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Occupational conditions as predictors of adult education participation Molina, José A. 1984

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O c c u p a t i o n a l C o n d i t i o n s As P r e d i c t o r s of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n by Jose A. M o l i n a B . S c , U n i v e r s i t y of Puerto R i c o , 1967 M . S c , U n i v e r s i t y of Pu e r t o R i c o , 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t and Higher E d u c a t i o n ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming /£g the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1984 ©Jose A. M o l i n a , 1984 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Ach^/f' £cbcca ^1 The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date DE-6 (3/81) i i Occupational Conditions  As Predictors of Adult Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n ABSTRACT The problem addressed by the inquiry stems from the r e l a t i o n s h i p between work and l e i s u r e . The main concern of t h i s study was to determine which set of variables, occupational conditions (complexity of the job, closeness of supervision, job r o u t i n i z a t i o n , job s a t i s f a c t i o n , and job commitment) and background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( formal education attainment, l e v e l of income, e t h n i c i t y , and age) were better predictors of adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Using the " s p i l l - o v e r " hypothesis as a paradigm, the occupational conditions and background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were examined in r e l a t i o n to adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n in a group of adults with low socioeconomic status. The " s p i l l - o v e r " hypotheses proposes that experiences and feelings from work a f f e c t l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s . A model was used to study the r e l a t i o n s h i p s among background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and occupational conditions "with adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n as the dependent v a r i a b l e . The design to implement t h i s research was a structured survey. To c o l l e c t data r e l a t i v e to the problem, a structured interview schedule was used to interview a random sample of 50 adults of low socioeconomic status l i v i n g in East Vancouver. Measures of central tendency were applied to the data, as well as c o r r e l a t i o n , linear regression, and path ana l y s i s . A major finding of the inquiry was that occupational conditions were better predictors of adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n than background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Among the occupational conditions, complexity of the job and job r o u t i n i z a t i o n were found to be the best predictors of adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n . These findings were interpreted as follows: in groups of low socioeconomic status, workers with jobs which require .reading, writing, analysing data or dealing with any written materials p a r t i c i p a t e more in adult education a c t i v i t i e s than people who spend more time working with t h e i r hands. S i m i l a r l y , workers who spend more time working with people tend to p a r t i c i p a t e more in adult education-related a c t i v i t i e s than workers who have jobs that are extremely routine, predictable, and r e p e t i t i v e . Another s t r i k i n g finding was that formal education attainment was not the best predictor of adult education. This finding d i f f e r s from reports in the l i t e r a t u r e , suggesting that in groups of low socioeconomic status there are variables, namely occupational conditions, other than formal education attainment, which have more power to explain and predict the phenomenon of adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n . How the occupational conditions compare with formal education attainment as predictors of adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n for more socioeconomically diverse samples remains a research question yet to be answered. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES v i i LIST OF FIGURES ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENT X CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1 The Problem 1 Background of the Problem 2 Occu p a t i o n a l C o n d i t i o n s 2 " S p i l l - o v e r " L e i s u r e Hypothesis 4 Adult Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n 5 Purposes of the Inquiry 6 Plan of the T h e s i s 7 Summary 7 CHAPTER I I : THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 9 L i t e r a t u r e Review 9 Work 9 L e i s u r e 13 R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Work and L e i s u r e 15 The Model 17 Hypotheses 20 D e f i n i t i o n of V a r i a b l e s 21 Summary ' 23 CHAPTER I I I : RESEARCH DESIGN AND INSTRUMENTATION 25 Research Design 25 The Survey Instrument 26 The P i l o t Study 26 Instrumentation 27 Leisure A c t i v i t y Survey (LAS) 27 Computation of AEP Index 29 Occupational Conditions 29 Population and Sample 31 Data Analysis 33 Summary 34 CHAPTER IV: FINDINGS 35 Description of the Sample 35 Background Characteristics and Occupational Conditions.. 43 Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s Between AEP and Variables in the Model 45 Multiple Regression Analysis 47 The Path Analysis 50 Test of Hypotheses 52 Summary 54 CHAPTER V: SUMMARY AND INTERPRETATION 56 Overview of the Problem and Methods 56 Correlational Analysis 59 Regression Analysis 60 The Path Analysis 60 Discussion 62 Conclusions 68 Implications of the Study 69 Suggestions for Further Research 69 v i Appendix A: Interview Schedule 72 Appendix B: Va l i d a t i o n of LAS 94 Appendix C: Factor Analysis of LAS ....104 APPENDIX D: The Letter of Transmittal 106 Appendix E: Codebook 108 v i i LIST OF TABLES 1. D i s t r i b u t i o n and Percentage of Respondents by Gender, Marital Status, and Age 35 2. D i s t r i b u t i o n and Percentage of Respondents by Formal Education Attainment 37 3. Years of Schooling Compared Between Respondents and Residents in East Vancouver 37 4. Di s t r i b u t i o n and Percentage of Respondents by Personal and Family Income 38 5. Di s t r i b u t i o n and Percentage of Respondents by Employment Status 40 6. D i s t r i b u t i o n and Percentage of Respondents by Occupational Category 41 7. Comparison of Ethnic Origin Between Respondents and Residents in the Sampling Area . 42 8. Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s Between Background Characte r i s t i c s and Occupational Conditions 43 9. Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t s Between AEP and Variables in the Model 45 10. Standardized P a r t i a l Regression C o e f f i c i e n t s for Variables in the Model Using AEP as Dependent Variable.. 47 11. Standardized P a r t i a l Regression C o e f f i c i e n t s for Occupational Conditions With AEP 48 Standardized Regression Coe f f i c i e n t s for the Variables in the Path Analysis ~ ix LIST OF FIGURES 1. Model Representing the Relationships Between Work and Leisure, AEP with Occupational Conditions and Background Characteristics 18 2. Relationships Among the Variables in the Simplified Model 50 3. Relationships Among the Variables in the Path Model .... 60 X ACKNOWLEDGEMENT My f i r s t round of thanks goes to my thesis committee: Professors Peter S. Cookson and Thomas J. Sork. Without their counsel and c r i t i c a l comments thi s thesis would never have been completed. A very special thank you i s merited by Professor Cookson, as my chairman and academic advisor, for his patience and l o y a l t y . My second round of thanks goes to my wife and children. A deep gratitude and appreciation to my beloved wife, Emma Reyes de Molina, for her support and understanding. She has always encouraged me to pursue my academic goals and has helped our children to understand my roles of father and student. The f i n a l round of thanks goes to the participants in the study i t s e l f , for their cooperation and inte r e s t . 1 OCCUPATIONAL CONDITIONS AS PREDICTORS OF ADULT EDUCATION PARTICIPATION CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The Problem The growing body of empirical studies shows the r e l a t i v e importance that educators have a t t r i b u t e d to adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n , one of the more extensively studied phenomena in the f i e l d of adult education. Factors that may a f f e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n , most often viewed as the res u l t of interaction between an i n d i v i d u a l and his environment, are t y p i c a l l y divided into the influences which are e s s e n t i a l l y internal (psychological and cognitive) and those derived from the individual's external environment (McClosky, 1968). Thus, to explain and predict the factors a f f e c t i n g adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n , researchers have studied the indiv i d u a l s themselves and t h e i r social- a c t i v i t i e s . This study extends t h i s general l i n e of inquiry to examine and describe the r e l a t i o n s h i p between work and adult education. Despite the consistent observation that one's l e v e l of p a r t i c i p a t i o n in adult education i s related to work, previous researchers (London et a l . , 1963, Johnstone and Rivera, 1965, and Douglah, 1968) confined their analysis to occupational  status. This study, however, goes beyond that point to propose a causal analysis postulating that occupational conditions not only correlate with but actually a f f e c t adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 2 The central question guiding the inquiry i s : How do occupational conditions af f e c t adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n in groups of low socioeconomic status? Other main questions addressed in the study are: What socioeconomic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of adults best predict p a r t i c i p a t i o n in adult education? More s p e c i f i c a l l y , are occupational conditions better predictors of adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n than background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ? If so, what variables among occupational conditions are more c r u c i a l to explain and predict adult education participation? In answering these questions, t h i s study has three key features. F i r s t , the focus of the study i s on discovery of which of the various conditions or components of work are most cl o s e l y associated with adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Second, the study i s based on the " s p i l l over hypothesis" or integrated model (Wilensky, 1960; Parker, 1971) which states that experiences at work are c a r r i e d over into le i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s . F i n a l l y , investigated in the study are patterns of d i f f e r e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n in r e l a t i o n to occupational conditions exhibited within a r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous group, i . e . , adults with low socioeconomic status. These points w i l l be expanded below. Background of the Problem Occupational Conditions Occupational status i s only one dimension of work. Kohn and Schooler (1973) demonstrated, in a U.S national study, that 12 dimensions of occupational conditions were related to 3 psychological functioning which they conceptualized i n t e l l e c t u a l f l e x i b i l i t y (the demands people put on their i n t e l l e c t u a l resources) and s o c i a l orientation ( s e l f - d i r e c t i o n versus other d i r e c t i o n s ) . In t h i s study, only the most c r i t i c a l dimensions of work studied by Kohn and Schooler (1973) were examined. These variables are (1) job s a t i s f a c t i o n , (2) job commitment, (3) substantive complexity of work, (4) closeness of supervision, and (5) job r o u t i n i z a t i o n . Because they may affect both occupational conditions and adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the background variables of formal education attainment, l e v e l of income, age, e t h n i c i t y , and gender have been included in this study. The components of occupational conditions and background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are considered independent variables. Both groups of variables are studied in order to determine which are better predictors of adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n , treated as the dependent variable. One of Kohn and Schooler's (1973) measures for i n t e l l e c t u a l functioning was respondent's report of p a r t i c i p a t i o n in l e i s u r e -time a c t i v i t i e s that required varying levels of i n t e l l e c t u a l involvement. In this study, however, adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n is conceptualized as a component of l e i s u r e . Following Kohn and Schooler's analysis, i t is expected that work conditions a f f e c t both lei s u r e and adult education part ic ipat ion. 4 " S p i l l - o v e r " Leisure Hypothesis In the context of t h i s study adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n is viewed as a kind of lei s u r e time a c t i v i t y . Leisure, according to Dumazedier (1967), has three functions: relaxation, entertainment, and personal development. It is on the last function that this inquiry focuses. The t h e o r e t i c a l framework chosen to study leisure was the " s p i l l - o v e r " hypothesis which provides a comprehensive approach to the study of the relationships between le i s u r e and work. Wilensky (1960) described these relationships as follows: Where the technical and s o c i a l organization of work offer much freedom - i . e . , discretion in methods, pace or schedule, and opportunity for frequent interaction with fellow workers... then work attachments w i l l be strong, work integrated with the rest of l i f e , and t i e s to community and society s o l i d . Conversely, i f the task offers l i t t l e work place freedom... then work attachments w i l l be weak, work sharply s p l i t from l e i s u r e , and t i e s to community and society uncertain (p. 522). Meissner (1971) in an interview survey involving 206 i n d u s t r i a l workers in Canada, tested what he c a l l e d the "carry-over hypothesis" and showed that experience of constraint and insulation at work is c a r r i e d over into free time. Meissner found that workers with jobs having more v a r i a t i o n , more freedom or high job d i s c r e t i o n did par t i c i p a t e more in discretionary time a c t i v i t i e s off the job. On the other hand, workers with l i t t l e d i s c r e t i o n or v a r i a t i o n in their jobs favoured nondiscretionary s o c i a l interaction off the job. 5 S p e c i f i c a l l y , he found that Experience with work with l i t t l e discretionary potential c a r r i e s over into reduced p a r t i c i p a t i o n in formally organized a c t i v i t i e s . S i m i l a r l y , the experience of s o c i a l interaction opportunities on the job c a r r i e s over into greater p a r t i c i p a t i o n in voluntary associations (p. 253). Examining the same phenomenon, Parker (1971) discovered an "extension pattern" or integrated model which consisted of l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s similar in content to one's working a c t i v i t i e s , and providing no sharp d i s t i n c t i o n between what was considered as work and what was considered as l e i s u r e . The " s p i l l ^ o v e r " hypothesis posits a relationship between work and l e i s u r e in which c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of constraint and insulation or variation and freedom on the job are carried over into leisure time a c t i v i t i e s . Accordingly, in t h i s study conditions of the job are anticipated to exert certain predictable effects upon p a r t i c i p a t i o n in adult education a c t i v i t i e s . Adult Education P a r t i c i p a t i o n With respect to the s p e c i f i c form of l e i s u r e refered to as adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n , research has most often taken a form described by Knox (1963) as " c l i e n t e l e analysis" consisting of descriptions of participants and reasons for attendance, comparisons of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of participants and non-participants, and investigations of the influence of stages in the l i f e cycle. One outcome of those studies has been generalizations about 6 p a r t i c i p a t i o n patterns of various groups and sub-groups. As Douglah (1968) put i t , however, by focusing major attention on differences among groups, those studies lose sight of the differences which may exist within groups. This de-emphasis of study of homogeneous groups i s consonant with the observation made more than twenty years ago by Kuhlen (1967) that there i s a tendency among educators to focus on central tendencies when describing and comparing d i f f e r e n t groups and to place l i t t l e emphasis on individual differences within groups. One of the most often reported findings (Knox, 1963; London, 1970) i s that individuals with lower socioeconomic status p a r t i c i p a t e less in adult education a c t i v i t i e s than those with higher socioeconomic status. But individuals with low socioeconomic status s t i l l p a r t i c i p a t e in adult education. The key point i s to determine the degree to which t h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n varies within homogeneous groups. Rather than comparing p a r t i c i p a t i o n across d i f f e r e n t occupational groupings, the approach taken in t h i s research is to investigate d i f f e r e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n within a homogeneous group. Purposes of the Inquiry This study has both theore t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l aims: to contribute to the development of s o c i a l theories applicable to adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n and to contribute to the solution to a problem which stems from the relationship between work and l e i s u r e . A central objective i s to explain and predict the l i k e l y outcome of discretionary behavior of adults by studying 7 how work conditions affect adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The p r a c t i c a l purpose i s accomplished by studying the c r i t i c a l occupational conditions and background variables that may af f e c t adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n in groups of low socioeconomic status. The theore t i c a l objective i s achieved, with the " s p i l l -over" hypothesis as a framework, by examining the relationships between work and leisure and by testing the hypotheses dealing with adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n in low income groups. Plan of the Thesis This thesis contains five chapters. Chapter I introduces and describes the problem addressed by the inquiry, outlines the key features of the study, and s p e c i f i e s the two major purposes of the inquiry. In Chapter II, the l i t e r a t u r e relevant to the problem is reviewed, the model used as a t h e o r e t i c a l paradigm in the study is presented and discussed, the d e f i n i t i o n s of the variables are given, and the hypotheses guiding the inquiry are described. Chapter III contains the research design, the instrumentation, the population and sampling procedures, and the data analysis. The findings of the study are presented in Chapter IV. In chapter V, the most relevant findings presented in the preceding chapter are discussed and interpreted. Chapter V ends with a set of conclusions and implications of the study. Summary The problem addressed by the inquiry stems from the 8 r e l a t i o n s h i p between work and l e i s u r e . The main q u e s t i o n a d d r e s s e d by the study i s : How do work c o n d i t i o n s a f f e c t a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n groups of low s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s ? The " s p i l l - o v e r " h y p o t h e s i s or i n t e g r a t e d model i s p o s i t e d as a paradigm t o examine o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s and background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n r e l a t i o n t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n groups w i t h low s o c i o e c o n o m i c s t a t u s . To a c c o m p l i s h the purposes of the study a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n was examined i n r e l a t i o n t o background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n groups of low s ocioeconomic s t a t u s and t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s , namely: job s a t i s f a c t i o n , j o b commitment, c l o s e n e s s of s u p e r v i s i o n , s u b s t a n t i v e c o m p l e x i t y of the j o b , and j o b r o u t i n i z a t i o n . 9 CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK The purpose of this chapter i s to present the review of the pertinent l i t e r a t u r e , to explain the model used in the inquiry, to present the hypotheses derived from the theoretical framework, and to define the variables in the model. Literature Review Work Work i s among the most important a c t i v i t i e s in l i f e for the well being and s a t i s f a c t i o n of the human being. Parker (1971) equates work with working time, sold time, and subsistence time. In general, work is related to the way of making a l i v i n g . For some people work is absorbing, s a t i s f y i n g , pleasurable, and a way to pursue what is interesting or challenging. For others, work is something necessary for surv i v a l , involving negative experiences, boredom, a lack of freedom and constraints. These two points of view are re f l e c t e d in the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed below. Work s a t i s f a c t i o n has been studied in many occupations, but predominantly among factory and o f f i c e workers. Typically higher proportions of s a t i s f i e d workers are found at the higher levels of s k i l l in each occupational group (Parker, 1971). Among the factors reported to produce more s a t i s f a c t i o n are autonomy in the work situ a t i o n , freedom to make decisions and take r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and opportunities to deal with people. 10 From an overview of studies dealing with work s a t i s f a c t i o n , Parker (1971) summarized the factors he found to be most highly related to work s a t i s f a c t i o n : (1) Creating something. It i s perhaps the most common of a l l expressed feelings of s a t i s f a c t i o n , f e l t by the widest range of workers, both manual and non-manual. (2) Using s k i l l . This i s commonly associated with creating something; however, i t lays more emphasis on what the work does for the individual rather than on the product. (3) Working whole-heartedly, meaning that i t does not matter how hard a job i s , but the person does i t with a deep desire. (4) Using i n i t i a t i v e and taking r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . This feature includes a feeling of freedom to make decisions and a degree of independence of authority. (5) Mixing with people. In general, jobs which involve r e l a t i n g with people provide more s a t i s f a c t i o n than those which do not. (6) Working with people who know the job (p. 44) . Parker (1971) also enumerated five factors which may cause d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n at work: (1) Doing r e p e t i t i v e things, (2) making only a small part of something, (3) doing useless tasks, (4) feeling a sense of insecurity, and (5) being too closely supervised (p. 47). Comparing high status occupations with low status occupations in business, Parker (1971) reported from a p i l o t study of 200 individuals in London that for people on higher occupational l e v e l s , work had e f f e c t s on outside-of-work a c t i v i t i e s . Those individuals whose jobs demanded greater i n t e l l e c t u a l e f f o r t or higher s o c i a l involvement preferred leisure containing i n t e l l e c t u a l and s o c i a l elements. In contrast, people on lower occupational levels whose jobs demanded l i t t l e involvement preferred spending their l e i s u r e in a more simple way. For instance, they preferred to v i s i t an amusement park instead of reading a book. S i m i l a r l y , Meissner 11 (1971) in a study in a Vancouver Island community in which he interviewed a sample of 206 i n d u s t r i a l workers, found a positive correlation between work constraints and various indicators of p a r t i c i p a t i o n in voluntary associations. These separate reported findings by Parker and Meissner suggest s p e c i f i c a l l y that s o c i a l s k i l l s maintained at work help to meet demands of voluntary organizational a c t i v i t y . In other words, experience in work with l i t t l e discretionary potential c a r r i e s over into reduced p a r t i c i p a t i o n in formally organized a c t i v i t i e s . Conversely, the experience of s o c i a l interaction opportunities on the job car r i e s over into greater p a r t i c i p a t i o n in voluntary associations. Kohn (1977) reported two studies about occupational conditions, one done in Turin, It a l y and another a U.S. national random sample study based on interviews with 3,101 men. In both studies occupational s e l f - d i r e c t i o n was found to be correlated with values, s o c i a l orientations, and psychological functioning. The values and s o c i a l orientations studied were authoritarian conservatism, c r i t e r i a of morality, r e c e p t i v i t y to change, self-confidence, self-deprecation, fatalism, and anxiety. In another national study Kohn and Schooler (1977) found that the main determinants of occupational s e l f - d i r e c t i o n were closeness of supervision, substantive complexity of work, and r o u t i n i z a t i o n of work. M i l l e r et a l . (1978), in a U.S. national sample survey of 555 women, found that occupational s e l f - d i r e c t i o n was correlated with i n t e l l e c t u a l functioning. They concluded that 12 "occupational s e l f - d i r e c t i o n was associated with more ef f e c t i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l functioning and generally p o s i t i v e , f l e x i b l e , and responsible s o c i a l orientation" (p. 78). This same study also showed that occupational s e l f - d i r e c t i o n affected i n t e l l e c t u a l f l e x i b i l i t y and i n t e l l e c t u a l demandingness of leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s . It is important to note that Kohn and M i l l e r et a l . used an index computed from lei s u r e and educational a c t i v i t i e s as one measure of i n t e l l e c t u a l functioning. Other studies have examined the c o r r e l a t i o n between experiences at work and those in adult education. Johnstone and Rivera (1965) found that young people, who experienced lower work s a t i s f a c t i o n tended to p a r t i c i p a t e in some adult education a c t i v i t y more often than those experiencing higher s a t i s f a c t i o n in work. They concluded that the incentive for low income groups was their b e l i e f that p a r t i c i p a t i o n would have some positi v e economic consequence for them. Analysing data from samples of Swedish workers, Bergsten (1977) discovered that while interest in adult education for the present job was p o s i t i v e l y related to work s a t i s f a c t i o n , interest in adult education for a new job was p o s i t i v e l y correlated with work d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . Parker (1971) conducted a study of work and l e i s u r e , using 200 p i l o t interviews with people employed in business and service occupations. He concluded that manual workers who are engaged in a small degree in their work usually spend lei s u r e time at home and family based a c t i v i t i e s . But a d i f f e r e n t pattern of work and leisure r e l a t i o n s h i p was observed by those 1 3 with jobs on higher occupational l e v e l s . They tended to be more integrated in their work and spend their l e i s u r e time in i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and s o c i a l l y active ways. It can be concluded that in order to explain and predict adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n in groups of low socioeconomic status, explanations must go beyond considerations of occupational status to include experiences at work. Lei sure Meissner (1961) stated that types of work, d i f f e r i n g in the freedom they allow and the constraints they impose, can predispose people to perceive and use their leisure in pa r t i c u l a r ways. In other words, there is an interdependence between work and l e i s u r e . According to Dumazedier (1967) leis u r e time i s defined as free time after the p r a c t i c a l necessities of l i f e have been attended to and refers to the use of time beyond that which i s required for existence and the b i o l o g i c a l functions necessary to stay a l i v e . Parker (1971) treated le i s u r e as synonymous with free time, spare time, uncommitted time, discretionary time, and choosing time. For some people lei s u r e i s a time dimension and for others an a c t i v i t y dimension. Although i t i s a fact that there i s not a d e f i n i t i o n of lei s u r e useful in every context, in th i s paper i t i s defined as the time that can be used at one's own d i s c r e t i o n . In other words, i t i s the time l e f t after work obligations, physiological needs and non-work obligations have been completed. Leisure thus defined encompasses s o c i a l 14 p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s considered in this paper to constitute one s p e c i f i c form of s o c i a l part ic ipat ion. According to Dumazedier (1967) leisure has three main functions: relaxation, entertainment, and personal development. Relaxation provides recovery from fatigue and relieves the physical and nervous s t r a i n produced by the tensions of d a i l y pressures, p a r t i c u l a r l y those of the job. Entertainment provides r e l i e f from boredom; i t i s a break from d a i l y routine. Personal development, Dumazedier's t h i r d function of l e i s u r e , serves to l i b e r a t e the individual from the d a i l y routine of thought and action. Thus, le i s u r e can permit, on the one hand, a broader and readier s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; on the other hand, a w i l l i n g c u l t i v a t i o n of the physical and mental self over and above u t i l i t a r i a n considerations of job or p r a c t i c a l advancement. It may even lead to discovering new forms of voluntary learning for the rest of one's l i f e and induce an e n t i r e l y new kind of creative attitude. These functions of leisure presuppose that the individual always makes choices in the use of discretionary time. The uses of l e i s u r e , according to Stone (1966), may lead not only to self-enhancement and s e l f -improvement, but also to s e l f - f u l f i l m e n t and creative l i v i n g . Leisure can be used to accomplish personal development by p a r t i c i p a t i n g in continuing education. Few studies have examined the r e l a t i o n between l e i s u r e and adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n . London et a l . (1963) reported that p a r t i c i p a t i o n in adult education was affected by the 1 5 content of leis u r e time and by the way i t was organized. Active engagement in sports, p a r t i c i p a t i o n in c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s in the neighbourhood or work, were highly correlated with adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Leisure time which requires p a r t i c i p a t i o n in organizations was also associated with adult education participation." S i m i l a r l y Johnstone and Rivera (1965) found that lower-class workers underemphasized use of adult education for le i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s oriented toward personal development or s e l f - f u l f i l m e n t . Despite the fact that members of the low socioeconomic group had spare time, they had less f a c i l i t y for f i l l i n g their non-working hours than those of the high socioeconomic group. Knox (1970) reported that young adults who were more act i v e l y engaged in work and leis u r e were more interested in adult education. The extent of educative behavior was associated with active le i s u r e styles which included reading, c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , and organizational partie ipation. In short, l e i s u r e time can be conceptualized both as a time and a c t i v i t y dimension. Leisure can encompass some areas of so c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and people may pursue personal development through some of their leisure a c t i v i t i e s . The l i t e r a t u r e reviewed showed a consistent c o r r e l a t i o n between le i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n in adult education. Relationship Between Work and Leisure In many ways work i s bound with l e i s u r e . This rel a t i o n s h i p has been studied using d i f f e r e n t approaches. Parker (1971) 1 6 distinguished three approaches or models: the compensatory model, the integrated model, and the neutral model. According to the compensatory or opposition model, people's l i v e s are s p l i t into d i f f e r e n t sectors. Key aspects of the compensatory model are the intentional d i s s i m i l a r i t y of work and l e i s u r e and the strong boundary between the two spheres. The d i f f e r e n t sectors and areas of a c t i v i t y are l i v e d out more or less independently. According to t h i s model, a varying le i s u r e time may compensate for a boring job. In the integrated or extension pattern, the s i m i l a r i t y of at least some work and l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s and lack of demarcation between work and l e i s u r e are key c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The basic assumption is that experiences and feelings from work w i l l affect l e i s u r e . According to t h i s pattern, work i s the central l i f e interest, but a sharp d i s t i n c t i o n exists between work and l e i s u r e . Leisure constitutes a continuation of processes i n i t i a t e d at work. A t h i r d pattern, c a l l e d n e u t r a l i t y is only partly defined by "a usually d i f f e r e n t content of work and l e i s u r e and average demarcation of spheres" (Parker, 1977, p. 72). The n e u t r a l i t y model implies le i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s generally d i f f e r e n t from work but not deliberately so. The central l i f e interest of people i s outside work. The neutrality model is not intermediate between the other two patterns because " i t denotes detachment from work rather than either positive or negative attachment "(Parker, 1977, p. 72). For instance, people tend to be as passive or uninvolved in their l e i s u r e as they are in their work. 1 7 The three models of work-leisure relationship are associated with a number of other work and non-work variables. The models are used as theoretical frames from which a better understanding of the relationships between work and leisure can be derived and, by extension in t h i s study, between work and adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n . With respect to the r e l a t i o n between work and l e i s u r e , Bergsten (1977) assumed, in accordance with Meissner (1971) and Parker (1971), that the d i r e c t i o n of influence i s mainly from work to l e i s u r e . In other words, the conditions at work are considered to a f f e c t other l i f e roles. Meissner (1971) tested the three models of relationships between work and l e i s u r e : the compensatory, the neutral, and the integrated. The relationships were studied in three dimensions: d i s c r e t i o n in work and l e i s u r e , the instrumental-expressive dimension, and the s o c i a l interaction dimension. The respondents with more constraints at work participated to a very small degree in leis u r e a c t i v i t i e s that demanded planning, coordination and purposeful action. When choice of action was suppressed by s p a t i a l , temporal, and functional constraints of the work process, worker capacity to meet demands for lei s u r e a c t i v i t i e s requiring d i s c r e t i o n was reduced. These findings tend to support the "carry-over" hypothesis. The Model To simplify analysis of the problem in t h i s study a model has been designed (Figure 1). The main assumption of the model is that work influences l e i s u r e . As with previous studies 18 (Meissner 1971, Parker 1971, and Bergsten , 1977) the d i r e c t i o n of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s postulated to be from work to l e i s u r e . In the model guiding t h i s inquiry, work i s viewed as a broader concept than occupational conditions; likewise leisure i s considered a broader concept than adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n . At the same time, background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are thought to a f f e c t occupational conditions. The core of the model postulates occupational conditions to a f f e c t both leisure and > N r BACKGROUND WORK LEISURE P e r s o n a l income Formal e d u c a t i o n OCCUPATIONAL CONDITIONS C o m p l e x i t y o f the Job C l o s e n e s s of s u p e r v i s i o n ADULT > a 11a 1nment E t h n i c l t y Age Job r o u t 1 n I z a t I o n Job s a t i s f a c t i o n Job commitment EDUCATION PARTICIPATION N F i g u r e 1. Model r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between work and l e i s u r e , AEP w i t h o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s and background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Work i s treated in the model as a complex variable c o n s t i t u t i n g various subjective and objective elements i d e n t i f i e d as occupational conditions. The objective conditions considered are complexity of the job, closeness of supervision, and job r o u t i n i z a t i o n . Considered as independent variables in the model are the occupational conditions of job s a t i s f a c t i o n , job commitment, substantive complexity of the job, closeness of 19 supervision, and r o u t i n i z a t i o n . The background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of personal income, formal education attainment, et h n i c i t y , and age of the respondents comprise antecedents variables thought to aff e c t work (represented by occupational conditions) and leisure (represented by AEP). The theoretical framework for t h i s study i s based on the integrated model or " s p i l l - o v e r " hypothesis (Wilensky 1961; Parker, 1971; Meissner 1971; and Bergsten, 1977), whose reasoning i s as follows: Work and l e i s u r e are considered part of the same problem; experiences and feelings a r i s i n g from work affec t l e i s u r e ; the content of both work and l e i s u r e tend to be si m i l a r ; and since the central l i f e interest i s work, leisure is both a function and a continuation of a c t i v i t i e s i n i t i a t e d by work. One of the most consistent findings in AEP studies has been the strong association between le v e l of formal education and p a r t i c i p a t i o n in adult education a c t i v i t i e s . The conclusion reached by London (1970) i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s point. The l e v e l of formal education i s the best single indicator of p a r t i c i p a t i o n in adult education, in the sense that by knowing a person's l e v e l of education one can predict whether he i s a participant with less chance of error than by knowing his occupation, income, place of residence or race (p. 145). In addition to l e v e l of education, other socioeconomic variables commonly studied include l e v e l of income, age, ethnic o r i g i n and gender. A l l these background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are included in the model to test their influence on occupational conditions and AEP and to compare the findings with those reported in the l i t e r a t u r e . The most important reason to 20 include these variables is to more c l e a r l y specify the influence of occupational conditions on AEP when the effect of other socioeconomic variables i s controlled. M i l l e r et a l . (1978) in a study with a U.S. national sample of 555 women found that conditions which f a c i l i t a t e occupational s e l f - d i r e c t i o n were associated with more e f f e c t i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l functioning and generally more po s i t i v e , f l e x i b l e , and responsible s o c i a l orientation. They found occupational s e l f - d i r e c t i o n defined as the use of i n i t i a t i v e , thought, and independent judgement in work, to be largely determined by two occupational conditions: substantive complexity of work and routiniz a t i o n of the job. Closeness of supervision was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y associated with aspects of psychological functioning. In a similar study Kohn (1973) examined job s a t i s f a c t i o n and occupational commitment as subjective reactions to occupations through which job conditions come to be reflected in values and orientations. He found that s t r e s s f u l occupational experience was associated with job d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and anxiety. Conversely, job s a t i s f a c t i o n was associated with favorable evaluations of s e l f , an open and f l e x i b l e operation to others, and e f f e c t i v e i n t e l l e c t u a l functioning. As an extension of t h i s demonstrated association with l e i s u r e , occupational conditions as components of work are expected to be associated with adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a component of l e i s u r e . Hypotheses The t h e o r e t i c a l framework guiding the inquiry i s the integrated model which posits that experience, attitudes, and 21 c o n d i t i o n s a t work a f f e c t l e i s u r e and a d u l t AEP. The components of work c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e model a r e j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , j o b commitment, s u b s t a n t i v e c o m p l e x i t y of work, c l o s e n e s s of s u p e r v i s i o n , and r o u t i n i z a t i o n . T h e s e components have been r e l a t e d t o AEP t o d e r i v e t h e f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e s e s : 1. The h i g h e r t h e j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n t h e h i g h e r t h e r a t e of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 2. The h i g h e r t h e j o b commitment, t h e l o w e r t h e r a t e of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 3. . The h i g h e r t h e l e v e l of c l o s e n e s s of s u p e r v i s i o n , t h e l o w e r t h e r a t e of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 4. The h i g h e r t h e l e v e l of c o m p l e x i t y of t h e j o b , t h e h i g h e r t h e r a t e o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 5. The h i g h e r v a r i a t i o n o f work, t h e h i g h e r t h e r a t e of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . D e f i n i t i o n o f V a r i a b l e s Dependent V a r i a b l e A d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n ( A E P ) . I t i s b r o a d l y d e f i n e d as a l l t h e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h p e o p l e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y p l a n and c a r r y out by t h e m s e l v e s o r w i t h h e l p f r o m o t h e r s , i n f o r m a l , i n f o r m a l , and s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g s , f o r p u r p o s e s o f a c q u i r i n g knowledge o r i n f o r m a t i o n , c h a n g i n g a t t i t u d e s o r i m p r o v i n g t h e i r s k i l l s . O c c u p a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s J o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . The d e g r e e o f p e o p l e ' s s a t i s f a c t i o n o r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h o s e a s p e c t s o f t h e i r j o b s t h e y j u d g e i m p o r t a n t . Work s a t i s f a c t i o n was measured u s i n g a t e n p o i n t 22 scale with one as very d i s s a t i s f i e d and ten very s a t i s f i e d . Job commitment. The degree to which an individual manifests dedication to an occupation in terms of willingness to change i t ; the individual's appraisal of what i t is to be good at an occupation; and the worker's sense of the moral worth of the occupation (Kohn, 1969: 80). Job commitment was measured by a score on an index comprised of three items: the degree to which people are attached to their jobs, their appraisal of what i t i s to be good in their occupations, and their opinions about what their jobs do for humanity. Closeness of supervision. It refers to how much latitude the supervisor allows and how much supervisory control is exercised on people in their jobs. It was measured by an index comprised by the following items: how cl o s e l y respondents are supervised in their jobs, how free they f e e l to disagree with their supervisor, and who controls the speed at which they perform the work tasks. Substantive complexity of the job. A group of interrelated work tasks which are categorized according to their degree of d i f f i c u l t y , measuring how complicated are the work tasks. It was measured by an index comprised by the respondents' appraisal of the complexity of his or her job and the amount of time spent working with data, with things, and with people. Job r o u t i n i z a t i o n . Degree of repetitiveness, v a r i a b i l i t y , and p r e d i c t i b i l i t y of the work tasks. Job routinization was measured using a ten point scale with one as extremely routine, predictable, and r e p e t i t i v e , and ten as extremely changeable, 2 3 u n p r e d i c t i b l e , and v a r i e d . B a c k g r o u n d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Income• A s o c i o e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i n d i c a t i v e of t h e amount o f money a p e r s o n r e c e i v e s y e a r l y b e f o r e d e d u c t i o n s ( p e r s o n a l income) or t h e amount o f money a f a m i l y r e c e i v e s y e a r l y f r o m a l l members of t h e h o u s e h o l d b e f o r e t a x e s ( f a m i l y i n c o m e ) . Income was measured i n d o l l a r s and c l a s s i f i e d f o r two c a t e g o r i e s : p e r s o n a l income and f a m i l y income. F o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n m e n t . The amount o f f o r m a l s c h o o l i n g c o m p l e t e d . O p e r a t i o n a l l y f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n m e n t was c l a s s i f i e d i n two c a t e g o r i e s : one u s i n g r a n k i n g l e v e l s from p r i m a r y s c h o o l t o u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l a i n d i v i d u a l had p u r s u e d ; t h e o t h e r u s i n g t h e t o t a l y e a r s a p e r s o n had c o m p l e t e d a t s c h o o l . E t h n i c i t y . C o u n t r y of o r i g i n i n d i c a t e d by t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . The a n swers t o t h e q u e s t i o n : In what c o u n t r y were you b o r n ? were r e c o d e d i n two c a t e g o r i e s : b o r n i n Canada or o u t s i d e Canada. Age. Number of y e a r s a p e r s o n has l i v e d . The a n s w e r s t o t h e q u e s t i o n : In what y e a r were y o u b o r n ? were u s e d t o compute t h e age o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . Summary The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d s u g g e s t s t h a t e x p e r i e n c e s from work may h e l p t o e x p l a i n t h e phenomenon o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n homogeneous g r o u p s . I t a l s o shows a c l o s e c o r r e l a t i o n between l e i s u r e and e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . L e i s u r e f o r p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t embraces s e l f - i m p r o v e m e n t , s e l f -f u l f i l m e n t , and s e l f - e n h a n c e m e n t may be a c h i e v e d by p e o p l e 24 through p a r t i c i p a t i o n in adult education. Accordingly, adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the study i s considered as one of the components of leis u r e time a c t i v i t i e s . The model used to explain the relationships among work conditions and AEP i s based on a theoreti c a l framework originated from the relationship between work and leis u r e c a l l e d the " s p i l l - o v e r " hypothesis. The hypotheses derived from the integrated model postulate the relationships among the five c r u c i a l work conditions and AEP to be tested in t h i s study. 25 CHAPTER III RESEARCH DESIGN AND INSTRUMENTATION This chapter comprises four parts: f i r s t , the research design is described; second, the instrumentation i s presented which contains a description of the survey instrument and the p i l o t study; t h i r d , the population and sampling procedures are described; and fourth, the methods used to analyze the data are discussed. Research Design The design chosen to implement th i s research was a structured survey because surveys permit determination of the nature of a phenomenon by asking individuals about c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , behaviors, attitudes or l i m i t a t i o n s concerning s p e c i f i c variables. Other advantages of a survey, as pointed out by Dickinson and Blunt (1980), are that measurements and observations are made in the natural s e t t i n g . By suggesting further hypotheses and l i n e s of inquiry, surveys may also a s s i s t in i d e n t i f y i n g areas where other types of research are needed. Surveys, however, have some limi t a t i o n s (Dickinson and Blunt, 1980). One disadvantage is that the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of responses to survey questions may be d i f f i c u l t to est a b l i s h . Another major l i m i t a t i o n i s the variables are not usually controlled and, for that reason, p o t e n t i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t sources of error and bias may arise in the data manipulation. 26 The Survey Instrument An interview schedule was prepared by Cookson (1984) which comprised 160 items concerning eight main aspects: (a) background information; (b) information about work; (c) position in l i f e cycle; (d) night school interests; (e) psychological functioning; (f) learning orientation; (g) margin (as perceived discretionary energy); and (h) the Leisure A c t i v i t i e s Scale (LAS). Responses to a l l questions in the interview schedule were recorded by the interviewers on a structured answer form. Although data were coll e c t e d in the interviews r e l a t i v e to a l l these aspects except night school interests, only data r e l a t i n g to selected background items, almost a l l items related to work, and the LAS f a l l within the scope of the present study. For more comprehensive theory and analysis see adapted ISSTAL model in Cookson, 1984. A copy of the survey instrument appears in Appendix A. The P i l o t Study To test the v i a b i l i t y of the interview schedule and to plan the strategy for the study, a p i l o t study was conducted in December 1982 in East Vancouver, the same area to be sampled later for the main study. For the p i l o t study, ten questionnaires were administered. The researcher went to the area and knocked on doors to inform people about the p i l o t study and invited them to p a r t i c i p a t e . 27 Half of the questionnaires were administered in face-to-face interviews; another half was f i l l e d out by respondents themselves. The selection of the subjects for the p i l o t study was done on a non-random basis. The data c o l l e c t e d in the p i l o t study revealed some facts to be accounted for in the f i n a l study, namely: (a) interviews lasted 45 minutes to one and half hours; (b) prior to each interview subjects of the study needed to be informed by l e t t e r and then committed to an appointment by telephone; (c) for many people l i v i n g in the area English was a second language and some lacked any command in English; and (d) the wording of several questions needed to be improved. As a result of the p i l o t study, the f i e l d work procedure for the inquiry was improved in the following ways: (a) i t was decided to send a l e t t e r to the prospective subjects explaining the purposes of the study and i n v i t i n g them to pa r t i c i p a t e ; (b) because many people selected for the study would not be able to part i c i p a t e for lack of English fluency, i t was decided to increase the number of l e t t e r s mailed; and (c) people should be approached at home between the hours of six and nine p.m. Before the f i n a l study was conducted the interview schedule was also improved in a l l of the areas which p i l o t study respondents found d i f f i c u l t to understand. Instrumentation  Leisure A c t i v i t y Survey (LAS) The Learning A c t i v i t i e s Scale was developed by L i t c h f i e l d (1965) and validated by sixteen educators acting as judges. 28 From 95 a c t i v i t y items the scale was reduced to an abbreviated form consisting of 46 weighted items according to the judges' c r i t e r i o n of educational purpose of each a c t i v i t y . To f i t a contemporary Canadian context, Cookson (1984) adapted the LAS, maintaining the same number of items as o r i g i n a l l y used by L i t c h f i e l d , but changing the 'wording of the instructions and several items. Using data from a non-random sample of 431 respondents enrolled in the Vancouver School Board-sponsored Night School Program, Cookson (1984) factor analyzed the LAS to reduce the number of items. -Four factors and ten items were used to compute the AEP index for the present study. V a l i d i t y and R e l i a b i l i t y of LAS For purposes of this study the v a l i d i t y of the LAS was tested by obtaining assessments of item v a l i d i t y from a panel of twenty judges: six faculty members and fourteen graduate students in the Adult Education Division at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. They were asked to rate each item according to i t s degree of "deliberate learning relatedness." A copy of that va l i d a t i o n instrument and the instruction for the judges are found in Appendix B. The r e l i a b i l i t y of LAS was tested by conducting an item analysis using the (LERTAP) program. The result of t h i s analysis showed a Hoyt's estimate of r e l i a b i l i t y for the LAS was .85 and th i s result compared favorably with the r e l i a b i l i t y of .77 reported by L i t c h f i e l d (1965). 29 Computation of AEP Index To compute the adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n used as dependent variable for thi s study, ten items were selected from LAS which met the following c r i t e r i a : (a) chosen by L i t c h f i e l d ' s o r i g i n a l panel of judges; (b) registered a rating above the mean in the val i d a t i o n by the panel of judges u t i l i z e d for thi s study; (c) included in one of the four p r i n c i p a l factors extracted in Cookson's factor analysis. The AEP index was computed following the method proposed by Nie et. a l . , (1975) which included four steps: f i r s t , each item was multiplied by the factor loading obtained in the factor analysis; second, the mean of each item obtained in the factor analysis was subtracted from the product obtained in step one; th i r d , the product obtained in step two was divided by the standard deviation of each item; and four, the value obtained for each of the ten items were added together to obtain the index. The four factors and p r i n c i p a l items of LAS used to compute AEP are found in Appendix C. Occupational Conditions The following measures for occupational conditions were developed by Kohn (1969) in a U.S. national random sample study. Substantive complexity of the job. This variable i s an index based on the combination of the time respondents' report they used working with people, data, and things. To construct th i s index each variable was multiplied by i t s factor loading 30 and t h e n added a l l t o g e t h e r . The number o f h o u r s worked w i t h p e o p l e was m u l t i p l i e d by -.572, t h e number o f h o u r s worked w i t h d a t a was m u l t i p l i e d by -.647, and t h e number of h o u r s worked w i t h t h i n g s was m u l t i p l i e d by .680. The t h r e e v a l u e s t h u s o b t a i n e d were ad d e d t o g e t h e r t o form t h e i n d e x . C l o s e n e s s o f s u p e r v i s i o n . T h i s v a r i a b l e was computed c o m b i n i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g f i v e i t e m s : (a) How c l o s e l y does y o u r s u p e r v i s o r c o n t r o l y o u r work? Does he o r she d e c i d e what t o do and how t o do i t ? ; Does he o r she d e c i d e what t o do but l e t you d e c i d e how t o do i t ? ; Do y o u have some f r e e d o m i n d e c i d i n g b o t h what you do and how you do i t ? ; A r e you y o u r own b o s s so l o n g as you s t a y w i t h i n t h e g e n e r a l p o l i c i e s of t h e f i r m ? (b) When y o u r s u p e r v i s o r wants you t o do s o m e t h i n g , d o e s he o r s h e : U s u a l l y j u s t t e l l y ou t o do i t ? ; U s u a l l y d i s c u s s e s i t w i t h you; or I s i t a b o u t h a l f and h a l f t e l l i n g and d i s c u s s i n g ? ( c ) How f r e e do you f e e l t o d i s a g r e e w i t h y o u r s u p e r v i s o r ? C o m p l e t e l y f r e e ; L a r g e l y but not c o m p l e t e l y f r e e ; M o d e r a t e l y f r e e ; Not p a r t i c u l a r l y f r e e ; Not a t a l l f r e e (d) I s t h e s p e e d a t w h i c h you work c o n t r o l l e d m o s t l y by you, y o u r b o s s , y o u r g r o u p , t h e s p e e d of m a c h i n e r y o r what? S u p e r v i s o r c o n t r o l l e d ; C o n t r o l l e d by work g r o u p ; C o n t r o l l e d by m a c h i n e r y ; C o n t r o l l e d by someone; C o n t r o l l e d by me (e) How i m p o r t a n t i s i t f o r you t o do y o u r j o b w e l l ? E x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t ; V e r y i m p o r t a n t ; M o d e r a t e l y i m p o r t a n t ; Not p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t ; Not i m p o r t a n t a t a l l . R o u t i n i z a t i o n o f t h e j o b . R o u t i n i z a t i o n o f t h e j o b was measured u s i n g a t e n p o i n t s c a l e , i n w h i c h one was e x t r e m e l y r o u t i n e and t e n was u n p r e d i c t i b l e and v a r i e d . 31 Job s a t i s f a c t i o n . This variable was measured using a ten point scale in which one was very d i s s a t i s f i e d and ten was very s a t i s f i e d . Job commitment. To compute job commitment the following three items were combined: (a) Some people are so attached to their occupations that they cannot imagine wanting to do any thing else, while others would be only too glad to change to some other occupation. (a) How about you: I could not imagine change; I am not eager to change; I would prefer to change; and I would be glad to change. (b) Do you think i t i s real accomplishment to be good in your occupation? Yes or No; (c) How much do you think your work does for humanity? A great deal, Some, It doesn't help but i t doesn't hurt either, and It can hurt. Specific coding, recoding, and factor loading procedures were used for each item comprising the variables according to Kohn's instructions (See Appendix C of Kohn, 1969, for complete d e t a i l s ) . The measures for occupational conditions have been tested for v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y in various studies (Kohn, 1969; Kohn and Schooler, 1973, 1978). Population and Sample The population of t h i s study comprises a l l currently employed and non-retired English-speaking adults l i v i n g in the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y working class area in Vancouver. A random sample was drawn using the following procedure: (a) The 1981 census data were used to determine the area in Vancouver with the population having the lowest income per capita and 32 lowest formal education l e v e l . (b) Having l o c a l i z e d the lowest socioeconomic area in East Vancouver, four enumeration areas were randomly selected from the census tracts for that area, (c) From each enumeration area, 250 addresses were randomly selected. (d) For each address, names of householders were i d e n t i f i e d in the City Directory. (e) Letters (see Appendix D) were then mailed to the t o t a l sample of 1,000 household heads, describing the study, i n v i t i n g their p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and announcing that they would be contacted for an interview appointment. (f) Two weeks after l e t t e r s were mailed, people were contacted by telephone. (g) Interviews were arranged with a l l persons who reported current employment, English fluency, and willingness to pa r t i c i p a t e . Following this seven step procedure, a sample of 50 respondents was interviewed during the summer and f a l l of 1983. The fact that interviews were completed with only fiv e percent of the o r i g i n a l sample of 1,000 contacted by mail may be explained as follows: (a) 28 per cent were not able to be contacted by telephone; (b) 25 per cent had changed residence, as evidenced by the return of the l e t t e r s ; .(c) 19 per cent were determined when contacted by telephone to be unable to speak English; (d) 18 per cent did" not qual i f y for the interview by virtue of r e t i r e e or housewife status; (e) five per cent reported a lack of either time or interest or presented some other excuse for declining to be interviewed. The 50 individuals who were interviewed thus represented 50 per cent of a l l e l i g i b l e individuals reached by telephone. 33 Data Analysis The 50 completed answer forms were coded using the Codebook (Appendix E) and stored e l e c t r o n i c a l l y for subsequent analysis, using the mainframe computer at The University of B r i t i s h Columbia. I n i t i a l l y , version 9 of the S t a t i s t i c a l Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to obtain frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n and percentages for the demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the respondents. Because the SPSS, version 9, was reported to be inaccurate for computation of factor analyses for large samples, the factor analysis for LAS using the data from the separate Vancouver School Board study was conducted using the more recent version 10 of the SPSS. The subprogram p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n of the SPSS version nine was used to generate c o r r e l a t i o n matrices, means, and standard deviations for the background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , occupational conditions, and AEP. To determine the strength and d i r e c t i o n of the relationships between occupational conditions and AEP, the SPSS regression program was used. Because the model assumed some causal r e l a t i o n s , the h i e r a r c h i c a l regression method was applied in order to enter the independent variables in a predeterminated order. The purpose of t h i s procedure was to obtain an equation that best predicted AEP as a function of substantive complexity of work, closeness of supervision, job r o u t i n i z a t i o n , job s a t i s f a c t i o n , and job commitment. 34 Summary The research design chosen for the inquiry was a structured survey because i t was found to be more appropriate to implement th i s research. A survey instrument was prepared by Cookson (1984) and used in the p i l o t study. The interview schedule was restructured based on the information obtained in the p i l o t study and then used in the p r i n c i p a l study. LAS was tested for v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y using a panel of judges and an item analysis respectively. To measure AEP an index was computed using four factors and ten items extracted from LAS applying factor analysis. The independent variables were measured following Kohn's methodology. The s p e c i f i c data analysis procedures used to compute the AEP index, occupational conditions, and background variables were described. The findings obtained applying these data analysis methodology are presented in the following chapter. 35 CHAPTER IV FINDINGS The purpose of this chapter is to present the main findings of t h i s study. The f i r s t section i s a description of the sample and a comparison of the sample with the population from which i t was drawn as described by S t a t i s t i c s Canada. The second part is a presentation of correlations between background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and occupational conditions. The t h i r d section is a presentation of correlations between occupational conditions and AEP. The fourth part describes the regression analysis for the variables in the model. The last section presents the path analysis which incorporates the dir e c t and indirect e f f ects on AEP of a l l variables in the model. Description of the Sample Descriptive s t a t i s t i c s were computed to f a c i l i t a t e the description of the sample. Gender The majority of the t o t a l number of respondents were men (58 percent) and women represented 42 percent (Table 1). Marital Status The majority (60 percent) of respondents were married. The proportion of divorced among the sample subjects (16 percent) was greater than the group of single respondents (14 percent) and the group who were separated (10 percent). 36 T a b l e 1 D i s t r i b u t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e o f Respondents by Gender, M a r i t a l S t a t u s , and Age V a r 1 a b l e C a t e g o r y Number P e r c e n t a g e Gender Male 29 58 Female 21 42 - T o t a l s 50 100 M a r i t a l M a r r i e d 30 60 S t a t u s S e p a r a t e d 5 10 D1vorced 8 16 Never m a r r i e d 7 14 T o t a 1 s 50 100 Age 25 t o 34 y e a r s 12 24 35 t o 44 y e a r s 19 38 45 t o 54 y e a r s 12 24 55 t o 64 y e a r s 7 14 T o t a 1 s 50 100 Age The age r a n g e o f r e s p o n d e n t s c o m p r i s i n g t h e sample was from 25 y e a r s t o 64 y e a r s . The modal age c a t e g o r y was from 35 y e a r s t o 44 y e a r s . The age f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s t u d y s u b j e c t s a p p e a r e d t o r e s e m b l e a n o r m a l c u r v e ( T a b l e 1 ) . 37 Formal Education Attainment Formal education attainment (FEA) was measured in terms of levels ranging from primary school to university l e v e l and in terms of the t o t a l numbers of years completed (Table 2). Using the f i r s t measure of FEA technical t r a i n i g beyond high school was the modal le v e l for 32 percent of the respondents. While 24 percent of the sample did not complete high school, 14 percent had completed i t , and 14 percent had graduated from university. Using the second measure of FEA, i t was found that 26 percent of the respondents had completed less than 10 years of schooling; 40 percent had completed between 10 and 12 years of schooling; 22 percent had attended between 13 and 14 years of schooling; and 12 percent of the respondents had completed more than 14 years of schooling. The mean number of years of schooling was 12.24 years. The . years of schooling reported by respondents were compared with data c o l l e c t e d by S t a t i s t i c s Canada for East Vancouver (Table 3) According to the census data for East Vancouver, 19.5 percent had less than grade 9; in the sample this category represented 14 percent. According the census data 24.1 percent had completed grades 9-13; in this study the same category represented 52 percent of the sample. People with more than 13 years of schooling represented 56.4 percent in East Vancouver according to the census data; in the sample th i s category was only 34 percent. 38 T a b l e 2 D i s t r i b u t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e of Respondents by Formal E d u c a t i o n A t t a i n m e n t V a r i a b l e C a t e g o r y Number P e r c e n t a g e L e v e l o f Some p r i m a r y s c h o o l 1 2 E d u c a t i o n C ompleted p r i m a r y s c h o o l 3 6 Some h i g h s c h o o l 8 16 Completed h i g h s c h o o l 7 14 T e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g beyond h i g h s c h o o l 16 32 C o l l e g e o r some u n i v e r s i t y 8 16-G r a d u a t e from u n i v e r s i t y 7 14 T o t a l s 50 100 Y e a r s o f Sch o o l 1ng Le s s than 10 y e a r s o f s c h o o l 1ng 13 26 10-12 y e a r s o f s c h o o l 20 40 13-14 y e a r s o f s c h o o l 1 1 22 Over 15 y e a r s o f s c h o o l 6 12 T o t a 1 s 50 100 Income The income l e v e l of the re s p o n d e n t s i n the sample was c l a s s i f i e d i n t o p e r s o n a l income and f a m i l y income. The modal c l a s s f o r p e r s o n a l income was between $20,000 and $ 29,999 r e p r e s e n t i n g 34 p e r c e n t of a l l s t u d y s u b j e c t s . The g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e i n d i v i d u a l income s u g g e s t e d a normal c u r v e . The m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s (72 p e r c e n t ) earned l e s s than $30,000. 39 T a b l e 3 Y e a r s of S c h o o l I n g Compared Between Respondents and R e s i d e n t s i n East Vancouver Y e a r s o f S c h o o l i ng S t a t i s t i c E a s t Var ;s Canada 1 i c o u v e r T h i s S1 Sampli nc tudy 3 Are a Number P e r c e n t a g e Number P e r c e n t a g e L e s s than g r a d e 9 Grade 9-13 Over 13 y e a r s 25.619 31,G10 74. 149 19.5 24 . 1 56 .4 7 26 17 14 52 34 Tota1s 131 ,378 10O.0 50 10O 1 S t a t i s t i c s Canada. Census T r a c t s : S e l e c t e d s o c i a l and economic  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 1981. 3_,_ pp.34. When family income was computed for the e n t i r e sample, 48 percent of subjects continued to report less than $30,000. In other words,, almost half of the families reported a moderately low income l e v e l . According to S t a t i s t i c s Canada, the family average income for East Vancouver for 1981 was $ 22,645; the family average income for the sample for 1983 was $ 26,400. If the i n f l a t i o n a r y e f f e c t for the' period 1981-1983 i s taken into account the difference in average income between the sample and East Vancouver was minimal. Because these figures appear to have an acceptable l e v e l of external v a l i d i t y , the r e s u l t s of this study may be generalized to the population. Employment Status Although the majority of the respondents (54 percent) were 40 T a b l e 4 i D i s t r i b u t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e of Respondents by P e r s o n a l and F a m i l y Income V a r 1 a b l e C a t e g o r y Number P e r c e n t a g e P e r s o n a l L e s s t h a n $5,000 3 6 Income $5,0O0-$9.999 3 6 $10,000 -$14,999 8 16 $15,000-$19.999 5 10 $2O.0O0-$29,999 17 34 $30,0O0-$39,999 8 16 More t h a n $40,000 5 10 No answer 1 2 T o t a l s 50 100 F a m l l y L e s s t h a n $5,000 1 2 Income $5,000 -$9,999 3 6 $10,000-$19,999 10 20 $20,000-$29,999 10 20 $30,000-$39,999 9 18 $40.000-$49,999 9 18 More t h a n $50,COO 8 16 T o t a l s 50 100 employed f u l l - t i m e on a permanent b a s i s , 14 p e r c e n t were employed f u l l - t i m e on a temporary b a s i s . S i x p e r c e n t were employed p a r t - t i m e from which two p e r c e n t were employed on a permanent b a s i s and f o u r p e r c e n t on a temporary b a s i s ( T a b l e 5 ) . The r a t e of unemployment among the st u d y r e s p o n d e n t s was 26 p e r c e n t , w i t h more than h a l f of t h a t group h a v i n g been 41 T a b l e 5 D i s t r i b u t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e of Respondents by Employment S t a t u s Employment C a t e g o r y Number P e r c e n t a g e Employed f u l l t i m e (permanent) 27 54 Employed f u l l t i m e ( t e m p o r a r y ) 7 14 Employed p a r t - t i m e (permanent) 1 2 Employed p a r t - t i m e ( t e m p o r a r y ) 2 4 Unemployed ( l e s s t h a n 3 months) 6 12 Unemployed (more than 3 months) 7 14 T o t a l s 50 10O unemployed for more than three months. This rate of unemployment i s almost double that the rate reported by Manpower and Immigration Canada for Vancouver at the end of 1983. This finding i s not surprising, given the fact that adults with lower income and lower formal education attainment usually suffer from higher l e v e l s of unemployment than more fortunate adults. Occupational Category With respect to occupational category, the largest single group of respondents i d e n t i f i e d themselves as technicians. Twelve percent i d e n t i f i e d themselves as in either semi-professional or middle management occupations. Eighteen percent worked as supervisors, foremen, or s k i l l e d workers in cra f t s / t r a d e s or c l e r i c a l s e rvices. One t h i r d (34 percent) of 42 T a b l e 6 D i s t r i b u t i o n and P e r c e n t a g e of Respondents by O c c u p a t i o n a l C a t e g o r y O c c u p a t i o n a l C a t e g o r y Number P e r c e n t a g e S e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l 2 4 T e c h n i c i a n 9 18 M i d d l e management 4 8 S u p e r v 1 s o r 6 12 Foreman 3 6 S k i l l e d c r a f t s and t r a d e s 2 4 S k i l l e d c l e r i c a l s e r v i c e s 7 14 S e m i - s k i l l e d c l e r i c a l s e r v i c e s 2 4 U n s k i l l e d c l e r i c a l s e r v i c e s 1 2 S e m i - s k i l l e d manual 7 14 U n s k i l l e d manual 7 14 T o t a 1 s 50 10O the respondents worked in u n s k i l l e d occupations, though most of them have been trained to better jobs. Ethnic Origin The ethnic o r i g i n of the respondents was compared with the data reported by S t a t i s t i c s Canada (1981) for the three census tr a c t s included in the sample. Table 7 shows that, despite the exclusion of non-English speaking, the sample resembled the ethnic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s reported by S t a t i s t i c s Canada. 43 T a b l e 7 Comparison o f E t h n i c O r i g i n Between Respondents and R e s i d e n t s i n t h e Sampling Area E t h n i c O r i g i n Sampl1ng Area 1 Study Sample Number P e r c e n t a g e Number P e r c e n t a g e B o r n i n Canada O u t s i d e Canada U n i t e d S t a t e s O t h e r A m e r i c a s U n i t e d Kindom O t h e r European As l a TOTAL 10,635 9,435 40 295 830 3, 380 4,590 20.070 53. 1 46 .9 1 .7 1 .5 4 . 1 16.9 22.8 30 20 O 1 2 7 10 50 60 40 O 2 4 14 20 100 1 S t a t i s t i c s Canada. Census t r a c t s : s e l e c t e d s o c i a l and economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , 1981, pp. 54. Background C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and Occupational Conditions P a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n was used to examine relationships among the variables in the model. P a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n permitted estimates to be infer r e d about the degree of closeness and di r e c t i o n of l i n e a r relationship, among the var i a b l e s . Table 8 shows the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s computed for background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and occupational conditions. In examinig the the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s for background variables i t was detected that age and e t h n i c i t y were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y associated with either other background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or occupational conditions. Personal income was 44 T a b l e 8 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s between Background C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and O c c u p a t i o n a l C o n d i t i o n s V a r i a b l e s X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 X8 X9 B a c k g r o u n d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s XI P e r s o n a l Income 1 .00 r414* .063 - .026 .322* .012 .049 . 143 -.252 X2 Formal Educ. A t t a i n m e n t 1.0O .124 . 183 .390* - .010 .006 - . 145 -. 307* X3 E t h n i c i t y 1.00 -.111 .080 -.O05 .202 . 114 .010 X4 Age 1 .CO .040 .066 .097 -.089 - .067 Occupat1ona1 C o n d i t 1 o n s X5 C o m p l e x i t y o f t h e j o b 1 .OO - . 105 - . 34* -.033 - . 148 X6 C l o s e n e s s of su p e r v 1 s 1 on 1 .OO .068 -.065 - .035 X7 R o u t i n i z a t i o n of t h e Job 1 .OO - . 27* .075 X8 Job s a t 1 s f a c t 1 on 1 .00 . 476* X9 Job commitment 1 .00 *p<.05 p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d - (p<„05) w i t h f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n m e n t , and s u b s t a n t i v e c o m p l e x i t y of work. Formal e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n m e n t was p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h s u b s t a n t i v e c o m p l e x i t y of work, but n e g a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h j o b commitment and job s a t i s f a c t i o n . The c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t f o r f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n m e n t w i t h s u b s t a n t i v e c o m p l e x i t y of work was (r=.3904), w i t h j o b commitment (r=-.3074), and w i t h p e r s o n a l income (r=.414). A l l t h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y 45 s i g n i f i c a n t (p<.05). Among occupational conditions complexity of the job was p o s i t i v e l y correlated with personal income (r=.322) and with formal education attainment (r=.390). Both c o e f f i c i e n t s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t (p<.05). However, complexity of the job was negatively correlated with routin i z a t i o n of the job (r=-.342). Another s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n was job sa t i s f a c t i o n with job commitment (r=.476). Relationships Between AEP  and Variables in the Model Table 9 shows the corr e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s between the AEP index and variables in the model. It is noteworthy that the variable most highly correlated with AEP (r=.553, p<.05) was substantive complexity of the job. Job rout i n i z a t i o n , the other occupational condition variable, was s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated (r=-.463, p<.05) with AEP. Although their correlation c o e f f i c i e n t s were too low to be si g n i f i c a n t at the five percent l e v e l , closeness of supervision and job commitment were negatively associated with AEP. Sim i l a r l y , job s a t i s f a c t i o n , although correlated p o s i t i v e l y with AEP had a cor r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t too small to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Of the background variables, only formal education attainment showed a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n (r=.287, p<.05) with AEP. The square of the corr e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s can be used as the measure of the amount of variation in the dependent variable that can be explained by the independent variables. 46 T a b l e 9 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s between A d u l t E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a t i o n and V a r i a b l e s i n t h e Model V a r i a b l e s In the Model C o r r e 1 a t i on c o e f f i c i e n t s O c c u p a t i o n a l C o n d i t i o n s S u b s t a n t i v e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e j o b .553* C l o s e n e s s o f s u p e r v i s i o n - . 139 Job r o u t i n i z a t i o n -.463* Job s a t i s f a c t i o n . 152 Job commitment - .016 B a c k g r o u n d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s P e r s o n a l Income . 170 Formal E d u c a t i o n A t t a i n m e n t .287* E t h n i c ! t y . 170 Age .062 *p<.05 n=50 Consequently, substantive complexity of work with a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of .553 explained 30.58 percent of the var i a t i o n in adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , job ro u t i n i z a t i o n had a c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of -.342 which explained 11.66 percent of the v a r i a t i o n in AEP. Using the same c r i t e r i o n , the v a r i a t i o n in adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n explained by the other occupational conditions was minimal. To sum up, the findings based on the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s , showed that of the background variables only formal education attainment was s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated with 47 AEP. Among the occupational conditions substantive complexity of the job and job r o u t i n i z a t i o n were the only ones shown to have a s i g n i f i c a n t association with AEP. Using c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s as a measure of v a r i a t i o n , the variable substantive complexity of the job appeared to be the best predictor of AEP among the variables in the model. T a b l e 10 S t a n d a r d i z e d P a r t i a l R e g r e s s i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r V a r i a b l e s In t h e Model U s i n g AEP as Dependent V a r i a b l e V a r i a b l e s . B e t a Weights Ba c k g r o u n d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s P e r s o n a l income .04533 Formal E d u c a t i o n A t t a i n m e n t .16014 E t h n i c i t y .03908 Age .02899 O c c u p a t i o n a l C o n d i t i o n s S u b s t a n t i v e C o m p l e x i t y o f t h e j o b .38645 C l o s e n e s s o f s u p e r v i s i o n -.13431 Job r o u t i n i z a t i o n -.28590 Job s a t i s f a c t i o n .08412 Job commitment -.00439 Note. M u l t i p l e R=.6874 n-50 R square= .47119 Multiple Regression Analysis The analysis in t h i s section i s based on li n e a r multiple regression. This measure i s more powerful than p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n which only indicates the strength and d i r e c t i o n of the association among v a r i a b l e s . Multiple regression allows 48 researchers to make predictions regarding the relationships among the variables. To accomplish this purpose, beta weights are computed for each variable and then analyzed for their magnitude and significance. The beta weights represent the predictor variable's power when other variables are simultaneously held constant. Linear multiple regression, however, has some l i m i t a t i o n s . When i t i s used, the non-linear components of the data are l o s t , therefore, i t i s assumed that the data should have or show some l i n e a r i t y . The data of thi s study showed a normal d i s t r i b u t i o n when frequencies were computed, therefore, i t was assumed that they had some l i n e a r i t y . Nine predictors were entered into a regression equation using AEP as the dependent variable. Table 10 shows the beta weights computed for a l l variables in the model. Beta weights were interpreted as the amount of change in terms of the number of standard deviations in AEP as dependent variable that would be predicted when any of the independent variables in the model change one unit. The highest beta weight (Table 10) was for substantive complexity of work (0 =.386). This notable finding indicates, therefore, that substantive complexity of the job exerts a greater effect on AEP than any other variable in the model. Job routiniz a t i o n was the next most i n f l u e n t i a l occupational condition variable (0 =-.286). Of a l l variables in the model, formal education attainment of background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s registered the t h i r d greatest e f f e c t on AEP (0 =.160). The multiple R computed for the regression equation was 4 9 T a b l e 11 S t a n d a r d i z e d P a r t i a l R e g r e s s i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r O c c u p a t i o n a l C o n d i t i o n s w i t h AEP O c c u p a t i o n a l C o n d i t i o n s B e t a R Square F V a l u e s S u b s t a n t i v e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e j o b .4339 . 3055 11.30* Job r o u t i n i z a t i o n -.3152 .3907 5.768* Job s a t i s f a c t i o n .0777 .3981 .321 C l o s e n e s s of s u p e r v i s i o n -.1463 .4177 1.513 Job commitment -.0291 .4183 .048 Note. C o e f f i c i e n t o f determ1nat1on= 41.83 *p<.05. C r i t i c a l v a l u e of F=4.05. .687 and the R square ( c o e f f i c i e n t of determination) was .47119. This finding means that 47.12 percent of the t o t a l v a r i a t i o n on adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n was explained by a l l the variables in the model. For the next step of the analysis, only occupational conditions were entered into the regression equation with AEP as dependent v a r i a b l e . This was done in order to separate the ef f e c t s of each independent variable on AEP. Table 11 provides the standardized regression c o e f f i c i e n t s , the F values, and the R square for work conditions. Complexity of work and job r o u t i n i z a t i o n continued to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . A l l the variables in the model explained 47.12 percent of the v a r i a t i o n in AEP (Table 10), but most of t h i s proportion was explained by occupational conditions which accounted for 41.83 percent. This proportion of the v a r i a t i o n explained by occupational conditions, however, was accounted for mostly by subtantive complexity of the job. This finding complements the 50 p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g t h a t o n l y s u b s t a n t i v e c o m p l e x i t y o f t h e j o b a n d j o b r o u t i n i z a t i o n w e r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h A E P . B a s e d o n t h e s e d a t a , i t c a n b e c o n c l u d e d t h a t o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w e r e b e t t e r p r e d i c t o r s o f A E P t h a n b a c k g r o u n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h e P a t h A n a l y s i s T h e p a t h a n a l y s i s t e c h n i q u e w a s u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e m a g n i t u d e o f d i r e c t a n d i n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e e a c h v a r i a b l e h a s o n o t h e r v a r i a b l e s t h a t f o l l o w i n t h e p r e s u m e d c a u s a l o r d e r . M o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y , i t w a s u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p a t h s o f i n f l u e n c e o n A E P f o r b a c k g r o u n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . R a t h e r t h a n c o n d u c t i n g t h e p a t h a n a l y s i s f o r a l l v a r i a b l e s i n t h e m o d e l a s e l a b o r a t e d i n C h a p t e r I I , t h e m o d e l w a s s i m p l i f i e d t o i n c l u d e o n l y t h e p r e d i c t o r s t h a t s h o w e d s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e p r e v i o u s t e s t s . F i g u r e 2 s h o w s t h i s s i m p l i f i e d m o d e l i n w h i c h A E P i s v i e w e d a s a f u n c t i o n o f t h r e e a n t e c e d e n t v a r i a b l e s : f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n m e n t , p e r s o n a l i n c o m e , a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . A s s h o w n i n F i g u r e 2, f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n m e n t e x e r t e d a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e o n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , a s w e l l a s a n i n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e v i a t h e m e d i a t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s a n d p e r s o n a l i n c o m e . A E P a l s o w a s i n f l u e n c e d d i r e c t l y b y p e r s o n a l i n c o m e a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . T h e d i r e c t a n d i n d i r e c t p a t h c o e f f i c i e n t s a r e r e p o r t e d i n T a b l e 12 a n d e n t e r e d i n t o F i g u r e 2. T h e i n f l u e n c e o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n m e n t o n p e r s o n a l i n c o m e w a s s i g n i f i c a n t . W o r k c o n d i t i o n s w a s s h o w n t o e x e r t d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e , a s w e l l a s i n d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e v i a p e r s o n a l i n c o m e o n A E P . 51 '•9767 FEA AEP .7745 .9027 / F i g u r e 2. R e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e v a r i a b l e s 1n the s i m p l i f i e d model. (OC = o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . FEA = f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n m e n t , AEP = a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , PI = p e r s o n a l income). The d i r e c t e f f e c t of formal education attainment on occupational conditions was .22, on personal income .38, and on AEP . 1 7 (Figure 2). The standardized regression c o e f f i c i e n t of .58 computed for occupational conditions and AEP was a measure of the accompanying changes in adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n given a unit of change in occupational conditions while c o n t r o l l i n g for extraneous causes. Occupational conditions exerted the greatest e f f e c t on AEP. Table 12 shows the d i r e c t and in d i r e c t path c o e f f i c i e n t s for the rela t i o n s h i p s among the variables in the model. Most of the variables exerted t h e i r influence on AEP in a d i r e c t way. Only formal education attainment showed some i n d i r e c t e f f e c t s on AEP and personal income (PI). Minimal non-causal e f f e c t s were detected for the relationships between l e v e l of education and personal income (.05) and formal education attainment and AEP 52 T a b l e 12 S t a n d a r d i z e d R e g r e s s i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s f o r t h e V a r i a b l e s In the P a t h A n a l y s i s B l v a r l a t e R e l a t l o n s h l p s T o t a l C o v a r l a n c e (A) Causa 1 D i r e c t (B) C a u s a l I n d l r e c t (C) T o t a l (B+C=D) Non-causa1 (A-D) FEA-OC .22 .22 none . 22 none FEA-PI .38 . 38 .046 . 43 .05 FEA-AEP FEA-OC-PI-AEP .30 . 17 . 128 . 29 .01 OC-PI .21 .21 none .21 none OC-AEP .58 .58 none .58 none PI-AEP .02 .02 none .02 none (.01). Only occupational conditions were shown to act as a s i g n i f i c a n t predictor of adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n via a di r e c t path. Test of Hypotheses Five hypotheses were proposed in Chapter I I , corresponding to f i v e independent variables related to AEP. In order to test each hypothesis the following procedure was used. F i r s t , the o r i g i n a l hypothesis was restated; secondly, each hypothesis was re-cast in i t s n u l l form and in terms of a regression c o e f f i c i e n t ; t h i r d l y , the computed and tabular values of F • were compared; i f the computed value of F was smaller than the tabular value of F the n u l l hypothesis was accepted, but when the computed value of F, was greater than i t s tabular value the n u l l hypothesis was rejected. The computed values of F used in t h i s section were taken from Table 11. Hypothesis 1 The higher the job s a t i s f a c t i o n , the higher the rate of 53 AEP. Null hypothesis: There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between job s a t i s f a c t i o n and adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The computed value of F was .321 and i t s respective tabular value was 4.05 with 44 degrees of freedom. On the basis of the previous data the n u l l hypothesis was not rejected; the computed value for F was lower than the table's c r i t i c a l value for F. Hypothesis 2 The higher the job commitment, the lower the rate of AEP. Null hypothesis: There is no s i g n i f i c a n t c orrelation between job commitment and AEP:. The computed value of F for job commitment was .048 and i t s respective tabular value was 4.05. The n u l l hypothesis was not rejected on the basis of the previous data, the computed value for F was lower than the c r i t i c a l value for F. Hypothesis 3 The higher the le v e l of closeness of supervision, the lower the rate of AEP. Null hypothesis: There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t association between closeness of supervision and AEP. The computed value of F was 1.513 and i t s tabular value 4.05. The n u l l hypothesis was not rejected according to the previous data. Hypothesis 4 The higher the le v e l of substantive complexity of work, the higher the index of AEP. Null hypothesis: There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t association between substantive complexity of work and AEP. The computed value of F was 11.830 and i t s tabular value was 4.05. The n u l l hypothesis was rejected since the computed value for F was greater than the table's c r i t i c a l value 54 Of F. Hypothesis 5 The higher the variation of work, the higher the index of AEP. Null hypothesis: There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between routini z a t i o n of work and AEP. The computed value of F was 5.768 and the tabular value 4.05. The n u l l hypothesis was rejected because the computed value for F was greater than i t s c r i t i c a l value. Summary In t h i s chapter the findings of the study concerning the relationship among the variables have been presented and explained. Background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the study sample resembled socioeconomic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s reported by S t a t i s t i c s Canada for East Vancouver sampling area. This fact, therefore, suggests that the study has s u f f i c i e n t external v a l i d i t y to generalize the findings to the population studied. In examining inte r r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the variables concerning background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i t was found that age and ethnicity were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated with any other variable in the model. As expected, personal income showed a s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e correlation with l e v e l of education. An interesting finding was that formal education attainment was negatively associated with job s a t i s f a c t i o n , although not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . — Among the occupational condition variables studied, substantive complexity of work showed the highest correlation with AEP, explained the greatest proportion of the variance of 55 AEP (30.58 percent), and was therefore rated as the best predictor of AEP. The other occupational related variable that showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y c orrelation with AEP was job ro u t i n i z a t i o n , explaining 11.66 percent of the variance on AEP. Among the variables studied i t was c l a s s i f i e d the second best predictor of AEP. In comparison with background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , occupation condition variables evidenced greater p r e d i c t i b i l i t y of AEP than the l a t t e r group. Of the background variables, the only predictor variable was formal educational attainment accounting for 2.87 percent of the v a r i a t i o n in AEP. Tests of the five study hypotheses led to rejection of two n u l l hypotheses. In other words, only two variables were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t : complexity of work and job r o u t i n i z a t i o n . Using a path analysis model, dire c t and indirect effects of independent variables on AEP were determined. The model permitted analysis of e f f e c t s of formal education attainment, income, and occupational conditions. From this analysis i t was concluded that the occupational conditions measures were better predictors of AEP than formal education attainment and personal income. A discussion of these findings, together with a summary and conclusions of the study follows in the next chapter. 56 CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND INTERPRETATION The purpose of this f i n a l chapter i s to summarize and interpret the findings. The problem, methodology, and results of the inquiry w i l l be reviewed. Emphasis w i l l be given to a discussion of the findings presented in the previous chapter. Results w i l l be compared with the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed in Chapter II from which conclusions and implications of the study w i l l be drawn. Overview of the Problem and Methods The main concern of t h i s study was to determine which set of variables, occupational conditions and background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , were better predictors of adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Using the s p i l l - o v e r l e i s u r e hypothesis as a theoreti c a l framework, the inquiry examined the int e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between work and l e i s u r e . The s p i l l - o v e r l e i s u r e hypothesis posits a relationship between work and le i s u r e in which c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of constraint and insulation or variation and freedom of the job are carried over lei s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s . The main assumption embodied in t h i s hypothesis i s that experiences and feelings in the job may a f f e c t l e i s u r e . A model was used to explain these relationships. In t h i s model, i t was hypothesized that background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (level of 57 income, FEA, eth n i c i t y , and age) and occupational conditions (job s a t i s f a c t i o n , job commitment, job complexity, closeness of supervision, and job routinization) were correlated with adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Five hypotheses were derived regarding the relationships between occupational conditions and AEP. To c o l l e c t data r e l a t i v e to the problem, the researcher u t i l i z e d a structured interview schedule to interview a randomly selected sample of 50 respondents of low socioeconomic status l i v i n g in East Vancouver. One thousand people l i v i n g in East Vancouver were contacted by a l e t t e r which explained the purposes of the study and invited them to p a r t i c i p a t e . Nine hundred persons were subsequently eliminated for consideration in the study due to change in residence, i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y to follow-up phone c a l l s , lack of English fluency, and retirement status. The completed interviews represented f i f t y percent of the remaining 100 elegible persons in the sample. Although extensive data were c o l l e c t e d pertainnig to five classes of independent variables (see Cookson, 1984), only data relevant to th i s study were used. The dependent variable was adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n (AEP) defined in terms of the score a respondent received on the AEP index which was based on the short form of the L i t c h f i e l d (1965) Leisure A c t i v i t i e s Scale (LAS). The independent variables were those comprising fiv e occupational conditions: (a) substantive complexity of work, measured in terms of the amount of time and complexity of the task that an individual spent working with data, with things, and with people; (b) closeness of supervision, measured in terms 58 of how much lati t u d e the supervisor allows and how supervisory control is exercised; (c) job routin i z a t i o n , measured in terms of the repetitiveness, p r e d i c t a b i l i t y , and v a r i a b i l i t y of work tasks; (d) job s a t i s f a c t i o n , defined as a measure of people's s a t i s f a c t i o n or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with those aspects of their job they judge important; and (e) job commitment, defined as the degree to which an individual manifests dedication to an occupation as re f l e c t e d by a willingness to change i t . Background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s included formal education attainment, le v e l of personal income, et h n i c i t y , and age. The i n t e r r e l a t i o n s among those variables were analyzed using measures of central tendency, c o r r e l a t i o n , regression and path analysis. S t a t i s t i c s descriptive of the sample were compared with census data for the population resident in East Vancouver. The more relevant findings were that about 88 percent of the respondents had completed 14 years or less of school and 70 percent had never attended a college or university. The majority (70 percent) of the subjects earned less than $30,000 per year. Although the majority of subjects were employed full-time (68 percent) and six percent employed part-time, the rate of unemployment among the respondents was 26 percent. The comparison among background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (level of income, formal education attainment, and ethnicity) of respondents and those data reported by S t a t i s t i c s Canada for the sampling area were very close, suggesting that the sample approximates the population to an acceptable degree. 59 Correlational Analysis The variables age and e t h n i c i t y were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated with any other variable in the model; for that reason they were excluded from the f i n a l analysis. The p a r t i a l c o r relation analysis showed a s i g n i f i c a n t positive association among background variables (income and formal education attainment) and complexity of the job. Level of income and formal education attainment, therefore, were retained for the f i n a l analysis. Formal education attainment was negatively correlated with both job commitment and job s a t i s f a c t i o n . This negative association between FEA and job s a t i s f a c t i o n was interpreted as a posssible consequence of a high proportion of unemployment (26 percent) as well as a high proportion of manual and semi-skilled occupations (34 percent) found among respondents. Another possible explanation was that some respondents who have received a college or university degree were performing unskilled jobs according to some comments recorded in the interview schedule. The most notable finding of the c o r r e l a t i o n a l analysis was that substantive complexity of_ work was highly p o s i t i v e l y correlated with AEP, as was thought and to a lesser extent with job r o u t i n i z a t i o n . Associations among other variables in the model were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Correlation analysis measured the strength and d i r e c t i o n of the associations among variables in the model, without indicating which variables explained a major proportion of the variation in AEP. To answer t h i s question a regression analysis 60 was conducted. Regression Analysis The regression equation containing a l l the variables in the model and treating AEP as dependent variable revealed that these variables explained 47.12 percent of the variation on AEP. When background variables were subtracted from the equation, i t was found that occupational conditions accounted for 41.83 percent of the variation Using the F test at the five percent l e v e l of significance for the occupational conditions in the regression equation, only substantive complexity of work and job routinization were s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated with AEP. It was concluded that the occupational conditions of job complexity and job routinization were the best predictors of AEP among the variables in the model. However, some questions remained unanswered regarding the indirect and non-causal effects of the variables in AEP. Accordingly, path analysis was applied to c l a r i f y those quest ions. The Path Analysis The o r i g i n a l model for the inquiry proposed a possible correlation among background variables and occupational conditions with AEP. However, following the regression analysis, only formal education attainment and personal income were retained with occupational conditions and AEP for incorporation in the path analysis (Figure 3). 61 FEA .9027 / F i g u r e 3. R e l a t i o n s h i p s among t h e v a r i a b l e s i n t h e s i m p l i f i e d model. (OC = o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s , FEA = f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a t t a i n m e n t , AEP = a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n , PI = p e r s o n a l Income). The path analysis showed that formal education attainment exerted d i r e c t influence on work conditions, personal income and AEP. Indirect influences were found in the path analysis from formal education attainment to personal income via work conditions as well as from formal education attainment to AEP via work conditions and personal income. To measure the d i r e c t , i n d i r e c t , and non-causal e f f e c t s standardized c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were computed (Table 12). The test of the model using path analysis showed that occupational conditions c o l l e c t i v e l y were better predictors (0 =.58) of AEP than formal education attainment (0 =.17) and personal income (0 =.02). It is important to note that formal education attainment had the strongest i n d i r e c t influences on AEP, accounting for a to t a l beta weight of .29 (p<.05) ranking t h i s variable as the second best predictor of AEP in the model. 62 Test of Hypotheses Five hypotheses were tested. The F values for the hypotheses corresponding to complexity of the job and job routinization were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , causing the n u l l hypotheses to be rejected: (a) There was no s i g n i f i c a n t correlation between job r o u t i n i z a t i o n and AEP. (b) There was no s i g n i f i c a n t association between complexity of the job and AEP. The F values for the hypotheses corresponding to closeness of supervision, job s a t i s f a c t i o n , and job commitment were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , therefore, their n u l l hypotheses were not rejected. It was concluded that job r o u t i n i z a t i o n and complexity of the job were the best predictors of AEP among occupational conditions. Discussion This study was designed to investigate relationships between work and l e i s u r e , but more s p e c i f i c a l l y occupational conditions and background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s related to AEP. In this section the results summarized in the previous section w i l l be interpreted and related to similar findings reported in the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed. Whereas most studies reported in the l i t e r a t u r e have been conducted with less socioeconomically homogeneous respondents, the present study was based on a sample of 50 workers of low socioeconomic status l i v i n g in East Vancouver. The findings are discussed in the same order that variables appear in the model: background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s related to AEP, and occupational conditions associated with AEP. 63 When c o r r e l a t i o n a l analysis was applied to the data, i t was found that formal education attainment (FEA) was s i g n i f i c a n t l y p o s i t i v e l y correlated with AEP. This positive correlation between FEA and AEP means that adults with higher formal education attainment are expected to have higher levels of par t i c i p a t i o n in adult education. This finding i s consistent with the l i t e r a t u r e as reported by London (1970): The le v e l of formal education i s the best single indicator of pa r t i c i p a t i o n in adult education, in this sense that by knowing a person's formal education attainment one can predict whether he i s a participant with less chance of error than by knowing his occupation, income, place of residence, or race (p. 145) . Johnstone & Rivera (1965) and Douglah (1968) also arrived at the same conclusion concerning the relationship between formal education attainment and AEP. In other words, persons having attended more years of schooling are assumed to have more s k i l l s as well as more general information. Both elements are considered to be predisposing factors to involvement in learning a c t i v i t i e s for adults. When multiple regression was applied to measure the direc t path from formal education attainment to AEP the beta weight (0 =.17 p<.05) was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . This means that when the other variables in the regression equation were kept constant, c o n t r o l l i n g for any extraneous influence, FEA was not s i g n i f i c a n t . However, i t was shown in thi s study that formal education attainment exerted an indire c t effect on AEP via personal income and work conditions. This suggets that, when measuring influences of FEA on AEP, other influences need to be 64 controlled to have a more precise r e s u l t . In conclusion, FEA was s t a t i s t i c a l l y correlated with AEP when indire c t effects of other variables were not controlled, but when these effects were controlled by multiple regression, FEA was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t associated with AEP. The finding that FEA was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated when co n t r o l l i n g for work conditions and personal income may be an indication that, for groups of low income and low l e v e l of education, there may be other variables better than FEA for predicting and explaining AEP. These within group differences, however, have not been studied in the l i t e r a t u r e . Income i s another variable extensively studied in relation to AEP. As expected in t h i s study, l e v e l of income was s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated with FEA, but i t was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated with AEP. This finding i s similar to Bergsten's (1977) report that interest in adult education did not d i f f e r with consideration taken to actual income. Other studies, however, have reported opposite r e s u l t s . Douglah (1968), for instance, found that income had an influence on the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of people with less than twelve years of education. Douglah's finding was not confirmed in t h i s study. In the present study, the path analysis showed that the-relationship between le v e l of income and AEP was affected in some degree by the preceding variables occupational conditions and FEA. Income alone, therefore, had less power to explain and predict AEP than either formal education attainment or occupational conditions. The homogeneity of the sample 65 representing a low income group may have reduced the power of personal income as a predictor of AEP. In the path analysis, the effect of personal income in AEP approached zero (0 =.02), apparently personal income had no influence on AEP. This study focussed on both objective and subjective occupational work conditions. Job s a t i s f a c t i o n and job commitment were studied as subjective reactions to work in rela t i o n to AEP. Job s a t i s f a c t i o n was p o s i t i v e l y correlated with job commitment but, contrary to our expectations, was negatively correlated with formal education attainment. Although these relationships were not part of the main concern of t h i s study, i t may be p r o f i t a b l e to look for explanations for these findings. The finding that job s a t i s f a c t i o n was po s i t i v e l y associated with job commitment means that people who are more s a t i s f i e d in their jobs tend to be at the same time more committed to their jobs. One explanation for the negative association between FEA and job s a t i s f a c t i o n might be that a high proportion of individuals ( 3 4 percent) in the sample had unskilled, manual and semi-skilled c l e r i c a l jobs, although some of them had tra i n i n g to be in professional occupations. The finding that job routinization was negatively associated with job "satisfaction was not surprising, indicating that people with more routine jobs were less s a t i s f i e d . Job s a t i s f a c t i o n and job commitment were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated with AEP. Consequently, the corresponding n u l l hypotheses were not rejected. Although job s a t i s f a c t i o n was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated with AEP, the di r e c t i o n was confirmed, 66 showing a positive association with AEP. A similar finding was reported by Bergsten (1977) who found that the interest in adult education for the present job was p o s i t i v e l y related to work s a t i s f a c t i o n . Reports were not found in the l i t e r a t u r e concerning the relationship between job commitment and AEP. Apparently, t h i s study i s the f i r s t time these independent variables have been studied in t h i s context. The results of t h i s study suggest that job commitment and job s a t i s f a c t i o n are not adequate indicators or predictors of AEP measured as showed in the model. This study emphasized the analysis of objective work conditions in r e l a t i o n to AEP. The variables studied were closeness of supervision, r o u t i n i z a t i o n of the job, and substantive complexity of the work. Closeness of supervision was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y associated with any of the variable in the model. There i s no reference in the l i t e r a t u r e of adult education concerning the relationship between this variable and AEP. However, M i l l e r et a l . (1979) reported that this variable did not s i g n i f i c a n t l y predict i n t e l l e c t u a l functioning as measured by i n t e l l e c t u a l l y demanding lei s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s . Job r o u t i n i z a t i o n and substantive complexity of work were s i g n i f i c a n t l y correlated with AEP. Both n u l l hypotheses for job routinization and substantive complexity of work were rejected, thereby confirming the s p i l l - o v e r hypothesis. Meissner (1971) reported that workers with jobs having more va r i a t i o n , more freedom or d i s c r e t i o n tended to p a r t i c i p a t e more in discretionary a c t i v i t i e s off the job. This concept of the 67 s p i l l - o v e r hypothesis can help to interpret the finding refering to job ro u t i n i z a t i o n . The finding that job ro u t i n i z a t i o n was negatively correlated with AEP can be interpreted as follows: in groups of low socioeconomic status people having jobs that are extremely routine, predictable, and r e p e t i t i v e tend to participate less in adult education a c t i v i t i e s . There i s no mention in the l i t e r a t u r e of the association between AEP and complexity of the job. In Kohn's (1969) studies t h i s l a t t e r variable was found to be correlated with s o c i a l orientation and psychological functioning. The finding in this study that complexity of the job was p o s i t i v e l y • c o r r e l a t e d with AEP can be interpreted as follows: people . with jobs which require more time reading, writing, analysing data, d i c t a t i n g and dealing with any kind of written materials participated more in adult education a c t i v i t i e s . S i m i l a r l y , workers who spend more time dealing with people, in a c t i v i t i e s such as supervising, teaching, s e l l i n g , or advising c l i e n t s tended also to p a r t i c i p a t e more in adult education a c t i v i t i e s . F i n a l l y , people who spend more time working with their hands in a c t i v i t i e s such as repairing machines, moving things, tended to partic i p a t e less in adult education-related a c t i v i t i e s . This finding may r e f l e c t a tendency of people who spend more physical energy in their jobs and work related a c t i v i t i e s to be l e f t with less energy for leisure a c t i v i t i e s , including adult education. Together substantive complexity of the job and job routiniza t i o n predicted more variance in AEP that did formal education attainment and personal income. 68 Conclusions On the basis of the findings presented in Chapter IV and the interpretations given in t h i s chapter, three major conclusions are drawn. F i r s t , in groups of low socioeconomic status objective work conditions (complexity of the job, closeness of supervision, and job routinization) constitute more powerful predictors to "explain" the phenomenon of AEP than subjective conditions of the job (job s a t i s f a c t i o n and job commitment). Second, f i v e occupational conditions (complexity of the job, closeness of supervision, job r o u t i n i z a t i o n , job s a t i s f a c t i o n , and job commitment) were shown to be better predictors of AEP than four background c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (formal education attainment, l e v e l of income, e t h n i c i t y , and age). Third, in r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous groups of low socioeconomic status, the importance of formal education attainment as a predictor of AEP disminishes in relation to various occupational conditions. The l i t e r a t u r e reports that FEA i s the best predictor of AEP were not confirmed in this inquiry. However, accounting for indirect e f f e c t s , FEA was rated the second best predictor of AEP among the variables included in t h i s study. It may be concluded, therefore, that for homogeneous groups other variables besides FEA may also have more p r e d i c t i b i l i t y for AEP. 69 Implications of the Study According to the s p i l l - o v e r hypothesis leisure i s an extension of work. Therefore, i t is essential to look into work conditions for explanations about leisure and p a r t i c i p a t i o n in adult education a c t i v i t i e s . The findings of t h i s study showed that the emphasis should be on objective elements of occupational conditions. Suggestions for further Research The fact that formal education attainment was not a consistent predictor of AEP in this study indicates that low socioeconomic groups have c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s quite d i f f e r e n t than the rest of the population. The fact also that formal education attainment did not af f e c t work conditions in a s i g n i f i c a n t way may indicate that t h i s variable is not a universal predictor of AEP. In other words, although formal education attainment may be a good indicator of p a r t i c i p a t i o n among groups d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by lower and higher lev e l s of education, other factors become more important among groups of low socioeconomic status. U n t i l t h i s study was conducted, occupational conditions, a p o t e n t i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t source of variance in AEP, have been overlooked in the adult education l i t e r a t u r e . How the occupational conditions of substantive complexity of the job and job r o u t i n i z a t i o n compared with FEA as predictors of AEP for more socioeconomically diverse samples remains a research question to be answered. 70 REFERENCES Canada, S t a t i s t i c s Canada. Census t r a c t s : Selected s o c i a l and  economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , 1982, 3^ pp. 34-54. Cookson, P. S. "Determinants of adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n by low income adults." Report of Fundings. Forthcoming, Adult Education Research Centre, Vancouver, 1984. Bergsten, U. Adult education in r e l a t i o n to work and l e i s u r e . Stockholm: Almgvist & Wiksell International, 1977. Dickinson, G., and Blunt, A. "Survey research" in Long, H., and Hiemstra, R. (Ed) Changing approaches to studying adult  education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1980. Douglah, M. and Moss, G. " D i f f e r e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n patterns of adults of low and high educational attainment." Adult  Education, 1968, 28^ pp. 247-259. Dumazedier, J. Toward a society of l e i s u r e . New York: The Free Press, 1967. Johnstone, J . W. C , and Rivera, R. J. Volunteers for  learning. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, 1965. Knox, Alan B., and Videbeck, R. "Adult education and adult l i f e cycle." Adult Education, 1963, 13, pp. 102-121. Kohn, M. Class and conformity: A study in values." Homewood, I l l i n o i s : The Dorsey Press. 1969. Kohn, M L., and Schooler, C. "Class, occupation, and orientation." American Soc i o l o g i c a l Review, 1969, 34, pp. 659-675. Kohn, M. L., and Schooler, C. "Occupational experience and psychological functioning: An assessment of reciprocal e f f e c t s . " American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, 1973, 38, pp. 97-118. Kohn, M., and Schooler, C. "The reciprocal effects of the substantive complexity of work and i n t e l l e c t u a l f l e x i b i l i t y : A longitudinal assessment." American Journal of Sociology, 1978, 84^ pp. 24-52. Kuhlen, R. "Psychology and adult education: Introductury comments. "Psychological backgrounds of adult education. Chicago: Center for Study of L i b e r a l Education for adults, 1963. 71 L i t c h f i e l d , A. "The nature and pattern of p a r t i c i p a t i o n in adult education a c t i v i t i e s . " Umpublished Ph.D d i s s e r t a t i o n , University of Chicago, 1965. London, J. et. a l . Adult education and s o c i a l c l a s s . " Berkely: Survey Research Center, University of C a l i f o r n i a , 1963. London, J. "The influence of s o c i a l class behavior upon adult education p a r t i c i p a t i o n . " Adult Education, 1970, 20, pp. 140-153. McCloskey, M. " P o l i t i c a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n . " Encyclopedia of  Social Sciences. Edited by D. S i l l s , New York: MacMillan, 1 968. Meissner, M. "The long arm of the job: A study of work and l e i s u r e . " Industrial Relations, 1971, j_0 pp. 329-360. M i l l e r , J. et a l . "Wowem and work: The Psychological effects on occupational conditions." American Journal of Sociology, 1979, 85^ pp. 66-94. Nie, N. et a l . S t a t i s t i c a l package for s o c i a l sciences. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1975. Parker, S. The future of work and l e i s u r e . London: MacGibbon & Knee, 1971. Parker, S. Sport and l e i s u r e in contemporary society. London: Leisure Study Association, 1978. Parker, S. et a l . The sociology of industry London: Allen & Unwin, 1981 . Stone, W. "Adult education and l e i s u r e . " Adult Leadership, 1966, _I_5 pp. 168-170. Wilensky, H. "Work careers and s o c i a l integration." International Social Sciences Journal, 1960, Y2_ 543-560. APPENDIX A INTERVIEW SCHEDULE 73 THE UNIVERSITY OF 8RITISH COLUMBIA ADULT EDUCATION RESEARCH CENTRE ADULT FREE TIME & LEARNING ACTIVITIES STUDY QUESTIONNAIRE I n t r o d u c t I o n Dr. P e t e r S. Cookson, A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n a t UBC, i s c o n d u c t i n g t h i s " A d u l t F r e e Time and L e a r n i n g A c t i v i t i e s S t u d y . " You a r e i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e by c o m p l e t i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e a t home a f t e r t o n i g h t ' s c l a s s and r e t u r n i n g 1t t o your e v e n i n g s c h o o l c o u r s e next week. One p u r p o s e of t h i s s t u d y Is to d e s c r i b e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the a d u l t s who e n r o l l i n e v e n i n g s c h o o l c o u r s e s . Another p u r p o s e i s t o f i n d o u t how e v e n i n g s c h o o l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o o t h e r l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s . T h i s I n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be h e l p f u l t o a d u l t e d u c a t i o n program d i r e c t o r s who d e s i g n programs t o meet the needs and i n t e r e s t s of a d u l t s i n t h e i r f r e e t i m e . Your p a r t i c i p a t i o n In t h i s s t u d y i s e n t i r e l y v o l u n t a r y . A l l i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d i s s t r i c t l y anonymous, w i l l be r e c o r d e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y , and w i l l be u s e d f o r s c i e n t i f i c p u r p o s e s o n l y . You a r e i n v i t e d t o answer a l l q u e s t i o n s but i n no way a r e you o b l i g a t e d to do so. Most q u e s t i o n s c a l l f o r you t o s i m p l y c i r c l e the l e t t e r c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o your r e s p o n s e . A l t h o u g h t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e may seem l e n g t h y , i t s h o u l d o n l y t a k e you about 30 m i n u t e s t o c o m p l e t e the two page Answer Form. Your r e s p o n s e t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e your w i l l i n g n e s s t o t a k e p a r t i n the s t u d y . Thank you k i n d l y f o r a g r e e i n g t o do so. I t Is u n d e r s t o o d t h a t r e f u s a l t o c o m p l e t e t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l i n no way a f f e c t y o u r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s o r any f u t u r e c o u r s e . Ins t r u c t i ons T h i s b o o k l e t c o n t a i n s t h e q u e s t i o n s which you a r e a s k e d t o r e s p o n d t o u s i n g t h e Answer Form. Most q u e s t i o n s can be answered by c i r c l i n g the l e t t e r c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o your answer. A few q u e s t i o n s may ask you t o g i v e a b r i e f w r i t t e n r e s p o n s e . P l e a s e do not w r i t e i n t h i s b o o k l e t . P l e a s e b r i n g b o t h t h e b o o k l e t and y o u r Answer Form back t o c l a s s next week. Thank you f o r y o u r a s s i s t a n c e . 74 I . BACKGROUND F i r s t we would l i k e t o ask you some q u e s t i o n s about your background. 1. What Is your sex? A. Male B. Female 2. Are you p r e s e n t l y m a r r i e d , s e p a r a t e d , d i v o r c e d , widowed, or have never been m a r r i e d ? A. M a r r i e d B. S e p a r a t e d C. D i v o r c e d D. Widowed E. Never m a r r i e d 3. In what y e a r were you bo r n ? P l e a s e w r i t e i n the space p r o v i d e d on the Answer Form. 4. I n what c o u n t r y were you bo r n ? P l e a s e w r i t e i n t h e space p r o v i d e d on the Answer Form. 5. What e t h n i c g r o u p ( s ) , i f any a t a l l , i s / a r e most Important t o you i n t h e way you c u r r e n t l y d e s c r i b e and t h i n k about y o u r s e l f ? P l e a s e w r i t e y o u r answer on t h e Answer Form. 6. What was the h i g h e s t l e v e l o f s c h o o l i n g you reached? A. Some p r i m a r y s c h o o l B. Completed p r i m a r y s c h o o l C. Some h i g h s c h o o l D. Completed h i g h s c h o o l E. T e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g beyond h i g h s c h o o l F. C o l l e g e o r some u n i v e r s i t y G. G r a d u a t e d from u n i v e r s i t y w i t h a f i r s t d e gree ( o r e q u i v a l e n t ) H. G r a d u a t e d from u n i v e r s i t y w i t h a second degree ( o r e q u i v a l e n t ) I . G r a d u a t e d from u n i v e r s i t y w i t h a t h i r d d egree ( o r e q u i v a l e n t ) H. O t h e r . P l e a s e w r i t e In t h e space p r o v i d e d on the Answer Form 7. How many y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g have you c o m p l e t e d a l l t o g e t h e r ? P l e a s e w r i t e In t h e space p r o v i d e d on t h e Answer Form. 8. O v e r a l l , how would you r a t e y o u r l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s d u r i n g your l a s t 2 o r 3 y e a r s as a f u l l t i m e s t u d e n t ? A. I e n j o y e d a l l of my s c h o o l l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s B. I e n j o y e d most o f my s c h o o l l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s C. I e n j o y e d some o f my s c h o o l l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s D. I e n j o y e d v e r y few o f my s c h o o l l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s E. I e n j o y e d none o f my s c h o o l l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s 9. O v e r a l l , how w e l l d i d you do In y o u r s c h o o l i n g d u r i n g the l a s t two o r t h r e e y e a r s you were a f u l l t i m e s t u d e n t ? A. My marks were e x c e l l e n t B. My marks were above a v e r a g e C. My marks weru about a v e r a g e D. My marks were below a v e r a g e E. My marks were e x t r e m e l y low 75 10. I n what k i n d o f p l a c e d1d you spend most of your time when you were a c h i l d , t h a t I s , up t o age 16? A. On a farm B. I n t h e open c o u n t r y , b u t 'not a farm C. I n a s m a l l v i l l a g e (1.000-2,000 I n h a b i t a n t s ) D. I n a l a r g e v i l l a g e (2.50O-4.999 I n h a b i t a n t s ) E. In a s m a l l town (5,000-9,999) F. I n a town of 10,O0O-29.999 I n h a b i t a n t s G. I n a c i t y of'30.0OO-59.OOO I n h a b i t a n t s H. I n a c i t y o f 60,000-99.000 I n h a b i t a n t s I. I n a c i t y o f 1 0 0 . 0 0 0 - 4 9 9 , 9 9 9 m h a b l t a n t s d. In a c i t y o f o v e r 5CO.OO01nhab1tants 11. What 1s t h e s i z e o f t h e community In w h i c h you l i v e now? A. M e t r o p o l i s ( p o p u l a t i o n a t l e a s t one m i l l i o n ) B. L a r g e c i t y ( p o p u l a t i o n a t l e a s t 500,000) C. M e d i u m - s i z e d c i t y ( p o p u l a t i o n a t l e a s t . 100,000) D. Small c i t y ( p o p u l a t i o n a t l e a s t 25,0OO) E. Suburb F. Smal l town ( p o p u l a t i o n a t l e a s t 10.OOO) G. R u r a l a r e a ( p o p u l a t i o n l e s s t h a n 10.OOO) 12. About how l o n g have you l i v e d - In y o u r p r e s e n t , communlty? A. Less t h a n one y e a r B. 1-5 y e a r s C. 6-10 y e a r s D. . Over 10 y e a r s 13. How many t i m e s have you moved your r e s i d e n c e (house o r ap a r t m e n t ) s i n c e you were 18 y e a r s of age? W r i t e t h e number on the Answer Form. 14. I s your home owned or b e i n g bought by you? A. I am p r e s e n t l y l i v i n g 1n someone e l s e ' s home B. I am r e n t i n g my home C. I am b u y i n g my own home D. I own my own home -- t h e mortgage Is a l l p a i d o f f a p p r o x i m a t e l y wa3 your t o t a l Income l a s t y e a r , b e f o r e d e d u c t i o n s ? l e s s t h a n $5,OOO between $5.OOO and $10,000 between $10.OOO and $15,OOO between $15,OOO and $20,OOO between $20,000 and $30,OOO between $30,000 and $40,OOO over $40,OOO 15. What A. B . C. D. E. F . G. I I . INFORMATION ABOUT YOUR JOB These n e x t q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n y o u r employment s t a t u s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f your employment s i t u a t i o n . Is y o u r employment s t a t u s r i g h t now7 F u l l t i m e h o u s e w i f e w i t h o u t o u t s i d e employment Employed f u l l t i m e on a permanent b a s i s Employed f u l l t i m e on a temporary b a s t s Employed p a r t - t i m e on a permanent b a s i s Employed p a r t - t i m e on a temporary b a s i s Unemployed f o r l e s s t h a n months Unemployed f o r more t h a n t h r e e months On s t r i k e T e m p o r a r i l y l a i d o f f R e t i r e d Permanent d i s a b l e d O t h e r T P l e a s e w r i t e b r i e f l y i n the space p r o v i d e d on the Answer Form. 2. What Is y o u r p r e s e n t main l i n e o f work? ( I f you a r e unemployed o r r e t i r e d ' , what k i n d of work d i d you most r e c e n t l y do.) P l e a s e c i r c l e t h e l e t t e r on t h e Answer Form. A. F u l l t i m e h o u s e w i f e [ I f so. s k i p the r e s t of the q u e s t i o n s i n th1 s s e c t 1 on] B. P r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l , o r k i n d r e d worker. C. Manager o r a d m i n i s t r a t o r ( e x c e p t 1n fa r m s ) 0. S a l e s w o r k e r E. C l e r i c a l o r k i n d r e d worker F. C r a f t s m a n , foreman, o r k i n d r e d worker G. O p e r a t o r ( i n c l u d i n g t r a n s p o r t ) H. L a b o u r e r ( e x c e p t farm) 1. Farmer o r farm manager J . S e r v i c e worker ( e x c e p t p r i v a t e h o u s e h o l d ) K. P r i v a t e h o u s e h o l d worker L. F u l l t i m e s t u d e n t -- have not y e t had permanent f u l l t i m e employment [ I f so. s k i p the r e s t o f the q u e s t i o n s In t h i s s e c t 1 on] 3. What Is the name o f your o c c u p a t i o n ? P l e a s e w r i t e the name In the space p r o v i d e d on the Answer Form. 4. What Is t h e t i t l e of your Job? P l e a s e w r i t e i n the space p r o v i d e d on the Answer Form. 1. What A . B . C . 0 . E . F . G. H. 1 . J . K . L. 77 D ON A PLATEAU 5. In tho g r a p h above, the l i n e r e p r e s e n t s the way p e o p l e t y p i c a l l y move t h r o u g h a c a r e e r d u r i n g t h e i r w o r k i n g l i f e . Where do you see y o u r s e l f on t h a t 11ne? A. S t a r t i n g out my c a r e e r o r l i n e of work. B. I n c r e a s i n g j o b s k i l l s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . C. R e a c h i n g a p l a t e a u . I n o t h e r words, my j o b s k i l l s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a r e s t i l l i n c r e a s i n g but not as f a s t as b e f o r e . D. On a p l a t e a u . In o t h e r words, my s k i l l s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i l l p r o b a b l y s t a y about the same. 6. How c l o s e l y does y o u r s u p e r v i s o r c o n t r o l your work? A. Does he o r she d e c i d e what you do and how you do I t ? B. Does he o r she d e c i d e what you do but l e t you d e c i d e how t o do i t ? C. Do you have some freedom i n d e c i d i n g b o t h what you do and how you do I t ? 0. A r e you y our own boss so l o n g as you s t a y w i t h i n t h e g e n e r a l p o l i c i e s of the f i r m ? 7. When y o u r s u p e r v i s o r wants you t o do something, does he o r she A. U s u a l l y J u s t t e l l you t o do i t ? B. U s u a l l y d i s c u s s e s I t w i t h you? o r C. I s l t about h a l f and h a l f t e l l i n g and d1scuss1ng7 8. How f r e e do you f e e l t o d i s a g r e e w i t h him or her7 A. C o m p l e t e l y f r e e B. L a r g e l y but not c o m p l e t e l y f r e e C. M o d e r a t e l y f r e e D. Not p a r t i c u l a r l y f r e e E. Not a t a l l f r e e 9. I s t h e speed a t w h i c h you work c o n t r o l l e d m o s t l y by you, your b o s s , y o u r work g r o u p , the speed of m achinery or what? A. S u p e r v i s o r c o n t r o l l e d B. C o n t r o l l e d by work group C. C o n t r o l l e d by m a c h i n e r y D. C o n t r o l l e d by someone o r someth1ng" e1se E. C o n t r o l l e d by me 78 10. How mportant Is I t f o r you t o do your Job w e l l t h a t you do what y o u ' r e t o l d ? A. E x t r e m e l y Important B. V e r y Important C. M o d e r a t e l y i m p o r t a n t D. Not p a r t i c u l a r l y I m p o rtant E. Not Important a t a l l 11. On a s c a l e from 1 t o 10. how r o u t i n e would you say your j o b I s ? Say 1 i s v e r y r o u t 1ne, p r e d i c t a b l e and r e p e t i t i v e , and ' 10 i s v e r y u n p r e d i c t a b l e , c h a n g e a b l e and v a r i e d . P l e a s e mark your answer on the Answer Form. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1C E x t r e m e l y r o u t i n e E x t r e m e l y ," -changeable P r e d i c t a b l e U n p r e d i c t a b l e R e p e t i t i v e V a r i e d One t h i n g we'd l i k e t o be a b l e t o p i n down p a r t i c u l a r l y a c c u r a t e l y Is how much of y o u r w o r k i n g time 1s spent r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g , how much w o r k i n g w i t h y o u r hands, and how much d e a l i n g w i t h p e o p l e . We r e a l i z e , of c o u r s e , t h a t sometimes you may have t o do two o r even a l l t h r e e of t h e s e a t the same t i m e . F i r s t , r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g . Here we s h o u l d l i k e t o i n c l u d e any type of w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s , l e t t e r s , f i l e s , memos, books, o r b l u e p r i n t s . 12. About how many hour s a week do you spend d i c t a t i n g o r d e a l i n g w i t h any k i n d of w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s on y o u r Job? P l e a s e w r i t e i n the number 1n th e s p ace p r o v i d e d on the answer form. 13. I f any t i m e a t a l l . p l e a s e d e s c r i b e b r i e f l y what m a t e r i a l s you use on .the Answer Form. Second w o r k i n g w i t h your hands, u s i n g t o o l s , u s i n g o r r e p a i r i n g machines. We i n c l u d e e v e r y t h i n g t h a t i n v o l v e s w o r k i n g w i t h y our hands such t h i n g s as o p e r a t i n g a l a t h e or a d e n t i s t ' s d r i l l , moving f u r n i t u r e , o r p l a y i n g a p1ano. 14. About how many hours a week do you spend w o r k i n g w i t h y our hands on th e Job? P l e a s e w r i t e In t h e number i n t h e space p r o v i d e d on the Answer Form. 15. I f any t i m e a t a l l . p l e a s e d e s c r i b e on the Answer Form what you do and what, i f any, t o o l s and m a t e r i a l s you use i n your work. T h i r d d e a l i n g w i t h p e o p l e . Here we do not mean t o I n c l u d e p a s s i n g the time of day, but o n l y c o n v e r s a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r the Job; f o r example, t a l k i n g t o y o u r b o s s , t e a c h i n g , s u p e r v i s i n g , s e l l i n g . a d v i s i n g c l i e n t s . About how many hour s a week does your Job r e q u i r e you to spend d e a l i n g w i t h p e o p l e ? 16. P l e a s e w r i t e t h e number of h o u r s on the Answer Form. 17. ( I f any time a t a l l ) P l e a s e d e s c r i b e b r i e f l y what you do. such as t e a c h s t u d e n t s , s u p e r v i s e s u b o r d i n a t e s , r e c e i v e i n s t r u c t i o n s from the b o s s , s e l l t o c u s t o m e r s , a d v i s e c l i e n t s , or w h a t e v e r . 18. I f more than one a c t i v i t y , a t w h i c h one of these do you spend the most t i m e ? P l e a s e w r i t e In the space p r o v i d e d on the Answer Form. 19. On a s c a l e from 1 to 10. where 1 Is v e r y d i s s a t i s f i e d and 10 Is ve r y s a t i s f i e d , how s a t i s f i e d a r e you w i t h your Job o v e r a l 1 7 P l e a s e c i r c l e y o u r r e s p o n s e on the Answer Form a c c o r d i n g to the f o l l o w i n g . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Ve r y d i s s a t i s f i e d Very s a t i s f i e d 20. Some p e o p l e a r e so a t t a c h e d t o t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n t h a t they cannot Imagine w a n t i n g t o do a n y t h i n g e l s e , w h i l e o t h e r s would be o n l y too g l a d t o change to some o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n . How about you: A. I c o u l d not Imagine change B. I am not eager to change C. I w o u l d p r e f e r to change D. I would be g l a d t o change We would now l i k e t o ask you about t h e p h y s i c a l . m e n t a l , and em o t i o n a l e n e r g y you spend i.n. a t y p i c a l week. T h i n k i n g about t h e t o t a l amount of ene r g y b e i n g s p e n t as 100 per c e n t , we would l i k e you t o d e c i d e what p e r c e n t a g e of y o u r energy Is spent 1n work and a l l work r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s , what p e r c e n t a g e of your energy i s sp e n t i n non-work o b l i g a t i o n s , and what p e r c e n t a g e of energy Is l e f t f o r t h i n g s you l i k e t o do. 21. F i r s t l y , what p e r c e n t a g e of (100%) your energy i s spent on work and a l l w o r k - r e l a t e d a c t i v i t i e s s uch as g e t t i n g ready f o r work, t r a v e l l i n g t o work and back, and c l e a n i n g up a f t e r the j o b i s done. P l e a s e w r i t e the p e r c e n t a g e on t h e Answer Form. 22. S e c o n d l y , what p e r c e n t a g e of your t o t a l (100%) energy i s spent on o b l i g a t i o n s , d u t i e s , and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s - - t h i n g s you have t o do a t home and e l s e w h e r e -- t h a t a r e not r e l a t e d t o your Job? P l e a s e w r i t e the p e r c e n t a g e on the Answer Form. 23. T h i r d l y , what p e r c e n t a g e of your t o t a l (100%) p h y s i c a l . m e n t a l , and e m o t i o n a l e n e r g y (100%) do you have l e f t f o r r e c r e a t i o n , l e i s u r e , o r o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s t h a t you do s i m p l y f o r a sense of enjoyment7 P l e a s e w r i t e t h e p e r c e n t a g e i n the space p r o v i d e d on the Answer Form. 24. Do you t h i n k i t Is r e a l a ccomplishment to be good a t your o c c u p a t i o n ? A. Yes B. No 25. How much do you t h i n k your work does f o r humanity? A. A g r e a t d e a l B. Some C. A l i t t l e D. I t d o e s n ' t h e l p but I t d o e s n ' t h u r t e i t h e r E. I t can h u r t 80 I I I . FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS We would now l i k e t o ask you some q u e s t i o n s about t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of your fam 11y: 1. Do you have any c h i l d r e n ? A. No [ S k i p t o #8] B. Yes -- P l e a s e answer t h e n e x t q u e s t i o n s : 2. P l e a s e w r i t e In t h e space p r o v i d e d on t h e Answer Form the number of c h i l d r e n t h a t you have 3. How o l d 1s your o l d e s t c h i l d ? - How o l d Is your youngest c h i l d ? P l e a s e w r i t e In t h e spaces p r o v i d e d on t h e Answer Form. 4. Do you have c h i l d r e n who have f i n i s h e d t h e i r s c h o o l i n g ? A. Yes B. No 5. Do any of your c h i l d r e n l i v e away from home? A. Yes B. No 6. Have any o f them m a r r i e d ? A. Yes B. No 7. Are you y e t a g r a n d f a t h e r / g r a n d m o t h e r ? A. Yes B. No 8. I s one o r b o t h of your p a r e n t s s t i l l l i v i n g ? A. - B o t h a r e . B. One of them 1s. C. N e i t h e r one I s . [ S k i p t o *12] 9. Has one o r b o t h of y o u r p a r e n t s r e a c h e d r e t i r e m e n t ? A. B o t h have B. ' One has C. N e i t h e r one has 10. I s one o r b o t h of y o u r p a r e n t s e c o n o m i c a l l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t or a r e they dependent upon t h e i r c h i l d r e n ? A. S e l f - s u f f i c i e n t B. F i n a n c i a l l y dependent C. O t h e r 11. I s one o r b o t h of your p a r e n t s In good h e a l t h ? A. B o t h a r e In good h e a l t h - - n o major problems B. One of them has some p r o b l e m s but Is s t i l l a b l e t o manage C. B o t h of them have some p r o b l e m s but they a r e s t i l l a b l e to manage 0. One of them l a In p o o r h e a l t h and not a b l e t o manage v e r y w e l l E. B o t h of them In p o o r h e a l t h and not a b l e t o manage v e r y w e l l 12. I s one o r b o t h of your In-laws s t i l l l i v i n g ? A. B o t h a r e B. One of them i s C. N e i t h e r one Is [ S k i p t o next s e c t ton] 13. Has one o r b o t h o f your I n - l a w s r e a c h e d r e t i r e m e n t ? A. B o t h have B. One has C. N e i t h e r one has 14. I s one o r b o t h of your I n - l a w s e c o n o m i c a l l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t o r a r e they dependent upon t h e i r c h i l d r e n ? A. S e l f - s u f f i c i e n t B. F i n a n c i a l l y dependent C. O t h e r 15. I s one o r b o t h o f your I n - l a w s In good h e a l t h ? A. B o t h a r e In good h e a l t h - - n o major problems B. One of them-has some problems but 1s s t i l l a b l e t o manage C. B o t h o f them have some problems but they a r e s t i l l a b l e to manage D. One o f them Is In poor h e a l t h and not a b l e t o manage v e r y w e l l E. B o t h of them In poor h e a l t h and not a b l e t o manage v e r y w e l l I V . NIGHT SCHOOL INTERESTS T h i s b r i e f s e c t i o n r e f e r s t o y o u r r e a s o n f o r e n r o l l i n g i n t h i s and o t h e r c o u r s e s as w e l l as what you would l i k e t o l e a r n In the f u t u r e 1. P l e a s e w r i t e on t h e Answer Form how many a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s , s e m i n a r s , o r workshops you have t a k e n i n the l a s t 12 months? 2. On t h e Answer Form, p l e a s e your main r e a s o n f o r e n r o l l i n g 1n t h i s and/or o t h e r n i g h t s c h o o l c o u r s e s t h i s p a s t y e a r ? 3. I s t h e r e a n y t h i n g you would l i k e t o l e a r n more about? A. No [ S k i p t o #5] B. Yes [ P l e a s e answer t h e next q u e s t i o n ] 4. On the Anwer Form, p l e a s e l i s t t h e t h i n g s you would l i k e t o l e a r n more about. 5. I f t h e same c o u r s e t h a t you wanted were o f f e r e d a t the same time by the s c h o o l b o a r d . community c o l l e g e , and the u n i v e r s i t y , which one would you p r e f e r t o a t t e n d ? A. The c o u r s e o f f e r e d by the s c h o o l b o a r d B. The c o u r s e o f f e r e d by the community c o l l e g e C. The c o u r s e o f f e r e d by the u n i v e r s i t y D. I have no p a r t i c u l a r p r e f e r e n c e 6. In a s e n t e n c e o r two. c o u l d you e x p l a i n i n the space p r o v i d e d on the Answer Form the r e a s o n ( s ) f o r your answer t o the above q u e s t i o n . V, OPINIONS AND FEELINGS T h i s s e c t i o n i s about your o p i n i o n s and f e e l i n g s . P l e a s e c i r c l e the l e t t e r w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d s to y o u r answer to each of the q u e s t i o n s below. The most i m p o r t a n t t h i n g t o t e a c h A B c h i l d r e n i s a b s o l u t e o b e d i e n c e t o t h e i r S t r o n g l y Agree parents.' Agree U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e Young p e o p l e s h o u l d not be a l l o w e d to A B r e a d books t h a t a r e l i k e l y t o c o n f u s e S t r o n g l y Agree them. Agree U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e S t rong1y 0 t s a g r e e There a r e two k i n d s of p e o p l e i n the w o r l d : the weak and the s t r o n g . S t r o n g l y Agree B Agree U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y D1sagree P e o p l e who q u e s t i o n the o l d and a c c e p t e d ways of d o i n g t h i n g s u s u a l l y J u s t end up c a u s i n g t r o u b l e . A B C D E S t r o n g l y Agree U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y Agree D1sagree In t h i s c o m p l i c a t e d w o r l d , t h e o n l y way to know what to do i s t o r e l y on l e a d e r s and e x p e r t s . A B C D E S t r o n g l y Agree U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y Agree . D i s a g r e e No decent has had marr1 age. man can r e s p e c t a woman who •sexual r e l a t i o n s .- b e f o r e . S t r o n g l y Agree U n c e r t a i n Agree -D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e P r i s o n i s t h e y s h o u l d worse. too good f o r sex c r i m i n a l s ; be p u b l i c l y whipped o r A B C D S t r o n g l y Agree U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y Agree D 1 sa g r e e 1 8. Any good l e a d e r s h o u l d be s t r i c t w i t h p e o p l e under htm i n o r d e r t o g a i n t h e i r r e s p e c t . Agree 8 D S t r o n g l y Agree U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y D i sagree I t ' s wrong t o do t h i n g s d i f f e r e n t l y from the way our f o r e f a t h e r s d i d . A B C D S t r o n g l y Agree U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y Agree D 1 s a g r e e CO ro 10. i t ' s a l l r i g h t to do a n y t h i n g you want as l o n g you s t a y out of t r o u b l e 11. I f something works, I t doesn't m a t t e r whether I t ' s r i g h t or wrong. 12.' I t ' s a l l r i g h t to get around the law as l o n g as you don't a c t u a l l y break i t . 13. Are you g e n e r a l l y : 14. Are you the s o r t of p e r s o n : 15. Do you take a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward y o u r s e l f 7 - • 16. Do you f e e l t h a t you a r e a p e r s o n of wort h , a t l e a s t on an equal p l a n e w i t h o t h e r s ? 17. Are you a b l e t o do t h i n g s as w e l l as o t h e r p e o p l e can? 18." • Do you have c o n f i d e n c e t h a t when you make p l a n s you w i l l be a b l e t o c a r r y them o u t ? 19. Do you w i s h t o have more r e s p e c t f o r y o u r s e l f ? 20. At t i m e s do you f e e l t h a t you a r e 'no good a t a l l ? A B C D E S t r o n g l y Agree U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y Agree D 1 s a g r e e A B C D E S t r o n g l y Agree U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y Agree D 1 s a g r e e A B C D E S t r o n g l y Agree U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y Agree D i s a g r e e A. One of the f i r s t p e o p l e t o t r y out something B. One to w a i t u n t i l o t h e r s have t r i e d A. Who t a k e s l i f e as 1t comes o r . B. Are you w o r k i n g toward some d e f i n i t e g o a l A - B C D E. Always F r e q u e n t l y Sometimes R a r e l y Never A B '•' C D E Always F r e q u e n t l y Sometimes R a r e l y Never A B Always F r e q u e n t l y Somet1mes 0 R a r e l y E Never A B '•• Always F r e q u e n t l y Somet1mes 0 ;. R a r e l y E Never A B Always F r e q u e n t l y Sometimes D R a r e l y E Never A B Always F r e q u e n t l y Sometimes D R a r e ) y E Never V I . LEARNING ORIENTATION In t h i s s e c t i o n we would l i k e t o p l e a s e I n d i c a t e how much you know your o p i n i o n s about t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . For each agree o r d i s a g r e e by c i r c l i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e l e t t e r on the Item, Answer Most Important l e a r n i n g o c c u r s o u t s i d e of c o u r s e s . S t r o n g l y Agree B Agree U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y D1sagree Course o u t l i n e s p r e p a r e d by the A B i n s t r u c t o r a r e n e c e s s a r y t o keep S t r o n g l y Agree s t u d e n t s on the r i g h t t r a c k . Agree U n c e r t a 1 n D D1sagree S t r o n g l y D1sagree The t e a c h e r Is In the b e s t p o s i t i o n t o know what a s t u d e n t needs t o l e a r n . S t r o n g l y Agree. B Agree U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y D 1 sag r e e Exams a r e n e c e s s a r y 1f s t u d e n t s want to know how much they h a v e . l e a r n e d . A B C D E S t r o n g l y Agree U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y Agree , . . D i s a g r e e U s u a l l y p e o p l e l e a r n b e s t when they a r e A w o r k i n g f o r some k i n d of c e r t i f i c a t e o r S t r o n g l y marks. Agree' B C D E Agree U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e One of the b e s t ways t o l e a r n s t u d y i n g something by one's s e l f , Is by S t r o n g l y Agree U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y Agree . D1sagree 7. The I n s t r u c t o r 1s u s u a l l y the b e s t A p e r s o n to d e c i d e what sh o u l d . b e l e a r n e d S t r o n g l y as he or she 1s. the e x p e r t op the Agree s u b j e c t . ,B C D E Agree U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y D i s a g r e e G e n e r a l l y , p e o p l e l e a r n b e s t when the t e a c h e r does the p l a n n i n g . A B C D E S t r o n g l y Agree U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y Agree D i s a g r e e The s t u d e n t i s o f t e n the b e s t Judge how much he or she has l e a r n e d of A B C D E S t r o n g l y Agree U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y Agree D i s a g r e e 10. I t t a k e s y e a r s of t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g to l e a r n how to p l a n c o u r s e s , so s t u d e n t s s h o u l d l e a v e i t up t o the e x p e r t s . 11. Each p e r s o n 1s the b e s t Judge of what he o r she s h o u l d l e a r n . 12. S t u d e n t s s h o u l d r e s p e c t the a u t h o r i t y • of t h e i r t e a c h e r s . 13. Most p e o p l e can l e a r n what they want to know by s e t t i n g up p r o j e c t s and s t u d y i n g by t h e m s e l v e s . 14. The b e s t way t o f i n d out how much you have l e a r n e d i s to see what mark the t e a c h e r g i v e s t o you. 15. The most i m p o r t a n t t h i n g a p e r s o n can l e a r n Is how t o p l a n and c a r r y out h i s o r h e r own l e a r n i n g . 16. You can u s u a l l y t e l l when you have l e a r n e d a l l you need to know about s o m e t h i n g . 17. S t u d e n t s a r e u s u a l l y the b e s t Judges of when they have l e a r n e d enough about a s u b j e c t . 18. The t e a c h e r knows b e s t how much the s t u d e n t s h o u l d be a b l e to l e a r n i n a c e r t a In t i m e . A B C 0 E S t r o n g l y Agree U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y Agree D i s a g r e e A B C D E S t r o n g l y Agree U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y Agree ' D i s a g r e e A B , C D E S t r o n g l y Agree ! U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y Agree D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y Agree U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y Agree D i s a g r e e A B C D E S t r o n g l y Agree U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y Agree D i s a g r e e A B C 0 E S t r o n g l y Agree U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y Agree ' D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y Agree U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y Agree D i s a g r e e A B C D E S t r o n g l y Agree U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y Agree D i s a g r e e A B C D E S t r o n g l y A g r e e , U n c e r t a i n D i s a g r e e S t r o n g l y Agree D i s a g r e e V I I . LEISURE ACTIVITY SURVEY . . The pu r p o s e of t h i s f i n a l p a r t of the s u r v e y i s t o f i n d out what k i n d s of t h i n g s p e o p l e do, v o l u n t a r i l y , .1n t h e i r s p a r e t i m e . Spare time o r : l e i s u r e time here means a l l time f r e e from work', s l e e p , o r h o u s e h o l d t a s k s . On the f o l l o w i n g pages, a number of a c t i v i t i e s a r e mentioned. You w i l l p r o b a b l y f i n d t h a t you take p a r t In some of the a c t i v i t i e s and do not t a k e p a r t i n o t h e r s . P l e a s e -go t h r o u g h the l i s t from b e g i n n i n g . t o end and answer by c h o o s i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e l e t t e r on the Answer Form. DIRECTIONS TO PART 1 Answer Statements Number For each of the a c t i v i t i e s i n P a r t 1 c i r c l e Not a t a l l A the l e t t e r of the answer statement which best Less than once a week • B d e s c r i b e s how o f t e n d u r i n g the p a s t t w e l v e Once or t w i c e a week C months you took p a r t i n the a c t i v i t y . 3 or 4 ti m e s a week D Once a day E More o f t e n %han once a day F ACTIVITY NOT AT ALL LESS THAN ONCE A WEEK ONCE OR TWICE A WEEK 3 OR 4 TIMES A WEEK ONCE A DAY MORE THAN A OFTEN ONCE DAY 1 C h a t t e d or v i s i t e d w i t h f r i e n d s , r e l a t i v e s , n e i g h b o r s or A B C 0 E F 2 Read a newspaper A , B C D E F 3 Watched news on TV or l i s t e n e d t o news on the r a d i o A B c D E F 4 Watched a g e n e r a l TV program o r l i s t e n e d t o a g e n e r a l r a d i o program such as a v a r i e t y show, drama, w e s t e r n , o r a comedy A B c D E F 5 L i s t e n e d t o an I n f o r m a t i o n a l program on r a d i o or watched an i n f o r m a t i o n a l program on TV, such a s, a p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , consumer t i p s , o r a d i s c u s s i o n show. A B c D E F 6 L i s t e n e d t o a r e c o r d o r tape of c l a s s i c a l music on r e c o r d o r tape p l a y e r a A B c D E F 7 L i s t e n e d t o c l a s s i c a l music on r a d i o o r TV A B c D E F oo DIRECTIONS FOR PART 2 Answer Statements Number For each of the a c t i v i t i e s In P a r t 2 c 1 r c 1 e Not at a l l the 1 e t t e r of the answer statement which b e s t Less than once a month d e s c r i b e s how o f t e n d u r i n g the p a s t t w e l v e Once a month months you took p a r t i n the a c t i v i t y . 2 or 3 t i m e s a month Once a week More o f t e n than once a week ACTIVITY. NOT AT ALL LESS THAN ONCE A MONTH : ONCE A MONTH 2 OR 3 TIMES MONTH ONCE A WEEK MORE OFTEN THAN ONCE A WEEK 8 Went to a c h u r c h s e r v i c e A B C 0 E F 9 went t o a meeting of some f r a t e r n a l o r s o c i a l group A B C D E F 10 Went t o a meeting of some b u s i n e s s , p r o f e s s i o n a l ' , ' c i v i c , p o l i t i c a l o r la b o u r group A ' B C D E F 11 Went to a meeting o f a r e l i g i o u s group ; A . B ' C ' D E F 12 Read one o r more magazines d e a l i n g w i t h a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t o r hobby A B c D E F 13 Read a t e c h n i c a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l o r t r a d e magazine A ' B c D E F 14 Read a l i t e r a r y o r cu1tura ,1 magaz1ne, such as "Canadian L i t e r a t u r e " or "Saturday N i g h t " A '. B c 0 E F 1 5 Read a p o p u l a r magazine such as "Reader's D i g e s t " A B c D E f 16 Read a c u r r e n t e v e n t s p e r i o d i c a l , such as "Newsweek" o r "Mac 1ean's" A B c D E F 17 P l a y e d a game,such as c h e s s , poker o r b r i d g e A B c 0 E F 18 S e r v e d as a v o l u n t e e r i n some worth w h i l e cause A B c D E F A B C D E F DIRECT IfJNVi TO PART 3 Answer Statements Number For each of the a c t i v i t i e s In P a r t 3 c i r c l e Not a t a l l A tha l e t t e r of the answer statement which b e s t Once or t w i c e a y e a r B d e s c r i b e s how o f t e n d u r i n g the p a s t t w e l v e About e v a r y 4 to 6 m.inths C months you took p a r t In the a c t i v i t y . . , About e v e r y 2 to 3 months D Onc« a month ! E Mora o f t e n than one* a month F ACTIVITY. NOT AT ALL ONCE OR TWICE A YEAR ABOUT EVERY 4 TO 6 MONTHS ABOUT EVERY 2 TO 3 MONTHS ONCE A MONTH MORE OFTEN THAN ONCE A MONTH 19 Read a number of books on a s u b j e c t I wanted to l e a r n more about A B C 0 E F 20 Read a p o p u l a r f i c t i o n book or a r t i c l e such as a w e s t e r n , m y s t e r y a d v e n t u r e , o r s c i e n c e f i c t i o n A B C D E F 21 Read a p r a c t i c a l n o n - f i c t i o n book or a r t i c l e on a s u b j e c t , such as g a r d e n i n g , r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n , o r i m p r o v i n g my home A B C D E F 22 Read a n o n - f i c t i o n book o r a r t i c l e on a g e n e r a l s u b j e c t , s u c h as p s y c h o l o g y , a r t , economics, h i s t o r y o r sc1ence A B C D E F 23 Read a book o r a r t i c l e d e a l i n g w i t h my t r a d e , b u s i n e s s , or p r o f e s s i o n A B C D E F 24 Went d a n c i n g A B ' C 0 E F 25 Went t o see a c u r r e n t p o p u l a r movie or p l a y A B C D E F DIRECTIONS TO PART 3 (CONTINUED) Answer Statements Number ) For each o f the a c t i v i t i e s 1n P a r t 3 c 1 r c l e Not a t a l l A the l e t t e r of the answer statement which b e s t Once o r t w i c e a y e a r B d e s c r i b e s how o f t e n d u r i n g the pa s t t w e l v e About e v e r y 4 t o 6 months C months you took p a r t 1n the a c t i v i t y . About e v e r y 2 to 3 months D Once a month E More o f t e n .than once a month F ACTIVITY NOT AT ALL ONCE OR TWICE A -YEAR ABOUT . EVERY .4 TO 6 MONTHS ABOUT EVERY 2 TO 3 MONTHS ONCE A MONTH MORE OFTEN THAN ONCE A MONTH 26 Went t o see an a r t f i l m A B C D E F 27 Went t o a c o n f e r e n c e , an I n s t i t u t e , o r a workshop A B C D E. F 28 Went f o r a t r i p e s p e c i a l l y t o see some h i s t o r i c a l o r o t h e r Important landmark A B • • C . b -E . F 29 Went t o a meeting of a group o r g a n i z e d t o d i s c u s s o r l e a r n about t h i n g s A B, C D E F 30 A t t e n d e d an a t h l e t i c s p o r t o r s p o r t i n g event as s p e c t a t o r ' ' A B C D E F 31 Took p a r t In an a t h l e t i c s p o r t , such as t e n n i s , b a s e b a l l , b o w l i n g , h u n t i n g , o r b o a t i n g A B C D E F 32 F o l l o w e d a c o u r s e or c l a s s o f f e r e d on TV or r a d i o A B C D E F DIRECTIONS TO PART 4 Answer Statements Number For each of the a c t i v i t i e s i n P a r t 4 , c i r c l e Not at a l l the l e t t e r of the ans,wer statement which b e s t - . Once d e s c r i b e s how o f t e n d u r i n g the pa s t twelve 2 or 3 times months you took p a r t 1n the a c t i v i t y . 4 or 5 times .6 or 7 t1mes 8 t lmeB or more ACTIVITY -NO AT AL r . ONCE 2 OR 3 TIMES OR 5 TIMES 6 OR 7 TIMES 8 TIMES OR MORE 33 Went t o an amusement park A B : C D E F 34 Went t o an "Auto Show," or o t h e r type of d i s p l a y A B C D E F 35 Took a c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o r home study c o u r s e A B C D E F 36 Took a ' c o u r s e g i v e n by some community o r g a n i z a t i o n l i k e the Red C r o s s o r l i b r a r y A B C D E F 37 A t t e n d e d a l a r g e meeting o r c o n v e n t i o n A B C 4 E F A B C 0 E F DIRECTIONS TO PART 5 Answer Statements Number For each of the a c t i v i t i e s i n P a r t 5 c i r c l e Not at a l l A the l e t t e r of the answer statement which b e s t Seldom B d e s c r i b e s how o f t e n d u r i n g the p a s t twelve Sometimes C months you took p a r t In the a c t i v i t y . O f t e n D Very O f t e n E R e p e a t e d l y F ACTIVITY NOT AT ALL SELDOM SOME-TIMES OFTEN VERY OFTEN REPEAT-EDLY 38 Worked on my c a r or a f r i e n d ' s c o r A B C D E F 39 Taught something to a f r i e n d o r to a member of the fami 1y A B C D E F 40 C o n s u l t e d an e n c y c l o p e d i a , a t l a s , w orld alamanac, or o t h e r r e f e r e n c e s o u r c e A B C 0 E F 41 L i s t e n e d to a t e a c h i n g r e c o r d , such as one which teaches a f o r e i g n language A B C D E F 42 D i d d e c o r a t i n g , p a i n t i n g , l a n d s c a p i n g , o r r e p a i r work around the house A B • C D E F 43 P l a y e d w i t h c h i l d r e n o r g r a n d c h i l d r e n A B C D E F 44 Went shopping f o r myself or f o r o t h e r p e o p l e A B C D E F 45 Thought about an a b s t r u s e q u e s t i o n such as, what 1s t r u t h ? beauty? or the p l a c e of man i n the scheme of t h i n g s ? A B C D E F 46 Browsed In a b o o k s t o r e or 1 I b r a r y A B C D E F 93 A FINAL WORD 4 7 . Now t h a t you have c o m p l e t e d t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , what comments, s u g g e s t i o n s , o r recommendations do you have7 P l e a s e f e e l f r e e t o w r i t e a n o t e o r two on l i n e s M47 on t h e Answer Form. PLEASE REMEMBER TO BRING THIS QUESTIONNAIRE AND ANSWER FORM WITH YOU TO YOUR NEXT NIGHT SCHOOL CLASS SO WE CAN PICK IT UP FROM THERE. THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR KIND ASSISTANCE AND COOPERATION. NOTE: I f you would l i k e a summary of t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y . J u s t c a l l t h e A d u l t E d u c a t i o n R e s e a r c h C e n t r e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o lumbia a t 228-5881 d u r i n g normal b u s i n e s s h o u r s and l e a v e y o u r name and a d d r e s s w i t h t h e s e c r e t a r y . A summary w i l l be m a i l e d t o you as soon as I t becomes a v a i l a b l e . A g a i n , thank you. 94 APPENDIX B VALIDATION OF LAS LEISURE ACTIVITY SURVEY EDUCATION-RELATEONESS WEIGHTING EXERCISE The L e i s u r e A c t i v i t y S c a l e , d e v e l o p e d by Ann L i t c h f i e l d , i s b e i n g used i n an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n study by Dr. P e t e r Cookson of the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n R e s e a r c h C e n t r e at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. A d u l t e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s d e f i n e d as involvement i n a v a r i e t y of f o r m a l , non-formal, and i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s those which take p l a c e i n formal program s e t t i n g s as w e l l as t h o s e which o c c u r w i t h i n n a t u r a l s o c i e t a l s e t t i n g s . ; B e f o r e we can a n a l y s e the d a t a c o l l e c t e d a l r e a d y , we need t o determine the r e l a t i v e 1 e a r n i n g - r e 1 a t e d n e s s of each item i n the L e i s u r e A c t i v i t y S c a l e . Some a c t i v i t i e s a r e engaged i n almost always w i t h a c o n s c i o u s and d e l i b e r a t e purpose to l e a r n some new knowledge, s k i l l o r s e n s i t i v e n e s s . Other a c t i v i t i e s a r e engaged almost always because of a d e s i r e f o r r e c r e a t i o n without any c o n s c i o u s i n t e n t to l e a r n whatever l e a r n i n g o c c u r s d u r i n g the a c t i v i t y i s s t r i c t l y i n c i d e n t a l to the main m o t i v a t i o n of the p a r t i c i p a n t . Many a c t i v i t i e s f a l l somewhere between these two extremes. For t h a t reason we would l i k e you to weight each item below a c c o r d i n g to how much you t h i n k i t i s usual 1y d e l 1 b e r a t e - 1 e a r n i n g - r e l a t e d . YOUR PARTICIPATION IN THIS PHASE OF THE STUDY IS STRICTLY VOLUNTARY. ALL INFORMATION WILL BE TREATED ANONYMOUSLY, WILL BE RECORDED STATISTICALLY, AND USED FOR SCIENTIFIC PURPOSES ONLY. YOU HAVE THE RIGHT TO REFUSE TO PARTICIPATE AT ANY TIME. REFUSAL WILL NOT IN ANY WAY AFFECT YOUR CLASS STANDING. IT SHOULD TAKE NO MORE THAN 10 MINUTES FOR YOU TO COMPLETE THIS EXERCISE. THANK YOU FOR YOUR COOPERATION AND ASSISTANCE. O l DIRECTIONS TO PART 1 Below i s a 11st of a c t i v i t i e s which have v a r y i n g degrees of d e l i b e r a t e l e a r n l n g -r e l a t e d n e s s . For each a c t i v i t y , p l e a s e i n d i c a t e i t s usua1 l e v e l of d e l i b e r a t e l e a r n i n g -r e l a t e d n e s s by c i r c l i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e l e t t e r . Answer Statements L e t t e r Not R e l a t e d S I i g h t l y r e l a t e d M o d e r a t e l y r e l a t e d S u b s t a n t i a l l y r e l a t e d H i g h l y r e l a t e d E xtremely r e l a t e d ACTIVITY USUAL DEGREE OF DELIBERATE LEARNING -RELATEDNESS 1 C h a t t e d o r v i s i t e d w i t h f r i e n d s , r e l a t i v e s , o r n e i g h b o r s A B C D E F 2 Read a newspaper A B c D E F 3 Watched news on TV or l i s t e n e d to news on the r a d i o A B C D E F 4 Watched a g e n e r a l TV program o r l i s t e n e d to a g e n e r a l r a d i o program such as a v a r i e t y show, drama, western,.or a comedy A B c D E F 5 L i s t e n e d to an i n f o r m a t i o n a l program on r a d i o or watched an i n f o r m a t i o n a l program on TV, such as, a p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w , consumer t i p s , o r a d i s c u s s i o n show. A B c D E F 6 L i s t e n e d t o a r e c o r d o r tape of c l a s s i c a l music on a r e c o r d o r tape p l a y e r A B c D E F 7 L i s t e n e d t o c l a s s i c a l music on r a d i o or TV A B c D E F DIRECTIONS FOR PART 2 Below i s a l i s t of a c t i v i t i e s which have v a r y i n g degrees of d e l i b e r a t e l e a r n i n g -r e l a t e d n e s s . For each a c t i v i t y , p l e a s e i n d i c a t e i t s usua1 l e v e l of d e l i b e r a t e l e a r n i n g -r e l a t e d n e s s by c i r c l i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e l e t t e r . Answer Statements L e t t e r Not r e l a t e d at a l 1 S I i g h t l y r e l a t e d M o d e r a t e l y r e l a t e d S u b s t a n t i a l l y r e l a t e d H i g h l y r e l a t e d E x t r e m e l y r e l a t e d ACTIVITY USUAL DEGREE OF DELIBERATE LEARNING -RELATEDNESS 8 Went t o a c h u r c h s e r v i c e A B C D E F 9 Went t o a meeting of some f r a t e r n a l or s o c i a l group A B C D E F 10 Went t o a meeting of some b u s i n e s s , p r o f e s s i o n a l , c i v i c , p o l i t i c a l or labour group A B C D E F 1 1 Went t o a meeting of a r e l i g i o u s group A B C D E F 12 Read one or more magazines d e a l i n g w i t h a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t or hobby A B C D E F 13 Read a t e c h n i c a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l or t r a d e magazine A B C D E F 14 Read a l i t e r a r y o r c u l t u r a l magazine, such as "Canadian L i t e r a t u r e " or "Saturday N i g h t " A B C D E F 15 Read a p o p u l a r magazine such as "Reader's D i g e s t " A B C D E F 16 Read a c u r r e n t e v e n t s p e r i o d i c a l , such as "Newsweek" "Mac 1ean's" or A B C D E F 17 P l a y e d a game,such as c h e s s , poker o r b r i d g e A B C D E F 18 S e r v e d as a v o l u n t e e r i n some worth w h i l e cause A B C D E F DIRECTIONS TO PART 3 Below i s a l i s t of a c t i v i t i e s which have v a r y i n g d e grees of d e l i b e r a t e l e a r n i n g -r e l a t e d n e s s . For each a c t i v i t y , p l e a s e i n d i c a t e i t s usua1 l e v e l of d e l i b e r a t e l e a r n i n g -r e l a t e d n e s s by c i r c l i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e l e t t e r . Answer Statements L e t t e r Not r e l a t e d a t a l l A S I i g h t l y r e l a t e d B M o d e r a t e l y r e l a t e d c S u b s t a n t i a l l y r e l a t e d D H i g h l y r e l a t e d E Extremely r e l a t e d F ACTIVITY USUAL DEGREE OF DELIBERATE LEARNING--RELATEDNESS 19 Read a number of books on a s u b j e c t I wanted to l e a r n more about A B C D E F 20 Read a p o p u l a r f i c t i o n book or a r t i c l e such as a western, mystery adventure, o r s c i e n c e f i c t i o n A B C D E F 21 Read a p r a c t i c a l n o n - f i c t i o n book or a r t i c l e on a s u b j e c t , such as g a r d e n i n g , r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n , or improving my home A B C D E F 22 Read a n o n - f i c t i o n book or a r t i c l e on a g e n e r a l s u b j e c t , such as p s y c h o l o g y , a r t , economics, h i s t o r y or s c i e n c e A B C D E F 23 Read a book or a r t i c l e d e a l i n g w i t h my t r a d e , b u s i n e s s , or p r o f e s s i on A B C D E F 24 Went d a n c i n g A B C D E F 25 Went to see a c u r r e n t p o p u l a r movie or p l a y A B C D E f 1 co DIRECTIONS TO PART 3 (CONTINUED) Below i s a l i s t of a c t i v i t i e s which have v a r y i n g degrees of d e l i b e r a t e l e a r n i n g -r e l a t e d n e s s . For each a c t i v i t y , p l e a s e i n d i c a t e i t s usua1 l e v e l of d e l i b e r a t e l e a r n i n g -r e l a t e d n e s s by c i r c l i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e l e t t e r . Answer Statements L e t t e r Not r e l a t e d a t a l 1 . A S I i g h t l y r e l a t e d B M o d e r a t e l y r e l a t e d C S u b s t a n t i a l l y r e l a t e d D H i g h l y r e l a t e d E Extremely r e l a t e d F ACTIVITY USUAL DEGREE OF DELIBERATE LEARNING- RELATEDNESS 26 Went t o see an a r t f i l m A B C .. D E F 27 Went t o a c o n f e r e n c e , an i n s t i t u t e , or a workshop A B ' C D E F 28 Went f o r a t r i p e s p e c i a l l y to see some h i s t o r i c a l or o t h e r i m p o r t a n t landmark A B C D E F 29 Went t o a meeting of a group o r g a n i z e d to d i s c u s s o r l e a r n about t h i n g s A B C D E F 30 A t t e n d e d an a t h l e t i c s p o r t o r s p o r t i n g event as s p e c t a t o r A B C D E F 31 Took p a r t i n an a t h l e t i c s p o r t , such as t e n n i s , b a s e b a l l , b o w l i n g , h u n t i n g , or b o a t i n g A B C D E F 32 F o l l o w e d a c o u r s e or c l a s s o f f e r e d on TV or r a d i o A B C D E F DIRECTIONS TO PART 4 Below i s a l i s t of a c t i v i t i e s which have v a r y i n g degrees of d e l i b e r a t e l e a r n i n g -r e l a t e d n e s s . For each a c t i v i t y , p l e a s e i n d i c a t e . i t s u s u a l l e v e l of d e l i b e r a t e l e a r n i n g -r e l a t e d n e s s by c i r c l i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e l e t t e r . Answer Statements L e t t e r Not r e l a t e d at al1 A S I i g h t l y r e l a t e d B M o d e r a t e l y r e l a t e d C S u b s t a n t i a l l y r e l a t e d D H i g h l y r e l a t e d E Extremely r e l a t e d F ACTIVITY USUAL DEGREE OF DELIBERATE LEARNING- RELATEDNESS 33 Went t o an amusement park A B c -• D E F 34 Went t o an "Auto Show," or o t h e r type of d i s p l a y A B C D E F 35 Took a c o r r e s p o n d e n c e or home study c o u r s e A B C D E F 36 Took a c o u r s e . g i v e n by some community o r g a n i z a t i o n the Red C r o s s o r 1 i b r a r y 1 i k e A B c • D E F 37 A t t e n d e d a l a r g e meeting or c o n v e n t i o n A B c 4 E F DIRECTIONS TO PART 5 Below i s a l i s t of a c t i v i t i e s which have v a r y i n g degrees of d e l i b e r a t e l e a r n i n g -r e l a t e d n e s s . For each a c t i v i t y , p l e a s e i n d i c a t e i t s u s u a l l e v e l of d e l i b e r a t e l e a r n i n g -r e l a t e d n e s s by c i r c l i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e l e t t e r . Answer Statements L e t t e r Not r e l a t e d at al1 A S I i g h t l y r e l a t e d B M o d e r a t e l y r e l a t e d C S u b s t a n t i a l l y r e l a t e d D H i g h l y r e l a t e d E E x t r e m e l y r e l a t e d F ACTIVITY USUAL DEGREE OF DELIBERATE LEARNING -RELATEDNESS 38 Worked on my c a r or a f r i e n d ' s c a r A B ' C D E F 39 Taught something to a f r i e n d or to a member of the f a m i l y A B C D E F 40 C o n s u l t e d an e n c y c l o p e d i a , a t l a s , w o r l d alamanac, or o t h e r r e f e r e n c e s o u r c e A B C D E F 41 L i s t e n e d t o a t e a c h i n g r e c o r d , such as one which t e a c h e s a f o r e i g n language A B C D E F 42 D i d d e c o r a t i n g , p a i n t i n g , 1andscap1ng,or r e p a i r work around the house A B C D E F 43 P l a y e d w i t h c h i l d r e n or g r a n d c h i l d r e n A B C D E F 44 Went shopping f o r myself or f o r o t h e r p e o p l e A . B C D E F 45 Thought about an a b s t r u s e q u e s t i o n such as, what i s t r u t h ? b e a u t y ? or the p l a c e of man i n the scheme of t h i n g s ? A B C D E F 46 Browsed i n a b o o k s t o r e or l i b r a r y A B C D E F 102 LEISURE ACTIVITY SURVEY EDUCATION-RELATEDNESS EXERCISE Answer form For each of the a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d i n the accompanying b o o k l e t , p l e a s e i n d i c a t e what you p e r c e i v e t o be i t s u s u a l l e v e l of d e l i b e r a t e l e a r n i n g - r e l a t e d n e s s by c i r c l i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e l e t t e r below. Answer Statements L e t t e r Not r e l a t e d A S l i g h t l y r e l a t e d B M o d e r a t e l y r e l a t e d C S u b s t a n t i a l l y r e l a t e d D H i g h l y r e l a t e d E Ex t r e m e l y r e l a t e d F 1. A B. C D E F 2 5 . A B C D E F 2. A B C D E F 2 6 . A B C D E F 3. A B C D E F . 27 . A B C D E F 4. A B C D E F 2 8 . A B C D E F 5. A B C D E F 2 9 . A B C D E F 6. A B C D E F 3 0 . A B C D E F 7. A B C D E F 31 . A B C D E F 8. A B C D E F 3 2 . A B C D E F 9. A B C D E F 3 3 . A B C D E F 10. A B C D E F 3 4 . A B C D E F 1 1 . A B C D E F 3 5 . A B C D E F 12. A B C D E F 3 6 . A B C D E F 13. A B C D E F 3 7 . A B C D E . F 14. A B C D E F 3 8 . A B C D E F 15. A B C D E F 3 9 . A B C D E F 16. A B C D E F 4 0 . A B C D E F 17. A B C D E F 41 . A B C D E. F 18. A B C D E F 4 2 . A B C D E F 19. A B C D E F 43-. A B C D E F 2 0 . A B C D E F 4 4 . A B C D E F 21 . A B C D E F 4 5 . A B C D E F 2 2 . A B C D E F 4 6 . A B C D E F 2 3 . A B C D E F 4 7 . A B C D E F 2 4 . A B c D E F Comments?? Thank y o u f o r y o u r a s s i s t a n c e . I f y o u h a v e a n y comments, s u g g e s t i o n s , o r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a b o u t t h i s e x e r c i s e , f e e l f r e e t o a d d them h e r e . A FINAL WORD Now th a t you have completed t h i s w e i g h t i n g form, what comments, s u g g e s t i o n s , or recommendations do you have? P l e a s e f e e l f r e e to w r i t e a note on the space at the bottom of the Answer Form. THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR KIND ASSISTANCE AND COOPERATION. O CO 104 APPENDIX C FACTOR ANALYSIS OF LAS FACTOR ANALYSIS OF LAS VARIABLE FACTORS LOADING FACTOR 1 VAR727 Went to a c o n f e r e n c e , I n s t i t u t e o r workshop . 587 VAR729 Went to a meeting of a group o r g a n i z e d t o d i s c u s s o r l e a r n about t h i n g s . . 554 VAR736 Took a c o u r s e g i v e n by some community o r g a n i z a t i o n . . 523 FACTOR 2 ; VAR713 Read a t e c h n i c a l , p r o f e s s i o n a l or t r a d e magazine. .770 VAR723 Read a book or a r t i c l e d e a l i n g w i t h my t r a d e , b u s i n e s s , or p r o f e s s i o n . . 556 FACTOR 3 VAR719 Read a number of books on a s u b j e c t I wanted to l e a r n more about. .455 VAR721 Read a p r a c t i c a l n o n - f i c t i o n book or a r t i c l e on a s u b j e c t , such as g a r d e n i n g , r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n , or improving my home. . 555 VAR722 Read a n o n - f i c t i o n book or a r t i c l e on a g e n e r a l s u b j e c t such as a r t , econom1cs,•hi s t o r y or s c i e n c e . .531 FACTOR 4 VAR735 Took a c o r r e s p o n d e n c e or home study c o u r s e . .460 VAR74 1 L i s t e n e d to a t e a c h i n g r e c o r d , such as one which teaches f o r e i g n language. .402 106 APPENDIX D THE LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL APPENDIX E CODEBOOK CODEBOOK ADULT FREE TIME AND LEARNING ACTIVITIES STUDY V e r s I o n o f 0 6 - 1 1 - 8 4 o VARIABLE VARIABLE COLUMN VARIABLE NAME AND LABEL CLASS • LABEL LOCATION FACTOR LOAD ING 2 V101 1:1 2 V102 1:2 2 V103 1:3-1:4 1 :5 2 VI04 '1:6 1 :7 2 V105 1:8 2 V106 1:9 1 V107 1:10 SEX A-1: Male B = 2: Female STATUS:marr1 age s t a t u s A-5 Marr 1 ed B-4 Separated C-3 D Iv o r c e d 0-2 Widowed E-1 Never m a r r i e d BIRTH:year of b i r t h ! SKIP ' SCHOOL I N : l e v e l or s c h o o l i n g A-1: Some pri m a r y s c h o o l B-2: Completed p r i m a r y s c h o o l C-3: Some h i g h school D-4: Completed h i g h s c h o o l E-5: T e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g beyond h i g h s c h o o l F-6: C o l l e g e or some u n i v e r s i t y G-7: Graduated from u n i v e r s i t y w i t h a f i r s t degree H-8: Graduated from u n i v e r s i t y w i t h a second degree 1-9: Graduated from u n i v e r s i t y w i t h a t h i r d degree 0-0: Other SKIP LEARNEX:learning e x p e r i e n c e A-5: I enj o y e d a l l of my school l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s B-4: I enjoyed most of my school l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s C-3: I enjoyed some of my school l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s 0-2: I enjoyed very few of my school l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s E-1: I enjoyed none of my school l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s MARKS:school achievement A-5 My marks were exce11ent B-4 My marks were above average C-3 My marks were about average D-2 My marks were below average E-1 My marks were ex t r e m e l y low RAISED:place l i v e d as c h i l d A - 1: On a farm B-2 : In the open c o u n t r y , b u t not a farm C - 3 : In a s mall v i l l a g e (1,000-2,000 I n h a b i t a n t s ) 0-4 : In a l a r g e v i l l a g e (2,500-4,999 i n h a b i t a n t s ) E-5: In a s mall town (5,000-9,999) G-6 : In a town of 10.000-29.999 i n h a b i t a n t s H-7 : In a c i t y of 30,000-59.000 I n h a b i t a n t s 1-8: In a c i t y of 60,000-99,000 I n h a b i t a n t s J-9 : In a c i t y of 100.000-499.9991nhab1tants O-O: In a c i t y of over 500.0001nhab1tants 1 V108 1:11 2 V I09 1:12 2 V110 1:13 2 VI 11 1:14 2 VI12 1:15 2 VI 13 1:16 DV V1 14 1:17 DV ' V 1 15 1:18 OV V I16 1:19 VARIABLE NAME AND LABEL SIZE:communlty s i z e A-1: M e t r o p o l i s ( p o p u l a t i o n at l e a s t one m i l l i o n ) B-2: Large c i t y ( p o p u l a t i o n at l e a s t 500,000) C"3: Medlura-slzed c i t y ( p o p u l a t i o n at l e a s t 100.000) D-4: Small c i t y ( p o p u l a t i o n at l e a s t 25.000) E-5: Suburb F»6: Small town ( p o p u l a t i o n at l e a s t 10,000) G-7: R u r a l area ( p o p u l a t i o n l e s s than 10.000) RESIDE:resIdence time A-1: Less than one year B-2: 1-5 ye a r s C-3: 6-10 years D-4: Over 10 ye a r s MOVED:tlmes moved s i n c e age of 18(max.9) H0ME0WN:home ownership A-1: I am p r e s e n t l y l i v i n g In someone e l s e ' s home B"2: I am r e n t i n g my home C-3: I am buy i n g my own home D-4: I own my own home -- the mortgage 1s a l l p a i d o f f INCOME:total I n d i v i d u a l Income A-1: l e s s than $5,000 B-2: between $5,000 and $9,999 C-3: between $10,000 and $14,999 D-4: between $15,000.and $19,999 E-5: between $20,000 and $29,999 F-6: between $30,000 and $39,999 G-7: over $40,000 FAMINC:tota1 f a m i l y Income Less than $5,000 $5,000 - $9,999 $10,000 - $19,999 $20,000 - $29,999 $30,000 - $39,999 $40,000 - $49,999 more than $50,000 ORGMEMB :organlz.at Ional membership A-1: No B-2: Yes OFF ICER:organ I z a t l o n a 1 o f f i c e r or committee c h a i r p e r s o n A-1: No B-2: Yes VOLUNTAR;dId v o l u n t a r y work A - 1: No B-2: Yes VARIABLE VARIA8LE CLASS LABEL COLUMN VARIABLE NAME AND LABEL LOCATION FACTOR LOADING 2 VI17 1:20 R E L I G I O N : r e l I g l o u s p r e f e r e n c e A•1: HIndU B-2: S i k h C-3: Moslem D-4: B u d h l s t E-5: P r o t e s t a n t F-6: Roman C a t h o l i c G-7: R u s s i a n or E a s t e r n Orthodox H-8: J e w i s h I-9: A g n o s t I c 0-0: Other 4 V M S 1:21 B E L I E F r s t r e n g h of r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f A-1: Very s t r o n g l y B-2: S t r o n g l y C-3: M o d e r a t e l y D-4: Not so s t r o n g l y E-5: Not s t r o n g l y a t a l l VI 19 1: 22 C L A S S : s o c l a l c l a s s A-4 B-3 C-2 D- 1 Upper M i d d l e Work 1ng Lower V201 EMPLOY:employment s t a t u s A- 1 B-2 C-3 D-4 E-5 F-S G-7 H»8 1-9 J-0 K-0 L-0 F u l l t i m e housewife w i t h o u t o u t s i d e employment Employed f u l l time on a permanent b a s i s Employed f u l l time on a temporary b a s i s Emp1oyed' part-1Ime on a permanent b a s i s Employed p a r t - t i m e on a temporary b a s i s Unemployed f o r l e s s than months Unemployed f o r more than t h r e e months On s t r i k e T e m p o r a r i l y l a i d o f f . R e t i r e d Permanent d i s a b l e d Other V202 2:2 WORKLINE:maIn l i n e of work A-1: F u l l time housewife B-2: P r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l , or k i n d r e d worker. C-3: Manager or a d m i n i s t r a t o r (except In farms) 0=4: Sa1es worker E-5: C l e r i c a l or k i n d r e d worker F-6: Craftsman, foreman, or k i n d r e d worker G-7: Operator ( i n c l u d i n g t r a n s p o r t ) H-8: Labourer (except farm) 1-9: Farmer or farm manager J- 1 0 : S e r v I c e worker (except p r i v a t e household) K- 1 1: P r i v a t e household worker L- 12: Ful1tIme student VARIABLE VARIABLE COLUMN VARIABLE NAME AND LABEL CLASS LABEL LOCATION FACIOR LOADING 2 V203 2:3-2:4 2 V204 2:5 2 V205 2:6 2 V206 2:7 2 V207 2:8 2 V208 2:9 JOBNAME:mame of o c c u p a t i o n A-01: S e l f employed B-02: Employed p r o f e s s i o n a l C-03: High l e v e l management D-04: S e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l E-OS: T e c h n i c i a n F-06: M i d d l e management G-07: S u p e r v i s o r H«08: Foreman 1-09: S k i l l e d c l e r i c a l s a l e s - s e r v i c e J-10: S k i l l e d c r a f t s and t r a d e s K» 11: Farmer i L-12: S e m l - s k l l l e d c l e r i c a l s e r v i c e ! M-13: S e m i - s k i l l e d manual N-14: U n s k i l l e d c l e r l e a l - s a l e s - s e r v i c e 0*15: U n s k i l l e d manual P-16: Farm l a b o u r e r 0-17: Student R-18: Housewife or houskeeper L I F E L I N E : p l a c e on c a r e e r l i f e l i n e A-1: S t a r t i n g out my c a r e e r or l i n e of work. B-2: I n c r e a s i n g Job s k i l l s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . C-3: Reaching a p l a t e a u D-4: On a p1 ateau. SUPERVIS:amount of s u p e r v i s i o n at work A-4: He d e c i d e s what and how B-3: He d e c i d e s what but not how C-2: Have some freedom D-1: Own boss, w i t h i n p o l i c i e s ORDERS: what s u p e r v i s o r does when wants something done A-1: U s u a l l y J u s t t e l l you to do It B-2: U s u a l l y d i s c u s s e s i t w i t h you C-3: Is i t about h a l f and h a l f t e l l i n g and d i s c u s s i n g OISAGREE:how f r e e to d i s a g r e e w i t h s u p e r v i s o r A-0: C o m p l e t e l y f r e e B-0: L a r g e l y but not c o m p l e t e l y f r e e C-0: Mo d e r a t e l y f r e e D-1: Not p a r t i c u l a r l y f r e e E-1 : Not at a l l f r e e SPEED: c o n t r o l s speed of work A-1: S u p e r v i s o r c o n t r o l l e d B-1: C o n t r o l l e d by work group C-O: C o n t r o l l e d by machinery 0-0: C o n t r o l l e d by someone or something e l s e E-0: C o n t r o l l e d by me VARIABLE VARIABLE COLUMN VARIABLE NAME AND LABEL CLASS LABEL LOCATION FACTOR LOADING 2.6 V209 V2 tO V2 t 1 V2 12 V2 13 V2 14 V2 15 V2 16 V217 V2 18 2: 10 2:11 2:12-2: 2:14-2; 2:16-2: 2: 18 2 : 19 2:20 2:21-2 2:23 2:24 2 : 25 LATITUDE:to do what's t o l d 13 15 17 22 A-0 B'O C-0 D-1 E-1 Extr e m e l y important Very Important M o d e r a t e l y Important Not p a r t i c u l a r l y Important Not Important at a l l ROUTINE:Job r o u t l n e n e s s WRITTEN:hours spent HANDS:hours u s i n g hands PEOPLE:hours d e a l i n g w i t h SKIP SATISFAC:Job s a t i s f a c t i o n , s c a l e 1 to 10 JOBCHANGE a t t a c h m e n t to Job A-4 B-3 C-2 D- 1 -0.65 O. 68 -0.57 I c o u l d not Imagine change I am not eager to change I would p r e f e r to change I would be g l a d to change ENWORKpercentage energy spent on work SKIP ACCOMPLI: Is It a r e a l accomplishment t o be good a t o c c u p a t i o n A-2: Yes 8-1: No HUMANITY:what work does f o r humanity A-5 B-4 C-3 0-2 E-1 A g r e a t deal Some A l i t t l e I t doesn't h e l p but It doesn't h u r t e i t h e r I t can h u r t V2 19 V220 V22 1 V222 V223 V301 3 : 1 SUPCLOSE:supervIsIon. VAR's 205,206. 207,208,209 ROUTINIZATION COMPLEX:work c o m p l e x i t y , VAR'S 211.212,213 J0BSAT:Job s a t i s f a c t i o n dOBCOMIT:work commitment, VAR's 215,217,218 CHILDREN:are t h e r e c h i l d r e n A-1: No B-2: Yes VARIABLE VARIABLE COLUMN VARIABLE NAME AND LABEL CLASS LABEL LOCATION FACTOR LOAD I NG V302 3:2 3.3 NUMKIO:number of c h i l d r e n SKIP V303 3:4 ENDCLASS: c h i l d r e n f i n i s h e d school A-1: Yes B-2: No V304 3:5 KIDAWAY:Ch1ldren l i v i n g away from home A-t: Yes B-2: No V305 3:6 MARRIED:any c h i l d r e n m a r r i e d A-1: Yes B-2: No V306 3:7 GRANDPAR:are grandfather/grandmother A-1: Yes B-2: No V307 3:8 PARALIVE: p a r e n t s s t i l l l i v i n g A-1 B-2 C-3 Both a r e . One of them I s . N e i t h e r one Is V308 3:9 PARRETIR:has one or b o t h p a r e n t s r e t i r e d A-1 B-2 C-3 Both have One has N e i t h e r one has V309 3: 10 PARRSUFF-.parents e c o n o m i c a l l y s e l f s u f f i c i e n t A- 1 B-2 C-3 S e l f - s u f f I c l e n t F i n a n c i a l l y dependent Other V3 10 V3 1 1 3:11 3: 12 PARBODY:hea1th of p a r e n t s A-1: Both a r e In good h e a l t h - - n o major problems B-2: One of them has some problems but Is s t i l l a b l e t o manage C-3: Both of them have some problems but they a r e s t i l l a b l e to manage D-4: One of them Is In poor h e a l t h and not a b l e to manage very w e l l E-5: Both' of them In poor h e a l t h and not a b l e t o manage v e r y w e l l LAWLIVE:In-laws s t i l l l i v i n g A- I : Both a r e B=2: One of them Is C-3: N e i t h e r one Is V3 12 3:13 LAWRETIR:In-laws reached r e t i r e m e n t A-1: Both have ' B-2: One has C-3: N e i t h e r one has VARIABLE VARIABLE COLUMN VARIABLE NAME AND LABEL CLASS LABEL LOCATION V313 LAWSUFF:In-laws s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t A-1: S e l f - s u f f i c i e n t B-2: F i n a n c i a l l y dependent C-3: Other V3 14 3: 15 LAWBODY:In-laws In good h e a l t h A- 1 B-2 C-3 D"4 E-5 Both are In good h e a l t h no major problems One of them has some problems but i s s t i l l a b l e to manage Both of them have some problems but they are s t i l l a b l e to manage One of them i s In poor h e a l t h and not a b l e to manage v e r y w e l l Both of them In poor h e a l t h and not a b l e to manage v e r y w e l l OV 4 V401 V402 4 : 1 4:3 COURSES: Number of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s MQRLEARN: want to l e a r n more A-: No B": Yes V403 4:5 WASCHOOL:what I n s t i t u t i o n p r e f e r e d A-1: The course o f f e r e d by the school b o a r d B-2: The course o f f e r e d by the community c o l l e g e C-3: The course o f f e r e d by the u n i v e r s i t y D-4; I have no p a r t i c u l a r p r e f e r e n c e V501 5: 1 V502 5:2 OBEY obedience to p a r e n t s A-1 S t r o n g l y agree B-2 Agree C-3 Uncerta1n 0-4 D1sagree E-5 S t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e BOOKS:some not f o r k i d s A-5 B-4 C-3 0-2 E-1 .61 .58 V503 5:3 TW0KlN0S:two k i n d s of peo p l e A- 1 B-2 C-3 0-4 E-5 - .58 V504 5:4 0UESTI0N:questIon the o l d A-5 B-4 C-3 .55 VARIABLE VARIABLE COLUMN VARIABLE NAME AND LABEL ' f ACTOR" CLASS LABEL LOCATION LOADING V505 5:5 EXPERTS:rely on e x p e r t s A-5 B-4 C-3 0-3 E - 1 .52 V506 5:6 DECENCY:No decent man A- 1 B-2 C-3 D-4 E-5 -.51 V507 5:7 SEXCRIMS:prI son (s too good A-5 B-4 C-3 0-2 E- 1 .51 V508 5:8 STRICT:1eader s h o u l d be s t r i c t A- I B-2 C-3 D-4 E-5 • .45 V509 5:9 ITSWRONG:wrong to do d i f f e r e n t A-5 B-4 C-3 0-3 E-2 .43 V510 5: 10 ITSRITE:r1ght to do a n y t h i n g A-5 B-4 C-3 0-2 E- 1 .66 V51 1 5:11 IFW0RKS:nomatter If r i g h t A- 1 B-2 C-3 D-4 E-5 + .57 V512 5: 12 LAWROUND:right to go around law A-5 B-4 C-3 .54 VARIABLE VARIABLE COLUMN VARIABLE NAME AND LABEL FACTOR CLASS LABEL LOCATION LOADING V513 S : 13 TRYOUT:are g e n e r a l l y : A«2: One of the f i r s t p e o p l e to t r y out something B-1: One to wait u n t i l o t h e r s have t r i e d .61 V5I4 V515 5 : 14 5 : 15 GOALS:the s o r t of person: A-1: Who takes l i f e as i t comes B-2: Are you working toward some d e f i n i t e g oal ATTITUDE:take p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e A-1 |. B-2 C-3 D-4 E-5 .62 V516 V517 5: 16 5: 17 WORTH:feel a person of worth DOWELL; A-1 B-2 C-3 D-4 E-5 a b l e to do as wel1 .61 .60 V518 5: 18 PLAND0:p1ans c a r r i e d out A- 1 B-2 C-3 0-4 E-5 -.60 V519 5 : 19 RESPECT:w1sh to have more A- 1 B-2 C-3 D-4 E-5 -.62 V520 5:20 N0G00D:feel A- 1 B-2 C-3 D-4 E-5 that -.55 V521 5:21 UNCERTAIN:few t h i n g s about which a r e a b s o l u t e l y c e r t a i n A-1 8-2 C-3 D-4 E-5 -.43 VARIABLE VARIABLE COLUMN VARIABLE NAME AND LABEL CLASS LABEL LOCATION FACTOR LOAOING V522 5: 22 OWNFAULT:when t h i n g s go wrong A»1 B-2 C-3 0-4 E-5 • .72 V523 5 : 23 PIECES:about to go to p i e c e s A- I B-2 C-3 0-4 E-5 - .65 V524 DOWNCAST:downcast or d e j e c t e d A- I B-2 C-3 0-4 E-5 - .65 VS25 5:25 ANGST:anxtous or w o r r i e d A- I B-2 C-3 D-4 E-5 -.62 V526 5:26 RES T L E S S : r e s t l e s s cannot s i t A- 1 B-2 C-3 D-4 E-5 - .58 V527 5:27 IDEAFIX:can't r i d of thought A- 1 B-2 C-3 0-4 E-5 - . 58 VS28 5:28 POWER:feel powerless A- 1 B-2 C-3 D-4 E-5 .50 VARIABLE VARIABLE CLASS LABEL COLUMN VARIABLE NAME AND LABEL LOCATION FACTOR LOAOING V529 5:29 BORED:bored w i t h e v e r y t h i n g A- t B-2 C-3 D-4 E-5 . 55 V530 5 : 30 GUILTY:feel g u i l t y A-1 8-2 C-3 0-4 E-5 V531 5:31 WORLDKNOW:worId not knowable A-1 B-2 C-3 0-4 E-5 .45 V532 5:32 PURPOSE:purpose b e i n g a l i v e A- 1 B-2 C-3 D-4 E-5 - .40 V601 6: I NOCOURSE:Most Important l e a r n i n g o c c u r s A-1 B-2 C-3 D-4 . E-5 V602 6:2 OUTLINE:Course o u t l i n e s n e c e s s a r y A-5 B-4 C-3 D-2 E-1 V603 6:3 TEACHKNO:teacher knows best A- 1 B-2 C-3 D-4 E-5 V604 6 : 4 EXAMS:Exams are ne c e s s a r y A-5 B-4 C-3 D-2 E-1 O VARIABLE VARIABLE COLUMN VARIABLE NAME AND LABEL CLASS LABEL LOCATION • rACIOfl LOADING V60S 6:5 P A P E R : c a r t I f I c a t a o r n a r k s A-b B-4 C-3 D-2 E - l veoe 6:6 OWNSELF:study by o n e s e l f A-1 B-2 C-3 D-4 E-5 V607 6:7 INSTRUCT:Instructor knows what t o l e a r n A-b B-4 C-3 0-2 E-1 V608 6:8 PLANNING:teacher does p l a n n i n g A- I B-2 C-3 0-4 E-5 V609 6:9 JUDGEMENT:student best Judge A-5 B-4 C-3 D-2 E - l veto 6: 10 YEARS:takes y e a r s of t e a c h e r s t r a i n i n g A-5 B-4 C-3 0-2 E-1 V611 6: I t OWNJUDGE:each p e r s o n ta bast Judge A-5 B-4 C-3 D-4 E-5 V612 6:12 AUTHORITY:students s h o u l d r e s p e c t A-5 B-4 C-3 VARIABLE VARIABLE COLUMN VARIABLE NAME AND LABEL FACTOR CLASS LABEL LOCATION LOADING E-5 V6 13 PROJECTS:own p r o j e c t s A-5 B-4 C-3 D-2 E-5 V6 14 SEEMARK:to know what l e a r n e d A- 1 B-2 C-3 0-4 E-5 V615 6: 15 OWNPLAN:rnost important t h i n g to l e a r n A-1 B-2 C-3 0-4 E-5 V61G 6: 16 CANTELL:you can u s u a l l y t e l l A- 1 8-2 C-3 D-4 E-5 V617 6: 17 STUDJUDG:Students best Judge A-1 B-2 C-3 • 0-4 E-5 V618 6: 18 HOWMUCH:teacher knows how much A-1 B-2 C-3 D-4 E-5 V701 7 : 1 CHAT:chat ted or v i s i t e d w i t h f r i e n d s A-1: Not at a l l B-2: Less than once a week C-3: Once or t w i c e a week D-:4 3 or 4 times a week E"5: Once a day F-6: More o f t e n than once a day to to VARIABLE VARIABLE COLUMN VARIABLE NAME AND LABEL CLASS LABEL LOCATION FACTOR LOADING 7 V702 7:2 NEWSPAP:Read a newspaper A- 1 Not at a l 1 B-2 Less than once a week C-3 Once or twice a week D-4 3 or 4 t1mes a week E-5 Once a day F-6 More o f t e n than once a day 7 V703 7:3 NEWSWACH:watched news on TV A•1: Not at a l l B-2: Less than once a week C-3: Once or tw i c e a week D-4: 3 or 4 times a week E-5: Once a day F-6: More o f t e n than once a day GENPROG:Watched a g e n e r a l TV program A-1: Not at a l l B-2: Less than once a week C-3: Once or t w i c e a week 0-4: 3 or 4 times a week E-5: Once a day F-6: More o f t e n than once a day 7 V705 7:5 INFOPROG:Informatlona1 program T • A-1: Not at a l l B-2: Less than once a week C-3: Once or twice a week D-4: 3 o r 4 times a week E-5: Once a day F-6: More o f t e n than once a day 7 V706 7:6 MUSPLAY :played c l a s s i c a l music A-1: Not at a l l B-2: Less than once a week C-3: Once or twice a week D-4: 3 or 4 times a week E-5: Once a day F-6: More o f t e n than once a day 7 V707 7:7 L i s t e n e d to c l a s s i c a l music on r a d i o or TV A- 1 : Not at a l l B-2: Less than once a week C-3: Once or 'twice a week 0-4: 3 or 4 times a week E-5: Once a day F-6: More o f t e n than once a day 7 V704 7:4 VARIABLE VARIABLE COLUMN VARIABLE NAME AND LABEL CLASS LABEL LOCATION FACTOR LOADING 7 V708 7:8 CHURCH:Went to a c h u r c h s e r v i c e A-1: Not at a l l B"2: Less than once a month C"3: Once a month 0*4: 2 or 3 times a month £•5: Once a week F-6: More o f t e n than once a week V7 10 7: 10 BUSGROUP:busIness or p r o f e s s i o n a l group A- 1 B-2 C-3 0-4 E-5 F-6 Not at a l l Less than once a month Once a month 2 or 3 times a month Once a week More o f t e n than once a V7 11 7:71 R E V I V A L : r e l i g i o u s meeting A-1 B-2 C-3 D-4 E-5 F-6 Not at a l l Less than once a month Once a month 2 or 3 times a month Once a week More o f t e n than once a week 7 V712 7:72 HOBBYMAG:read hobby magazine A-1:Not at a l l I B-2: Less than once a month i C-3: Once a month D-4: 2 or 3 times a month E-5: Once a week F-6: More o f t e n than once a week 7 V713 7:13 PROFMAG:read p r o f e s s i o n a l magazine A- 1 Not at a l 1 B-2 Less than once a month C-3 Once a month D-4 2 Or 3 times a month E-5 Once a week F-6 More o f t e n than once a week 7 • V714 7:14 . CULTMAG:read c u l t e r a l magazine A-1: Not at a l l 8-2: Less than once a month C-3: Once a month D-4: 2 or 3 times a month E-5: Once a week F-6: More o f t e n than once a week VARIABLE VARIABLE COLUMN VARIABLE NAME AND LABEL CLASS LABEL LOCATION LOADING V7 15 7 : 15 CRUDMAG:popular magazine A-1: Not at a l l B-2: Less than once a month C-3: Once a month D-4: 2 or 3 times a month E-5: Once a week F-6: More o f t e n than once a week V7 16 7 : 16 NEWSMAG:current events p e r i o d i c a l A-1 Not at a l 1 B-2 Less than once a month C-3 Once a month D-4 2 or 3 tImes a month E-5 Once a week F-6 More o f t e n than once a week V7 17 7 : 17 GAME:played a game A- 1: Not at a I I B-2: Less than once a month C-3: Once a month D-4: 2 or 3 times a month E-5: Once a week F-6: More o f t e n than once a week 7 V71B 7:18 DOGOOD:served as a v o l u n t e e r A-1: Not at a l 1 B-2: Less than once a month C-3: Once a month D-4: 2 or 3 times a month E-5: Once a week F-6: More o f t e n than once a week 7 V719 7:19 SUMBOOKS:Read a number of books ' A-1: Not at a l 1 B-2: Once or t w i c e a year C-3: Abput every 4 to 6 months 0-4: About every 2 to 3 months E-5: Once a month F-6: More o f t e n than once a month V720 7:20 P0PBO0K:popular f i c t i o n book A- 1 : Not at a l 1 B-2: Once or twice a year C"3: About every 4 to 6 months D-4: About every 2 to 3 months E-5: Once a month F-6: More o f t e n than once a month to VARIABLE VARIABLE COLUMN VARIABLE NAME AND LABEL CLASS LABEL LOCATION FACIOR LOADING 7 V721 7:21 FACTBOOK:practleal book A> 1 : Not at a l l B-2: Once or tw i c e a year C-3: About every 4 to 6 months D-4: About every 2 to 3 months E-5: Once a month F-6: More o f t e n than once a month V722 7 :22 GENBOOK:general s u b j e c t book A-1 B-2 C-3 D-4 E-5 F-6 Not a t a l l Once or tw.lce a year About every 4 to 6 months About every 2 to 3 months Once a month More o f t e n than once a month V723 7:23 PROFBOOK:trade or p r o f e s s i o n book A- 1 B-2 C-3 D-4 E-5 F-6 Not at a l l Once or tw i c e About every 4 About every 2 Once a month More o f t e n than once a year to 6 months to 3 months V724 7:24 DANCE:went d a n c i n g A-1 B-2 C-3 0-4 E-5 F-6 Not at a l l Once or tw i c e a year About every 4 About every 2 Once a month More o f t e n than once to 6 months to 3 months month 7 V725 7:25 POPPLAY:popu1ar movie or p l a y A-1: Not at a l 1 B-2: Once or tw i c e a year C-3: About every 4 to 6 months D-4: About every 2 to 3 months E-5: Once a month F-6: More o f t e n than once a month VARIABLE VARIABLE COLUMN VARIABLE NAME AND LABEL CLASS LABEL LOCATION FACTOR LOADING V726 7:26 ART: see a r t f i l m A " t : Not at a l 1 B-2: Once or t w i c e a year C«3: about every 4 to 6 months 0*4: about every 2 to 3 months E-5:bout once a month F-6: more o f t e n than once a month V727 7:27 WORKSHOP:conference or workshop A-1: Not at a l l B-2: Once or t w i c e a year C-3: About every 4 to 6 months 0*4: About every 2 to 3 months E-5: Once a month F"6: More o f t e n than once a mor V728 7:28 T R I P S E E : h l s t o r l c a l landmark A«1 B-2 C-3 D-4 E-5 F-6 Not at al1 Once or t w i c e a year About every 4 t o 6 months About every 2 to 3 months Once a month More o f t e n than once a month V729 7:29 GMEET:meetIng of group to l e a r n A- 1: Not at a l l B-2: Once or tw i c e a year C-3: About every 4 to 6 months D-4: About every 2 to 3 months E-5: Once a month F-6: More o f t e n than once a mon V730 7:30 SPORTSEE:attended s p o r t i n g event Not at a l l Once or tw i c e a year About every 4 to 6 months About every 2 to 3 months Once a month A- I B-2 C-3 D-4 E-5 F-6: More o f t e n than once a month V73 1 7 : 3 1 SP0RTD0:took p a r t In s p o r t A-1 B-2 C-3 D-4 E-5 F-6 Not at a l l Once or t w i c e About every 4 About every 2 Once a month More o f t e n than once a month a year to 6 months to 3 months V732 7:32 TVCOURSE:course on tv VARIABLE VARIABLE COLUMN VARIABLE NAME AND LABEL CLASS. LABEL LOCATION FACTOR LOADING A- t: Not s t a l l B-2: Once or t w i c e a year C-3: About every 4 to 6 months 0-4: About every 2 to 3 months E-5: Once a month F-6: More o f t e n than once a month V733 7:33 FUNPARK: amusement park A l :- Not at a l l B-2 Once C-3 2 or 3 t Imes D-4 4 or 5 11 mes E-5 6 or 7 t Imes F-6 8 times or more I V734 7:34 EXHIBIT:went to auto show or e x h i b i t A- 1 Not at a l 1 B-2 Once C-3 2 or 3 11 mes D-4 4 or 5 11 mes E-5 6 or 7 t Imes F-6 8 times or more SKIP 7:35 7 V735 7:35 HOMESTUO:correspondence c o u r s e A-1 Not.at a l 1 B-2 Once C-3 2 or 3 t Imes 0-4 4 or 5 11 mes E-5 6 or 7 t Imes F-6 8 times or more V736 7 :36 ORGCORSE:course by communltyorg A- 1 Not at a l 1 B-2 Once C-3 2 or 3 11 mes D-4 4 or 5 t 1 mes E-5 6 or 7 t 1 mes F-6 8 times or more V737 7:37 BIGMEET:1arge meeting or c o n v e n t i o n A-1: Not at a l l B-2: Once C-3: 2 or 3 times D-4: 4 or 5 times E-5: 6 or 7 tImes F-6: 8 times or more VARIABLE VARIABLE CLASS LABEL COLUMN VARIABLE NAME AND LABEL LOCATION FACTOR LOADING CARWORK:worked on c a r A • 1 Not at a l l B-2 Seldom C-3 SometImes D-4 O f t e n E-5 Very o f t e n F-6 Repea ted1y 7 V739 7:39 TAUGHT:taught something to a f r i e n d A- I Not at a l l B-2 Se1dorn C-3 SometImes D-4 Of t e n E-5 Very o f t e n F-6 Repeatedl y 7 V740 7:40 CONSULT:Consu1 ted r e f e r e n c e A-1 Not a t a l l B-2 Seldom C-3 SometImes D-4 O f t e n E-5 Very o f t e n F-6 Rep e a t e d l y 7 V741 7:41 TEACHREC:teach Ing r e c o r d A- 1 Not a t a l l B-2 Seldom C-3 SometImes 0-4 Of ten E-5 Very o f t e n F-6 Repeatedly V742 7:42 0WNW0RK:work around house A- 1 Not at a l 1 B-2 Seldom C-3 Sometimes D-4 Of t e n E-5 Very o f t e n F-6 Repeated 1y 7 V743 7:43 PLAYED:w1th c h i l d r e n g r a n d c h i l d r e n A- 1 Not at a l 1 B-2 Seldom C-3 Sometimes D-4 O f t e n E-5 Very o f t e n F-6 Repeatedly VO 7 V744 7 :44 SHOP :went shopping VARIABLE VARIABLE CLASS LABEL COLUMN VARIABLE NAME AND LABEL LOCATION FACTOR LOADING l \ I ' A- t : B-2 : C-3: D-4 : E-5: F-6: Not at a l 1 Seldom SometImes Of ten Very o f t e n Repeatedl y V745 7 :45 QUESTIDN:abstruce q u e s t i o n A- 1 Not at a l l B-2 Se1dorn C-3 SometImes D-4 Of ten E-5 Very o f t e n F-6 Repeatedly V746 7 :46 BROWSE:browsed In a b o o k s t o r e A-1 Not at a l 1 B-2 Seldom C-3 SometImes 0-4 Of t e n E-5 Very o f t e n F-6 Repeatedly 7 :47 SKIP V747 7 :48" SCHOOL:name of sc h o o l 1 Vancouver Tech 2 B r l t t a n t a 3 K i n g George 4 John 01 Iver 5 K l t s l l a n o V748 7:48-50 COURSE:name of co u r s e 01 B a s i c H a l r c u t t l n g 02 I n v e s t i n g f 03 Paper To l e 04 H a t r c a r e 05 T y p i n g 06 M o t o r c y c l e 07 H a l r c u t t l n g 08 Computers 09 Typing Drl1 Is 11 Dance 12 Dress Design 13 F l y C a s t I n g • 14 Photography 15 Computers 16 S e l I I n g 17 Real E s t a t e 20 A c c o u n t i n g o VARIABLE VARIABLE COLUMN VARIABLE NAME AND LABEL FACTOR CLASS LABEL LOCATION LOADING 2 1 Memory T r a i n i n g 22 S u p e r v i s i n g With Success 23 Dance 24 H a l r c u t t I n g 25 House C o n s t r u c t i o n 26 Cake D e c o r a t i n g 27 E n g l i s h Improvement 28 The West End 29 A c c o u n t i n g 1 30 S u r v i v a l In Real E s t a t e 31 Typing 32 Smal1 BusIness 33 Gourmet Cooking . 34 Microwave Cooking 35 F i r s t A i d 36 A s s e r t I v e n e s s T r a i n i n g 37 Investments 38 E n g l i s h Improvement 39 Wedding Cake 40 Fancy P a s t r y 41 F l y f i s h i n g 42 Computer Programming 4 3 Qui 11ing 44 S t u d i o Photography 45 P i c t u r e Framing 46 T r a v e l 47 I n t e r n a t i o n a l 1 48 Swing 49 G o l f 50 Tai Chi 51 L i t t l e Music 52 Car D r i v i n g 53 C o a s t a l N a v i g a t i o n 54 Account Ing I 55 Programming 56 S l l k s c r e e n 57 Gym Dance 58 B e g i n n i n g Sewing 59 F i r s t A i d 60 F l o r a l A r t 61 Wat e r c o l o u r 62 Gourmet Cooking 63 Legal S e c r e t a r y V749 7:51-53 RN 7 . V749 7:54-7:55 C0UNTRY:of o r i g i n 01 Canada 02 Phi 1 i p l n e s 03 France 04 U n i t e d Kingdom 05 Germany 06 I n d i a 07 China VARIABLE VARIABLE COLUMN VARIABLE NAME AND LABEL FACTOR CLASS LABEL LOCATION LOADING 08 Pola n d 09 U.S.A. to S w l t z e r l a n d 1 1 New Zealand 12 Japan 13 A r g e n t I n a 14 Paraguay 15 Hong Kong 16 Aus t r 1 a 17 Ma 1aya 18 F t j 1 19 I t a l y 20 Ca r r I b e a n . 21 Hoi l a n d 22 Macao 23 USSR 24 P o r t u g a l 25 Aus tra1 1 a 26 Hungary 27 Other 2 V750 7:56-7:57 ETHN0S:ethnIc1ty 01 C h inese 02 WASP 03 I r i s h / S c o t t I s h 04 B r i t i s h • 05 J e w i s h 06 I t a l I a n 07 Japanese 08 Welsh 09 P o l i s h 10 Canad1 an 10 F1 em 1 sh 12 Dutch 13 PunJ ab1 14 German Eng1ish 15 Eng1Ish Canad1 an 16 French Canadian 17 Caucas 1 an 19 F I n n I s h 20 L a t I n Amerlean 2 1 I r i s h 22 Scot t I s h 23 Hungar1 an 24 French 25 Egyp 11 an 26 Ukran1 an 28 Swed t sh 4 V75I 7:58-59 LEARNIN:years of s c h o o l i n g 2/6 V752 7:60-61 ENOBLIG:energy f o r o b l i g a t i o n s 6 V753 7:62-63 ENLEASUR:energy f o r l e a s u r e VARIABLE VARIABLE COLUMN CLASS LABEL LOCATION 2 V754 7:64-65 2 V755 7:66-67 4 V756 7:68-69 4 V757 7:70-7:71 4 V758 7:72-73 r VARIABLE NAME AND LABEL FACTOR LOADING CHILDOLD:age of o l d e s t c h i l d CHILDYG:age of youngest c h i l d STUDREASON:reason f o r e n r o V l i n g 01 To b u i l d c o n f i d e n c e at work 02 I n c r e a s e s k i l l s In g e n e r a l or u n s p e c l f t c way 03 P e r s o n a l growth /development 04 Sent by f i r m or employer 05 Advancement In my Job 06 Broader knowledge 07 P e r s o n a l I n t e r e s t / g e n e r a l I n t e r e s t j 08 Enhance employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s 09 Upgrade p r o f e s s l o n a 1 / w o r k s k i l l s 10 Learn a new s k i l l (hobby or o t h e r n o n s p e c i f i c ) 11 B e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t : 12 To l e a r n i n g e n e r a l 13 To keep my mind a c t i v e and l e a r n i n g 14 To keep In touch w i t h young peo p l e and t h e i r Ideas 15 P e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n / e n j o y m e n t 16 E d u c a t i o n a l p a s s t i m e / r e c r e a t I o n 17 To meet people 18 E d u c a t i o n / c e r t i f i c a t i o n ) PREFER:reason f o r shool c h o i c e 01 S u p e r i o r t e a c h i n g 02 More s t i m u l a t i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s 03 More co n v e n i e n t l o c a t i o n 04 More co n v e n i e n t times 05 Lower fees 06 U n i v e r s i t y too d i s t a n t from r e s i d e n c e 07 B e t t e r q u a l i t y program 08 Depends on I n s t r u c t o r and c o s t 09 I am not I n t e r e s t e d In more e d u c a t i o n r i g h t now 10 V a r i e t y of course o f f e r i n g s 11 P o s i t i v e past e x p e r i e n c e s 12 More co n v e n i e n t ( u n s p e c i f i e d ) 13 S e t t i n g does not matter 14 Course at that I n s t i t u t i o n 15 Recommended LEARNMOR:what wants to l e a r n more 01 Computers 02 Manager I a l S k i l l s 03 Languages 04 H i s t o r y 05 Psychology 06 French 07 T r a v e l 08 Economics 09 S o c i o l o g y 10 A r t s 11 Dane Ing 12 E n g l I s h VARIABLE VARIABLE COLUMN VARIABLE NAME AND LABEL CLASS LABEL LOCATION FACTOR LOADING 13 Tourism 14 M a r k e t i n g 15 Labour R e l a t i o n s 16 S p a n i s h 17 M e t r i c System 18 F i r s t A i d 19 Cooking 20 Typing 2 1 Cake D e c o r a t i o n 22 H e a l t h 23 T a i l o r i n g / D r e s s m a k i n g 24 P e r s o n a l Development 25 B a k i n g 26 Sewing 27 Music 28 Photography 29 Nurse A i d 30 W r I t i n g 31 Investment/Stock A n a l y s i s 32 A c c o u n t i n g 33 Auto Mechanics 34 Computer Programming 35 H a i r Care 36 Human R e l a t i o n s 37 Real E s t a t e 3B C r a f t s 39 Drawing 40 P a i n t i n g 4 1 Time management 42 Communications s k i l l s 43 Smal1 bus Iness 4 4 Sk1Ing 45 H y d r a u l l e s 46 S c i e n c e 47 O e f e n s t v e d r i v i n g 48 N u t r i t i o n 49'Outdoor r e c r e a t i o n 50 Law 5 1 Landscaping 52 S e c r e t a r i a l 53 Word p r o c e s s i n g 54 Manicure 55 Weaving 56 Knots 57 E l e c t r o n i c s 56 F a s h i o n 59 S a l 1Ing 60 M a r t I a l a r t s 61 F l y t y i n g 62 M a c h i n i n g 63 C a b i n e t making 64 Nature 65 I n t e r i o r d e c o r a t i n g 66 K n i t t i n g 

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