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The effect of certain types of registration procedures as barriers to lower socio-economic group participation Brackhaus, Marilyn Bonnie 1983

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THE EFFECT OP CERTAIN TYPES OF REGISTRATION PROCEDURES AS BARRIERS TO LOWER SOCIO-ECONOMIC GROUP PARTICIPATION By MARILYN BONNIE BRACKHAUS B.Ed. (Secondary), The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Faculty of Education, Division of Adult Education) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OP BRITISH COLUMBIA Ap r i l 1983 ©Marilyn Bonnie Brackhaus, 1983 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of Administrative, Adult and Higher Education The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date A p r i l ? ? , 198? DE-6 (3/81) Abstract The study examined the regi s t r a t i o n procedures for non-credit courses used by three agencies in order to investigate the proposition that some types of regi s t r a t i o n procedures function as barriers to participation for lower socio-economic group adults. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of these types of r e g i s t r a -tion procedures is important because i t gives administrators the opportunity to modify the procedures so that they no longer act as obstacles. In accordance with Cross's "chain-of-response" model (1981), the removal of such external barriers would encourage those lower socio-economic adults who are weakly motivated to participate in adult education classes. The research strategy involved two instruments, a ques-tionnaire and an interview schedule, and two types of data, quantitative and qualitative. Mainly quantitative data was obtained from the 431 course registrants who responded to the questionnaire. Interviews with the 15 administrators responsi-ble for registering these participants yielded qualitative data. The primary purpose of the study was to examine whether certain types of registration procedures function as s i g n i f i -cant barriers to participation for lower socio-economic group adults, and hence focussed on the quantitative data from the questionnaire. However, participants' responses to the open-ended questions on this instrument were useful in interpreting the findings. i i Using a n a l y s i s of variance, i t was found that although s a t i s f a c t i o n regarding r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures d i f f e r e d s i g -n i f i c a n t l y among the various types of r e g i s t r a t i o n , there were no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f ects either for participants' socio-economic class or for the interaction between socio-economic class and procedures. Furthermore, no s i g n i f i c a n t relationship was found between the participants' socio-economic class and their pre-ferred r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures. When other mitigating factors were tested, the findings were s i m i l a r : Socio-economic class and education were two of the l e a s t s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g respondents' attitudes to the various types of regis-t r a t i o n procedures. It was concluded that none of the types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures studied functioned as a s i g n i f i c a n t b a r r i e r to p a r t i c i p a t i o n for lower socio-economic group adults. The interviews formed a secondary part of the study. The reasons for examining administrators' perceptions about re g i s -t r a t i o n were to determine whether there were a d m i n i s t r a t i v e reasons which n e c e s s i t a t e d the use of p a r t i c u l a r types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures, and to obtain suggestions and ideas which would be helpful in interpreting the findings concerning participants. I t was found t h a t the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s d i d enc o u n t e r problems which r e s t r i c t e d t h e i r o p t i o n s . W i t h i n these confines, recommendations were made to improve the re g i s t r a t i o n procedures f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s . The q u a l i t a t i v e data i n d i c a t e d that although none of the types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures studied was a c t i n g as an e x t e r n a l b a r r i e r to lower s o c i o -i i i economic adults, i t was essential that r e g i s t r a t i o n be handled well. i v Table of Contents Page Abstract i i L i s t of Tables v i i i Acknowledgement i x Chapter I . I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Purposes of the Study 3 Study S e t t i n g 4 D e f i n i t i o n s of Terms 6 Plan of the Study 7 I I . The E f f e c t of O r g a n i z a t i o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Factors on P a r t i c i p a t i o n 9 Types of Research on P a r t i c i p a t i o n 9 Relevance of M i l l e r ' s F o r c e - f i e l d A n a l y s i s and Cross's Chain of Response Models 11 A n a l y s i s of the Research on A d m i n i s t r a t i v e B a r r i e r s 13 L i m i t a t i o n s of the Studies 27 Summary of the Findings 30 Conclusions and Recommendations regarding the E f f e c t of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Factors on P a r t i c i p a t i o n 41 I I I . Methodology 45 Overview 45 Populations and Samples 45 Instrument Development 50 Data C o l l e c t i o n 57 Data A n a l y s i s 62 v Page IV. The Findings 66 Participants 66 Administrators 91 V. Summary, Conclusions and Interpretations, Recommendations, G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y , and Suggestions for Future Research 105 Summary 1 0 5 Conclusions and Interpretations 106 Recommendations 110 G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y 114 Suggestions for Future Research 114 Reference Notes 116 References 117 Selected Bibliography 123 Appendices 124 A. Letters and Instructions 125 Letter to Surrey School Board Instructors 126 Letter to Surrey Parks and Recreation Commission Instructors 127 Letter to White Rock Parks and Recreation Department Instructors 128 Instructions for Administering the Questionnaire 129 Proctor's Information Sheet 130 Course Data Sheet 131 Proctor's Introductory Comments 132 B. Questionnaire 133 Questionnaire (Side 1) 134 Questionnaire (Side 2) 135 v i Page C. Interview Schedule 136 Interview Schedule 137 v i i L i s t of Tables Table T i t l e Page 1 Studies on Administrative Barriers to P a r t i c i p a t i o n : Type of Study and Type of Research 17 2 Studies on Administrative Barriers to P a r t i c i p a t i o n : Instrument and Data Analysis 22 3 Socio-demographic Characteristics of the Sample 49 4 Means of Participants* Attitudes to the Organizational Aspects of Registration Procedures 69 5 Attitudes to Organizational Aspects for Three Registration Procedures and Seven Socio-economic Classes 70 6 Means of Participants' Attitudes to the Inter-personal Aspects of Registration Procedures 73 7 Attitudes to Inter-personal Aspects for Three Registration Procedures and Seven Socio-economic Classes 74 8 Blishen's Indices for Four Registration Procedures 76 9 Social Index versus Type of Registration Preferred 76 10 Significance Tests of Registration Procedures on Respondents' Assessments of Organizational Aspects of Registration 80 11 Significance Tests of Registration Procedures on Respondents' Assessments of Inter-personal Aspects of Registration 81 12 Reasons for Preferring Registration Procedures 85 13 D i s t r i b u t i o n between Registration Procedures Used and Preferred Registration Procedures 90 14 Estimated Percentage of Classes that Administrators Enrolled by Each Type of Registration 97 v i i i Acknowledgement I am much indepted to my Thesis Chairman, Professor Gordon Selman, f o r h i s patience and guidance i n d i r e c t i n g t h i s study to i t s completion. I am also g r a t e f u l to Dr. James Thornton for his suggestions and e f f o r t s during the study. I e s p e c i a l l y appreciate Dr. John C o l l i n s ' s advice and guidance throughout the s t a t i s t i c a l analysis. I wish to thank Dr. Gary Dickinson f o r h i s guidance as Thesis Chairman during the i n i t i a l stages of t h i s study. I thank Dr. Don McKinnon, Supervisor of Community Educa-t i o n I n s t r u c t i o n f o r School D i s t r i c t #36 (Surrey), f o r sug-gesting the study and providing guidance. I also thank Muriel Kerr, who was Recreation D i r e c t o r of the Surrey Parks and Recreation Commission, and Douglas Stone, who i s D i r e c t o r of the White Rock Parks and Recreation Department, for their co-operation. Special thanks are due Wes Akerman, Community Edu-c a t i o n Co-ordinator i n Surrey, f o r h i s time and e f f o r t s on my behalf. I appreciate the suggestions given by Dr. Dale Rusnell. I am g r a t e f u l to the f o l l o w i n g f r i e n d s , r e l a t i v e s , and f e l l o w students for their assistance in administering questionnaires: Bev A l d e r , Don A l d e r , Dr. K a r l Brackhaus, John C r o c k e r , Marianne Crocker, Avita Curry, John Harris, Ruth Hasman, Helen K e t t l e , Mie Kochi, Lorna MacDonald, Bonnie Jean McGregor, Dr. Musa Bata Musa, J e n n i f e r Peterson, Ruth Smith, and Dr. Ayele Ye she wal u l . ix I wish to thank my husband f o r his encouragement and understanding during this study. x Chapter I Introduction More than sixty years ago the Adult Education Committee of the M i n i s t r y of Reconstruction i n the United Kingdom stated that adult education "should be both u n i v e r s a l and l i f e l o n g " ( 1 9 1 9 , p. 5). This s t i l l remains a noble i d e a l rather than r e a l i t y . Adults who e n r o l l in adult education programs t y p i -c a l l y belong to the upper socio-economic groups (Boshier, 1 9 8 0 ; Dickinson & Verner, 1 9 7 7 ; Johnstone & Rivera, 1 9 6 5 ; London et al., 1963)• Studies indicate that a low l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n is associated with low educational l e v e l and low status occupa-t i o n s (Booth, A., 1 9 6 1 ; Johnstone & Rivera, 1 9 6 5 ; London, Wenkert, & Hagstrom, 1 9 6 3 ; Mizruchi & Vanaria, I 9 6 0 ; Newberry, 1 9 5 9 ) . M i l l e r ( 1 9 6 7 ) presents a f o r c e - f i e l d analysis model that focuses on the p o s i t i v e and negative f o r c e s i n f l u e n c i n g par-t i c i p a t i o n among the various socio-economic groups. His model demonstrates that by a l t e r i n g the forc e s pushing toward or against p a r t i c i p a t i o n , equilibrium can be affected and p a r t i c i -pative behaviour changed. This suggests that p a r t i c i p a t i o n among lower socio-economic groups might increase i f the forces working against p a r t i c i p a t i o n are reduced. Cross ( 1 9 8 1 ) pre-sents a framework f o r understanding p a r t i c i p a t i o n that i n d i -cates the role of external barriers in discouraging p a r t i c i p a -t i o n . According to Cross's "chain-of-response" model (COR), p o s i t i v e and negative f o r c e s i n t e r a c t with respect to such 1 variables as the potential participant's self-evaluation about his or her a b i l i t y , the attitudes toward education by both the i n d i v i d u a l and others, the importance of the goals to be attained through p a r t i c i p a t i o n together with the e x p e c t a t i o n that p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l r e s u l t i n a c h i e v i n g those goals, and the e f f e c t of l i f e t ransitions. The interaction of the positive and negative forces during this chain of responses determines the individual's strength of motivation to participate. If the i n d i v i d u a l i s s t r o n g l y motivated, e x t e r n a l b a r r i e r s are l e s s l i k e l y to p r o h i b i t p a r t i c i p a t i o n . But i f the i n d i v i d u a l i s weakly motivated, external barriers probably w i l l negatively affect p a r t i c i p a t i o n . As Cross states, i f the potential p a r t i -cipants have "a strong desire to participate, i t i s l i k e l y that the force of their motivation w i l l encourage them to seek out special opportunities and to overcome modest barriers. For the weakly motivated, modest barriers may preclude p a r t i c i p a t i o n " (p. 127). Thus, according to the COR model, the presence or absence of external barriers w i l l influence the p a r t i c i p a t i v e behaviour of weakly motivated adults. The removal of external barriers w i l l not be s u f f i c i e n t to i n f l u e n c e the lower socio-economic adults who are s t r o n g l y opposed to p a r t i c i p a t i o n . However, their removal w i l l encourage some lower socio-economic adults who are weakly motiviated to cross the threshold and p a r t i c i -pate in adult education programs. There are a myriad of p o t e n t i a l b a r r i e r s . Ewigleben ( 1 9 5 9 ) , Carp, Peterson, and Roelfs (1974), and Ulmer (I960) 2 have examined the i n f l u e n c e of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures. How-ever, as discussed i n greater length i n Chapter I I , these s t u d i e s are i n c o n s i s t e n t about the e f f e c t of r e g i s t r a t i o n on pa r t i c i p a t i o n . Furthermore, none of these studies has focussed on the e f f e c t of certain types of r e g i s t r a t i o n on lower socio-economic groups. To i n v e s t i g a t e the p r o p o s i t i o n that some types of r e g i s t r a t i o n function as barriers to p a r t i c i p a t i o n for lower socio-economic l e v e l a d u l t s , t h i s study examined the r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures f o r non-credit courses used by three agencies, the Surrey School Board, Surrey Parks and Recreation Commission, and White Rock Parks and Recreation Department. Purposes of the Study The primary purpose of the study was to examine whether certain types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures function as s i g n i f i -cant barriers to p a r t i c i p a t i o n for lower socio-economic group adults. The four research questions which were derived from t h i s purpose r e f e r r e d to p a r t i c i p a n t s who were e n r o l l e d i n courses. 1. Are there s i g n i f i c a n t relationships between p a r t i c i -pants' socio-economic class and type of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures used, i n terms of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' a t t i t u d e s to the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and i n t e r - p e r s o n a l aspects of those r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures? 2. Is there a s i g n i f i c a n t relationship between the par-t i c i p a n t s ' socio-economic c l a s s and the type of reg-i s t r a t i o n procedures the p a r t i c i p a n t s stated they preferred? 3 3 . What are the effects of sex, age, travel time, educa-tion, and subject matter on the relationships between participants' socio-economic class and type of r e g i s -t r a t i o n procedures used, i n terms of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' attitudes to those r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures? 4 . What insights into the above findings do participants' comments provide, and what common themes emerge? An a d d i t i o n a l p erspective was obtained by examining a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' perceptions about r e g i s t r a t i o n . The purposes of this secondary part of the study were twofold: to determine whether there were administrative reasons which necessitated the use of p a r t i c u l a r types of r e g i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s re g a r d l e s s of t h e i r p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e as b a r r i e r s on the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of lower socio-economic group a d u l t s , and to obtain suggestions and ideas which would be u s e f u l i n i n t e r -preting the findings concerning participants. Study Setting The setting for the study was the municipalities of Surrey and White Rock i n B r i t i s h Columbia. According to the 1 9 7 1 census data, which i s the most recent complete census data a v a i l a b l e , Surrey has a population of 9 8 , 6 0 0 , a land area of 1 1 6 . 5 1 square miles, and a population density of 8 4 6 . 2 8 . Adja-cent White Rock i s considerably smaller, with a population of 1 0 , 3 5 0 and a land area of 1 . 9 5 square miles. I t s population d e n s i t y of 5 3 0 7 « 6 9 i s much greater than the d e n s i t y i n Surrey ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1971> Special series - Geography [SG - 1 ] , 5 -2 3 ) . 4 The proportion of males and females also differs between these municipalities, with Surrey having a majority of males (51.2%) and White Rock a majority of females (53.0%). Another difference between Surrey and White Rock is age distribution. In Surrey, 32.1% of the residents are between the ages of 0 and 14, 60.0% are between the ages of 15 and 64, and 7«9% are of retirement age, 65 or older. In White Rock, only 17.1% of the residents are between the ages of 0 and 14, 5 2 . 9 % are between the ages of 15 and 64, and 30.1% are of retirement age, 65 years or older ( S t a t i s t i c s Canada, 1971, Census tract series [CT-28A], 12-13). Sudman (1976) states that areas should be chosen "on the basis of those variables most closely related to the purposes" (p. 21) of the study. The 1971 census data on education, income, and occupation indicates that Surrey and White Rock are an appropriate setting for a study focussing on lower socio-economic group adults. For instance, a large proportion of the population in both municipalities has less than Grade 9 : 42.9% in Surrey and 33.9% in White Rock. Those residents with Grade 9 or 10 are an additional 21.7% in Surrey and 21.4% in White Rock. Matriculation from Grade 12 or 13 applies to a further 1 9 . 8 % in Surrey and 24.2% in White Rock. Only 1.8% in Surry and 3«7% in White Rock have a university degree. Furthermore, the average total income per family is $9323 in Surrey and $8123 in White Rock. Occupations employing 10% or more of the population in Surrey are c l e r i c a l and related occupations (14.5%); machining and related occupations plus product fabri-5 eating, assembling and repairing occupations (12.1%); construc-tion trades (11.8%); sales occupations (11.6%); and service occupations (11.2%). Clerical and related occupations (18.4%), service occupations (16.5%), and sales occupations (14.5%) employ 10% or more of the population in White Rock (Statistics Canada, 1971; Census tract series [CT-28B]; 12-13, 30-31, 48-49). Definitions of Terms There is no consensus in the l i t e r a t u r e concerning the meaning of some of the terms used throughout this study. It is therefore necessary to define these terms. A barrier was defined as something which hinders but does not necessarily prohibit. In other words, the term barrier was used in the sense of a hurdle which can be overcome. The extent of the impediment i t represents w i l l differ depending on other factors such as strength of motivation and economic resources. Participants were defined as people who enrolled in non-credit adult and recreation evening courses which were designed in the Surrey and White Rock Community Education and Recreation  Program brochure as courses for "Teens and Adults" or "Adults". Non-credit courses were programs which were offered for pur-poses other than to enable students to complete certain formal educational requirements. The socio-economic class of p a r t i c i -pants was defined as Blishen's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the socio-economic index for occupations in Canada (1976). This index is based on three aspects of occupations: income l e v e l , educa-6 t i o n a l status, and prestige ranking. The types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures studied were pre-r e g i s t r a t i o n i n person, p r e - r e g i s t r a t i o n by phone, pre-re g i s t r a t i o n by mail, or r e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t class. Pre-re g i s t r a t i o n in person required that people e n r o l l in classes by f i l l i n g out forms, paying fees, and receiving their receipts on s p e c i f i e d dates, at s p e c i f i e d times, and at c e n t r a l l o c a -tions prior to the commencement of the classes. Registration could be completed by e i t h e r the p a r t i c i p a n t s or t h e i r r e l a -tives or friends. P r e - r e g i s t r a t i o n by phone e n t a i l e d three steps. When people phoned, t h e i r names, phone numbers, addresses, and de s i r e d courses were recorded. The p a r t i c i p a n t s then had to either pay the fees by mail, in person prior to their class, or at their f i r s t class. Receipts were received in class. P r e - r e g i s t r a t i o n by mail required people to e n r o l l by sending the fees together with t h e i r names and t i t l e s of desired courses by mail. Receipts were received in class. F i n a l l y , r e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t c l a s s i n v o l v e d e n r o l l i n g i n programs by f i l l i n g out the forms, paying the fees, and r e c e i v i n g the r e c e i p t s on the evenings and at the locations that the classes were held. Plan of the Study This study i s organized i n f i v e chapters. Chapter I discusses the r a t i o n a l e f o r the study, and defines i t s pur-poses, setting, and terms. Chapter II places the focus of the s t u d y — t h e b a r r i e r e f f e c t of some types of r e g i s t r a t i o n 7 procedures—within the context of the l i t e r a t u r e and research examining the e f f e c t of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and administrative factors on pa r t i c i p a t i o n . In addition, Chapter II discusses the ro l e of such studies i n the context of the research done on p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Chapter I I I discusses the study's methodology, i n c l u d i n g the population and sample, instrument development, data c o l l e c t i o n , and data a n a l y s i s p e r t a i n i n g to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e . Chapter IV presents and discusses the f i n d i n g s obtained from the questionnaire and interview data. F i n a l l y , Chapter V pre-sents a summary, conclusions and interpretations, and recommen-dations. Comments about the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the study's findings and suggestions for further research are made. 8 Chapter II The Effect of Organizational Characteristics and Administrative Factors on P a r t i c i p a t i o n Cross (1981) states that most attempts to a t t r a c t poten-t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s to adult education a c t i v i t i e s focus on removing external barriers and creating new learning opportuni-t i e s . I d e a l l y , the d e c i s i o n to introduce such changes should be based upon research f i n d i n g s . This review focuses on the l i t e r a t u r e concerning the possible barrier e f f e c t s of not only r e g i s t r a t i o n , the v a r i a b l e being examined i n t h i s study, but also other administrative factors which might influence p a r t i -cipation among some socio-economic groups. Before examining the studies on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f a c t o r s , however, i t i s u s e f u l to consider how such studies f i t i n t o the context of the research which has been done on p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Types of Research on P a r t i c i p a t i o n The major types of research on p a r t i c i p a t i o n are s t a t i c description, motivational o r i e n t a t i o n s , l i f e - c y c l e a n a l y s i s , adoption of innovations, and f o r c e - f i e l d a n a l y s i s (Rusnell's framework, Note 1). Each of these types has contributed to the f i e l d and study of adult education. F o r c e - f i e l d a n a l y s i s has p a r t i c u l a r relevance i n any d i s c u s s i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b a r r i e r s . As Douglah (1970) notes, s t a t i c description research "has con t r i b u t e d a great deal i n terms of r e v e a l i n g the t y p i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of adult students and in aiding adult educators 9 to better predict the potential participants in their programs" (p. 9 2 ) . An e x c e l l e n t example of t h i s type of research i s D i c k i n s o n and Verner's study on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t education programs in Canada ( 1 9 7 7 ) -Adding a d i f f e r e n t dimension i s research which focuses on the reasons underlying p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Houle's typology of l e a r n i n g , g o a l , and a c t i v i t y o r i e n t a t i o n s ( 1 9 6 1 ) provided the conceptual framework f o r numerous studies on m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s . These include studies by Boshier ( 1 9 7 1 ) , Bova ( 1 9 7 9 ) , Burgess ( 1 9 7 1 ) , Dow ( 1 9 6 5 ) , Morstain and Smart ( 1 9 7 4 ) , and S h e f f i e l d ( 1 9 6 4 ) . L i f e - c y c l e a n a l y s i s s t u d i e s are also concerned with motivation. However, rather than focussing on the f a c t o r s or m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g people's desire to participate, l i f e - c y c l e analysis studies focus on the major periods i n a d u l t s ' l i v e s and the tasks a s s o c i a t e d with these periods. This type of research dates back to Havighurst's concept of "developmental tasks" ( 1 9 5 3 ) : There are basic prob-lems or tasks which occur during the sequential stages or l i f e c y c l e s that people experience. These tasks must be handled s u c c e s s f u l l y i f the person i s to be judged competent. The assumption of l i f e - c y c l e a n a l y s i s studies (such as Huberman, 1 9 7 4 ) i s that since developmental tasks have l e a r n i n g compo-nents, the tasks f u n c t i o n as motivators. I f adult education programs are designed to help the i n d i v i d u a l f u l f i l l these tasks, p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l improve. A new approach to research on adult education p a r t i c i p a -t i o n was suggested by McKinnon's a p p l i c a t i o n ( 1 9 7 7 ) of the 10 methodology used in the adoption of innovations. He found that the s t r a t e g y of using an adoption model i n order to study p a r t i c i p a t i o n appears to have merit. Further research of this type is required. Providing an int r i g u i n g conceptual framework but remaining untested i s M i l l e r ' s f o r c e - f i e l d a n a l y s i s ( 1 9 6 7 ) ' Adapting Lewin's dynamic theory of f o r c e - f i e l d ( 1 9 3 6 ) , M i l l e r indicated "how personal need emphases combine with c l a s s value systems and with e x t e r n a l s o c i a l f o r c e s to determine a given l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n " (p. 1 8 ) f o r the major socio-economic groups. Miller's model i s important to this review because i t provides part of the framework for examining the e f f e c t of administra-tive factors on p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Relevance of Miller's F o r c e - f i e l d Analysis  and Cross's Chain of Response Models As p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d , a low l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s associated with lower socio-economic status. S p e c i f i c a l l y , low pa r t i c i p a t i o n is associated with low income, low status occupa-t i o n s , and low ed u c a t i o n a l l e v e l (Johnstone & Rivera, 1 9 6 5 ; Newberry, 1 9 5 9 ) ' M i l l e r ' s model suggests a s t r a t e g y f o r i n c r e a s i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n among lower socio-economic group adults. His model demonstrates that by increasing the strength and number of the positive forces pushing toward p a r t i c i p a t i o n and/or by decreasing the strength and number of the negative f o r c e s pushing against p a r t i c i p a t i o n , e q u i l i b r i u m w i l l be affected and the decision may be changed in favour of p a r t i c i -pation. This suggests that p a r t i c i p a t i o n among lower s o c i o -11 economic group adu l t s might increase i f the f o r c e s working against p a r t i c i p a t i o n are weakened or reduced. Although many of these forces involve complex inte r r e l a t i o n s h i p s which adult educators are not able to a f f e c t , there may be administrative factors which adult educators can control to reduce the nega-tive forces pushing against p a r t i c i p a t i o n . B u i l d i n g on the work of M i l l e r and others, Cross (1981) presents a chain of response model that includes the influence of e x t e r n a l b a r r i e r s on p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Cross considers an i n d i v i d u a l ' s strength of m o t i v a t i o n to p a r t i c i p a t e to be the r e s u l t of an i n t e r a c t i o n of p o s i t i v e and negative f o r c e s regarding the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n , the i n d i v i d u a l ' s and others' attitudes about education, the importance of goals together with the expectation that p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l enable the i n d i v i d u a l to meet those goals, and the e f f e c t of l i f e t r a n s i t i o n s . When this chain of responses has determined the i n d i v i d u a l ' s strength of m o t i v a t a t i o n , the i n d i v i d u a l may be influenced by external barriers. If the strength of motivation i s strong, e x t e r n a l b a r r i e r s w i l l probably not prevent the i n d i v i d u a l from p a r t i c i p a t i n g . However, i f the strength of motivation i s weak, external barriers w i l l probably be s u f f i -cient to deter the i n d i v i d u a l . M i l l e r ' s and Cross's models provide operational paradigms f o r t h i s study because they suggest that i f e x t e r n a l b a r r i e r s could be i d e n t i f i e d , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s could manipulate those f a c t o r s to e n c o u r a g e — r a t h e r than d i s c o u r a g e — p a r t i c i p a t i o n among weakly motivated adults. For example, i f research shows 12 that the lack of child care f a c i l i t i e s is a barrier for women, administrators could provide the required support services. According to Miller's model, this would remove a negative force and hence affect equilibrium in favour of part i c i p a t i o n ; according to Cross's model, this would eliminate an external barrier and hence encourage weakly motivated mothers of young children to participate. Suggestions about reducing administrative barriers that discourage participation w i l l be made. But f i r s t i t i s necessary to examine the research on administrative barriers to participation. Analysis of the Research on Administrative Barriers A manual search of Dissertation Abstracts International, Adult Education Dissertation Abstracts, theses, journals, and books as well as computer searches of published and unpublished sources revealed 29 primary sources of research on the effect of administrative barriers on participation. These sources were examined with regard to type of study, type of research employed, type and p r e - t e s t i n g of instrument, and data analysis. As Table 1 indicates, approximately 59% of the studies were c l a s s i f i e d as graduate research (28% masters theses and 31% doctoral dissertations) and approximately 41% were cl a s s i -f i e d as "Other" (journal a r t i c l e s , a r t i c l e s in books, mono-graphs, or reports). In general, there was greater diversifica-tion in the type of research, more rigor in the use of instru-ments, and greater sophistication in data analysis in the 13 graduate research than in the other types of work. The type of research employed was c l a s s i f i e d as e_x post  facto, experimental, or q u a l i t a t i v e , or development of a model (Table 1 ) . Ex post facto research may be defined as systematic empirical inquiry in which the s c i e n t i s t does not have direct control of independent variables because t h e i r m a n i f e s t a t i o n s have already occurred or because they are i n h e r e n t l y not manipulable. Inferences about r e l a t i o n s among v a r i a b l e s are made, without d i r e c t i n t e r v e n t i o n , from concomitant v a r i a t i o n of independent and dependent variables. (Kerlinger, 1 9 7 3 , p« 3 7 9 ) Ex post f a c t o research d i f f e r s from experimental research i n terms of control. In experimental research, variables can be manipulated. If the experiment i s a "true experiment," control can also be obtained through randomization. In e_x post f a c t o research, n e i t h e r manipulation nor random assignment can be e x e r c i s e d by the i n v e s t i g a t o r ( K e r l i n g e r , 1 9 7 3 ) - Due to t h i s l a c k of c o n t r o l , although e_x post f a c t o research may i n d i c a t e p o s s i b l e c a u s a l i t y , i t does not prove c a u s a l i t y between v a r i a b l e s . However, as Dickinson and Blunt ( 1 9 8 0 ) point out, t h i s type of research i s valuable because i t can "provide a f a i r l y accurate description of a f i e l d or a phenomenon within a f i e l d at a given time," "present i n f o r m a t i o n about s p e c i f i c , definable populations about which generalizations can be made," and "attempt to simulate experimental designs through the use of multivariate data analysis or by comparing the status of two or more groups at two or more times" (p. 5 3 ) « Moreover, e_x 14 post f a c t o research provides p r e d i c t i o n s which can be t e s t e d through experimental designs. Qualitative analysis i s concerned with reporting the per-ceptions and feelings of subjects. The assumptions underlying t h i s type of research are that the s u b j e c t i v e dimension of experience i s important (that i s , i t i s e s s e n t i a l to d i s c o v e r what the respondents believe their actions mean), and that the accuracy of insights are not dependent upon the number of times they are expressed ( B r o o k f i e l d , Note 2). The s u b j e c t i v e i n s i g h t s which may be obtained through q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s contribute something di f f e r e n t from that provided by the quan-t i t a t i v e treatment of data. F i n a l l y , Marx (1970) defines a model as "a conceptual analogue that i s used to suggest how e m p i r i c a l research on a problem might best be pursued" (p. 11). The development of models i s important in establishing the theore t i c a l foundations which guide research and further understanding. Each of these types of research has i t s strengths and provides a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e . I d e a l l y , i n f o r m a t i o n and understanding about the e f f e c t of b a r r i e r s on p a r t i c i p a t i o n would best be achieved by examining the f i n d i n g s of s tudies which used these as well as other types of research. However, the studies located showed a dominance of one type of research: ex post f a c t o . This was used i n approximately 80% of the s t u d i e s ; the remainder were concerned with experimental research (10%), q u a l i t a t i v e analysis (3%), and the development of a model (7%). When viewed in terms of graduate studies 15 versus other types of work, however, i t was found that there was greater d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n among the graduate studies in the type of research used. The experimental studies were e i t h e r theses or dissertations. 16 Table 1 Studies on Administrative Barriers to P a r t i c i p a t i o n Type of Study and Type of Research Year Author Type of Study a Type of Research 1959 Chapman Other Ex Post Facto I 9 6 0 Mizruchi & Vanaria Other Ex Post Facto I 9 6 0 Ulmer Thesis Ex Post Facto 1961 Pattyson Dissertation Ex Post Facto 1 9 6 3 Davis Dissertation Ex Post Facto 1 9 6 3 London, Wenkert, & Hagstrom Other Ex Post Facto 1 9 6 5 Johnstone & Rivera Other Ex Post Facto 1966 Dickinson Thesis Ex Post Facto 1966 McKinnon Thesis Ex Post Facto 1966 Melton Thesis Ex Post Facto 1969 Jacob son Dissertation Ex Post Facto 1971 Clarke Thesis Ex Post Facto 1971 Fisher Other Ex Post Facto 1972 Brown Thesis Ex Post Facto 1972 Okes & Others Other Ex Post Facto 1 97 3 McCannon Dissertation Experimental: Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design a it monoj Other" i n c l u d e s j o u r n a l graphs, and reports. a r t i c l e s , a r t i c l e s i n books, 17 Table 1 (Continued) Studies on Administrative Barriers to P a r t i c i p a t i o n Type of Study and Type of Research Year Author Type of Studya Type of Research 1974 Carp, Peterson, & Roelfs Other Ex Post Facto 1974 Londoner Other Ex Post Facto 1975 Frederickson Thesis Ex Post Facto 1975 Lamoureux Dissertation Ex Post Facto 1975 Norsworthy Dissertation Experimental: Posttest-Only Control Group Design 1975 Study of Barriers Other Qualitative 1975 Van Peborgh Dissertation Development of Model 1 9 7 7 Brown, L. & S e l l Other Ex Post Facto 1977 McKinnon Dissertation Ex Post Facto 1 9 7 8 Baker Thesis Experimental: Resembles Quasi-experimental Design but involves random assignment of courses, not subjects 1979 Booth, N. Dissertation Ex Post Facto 1979 Open Access Other Ex Post Facto 1 9 8 1 Cross Other Development of Chain of Response Model a " O t h e r " i n c l u d e s j o u r n a l a r t i c l e s , a r t i c l e s i n books, monographs, and reports. 18 Table 2 gives information about the instruments and data analysis used in the studies on administrative barriers. Each instrument i s l i s t e d in terms of type and pre-testing reported. Data analysis i s considered in terms of two levels of s o p h i s t i -c a t i o n : the use of u n i v a r i a t e d e s c r i p t i o n only, or the use of bivariate or multivariate s t a t i s t i c s , and/or tests of s t a t i s t i -cal significance. The only source of data i n 2 1 % of the studies was i n s t i t u -t i o n a l records such as r e g i s t r a t i o n cards, attendance records, permanent records, veterans' records, c l a s s l i s t s , and course enrollment forms. Interviews were used as the only source of data in 28% of the studies, while questionnaires were the sole instruments used i n 18% of the s t u d i e s . The combinations of data sources which were used were i n t e r v i e w s plus q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s ( 1 7 % ) , i n s t i t u t i o n a l records plus q u e s t i o n n a i r e s ( 3 % ) , i n s t i t u t i o n a l records plus a classroom a c t i v i t i e s l i s t ( 3 % ) , and i n s t i t u t i o n a l records plus an attitude scale (3%)» The use of an instrument was not a p p l i c a b l e i n 7% of the s t u d i e s . Although both graduate research and other types of studies used interviews and questionnaires, only graduate research also used other forms of instruments. In a d d i t i o n , greater r i g o r was shown in the use of instruments i n the graduate research than i n the other types of s t u d i e s . P r e - t e s t i n g of i n t e r v i e w schedules, q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , classroom a c t i v i t i e s l i s t s , and a t t i t u d e s c a l e s was reported i n 70% of the graduate research but in only 36% of the other types of studies. Many c r i t i c i s m s have been made of studies which have 19 r e l i e d on u n i v a r i a t e d e s c r i p t i o n only. For example, i n t h e i r review of studies on completions and drop outs Verner and Davis (1964) concluded: Some of the inconsistencies . . . may be due to the e f f e c t of v a l i d i t y t e s t i n g . The e a r l i e r s t u d ies that depended upon simple percentages might lend themselves to the a p p l i c a t i o n of t e s t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e , and t h i s may help c l a r i f y some of the confusion or i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s that exist among the reports at present. (p. 164) In addition, univariate analysis has been discredited because most of the problems i n v e s t i g a t o r s are i n t e r e s t e d i n are not a f f e c t e d by a s i n g l e f a c t o r , but rather by v a r i a b l e i n t e r -actions (Borg & Gal l , 1 9 7 9 ) « For these reasons, the 29 studies were examined i n terms of two l e v e l s of data a n a l y s i s : the simple form of data analysis consisting of univariate descrip-t i o n o n l y , and the more s o p h i s t i c a t e d type of a n a l y s i s consisting of bivariate or multivariate s t a t i s t i c s and/or tests of s t a t i s t i c a l significance. A d i s t i n c t i o n was found between the graduate research and the other types of s t u d i e s . Excluding the development of the model, 100% of the graduate research employed the second, more s o p h i s t i c a t e d types of s t a t i s t i c a l analyses. Excluding the development of the model, 27% of the other types of studies' used u n i v a r i a t e d e s c r i p t i o n only, 9% used a combination of qu a l i t a t i v e and univariate description, and only 64% used the second, more sophisticated types of s t a t i s t i c a l analyses. Fur-thermore, whereas 81% of the graduate research reported tests 20 of s t a t i s t i c a l significance were used when analyzing data, only 9% of the other types of studies reported tests of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . 21 Table 2 Studies on Administrative Barriers to P a r t i c i p a t i o n Instrument and Data Analysis Instrument Data Analysis Year Author Type Pre-tested Univariate Bivariate or Description Multivariate; Only &/or Tests of S t a t i s t i c a l Significance 1 9 5 9 Chapman I960 Mizruchi & Vanaria I960 Ulmer 1961 Pattyson 1963 Davis 1963 London, Wenkert, i Hagstrom 1965 Johnstone & Rivera Interviewsl, Question-naire Interviews Attendance records Permanent records Veterans' records Attendance records Classroom [• a c t i v i t i e s l i s t , Class registers Interviews Question-naire Interviews Not Percentages reported Not Percentages reported Not applicable Not applicable Yes Not applicable Yes Yes Not reported Chi-square t-test C r i t i c a l r a t i o (z) Kendall c o e f f i c i e n t of Concordance Spearman rank correlation t-test Chi-square Bivariate contingency tables Bivariate contingency tables 22 Table 2 (Continued) Studies on Administrative Barriers to P a r t i c i p a t i o n Instrument and Data Analysis Instrument Data Analysis Year Author Type Pre-tested Univariate Bivariate or Description Multivariate; Only &/or Tests of S t a t i s t i c a l Significance 1 9 6 6 Dickinson 1 9 6 6 McKinnon 1 9 6 6 Melton 1 9 6 9 Jacobson 1 9 7 1 Clarke 1 9 7 1 Fisher 1 9 7 2 Brown, M. Registration!Not cards [applicable Attendance registers Course enrollment forms Not applicable Not applicable Class l i s t s Not applicable Question-naire Not reported Interviews Yes Question-naires Interviews Not reported Yes Contingency c o e f f i c i e n t s Chi-square C r i t i c a l r a t i o (z^ ) Product-moment corr e l a t i o n Chi-square Chi-square C r i t i c a l r a t i o (z^ Percentages None reported Bivariate contingency tables Chi-square Percentages Bivariate contingency tables t-test Chi-square 23 Table 2 (Continued) Studies on Administrative Barriers to P a r t i c i p a t i o n Instrument and Data Analysis Instrument Data Analysis Year Author Type Pre-tested 1 9 7 2 Okes & Others Question-naires Interviews Yes Yes 1 9 7 3 McCannon Attitude scale , School records , Yes „ Not applicable 1974 Carp, Peterson, & Roelfs Question-naire Interviews, , Not reported 1974 Londoner Question-naire Yes Univariate Description Only Bivariate or Multivariate; &/or Tests of S t a t i s t i c a l Significance 1975 Frederickson Question- Not naire reported Multivariate contingency tables Analysis of variance Chi-square Bivariate contingency tables Tabular multivariate s t a t i s t i c a l operations Percentaged contingency tables Phi c o e f f i c i e n t s Contingency c o e f f i c i e n t s Chi-square Bivariate contingency tables Chi-square 24 Table 2 (Continued) Studies on Administrative Barriers to P a r t i c i p a t i o n Instrument and Data Analysis Instrument Data Analysis Year Author Type Pre-tested Univariate Description Only Bivariate or Multivariate; &/or Tests of S t a t i s t i c a l Significance 1 9 7 5 Lamoureux Question-naire Yes 1975 Norsworthy School records Not applicable P a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s H o t e l l i n g -tp- tests Cross tabulations Multiple discriminant analysis t- t e s t Chi-square Fisher's exact probability test 1975 Study of Barriers 1975 Van Peborgh 1977 Brown, L. & S e l l Interviews Not Columns not applicable: reported Qualitative analysis plus frequencies Columns not applicable Columns not applicable Development of Model Interviews Yes Bivariate contingency tables 25 Table 2 (Continued) Studies on Administrative Barriers to P a r t i c i p a t i o n Instrument and Data Analysis Instrument Data Analysis Year Author Type Pre-tested Univariate Bivariate or Description Multivariate; Only &/or Tests of S t a t i s t i c a l Significance 1977 McKinnon Interviews Not reported Multivariate procedures e.g. factor analysis, stepwise discriminant analysis 1 9 7 8 Baker Question-naires ( 2 ^ Attendance records , Yes > Not applicable Bivariate & multivariate contingency tables Factor analysis t - t e s t 1979 Booth, N. Interview Yes Chi-square t-tests 1979 Open Access Question-naire Interviews, Not reported Bivariate contingency tables 1981 Cross Columns not applicable Development of Chain Columns not applicable of Response Model 26 In summary, the majority of the studies concerned with the e f f e c t of administrative barriers on p a r t i c i p a t i o n were either masters theses or d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n s . These graduate studies d i f f e r e d from the other types of studies concerning t h e i r d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n the type of research, type and pre-t e s t i n g of instruments, and l e v e l of data a n a l y s i s . In gen-e r a l , greater d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n , more rigor, and greater sophis-t i c a t i o n were shown in the graduate research. However, since only about 20% of a l l the studies employed types of research other than ex post facto, i t i s suggested that adult educators' understandings of administrative barriers would be enhanced by a greater v a r i e t y i n research methodology. Experimental research would test "what people actually do rather than what they say they might do" (Cross, 1981, p. 108). Q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s would provide s u b j e c t i v e i n s i g h t s not p o s s i b l e with quantitative analysis. The development and testing of models f o r examining a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b a r r i e r s and t h e i r e f f e c t s on p a r t i c i p a t i o n would provide needed research t o o l s . Other research methodologies should also be considered, f o r they would provide additional perspectives. Limitations of the Studies Before d i s c u s s i n g the a c t u a l f i n d i n g s on the e f f e c t of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b a r r i e r s on p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i t i s important to note a few precautions about their interpretation. A problem a f f e c t i n g most studies i s t h e i r choice of respondents. Generally, the respondents are p a r t i c i p a n t s or potential participants. Different answers about administrative 27 b a r r i e r s might be obtained i f n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s who were not interested in adult education a c t i v i t i e s were the focus of the studies (Cross, 1 9 7 9 , & Okes, 1 9 7 2 ) . The findings of a few studies should be viewed s k e p t i c a l l y because the designs of the studies were inadequate in terms of such requirements as pre-testing the instruments and reporting the s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the r e s u l t s . Those studies which were conducted with s u f f i c i e n t r i g o r to assure t h e i r i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y y i e l d r e s u l t s which are of use to the par-t i c u l a r agencies or l o c a l communities concerned. However, the use of d i f f e r e n t operational d e f i n i t i o n s of terms and the lack of data equivalence l i m i t s the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the results. For example, the studies often use d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s f o r "adult." Carp, Peterson, and Roelfs ( 1 9 7 4 ) define a d u l t s as people between the ages of 18 and 6 0 who are not f u l l - t i m e students and who l i v e i n t h e i r own homes. In c o n t r a s t , Johnstone and Rivera ( 1 9 6 5 ) use the following d e f i n i t i o n : ( 1 ) a l l householders twenty-one years of age or over; or ( 2 ) under twenty-one but m a r r i e d ; or ( 3 ) under twenty-one but the head of a household; plus ( 4 ) a l l persons twenty-one or over who l i v e on an armed f o r c e s base and have close f a m i l y t i e s with some adult members of an American household; and ( 5 ) anyone twenty-one or over and l i v i n g i n a school residence or dormitory and closely related to some household member. (pp. 3 1 - 3 2 ) Such lack of consensus contributes to large sample differences which may, in turn, affect the results obtained. Furthermore, 28 as Cross ( 1 9 8 1 ) points out, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to be precise when drawing conclusions i f a variety of items and reporting formats are used: "Respondents can be asked to name a l l o b s t a c l e s or only the major one. Percentages- can be computed by using people or number of mentions as a base. . . . Cost can be one variable or separated into t u i t i o n costs, books and transporta-t i o n , l o s t time from work, and so on" (p. 9 8 ) . Survey research has weaknesses which should be noted. Surveys report what respondents perceive to be administrative b a r r i e r s . These perceptions may be the r e s u l t of l a ck of information about available options rather than the existence of actual obstacles (Cross, 1 9 8 1 ) . Furthermore, a response bias may occur in survey research i f respondents choose answers on the basis of their s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y . For instance, "fees too high" may be considered a more s o c i a l l y acceptable reason for not p a r t i c i p a t i n g than "lack of interest" or "unable to do the work." The weakness i s that surveys report what people say they do, not what people a c t u a l l y do (Brown & S e l l , 1 9 7 7 ; Cross, 1979) 1 9 8 1 ) . Experimental studies focussing on the same problem could obtain d i f f e r e n t results. These problems hinder interpretation. However, although a few s t u d i e s — w h e n considered on t h e i r own m e r i t s — s h o u l d be viewed with caution, and although i t i s d i f f i c u l t to make s t a t i s t i c a l comparisons among the data of various studies, i t is possible to obtain a generalized picture about the e f f e c t of administrative barriers on p a r t i c i p a t i o n by noting consisten-cies among the results. This i s the focus of the next section. 29 Summary of the Findings The administrative barriers i d e n t i f i e d concerned the type of i n s t i t u t i o n , d istance, type of courses, marketing of courses, r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures, support services, and sched-u l i n g . The f i n d i n g s about each obstacle w i l l be discussed separately. Type of I n s t i t u t i o n Each study which examined type of i n s t i t u t i o n came to the same conclusion: d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s a t t r a c t participants with d i f f e r e n t educational l e v e l s . Universities and colleges appeal to people who have either some college experience or are college graduates or post-graduates (Carp, Peterson, & Roelfs, 1 9 7 4 ; Chapman, 1 9 5 9 ; Johnstone & Rivera, 1 9 6 5 ; Okes, 1 9 7 2 ; Verner & Newberry, 1 9 5 8 ) . Conversely, elementary and secondary schools and re l i g i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n s have the lowest proportion of p a r t i c i p a n t s who have c o l l e g e education and the highest proportion of participants who either have not completed secon-dary school or are secondary school graduates (Johnstone & Rivera, 1 9 6 5 ; Okes, 1 9 7 2 ; Verner & Newberry, 1 9 5 8 ) . Junior colleges, technical-vocational i n s t i t u t i o n s , and private voca-t i o n a l , trade, or business schools a t t r a c t the middle group between these two extremes (Chapman, 1 9 5 9 ; Okes, 1 9 7 2 ; Verner & Newberry, 1 9 5 8 ) . Clarke ( 1 9 7 1 ) found that a d u l t s tended to c i t e personal rather than i n s t i t u t i o n a l reasons f o r t h e i r f a i l u r e to r e -e n r o l l in no n - c r e d i t , u n i v e r s i t y , c o n t i n u i n g education pro-grams. He concluded, "There i s e v i d e n t l y no s i n g l e i d e n t i -30 f i a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n a l adjustment which could have caused a large number of the non-participants to return" (p. 5 6 ) . However, i t was found that people who had not completed secondary school expressed fewer options regarding i n s t i t u t i o n s than people who had more education. Those with lower educational levels mainly preferred public schools or informal home-study lessons (Carp e t a l . , 1 9 7 4 ; Johnstone & Rivera, 1 9 6 5 ) . These f i n d i n g s suggest that people with lower educational lev e l s may perceive i n s t i t u t i o n s other than public schools and r e l i g i o u s i n s t i t u -tions as obstacles to p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Distance Melton ( 1 9 6 6 ) found that distance i s not a b a r r i e r to p a r t i c i p a t i o n in university extension classes. Extension par-ti c i p a n t s often travel long distances and "are not influenced by a l t e r n a t i v e course l o c a t i o n s i n the same community when those alternatives are public school night school centers" (p. 6 2 ) . In c o n t r a s t , p a r t i c i p a n t s at p u b l i c adult night schools travel shorter distances and are affected by alternative course l o c a t i o n s . However, when courses are a v a i l a b l e at only one location, participants from the entire community w i l l attend. Melton concluded that i n c r e a s i n g the number of p u b l i c adult n i g h t s c h o o l l o c a t i o n s would make a d u l t e d u c a t i o n more accessible and result in greater p a r t i c i p a t i o n — " b u t only up to a point" (p. 6 4 ) . McKinnon's f i n d i n g s ( 1 9 6 6 ) lend support to t h i s c o n c lusion. He found that while p u b l i c a d u l t night schools tend to attract their greatest number of participants from within a two mile radius, new centers opening within this 31 two mile radius are not necessarily successful. Furthermore, since p a r t i c i p a t i o n showed a s c a t t e r e d rather than g r a d u a l l y decreasing pattern beyond the two mile radius, McKinnon con-cluded that distance i s not a b a r r i e r to p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Ulmer ( I 9 6 0 ) found that distance i s a l s o not a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r with regard to drop outs. The only study which found distance to be an obstacle to p a r t i c i p a t i o n concerned a small sample of well educated adults who were i n t e r e s t e d i n c o n t i n u i n g t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y education (Study of Barriers, 1 9 7 5 ) . The greatest b a r r i e r to p a r t i c i p a -tion was the lack of educational f a c i l i t i e s within the respon-dents' communities. Comparison with a national study (Carp et a l . , 1 9 7 4 ) did not indicate s i m i l a r findings. It was concluded that because the Study of B a r r i e r s ' s research concerned a small, select group, i t s findings did not pertain to the adult population in general. Type of Courses In their national study, Johnstone and Rivera ( 1 9 6 5 ) found that 8 3 percent of adult education courses were non - c r e d i t . They concluded that the earning of c r e d i t i s not an important motive f o r adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Carp et a l . ( 1 9 7 4 ) went a step further. They stated that credit courses function as a major barrier to non-participants. D i c k i n s o n ( 1 9 6 6 ) d i v i d e d c o u r s e s i n t o t h r e e t y p e s : academic, vocational, and general interest. . He found that the courses a t t r a c t e d d i f f e r e n t p a r t i c i p a n t s with regard to sex, age, marital status, and occupation. Academic courses tended to 32 a t t r a c t young, s i n g l e males who were employed i n c l e r i c a l , l a b o u r e r , or t r a n s p o r t a t i o n - c o m m u n i c a t i o n jobs; general i n t e r e s t courses appealed to older housewives; v o c a t i o n a l courses tended to a t t r a c t those between the above two extremes. This would suggest that the academic and v o c a t i o n a l courses tended to e n r o l l people who were interested in job q u a l i f i c a -t i o n and advancement, whereas the general i n t e r e s t courses appealed to people i n t e r e s t e d i n l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s . The g r e a t e s t number of drop outs were i n the academic and vocational courses. Dickinson suggested that an obstacle could be a pre-adult rather than adult o r i e n t a t i o n toward i n s t r u c -t i o n a l techniques and devices and i n s t r u c t o r s ' a t t i t u d e s . S i m i l a r concerns have been voiced by Hardaway ( 1 9 7 6 ) i n her plea f o r "unique teaching methods" (p. 7) f o r a d u l t s , and by Brown ( 1 9 7 2 ) : I f a d u l t educators are serious about t h e i r wishing to attract more unskilled and semi-skilled labourers into the ranks of p a r t i c i p a n t s , ways ought to be found to design educational opportunities which appeal to such labourers. T h i s study found t h a t the most p e r s i s t a n t f a c t o r i n h i b i t i n g formal p a r t i c i p a t i o n was the r i g i d scheduling and formal classroom atmosphere prevailing in adult educa-tion i n s t i t u t i o n s , coupled with the fact that the subjects which i n t e r e s t e d the respondents most were of a h i g h l y p r a c t i c a l nature more conducive to the workshop than to the classroom. (pp. 7 8 - 7 9 ) 33 Marketing of Courses Carp et a l . ( 1 9 7 4 ) found that 16 percent of p o t e n t i a l participants indicated that lack of information about courses kept them from p a r t i c i p a t i n g . However, Johnstone and Rivera ( 1 9 6 5 ) found that t h i s b a r r i e r a p p l i e d more to low s o c i o -economic groups than to other socio-economic groups. Persons of low socio-economic status were much more l i k e l y than those of either middle or high socio-economic status to say they did not think any f a c i l i t i e s f o r i n s t r u c t i o n existed in their community. Persons in the low category were, on the average, 21 percent more l i k e l y to i d e n t i f y this b a r r i e r than were those in the medium, and they were 32 percent more l i k e l y to do so than those i n the high category, (p. 2 1 9 ) Brown and S e l l ( 1 9 7 7 ) also found that u n f a m i l i a r i t y with adult education courses was great e s t among respondents with low socio-economic status. The source of information about adult education a c t i v i t i e s d i f f e r s . While middle and upper socio-economic groups obtain information through the mass media, low socio-economic groups u s u a l l y l e a r n through personal contact (Brown & S e l l , 1 9 7 7 ; London et a l . , 1 9 6 3 ) . It was suggested that l e s s emphasis on the t y p i c a l marketing methods (such as newspaper a d v e r t i s i n g and mailed brochures) and more emphasis on personal forms of contact (such as asking participants to encourage their friends and r e l a t i v e s to p a r t i c i p a t e , and using working class organiza-tions to t e l l people about a c t i v i t i e s ) would result in greater 34 p a r t i c i p a t i o n by people from low socio-economic groups (Brown & S e l l , 1 9 7 7 ; Garry, 1 9 7 7 ; London et a l . , 1 9 6 3 ) . Registration Procedures The findings about r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures are inconsis-tent. Ewigleben ( 1 9 5 9 , c i t e d by Verner & Davis, 1 9 6 4 ) found that 50% of the c r i t i c i s m s expressed by drop outs concerned r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures. However, the v a l i d i t y of t h i s f inding may be questioned because only univariate description was used i n a n a l y z i n g the data; no t e s t s of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e were employed. Using u n i v a r i a t e d e s c r i p t i o n together with t e s t s of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , Ulmer ( i 9 6 0 ) found that almost 23% of drop outs r e g i s t e r and e i t h e r never attend or discontinue attendance during the f i r s t week. He concluded r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures need revision. Using bivariate contin-gency tables but not reporting any tests of s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i -f i c a n c e , Carp et a l . ( 1 9 7 4 ) found that 10% of p o t e n t i a l p a r t i -c ipants i n d i c a t e d r e g i s t r a t i o n "red tape" was a b a r r i e r to their p a r t i c i p a t i o n . It i s d i f f i c u l t to draw conclusions based on three studies with such d i f f e r e n t results. More research on the e f f e c t of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures i s required. The e f f e c t of w r i t t e n messages as a means of persuading non-participants to e n r o l l was the focus of Norsworthy's study ( 1 9 7 5 ) . A l t h o u g h he found the l e t t e r s d i d not a f f e c t enrollment, he concluded they might influence adults* decisions to e n r o l l in the future. 35 Support Services Lack of support services adversely affects the p a r t i c i p a -tion of more women than men. Perhaps the obstacle i s not only the lack of day care f a c i l i t i e s and f i n a n c i a l aid, but also the effe c t of personal and c u l t u r a l values. Studies f o c u s i n g on women have found that the c r i t i c a l concerns of adult women students are f i n a n c i a l a i d and c h i l d care (Prederickson, 1975; Hunter, 1979; Jacobson, 1969; Van Peborgh, 1975). Moreover, Carp et a l . ( 1 9 7 4 ) found that of the 11% of p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s who f e l t l a c k of c h i l d care f a c i l i t i e s was a barrier, women out-numbered men almost ten to one. Of the 53% who i n d i c a t e d cost was an o b s t a c l e , women again out-numbered the men. It was suggested that women f e e l g u i l t y about t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to t h e i r c h i l d r e n (Hunter, 1 9 7 9 ) and that s o c i e t a l mores "make women f e e l g u i l t y about spending family money for their own educations" (Cross, 1979, p. 109). Hunter (1979), Jacobson (1969) and Van Peborgh (1975) emphasized c h i l d care f a c i l i t i e s and f i n a n c i a l aid are essen-t i a l for the pa r t i c i p a t i o n of women. Jacobson (1969) also found that mature women students voiced a demand for special counseling programs. Van Peborgh (1975) noted counseling was an indispensable component of a model program for educationally and economically disadvantaged women. The need of mature women s t u d e n t s f o r s p e c i a l counseling programs may be more c r u c i a l f o r those who are disadvantaged. In her survey of mature women who "came from c o m f o r t a b l e c i r c u m s t a n c e s and had p r e v i o u s u n i v e r s i t y 36 experience" (pp. 4 5 - 4 6 ) , F r e d e r i c k s o n ( 1 9 7 5 ) found that very few respondents had sought counseling. London et a l . ( 1 9 6 3 ) found lack of counseling s e r v i c e s to be a b a r r i e r f o r disadvantaged men as w e l l as women: "Often the l e s s educated adults are l e s s aware of t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l needs or how to proceed In planning an e f f e c t i v e program of education that would be meaningful to them" (p. 1 5 1 ) « Yet despite studies which i n d i c a t e l a c k of counseling may be a barri e r to p a r t i c i p a t i o n , McCannon ( 1 9 7 4 ) found no s i g n i f i c a n t differences in the rate of re-enrollment between students who received special orientation and counseling and those who did not. Open Access ( 1 9 7 9 ) found 17*5% of the p a r t i c i p a n t s sur-veyed stated transportation was an obstacle to p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Considering that some of these p a r t i c i p a n t s r e c e i v e d t r a n s -portation aid, this percentage i s quite high. There i s some evidence that f i n a n c i a l a i d i s needed i f lower socio-economic groups are to participate. In her survey of low income people, Booth, N. ( 1 9 7 9 ) found 10 percent of the respondents c o n s i d e r e d l a c k of money to be a b a r r i e r . Johnstone and Rivera ( 1 9 6 5 ) concluded: "It i s most s i g n i f i c a n t that large majorities of potential participants of low socio-economic status did say that lack of money prevented t h e i r enrollment in educational courses" (p. 2 1 9 ) « Lamoureux's f i n d i n g s ( 1 9 7 5 ) that course fees "had l i t t l e or no adverse e f f e c t on course enrolment" (p. 6 8 ) do not con-f l i c t with the above findings because the participants studied 37 did not belong to the lower socio-economic groups. F u r t h e r -more, some of the " p r o f e s s i o n a l p a r t i c i p a n t s " i n t h i s study were r e c e i v i n g outside f i n a n c i a l a i d . However, the r e s u l t s Baker ( 1 9 7 8 ; Boshier & Baker, 1 9 7 9 ) obtained using a q u a s i -experimental design c o n f l i c t with Johnstone and Rivera's con-c l u s i o n . Baker found that p a r t i c i p a n t s who e n r o l l e d i n free courses were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower in socio-economic status than the participants who enrolled in fee courses. A possible explanation for the inconsistency between these studies i s that the fees i n v o l v e d i n Baker's study were very low, and hence perhaps were a f f o r d a b l e r e g a r d l e s s of the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' incomes. Cross ( 1 9 8 1 ) makes another point which deserves note: "To say that something costs too much i s a s o c i a l l y acceptable reason f o r not doing i t " (p. 102). Hence the d i f f e r e n c e between the r e s u l t s of Johnstone and Rivera's survey and Baker's quasi-experiment might be the difference between what people say are barriers and what actually are barriers. F i n a l l y , the r e s u l t s about the e f f e c t of s u b s i d i z e d c o u r s e s on p a r t i c i p a n t s ' m o t i v a t i o n s are i n c o n s i s t e n t . Regarding the Federal Department of Manpower and Immigration's f i n a n c i a l support of students, F i s h e r ( 1 9 7 1 ) concluded i t was not p o s s i b l e to determine what p r o p o r t i o n of students who received f i n a n c i a l assistance would have participated i f they not r e c e i v e d s u p p o r t . Ulmer ( I 9 6 0 ) found t h a t a l t h o u g h subsidized veteran students stayed in school longer than non-subsidized non-veterans, the veterans were absent more days and achieved a lower grade point average than the non-veterans. 38 Ulmer concluded that the apparent inconsistency regarding drop-out r a t e s , absences and achievement could be due to the veterans being more f i n a n c i a l l y than a c a d e m i c a l l y motivated. In contrast, Londoner ( 1 9 7 4 ) not only found that there were no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between s e l f - p a i d and agency-paid students regarding e d u c a t i o n a l perseverance, but a l s o that "agency-paid students were more l i k e l y to rate the educational goals higher i n importance than s e l f - p a i d students" (p. 4 7 ) . Londoner's study suggests that the agency-paid students were more h i g h l y motivated and responsive to the courses than the s e l f - p a i d s t u d e n t s . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i s needed b e f o r e generalizations can be made. Scheduling Carp et a l . ( 1 9 7 4 ) found that 16% of p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i -pants i n d i c a t e d inconvenient scheduling of courses was a b a r r i e r . McKinnon ( 1 9 7 7 ) noted that scheduling d i f f i c u l t i e s ranked second as an obstacle to p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Considered i n more d e t a i l , scheduling d i f f i c u l t i e s may involve the season of the year, day of the week, time of the day or evening, length of course, frequency of meetings, or length of class sessions. Study of B a r r i e r s ( 1 9 7 5 ) observed that most respondents needed courses to be o f f e r e d during the summer. Pattyson ( 1 9 6 1 ) noted that c e r t a i n days of the week were best f o r pa r t i c u l a r types of courses. For instance, he found that Monday was s t a t i s t i c a l l y the best day f o r c i v i c and p u b l i c a f f a i r s programs, but that Thursday was the best day for technical and v o c a t i o n a l courses. Tuesday and Wednesday s t a t i s t i c a l l y had 39 the best average d a i l y attendance. Study of B a r r i e r s ( 1 9 7 5 ) found that most p a r t i c i p a n t s require that courses be o f f e r e d during the evenings rather than days. "Time inconvenient" was l i s t e d as a reason for dropping a course by 21% of drop outs i n Okes' study ( 1 9 7 2 ) . In c o n t r a s t , Davis ( 1 9 6 3 ) found there was no s i g n i f i c a n t relationship between a class' drop-out rate and the time of day that class met. Consistent results were obtained concerning course length. The longer courses continue, the more attendance d e c l i n e s (Dickinson, 1 9 6 6 ; Lamoureux, 1 9 7 5 ; Pattyson, 1 9 6 1 ; Study of  B a r r i e r s , 1 9 7 5)• Moreover, Lamoureux ( 1 9 7 5 ) found that course length also negatively affected enrolment. I n c o n s i s t e n t r e s u l t s were found regarding frequency of meetings. Whereas Ulmer ( I 9 6 0 ) observed a s i g n i f i c a n t decline i n attendance f o r c l a s s e s which met more than once a week, Davis ( 1 9 6 3 ) found there was no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the frequency of class meetings and the percentage of drop outs from that class. Davis ( 1 9 6 3 ) also found the length of c l a s s sessions ( e i t h e r two or three hours) was not r e l a t e d to the rate of drop-out. It may be concluded that scheduling i s a b a r r i e r to the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of some people. However, the r e s u l t s of the above studies have l i m i t a t i o n s : their s p e c i f i c findings tend to have v a l i d i t y only f o r the s p e c i f i c communities st u d i e d . P a r t i c u l a r days, times, and so on are l i k e l y to d i f f e r among communities as a result of l o c a l c u l t u r a l patterns. 40 A Note of Caution These f i n d i n g s about a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f a c t o r s should be viewed as "general i n d i c a t o r s rather than as d e f i n i t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n s " (Carp et a l . , 1974, p. 1 4 ) . Percentages d i f f e r among studies, and there may be a "discrepancy between stated i n t e n t i o n s and a c t u a l behavior" (Carp et a l . , 1974, p. 14). However, there i s s u f f i c i e n t consistency among the findings to obtain a generalized picture about the e f f e c t of many adminis-tra t i v e factors on par t i c i p a t i o n . Conclusions and Recommendations regarding the Ef f e c t  of Administrative Factors on P a r t i c i p a t i o n The review of studies has shown that some administrative f a c t o r s act as b a r r i e r s to p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r some s o c i o -economic groups. There i s evidence to suggest that lower socio-economic groups perceive the f o l l o w i n g as o b s t a c l e s : i n s t i t u t i o n s beyond the elementary and secondary l e v e l s , c r e d i t courses, pre-adult rather than adult o r i e n t a t i o n regarding teaching techniques and instructors' attitudes, lack of i n f o r -mation, lack of support services such as c h i l d care f a c i l i t i e s and counseling, and scheduling. Distance i s not perceived as an obstacle. The results regarding the ef f e c t of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures and costs as barriers are inconclusive. The inconsistency among the findings about the ef f e c t of the l a s t two administrative factors i s l i k e l y due to problems concerning data a n a l y s i s and research design. Studies using b i v a r i a t e or m u l t i v a r i a t e a n a l y s i s plus t e s t s of s t a t i s t i c a l significance are required to determine the e f f e c t of r e g i s t r a -41 tion procedures on p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The response bias of s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y may a f f e c t the r e s u l t s of survey r e s e a r c h concerning the extent to which course cost i s a b a r r i e r . I t might be more s o c i a l l y acceptable to state "high fees" i s a b a r r i e r than to admit p e r s o n a l l y demeaning reasons such as " i n a b i l i t y to do the work" i n h i b i t p a r t i c i p a t i o n . More v a l i d results might be obtained through experimental research which focuses on what people a c t u a l l y do, rather than on what they say they do (Cross, 1979, 1981). Furthermore, i t i s suggested that future research use a v a r i e t y of r e s e a r c h methods i n o r d e r to supplement the abundance of e_x post facto research which exists. More q u a l i -tative analysis, development and testing of models, and experi-mental research would provide a d d i t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e s on the e f f e c t of administrative barriers on p a r t i c i p a t i o n . From the s t u d i e s which were conducted, however, i t i s apparent that p a r t i c i p a t i o n among the lower socio-economic group adu l t s would increase i f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b a r r i e r s were removed. For, according to Miller's f o r c e - f i e l d analysis model (1967), i f the negative f o r c e s pushing against p a r t i c i p a t i o n are reduced, equilibrium w i l l be affected in favour of p a r t i c i -p ation. According to Cross's chain of response model (1981), removal of e x t e r n a l b a r r i e r s may encourage weakly motivated adults to participate. Both models suggest, t h e r e f o r e , that the removal of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b a r r i e r s would make adult education programs more a c c e s s i b l e to lower socio-economic groups. Peterson 42 ( 1 9 7 9 ) makes several recommendations which would improve adult education's a c c e s s i b i l i t y . Programs could be made more geo-graphically accessible by off e r i n g courses throughout the com-munity, thereby maximizing convenience and minimizing transpor-t a t i o n problems. Educational brokering s e r v i c e s could be e s t a b l i s h e d as a means of l i n k i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s to the educa-tional resources that best meet their needs. Included in these centralized services would be information about programs in the area, counseling, and advocacy ( a s s i s t a n c e i n coping with i n s t i t u t i o n s ) . S i m p l i f i e d bureaucratic routines would reduce f r u s t r a t i o n s concerning "red tape" hurdles. Courses could be made more f i n a n c i a l l y accessible by using special fee schedules f o r disadvantaged groups. F i n a l l y , temporal a c c e s s i b i l i t y could be obtained by scheduling courses throughout the year, week, and day and evening to f i t the schedules of the ta r g e t c l i e n t e l e . In addition, the following recommendation i s made. There was evidence that some of the b a r r i e r s i d e n t i f i e d were the r e s u l t of l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n about a v a i l a b l e options r a t h e r than the existence of a c t u a l o b s t a c l e s (Cross, 1 9 8 1 ) . Since lower socio-economic groups tend to fi n d out about adult educa-tion a c t i v i t i e s through personal contacts (Brown & S e l l , 1 9 7 7 ; London et a l . , 1 9 6 3 ) , i t i s recommended that adult educators pursue forms of personal contact such as asking participants to encourage their friends to participate and using working class o r g a n i z a t i o n s to t e l l people about a c t i v i t i e s (Brown & S e l l , 1 9 7 7 ; Garry, 1 9 7 7 ; London et a l . , 1 9 6 3 ) • Removal of other 43 administrative barriers w i l l be of l i t t l e use unless potential participants are made aware that adult education i s accessible to them. 44 Chapter III Methodology Overview As the review of the l i t e r a t u r e revealed, there i s e v i -dence that some administrative factors function as barriers to the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of lower socio-economic group adults. How-ever, the results of the few studies on the e f f e c t of r e g i s t r a -tion procedures are inconsistent and inconclusive. To deter-mine whether certain types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures function as barriers to the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of lower socio-economic group adults, a research strategy was formulated in which p r i m a r i l y quantitative data from questionnaires distributed to p a r t i c i -pants and q u a n t i t a t i v e data from interviewing administrators were obtained. The focus of the study was on the participants' r e a c t i o n s to a v a r i e t y of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures and the r e l a t i o n s h i p between these responses and the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' socio-economic status. The interviews with administrators pro-vided valuable subjective insights. The f o l l o w i n g e x p l a i n s the methodology of t h i s study i n c l u d i n g the choosing of the populations and samples, the development and testing of the instruments, the c o l l e c t i o n of the data, and the analysis of the data. Populations and Samples Since the questionnaire and interview data were collected from two d i f f e r e n t types of respondents, i t is. necessary to define the populations and samples tested by each instrument. 45 Course Registrants The questionnaire was developed f o r a population con-s i s t i n g of the p a r t i c i p a n t s e n r o l l e d i n the n o n - c r e d i t , evening, winter, 1980 courses which were l a b e l l e d "Teens and Adults" or "Adults" in the Surrey and White Rock Community  Education and Recreation Program brochure and which were spon-sored by the Surrey School Board, Surrey Parks and Recreation Commission, or White Rock Parks and Recreation Department. A s t r a t i f i e d random sample was selected, using the type of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures as the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n parameter. The s t r a t a or subgroups—the three types of r e g i s t r a t i o n pro-cedures—were of primary interest because the aim of the study was to compare the participants enrolled in classes requiring d i f f e r e n t types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures. "For comparison of subgroups, the optimum sample i s one where the sample sizes of the subgroups are equal, since t h i s minimizes the standard e r r o r of the d i f f e r e n c e " (Sudman, 1976, p. 111). However, the m a j o r i t y of the c l a s s e s r e q u i r e d p r e - r e g i s t r a t i o n i n person. In an attempt to achieve equal s i z e s of subgroups, t h e r e f o r e , the other two types of r e g i s t r a t i o n , pre-registration by phone and r e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t class, were over-sampled r e l a t i v e to their proportions of the t o t a l number of classes. To ensure that the sample accurately represented the popu-l a t i o n , the courses were chosen 'randomly within each stratum. A l l r e l e v a n t courses were numbered c o n s e c u t i v e l y i n the bro-i chure f o r each type of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedure. Courses were then s e l e c t e d by using a table of random numbers u n t i l the 46 desired sample size was reached. The s i z e of the t o t a l i n i t i a l sample was the number of participants enrolled in 48 classes, which were equally s p l i t among c l a s s e s r e q u i r i n g p r e - r e g i s t r a t i o n i n person, pre-r e g i s t r a t i o n by phone, and r e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t c l a s s . The n e c e s s i t y of keeping the sample s i z e s of the subgroups equal meant that the size of the subgroups in the f i n a l sample would be determined by the s i z e of the s m a l l e s t subgroup. After classes had been eliminated from the i n i t i a l sample due to the l i k e l i h o o d of skewed r e s u l t s ( i n one c l a s s only teen-agers were r e g i s t e r e d , while i n another c l a s s the i n s t r u c t o r had a stroke just before r e g i s t r a t i o n was to begin) and due to the cancellation of classes because of i n s u f f i c i e n t enrollment, the size of the smallest of the three subgroups was 10 classes. Hence the f i n a l sample consisted of the participants enrolled i n 30 c l a s s e s , which were d i v i d e d i n t o three subgroups con-t a i n i n g 10 c l a s s e s each. In t h i s f i n a l sample there were a t o t a l of 431 respondents, 128 who pre-registered in person, 128 who p r e - r e g i s t e r e d by phone, 170 who r e g i s t e r e d at the f i r s t class, and 5 who registered by other methods such as r e g i s t r a -t i o n by a spouse or f r i e n d . Using Sudman's general r u l e that "the sample should be large enough so that there are 100 or more units in each category of the major breakdowns" (1976, p. 30), the f i n a l sample was considered to be s u f f i c i e n t l y large. Table 3 shows the socio-demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s sample. Of the t o t a l 431 respondents, 356 (82.6% of the sample) were female. While the range v a r i e d from 10 to 77 47 years, the mean age was 33• 7- The range of years of s c h o o l i n g was also considerable, varying from 3 to 22 years, with a mean of 12.6 years of education. Socio-economic c l a s s ranged from the lowest c l a s s of 1 to the highest c l a s s of 7, with a mean c l a s s of 4.1. Only 41 p a r t i c i p a n t s (9-5% of the sample) could not be assigned a socio-economic class based on Blishen's index f o r occupations. Some of these p a r t i c i p a n t s e i t h e r did not respond or gave an i n s u f f i c i e n t response to the questionnaire item. Others did respond, but could not be c l a s s i f i e d because they were welfare r e c i p i e n t s , handicapped or medical pen-sioners, unemployed, or university students. 48 Table 3 Socio-demographic Characteristics of the Sample Total Respondents Sex: Male Female No Response J431 7* (17.IX) 356 (82.6X) 1 ( .21) Age: 10 - 11) 15 - 19 20 - 21 25 - 34 35 - 44 45 - 5« 55 - 64 65 - 69 70 & over No response 3 ( -7X) 17 ( 3-9%) 69 (16.OX) 180 (41.8X) 70 (16.2X) 18 (11.IX) 29 3 1 .7X) • 7X) • 2X) Mean » 33-7 Minimum = 10.0 Maximum = 77.0 11 ( 2.6X) Education: Less than Grade 9 Grades 9 - 1 0 Grade 11 Grades 12 - 13 More than Grade 13 No response 10 50 15 206 116 4 ( 2-3X) (11.6X) (10.IX) (17.8X) (26.9X) ( -9X) Mean Minimum Maximum 12.6 3-0 22.0 Socio-economic Class based on Bllshen's Index for Occupations Socio-economic Class: Class not assigned 2 59 89 83 75 64 18 41 ( -5X) (13.7X) (20.6X) (19.2*) (17.4X) (14.8X) ( 4.2?) ( 9-5X) Mean Minimum Maximum 4.1 1.0 7-0 Breakdown of the above 41 Cases: Welfare » 4 ( -9X) Handicap or medical pension » 3 ( -7X) Unemployed • 4 ( .9X) University Student = 3 ( -7X) Insufficient response to categorize » 15 ( 3-5%) No response • 12 ( 2.9J) Note: Relevant census categories are used. Percentage totals do not equal 100J due to rounding. 49 Administrators A l l administrators who were responsible for the r e g i s t r a -tion of the participants comprising the questionnaire's popula-tion were interviewed. Of this t o t a l population of 15 adminis-t r a t o r s , f i v e were r e c r e a t i o n s u p e r v i s o r s employed by the Surrey Parks and Recreation Commission, one was the Director of Parks and Recreation f o r White Rock, seven were community education c o - o r d i n a t o r s employed by the Surrey School Board, and two were administrators for the Surrey-White Rock Family Development Association, which was a f f i l i a t e d with the Surrey School Board. Instrument Development Two instruments were developed for this study. A question-n a i r e was constructed to be d i s t r i b u t e d to a large number of adult education p a r t i c i p a n t s . Because the r e l a t i v e l y small number of administrators made face-to-face interviews f e a s i b l e , an interview schedule was constructed for use in investigating their perceptions about r e g i s t r a t i o n . The development of each instrument w i l l be discussed in turn. Questionnaire The b a s i c design of the questionnaire was governed by considerations noted by Dickinson and Blunt .(1980): The accuracy of the data c o l l e c t e d i n any survey depends on the w i l l i n g n e s s and a b i l i t y of the respondents to provide the desired information, and this i s influenced i n part by the c l a r i t y of the instructions and items included i n the instrument, (p. 59) 50 To encourage the co-operation of both the adult education participants and their instructors, r e s t r i c t i o n s were made on both the length of the qu e s t i o n n a i r e s and the time taken to administer them. The questionnaire was to cover no more than both sides of one le g a l - s i z e sheet and to require only about 10 minutes of c l a s s time. The choice of items included i n the questi o n n a i r e was, of course, determined by the v a r i a b l e s essential to the study, such as i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures used and p r e f e r r e d , measurement of a t t i t u d e s , and demographic information. However, concern that some p a r t i c i -pants would resent questions about t h e i r income made i t inadvisable to ask for this information. The choice of response modes was i n f l u e n c e d by data analysis requirements and r e s t r i c t i o n s about the length of the questi o n n a i r e and the time required to complete i t . In general, i t i s advisable to c o l l e c t i n t e r v a l data, the highest l e v e l of measurement, because i t a l l o w s the g r e a t e s t f l e x i b i l i t y in s t a t i s t i c a l analysis. Conversion from a higher l e v e l to a lower l e v e l such as ordinal or nominal i s possible, but conversion from a lower l e v e l to a higher l e v e l i s not. Among the response modes chosen which y i e l d e d i n t e r v a l data were two types of scales for measuring attitudes, the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l and the Likert Scale. However, scaled responses require more time to complete than c h e c k l i s t and c a t e g o r i c a l response modes. To maximize the amount of i n f o r m a t i o n obtained in a minimum amount of time, these l a t t e r two types of responses were also used. R e s t r i c t i o n s on the length of the 51 questionnaire l i m i t e d the number of open-ended questions asked. Throughout the questionnaire, an attempt was made to use clear, concise, e a s i l y understood language. P a r t i c u l a r care had to be e x e r c i s e d i n w r i t i n g the i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l . This a t t i t u d e measuring technique developed by Osgood, Suci, and Tannenbaum (1957) re q u i r e s respondents to judge a concept such as "the r e g i s t r a t i o n procedure" by p l a c i n g an "X" on one of the seven blanks between each p a i r of b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e s c a l e s (see Appendix B). The i n s t r u c t i o n s were s i m p l i f i e d by asking respondents to "Rate the r e g i s t r a t i o n procedure you followed by placing an "X" above one of the blanks between each word pair." Examples were also given. Construction of the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l required f i r s t s e l e c t i n g the concept and then choosing r e l e v a n t a d j e c t i v e p a i r s to judge that concept. To minimize response b i a s , the p o s i t i v e and negative d i r e c t i o n s of each b i p o l a r a d j e c t i v e scale were randomly determined by f l i p p i n g a coin. Because the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l only measured the a t t i -tudes of the respondents toward the mechanical aspects of r e g i s t r a t i o n (such as o r g a n i z a t i o n ) , the L i k e r t Scale was developed to measure the respondents' a t t i t u d e s toward the personal aspects of r e g i s t r a t i o n (such as f r i e n d l i n e s s ) . A 5-point Like r t scale was used to register the degree of agree-ment or disagreement with each statement w r i t t e n about t h i s aspect of r e g i s t r a t i o n . The f i n a l stage i n the i n i t i a l d r a f t i n g of the question-52 naire i n v o l v e d d e c i s i o n s about coding. Dickinson and Blunt (1980) argue: "the instrument should be precoded to minimize time and error in data processing after the data are gathered" (p« 59)« Others state precoding has a dehumanizing e f f e c t on respondents. After weighing both sides of the argument, i t was decided that the l a t t e r r i s k would have to be taken i n favour of greater accuracy and e f f i c i e n c y . F o r t u n a t e l y , none of the respondents voiced any objection to the precoded format. Following development of the f i r s t draft of the question-n a i r e , the instrument was submitted to a panel of judges con-s i s t i n g of administrators and graduate students with adminis-tr a t i v e experience to assess the questionnaire's face v a l i d i t y . This panel made some valuable recommendations concerning the wording and organization of questions which were incorporated. The . r e s u l t a n t questionnaire was pr e - t e s t e d and p i l o t tested in order to discover possible problems concerning the following: questionnaire d i s t r i b u t i o n , response rate, format design and organization, c l a r i t y of instructions, appropriate-ness of questions, strength of relationship among the items of the a t t i t u d e s c a l e s , v a r i a b i l i t y of response to p a r t i c u l a r items, and s u i t a b i l i t y of the coding plan. A l l classes which were p r e - t e s t e d and p i l o t t e s t e d were s e l e c t e d from the same population as the study's sample, but did not belong to t h i s sample. In addition, the classes chosen represented each type of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedure used and each agency involved in the study's sample. One class was chosen for pre-testing the instrument. The 53 major benefit of this pre-testing was to demonstrate the prob-lems inherent in having the instructor administer the question-n a i r e . This w i l l be discussed i n more d e t a i l i n the "Data C o l l e c t i o n " s e c t i o n . Due to course c a n c e l l a t i o n s , i t was possible to test only 9 of the 11 additional classes chosen for the p i l o t study. Because the questionnaires were distributed to the nine classes by trained proctors rather than by i n s t r u c -tors, there were no problems with questionnaire d i s t r i b u t i o n . The response rate was e x c e l l e n t : 94%. As a r e s u l t of the p i l o t study, improvements were made to the o v e r a l l s p a t i a l arrangement, the amount of space for open-ended questions was increased, ambiguous and poorly worded questions were c l a r i -f i e d , and an inappropriate question was deleted. No item had a s i g n i f i c a n t l y low response rate. The coding plan was shown to be suitable. There was concern that the bipolar adjective scales com-pri s i n g the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l might be measuring d i f f e r e n t things and hence could not be averaged to represent the respondent's mean a t t i t u d e . The Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l data c o l l e c t e d from the p i l o t study was analyzed using Pearson Product-Moment Correlations in order to determine the strength of the relationship between the items. It was found that there was a moderate p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p that was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l between the items comprising the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l . Thus i t could be concluded that the items com-pr i s i n g the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l scale were measuring some-thing i n common and hence could be averaged to obtain a mean 54 attitude for each respondent. Similar analysis was performed on the Like r t Scale data with s i m i l a r results. At the completion of the above process, a f i n a l version of the questionnaire was d r a f t e d and approved f o r use with the study's sample. Interview Schedule The interview schedule which was developed followed Kahn and Cannell's d e f i n i t i o n : "We use the term interview to refer to a specialized pattern of verbal i n t e r a c t i o n — i n i t i a t e d for a s p e c i f i c purpose, and focused on some s p e c i f i c content area, with consequent elimination of extraneous material" (1957, p« 16). It may be recalled that the main purpose of the interviews was to determine whether there were a d m i n i s t r a t i v e reasons which necessitated the use of p a r t i c u l a r types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures regardless of their possible influence as barriers on the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of lower socio-economic group adults. But to be able to determine this through interviews required s u f f i -cient understanding and f a m i l i a r i t y with the various types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures to be able to a c c u r a t e l y define the content area to be focussed on i n the i n t e r v i e w s . Experience a s s i s t i n g the r e g i s t r a t i o n of participants provided this needed background i n f o r m a t i o n and proved to be i n v a l u a b l e i n the development of the interview schedule. The substantive areas to be covered i n the i n t e r v i e w schedule thus were broadly determined by the purpose of the study and r e f i n e d due to the benefit of personal experience registering participants. Important in each interview was e l i c i t i n g the perspective 55 of the administrator responsible for registering adult educa-t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s . Accordingly, some questions s o l i c i t e d s p e c i f i c examples of problems that the a d m i n i s t r a t o r had e n c o u n t e r e d . P e r s o n a l i z a t i o n was a l s o obtained through response-keying: "questions that the answers to which deter-mine which subsequent questions, i f any, must be answered" (Tuckman, 1978, p. 212). Use of the unstructured response mode helped to convey the impression that the a d m i n i s t r a t o r ' s responses would not be evaluated by a pre-determined l i s t of c r i t e r i a . Unlike the questionnaire, time rest r a i n t s were not a con-sideration in the development of the interview schedule. The unstructured response mode allowed more i n f o r m a t i o n to be generated than other modes. Probing and following leads were possible. Depth and breadth of information could be obtained. The f i r s t draft of the interview schedule was submitted to a panel of judges composed of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and graduate s t u d e n t s w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e to a s s e s s the instrument's face v a l i d i t y . The panel's suggestions were incorporated into the f i n a l draft (see Appendix C). Unfortunately, i t was not p o s s i b l e to p i l o t t e s t the interview schedule with administrators who were from the same population as the study's sample but who d i d not form part of that sample: the entire population of administrators who were re s p o n s i b l e f o r the r e g i s t r a t i o n of the p a r t i c i p a n t s were interviewed as part of the study. 56 Data Col l e c t i o n F o l l o w i n g the development of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and interview schedule, great care was taken in the c o l l e c t i o n of data i n order to minimize p o s s i b l e sample b i a s e s . This p o t e n t i a l source of e r r o r i s a f u n c t i o n of how wel l the study design i s executed (Sudman, 1976). Careless data c o l l e c t i o n can r e s u l t i n a lack of co-operation, sloppy or inaccurate responses, and a low response rat e . The measures which were taken to prevent such problems are discussed below. Questionnaire Data E l i c i t i n g co-operation p e r t a i n i n g to the c o l l e c t i o n of questionnaire data required appeals to four groups of people. Appointments were made and meetings were held with the Recreation D i r e c t o r s of the Surrey Parks and Recreation Commission and White Rock Parks and Recreation Department i n order to obtain permission to interview their administrators and survey t h e i r p a r t i c i p a n t s . The key issues covered during these meetings were i n accordance with those suggested by Tuckman (1978, pp. 233-234): the legitimacy of the study; the purpose of the study; the importance of the study to the Directors, their administrators, and participants; the a v a i l -a b i l i t y of the results of the study; and the anonymity afforded a l l r e s p o n s e s . ( T h i s p r e l i m i n a r y step was unn e c e s s a r y regarding the Supervisor of Instruction for Community Education f o r the Surrey School Board. Having suggested the study, he was very w i l l i n g to provide his support.) A f t e r a p p r o v a l was o b t a i n e d from the d i r e c t o r s and 57 supervisor of each agency, and they in turn had an opportunity to b r i e f their administrators and request their support, this second group of administrators were contacted in order to make arrangements f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of questi o n n a i r e data. In addition, a few personal l e t t e r s covering the issues outlined above were written in response to requests by some administra-tors for written information about the study. Before the qu e s t i o n n a i r e s could be d i s t r i b u t e d , the co-operation of a t h i r d l e v e l of agency s t a f f had to be sought: the i n s t r u c t o r s of those c l a s s e s which were in c l u d e d i n the study. Contact was i n i t i a t e d by one of three v e r s i o n s of a cover l e t t e r authorized and signed by the head of the agency employing the i n s t r u c t o r (see Appendix A). P e r t i n e n t i n the w r i t i n g of these l e t t e r s were the f o l l o w i n g g u i d e l i n e s suggested by Tuckman (1978, pp. 233-234): e s t a b l i s h the legitimacy of the study, mention the endorsement of the study, indicate the study's purpose, state the protection given to the instructors and respondents, l i s t special instructions about the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the qu e s t i o n n a i r e , and be b r i e f . These l e t t e r s were f o l l o w e d up by telephone c a l l s to answer any q u e s t i o n s and to c o n f i r m arrangements c o n c e r n i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the questionnaires. Despite these e f f o r t s , three of the instructors refused to co-operate, c i t i n g in two cases fear of classroom disruption as a reason and in the thi r d case not stating a reason. Attempts to a l l a y fears were not successful. In order not to affe c t the randomness of the sample, these courses were excluded from the 58 sample and other c l a s s e s were s e l e c t e d by using the table of random numbers. The f o u r t h group whose co-operation was needed was the participants in the adult education classes. As discussed pre-viously, the r e s t r i c t i o n s placed on the design of the question-naire regarding the length and time taken to administer were intended to reduce possible objections. In addition, the proc-t o r s d i s t r i b u t i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s a p p e a l e d to the respondents for their help, indicated the benefit of the study, and assured them a l l responses were confidential. Statements on the questionnaire such as "Your i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be very helpful in improving future r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures," "Do not put your name of the questionnaire," and "Thank-you f o r your co-operation" provided w r i t t e n emphasis of the p r o c t o r s ' comments. Even i f co-operation from a l l people i s obtained, inaccu-rate responses can result i f the instrument i s not d i s t r i b u t e d under c o n t r o l l e d and standardized c o n d i t i o n s . The p r e - t e s t , during which the i n s t r u c t o r d i s t r i b u t e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , demonstrated some of the e r r o r s noted by Borg ( 1 9 6 3 ) : " F a i l s to standardize or c o n t r o l the teacher's r o l e i n the data c o l -l e c t i o n s i t u a t i o n , t herefore i n t r o d u c i n g b i a s r e s u l t i n g from nonstandard i n s t r u c t i o n s , coaching . . . , and v a r i a t i o n s i n degree of a s s i s t a n c e " (p. 9 4 ) . Such e r r o r s were made even though the instructor had been coached and had received sheets with standardized instructions. Absorbed in the teaching of the class, the instructor forgot to follow these instructions. To 59 minimize the r i s k of this type of sample bias, the rest of the study was conducted with selected, trained proctors equipped with standardized instruction sheets (see Appendix A). The response rate was 9 3 % , c o n s i d e r a b l y higher than the " g e n e r a l l y accepted l e v e l of about 8 0 % " (Sudman, 1 9 7 6 , p. 3 0 ) . Prom a p o s s i b l e t o t a l of 4 6 5 responses, 4 3 1 responses were r e c e i v e d . The 3 4 nonresponses f e l l i n t o the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : 1 0 refused to answer, 2 2 had been r e g i s t e r e d by a friend or spouse, and 2 had not yet been registered. Interview Data Much of the - ground work in e l i c i t i n g administrators' co-operation had been l a i d i n the p r e v i o u s l y described p r i o r contacts with the two le v e l s of administration. However, the nature of a depth i n t e r v i e w with each a d m i n i s t r a t o r who was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e g i s t e r i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s r e q u i r e d s p e c i a l additional measures. "The i n t e r v i e w i s a p a t t e r n of i n t e r a c t i o n i n which the role relationship of the interviewer and respondent i s highly specialized, i t s s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s depending somewhat on the purpose and character of the i n t e r v i e w " (Kahn & Cannell, 1 9 5 7 , p. 1 6 ) . This r o l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n t e r v i e w e r and respondent i s i n f l u e n c e d by attempts to e s t a b l i s h a productive c l i m a t e , l i s t e n a n a l y t i c a l l y , probe t h o u g h t f u l l y , motivate the interviewee, and c o n t r o l the i n t e r v i e w (Downs, Smeyak, & Martin, 1 9 8 0 ) . Basic to the establishment of a productive climate was stating the purpose of the interview. Time and place arrange-6 0 ments were also important. A l l interviews were scheduled for approximately two weeks after the completion of r e g i s t r a t i o n , a time s u f f i c i e n t l y close to r e g i s t r a t i o n that there would not be any r e c a l l d i f f i c u l t i e s , and s u f f i c i e n t l y a f t e r r e g i s t r a t i o n that the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s would be free to focus on the i n t e r -view. Two b e n e f i t s were derived by h o l d i n g each i n t e r v i e w i n the respondent's o f f i c e : the f a m i l i a r surroundings stimulated the respondent's thoughts about r e g i s t r a t i o n , and the respondent f e l t more at ease i n h i s or her "own t u r f " . F i n a l l y , aware that the interviewer's attitudes, expectations, motivations, and perceptions i n f l u e n c e responses (Kahn & Cannell, 1957), attempts were made to convey an open-minded approach. The responses given were accepted; evaluation during the interview was avoided. L i s t e n i n g a n a l y t i c a l l y r e q u i r e d l i s t e n i n g c a r e f u l l y i n order to determine the respondent's frame of reference and, through questions, help in the refinement of her or his ideas. Dependent on the a b i l i t y to l i s t e n a n a l y t i c a l l y i s the s k i l l of p r o b i n g t h o u g h t f u l l y . Downs et a l . (1980) s t a t e : "The rationale for probing i s that for the majority of topics secon-dary questions must supplement primary questions" (p. 86). Probing was undertaken during the following instances noted by Downs et al.: no responses, incomplete responses, irrelevant answers, inaccurate information, and poorly organized responses (1980, pp. 87-88). A t t e n t i o n was paid to motivating the respondents by p o i n t i n g out the value of the study to them and s t a t i n g that 61 they would receive a copy of the results. Emphasis was placed on the protection afforded them: the confidentiality of their responses was assured. F i n a l l y , controlling the interview was achieved as a result of the above efforts to establish a productive climate, listen analytically, probe thoughtfully, and motivate. In addition to these attempts to ensure a favourable role r e l a t i o n s h i p between the int e r v i e w e r and respondent, r e l i a b i l i t y of the interviews was increased by using, when possible, a tape recorder to record the responses. Permission to tape record responses was sought and granted for a l l but 1 of the 14 interviews. The use of the tape recorder not only increased the accuracy of the interview data because reliance did not have to be placed on notes and memory, but also freed the interviewer to concentrate on the interview i t s e l f by li s t e n i n g intently and observing nonverbal responses. The notes made during the non-recorded interview were elaborated on immediately following the interview. This procedure was in accordance with that suggested by Dexter (1970): "The one rule which is universally agreed to is that notes should be written up as soon as possible after an interview is completed" (p. 56). Data Analysis The questionnaire provided both q u a n t i t a t i v e and qualitative data, while the interviews resulted in qualitative data. These two types of data served complementary functions. As Cross points out: "Our understandings are enhanced by 62 v a r i e t y i n research methodology. The s u b j e c t i v e i n s i g h t s p o s s i b l e i n depth i n t e r v i e w s c o n t r i b u t e something d i f f e r e n t from the q u a n t i f i c a t i o n of data" (1981, p. 88). Thus, while the q u a n t i t a t i v e data p r o v i d e d p r e c i s e comparisons and s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s , the q u a l i t a t i v e data provided suggestions and ideas to aid in the interpretation of these findings. Questionnaire Analysis The questionnaire's q u a n t i t a t i v e data was coded and entered onto disk to be analyzed by means of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia's Amdahl 470 computer. A l l s t a t i s t i c a l proce-dures were from the S t a t i s t i c a l Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) . E x p l o r a t o r y a n a l y s i s of the data c o n s i s t e d of the following: frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n analysis was used to examine the d i s t r i b u t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the variables; crosstabu-l a t i o n analysis and Pearson product-moment correlation analysis were used to investigate relationships among two or more of the variables. Following the results of this preliminary analysis, i t was decided to use a n a l y s i s of variance (ANOVA) to answer the following research questions: 1. Are there s i g n i f i c a n t relationships between p a r t i c i -pants' socio-economic class and type of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures used, i n terms of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' a t t i t u d e s to the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and i n t e r - p e r s o n a l aspects of those r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures? 63 2. Is there a s i g n i f i c a n t relationship between the par-t i c i p a n t s ' socio-economic c l a s s and the type of reg-i s t r a t i o n procedures the p a r t i c i p a n t s s t a t e d they preferred? 3- What are the effects of sex, age, travel time, educa-tion, and subject matter on the relationships between participants' socio-economic class and type of re g i s -t r a t i o n procedures used, i n terms of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' attitudes to those r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures? The fourth research question—what insights into the above f i n d i n g s do p a r t i c i p a n t s ' comments provide and what common themes e m e r g e — r e l a t e d to the open-ended questions. These responses were examined for s i g n i f i c a n t comments and analyzed to determine common themes (Downs et a l . , 1980). Relevant frequency counts and percentages were calculated. F i n a l l y , crosstabulation analysis was used to examine the relationship between the types of re g i s t r a t i o n procedures used and the types of procedures preferred. These results would be useful in the interpretation of some the findings. Interview Analysis Administrators were interviewed for two main reasons: to determine whether there were a d m i n i s t r a t i v e reasons which necessitated the use of part i c u l a r types of r e g i s t r a t i o n proce-dures, and to obtain suggestions and ideas which would be u s e f u l i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the f i n d i n g s concerning p a r t i c i p a n t s . With regard to the l a t t e r purpose, the i n f o r m a t i o n obtained from the i n t e r v i e w s was considered i n terms of the p a r t i c i -64 pants' comments. Throughout the analysis, the following guidelines sug-gested by Downs et a l . (1980) were used: develop a focus and support your conclusions (p. 423)* By developing a focus, Downs et a l . mean that the researcher should "be sensitive to the subtle nuances and common threads that run through respondents' answers. Then let the focus of what is important evolve from [the] data" (1980, p. 423)» Supporting evidence consisted of key quotations by both the participants and administrators. This is in accordance with the recommendation that "a heavy emphasis" be placed upon the use of quotations, and is based on the assumption that the "accuracy of an insight is not dependent on the number of times i t receives expression. One person's comment can encapsulate a wider r e a l i t y experi-enced by many" (Brookfield, Note 2). The next chapter discusses the findings obtained as a result of the above data analyses. 65 Chapter IV The Findings Participants As explained i n Chapter I, the primary purpose of t h i s study was to examine whether c e r t a i n types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures f u n c t i o n as s i g n i f i c a n t b a r r i e r s to p a r t i c i p a t i o n for lower socio-economic group adults. The findings pertaining to the four research questions which were derived from t h i s purpose are discussed below. It should be noted that the number of respondents d i f f e r s s l i g h t l y throughout t h i s d i s c u s s i o n because a l l of the 4 3 1 participants did not respond to every questionnaire item. Socio-economic Class and Actual Registration Procedures Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test for s i g n i f i c a n t relationships between participants' socio-economic c l a s s and type of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures used, i n terms of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' a t t i t u d e s to the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and i n t e r -personal aspects of those r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures. The socio-economic status of p a r t i c i p a n t s was based on Blishen's socio-economic index f o r occupations ( 1 9 7 6 ) . The types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures used were pre-registration i n person, p r e - r e g i s t r a t i o n by phone, and r e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t class. (Another option, "other" r e g i s t r a t i o n procedure, a p p l i e d to only 5 respondents, and hence was not include d i n the analysis.) P a r t i c i p a n t s ' a t t i t u d e s to the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l 66 and i n t e r - p e r s o n a l aspects of r e g i s t r a t i o n were i n d i c a t e d by t h e i r mean scores on the semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l and L i k e r t scales respectively. A t t i t u d e s to o r g a n i z a t i o n a l aspects. Table 4 shows the means f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' a t t i t u d e s to the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l aspects of the r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures used. The mean f o r the 374 respondents (86.8% of the sample) was 5-97- Although the mean scores of i n d i v i d u a l respondents ranged from the lowest p o s s i b l e score of 1.00 to the highest p o s s i b l e score of 7»00, and hence indicated individual attitudes ranging from extreme d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n to extreme s a t i s f a c t i o n , this o v e r a l l mean of 5.97 indicated that generally respondents had a very favorable attitude to the organizational aspects of a l l 3 types of re g i s -t r a t i o n . In Table 4, the means of the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' a t t i t u d e s to the organizational aspects of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures used were subdivided by the 3 types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures, by the 7 c a t e g o r i e s of socio-economic c l a s s e s , and by the types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures and cat e g o r i e s of socio-economic classes combined. The resultant c e l l s each contain 2 numbers— the upper number i s the mean value f o r the a t t i t u d e of the respondents f a l l i n g within the c e l l , while the lower number i s the number of respondents within the c e l l . Note that when the means f o r the respondents' a t t i t u d e s were subdivided by the 3 types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures used, each mean was quite high. However, the s i z e of these means di f f e r e d , with pre-registration in person receiving the lowest 67 mean (5.24) and r e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t c l a s s the highest mean (6.40). No pattern was apparent when the means f o r respondents* attitudes to the organizational aspects of re g i s -t r a t i o n were subdivided by the 7 categories of socio-economic c l a s s e s . Nor was any pattern d i s c e r n i b l e when the means f o r respondents' a t t i t u d e s to the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l aspects were c l a s s i f i e d by both the types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures used and the categories of socio-economic classes. Table 5 tests for s i g n i f i c a n t differences among the means. The means f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l aspects of the r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures used d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y (F=38.750, df=2, p<.01). However, the means f o r the 7 socio-economic c l a s s e s d i d not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y (F=1.049, df=6, p=.393)- Furthermore, the mean for the interaction e f f e c t between r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures and socio-economic c l a s s was not s i g n i f i c a n t (F=.855> df=10, p=»575)' Thus s a t i s f a c t i o n regarding r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures dif f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y among the various types of r e g i s t r a t i o n , but no s i g n i f i c a n t effects were found either for participants' socio-economic c l a s s or f o r the i n t e r a c t i o n between s o c i o -economic class and procedures. 68 Table 4 Means of Participants' Attitudes to the Organizational Aspects of Registration Procedures R e g i s t r a t i o n For A l l Socio-economic Procedure Classes Pre-Reglstration 5-24 In Person (112) Pre-Reglstration 6.14 By Phone (113) Regis t r a t i o n 6.40 At F i r s t Class (149) Socio-economic Classes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 For A l l 6.19 5-98 6.01 5-83 5-87 6.06 6.52 Regis t r a t i o n ( 2) ( 56) ( 87) ( 77) ( 72) ( 62) ( 18) Procedures Socio-economic Classes R e g i s t r a t i o n Procedure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Pre-Reglstration 0 00 5-53 5-35 4.83 5.02 5.46 6 .21 In Person ( 0) ( 15) ( 34) ( 23) ( 22) ( 15) ( 3) Pre-Registration 0 00 5.81 6.37 6.02 6.19 6.06 6 .86 By Phone ( 0) ( 19) ( 29) ( 18) ( 21) ( 22) ( 4) Registration ^ 6 18 6.44 6.51 6.38 6.29 6.41 6 .48 At F i r s t Class ( 2) ( 22) ( 24) ( 36) ( 29) ( 25) ( 11) Note: In each c e l l , the top l i n e = mean att i t u d e the bottom l i n e = number of respondents. The mean of a l l respondents (374 persons) was 5-97-69 Table 5 Attitudes to Organizational Aspects for Three Registration Procedures and Seven Socio-economic Classes Source of V a r i a t i o n Sum of Squares df Me an Square F S i g n l f . of P Main Effect3 98.159 8 12.270 10. 590 .000 Reg'n Procedure Used 89-791 2 ill.895 38- 750 .000 Socio-economic Clas3 7.296 6 1.216 1. 019 • 393 2-Way Interactions 9-911 10 • 991 855 .575 Reg'n & Socio-ec. C l . • 9-911 10 • 991 • 855 • 575 Explained 108.070 18 6.001 5. 182 .000 Residual 111.301 355 1.159 Total 519.374 373 1.392 Attitudes to inter-personal aspects. Similar results were found when two-way ANOVA was used to t e s t f o r s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p a r t i c i p a n t s ' socio-economic class and type of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures used, i n terms of participants' attitudes to the inter-personal aspects of those r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures. Table 6 shows the means for the participants' attitudes to the inter-personal aspects of the r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures used. The mean f o r the 3 74 respondents was 4 . 3 2 . Since the lowest 70 p o s s i b l e mean was 1 . 0 0 and the highest was 5 ' 0 0 ( a c t u a l mean scores ranged from 1 . 5 0 to 5 « 0 0 ) , an o v e r a l l mean of 4 . 3 2 indicated that in general the respondents had a very favorable attitude to the inter-personal aspects of a l l 3 types of regis-t r a t i o n . In Table 6 , the means of the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' a t t i t u d e s to the inter-personal aspects of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures used were subdivided by the 3 types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures, by the 7 c a t e g o r i e s of socio-economic c l a s s e s , and by the types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures and cat e g o r i e s of socio-economic c l a s s e s combined. Note that when the means f o r respondents' attitudes were subdivided by the 3 types of r e g i s t r a t i o n proce-dures used, each mean was quite high. However, the s i z e of these means di f f e r e d , with pre-registration in person receiving the lowest mean ( 4 . 1 3 ) and re g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t class the highest mean ( 4 . 4 5 ) . There was no apparent p a t t e r n when the means for respondents' attitudes to the inter-personal aspects of r e g i s t r a t i o n were subdivided by the 7 categories of socio-economic c l a s s e s . Nor was any pattern d i s c e r n i b l e when the means for respondents" attitudes to the inter-personal aspects were c l a s s i f i e d by both the types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures used and the categories of socio-economic classes. Table 7 tests for s i g n i f i c a n t differences among the means. The means f o r the i n t e r - p e r s o n a l aspects of the r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures used d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y (F=7.051> df= 2 , p< . 0 1 ) . However, the means f o r the 7 socio-economic c l a s s e s did not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y (P=1.275, df= 6 , p= . 2 6 8 ) . Furthermore, the 71 mean for the interaction e f f e c t between r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures and socio-economic c l a s s was not s i g n i f i c a n t (F=.834, df=10, £=•596). Thus s a t i s f a c t i o n regarding r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures dif f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y among the various types of r e g i s t r a t i o n , but no s i g n i f i c a n t effects were found either for participants' socio-economic c l a s s or f o r the i n t e r a c t i o n between s o c i o -economic class and procedures. 72 Table 6 Means of Participants' Attitudes to the Inter-personal Aspects of Registration Procedures R e g i s t r a t i o n For A l l Socio-economic Procedure Classes Pre-Registratlon 4-13 In Person (112) Pre-Reglstration 4.35 By Phone (113) Registration 4.45 At F i r s t Class (119) Socio-economic Classes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 For A l l 5-00 4.35 4-30 4.34 4.16 4.41 4.53 Registration ( 2) ( 56) ( 87) ( 77) ( 72) ( 62) ( 18) Procedures Socio-economic Classes j R e g i s t r a t i o n . Procedure 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Pre-Registration 0. 00 4.07 4.24 4.13 4.00 4.07 4.33 In Person ( 0) ( 15) ( 34) ( 23) ( 22) ( 15) ( 3) Pre-Registration 0. 00 4.37 4.21 4.42 4.12 4.57 5-00 By Phone ( 0) ( 19) ( 29) ( 18) ( 21) ( 22) ( 4) Registration 5. 00 4.52 4.52 4.44 4.31 4.48 4.41 At F i r s t Class ( 2) ( 22) ( 24) ( 36) ( 29) ( 25) ( 11) Note: In each c e l l , the top l i n e - mean att i t u d e the bottom l i n e = number of respondents. The mean of a l l respondents (374 persons) was 4.32. 7 3 Table 7 Attitudes to the Inter-personal Aspects for Three Registration Procedures and Seven Socio-economic Classes Source of V a r i a t i o n Sum of Squares df Mean Square P S i g n l f . of P Main E f f e c t s 10.326 8 1.291 2. 958 .003 Reg'n Procedure Used 6.153 2 3-076 7. 051 .001 Socio-economic Class 3-337 6 .556 1. 275 .268 2-Way Interactions 3-639 10 .361 . 831 • 596 Reg'n & Socio-ec. C l . 3.639 10 • 361 • 831 .596 Explained 13-965 18 .776 1. 778 .026 Residual 151.885 355 .136 Total 168.850 373 .153 Socio-economic Class and Preferred Registration To t e s t f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the participants' socio-economic class and the type of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures the p a r t i c i p a n t s s t a t e d they p r e f e r r e d , one-way analysis of variance was used. The socio-economic status of p a r t i c i p a n t s was based on Blishen's socio-economic index f o r occupations ( 1 9 7 6 ) . To indicate their preferred r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures, participants chose from a l i s t of 4 types: pre-registration in person, pre-74 r e g i s t r a t i o n by phone, r e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t c l a s s , and p r e - r e g i s t r a t i o n by mai l . (A f i f t h o ption, "other," was o f f e r e d , but since i t re c e i v e d only 1 response, i t was not included in the analysis.) Table 8 shows the descriptive s t a t i s t i c s comparing these p r e f e r r e d r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures with the socio-economic i n d i c e s (mean B l i s h e n v a l u e s ) f o r t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d i n g respondents. The count of 390 respondents was 9 0 . 4 8 % of the t o t a l sample. Note that the mean socio-economic (Blishen) indices were very s i m i l a r for the preferred r e g i s t r a t i o n proce-dures. Furthermore, the ranges f o r the true means at the 9 5 % confidence intervals overlapped very considerably, suggesting that there was no relationship between the preferred r e g i s t r a -t i o n p r o c e d u r e s and the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c l a s s of the respondents. This apparent lack of relationship was further supported by the one-way analysis of variance shown in Table 9« Compari-son of the between groups' mean square with the within groups' mean square was not s i g n i f i c a n t (F=.655, df = 3> p=.580). Hence no s i g n i f i c a n t relationship was found between the participants' socio-economic class and t h e i r p r e f e r r e d r e g i s t r a t i o n proce-dures . 75 Table 8 Blishen's Indices for Four Registration Procedures 95X Conf. Int. of Mean Std. Group Count Mean Dev. Min. Max. From To Pre-reg'n in Person 83 44.61 13-22 18.62 71-95 41.72 47. 49 Pre-reg'n by Phone 165 46.85 13.61 23-02 74.69 44.76 48. 94 Reg'n at 1st Class 123 46.98 13.73 18.62 75-28 44.53 49. 43 Pre-reg'n by Mail 19 45-35 13.44 25.06 65.85 38.87 51. 83 Total 390 46.34 13.54 18.62 75-28 44.99 47. 69 Table 9 Social Index versus Type of Registration Preferred Sum of Mean S i g n l f . Source of V a r i a t i o n Squares .df Square F of F Between Groups 361.53 3 120.51 .655 .580 Within Groups 71052.46 386 184.07 Total 71413-94 389 76 Other M i t i g a t i n g Factors The f i n d i n g s p e r t a i n i n g t o the f i r s t two r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s were the major concern i n t h i s study. However, i t was also important to determine i f other v a r i a b l e s had e f f e c t s . Accordingly, a n a l y s i s of variance with c o v a r i a t e s was used to t e s t f o r any e f f e c t s of sex, age, t r a v e l t i m e , e d u c a t i o n , and s u b j e c t m a t t e r on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p a r t i c i p a n t s ' socio-economic c l a s s and type of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures used, i n terms of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' a t t i t u d e s to those r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures. Respondents were requ e s t e d to s t a t e t h e i r sex, years of age, minutes of t r a v e l time from t h e i r homes to t h e i r c l a s s e s , and completed years of e d u c a t i o n . (Another v a r i a b l e , y e a rs of r e s i d e n c e , was r e q u e s t e d f o r e x p l o r a t o r y purposes o n l y and hence was not i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s . ) A s s i g n e d t o each c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e was the t y p e o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n v o l v e d . Based on Johnstone and R i v e r a ' s c a t e g o r i e s (1965), the types were job r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s and s k i l l s , hobbies and r e c r e a t i o n , g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , home and f a m i l y l i f e , and personal development. Tables 10 and 11 show the r e s u l t s of the a n a l y s i s of variance w i t h c o v a r i a t e s f o r a t o t a l of 363 respondents (84.2% of the sample). In Table 10, the a n a l y s i s tested a t t i t u d e s to the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a s p e c t s of r e g i s t r a t i o n w i t h 3 f a c t o r s : type of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedure used, sex of respondent, and type of s u b j e c t m a t t e r . The c o v a r i a t e s were s o c i o - e c o n o m i c index, years of age, years of education, and minutes of t r a v e l 77 time. S i m i l a r l y , in Table 11, the analysis tested attitudes to the i n t e r - p e r s o n a l aspects of r e g i s t r a t i o n with the same 3 f a c t o r s : type of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedure used, sex of respondent, and type of subject matter. Again the c o v a r i a t e s were socio-economic index, years of age, years of education, and minutes of travel time. A review of the results of the above analyses confirms the previous findings that the type of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures had a s i g n i f i c a n t influence on attitudes toward the organizational and i n t e r - p e r s o n a l aspects of r e g i s t r a t i o n (F=2 0.87 2, df=2, p<.01 i n Table 10; F=3.439, df=2, p<.05 i n Table 11). TablelO shows that the type of subject matter had a s i g -n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on a t t i t u d e s toward the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l aspects of r e g i s t r a t i o n (F=2.823, df=4, p<.05). When the means for each type of subject matter were subsequently examined, i t was evident that although each mean was quite high, the mean of 5.49 concerning hobby and recreation courses was considerably lower than the means regarding other types of subject matter: job related subjects and s k i l l s , 6.13; general education, 6.39; home and family l i f e , 6.26; and personal development, 6.25* I t i s evident i n Table 11 that age was a s i g n i f i c a n t c o v a r i a t e with i n t e r - p e r s o n a l aspects of the r e g i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s (b = .010, _p<.01), s u g g e s t i n g that respondents' assessment of the i n t e r - p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s of r e g i s t r a t i o n increased about 1 scale point per decade of respondents' age. Neither sex nor t r a v e l time had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on the a t t i t u d e s to e i t h e r the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l or i n t e r - p e r s o n a l 78 a s p e c t s of r e g i s t r a t i o n . When t r a v e l time was f u r t h e r examined, i t was found that although the number of minutes of travel time from the respondents' homes to their classes varied from 1 to 80 minutes, the mean was only 13*5 minutes. It i s noteworthy that of a l l the v a r i a b l e s a f f e c t i n g the respondents' a t t i t u d e s , socio-economic c l a s s was one of the least s i g n i f i c a n t (p=.931 in Table 10, p=.88l i n Table 11). As expected, because education is one of the variables considered i n the determining of socio-economic c l a s s e s , the amount of education was also of l i t t l e significance (p=.973 in Table 10, p=.529 i n Table 11). Thus, i t was found that the type of subject matter and age of respondents had s i g n i f i c a n t effects on attitudes toward the organizational aspects and inter-personal aspects of the regis-t r a t i o n procedures r e s p e c t i v e l y . However, sex, t r a v e l time, and education did not have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on respondents' attitudes. The previous findings that the type of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedure had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on attitudes but that socio-economic class did not have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on attitudes were corroborated. 79 Table 10 Significance Tests of Registration Procedures on Respondents' Assessments of Organizational Aspects of Registration Source of V a r i a t i o n Sum of Squares Mean Square F S i g n i f . of F Main E f f e c t s 101.518 7 14.503 12 • 755 .000 Reg'n Procedure Used 1)7.462 2 . 23-731 20 .871 .000 Sex .082 1 .082 .072 .788 Type of Subject Matter 12.840 4 3.210 2 .823 .025 Covariates 3-008 4 .752 .661 .619 Occupation .009 1 .009 .008 • 931 Age 2.627 1 2.627 2 .310 .129 Years of Education .001 1 .001 .001 • 937 Travel Time • 235 1 .235 .207 .650 Explained 104.526 11 9-502 8 • 357 .000 Residual 399.094 351 1.137 Total 503-620 362 1-391 N = 363. 80 Table 11 Significance Tests of Registration Procedures on Respondents' Assessments of Inter-personal Aspects of Registration Source of V a r i a t i o n Sum of Squares If Mean Square P S i g n l f . of P Main E f f e c t s Reg'n Procedure Used Sex Type of Subject Matter 9.007 2.993 •113 1.803 7 2 1 4 1.287 1.496 •413 .451 2- 957 3- 439 • 949 1.036 .005 • 033 • 331 .338 Covariates Occupation Age Years of Education Travel Time' 4.539 .010 4-363 • 173 -067 4 1 1 1 1 1-135 .010 4.363 .173 .067 2.608 .022 10.026 • 398 .154 .036 .881 .002 • 529 .695 Explained 13-546 11 1.231 2.830 .001 Residual 152-741 351 • 435 166.287 362 .459 N = 363. 81 Participants' Comments In a d d i t i o n to the above q u a n t i t a t i v e data, q u a l i t a t i v e data were obtained from p a r t i c i p a n t s regarding 4 areas: reasons f o r p r e f e r r i n g p a r t i c u l a r r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures, d i f f i c u l t i e s understanding the brochure's descriptions of reg-i s t r a t i o n procedures, problems with r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures which would prevent future enrollment, and suggestions f o r improving r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures. Respondents' comments regarding each area were examined f o r p o s s i b l e i n s i g h t s and analyzed to determine common themes. The f i r s t area in which comments were requested resulted i n feedback from 387 respondents ( 8 9 - 7 % of the sample). Table 12 shows these respondents' reasons for preferring p a r t i c u l a r r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures. The following gives the highlights of these findings. I t was found that the reasons most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d by respondents who preferred pre-registration in person tended to be d i f f e r e n t from those most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d by respondents preferring pre-registration by phone, r e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t class, or pre-registration by mail. Concern about enrollment in desired courses was primary to respondents preferring pre-r e g i s t r a t i o n in person. Comments such as "assured that you are r e g i s t e r e d i n the course" and "immediate feedback regarding whether you are r e g i s t e r e d i n the course" were made by 4 3 % of the respondents preferring this type. Comments by another 12%, such as "better for l i m i t e d enrollment" and " f i r s t come, f i r s t served," indicated respondents f e l t pre-registration in person 82 was preferable i f the courses were popular. F i n a l l y , 26% c i t e d o t h e r b e n e f i t s of t h i s method such as "able to ask q u e s t i o n s and f i n d out i n f o r m a t i o n about classes," "doesn't take time out of i n s t r u c t i o n , " and "requires commitment—otherwise c l a s s can have those not t r u l y i n t e r e s t e d . " In c ontrast to t h i s focus on course r e l a t e d b e n e f i t s , the reasons c i t e d most f r e q u e n t l y by respondents who p r e f e r r e d pre-r e g i s t r a t i o n by phone, r e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t c l a s s , or pre-r e g i s t r a t i o n by mail tended to focus on the convenience, ease, and speed of the r e g i s t r a t i o n p rocedures. "Convenient" was stated by 41% of the respondents who p r e f e r r e d p r e - r e g i s t r a t i o n by phone. An e x t e n s i o n of t h i s , " a v o i d s c o n f l i c t w i t h r e g i s -t r a t i o n hours," was mentioned by another 6% of respondents whose work schedules posed problems. "Easy" was mentioned by a f u r t h e r 24% of respondents. "Fast" ( i n c l u d i n g comments such as "don't have to spend a l o n g time s t a n d i n g i n l i n e " ) was s t a t e d by 14% of respondents. S i m i l a r l y , those who p r e f e r r e d r e g i s -t r a t i o n at the f i r s t c l a s s c i t e d the f o l l o w i n g reasons: "convenient" ( i n c l u d i n g the comment "no s p e c i a l t r i p required") was mentioned by 33%, "easy" was s t a t e d by 32%, and " f a s t " ( i n c l u d i n g the comment about not s t a n d i n g i n l i n e f o r a l o n g time) was i n d i c a t e d by 11%. Another reason, which was c i t e d by 20% of the respondents p r e f e r r i n g r e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t c l a s s , r e f e r r e d to the advantage of l a c k of commitment. Such comments as " a l l o w s change of mind" and "able to s i z e up teachers and m a t e r i a l before I am committed to the course" were i n contrast to the b e n e f i t of p r i o r commitment stated by some 8 3 respondents p r e f e r r i n g p r e - r e g i s t r a t i o n i n person. F i n a l l y , of those respondents who p r e f e r r e d p r e - r e g i s t r a t i o n by m a i l , "convenient" ( i n c l u d i n g the comment "no s p e c i a l t r i p required") was mentioned by 32%. An e x t e n s i o n of t h i s , " a v o i d s c o n f l i c t with r e g i s t r a t i o n hours," was c i t e d by another 16%. "Fast" was stated by 26% and "easy" by 11% of the respondents. Although the reasons most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d by respondents who p r e f e r r e d p r e - r e g i s t r a t i o n i n person tended to be d i f f e r e n t from those most f r e q u e n t l y c i t e d by respondents p r e f e r r i n g the other types of procedures, i t i s noteworthy that 2 reasons were common to a l l p r e f e r r e d p r o c e d u r e s — o n l y the percentage of respondents s t a t i n g these reasons d i f f e r e d . "Convenient" and "easy" were c i t e d by respondents as t h e i r reasons f o r p r e -f e r r i n g each of the types of procedures. The percentages of r e s p o n d e n t s s t a t i n g t h e s e r e a s o n s r a n g e d f r o m 9% ( p r e -r e g i s t r a t i o n i n person) to 41% ( p r e - r e g i s t r a t i o n by phone) regarding convenience, and from 2% ( p r e - r e g i s t r a t i o n i n person) to 32% ( r e g i s t r a t i o n at f i r s t c l a s s ) regarding ease. I t i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t p a r t i c u l a r r e a s o n s were n o t associated w i t h p a r t i c u l a r socio-economic groups. The reasons were c i t e d by respondents who spanned a l l s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c l a s s e s . 84 Table 12 Reasons f o r P r e f e r r i n g R e g i s t r a t i o n P r o c e d u r e s Type of Preferred Registration Procedures Pre-reg 'n Reasons in Person | (*) i i ; Enrollment Feedback 1)3 . Course Benefits 26 Better for Limited Enrollment 12 Convenient 9 Easy 2 Avoid C o n f l i c t with ! Prescribed Reg'n hrs. 0 Fast 0 Able to size up Teachers ; & Material Before j Committed to Class 0 ! Miscellaneous 8 j 1 Total (Percent) 100 N = 81 Pre-reg'n Reg'n at Pre-Reg'n by Phone 1st Class by Mail (J) (%) (X) 9 0 5 1) 0 0 0 0 0 1)1 , 33 32 21) 32 11 6 0 16 Hi 11 26 0 20 0 2 4 10 100 100 100 170 117 19 Note: Percentages are rounded to the nearest whole number. Total number of respondents = 387. 85 The second area in which respondents' comments were s o l i c i t e d concerned d i f f i c u l t i e s understanding the brochure's d e s c r i p t i o n s of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures. A t o t a l of 3 6 0 respondents (83-5% of the sample) found out about their courses by reading the brochure. Of these respondents, 3 3 3 ( 9 2 . 5 % of t h i s 3 6 0 ) i n d i c a t e d that the d e s c r i p t i o n of the requi r e d r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures was clear. The following summarizes the comments made by the 27 respondents (7*5% of the 3 6 0 ) who had d i f f i c u l t y . Percentages (which are rounded) indicate the fra c t i o n of t o t a l comments. Complaints that the brochure's description was confusing or ambiguous (54%) included "the l i s t i n g of di f f e r e n t r e g i s t r a -t i o n procedures was confusing," "payment procedure f o r phone r e g i s t r a t i o n was unclear," and "there were 2 c l a s s days l i s t e d — I wasn't sure i f t h i s meant 2 days per week or i f a choice of days was offered." Complaints about lack of informa-t i o n ( 2 5 % ) r e f e r r e d to respondents' d e s i r e s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n about supplies and course content, rather than to d i f f i c u l t i e s with c l a r i t y . Other d i f f i c u l t i e s concerned not being able to find the description of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures in the brochure (17%) and the l i s t i n g of i n c o r r e c t i n f o r m a t i o n such as the wrong telephone numbers ( 4 % ) . It should be noted that these few comments a p p l i e d to a l l r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures and were made by respondents spanning the range of socio-economic classes. The t h i r d area requesting comments d e a l t with problems with r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures which would prevent future 86 enrollment. A t o t a l of 398 respondents (92.3% of the sample) indicated they did not experience any d i f f i c u l t i e s which would prevent their future pa r t i c i p a t i o n . The following summarizes the 33 complaints that were made. Percentages (which are rounded) indicate the f r a c t i o n of t o t a l comments. Complaints s p e c i f i c a l l y against pre-registration in person comprised 34% of the comments and included statements that the re g i s t r a t i o n of large numbers of people was disorganized, the lin e - u p s were too long and wasted too much time, and the pre-scribed r e g i s t r a t i o n hours co n f l i c t e d with work schedules and other commitments. Another 9% of the complaints were l e v i e d d i r e c t l y against r e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t c l a s s : i t was not possible to choose an alternative course i f the desired course was f u l l or c a n c e l l e d . Echoing t h i s theme, although not di r e c t i n g the complaint against s p e c i f i c r e g i s t r a t i o n proce-dures, were comments that not g e t t i n g i n t o a d e s i r e d course would prevent future enrollment (9%)- The r e s t of the com-plaints applied to a l l types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures: too many r e g i s t e r e d i n the c l a s s ( 2 4 % ) , lack of i n f o r m a t i o n about the cost of materials and content of courses (9%), inconvenient scheduling of classes ( 6 % ) , lack of d i r e c t i o n a l signs ( 6 % ) , and i m p o l i t e personnel (3%)- It should be noted that respondents from a l l socio-economic classes made both the complaints which were s p e c i f i c a l l y against p a r t i c u l a r r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures and those which were against a l l types of procedures used. The fourth area in which comments were requested concerned suggestions f o r improving r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures. Only 100 87 respondents (23*2% of the sample) i n d i c a t e d they had sugges-tions. The following summarizes their comments. Percentages (which are rounded) indicate the f r a c t i o n of t o t a l comments. Restatements of preference were made concerning pre-r e g i s t r a t i o n by mail (5%) and pre-registration by phone (19%). Conversely, suggestions to eliminate pre-registration in person (3%) and r e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t c l a s s (2%) were also made. Other comments addressed themselves to s o l v i n g some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with these l a t t e r 2 types of proce-dures. For instance, concerning the d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent in pre-registering in person a very large number of people, i t was suggested that r e g i s t r a t i o n be spread over a long peri o d of time such as 1 to 2 weeks ( 5 % ) , or that the hours and/or dates be staggered so that d i f f e r e n t types of courses could be r e g i s -tered at d i f f e r e n t times (5%)- Regarding the time taken from the f i r s t c l a s s i n order to r e g i s t e r , i t was suggested that p a r t i c i p a n t s be requested to a r r i v e e a r l y f o r the f i r s t n i g h t of the class so that r e g i s t r a t i o n could be completed before the class began, or that r e g i s t r a t i o n be completed during the class break in order to avoid interruption of the class (2%). The remainder of the suggestions a p p l i e d to a l l types of procedures. It was suggested that w a i t i n g l i s t s be taken and more s e c t i o n s be added f o r popular courses i n order to avoid crowded classes (14%). Suggestions for improved organization c o n s i s t e d of having adequate change, prepared personnel, and back-up plans f o r problem s i t u a t i o n s ( 6 % ) . More s t a f f were requested to answer telephones f o r phone r e g i s t r a t i o n and to 88 r e g i s t e r , p a r t i c i p a n t s by the other methods (5%)» Requests f o r support s e r v i c e s i n c l u d e d s i g n s posted o u t s i d e and i n s i d e f a c i l i t i e s w i t h arrows p o i n t i n g i n the c o r r e c t d i r e c t i o n s ; b i l l b o a r d s l o c a t e d at the main e n t r a n c e s which i n d i c a t e the r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures r e q u i r e d , l i s t the room numbers f o r c l a s s e s , and d i s p l a y maps w i t h room l o c a t i o n s ; and p e r s o n n e l who answer questions and d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a n t s during r e g i s t r a -t i o n (14%). P a r t i c i p a n t s ' desire f o r more i n f o r m a t i o n such as the c o s t of m a t e r i a l s , c l a s s s i z e l i m i t s , and course c o n t e n t r e s u l t e d i n suggestions which ranged from l i s t i n g such informa-t i o n i n the b r o c h u r e , p r o v i d i n g tape r e c o r d i n g s o u t l i n i n g courses i n more d e t a i l , and having telephone answering s e r v i c e s (13%)- I t was also suggested that more a d v e r t i s i n g of courses and t h e i r r e g i s t r a t i o n t i m e s and p l a c e s was n e c e s s a r y ( 3 % ) . F i n a l l y , miscellaneous suggestions (1% each) were as f o l l o w s : g i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s t h e i r c h o i c e of r e g i s t r a t i o n methods, use o n l y one r e g i s t r a t i o n method, warn p a r t i c i p a n t s to r e g i s t e r e a r l y , and provide more p h y s i c a l space f o r r e g i s t r a t i o n . I t i s a g a i n noteworthy t h a t none of the s u g g e s t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c l a s s . S u g g e s t i o n s were made by respondents from a l l socio-economic groups. Type of Procedures Used and P r e f e r r e d Procedures Although i t had not been i n c l u d e d as one of the r e s e a r c h questions, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures used and p r e f e r r e d r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures was examined by means of c r o s s t a b u l a t i o n a n a l y s i s . These r e s u l t s would be u s e f u l i n the l a t e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of some of the 89 above findings. Table 13 shows that the m a j o r i t y of the 4 2 5 respondents ( 9 8 . 6 % of the sample) p r e f e r r e d the same type of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures as the one which they used in order to e n r o l l . The percentage of respondents preferring the same type of r e g i s t r a -t i o n was 48.8% regarding p r e - r e g i s t r a t i o n i n person, 87-5% regarding pre-registration by phone, and 68.2% regarding r e g i s -t r a t i o n at the f i r s t c l a s s . ( P r e - r e g i s t r a t i o n by mail was an anomaly because i t was not offered to participants as a method when they enrolled.) Hence i t was found that the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures used was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a c r o s s the types of r e g i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s p r e f e r r e d (x2=280.502, df=6, p<.01). Table 13 D i s t r i b u t i o n between Registration Procedures Used and Preferred Registration Procedures Preferred R e g i s t r a t i o n Procedure Re g i s t r a t i o n Used Pre-reg' n in Person Pre by -reg'n Phone Reg'n at 1st Class Pre-Reg'n by Mall Row Total Pre-Reg'n in Person 62 48.8X 41 32.3X 14 11.OX 10 7-9X 127 29.9X Pre-Reg'n by Phone 5 3-9X 112 87- 5X 8 6.3X 3 2.3X 128 30.IX Reg'n at F i r s t Class 24 14.IX 26 15-3* 116 68.2X 4 2.4X 170 40.OX Column Total Column Total (X) 91 21. 4X 179 42.IX 138 32.5X 17 4.OX 425 100.OX Note: In each c e l l , the top l i n e = number of respondents ' the bottom l i n e = percentage of respondents. Raw Chi Square = 280.502 with 6 degrees of freedom. Signif i c a n c e = 0.0 90 Administrators " A c c e s s i b i l i t y i s the key." That i s the way one community education co-ordinator summarized h i s philosophy regarding r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures. He stated that r e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t c l a s s would a t t r a c t "working c l a s s a d u l t s and poor p e o p l e " more than any o t h e r method because i t was "the sim p l e s t " and "required no p r i o r commitment." Two other co-ordinators expressed s i m i l a r b e l i e f s . One stated: "Immigrants and people with a low l e v e l of l i t e r a c y f i n d r e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t c l a s s to be the e a s i e s t and l e a s t complicated method." Another co-ordinator explained his reasons for using r e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t class as follows: What we're t r y i n g to do i s to make the courses as a c c e s s i -ble as p o s s i b l e to people i n t h i s community. Our r e g i s -t r a t i o n procedures are designed with p a r t i c u l a r objectives in mind: a c c e s s i b i l i t y and ease of re g i s t r a t i o n . Most of the people i n our programs won't f a l l i n t o your standard p r o f i l e of people who get involved in adult education. A very high percentage of our students have never taken an adult education course before because they are types of people to whom t r a d i t i o n a l adult education has not, generally speaking, catered. It's this outlook which very much influences our re g i s t r a t i o n procedures. He described these participants as "low income, low education, single parent women and working class men." Contrary to these b e l i e f s , no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s for the interaction between socio-economic class and r e g i s t r a t i o n pro-91 cedures were found when the participants were studied. Sat-i s f a c t i o n regarding r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures, however, was found to d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y among the various types of procedures, with r e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t class being the most favourable and p r e - r e g i s t r a t i o n i n person the l e a s t favourable method. Hence the main purpose f o r i n t e r v i e w i n g a d m i n i s t r a t o r s — t o determine whether there were a d m i n i s t r a t i v e reasons which necessitated the use of p a r t i c u l a r types of r e g i s t r a t i o n proce-dures—was rel e v a n t from the point of view of p a r t i c i p a n t s ' s a t i s f a c t i o n , a l b e i t not from the perspective of the e f f e c t of socio-economic classes. It was found that although i t was t h e o r e t i c a l l y possible to use a v a r i e t y of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures, i n p r a c t i c e the community education co-ordinators, recreation supervisors, and recreation director encountered problems which r e s t r i c t e d t h e i r options. Restrictions upon Administrators' Registration Options With a few exceptions, r e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t class was easier for community education co-ordinators to do than for the r e c r e a t i o n s u p e r v i s o r s or d i r e c t o r . "It's not j u s t the r e g i s -t r a t i o n procedures," a r e c r e a t i o n s upervisor observed. "It's the number of c l a s s e s and f a c i l i t i e s you have to d i v i d e your s t a f f among in order to register." Because the co-ordinators were primarily serving their communities, the courses they ran each n i g h t were g e n e r a l l y fewer than those run by the r e c r e a -t i o n s u p e r v i s o r s , who were s e r v i n g large areas composed of s e v e r a l communities. Furthermore, whereas the courses co-92 o r d i n a t o r s o f f e r e d were u s u a l l y l o c a t e d i n 1 or 2 f a c i l i t i e s , the courses the r e c r e a t i o n s u p e r v i s o r s and d i r e c t o r ran were t y p i c a l l y spread over 10 or more f a c i l i t i e s . Thus, while the r e l a t i v e l y small number of classes located in a few f a c i l i t i e s made i t quite easy for most co-ordinators to register p a r t i c i -pants on the f i r s t n i g h t , the comparatively large number of classes spread over several f a c i l i t i e s made i t very d i f f i c u l t for the recreation supervisors and director to accomplish t h i s task on the f i r s t night of each class. The r e c r e a t i o n s u p e r v i s o r s and d i r e c t o r c o u l d — a n d at times d i d — a s k instructors to register participants. But this could r e s u l t i n problems. For instance, the numbered course r e c e i p t s , which were e s s e n t i a l f o r accounting purposes, were sometimes l o s t or destroyed. Monies collected could be inaccu-rate. As one administrator stated, having instructors register participants "removes some of the control that f a c i l i t a t e s the re g i s t r a t i o n process." Although the recreation supervisors and director allowed p a r t i c i p a n t s to r e g i s t e r on the f i r s t night i f there was room l e f t , and a few su p e r v i s o r s used t h i s method f o r s p e c i a l c l a s s e s ( f o r instance, c l a s s e s i n which the i n s t r u c t o r was known to do a good job), none of these administrators r e l i e d on this method as her or his main type of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures. In c o n t r a s t , (although the percentage of the c l a s s e s they r e g i s t e r e d by t h i s method v a r i e d among c o - o r d i n a t o r s ) , a l l community education c o - o r d i n a t o r s used r e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t class. 93 But the need f o r a d i f f e r e n t method to r e g i s t e r large numbers of people was pointed out by a co-o r d i n a t o r who was a t y p i c a l i n terms of the number of c l a s s e s she o f f e r e d . "As the size of the i n s t i t u t i o n expands," she stated, "I think the case for pre-registration in person increases." In addition to avoiding the p r a c t i c a l problem of trying to quickly register large numbers of people on the f i r s t night of c l a s s e s , p r e - r e g i s t r a t i o n i n person helped a d m i n i s t r a t o r s to plan. By o b t a i n i n g the numbers of p a r t i c i p a n t s e n r o l l e d or wanting to e n r o l l i n each c l a s s approximately a week before these c l a s s e s began, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s could schedule e x t r a sessions f o r popular courses and a d v e r t i s e more f o r c l a s s e s having only a few r e g i s t r a n t s . I t should be noted that the recreation supervisors and director generally needed a higher number of participants per class than the community education co-ordinators required. Only new courses were subsidized by the parks and r e c r e a t i o n departments; a l l others had to break even in terms of instructors' costs. In contrast, many of the community education courses were subsidized. Hence they could be run with fewer participants. The recreation supervisors and director r e l i e d primarily on p r e - r e g i s t r a t i o n i n person to e n r o l l t h e i r p a r t i c i p a n t s . Two community education co-ordinators also used this method to e n r o l l half or more of their classes. However, the concept of a community school posed problems f o r community education co-ordinators wishing to use pre-r e g i s t r a t i o n by phone. As a co-o r d i n a t o r explained: "The 94 community school i s an e n t i t y . There cannot be 2 separate telephone l i n e s — o n e to community education and one to the daytime school." Therefore, when participants call e d to pre-r e g i s t e r by phone, the school s e c r e t a r y would answer and t r a n s f e r the c a l l to the community education s t a f f . I f they were not present (the community education secretary worked only h a l f - t i m e and the co-ordinator's d u t i e s often took her or him out of the o f f i c e ) , the school s e c r e t a r y would then have to take a message. During the peak r e g i s t r a t i o n periods, much of the school secretary's time could involve community education work. F r i c t i o n could result. It was noted that none of the co-ordinators r e l i e d exclu-sively on pre-registration by phone. This method was used only with courses f o r which a p r i o r estimate of c l a s s s i z e was necessary—either because the school board was co-sponsoring the course with another agency which requested t h i s informa-tion, or because a large enrollment was anticipated but the co-or d i n a t o r wished an estimate of s i z e before scheduling a d d i -tional sessions. Recreation s u p e r v i s o r s operating out of schools would encounter s i m i l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s with regard to pre-registration by phone. The r e c r e a t i o n s u p e r v i s o r s and d i r e c t o r who were located in parks and recreation f a c i l i t i e s or i n c i t y h a l l had the option of t h i s method of r e g i s t r a t i o n , but did not use i t because they found that some of the people who telephoned to reserve seats i n c l a s s e s did not i n f a c t r e g i s t e r . As a result, a class could appear to be f i l l e d , and other people put 9 5 on a wa i t i n g l i s t , when there a c t u a l l y was space f o r more regis t r a n t s . F i n a l l y , although pre-registration by mail was not d i f f i -c u l t to implement, the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s did not l i k e t h i s method, pri m a r i l y because they f e l t i t was unreliable. M a i l - i n r e g i s t r a t i o n was not advertised for any of the classes in this study. However, to accommodate people unable to pre-register in person, the recreation director was w i l l i n g to accept r e g i s -t r a t i o n s sent by mail i f there was room l e f t . The percentage of c l a s s e s that these a d m i n i s t r a t o r s estimated they enrolled by each type of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures is shown in Table 14. 96 Table 14 Estimated Percentage of Classes that Administrators Enrolled by Each Type of Registration Type of Administrator Community Education Co-ordlnator Community Education Co-ordlnator Community Education Co-ordlnator Community Education Co-ordinator Community Education Co-ordinator Community Education Co-ordinator Community Education Co-ordinator Co-sponsored: Co-ordinator & Administrator from another Agency Co-sponsored: Co-ordlnator & Administrator from another Agency Recreation Supervisor Recreation Supervisor Recreation Supervisor Recreation Supervisor Recreation Supervisor Recreation Director Pre-reg 'n ln Person 0 0 0 50 0 0 80 0 75 100 100 90 90 100 Pre-reg 'n by Phone (J) 30 30 25 0 0 50 10 100 100 0 0 Reg'n at 1st Class (*) 70 70 75 50 100 50 10 0 25 Only i f Room l e f t i n Class Only i f Room l e f t ln Class 10 10 Only i f Room l e f t i n Class Pre-Reg'n by Mall 0 0 Only If Room l e f t ln Class 97 Improving Registration Procedures In a d d i t i o n to r e c o g n i z i n g the above r e s t r i c t i o n s upon re g i s t r a t i o n options, i t i s helpful to consider the administra-t o r s ' i n t e r v i e w s i n terms of some of the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' com-ments. Understanding might be enhanced concerning some of the f i n d i n g s about p a r t i c i p a n t s . Moreover, as one a d m i n i s t r a t o r observed, "I don't think you can ever stop t r y i n g to improve r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures because they are important. That i s the reason we're h e r e — t o try to get people into our programs." The brochure was used as the primary method of advertising courses and e x p l a i n i n g the r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures required. Many administrators stated that participants did not read the brochure, that they would ask how to r e g i s t e r r a t her than consult the brochure. Certainly, a few participants suggested that more advertising of courses together with their r e g i s t r a -tion times and places was necessary. Yet more than 8 0 % of the participants indicated that they found out about their courses by reading the brochure, and the vast majority of these p a r t i -cipants further indicated that the description of the r e g i s t r a -tion procedures was clear. Only a very small minority stated that they had problems because they could not f i n d the descrip-tion of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures in the brochure or because they f e l t the brochure's description was confusing or ambiguous. When asked i f there was anything about the r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures which would prevent them from e n r o l l i n g i n future c l a s s e s , some p a r t i c i p a n t s responded that not g e t t i n g i n t o a desired course would act as a deterrent to future r e g i s t r a t i o n . 9 8 Others complained that r e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t class was an obstacle because i t did not allow the option of a l t e r n a t i v e courses i f the de s i r e d course was f u l l . When asked to state why they preferred various r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures, many of the p a r t i c i p a n t s who p r e f e r r e d p r e - r e g i s t r a t i o n i n person responded, "assured that you are r e g i s t e r e d " or "better f o r li m i t e d enrollment." A l l administrators stated they received negative feedback from people who did not get into the courses they wanted. One stated: "If people don't get into your class, they're going to be upset no matter what method you use." But participants' comments and an examination of various r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures suggested that pre-registration methods would be more e f f e c t i v e than r e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t class in reducing the number of people who could be disappointed when they attempted to e n r o l l . The main advantage of p r e -re g i s t r a t i o n for courses which attra c t either extreme-^-many or few p e o p l e - - i s planning f l e x i b i l i t y . I f many people pre-r e g i s t e r f o r a c o u r s e , there i s time to s c h e d u l e e x t r a sessions. Although i t i s p o s s i b l e to schedule a d d i t i o n a l sessions during r e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t c l a s s , i t i s more d i f f i c u l t to arrange without p r i o r w a r n i n g — " c h a o t i c " i s how some administrators described i t . Furthermore, the time taken to register large numbers of people w i l l substantially reduce the amount of i n s t r u c t i o n a l time f o r the f i r s t c l a s s . Com-plaints result. If the class has to be cancelled because only a few people wish to e n r o l l , the administrator pre-registering 99 participants i s able to suggest either other f a c i l i t i e s which o f f e r the same course or a l t e r n a t i v e courses. It i s u s u a l l y too late to do this during the week that classes begin. Rather, i f the c l a s s i s c a n c e l l e d due to i n s u f f i c i e n t enrollment, the people who came to the f i r s t c l a s s i n order to r e g i s t e r w i l l be disappointed. It i s important to note that, because they were not e n r o l l e d , such people would not have been include d as participants in this study. It was found that most administrators who preferred pre-re g i s t r a t i o n in person used this method to e n r o l l participants i n c l a s s e s f o r which they expected e i t h e r heavy or l i g h t enrollment. Although they did not use any form of pre-r e g i s t r a t i o n f o r courses i n which they expected a l i g h t enrollment, most administrators who preferred r e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t class used pre-registration by phone to e n r o l l p a r t i -cipants in classes for which they expected heavy enrollment. A few a d m i n i s t r a t o r s stated that i n t h e i r reluctance to disappoint people who wished to e n r o l l , they sometimes exceeded c l a s s s i z e l i m i t s . This was not a good p r a c t i c e : Some par-t i c i p a n t s stated that i f they f e l t there were too many people in their classes, they would not e n r o l l in future courses. Another problem which some p a r t i c i p a n t s i n d i c a t e d could prevent their future enrollment was c o n f l i c t with prescribed r e g i s t r a t i o n hours. Furthermore, s e v e r a l p a r t i c i p a n t s pre-f e r r i n g pre-registration by phone or pre-registration by mail c i t e d "avoids c o n f l i c t with r e g i s t r a t i o n hours" as t h e i r reason. Although i t must be emphasized that pre-registration 100 in person did not require that the actual person e n r o l l i n g in a course r e g i s t e r — a friend or r e l a t i v e could register i n s t e a d — administrators stated that not a l l potential participants were aware of this option. Moreover, although administrators would make special arrangements for people who indicated they could not p r e - r e g i s t e r during the s p e c i f i e d times, t h i s p o l i c y was not a d v e r t i s e d . The p a r t i c i p a n t s " comments suggest that r e g i s t r a t i o n options for special situations such as being out of town on the pre-registration dates need to be advertised. P r e - r e g i s t r a t i o n i n person was a l s o the t a r g e t of participants* complaints concerning organization and line-ups. Moreover, the reasons c i t e d f o r p r e f e r r i n g both p r e -r e g i s t r a t i o n by phone and r e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t c l a s s i n c l u d e d comments such as "don't have to spend a long time standing i n l i n e . " A d m i n i s t r a t o r s using p r e - r e g i s t r a t i o n i n person to register large numbers of people were also concerned about this problem. As one administrator observed, "It doesn't create a p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g when you come to r e g i s t e r and have to face this huge line-up." One administrator's solution was to eliminate long l i n e -ups by o f f e r i n g p r e - r e g i s t r a t i o n i n person during r e g u l a r business hours in the 1 to 2 weeks preceding the commencement of c l a s s e s , rather than i n a concentrated period of 2 h a l f days. But, because they shared t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s with other agencies and/or had the use of a secretary only half-time, some of the administrators o f f e r i n g pre-registration i n person were not able to r e g i s t e r people during normal business hours. A 1 0 1 few of these administrators attempted to refine their approach to pre-registration in person as follows. D i r e c t i o n a l s i g n s g u i d e d people to the f a c i l i t y ' s entrance. At the door, an attendant gave out colour coded t i c k e t s i n l o t s of 5 0 . Parents were informed they could drop the i r children off at a supervised play area while they r e g i s -tered. Signs d i r e c t e d the people to the area immediately adjacent to the r e g i s t r a t i o n room. In t h i s area, free coffee was provided, course d i s p l a y s were arranged, and i n s t r u c t o r s were present. I d e n t i f i e d by the colour coded t i c k e t s , l o t s of 5 0 people were allowed i n t o the r e g i s t r a t i o n area, where attendants were present to provide assistance. Signs indicated the d i f f e r e n t areas f o r various courses. The people then picked up r e g i s t r a t i o n forms on which the course i n f o r m a t i o n had been pre-typed; f i l l e d i n personal i n f o r m a t i o n such as t h e i r names, addresses and phone numbers; paid f o r t h e i r courses; and received their receipts. The innovations were the supervised children's play area (to ease parents' concern during r e g i s t r a t i o n ) , the d i s p l a y area (to i n t e r e s t people i n courses and make the time pass more enjoyably while they wait to r e g i s t e r ) , the a v a i l a b i l i t y of instructors (to answer questions about courses), and admitting l o t s of 50 (to remove the problem of one long l i n e to register for a l l courses). The a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who used t h i s new approach to pre-r e g i s t r a t i o n i n person stated that r e g i s t r a t i o n was f a s t e r , that fewer complaints were received, and that favourable com-102 merits were made about the children's area. However, they st a t e d that people were not i n t e r e s t e d i n the d i s p l a y s . Rather, "people j u s t wanted to r e g i s t e r and be on t h e i r way." This was contrary to p a r t i c i p a n t s ' comments that they wanted more i n f o r m a t i o n about courses and that a b e n e f i t of pre-r e g i s t r a t i o n i n person was that they were "able to ask ques-t i o n s and f i n d out i n f o r m a t i o n about classe s . " Furthermore, none of the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n d i c a t e d they r e c e i v e d p o s i t i v e feedback about the other support services they provided such as signs and guides. Yet several participants had indicated there was a need for such services during r e g i s t r a t i o n . The reasons cited by participants preferring r e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t c l a s s — c o n v e n i e n c e ("no s p e c i a l t r i p required"), ease, and speed ("don't have to spend a long time standing i n line")—were also the advantages administrators l i s t e d for t h i s method. Moreover, the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' comment "able to s i z e up teachers and materials before I am committed to the course" was echoed by an administrator who said participants "know what the course i s about before they are committed to the class." However, a few p a r t i c i p a n t s f e l t that improvement was r e q u i r e d concerning the time taken to r e g i s t e r at the f i r s t class. Although some administrators stated the time was mini-mal, others disagreed. Estimates of the time taken to register ranged from "only 10 minutes" to "at l e a s t a h a l f hour, i f not more." Some administrators were concerned about the e f f e c t of r e g i s t e r i n g at the f i r s t c l a s s . One expressed h i s concern as follows: 103 The f i r s t night r e q u i r e s that the i n s t r u c t o r do a b i t of razzle dazzle, a b i t of soft shoe: "This i s going to be a r e a l l y good course. I want you to r e a l l y enjoy your-selves. . . ." F i r s t impressions are important, and f i l l i n g out forms i s not a good impression. In view of the above, the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' suggestions that they be requested to a r r i v e e a r l y f o r the f i r s t n i ght of the class so that r e g i s t r a t i o n could be completed before the class begins, or that r e g i s t r a t i o n be completed during the c l a s s break i n order to avoid i n t e r r u p t i o n of the c l a s s are worth c o n s i d e r a t i o n . I f , however, the number and/or l o c a t i o n of classes being registered makes these procedures d i f f i c u l t , an approach used by one a d m i n i s t r a t o r could be considered. She uses r e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t c l a s s as an opportunity to welcome the p a r t i c i p a n t s to t h e i r community school. By f u r t h e r i n g p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s i n t h i s way, she prevents the interruption from becoming a disruption. 104 Chapter V Summary, Conclusions and Interpretations, Recommendations, Ge n e r a l i z a b i l i t y , and Suggestions for Further Research Summary This study examined the r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures for non-credit courses followed by three agencies in order to i n v e s t i -gate the proposition that some types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures function as barriers to p a r t i c i p a t i o n for lower socio-economic group adults. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of these types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures i s important because i t gives a d m i n i s t r a t o r s the opportunity to modify the procedures so that they no longer act as o b s t a c l e s . In accordance with Cross's "chain-of-response" model (1981), the removal of such e x t e r n a l b a r r i e r s would encourage those lower socio-economic adults who are weakly motivated to participate in adult education classes. The research strategy used involved both a questionnaire, which was distributed to the participants enrolled in classes, and interviews, which were conducted with the administrators r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e g i s t e r i n g these p a r t i c i p a n t s . While the primary purpose of the study was to examine whether c e r t a i n types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures f u n c t i o n as s i g n i f i c a n t b a r r i e r s to p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r lower socio-economic group a d u l t s , and hence focussed on the q u a n t i t a t i v e data from the questionnaire, participants' responses to the open-ended ques-tions on this instrument provided useful subjective insights. The i n t e r v i e w s formed a secondary part of the study. The 105 reasons for examining administrators' perceptions about r e g i s -t r a t i o n were to determine whether there were a d m i n i s t r a t i v e reasons which n e c e s s i t a t e d the use of p a r t i c u l a r types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures, and to obtain suggestions and ideas which would be helpful in interpreting the findings concerning par t i c i p a n t s . The conclusions r e s u l t i n g from t h i s study are discussed below. Conclusions and Interpretations It was concluded that none of the types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures studied functioned as a s i g n i f i c a n t b a r r i e r to par-t i c i p a t i o n f o r lower socio-economic group a d u l t s . Although s a t i s f a c t i o n regarding r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures d i f f e r e d s i g -n i f i c a n t l y among the various types of r e g i s t r a t i o n , no s i g n i f i -cant effects were found either for participants' socio-economic class or for the interaction between socio-economic class and procedures. Furthermore, no s i g n i f i c a n t relationship was found between the participants' socio-economic class and their pre-ferred r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures. When other mitigating factors were also t e s t e d , the f i n d i n g s were s i m i l a r : Socio-economic c l a s s and education (which i s one of the v a r i a b l e s considered in the determining of class) were two of the least s i g n i f i c a n t variables a f f e c t i n g respondents' attitudes to the various types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures. Three v a r i a b l e s — t y p e of r e g i s t r a t i o n used, type of sub-ject matter, and age—were found to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i -cant. However, further examination suggested that two of these 106 findings need to be treated with caution. It was found that p a r t i c i p a n t s g e n e r a l l y had a very favourable attitude to a l l three types of r e g i s t r a t i o n proce-dures, but that s a t i s f a c t i o n d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y among these types, with p r e - r e g i s t r a t i o n i n person r e c e i v i n g the lowest degree and r e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t c l a s s the highest degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n . But the q u a l i t a t i v e data suggested that par-ti c i p a n t s were more l i k e l y to be disappointed in their attempts to e n r o l l in classes which attracted either many or few people i f those classes required r e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t class than i f they required pre-registration. Considering both the com-plaints administrators received when people did not get into a class, and the comments participants made that f a i l u r e to get i n t o a c l a s s would prevent t h e i r future r e g i s t r a t i o n , i t i s suggested that i f the people who were unsuccessful i n t h e i r attempt to e n r o l l had been included in this study, the findings would have been d i f f e r e n t . R e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t c l a s s would probably not have received a higher degree of s a t i s f a c -tion than the pre-registration methods. It should be noted that the participants' very favourable attitude to a l l types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures attests to the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' c a r e f u l handling of r e g i s t r a t i o n . But i t should a l s o be noted that the very f a c t of doing a study w i l l tend to improve the q u a l i t y of the s e r v i c e during the period of that study. It was a l s o found that the type of subject matter had a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on p a r t i c i p a n t s ' a t t i t u d e s toward the 107 organizational aspects of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures, with a lower degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n a t t r i b u t e d to hobby and r e c r e a t i o n courses than to other types of subject matter. Further inves-t i g a t i o n yielded several complaints in two of these hobby and recreation courses that there were too many registered in the class. It may therefore be concluded that over-enrollment, not subject matter, accounted for the lower degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n . The findings regarding type of subject matter were skewed. The f i n d i n g s about only one v a r i a b l e that was s t a t i s t i -c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t should be accepted. Age was found to have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on participants' attitudes toward the i n t e r -personal aspects' of the r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures. The sugges-tion that respondents' assessment of the inter-personal a t t r i -butes of r e g i s t r a t i o n increases about one scale point per decade of respondents' age can be i n t e r p r e t e d as greater t o l -erance among adults as they grow older. Other f a c t o r s which did not have a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on participants' attitudes to the types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures used were sex and t r a v e l time. The l a t t e r would presumably n e g a t i v e l y a f f e c t p a r t i c i p a n t s * attitudes to pre-registration i n person i f the p a r t i c i p a n t s had to spend a long time t r a v -e l l i n g . This was not the case because the mean t r a v e l time was only 13«5 minutes. It i s interesting that the majority of participants pre-f e r r e d the same type of r e g i s t r a t i o n as the one which they used i n order to e n r o l l . This could be due to t h e i r general s a t i s -f a c t i o n with a l l of the types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures. I f 108 people had been d i s s a t i s f i e d the the procedures used, they probably would have preferred a d i f f e r e n t type of r e g i s t r a t i o n . It may be concluded that, unless people are d i s s a t i s f i e d , they w i l l tend to i n d i c a t e a preference f o r the types of r e g i s t r a -tion procedures that they are f a m i l i a r with. Why None of the Types of R e g i s t r a t i o n Studied Functioned as a Barrier Perhaps the reason that none of the types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures studied acted as an obstacle to p a r t i c i p a t i o n f o r lower socio-economic group adults l i e s in the amenities which are g e n e r a l l y a v a i l a b l e to people from a l l socio-economic classes in Surrey and White Rock. Most households, regardless of socio-economic class, have a telephone. Hence pre-registration by phone i s not d i f f i c u l t for participants. Because of the public transportation system, the t r i p r e q u i r e d i n order to p r e - r e g i s t e r i n person does not pose an a c c e s s i b i l i t y problem. S i m i l a r c o n d i t i o n s would e x i s t f o r most urban or semi-urban communities in the developed countries. In contrast, i n under-developed countries, where the differences among classes are comparatively much greater, pre-registration by phone or i n person would probably pose formidable barriers to r e g i s t r a t i o n among lower class adults. In this study, however, i t i s noteworthy that "convenient" and "easy" were c i t e d by respondents as t h e i r reasons f o r preferring each of the types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures. This suggests that none of types of r e g i s t r a t i o n was e s p e c i a l l y 109 onerous or d i f f i c u l t . Furthermore, there was no a s s o c i a t i o n between the types of comments and socio-economic class. Simi-l a r responses were made by p a r t i c i p a n t s spanning a l l s o c i o -economic classes. This suggests that although people d i f f e r e d in their preference for types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures, their preference was not influenced by their socio-economic class. Recommendations A l l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s emphasized that r e g i s t r a t i o n must be handled well. Because the r e g i s t r a t i o n process i s usually the f i r s t personal contact that participants have with adult educa-tion courses, i t is essential that the experience be pleasant. For this reason, even though none of the types of r e g i s t r a t i o n studied was found to be a b a r r i e r with respect to s o c i o -economic class, recommendations for improving the r e g i s t r a t i o n process w i l l be given. These recommendations are based on readings, personal observation of the r e g i s t r a t i o n process, p a r t i c i p a n t s ' com-ments, and administrators' statements. To l i m i t duplication, where the recommendations coincide with the suggestions elabo-rated on p r e v i o u s l y during the d i s c u s s i o n of the f i n d i n g s regarding p a r t i c i p a n t s ' and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' comments, only a summary w i l l be presented. The brochure was used as the main vehicle for advertising courses and d e s c r i b i n g the r e q u i r e d r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures. Yet some participants expressed d i f f i c u l t y with the brochure's explanation of r e g i s t r a t i o n . A few even stated they could not f i n d t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n , and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s mentioned they 110 r e c e i v e d many c a l l s asking how to r e g i s t e r . Cross's observa-tions (1981) about the receipt of information merit considera-tion. It doesn't matter how simple or convenient r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures are i f people do not received this information. Highly motivated people w i l l go to considerable e f f o r t to fe r r e t out information; unmotivated adults w i l l not "see" in f o r m a t i o n placed before t h e i r eyes everyday. . . . The s u c c e s s f u l disseminator of in f o r m a t i o n . . . w i l l design the message—as well as the program—to address the prob-lems of the desired target groups. (p. 151) It i s recommended that the brochure be supplemented with posters and information programs at s p e c i a l l y targeted areas. For instance, announcements about courses on applying for jobs c o u l d be posted at employment placement c e n t r e s , w h i l e announcements about v o c a t i o n a l up-grading c l a s s e s could be posted at work s i t e s . The r e g i s t r a t i o n requirements should be cl e a r l y described. Only a small minority of the participants had grievances which they sa i d would prevent t h e i r future enrollment. How-ever, because these grievances against r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures were s u f f i c i e n t to prevent future p a r t i c i p a t i o n , they must be given serious consideration. Participants' complaints about pre-registration in person concerned o r g a n i z a t i o n and long, time consuming l i n e s . I f r e s t r i c t i o n s upon some administrators make i t impossible for them to minimize crowds by extending the number of days f o r re g i s t r a t i o n , the new approach t r i e d by a few administrators i s 111 recommended. It may be r e c a l l e d that t h i s approach i n v o l v e s such innovations as a supervised children's area, display area, instructors being present during r e g i s t r a t i o n , and r e g i s t r a t i o n of people in l o t s of 5 0 . However, this approach w i l l not solve the c o n f l i c t s some participants experience between their work schedules or other commitments, and the prescribed r e g i s t r a t i o n hours. It i s recommended that either the r e g i s t r a t i o n period be extended to include more days and evenings (for example, one week from 9 a.m. to 8 p.m.), or a l t e r n a t i v e r e g i s t r a t i o n methods be advertised. Complaints that r e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t c l a s s d i d not have the f l e x i b i l i t y to allow the choice of a l t e r n a t i v e courses i f the d e s i r e d course was f u l l or c a n c e l l e d , coupled with comments that f a i l u r e to get into a course would prevent future enrollment, i n d i c a t e that r e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t c l a s s i s not a good method to use i f the s i z e of the expected enrollment i s e i t h e r very small or very l a r g e . The planning f l e x i b i l i t y of p r e - r e g i s t r a t i o n methods i s needed i n such cases. Recommendations r e l a t i n g to other complaints are as f o l l o w s . Do not exceed the class's enrollment l i m i t ; r a t her, schedule e x t r a sessions. Provide more i n f o r m a t i o n about the cost of m a t e r i a l s and the content of courses. Review the scheduling of courses with a view to making them as convenient as p o s s i b l e to p a r t i c i p a n t s . Provide d i r e c t i o n a l signs and guides during r e g i s t r a t i o n . Ensure that a l l s t a f f are p o l i t e and attentive to the needs of the participants: How something 112 i s said i s often as important as what i s said. In a d d i t i o n to the above recommendations which address p a r t i c i p a n t s ' complaints, the f o l l o w i n g are suggested. When using r e g i s t r a t i o n at the f i r s t class, try to avoid using class time, by either e n r o l l i n g participants during the class break or before the c l a s s begins. I f the l a t t e r approach i s used, advise p a r t i c i p a n t s that r e g i s t r a t i o n w i l l begin a h a l f hour before class, and warn them to "come early," that r e g i s t r a t i o n w i l l be on the bas i s of " f i r s t come, f i r s t served." In a d d i -t i o n , make a l l types of r e g i s t r a t i o n as e f f i c i e n t as p o s s i b l e by ensuring that a l l a v a i l a b l e s t a f f are present during the peak r e g i s t r a t i o n times. I f telephone r e g i s t r a t i o n i s used, ensure that there are s u f f i c i e n t telephone l i n e s and s t a f f a v a i l a b l e to r e g i s t e r people. The convenience of telephone r e g i s t r a t i o n can q u i c k l y change i f p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s cannot complete their c a l l s . F i n a l l y , to avoid the problem of a person r e s e r v i n g a place i n a c l a s s by phone but not com-pleting her or his r e g i s t r a t i o n , stipulate that unless payment is received within a specified number of days, the reservation w i l l be void. Payment could be made by mail or i n person during normal operating hours. Attention to the above recommendations may help to mini-mize r e g i s t r a t i o n problems. It i s not p o s s i b l e to e l i m i n a t e problems, for there is no ideal type of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures for either participants or administrators. 113 Generalizability S t r i c t l y speaking, the findings of this study w i l l apply only to the participants and administrators of adult education programs in Surrey and White Rock. However, i t is likely that most of these findings could be generalized and applied to other communities with simi l a r demographic characteristics. The issues investigated are general, not lo c a l in nature; the participants were selected from a large area encompassing two municipalities, one of which is the second largest municipality in B r i t i s h Columbia in both population and area; and the administrators interviewed represented the views of three agencies, not those of just one organization. Suggestions for Future Research It must be noted that this study investigated participants enrolled in adult education courses. Future research may wish to examine those who do not register. However, before con-ducting such research, the following problems should be con-sidered . The examination of non-participants would measure people's perceptions about regi s t r a t i o n procedures, rather than their reactions to these procedures. If a person believes that registration requires "too much red tape," then "the perception i t s e l f acts as a barrier, whether i t actually exists or not." For "surveys are intended to t e l l us what people perceive to be obstacles—which may have as much to do with lack of participa-tion as actual barriers" (Cross, 1981, p. 104). Furthermore, research which measures what people say, as 114 opposed to what they do has s o c i a l d e s i r a b i l i t y as a response bias (Cross, 1 9 8 1 ) . For instance, "too much red tape" may be considered a s o c i a l l y acceptable reason for non-participation. The a c t u a l reasons may be more complex, d e a l i n g with issues such as personal values concerning education, peer group and family influences, and confidence in one's a b i l i t y . Perhaps the ideal future research would be an experimental design i n which the r e a c t i o n s of both p a r t i c i p a n t s and non-participants to various types of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures were compared. Unfortunately, this would be a d i f f i c u l t design to Implement from a p r a c t i c a l point of view. 115 Reference Notes 1. 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A study of n o n - u n i v e r s i t y post-secondary and ±12.Qt inning ^tlRll&tion&l j3££v 1__ce_s _in Albe_rt;a .1 £Z0zZA• Edmonton: Alberta Colleges Commission, 1 9 7 1 . (ERIC Docu-ment Reproduction Service No. ED 0 7 3 3 5 0 ) Frederickson, M. C. Mature women students. A survey. Unpub-lished masters thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 7 5 . Garry, M. W. The relationships among anomia, attitude toward  adult education, and n o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n formal adult  education a c t i v i t i e s . Paper presented at the Adult Educa-tion Research Conference, Minneapolis, Minnesota, A p r i l 2 0 -2 2 , 1 9 7 7 . (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 1 3 9 9 9 9 ) Hardaway, F. Educating adults. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Conference on College Compostion and Communi-c a t i o n . P h i l a d e l p h i a , Pennsylvania, March 2 5 - 2 7 , 1 9 7 6 . (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 120 7 9 8 ) Havighurst, R. Human development and education. New York: Longmans, Green, 1 9 5 3 • Houle, C. 0 . The I n q u i r i n g mind. Madison: U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin Press, 1 9 6 1 . Huberman, M. Looking at adult education from the perspective of the adult l i f e cycle. International Review of Education, 1 9 7 4 , 2j0, 1 1 8 - 1 3 7 . Hunter, C. G. Women on the move: A growing c l i e n t e l e . Proceedings of the Annual Meeting Association for Continuing  Higher Education, 1 9 7 9 , 7 0 - 7 2 . (Summary) (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 187 297) 119 Jacobson, R. P. The organization and administration of special counseling programs for adult women in colleges and univer-s i t i e s (Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Southern C a l i f o r n i a , 1969)• Adult Education Dissertation Abstracts:  1 9 6 8 - 6 9 , 49-50. Johnstone, J. W. C, & Rivera, R. J. Volunteers f o r l e a r n i n g . Chicago: Aldine, 1 9 6 5 . Kahn, R. L., & C a n n e l l , C. P. The dynamics of i n t e r v l e w i n g . New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1957-Kerlinger, P. N. Foundations of behavioral research (2nd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1 9 7 3 * Kingston, R. J. Statement by Robe r t J. Kingson, Pre sident of  the College Board, before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary  Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, June 21, 1979- New York: College Entrance Examination Board, 19 7 9 . (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 176 046) Lamoureux, M. E. Threshold p r i c i n g i n u n i v e r s i t y c o n t i n u i n g  education. Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1975-Learning o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a d u l t s . Volume I I I : The non- p a r t i c i p a t i o n issue. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 1979- (ERIC Document Reproduc-tion Service No. ED 185 414) Lewin, K. P r i n c i p l e s of t o p o l o g i c a l psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1936. London, J., Wenkert, R. & Hagstrom, W. 0 . Adult education and  so c i a l class. Berkeley: Survey Research Center, University of C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 6 3 . Londoner, C. A. Sources of educational funds as motivators for p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a d u l t secondary e d u c a t i o n . Adu_l_t Education, 1 9 7 4 , 25, 47-63-Marx, M. Learning: Theories. New York: McMillan, 1970. McCannon, R. S. Effectiveness of an orientation and counseling program for adult evening students at Drake University (Doc-t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , Iowa State University, 1973)- Disserta- tion Abstracts International, 1974, 34, 6933-A-6934-A. McKinnon, D. P. A comparison of distance s trave l i e d to urban H A S i L t i s c h o o l c_e n t^_r_s. U n p u b l i s h e d masters t h e s i s , University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 6 6 . McKinnon, D. P. The adoption of innovations as a measure of  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education. Unpublished d o c t o r a l dissertation, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1977-120 Melton, J. E. The Influence of a l t e r n a t e course l o c a t i o n s on  distances t r a v e l l e d by participants in urban adult evening  classes. Unpublished masters thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 6 6 . M i l l e r , H. L. P a r t i c i p a t i o n of adults in education: A force- f i e l d a n a l y s i s . Boston: Center f o r the Study of L i b e r a l Education for Adults, 1967-Ministry of Reconstruction Adult Education Committee. Final report. London: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1919* M i z r u c h i , E. H., & Vanaria, L. M. Who p a r t i c i p a t e s i n adult education. Adult Education, I 9 6 0 , 10_, 141-143. Morstain, B. R., & Smart, J. C. Reasons f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education courses: A multivariate analysis of group differences. Adult Education, 1 9 7 4 , 24, 8 3 - 9 8 . Newberry, J. S., J r . P a r t i c i p a n t s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t education. In E. deS Brunner, D. S. Wilder, C. Kirchner, & J. S., J r . Newberry, An o v e r v i e w of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n research. Chicago: Adult Education A s s o c i a t i o n of the U.S.A., 1 9 5 9 . Norsworthy, G. F. A study of the e f f e c t of written messages on the d e c i s i o n of a d u l t s , who had p r e v i o u s l y decided not to e n r o l l , to subsequently e n r o l l i n a u n i v e r s i t y evening program (Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , F l o r i d a State U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 7 5 ) . D i s s e r t a t i o n A b s t r a c t s I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1 9 7 6 , 3 6 , 7812-A. Okes, I. E., & Others. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education.  F i n a l report, 1 9 7 2 . Washington, D.C: National Center for Education S t a t i s t i c s (DHEW), 1 9 7 6 . (ERIC Document Reproduc-tion Service No. ED 136 0 0 3 ) Open Access, S a t e l l i t e Education Service (OASES): Fi n a l annual  report. Oklahoma: South Oklahoma C i t y Junior College, 1 9 7 9 . (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 170 0 0 1 ) Osgood, C. E., S u c i , G. J., & Tannenbaum, P. H. (Eds.). The measurement of meaning. Urbana: University of I l l i n o i s Press, 1 9 5 7 . Pattyson, J. W. The influence of certain factors on attendance  i n p u b l i c school adult education programs. Unpublished doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , F l o r i d a State University, 1 9 6 1 . Peterson, R. E. Implications and consequences for the future. In R. E. P e t e r s o n & A s s o c i a t e s , L i f e l o n g L e a r n i n g i n America: An overvie w of current p r a c t i c e s , a v a i l a b l e  re sources, and future prospe cts• San F r a n c i s c o : Jossey-Bass, 1 9 7 9-121 Rubenson, K. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n recurrent education: A research  review. Paper presented at meeting of National Delegates on Developments in Recurrent Education, Paris, March, 1977-S h e f f i e l d , S. B. The o r i e n t a t i o n s of a d u l t c o n t i n u i n g l e a r n e r s . In D. Soloman (Ed.), The c o n t i n u i n g l e a r n e r . Chicago: Center f o r the Study of L i b e r a l Education f o r Adults, 1964. S t a t i s t i c s Canada. 1971 Census of Canada. Census tract series (CT-28A). Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, 12-13-S t a t i s t i c s Canada. 1971 Census of Canada. Census tract series (CT-28B). Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia; 12-13, 30-31, 48-49* S t a t i s t i c s Canada. 1971 Census of Canada, 9_. Special series -Geography (SG-1). Land areas and d e n s i t i e s of s t a t i s t i c a l units, 5-23• Study of Barriers to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n post secondary education  as perceived by adults in West Central Minnesota. Morris: Minnesota U n i v e r s i t y , 1975. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 123 450) Sudman, S. Applied sampling. New York: Academic Press, 1976. Tough, A. Choosing to l e a r n . In G. M. Healy & W. L. Z i e g l e r (Eds.), The learning stance: Essays i n celebration of human  l e a r n i n g . P i n a l report of Syracuse Research c o r p o r a t i o n p r o j e c t , N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of Education No. 4 0 0 - 7 8 - 0 0 2 9 . Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Education, 1979. Tuckman, B. W. Conducting educational research (2nd ed.). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, IncTj 1978. Ulmer, R. C. A study of drop-outs i n the evening d i v i s i o n of a community c o l l e g e . Unpublished masters t h e s i s , F l o r i d a State University, I 9 6 0 . Van Peborgh, M. J. -A r e - e n t r y paradigm f o r e d u c a t i o n a l l y disadvantaged women at a community c o l l e g e (Doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Southern C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 7 5 ) ' Dissertation Abstracts International, 1 9 7 5 , 3_5, 5764-A. Verner, C, & Davis, G. S., J r . Completions and drop outs: A review of research. Adult Education, 1964, 14, 157-176. V e r n e r , C , & Newberry, J. S., J r . The n a t u r e of a d u l t p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Adult Education, 1958, 8, 208-222. 122 Selected Bibliography Goode, W. J., & Hatt, P. K. Methods i n s o c i a l research. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1952. Oppenheim, A. N. Questionnaire de sign and a t t i t u d e measure- ment. New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1966. Shaw, M. E., & Wright, J. M. Scales f o r the measurement of  attitudes . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1952. Snider, J. G., & Osgood, C. E. (Eds.). Semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l  technique: A sourcebook. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co., 19W. 123 Appendices 124 Appendix A Letters and Instructions Letter to Surrey School Board Instructors Letter to Surrey Parks and Recreation Commission Instructors Letter to White Rock Parks and Recreation Department Instructors Instructions for Administering the Questionnaire Proctor's Information Sheet Course Data Sheet Proctor's Introductory Comments 125 Instructions for Administering the Questionnaires It i s very important that these i n s t r u c t i o n s be f o l l o w e d exactly. 1. Time: Please administer the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s on the f i r s t night of the course d u r i n g t h e t i m e s t a t e d on " P r o c t o r ' s I n f o r m a t i o n Sheet". 2. Administer questionnaires: -record "Time Begun" on "Course Data Sheet" -present introductory comments (see sheet) -d i s t r i b u t e questionnaires and pencils -go over d i r e c t i o n s to the Semantic D i f f e r e n t i a l and Lik e r t Scales o r a l l y -answer questions -ask p a r t i c i p a n t s to please be v e r y s p e c i f i c i n t h e i r answers to #6 ( l a s t question). Ask them to please n o t use abbreviations. Assure them that a l l responses are c o n f i d e n t i a l . -participants f i l l out questionnaires - c o l l e c t questionnaires and pencils -record "Time Finished" on "Course Data Sheet" 3. Record number of completed questionnaires on "Course Data Sheet". 4. Bundle questionnaires with "Course Data Sheet" on top. 5« Return these forms to Bonnie Brackhaus. Thank you 129 Proctor's Information Sheet Course : Instructor: Type of Registration: Time of Course : . Time to Administer Questionnaires: Location: F a c i l i t y Attendant: Phone: Doors open u n t i l end of class? * I f doors are not kept open u n t i l the end of c l a s s e s , you must a r r i v e w i t h i n the f i r s t h a l f hour of the c l a s s i n order to get into the building. Co-ordinator/Supervisor: Agency: 130 Course Data Sheet Agency: Type of Registration Class: Class Code Time Begun: Time Finished: Number of Questionnaires Completed: 131 Proctor's Introductory Comments ( P l e a s e r e a d t o c l a s s b e f o r e d i s t r i b u t i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . ) Working i n co-operation with the Surrey School Board, Surrey Parks and Recreation Commission, and White Rock Parks and Recreation Department, the Adult Education Research Centre at U.B.C. i s doing a study on people's r e a c t i o n s to r e g i s t r a -tion procedures. The purpose of t h i s study i s to f i n d out how y o u f e e l about the method used to r e g i s t e r you i n t h i s c l a s s . Your information w i l l be v e r y h e l p f u l in i m p r o v i n g f u t u r e r e g i s t r a -tion procedures. Your help and co-operation i n f i l l i n g out t h i s q u e s t i o n -naire would be greatly appreciated. The questionnaire i s c o m p l e t e l y c o n f i d e n t i a l . Please do n o t put your name on the que s t i o n n a i r e . It i s important that a l l questions are answered. 132 Appendix B Questionnaire 133 Questionnaire (Side 1) T o u r c o - o p e r a t i o n i n c o m p l e t i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e would be g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . W o r k i n g i n c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h the S u r r e y S c h o o l Board, S u r r e y Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Commission, and White Rock P a r k s and R e c r e a t i o n Department, the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n R e s e a r c h C e n t r e a t U.B.C. i 3 d o i n g a s t u d y on p e o p l e ' s r e a c t i o n s t o r e g i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . Your i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be v e r y h e l p f u l i n I m p r o v i n g f u t u r e r e g i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s . Your r e s p o n s e s a r e COMPLETELY CONFIDENTIAL. Do U2£ put y o u r name on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . P l e a s e answer aJJL q u e s t i o n s . 1. P l a c e a check (/) i n the box which d e s c r i b e s how you r e g i s t e r e d f o r THIS c l a s s . P r e - r e g i s t e r i n p e r s o n P r e - r e g i s t e r by phone R e g i s t e r at the f i r s t clas9 O t h e r ( S p e c i f y ) 2. Which r e g i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e do you PREFER? check i n the box.) I I P r e - r e g i s t e r i n p e r s o n i I P r e - r e g i s t e r by phone ' i R e g i s t e r at the f i r s t c l a s s ' ' P r e - r e g i s t e r by m a i l O t h e r ( S p e c i f y ) ( P l a c e a P l e a s e s t a t e why you p r e f e r t h i s r e g i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e . 3. D i d you f i r s t f i n d out about t h i s c o u r s e by r e a d i n g the b r o c h u r e ? C Z j j Y e s * i Mn (Go t o qu. t>i ^*If s o , d i d you o b t a i n a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the r e g i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e by r e a d i n g the b r o c h u r e ? I I Yes (Go t o qu. 4.) d p No ^>If you d i d n ' t get a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g , p l e a s e e x p l a i n . 4. I s t h e r e a n y t h i n g about the r e g i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e w h i c h would p r e v e n t you from e n r o l l i n g i n f u t u r e c l a s s e s ? Yes I 1 No +If " y e s " , p l e a s e comment. 5. Do you have any s u g g e s t i o n s f o r i m p r o v i n g the r e g i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e ? I ^ I Yes i [ Nn ^ I f " y e s " , p i e P l e a s e do not w r i t e i n t h i s s p a c e . 1 2 3,4 5,6 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 ase comment. PLEASE TURN OVER AND COMPLETE OTHER SIDE 134 Questionnaire (Side 2) I n s t r u e t i o n s : R a t e t h e r e g i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e you f o l l o w e d by p l a c i n g an "X" above one of t h e b l a n k s between each word p a i r . Example: Bad : : : : : zJL Good (means the r e g i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e was v e r y good) Bad _X: : : : : : Good (means the r e g i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e was v e r y bad) Bad : X• : : : Good (means the r e g i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e was s l i g h t l y more bad than good) I f y o u t h i n k t h e r e g i s t r a t i o n p r o c e d u r e was e q u a l l y bad and good, or e q u a l l y c o n v e n i e n t and I n c o n v e n i e n t , e t c . then p l a c e y o u r "X" on the m i d d l e b l a n k . I m p o r t a n t : - P l a c e y o u r "X" above the b l a n k t not on the boundary. Example: T h i s Not T h i s — : - J L : : : : X - P l e a s e do not omit anv of the word p a i r s . -Do not put more than one "X" f o r each word p a i r . -Work q u i c k l y . Do not p u z z l e o v e r word p a i r s . I t i s y o u r f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n s , y o u r immediate " f e e l i n g s " t h a t a r e wanted. However, p l e a s e do not be c a r e l e s s , because y o u r t r u e i m p r e s s i o n s are i m p o r t a n t . I 1 P l e a s e do not THE REGISTRATION PROCEDURE w r i t e i n t h i s Bad space. — • . — • — : — : — : Good 30 C o n v e n i e n t 31 O r g a n i z e d 3? U n c l e a r Complex 34 Easy 35 S h o r t 16 L a b o r i o u s 37 R e a s o n a b l e IH E f f i c i e n t 10 C o n f u s i n g 4(1 I n s t r u c t i o n s : P l e a s e CIRCLE t h e l e t t e r on t h e l e f t I n d i c a t i n g how you f e e l about each of the f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t s . (SA - s t r o n g l y a g r e e , A - a g r e e , U - u n d e c i d e d , D » d i s a g r e e , SD « s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e . ) 1 . 2 . 3 . 5 . 6. SA A U D SD SA A U D SD R e g i s t r a t i o n was done I n a f r i e n d l y manner. There was a c o m f o r t a b l e atmosphere d u r i n g r e g i s t r a t i o n . P l e a s e i n d i c a t e y o u r s e x . P l e a s e s t a t e y o u r age. Male y e a r s I I Female How l o n g d i d i t t a k e you t o t r a v e l f r o m y o u r home to t h i s c l a s s ? I 'minutes How l o n g have you l i v e d a t y o u r c u r r e n t address? I I y e a r s I I months How many y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g have you completed? ( I n c l u d e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l , secondary s c h o o l , c o l l e g e , u n i v e r s i t y , v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l , e t c . ) I I y e a r s What i s the o c c u p a t i o n of the MAIN "bread winner"' i n y o u r h o u s e h o l d ? ( P l e a s e be SPECIFIC, e.g. e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r , r e p a i r e l e c t r i c a l equipment, n u r s i n g s u p e r v i s o r , e t c . ) I f no\\ r e t i r e d , what was. the o c c u p a t i o n of t h e main "bread w i n n e r " ? 4 1 4 2 51 52,53 54,55 56,57 58,59 60-66 THANK YOU FOR YOUR CO-OPERATION 135 Appendix C Interview Schedule 136 Interview Schedule 1. What type(s) of r e g i s t r a t i o n do you use? 2. What are your reasons for using this type or these types of registration? 3» If more than one type of r e g i s t r a t i o n i s used: How do you decide on the r e g i s t r a t i o n procedure to use for each course? 4. What other r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures have you considered but not used? Why not? 5. What other r e g i s t r a t i o n procedures have you previously used but no longer use? Why not? Can you give exam-ples of feedback you received from c l i e n t s ? 6. What do you do in order to register participants; that i s , what procedures do you follow? 7« Was there anything atypical about r e g i s t r a t i o n t h i s time? 8. What do you see as the advantages of the type of re g i s -t r a t i o n you use for yourself as an administrator? What are the disadvantages? 9« What do you see as the advantages of the type of re g i s -ration you use for participants? What are the disad-vantages? 10. What kind of feedback have people given you about the re g i s t r a t i o n procedure you use? Can you think of spe-c i f i c examples? 11. How would you characterize people who seem to prefer the r e g i s t r a t i o n procedure you use? 12. How would you characterize people who seem to prefer a dif f e r e n t kind of r e g i s t r a t i o n procedure? 13» Have you had any instances in which people were quite upset about registration? 14. Have you done any research or follow-up on the people who have registered in your courses? 137 15. In practice, do the advantages of the r e g i s t r a t i o n pro-cedure used outweigh i t s disadvantages: a) for you as an administrator b) for the participants 16. Is there anything further you wish to add? 138 

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