i l i t y of r e sponses as w e l l as r e f l e c t i n g a p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t . Number of f a v o r a b l e a d j e c t i v e s checked was e x c l u d e d s i m p l y because i t was the p o s i t i v e image ( i . e . , r e v e r s e p o l a r i t y ) of number of u n f a v o r a b l e a d j e c t i v e s checked which had been p r e v i o u s l y s e l e c t e d . F i v e s c a l e s were l a b e l e d as the " t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s " c l u s t e r r e l a t i n g t o t h r e e p r i m a r y ego s t a t e s ( p a r e n t , a d u l t , and 75 c h i l d ) which t h e o r e t i c a l l y i n f l u e n c e i n t e r p e r s o n a l b e h a v i o r . Due t o d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h i n t e r p r e t a b i l i t y a r i s i n g from ego s t a t e t h e o r y and t h e i r h i g h i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s c a l e s , the t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s s c a l e s were not c o n s i d e r e d f o r a n a l y s i s . The f i n a l c l u s t e r of s c a l e s , " o r i g e n c e - i n t e l l e c t a n c e " , p r o v i d e s a means t o a s s e s s independent measures of d i s p o s i t i o n a l f a c e t s of c r e a t i v i t y and i n t e l l i g e n c e . A l t h o u g h these s c a l e s may have p o t e n t i a l advantage as an i n d i c e s of c a p a b i l i t y , i t was judged t h a t the s p e c u l a t i v e n a t u r e of t h e i r meaning and s e p a r a b i l i t y p r e c l u d e d i n c l u s i o n i n the a n a l y s i s . I f more v a r i a b l e s c o u l d have been s e l e c t e d t h e s e s c a l e s would have been g i v e n more c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r i n c l u s i o n . The c o u n s e l l i n g form of the TSCS was used t o s e l e c t s e l f c o n cept s c o r e s because of t h e i r r e l e v a n c e and s i m p l i c i t y of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The c l i n i c a l and r e s e a r c h form, a l t h o u g h i t uses the same items as the c o u n s e l l i n g form, have a d d i t i o n a l s u b s c a l e s which r e q u i r e s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Examples of a d d i t i o n a l s u b s c a l e s of the c l i n i c a l and r e s e a r c h form t h a t were not r e l e v a n t and were d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t i n c l u d e d the p s y c h o s i s and n e u r o s i s s c a l e s . E l i m i n a t i o n of s c a l e s from the c o u n s e l l i n g form began w i t h the v a r i a b i l i t y , d i s t r i b u t i o n , and time s c o r e s s i n c e they were c l e a r l y not i n d i c e s of the h y p o t h e s i z e d t y p o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t s . Of the r e m a i n i n g t en s c a l e s , the t o t a l p o s i t i v e s c o r e was not c o n s i d e r e d s i n c e i t was a g l o b a l r e f l e c t i o n of a l l the o t h e r s c a l e s . F i n a l l y , due l a r g e l y t o sample s i z e c o n s t r a i n t s 76 d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y , the i d e n t i t y and s o c i a l s e l f s c a l e s were e x c l u d e d i n d e f e r e n c e t o the i n c l u s i o n of more s p e c i f i c s e l f c oncept measures ( e . g . , p h y s i c a l , m o r a l - e t h i c a l , p e r s o n a l , and f a m i l y s e l f c o n c e p t s ) . The r e m a i n i n g two v a r i a b l e s r e q u i r i n g some d i s c u s s i o n a r e the e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t v a r i a b l e s study time and f i n a n c i a l c o n c e r n . S i n c e t h e s e were two of the e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t i n d i c e s of p r i m a r y c o n c e r n t o t h i s s t u d y , they were g i v e n the h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y f o r i n c l u s i o n . F o r the sake of parsimony the g o a l was t o d e v e l o p a s i m p l e and d i r e c t assessment ( d e s c r i b e d i n the p r e v i o u s s u b s e c t i o n ) of t h e s e two v a r i a b l e s t h a t c o u l d be i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s e s as r e p r e s e n t i n g e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t . A l t h o u g h i t was d e s i r a b l e t o have as many v a r i a b l e s as p o s s i b l e r e p r e s e n t i n g each t y p o l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , c o n s t r a i n t s due t o a v a i l a b l e t e s t i n g time and sample s i z e r e s t r i c t e d the number of measures a d m i n i s t e r e d and the number of v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s . The r e s u l t s of t h e s e and o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , d e s c r i b e d p r e v i o u s l y , n e c e s s i t a t e d t h a t not e v e r y c a t e g o r y would have m u l t i p l e or an e q u a l number of h y p o t h e s i z e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . The f o l l o w i n g i s a complete l i s t of t e s t s and v a r i a b l e s e n t e r i n g the a n a l y s i s : 1 . Study Time 2. S o c i a l Readjustment R a t i n g S c a l e 3. F i n a n c i a l Concern 4. D i f f e r e n t i a l A p t i t u d e T e s t s : V e r b a l A d j e c t i v e Check L i s t a) . number of u n f a v o r a b l e a d j e c t i v e s : c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s e l f doubt and b i t t e r n e s s towards o t h e r s . b) achievement: t o s t r i v e t o be o u t s t a n d i n g i n p u r s u i t s of s o c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d s i g n i f i c a n c e . c) endurance: t o p e r s i s t i n any t a s k u n d e r t a k e n . d) i n t r a c e p t i o n : t o engage i n a t t e m p t s t o u n d e r s t a n d one's own b e h a v i o r or the b e h a v i o r of o t h e r s . e) change: t o seek n o v e l t y of e x p e r i e n c e and a v o i d r o u t i n e . f ) d e f e r e n c e : t o seek and m a i n t a i n s u b o r d i n a t e r o l e s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s . g) s e l f c o n t r o l : a s o c i a l d i s p o s i t i o n r a n g i n g from dependable and d i l i g e n t t o i m p u l s i v e and a g g r e s s i v e . Tennessee S e l f Concept S c a l e a) s e l f c r i t i c i s m : m i l d l y d e r o g a t o r y s t a t e m e n t s t h a t most p e o p l e admit as b e i n g t r u e f o r them; h i g h s c o r e s g e n e r a l l y i n d i c a t e a normal and h e a l t h y openness. b) s e l f s a t i s f a c t i o n : a r e f l e c t i o n of how the i n d i v i d u a l f e e l s about the s e l f he p e r c e i v e s . c) b e h a v i o r : the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n of the way he f u n c t i o n s . d) p h y s i c a l s e l f : the i n d i v i d u a l p r e s e n t s h i s 78 view of h i s body, s t a t e of h e a l t h , s k i l l s , and s e x u a l i t y . e) m o r a l - e t h i c a l s e l f : d e s c r i p t i o n of s e l f r e g a r d i n g moral worth and r e l a t i o n s h i p t o God. f ) p e r s o n a l s e l f : the i n d i v i d u a l ' s sense of p e r s o n a l worth and adequacy as a person a p a r t from h i s body and r e l a t i o n s h i p t o o t h e r s . g) f a m i l y s e l f : r e f l e c t s one's f e e l i n g s of adequacy, w o r t h , and v a l u e as a f a m i l y member. The e x p e c t e d f a c t o r l o a d i n g s of the t e s t s c o r e s f o r the f i v e l e a r n e r - e n v i r o n m e n t t y p o l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were as • f o l l o w s : 1 . E x t e r n a l T e n s i o n ( i n t e r - s y s t e m i c ) -achievement (ACL) -change (ACL) - d e f e r e n c e (ACL) 2. I n t e r n a l T e n s i o n ( i n t r a - s y s t e m i c ) -endurance (ACL) - i n t r a c e p t i o n (ACL) - s e l f c o n t r o l (ACL) 3. C a p a b i l i t y -DAT 4. E x t e r n a l C o n s t r a i n t ( i n t e r - s y s t e m i c ) -SRRS - s t u d y time - f i n a n c i a l c o n c e r n 79 5. I n t e r n a l C o n s t r a i n t ( i n t r a - s y s t e m i c ) -number of u n f a v o r a b l e (ACL) - s e l f c r i t i c i s m (TSCS) - s e l f s a t i s f a c t i o n (TSCS) - b e h a v i o r (TSCS) - p h y s i c a l s e l f (TSCS) - m o r a l - e t h i c a l s e l f (TSCS) - p e r s o n a l s e l f (TSCS) - f a m i l y s e l f (TSCS) Data P r e p a r a t i o n and S c o r i n g The ACL and TSCS q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were s c o r e d by the c o r r e s p o n d i n g p u b l i s h e r s . A l l o t h e r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and s c a l e s (DAT, SRRS, F i n a n c i a l Concern, and Study Time) were s c o r e d by the a u t h o r . In a d d i t i o n , a l l t h e c o d i n g of the t e s t s c o r e d a t a was performed by the a u t h o r . V e r i f i c a t i o n of the c o d i n g was a c c o m p l i s h e d by randomly s e l e c t i n g a l l the s c o r e s of 20 s u b j e c t s and- comparing the coded d a t a w i t h the o r i g i n a l d a t a . Three e r r o r s were found and c o r r e c t e d . The d a t a were keypunched by the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia keypunching s e r v i c e s and were v e r i f i e d by the same department. However, a d d i t i o n a l v e r i f i c a t i o n was o b t a i n e d by randomly s e l e c t i n g t e n s u b j e c t s and matching the keypunched d a t a t o the o r i g i n a l coded d a t a . No e r r o r s were found. 80 A n a l y s e s The a n a l y s e s were s e p a r a t e d i n t o p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s e s r e l a t i n g t o whether the b a s i c a ssumptions of the s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s used had been s a t i s f i e d and the main a n a l y s e s r e g a r d i n g the t e s t i n g of the s t u d y ' s two h y p o t h e s e s . P r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s e s . D u r i n g the f i r s t phase of a n a l y s i s the n o r m a l i t y and homogeneity of v a r i a n c e - c o v a r i a n c e u n d e r l y i n g the use of p a r a m e t r i c s t a t i s t i c s were t e s t e d . Skewness and k u r t o s i s s t a t i s t i c s were computed f o r each v a r i a b l e w i t h i n each c l a s s u s i n g the SPSS C o n d e s c r i p t i v e program ( N i e , H u l l , J e n k i n s , S t e i n b r e n n e r , & Bent, 1975). The r e s u l t s of t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d s l i g h t skewness and l i t t l e or no k u r t o s i s i n each c a s e . I t was t h e r e f o r e assumed t h a t the assumption of n o r m a l i t y was s a t i s f i e d . The next s t e p was t o t e s t f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n v a r i a n c e -c o v a r i a n c e among c l a s s e s u s i n g the B a r t l e t t - B o x homogeneity of d i s p e r s i o n procedure (Winer, 1971, p. 595). T h i s a n a l y s i s was c o m pleted u s i n g the program OWMAR ( H a k s t i a n , Note 1 ) . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d a t the .01 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e ; the c o r r e s p o n d i n g F - r a t i o was 1.78 w i t h 855 and 7229 degrees of freedom. To i d e n t i f y p o s s i b l e d i s p a r a t e d a t a ( i . e . , o u t l i e r s ) as p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s of v a r i a n c e - c o v a r i a n c e d i f f e r e n c e s , f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n s of a l l v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n each c l a s s were examined. Four s u b j e c t s l y i n g beyond t h r e e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s on a t l e a s t one v a r i a b l e were i d e n t i f i e d and removed. The homogeneity of v a r i a n c e - c o v a r i a n c e t e s t was r e p e a t e d but the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s 81 remained u n t e n a b l e . S i n c e the F - r a t i o was not r e d u c e d , the s u b j e c t s were r e t u r n e d t o the sample. In an a t t e m p t . t o reduce the h e t e r o g e n e i t y of v a r i a n c e s , the raw d a t a were s t a n d a r d i z e d w i t h i n c l a s s e s t o e l i m i n a t e v a r i a n c e d i f f e r e n c e s . However, t h i s d i d not reduce the F - r a t i o of the B a r t l e t t - B o x t e s t and the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was a g a i n r e j e c t e d , i n d i c a t i n g p o s s i b l e c o v a r i a n c e d i f f e r e n c e s . The above r e s u l t s c r e a t e d a problem t h a t had t o be r e s o l v e d b e f o r e f u r t h e r d a t a a n a l y s i s c o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t . One f a c t o r which m i t i g a t e s the s e v e r i t y of t h i s v i o l a t i o n was t h a t the F-r a t i o e q u a l e d 1.78 w i t h 855 and 7229 degrees of freedom. R e j e c t i o n of the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s w i t h t h e s e degrees of freedom would o c c u r w i t h r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e h e t e r o g e n e i t y . In a d d i t i o n , s i n c e d a t a were g a t h e r e d a t the b e g i n n i n g of the s c h o o l term, c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s would not be e x p e c t e d due t o d i f f e r e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t . C o n s i d e r i n g the a t t e m p t s t o c o r r e c t the problem and the argument s t a t e d above, i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t d e p a r t u r e from th e homogeneity of v a r i a n c e - c o v a r i a n c e assumption was moderate enough not t o s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s . W i t h i n c l a s s s t a n d a r d i z e d s c o r e s were used i n a l l subsequent a n a l y s e s . Main a n a l y s e s . The f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s c o n c e r n i n g the v a l i d i t y of the proposed t y p o l o g y of v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g dropout i n ABE was examined u s i n g f a c t o r a n a l y s i s . The a n a l y s i s was p e r f ormed u s i n g the A l b e r t a G e n e r a l F a c t o r A n a l y s i s Program ( H a k s t i a n & Bay, 1973). A common f a c t o r model was employed and combined w i t h an o r t h o g o n a l r o t a t i o n . t o o b t a i n the f a c t o r p a t t e r n ( i . e . , l a t e n t v a r i a b l e s ) t o compare w i t h the 82 h y p o t h e s i z e d t y p o l o g y . P r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n as t o t h e number of f a c t o r s t o be r e t a i n e d used component a n a l y s i s w i t h the K a i s e r - G u t t m a n e i g e n v a l u e c r i t e r i o n g r e a t e r than or e q u a l t o one ( C a t t e l l , 1966). A d d i t i o n a l c r i t e r i a employed were the S c r e e t e s t ( C a t t e l l , 1966, p. 206), s i m p l e s t r u c t u r e ( T h u r s t o n e , 1947), and' i n t e r p r e t a b i l i t y r e g a r d i n g the h y p o t h e s i z e d t y p o l o g y . A f t e r the number of f a c t o r s was d e c i d e d upon, an unweighted l e a s t s q uares p r o c e d u r e (Harman, 1976, p. 174) was used t o s o l v e f o r the f a c t o r p a t t e r n . R o t a t i o n t o s i m p l e s t r u c t u r e was a c c o m p l i s h e d u s i n g t h e v a rimax t e c h n i q u e (Harman, 1976, p.. 290). In o r d e r t o t e s t the p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of the components i n the r e s i l i e n c e model a s e t of f a c t o r s c o r e s c a l c u l a t e d from the f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e was used. Some advantages of u s i n g f a c t o r s c o r e s a r e a more p o w e r f u l a n a l y s i s ( i . e . , i n c r e a s e s degrees of freedom), b e t t e r i n t e r p r e t a b i l i t y ( i . e . , combines i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d i t e m s ) , and more g e n e r a l i z a b l e r e p l i c a t i o n p r e d i c t i o n (Gorsuch, 1974, p. 319; M o r r i s , 1979, p. 17). A r e g r e s s i o n p r o c e d u r e was used t o e s t i m a t e the f a c t o r s c o r e s . T h i s method was chosen because i t a t t a i n s maximum v a l i d i t y of the f a c t o r s c o r e e s t i m a t e s . H a k s t i a n and Bay (1973) d e f i n e d v a l i d i t y of f a c t o r s c o r e s as c o r r e l a t i n g "as h i g h l y as p o s s i b l e w i t h the t r u e s c o r e s " (p. 4 2 ) . They a l s o s u g g e s t e d t h a t the r e g r e s s i o n method i s the p r e f e r r e d p r o c e d u r e when u s i n g an unweighted l e a s t squares model ( H a k s t i a n & Bay, 1973, p. 44) . The second h y p o t h e s i s was c o n cerned w i t h the a b i l i t y of the 83 r e s i l i e n c e model t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was t e s t e d u s i n g t h e SPSS ( N i e , e t a l . , 1975) d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s program. T h i s program g i v e s the o p t i o n of both a d i r e c t ( v a r i a b l e s e n t e r e d c o n c u r r e n t l y ) and a s t e p w i s e s o l u t i o n ( v a r i a b l e s s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of t h e i r d i s c r i m i n a t o r y power). Both methods were used i n o r d e r t h a t a comparison of e x p l a i n e d dropout v a r i a n c e c o u l d be o b t a i n e d . However, the s t e p w i s e s o l u t i o n was used t o t e s t the second h y p o t h e s i s . In a d d i t i o n , i t s h o u l d be mentioned t h a t the r e s e a r c h o b j e c t i v e i n u s i n g t h i s t e c h n i q u e was e x p l o r a t o r y a n a l y s i s i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h t h e o r e t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Summary Two hypotheses were s t a t e d c o n c e r n i n g the assessment of the proposed a d u l t l e a r n e r - e n v i r o n m e n t t y p o l o g y and the a b i l i t y of the r e s i l i e n c e model t o p r e d i c t d r o p o u t . The v a r i a b l e s s t u d i e d were then d e s c r i b e d a l o n g w i t h the c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n . Many s u b s c a l e s and s c o r e s from the ACL and TSCS were not i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s e s f o r reasons of t h e o r e t i c a l r e l e v a n c e and c o n s t r a i n t s due t o the method of a n a l y s i s . A d i s c u s s i o n of the sample was p r e s e n t e d a l o n g w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of how the t e s t s were a d m i n i s t e r e d . F i n a l l y , the two s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s e s used i n the t e s t i n g of the hypotheses were d e s c r i b e d . In the next c h a p t e r the r e s u l t s of the p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d d e s i g n , p r o c e d u r e s , and a n a l y s e s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d . 84 CHAPTER 5 RESULTS In p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s two hypotheses were s t a t e d and a d e s c r i p t i o n of the d a t a c o l l e c t e d and the a n a l y s e s were g i v e n . The r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . A - b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the sample and t e s t r e l i a b i l i t i e s a r e p r o v i d e d f i r s t f o l l o w e d by p r e s e n t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s of the e x p l o r a t o r y f a c t o r a n a l y s i s c o n c e r n i n g the h y p o t h e s i z e d t y p o l o g y . F i n a l l y , the r e s u l t s of the second h y p o t h e s i s c o n c e r n i n g the p r e d i c t i o n of d r o p o u t s a r e p r e s e n t e d . Sample D e s c r i p t i o n One hundred f i f t y - n i n e s t u d e n t s r e g i s t e r e d i n s i x c l a s s e s were c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y . On the days of assessment (the t h i r d c l a s s ) , J a n uary 14 & 15, 1981, 59 s t u d e n t s who had r e g i s t e r e d were not i n c l a s s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , s i n c e a t t e n d a n c e r e c o r d s were not n o r m a l l y m a i n t a i n e d , i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o a s c e r t a i n how many c l a s s e s the m i s s i n g s t u d e n t s had a c t u a l l y a t t e n d e d . However, i t was s u s p e c t e d t h a t a m a j o r i t y had not shown up or had a l r e a d y dropped out by the t h i r d c l a s s s i n c e r e c o r d s showed t h a t 80 p e r c e n t of t h e s e s t u d e n t s ( i . e . , 47 of 59 s t u d e n t s ) d i d not complete the program. T h i s i s c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r than the 37 p e r c e n t ( i . e . , 34 of 92 s t u d e n t s ) dropout r a t e of the study sample. F i n a l l y , f i v e s t u d e n t s r e f u s e d t o complete the i n s t r u m e n t s and a n o t h e r t h r e e p r o v i d e d i n c o m p l e t e d a t a which l e f t a t o t a l sample of 92 s t u d e n t s . Of the o r i g i n a l 92 s t u d e n t s i n the sample, 34 were 85 c l a s s i f i e d as d r o p o u t s ; t h a t i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e c o r d s i n d i c a t e d a " w i t h d r a w a l " or " i n c o m p l e t e " . C o l l e g e r e c o r d s i n d i c a t e t h a t n i n e s t u d e n t s were c l a s s i f i e d as a " w i t h d r a w a l " w h i l e 25 were i n c o m p l e t e . I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t " w i t h d r a w a l " denotes an o f f i c i a l t e r m i n a t i o n by the s t u d e n t w h i l e an " i n c o m p l e t e " denotes t h a t a s t u d e n t s t o p s a t t e n d i n g but does not n o t i f y the i n s t i t u t i o n of an i n t e n t i o n t o withdraw. In e i t h e r c a s e , minimum c o u r s e r e q u i r e m e n t s were not met f o r the assignment of a grade. In a d d i t i o n , the 34 d r o p o u t s were e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d among the s i x c l a s s e s . The s i z e of the c l a s s and the number of d r o p o u t s (shown i n b r a c k e t s ) f o r each were as f o l l o w s : 22 [ 5 ] , 15 [ 7 ] , 19 [ 5 ] , 12 [ 6 ] , 12 [ 5 ] , 12 [ 6 ] . Demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sample r e v e a l e d t h a t males c o n s t i t u t e d 52 p e r c e n t of the t o t a l sample and 47 p e r c e n t of the d r o p o u t s . The d i f f e r e n c e between the p r o p o r t i o n of female d r o p o u t s and male d r o p o u t s was not s i g n i f i c a n t (z=-.57; p>.05). A second demographic s t a t i s t i c i n d i c a t e d t h a t the average age of the sample was 23.9 y e a r s w h i l e the average age of the p e r s i s t e r s was 25.3 y e a r s and d r o p o u t s was 21.4 y e a r s . A l t h o u g h t h i s d i f f e r e n c e seems c o n s i d e r a b l e , i t was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (t=1.76, df=90, p>.05). T h i s a n a l y s i s was done u s i n g the SPSS T-Test program ( N i e , e t a l . , 1975). 86 R e l i a b i l i t y of T e s t s In o r d e r t o compare r e p o r t e d r e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e s w i t h those based upon the the s t u d y ' s sample d a t a , r e l i a b i l i t i e s were e s t i m a t e d f o r those i n s t r u m e n t s where i t was p o s s i b l e t o c a l c u l a t e an i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y v a l u e . The r e s u l t s of th e s e a n a l y s e s u s i n g the program LERTAP ( N e l s o n , 1974) a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 1. Except f o r the ACL s u b s c a l e change, the o b t a i n e d r e l i a b i l i t i e s were s i m i l a r t o those r e p o r t e d i n the manual (Gough & H e i l b r u n , 1980, p.30). The p a r t i c u l a r l y low r e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e f o r change, .44, means a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e of e r r o r v a r i a n c e e x i s t s , which l e a v e s open i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . One i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s t h a t the r e l i a b i l i t y i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the r e l a t i v e l y low s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n . T h i s r e s t r i c t i o n of range would e f f e c t i v e l y reduce the r e l i a b i l i t y of the change v a r i a b l e . F i n a l l y , g i v e n the n a t u r e of the SRRS, r e l i a b i l i t y e s t i m a t e s were not computed. 87 Ta b l e 1 Sample Data R e l i a b i l i t i e s T e s t / V a r i a b l e Mean St a n d a r d I n t e r n a l D e v i a t i o n C o n s i s t e n c y DAT 24.4 10.3 .91 F i n a n c i a l Concern 20.9 6.4 .86 TSCS S e l f C r i t i c i s m 33.7 5.7 .66 S e l f S a t i s f a c t i o n 118.3 14.4 .79 B e h a v i o r 113.3 13.6 .82 P h y s i c a l S e l f 65.7 9.2 .78 M o r a l / E t h i c a l S e l f 67.2 8.7 .75 P e r s o n a l S e l f 64.5 8.4 .74 F a m i l y S e l f 64.5 11.0 .83 ACL U n f a v o r a b l e 83.7 6.1 .82 Achievement 56.7 4.4 .67 Endurance 69.9 4.6 .68 I n t r a c e p t i o n 50.7 4.4 .73 Change 51 .7 3.1 .44 Def e r e n c e 61 .3 4.1 • .62 S e l f C o n t r o l 50.7 3.9 .64 Note: I n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y r e l i a b i l i t i e s e s t i m a t e d by Hoyt's (1941) a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e a pproach. A d u l t L e a r n e r - E n v i r o n m e n t Typology A proposed t y p o l o g y of f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g ABE l e a r n e r b e h a v i o r e v o l v e d from the s o c i a l system model. The h y p o t h e s i s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h i s c o n c erned the judgement of how i s o m o r p h i c the t y p o l o g y was w i t h the e m p i r i c a l r e f e r e n t s . The s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e f o r t h i s purpose was c o n f i r m a t o r y f a c t o r a n a l y s i s . A p r i n c i p a l component f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the unreduced c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x (see Appendix B) g e n e r a t e d the e i g e n v a l u e s ( p r o p o r t i o n of t o t a l v a r i a n c e a c c o u n t e d f o r by the f a c t o r s ) and c o r r e s p o n d i n g p e r c e n t a g e of t o t a l v a r i a n c e r e p o r t e d i n Ta b l e 2. 88 The number of f a c t o r s a c c o r d i n g t o the K a i s e r - G u t t m a n c r i t e r i o n ( i . e . , e i g e n v a l u e s ^ 1) was f i v e . However, the Scree t e s t (see F i g u r e 1) was somewhat ambiguous i n t h a t i t suggested f o u r or p o s s i b l y f i v e f a c t o r s . Due t o the a m b i g u i t y as t o the number of f a c t o r s , the d e c i s i o n was taken t o i n i t i a l l y r e t a i n both f o u r and f i v e f a c t o r s u s i n g a common f a c t o r s o l u t i o n employing an unweighted l e a s t squares e x t r a c t i o n p r o c e d u r e . A f t e r h a v i n g r o t a t e d o r t h o g o n a l l y (Varimax) b o t h f o u r and f i v e f a c t o r s t h e r e was l i t t l e t o choose between the two s o l u t i o n s u s i n g s i m p l e s t r u c t u r e as a c r i t e r i o n . S a l i e n t l o a d i n g s ( c o r r e l a t i o n of v a r i a b l e and f a c t o r ) of the f o u r f a c t o r s o l u t i o n a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Appendix C w h i l e the s a l i e n t l o a d i n g s of the f i v e f a c t o r s o l u t i o n can be found i n Table-3. Keeping i n mind t h a t t h i s was a c o n f i r m a t o r y a n a l y s i s , the d e c i s i o n c o n c e r n i n g the number of f a c t o r s was based not o n l y upon s i m p l e s t r u c t u r e but i d e n t i f i a b i l i t y of the proposed t y p o l o g y . 89 T a b l e 2 E i g e n v a l u e s from P r i n c i p a l Component A n a l y s i s F a c t o r E i g e n v a l u e P e r c e n t a g e of T o t a l V a r i a n c e 1 5.72 33.6 2 2.49 14.6 3 1 .55 9. 1 4 1 .44 8.4 5 1 .09 6.4 6 .91 5.4 7 .87 5.1 8 .73 4.3 9 .65 3.9 10 .55 3.2 1 1 .43 2.5 . 12 .36 2.1 13 .33 1.9 14 .30 1.6 15 .25 1.5 16 .17 1 .0 17 .13 .8 18 .05 .3 F i g u r e 1: Scree T e s t 91 To f u r t h e r e x p l o r e the u n d e r l y i n g s t r u c t u r e ( i . e . i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n of v a r i a b l e s ) of the d a t a r e s u l t i n g from an unweighted l e a s t squares p r o c e d u r e , o b l i q u e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s ( H a r r i s - K a i s e r ) of both the f o u r and f i v e f a c t o r s o l u t i o n s were o b t a i n e d . Simple s t r u c t u r e was c l e a r l y not o b t a i n a b l e u s i n g a f i v e f a c t o r o b l i q u e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n (see Appendix D). The i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n m a t r i x of the f i v e o b l i q u e f a c t o r s can be found i n Appendix F. A f t e r s t u d y i n g the r e s u l t s of f o u r f a c t o r s t r a n s f o r m e d w i t h t h r e e d i f f e r e n t degrees of o b l i q u i t y , i t was found t h a t t h e r e were few d i f f e r e n c e s among the o b l i q u e s o l u t i o n s ( i . e . n o n - o r t h o g o n a l o r . c o r r e l a t e d f a c t o r s ) . However, the l e a s t o b l i q u e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n (c=.5; H a c k s t i a n & Bay, 1973) had m a r g i n a l l y b e t t e r s i m p l e s t r u c t u r e than the o t h e r two (c=.25 and c=0; H a k s t i a n & Bay, 1973). S a l i e n t f a c t o r l o a d i n g s a f t e r o b l i q u e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the f o u r f a c t o r unweighted l e a s t squares s o l u t i o n (c=.5) can be found i n Appendix E. A l s o , the f a c t o r i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n were low i n d i c a t i n g t h a t the f o u r f a c t o r s were l i k e l y o r t h o g o n a l (see Appendix G). S i n c e no s i g n i f i c a n t s i m p l e s t r u c t u r e advantage was apparent between f o u r and f i v e f a c t o r s r o t a t e d o r t h o g o n a l l y and the f o u r f a c t o r r o t a t e d o b l i q u e l y , the second c r i t e r i a , i n t e r p r e t a b i l i t y of the s o l u t i o n , was used t o d e c i d e t o r e t a i n f i v e f a c t o r s . In a d d i t i o n , s i n c e the s i m p l i c i t y of u n c o r r e l a t e d t y p o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t s ( i . e . f a c t o r s ) were deemed i m p o r t a n t f o r p r e d i c t i o n of dropout i t was d e c i d e d t o r e t a i n the o r t h o g o n a l s o l u t i o n (see T a b l e 3 ) . 92 T a b l e 3 S a l i e n t F a c t o r L o a d i n g s A f t e r O r t h o g o n a l R o t a t i o n of the Unweighted L e a s t Squares S o l u t i o n :F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 V1 [.30]* V2 .42 V3 .55 V4 • .78 V5 -.52 V6 .41 .72 V7 .43 .81 V8 .48 V9 -.61 V1 0 .82 VI 1 .91 VI 2 [-.39]* VI 3 .83 VI 4 .89 VI 5 .71 V1 6 .75 V1 7 .80 VI 8 .68 * h i g h e s t l o a d i n g f o r v a r i a b l e a l t h o u g h not s a l i e n t V I : Study Time V I 0 : ACL-V2: SRRS V I 1 : ACL-V3: F i n a n c i a l Concern V I 2 : TSCS V4: DAT V13: TSCS V5: A C L - u n f a v o r a b l e V14: TSCS V6: ACL-achievement V15: TSCS V7: ACL-endurance V16: TSCS V8: A C L - i n t r a c e p t i o n V17: TSCS V9: ACL-change V18: TSCS d e f e r e n c e s e l f c o n t r o l - s e l f c r i t i c i s m - s e l f s a t i s f a c t i o n - b e h a v i o r - p h y s i c a l s e l f - m o r a l / e t h i c a l s e l f - p e r s o n a l s e l f - f a m i l y s e l f G orsuch (1974, p.185) su g g e s t e d t h a t w i t h a sample s i z e of l e s s than 100 a l o a d i n g g r e a t e r than an a b s o l u t e v a l u e of .40 would be c o n s i d e r e d s a l i e n t . A l t h o u g h v a r i a b l e s 6 and 7 had s a l i e n t l o a d i n g s on more than one f a c t o r , they d i d not p r e s e n t a problem i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . The reason f o r t h i s was t h a t i n each 93 case the h i g h e r of the two l o a d i n g s was on F a c t o r 5 which was i n t e r p r e t e d as b e i n g d i s t i n c t from F a c t o r 1. The f a c t o r s t r u c t u r e a f t e r r o t a t i o n c o r r e s p o n d e d w e l l t o the proposed t y p o l o g y , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of t h r e e ACL v a r i a b l e l o a d i n g s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e . t y p o l o g y the f i v e f a c t o r s a n t i c i p a t e d were; (1) e x t e r n a l t e n s i o n , (2) i n t e r n a l t e n s i o n , (3) c a p a b i l i t y , (4) e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t , and, (5) i n t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t . F a c t o r The f i r s t f a c t o r was l a b e l e d i n t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t because of the l o a d i n g s of a l l the s e l f concept s c a l e s and the u n f a v o r a b l e a d j e c t i v e v a r i a b l e (ACL). T h i s was congruent w i t h the p r o j e c t e d l o a d i n g s . A l s o , as mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , the f a c t t h a t achievement and endurance had l o a d i n g s on t h i s f a c t o r d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r somewhat h i g h e r l o a d i n g s on F a c t o r 5. T h e r e f o r e , F a c t o r 1 r e f l e c t s the i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r a l c o n t e x t of a system t h a t may impede the a t t a i n m e n t of a d e s i r e d g o a l . F a c t o r 2. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of F a c t o r 2 caused some d i f f i c u l t y s i n c e the v a r i a b l e w i t h the h i g h e s t l o a d i n g was s e l f c o n t r o l which was h y p o t h e s i z e d t o l o a d w i t h i n t r a c e p t i o n and endurance. S i n c e n e i t h e r of the l a t t e r two v a r i a b l e s l o a d e d w i t h s e l f c o n t r o l , or w i t h each o t h e r f o r t h a t m a t t e r , the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and l a b e l i n g of t h i s f a c t o r was based upon the v a r i a b l e s d e f e r e n c e and change which were the r e m a i n i n g two s a l i e n t l o a d i n g s on t h i s f a c t o r . C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t d e f e r e n c e and change had been p r o j e c t e d as e x t e r n a l t e n s i o n v a r i a b l e s , then the j u s t i f i c a t i o n of l a b e l i n g t h i s f a c t o r as e x t e r n a l t e n s i o n 94 o b v i o u s l y depends upon the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s e l f c o n t r o l . U n d e r s t a n d i n g the s e l f c o n t r o l anomaly n e c e s s i t a t e d a s i m u l t a n e o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the e x t e r n a l t e n s i o n c o n s t r u c t d e f i n i t i o n and the d e s c r i p t o r s of the s e l f c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e . In r e v i e w i n g the d e f i n i t i o n of the e x t e r n a l t e n s i o n c o n s t r u c t i t must be u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t e n s i o n i s an i n t e r n a l s t a t e of b e i n g . In o r d e r f o r t e n s i o n t o e x i s t the i n d i v i d u a l must r e c o g n i z e , i n t e r p r e t , and r e a c t t o the s t i m u l i . The r e a l q u e s t i o n r e l a t e s t o the p r i m a r y s o u r c e of the t e n s i o n . The d i f f e r e n c e between i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l t e n s i o n , a c c o r d i n g t o the d e f i n i t i o n of the t y p o l o g y , i s a m atter of where the s t i m u l i o r i g i n a t e d t h a t m a n i f e s t e d and shaped the b e h a v i o r . W ith t h i s i n mind, i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t e x t e r n a l t e n s i o n i s a p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t or a t t i t u d e t h a t r e s u l t s from an i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of an e x t e r n a l o b j e c t or s i t u a t i o n . On the o t h e r hand, the s e l f c o n t r o l d e s c r i p t o r s i n d i c a t e d the h i g h s c o r e r t o be dependable and r e s p o n s i b l e but a l s o " a v o i d s c l o s e i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s " , w h i l e the low s c o r e r i s c a p r i c i o u s and o f t e n i n v o l v e d i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l c o n f l i c t s . S e l f c o n t r o l was o r i g i n a l l y seen as an index of i n t e r n a l t e n s i o n because i t was i n t e r p r e t e d as an i n t e r n a l v a l u e or b e l i e f . F u r t h e r s t u d y of t h i s s c a l e r e v e a l e d an i m p o r t a n t p o i n t r e g a r d i n g i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n as an e x t e r n a l t e n s i o n i n d e x . The f a c t i s t h a t the d e s c r i p t o r s of s e l f c o n t r o l c o n c e r n i n g i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s c o u l d p l a c e i t w i t h i n t h e e x t e r n a l t e n s i o n c o n s t r u c t because of the c o n c e r n w i t h e x t e r n a l e x p e c t a n c i e s . S i n c e the h i g h s c o r e r on s e l f c o n t r o l has a need 95 t o a v o i d c o n f l i c t w i t h o t h e r s , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o c o n c l u d e t h a t t h i s v a r i a b l e i s an e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t thus e x p l a i n i n g why i t l o a d e d w i t h two o t h e r e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t i n d i c e s . For t h e s e r e a s o n s s e l f c o n t r o l was r e i n t e r p r e t e d as a b e h a v i o r l a r g e l y shaped by e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r e s s and was l a b e l e d e x t e r n a l t e n s i o n . C o n s i d e r i n g the above d e l i b e r a t i o n s , F a c t o r 2 i s seen t o r e f l e c t the i n t e r d e p e n d e n c y of systems i n the p u r s u i t of m e a n i n g f u l g o a l s . F a c t o r 3. The t h i r d f a c t o r i s c l e a r l y r e l a t e d t o a b i l i t y s i n c e the D i f f e r e n t i a l A p t i t u d e T e s t ( v a r i a b l e 4) l o a d s h i g h e s t h e r e . I n t r a c e p t i o n (V8) was o r i g i n a l l y d e f i n e d as the. need t o u n d e r s t a n d one's s e l f and o t h e r s and was c o n s i d e r e d an i n t e r n a l t e n s i o n . One reason why t h i s s c a l e was chosen was because i t r e f l e c t e d a c o g n i t i v e component of p e r s o n a l i t y . C o n s i d e r i n g t h i s and the f a c t t h a t one of i n t r a c e p t i o n ' s d e s c r i p t o r s i s " g e n u i n e l y v a l u e s i n t e l l e c t u a l and c o g n i t i v e m a t t e r s " i t i s perhaps not t o t a l l y s u r p r i s i n g t h a t i t has a s a l i e n t l o a d i n g on F a c t o r 3. In terms of the t y p o l o g y , t h i s f a c t o r c o r r e s p o n d s t o the c a p a b i l i t y c a t e g o r y and w i l l t h e r e f o r e be named the same. T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s the systems a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h change ( s e l f maintenance) and development ( s e l f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ) . F a c t o r 4. F a c t o r 4, h a v i n g the h i g h e s t l o a d i n g s from f i n a n c i a l c o n c e r n s (V3) and the S o c i a l Readjustment R a t i n g S c a l e ( V 2 ) , was l a b e l e d e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t . The h i g h e s t l o a d i n g f o r s t u d y time was a l s o on t h i s f a c t o r , a l t h o u g h i t was not c o n s i d e r e d s a l i e n t ( i . e . l o a d i n g < .40). The l o a d i n g s here were congruent w i t h the p r o j e c t e d l o a d i n g s and t h e r e f o r e t h i s 96 f a c t o r was c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e as a s e t of- e x t e r n a l s t r u c t u r a l c o n t e x t v a r i a b l e s c a p a b l e of i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h the p u r s u i t of d e s i r e d g o a l s . F a c t o r 5. The s a l i e n t l o a d i n g s on F a c t o r 5 were the v a r i a b l e s endurance and achievement. S i n c e t h e s e v a r i a b l e s were not p r o j e c t e d t o l o a d on the same f a c t o r , t h i s f a c t o r r e q u i r e d some i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . To be g i n w i t h , i t s h o u l d be mentioned t h a t the r e m a i n i n g t y p o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t t o be i d e n t i f i e d was i n t e r n a l t e n s i o n and t h a t two of t h e v a r i a b l e s ( i n t r a c e p t i o n and s e l f c o n t r o l ) p r o j e c t e d t o l o a d here l o a d e d on o t h e r i n t e r p r e t a b l e f a c t o r s . A l s o , c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t endurance had the h i g h e s t l o a d i n g on F a c t o r 5 and was p r o j e c t e d t o l o a d as an i n t e r n a l t e n s i o n , i t seemed r e a s o n a b l e t o attempt t o i n t e r p r e t t h i s f a c t o r as the i n t e r n a l t e n s i o n c o n s t r u c t . To do t h i s was dependent upon whether achievement was a l s o i n t e r p r e t a b l e as i n t e r n a l t e n s i o n . For achievement t o be i n t e r p r e t e d as a prop e r index of i n t e r n a l t e n s i o n i t must be seen as a need d i s p o s i t i o n p r i m a r i l y i n i t i a t e d and shaped by i n t e r n a l v a l u e s and b e l i e f s . O r i g i n a l l y c o n s i d e r a b l e emphasis was p l a c e d upon the ACL d e f i n i t i o n of achievement r e l a t i n g t o the " s o c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d s i g n i f i c a n c e " which caused i t t o be seen as e x t e r n a l t e n s i o n . However, the b e h a v i o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h achievement need i s p r i m a r i l y i n i t i a t e d by the e x p e c t a t i o n s of s e l f based upon v a l u e s t h a t have been i n t e r n a l i z e d over t i m e . The h i g h s c o r e r on achievement " i s a ha r d w o r k i n g , g o a l - d i r e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l who i s d e t e r m i n e d t o do w e l l and u s u a l l y does" (Gough & H e i l b r u n , 1980, p. 8 ) . S i n c e 97 t h i s was judged t o be a b a s i c a l l y h e l d v a l u e or b e l i e f i n o n e s e l f , t h i s v a r i a b l e was i n t e r p r e t e d as an index of i n t e r n a l t e n s i o n and t h e r e f o r e F a c t o r 5 was l a b e l e d i n t e r n a l t e n s i o n . I n t e r n a l t e n s i o n i s a c l a s s of v a r i a b l e s t h a t p r o v i d e g o a l d i r e c t i o n and purpose t o the b e h a v i o r of the system. The r e s u l t s of the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s have shown some congruence w i t h the h y p o t h e s i z e d t y p o l o g y c o n s i d e r i n g the l i m i t a t i o n s on the number and t y p e s of v a r i a b l e s and i n s t r u m e n t s t h a t c o u l d p r a c t i c a l l y be i n c l u d e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s . A l t h o u g h f i v e f a c t o r s were i d e n t i f i e d , the p r o j e c t e d l o a d i n g s of the ACL s u b s c a l e s on the e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l t e n s i o n t y p o l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n showed c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c o n g r u e n c e w i t h the f a c t o r a n a l y t i c r e s u l t s . C e r t a i n l y f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e s e ACL s u b s c a l e s i s r e q u i r e d b e f o r e t h e v a l i d i t y of the t y p o l o g y can be f u l l y a s c e r t a i n e d . P e r s i s t e r / D r o p o u t D i s c r i m i n a t i o n The f o c u s of the second h y p o t h e s i s was upon the a b i l i t y of the r e s i l i e n c e model w i t h i t s t e n s i o n , c a p a b i l i t y , and c o n s t r a i n t components t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s . As i n d i c a t e d i n Chapter 4, r e g r e s s i o n f a c t o r s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d t o r e p r e s e n t the f i v e l a t e n t v a r i a b l e s r e s u l t i n g from the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s . D i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s . P r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e means and s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s a r e r e p o r t e d s e p a r a t e l y i n T a b l e 4 f o r the p e r s i s t e r and dropout groups. The f i r s t d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s used a d i r e c t method and a l l o w e d a l l the v a r i a b l e s t o e n t e r 98 c o n c u r r e n t l y . T h i s i n i t i a l a n a l y s i s p r o v i d e d an assessment of the r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n of each v a r i a b l e t o the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n of p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s . The second a n a l y s i s , which was the t e s t of the second h y p o t h e s i s , i n v o l v e d s t e p w i s e s e l e c t i o n u s i n g the W i l k s method of s e p a r a t i o n ( N i e , et a l . , 1975), and o n l y t hose v a r i a b l e s which met both the e n t r y and d e l e t i o n s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l of .05 were r e t a i n e d . Thus, a more p a r s i m o n i o u s s o l u t i o n was o b t a i n e d . T a b l e 4 Means and St a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s of P r e d i c t o r V a r i a b l e s f o r C r i t e r i o n Groups Groups Pred: c t o r Var: a b l e s (Fe i c t o r Scoi -es) F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 P e r s i s t e r (58) Means S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s .021 2 .9788 —1978 1.0196 -.0807 1.0582 -.1671 .931 2 .0641 .9689 Dropout (34) Means S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s -.0361 1.0634 -.3375 .8978 . 1 376 .9071 .2850 1.0758 -.1093 1.0709 Note: Sample s i z e i s shown i n p a r e n t h e s e s . F1: I n t e r n a l C o n s t r a i n t F4: E x t e r n a l C o n s t r a i n t F2: E x t e r n a l T e n s i o n F5: I n t e r n a l T e n s i o n F3: C a p a b i l i t y 99 The r e s u l t s of the f i r s t a n a l y s i s , i n which a l l v a r i a b l e s e n t e r e d a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 5. The independent v a r i a b l e s a r e l i s t e d i n o r d e r of t h e i r d i s c r i m i n a t i n g power a l o n g w i t h the v a l u e of W i l k s ' lambda ( c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n v e r s l y t o d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ) and s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l f o r each s t e p . The two most p o w e r f u l d i s c r i m i n a t o r s were e x t e r n a l t e n s i o n and e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s i n t h a t o r d e r . The r e m a i n i n g v a r i a b l e s d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n as i n d i c a t e d by the s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s . T a b l e 5 Order of E n t r y of F a c t o r Score Independent V a r i a b l e s ( F i r s t A n a l y s i s : No c r i t e r i o n ) S t e p Independent V a r i a b l e W i l k s ' Lambda S i g n i f i c a n c e 1 E x t e r n a l T e n s i o n .9332 .0129 2 E x t e r n a l C o n s t r a i n t .8860 .0046 3 C a p a b i l i t y .8735 .0075 4 I n t e r n a l T e n s i o n .8702 .01 57 5 I n t e r n a l C o n s t r a i n t .8691 .031 2 Note: S i g n i f i c a n c e i s .that e x i s t i n g a f t e r each s t e p . When the s i g n i f i c a n c e c r i t e r i o n (p<.05) f o r a d d i t i o n a l -d i s c r i m i n a t o r y power was a p p l i e d , o n l y two p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s were r e t a i n e d ; e x t e r n a l t e n s i o n and e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t . T able 6 summarizes the r e s u l t s of the second a n a l y s i s and i n c l u d e s the s t a n d a r d i z e d d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s , e i g e n v a l u e , 100 c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n , and s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l . The s t a n d a r d i z e d d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t r e p r e s e n t s the r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n of the v a r i a b l e t o the f u n c t i o n ( N i e , et a l . , 1975, p. 443). The e i g e n v a l u e p r o v i d e s a measure of .the r e l a t i v e i mportance of the f u n c t i o n w h i l e the c a n o n i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s the c o r r e l a t i o n of the l i n e a r c o m b i n a t i o n of independent v a r i a b l e s ( f a c t o r s c o r e s ) w i t h the dependent v a r i a b l e s ( p e r s i s t e n c e / d r o p o u t ) . T a b l e 6 Summary S t a t i s t i c s : F a c t o r Score D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s ' (Second A n a l y s i s : S i g n i f i c a n c e c r i t e r i o n ) Independent V a r i a b l e E x t e r n a l T e n s i o n E x t e r n a l C o n s t r a i n t S t a n d a r d i z e d D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s 0.7831 -0.4633 E i g e n v a l u e . 1 286 C a n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n .3376 S i g n i f i c a n c e p<.0046 By u s i n g the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n t o p r e d i c t group membership f o r the s t u d e n t s used t o d e r i v e the f u n c t i o n an a d d i t i o n a l assessment was made. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e s u l t s f o r both a n a l y s e s a re r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 7. R e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t 65.2 p e r c e n t of the s u b j e c t s were c l a s s i f i e d c o r r e c t l y when a l l v a r i a b l e s were i n c l u d e d i n the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n and o n l y dropped t o 64.1 p e r c e n t when u s i n g the. second d i s c r i m i n a n t 101 f u n c t i o n . S i n c e the groups d i f f e r e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n s i z e , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were c a l c u l a t e d based upon p r i o r p r o b a b i l i t i e s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o o b s e r v e d group s i z e . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note i n T a b l e 7 t h a t 86.2 p e r c e n t of the p e r s i s t e r s were p r e d i c t e d c o r r e c t l y w h i l e o n l y 26.5 p e r c e n t of the d r o p o u t s were p r e d i c t e d c o r r e c t l y . C e r t a i n l y the i m p l i c a t i o n must be t h a t reasons f o r dropout a r e many and complex thus making p r e d i c t i o n v e r y d i f f i c u l t . 1 02 Tab l e 7 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n R e s u l t s f o r P e r s i s t e r s / D r o p o ' u t s F i r s t A n a l y s i s : No C r i t e r i o n A c t u a l Group Membership Number of S u b j e c t s P r e d i c t e d Group Membership P e r s i s t e r s Dropouts P e r s i s t e r s 58 86.2% (50) 13.8% (8) Dropouts 34 67.6% (23) 32.2% (11) C l a s s i f i e d c o r r e c t l y : 66.3% Second A n a l y s i s : S i g n i f i c a n c e C r i t e r i o n (p<.05) A c t u a l Group Membership Number of S u b j e c t s P r e d i c t e d Group Membership P e r s i s t e r s Dropouts P e r s i s t e r s 58 86.2% (50) 13.8% (8) Dropouts 34 73.5% (25) 26.5% (9) C l a s s i f i e d C o r r e c t l y : 64.1% Note: Number of s u b j e c t s a r e i n p a r e n t h e s e s . P r e d i c t i o n u s i n g mani f e s t v a r i a b l e s . P r e v i o u s r e s u l t s showed t h a t u s i n g f a c t o r s c o r e s t o t e s t the second h y p o t h e s i s r e s u l t e d i n s t a t i s t i c a l l y a c c o u n t i n g f o r a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e of the v a r i a n c e . The e x p l a i n e d v a r i a n c e of the two d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s e s were a p p r o x i m a t e l y 13.1 p e r c e n t w i t h a l l the v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d and 11.4 p e r c e n t w i t h the p a r s i m o n i o u s s o l u t i o n . 103 These r e s u l t s were somewhat d i s a p p o i n t i n g i n terms of the e x p l a i n e d v a r i a n c e , a l t h o u g h , not d i s s i m i l a r t o p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of B o s h i e r (1973). However, as a check on the use of r e g r e s s i o n f a c t o r s c o r e s as p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s , the o r i g i n a l v a r i a b l e s c o r e s ( i . e . , m a n i f e s t v a r i a b l e s ) were used as p r e d i c t o r s of p e r s i s t e n c e / d r o p o u t . As i n the p r e v i o u s a n a l y s e s , two p r o c e d u r e s were used. The f i r s t a n a l y s i s a l l o w e d a l l the v a r i a b l e s t o e n t e r w h i l e the second a n a l y s i s used a s i g n i f i c a n c e c r i t e r i o n of p<.05. The f i r s t d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s , found i n T a b l e 8, a l l o w e d a l l 18 m a n i f e s t v a r i a b l e s t o e n t e r the a n a l y s i s . The two v a r i a b l e s which remained u s i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e c r i t e r i o n (see T a b l e 9) were the SRRS and the " s e l f c o n t r o l " s u b s c a l e of the ACL. The SRRS i s a measure of l i f e change e v e n t s w h i l e the " s e l f c o n t r o l " v a r i a b l e r e p r e s e n t s a p e r s o n a l i t y d i s p o s i t i o n t h a t i s shaped v e r y much by e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r e s s . I t s h o u l d be r e c a l l e d t h a t W i l s o n (1980) had a l s o found s e l f c o n t r o l t o s t r o n g l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e between p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s u s i n g a u n i v a r i a t e t e c h n i q u e a l t h o u g h o t h e r ACL s c a l e s c o r e s (endurance, d e f e r e n c e , u n f a v o r a b l e a d j e c t i v e s , and change) found t o be r e l a t e d t o dropout by W i l s o n d i d not s i g n i f i c a n t l y add t o the p e r s i s t e n c e / d r o p o u t v a r i a n c e u s i n g the m u l t i v a r i a t e t e c h n i q u e of d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s . 1 04 Tab l e 8 Order of E n t r y of M a n i f e s t Independent V a r i a b l e s ( F i r s t A n a l y s i s : No C r i t e r i o n ) S t e p Independent V a r i a b l e W i l k s ' Lambda S i g n i f i c a n c e 1 SRRS .9157 .0050 2 S e l f c o n t r o l .8474 .0060 3 P h y s i c a l s e l f .8283 .0014 4 B e h a v i o r .8268 .0022 5 F a m i l y s e l f .8029 .0018 6 S e l f c r i t i c i s m .7861 .0019 7 Study time .7725 .0022 8 M o r a l - e t h i c a l s e l f .7639 .0032 9 S e l f s a t i s f a c t i o n .7567 .0046 10 DAT .7512 .0069 1 1 Deference .7469 .0104 12 Achievement .7430 .01 53 1 3 Endurance .7389 .0218 14 P e r s o n a l s e l f .7352 .0303 15 Change .7333 .0435 16 I n t r a c e p t i o n .7321 .0619 17 F i n a n c i a l c o n c e r n .7318 .0873 18 Number of u n f a v o r a b l e a d j e c t i v e s .731 6 . 1 1 96 Note: S i g n i f i c a n c e i s t h a t e x i s t i n g a f t e r each s t e p . 105 T a b l e 9 Summary S t a t i s t i c s : M a n i f e s t V a r i a b l e D i s c r i m i n a n t A n a l y s i s (Second A n a l y s i s : S i g n i f i c a n c e C r i t e r i o n ) Independent V a r i a b l e SRRS ( L i f e Changes) S e l f c o n t r o l S t a n d a r d i z e d D i s c r i m i n a n t F u n c t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s 0.7646 -0.7007 E i g e n v a l u e .1801 C a n o n i c a l C o r r e l a t i o n .3907 S i g n i f i c a n c e p<.0006 The r e s u l t s of the two a n a l y s e s show t h a t 26.8 p e r c e n t of the v a r i a n c e i s e x p l a i n e d when a l l v a r i a b l e s e n t e r the d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n w h i l e 15.3 p e r c e n t of the v a r i a n c e i s e x p l a i n e d w i t h the p a r s i m o n i o u s s o l u t i o n . The 26.8 p e r c e n t of ABE dropout v a r i a n c e compares f a v o r a b l y t o the 30 p e r c e n t of dropout v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d by B o s h i e r (1973) u s i n g s e l f concept d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l t h o u g h i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o make comparisons c o n s i d e r i n g the d i f f e r e n t samples. I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e , as Ta b l e 10 i n d i c a t e s , t h a t a l t h o u g h g r e a t e r v a r i a n c e i s e x p l a i n e d u s i n g a l l m a n i f e s t v a r i a b l e s , the o v e r a l l c o r r e c t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r c e n t a g e does not i n c r e a s e s u b s t a n t i a l l y compared t o the p a r s i m o n i o u s s o l u t i o n . 106 T a b l e 10 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n R e s u l t s f o r P e r s i s t e r s / D r o p o u t s U s i n g M a n i f e s t V a r i a b l e s F i r s t A n a l y s i s : No C r i t e r i o n A c t u a l Group Membership Number of S u b j e c t s P r e d i c t e d Group Membership P e r s i s t e r s Dropouts P e r s i s t e r s 58 82.8% (48) 17.2% (10) Dropouts 34 47.1% (16) 52.9% (18) C l a s s i f i e d c o r r e c t l y : 71.7% Second A n a l y s i s : S i g n i f i c a n c e C r i t e r i o n (p<„05) A c t u a l Group Membership Number of S u b j e c t s P r e d i c t e d Group Membership P e r s i s t e r s Dropouts P e r s i s t e r s 58 82.8% (48) 17.2% (10) Dropouts 34 - 55.9% (19) 44.1% (15) C l a s s i f i e d C o r r e c t l y : 68.5% Note: Number of s u b j e c t s a r e i n p a r e n t h e s e s . Summary The f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r have shown the h y p o t h e s i z e d a d u l t l e a r n e r - e n v i r o n m e n t t y p o l o g y t o c o r r e s p o n d w i t h the f a c t o r a n a l y t i c r e s u l t s t o a l a r g e e x t e n t a f t e r r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l t e n s i o n i n d i c e s . 107 The r e s u l t s of the second s e t of a n a l y s e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t e x t e r n a l t e n s i o n and e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s were s i g n i f i c a n t (p<.05) p r e d i c t o r s of d r o p o u t . In a d d i t i o n , a n a l y s e s u s i n g the m a n i f e s t v a r i a b l e s r e v e a l e d t h a t the SRRS and the ACL " s e l f c o n t r o l " s u b s c a l e were s i g n i f i c a n t (p<.05) p r e d i c t o r s . The next c h a p t e r w i l l b e g i n w i t h a summary of the s t u d y , then p r e s e n t an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s , d i s c u s s the l i m i t a t i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s , and f i n a l l y , p r e s e n t s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . 108 CHAPTER 6 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION S c i e n c e i s a way of o r d e r i n g e v e n t s : i t s s e a r c h i s f o r laws on which t o base the s i n g l e p r e d i c t o r . J . B r o n o w s k i , The Common Sense of S c i e n c e , 1978 I t i s v i r t u a l l y a t a u t o l o g y t o say t h a t u n d e r s t a n d i n g and p r e d i c t i n g human b e h a v i o r i s e x c e e d i n g l y complex and d i f f i c u l t . U n d e r s t a n d i n g . a n d d e a l i n g w i t h the needs of the a d u l t l e a r n e r a r e no l e s s d i f f i c u l t c o n s i d e r i n g the added r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o everyday l i v i n g a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h a t of b e i n g a s t u d e n t . In c o n s i d e r i n g the problem of dropout i n a d u l t b a s i c e d u c a t i o n (ABE) t h i s study has f o c u s e d p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n on the v a r i o u s n o n s c h o o l b a r r i e r s and c o n s t r a i n t s t h a t seemed t o plague the ABE s t u d e n t . I t was emphasized t h a t i n o r d e r t o determine the e f f e c t of the s e n o n s c h o o l f a c t o r s on d r o p o u t , the a d u l t l e a r n e r would have t o be viewed i n a h o l i s t i c manner. System t h e o r y was t h e r e f o r e suggested as the paradigm c a p a b l e of p r o v i d i n g the n e c e s s a r y p e r s p e c t i v e t o e x p l a i n the complex i n t e r a c t i o n s of l i v i n g systems. The l i t e r a t u r e on dropout i n d i c a t e d t h a t a d u l t s t u d e n t s o f t e n c i t e s o c i o e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s as reasons f o r d r o p p i n g o u t . A m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problem w i t h much of the r e p o r t e d r e s e a r c h was t h a t t h e s e s t u d i e s c o l l e c t e d d a t a from the l e a r n e r a f t e r dropout had o c c u r r e d which r a i s e d a q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the v a l i d i t y of 109 t h e s e f i n d i n g s . T h i s study overcame t h i s problem by- c o l l e c t i n g d a t a d u r i n g the i n i t i a l phases of the program of s t u d i e s . Another i m p o r t a n t m e t h o d o l o g i c a l d e c i s i o n f o r t h i s study was t o c o l l e c t d a t a d u r i n g the t h i r d c l a s s s e s s i o n which f o c u s e d on the a d u l t l e a r n e r who had made a v i s i b l e and r e a l commitment t o r e t u r n i n g t o s c h o o l . G e n e r a l system t h e o r y was used as t h e t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e t o s e r v e as a g u i d e i n the a n a l y s i s of the a d u l t l e a r n e r ' s p s y c h o s o c i a l environment. G e n e r a l system t h e o r y , and more s p e c i f i c a l l y an a b s t r a c t s o c i a l systems model, a s s i s t e d i n the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of f i v e c a t e g o r i e s of f a c t o r s e x p l a i n i n g a d u l t l e a r n e r b e h a v i o r . T h i s a n a l y s i s r e s u l t e d i n an a d u l t l e a r n e r - e n v i r o n m e n t t y p o l o g y c o n s i s t i n g of e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l t e n s i o n , c a p a b i l i t y , and e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t . I n a d d i t i o n , the r e s i l i e n c e c o n c e p t u a l model f o r the p r e d i c t i o n of d ropout was o u t l i n e d . Two r e s e a r c h hypotheses c e n t e r i n g around the l e a r n e r -environment t y p o l o g y and the r e s i l i e n c e model were i n v e s t i g a t e d . The f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s concerned the congruence of the h y p o t h e s i z e d t y p o l o g y w i t h e m p i r i c a l r e f e r e n t s . The c oncern of the second h y p o t h e s i s was the a b i l i t y of the r e s i l i e n c e model, as r e p r e s e n t e d by the t y p o l o g y f a c t o r s c o r e s , t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s . A v a r i e t y of p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i o e c o n o m i c i n s t r u m e n t s were used t o measure the h y p o t h e s i z e d t e n s i o n , c a p a b i l i t y , and c o n s t r a i n t t y p o l o g i c a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . The sample c o n s i s t e d of 92 t e n t h grade ABE math and E n g l i s h s t u d e n t s . The s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e used t o a n a l y s e the f i r s t 1 10 h y p o t h e s i s was common f a c t o r a n a l y s i s w h i l e a d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n t e c h n i q u e was used t o t e s t the second h y p o t h e s i s . The r e s u l t s of the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the 18 m a n i f e s t v a r i a b l e s y i e l d e d f i v e o r t h o g o n a l f a c t o r s . The f a c t o r s c o r r e s p o n d e d r e a s o n a b l y w e l l t o the h y p o t h e s i z e d l e a r n e r -environment t y p o l o g y . The major d e v i a t i o n was w i t h the h y p o t h e s i z e d l o a d i n g of t h r e e ACL s u b s c a l e s as i n d i c e s of e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l t e n s i o n . R e g r e s s i o n f a c t o r s c o r e s were c a l c u l a t e d based upon the r e s u l t s of the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s . The f i v e f a c t o r s c o r e s r e p r e s e n t e d the components of the r e s i l i e n c e model and were used t o d i s c r i m i n a t e between p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s . Two a n a l y s e s were performed; the f i r s t a l l o w e d a l l f i v e v a r i a b l e s t o e n t e r w h i l e the second used a s i g n i f i c a n c e c r i t e r i o n f o r e n t r y . The r e s u l t s r e v e a l e d the best d i s c r i m i n a t o r s t o be e x t e r n a l t e n s i o n and e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s , a l t h o u g h o n l y 13.1 and 11.4 p e r c e n t of the v a r i a n c e was e x p l a i n e d i n the two r e s p e c t i v e a n a l y s e s . S i n c e the amount of e x p l a i n e d v a r i a n c e appeared t o be s m a l l , a f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s was performed u s i n g a l l 18 o r i g i n a l m a n i f e s t v a r i a b l e s . The two b e s t p r e d i c t o r s of p e r s i s t e n c e / d r o p o u t t u r n e d out t o be the l i f e changes (SRRS) and s e l f c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s . The v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d u s i n g a l l the v a r i a b l e s was 26.8 p e r c e n t w h i l e 15.3 p e r c e n t of the v a r i a n c e was e x p l a i n e d u s i n g the two s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r s . The r e m a i n i n g s e c t i o n s of t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l p r e s e n t a d i s c u s s i o n of the v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d , the t h e o r e t i c a l models, the l i m i t a t i o n s of the s t u d y , the a p p l i c a t i o n of the r e s u l t s t o 111 the t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , and f i n a l l y , s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . V a r i a n c e E x p l a i n e d The f i v e f a c t o r s of the a d u l t l e a r n e r - e n v i r o n m e n t t y p o l o g y a c c o u n t e d f o r 72 p e r c e n t of the t o t a l v a r i a n c e of a l l the v a r i a b l e s . T h i s c o u l d be a r e s u l t of u n d e r e s t i m a t i n g the number of f a c t o r s due t o i n s t r u m e n t u n r e l i a b i l i t y and s m a l l sample s i z e . The Scree t e s t ( r e p o r t e d i n Chapter 5) i n d i c a t e d t h a t the v a r i a b l e s a r e measuring a few f a c t o r s w e l l and a l a r g e r number of t r i v i a l f a c t o r s . To o b t a i n a s t r o n g e r d e l i n e a t i o n of some of the t r i v i a l f a c t o r s , and thus i n c r e a s e the v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d , would n e c e s s i t a t e c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n and i n c l u s i o n of many more v a r i a b l e s - a l o n g w i t h a much l a r g e r sample s i z e . The r e s u l t s of the d i s c r i m i n a n t a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e v a r i a n c e was e x p l a i n e d , a l t h o u g h i t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out t h a t t h i s i s not i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h (Anderson & Darkenwald, 1979; Knox & S j o g r e n , 1965). The use of f a c t o r s c o r e s as p r e d i c t o r s of dropout has s e v e r a l advantages as noted i n Chapter 4. However, the l i a b i l i t y here i s t h a t f a c t o r s c o r e s r e p r e s e n t e d 72 p e r c e n t of the v a r i a n c e of a l l t h e m a n i f e s t v a r i a b l e s and t h i s reduced v a r i a n c e may p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n the amount of v a r i a n c e a c c o u n t e d f o r u s i n g f a c t o r s c o r e s t o p r e d i c t d r o p o u t . When the o r i g i n a l m a n i f e s t v a r i a b l e s were used as p r e d i c t o r s they i n c r e a s e d the dropout v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d . The r e s u l t of t h i s i n c r e a s e i n v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d w i t h the use of 1 1 2 m a n i f e s t v a r i a b l e s would seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t a number of s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s may combine i n unique ways t o t r i g g e r d r o p o u t . C e r t a i n l y the problem of dropout cannot be e x p l a i n e d and p r e d i c t e d t o an adequate degree u s i n g o n l y a few f a c t o r s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e i m p e r a t i v e t o b e g i n t o a p p r e c i a t e the c o m p l e x i t y of the s i t u a t i o n . The advantages of u s i n g o r t h o g o n a l f a c t o r s c o r e s i n d e t e r m i n i n g r e l a t i v e p e r s i s t e n c e / d r o p o u t d i s c r i m i n a t o r y power, as mentioned i n Chapter 4, make i t a good t e c h n i q u e as a r e s e a r c h t o o l a l t h o u g h f a c t o r s c o r e s have e x p l a i n e d l e s s v a r i a n c e than the m a n i f e s t v a r i a b l e s . However, i n p r e d i c t i n g p e r s i s t e n c e i n ABE, a d i s c r i m i n a n t f u n c t i o n u s i n g two or t h r e e m a n i f e s t v a r i a b l e s would be f a r more e f f i c i e n t i n terms of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n time and s l i g h t l y more e f f e c t i v e a c c o r d i n g t o the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p e r c e n t a g e s i n i d e n t i f y i n g p o t e n t i a l d r o p o u t s . T h e o r e t i c a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n L e a r n e r - e n v i r o n m e n t t y p o l o g y . The assumptions- of the morphogenetic model p r o v i d e d the e s s e n t i a l elements f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the a d u l t l e a r n e r - e n v i r o n m e n t t y p o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e . In p a r t i c u l a r , a s s umptions such as " i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e " and " a c t i v i t y " r e f l e c t e d the t e n s i o n i n h e r e n t i n a morphogenetic system; the " s t r u c t u r a l c o n t e x t " assumption emphasized' the m e d i a t i n g i n f l u e n c e of e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n s t r a i n t s ; and the assumptions c o n c e r n i n g " s e l f - m a i n t e n a n c e " and- " s e l f -t r a n s f o r m a t i o n " c e r t a i n l y r e f l e c t e d the a b i l i t y of the system t o be both r e a c t i v e and p r o a c t i v e w i t h r e g a r d s t o s t a b i l i t y and 113 change. The r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s f o r the f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t the proposed t y p o l o g y was r e a s o n a b l y i s o m o r p h i c w i t h the f a c t o r a n a l y t i c r e s u l t s . These f i n d i n g s s u pport the v a l u e of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of g e n e r a l system t h e o r y as w e l l as the t h e o r e t i c a l assumptions of the morphogenetic system model i n a n a l y z i n g and s t r u c t u r i n g the c o m p l e x i t i e s of the a d u l t l e a r n e r and the c o r r e s p o n d i n g environment. However, g i v e n the a n a l y t i c v a l u e of t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e and model, a c r u c i a l t e s t was whether t h i s t y p o l o g y would i n f a c t i d e n t i f y s a l i e n t f a c t o r s i n p r e d i c t i n g dropout b e h a v i o r of the a d u l t l e a r n e r . P r e d i c t i n g d r o p o u t . P r e d i c t i o n of dropout was based upon the r e s i l i e n c e model u s i n g t y p o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s c o r e s as p r e d i c t o r s . I t was s u g g ested t h a t t h i s l i n e a r c o m b i n a t i o n of t e n s i o n , c a p a b i l i t y , and c o n s t r a i n t f a c t o r s c o r e s would g i v e an i n d i c a t i o n of the a d u l t ' s a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h a d j u s t m e n t s and demands a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e t u r n i n g t o s c h o o l . Two f a c t o r s c o r e s ( e x t e r n a l t e n s i o n and c o n s t r a i n t ) s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i s c r i m i n a t e d between p e r s i s t e r s and d r o p o u t s . The c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the problem of dropout p r o v i d e d by the r e s i l i e n c e model was the a n a l y s i s , i n c o n c e r t , of s e v e r a l independent v a r i a b l e s as w e l l as overcoming the weakness of de p o s t f a c t o r e s e a r c h . S i n c e the r e s u l t s of t h i s s tudy have shown t h a t e x t e r n a l t e n s i o n s and c o n s t r a i n t s were the o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r s of dropout f o r t h i s sample of ABE s t u d e n t s , i t has i n d i c a t e d t h a t dropout was not a t t r i b u t a b l e t o c a p a b i l i t y or 1 1 4 s e l f c o ncept d e f i c i e n c i e s but was l a r g e l y due t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s beyond the c o n t r o l of the i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n e r . T h i s s u p p o r t s the f i n d i n g of much de post' f a c t o r e s e a r c h r e p o r t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w and su g g e s t s t h a t n o n s c h o o l reasons f o r dropout a r e not s i m p l y e g o - s u s t a i n i n g r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s as o t h e r s have i m p l i e d ( B o s h i e r , 1973; M i l l e r , 1970; Zahn, 1964). The f i n d i n g s here demonstrated the r e l a t i v e p r e d i c t i v e power of a v a r i e t y of independent v a r i a b l e s which r e s u l t e d from the need t o be co n c e r n e d w i t h the many t e n s i o n s and c o n s t r a i n t s i n t he a d u l t ' s e nvironment. C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t the f a c t o r v a r i a b l e e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t and the l i f e changes (SRRS) m a n i f e s t v a r i a b l e were s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r s of d r o p o u t , a t t e n t i o n must be g i v e n t o s o c i a l s t r e s s o r s r e s u l t i n g from l i f e changes and the c a p a c i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l t o cope w i t h such demands. A l s o , s i n c e many of t h e s e " l i f e changes" measured by the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned v a r i a b l e s a r e r e l a t e d t o the so c i o e c o n o m i c r o l e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t h a t the a d u l t l e a r n e r has assumed, support was found f o r Houle's (1974) assumption t h a t l e a r n i n g i s i n h e r e n t l y p a r t of the a d u l t ' s t o t a l s o c i a l m i l i e u and McClusky's (1971) emphasis on the impact of the ur g e n t c o n c e r n s of l i f e on l e a r n i n g . I t t h e r e f o r e s h o u l d not be s u r p r i s i n g t h a t when f o r m a l l e a r n i n g i s compounded by a t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d or l i f e change, as i t o f t e n i s , d i f f i c u l t i e s may a r i s e i n the l e a r n i n g s e t t i n g due t o n o n s c h o o l f a c t o r s which r e s u l t i n d i s c o n t i n u a n c e . In s h o r t , i t does not seem r e a s o n a b l e t o attempt t o study the a d u l t l e a r n e r o n l y w i t h i n the narrow c o n t e x t of the l e a r n i n g s e t t i n g . 1 1 5 I t s h o u l d a l s o be mentioned t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e r e s u l t s a p e r s o n a l i t y d i s p o s i t i o n , as measured by the e x t e r n a l t e n s i o n f a c t o r v a r i a b l e , was a l s o a s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r of p e r s i s t e n c e / d r o p o u t . The i n f e r e n c e i s t h a t p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s such as d e p e n d a b i l i t y and s t a b i l i t y ( i . e . , e x t e r n a l t e n s i o n ) e n a b le one t o p e r s i s t i n an ABE program. C o n s i d e r i n g the s o c i o e c o n o m i c d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t the a d u l t l e a r n e r o f t e n must cope w i t h , t h i s f i n d i n g i s perhaps not s u r p r i s i n g . The s c e n a r i o i n ABE c o u l d be one where v a r y i n g degrees of p s y c h o s o c i a l d i s r u p t i o n ( l i f e changes) a r e i n h e r e n t i n the p r o c e s s and i f i t becomes e x c e s s i v e .for the i n d i v i d u a l i t may p r e c i p i t a t e d r o p o u t . C e r t a i n l y the f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d here would i n d i c a t e t h a t p s y c h o s o c i a l c o n s t r a i n t s can have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t upon ABE d r o p o u t . In a d d i t i o n , i t may be t h a t t h e s e d i s r u p t i o n s a r e b e s t t o l e r a t e d by those s t u d e n t s p o s s e s s i n g the p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s of d e p e n d a b i l i t y and s t a b i l i t y . These r e s u l t s a r e i n agreement w i t h W i l s o n (1980) s i n c e he c o n c l u d e d t h a t p e r s i s t e r s a r e o b l i g i n g , t a c t f u l , and i n t e r e s t e d i n s t a b i l i t y . In summary, the e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s t h a t the combined e f f e c t s of c e r t a i n s o c i o e c o n o m i c and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s upon dropout i n ABE can be s i g n i f i c a n t . L i m i t a t i o n s Perhaps one of the g r e a t e s t l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s s tudy was the i n a b i l i t y t o s e l e c t a g r e a t e r number of v a r i a b l e s as i n d i c e s of the l e a r n e r - e n v i r o n m e n t t y p o l o g i c a l c o n s t r u c t s . In p a r t i c u l a r , d e l i n e a t i o n of the i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l t e n s i o n 1 16 c o n s t r u c t may have been i n c r e a s e d w i t h the i n c l u s i o n of o t h e r ACL s c a l e s . However, as mentioned i n Chapter 4, i n c l u s i o n of more v a r i a b l e s was not p o s s i b l e a l t h o u g h a l a r g e r sample s i z e would have l i k e l y y i e l d e d a c l e a r e r i n d i c a t i o n of the number of f a c t o r s p r e s e n t and i n c r e a s e d the r e l i a b i l i t y of the f i n d i n g s . A second l i m i t a t i o n concerned the e x c l u s i o n of p o s s i b l e dropout c o r r e l a t e s w i t h i n the f o r m a l l e a r n i n g s e t t i n g . These v a r i a b l e s were e x c l u d e d p r i m a r i l y because the purpose of the s t u d y was t o f o c u s upon the n o n s c h o o l f a c t o r s t h a t c o u l d be measured a t the s t a r t of a program of s t u d i e s . Another d i f f i c u l t y of i n c l u d i n g measurements of the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s c o ncerned the i n o r d i n a t e amount of assessment time t h a t would have been r e q u i r e d t o g a t h e r a l l of t h i s d a t a . R e g a r d l e s s of t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s , i t s h o u l d be mentioned t h a t s i n c e the f r e q u e n c y of dropout was s i m i l a r i n a l l c l a s s e s , any s c h o o l f a c t o r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t i n g dropout appear not t o be c l a s s s p e c i f i c . C e r t a i n l y the q u e s t i o n remains, however, as t o the r e l a t i v e importance of s c h o o l f a c t o r s and n o n s c h o o l f a c t o r s i n a f f e c t i n g d r o p o u t . Another c o n c e r n t h a t needs t o be s t a t e d r e l a t e s t o the a p r i o r i d a t a g a t h e r i n g method. A l t h o u g h t h i s method was used t o overcome weaknesses i n de p o s t f a c t o r e s e a r c h i t a l s o p o s s e s s e s c e r t a i n d e f i c i e n c e s . The a p r i o r i method can measure e n t e r i n g a b i l i t i e s , d i s p o s i t i o n s , and e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r e s s but does not account f o r the changes t h a t t a k e p l a c e between assessment and d r o p o u t . These changes can be b o t h of s c h o o l and n o n s c h o o l o r i g i n . O m i t t i n g such changes means t h a t e x t e r n a l t e n s i o n s and 1 17 c o n s t r a i n t s , as measured i n t h i s s t u d y , a r e l i k e l y t o be u n d e r e s t i m a t e d a l t h o u g h r e s i l i e n c e can s t i l l measure a p r e d i s p o s i t i o n t o b e i n g a b l e t o cope w i t h changes and demands made upon the ABE l e a r n e r . In a d d i t i o n , a p a r e n t h e t i c a l comment would be t h a t c o n s i d e r i n g the i n h e r e n t l i m i t a t i o n s of both de p o s t f a c t o and a p r i o r i d a t a g a t h e r i n g m e t h o d o l o g i e s , i t would seem t h a t both c o u l d be complementary i n a d v a n c i n g the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of dropout i n ABE. F i n a l l y , i t s h o u l d be emphasized t h a t any c o n c l u s i o n s d e r i v e d from t h i s s tudy must be viewed i n terms of the l i m i t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g i t s e x t e r n a l v a l i d i t y . The sample, f o r t h i s s t u d y c o n s i s t e d of s i x a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s whose p o p u l a t i o n s were a s s i g n e d by the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Because of t h i s l a c k of r a n d o m i z a t i o n and the f a c t t h a t o n l y one-grade l e v e l was used, p o s s i b l e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of the e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s must be approached w i t h c a u t i o n . T h e o r e t i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s The r e s u l t s of t h i s r e s e a r c h have the p o t e n t i a l t o i n t e r c o n n e c t w i t h o t h e r t h e o r e t i c a l systems i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t e x p l a n a t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the a d u l t l e a r n e r may be improved and a p p l i e d i n p r a c t i c e . An example of how f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d here may be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h o t h e r t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n s can be demonstrated u s i n g a t h e o r y of a d u l t l e a r n i n g p o s t u l a t e d by Mezirow (1981). Mezirow's c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n i s based upon Habermas' t h r e e p r i m a r y a r e a s of c o g n i t i v e i n t e r e s t or domains of l e a r n i n g . The 118 t h r e e l e a r n i n g domains e x t r a p o l a t e d by Mezirow a r e c o n t r o l of the p h y s i c a l environment, a b i l i t y t o i n t e r a c t s o c i a l l y , and the a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d o n e s e l f . He makes the p o i n t t h a t the mode of l e a r n i n g and needs f o r one domain are not n e c e s s a r i l y a p p r o p r i a t e f o r o t h e r domains. I t would seem f a i r l y e v i d e n t t h a t v a r i o u s t y p e s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a r e p r i m a r i l y - concerned w i t h d i f f e r e n t domains of l e a r n i n g . In a d d i t i o n , the needs and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the s t u d e n t s i n v o l v e d i n the d i f f e r e n t a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs and domains of l e a r n i n g a r e a l s o l i k e l y t o v a r y . What tho s e needs and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e may be r e v e a l e d by a system such as the a d u l t l e a r n e r - e n v i r o n m e n t t y p o l o g y . The v a l u e of the t y p o l o g y p r e s e n t e d here would be t o a s s i s t i n i d e n t i f y i n g t h o s e v a r i a b l e s t h a t may be c r i t i c a l t o the s u c c e s s of the i n d i v i d u a l o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r l e a r n i n g domain. The p o i n t t o be made i s t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l who i s l e a r n i n g a t the l e v e l of the f i r s t two domains ( c o n t r o l of environment and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n ) i s l i k e l y - t o be v e r y much concerned w i t h e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s and e v e n t s . T h i s i s e v i d e n c e d by the r e s u l t t h a t the f a c t o r v a r i a b l e s ( e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t and t e n s i o n ) and the m a n i f e s t v a r i a b l e s ( l i f e changes and s e l f c o n t r o l ) were good p r e d i c t o r s of dr o p o u t . The r a t i o n a l e i s t h a t e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t and the SRRS v a r i a b l e s r e f l e c t v e r y much the need t o c o n t r o l the environment w h i l e e x t e r n a l t e n s i o n and s e l f c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s a r e concerned w i t h s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and norms. The p a r a l l e l between the two p r e d i c t o r v a r i a b l e s f o r dropout i n ABE and the l e a r n i n g domains i s c o n s i d e r a b l y c l o s e . C e r t a i n l y 119 s t u d e n t s i n ABE programs a r e l e a r n i n g p r i m a r i l y w i t h i n t h e s e two domains and t h e r e f o r e have c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g needs. On the o t h e r hand, s e l f concept i s a v a r i a b l e p r i m a r i l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Mezirow's t h i r d l e a r n i n g domain - s e l f awareness ( p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ) . S e l f awareness, and knowledge c o r r e s p o n d t o the i n t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t and t e n s i o n v a r i a b l e s of the a d u l t l e a r n e r - e n v i r o n m e n t t y p o l o g y . A c c o r d i n g l y , i t i s suggested t h a t s e l f concept ( i n t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t ) was not a good p r e d i c t o r of dropout w i t h the ABE sample i n t h i s study because t h i s l e a r n i n g domain i s not a dominant c o n c e r n w i t h many of th e s e s t u d e n t s . T h i s p o s i t i o n i s f u r t h e r s u p p o r t e d by B o s h i e r ' s (1973) r e s e a r c h w i t h u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s , who are l i k e l y o p e r a t i n g p r i m a r i l y w i t h i n the t h i r d domain of l e a r n i n g ( s e l f knowledge), i n t h a t he has shown s e l f concept d i s c r e p a n c y s c o r e s t o be good p r e d i c t o r s of d r o p o u t . The i m p l i c a t i o n of the p r e v i o u s a n a l y s i s i s t h a t s t u d e n t s i n ABE and r e l a t e d programs a r e p r i m a r i l y concerned , w i t h s a t i s f y i n g more b a s i c e n v i r o n m e n t a l needs w h i l e perhaps u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s a re more l i k e l y t o be concerned w i t h h i g h e r o r d e r needs such as s e l f awareness. A l t h o u g h t h i s a n a l y s i s i s h i g h l y s p e c u l a t i v e , a t a minimum i t s u g g e s t s some i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h ; but more i m p o r t a n t l y , i t demonstrates the u s e f u l n e s s of the a d u l t - l e a r n e r environment t y p o l o g y w i t h i n a t h e o r e t i c a l system t o h e l p u n d e r s t a n d a complex problem and t o t e s t hypotheses w i t h independent ( i . e . , o r t h o g o n a l ) p r e d i c t o r s . The r e v e a l e d o r d e r of the t y p o l o g y among see m i n g l y d i s p a r a t e v a r i a b l e s encourages t h e o r e t i c a l 120 s p e c u l a t i o n and f o r m u l a t i o n by r e d u c i n g c o m p l e x i t y as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g a means t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t s . I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r P r a c t i c e The next i s s u e t o be a d d r e s s e d i s the l e g i t i m a t e and i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e p r a c t i c a l u t i l i t y of t h e a d u l t l e a r n e r - e n v i r o n m e n t t y p o l o g y and the f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g p r e d i c t i o n of ABE d r o p o u t . Keeping i n mind l i m i t a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the f i n d i n g s , an attempt w i l l be made t o e x t r a p o l a t e t o the p r a c t i c e of ABE and o t h e r forms of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . The v a l u e of the l e a r n e r - e n v i r o n m e n t t y p o l o g y was t o e s t a b l i s h some o r d e r t o the v a s t a r r a y of v a r i a b l e s which may have an" impact upon a d u l t l e a r n e r needs and b e h a v i o r . B e f o r e r e s e a r c h i n t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n can b e g i n t o make s i g n i f i c a n t p r o g r e s s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g and p r e d i c t i n g a d u l t l e a r n e r b e h a v i o r , the t r u e c o m p l e x i t y of the problem must be c o n f r o n t e d and a method be d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e o r d e r and p e r s p e c t i v e t o the s i t u a t i o n . McKinney (1966) suggested t h a t o r d e r may be g a i n e d by e s t a b l i s h i n g a c o n c e p t u a l scheme t h a t p r o v i d e s a s y s t e m a t i c i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n of c o n c e p t s and o b s e r v a t i o n s . The t y p o l o g y proposed here c o u l d be a s t e p i n t h a t d i r e c t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h i s t y p o l o g y may have more of an impact upon the p r a c t i c e of r e s e a r c h than upon the i n s t r u c t i o n of a d u l t s , i t c e r t a i n l y c o u l d a i d i n a p p r e c i a t i n g the c o m p l e x i t y of the a d u l t l e a r n e r s ' p s y c h o s o c i a l m i l i e u . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i n v o l v e m e n t i n l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s may not o n l y depend upon c o g n i t i v e 121 a b i l i t i e s but may a l s o be h i g h l y i n f l u e n c e d by the complex a r r a y of t e n s i o n s and c o n s t r a i n t s , b oth p s y c h o l o g i c a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l , as has been r e p o r t e d i n t h i s and o t h e r r e s e a r c h r e v i e w e d as p a r t of t h i s s t u d y . An attempt t o d e t e r m i n e the r e l a t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n of t h e s e t y p o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s i n p r e d i c t i n g dropout would be of p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n t o t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of ABE. The i m p l i c a t i o n s of the d r o p o u t r e s u l t s of t h i s s tudy c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h a t , f o r t h i s sample of s t u d e n t s , e n v i r o n m e n t a l t e n s i o n s and c o n s t r a i n t s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y more u s e f u l i n p r e d i c t i n g dropout than any i n t e r n a l v a r i a b l e such as c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y or s e l f c o n c e p t . T h i s s u g g e s t s t o a d u l t e d u c a t o r s t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t a l s t r e s s e s and b a r r i e r s , as w e l l as c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y d i s p o s i t i o n s such as s e l f c o n t r o l and d e f e r e n c e , may s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e p e r s i s t e n c e i n l e a r n i n g t o a g r e a t e r degree than c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y i n ABE programs. I f t h i s i s t r u e , perhaps the a d u l t e d u c a t o r c o u l d p l a c e g r e a t e r emphasis upon the s ocioeconomic c o n c e r n s of the a d u l t l e a r n e r by p r o v i d i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e c o u n s e l l i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s b oth b e f o r e and d u r i n g the f o r m a l l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n o r d e r t o h e l p i n d i v i d u a l s cope w i t h l i f e ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and b a r r i e r s t o c o n t i n u i n g i n a l e a r n i n g endeavor. I t i s f u r t h e r suggested t h a t ABE t e a c h e r s assume some of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r f o r m a t i v e c o u n s e l l i n g . C o u n s e l l i n g c o u l d a l s o be used f o r the i m p u l s i v e and independent s t u d e n t s who seem t o be more s u s c e p t i b l e t o a t t r i t i o n than the p a t i e n t and d e f e r e n t i a l s t u d e n t s as e v i d e n c e d by the f a c t t h a t the e x t e r n a l t e n s i o n f a c t o r v a r i a b l e was a 1 22 s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r of p e r s i s t e n c e / d r o p o u t . For a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , t e a c h e r s the i m p l i c a t i o n of t h e s e r e s u l t s i s t h a t they need t o be u n d e r s t a n d i n g and t o l e r a n t of see m i n g l y a b e r r a n t b e h a v i o r . ABE s t u d e n t s may a t times be somewhat e r r a t i c i n t h e i r a t t e n d a n c e , have t r o u b l e c o n c e n t r a t i n g , and be g u i l t y of not c o m p l e t i n g assignments due to a v a r i e t y of no n s c h o o l f a c t o r s . Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i t would seem r e a s o n a b l e f o r the ABE t e a c h e r t o e x h i b i t c o n s i d e r a b l e f l e x i b i l i t y and t o l e r a n c e r e g a r d i n g the needs and b e h a v i o r of ABE s t u d e n t s . I t s h o u l d a l s o be emphasised t h a t c o n s i d e r i n g the v a r i e t y of ABE s e t t i n g s , t e a c h e r s t y l e s , and the p s y c h o s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the ABE s t u d e n t , i t would be u n r e a l i s t i c t o suggest s p e c i f i c recommendations g e n e r a l i z a b l e t o most ABE s e t t i n g s . C o n s i d e r i n g the embryonic s t a t e of knowledge c o n c e r n i n g dropout i n ABE, the b e s t recommendation t o the p r a c t i t i o n e r i s t o remain f l e x i b l e and open enough t o adapt t o the r e q u i r e m e n t s of each s i t u a t i o n . The view t h a t t h i s r e s e a r c h s u p p o r t s c o n c e r n i n g the importance of s o c i a l s t r e s s o r s i s a l s o taken by B l i g h (1977) i n a d i s c u s s i o n of i n n o v a t i o n s i n p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . B l i g h a rgues t h a t i n n o v a t i o n s r e l e v a n t t o p o s t - s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n a r e s o c i a l i n n a t u r e , and y e t , t h e r e have been few i n n o v a t i o n s of t h i s k i n d . He goes on t o s t a t e t h a t " i t i s , of c o u r s e , t r u e t h a t academic d i f f i c u l t i e s and f a i l u r e a r e common causes of s t u d e n t d r o p o u t , but they a r e not the most common causes and they a r e f r e q u e n t l y o n l y the symptoms of u n d e r l y i n g s o c i a l p roblems" ( B l i g h , 1977, p.260). In a d d i t i o n , the f a c t t h a t 123 lower s o c i o - e c o n o m i c groups have h i g h e r dropout r a t e s p o i n t t o the importance of c e r t a i n s o c i a l f a c t o r s such as s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n , time b u d g e t i n g , and f i n a n c i a l problems t o ensure c o m p l e t i o n . C o n s i d e r i n g the p r e v i o u s arguments, t h e r e i s no o b v i o u s reason why the s o c i a l problems of p o s t - s e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t s would not a p p l y t o ABE s t u d e n t s . The e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d throughout t h i s s tudy seems t o have suggested t h a t s o c i o e c o n omic s u p p o r t systems must be a v a i l a b l e t o ensure c o m p l e t i o n i n ABE programs. For t h i s reason ABE e d u c a t o r s s h o u l d b e g i n t o s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r the e f f e c t s of s o c i o e c o n o m ic support systems upon dropout i n the p r a c t i c e of ABE. I f t h i s contended need f o r improved s o c i o e c o n o m i c support i s u p h e l d , then a d d i t i o n a l s u p p o r t systems s h o u l d be d e s i g n e d and implemented. C o n c l u s i o n s There appears t o be l i t t l e q u e s t i o n t h a t the problem of dropout i n ABE i s e x c e e d i n g l y complex and i s g o i n g t o r e q u i r e a g r e a t d e a l of s y s t e m a t i c r e s e a r c h b e f o r e a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l s of e x p l a n a t i o n and p r e d i c t i o n a r e a c h i e v e d . P a r t i c u l a r c o m b i n a t i o n s of v a r i a b l e s i n a v a r i e t y of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s w i l l have t o be s t u d i e d . Through r e p l i c a t i o n , new m e t h o d o l o g i e s , and t h e o r y development the c o n f i d e n c e i n t e r v a l s f o r p r e d i c t i o n may become more n a r r o w l y d e f i n e d . T h i s study has a t t e m p t e d t o b u i l d a t h e o r e t i c a l framework and model t o view and e x p l a i n a d u l t l e a r n e r b e h a v i o r . In a d d i t i o n , t h i s study has o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d t h e s e c o n c e p t s i n 124 attempting to p r e d i c t dropout. Progress i n understanding dropout can only proceed as adequate theory i s formulated to provide order and a means to i n t e r p r e t e and guide research. The value of theory not only as a t o o l but as an object i n i t s e l f ( i . e . , goal function) i s sta t e d by Boshier (1980): The goal f u n c t i o n suggests the use of theory to c o d i f y , summarize and impose or f i n d meaning i n the heap of disordered knowledge which e x i s t s i n an emerging and d i f f u s e d i s c i p l i n e l i k e a dult education, (p. 26) Any theory that attempts to e x p l a i n a d u l t l e a r n e r behavior must consider both the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the i n d i v i d u a l to the environment and the i n d i v i d u a l ' s personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The r e s u l t s of t h i s study have shown that e x t e r n a l environmental c o n s t r a i n t s are s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to dropout. In a d d i t i o n , the best o r i g i n a l manifest v a r i a b l e for p r e d i c t i n g dropout was the SRRS which measured l i f e changes. Important c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l i v i n g organism are s t a b i l i t y , growth, —and t r a n s i t i o n occuring i n a dynamic psy c h o s o c i a l environment. To be s u c c e s s f u l i n these growth t r a n s i t i o n s r e q u i r e s the adu l t l e a r n e r to maintain a c e r t a i n dynamic s t a b i l i t y . I t i s f u r t h e r suggested by t h i s research that perhaps socioeconomic concerns and p e r s o n a l i t y d i s p o s i t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y to maintaining t h i s s t a b i l i t y r e s u l t i n g i n p e r s i s t e n c e i n an ABE program. C e r t a i n l y these concepts of s t a b i l i t y and growth are c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with p e r s i s t e n c e i n ABE and the r e f o r e should be addressed i n a theory of adu l t learner behavior. The learner-environment typology attempted to conceptualize 125 b o t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s t h a t might i n f l u e n c e a d u l t l e a r n e r b e h a v i o r . The r e s u l t s of t h i s s tudy p o i n t t o the need f o r the i n d i v i d u a l t o cope w i t h and c o n t r o l the s o c i o e c o n o m i c environment. The a b i l i t y t o cope w i t h change and growth was c o n c e p t u a l i z e d here as r e s i l i e n c e i n an attempt t o f o r m u l a t e and o p e r a t i o n a l i z e the f a c t o r s of the t y p o l o g y . The f i n d i n g s of t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e d t h a t f i v e o r t h o g o n a l f a c t o r s r e s u l t e d from the f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of the e m p i r i c a l r e f e r e n t s and e x h i b i t e d v a r y i n g powers of dropout p r e d i c t i o n . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e r e s u l t s i t would seem r e a s o n a b l e t o say t h a t the l e a r n e r - e n v i r o n m e n t t y p o l o g y shows promise f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . Perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g of t h i s s tudy was the c o n f i r m a t i o n t h a t n o n s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s can s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d r o p o u t . For t h i s sample of a d u l t b a s i c e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s f a c t o r s such as l i f e change and f i n a n c i a l c o n c e r n were f a r more r e l e v a n t and s i g n i f i c a n t i n e x p l a i n i n g d r o p o u t than a b i l i t y or s e l f c o n c e p t . A t t r i t i o n f o r many ABE s t u d e n t s may be p r i m a r i l y the r e s u l t of not b e i n g a b l e t o cope w i t h f a c t o r s i n the no n s c h o o l environment. I t would o n l y be r e a s o n a b l e t o expect t h a t many s t u d e n t s who have been c h a r a c t e r i z e d as d i s a d v a n t a g e d and undereducated do not have the r e s i l i e n c e ( s o c i o e c o n o m i c a l l y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y ) t o cope w i t h the d i s r u p t i o n of r e t u r n i n g t o s c h o o l on a f u l l time b a s i s . A d u l t b a s i c e d u c a t i o n programs must be p r e p a r e d t o d e s i g n i n d i v i d u a l i z e d programs t h a t can cope w i t h e r r a t i c a t t e n d a n c e as w e l l as p r o v i d e c o u n s e l l i n g t h a t w i l l a s s i s t i n d i v i d u a l s i n 1 2 6 u n d e r s t a n d i n g h o w t o a c h i e v e t h e i r g o a l s . P r o g r a m s o f s h o r t e r d u r a t i o n w i t h l e a r n i n g a s s i s t a n c e c e n t e r s a n d p e r s o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g r e s o u r c e s m a y h e l p i n r e d u c i n g s t r e s s a n d a t t r i t i o n . I f p o t e n t i a l A B E s t u d e n t s a r e e v e r g o i n g t o b e a t t r a c t e d a n d m a i n t a i n e d i n i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r s t h e n c o n s i d e r a b l e e m p h a s i s i s g o i n g t o h a v e t o b e p l a c e d u p o n s o c i o e c o n o m i c a n d p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s . T h e t y p i c a l A B E s t u d e n t i s r e q u i r e d t o c o p e w i t h m a n y e n v i r o n m e n t a l b a r r i e r s a n d c o n s t r a i n t s w h i c h p e r h a p s e x p l a i n s w h y t h e a t t r i t i o n r a t e i s f o u r t i m e s t h a t o f o t h e r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s a n d w h y a d u l t e d u c a t o r s m u s t b e g i n t o d i r e c t t h e i r a t t e n t i o n a n d a c t i v i t i e s t o f a c t o r s e x o g e n o u s t o t h e s c h o o l s e t t i n g . F u t u r e R e s e a r c h T h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y h a v e s h o w n t h a t s o c i o e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s a r e c o r r e l a t e s o f d r o p o u t i n A B E . D u e t o l i m i t a t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y i t i s n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h i s s t u d y b e r e p l i c a t e d w i t h i n o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d a c r o s s v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s . W h e t h e r s o c i o e c o n o m i c f a c t o r s a r e g o o d p r e d i c t o r s o f d r o p o u t w i t h i n o t h e r f u l l t i m e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m s r e m a i n s t o b e s e e n . O n e s y s t e m n o t a d d r e s s e d d i r e c t l y i n t h i s s t u d y w a s t h e e d u c a t i o n a l s e t t i n g . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e x t e r n a l c o n s t r a i n t s i n p r e d i c t i n g d r o p o u t r e p o r t e d h e r e , i t w o u l d a p p e a r i m p e r a t i v e t o t r y t o i d e n t i f y s c h o o l r e l a t e d c o r r e l a t e s o f p e r s i s t e n c e / d r o p o u t i n f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . R e s e a r c h i n t o t h i s a r e a i s b o t h w o r t h w h i l e a n d d e m a n d i n g . T h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f 1 27 s c h o o l and no n s c h o o l f a c t o r s i n terms of dropout would prove e x t r e m e l y i n t e r e s t i n g and v a l u a b l e . However, the study of bo t h s c h o o l and n o n s c h o o l v a r i a b l e s i n c o m b i n a t i o n b r i n g s w i t h i t s p e c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . An i n i t i a l c o n c e r n i s due t o the c o m p l e x i t y of the s c h o o l environment i t s e l f and the f a c t t h a t the l i t e r a t u r e on dropout i n ABE r e p o r t s v e r y l i t t l e d a t a c o n c e r n i n g r e l e v a n t s c h o o l v a r i a b l e s . T h i s problem though, i s perhaps not as v e x i n g as the c o r r e l a t i o n ( m u l t i c o l l i n e a r i t y ) between s c h o o l and no n s c h o o l v a r i a b l e s . That i s , i t i s next t o i m p o s s i b l e t o c o n t r a s t s c h o o l s e t t i n g s f o r s t u d e n t s w i t h d i f f e r e n t p s y c h o s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( i . e . , n o n s c h o o l b a c k g r o u n d ) . S i n c e r a n d o m i z a t i o n of a d u l t s t u d e n t s a c r o s s a d i v e r s i t y of s c h o o l s e t t i n g s i s v i r t u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e i n ABE, c o n f o u n d i n g due t o c o r r e l a t i o n between s c h o o l and no n s c h o o l v a r i a b l e s i s i n e v i t a b l e . T h i s c o n c e r n cannot be r e s o l v e d by s t a t i s t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s , a l o n e and r e q u i r e s judgements t o be made "on how t o a s s i g n the p r o p o r t i o n of e x p l a i n e d v a r i a t i o n t h a t i s sh a r e d by both s c h o o l and nons c h o o l v a r i a b l e s " ( M c P a r t l a n d & K a r w e i t , 1979, p.378). In a d d i t i o n , the d e c i s i o n s and judgements t h a t a r e r e q u i r e d i n such complex r e s e a r c h must not be done i n i s o l a t i o n of a t h e o r e t i c a l model i f c o n t i n u e d s y s t e m a t i c r e s e a r c h i s t o r e s u l t . The e f f e c t s of v a r y i n g methods, t e c h n i q u e s , s c h o o l r e s o u r c e s , and o t h e r s c h o o l s e t t i n g v a r i a b l e s on p e r s i s t e n c e i n ABE i s v i r t u a l l y n o n e x i s t e n t . A l t h o u g h the p a u c i t y of r e s e a r c h on s c h o o l s e t t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n ABE make i t i m p o s s i b l e t o draw 1 28 c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p of s c h o o l r e s o u r c e s and p e r s i s t e n c e , the r e s u l t s of p r e v i o u s de p o s t f a c t o s t u d i e s r e p o r t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w i n d i c a t e t h a t a d u l t s a t t a c h minor importance t o s c h o o l f a c t o r s i n the d e c i s i o n t o drop o u t . In f a c t , one may s p e c u l a t e t h a t g i v e n adequate i n p u t f a c t o r s ( a b i l i t y , m o t i v a t i o n , f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y , and f a m i l y s u p p o r t ) the a d u l t l e a r n e r w i l l be r e m a r k a b l y r e s i l i e n t i n any s c h o o l s e t t i n g . However, i t seems c l e a r t h a t o n l y f u t u r e r e s e a r c h l o o k i n g a t b oth s c h o o l and n o n s c h o o l v a r i a b l e s c o n c u r r e n t l y w i l l b e g i n t o r e v e a l the r e l a t i v e importance of t h e s e two s e t s of v a r i a b l e s . L o o k i n g a t both s c h o o l and n o n s c h o o l dropout v a r i a b l e s c o n c u r r e n t l y b r i n g s w i t h i t a n o t h e r problem c o n c e r n i n g the c o l l e c t i o n of d a t a . I f n o n s c h o o l v a r i a b l e s a r e t o be s t u d i e d a l o n g w i t h s c h o o l v a r i a b l e s then a p r i o r i as w e l l as de p o s t f a c t o m e t h o d o l o g i e s w i l l have t o be employed. There a r e c e r t a i n advantages of c o l l e c t i n g p e r s o n a l d a t a a t the b e g i n n i n g of a program of s t u d i e s but the e f f e c t s of the l e a r n i n g environment o b v i o u s l y w i l l have t o be a d d r e s s e d l a t e r i n the program. The t i m i n g of the c o l l e c t i o n of s c h o o l environment d a t a w i l l r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the purposes of the study and the p a r t i c u l a r s of the program. F u t u r e r e s e a r c h s h o u l d a l s o t r y t o d e t e r m i n e unique c o m b i n a t i o n s of v a r i a b l e s as p r e d i c t o r s . S i n c e i t i s not r e a s o n a b l e t o i n c l u d e l a r g e numbers of v a r i a b l e s i n p r e d i c t i o n a n a l y s i s (due t o l o s s of degrees of freedom) and i t i s not l i k e l y t h a t one or two v a r i a b l e s w i l l ever account f o r a l a r g e 1 29 p o r t i o n of e x p l a i n e d dropout v a r i a n c e , c o n s i d e r a b l e thought and r e s e a r c h w i l l have t o go i n t o d e f i n i n g which v a r i a b l e s under what c o n d i t i o n s are r e l e v a n t . S p e c i f i c recommended improvements on t h i s s tudy would be t o use a n o t h e r s e l f concept measure or t o r e l y on the ACL s u b s c a l e s (number of u n f a v o r a b l e , s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , and i d e a l s e l f ) f o r measures of s e l f c o n c e p t . The reason f o r t h i s i s the time and d i f f i c u l t y i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g and t a k i n g the TSCS. I n c l u s i o n of an assessment of the e d u c a t i o n a l environment i s a l s o a n e c e s s i t y . I f the the TSCS were t o be dropped or s u b s t i t u t e d , an i n s t r u m e n t such as the C l a s s r o o m Environment S c a l e ( T r i c k e t t & Moos, 1974) c o u l d be i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the time c o n s t r a i n t s f o r assessment. Improvement of the time use e s t i m a t e s c a l e i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y . C o n f u s i o n between time a v a i l a b l e f o r homework and time p l a n n e d t o be g i v e n t o homework may have e x i s t e d . A change i n the SRRS i s a l s o s u g g e s t e d . More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the term " w i f e " i n i t e m 30 Should be r e p l a c e d w i t h spouse t o make i t e q u a l l y s u i t a b l e f o r each sex. Two a d d i t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s worth l o o k i n g a t a r e c e r t a i n t y of o c c u p a t i o n a l g o a l and r e l e v a n c e of the e d u c a t i o n a l program t o t h a t g o a l . Another a r e a of r e s e a r c h i s the group of d r o p o u t s t h a t were not c o n s i d e r e d i n t h i s s t u d y but a r e d e s e r v i n g of s t u d y . These ar e the " w o u l d - b e - l e a r n e r s " t h a t r e g i s t e r e d and d i d not show up a t the b e g i n n i n g of the program or a t t e n d e d one or two s e s s i o n s and d e p a r t e d . C o n s i d e r i n g they made the e f f o r t t o r e g i s t e r or a t t e n d one or two c l a s s e s , they a r e not " n o n l e a r n e r s " nor a r e they " l e a r n e r s " s i n c e they d i d not a t t e n d an a p p r e c i a b l e number 1 30 of c l a s s e s . I t would seem t o be e x t r e m e l y v a l u a b l e t o d e t e r m i n e why t h e s e a d u l t s d i d not f u l l y commit t h e m s e l v e s t o the program. Q u e s t i o n s a r i s e c o n c e r n i n g whether th e s e s t u d e n t s d i d not have the r e q u i r e d m o t i v a t i o n or whether v a r i o u s c o n s t r a i n t s f o r c e d t h i s e a r l y d e c i s i o n t o l e a v e . Or s t a t e d i n a n o t h e r manner, how a r e the reasons f o r l e a v i n g the program f o r " w o u l d - b e - l e a r n e r s " d i f f e r e n t from the d e f i n e d d r o p o u t s of t h i s s t u d y . At the r i s k of s t a t i n g the o b v i o u s , i t can be s a i d t h a t much more s p e c i f i c d a t a a r e r e q u i r e d on the when and why a d u l t s drop out of ABE programs. F i n a l l y , c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t s h o u l d be expended i n d e v e l o p i n g and t e s t i n g the t h e o r y t h a t must accompany r e s e a r c h on d r o p o u t . B e f o r e p r e d i c t i o n of a d u l t l e a r n e r b e h a v i o r i s p o s s i b l e , o r d e r must be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n the v a s t a r r a y of i n f l u e n c i n g v a r i a b l e s . In a d d i t i o n , t h e o r e t i c a l r e s e a r c h s h o u l d b u i l d upon the dynamics of change and development t h a t i n f l u e n c e t h e a b i l i t y of the a d u l t t o cope w i t h the demands of a f o r m a l l e a r n i n g s e t t i n g . The p o t e n t i a l c o n s t r u c t v a l i d i t y of the r e s i l i e n c e c o n c e p t u a l model s h o u l d be e x p l o r e d f o r i t s use i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g and p r e d i c t i n g p e r s i s t e n c e / d r o p o u t i n a v a r i e t y of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s e t t i n g s w i t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n t o i n c l u d i n g terms t h a t r e f l e c t the i n t e r a c t i o n of b a s i c components such as t e n s i o n and c o n s t r a i n t . 131 REFERENCES Adams, R. E d u c a t i o n and wo r k i n g C a n a d i a n s. Report of the commission of i n q u i r y on e d u c a t i o n a l l e a v e and p r o d u c t i v i t y (Labour Canada): Ottawa, 1979. Anderson, R., & Darkenwald, G. P a r t i c i p a t i o n and p e r s i s t e n c e i n American a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . New York: C o l l e g e E n t r a n c e E x a m i n a t i o n Board, 1979. A s l a n i a n , C , & B r i c k e l l , H. 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S t u d e r , R. Human systems d e s i g n and management of change. G e n e r a l Systems, 1971, J_6, 131-143. Sztompka, P. System and f u n c t i o n : Toward a t h e o r y of s o c i e t y . New York: Academic P r e s s , 1974. — T h u r s t o n e , L. M u l t i p l e f a c t o r a n a l y s i s . C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of Chicag o P r e s s , 1947. T r i c k e t t , E., & Moos, R. Cl a s s r o o m environment s c a l e . P a l o A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a : C o n s u l t i n g P s y c h o l o g i s t s P r e s s , 1974. V e r n e r , C , & D a v i s , G. C o m p l e t i o n s and drop o u t s : A re v i e w of r e s e a r c h . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1964, J_3 (3), 1 57-176. von B e r t a l a n f f y , L. G e n e r a l system t h e o r y : F o u n d a t i o n ,  development, a p p l i c a t i o n . New York: George B r a z i l l e r , 1968. 138 von B e r t a l a n f f y , L. An o u t l i n e of g e n e r a l system t h e o r y . B r i t i s h J o u r n a l f o r the P h i l o s o p h y of S c i e n c e , 1950, 148-165. W i l s o n , R. P e r s o n o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o GED r e t e n t i o n and w i t h d r a w a l . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1980, 30 ( 3 ) , 173-185. Winer, B.J. S t a t i s t i c a l ' p r i n c i p l e s i n e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n (2nd e d . ) . New York: M c G r a w - H i l l , 1971. Wingate, J . N o n - i n t e l l e c t u a l c o r r e l a t e s of a t t r i t i o n among d i s a d v a n t a g e d a d u l t s . E r i c Document 178 670, 1979, 1-32. Zahn, J . Dropout and academic a b i l i t y i n u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n c o u r s e s . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1964, J_5 ( 1 ) , 35-46. 1 39 REFERENCE NOTES H a k s t i a n , A.R. OWMAR. Program p r e p a r e d a t the U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , Edmonton, A l b e r t a . APPENDIX A QUESTIONNAIRE 141 Dear Student, Increasing numbers of adult students are returning to school to further th e i r education, however, many do not f i n i s h . This series of questionnaires i s designed to determine why some students do not complete th e i r program of studies. The information gained from t h i s study w i l l be used to help future adult students complete the i r studies. The questionnaires attempt to determine such things as time com-mitments, f i n a n c i a l concerns, achievement need, s e l f concept, and verbal reasoning. The time required w i l l be less than the present class period. A l l results w i l l be held i n s t r i c t confidence, although each of you may obtain your own results. Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n this study i s not mandatory, but i t w i l l be extremely valuable and very much appreciated. I t must be emphasised that f a i l u r e to participate i n th i s study w i l l not affect your standing in this course. If you consent to take part i n th i s study please sign the bottom of t h i s form. 142 DEMOGRAPHIC QUESTIONNAIRE Please note that your name w i l l only be used to assemble the data, a f t e r which i t w i l l be destroyed. I w i l l be the only person to have access to t h i s information. 1. Name: 2. Age: 3. Sex: M F 4. Please l i s t the courses you are presently taking: 5. How many c r e d i t courses did you complete l a s t semester? None One Two Three Over Three 6. If you did complete a c r e d i t course l a s t semester, what was the name of the i n s t i t u t i o n ? 7. What was the l a s t grade i n school that you COMPLETED? 8. Do you work while attending school? Yes No 9. If you work, how many hours per week? 10. How many c h i l d r e n are you supporting? None One Two Three Over Three Please estimate the time (hours and minutes) that you have available for school homework after classes and other nonschool responsibilities. hours minutes Monday Tuesday W e d n e s d a y Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday 144 READJUSTMENT QUESTIONNAIRE Please c i r c l e the number of each event which has occured to you during the l a s t year. EVENT 1. Marriage 2. Troubles with the boss 3. Detention i n j a i l or other i n s t i t u t i o n 4. Death of spouse 5. Major change i n sleeping habits 6. Death of a close family member 7. Major change i n eating habits 8. Foreclosure on a mortgage or loan 9. Revision of personal habits (dress, manners, as s o c i a t i o n s , etc.) 10. Death of a close f r i e n d 11. Minor v i o l a t i o n s of the law 12. Outstanding personal achievement 13. Pregnancy 14. Major change i n the health or behaviour of a family member 15. Sexual d i f f i c u l t i e s 16. In-law troubles 17. Major change i n the number of family get-togethers 18. Major change i n f i n a n c i a l state 19. Gaining a new family member 20. Change i n residence 21. Son or daughter leaving home 22. M a r i t a l separation from mate 23. Major change i n church a c t i v i t i e s 24. M a r i t a l r e c o n c i l i a t i o n with mate 25. Being f i r e d from work 26. Divorce 145 EVENT 27. Changing to a d i f f e r e n t l i n e of work 28. Major change i n the number of arguments with spouse 29. Major change i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s at work 30. Wife beginning or ceasing work outside the home 31. Major change i n working hours or conditions 32. Major change i n usual type and/or amount of recreation 33. Taking on a mortgage greater than $10,000 34. Taking on a mortgage or loan l e s s than $10,000 35. Major personal injury or i l l n e s s 36. Major business readjustment 37. Major change i n s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s 38. Major change i n l i v i n g conditions (e.g. b u i l d i n g a new home, remodeling, etc.) 39. Retirement from work 40. Vacation 42. 43. Changing to a new school Beginning or ceasing formal schooling FINANCIAL CONCERNS This questionnaire is an attempt to determine the degree of financial concern that you feel. Please answer the way you feel toward each statement below. Your answers will be strictly confidential. CIRCLE the response that most nearly represents your reaction to each of the statements below. 1 . Money concerns prevent me from fully concentrating on my school wo Disagree Uncertain Agree Strongly Disagree 2. I have difficulty paying the bil l s each month. Strongly Disagree Uncertain Agree Disagree I have no money for luxuries. Strongly Disagree Uncertain Disagree Agree 4. Money concerns are a constant worry to me. Strongly Disagree Uncertain Agree Disagree 5. I have no extra money in case of an emergency. Strongly Disagree Uncertain Agree Disagree 6. Going to school is a real financial hardship. Strongly Disagree Uncertain Agree Disagree 7. I may not have enough money to finish the program. Strongly Disagree Uncertain Agree Disagree Strongly Agree Strongly Agree Strongly Agree Strongly Agree Strongly Agree Strongly Agree Strongly Agree 8. Financial responsibilities make i t difficult to return to school. Disagree Uncertain Agree Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree APPENDIX B . VARIABLE INTERCORRELATION MATRIX Intercorrelations of the Manifest Variables (N=92) V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V7 V8 V9 VIO V1 1 V12 V13 V14 V15 V16 V17 V18 V1 1 .00 . 16 .21 .07 .04 .05 - .06 .06 . 18 - . 14 -.09 .07 .04 - .04 .07 .03 - .04 - .04 V2 1 .00 .21 . 14 . 14 -.06 - . 17 .04 .08 - . 18 - .01 - .01 - . 13 .09 - .01 - .06 - .01 - . 16 V3 1 .00 - . 16 .04 - .04 - .03 - . 12 .09 .02 .09 -.20 - . 22 - .06 - . 20 .02 - . 13 - .22 V4 V5 V6 V7 V8 V9 V10 V1 1 V12 V13 V14 V15 V16 V17 V18 1 .00 . 10 .04 .00 .35 .08 - .04 - .04 . 16 .07 .01 - . 10 .07 .00 .09 1 .00 - . 36 - .44 - .28 . 16 - .26 -.23 .31 - .42 - . 52 - .41 - .40 - .46 -.46 1 .00 .70 . 25 .04 - . 19 - . 16 - . 10 .47 . 37 . 35 . 37 .48 .37 1 .00 .31 - .42 . 19 . 27 - .24 .51 .52 .40 . 53 .45 .50 1 .00 - . 12 . 32 .21 - . 14 .28 .27 . 22 . 30 . 22 '. 25 1 .00 -.49 - .59 .21 - .06 - . 20 - . 10 - . 12 - . 13 - . 25 1 .00 .76 - . 24 -.00 . 14 . 15 . 18 .04 . 12 1 .00 - . 37 - .02 . 19 . 16 . 25 .03 . 17 1 .00 - .08 - .41 - . 34 - . 38 - . 16 -.09 1 .00 .61 .63 .69 .78 .67 1 .00 .67 .75 .73 .67 1 .00 .52 .54 .42 1 .00 .69 . 54 1 .00 .66 1.00 V1 V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 Study Time SRRS Financial Concern DAT ACL-unfavorable ACL-achi evement V7 V8 V9 V10 V1 1 V12 ACL-endurance ACL-intraception ACL-change ACL-deference ACL-self control TSCS-self c r i t i c i s m V13 V14 V15 V16 V17 V18 TSCS-self s a t i s f a c t i o n TSCS-behavior TSCS-physical s e l f TSCS-moral/ethical s e l f TSCS-personal s e l f TSCS-family s e l f 149 APPENDIX C SALIENT FACTOR LOADINGS AFTER ORTHOGONAL ROTATION OF THE FOUR FACTOR UNWEIGHTED LEAST SQUARES SOLUTION F1 F2 F3 F4 VI [ .30]* V2 .44 V3 - .48 V4 .80 V5 -.57 V6 .60 V7 .65 V8 .45 V9 -.61 VI 0 .83 V1 1 .92 V12 [-.393* V1 3 .85 V1 4 .86 V1 5 .69 VI 6 .77 V1 7 .81 V18 .70 * h i g h e s t l o a d i n g f o r v a r i a b l e a l t h o u g h not s a l i e n t V1 Study Time V1 0: ACL-deference V2 SRRS V1 1 : A C L - s e l f c o n t r o l V3 F i n a n c i a l Concern V1 2: T S C S - s e l f c r i t i c i s m V4 DAT V1 3: T S C S - s e l f s a t i s f a c t i o n V5 A C L - u n f a v o r a b l e V1 4: TSCS-behavior V6 ACL-achievement V1 5: T S C S - p h y s i c a l s e l f V7 ACL-endurance VI 6 : T S C S - m o r a l / e t h i c a l s e l f V8 : A C L - i n t r a c e p t i o n V1 7: TSCS-personal s e l f V9 ACL-change V18: T S C S - f a m i l y s e l f 150 APPENDIX D SALIENT FACTOR LOADINGS AFTER OBLIQUE TRANSFORMATION OF THE FIVE FACTOR UNWEIGHTED LEAST SQUARES SOLUTION F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 V1 [ .25]* V2 [ .3 7 ] * V3 .60 V4 .76 V5 -.57 .48 V6 .50 -.80 V7 .60 -.95 V8 .54 V9 -.64 V1 0 .83 VI 1 .90 V1 2 [-.39]* V1 3 .84 -.57 V1 4 .90 -.51 V1 5 .71 -.42 V1 6 .78 -.52 V1 7 .81 -.53 V1 8 .72 - -.52 * h i g h e s t l o a d i n g f o r v a r i a b l e a l t h o u g h not s a l i e n t V1 : Study Time V1 0 ACL-deference V2 • SRRS V1 1 A C L - s e l f c o n t r o l V3 . F i n a n c i a l Concern V1 2 TS C S - s e l f c r i t i c i s m V4 DAT V1 3 T S C S - s e l f s a t i s f a c t i o n V5 A C L - u n f a v o r a b l e V1 4 TSCS-behavior V6 : ACL-achievement V1 5 T S C S - p h y s i c a l s e l f V7 : ACL-endurance V1 6 T S C S - m o r a l / e t h i c a l s e l f V8 : A C L - i n t r a c e p t i o n V1 7 . TSCS-personal s e l f V9 ACL-change VI 8 TS C S - f a m i l y s e l f 151 APPENDIX E SALIENT FACTOR LOADINGS AFTER OBLIQUE TRANSFORMATION OF THE FOUR FACTOR UNWEIGHTED LEAST SQUARES SOLUTION (c=.5) F1 F2 F3 F4 V1 [ . 2 7 ] * V2 .42 V3 .51 V4 .80 V5 -.59 V6 .59 V7 .67 V8 .48 V9 -.63 V1 0 .83 V1 1 .92 V1 2 [-.39]* V1 3 .85 V1 4 .86 V1 5 .69 V1 6 .77 V1 7 .81 V18 .72 • h i g h e s t l o a d i n g f o r v a r i a b l e a l t h o u g h not s a l i e n t V1 : Study Time V1 0 ACL-deference V2: SRRS V1 1 A C L - s e l f c o n t r o l V3- F i n a n c i a l Concern V1 2 , T S C S - s e l f c r i t i c i s m V4- DAT V1 3 TSC S - s e l f s a t i s f a c t i o n V5 A C L - u n f a v o r a b l e V1 4 , TSCS-behavior V6 ACL-achievement V1 5 : T S C S - p h y s i c a l s e l f V7 . ACL-endurance. V1 6 : T S C S - m o r a l / e t h i c a l s e l f V8 A C L - i n t r a c e p t i o n V1 7 : TSCS-personal s e l f V9 : ACL-change V1 8 : TSCS- f a m i l y s e l f 1 52 APPENDIX F INTERCORRELATION OF FACTORS AFTER OBLIQUE TRANSFORMATION OF THE FIVE FACTOR SOLUTION F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F1 1.00 F2 .23 1.00 F3 .23 .03 1.00 F4 -.64 -.17 -.18 1.00 F5 -.10 .06 -.11 .11 1 .00 153 APPENDIX G INTERCORRELATION OF FACTORS AFTER OBLIQUE TRANSFORMATION OF THE FOUR FACTOR SOLUTION F1 F2 F3 F4 F1 1.00 F2 .12 1.00 F3 .10 .00 1.00 F4 -.03 .02 -.04 1.00 

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