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The role of key teachers in the implementation of a new history curriculum in Malaysia : a study of… Mahfoz, Napsiah 1983

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THE ROLE OF KEY TEACHERS IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A NEW HISTORY CURRICULUM IN MALAYSIA: A STUDY OF PERCEPTIONS by NAPSIAH MAHFOZ B.A. (Hon.), U n i v e r s i t i M a l a y a , 1971 D i p . Ed., U n i v e r s i t i M a l a y a , 1972 M.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y Of H a w a i i , 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department Of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t And Hi g h e r E d u c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA F e b r u a r y 1983 © N a p s i a h Mahfoz, 1983 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of A H T n i n i B <- T. f l 1- 1- V P j Adult and Hi "her Education The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date February 8 1983 DE-6 (.3/81) ABSTRACT S u p e r v i s o r : Dr. Naomi Hersom A new h i s t o r y c u r r i c u l u m f o r M a l a y s i a n s c h o o l s was d e v e l o p e d and i n t r o d u c e d i n 1978. T h i s study examined the s t r a t e g y of u s i n g s p e c i a l l y d e s i g n a t e d t e a c h e r s , c a l l e d key t e a c h e r s , i n f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e r e v i s e d c u r r i c u l u m . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t d e t e r m i n e d p e r c e p t i o n s h e l d by v a r i o u s a c t o r s about the r o l e a s s i g n e d t o the key t e a c h e r s by the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , about the a c t i v i t i e s of the key t e a c h e r s i n the s c h o o l s , and about the f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s . A case s t u d y approach was employed. P e r c e p t i o n s were s o l i c i t e d by i n t e r v i e w i n g key t e a c h e r s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t e a c h e r s l o c a t e d i n t h r e e s c h o o l s i n S e l a n g o r , M a l a y s i a , and t h r e e o f f i c i a l s from the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n i n M a l a y s i a . I n t e r v i e w s were conducted i n two s t a g e s , the f i r s t t o o b t a i n r e s p o n s e s t o q u e s t i o n s s t r u c t u r e d by an i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e , and the second t o v e r i f y the re s p o n s e s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the s e r e s p o n s e s w i t h each p e r s o n who had been i n t e r v i e w e d . D e s c r i p t i v e , c o m p a r a t i v e and i n t e r p r e t i v e a n a l y s e s were c a r r i e d out on the d a t a o b t a i n e d . The p a r t i c i p a n t s d i f f e r e d markedly i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s both of t h e r o l e e x p e c t e d of the key t e a c h e r s and of the a c t i v i t i e s a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h a t r o l e . S i x of the t e a c h e r s r e p o r t e d t h a t they were unaware t h a t t h e r e were key t e a c h e r s p r e s e n t i n t h e i r s c h o o l s . Other p a r t i c i p a n t s h e l d a wide range of e x p e c t a t i o n s but a g r e e d g e n e r a l l y t h a t key t e a c h e r s ought t o be a b l e t o b r i n g about changes i n c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g and/or i n d i s s e m i n a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about the new h i s t o r y c u r r i c u l u m and h e l p i n g o t h e r t e a c h e r s t o use i t t h r o u g h o u t the s c h o o l . I t was found t h a t the key t e a c h e r s s e l e c t e d f o r t h i s s t u d y t a u g h t the new h i s t o r y c u r r i c u l u m by e m p h a s i z i n g the c o n t e n t a r e a i n c o n t r a s t t o the changes i n methods of i n s t r u c t i o n proposed by the new c u r r i c u l u m . Two of t h e key t e a c h e r s i n f o r m e d t h e i r f e l l o w t e a c h e r s about the change i n the h i s t o r y c u r r i c u l u m but made l i t t l e or no e f f o r t t o e x p l a i n the n a t u r e of t h e s e changes. H e l p i n g a c t i v i t i e s , i n the form of d i s c u s s i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e new h i s t o r y c u r r i c u l u m , or a d v i c e and guidance t o t e a c h e r s , seldom took p l a c e . Most changes t h a t t o o k p l a c e were i n i t i a t e d by o t h e r t e a c h e r s , not by the key t e a c h e r s . A l t h o u g h the key t e a c h e r s ' a c t i v i t i e s were p e r c e i v e d t o be g e n e r a l l y u s e f u l by t e a c h e r s , t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the new h i s t o r y c u r r i c u l u m i n c l a s s r o o m s was l e s s than o p t i m a l . The key t e a c h e r s found t h a t they were unable t o c a r r y out the r o l e s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . They t h e m s e l v e s were not e q u i p p e d a d e q u a t e l y w i t h t h e knowledge and s k i l l t o t e a c h the new h i s t o r y c u r r i c u l u m s u c c e s s f u l l y nor t o h e l p o t h e r s use i t . The s t a t e - o r g a n i z e d i n s e r v i c e c o u r s e on t h e new h i s t o r y c u r r i c u l u m p r o v e d not t o be e f f e c t i v e . E x p e c t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p r o f e s s i o n a l s u pport from the s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , and the key p e r s o n n e l f o r d i s t r i c t who c o n d u c t e d the i n s e r v i c e c o u r s e f o r the key t e a c h e r s , was not f o r t h c o m i n g . I n t e r v i e w s r e v e a l e d t h a t key i v teachers, teachers, administrators, and Ministry of Education o f f i c i a l s d i f f e r e d markedly in the i r perceptions of the role expected of key teachers, the role and value of inservice courses, the nature of the new history curriculum and i t s effect on teaching practices. Communication among school-level personnel, and between schools and the Ministry of Education, rarely took place. The examination-oriented environment of the school was judged not to be conducive to the introduction of the new history curriculum. The findings of t h i s study confirm that much of what is known about the process of implementing a new curriculum in a school system is v a l i d when the process i s introduced in another c u l t u r a l milieu. The study provides detailed examples of the importance of such elements as c l a r i t y about the innovation and roles, ongoing communication and support, and e f f e c t i v e staff development programs in implementation. The findings also indicate that the key teacher d i f f u s i o n of information model requires modifications. The study suggests three alternative models for curriculum change and implementation that could be used as guidelines for government p o l i c i e s with respect t o curriculum revision. Two factors are central t o these models: ( i ) organizational structures that f a c i l i t a t e and support the implementation process, and (2) time schedules required for preparing teachers and school systems adequately for implementing a new curriculum in schools. V TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS V LIST OF TABLES x i LIST OF FIGURES x i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS x i i i CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1 The Problem 1 The Purpose Of The Study 5 D e f i n i t i o n Of Terms 5 The S i g n i f i c a n c e Of The Study 6 L i m i t a t i o n s Of The Study 7 O r g a n i z a t i o n Of The T h e s i s 8 CHAPTER 2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK .. 9 I n t r o d u c t i o n 9 Review Of L i t e r a t u r e 10 The R o l e Of Key Persons I n The P r o c e s s Of Im p l e m e n t a t i o n 10 Approaches To The Study Of Imp l e m e n t a t i o n 17 Teachers And The P r o c e s s Of Implementation 23 . Te a c h e r s ' Knowledge And A b i l i t y 24 Tea c h e r s ' Views Of The C u r r i c u l u m 25 S t a f f Development And Im p l e m e n t a t i o n 27 C o n t i n u i t y 27 F l e x i b i l i t y And Relevance 30 V a r i e t y I n The Mode Of D e l i v e r y 31 Summary 33 C o n c e p t u a l Framework i 36 E x p e c t e d R o l e 38 A c t u a l R o l e 39 CHAPTER 3. EDUCATION IN MALAYSIA 43 G e n e r a l Background 43 The System Of E d u c a t i o n In M a l a y s i a 48 P r i m a r y E d u c a t i o n 48 v i Secondary E d u c a t i o n . .• 51 Lower Secondary 51 Upper Secondary 52 Pos t - S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n 53 T e r t i a r y E d u c a t i o n 54 The Development Of A N a t i o n a l System Of E d u c a t i o n 54 The S t r u c t u r e Of The M a l a y s i a n E d u c a t i o n System 58 F e d e r a l L e v e l : M i n i s t r y Of E d u c a t i o n 59 S t a t e L e v e l : S t a t e E d u c a t i o n Department 62 S c h o o l L e v e l 63 C u r r i c u l u m Development And Implementation 70 The New H i s t o r y C u r r i c u l u m 76 D e s c r i p t i o n Of The C u r r i c u l u m 77 O r i e n t a t i o n Of The C u r r i c u l u m 77 The Components Of The C u r r i c u l u m . 79 F i e l d T r i a l 83 Imp l e m e n t a t i o n S t r a t e g y 85 The Key P e r s o n n e l And The C e n t r a l l y O r g a n i z e d I n s e r v i c e Course 87 The Key Teachers And I n s e r v i c e Courses At The S t a t e L e v e l 89 P r e p a r a t i o n Of Teachers' Guide 91 CHAPTER 4. RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCEDURES 94 Sources Of Data 95 I n t e r v i e w s 95 I n t e r v i e w Schedule 95 Q u e s t i o n s 96 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s 98 Documents 98 Sampling Procedure 99 S e l e c t i o n Of S c h o o l s 99 The S i z e Of The S c h o o l 100 The E x p e r i e n c e Of The Key Teacher 101 S e l e c t i o n Of M i n i s t r y Of E d u c a t i o n O f f i c i a l s 103 Stages Of The Study 104 I n i t i a l P r e p a r a t i o n 104 P i l o t Study 105 C o l l e c t i o n Of Data 107 I n i t i a l M e e t i n g s 107 The I n t e r v i e w 108 A n a l y s i s Of Data 110 D e s c r i p t i v e A n a l y s i s 110 Comparative A n a l y s i s 110 I n t e r p r e t i v e A n a l y s i s 111 P r e s e n t a t i o n Of R e s u l t s 111 CHAPTER 5. SCHOOL A 113 v i i D e s c r i p t i o n Of S c h o o l A 113 The S c h o o l : An Overview 113 S c h o o l P e r s o n n e l 116 Teachers 116 The A d m i n i s t r a t o r s 117 The Key Teacher And Her P e r c e p t i o n s 118 The R o l e E x p e c t e d Of Her As A Key Teacher By The M i n i s t r y Of E d u c a t i o n 119 Her A c t i v i t i e s As A Key Teacher 121 F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g Her A c t i v i t i e s As A Key Teacher 124 Key T e a c h e r - r e l a t e d F a c t o r s 124 T e a c h e r - r e l a t e d F a c t o r s 126 The N a t u r e Of The I n s e r v i c e 127 P r o f e s s i o n a l Support 128 The A d m i n i s t r a t o r s And The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Of The S c h o o l 129 The Teachers And T h e i r P e r c e p t i o n s 130 The R o l e s E x p e c t e d Of The Key Teacher By The M i n i s t r y Of E d u c a t i o n 133 A c t i v i t i e s Of The Key Teacher 134 F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g The A c t i v i t i e s Of The Key Teacher ... 136 T e a c h e r - r e l a t e d F a c t o r s 136 Key T e a c h e r - r e l a t e d F a c t o r s 143 The A d m i n i s t r a t o r s And The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Of The S c h o o l 145 The A d m i n i s t r a t o r And H i s P e r c e p t i o n s 148 The R o l e E x p e c t e d Of The Key Teacher By The M i n i s t r y Of E d u c a t i o n 149 The A c t i v i t i e s Of The Key Teacher 150 F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g The A c t i v i t i e s Of The Key Teacher ... 152 The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Of The S c h o o l 152 Support For The Key Teachers 155 Teachers And I n s e r v i c e Courses 156 A t t i t u d e Towards H i s t o r y And I t s T e a c h i n g 159 CHAPTER 6. SCHOOL B 161 D e s c r i p t i o n Of S c h o o l B 161 The S c h o o l : An Overview 161 S c h o o l P e r s o n n e l 163 Teachers 163 The A d m i n i s t r a t o r s 165 The Key Teacher And H i s P e r c e p t i o n s 165 The Role E x p e c t e d Of Him As A Key Teacher 166 The A c t i v i t i e s Of The Key Teacher 167 F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g H i s A c t i v i t i e s As A Key Teacher 169 K e y - t e a c h e r R e l a t e d F a c t o r s 169 T e a c h e r - r e l a t e d F a c t o r s 171 The Nature Of The I n s e r v i c e Course 173 P r o f e s s i o n a l Support 176 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Support 177 The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Of The S c h o o l 179 v i i i The Teachers And T h e i r P e r c e p t i o n s 182 The R o l e E x p e c t e d Of The Key Teacher By The M i n i s t r y Of E d u c a t i o n 185 The A c t i v i t i e s Of The Key Teacher 187 F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g The A c t i v i t i e s Of The Key Teacher ... 188 T e a c h e r - r e l a t e d F a c t o r s 188 Key T e a c h e r - r e l a t e d F a c t o r s 194 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Support 197 The A d m i n i s t r a t o r And H i s P e r c e p t i o n s 201 The Role E x p e c t e d Of The Key Teacher By The M i n i s t r y Of E d u c a t i o n 202 The A c t i v i t i e s Of The Key Teacher 202 F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g The A c t i v i t i e s Of The Key Teacher ... 203 The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Of The S c h o o l 203 Key T e a c h e r - r e l a t e d F a c t o r s 205 CHAPTER 7. SCHOOL C 207 D e s c r i p t i o n Of Sc h o o l C 207 The S c h o o l : An Overview 207 S c h o o l P e r s o n n e l 208 Teachers 208 The A d m i n i s t r a t o r s 209 The Key Teacher And H i s P e r c e p t i o n s 210 The Ro l e E x p e c t e d Of Him As A Key Teacher 210 H i s A c t i v i t i e s As A Key Teacher 211 F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g H i s A c t i v i t i e s As A Key Teacher 213 Key T e a c h e r - r e l a t e d F a c t o r s 214 The N a t u r e Of The I n s e r v i c e Course 215 P r o f e s s i o n a l Support 216 The A d m i n i s t r a t o r And A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Of The S c h o o l ... 217 The Teacher And H i s P e r c e p t i o n s 219 The Role E x p e c t e d Of The Key Teacher By The M i n i s t r y Of E d u c a t i o n 219 The A c t i v i t i e s Of The Key Teacher 220 F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g The A c t i v i t i e s Of The Key Teacher ... 222 Key T e a c h e r - r e l a t e d F a c t o r s 222 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e And P r o f e s s i o n a l Support 223 T e a c h e r - r e l a t e d F a c t o r s 224 The A d m i n i s t r a t o r And H i s P e r c e p t i o n s 226 The Ro l e E x p e c t e d Of The Key Teacher 226 The A c t i v i t i e s Of The Key Teacher 227 F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g The A c t i v i t i e s Of The Key Teacher ... 228 The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Of The S c h o o l 228 Views On The I n s e r v i c e Course 232 Key T e a c h e r - r e l a t e d F a c t o r s 235 CHAPTER 8. THE OFFICERS OF THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION AND THEIR PERCEPTIONS 236 The Role E x p e c t e d Of The Key Teachers By The M i n i s t r y ... 237 The A c t i v i t i e s Of The Key T e a c h e r s 240 F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g The A c t i v i t i e s Of The Key Teachers .. 242 i x The A t t i t u d e And A b i l i t y Of The Key Teachers 242 The A t t i t u d e s Of The Teachers 245 The S c h o o l L e a d e r s h i p 248 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , F i n a n c i a l And P r o f e s s i o n a l Support ... 250 CHAPTER 9. ANALYSIS OF DATA 253 A Comparative A n a l y s i s Of The Rol e E x p e c t e d Of The Key Teac h e r s 253 W i t h i n Groups 254 The Key Teachers 254 The Teachers 254 The S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t o r s 255 The O f f i c i a l s Of The M i n i s t r y Of E d u c a t i o n 256 W i t h i n S c h o o l s 256 S c h o o l A 256 S c h o o l B 257 S c h o o l C 257 O v e r a l l Comparison 258 F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g P e r c e p t i o n s Of Rol e E x p e c t a t i o n s .... 262 Awareness Of The Implementation S t r a t e g y And Of The Presenc e Of The Key Teachers In The S c h o o l s 262 O r i g i n Of P e r c e p t i o n s 264 C o n t a c t Among The P a r t i c i p a n t s 265 The A c t i v i t i e s Of The Key Teachers 266 V a r i a t i o n s W i t h i n The Groups Of P a r t i c i p a n t s 266 The Key Teachers 266 The Teachers 271 The S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t o r s 273 The O f f i c i a l s Of The M i n i s t r y Of E d u c a t i o n 275 O v e r a l l Comparison 276 Tea c h i n g 276 D i s s e m i n a t i n g A c t i v i t i e s 277 H e l p i n g A c t i v i t i e s 279 R o u t i n e A c t i v i t i e s 280 Summary Of C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Of Key Teachers' A c t i v i t i e s .. 281 The U s e f u l n e s s Of The A c t i v i t i e s Of The Key Teachers .... 282 F a c i l i t a t i n g Key T e a c h e r - t e a c h e r I n t e r a c t i o n 283 F a c i l i t a t i n g The Performance Of A c t i v i t i e s R o u t i n e l y A s s o c i a t e d W i t h T e a c h i n g 284 H e l p i n g Teachers In T h e i r T e a c h i n g Of, And P r e p a r a t i o n For T e a c h i n g , The New H i s t o r y C u r r i c u l u m 284 Ex p e c t e d V e r s u s A c t u a l R o l e s 286 Tea c h i n g 286 D i s s e m i n a t i o n Of The New H i s t o r y C u r r i c u l u m To Teachers 287 H e l p i n g Teachers Use The New C u r r i c u l u m In T h e i r C lassrooms 288 F a c t o r s I n f l u e n c i n g The A c t i v i t i e s Of The Key Teachers .... 289 Nature Of The I n s e r v i c e 289 Inadequacy Of The S u b j e c t M a t t e r 290 Lack Of V a r i e t y In The Mode Of P r e s e n t a t i o n 291 Lack Of A b i l i t y Of The D i s t r i c t Key P e r s o n n e l 293 I n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s Of The Course Schedule And L o c a t i o n 294 X Support For The Key Teachers 297 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Support 297 P r o f e s s i o n a l Support 304 D i v e r s i t y Of P e r c e p t i o n s And Meanings 309 The E x p e c t e d Role Of The Key Teachers 309 The Purpose And U s e f u l n e s s Of I n s e r v i c e Courses 311 Views On The C u r r i c u l u m , The New H i s t o r y C u r r i c u l u m , T e a c h i n g And Implementation 314 The Environment Of The S c h o o l s 318 Lack Of Communication 320 Key T e a c h e r - t e a c h e r C o n t a c t 321 T e a c h e r - a d m i n i s t r a t o r C o n t a c t 327, CHAPTER 10. SUMMARY, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 336 Summary 336 The Purpose Of The Study 336 Methodology 337 The F i n d i n g s Of The Study 338 I m p l i c a t i o n s Of The Study 341 Recommendation F or Research 356 REFERENCES 359 APPENDIX A. A Compendium Of Statements Of E d u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s In The Four M a l a y s i a P l a n s ..371 APPENDIX B. M a l a y s i a n S c h o o l Funding Formula 374 APPENDIX C. C u r r i c u l a S t a n d a r d s 376 APPENDIX D. D i v i s i o n s Of The M i n i s t r y Of E d u c a t i o n I n v o l v e d In C u r r i c u l u m I m p l e m e n t a t i o n And T h e i r F u n c t i o n s R e l a t e d To C u r r i c u l u m I m p l e m e n t a t i o n 381 APPENDIX E. H i s t o r y S y l l a b u s For P r i m a r y And Lower Secondary S c h o o l s 385 APPENDIX F. I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e s : E n g l i s h V e r s i o n 398 APPENDIX G. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s : E n g l i s h V e r s i o n 407 APPENDIX H. Summary Of Key Teachers' P e r c e p t i o n s : E n g l i s h V e r s i o n 414 x i LIST OF TABLES 1. Key Pe r s o n s And The Im p l e m e n t a t i o n P r o c e s s 16 2. M a l a y s i a : Student Enrolment By L e v e l s Of E d u c a t i o n , 1980-1985 47 3. T r i a l S c h o o l s For The New H i s t o r y C u r r i c u l u m At The Form 1 L e v e l 83 4. T o p i c s And M e t h o d o l o g i e s Chosen For T r y - o u t 84 5. 1977 I n s e r v i c e Course For The New Form One H i s t o r y C u r r i c u l u m 87 6. P a r t i c i p a n t s At The C e n t r a l i s e d I n s e r v i c e Course ... 89 7. A Summary Of S c h o o l - l e v e l P a r t i c i p a n t s 103 8. A P r o f i l e Of The S t u d e n t s I n S c h o o l A 114 9. P r o f e s s i o n a l Background Of KA, A1, A2 And A3 132 10. A P r o f i l e Of The S t u d e n t s In S c h o o l B 163 11. P r o f e s s i o n a l Background Of KB, B1, B2, B3, B4, B5 And B6 183 12. A P r o f i l e Of The S t u d e n t s In S c h o o l C 208 13. The R o l e E x p e c t e d Of The Key Teachers As P e r c e i v e d By The Key T e a c h e r s , T e a c h e r s , A d m i n i s t r a t o r s And O f f i c i a l s Of The M i n i s t r y Of E d u c a t i o n 261 14. Summary Of Key Teachers' D e s c r i p t i o n Of T h e i r A c t i v i t i e s 267 15. The A c t i v i t i e s Of The Key Teacher As P e r c e i v e d By The Teachers 271 16. The A c t i v i t i e s Of The Key Teacher As P e r c e i v e d By The S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t o r s 274 17. C a t e g o r i e s Of Key Teacher A c t i v i t i e s 277 x i i LIST OF FIGURES 1 . C o n c e p t u a l Framework For The Study 37 2. M a l a y s i a And A d j a c e n t T e r r i t o r i e s 44 3. P e n i n s u l a r M a l a y s i a 45 4. M a l a y s i a n S c h o o l System 1982 49 5. M i n i s t r y Of E d u c a t i o n , M a l a y s i a : O r g a n i z a t i o n C h a r t 1982 61 6. C u r r i c u l u m Development And Implementation In M a l a y s i a 71 7. O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e Of The C u r r i c u l u m Development C e n t r e 74 8. Themes A c c o r d i n g To L e v e l s 80 9. O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e F o r C u r r i c u l u m Change 92 10. I n t e r v i e w P r o c e d u r e 108 11. I n t e n d e d And A c t u a l O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e For Change 335 12. Model O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e For C u r r i c u l u m Change: The C o n s u l t a n t Model 347 13. Model O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e For C u r r i c u l u m Change: The Key Teacher Model 352 14. Model O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e For C u r r i c u l u m Change: The Adapted Key Teacher Model 355 x i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to thank members of my supervisory committee, Dr. Naomi Hersom, Dr. Ian Housego and Dr. Walt Werner, for t h e i r continuous help and guidance. Their patience i n reading the d r a f t s and t h e i r comments and suggestions are g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. Dr. Hersom agreed to continue as research supervisor even a f t e r l e a v i n g UBC to become Dean of Education, U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan. I would a l s o l i k e to acknowledge the Canadian Commonwealth Fe l l o w s h i p and Sc h o l a r s h i p Committee f o r the Commonwealth s c h o l a r s h i p , and U n i v e r s i t i Kebangsaan Malaysia for the study leave and a d d i t i o n a l f i n a n c i a l support f o r my graduate study. My g r a t i t u d e and thanks to the M i n i s t r y of Education, Malaysia f o r g r a n t i n g permission to conduct t h i s research; the State S o c i a l Studies O f f i c e r , Selangor, f o r p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ; the p r i n c i p a l s of schools f o r t h e i r cooperation; and the key teachers, teachers, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and M i n i s t r y o f f i c i a l s for p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study. This study would not have been p o s s i b l e without t h e i r help. I would l i k e to acknowledge colleagues i n the Centre f o r the Study of A d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n Education who have provided encouragement and support, p a r t i c u l a r l y Dick Lawson. L a s t l y , thanks to my f a m i l y , my husband Yusuf and my daughters J u i t a and Nora, whose support, encouragement and understanding helped me through my graduate work. 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION THE PROBLEM A new h i s t o r y c u r r i c u l u m was implemented i n M a l a y s i a n s c h o o l s i n 1978, r e p l a c i n g a p r e v i o u s c u r r i c u l u m which was c o n s i d e r e d no l o n g e r adequate i n meeting the needs of the c o u n t r y . The new h i s t o r y c u r r i c u l u m f o r p r i m a r y and lower secondary s c h o o l s was i n t r o d u c e d i n s t a g e s s t a r t i n g w i t h S t a n d a r d 4 ( p r i m a r y l e v e l ) and Form 1 (lower secondary l e v e l ) i n 1978, f o l l o w e d by S t a n d a r d 5 and Form 2 i n 1979 and S t a n d a r d 6 and Form 3 i n 1980. By 1980, the replacement of the p r e v i o u s c u r r i c u l u m by the new h i s t o r y c u r r i c u l u m had been completed f o r S t a n d a r d s 4 t o 6 i n a l l the p r i m a r y s c h o o l s and Forms 1 t o 3 i n a l l secondary s c h o o l s . The d e c i s i o n t o r e v i e w the p r e v i o u s h i s t o r y c u r r i c u l u m was prompted by i n d i c a t i o n s of the weaknesses of the o l d c u r r i c u l u m . These i n d i c a t i o n s as l i s t e d i n S i t i Hawa's t h e s i s (1977) came from t h r e e s o u r c e s : 1) The M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n had been aware f o r some time t h a t the o l d c u r r i c u l u m was no l o n g e r a p p r o p r i a t e because the c o n t e n t was broad i n scope and l a c k e d i n c l u s i o n of v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of l o c a l h i s t o r y . 2) S c h o o l t e a c h e r s and i n s t r u c t o r s from t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g 2 c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s had i n d i c a t e d the need t o r e v i e w t h e p r e v i o u s c u r r i c u l u m . 3) The M a l a y s i a n H i s t o r y Seminars i n 1973 and 1974, sponsored by the H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y of the N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y of M a l a y s i a o b s e r v e d t h a t the c u r r i c u l u m p l a c e d too much emphasis on the h i s t o r y of o t h e r c o u n t r i e s and t h a t the p a r t c o m p r i s i n g M a l a y s i a n h i s t o r y was viewed from the B r i t i s h r a t h e r than the M a l a y s i a n p e r s p e c t i v e . The lower secondary c u r r i c u l u m , i n p a r t i c u l a r , was c r i t i c i z e d because i t l a c k e d a c l e a r s e t of o b j e c t i v e s , and because p u p i l s had t o study t h e h i s t o r y of t o o many c o u n t r i e s of A s i a and Europe, thus p r e c l u d i n g adequate study of the h i s t o r y of t h e i r own c o u n t r y . The development of the new c u r r i c u l u m was ha s t e n e d by the f o r m u l a t i o n of a n a t i o n a l i d e o l o g y , c a l l e d Rukunegara, which has the u l t i m a t e aim of a c h i e v i n g n a t i o n a l u n i t y . The e n t i r e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m i s b e i n g s h i f t e d g r a d u a l l y towards t h i s n a t i o n a l g o a l . H i s t o r y i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be one of the s u b j e c t s which can make a d i r e c t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o n a t i o n a l u n i t y . These s u b j e c t s a r e b e l i e v e d t o make t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o n a t i o n a l u n i t y by e m p h a s i z i n g the development of v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and knowledge n e c e s s a r y f o r the u n i t y of the n a t i o n , the a n a l y s i s of s o c i a l problems of s o c i e t y , and the development of t h i n k i n g and d e c i s i o n making i n s t u d e n t s . The t e a c h i n g of l o c a l h i s t o r y , which forms a major component of the new h i s t o r y c u r r i c u l u m , was a d v o c a t e d by the M a l a y s i a n C u l t u r a l Congress i n 1971 as a means of f o s t e r i n g the i d e n t i t y of the M a l a y s i a n n a t i o n . 3 The new h i s t o r y c u r r i c u l u m brought about changes i n b o t h ends ( g o a l s ) and means ( c o n t e n t , a c t i v i t i e s and r e s o u r c e s ) . I n t r o d u c t o r y n o t e s c o n t a i n e d i n the new c u r r i c u l u m s t a t e t h a t t h e s e g o a l s and c o n t e n t were f o r m u l a t e d i n l i n e w i t h the c o n s t i t u t i o n and e d u c a t i o n a l aims of the c o u n t r y so t h a t the c u r r i c u l u m c o u l d a s s i s t e f f o r t s t o a c h i e v e n a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . The g u i d e f o r the new h i s t o r y c u r r i c u l u m c o n t a i n s g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s of g o a l s and s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s f o r each l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g and c o n t e n t d e a l i n g d i r e c t l y w i t h the h i s t o r y of M a l a y s i a . U n l i k e the p r e v i o u s c u r r i c u l u m , the new one i n d i c a t e s the t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n v o l v e d i n a c h i e v i n g the s t a t e d g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s , t h u s p r o v i d i n g t e a c h e r s w i t h a more u s e f u l g uide t o c l a s s r o o m t e a c h i n g . The new h i s t o r y c u r r i c u l u m emphasizes the development of c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g , a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s , and t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of s e l e c t e d c o n t e n t . The t e a c h i n g of the new c u r r i c u l u m , t h e r e f o r e , demands a more p u p i l - o r i e n t e d approach and l e s s of a t e x t b o o k and t e a c h e r - c e n t r e d a pproach. The new h i s t o r y c u r r i c u l u m was implemented u s i n g a 'key p e r s o n n e l ' and 'key t e a c h e r ' s t r a t e g y . The M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n of M a l a y s i a r e c o g n i z e d the importance of t h e t e a c h e r i n implementing the new h i s t o r y c u r r i c u l u m , and so o r g a n i z e d i n s e r v i c e c o u r s e s t o f a m i l i a r i z e t e a c h e r s w i t h the new c u r r i c u l u m . The c o u r s e s were c a r r i e d out a t two l e v e l s : c e n t r a l and s t a t e . At the c e n t r a l l e v e l , a group of t e a c h e r s (termed d i s t r i c t key p e r s o n n e l ) s p e c i a l l y s e l e c t e d by the S t a t e Departments of E d u c a t i o n a t t e n d e d an i n s e r v i c e c o u r s e o r g a n i z e d by the C u r r i c u l u m Development C e n t r e , a d i v i s i o n of the M i n i s t r y 4 of E d u c a t i o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the development of the c u r r i c u l u m . The d i s t r i c t key p e r s o n n e l then c o nducted s i m i l a r c o u r s e s i n the v a r i o u s s t a t e s f o r t e a c h e r s (termed key t e a c h e r s i n t h i s s t u d y ) from each of the s c h o o l s . These key t e a c h e r s , i n t u r n , were e x p e c t e d t o d i s s e m i n a t e the knowledge and s k i l l s g a i n e d from the i n s e r v i c e c o u r s e s t o o t h e r h i s t o r y t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r s c h o o l s and to h e l p them use the c u r r i c u l u m ( M a l a y s i a , M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , 1977a). D e s p i t e the use of key t e a c h e r s i n the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the new h i s t o r y c u r r i c u l u m i n M a l a y s i a , the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h i s s t r a t e g y i s u n c l e a r . S p e c i f i c a l l y , answers t o the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s a r e needed. • What a r e key t e a c h e r s e x p e c t e d t o do t o f a c i l i t a t e the im p l e m e n t a t i o n of a new c u r r i c u l u m ? • What do key t e a c h e r s a c t u a l l y do t o f a c i l i t a t e the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of a new c u r r i c u l u m ? and • Why do key t e a c h e r s do what they do i n the p r o c e s s of im p l e m e n t a t i o n ? These a r e i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s because t h e i r answers p r o v i d e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r those who p l a n t o use or c o n t i n u e t o use the key t e a c h e r s t r a t e g y i n the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of a new c u r r i c u l u m . 5 THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY T h i s s t u d y examined the r o l e of key t e a c h e r s i n the p r o c e s s of i mplementing the new Form 1 h i s t o r y c u r r i c u l u m i n M a l a y s i a n s c h o o l s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t he study d e t e r m i n e d 1) the p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e v a r i o u s groups (the key t e a c h e r s , the t e a c h e r s , the s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and o f f i c i a l s of the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n ) r e g a r d i n g the r o l e e x p e c t e d of the key t e a c h e r s i n the p r o c e s s of implementing t h e new h i s t o r y c u r r i c u l u m ; 2) the p e r c e p t i o n s of the v a r i o u s groups r e g a r d i n g the a c t i v i t i e s which c h a r a c t e r i z e d the a c t u a l r o l e of the key t e a c h e r s i n the p r o c e s s ; 3) the d i s c r e p a n c i e s and/or c o n g r u e n c i e s between the ex p e c t e d and t h e a c t u a l r o l e of the key t e a c h e r s ; and 4 ) the p e r c e p t i o n s of the v a r i o u s groups r e g a r d i n g the f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the a c t i v i t i e s of the key t e a c h e r s . DEFINITION OF TERMS Imp l e m e n t a t i o n : The p r o c e s s of f a c i l i t a t i n g t h e a c t u a l use of a new c u r r i c u l u m i n the s c h o o l s . Teachers need time t o l e a r n and t o c a r r y out the changes proposed by a new c u r r i c u l u m . T h i s p r o c e s s of l e a r n i n g and changing can be gui d e d and su p p o r t e d by key t e a c h e r s who a r e e x p e c t e d t o a c t as i n s t r u c t o r s and r e s o u r c e p e r s o n s f o r t e a c h e r s . C u r r i c u l u m ; Statements about the a s s u m p t i o n s , g o a l s , c o n t e n t , t e a c h i n g - l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s and r e s o u r c e s c o n t a i n e d i n 6 the g u i d e l i n e ( s y l l a b u s ) and o t h e r s u p p o r t documents p u b l i s h e d by the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . R o l e : The b e h a v i o r s e x p e c t e d of and a c t u a l l y c a r r i e d out by persons who occupy a p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n . T h i s s t u d y i s concerned w i t h the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n ' s e x p e c t a t i o n o f , and the a c t u a l a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out by, t h e key t e a c h e r s . Key Teacher: A t e a c h e r s e l e c t e d from among a group of h i s t o r y t e a c h e r s i n a s c h o o l t o a t t e n d an i n s e r v i c e c o u r s e on the new h i s t o r y c u r r i c u l u m and who i n t u r n was e x p e c t e d t o h e l p o t h e r t e a c h e r s l e a r n and t e a c h the new h i s t o r y c u r r i c u l u m i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m s . THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY T h i s s t u d y c o n t r i b u t e s t o both knowledge about, and p r a c t i c e i n , the p r o c e s s of c u r r i c u l u m i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . F i r s t l y , the study p r o v i d e s g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p r o c e s s of implementing the new h i s t o r y c u r r i c u l u m i n M a l a y s i a . S p e c i f i c a l l y , i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d about ( 1 ) the r o l e e x p e c t e d of the key t e a c h e r s i n the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of a new c u r r i c u l u m ; ( 2 ) the a c t u a l day-to-day a c t i v i t i e s of the key t e a c h e r s i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o h e l p t e a c h e r s implement the c u r r i c u l u m ; ( 3 ) the p e r c e i v e d u s e f u l n e s s of t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s ; and ( 4 ) f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e d the a c t i v i t i e s of the key t e a c h e r s . S e c o n d l y , the f i n d i n g s have i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g f u t u r e use of the 'key t e a c h e r ' s t r a t e g y f o r c u r r i c u l u m 7 i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n M a l a y s i a . T h i r d l y , the f i n d i n g s of t h i s s t u d y w i l l be r e l e v a n t t o knowledge of the importance of s u p p o r t a g e n t s i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and of t a k i n g i n t o account both p e r s o n a l and c o n t e x t u a l f a c t o r s i n p l a n n i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The f i n d i n g s may a l s o i n c r e a s e our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the ways i n which key t e a c h e r s can c o n t r i b u t e t o the p r o c e s s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and the f a c t o r s which f a c i l i t a t e or c o n s t r a i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s . F o u r t h l y , the s t u d y p r o v i d e s recommendations f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The s t u d y was based on a l i m i t e d sample. Only the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the new h i s t o r y c u r r i c u l u m a t the Form 1 l e v e l was s t u d i e d , and the sample was drawn from t h r e e s c h o o l s i n one S t a t e , S e l a n g o r . To be a p p l i c a b l e f o r o t h e r s c h o o l s i n o t h e r s t a t e s of M a l a y s i a , the r e s u l t s and c o n c l u s i o n s have t o be seen i n the l i g h t of the s c h o o l s and t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n v o l v e d . The use of s e l f - r e p o r t d a t a i s s u s c e p t i b l e t o problems such as the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' s e l e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s , a b i l i t y t o r e c o l l e c t p a s t e v e n t s , or even d e l i b e r a t e a t t e m p t s t o s u p p l y m i s l e a d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . The r e s e a r c h e r o b t a i n e d o n l y t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n which the p a r t i c i p a n t s were w i l l i n g and a b l e t o r e p o r t . 8 ORGANIZATION OF THE THESIS A re v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e and an o u t l i n e of the c o n c e p t u a l framework a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter 2. The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w d i s c u s s e s the r o l e of key p e r s o n s , the main approaches used i n the s t u d y of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and the importance of s t a f f development a c t i v i t i e s . C hapter 3 d e s c r i b e s the system of e d u c a t i o n i n M a l a y s i a : the development and s t r u c t u r e of a n a t i o n a l system of e d u c a t i o n , c o m p r i s i n g the f e d e r a l , s t a t e and s c h o o l l e v e l s . The c h a p t e r a l s o o u t l i n e s the development and the s t r a t e g y f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of t h e new h i s t o r y c u r r i c u l u m . Chapter 4 d e s c r i b e s the d e s i g n of the s t u d y , the t h r e e s o u r c e s of d a t a ( i n t e r v i e w s , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and documents), the c r i t e r i a f o r the s e l e c t i o n of s c h o o l s and o f f i c i a l s of the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n , the t h r e e s t a g e s of the st u d y ( i n i t i a l p r e p a r a t i o n , p i l o t s t u d y and d a t a c o l l e c t i o n ) , and the method of d a t a a n a l y s i s . The d a t a a r e p r e s e n t e d i n the next f o u r c h a p t e r s . C h a p t e r s 5 , 6 and 7 c o n t a i n d a t a from the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n S c h o o l s A, B and C, and Chapter 8 c o n s i s t s of d a t a from the o f f i c i a l s of the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . A l l d a t a a r e a n a l y z e d i n Chapter 9 . The summary, c o n c l u s i o n s and i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n Chapter 10. 9 ( \ CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK INTRODUCTION The f o c u s of t h i s s t u d y i s on t h e r o l e of the key t e a c h e r i n f a c i l i t a t i n g t he i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of a new c u r r i c u l u m i n the s c h o o l s . To h e l p u n d e r s t a n d the study f o u r a r e a s of the l i t e r a t u r e were re v i e w e d and a r e p r e s e n t e d i n the f i r s t s e c t i o n of t h i s c h a p t e r . The f i r s t p a r t of the r e v i e w examines s t u d i e s on the r o l e of key persons i n the p r o c e s s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s c u r r e n t knowledge and t o i d e n t i f y u s e f u l a r e a s f o r r e s e a r c h . The second p a r t of the re v i e w d e s c r i b e s the two main approaches t o i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and h i g h l i g h t s the c o n t r i b u t i o n of p r o c e s s s t u d i e s t o the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The t h i r d p a r t of the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w examines the importance of t e a c h e r s as c u r r i c u l u m u s e r s i n the p r o c e s s of implementing a new c u r r i c u l u m . The f o u r t h p a r t examines the importance of s t a f f development a c t i v i t i e s i n f a c i l i t a t i n g t e a c h e r l e a r n i n g and use of a new c u r r i c u l u m and s u b s e q u e n t l y i d e n t i f i e s s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a w e l l - c o n d u c t e d s t a f f development program. The l a s t p a r t of t h i s s e c t i o n summarizes the f i n d i n g s of the r e v i e w . E x i s t i n g knowledge about the r o l e of key p e r s o n s i n f a c i l i t a t i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , and the f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i r 10 a c t i v i t i e s as r e v e a l e d by the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w a r e u s e f u l i n h e l p i n g t o u n d e r s t a n d the f o c u s and d i r e c t i o n of t h i s s t u d y . The r e v i e w h e l p s t o j u s t i f y and c l a r i f y t he meanings of the c o n c e p t s of key t e a c h e r , i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , and r o l e , used i n the s t u d y . I t a l s o p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r d e v e l o p i n g the c o n c e p t u a l framework of the s t u d y , o u t l i n e d i n the second s e c t i o n of the c h a p t e r . REVIEW OF LITERATURE The Ro l e of Key Persons i n the P r o c e s s of Imp l e m e n t a t i o n Much of the r e s e a r c h on i m p l e m e n t a t i o n emphasizes the r o l e of key p e r s o n s , such as c e n t r a l or d i s t r i c t o f f i c e p e r s o n n e l , p r i n c i p a l s , and t e a c h e r s . Gross e t a l . (1971, 1975), f o r example, h i g h l i g h t e d t h e c r i t i c a l r o l e p l a y e d by both the t e a c h e r s and the management i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r s tudy of an e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l ' s attempt t o implement an i n n o v a t i o n , the i n n o v a t i o n was not s u c c e s s f u l l y c a r r i e d out because t e a c h e r s f a i l e d t o p e r f o r m the r o l e p r e s c r i b e d by the i n n o v a t i o n . Teachers f a i l e d t o e x h i b i t the new b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n s because they d i d not have a c l e a r image of the r o l e e x p e c t e d of them, and l a c k e d the a b i l i t y and m o t i v a t i o n t o p e r f o r m the r e q u i r e d r o l e . The u n a v a i l a b i l i t y of a p p r o p r i a t e m a t e r i a l s and the i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l arrangement t o t h e i n n o v a t i o n a l s o a f f e c t e d the t e a c h e r s ' performance. Based on t h i s f i n d i n g , Gross et a l . c o n c l u d e d t h a t the degree t o which an i n n o v a t i o n i s implemented i s a f u n c t i o n of the e x t e n t t o which f i v e c o n d i t i o n s a re p r e s e n t d u r i n g the p r o c e s s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . 11 These f i v e c o n d i t i o n s a r e t e a c h e r c l a r i t y , t e a c h e r a b i l i t y , t e a c h e r m o t i v a t i o n , a v a i l a b i l i t y of r e s o u r c e s and c o m p a t i b i l i t y of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l arrangements. They a l s o c o n c l u d e d t h a t the e x t e n t t o which the f i v e c o n d i t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t i s a f u n c t i o n of the performance of the management. The f a i l u r e of the t e a c h e r s was a t t r i b u t e d t o the f a i l u r e of the management t o c r e a t e and m a i n t a i n c o n d i t i o n s t h a t f a c i l i t a t e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . Gross e t a l . (1971, 1975) c i t e d the management's f a i l u r e t o r e c o g n i z e the c o m p l e x i t i e s of the p r o c e s s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n as one of the reasons f o r t h e i r i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s . They found the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t r a t e g y used by the P r o j e c t D i r e c t o r t o be d e f i c i e n t i n t h a t i t f a i l e d t o t a k e account of the v a r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s t e a c h e r s were l i k e l y t o e n c o u n t e r and d i d not e s t a b l i s h and use any feedback mechanism t o h e l p i d e n t i f y and cope w i t h the problems t h a t a r o s e d u r i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' l a c k of awareness and u n d e r s t a n d i n g about the i n n o v a t i o n , s p e c i f i c a l l y the new t e a c h e r r o l e and the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' r o l e o b l i g a t i o n t o t e a c h e r s , a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o many of the d i f f i c u l t i e s f a c e d by t e a c h e r s . The a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' l a c k of c l a r i t y p r e v e n t e d them from h e l p i n g t e a c h e r s c l a r i f y any a m b i g u i t i e s they had, and hence p r e v e n t e d them from r e a l i z i n g the need t o e s t a b l i s h p r o c e d u r e s t h a t would p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t r a i n i n g . As a r e s u l t , t e a c h e r s r e c e i v e d v e r y l i t t l e h e l p i n d e v e l o p i n g the competencies needed t o implement the i n n o v a t i o n . The a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' l a c k of u n d e r s t a n d i n g a l s o r e s u l t e d i n t h e i r f a i l u r e t o r e c o g n i z e the need t o a l t e r c e r t a i n 12 o r g a n i z a t i o n a l arrangements t o s u i t the i n n o v a t i o n , a c o n d i t i o n t h a t Gross e t a l . (1971) found c o n t r i b u t e d t o the l a c k of s u c c e s s i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The importance of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p e r s o n n e l i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n was a l s o shown by the Rand Study (Greenwood et a l . , 1975; M c L a u g h l i n and Marsh, 1978). A d m i n i s t r a t i v e support f o r the p r o j e c t a t a l l l e v e l s of the d i s t r i c t -- from the c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o the s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s -- was c r i t i c a l i n enhancing p r o j e c t s u c c e s s . D i s t r i c t l e v e l s u p p o r t and commitment were found t o be v i t a l i n s e e i n g the p r o j e c t t h r o u g h the f i r s t y e a r . P r o j e c t s , i n which the c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s were p e r c e i v e d t o be i n d i f f e r e n t or opposed t o the p r o j e c t s f l o u n d e r e d and f a i l e d t o a c h i e v e momentum or s t a f f e n t h u s i a s m . The s u p p o r t of the p r i n c i p a l s was found t o have a more d r a m a t i c and immediate e f f e c t on i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . In p r o j e c t s where the b e h a v i o r of the p r i n c i p a l s was p e r c e i v e d as s u p p o r t i v e , such as p r o v i d i n g e x t r a s e r v i c e s f o r t e a c h e r s and making s c h e d u l e changes t o accommodate p r o j e c t r e q u i r e m e n t s , the t e a c h e r s appeared t o have g a i n e d p r o f e s s i o n a l p r i d e and esteem, a c o n d i t i o n found t o be b e n e f i c i a l t o s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The Rand Study (Greenwood et a l . , 1975; M c L a u g h l i n and Marsh, 1978) a l s o found the l o c a l r e s o u r c e p e r s o n n e l t o be c r i t i c a l t o i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . T h e i r p r o x i m i t y t o t e a c h e r s and t h e i r f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n e n a b l e d them t o u n d e r s t a n d c l e a r l y the problems f a c e d by t e a c h e r s . The l o c a l r e s o u r c e p e r s o n n e l were, t h e r e f o r e , a b l e t o p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s w i t h the much-needed p r a c t i c a l a d v i c e and on-going c l a s s r o o m 13 a s s i s t a n c e viewed by t e a c h e r s as c r i t i c a l i n h e l p i n g them through the d i f f i c u l t p r o c e s s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The Rand Study p o i n t e d out t h a t t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of the u s e f u l n e s s of t h e l o c a l r e s o u r c e p e r s o n n e l had p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s on t h e p e r c e n t a g e of g o a l s a c h i e v e d , on s t u d e n t performance, on t e a c h e r change and on the c o n t i n u a t i o n of p r o j e c t methods and m a t e r i a l s . Any a s s i s t a n c e p r o v i d e d t h a t was not p e r c e i v e d as u s e f u l d i d not have any e f f e c t on i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ; i t i n f a c t h i n d e r e d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The importance of the r o l e of key p e r s o n s i n the p r o c e s s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n was a l s o h i g h l i g h t e d i n s t u d i e s on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l development. F u l l a n e t a l . (1980) a f t e r r e v i e w i n g s e v e r a l works on o r g a n i z a t i o n a l development, s p e c i f i c a l l y i n a n a l y z i n g the c o n d i t i o n s a f f e c t i n g the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l development programs, c o n c l u d e d t h a t 1) a c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t , s u p p o r t and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of programs by t o p management and by p r i n c i p a l s were e s s e n t i a l d u r i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , and 2) e s t a b l i s h m e n t and use of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l development c o n s u l t a n t s combined w i t h the use of e x t e r n a l c o n s u l t a n t s were a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . F u l l a n ( 1 982), a f t e r r e v i e w i n g some of the a v a i l a b l e r e s e a r c h on the r o l e of i n t e r n a l c o n s u l t a n t s c o n c l u d e d t h a t i n t e r n a l s u p port s t a f f c o u l d p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e by h e l p i n g a r r a n g e f r e q u e n t meetings w i t h s m a l l groups of t e a c h e r s t o exchange i d e a s and i n f o r m a t i o n . They a l s o c o n t r i b u t e t o the development of s u p p o r t , r e a s s u r a n c e and c l a r i t y about the i n n o v a t i o n among the t e a c h e r s . However, f a c t o r s such as the 14 c o n s u l t a n t s ' l a c k of c l a r i t y and l a c k of p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e i r r o l e have c r e a t e d problems i n t h e i r r o l e p erformance. Other problems f a c e d f r e q u e n t l y by the c o n s u l t a n t s i n c l u d e the l a c k of program knowledge, the l a c k of l e a d e r s h i p s u p p o r t by p r i n c i p a l s , and d i f f i c u l t i e s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g ongoing communication w i t h t e a c h e r s i n s c h o o l s . Based on t h e s e f i n d i n g s F u l l a n (1982) came to the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of su p p o r t s t a f f c o u l d be f a c i l i t a t e d i f d i s t r i c t s s e t up a d e l i b e r a t e system of ongoing a s s i s t a n c e and sup p o r t f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . F u l l a n (1982) a l s o p o i n t e d out t h a t t o be e f f e c t i v e , l e a d e r s of e d u c a t i o n a l change, i n c l u d i n g the sup p o r t a g e n t s , have t o po s s e s s t h r e e k i n d s of knowledge and s k i l l s : t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e r e l a t e d t o s u b s t a n t i v e c o n t e n t a r e a , i n t e r p e r s o n a l or human r e l a t i o n s k i l l s , and c o n c e p t u a l and t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s p e r t a i n i n g t o p l a n n i n g and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . T e c h n i c a l e x p e r t i s e i n c l u d e s knowledge about what c o m p r i s e s the change and s k i l l s t o use i t . Such e x p e r t i s e i s e s s e n t i a l t o e n a b l e l e a d e r s t o su p p o r t the use of the new c u r r i c u l u m e f f e c t i v e l y . I n t e r p e r s o n a l s k i l l s i n c l u d e the a b i l i t i e s t o communicate w i t h , t o l i s t e n t o , t o m o t i v a t e , and t o g a i n the t r u s t o f , those i n v o l v e d . C o n c e p t u a l and t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s r e f e r t o "... the a b i l i t y t o comprehend and o r g a n i z e the p r o c e s s of e d u c a t i o n a l change and our own and o t h e r ' s p l a c e i n i t " ( F u l l a n , 1982:93). T h i s i n c l u d e s u n d e r s t a n d i n g the c u l t u r e of the s c h o o l , the problems of communication, and p e o p l e ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the change p r o c e s s , v a l u e s and m o t i v a t i o n s . F u l l a n (1982) was e s p e c i a l l y concerned w i t h the need t o un d e r s t a n d the r e a l i t i e s of o t h e r s : "... the v a l u e s , i d e a s and 15 e x p e r i e n c e s of t h o s e who a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r implementing any changes" ( p . 8 3 ) . Such u n d e r s t a n d i n g exposes t h e s e key p e r s o n s t o the problems of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and p r o v i d e s them w i t h i d e a s on how t o f a c i l i t a t e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the new program. T h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g c o u l d be enhanced t h r o u g h r e g u l a r i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h o s e i n v o l v e d w i t h implementing the new c u r r i c u l u m . The works c i t e d above emphasize the r o l e c a r r i e d out by key p e r s o n s i n the p r o c e s s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e t h a t r o l e . These f a c t o r s c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d as r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n , p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s and c o n t e x t u a l f a c t o r s . Some of the p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s i n c l u d e c l a r i t y about the i n n o v a t i o n and the r o l e e x p e c t e d of them; a b i l i t y t o use the i n n o v a t i o n and t o c a r r y out t h e i r r o l e ; p o s s e s s i o n of i n t e r p e r s o n a l , c o n c e p t u a l and t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s ; and a l s o commitment towards the p r o j e c t . Examples of c o n t e x t u a l f a c t o r s a r e the a v a i l a b i l i t y of m a t e r i a l s , c o m p a t i b i l i t y of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l arrangements, r e g u l a r i n t e r a c t i o n s among thos e i n v o l v e d i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , and the amount of s u p p o r t and h e l p r e c e i v e d from the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and o t h e r s u p p o r t i v e p e r s o n n e l . Based on t h e s e works i t appears t h a t t h e r e a r e two t y p e s of key p e r s o n s : a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and n o n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e . Each type can be f u r t h e r c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o t h o s e i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l t o the system under a n a l y s i s . T a b l e 1 shows the r e s u l t i n g f o u r t y p e s of key p e r s o n s , u s i n g the s c h o o l as the u n i t of a n a l y s i s . Our c o n c e r n here i s w i t h the f o u r t h group: the i n t e r n a l , n o n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p e r s o n n e l , who i s c a l l e d the s t a f f p e r s o n . Key t e a c h e r s , the f o c u s of t h i s s t u d y , c o u l d be viewed as f a l l i n g 16 T a b l e 1 Key Persons and the Implementation P r o c e s s E x t e r n a l I n t e r n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i v e C e n t r a l O f f i c e P e r s o n n e l P r i n c i p a l Non-Admin i s t r a t i v e C o n s u l t a n t S t a f f Person w i t h i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t d i f f e r e n t terms have been used i n the l i t e r a t u r e t o r e p r e s e n t t h i s c a t e g o r y of key p e r s o n . F u l l a n e t a l . ' s (1980) r e v i e w l i s t e d s e v e r a l terms such as t e a c h e r l e a d e r , renewal c o o r d i n a t o r , i n t e r n a l change agent , t e a c h e r a d v i s o r and i n t e r n a l s t a f f l e a d e r . The term s t a f f p e r s o n i s used here t o r e p r e s e n t a l l such n o n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p e r s o n n e l i n the l o c a l s c h o o l . Though the t i t l e 'key t e a c h e r ' i s a M a l a y s i a n phenomenon, a r e v i e w of r e s e a r c h on the r o l e of the s t a f f person s u g g e s t s s e v e r a l u s e f u l d i r e c t i o n s f o r r e s e a r c h . I t i s e v i d e n t from t h i s r e v i e w t h a t g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n has been g i v e n t o the study of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p e r s o n n e l i n the p r o c e s s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n t o e s t a b l i s h i n g the c r i t i c a l r o l e p l a y e d by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , t h e s e s t u d i e s on the s t a f f p e r s o n a l s o p r o v i d e r i c h i n f o r m a t i o n on how the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s c o u l d f a c i l i t a t e t h e p r o c e s s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , and the f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e t h e i r b e h a v i o r . They p o i n t e d out t h a t t e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' b e h a v i o r i n f l u e n c e the outcome of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . Very few s t u d i e s have, however, f o c u s e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on the r o l e of the s t a f f person i n the p r o c e s s of c u r r i c u l u m 17 i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . I n f o r m a t i o n about how they i n f l u e n c e the p r o c e s s or f a c t o r s t h a t govern t h e i r b e h a v i o r i s l i m i t e d and s k e t c h y . For example, the Rand Study, w h i l e p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e a c t i v i t i e s of l o c a l r e s o u r c e p e r s o n n e l t h a t a r e p e r c e i v e d as u s e f u l by t e a c h e r s , d i d not h i g h l i g h t the f a c t t h a t the a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s w i t h c o n c r e t e a d v i c e and ongoing h e l p i s c o n d i t i o n a l upon the p r e s e n c e of c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s . Approaches t o the Study of I m p l e m e n t a t i o n Two approaches have dominated s t u d i e s on i m p l e m e n t a t i o n : the p r o d u c t approach and the p r o c e s s approach. These r e p r e s e n t d i f f e r e n t ways of l o o k i n g a t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The p r o d u c t approach i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h the e x t e n t t o which the a c t u a l use of the i n n o v a t i o n c o r r e s p o n d s t o i t s i n t e n d e d use. I t s f o c u s i s on the degree of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The degree of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s the c r i t e r i o n used t o a s s e s s the degree of s u c c e s s of an i n n o v a t i o n : the h i g h e r the congruency, the more s u c c e s s f u l the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of the i n n o v a t i o n . I m p l i c i t i n s t u d i e s employing t h i s approach i s the g e n e r a l i n p u t - o u t p u t model which, as p o i n t e d out by Berman and M c L a u g h l i n (1974), emphasizes the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n p u t — the e d u c a t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t which has been s p e c i f i e d i n advance — and the o u t p u t -- the outcome measured such as s t u d e n t s ' and t e a c h e r s ' performances. I n f o r m a t i o n g a i n e d from employing t h i s approach i s u s e f u l i n d e t e r m i n i n g the e x t e n t t o which a p a r t i c u l a r program has been implemented and i n i n f o r m i n g d e v e l o p e r s or d e c i s i o n makers of any n e c e s s a r y r e v i s i o n s t o a 18 p a r t i c u l a r program ( L e i n h a r d t , 1980). S e v e r a l a u t h o r s have p o i n t e d out the s h o r t c o m i n g s of such s t u d i e s . Berman and M c L a u g h l i n f o r example, argued t h a t the f i n d i n g s of t h e s e s t u d i e s " l a c k s t a b i l i t y and e x p o r t a b i l i t y " (1974:5) because t h e s e f i n d i n g s d i d not i d e n t i f y i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e ' i n t e n d e d ' and the ' a c t u a l ' outcomes. These s t u d i e s do not t e l l us whether the l a c k of s u c c e s s i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n was caused by s l i p p a g e s between the g o a l s and the t r e a t m e n t , premature e v a l u a t i o n , i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of the g o a l s or the i n n o v a t i o n , or problems e n c o u n t e r e d d u r i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The p r o c e s s a p p r o a c h , on the o t h e r hand, i s concerned w i t h a n a l y z i n g the c o u r s e of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , a p r o c e s s which F u l l a n and Pomfret (1977) d e s c r i b e as h i g h l y complex and i n v o l v i n g "... r e l a t i o n s h i p s between u s e r s and managers and among v a r i o u s groups of u s e r s ... c h a r a c t e r i z e d by i n e v i t a b l e c o n f l i c t and by a n t i c i p a t e d and u n a n t i c i p a t e d problems" (390). P r o c e s s s t u d i e s u s u a l l y d e a l w i t h t h r e e main q u e s t i o n s ; 1) What happened d u r i n g the p r o c e s s ? , 2) How d i d i t come a b o u t ? , and 3) Why d i d i t happen the way i t d i d ? Answers t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s p r o v i d e d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of how a p a r t i c u l a r i n n o v a t i o n works, the a c t i v i t i e s t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e the p r o c e s s and the c o n d i t i o n s t h a t i n f l u e n c e i t . Such s t u d i e s h e l p account f o r "... v a r i a t i o n s i n the degree t o which the same i n n o v a t i o n i s implemented by d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s and the degree t o which some components of an i n n o v a t i o n a r e implemented more e f f e c t i v e l y than o t h e r s " ( F u l l a n and P o m f r e t , 1977:345). 1 9 An in-depth study of the implementation process i s u s e f u l i n p r o v i d i n g r i c h i n s i g h t s and d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of the c o m p l e x i t i e s and dynamics of the process. Data uncovered through such i n v e s t i g a t i o n could be used to formulate models i n d u c t i v e l y or to develop t h e o r i e s about implementation. According to Berman and McLaughlin (1974), d e d u c t i v e l y formulated models, such as Havelock's four models (often used i n s t u d i e s on implementation) are of l i m i t e d use to implementation since they r e l y h e a v i l y on the l i t e r a t u r e on d i f f u s i o n , which emphasizes d i f f e r e n t i a l rates of adoption as the c e n t r a l issue for a n a l y s i s . The usefulness of these models to implementation i s a l s o l i m i t e d since they are concerned mainly with the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the treatment and outcome, and do not focus on the process. An i n d u c t i v e l y formulated model of implementation may, t h e r e f o r e , be considered u s e f u l i n h e l p i n g us understand the complex nature of the implementation process and, consequently, i n guiding e f f o r t s at implementation. The Rand Study (Berman and McLaughlin, 1974, 1975; Greenwood et a l . , 1975; McLaughlin and Marsh, 1978), which i n v e s t i g a t e d the implementation of f e d e r a l l y - f u n d e d programs i n the United States, i s an outstanding example of research u t i l i z i n g the process approach. I t should be noted, however, that though i t s emphasis was on the process of implementation, the Rand Study was a l s o concerned with the outcome of implementation. The case study approach was s e l e c t e d by the Rand Study to provide d e t a i l e d understanding of implementation, s p e c i f i c a l l y the a c t i v i t i e s that c h a r a c t e r i z e the process, and the 20 i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g t h a t i n f l u e n c e d i t . The case study y i e l d e d i n f o r m a t i o n about p r o j e c t "outcomes, such as the impact of the change p r o j e c t on c l a s s r o o m s , t e a c h e r s , s t u d e n t s and the impact of f e d e r a l money on p r o j e c t c o n t i n u a t i o n . I n f o r m a t i o n about the p r o c e s s and the outcomes were o b t a i n e d t h r ough open-ended i n t e r v i e w s and c l a s s r o o m o b s e r v a t i o n s . To u n d e r s t a n d why a p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t was implemented the way i t was, t h e Rand r e s e a r c h e r s t a l k e d t o major p a r t i c i p a n t s i n v o l v e d i n the p r o c e s s . The i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d was used t o put t o g e t h e r a p i c t u r e of what happened i n the c o u r s e of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and t o i d e n t i f y the c o n d i t i o n s t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t t h e p r o c e s s (Greenwood e t a l . , 1975). Three i m p o r t a n t c o n c l u s i o n s of the Rand Study a r e l i s t e d below. 1) I m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s a p r o c e s s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by mutual a d a p t a t i o n . 2) The e x t e n t of mutual a d a p t a t i o n i s i n f l u e n c e d by the s u b s t a n t i v e d e s i g n of the i n n o v a t i o n and the m o t i v a t i o n s of t h o s e i n v o l v e d . 3) How a d a p t a t i o n o c c u r s , why i t o c c u r s as i t does, and the consequences of v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s a r e r e l a t e d t o the a t t r i b u t e s of the i n n o v a t i v e s t r a t e g y and the i n s t i t u t i o n a l s e t t i n g . Greenwood et a l . (1975) noted t h a t s i n c e the case s t u d i e s were e x p l o r a t o r y , the f i n d i n g s were t e n t a t i v e . The g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the f i n d i n g s i s l i m i t e d . F i r s t l y , the study 21 at t e m p t e d t o d e s c r i b e and t o i n t e r p r e t o n l y the p r o c e s s e s t h a t were common t o the p r o j e c t s v i s i t e d , not t o make g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s about i n n o v a t i o n s i n e d u c a t i o n . S e c o n d l y , the f i n d i n g s were drawn from p r o j e c t s . b e l i e v e d t o c o n t r i b u t e most t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the change p r o c e s s ; l e s s weight was g i v e n t o thos e p r o j e c t s p e r c e i v e d as l e s s u s e f u l t o such u n d e r s t a n d i n g . The f i n d i n g s and hypotheses t h a t emerged from the s t u d y , t h e r e f o r e , needed t o be r e f i n e d and m o d i f i e d by subsequent work b e f o r e they c o u l d be g e n e r a l i z e d . The i m p l e m e n t a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s s e v e r a l ways of d e s c r i b i n g the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p r o c e s s . The Rand Study (Berman and M c L a u g h l i n , 1974, 1975; Berman e t a l . , 1975; Greenwood e t a l . , 1975; M c L a u g h l i n and Marsh, 1978), as d i s c u s s e d e a r l i e r , c o n c l u d e d t h a t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a p r o c e s s of mutual a d a p t a t i o n . H a l l and a s s o c i a t e s a t the Texas R e s e a r c h and Development C e n t r e ( H a l l and Lo u c k s , 1977, 1978; Loucks, 1978; Loucks and P r a t t , 1979; P r a t t e t a l . , 1980) and Le i t h w o o d and a s s o c i a t e s a t the O n t a r i o I n s t i t u t e f o r S t u d i e s i n E d u c a t i o n ( L e i t h w o o d , 1979; Le i t h w o o d and Montgomery, 1980) view i m p l e m e n t a t i o n as a d e v e l o p m e n t a l or growth p r o c e s s whereby u s e r s of a c u r r i c u l u m i n n o v a t i o n move from t h e i r c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e s toward p r e f e r r e d p r a c t i c e s as p r e s c r i b e d by the i n n o v a t i o n . Werner (1980a), from a p l a n n i n g v i e w p o i n t , d e s c r i b e d i m p l e m e n t a t i o n as "a p r o c e s s of p u t t i n g i n t o p r a c t i c e something new" which c o m p r i s e s "... a l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s , a s o c i a l p r o c e s s and an a d a p t i v e p r o c e s s on the p a r t of the s c h o o l s t a f f " ( p . 7 ) . The p r o c e s s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n c o u l d be f a c i l i t a t e d by u s i n g s t r a t e g i e s t h a t p r o v i d e f o r such t h i n g s as r e g u l a r i n t e r a c t i o n s , 22 e f f e c t i v e s t a f f development programs, and r e s o u r c e and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u p p o r t . An i n c r e a s i n g number of s t u d i e s on i m p l e m e n t a t i o n a r e u t i l i s i n g b o t h the p r o d u c t and p r o c e s s approach. The concept of ' l e v e l s of use' (LOU) de v e l o p e d by H a l l and a s s o c i a t e s , f o r example, i s concerned w i t h both the degree of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and i t s p r o c e s s . The e i g h t ' l e v e l s of use' -- non-use, o r i e n t a t i o n , p r e p a r a t i o n , m e c h a n i c a l use, r o u t i n e , r e f i n e m e n t , i n t e g r a t i o n and renewal — suggest t h a t u s e r s v a r y i n t h e i r degree of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and t h a t they may go th r o u g h d i f f e r e n t s t a g e s as they d e v e l o p the a b i l i t y t o use the i n n o v a t i o n . The LOU a r e l i n k e d w i t h c o r r e s p o n d i n g s t a g e s of con c e r n — awareness, i n f o r m a t i o n a l , p e r s o n a l , management, consequence, c o l l a b o r a t i o n and r e f o c u s s i n g — which need t o be met i f a g i v e n user i s t o pro c e e d from a lower t o a h i g h e r LOU. T h i s concept of ' l e v e l s of use' c o n t r i b u t e s t o c u r r e n t t h i n k i n g about the g o a l s and the p r o c e s s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . L e i t h w o o d and Montgomery (1980) p o i n t out t h a t LOU's v a l u e l i e s i n i t s o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n as a p r o c e s s , e m p i r i c a l r e c o g n i t i o n of d i f f e r e n t i a t e d needs among implementors depending on ' l e v e l s of use', the p r o v i s i o n of a w e l l - t e s t e d s e t of i n s t r u m e n t s and p r o c e d u r e s f o r d i a g n o s i n g b o t h ' l e v e l s of use' and s t a g e s of c o n c e r n , and the g e n e r a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y of the c o n c e p t s and p r o c e d u r e s a c r o s s d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s of e d u c a t i o n a l i n n o v a t i o n s " (p.206). LOU's c o n t r i b u t i o n towards the p l a n n i n g f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n was p o i n t e d out by Loucks (1978). A c c o r d i n g t o h e r , i n f o r m a t i o n 23 about the d i f f e r e n t needs of teachers as shown in their LOU i s useful in planning for d i f f e r e n t i a t e d staff development needs. LOU can also be used to help planners set goals for implementation. The assessing of LOU throughout the implementation e f f o r t helps contribute data for continuous and e f f e c t i v e planning, and decision making. The product and process view of implementation i s also r e f l e c t e d in the work of Leithwood and associates who developed an 'Innovation P r o f i l e ' after finding the LOU "... insensitive to important differences among innovations and thus frustrates ... attempts to f a c i l i t a t e implementation" (Leithwood, 1979:4). The 'Innovation P r o f i l e ' i s made up of a two-dimensional matrix: the dimensions of an innovation and the LOU, with each matrix c e l l containing the behavior considered appropriate for each stage. A comparison of the practices intended by a p a r t i c u l a r curriculum innovation and those a c t u a l l y practised by the schools in their attempt at implementing the curriculum, could f a c i l i t a t e the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of obstacles that hinder teacher growth in a stipulated d i r e c t i o n . Such information i s of value in the planning of curriculum implementation. Teachers and the Process of Implementation Implementation studies have increasingly focused on teachers as curriculum users or key actors in the process of implementing a new curriculum. These studies showed that teachers have an important role in implementation. The success of any implementation e f f o r t i s influenced greatly by the teachers' 24 k n o w l e d g e a n d a b i l i t y t o u s e t h e c u r r i c u l u m a n d t h e w a y t h e t e a c h e r s v i e w t h e c u r r i c u l u m . T e a c h e r s ' K n o w l e d g e a n d A b i l i t y . W o r k s o n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n h a v e s h o w n t h a t t o b e a b l e t o u s e a n i n n o v a t i o n , a t e a c h e r n e e d s n o t o n l y t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e n e w g o a l s , a c t i v i t i e s , r o l e s , r e s o u r c e s o r a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g t h e n e w c u r r i c u l u m , b u t a l s o t o p o s s e s s t h e s k i l l s n e e d e d t o c a r r y o u t t h e s e c h a n g e s ( G r o s s e t a l . , 1 9 7 1 , 1 9 7 5 ; G i a c q u i n t a , 1 9 7 3 ; K r i t e k , 1 9 7 6 ; F u l l a n a n d P o m f r e t , 1 9 7 7 ) . G r o s s e t a l . ' s ( 1 9 7 1 ) s t u d y o f a n a t t e m p t b y a s m a l l e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l t o i m p l e m e n t a m a j o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a n g e , f o r e x a m p l e , s h o w e d t h a t t e a c h e r s n e e d e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e i n n o v a t i o n a n d h a v e a c l e a r i m a g e o f t h e r o l e e x p e c t e d o f t h e m . T h e i r a m b i g u i t y a b o u t t h e i n n o v a t i o n c o u l d r e d u c e t h e i r a b i l i t y t o i m p l e m e n t t h e i n n o v a t i o n a n d t o e x h i b i t t h e n e c e s s a r y a t t i t u d e a n d b e h a v i o r r e q u i r e d b y t h e i n n o v a t i o n . B e n h a m ( 1 9 7 7 ) a n d W e r n e r ( 1 9 8 0 ) s p e c i f i c a l l y p o i n t t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t e a c h e r s u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e b e l i e f s u p o n w h i c h a c u r r i c u l u m i s p r e m i s e d . W e r n e r ( 1 9 8 0 ) c i t e d a c a s e s t u d y w h i c h s h o w e d t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r s t y l e o f c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t , " m u t u a l i s m " , w a s n o t u s e d b e c a u s e t h e a s s u m p t i o n s i m p l i c i t i n t h e a p p r o a c h w e r e n o t f u l l y u n d e r s t o o d b y t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t t e a m . H e a l s o c i t e d t h e s t u d y b y D o w n e y ( 1 9 7 5 ) w h i c h f o u n d t h a t t h o u g h t h e t e a c h e r s e x p r e s s e d t h e i r s u p p o r t a n d c o m m i t m e n t t o t h e . s o c i a l s t u d i e s p r o g r a m t h e y w e r e u s i n g , t h e b e l i e f s u n d e r l y i n g t h e p r o g r a m w e r e n o t r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m b e h a v i o r . 25 Teacher c l a r i t y about th e i n n o v a t i o n and the r o l e e x p e c t e d of them i s i m p o r t a n t t o the s u c c e s s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The f i n d i n g s of t h e Rand Study suggest t h a t t e a c h e r c l a r i t y needs t o be f o s t e r e d . The c o n c e p t u a l c l a r i t y c r i t i c a l t o p r o j e c t s u c c e s s and c o n t i n u a t i o n must be a c h i e v e d d u r i n g the p r o c e s s of p r o j e c t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ; i t cannot be g i v e n t o the s t a f f a t the o u t s e t . ( M c L a u g h l i n and Marsh, 1978:80) Such c l a r i t y can be enhanced by s e t t i n g up p l a n s and p r o c e d u r e s t h a t promote the c o n t i n u o u s e x p l i c a t i o n of the i n n o v a t i o n . T h i s may i n c l u d e p l a n s f o r r e g u l a r i n t e r a c t i o n s among the people i n v o l v e d i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , and e f f e c t i v e s t a f f development programs. Teachers' Views of the C u r r i c u l u m . The f a t e of a c u r r i c u l u m can be i n f l u e n c e d by the way the t e a c h e r s view the c u r r i c u l u m . D oyle and Ponder (1977) b e l i e v e t h a t i n n o v a t i o n s p e r c e i v e d as p r a c t i c a l by t e a c h e r s have g r e a t e r chance of b e i n g i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t e a c h e r s ' c l a s s r o o m p l a n s than those p e r c e i v e d as i m p r a c t i c a l . An i n n o v a t i o n i s p e r c e i v e d by t e a c h e r s as p r a c t i c a l i f i t meets the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a . 1) I t i s c l e a r , t h a t i s , communicated i n " p r o c e d u r a l , e c o l o g i c a l l y r e l e v a n t t e r m i n o l o g y " ( p . 7 7 ) ; 2) i t i s p e r c e i v e d as congruent w i t h p r e v a i l i n g c o n d i t i o n s , and 3) i t can be implemented w i t h ease. F u l l a n ' s (1982) r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e on i n n o v a t i o n s , however, showed t h a t i n most c a s e s , the d i s i n c e n t i v e s f o r u s i n g an i n n o v a t i o n outweigh the i n c e n t i v e s . The c u l t u r e of the 26 s c h o o l , the demands of the c l a s s r o o m and the way change i s i n t r o d u c e d do not p e r m i t or f a c i l i t a t e t e a c h e r s ' i n v o l v e m e n t i n change e f f o r t s . Most of the s t r a t e g i e s used by promoters of change do not work because "... t h e y a r e d e r i v e d from a w o r l d or from p r e m i s e s d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of the t e a c h e r s " (p.115). F u l l a n (1982) b e l i e v e s t h a t u n d e r s t a n d i n g the t e a c h e r s ' w o r l d i s , t h e r e f o r e , a n e c e s s a r y p r e - c o n d i t i o n f o r tho s e who d e a l w i t h t e a c h e r s because such u n d e r s t a n d i n g c o u l d g e n e r a t e i n s i g h t s and i d e a s on how t o f a c i l i t a t e change among the t e a c h e r s . A c c o r d i n g t o Werner (1977), t e a c h e r s ' a c c e p t a n c e and use of a new c u r r i c u l u m i s l a r g e l y c o n t i n g e n t upon t h e i r b e l i e f r e g a r d i n g i t s r e l e v a n c e and the e x t e n t t o which they u n d e r s t a n d , share and f e e l committed t o the b e l i e f s u n d e r l y i n g the i n t e n t s , a c t i v i t i e s and r e s o u r c e s t h a t c o m p r i s e d the c u r r i c u l u m . Benham (1977) s t r o n g l y b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e f a i l u r e of many of the e d u c a t i o n a l r e f o r m s i n the l a t e s i x t i e s and e a r l y s e v e n t i e s c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o the e x i s t e n c e of a "fundamental p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i f f e r e n c e between the reforms b e i n g proposed and the i n s t i t u t i o n of p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g . . . f o r whi c h they were b e i n g proposed" (1977:205). In view of the importance of t h e need f o r t e a c h e r s t o share the b e l i e f s u n d e r l y i n g t h e c u r r i c u l u m , Werner (1980) su g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s e b e l i e f s be made e x p l i c i t t o t e a c h e r s and t h a t c o n t i n u o u s m o n i t o r i n g of t h e p r o c e s s be p r o v i d e d t o ensure ongoing u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the c u r r i c u l u m . 27 S t a f f Development and Implementation S t u d i e s on i m p l e m e n t a t i o n such as t h o s e c a r r i e d out by the Rand C o r p o r a t i o n ( M c L a u g h l i n , 1976; M c L a u g h l i n and Marsh, 1978), Gross e t a l . (1971, 1975) and G i a c q u i n t a (1973) and those r e v i e w e d by F u l l a n and Pomfret (1977) show t h a t a w e l l - c o n d u c t e d s t a f f development program i s c r u c i a l t o the s u c c e s s of any i m p l e m e n t a t i o n e f f o r t . I t f o s t e r s t e a c h e r l e a r n i n g and change and e n s u r e s the c o n t i n u a t i o n of new p r o j e c t s . R esearch on s t a f f development and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n shows t h a t an e f f e c t i v e s t a f f development program needs t o p o s s e s s t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : c o n t i n u i t y , f l e x i b i l i t y and r e l e v a n c e , and the u t i l i z a t i o n of a v a r i e t y of modes of d e l i v e r y ( H a l l and L o ucks, 1978; M c L a u g h l i n and Marsh, 1978; F u l l a n , 1979b; J o y c e , 1979; Nash and I r e l a n d , 1979; J o y c e and Showers, 1980). C o n t i n u i t y . Most s t u d i e s on s t a f f development ( M c L a u g h l i n and Marsh, 1978; H a l l and Loucks, 1978; F u l l a n , 1979; Nash and I r e l a n d , 1979) view c o n t i n u i t y as an e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t f o r e f f e c t i v e s t a f f development programs. These programs need t o be c a r r i e d out b e f o r e as w e l l as d u r i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . One-shot p r e - i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s t a f f development programs, the t r a d i t i o n a l f o c u s of many s t a f f development e f f o r t s , a r e not c o n s i d e r e d adequate because they do not c a t e r t o the c o n t i n u i n g needs and c o n c e r n s of those t e a c h e r s i n v o l v e d w i t h implementing the c u r r i c u l u m ( M c L a u g h l i n and Marsh, 1978). Such c o n t i n u i t y i s c r i t i c a l i n view of the f i n d i n g s of the Rand Study ( M c L a u g h l i n and Marsh, 1978) and the LOU r e s e a r c h c a r r i e d out by the Texas Res e a r c h Group ( H a l l and L o u c k s , 1978) which show t h a t an 28 i n n o v a t i o n sometimes took one or s e v e r a l y e a r s t o r e a c h f u l l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and t h a t t e a c h e r l e a r n i n g o r development took p l a c e t h r o u g h o u t the p r o c e s s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . Over t h i s p e r i o d of t i m e , t e a c h e r s needed t o l e a r n not o n l y the new i d e a s c o n t a i n e d i n the i n n o v a t i o n and the s k i l l s r e q u i r e d t o use i t , but a l s o how t o a p p l y t h e s e s k i l l s , knowledge and m a t e r i a l s i n t h e i r c l a s s r o o m and how t o r e t a i n them once f e d e r a l f u n d i n g s t o p p e d . A c o n t i n u o u s s t a f f development program can a l s o h e l p a l l e v i a t e the problem of ' f a l s e c l a r i t y ' ; a problem t h a t t a k e s p l a c e "... when change i s i n t e r p r e t e d i n an o v e r s i m p l i f i e d way; t h a t i s , the proposed change has more t o i t than p e o p l e p e r c e i v e or r e a l i z e " ( F u l l a n , 1982:58). T e a c h e r s , f o r example, may p e r c e i v e change o n l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o the g o a l s and c o n t e n t w h i l e n e g l e c t i n g the t e a c h i n g s t r a t e g i e s and the assumptions u n d e r l y i n g the change. ' F a l s e c l a r i t y ' , a c c o r d i n g t o F u l l a n (1982), h i n d e r s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n because i t g i v e s t e a c h e r s a f a l s e sense of co m f o r t and can a l s o cause them a n x i e t y and f r u s t r a t i o n . Based on the f i n d i n g s of the Rand Study, M c L a u g h l i n and Marsh (1978) proposed t h a t an e f f e c t i v e s t a f f development program be on-going and comprise two complementary el e m e n t s : s t a f f t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s and s t a f f s u p p o r t a c t i v i t i e s . S t a f f t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s a r e s k i l l - s p e c i f i c , u s u a l l y i n v o l v i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s on how t o c a r r y out a new program or an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o new c u r r i c u l u m m a t e r i a l s . Such t r a i n i n g u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s workshops and t a k e s p l a c e p r i o r t o i m p l e m e n t a t i o n or d u r i n g i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i t s e l f . S t a f f s u p p o r t a c t i v i t i e s r e f e r t o a c t i v i t i e s t h a t h e l p 29 t e a c h e r s t o a s s i m i l a t e and use the knowledge and s k i l l s a c q u i r e d d u r i n g the t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s . These i n c l u d e a s s i s t a n c e by r e s o u r c e p e r s o n n e l , the use of c o n s u l t a n t s and p r o j e c t m e e t i n g s . S k i l l - s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s a l o n e a r e inadequate i n e n s u r i n g s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n because t h e i r e f f e c t s were o n l y t r a n s i e n t i n n a t u r e and thus do not support s t a f f l e a r n i n g and change. S k i l l s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g e n a b l e d t e a c h e r s t o implement new p r o j e c t methods and m a t e r i a l s . . . . B u t t h i s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n was o f t e n m e c h a n i s t i c and d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y c o n s t i t u t e t e a c h e r a s s i m i l a t i o n of the new t e c h n i q u e s and p r o c e d u r e s . Thus, when the s u p p o r t s of the funded p r o j e c t ' s o p e r a t i o n were removed, t e a c h e r s d i s c o n t i n u e d u s i n g the p r a c t i c e s t h a t a p p a r e n t l y enhanced s t u d e n t performance because they had never r e a l l y l e a r n e d them i n the f i r s t p l a c e . S k i l l s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g , can a f f e c t p r o j e c t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n and s t u d e n t outcomes, but i t does not a f f e c t the l o n g e r term p r o j e c t outcomes of t e a c h e r change and c o n t i n u a t i o n . ( M c L a u g h l i n and Marsh, 1978:77) Thus s t a f f s u p port s e r v i c e s a r e needed t o s u s t a i n the g a i n s from s k i l l t r a i n i n g and t o p r o v i d e t e a c h e r s w i t h the feedback n e c e s s a r y t o h e l p them modify t h e i r p r a c t i c e s . The Rand Study (Greenwood e t a l . , 1975), f o r example, found t h a t f r e q u e n t and r e g u l a r p r o j e c t meetings t e n d t o r e s u l t i n fewer s e r i o u s problems, h i g h e r m o r a l e , g r e a t e r c o h e s i v e n e s s , s h a r i n g of good i d e a s , and reduced s t a f f f r i c t i o n . T h i s i s because such m e e t i n g s , i n a d d i t i o n t o p r o v i d i n g t e a c h e r s w i t h a forum t o v o i c e t h e i r problems, t o communicate i n f o r m a t i o n and t o d e c i d e on f u t u r e p l a n s , a l s o p r o v i d e them w i t h the support and encouragement i n c a r r y i n g t h r o u g h t h e i r work. 30 The Rand Study a l s o found p r o j e c t meetings and c l a s s r o o m a s s i s t a n c e v a l u a b l e i n f o s t e r i n g c o n c e p t u a l c l a r i t y among t e a c h e r s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e s t u d y , t e a c h e r c l a r i t y needed t o be f o s t e r e d t h r o u g h a c t i v i t i e s t h a t promoted the c o n t i n u o u s e x p l i c a t i o n of the i n n o v a t i o n ; c l a r i t y c o u l d not be a s s u r e d by s p e c i f i c p r o j e c t g o a l s t a t e m e n t s or by the use of packaged m a t e r i a l s . S t a f f s u p p o r t a c t i v i t i e s were a l s o found by M c L a u g h l i n and Marsh (1978) t o be i m p o r t a n t i n p r o v i d i n g t e a c h e r s w i t h feedback n e c e s s a r y t o h e l p them mod i f y t h e i r p r a c t i c e s t o conform t o p r o j e c t r e q u i r e m e n t s and p r o j e c t t e c h n o l o g y . K r i t e k (1976) and F u l l a n and Pomfret (1977), a f t e r r e v i e w i n g t h e f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the p r o c e s s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , came t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t ^ the absence of feedback was c r i t i c a l t o i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . G r o s s e t a l . (1971, 1975) a t t r i b u t e d t e a c h e r s ' i n a b i l i t y t o implement t o the f a i l u r e t o e s t a b l i s h a feedback mechanism t h a t c o u l d h e l p i d e n t i f y and cope e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h u n a n t i c i p a t e d problems t h a t might o c c u r d u r i n g the p r o c e s s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . F l e x i b i l i t y and R e l e v a n c e . S t a f f development programs t h a t a r e f l e x i b l e , t h a t a r e a b l e t o respond t o the needs and co n c e r n s of t he t e a c h e r s , a r e a l s o c o n s i d e r e d c r u c i a l t o e f f e c t i v e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n ( M c L a u g h l i n and Marsh, 1978; F u l l a n , 1979b; J o y c e , 1979). Berman and M c L a u g h l i n (1978) contend t h a t the be s t s t a f f development programs a r e t h o s e t h a t a d d r e s s the s p e c i f i c needs of each i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r . They have a l s o i n d i c a t e d the need f o r f l e x i b i l i t y i n the p l a n n i n g of s t a f f development programs. A c c o r d i n g t o M c L a u g h l i n and Marsh (1978), even a c a r e f u l l y 31 p l a n n e d s t a f f t r a i n i n g program cannot a n t i c i p a t e the n a t u r e or t i m i n g of s t a f f - a s s i s t a n c e r e q u i r e m e n t s , e s p e c i a l l y as they r e l a t e t o p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s r o o m problems. Teachers o f t e n do not p e r c e i v e what they need t o know u n t i l the need a r i s e s . S i n c e t e a c h e r s ' needs a r e not always p r e d i c t a b l e " t r a i n i n g programs t h a t attempt t o be comprehensive and c o v e r a l l c o n t i n g e n c i e s a t the o u t s e t a r e bound t o m i s s t h e i r mark and a l s o t o be l e s s than m e a n i n g f u l t o p r o j e c t p a r t i c i p a n t s " ( M c L a u g h l i n and Marsh, 1978:344). Ways i n which s t a f f development programs c o u l d be made more r e l e v a n t and m e a n i n g f u l t o t e a c h e r s have been s u g g e s t e d by H a l l and Loucks (1978). T h e i r s t u d y on ' l e v e l s of use' and 'stages of c o n c e r n ' shows t h a t a t any g i v e n p o i n t d i f f e r e n t t e a c h e r s may have d i f f e r e n t needs and c o n c e r n s . To be r e l e v a n t t o t e a c h e r s , s t a f f development a c t i v i t i e s , t h e r e f o r e , need t o be p l a n n e d so as t o be a b l e t o a d d r e s s t h e d i f f e r e n t needs and c o n c e r n s of the t e a c h e r s . V a r i e t y i n the Mode of D e l i v e r y . Huberman's statement t h a t " i t i s not the amount but r a t h e r the c o n f i g u r a t i o n of t r a i n i n g which c o u n t s " (1978:6) p o i n t s t o the need t o use v a r i o u s t y p e s of methods of d e l i v e r y t o ensure an e f f e c t i v e s t a f f development program. He c o n s i d e r s a c o m b i n a t i o n of p e r i o d i c t r a i n i n g s e s s i o n s and r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u l e d meetings f o r feedback t o be an e f f e c t i v e s t a f f development s t r a t e g y because he f e e l s t h a t t e a c h e r s a r e more s e n s i t i v e t o d e m o n s t r a t i o n s under normal c l a s s r o o m c o n d i t i o n s and t e n d t o use and l i s t e n t o o t h e r t e a c h e r s . 32 J o y c e and a s s o c i a t e s ( J o y c e , 1979; Joyce and Showers, 1980) a l s o b e l i e v e t h a t an e f f e c t i v e s t a f f development program needs t o i n c l u d e s e v e r a l t r a i n i n g components. The f i v e t r a i n i n g components which they i d e n t i f i e d a f t e r a n a l y z i n g about two hundred s t u d i e s a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n of t h e o r y , m o d e l i n g , p r a c t i c e , feedback and c o a c h i n g . A f t e r a n a l y z i n g the impact of t h e s e f i v e components on f o u r l e v e l s of l e a r n i n g — awareness, c o n c e p t s and knowledge, p r i n c i p l e s and s k i l l s , and a p p l i c a t i o n and problem s o l v i n g — J o y c e and h i s c o l l e a g u e s c o n c l u d e d t h a t where the purpose of t r a i n i n g i s t o master a new approach or t o implement a new c u r r i c u l u m , the use of a l l f i v e components i s n e c e s s a r y . T h i s i s because the magnitude of change i n v o l v e d i s v e r y g r e a t ; t e a c h e r s a r e not o n l y e x p e c t e d t o l e a r n , t o t h i n k and t o behave d i f f e r e n t l y but a l s o t o h e l p the c h i l d r e n become c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h the new a pproach. I f the t h e o r y of a new approach i s w e l l p r e s e n t e d , the approach i s d e m o n s t r a t e d , p r a c t i c e i s p r o v i d e d under s i m u l a t e d c o n d i t i o n s w i t h c a r e f u l and c o n s i s t e n t f eedback, and t h a t p r a c t i c e i s f o l l o w e d by a p p l i c a t i o n i n the c l a s s r o o m w i t h c o a c h i n g and f u r t h e r feedback, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t the v a s t m a j o r i t y of t e a c h e r s w i l l be a b l e t o expand t h e i r r e p e r t o i r e t o the p o i n t where they can u t i l i z e a wide v a r i e t y of approaches t o t e a c h i n g and c u r r i c u l u m . I f any of t h e s e components a r e l e f t o u t , the impact of t r a i n i n g w i l l be weakened... fewer numbers of p e o p l e w i l l p r o g r e s s t o the t r a n s f e r l e v e l .... The most e f f e c t i v e t r a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , t h e n , w i l l be t h o s e t h a t combine t h e o r y , m o d e l i n g , p r a c t i c e , f eedback, and c o a c h i n g t o a p p l i c a t i o n . Joyce and Showers (1980:384-385). The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n v o l v e s the p r o c e s s of l e a r n i n g by t e a c h e r s and t h a t s t a f f development 33 a c t i v i t i e s a r e c r i t i c a l t o the su c c e s s of any i m p l e m e n t a t i o n e f f o r t . Teacher c l a r i t y a b o u t , arid a b i l i t y t o use, the i n n o v a t i o n , c o u l d be f o s t e r e d t h r o u g h a w e l l - c o n d u c t e d s t a f f development program, one t h a t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c o n t i n u i t y , f l e x i b i l i t y and r e l e v a n c e and t h a t u t i l i z e s v a r i o u s methods of d e l i v e r y . Summary The r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e f o c u s e d on f o u r a r e a s : the r o l e of key per s o n s i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , the p r o c e s s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , the t e a c h e r and s t a f f development i n i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d emphasized the r o l e of key per s o n s such as the c e n t r a l o f f i c e p e r s o n n e l and the p r i n c i p a l i n the p r o c e s s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The d i r e c t i o n s taken i n s t u d i e s of r o l e b e h a v i o r f o c u s upon the congruency between a c t u a l b e h a v i o r and ex p e c t e d b e h a v i o r , the k i n d s of b e h a v i o r t h a t f a c i l i t a t e the p r o c e s s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , and the f a c t o r s t h a t i n f l u e n c e the b e h a v i o r of the s e key p e r s o n s . R o l e b e h a v i o r i s shaped by r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n , and the e x t e n t t o which t h i s b e h a v i o r matches the e x p e c t a t i o n i s i n f l u e n c e d by a number of p e r s o n a l f a c t o r s such as knowledge and s k i l l s , awareness and c l a r i t y of the r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n , and a b i l i t y t o p e r f o r m the r o l e , as w e l l as c o n t e x t u a l f a c t o r s such as a d m i n i s t a t i v e s u p p o r t and commitment, a v a i l a b i l i t y of r e s o u r c e s , i n t e r a c t i o n s among the v a r i o u s p e o p l e , and the c o m p a t i b i l i t y of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l arrangements. The r e v i e w i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e i s a l a c k of s t u d i e s on the r o l e of the ' s t a f f p e r s o n ' , a concept which appears t o come 34 c l o s e s t t o t h a t of the key t e a c h e r . Except f o r f i n d i n g s t h a t e s t a b l i s h the importance of t h i s r o l e , l i t t l e i s known t h a t c o u l d be used t o u n d e r s t a n d the b e h a v i o r of the key t e a c h e r i n the p r o c e s s of implementing the new h i s t o r y c u r r i c u l u m i n M a l a y s i a n s c h o o l s . T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s i n c o n t r a s t t o t h a t of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who appear t o have r e c e i v e d much g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n i n s t u d i e s on i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . T e a c h e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of the b e h a v i o r of key p e r s o n s have a l s o been shown t o have i m p o r t a n t b e a r i n g on the outcome of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The Rand Study (Greenwood e t a l . , 1975) showed t h a t t e a c h e r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of p r o j e c t s i n t r o d u c e d by change agents were i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' s u p p o r t f o r , and commitment t o , the p r o j e c t ; and a l s o by t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e u s e f u l n e s s of the a s s i s t a n c e p r o v i d e d by the l o c a l r e s o u r c e p e r s o n n e l . T h i s f i n d i n g i s of s i g n i f i c a n c e t o i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . S i n c e d i f f e r e n t t e a c h e r s may p e r c e i v e i d e n t i c a l b e h a v i o r s of key p e r s o n s i n d i f f e r e n t ways, what i s p e r c e i v e d as u s e f u l i n one s e t t i n g may not be u s e f u l i n a n o t h e r s e t t i n g , depending on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the r o l e o c c u p a n t s and the c o n t e x t i n which the i n t e r a c t i o n t a k e s p l a c e ( F u l l a n and P o m f r e t , 1977). S t u d i e s on i m p l e m e n t a t i o n f o l l o w two main approaches: the p r o d u c t approach which emphasizes the e x t e n t t o which an i n n o v a t i o n i s b e i n g implemented, and the p r o c e s s approach, concerned m a i n l y w i t h d e s c r i b i n g and a n a l y z i n g the complex n a t u r e of the p r o c e s s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The p r o c e s s approach was seen as u s e f u l i n documenting i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , s i n c e i t a l l o w s f o r 3 5 p r o b i n g i n t o the complex and dynamic p r o c e s s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of the p r o c e s s g a i n e d from such s t u d i e s f a c i l i t a t e s e f f o r t s t o f o r m u l a t e models or t h e o r i e s on i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n d u c t i v e l y . I t appears t h a t the use of such an approach — one which emphasizes the what, the how and the why --c o u l d be u s e f u l i n examining the r o l e of the key t e a c h e r s i n the p r o c e s s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . S t u d i e s on i m p l e m e n t a t i o n p o i n t t o the importance of the t e a c h e r s i n the p r o c e s s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . The s u c c e s s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i s dependent on t e a c h e r s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the i n n o v a t i o n and t h e i r a b i l i t y t o a p p l y new knowledge and s k i l l s t o t h e i r own c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n . T e a c h e r s ' use of an i n n o v a t i o n i s a l s o dependent on t h e i r judgement of the p r a c t i c a l i t y of the i n n o v a t i o n , and the e x t e n t t o which they share the b e l i e f s u n d e r l y i n g the i n n o v a t i o n . I t has a l s o been p o i n