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The child’s influence on parental purchase patterns for breakfast foods Fisher, Dorothy 1983

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THE CHILD S INFLUENCE ON 1  PARENTAL PURCHASE PATTERNS FOR BREAKFAST FOODS by  DOROTHY FISHER B.Sc.  U n i v e r s i t y o f A l b e r t a 1971  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e ,  Adult  and Higher Education)  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1983 (c) Dorothy F i s h e r , 1983  DE-6  In p r e s e n t i n g  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the  the  University  of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make it  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  study.  I further  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may department or by h i s or her  be granted by the head of representatives.  understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s for financial  gain  thesis  s h a l l not be allowed without my  floLu^s-kJin,  Adult  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  (3/81)  my  It is  permission.  Department of  thesis  Its Ji~dt*cd't  written  ABSTRACT This  study was  conducted to examine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s  the preschool c h i l d  i n s t i m u l a t i n g a behavior  the  r e s p e c t to food p u r c h a s e p a t t e r n s  parent(s)  choices  with  offered  to  the  f a m i l i e s a s s o c i a t e d with  child.  One  change w i t h i n  hundred  and  three  s i x nursery schools l o c a t e d w i t h i n  the Simon F r a s e r H e a l t h U n i t were i n v o l v e d i n t h e The  nursery  schools were randomly assigned  experimental carried  on  conditions: with  to one  school  the  receiving  nutrition  treatment pamphlets  group  who  also  Following  the  in  four week p e r i o d the  and  nursery school.  returned  anonymously by  the  child  parent  of a l l  to  the  obtained. aspects  food p u r c h a s e p a t t e r n s and  at b r e a k f a s t .  an  of four  of  those  p a t t e r n s c e n t e r i n g around the types of foods o f f e r e d to preschool  to  brought home by  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e used i n the study examined two the  in  parents  A response r a t e of 89 percent was  parental behavior:  the  addition  the course  c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d a q u e s t i o n n a i r e which was the c h i l d  three  nutrition  participated  a c t i v i t y o r i e n t e d b r e a k f a s t program over weeks.  of  activities,  t r a n s f e r m a t e r i a l s group whose c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d and  study.  the c o n t r o l group whose c h i l d r e n  routine nursery  pamphlets  and  the  The  parents'  behavior  patterns  determine  the frequency o f purchase  products,  fruits,  protein  were  analysed  o f m i l k products,  to  bread  sources and c e r e a l s c o n t a i n i n g i n  excess o f f i f t e e n percent sugar and the frequency w i t h which these  foods  were  breakfast.  In  differences  offered  to  general,  there  i n the purchase  parents i n the t h r e e groups. to p a r e n t a l purchases percent  added  either  conjectured  preschool were  or  sugar.  child  significant behavior  more t h a n  group r e p o r t e d making  groups  cereal  (p < .004).  scores o f the  to c e r e a l s are l e s s A l s o , i t appears  e f f o r t s have s e n s i t i z e d high  sugar  programme  foods. tested  stable  than  treatment, shoppers  " l o y a l t y " to  t h a t p r e v i o u s "persuasion"  mothers to problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  It i s possible here  than  a  I t was  t r a n s f e r and c o n t r o l groups were d i f f e r e n t because  o t h e r products.  of  fifteen  o f c e r e a l s w i t h added sugar  o f the treatment  "commitments"  for  The o n l y d i f f e r e n c e s p e r t a i n e d  The c o n t r o l  t h a t sweetened  no  "offering"  of c e r e a l s with  g r e a t e r number o f purchases did  the  evoked  or  that  the b r e a k f a s t  reinforced  l e a r n e d p o s t u r e s concerning c e r e a l s with added  previously sugar.  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE LIST OF TABLES  v  LIST OF FIGURES  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  v i i  I. INTRODUCTION Statement o f the Problem D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms Hypotheses I I . LITERATURE REVIEW  1 2 3 6 9  I I I . METHOD Research Design Treatment V a r i a b l e s Comparability o f the Centres Measuring Instruments Data C o l l e c t i o n and A n a l y s i s L i m i t a t i o n s and Assumptions IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Return Rates C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Sample Food Purchase Patterns Reported by the Respondents Types o f Breakfasts Offered by the Respondents V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  18 18 20 22 25 31 34 39 39 41 53 64 66  REFERENCE NOTES  76  BIBLIOGRAPHY  77  APPENDICES APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX  A: B: C: D:  Samples o f Correspondence Breakfast Program G u i d e l i n e s . . . . F i n a l Measurement Instruments... D e s c r i p t i v e Comments from Parents and Supervisors  iv  80 85 93 105  LIST OF TABLES TABLE  PAGE  1  Characteristics of Participating  2  Breakfast Foods Eaten as Reported by Parents and C h i l d r e n  3  Consistency  Nursery Schools.... 24 29  o f C h i l d r e n ' s R e c a l l o f Breakfast  Foods Eaten  30  4  Responses t o Requests f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n  36  5  Return o f Questionnaires  40  6  Breakdown o f Respondents by Area o f Residence  7  Data PertainiC no g n tto Equivalence Treatment, r o lthe and T r a n s f e r M aotfethe r i a l s Groups.. 43  8  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Family Members by Age C a t e g o r i e s . . . . 48  9  Mean Number and Percent o f Parents i n Treatment, C o n t r o l and T r a n s f e r M a t e r i a l s Groups Who Reported Receiving T r a n s f e r M a t e r i a l s  52  Mean Food Purchase Scores f o r Each o f the Treatment, C o n t r o l and T r a n s f e r M a t e r i a l s Gr o up s  54  Mean Competing Food Purchase Scores f o r Each of the Treatment, C o n t r o l and T r a n s f e r M a t e r i a l s Groups  55  12  P r e d i c t o r s o f Sweetened Cereal Score  62  13  Breakfast Foods Offered t o C h i l d r e n i n the Treatment, C o n t r o l and T r a n s f e r M a t e r i a l s Groups.. 65  10  11  by Centre  v  42  LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE  PAGE  1  D i r e c t i o n o f Impact o f Education on Behavior.... 15  2  Diagrammatic Representation o f the Research Design  3  Schematic Representation o f the Post t e s t Design  18  Only 20  4  Excerpt from Part One o f Parent Questionnaire... 25  5  Excerpt from P a r t Two o f Parent Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . . . 26  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The of  researcher wishes t o acknowledge the c o n t r i b u t i o n s  the f o l l o w i n g : The  British  Columbia  M i n i s t r y o f Health  the education leave t o pursue graduate Dr. and  Higher  British and  Roger Boshier, Education,  Columbia,  conducting  this  for granting  work i n t h i s area.  Department o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , Adult F a c u l t y o f Education,  f o r the counsel  University of  and guidance  i n planning  study.  Dr. Todd Rogers, F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f British the  Columbia,  development  f o r assistance p a r t i c u l a r l y of the testing  relating to  instruments  and t h e  s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the data. The  nursery  school  teachers  and t h e p a r e n t s  who  e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y gave time and energy t o the study. Finally,  a special  i n v o l v e d i n the study.  thanks t o t h e p r e s c h o o l  children  1.  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Anyone who preschool influence  has  child on  ever observed  an a d u l t  i s aware t h a t c h i l d r e n  their  parents' s e l e c t i o n  i f one watches t e l e v i s i o n commercials it  is  apparent  that  preschool c h i l d r e n .  advertisers  The  New  r e p o r t e d t h a t even the U.S. commissioned  of  shopping  with a  exert a powerful food.  Similarly,  on Saturday  attempt  to  mornings, influence  York Times i n November of Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e  1980 had  "Spiderman" to c a r r y a n u t r i t i o n message about  h e a l t h y snacks t o s i x t o twelve year olds.  Berey and  Pollay  (1968) and Ward and Wackman (1972) have i d e n t i f i e d the c h i l d as  playing  a  potentially  d e c i s i o n making process.  important  role  i n the  Thus, t h i s study was  conducted  f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y o f the c h i l d as a change agent. extent behavior  to which  The aim of the study was the  preschool c h i l d  parent to  functioning  to q u a n t i f y the  generates p a r e n t a l  change.  I n t e r e s t i n the concept of c h i l d r e n as p o t e n t i a l change agents, evolved  capable  of  directing  behavior  patterns,  as a r e s u l t of p e r s o n a l experiences i n the f i e l d  community n u t r i t i o n education. this  adult  The parameters  of  selected for  s t u d y were t h o s e w h i c h a l l o w e d f o r the i n c l u s i o n o f  preschool c h i l d r e n l i v i n g a nursery school program.  i n a suburban  area and e n r o l l e d i n  2.  T h i s study was  c a r r i e d out during May  and June of  1982  i n the Simon F r a s e r Health U n i t w i t h the endorsement of F.J. Blatherwick, Health  Unit,  District,  Medical Health O f f i c e r .  part  of  is primarily  m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f New and  the  Greater  an  urban  The  Regional  including  Westminster, Coquitlam,  the  Port Coquitlam  Port Moody. New  Westminster  was  excluded  from  the  advice o f the committee due  to the  would  heterogeneity  have  increased  population. Coquitlam  The  and  the  three  municipalities  families.  schools.  a t one  of  the  upon  the  fact that i t s inclusion of  the  target  (Coquitlam,  This r e s u l t e d  to r e s t r i c t the study to f a m i l i e s who attendance  study  P o r t Moody) chosen are c o m p r i s e d  p r o p o r t i o n of young  in  Simon F r a s e r  Vancouver area  Dr.  Port  of a high  in a decision  had preschool c h i l d r e n  provincially  licensed  nursery  T h i s c r i t e r i o n a l s o f a c i l i t a t e d the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  aspects o f the  study.  Statement of the Problem The commonly h e l d approach to education i s to view the a d u l t as d i r e c t i n g children —  the l e a r n i n g and  subsequent behaviors  the a d u l t assumes the r o l e o f educator  c h i l d the r o l e of l e a r n e r . e x p e r i m e n t a l l y r e s e a r c h the  and  The purpose of t h i s study was reverse  situation.  This  of the to  study  3.  was  designed  child  to examine  the extent  s t i m u l a t e s behavior  change  to which the p r e s c h o o l  w i t h i n the parent(s)  r e s p e c t to food purchase p a t t e r n s and child.  The  change  agent.  child  in this  study  with  foods o f f e r e d to the  was  considered  to be a  Definition of Terms B r e a k f a s t program; activities of  related  a coordinated s e t o f n u t r i t i o n to b r e a k f a s t s , presented  selected nursery  s u p e r v i s o r over  schools  by  their  a f o u r week p e r i o d .  education  t o the c h i l d r e n  regular  preschool  O f f e r i n g an a c t u a l  b r e a k f a s t was not i n c l u d e d i n the program. Canada's Food Guide; Canadians developed interpret  guideline  f o r food  by n u t r i t i o n i s t s  Regulations,  the development  choices  as a mechanism  the Canadian d i e t a r y standards"  Care F a c i l i t i e s guide  "a  (Provincial  of to  Child  1979) and used i n the study t o  o f b r e a k f a s t program  o b j e c t i v e s and  the a n a l y s i s o f the data. Foods e a t e n ;  breakfast  foods  actually  consumed  by  the  child. Foods o f f e r e d ;  b r e a k f a s t foods o f f e r e d to the c h i l d by the  parent but which may or may  not have been consumed.  4.  Food p u r c h a s e p a t t e r n s ; buying  behavior  as  a d e s c r i p t i o n of  determined  by  foods  parents' which  food  parents  i n d i c a t e t h a t they have bought over the past month and currently  in  the  home  at  the  time  of  foods  questionnaire  completion. Nursery  school;  "social,  a  emotional,  provided  setting  where  p h y s i c a l and  f o r " c h i l d r e n 32  the  opportunity  i n t e l l e c t u a l growth" i s  months to  the  age  they  enter  school i n a group s e t t i n g f o r periods o f not more than consecutive Regulations,  hours"  (Provincial  1979).  In  this  for  Child  study  Care  nursery  three  Facilities school  and  preschool are synonymous. Preschool  child;  a child  between the  ages o f 36  and  66  months. Preschool s u p e r v i s o r ; minimum of  training  and  qualification.  provided  the  a person holds  In  the  has  a preschool study,  the  completed the b a s i c supervisor's preschool  i n s t r u c t i o n to the c h i l d r e n and  the l i a i s o n with the  describes  for  care  development,  letter  supervisor  a l s o acted  as  parents.  T r a d i t i o n a l program; the  who  and  those  activities  providing  p r o t e c t i o n of the  children,  but which do not i n c l u d e a n u t r i t i o n component.  5.  Transfer Materials; nutritious their  the c o l l e c t i o n o f pamphlets r e l a t i n g to  b r e a k f a s t s which were d i s t r i b u t e d  children.  to parents v i a  6.  Hypotheses The  two  g e n e r a l hypotheses  considered i n t h i s  study  (1)  There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the p a r e n t a l  were:  purchase  patterns  for breakfast  foods  among  those  parents  whose c h i l d r e n ( i ) were i n v o l v e d i n a b r e a k f a s t program, ( i i ) r e c e i v e d t r a n s f e r m a t e r i a l s , and those who ( i i i ) c a r r i e d on with the t r a d i t i o n a l nursery school program. (2)  There i s no  significant difference  i n the  quality  o f b r e a k f a s t s o f f e r e d to the c h i l d by parents o f c h i l d r e n i n the b r e a k f a s t program, those who o n l y and those who Two  change being and  may  purchased,  were s e l e c t e d f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n because  d e c i s i o n p o i n t i s i n v o l v e d i n the  evaluated.  subsequently  parent  c a r r i e d on with the t r a d i t i o n a l program.  hypotheses  more t h a n one  received transfer materials  the  modify but may  behavior  Through the education of the  parent  the  lies  the  possibility  s e l e c t i o n of s p e c i f i c  not o f f e r  In other words, the foods may  them  child  that  foods t o  t o the preschool  the be  child.  be a v a i l a b l e , but the behavior  has not c a r r i e d through to the extent t h a t the parent t h i n k s to o f f e r allows parental  the  new  food.  investigation behavior.  of  The  s e l e c t i o n o f two  this  stepwise  hypotheses  m o d i f i c a t i o n of  7.  Thus, the dependent v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s study were: (1)  parents'  purchase d e c i s i o n s regarding  parents'  choices  breakfast  foods and (2)  foods o f f e r e d to the c h i l d "offered" being  with  point  t o the b r e a k f a s t  (a d i s t i n c t i o n was made between  and "consumed" because  the f o c a l  respect  o f the p a r e n t a l  as o p p o s e d  behaviors  to the children's  behaviors). The  i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e was t h e t r e a t m e n t  program  assigned: (1)  a four week Breakfast  Program  (2)  the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f T r a n s f e r M a t e r i a l s over a four  week p e r i o d (3)  the  Traditional  Program  which  excluded a l l  n u t r i t i o n r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s f o r a four week p e r i o d . The A.  s p e c i f i c hypotheses t e s t e d were:  Hypothesis 1 There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among the parents o f  the  three  treatment  groups  regarding  the frequency  of  purchase o f : a) b) c) d) e)  milk products whole g r a i n bread and c e r e a l s c e r e a l s with more than f i f t e e n percent sugar h i g h q u a l i t y p r o t e i n sources and f r u i t s and f r u i t j u i c e s  added  8.  B.  Hypothesis 2 There i s no  the  significant difference  three treatment groups regarding the a) b) c) d) e)  among the parents of frequency o f :  o f f e r i n g b r e a k f a s t s to t h e i r c h i l d r e n o f f e r i n g a n u t r i t i o u s beverage a t b r e a k f a s t o f f e r i n g a p r o t e i n source of h i g h q u a l i t y at breakfast o f f e r i n g a whole g r a i n bread or c e r e a l choice and o f f e r i n g a c e r e a l containing i n excess of f i f t e e n percent sugar.  9.  CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW Although method  the c h i l d  of adult  i s not f o r m a l l y r e c o g n i z e d  education;  the c h i l d  dynamic and s u c c e s s f u l change agent.  as a  i s potentially  Three avenues have  been chosen f o r e x p l o r a t i o n to v e r i f y t h i s assumption: the l i t e r a t u r e , fields  (2) l o c a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s working  and ( 3 ) a survey  a  o f s e l e c t e d programs  (1)  i n related from  across  Canada.  The Literature An  ERIC  search  ( E d u c a t i o n a l Resources  revealed  many  abstracts  s t u d i e s aimed a t a l t e r i n g education;  Unfortunately,  Information  Centre)  d e s c r i b i n g programs o r through  parent  o f the q u e s t i o n  posed.  due to the nature o f the ERIC search  system  the e x a c t  child  0  opposite  behavior  the computer was unable to d i s c r i m i n a t e the d i r e c t i o n of the impact  desired.  the c h i l d  Thus, a search o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  and parent education produced 212 a b s t r a c t s . None  d e a l t w i t h the c h i l d ' s i n f l u e n c e on p a r e n t a l behaviors. A second search using MEDLINE was completed i n hopes o f uncovering directed  i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d to h e a l t h education  toward c h i l d r e n ,  p a r e n t a l behaviors.  programs  y e t aimed at the m o d i f i c a t i o n o f  Once again the search revealed a v o i d .  10.  Gates and Campbell (1981) examined the d i e t a r y concerns and p r a c t i c e s o f 176 mothers o f preschool c h i l d r e n and reported on p a r e n t s ' a t t e m p t s habits.  t o make changes i n c h i l d r e n ' s e a t i n g  This was t y p i c a l  frequently cited The Computer  reply  o f the d i r e c t i o n  from  the l i b r a r i a n Search  c o n c l u s i o n i n her statement  parent  to weight  v i a the c h i l d "  seven  appeared  none  of  formulated. described  at the u n i v e r s i t y ' s  Service  the search  (Note,  1).  illuminated  At best,  supported  this  which read "Just as I suspected. toward  educating the  Of 44 c i t a t i o n s  as remote p o s s i b i l i t i e s ,  these  most  i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  Bibliographic  I was u n a b l e  o f impact  but u n f o r t u n a t e l y ,  the q u e s t i o n  the l i t e r a t u r e  printed,  originally  i n t h i s a r e a c a n be  as sparse.  Local Professionals As a r e s u l t o f the output r e c e i v e d from searches, and  the l i t e r a t u r e  the d e c i s i o n was made to abandon the g l o b a l  collect  "local"  viewpoints  and  view  documentation.  P r o f e s s i o n a l s working with c h i l d r e n as change agents w i t h i n local  programs  (including linguistics, people  were  early  selected. childhood  They and  n u t r i t i o n and commerce.  were  i n education  adult  education),  Contact w i t h resource  i n each area was i n i t i a l l y by telephone  f o l l o w e d by  a  letter  reiterating  appropriate Of  the  research  by follow-up  interview.  disciplines  approached,  the  question,  the  and  marketing  commerce o f f e r e d the g r e a t e s t promise.  The  might  involved  be  expected,  traditional influencing  were  approach children.  very  where  much  parents  However, one  other  were  where  area  of  areas,  as  with  the  perceived  exception  was  as  noted;  a  study conducted by Csapo (1974) involved elementary students i n modifying teacher behavior. was that  s m a l l t h i s was  the  c h i l d r e n could  Although the research  sample  f i r s t documentation found to suggest  assist  an  adult  to modify h i s / h e r  own  c h i l d ' s i n f l u e n c e on p a r e n t a l purchase p a t t e r n s  has  behavior. The  been given most c o n s i d e r a t i o n by those i n v o l v e d i n marketing research. impact.  Advertising Although  these  i n f l u e n c e on  parental  the  research.  lack  research this  of into  i n p a r t i c u l a r i s concerned w i t h areas  have  identified  the  Assael  children's  potential influence  357). over  wife  influences  Even the the  acknowledges  influences  and  the  states  and  have excluded  television  lack  that  i t i s surprising that  American Federal  e f f e c t s of  child's  y i e l d i n g , they have a l s o pointed  out of  "given  almost a l l  s t u d i e s of f a m i l y purchase d e c i s i o n s have focused and  this  on husband  c h i l d r e n . " (1981,  p.  Trade Commission's concern advertising  on  children  12.  f a i l e d t o examine t h e p a r e n t - c h i l d d e c i s i o n making (Assael, The  1981).  volume o f marketing  literature  i s s u e o f the c h i l d ' s i n f l u e n c e overwhelming,  (1972)  is  not  t o be c l a s s i c and  t e x t s on the s u b j e c t o f consumer  and P o l l a y  (1968).  Ward  and Wackman  c h i l d r e n ' s (5-12 y e a r o l d s ) a t t e m p t s t o i n f l u e n c e  mothers'  purchase behaviors  influence  attempts.  "children's various  appear  behavior  They a r e t h o s e c o n d u c t e d by Ward and Wackman  and Berey  studied  concerned with the  on p a r e n t a l  b u t two s t u d i e s  reappear i n the most recent behavior.  interaction i n family  attempts  products"  and d e g r e e s  Influence to influence  (Ward  of yielding to  attempts  defined  as  mothers' p u r c h a s e s o f  and Wackman, 1972, p. 316) were  found t o decrease w i t h age w h i l e the frequency o f mothers' y i e l d i n g to the purchase requests increased  as the c h i l d got  older. Berey and P o l l a y found child-centeredness patterns  t o be c o r r e l a t e d  (p < .05).  and purchase  The more  centered the mother ( i . e . the one who took greater her  c h i l d ) the more l i k e l y  child-  care with  she was to buy what was " r i g h t "  f o r the c h i l d as opposed to g i v i n g i n to the c h i l d ' s wishes. Thus, both s t u d i e s  implicated  the c h i l d as an i n f l u e n c e r o f  parent purchase behaviors; the degree o f i n f l u e n c e mediated by both the c h i l d ' s age and the p e r s o n a l i t y o f the parent.  The  research  studies  which  emerged  as a r e s u l t o f  contact with l o c a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s suggested t h a t : 1.  the c h i l d does exert an impact on a d u l t  behaviors.  2.  a d d i t i o n a l research i s needed regarding the magnitude o f the c h i l d ' s i n f l u e n c e on a d u l t behavior.  Cross Canada Review A third resource hoped  strategy  involved  people across  that  programs  the country. not f o r m a l l y  l i t e r a t u r e would surface. British and  Columbia,  Prince  occupied public  communicating  i t was  written  i n the  Alberta,  Saskatchewan,  Edward I s l a n d .  The r e s o u r c e  sectors.  within  Provincial health  selected  In so d o i n g ,  P r o v i n c i a l contacts  a v a r i e t y of positions  with  up  were made i n  Manitoba, people  Ontario  contacted  t h e p r i v a t e and  departments,  u n i v e r s i t y n u t r i t i o n departments and community  other  organizations  such as the 4-H C o u n c i l and the Heart Foundation were among those who r e p l i e d to the questions: *What Canadian youth programs are o p e r a t i o n a l which f u n c t i o n as a means o f p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n t o the parent(s)? *What i s the best age to provide c h i l d r e n with i n f o r m a t i o n i n order f o r i t t o reach the p a r e n t ( s ) ? From the  the eight  r e p l i e s received  responses t o both questions  country.  Each  reply  had  i t became c l e a r  that  were s i m i l a r a c r o s s t h e  i t s own  phraseology  but  this  14.  comment from Prince Edward I s l a n d s u c c i n c t l y d e s c r i b e s a l l the  responses:  "I  am  not  aware  of  any  programs  or  l i t e r a t u r e which deal w i t h the i s s u e of parent education v i a the  child." Two  (Note, 2).  of  Island)  the  provinces  involved  the  (Manitoba  child  in  and  education  Prince  Edward  programs  as  a  v e h i c l e by which messages and  n o t i c e s were d e l i v e r e d to the  parents.  se  No  "Nutrition  education At  per  School"  was  program  involved.  had  Alberta's  parent  education  i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e nutrition this  education  inclusion  program,  but  no  were  found  (Note,  people  who  occupy  received  from  country,  no  utilizing  the concept  one  was  able  to  child's  further references 3). key  detail  Of  the  roles  to  feedback  across  programs  the  formally  of the c h i l d as a change agent.  Although the p r o v i n c i a l contacts were unable  to provide  c l e a r l y d e f i n e d answers to the questions presented, they d i d provide  encouragement to pursue t h i s  concept.  The  general  tone of the r e p l i e s can best be d e s c r i b e d as an i n t e r e s t i n t h i s "new  and v e r y  i n t e r e s t i n g approach to a d u l t education"  (Note, 4 ) . In r e t r o s p e c t , the answers to the i n i t i a l posed were d i f f i c u l t and area  to f i n d .  However, both the  the p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t a c t s s u g g e s t e d for research.  Marketing  questions literature  t h a t t h i s was  is likely  to  an  continue  15.  e x p l o r i n g t h i s avenue because o f recent f i n d i n g s  suggesting  that i t i s the c h i l d who i n i t i a t e s d i s c u s s i o n s about product purchases  and consumption  organizations, potential being  provinces  nutrition  education  to the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  of educating  Some groups and  such as commercial ventures, a l r e a d y see the  while  alerted  (Assael, 1981).  the parent.  suggested  planners  o f the c h i l d  Enthusiastic  that t h i s  replies  are  just  as a means from t h e  idea should be explored  from  an e d u c a t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e . The to  notion of using c h i l d r e n to educate  be n o v e l .  The e x i s t i n g  literature  adults  appears  i s replete  with  s t u d i e s d e s c r i b i n g the impact o f parent education and parent behaviors versa.  on t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  The c h i l d  of children,  a c t i n g as the change agent  but not v i c e i s the reverse  of the t r a d i t i o n a l l y accepted model o f education as shown i n Figure 1. I  Figure 1:  II  PARENT'S EDUCATION  PARENT'S BEHAVIOR  CHILD' S BEHAVIOR  CHILD' S EDUCATION  D i r e c t i o n o f Impact of Education on Behavior  16.  In  Model  I,  i t i s easy  to  identify  programs which are o f f e r e d to parents modify  their  currently  used  program: find  child's in  the  Systematic  documented  However,  behavior  a  variety  i n order  f o r them to  patterns.  public health  An  field  Training for Effective  look  at t e l e v i s i o n  example  i s the  STEP  Parenting.  examples o f Model I I i s more  a closer  of  To  difficult.  commercials  directed  toward c h i l d r e n provides evidence that v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s such  as  attempt  Kelloggs,  General  to "educate"  purchase p a t t e r n s . the  marketplace  educating quite  techniques  do  i n order  to the h i g h l y c o m p e t i t i v e nature  data  regarding  the  Millions  of  dollars  are  i n f l u e n c e c h i l d r e n are purported  and  Yet  i t is  that  their  invested to have on  t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes a l s o provide  " f a m i l y togetherness"  identifies education  of  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  i s not r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e .  work.  Mattel  to a f f e c t p a r e n t a l  examples o f the p a t t e r n d e p i c t e d by  factor  and  behaviors.  Societal  the  child  MacDonalds  to even the most casual observer  a n n u a l l y i n the  life  Due  the c h i l d  apparent  parents'  the  Foods,  reasons  for  as conceived by  adults  c l a s s e s (e.g. i n order  to keep up  One  with  in  The  (1982) adult  others i n  by the c h i l d r e n ) and  which the c h i l d may  during times of change.  II.  Boshier  participating  f a m i l y , to answer questions asked  p o i n t s to the impact  Model  real-  have on the parent  such change which may  stimulate  17.  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y need p a r e n t s f e e l technology education  from  the  to become more k n o w l e d g e a b l e about  the  familiar  to t h e i r  i s stimulating  children  ( i . e . the  a p a r e n t a l behavior  example o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s demonstrated e n r o l l i n computer courses or who a result  arises  child's  change).  by the parents  An who  purchase home computers as  of the education which t h e i r  child  receives with  the computer at school. Although there are day to day examples of the i n f l u e n c e which the c h i l d may remain:  How  have on parents' behaviors the questions  effective  i s the c h i l d  one age any b e t t e r than another? concept  o f the c h i l d  a d u l t education? definitive and  adults  the  clear.  as a change agent  I f one  upon the  influence  "child-power"  Assael's  i s growing  which  w i t h the f i e l d  and  to  children  the  of  do not have  time  relationship  phraseology,  Is  compatible i s t h i s  stops to take  magnitude o f t h i s  Using  and How  These questions, a t present,  answers.  reflect  as a change agent?  observe  exert  on  becomes more phenomenon  of  l i k e l y to continue to do so as  c h i l d r e n i n c r e a s e i n t h e i r degree o f independence during the 80 ' s. It  is this  p e r s p e c t i v e that  inspired  further  study of  the process of u t i l i z i n g the c h i l d to educate parents and to u l t i m a t e l y s t i m u l a t e b e h a v i o r change. child  as a unique  change agent  t h i s research study.  The m e r i t s o f the  were e v a l u a t e d f u r t h e r i n  18.  CHAPTER I I I METHOD Research Design The  design  selected for this  field  based research  was  the nested or h i e r a r c h i a l design which i n t h i s case featured a post t e s t only.  Three treatment  c o n d i t i o n s were examined:  a b r e a k f a s t n u t r i t i o n education program, a program  utilizing  n u t r i t i o n t r a n s f e r m a t e r i a l s , but no n u t r i t i o n education and a treatment nor  were  schools  c o n d i t i o n where there was no n u t r i t i o n transfer  were  materials distributed.  randomly  assigned  education  Six  to the three  nursery,  treatment  c o n d i t i o n s c r e a t i n g a CRH - 3(2) design (Figure 2 ) .  A  B  B r e a k f a s t Program  Centres  C  Transfer Materials  C o n t r o l ( n e i t h e r A nor B)  I  II  III  IV  V  VI  Subjects  18  15  22  21  9  18  F i g u r e 2:  Diagramatic  Representation o f the Research  Design  19.  The  specific  format  of Figure  response to l e t t e r s mailed  t o each n u r s e r y  Simon F r a s e r Health U n i t area. proposed  research  participate.  study  I t was  2 resulted  from t h e  s c h o o l i n the  These l e t t e r s d e s c r i b e d the  and i n v i t e d  requested  the centres  that  to  the d e c i s i o n to  p a r t i c i p a t e be made j o i n t l y between the preschool s u p e r v i s o r and  the parent  preschool both  executive.  s u p e r v i s o r acted  the parents  participate  t o t h e Simon  research  project  was  Fraser endorsed  forms  were  Health  Unit.  Since the  by t h e h e a l t h  letter  unit a l l  unit  address.  and t h e c o n s e n t  form  The r e s p o n s e r a t e  the comments appear i n Table 4. Centres  following forms. one  c o m p l e t e d and  was d i r e c t e d t o t h e h e a l t h  o f the i n v i t a t i o n a l  with  Once t h e d e c i s i o n t o  appear i n Appendix A ( C o r r e s p o n d e n c e ) . and  because the  as the researcher's contact  was made c o n s e n t  correspondence  was important  and t h e c h i l d r e n .  returned  Copies  This  were r a n d o m l y a s s i g n e d  the A p r i l  2 deadline  f o r the r e c e i p t  P o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s who had agreed  of the treatments  assignment. weeks:  t o treatment  The s t u d y  were  included  took p l a c e  over  o f consent  t o accept any  i n t h e random five  consecutive  four weeks devoted to the program treatments  week devoted to the data c o l l e c t i o n . t e s t o n l y design shown i n Figure 3.  groups  and one  The study was the post  20.  F i g u r e 3:  R  X  r  R  X  2  0  2  R  X  0  0  3  01  Schematic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the post t e s t o n l y design.  Treatment Variables Treatment Group Ai Two  centres  in a total  of  Breakfast Program  were assigned  33  to each treatment  subjects p a r t i c i p a t i n g  i n Treatment  Treatment A c o n s i s t e d of a Breakfast N u t r i t i o n Program presented  resulting A.  Education  to the c h i l d r e n by t h e i r r e g u l a r p r e s c h o o l  s u p e r v i s o r s over a four week p e r i o d from A p r i l 26 through to May  21.  cooking  The  Breakfast  experiences  activities  choices  together  i n v o l v e d the with  The  cooking  t o expose  and  to  the  or  food  nutrition  preparation  c h i l d r e n to new  r e i n f o r c e the  other  a c t i v i t i e s (the Breakfast Check and projects).  children in education  i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e i r r e g u l a r r o u t i n e on a  weekly b a s i s . were used  Program  Pamphlets r e l a t i n g  sent home with the c h i l d r e n .  activities  breakfast  nutrition  twice  food  education  Puzzle, d i s c u s s i o n s , a r t  to each week's theme were  21.  Teachers  were i n t e r v i e w e d p r i o r to the commencement of  the program, nutrition  and  activities  standardizing to  detailed,  were allowed  were  treatments  f o l l o w the  written instructions provided  (Appendix B).  instructions  provided  as  a  f o r the  means  Teachers  were  given  only  one  o c c a s i o n due  f o r each c l a s s .  i f a b s o l u t e l y necessary. to a p r e v i o u s l y scheduled  the  possibility  that  field trip.  some a c t i v i t i e s  excluded due to the c e n t r e ' s f i n a n c i a l  Treatment Group B: Treatment  B was  provided  education  i n any  discussions  B  to two  included  pamphlets  might  be  involving  43  distribution  of  centres the  defined  as  "transfer not  other n u t r i t i o n education a c t i v i t i e s  and  about  the  pamphlets  being  In t h i s treatment  the m a t e r i a l s home to the parent. corresponded  Breakfast Program.  to  taken  home  c o n d i t i o n the c h i l d  a c t i n g as a " t r a n s f e r " agent o n l y —  receiving  thereby  This group was  s t r i c t l y avoided.  literature  All  limitations.  m a t e r i a l s " to the parents v i a the c h i l d . involved  on  Transfer Materials Only  Treatment  nutrition  They  This happened  program expenses were covered by the r e s e a r c h study  subjects.  asked  to vary the day of the week on which the c l a s s  was  eliminating  of  were was  responsible for getting The  that  t o p i c o f each week's  being  taught  Thus, the parents of Group A and  in  the  B were  the same t r a n s f e r m a t e r i a l s each week a l t h o u g h  22.  Group A s u p p l e m e n t e d  their  distribution  education a c t i v i t i e s f o r the c h i l d r e n .  with  nutrition  In n e i t h e r case was  any n u t r i t i o n education d i r e c t l y provided t o the parents. Topics  f o r the f o u r weeks were m o d e l l e d  a f t e r the  Canada Food Guide w i t h the focus being: Week I  -  M i l k and M i l k Products  Week I I  -  Wholegrain  Week I I I  -  P r o t e i n Sources  Week IV  -  F r u i t s f o r Breakfast  Bread and C e r e a l Choices f o r Breakfast  Treatment Group C; Control Finally,  27 s u b j e c t s from  two centres were assigned t o  the c o n t r o l group which was asked t o r e f r a i n from any  nutrition  period,  education  conducting  a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h e f o u r week  and t o c u r t a i l t h e i r  distribution  of a l l nutrition  pamphlets and l i t e r a t u r e during the study p e r i o d .  Comparability of the Centres Apart from the treatment c o n d i t i o n s assigned to centres through  the process o f random assignment,  comparable  i n most r e s p e c t s .  information collected centres' s t a f f .  through  This i s f u r t h e r  travel,  supported by  i n t e r v i e w s conducted  with  I n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d about h o u r s o f  o p e r a t i o n , degree o f parent involvement, children  the centres were  area from which the  t h e f e e s t r u c t u r e and t h e p h y s i c a l  23.  description information nursery served  of  the  collected.  schools  facility.  Table  Although the  were s i m i l a r , the  1  describes  characteristics  process  to enhance the c o m p a r a b i l i t y of the  of  of  the the  randomization  centres.  Table  1  Characterisclcs of Participating Nursery Schools Centre & Location  r° v *n c t i >lly Licensed  p  Centre I nursery school located in a Scout Hall "  Morning Classes  </  Degree of Parent Involvement  RD  Child lives in area of centre  ^  Fee Owner Operated Structure Parent Assn.  *JU/ month  -—  Recent Attendance of Supervisor at Comments a Nutrition Workshop  --  o n e  h o o l  ,upervlsor  Centre I I located in the supervisor's home  $29/month 2 days $36/month 3 days  one preschool supervisor  Centre I I I - located in a school classroom J  $3/sesslon $27/month 2 days S39/monch 3 days  Owner  Also has a daycare associated with lc at the same locaclon; the cencre has full access to school facilities, e.g. gym  Centre IV located In a' school classroom  $26/month 2 days $39/month 3 days  Owner  Centre V - located In a ^ multiple dwelling housing complex  $2/hour billed monthly  Owner  $33.86/ month  Assn.  Centre VI located in a church hall /  Mote  two regular staff members concerns discussed with parents as necessary otherwise no formal Involvement with cencre'a activities also has a daycare associated with the preschool; no organized parent Involvement; three staff members one preschool supervisor  • denotes Yes; X denotes No Degree of Parent Involvement: R-on a regular basis, O-occaslonally when parents want to participate or when there is a special event planned, N-parenta are not Involved In activities other than on an observational level  to  25.  Measuring  Instruments  Format It  was necessary  to develop  an instrument  to measure  the v a r i a b l e s i d e n t i f i e d s i n c e the focus o f the study to  be an i n v e s t i g a t i o n  into  a new  concept.  The  proved final  q u e s t i o n n a i r e , which was three pages i n length, c o n s i s t e d o f two p a r t s . served  Part One, which d e a l t with the f i r s t  to  identify  the respondents'  hypothesis,  demographic  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and to a s c e r t a i n the food purchase p a t t e r n s of the parents. In  order  to evaluate  p o t e n t i a l b r e a k f a s t items presence  the impact were l i s t e d  o f treatment,  147  according to t h e i r  on the shelves o f a l o c a l supermarket and presented  to the parents i n the form o f a c h e c k l i s t . Preschool  Breakfast  Program  Parent  A segment o f the  Questionnaire  i s shown  below: 10 WHAT FOODS.... Did you buy In lh» LAST MONTH? (Note: I hey may still be In your household or may be all used up.) Did you buy Any? (Check)  Are In your household TODAY? (Pleas* take lime lo look.)  Milk: chocolale evaporated, condensed whole, homogenized 2% skim  Yes D Yes CJ Yes D Yes D Yes •  No O No U No n No CI No TJ  Yes n Yes O Yes D Yes a Yes a Yes a Yes a  No n No • No •  Milk Mate Inslanl Breaklasl Hoi Choclale Mix Brown Cow Chocolale Syrup Poslum Ovalllne Tea/Collee  Yes a Yes rj Yes CI Yes CI Yes l"J Yes a Yes •  NO n NO n NO n  Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  No O No O No U No CI No rj No n No IJ  Figure 4:  No u No n No a No 111  Excerpt from P a r t One o f Parent  • O a  r.J a  U •  NO a  No • No • No U  Questionnaire  26.  The foods were then c l a s s i f i e d upon accepted  nutrition practice.  m i l k products,  i n t o ten subgroups based These subgroups i n c l u d e d  m o d i f i e d m i l k products,  whole g r a i n  breads  and c e r e a l s , other baked products, c e r e a l s w i t h g r e a t e r than f i f t e e n percent added sugar,  c e r e a l s w i t h l e s s than  percent  quality  added  quality protein beverages.  sugar,  high  sources,  Appendix  fruits  protein  and f r u i t  C gives d e t a i l s  fifteen  sources,  juices  low  and other  o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  and o f s p e c i f i c foods i n c l u d e d under each food group f o r the purposes  o f the a n a l y s i s .  Part  two p r o v i d e d  hypothesis offered  and asked  t o and t h o s e  s e c t i o n appears  information related  the parent eaten  t o the second  to record breakfast  by the c h i l d .  foods  Part of t h i s  i n F i g u r e 5.  SECTION TWO: Complete for each day your child attends preschool during the week of May 24-28th. Have your child bring i t to preschool on each of these days. FOODS OFFERED TO AND EATEN BY PRESCHOOLERS 1.  Oate:  2.  Did you offer breakfast to your preschool child this morning?  3.  Yes I  I  No [ _ • Please mark with a CHECK ( J) those foods offered to your preschooler this morning (include those foods offered verbally or actually prepared for the child). STAR (*) those foods which your youngster actually ate. The l i s t inlcudes a variety of foods, but i f your child ate something not on the l i s t , please include i t in the section "Others". FOODS Whole milk 2% milk Skim milk Chocolate milk . . . . Oval tine Unsweetened f r u i t juice Sweetened f r u i t juice  Figure 5:  "y"  i f offered ( )  "*"  i f eaten  Excerpt from Part Two o f Parent Questionnaire  27.  Content. V a l i d i t y While obtained  developing from  the  questionnaire  colleagues  (two  employed i n p u b l i c h e a l t h and adult  education),  advisors  on  parents  three  separate  comments were c a r e f u l l y and  a  length  completion  would  nutritionists  one  and  was  currently  f e l l o w graduate student i n  an  expert  review  occasions.  considered  be  feedback  obtained  provided  A l l suggestions  i n order which  that a  would  w h i l e a l s o y i e l d i n g the d e s i r e d data.  by and  format  encourage The  final  q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s shown i n Appendix C.  Reliability In  order  to  contribute  q u e s t i o n n a i r e o r the  tendency  c o n s i s t e n t l y over time, clear  directions,  usage,  avoiding  the  reliability  f o r respondents  c o n s i d e r a t i o n was  checking the  to  use  the of  level to  the  reliability  and  v a l i d i t y were not c a r r i e d out on Part  of  Formal  word  ensuring  of  rigorous  answer  and  anonymity  Part Two  respondents.  and  to  the  given to p r o v i d i n g  readibility  jargon,  of  measures  the of  One.  of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i d undergo somewhat more  checks on  validity  and  reliability.  This s e c t i o n  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e regarding the b r e a k f a s t p a t t e r n s of the  preschool c h i l d was  c a r r i e d out i n the f o l l o w i n g manner.  28.  V a l i d i t y check 1.  Parents  completed  the  questionnaire  after  b r e a k f a s t on one of the days during Week V o f the study,  and  gave i t to the c h i l d to r e t u r n to the preschool s u p e r v i s o r . 2.  Once t h e  s u p e r v i s o r asked  child  each c h i l d  The  at approximately  percent  of  parents' responses whether or  not  The  response  found  breakfast  was  recorded  to  agree  with  breakfast  the  for  their  greatest for questions related was  o f f e r e d (87  whether or not c e r e a l s were eaten agreed) and  school,  nine o'clock.  children was  at nursery  i n d i v i d u a l l y "What d i d you have  f o r b r e a k f a s t t h i s morning?" each c h i l d  was  percent  to  agreed),  f o r b r e a k f a s t (87  percent  f o r the consumption of a n u t r i t i o u s beverage a t (75  percent  between parents  and  agreed).  c h i l d r e n on  sources and bread-type  There was  lesser  agreement  the consumption of p r o t e i n  products a t b r e a k f a s t (Table 2).  29. Table 2 Breakfast Foods Eaten as Reported  Breakfast/Foods Eaten  by Parents and C h i l d r e n  P o s i t i v e Parent Number o f Replies Children's (number) R e p l i e s Agreeing  Breakfast Offered  Percent Agreement  75  65  87  Eaten  69  50  75  P r o t e i n Eaten  24  12  50  Eaten  43  24  56  Cereal Eaten  52  45  87  N u t r i t i o u s Beverage  Bread-type  Food  R e l i a b i l i t y check A subsample o f c h i l d r e n were q u e s t i o n e d by t h e same s u p e r v i s o r a t both nine and eleven o'clock, on the same day, with  t h e q u e s t i o n "What d i d you have f o r b r e a k f a s t  morning?"  These responses  were recorded  and matched.  t h i s way t h e r e was a check on t h e c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h c h i l d r e n completed  Part Two (Table 3 ) .  this In  which  30.  Children's checked  responses  t o b r e a k f a s t foods  eaten  were  f o r c o n s i s t e n c y u s i n g t h e t e s t - r e t e s t method.  subsample o f s i x c h i l d r e n  (one from  each  c e n t r e i n the  study) were chosen t o v e r i f y t h e i r r e s p o n s e s . refused  to respond  already  told  a t e l e v e n a.m.  indicating  the teacher what he had eaten  Of the remaining  five  who  consistency i n replies  responded  One  child  t h a t he had  for breakfastl  there was  100 percent  f o r a l l c a t e g o r i e s e x c e p t f o r the  type o f bread product eaten (Table 3 ) . Table 3 Consistency of C h i l d r e n ' s R e c a l l of B r e a k f a s t Foods Eaten  Breakfast/Foods Eaten  Positive Replies 9 a.m.  Positive Replies 11 a.m.  Breakfast O f f e r e d  Percent Consistency  100  N u t r i t i o u s Beverage Eaten  5  5  100  P r o t e i n Eaten  2  2  100  3  75  2  100  16  94  Bread-type  Food  Eaten  4  C e r e a l Eaten  2  Total  17  A  31.  Validity Validity  interviews  whereby a personal fifteen  percent  supervisors  were  scheduled  into  i n t e r v i e w was planned w i t h o f the r e s p o n d e n t s .  chose  to c o l l e c t  the d e s i g n approximately  However,  because  a l l questionnaires  and t o  r e t u r n them a l l at once a time delay from the a c t u a l date o f return  by p a r e n t s  centres of  and t h e d a t e  was created.  t h e foods b e i n g  c o n d u c t the p l a n n e d absence  of  these  of c o l l e c t i o n  from t h e  Due to the p e r i s h a b l e nature investigated,  i t was  o f some  u n r e a l i s t i c to  i n t e r v i e w s as a v a l i d i t y check. validity  interviews  does  The  present  a  l i m i t a t i o n to the study.  Data Collection and Analysis Collection Since the two s e c t i o n s o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e returned  a t two d i f f e r e n t  questionnaire matching.  were  times,  given  code  both  were to be  sections  numbers  to  of the  facilitate  Parts One and Two o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were  sent  home a t the same t i m e and were accompanied by a c o v e r i n g letter  cosigned  researcher instructions  by t h e p r e s c h o o l  (see Appendix  A).  This  supervisor letter  s p e c i f i e d the  f o r the r e t u r n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s :  One was returned and c o l l e c t e d  and t h e  a t the next preschool  Section session  32.  while  Section Two was r e t a i n e d and returned d u r i n g the week  of May 24-28.  Questionnaires  d i s t r i b u t e d to the parents attendance  and accompanying l e t t e r s were  through the c h i l d r e n who were i n  at nursery  school.  q u e s t i o n n a i r e home, parents  Each  child  took the  completed i t and returned  i t to  the nursery school where a c o l l e c t i o n envelope was provided. This procedure o f f e r e d anonymity to the parents preschool  s u p e r v i s o r was not r e q u i r e d  of the completed  questionnaires  i n t h a t the  to do any p r o c e s s i n g  f o r Part  One.  Once t h e  s u p e r v i s o r had c o l l e c t e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s they were picked up from the nursery school by the researcher. The notice  collection  sent home with  questionnaires and  of questionnaires  Subsequently,  a follow-up  a d u p l i c a t e copy o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e to respond  produced four a d d i t i o n a l In those  cases  These  letters  responses.  where P a r t One had been r e t u r n e d , b u t  Two had n o t , t h e p a r e n t  eaten  letter  was sent to those  as o f June 8.  was  telephoned  responses to Part Two (regarding b r e a k f a s t and  by a  a l l c h i l d r e n as a reminder t h a t the  were due.  who had f a i l e d  Part  was f o l l o w e d  by t h e i r p r e s c h o o l  child).  to  secure  foods o f f e r e d to  Questionnaires f o r  respondents i n the f i n a l p o p u l a t i o n  were coded u s i n g the  schedule  The coded sheets  then  which appears i n Appendix C.  keypunched  by s t a f f  o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f  were  British  Columbia  Computing  researcher.  Centre  and a subsample v e r i f i e d  by the  Two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s per centre were v e r i f i e d f o r  a t o t a l o f twelve  (15.8 p e r c e n t ) .  Preliminary Background to the Analysis The  design  hierarchial  chosen  design  for this  which,  study  i n normal  was  a  circumstances,  have been analyzed using a m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s . due  nested would  However,  to the f a c t that some q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were incomplete and  had t o be excluded from the f i n a l a n a l y s i s i t was decided t o collapse  the centres  into  Centres  I and I I w e r e  the three combined  treatment t o form  (Breakfast Program) w i t h 23 respondents.  conditions.  Treatment  A  Centres  I I I and IV  to form Treatment B (Transfer M a t e r i a l s ) w i t h 32  respondents  and  Centres V and VI to form  respondents.  The v a r i a b l e s  Treatment C (Control) w i t h 22 were d i s c r e t e ,  dichotomous and  polychotomous v a r i a b l e s , and subsequently analyzed using the oneway a n a l y s i s  o f v a r i a n c e procedure.  accompanied by a n a l y s e s Departures Bartlett-Box  from test  A l l analyses  were  o f the h o m o g e n e i t y o f v a r i a n c e .  h o m o g e n i e t y were n o t o b s e r v e d  when t h e  was a p p l i e d to the data. The l a t t e r  test  f o r homogeneity o f v a r i a n c e was s e l e c t e d because there was a l a c k o f e q u a l i t y i n sample s i z e f o r the experimental  groups.  34.  Main  Analysis The  for  data  the S o c i a l  were  analyzed  using the " S t a t i s t i c a l  Sciences V e r s i o n 9.00  (under  Package  MTS)".  Cross-  t a b u l a t i o n s and oneway a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e were employed to analyze the demographic v a r i a b l e s variance  was  hypotheses  used  with  being t e s t e d .  w h i l e oneway  the v a r i a b l e s  analysis of  relating  t o the  Where a s i g n i f i c a n t F was obtained  the Scheffe t e s t was run at a r e l a x e d «C of .10 (Ferguson, p. 309).  Multiple  identify  r e g r e s s i o n was  variables  difference,  used  associated with  sweetened c e r e a l  score.  i n an  t h e one  attempt  to  significant  A l l statistical  tests  were examined at the f i v e percent l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e .  Limitations and Assumptions As t h e s t u d y setting  conducted  as opposed  possibility  existed  was  undertaken  to a l a b o r a t o r y type  field  environment the  t h a t groups would d i f f e r the c o n t r o l  i n the  from  one t o  another  i n ways beyond  o f the researcher.  attempt  was made to achieve c o m p a r a b i l i t y and equivalence by  randomly a s s i g n i n g nursery schools to treatments.  An  T h i s was  c a r r i e d out using a hat draw f o r the nursery schools who had i n d i c a t e d an i n t e r e s t i n p a r t i c i p a t i n g  i n the study.  35.  Table 4 i l l u s t r a t e s describing  the s t u d y  the responses  and  inviting  to the i n v i t a t i o n  the n u r s e r y  schools'  participation. Because the centres expressing a d e s i r e to p a r t i c i p a t e in  the study  were randomly assigned  to the treatments  the c h i l d r e n , the study became a quasi-experiment  not  as opposed  to a t r u e experiment due t o the researcher's l a c k o f t o t a l control  over  which c h i l d r e n  treatments.  Of the seven  would r e c e i v e the experimental centres  replying  affirmatively,  s i x were s e l e c t e d and randomly assigned to one o f the three treatment  conditions.  was able to maintain  Thus, control  o n l y i n s o f a r as the a b i l i t y limitation target  to t h i s  population  families  in  the  for this  study  over  the researcher  the independent v a r i a b l e  to randomly a s s i g n c e n t r e s .  was  the i n a b i l i t y  of a l l preschool study.  study  The  t o i n v o l v e the  children  results  A  and  obtained  their are  g e n e r a l i z a b l e only to those centres with the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s identified  i n Table 1.  36.  Table 4 Responses to Requests f o r P a r t i c i p a t i o n Number  Nursery schools i n the Simon Fraser Health Unit area as of March 1, 1982  18  I n v i t a t i o n s to p a r t i c i p a t e d i s t r i b u t e d  18  Replies  16  received  Centres i n t e r e s t e d  in participating  7  Centres d e c l i n i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e  9  Reasons f o r d e c l i n i n g : - i n the process of moving - r e c e n t l y d i d a n u t r i t i o n program - short s t a f f e d - study would be i n c o n s i s t e n t with the nursery school's philosophy - i n f o r m a t i o n would have to be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o French - o n l y have 3 year o l d s , no 4's - too busy - not i n t e r e s t e d  Although an attempt was  1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1  made to c o n t r o l  for the  i n which the treatments were c a r r i e d out i t was to  rule  out  supervisor  a l l extraneous  was  c h i l d r e n as w e l l  the  liaison  factors  between  as between the  since  the  not  the  possible  preschool  researcher  researcher and  manner  the  and  parents.  Care was  taken to emphasize the rteed for the centre to  on  regular  with  study.  activities  throughout the  duration  the  of  carry the  Internal V a l i d i t y Given that t h i s l a c k o f c o n t r o l over the s p e c i f i c activities validity, telephone  daily  o f t h e c e n t r e s c o u l d pose a t h r e a t t o i n t e r n a l frequent  visits  conversations  t o the c e n t r e s  with  along  with  the s u p e r v i s o r s were i n c l u d e d  as p a r t o f the study's design.  The aim o f t h i s  monitoring  was t o d e t e c t any excess v a r i a b i l i t y which may have e x i s t e d between the c e n t r e s .  The v i s i t s to the centres were made a t  v a r y i n g times with each v i s i t having a s p e c i f i c purpose: V i s i t . #1 - made p r i o r order her  to p e r s o n a l l y inform  to commencement  the s u p e r v i s o r which  centre had been assigned  what was expected Visit  #2  o f the study i n treatment  t o , and to v e r b a l l y d e s c r i b e  over the f i v e weeks.  - made  prior  to the study  to p e r s o n a l l y  d e l i v e r w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s d e t a i l i n g the a c t i v i t i e s o f the centre as they r e l a t e d to the study, and to answer questions which  had a r i s e n  treatments decreased Visit  through  since V i s i t  #1.  the steps taken  Standardizing the  during V i s i t s  the problems posed by treatment #3 - a b r i e f ,  informal v i s i t  #1 and #2  heterogeneity. t o each c e n t r e t o  see i f there were any d i f f i c u l t i e s and to ask "what had been done during Week I o f the study?"  38.  Visit  #4 - made d u r i n g  supervisor's  signatures  questionnaires  Week I I w h i c h was t o o b t a i n  on t h e c o v e r i n g  and t o s i m u l t a n e o u s l y  letters  check  f o r the  on what had  happened during that week. Visit  #5 - d u r i n g  Week  I I I the questionnaires  were  d i s t r i b u t e d to each centre and a short o b s e r v a t i o n was made of  the centre's Further  to the v i s i t s ,  were h e l d w i t h Breakfast receive  activities. weekly telephone  conversations  t h e s u p e r v i s o r s who were a s s i g n e d  Program  i n order  feedback.  Further  documented i n Appendix D. r e s u l t o f the v i s i t s  to i d e n t i f y details  p r o b l e m s and t o  o f these  v i s i t s are  From the informaion gathered  and conversations  i t was assumed  the centres were f o l l o w i n g the study's g u i d e l i n e s . far  as i s p o s s i b l e  to the  in a field  p o t e n t i a l t h r e a t s to v a l i d i t y  setting  were taken  into  such  as a that  Thus, as as  account.  this,  39.  CHAPTER IV RESULTS Return Rates Using  the  experimental  randomly  assigned  c o n d i t i o n s , a t o t a l o f 103 f a m i l i e s  questionnaires. usable  six centres  in  questionnaires  entirety.  were excluded  The from  remaining  the f i n a l  to incomplete data regarding food purchase q u e s t i o n n a i r e s completed  respondents  unusable  failing  77 were fifteen  p o p u l a t i o n due  patterns.  Of the  and returned 85 percent were usable  f o r P a r t One w h i l e 100 p e r c e n t were u s a b l e Those deemed  were sent  Of the 92 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s returned,  their  to the  f o r Part  Two.  f o r P a r t One were a r e s u l t o f some  to t u r n the page completely over.  As a  r e s u l t p a r t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was o v e r l o o k e d by t h e s e respondents. Supervisors  suggested  t h a t others  may  have  f a i l e d to  r e t u r n t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s because they got caught many  other  individual  a c t i v i t i e s late  i n the s c h o o l  up w i t h  year.  One  refused t o complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e because " i t  was an infringement on the family's privacy". Table 5 summarizes the r e t u r n r a t e s .  40.  Table 5 Return o f Questionnaires by Centre  Centre  Breakfast Program I  Number o f Questionnaires Distributed (Number)  18  Number o f Number o f Questionnaires T o t a l l y Usable per Returned Usable Treatment (percent) (percent) (percent)  16  (88.9)  15  (83.3) 23 (69.7)  II  15  14  (93.3)  8  (53.3)  Transfer Materials III  22  16  (72.7)  13  (59.1)  IV  21  21 (100)  19  (90.5)  6  (66.7)  18 (100)  16  (88.9)  92  77  (74.7)  Control V  9  VI  18  Total  103  7  (77.7)  (89.3)  32 (74.4)  22 (81.5)  41.  Characteristics of the Sample Gender of respondent Question completing  One  the  was  designed  to  questionnaire.  preschool c h i l d ' s mother who  identify  In  the  a l l cases  completed the  respondent i t was  the  questionnaire.  Area of residence A d e s c r i p t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n was One  of  the  expected, Simon  questionnaire  distributed  a l l mothers r e s i d e d w i t h i n  Fraser  Health  Unit.  m u n i c i p a l i t y i s shown i n Table Data gross various and  pertaining  family  to  income,  o f the  area  family  size,  7.  mothers.  As  of  residence  the by  6. mothers'  breakfast  t e l e v i s i o n viewing  are summarized i n Table  Their  to  from Part  the boundaries of  the  f a m i l y members on  obtained  employment and  the  influence  food purchase  time o f  the  patterns, of  patterns  preschool  child  42.  Table 6 Breakdown of Respondents by Area of  Residence  Treatment n = 23  Control n = 22  Transfer n = 32  Total n = 77  Area of Residence  Number/ Percent  Number/ Percent  Number/ Percent  Number/ Percent  Coquitlam  15  65.2  3  13.6  30  93.8  48  62.3  Coquitlam  8  34.8  14  63.6  2  6.2  24  31.2  Port Moody  0  5  22.7  0  Port  Total  23  100  22  100  56.5  32  100  77  100  In a post t e s t o n l y design w i t h random assignment i t i s crucial  to  know  the  extent  of  the  similarities  and/or  d i f f e r e n c e s amongst the groups.  Thus, a oneway a n a l y s i s o f  variance  each  was  variables.  carried  The  out  treatment,  groups were found  not  for  control  to d i f f e r  of  and  the  transfer  f a m i l y s i z e , ages of the c h i l d r e n , presence degree o f i n f l u e n c e o f c h i l d r e n  members on  food  purchases,  the t e l e v i s i o n viewing time  to work and  food purchases  time.  the  materials  s i g n i f i c a n t l y with respect  to employment, days worked per month, gross  members,  demographic  presence  f a m i l y income, of other f a m i l y  and  other  family  of t e l e v i s i o n  and  Hours worked per week, t r a v e l  the degree of i n f l u e n c e of the  were found to d i f f e r  significantly  spouse  on  (Table 7).  Table 7 Data P e r t a i n i n g to the Equivalence o f the Treatment, C o n t r o l and T r a n s f e r M a t e r i a l s Groups  Variable  Treatment  Control  Transfer M a t e r i a l s  n - 23  n - 22  n - 32  X  S.D.  X  S.D.  X  F-ratio  F-prob.  S.D.  Employed  1.35  0.49  1.45  0.51  1.19  0.40  2.32  .11  Hours  0.74  1.21  2.09  2.78  0.59  1.43  4.69  .01*  Days Worked/Week  1.09  1.65  1.77  2.16  0.53  1.37  3.45  .04*  T r a v e l Time t o Work (minutes)  7.65  23.03  3.06  7.54  5.67  .005*  Gross Family Income  265.21  223.83  301.56 173.31  0.27  .77  4.17  0.83  4.23  0.75  4.34  0.70  0.38  .70  0.17 1.39 0.13  0.39 0.58 0.34  0.27 1.23 0.14  0.46 0.43 0.35  0.26 1.38 0.13  0.44 0.49 0.34  0.34 0.74 0.007  .72 .48 .99  0.39 0.04  0.58 0.21  0.50 0  0.51 0  0.56 0.03  0.62 0.18  0.59 0.44  .56 .65  0  0  0  0  0  0  0  0.96 0.04 0.04 0 0 0  0.21 0.21 0.21 0 0 0  0.91 0.05 0 0.05 0.09 0  0.29 0.21 0 0.21 0.29 0  1.00 0 0 0 0 0  0 0 0 0 0 0  1.45 0.72 1.18 1.26 2.64  .24 .49 .31 .29 .08  8.33  54.63  7.20  1.49  .23  3  Worked/Week  Family Size  13.62  17.14  288.64 143.87  Number of C h i l d r e n : under 2 years 2 to 4 years i n kindergarten i n elementary school i n high school out of s c h o o l but at home Other family members: spouse grandmother grandfather other r e l a t i v e :boarder nanny Age of preschooler (months)  50.61  16.93  56.14  Degree of i n f l u e n c e o f : c h i l d under 2 c h i l d i n preschool 2 to A year o l d not i n school elementary age child teenagers self spouse other f a m i l y members Presence  of t e l e v i s i o n  hours watched yesterday hours watched l a s t weekend a  0.26 3.04  0.54 0.98  0.77 3.14  1.57 1.28  0.34 2.88  0.79 1.52  1.66 0.28  .20 .76  0.74  1.51  0.55  1.01  0.94  1.83  0.43  .65  1.43 0.17 5.23 3.30  1.67 0.83 1.70 1.49  1.64 0 5.50 3.82  1.53 0 1.34 1.71  1.63 0.09 5.50 4.31  1.93 0.53 1.14 1.06  0.10 0.52 0.34 3.49  .90 .59 .71 .04*  0.22  1.04  0.50  1.44  0  0  1.79  .17  2.00  0  2.00  0  2.00  0  1.48  2.47  1.41  1.26  0.84  0.92  1.30  .28  3.57  3.30  3.55  2.96  2.16  1.30  2.85  .06  are based on the coding of 1 - 10 hours per week. Hours worked per week ; 2-15 hours per week. X m u l t i p l i e d by 1000 equals the mid range of gross family income.  44.  Employment patterns Mothers  who  indicated  that  t h e y were employed  were  assigned a value o f two and those not employed  were assigned  a value of one. A oneway a n a l y s i s o f variance  was performed  which y i e l d e d other  an F = 2.32, p < .11.  variables  closely  related  Upon a n a l y z i n g to  employment  significant differences  were found.  c o n t r o l group r e p o r t e d  working a g r e a t e r  I t was  groups  (F = 4.69,  p < .01).  status  found t h a t  the  number o f h o u r s  each week t h a n d i d e i t h e r t h e t r e a t m e n t o r t h e materials  three  The  transfer  control  group  worked an average o f 1.77 days per week as compared t o 1.09 days per week f o r the treatment group and 0.53 days per week for  the  Travel  transfer  materials  time to work i n minutes was  the c o n t r o l group (F = 5.67, reported  (F =  3.45,  p  < .04).  s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher f o r  p < .005).  The c o n t r o l  group  an average t r a v e l time o f 17.14 minutes as compared  to the treatment group who the  group  reported  an average o f 7.65  and  t r a n s f e r group an average o f 3.06 minutes. Although  the  differences  were of view  statistically  significant,  from a workaday p o i n t  they were  less  significant.  The d i f f e r e n c e s when t r a n s l a t e d i n t o p r a c t i c a l  f i g u r e s work i n t o a mean number o f hours worked per week o f  45.  hours worked as compared  per week o f 7.4 hours f o r the treatment group to 15 hours per week f o r the c o n t r o l group and  5.9 h o u r s p e r week f o r t h e group r e c e i v i n g materials.  Similarly,  in travel 5.67,  the t r a n s f e r  the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the d i f f e r e n c e s  t i m e t o work i n m i n u t e s i s n o t as g r e a t as F =  p < .005 s u g g e s t s .  Thus, based on the f a c t t h a t the  c e n t r e s were randomly a s s i g n e d t o t h e t h r e e e x p e r i m e n t a l conditions  c o u p l e d w i t h t h e de-emphasis  o f the observed  d i f f e r e n c e s when viewed from the p e r s p e c t i v e o f a p p l i c a t i o n to  daily  life,  the three  groups  were  considered  e q u i v a l e n t w i t h r e s p e c t to employment p a t t e r n s .  t o be  46.  Gross family income Although to  a number o f respondents chose not to respond  the question r e l a t e d  analysis of variance reveal  t o gross  performed  any s i g n i f i c a n t  ranged  mothers answered from  less  $60,000 annually group,  than  with  on t h i s q u e s t i o n d i d n o t  d i f f e r e n c e s between  summary o f t h e income d a t a percent)  f a m i l y income, the oneway  showed t h a t a t o t a l  this  question.  $10,000 a n n u a l l y  income  t o i n excess  of  treatment  $28,864 f o r the c o n t r o l group and $30,156 f o r those  treatment  The mean income f o r  group may be a r t i f i c i a l l y  number o f a b s t e n t i o n s percent  A  o f 63 (82  Reported  a mean o f $26,521 f o r the  r e c e i v i n g t r a n s f e r m a t e r i a l s (Table 7). the  the groups.  regarding  o f the treatment  this  low due t o t h e  question.  Sixty-nine  group answered t h i s q u e s t i o n as  compared t o 95.5 percent o f the c o n t r o l group and 81 percent of  the t r a n s f e r m a t e r i a l s group.  Family size Most respondents d i d not have l a r g e f a m i l i e s . f a m i l y s i z e f o r the treatment  The mean  group was 4.17, c o n t r o l group  4.23 and f o r t h e t r a n s f e r m a t e r i a l s group 4.34 ( T a b l e 7 ) . An  a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e d i d n o t i d e n t i f y any s i g n i f i c a n t  differences.  Also shown i n Table  7 i s the mean age o f the  47. a  p r e s c h o o l c h i l d who served as the p o t e n t i a l change agent i n this  study.  were  found among t h e mean ages  treatment 54.63  No s i g n i f i c a n t  group,  months  differences  56.14 months  (F = 1.49, n.s.)  o f 50.61 months f o r the c o n t r o l  f o r the t r a n s f e r  materials  f o r the  group and  group.  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f respondents by age i s shown i n Table 8.  The  48.  Table 8 Distribution  o f Family Members by Age Categories  Treatment Age o f Family Members  under 2 years 2-4  years  n = 23 number  per cent  4  17.4  Control  Transfer Materials  n = 22 number  6  n — 32  per cent  number  27.3  8  per cent 25.0  23  100  22  kindergarten  3  13  3  13.6  4  12.5  elementary school age  8  34.8  11  50.0  16  50.0  high school age  1  4.3  0  0.0  1  3.1  out o f school but at home  0  0.0  0  0.0  0  0.0  22  95.7  20  90.9  32  grandparents & other r e l a t i v e s  2  8.7  2  9.1  0  0.0  boarders  0  0.0  2  9.1  0  0.0  spouse  a  100  t o t a l s t o more than 100 percent due t o m u l t i p l e  32  100  100  responses.  49.  Influence of family members on food purchases F a m i l y members were not found t o have a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the respondent's food purchases w i t h the exception of the spouse.  Upon examining the degree of i n f l u e n c e  which  t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d each f a m i l y member had on food purchase  patterns,  a significant  d i f f e r e n c e was  found w i t h  r e s p e c t to the degree o f i n f l u e n c e exerted by the spouse (p < .04).  Based  on a r a t i n g  s c a l e of one through s i x where a  value o f one corresponded to no patterns  and  s i x corresponded  i n f l u e n c e on  food purchase  to v e r y much i n f l u e n c e ,  f o l l o w i n g means were obtained f o r degree o f i n f l u e n c e by the spouse: 3.82  and  treatment group X~ = 3.30,  the held  c o n t r o l group X =  t r a n s f e r m a t e r i a l s group~X = 4.31.  As  shown i n  Table 7 the a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e o f the f a m i l y i n f l u e n c e o f the  spouse  resulted  in a significant  F value  (p < .04).  Using Scheffe at .10 the t r a n s f e r m a t e r i a l s group was  found  to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t  from the treatment group w i t h  the  reporting  transfer  materials  group  i n f l u e n c e o f the spouse. was  significantly  f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s was  a higher degree  of  Since the t r a n s f e r m a t e r i a l s group  different performed  from  the  t r e a t m e n t group  t o determine  a  i f any spousal  i n f l u e n c e d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d between respondents o f the two centres  making  significant  up  the  differences  transfer  materials  were found between the  group.  No  respondents  from the two c e n t r e s making up t h i s group (F = 1.12,  n.s.).  50.  Television time The presence of t e l e v i s i o n and t e l e v i s i o n viewing times were compared f o r the three groups.  As seen i n Table 7 a l l  respondents reported having a t e l e v i s i o n s e t . Viewing  time  i n hours was not found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t amongst the groups  f o r the previous day, o r f o r the hours watched by  the p r e s c h o o l e r l a s t  weekend.  Random a s s i g n m e n t  c o u p l e d w i t h the a n a l y s i s o f t h e  demographic v a r i a b l e s as presented i n d i c a t e d t h a t the three experimental groups appeared  to be reasonably homogeneous.  Distribution of transfer materials Since  the  (pamphlets, analysis  distribution  of  transfer  materials  booklets) was an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the study an  was  carried  out to determine  to what extent they  were r e c e i v e d o r n o t r e c e i v e d by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . respondents assigned  who  summed  over  and d i v i d e d  (transfer  ( t r e a t m e n t group), materials  Book".  group)  Translated  were  d i d not r e c e i v e the  1.18  In t h i s  way a l l  by t h e number  i n each treatment c o n d i t i o n .  means o f 1.83  "Breakfast  t h o s e who  were g i v e n a v a l u e o f one.  were  respondents  1.81  they d i d r e c e i v e the p u b l i c a t i o n  a v a l u e o f two,  publication replies  said  Those  of  This r e s u l t e d i n  ( c o n t o l group) and  f o r the p u b l i c a t i o n the  further  these means  indicate  51.  the p e r c e n t o f r e s p o n d e n t s given  transfer  material.  in the treatment  confirming their receipt of a  For example, had a l l respondents  group r e p o r t e d r e c e i v i n g t h e " B r e a k f a s t  Book" the mean value would have been equal to two, had a l l those  i n the c o n t r o l  mean  value  would  group reported not r e c e i v i n g  have  been  one.  reported, but r a t h e r 83 percent  Neither  i t , the  extreme  was  (X~ = 1.83) o f the treatment  group s a i d they r e c e i v e d the "Breakfast Book", 18 percent (X =  1.18) o f t h e c o n t r o l  and 81 p e r c e n t  (X~ = 1.81) o f t h e  t r a n s f e r m a t e r i a l s group.  Thus, the c o n t r o l group was, as  expected,  from  groups.  very  different  T h i s was a l s o  the other  reflected  As planned,  received the t r a n s f e r m a t e r i a l s .  treatment  by F = 12.11, p < .001  which i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t i s h i g h l y u n l i k e l y would occur by chance.  two  that t h i s  value  the appropriate groups Table 9 presents  these  results. Of the four p u b l i c a t i o n s which should have gone out to the t r e a t m e n t three  group and t o t h e t r a n s f e r  were d i s t r i b u t e d  with  equal  m a t e r i a l s group  frequency.  During  Week  Two, the t r a n s f e r m a t e r i a l s group d i d not r e p o r t as h i g h an incidence  of receiving  "Quick  Breakfasts f o r People  on the  Go" . Upon explanation  further  investigation  for this difference,  as  to  the p o s s i b l e  i t was found  t h a t one o f  52.  the  regular  particular transfer  day.  by  teachers  saying  those  reported  intended  doing  but some o f the discrepancy  schools.  was a b s e n t  so.  on  that  to r e c e i v e the The p e r c e n t  they had r e c e i v e d m a t e r i a l s  the car p o o l i n g  left  school  Otherwise,  materials  respondents percent,  nursery  of  was not 100  can a l s o be  explained  f o r r i d e s which occured at many  nursery  Reports were r e c e i v e d t h a t on occasion a c h i l d had  the m a t e r i a l s  results  obtained  i n a friend's car.  when  analyzing  this  The  significant  question  were i n  accordance with what was expected.  Table 9  Mean Number and Percent of Parents i n Treatment, C o n t r o l and T r a n s f e r M a t e r i a l s Groups Who Reported Receiving T r a n s f e r M a t e r i a l s  Transfer Materials "The Breakfast Book"  Treatment n - 23 per X S.D. bent  Control n - 22 X  S.D.  per cent  Transfer M a t e r i a l s n - 32 per X S.D. cent  F  -  r a t l  °  F  _ "P  r o b  , -  1.83  0.39  83  1.18  0.59  27  1.81  0.54  81  12.11  .001*  "Quick Breakfasts for People on the Go" 1.61  0.50  61  0.95  0.38  4.5  1.16  0.52  16  11.42  .001*  "Sugar Content of Breakfast Cereals"  1.78  0.42  78  0.95  0.38  4.5  1.75  0.57  75  22.60  .001*  "Handy N u t r i t i o n " 1.61  0.50  61  0.91  0.29  0  1.56  0.62  56  13.78  .001*  Other Publications  0.21  4  0.91  0.29  0  1.13  0.49  13  2.19  0  0  1.55  0.67  64  0.91  0.30  3  17.55  1.04  Did Not Receive Any P u b l i c a t i o n s 1.00  a  I n the c o n t r o l group there were two non-respondents to t h i s question. Percent of respondents r e c e i v i n g t r a n s f e r m a t e r i a l s have been adjusted t o r e f l e c t t h i s .  .12  .001*  53.  Food Purchase Patterns Reported by the Respondents  the  A l l respondents  to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were mothers, thus  food  patterns  purchase  t o be  described  are  those  p a t t e r n s o f the mother as i n f l u e n c e d by t h e o t h e r f a m i l y members as i d e n t i f i e d i n Table 7. The  first  difference  hypothesis  stated:  among t h e p a r e n t s  There i s no  o f the three  groups regarding the frequency o f purchase whole g r a i n b r e a d s fifteen and  percent  and c e r e a l s ,  added  f r u i t s and f r u i t  by e x a m i n i n g  those  sugar,  juices.  summed each  over  groups.  high  sources  evaluated  scores were  score c a l c u l a t e d f o r  materials  and  control  scores were then analyzed using ( T a b l e 10).  The food  s c o r e s f o r the c a t e g o r i e s m i l k p r o d u c t s ,  juices  f o r the three  were not found groups.  than  which parents r e p o r t e d  g r a i n products, high q u a l i t y p r o t e i n sources fruit  was  I n d i v i d u a l parent  the a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e p r o c e d u r e purchase  more  protein  T h i s hypothesis  transfer  These food purchase  o f m i l k products,  quality  and a mean food purchase  o f the treatment,  experimental  cereals with  food p u r c h a s e s  making over the l a s t month.  significant  whole  and f r u i t s and  to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y  different  Table 10 Mean Food Purchase Scores f o r Each of the Treatment, C o n t r o l and T r a n s f e r M a t e r i a l s Groups  Food Group  Milk Products  „ . Number of foods i n group  Treatment „_•>•» n = 23 -  S > D >  Control oo n = 22 -  S  _  D >  Transfer Materials „ n = 32 -  g  >  D  F-ratio  F-prob.  >  7  2.04  1.11  2.36  1.09  2.31  0.86  0.69  .51  Breads/Cereals  8  3.35  1.37  2.91  1.72  3.44  1.34  0.91  .41  Cereals with Greater than 15% sugar  22  0.69  0.93  1.91  1.63  1.03  1.09  5.90  .004*  6  5.22  0.85  5.05  1.09  5.25  0.80  0.36  .70  16  5.35  2.10  4.68  1.70  5.56  1.85  1.47  .24  Whole G r a i n  High Q u a l i t y Protein F r u i t s and Fruit Juices  55. A significant food  purchase  containing  difference  patterns  i n excess  Scheffe procedure  was observed  relating  of fifteen  w i t h r e s p e c t to  to b r e a k f a s t  percent  sugar.  cereals  Using the  (.10) t h e c o n t r o l group was found t o be  significantly different  from  both  the treatment  and t h e  t h a t food p u r c h a s e  pattern  t r a n s f e r m a t e r i a l s group. To scores the  test  the p o s s i b i l i t y  remained  hypothesis,  constant  f o r the food groups  specified i n  but may have changed, f o r t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e  competing groups namely, m o d i f i e d m i l k products, other baked products, sugar,  cereals with  less  low q u a l i t y p r o t e i n  analysis  than  fifteen  sources,  percent  added  and other beverages an  o f v a r i a n c e was p e r f o r m e d  on t h e s e  scores.  No  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found among t h e food groups which could have entered i n as p o s s i b l e competitors to those c i t e d i n Table 10 (Table 11). Table 11 Mean Competing Food Purchase  Scores f o r Each of the Treatment,  C o n t r o l and T r a n s f e r M a t e r i a l s Groups  Competing Food Group  Modified M i l k Products Other Baked Products Cereals with Less than 15% Sugar Low Q u a l i t y Proteins  Number of foods i n group  Treatment n « 23 —— X S.D.  Control n - 22 — X  S.D.  Transfer Materials n - 32 — X S.D.  F-ratio  F-prob.  1.26  1.18  1.73  1.28  1.22  1.36  1.15  .32  16  2.91  1.53  3.55  2.20  3.47  2.00  0.75  .48  26  6.87  3.00  6.45  2.61  6.91  2.54  0.21  .81  2.96  0.82  3.14  0.89  2.87  1.04  0.51  .60  3.57  1.50  3.77  1.93  3.63  1.47  0.10  .91  8  4  Other Beverages 14  56.  Thus,  a f t e r examining  identified  i n the  differences.  the  hypothesis,  I t appeared  five  four  that  categories  yielded  the  of  foods  non-significant  program  only  had  an  impact on the purchase of c e r e a l s w i t h added sugar i n excess of f i f t e e n percent. analyses  to the  were conducted the  increased, observed chance  Due  thereby  difference  fact that five  univariate  experiment wise e r r o r r a t e  increasing  the  i n sweetened  possibility  cereal  scores  that  was  the  due  to  alone.  However,  in  spite  s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t was believe  that  the  of  due  the  possibility  t o chance, t h e r e  significant  that  imposed.  d i f f e r e n c e observed  A d u l t b e h a v i o r s are o f t e n d i f f i c u l t  consequently  it  differences  would  categories.  The  was  not have  fact  foods c o n t a i n i n g  f i n d i n g s o f Gates and  that added  anticipated been a  that  obtained  significant sugar  Campbell  was  would  to be  conditions to m o d i f y ;  significant  for  all  r e s u l t was  consistent  (1981) who  the  i s reason  more l i k e l y to occur as a r e s u l t of the treatment  with  was  food found  with  reported  the that  Canadian parents were most l i k e l y to a l t e r sugar consumption as one idea  of the that  the  a r t i f a c t can number  of  f i r s t modifications significant  on  family's d i e t .  r e s u l t obtained  a l s o be discounted  d o l l a r s spent  to the  when one  cereal  was  The  purely  considers  advertisements  the  an  vast  directed  57.  toward  children.  breakfast  The p o s s i b i l i t y  program  itself  exists  d i d n o t have  t h a t although the an i m p a c t  on a l l  behaviors c i t e d i n the hypothesis, i t d i d exert an i n f l u e n c e on the type o f c e r e a l purchases  made.  This may be p a r t i a l l y  due  t o the awareness which many parents a l r e a d y have about  the  detrimental  effects  of a diet  high  i n sugar.  The  p o p u l a t i o n i s a l r e a d y very conscious o f sugar and i t s a f f e c t on the body, t h e r e f o r e , i t i s e a s i e r to change t h i s p a r e n t a l behavior  with  s t i m u l a t i o n from  change the other behaviors.  the c h i l d  Another  than  i t i s to  f a c t o r which  suggests  t h a t the s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t obtained was not due t o chance alone and  i s the degree o f c o n s i s t e n c y observed  children  cereals  in their  (Table 2).  responses  between parents  to the consumption o f  C h i l d r e n and parents were i n agreement  on the f a c t t h a t c e r e a l s were i n c l u d e d i n b r e a k f a s t s eaten. Eighty-seven percent o f the time c h i l d r e n and parents agreed t h a t c e r e a l s were eaten suggesting t h a t the c e r e a l s category is  the one most commonly d i s c u s s e d ,  child  readily  i s accepted first  expresses  then  and the one which the  an o p i n i o n on.  If this  assumption  i t would f o l l o w t h a t c e r e a l s would be the  category to r e f l e c t  a change  i n parental  p a t t e r n s due to s t i m u l a t i o n from the c h i l d .  purchase  58.  The  finding  that  both  the treatment  and t r a n s f e r  m a t e r i a l s group chose s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer high sugar c e r e a l s t h a n d i d t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p c a n be a p p r o a c h e d p o i n t s o f view.  Firstly,  from  three  i t i s p o s s i b l e to consider the  c h i l d as an e f f e c t i v e change agent i n b o t h c a s e s . case o f t h e t r e a t m e n t group, t h e c h i l d  In t h e  r e t u r n e d home n o t  only with the t r a n s f e r m a t e r i a l s i n question,  but a l s o  with  added i n f o r m a t i o n and p o s s i b l y w i t h increased enthusiasm due to  the breakfast  transfer  program  materials  pamphlets only.  group,  presented. the c h i l d  Meanwhile returned  i n the  home  with  Because i t was the c h i l d who was d e l i v e r i n g  the i n f o r m a t i o n , the parent(s) paid a t t e n t i o n to what i t was t h a t was b e i n g b r o u g h t home. the  child  cases.  provide  was a c t i n g as a s t i m u l a t o r o f change  A future  materials  Thus, i t c a n be argued t h a t  study  i n both  examining the impact o f t r a n s f e r  sent to the parents  v i a the m a i l  s e r v i c e would  f u r t h e r c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f the c h i l d ' s r o l e  i n acting  as a change agent. Secondly, the impact o f the t r a n s f e r m a t e r i a l s alone i s consistent information Eppright on  with  other  studies  citing  sources  used most f r e q u e n t l y by parents  of nutrition  and the p u b l i c .  e t a l . (1969) reported t h a t mothers r e l i e d h e a v i l y  printed materials  for their  nutrition  information  while  Schwartz anad Barr (1977) reported t h a t Vancouver mothers o f  59.  young  children  information. 88.3  utilized  S u l l i v a n and  percent  of  Canadian  their  primary  study  which i n v o l v e d 281  57.7  printed  percent  source  sources  of  nutrition  S c h w a r t z (1981) r e p o r t e d  adults  used  of n u t r i t i o n British  were between the  that  printed materials  information.  In  as  this  Columbia a d u l t s - of whom  ages of nineteen  and  thirty-  f i v e , the most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d sources o f i n f o r m a t i o n about nutrition  and  c a r d i o v a s c u l a r disease were magazines, books,  newspapers,  television,  f r i e n d s , the  physician  and  the  family. Finally,  as s u g g e s t e d by the e a r l i e r a n a l y s i s o f  the  demographic v a r i a b l e s r e l a t i n g to the degree of i n f l u e n c e o f f a m i l y members and the importance of the f a m i l y i n the  study  of S u l l i v a n  that  spousal  and  Schwartz  i n f l u e n c e may  (1981) i t became a p p a r e n t  have e x e r t e d  an  i m p a c t on the  food  purchase p a t t e r n s o f the mother. For o f the  the  t r a n s f e r m a t e r i a l s group the  spouse on  significantly influence cereal  may  score  (Table 7 ) .  food p u r c h a s e p a t t e r n s  different  from  have c o n t r i b u t e d observed  f o r the  the to  family influence was  found  t r e a t m e n t group. the  decreased  to  be  This  sweetened  transfer materials  group  60.  Thus, analysis.  i t was The  decided  in  run  the  oneway  w i t h the  regression  to determine whether  significant differences  analysis  demographic v a r i a b l e s p r e d i c t e d The  a multiple  aim of t h i s a n a l y s i s was  those v a r i a b l e s a s s o c i a t e d observed  to  of  variance  of  sweetened c e r e a l  dependent v a r i a b l e , sweetened c e r e a l  the  scores.  score,  was  run  a g a i n s t the independent v a r i a b l e s o f experimental c o n d i t i o n , employment s t a t u s , hours worked, days worked, t r a v e l time i n m i n u t e s , income, f a m i l y s i z e and each o f  i t s various  members.  experimental c o n d i t i o n , was such  that  group,  two  group,  and  one  denoted  three  of  independent v a r i a b l e s e l i g i b l e were t h o s e (Table 7):  an  score.  the  the  transfer  treatment  f o r entry  control  materials  group.  i n t o the  the the  a f f e c t on Income,  spouse. a priori the  It also  included  grounds t h a t  i t was  dependent v a r i a b l e  family  s i z e and  f a m i l y members were included  the  found family  experimental believed  sweetened  influence  because each was  The  equation  hours worked, days worked, t r a v e l and the  c o n d i t i o n on have  i n the  in  f o r w h i c h s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were  i n f l u e n c e of  of  independent v a r i a b l e ,  respondents  those  those  The  family influence  ordered i n a h i e r a r c h i a l manner  those  represented  the  of  to  cereal other  considered  a  subset of the v a r i a b l e s y i e l d i n g s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n Table 7.  61.  Using the independent  stepwise m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n procedure, variables  were  sweetened c e r e a l scores.  were  obtained  the  cereal  is negatively  c h i l d may  by  the  elementary  correlated  cereals  containing  added  centre the  in  results  small  e s p e c i a l l y kindergarten  i n the  and  age  child  suggesting  sugar.  n u t r i t i o n education  w h i c h have been o f f e r e d  to  family,  on  food  that  this  the mother's purchase This  is possibly  programs  e a r l y elementary  grade one.  As  c o n t r o l group to  breakfast  program  the  group  grades,  expected,  transfer materials there  was  a  a  for children  a l s o n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d i n d i c a t i n g that as one  sweetened c e r e a l scores. the  From  than the  be i n f l u e n t i a l i n decreasing  r e s u l t o f the  the  score.  the  age  i s most l i k e l y to s e l e c t c e r e a l s w i t h added sugar.  purchases  the  size,  f a m i l y where the mother's t r a v e l t i m e to work i s  exerted  from  with  sweetened c e r e a l score  Influence  was  family  i t appears t h a t the l a r g e f a m i l y i s more l i k e l y  greatest  of  influencing  i n f l u e n c e of the elementary  competing  sweetened  have a higher and  the  variables  determining  as  As shown i n Table 12,  t r a v e l time to work and child  identified  four  centre moved  group  decrease  to in  Table 12 shows that f a m i l y s i z e i s  independent v a r i a b l e of g r e a t e s t r e l a t i v e importance i n  predicting centre.  sweetened  cereal  score.  It  is  followed  by  62.  The v a r i a b l e s i n the r e g r e s s i o n equation represent a portion  o f t h e many f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e sweetened  c e r e a l purchase patterns singled  out  explain  only  i n the  o f the mother.  stepwise  approximately  sweetened c e r e a l  multiple  one-third  The four  variables  regression  procedure  of  the v a r i a t i o n  of  scores. Table 12  P r e d i c t o r s of Sweetened Cereal Variable  Multiple r  Beta  (final)  Score F - r a t i o (at entry)  Centre  .33  -.28  Family s i z e  .41  .33  7. 70  T r a v e l time to work  .48  .26  7.37  Influence o f the elementary age c h i l d on food purchases  .54  -.26  7.60  9.41  The f a m i l y i n f l u e n c e of the spouse which was as  a possible  purchase  score  explanation  f o r t h e low  i n the stepwise r e g r e s s i o n  behavior of the dependent v a r i a b l e .  but  one  sweetened  cereal  i n the t r a n s f e r group d i d not appear as one  o f the v a r i a b l e s  considered  considered  equivalent o f the o t h e r  with  respect  demographic  Thus, to t h i s  explaining  the  the groups were variable.  variables  which  All were  63 .  s i g n i f i c a n t i n the oneway a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e identified  as a p o t e n t i a l p r e d i c t o r of the  purchase score. groups.  Again t h i s p o i n t s  Even  variable  in  previously,  though the  travel  showed  equation,  as  c h i l d were i d e n t i f i e d by the  e l e m e n t a r y age  regression,  but  were  variables  upon  the  regression,  the  not  i n the  analysis three  the  analysis  of  analysis  of  stating  that  treatment,  control  and  as  a  no  of  the  same  as  influence  stepwise  significantly  variance. and  the  groups  Thus,  stepwise  studied  were  population.  study's r e s u l t s ,  differences  transfer  of  exist  materials  the  null  among  groups  the with  to the frequency of purchase o f m i l k products, whole  breads and  fruits  family  variance  experimental  hypothesis  grain  the  identified  considered to have come from the  respect  up  the  the true impact o f the d i f f e r e n c e i n t r a v e l time  the  From  cereal  discussed  F a m i l y s i z e and  based  be  to the homogeniety o f  remains debatable.  different  to  sweetened  i n minutes  regression  failed  and  regarding  fruit the  cereals,  high quality protein  j u i c e s was  accepted.  The  null  frequency o f purchase of c e r e a l s  t h a n f i f t e e n p e r c e n t added sugar was Significant differences and  the  the  transfer materials  sources  rejected  and  hypothesis  with  greater  at p <  .05.  were found between the c o n t r o l group  treatment group,  and  between the  c o n t r o l group  group when Scheffe (.10)  was  used.  and  64.  The  o v e r a l l program d i d not work, but  one  significant  r e s u l t was  found which prompted f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the  question:  were the d i f f e r e n c e s i n sweetened c e r e a l scores a  r e s u l t of the impact of the treatment  or a Type I e r r o r ?  stepwise  out  the it  multiple regression carried  treatment was  an  (centre) was  demonstrated  not an a r t i f a c t ,  that  but r a t h e r t h a t  independent v a r i a b l e which d i d have  predicting  The  strength  in  sweetened c e r e a l score.  Types of Breakfasts Offered by the Respondents The  second h y p o t h e s i s  would not be  a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e among the parents  the t h r e e e x p e r i m e n t a l offering:  t o be t e s t e d s t a t e d t h a t t h e r e  groups r e g a r d i n g  the f r e q u e n c y  of  or c e r e a l choice and  fifteen  percent  checklist  coded  of  sugar at b r e a k f a s t .  potential  d) a whole g r a i n  e) a c e r e a l c o n t a i n i n g i n  foods o f f e r e d a t b r e a k f a s t were obtained a  of  a) b r e a k f a s t s to t h e i r c h i l d r e n , b) a n u t r i t i o u s  beverage, c) a high q u a l i t y p r o t e i n source, bread  of  breakfast  excess  Data p e r t a i n i n g to from parents  foods.  Responses  using were  i n t o the above c a t e g o r i e s on a yes/no b a s i s and  analysis  of  variance  treatment  group reported  conducted. offering  along with 95 percent o f parents  A l l parents  their  in  an the  children breakfast  i n the c o n t r o l group and  97  65.  percent o f those i n the t r a n s f e r m a t e r i a l s group (Table 13). No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found a t the .05 l e v e l o f significance children  with  respect  to s p e c i f i c  foods o f f e r e d t o the  at b r e a k f a s t .  Table 13  Breakfast Foods O f f e r e d t o C h i l d r e n i n the Treatment, C o n t r o l and T r a n s f e r M a t e r i a l s Croups  Foods Offered  Treatment n - 23 X  Control n - 22  S.D.  Per Cent  Transfer Materials n - 32  X  S.D.  Per Cent  "X  S.D.  Per Cent  F-ratio  F-prob.  Breakfast Offered  2.00  0  100  1.95  0.21  95  1.97  0.18  97  0.48  .62  Nutritious Beverage  2.00  0  100  1.77  0.61  77  1.88  0.34  88  1.90  .16  High Q u a l i t y Protein  1.43  0.51  43  1.27  0.63  27  1.56  0.50  56  1.85  .16  Whole Grain Bread/Cereal  1.61  0.50  61  1.36  0.66  36  1.66  0.48  66  2.04  .14  1.09  0.29  9  1.23  0.43  23  1.09  0.30  9  1.29  .28  Cereal with Greater than 15Z Sugar  66.  CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS An which  initial  return  represented  obtained. included  rate  o f 92 p a r e n t  89 p e r c e n t  o f the t o t a l  Of t h e s e 77 q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n the f i n a l  which the preschool  analysis child  behaviors  relating  selected  demographic  had on p a r e n t a l  to b r e a k f a s t  food  variables  was  i n t h e study.  included  i n the study,  The t h r e e  sample  (75 p e r c e n t )  to determine  determine the homogeneity o f the three involved  questionnaires  nutrition  food  purchase  selections.  Data on  also  analyzed  experimental  groups  which was a p o s t - t e s t o n l y  design,  pamphlets o n l y  who a l s o received  materials  group.  determined  group who  and a t r e a t m e n t  population,  those pamphlets given  From  that  to  experimental groups  whose c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a four week b r e a k f a s t and  were  the i n f l u e n c e  i n c l u d e d a c o n t r o l group, a t r a n s f e r m a t e r i a l s received  was  the analyses  the respondents  group  program  to the t r a n s f e r  c a r r i e d o u t i t was were  from  t h e same  and t h a t the impact o f treatment was s i g n i f i c a n t  w i t h respect to the purchase o f c e r e a l s c o n t a i n i n g i n excess o f f i f t e e n percent Of  sugar.  the f i v e c a t e g o r i e s  hypothesis breakfast  related  foods,  o f foods i n v e s t i g a t e d i n the  to parental  four d i d not y i e l d  purchase  patterns  of  significant differences.  67 .  No change was products  observed  used  i n the frequency of purchase o f m i l k  as a beverage,  whole g r a i n bread  and  cereal  s e l e c t i o n s , h i g h q u a l i t y p r o t e i n sources or f r u i t s and  fruit  juices.  found  t o be  The number of sweetened c e r e a l purchases was significantly  Through  further  procedures  treatment  analysis  the  significantly  different  using the  control  from  groups.  f o r an F = 5.90,  both  Scheffe (.10)  group the  was  found  transfer  Those parents  p <  who  and to  Tukey differ  m a t e r i a l s and  received  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e p o r t e d c h o o s i n g  .004.  nothing  those  parents  who  n u t r i t i o n pamphlets,  received  the  The the  group  were  c o n t r o l group prompted demographic  further  variables  were re-examined  regression  technique.  identified  identified time.  pamphlets.  significantly  influence  was  group,  f i n d i n g t h a t both the t r a n s f e r m a t e r i a l s group  treatment  those  than  questionnaire plus  and i n the case o f the treatment  the b r e a k f a s t program plus n u t r i t i o n  but  a g r e a t e r number o f  c e r e a l s c o n t a i n i n g i n excess o f f i f t e e n percent sugar did  the  by  The  this  investigation. which  work were o n l y a matter variable  was  groups.  Another  may  u s i n g the  from  technique,  and  have  exerted  stepwise  which had  which  also  in travel  a major d i f f e r e n c e  e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the o b s e r v e d  been  travel time  of approximately ten minutes  discounted as  an  multiple  of v a r i a n c e , was  the d i f f e r e n c e s  the  As a r e s u l t ,  o n l y demographic v a r i a b l e  i n the oneway a n a l y s i s  However, because  different  and  amongst  to  this the  difference  68.  could be that the c h i l d was in  both  situations:  treatment group. home  with  capable o f of  food  for  exerting  parents. as  breakfast  influence  by  the  The  materials  group and  groups the c h i l d was  about  an  evidenced  functioned  transfer  In these two  information  as  these  the  i n f a c t a c t i n g as a change agent  on  lower  parents'  sweetened  contention  arriving  choices  the  is  and  was  selection  cereal  that  the  scores  the  child  a change agent and  played a r o l e in parent  d e c i s i o n making i n both instances.  Although t h i s study d i d  not  incorporate  the  child's intervention,  in  future  a pamphlets  would  allow  received  for  group,  i t would be  investigations.  f o u r t h group who  only  Another  totally  a  factor to  study  which  pamphlets v i a the  greater  devoid  delineation  of  of  consider  included  a  postal  service  the  child's  influence. This already adults child  study  suggests  that  been e x t e n s i v e p u b l i c (e.g. can  the  act  in  areas  where  there  education directed  has  toward  d e t r i m e n t s o f a d i e t h i g h i n sugar) as  a  catalyst  capable  Sweetened c e r e a l  score was  the  of  the  stimulating  a  behavior change.  to be  s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t among the  materials due  only dependent v a r i a b l e  to the  and  treatment,  c o n t r o l groups (p < .004).  nature o f  food h a b i t s  This  themselves.  transfer  is largely  For  the  most  69.  part and  food h a b i t s are "deeply imbedded tend  to  resist  (Hochbaum, 1981, occurring by  the  any  p. 60).  but  into  moderate  Although  cultural  norms  modifications"  a four  week program,  twice a week, i s deemed to be an intense program  standards  engrained  of  lifestyle  many h e a l t h  professionals;  deeply  p a t t e r n s a c t u a l l y change o v e r a much  longer p e r i o d o f time.  Thus, t o e x p e c t an i m p a c t o f t h e  b r e a k f a s t program on a l l aspects of food s e l e c t i o n s would be unrealistic. The time period during which the c h i l d was a change agent  was  employed as  too s h o r t to see d i f f e r e n c e s  the food c a t e g o r i e s i d e n t i f i e d  or t o o b s e r v e  i n each of significant  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the b r e a k f a s t food s e l e c t i o n s o f f e r e d c h i l d by the parent.  t o the  Although the types o f b r e a k f a s t foods  o f f e r e d were not found to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t the f i v e percent l e v e l trend. less  I t was  inclined  of s i g n i f i c a n c e there was  evidence of a  found t h a t t h e c o n t r o l group to o f f e r  nutritious  was  beverages,  slightly  high  quality  p r o t e i n sources, and whole g r a i n breads and/or c e r e a l s the two "treatment" groups. offering  a cereal  than  The scores f o r the frequency of  c o n t a i n i n g i n excess  of  fifteen  percent  sugar were found to be higher f o r the c o n t r o l group than f o r t h e t r a n s f e r m a t e r i a l s and accordance  with  the  t r e a t m e n t groups.  finding  significantly different  that  the  control  from t h e o t h e r two  This i s i n group  groups  was  i n the  70.  sweetened c e r e a l purchase  score.  The c o n t r o l group not o n l y  purchased  a s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r number o f c e r e a l s w i t h  more than  f i f t e e n p e r c e n t sugar,  they a l s o o f f e r e d  these  c e r e a l s to t h e i r c h i l d r e n more o f t e n . Parents r e l y on a combination i n f o r m a t i o n and the c h i l d the  child  i s acting  environment perceptions  which  o f sources  i s one o f these sources.  as a change includes  o f food,  for nutrition  agent  in a  the adult's  t h e mass  media  However, competing  preconceived  and t h e p o t e n t i a l  i n f l u e n c e o f other f a m i l y members coupled w i t h the parent's response channel  to these  influences.  o f communication  The c h i l d  i s an  and the relevance o f t h i s  s h o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o n u t r i t i o n programs i n p a r t i c u l a r , In order agent  f o r the c h i l d  capable  finding  education  and to h e a l t h programs i n g e n e r a l . to f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y  of generating  change c a r e must be t a k e n planned,  indirect  and t h a t i t a l l o w s  l o n g term  t o ensure  as a change  parental behavior  t h a t the process i s  for a continuing  relationship  over a p e r i o d o f time.  Why the Program Did not Work The reasons The  f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n speculates about  some o f the  why t h e program was n o t as e f f e c t i v e as d e s i r e d .  comments p r e s e n t e d  a r e p a r t l y based  on t h e r e s e a r c h  f i n d i n g s and casual observations made during the course o f the  study.  71.  T h i s ' p a r t i c u l a r study d i d not r e v e a l d i f f e r e n c e s e i t h e r because (a) the b r e a k f a s t program worked, but the measuring instruments  were too  insensitive  to d e t e c t d i f f e r e n c e s or  (b) the b r e a k f a s t program d i d not work due  to f a c t o r s beyond  the c o n t r o l of the researcher, but the measuring  instruments  were accurate.  Program worked Assuming argue  that  differences fruits  and  represented  the  the  stance  food  was  fruit  juices  two  i n (a) i t i s p o s s i b l e to  yielding  non  and  selections. was  not  high  quality  The  capable  parent  protein  e.g.  percent m i l k as opposed to whole milk.  questionnaire fine  tuned  the s e l e c t i o n Rather,  as  of  the f a c t  toward the food purchase score f o r t h a t  p a r t i c u l a r group i l l u s t r a t e s the measuring  sources)  were a l r e a d y  of i d e n t i f y i n g  i n food purchase behavior  t h a t e i t h e r counted  significant  whole g r a i n breads and c e r e a l s ,  food c a t e g o r i e s f o r which parents  designed  alterations  groups  (milk products,  making acceptable it  taken  the degree of i n s e n s i t i v i t y of  instrument.  A n o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y i s the f a c t t h a t the food groups were not w e i g h t e d a c c o r d i n g to the e x t e n t o f a d v e r t i s i n g which  they  received. often,  Clearly, and  a  breakfast  advertised  most  large  advertising  i s d i r e c t e d toward c h i l d r e n .  cereals  proportion  of  are the  It follows that i t  72.  i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t t h i s i s one food category t o which both parents  and c h i l d r e n  are already  tuned  in.  Messages  concerning c e r e a l s are r e c e i v e d from a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e than  for less  breads,  advertised  fruits,  developed  with  e t c . Again,  such  as whole  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  any i n t e n t i o n o f weighting  purchase scores according invested  products  in a specific  changes  grain  was n o t i n food  to a d v e r t i s i n g time or d o l l a r s  food group.  However, t h a t i s not to  say t h a t i t should not be given f u t u r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  Program did not work Adopting it  explanation (b) t h a t the program d i d not work,  i s important  to i d e n t i f y  f a c t o r s which prevented  d e s i r e d outcome from o c c u r r i n g .  the  In r e t r o s p e c t , time i s the  most c r u c i a l f a c t o r t o c o n s i d e r here.  Time should be viewed  from two standpoints i n terms o f the a c t u a l hours devoted to the b r e a k f a s t education year during earlier, difficult particular to  program,  and terms o f the time o f  which the program was introduced.  behavior  patterns  surrounding  food  As mentioned choices are  to a l t e r because o f t h e many c o n n o t a t i o n s food  modify these  program over  choice holds behaviors  f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . i t i s necessary  a l o n g e r t i m e span than  each  In order  t o extend t h e  f o u r weeks.  At the  o u t s e t o f the study four weeks, twice weekly was considered to  be more i n t e n s e t h a n  many programs,  but the r e s u l t s  73.  appear  to  beginning daily  indicate  that  to s t i m u l a t e  programming  this  length  of  b e h a v i o r change.  over a s p e c i f i e d  time  time  was  only  The  options of  span  (e.g. f o u r  weeks), weekly programming over an e n t i r e year anad any time in  between  investigated  are  to f i n d  change r e s u l t s the  child.  the  from  The  other  possibilities  that p o i n t the  timespan  at which  which  could  be  p a r e n t a l behavior  education experiences provided to chosen  for this  study appears  to  have been too s h o r t . In a d d i t i o n to the length of time, t h i s program d i d not yield  the a n t i c i p a t e d  r e s u l t s p o s s i b l y on a c c o u n t o f t h e  time of the year during which  i t was  conducted.  Offering a  b r e a k f a s t program a t the end o f the school year may the most a p p r o p r i a t e time d e s p i t e only  time  capturing  available the  consideration.  for this  teachable  not be  the f a c t that i t was study.  moment  is  The an  concept  the of  important  74.  Implications for future research Although t h i s research study f a i l e d to c l e a r l y the c h i l d  as a change agent  behavior  patterns  investigation. potential  The  i t  capable of a l t e r i n g p a r e n t a l  did  child  unveil  as  phenomenon o f the  p r e s e n t l y unknown.  areas  who  for  a change agent '80s,  future  is still  a  the power o f w h i c h i s  For t h o s e a d u l t s who  body of knowledge, but  identify  possess  a given  have not yet t r a n s l a t e d  i t into  a c t i o n (behavior) t h i s study suggests t h a t the c h i l d may  act  as a c a t a l y s t  not  f o r change.  The  child,  s t i m u l a t e change on h i s / h e r own. family  size,  family  members)  process.  employment  serve  investigation.  the  study  shouldbe parent  the  parent  as a c a t a l y s t  child  other  i n the  change  before  the  child  can  are t o p i c s d e s e r v i n g  could be  child's  replicated  by  examining  patterns of adults.  only  the  In so doing,  p o s s i b l e to evaluate the impact of the c h i l d i n an  of  quantified.  sweetened c e r e a l purchase  selecting  with  In so d o i n g t h e m a g n i t u d e o f t h e  i n f l u e n c e might be  the  c o n d i t i o n s , i n f l u e n c e of  interact  r e q u i r e d by  effectively  it  Many other v a r i a b l e s (e.g.  Each of these v a r i a b l e s as w e l l as the extent of  knowledge  This  however, does  area  where  the  parent  among a l a r g e number of products.  t r u e o f some o f t h e o t h e r  is  faced T h i s was  food groups c o n s i d e r e d  on  with not  i n the  75.  present sources).  study  (i.e. milk  products,  high  quality  protein  Another approach would be to focus on lunch where  people choose from among a g r e a t e r a r r a y o f foods than normally for  served at b r e a k f a s t .  decision-making,  By expanding  the c h i l d ' s  surface more d e c i s i v e l y .  impact  those  the p o s s i b i l i t y  on the parent  may  76.  REFERENCE NOTES  1.  Kent, D. (Woodward Biomedical L i b r a r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia) Personal Communication, November 18, 1981.  2.  Clarey, J . (P.E.I. Dept. o f A g r i c u l t u r e & F o r e s t r y ) Personal Communication, October 16, 1981.  3.  Cox, M. ( A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e ) Personal October 28, 1981.  4.  Macdonald, J . (Manitoba Department o f Health) Personal Communication, October 21, 1981.  Communication,  77.  BIBLIOGRAPHY A s s a e l , H. Consumer behavior and marketing Kent P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1981.  action.  Boston:  Berey, L.A. & P o l l a y , R.W. The i n f l u e n c i n g r o l e of the c h i l d i n f a m i l y d e c i s i o n making. J o u r n a l of Marketing Research, 1968, 5^ 70 - 72. Berkman, H.W. & G i l s o n , C. Consumer behavior. Kent P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1981.  Boston:  B i r c h , L. A c a l l f o r the e x p l i c i t r e c o g n i t i o n of a f f e c t i n models of human e a t i n g behavior. J o u r n a l o f N u t r i t i o n Education, 1981, 13(Suppl.), 49 - 53. Blackburn, D. ( U n i v e r s i t y of Guelph) Personal Communication, October 28, 1981. Boshier, R. Education p a r t i c i p a t i o n s c a l e : b a s i c eduction form. Vancouver: Learningpress L t d . , 1982. B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of H e a l t h . 1981.  The b r e a k f a s t book.  B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of H e a l t h . people on the go. 1980.  Quick b r e a k f a s t s f o r  Campbell, D.T. & Stanley, J.C. Experimental and q u a s i experimental designs f o r r e s e a r c h . Chicago: Rand McNally C o l l e g e P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1966. Clarke, B. (Canadian 4-H November 30, 1981.  Council) Personal Communication,  Cook, T.D. & Campbell, D.T. Quasi-experimental design and analysis: Issues f o r f i e l d s e t t i n g s . Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1979. Csapo, M. Catch the teacher being good — P u p i l s a i d teachers to develop appropriate classroom behavior. J o u r n a l o f SPATE, 1974, June, 143 - 150. D a i r y Bureau of Canada.  Handy n u t r i t i o n .  1978.  78.  Dombrow, C. & Horgen, I. Development o f a n u t r i t i o n education program f o r p r e s c h o o l e r s . N u t r i t i o n Q u a r t e r l y , 1980, 4, 5 - 7. Dougherty, P. Spiderman to push n u t r i t i o n . York Times, 1980, November 7.  The New  E p p r i g h t j E., Fox, H., F r y e r , B., Lamkin, G. & V i v i a n , V. Eating behavior o f preschool c h i l d r e n . J o u r n a l o f N u t r i t i o n Education, 1969, 1., 16. Eppright, E., Fox, H., F r y e r , B., Lamkin, G., & V i v i a n , V. N u t r i t i o n knowledge and a t t i t u d e s o f mothers. J o u r n a l o f Home Economics, 1970, £2, 327 - 332. Ferguson, G. S t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s i n psychology and eduction. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1981. F i s h e r , D. Grow'n glow - n u t r i t i o n education f o r p r e s c h o o l e r s . N u t r i t i o n Reports, 1980, _1, 8 - 1 1 . F i s h e r , D. & Paine, D. N u t r i t i o n education f o r p r e s c h o o l e r s . J o u r n a l o f the Canadian D i e t e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n , 1980, 41", 323. (Abstract) Gates, L. & Campbell, M. An assessment o f the d i e t a r y concerns and p r a c t i c e s o f mothers o f p r e s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . Ottawa: Health and Welfare Canada, 1982. Health Promotion D i r e c t o r a t e . Sources o f n u t r i t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n . Canadian Health Facts, 1982, Nu-02. Health P r o t e c t i o n Branch. The c e r e a l sugar t a b l e . Ottawa: Department o f N a t i o n a l Health and Welfare, 1978. Hochbaum, G. S t r a t e g i e s and t h e i r r a t i o n a l e f o r changing people's e a t i n g h a b i t s . J o u r n a l o f N u t r i t i o n Education, 1981, 13(Suppl.) 59 - 65. Kierans, B. ( B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y o f Health) Personal Communication, March 31, 1983. K i t a , S. UBC SPSS. S t a t i s t i c a l package f o r the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . Computing Centre, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1980.  L e a v i t t , I. ( A l b e r t a A g r i c u l t u r e ) Personal October 26, 1981.  Communication,  McEwen, B. E v a l u a t i o n o f the n u t r i t i o n a t schools program. Masters t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a , 1980. P r o v i n c i a l C h i l d Care F a c i l i t i e s Regulations (B.C. 403/78). V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1979. Rae,  Reg.  J . & N e i l s e n , H. P u b l i c o p i n i o n and p e r c e p t i o n of recommendations used i n n u t r i t i o n education. Journal of the Canadian D i e t e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n , 1980, 41, 85 - 92.  Schwartz, N. & Barr, S. Mothers - t h e i r a t t i t u d e s and p r a c t i c e s i n p e r i n a t a l n u t r i t i o n . J o u r n a l of N u t r i t i o n Education, 1977, 9, 169 - 172. S u l l i v a n , A. & Schwartz, N. A t t i t u d e s , knowledge and p r a c t i c e r e l a t e d to d i e t and c a r d i o v a s c u l a r d i s e a s e . J o u r n a l o f the Canadian D i e t e t i c A s s o c i a t i o n , 1981, 42, 169 - 177. Ward, S. & Wackman, D.B. C h i l d r e n ' s purchase i n f l u e n c e attempts and p a r e n t a l y i e l d i n g . J o u r n a l of Marketing Research, 1972, 9, 316 - 319. Williams, T.G. Consumer behavior: fundamentals and strategies. St. Paul Minnesota: West P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1982. Woodward, C. & Chambers, L. Guide to q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s t r u c t i o n and question w r i t i n g . The Canadian P u b l i c Health A s s o c i a t i o n , 1980. Talmage, H., Hughes, M. & Eash, M. The r o l e of e v a l u a t i o n research i n n u t r i t i o n education. Journal of N u t r i t i o n Education, 1978, 10, 169 - 172. Verner, C. A conceptual scheme f o r the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of processes f o r a d u l t education." Washington, D.C.: A d u l t Education A s s o c i a t i o n of the U.S.A., 1962.  81.  - 2 :3333SS2S:SSSSSBSS33SBS88aBS3BaSBSS3B3SSS  I f your nursery school i s i n t e r e s t e d i n D a r t i c i o a t i n o i n t h i s p r o j e c t , p l e a s e c o m p l e t e t h e a t t a c h e d f o r m and r e t u r n i n t h e e n v e l o p e p r o v i d e d . A l l r e t u r n s a r e r e q u e s t e d by A p r i l 2, 19R2. I look forward t o workino with you aqain. Yours  truly,  Dorothy F i s h e r , Community N u t r i t i o n i s t . DF:qs Encl.  85.  THE BREAKFAST PROGRAM  OVERALL  GOAL:  OBJECTIVES:  Through the p r o v i s i o n o f n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e p r e s c h o o l c h i l d t h e b r e a k f a s t program i s d e s i g n e d t o i n c r e a s e the f a m i l y ' s awareness o f the importance of a n u t r i t i o u s b r e a k f a s t .  Each p r e s c h o o l  child will  actively participate in:  1.  Recording Breakfast  his/her breakfast Check).  patterns.  (The  Weekly  2.  C o l l e c t i n g and a s s e m b l i n g a g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of breakfast foods. ( P i e c i n g together the Breakfast Puzzle).  3.  A d i s c u s s i o n w h i c h f o c u s e s on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f o f the food groups a t b r e a k f a s t .  4.  Food p r e p a r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h breakfast foods.  5.  Communicating i n f o r m a t i o n about the b r e a k f a s t t o o t h e r f a m i l y members.  each  emphasize  program  GENERAL PROGRAM INFORMATION: **  Children should a t home.  continue  to eat t h e i r regular  **  Food p r e p a r a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s w i l l r e p l a c e t h e s n a c k u s u a l l y s e n t f r o m home - c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be reminded n o t t o b r i n g a s n a c k on d a y s when t h e g r o u p w i l l be cooking.  **  I t i s i n t e n d e d t h a t t h e b r e a k f a s t p r o g r a m be c a r r i e d out twice/week. The f i r s t s e s s i o n e a c h week a l l o w i n g f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l t i m e and t i m e t o a c q u a i n t t h e c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e u p c o m i n g a c t i v i t i e s . The s e c o n d session i s devoted to food preparation a c t i v i t i e s .  **  Keep r e c e i p t s f o r a l l e x p e n s e s  - you w i l l  be  breakfast  reimbursed.  86.  WEEK I  S e s s i o n One:  MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS  1.  Introducinq  u s e t h e " P e r k y and P a t t y " p u p D e t s k i t page 9 , " K i d b i t s "  b)  Make  c)  S e s s i o n Two:  program:  a)  home.  2.  the  ,  N  Q " [j  badges f o r t h e c h i l d r e n t o w e a r (I'm  in  the  Breakfast  Program)  Introduce the "Weekly B r e a k f a s t (description attached)  Introduce  -  the Milk  Check"  Group:  a)  T e a c h c h i l d r e n t h e M i l k C h e e r - paqe Kidbits.  b)  Ask c h i l d r e n t o hunt f o r p i c t u r e s o f m i l k and m i l k p r o d u c t s f o r t h e i r p u z z l e c o l l a g e (Reminder forms are a t t a c h e d along w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of the a c t i v i t y ) .  c)  Ask c h i l d r e n t o b r i n g a j a r f o r t h e S h a k e t o be made n e x t s e s s i o n .  1.  Do t h e " W e e k l y B r e a k f a s t  2.  Discuss p i c t u r e s brought, c o l l a g e , post.  3.  Make B r e a k f a s t  4.  Send one c o p y o f t h e B r e a k f a s t each c h i l d .  28,  Breakfast  Check" create the  S h a k e s - page 1 3 ,  puzzle  Kidbits.  Book  home w i t h  87.  WEEK I I  S e s s i o n One:  S e s s i o n Two:  BREADS AND CEREALS  1.  Have a r e v i e w d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e " W e e k l y B r e a k f a s t C h e c k " n o t i n g t h a t t h i s week B r e a d s and C e r e a l s w i l l be t h e f o c u s .  2.  I n t r o d u c e t h e R r e a d s and C e r e a l s g r o u p w i t h t h e s t o r y , " T h e L i t t l e Red H e n " . Emphasize t h e importance o f whole g r a i n s .  3.  Remind c h i l d r e n t o b r i n g p i c t u r e s , l a b e l s , e t c , o f b r e a k f a s t f o o d s f r o m t h e B r e a d s and C e r e a l s group t o the next s e s s i o n .  4.  P l a n a t r i p t o t h e s t o r e t o p u r c h a s e i t e m s needed f o r S e s s i o n Two. Also, include a discussion of the breakfast cereals a v a i l a b l e .  1.  Do t h e " W e e k l y B r e a k f a s t  Check".  Discuss p i c t u r e s brought, create the puzzle c o l l a g e , add t o t h e p i e c e p o s t e d l a s t w e e k . Again r e - e m p h a s i z e t h e u s e o f w h o l e g r a i n c h o i c e s and d i s c u s s the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f sugared c e r e a l s . Make w h o l e w h e a t p a n c a k e s - page 1 6 , " K i d b i t s " . ( A l t e r n a t i v e s c o u l d i n c l u d e : whole g r a i n m u f f i n s , page 1 5 ; g r a n o l a , page 1 7 ; o r b r e a d s c u l p t u r e s , page 1 8 . ) Review the v a l u e o f m i l k w i t h t h i s activity. C o l l e c t "quotable quotes" from the c h i l d r e n during each a c t i v i t y . T h e s e w i l l be c o m b i n e d i n t o a p a r e n t n e w s l e t t e r f o r Week V. Involve c h i l d r e n i n d o i n g a r t w o r k f o r a c o v e r page and an a u t h o r page. Send one c o p y o f " T h e S u g a r C o n t e n t o f B r e a k f a s t C e r e a l s " and " Q u i c k B r e a k f a s t s f o r P e o p l e on t h e G o " home w i t h e a c h c h i l d . The l i s t o f s u g a r c o n t e n t and b r e a k f a s t c e r e a l s c o u l d be p o s t e d i n s i d e the k i t c h e n cupboard door. Consider sending t h i s s u g g e s t i o n home w i t h t h e c h i l d .  88.  WEEK I I I  S e s s i o n One:  S e s s i o n Two:  PROTEINS  1.  Have a r e v i e w d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e " W e e k l y B r e a k f a s t C h e c k " n o t i n g t h a t t h i s week f o o d s w h i c h c o n t a i n P r o t e i n w i l l be t h e f o c u s .  2.  Introduce the P r o t e i n group t o the c h i l d r e n g i v i n g examples o f foods f i t t i n g i n t o t h i s category. Remind c h i l d r e n t o b r i n g p i c t u r e s P u z z l e P i e c e Number 3.  1.  Do t h e " W e e k l y B r e a k f a s t  2.  Discuss p i c t u r e s brought, create the puzzle add t o t h e o t h e r two p u z z l e p i e c e s p o s t e d .  3.  Make one  for  Check". collage,  of:  a)  p e a n u t b u t t e r - page 2 2 , " K i d b i t s " ( c o m b i n e w i t h t h e p e a n u t e l f a c t i v i t y - page 29) o r  b)  s c r a m b l e d eggs w i t h c h e e s e m e l t e d on t o p .  4.  Relate t h i s s e s s i o n ' s food a c t i v i t y to the previous a c t i v i t i e s , r e v i e w i n g the importance o f each food group t o b r e a k f a s t .  5.  Send one c o p y o f child.  "Handy  Nutrition  M  home w i t h  each  89.  WEEK IV  S e c t i o n One:  S e c t i o n Two:  FRUITS  1.  Have a r e v i e w d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e " W e e k l y B r e a k f a s t Check" n o t i n g the F r u i t s which are a p p r o p r i a t e breakfast choices.  2.  I n t r o d u c e t h e F r u i t s t h r o u g h t h e m y s t e r y bag r e a c h w h i c h i s a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e V e g e t a b l e Bag Reach - page 1 8 , " K i d b i t s " . Instead of a vegetable in t h e b a g , u s e a f r u i t w h i c h m i g h t be e a t e n a t breakfast.  3.  Remind c h i l d r e n t o b r i n g f r u i t p i c t u r e s f o r t h e p i e c e o f "The B r e a k f a s t P u z z l e " .  1.  Do t h e " W e e k l y B r a k f a s t group. After discussing p a t t e r n s , c u t a p a r t each and have e a c h c h i l d make home u s e . T h i s c o u l d be a t home.  2.  D i s c u s s f r u i t p i c t u r e s b r o u g h t and c r e a t e t h e l a s t piece of the puzzle c o l l a g e . P o s t and d i s c u s s how e a c h o f t h e g r o u p s f i t t o g e t h e r t o make a s e l e c t i o n of nutritious breakfast choices.  3.  Make one  last  C h e c k " and d i s c u s s as a the group's breakfast c h i l d ' s individual record a personal record f o r p o s t e d on t h e f r i d g e d o o r  of:  a)  a b r e a k f a s t j u i c e from f r u i t s , e . g . , g r a p e f r u i t , melons, e t c .  b)  a friendship fruit  c)  f r u i t m u f f i n s i f m u f f i n s w e r e n o t made i n Week e.g., blueberry muffins.  salad  - page 6 8 ,  oranges,  "Kidbits"  4.  F i n a l i z e the "quotable quotes" the parent n e w s l e t t e r .  and " a r t w o r k "  for  5.  Send one c o p y o f t h e B r e a k f a s t P r o g r a m Q u e s t i o n n a i r e home w i t h e a c h c h i l d . Remind e a c h c h i l d t o r e t u r n i t on t h e n e x t s c h o o l d a y .  II  90.  WEEK V  PROGRAM  EVALUATION  S e s s i o n One and Two:  1.  On b o t h d a y s , c o m p l e t e t h e "What I Had F o r B r e a k f a s t Today" food r e c o r d f o r each c h i l d individually. (Forms t o be p r o v i d e d ) . This s h o u l d n o t be done as a g r o u p a c t i v i t y .  2.  C o l l e c t t h e "What I Had f o r B r e a k f a s t T o d a y " f o r m s w h i c h have been c o m p l e t e d by t h e p a r e n t s and r e t u r n e d by t h e c h i l d . (Note: parents w i l l have r e c e i v e d t h e s e f o r m s as p a r t o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r oackage d i s t r i b u t e d a f t e r the l a s t s e s s i o n o f the program.)  3.  C o l l e c t parent  4.  Have p r o g r a m r e c e i p t s c o l l e c t e d f o r  5.  D i s t r i b u t e the parent  6.  A b i g t h a n k y o u t o e a c h and e v e r y one o f y o u who participated.  questionnaires. reimbursement.  newsletter.  CONTINUING PROGRAM  A.  ACTIVITIES  "THE WEEKLY BREAKFAST CHECK" Once a week e a c h c h i l d w i l l have t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f c h a r t i n g his/her breakfast patterns. T h i s w i l l be c a r r i e d o u t as a group a c t i v i t y w i t h accompanying d i s c u s s i o n f o r each o f Weeks I - IV i n c l u s i v e . A t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f Week I V , e a c h c h i l d w i l l r e c e i v e h i s / h e r own p o r t i o n o f t h e c h a r t f r o m w h i c h a p e r s o n a l i z e d r e c o r d c a n be made and t a k e n home t o p u t on the f r i d g e door. An e x a m p l e o f w h a t t h e c h a r t s h o u l d l o o k l i k e appears below.  EXAMPLE:  Child's  DISCOVERY HOUSE'S BREAKFAST CHECK  name  Yes,  I had  breakfast!  Yes,  I  had  some  1  Week:  1  2  3  Milk  4  Bread/Cereal  etc.  *  Robyn  a c h w e e k , add a c o l u m n f o r t h e new f o o d g r o u p b e i n g discussed.  Child's  P e r s o n a l i z e d Record might  look  like  this:  ROBYN'S BREAKFAST CHECK Week: Yes,  Note:  I had  breakfast:  Leave a few b l a n k  Yes, 1  2  3  4  *  *  *  *  spaces  5  6  Milk,  I  had some  B & C Protein  so t h a t t h e c h a r t c a n be c o n t i n u e d a t  home.  92.  B.  "THE BREAKFAST  PUZZLE"  E a c h week h a v e c h i l d r e n b r i n g p i c t u r e s , l a b e l s , e m p t y c a r t o n s , e t c . o f t h e B r e a k f a s t Group o f t h e Week ( e . g . , a c h e e s e l a b e l , p i c t u r e o f an a p p l e , e t c . ) . U s i n g p o s t e r p a p e r w h i c h has been p r e - c u t i n t o f o u r p u z z l e p i e c e s e a c h l a b e l l e d f o r one o f t h e f o o d g r o u p s ; make a c o l l a g e o u t o f t h e p i c t u r e s b r o u g h t by the c h i l d r e n f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r food group. Once t h e p i c t u r e p u z z l e p i e c e i s c o m p l e t e p o s t i t on t h e w a l l and add a new p i e c e f o r each o f t h e f o u r weeks. D i s c u s s e a c h g r o u p and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h b r e a k f a s t as c h i l d r e n b r i n g t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s for this collage. EXAMPLE: 1.  Pre-cut poster into four puzzle  3.  2.  Protein  4.  pieces  Fruits  Make a c o l l a g e f o r e a c h p i e c e and p o s t . successive pieces.  I.  Milk  Add  T  H  E  P  R  E P  S A  C R  H  O  O  E  N  T  L  B Q  R U  E E  A S  K T  I  F  A  S  O  N  N  T A  P I  R  R  O  G  R  A  M  E  It is Intended that this questionnaire be completed by mothers of children attending preschool. Are you the child's mother?  Yes  •  No  •  If no, please specify your relationship to the preschooler, (e.g. father, aunt, etc.) Which of the following describes your area of residence? (Check) Coquitlam  •  Port Moody  Port Coquitlam  •  Other  Are you currently employed?  • •  Specify loction .  No • Yes • I _  How many hours per week do you work? (Circle) 10  15  20  25  30  35  40  45  50  How many days per week do you work? (Circle) 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  How long does it tak'e you to get to work? (Print) minutes. In the box print the letter which represents your present gross family income, (i.e. your total family income before taxes and deductions.) Less than $10,000 annually  A  $10,000 —15,000  B  $15,001 — 20,000  C  $20,001 — 25,000  D  $25,001 — 30,000  E  $30,000 — 35,000  F  $35,001 — 40,000  Q  $40,001 — 45,000  H  $45,001 — 50,000  I  $50,001 — 55,000  J  $55,001 — 60,000  K  More than $60,000 annually  L  Letter  How many people Including yourself live in your household? How many members of your household are In each of the following categories? (Circle) a) Children under 2 years  None  One  2—4 years  None  One  in kindergarten  None  One  Three  Four  Two  Three  Four  Two  Three  Four  Two  94.  in elementary school  None  One  in junior/senior high school  None  left school or graduated (but at home)  None None  b)Spouse or Partner  Two  Three  Four  One  Two  Three  Four  One  Two  Three  Four  One  Two  Three  Four  Grandmother  None  One  Two  Three  Four  Grandfather  None  One  Two  Three  Four  Other Relative  None  One  Two  Three  Four  Boarder  None  One  Two  Three  Four  Nanny or Housekeeper  None  One  Two  Three  Four  What Is the blrthdate of the child you currently have in preschool? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ — _ — _ _ _ _ _ _ _ To what degree do each of the people in your house influence the food purchases made? Check (•) either applicable or not applicable. If applicable, mark the degree of Influence on the corresponding scale using anX. _ _  e.g Teenager Applicable.  I  No VwyUnl. IntluOTc Intu—nc Influwtc.  I  (_J  a) Child under 2 years Not Applicable, do not have a child under 2 years Applicable, do have a child under 2 years  Llttto Mod—«t. InthfWK. Inthwflc. InfloWK. Inhu—K.  1  I  u  I  I  Much IMIiMnc* Influono  VwyMoch Innu, IntluwK.  L  Check •  J_  JL  no ™ u m InfhMnc. tnfluwio  mm Moo—.!* tnfh—nc Inttuonc.  Much Inftuwic.  v.—Much Influwic.  No V—yUttt. Influwtc. Ifltlu—tc.  (Jut. Mod-it. InlliMnc. Influence  Much InHu—ki  Vary Much Influ—k.  b) Child attending preschool  c) Other children 2—4 years but not at preschool. Not Applicable Applicable  O.L.  JL  v»~ Uttl.  IhflUWIC.  d) Elementary School Child Not Applicable Applicable  _ U ~  NO VwyUttl. Inftomc. Inttuonc.  Uttl. MoO-it. Inftuwic. Influwic.  Much Inflowic  VwyM Inttua  e) Teenager Not Applicable  Q  Applicable  0-*l  :  I  No Vwyuiu. Inftuwic. InthMnc  0 Yourself  I  1  H* VwyUttl* Mtome* teHw-wet  i  Uttl. InlkMAC  MoOwM. Intlowic.  Much InthMnc  L UWt Iwffwi-B>  • HodwnkB Mluwic*  • Hitch tfrthMwo*  Vwn Much ' \nikimnom  Other Adults (specify spouse, partner, etc. or enter N/A if not applicable)  i. [ 2- [ 3. [  V*ty Infh  _1_  Ho VwyUttl* lnftu*ne* InthMnc*  Uttl* Mod«r*t* InthMnc* InthMnc*  Much InthMnc*  8.  Does your household have a television set? No  Q  Yes  •  •  How many hours ot television did your preschooler watch yesterday? (Circle) 0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  24  26  and last weekend? (Circle) 2 9.  4  8  10  12  14  16  18  20  22  Check (.-) those nutrition pamphlets which you received over the past month. "The Breakfast Book"  Q  "Quick Breakfast for People on the G o "  •  "Sugar Content of Breakfast Cereals"  •  "Handy Nutrition"  •  Others  • G i v e tltle(s)  Check (.'(If you did not receive any of the above publications  10.  6  W  H  A  T  F  O  O  D  S  .  .  .  .  Did you buy In the LAST MONTH? (Note: they may still be In your household or may be all used up.) Milk: chocolate evaporated, condensed whole, homogenized 2% skim Buttermilk Eggnog,canned or eggnog flavorbeads Milk Mate Instant Breakfast Hot Choclate Mix Brown Cow Chocolate Syrup Postum Ovaltine Tea/Coffee Iced Tea Lemondae/Limeade Apricot Nectar  •  Are In your household TODAY? (Please take time to look.)  Did you buy Any? (Check)  Q  • • • • •  No No No No No No • No  Yes • Yes • Yes D Yes Q Yes • Yes D Yea •  No No • No No No No No  • • • • • • •  Yes  •  Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  D  • • • • • •  Is there any? (Check) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  • • • • • • •  No No No No No No No  • • • • • • •  Yes Yes  • •  Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  • • • • •  No No No No No No No  • • • • • • • • • • •  Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  • • • • • • •  No No No No No No No  • • • • • • •  Yes • YesD Yes • Yes • Yes • Yes • Yes •  No No No No No No No  Yes Yes  • •  No No  • •  • •  Yes Yes Yes  •  No  •  Canned, sweetened juices Canned, unsweetened juice  Yes Yes  u  D No a No Li  No No  Pineapple Juice CPIus  No  •  Yes • Yes • Yes • Yes : : Yes I.i  No  •  Yes Yes  No  •  ApplecoUOrangecot nectar Applelime Rlbena Grape Juice Grape Drink Cranapple Cranberry Cocktail  •  No  LI  •  a  • •  No . No ;: No U  Froot Loops Honey Nut Cornflakes Cheerlos Honey Nut Cheerios Count Chocula Boo Berry Franken Berry  Yes Yes  Q  Yes  •  •  Yes Q Yes • Yes Q Yes Yes Yes  Life Trlx  Q • •  No No  • •  Yes Yes  • •  No No  No No  • •  Yes Yes  Q  •  • •  NO No No  • • •  Yes Yes Yes  • • •  No No No No  •  •  No NO NO  • • •  a  NO  •  NO No No  • • •  a  a  a  •  Yes Yes  •  NO No  • •  Yes Yes  Yes  •  No  •  Yes Yes Yes  O • •  No No  • •  No  •  Yes Yes Yes Yes  • • • •  No No  Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  • • • D • •  No No No No No  • • • • •  Yes Yes Yes  • • •  No Q No • No •  No  •  Yes Yes  • •  No No  • D  • Yes Yes Pancakes/Waffles from a mix Yes Eggo Frozen Waffles-bran Yes Eggo Frozen Waffles - others Yes Aunt Jemina Frozen Waffles Yes  • • • • • •  No No No No No No  D • • • • •  Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  D • • • • •  No No No No NO No  • • •  •  Snacking' Cake  Yes Yes  • •  NO No  a  •  Yes Yes  • •  No No  • •  Yes Yes Yes  • • •  No No No  • • •  Yes Yes Yes  • • •  No NO  Total  Yes Yes  Red River/Sunnyboy Ready-to-Serve Oatmeal .. Quick Quaker Oats Creamy Wheat Zoom Vita-B Stone Buhr 7 grain cereal Cinnamon Rolls Crumpets Danish Pastry Ding Dongs  :  a  Doughnuts English Muffin  Muffins from mix (bran or fruit) Frosted Pop Tarts Plain Pop Tarts Digestive Biscuits/ Graham Wafers Granola-type snack bars Meiba Toast/ Wholewheat Crackers Twinkles Pizza Macaroni & Cheese Rice Pudding/ Tapioca Pudding-bought Rice Pudding/Tapioca Pudding - Homemade Scones Fruits: fresh (banana. apple, grapefruit, etc.) dried (dates, figs. prunes, raisins) Canned (e.g. pineapple, etc.) Fried Potatoes Ham Luncheon meats Bacon Weiners Peanut butter Eggs Nuts  No No  •  a  •  No  a  •  a a  •  a a  Yes  •  No  •  Yes  •  No  •  Yes  •  No  •  Yes  •  No  •  Yes Yes Yes Yes  • • • •  No No  • •  No No  •  Yes Yes Yes Yes  • • • •  No No No No  • • • •  Yes  •  No  •  Yes  •  No  •  a  Yes  •  No  •  Yes  •  No  •  Yes  •  NO  a  Yes  •  NO  •  Yes  •  No  •  Yes  •  No  a  Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes  • • O • •  NO No No No  a  • •  No No No  Q  No  n  Yes Yes Yes Yes  Yes Yes Yes  a  No  •  Yes  1 : ij  • •  •  Yes  •  No NO No  Yes Yes Yes  • • •  • • •  a  •  Yes  a  •  •  •  No No  n  No No No  Lj  No  a • •  97.  Cheese: Cheddar collage  Yes Yes  • •  processed (e.g. Ingersoll CheezWhiz) cheese slices Yogurt: plain  Yes  •  Yogurt: fruit flavored Butter  •  Yes Yes  a .  No No  • •  •  No  •  •  No  O  Yes  •  • • O  No  •  No No No No No  • • • • •  Yes Yes Yes Yes  • • • •  No No No  • • • • •  No No  • O  No No NO  • 0\ •  Honey  Yes  Yes  Chocolate Bars  Yes  Yes  Yes  :  • • •  Yes Yes Yes  Margarine Sugar Sugar Substitute Fudgslcle/Revel Popslcle  No No No  a  Q  a  D  Yes' Yes • Yes • Yes •  Thank you for taking time to complete this questionnaire.  Yes  Q  No NO  Yes  •  No  Yes Yes  • •  Yes Yes  • •  No No No No  •  a  • • •  SECTION TWO: C o m p l e t e f o r e a c h day y o u r c h i l d a t t e n d s p r e s c h o o l d u r i n g t h e week of May Z4-Z8th. Have y o u r c h i l d b r i n g I t t o p r e s c h o o l on e a c h o f t h e s e d a y s . FOODS OFFERED TO AND EATEN BY PRESCHOOLERS 1.  Date:  2.  D i d you o f f e r b r e a k f a s t t o y o u r p r e s c h o o l c h i l d t h i s m o r n i n g ?  3.  P l e a s e mark w i t h a CHECK ( J) t h o s e f o o d s o f f e r e d t o y o u r p r e s c h o o l e r t h i s morning ( i n c l u d e t h o s e f o o d s o f f e r e d v e r b a l l y o r a c t u a l l y p r e p a r e d f o r t h e c h i l d ) . STAR (*) t h o s e f o o d s w h i c h y o u r y o u n g s t e r a c t u a l l y a t e . The 1 1 s t i n l c u d e s a v a r i e t y o f f o o d s , b u t i f y o u r c h i l d a t e s o m e t h i n g n o t on t h e l i s t , please Include 1t i n the s e c t i o n "Others". FOODS Whole m i l k 2X m i l k Skim m i l k Chocolate milk Oval t i n e Unsweetened f r u i t j u i c e . . . Sweetened f r u i t j u i c e .... D r i n k made f r o m c r y s t a l s . . . Tea/coffee O t h e r m i l k d r i n k s , e . g . eggnog White b r e a d / t o a s t Wholewheat b r e a d / t o a s t .... Raisin bread/toast C o l d unsweetened c e r e a l . . . Name C o l d , sweetened c e r e a l Name Hot c e r e a l P a n c a k e s , homemade W a f f l e s , homemade . . Pancakes, bought W a f f l e s , b o u g h t , e . g . Egqo Sweet b u n s , cinnamon r o l l s , p o p - t a r t s Pizza Eggs C u r e d meat - ham, bacon Peanut b u t t e r Cheddar cheese Cottage cheese Processed cheese s l i c e s C h e e s e s p r e a d , e.g. C h e e z Whiz . . Yogurt, p l a i n Yogurt, f r u i t flavoured D r i e d f r u i t s , e.g., d a t e s , prunes Fresh f r u i t Canned f r u i t Butter Margarine Jam, j e l l y Honey . . . Suqar Other:  , i f offered (  )  (  )  (  )  (  )  ( (  ) )  ( (  ) )  i 1 ( ) ! i ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )  I i  i 1 i 1  Yes I No |  I I  i f eaten  (  )  (  )  i 1  99.  CODING SCHEDULE FORTRAN CODING FORM COLUMN NUMBER  VARIABLE  1-3 4 5 6 7 8  D l , I.D. D2, Centre D3, Card Number Blank D4, Mother ? D5, Respondent  D6, Residence  10 11 12 13 - 14 15 - 17  18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25  D7, Employed D8, Hours Worked D9, Days Worked D10, T r a v e l , minutes D l l , Income  D12, D13, D14, D15, D16, D17, D18, D19,  CODE 01 - 106 1-6 1 Yes=2, No=l Mother = 1 Father = 2 Aunt = 3 Nanny = 4 Sibling= 5 Coquitlam = 1 Port Coquitlam - 2 Pt. Moody = 3 New Westminster=4 Yes=2, No=l 0=0, 10=1 15=2, 20=3 25=4, 30=5 0 to 7 00 t o 99 A 075 B = 125 C — 175 D = 225 E SB 275 F s= 325 G ss 375 H ss 425 I s= 474 J ss 525 K s= 575 L s= 625  Family S i z e Number o f C h i l d r e n Under 2 Years C h i l d r e n 2 t o 4 Years Kindergarten Age C h i l d r e n Elementary Age C h i l d r e n High School C h i l d r e n Out o f School b u t a t Home Spouse  100.  26 27 28 29 30 31 32 - 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 - 45 46 - 47  D20, D21, D22, D23, D24, D25, D26, D27, D28, D29, D30, D31, D32, D33, D34, D35, D36,  48  D3 7,  49  D38,  50 51 52  D39, D40, D41,  53  D42,  Gr andmo the r Grandfather Other R e l a t i v e Boarder Nanny Blank Age o f 50 t o 65 Preschooler (months) Family Influence Under 2 c h i l d N/A = 0 No Influence=l C h i l d i n Preschool Very L i t t l e =2 2 t o 4 year o l d Little =3 Elementary C h i l d Moderate =4 Teen Much =5 Self Very Much =6 Spouse Other Blank Television: Yes=2, No=l Hours watched yesterday? Hours watched l a s t weekend? Breakfast Book Received? Quick B r e a k f a s t s Booklet Received? Sugar Content? Handy N u t r i t i o n ? Other Publications? No P u b l i c a t i o n s Received  Yes=2, No=l Yes=2, No=l Yes=2, No=l Yes=2, No=l Yes=2, No=l Yes=2, No=l  101  COLUMN NUMBER  VARIABLE  1-3 4 5 6 7 onward  D l , I.D. D2, Centre D3, Card Number Blank Food L i s t  CODE 01 to 106 1 to 6 2 to 5 Yes = 2, NO  e.g.  11 - 12  Milk: chocolate evaporated condensed whole, homogenized  77 - 78 79 - 80  Chocolate bars Blank  Yes = 2, No  D3, Card Number Blank Bl,~Parent Offered Breakfast B2, Parent Offered N u t r i t i o u s Beverage B4, Parent Offered High Q u a l i t y P r o t e i n B6, Parent Offered Wholegrains B8, Parent Offered Sweetened Cereal  6  7-8 9-10  5 6 7 8 10 12 14  Yes = 2, No Yes - 2, No Yes = 2, No  Yes = 2, No Yes = 2, No Yes = 2, No Yes = 2, No Yes = 2 , No  102.  POOD CLASSIFICATIONS MILK PRODUCTS - BEVERAGES  WHOLE GRAIN PRODUCTS  evaporated m i l k whole milk 2% milk skim m i l k buttermilk Dairy Maid 2% goat's m i l k  M u l t i g r a i n bread 100% wholewheat bread 60% wholewheat bread wholewheat c r a c k e r s bran o r f r u i t muffins bran "Eggo" w a f f l e s granola-type bars  CEREALS WITH MORE THAN 15 PERCENT SUGAR  HIGH QUALITY PROTEIN SOURCES  Froot Loops Honey Nut Cornflakes Honey Nut Cheerios Count Chocula Boo Berry Frankenberry Honeycomb Alphabits Sugar C r i s p F r u i t y Pebbles Cocoa Pebbles Raisin Crisp Apple Jacks Sugar Smacks Cap'n Crunch F r o s t e d Flakes Miniwheats Nabisco 100% Bran Buckwheat & Maple Apple Harvest Crunch C r a c k l i n Bran Alpen  ham peanut b u t t e r eggs nuts cheddar cheese cottage cheese FRUITS AND FRUIT JUICES fresh f r u i t dried f r u i t canned f r u i t raspberry c o c k t a i l a p r i c o t nectar applecot/orangecot applelime ribena grape j u i c e cranapple cranberry c o c k t a i l pineapple j u i c e canned j u i c e s (sweetened & unsweetened)  103.  MODIFIED MILK PRODUCTS BEVERAGES Chocolate m i l k eggnog f l a v o r beads Milkmate Instant B r e r a k f a s t Hot Chocolate Mix Brown Cow Chocolate Syrup Dr. Oh Dairy M a i l Chocolate M i l k  CEREALS WITH LESS THAN 15 PERCENT SUGAR Cheerios Life Total Red River/Sunnyboy Quaker Oats Creamy Wheat Zoom Vita B Stone Buhr 7 Grain Puffed Wheat Farmhouse Bran Whetabix Grapenuts Flakes Bran Crunchies Rice Flakes Team Granola Special K Cornflakes Product 19 Rice K r i s p i e s R a i s i n Bran A l l Bran Bran Flakes Shredded Wheat  OTHER BAKED PRODUCTS Cinnamon R o l l s Crumpets Danish Pastry Ding Dongs Doughnuts English muffin Other "Eggo" w a f f l e s Aunt Jemima w a f f l e s Snackin' Cake Frosted Pop T a r t s P l a i n Pop T a r t s Twinkies Scones Enriched White Bread R a i s i n Bread LOW  QUALITY PROTEIN SOURCES  luncheon meats bacon weiners processed cheese OTHER BEVERAGES Postum Ovaltine Tea, Coffee Iced Tea Lemonade Grape Drink "C" Plus Super Soco Quench Hawaiian Punch KoolAid Tang Rise 'n Shine  104.  Sugar Content of Breakfast Cereals  10.0-14.9% Grape Nut Flakes (General Foods) Rice Flakes (Nabisco) Raisin Bran (Kellogg's) All-Bran (Kellogg's) An Information Letter on the "Nutritional Re- Granola, Crunchy with Honey and Almonds (Sunny Crunch) quirements of Breakfast Cereals" sent from the Health 4 Grain Team (Nabisco) Protection Branch in August 1977 to manufacturers inPep (Kellogg's) cluded the following proposal for sugar declaration: Shreddies (Nabisco) "It is proposed that the total content of sugar and other sweeteners be declared as a percentage of15.0-19.9% the total weight of the cereal on the principal display Granola (Canadian Cereal Sales) panel of the label of all breakfast cereals. It is proHarvest Crunch (Quaker) Bran Flakes (General Foods) posed that a declaration such as the following be usMini-Wheats, Brown Sugar (Kellogg's) ed: "Contains (x) % sugar" when only sugar is used, Buckwheat & Maple, Whole Wheat (Kellogg's) or "Contains fx)% sugar and other sweeteners" Granola, Crunchy, with Fruit & Nuts (Sunny Crunch) when more than one sweetener is used. This declaraMini-Wheats, Frosted (Kellogg's) tion would be based on the total amount ofhexoses Alpen (Wheetabix) and disaccharides in the product as sold." Granola, with Nuts & Raisins (Canadian Cereal Sales) Although this proposal is still under review, the 1007* Bran (Nabisco) following results of a HPB survey of the sugar content Bran Buds (Kellogg's) of 74 breakfast cereals will be a useful reference for Granola, with Honey & Almonds (Sunny Crunch) Harvest Crunch, with Apples & Cinnamon (Quaker) Nutritionists. Oatmeal, Instant, with Sugar and Spice (Quaker)  SUGAR BY WEIGHT — 0-4.9%  20.0-29.9%  Puffed Rice (Quaker) Oatmeal, Quick Cooking (McNair) Oatmeal, Quick Cooking (Quaker) Shredded Wheat, Spoon Size (Nabisco) Cream of Wheat, Regular (Nabisco) Puffed Wheat (Newport) Puffed Wheat Peter Pan (Quaker) Oatmeal, Instant (Quaker) Puffed Wheat (Quaker) Cream of Wheat, Mix V Eat (Nabisco) Oatmeal, Instant (Quaker) Shredded Wheat, Malt Flavoured (Quaker) Red River Cereal (Maple Leaf) Shredded Wheat (Nabisco) Cream of Wheat, Quick (Nabisco) Oatmeal (Ogilvie) Grape-Nuts (General Foods) Cheerios (General Mills) Wheetabix (Wheetabix) Wheaties (General Mills)  Oatmeal, Instant, Pre-sweetened (Robin Hood) Granola, with Raisins (Sunny Crunch) Oatmeal, Instant, with Apple & Cinnamon (Robin Hood) Oatmeal, Instant, with Apple & Cinnamon (Quaker) Oatmeal, Instant, with Maple & Brown Sugar (Robin Hood) Oatmeal, Instant, with Maple & Brown Sugar (Quaker) Golden Honeys (Nabisco) Oatmeal, Instant, with Cinnamon & Spice (Quaker) Alpha-Bits (General Foods) Honeycomb (General Foods) Harvest Crunch, with Raisins & Dates (Quaker)  5.0-9.9% Corn Flakes (Kellog's) Special K (Kellog's) Corn Flakes (General Mills) Product 19 (Kellog's) Bran Flakes (Kellog's) Rice Krispies (Kellogg's)  30.0-39.9% Oatmeal, Instant, with Raisins & Spices (Quaker) Sugar Crisp (General Foods) Trix (General Mills) Frosted Flakes (Kellogg's) Captain Crunch (Quaker) Cocoa Puffs (General Mills) Lucky Charms (General Mills) Froot Loops (Kellogg's)  40.0-55.7% Boo Berry (General Mills) Sugar Pops (Kellogg's) Count Chocula (General Mills) Apple Jacks (Kellogg's) Frankenberry (General Mills) Doris Noble Health Protection Branch  105.  DESCRIPTIVE COMMENTS ABOUT THE BREAKFAST PROGRAM WEEK I : - P r e s i d e n t o f one o f the parent groups commented: the program  i s going  very  well,  the c h i l d r e n  are r e a l l y  participating. - Teacher a t another  c e n t r e i n v o l v e d i n the b r e a k f a s t  program commented t h a t i t i s a g r e a t program; "right into  the k i d s are  it".  WEEK I I : - The program involved.  i s going  Approximately  well,  40 p e r c e n t  requested  f o r the food c o l l a g e  One c h i l d  turned out t o be a l l e r g i c  stimulated  parents  a good d i s c u s s i o n .  are getting  of the pictures  were cut out by the parent. t o m i l k products  which  Children are i n d i v i d u a l l y  p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e cooking experiences. WEEK I I I : - Program  i s going very w e l l .  The c h i l d r e n want t o  e v a l u a t e t h e i r b r e a k f a s t s on a d a i l y b a s i s as opposed t o j u s t twice a week.  106.  WEEK IV: - Teachers f o r them t o do. their  report  that  the program i s g e t t i n g  Moms are s t a r t i n g t o t e l l the teachers what  c h i l d r e n have had f o r b r e a k f a s t .  Program i s going so  w e l l - can h a r d l y b e l i e v e i t i s almost overl four  weeks i t was evident  followed  easier  that  Throughout the  the i n s t r u c t i o n s were being  as presented.  i  

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