Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Continuing education in nursing : a lifelong learning perspective Reed, Diane E. 1984

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1984_A8 R42_2.pdf [ 5.52MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0055858.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0055858-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0055858-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0055858-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0055858-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0055858-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0055858-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0055858-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0055858.ris

Full Text

C o n t i n u i n g Education i n Nursing: A L i f e l o n g L earning P e r s p e c t i v e by Diane E. Reed B.S.N., U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , Adult and Higher Education) We accept t ^ i i s t h e s i s as conforming to./fhe ):e$^ired standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1984 ©Diane E. Reed, 1984 86 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e . A d u l t and H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n The University of B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 Date October 10, 198£ DE-6 (3/81) i i CONTINUING EDUCATION IN NURSING: A LIFELONG LEARNING PERSPECTIVE ABSTRACT T h i s study examined the u t i l i t y of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g , a notable concept i n a d u l t and higher education, f o r c o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g . I d e n t i f i a b l e d e f i c i e n c i e s i n CNE l e d to the search f o r a s u i t a b l e framework on which to base a c t i o n . The approach adopted to accomplish t h i s task i n v o l v e d use of a n a l y t i c p h i l o s o p h y . The l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g was examined and a subset, l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , was i d e n t i f i e d as the prime area of i n t e r e s t . I t was concluded that l i f e l o n g education i s an e d u c a t i o n a l philosophy which answers qu e s t i o n s about e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s . P r i n c i p l e s of the philosophy were d i s t i l l e d from the e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e . F o l l o w i n g t h i s e l u c i d a t i o n of the ideas, CNE i n the context of l i f e l o n g education was d e s c r i b e d . I m p l i c a t i o n s f l o w i n g from adopting t h i s philosophy as a framework f o r CNE a c t i v i t i e s were d i s c u s s e d . R e s u l t a n t changes to g o a l s , means, content, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and treatment of l e a r n e r s i n CNE were c o n s i d e r e d . I t was concluded that the goals of CNE must i n c l u d e both i n d i v i d u a l nurse development as w e l l as development of the p r o f e s s i o n , these i n t e r a c t i n g to c o n t r i b u t e to improved q u a l i t y of n u r s i n g s e r v i c e . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n would be b i - l e v e l , r e q u i r i n g s p e c i f i c r o l e s f o r both c e n t r a l and l o c a l s t r u c t u r e s , while a l l o w i n g f l e x i b i l i t y i n p l a n n i n g . Treatment of l e a r n e r s would be such that c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e q u i r e d f o r l e a r n i n g throughout l i f e would be f o s t e r e d . The development of g e n e r a l i z a b l e s k i l l s r e l a t e d to a c q u i r i n g knowledge would be emphasized. An emphasis on process and probl e m - s o l v i n g rather than any s p e c i f i c content would be r e q u i r e d . I t was noted that the n u r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n would i t s e l f have to undergo changes i f l i f e l o n g education i s to be s u c c e s s f u l l y implemented as a philosophy f o r CNE.' i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT . i i LIST OF FIGURES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v i i i CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1 The Problem 2 Purpose Of T h i s Study 3 D e s c r i p t i o n Of Approach 4 D e f i n i t i o n Of Terms 8 Lear n i n g And Education 8 Con t i n u i n g Education 10 Research Questions 11 Overview 11 CHAPTER TWO: THE CURRENT STATE OF CONTINUING EDUCATION IN NURSING: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 13 The Context 13 Nursing 14 D e f i n i t i o n 14 A P r o f e s s i o n 15 Ent r y To P r a c t i c e 15 Changing Roles 16 Co n t i n u i n g Education In The H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n s 17 A H i s t o r y Of Continuing Education In Nursing 18 Present Status 22 Goals 22 V Competence To P r a c t i c e 23 P r o f e s s i o n a l i s m - The Hidden Agenda 25 O r g a n i z a t i o n 26 R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 27 The System (or Non-System) 29 The Learners 34 I n t e r n a l M o t i v a t i o n 34 E x t e r n a l M o t i v a t i o n 37 Issues In C o n t i n u i n g Education In Nursing 38 Con c l u s i o n 41 CHAPTER THREE: LIFELONG LEARNING AND LIFELONG EDUCATION ... 43 H i s t o r y 45 A R a t i o n a l i z a t i o n For L i f e l o n g L earning - Change 49 Terminology 52 L i f e l o n g Education - An E d u c a t i o n a l Philosophy 52 Goals 55 Assumptions 59 P r i n c i p l e s 62 Co n c l u s i o n 77 CHAPTER FOUR: APPLICATION OF A PHILOSOPHY OF LIFELONG EDUCATION TO CONTINUING NURSING EDUCATION 79 A Philosophy Of CNE Based On L i f e l o n g Education 80 Goals 80 A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 82 The Learners 87 Content 91 Means 95 v i C o n c l u s i o n 99 CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION 100 T e s t i n g As A Framework 100 F e a s i b i l i t y 101 E v a l u a t i o n 105 Inputs 106 F a c i l i t i e s 106 I n s t r u c t o r s 1 06 I n d i v i d u a l s 106 Costs 106 A c t i v i t i e s . .. 106 People Involvement 106 Reactions 107 Learning Change 107 P r a c t i c e Change .107 End R e s u l t s 107 Co n c l u s i o n 1 08 REFERENCES 111 v i i LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Goals Of L i f e l o n g Education 57 F i g u r e 2. Goals And P r i n c i p l e s Of L i f e l o n g Education ...... 64 F i g u r e 3. Philosophy Of L i f e l o n g Education - A p p l i c a t i o n .. 81 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to g r a t e f u l l y acknowledge the support and encouragement o f f e r e d at v a r i o u s times and i n sundry ways by my f a t h e r , the P h i l l i p s f a m i l y , Roland, the members of my c e l l group, Dr. R. Boshier, and Dr. T. Sork. A l l of these i n d i v i d u a l s have c o n t r i b u t e d to the completion of t h i s work. 1 CONTINUING EDUCATION IN NURSING: A LIFELONG LEARNING PERSPECTIVE CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION The p r o f e s s i o n s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been i d e n t i f i e d with s p e c i f i c and s p e c i a l i z e d bodies of knowledge. In the past, t h i s " s p e c i a l " knowledge has c r e a t e d a "mystique" around the p r o f e s s i o n a l . Today, the halo around the p r o f e s s i o n s i s r a p i d l y changing i f not f a d i n g a l t o g e t h e r . Two f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e to t h i s . F i r s t , consumers of p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s are becoming more knowledgeable and v o c a l about what they can reasonably expect from p r o f e s s i o n a l s . I n c r e a s i n g l y , there i s d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t with the p r o f e s s i o n s (Houle, 1980). Secondly, f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l , the nature of knowledge i s changing. There has been an exp o n e n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n the knowledge base i n v i r t u a l l y a l l areas i n which p r o f e s s i o n a l s might serve. As a consequence, the p r o f e s s i o n s have become i n c r e a s i n g l y aware of, and concerned with the p r o v i s i o n of q u a l i t y s e r v i c e s . The e f f o r t s of the p r o f e s s i o n s i n response to t h i s c h a l l e n g e have r e s u l t e d i n the growth of the c o n t i n u i n g education i n d u s t r y . Of course, other avenues such as s e l f - r e g u l a t i o n of the p r o f e s s i o n s and new laws r e l a t i n g to them have been explored, but c o n t i n u i n g education i s viewed as an important p a r t of the answer to the need f o r a s s u r i n g q u a l i t y . Consequently, 2 t r a d i t i o n a l c o n t i n u i n g education o f f e r i n g s have i n c r e a s e d and i n n o v a t i v e approaches have been developed. Use of new t e c h n o l o g i e s , new approaches to the accumulation of " c r e d i t " f o r c o n t i n u i n g education experiences and a p r o l i f e r a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s r e l a t e d to s p e c i a l i z e d t o p i c s have h i g h l i g h t e d the growth. The n u r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n has shared the concern of other p r o f e s s i o n s i n regard to the p r o v i s i o n of q u a l i t y s e r v i c e s . In n u r s i n g too, there has been an i n c r e a s e d s t r e s s i n recent years on the p r o v i s i o n of c o n t i n u i n g education o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The Problem There are i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t , at l e a s t f o r n u r s i n g , c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n designed to ensure q u a l i t y care has not proven to be e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y . There are i n d i c a t i o n s i n the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t c o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g i s a "piecemeal" approach to meeting c o n t i n u i n g l e a r n i n g needs. Although o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g are on the i n c r e a s e , there would seem to be no u n i f y i n g concept that g i v e s d i r e c t i o n to t h e i r p r o v i s i o n . Instead, c o n t i n u i n g education a c t i v i t i e s serve l a r g e l y " m i d r o - l e v e l " , "maintenance-type" needs (Pipke, 1981). In a d d i t i o n , i t has yet to be c o n c l u s i v e l y demonstrated that e x i s t i n g c o n t i n u i n g education a c t i v i t i e s promote l e a r n i n g and i n f l u e n c e n u r s i n g p r a c t i c e . T h i s problem, however, i s not unique to n u r s i n g . In f a c t , a l l the p r o f e s s i o n s have questioned 3 the e f f i c a c y of formal c o n t i n u i n g l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Given these two n o t i o n s , i t would seem that c o n t i n u i n g n u r s i n g education (CNE) i s , i n a sense, i n a s t a t e of c r i s i s . The s h i p of resources f o r CNE i s proceeding at f u l l speed without a rudder, helmsman, or a p a r t i c u l a r , c o h e r e n t l y i d e n t i f i e d , d e s t i n a t i o n i n mind. Meanwhile, in the world of c h i l d h o o d , a d u l t , and higher e d u c a t i o n , " l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g " i s g r a d u a l l y coming to the fore as a p l a u s i b l e o r g a n i z i n g p r i n c i p l e f o r the c r e a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l s of a l l ages. T h i s and r e l a t e d concepts -- l i f e l o n g education and r e c u r r e n t education -- have been o f f e r e d as s o l u t i o n s to the n e c e s s i t y f o r continued l e a r n i n g i n a world of r a p i d t e c h n o l o g i c a l and s o c i e t a l change. Purpose of T h i s Study The purpose of t h i s t h e s i s was to examine the conceptual foundations of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g and i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y to the p r o v i s i o n of c o n t i n u i n g n u r s i n g education o p p o r t u n i t i e s , the u l t i m a t e u s e f u l n e s s of that a p p l i c a t i o n , and the way i t can best be accomplished, i f indeed i t should be. To begin t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to the two t o p i c s of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g and the c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e of c o n t i n u i n g n u r s i n g education was examined. Since t h i s t h e s i s was an attempt to apply a set of ideas ( l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g ) to a given s i t u a t i o n ( c o n t i n u i n g n u r s i n g e d u c a t i o n ) , i t was necessary to examine that set of ideas c l o s e l y and determine assumptions and goals that 4 stem from i t . It w i l l be argued that l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g has a subset, l i f e l o n g education. As an e d u c a t i o n a l philosophy, l i f e l o n g e ducation can be a p p l i e d to many s i t u a t i o n s . T h i s i s the case because l i f e l o n g education has the p r o p e r t i e s of a philosophy, and as such f u l f i l l s c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s r e l a t e d to d e l i n e a t i n g g oals and processes i n e d u c a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s . The j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h i s study i s d e r i v e d from the f a c t that the attempt to apply the n o t i o n of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g to the p r a c t i c e of CNE i s an example of borrowing and r e f o r m u l a t i n g knowledge from one d i s c i p l i n e and a p p l y i n g i t to another. Jensen (1964) d e s c r i b e d how the unique body of knowledge on which a d u l t education i s based has been formed, at. l e a s t i n p a r t , by "borrowing" from r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s . T h i s t h e s i s took the process one step f u r t h e r by ask i n g how a concept from a d u l t education can be u s e f u l to n u r s i n g , a r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e . Asking such q u e s t i o n s can u l t i m a t e l y c o n t r i b u t e to f u r t h e r honing of the body of knowledge of a d u l t and higher education i n that p r o v i d i n g an answer w i l l r e q u i r e more p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n s and f u r t h e r e l u c i d a t i o n of concepts. T h e r e f o r e , to begin the study, CNE was d e s c r i b e d . F o l l o w i n g an examination of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g an attempt was made to l i n k i t and CNE by u t i l i z i n g key concepts of the former to make recommendations for a l t e r a t i o n s i n the l a t t e r . D e s c r i p t i o n of Approach The methodology u t i l i z e d i n approaching t h i s study was 5 borrowed from a n a l y t i c p h i l o s o p h e r s of education. According to M c C l e l l a n and Komisar (1962), a n a l y s i s i s an important part of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r a d i t i o n i n educ a t i o n . P h i l o s o p h e r s of education address q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the r a t i o n a l e f o r p r a c t i c e s i n the f i e l d and have r e c e n t l y been concerned with s p e c i f i c and d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of concepts (Frankena, 1962). T h i s i s known as a n a l y t i c p h i l o s o p h y . While p h i l o s o p h e r s i n ed u c a t i o n are concerned about normative a s p e c t s of e d u c a t i o n a l thought, a n a l y t i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r s are, i n p a r t , concerned with making e x p l i c i t the meaning of "concepts, arguments, slogans, and statements" (Frankena, 1966, p. 8). While conducting t h i s e l u c i d a t i o n , a n a l y t i c p h i l o s o p h e r s c l a i m to h o l d a " n e u t r a l stance" ( S o l t i s , 1978, p. 83) i g n o r i n g t h e i r own va l u e systems while they "search i n t o the l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s of e d u c a t i o n a l ideas" (p. 83). Some l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g a n a l y t i c philosophy conveys the impression that i t c o n s i s t s s o l e l y of t h i s a n a l y s i s of language ( E l i a s & Merriam, 1980; H i r s t & P e t e r s , 1970). I t i s true that one t o o l used by a n a l y t i c p h i l o s o p h e r s i s the " e l u c i d a t i o n of concepts", t h i s having been d e s c r i b e d as being "the most c l e a r l y a n a l y t i c endeavor" ( M c C l e l l a n & Komisar, 1962, p. v i i ) i n a n a l y t i c p h i l o s o p h y . I t c o n s i s t s of " a r t i c u l a t i n g whatever c o n v e n t i o n a l r e g u l a r i t i e s ( c r i t e r i a ) are to be found i n the a p p l i c a t i o n of a term i n some range of s i m i l a r c o n t e x t s " ( M c C l e l l a n & Komisar, 1962, p. v i i ) . T h i s search f o r d e f i n i t i o n has been termed conceptual a n a l y s i s . 6 However, there i s a second t o o l used i n a n a l y t i c p h i l o s o p h y . I t i s c a l l e d r a t i o n a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . M c C l e l l a n and Komisar (1962) s a i d that t h i s i s a more c o n s t r u c t i v e a n a l y t i c a c t i v i t y . A r a t i o n a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s more than an e l u c i d a t i o n of concepts i n that ... i t has to go beyond the l i m i t a t i o n s , a m b i g u i t i e s , and i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s of common usage and has to show how we had b e t t e r construe the meanings of those terms i f we wish to a r r i v e at a c o n s i s t e n t and comprehensive theory ... (p. x ) . The work of r a t i o n a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n c o n s i s t s of three phases: 1) i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a b s t r a c t elements 2) establishment of r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the elements 3) a p p l i c a t i o n of the whole "as a b a s i s f o r g u i d i n g and c r i t i c i z i n g the conduct of the o r i g i n a l a c t i v i t y from which the a b s t r a c t i o n began" ( M c C l e l l a n & Komisar, 1962, p. x i ) T h i s i s what was accomplished i n the present study. Beyond the use of conceptual a n a l y s i s to s p e c i f y d e f i n i t i o n s , t h i s second t o o l of a n a l y t i c philosophy was used to assess l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g and l i f e l o n g education i n a search f o r commonalities that would guide implementation. How these commonalities or " p r i n c i p l e s " r e l a t e to each other i s i l l u s t r a t e d and f i n a l l y the a p p l i c a t i o n to CNE i s made. In going beyond the use of conceptual a n a l y s i s i n t h i s study, i t was recognized that conceptual a n a l y s i s i s an important p a r t of a n a l y t i c p h ilosophy. However as M c C l e l l a n and Komisar (1962) warned, i t may be wise to r e t a i n some of the vagueness i n the language of education because "some newly in t r o d u c e d concepts ... are e x p r e s s i o n s i n search of a 7 d e f i n i t i o n , not terms whose meaning we d i s c o v e r through a n a l y s i s " (p. v i i i ) . The concept of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g was t r e a t e d as being i n t h i s category. Consequently, although i t was important to t h i s study to d e f i n e and e l u c i d a t e the concept of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g , t h i s was not the u l t i m a t e goal of the t h e s i s . One f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n should be taken i n t o account i n regard to methodology. In t h i s study, there was one d e v i a t i o n from the g e n e r a l usage of an a n a l y t i c a l p h i l o s o p h i c a l methodology. Since l i f e l o n g education was i d e n t i f i e d as a subset of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g and a philosophy i n i t s own r i g h t , the methods of a n a l y t i c philosophy .were being a p p l i e d to . a philosophy r a t h e r than a concept per se. Frankena (1966) p r o v i d e d a model, based on the ideas of a n a l y t i c p hilosophy, f o r j u s t such a task. Frankena (1966) s t a t e d that the i n q u i r e r looks f o r " d i s p o s i t i o n s " (p. 13) i n the philosophy, the r a t i o n a l e f o r those d i s p o s i t i o n s , and recommendations f o r implementation. T h e r e f o r e , i n the study, p r i n c i p l e s which can form the b a s i s f o r the a p p l i c a t i o n of the philosophy were enunciated. T h i s process i s p a r t of the r a t i o n a l r e c o n s t r u c t i v e phase of a n a l y t i c p h i l o s o p h y . I t i s a l s o the part of a n a l y t i c philosophy where r e c o g n i t i o n of the value assumptions that c h a r a c t e r i z e the philosophy are important. To summarize, t h i s study was an a p p l i c a t i o n of the two p a r t s of a n a l y t i c philosophy — conceptual a n a l y s i s and r a t i o n a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n - to a concept and a philosophy of e d u c a t i o n . 8 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Learning and Education The key concepts i n the terms " l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g " , " l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n " , and " c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n " are "education" and " l e a r n i n g . " I t was necessary to d i s t i n g u i s h between the two and i d e n t i f y the scope of each before proceeding. Gagne (1977) d e f i n e d l e a r n i n g as "a change in human d i s p o s i t i o n or c a p a b i l i t y , which p e r s i s t s over a p e r i o d of time, and which i s not simply a s c r i b a b l e to processes of growth" (p.3). According to Jensen (1964) and L i t t l e (1979), l e a r n i n g may take p l a c e i n any of s e v e r a l s i t u a t i o n s , ranging from spontaneous unplanned l e a r n i n g , to systematic design of s e l f -d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g , to i n s t i t u t i o n - d e s i g n e d l e a r n i n g . In t h i s approach to the d e f i n i t i o n a l problem, l e a r n i n g i s a broader phenomenon than e d u c a t i o n . Education i s the c r e a t i o n of c o n d i t i o n s designed to f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g . In a sense, education i s an i m p o s i t i o n on the occurrence of the i n t e r n a l process of l e a r n i n g and i s the arrangement of e x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s that f o s t e r i t . By d e f i n i t i o n , i t i s the d e l i b e r a t e and systematic arrangement of the c o n d i t i o n s of l e a r n i n g . Education i s one type of s i t u a t i o n in which l e a r n i n g may occur. Cropley (1977) argued f o r an an o p p o s i t e view to the one expressed above. T h i s author c o n c e p t u a l i z e d education as being 9 the more gen e r a l process whereas l e a r n i n g i s d e f i n e d as "the process through which education occurs" (p. 36). In c o n t r a s t to t h i s , the idea that was used f o r t h i s t h e s i s i s that education i s one of the processes through which l e a r n i n g o c c u r s . However, more important f o r present purposes i s that Cropley (1977) admitted that education "does not r e s u l t s o l e l y from contact with s c h o o l s " (p. 38) ( i e . f o r m a l l y planned l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n an i n s t i t u t i o n ) . Education can take p l a c e o u t s i d e of i n s t i t u t i o n s . Dave (1983) equated education with "the whole continuum of s i t u a t i o n s f o r p u r p o s e f u l l e a r n i n g ranging from well-planned and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d l e a r n i n g to n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d and i n c i d e n t a l l e a r n i n g " (p. 4). Dave's (1983) i n c l u s i o n of i n c i d e n t a l l e a r n i n g as . p a r t of l i f e l o n g education i s i n c o n s i s t e n t with the d e f i n i t i o n of education d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r . The a d d i t i o n of the a d j e c t i v e " l i f e l o n g " to the terms "education" and " l e a r n i n g " stems from the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the two processes as extending over the e n t i r e l i f e s p a n of the i n d i v i d u a l . In a d d i t i o n to t h i s obvious i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the term " l i f e l o n g " , i t can a l s o be i n t e r p r e t e d as " l i f e w i d e " (Cropley, 1980) meaning that l e a r n i n g and e d u c a t i v e processes occur i n a v a r i e t y of s i t u a t i o n s . Thus l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g and l i f e l o n g e ducation are seen as processes which, i n a v a r i e t y of ways, continue through l i f e . Mocker and Spear (1982) presented a model of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g which i l l u m i n a t e d t h i s i d e a . A c c o r d i n g to these 10 authors, l e a r n i n g can take p l a c e i n any of four modes — formal, nonformal, i n f o r m a l and s e l f - d i r e c t e d — d i f f e r e n t i a t e d by whether or not the l e a r n e r or the i n s t i t u t i o n i n v o l v e d c o n t r o l s the ends and means of the p r o c e s s . A l l of these l e a r n i n g modes are planned, thus a l l are e d u c a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s . Mocker and Spear l e f t out spontaneous l e a r n i n g where the o b j e c t i v e s and means are unorganized by e i t h e r the l e a r n e r or an i n s t i t u t i o n . Hence, i n t h i s r e s p e c t , t h e i r model was incomplete. However, i t does demonstrate the breadth of " e d u c a t i o n a l " s i t u a t i o n s which should be c o n s i d e r e d . Given the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of l i f e l o n g education as being l i f e w i d e , i t i s not enough f o r the educator to c o n s i d e r only formal l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s . I t must, of course, be re c o g n i z e d that these d e f i n i t i o n s i d e n t i f y only the meaning of the "words" i n v o l v e d — they do not a l e r t the c a s u a l reader to the complexity of the m i l i e u surrounding the n o t i o n s of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g and i t s subset, l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . T h i s m i l i e u i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter Three. Continuing Education The term " c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n " i s a semantic r e l a t i v e of " l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . " I t was used i n t h i s t h e s i s , as i n the l i t e r a t u r e , to r e f e r s p e c i f i c a l l y to the exte n s i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l experiences i n t o the p r o f e s s i o n a l l i f e of an i n d i v i d u a l who has completed formal t r a i n i n g f o r a p r o f e s s i o n . T h e r e f o r e , c o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g w i l l r e f e r to e d u c a t i o n a l experiences which have a bearing on n u r s i n g p r a c t i c e 11 a f t e r i n i t i a l p r o f e s s i o n a l education or t r a i n i n g . C o n t i n u i n g education w i l l be d e f i n e d simply as the American Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n (ANA) d e f i n e d i t as c o n s i s t i n g of "planned l e a r n i n g experiences beyond a b a s i c n u r s i n g e d u c a t i o n a l program" ("Standards f o r Continuing ... , 1975, p. 1). Research Questions The key q u e s t i o n of i n t e r e s t i n t h i s study was: How can the n o t i o n of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g be of use i n CNE? In order to answer t h i s q u e s t i o n , these q u e s t i o n s must a l s o be asked: What p r i n c i p l e s represent the core ideas of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g which would have to be taken i n t o account i n order f o r implementation to occur? Is i t f e a s i b l e to assume that the n o t i o n of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g can be of use i n CNE? How can the p r i n c i p l e s of the n o t i o n of l i f e l o n g education be a p p l i e d to CNE? In order to answer these q u e s t i o n s , an understanding of both the c u r r e n t s t a t e of CNE and the concept of l i f e l o n g education must be achieved. In an attempt to answer these q u e s t i o n s , the f o l l o w i n g format i s used. Overview Chapter Two reviews l i t e r a t u r e concerning c o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g and d e s c r i b e s i t s context and c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e . Of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t are c o n t i n u i n g education i n 1 2 other p r o f e s s i o n s , the goals and o r g a n i z a t i o n of CNE, the nurse as the l e a r n e r , and the value of f o r m a l i z e d CNE a c t i v i t i e s and i n d i v i d u a l nurse's e d u c a t i o n a l endeavours. Credence given to the n o t i o n s of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g and l i f e l o n g education f o r CNE i s acknowledged and present day use of the concept i n n u r s i n g i s d i s c u s s e d . Chapter Three d e s c r i b e s and analyzes l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g and l i f e l o n g education as concepts c u r r e n t l y used i n the l i t e r a t u r e of a d u l t and higher e d u c a t i o n . The author attempted to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e the n o t i o n of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . To accomplish t h i s task, i t was necessary to review l i t e r a t u r e concerning the h i s t o r i c a l and conceptual r o o t s of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g and l i f e l o n g education and assumptions upon which they are based. In Chapter Three, the emphasis i s on l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , a subset of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g . As i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , l i f e l o n g e ducation i s t r e a t e d as a philosophy of education and examined in terms of i t s g o a l s , assumptions, and a s s o c i a t e d p r i n c i p l e s of o p e r a t i o n . In Chapter Four, a p r o p o s a l f o r the s y n t h e s i s of l i f e l o n g e d ucation and CNE i s o f f e r e d . Recommendations f o r a l t e r a t i o n s i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n are given. These recommendations r e l a t e s p e c i f i c a l l y to g o a l s , means, content, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s and treatment of the l e a r n e r i n CNE a c t i v i t i e s . 13 CHAPTER TWO THE CURRENT STATE OF CONTINUING EDUCATION IN NURSING: A REVIEW OF LITERATURE Con t i n u i n g education i s a growing although r e l a t i v e l y recent aspect of the f i e l d of n u r s i n g . Although p o o r l y documented, i t i s evident that there has been a dramatic i n c r e a s e i n CNE o p p o r t u n i t i e s over the l a s t decade. The l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e s , however, that t h i s growth has not n e c e s s a r i l y been c o o r d i n a t e d i n an e f f i c i e n t manner. Continuing education i n n u r s i n g i s g a n g l i n g i n i t s youth. Numerous authors have made comments r e l a t e d to CNE's unwieldy nature: Nakamoto and Verner (1975) d e s c r i b e d CNE as being "piecemeal" (p.4), G r i f f i n (1978) s a i d that o f f e r i n g s "resemble smorgasbords" (p. 3) and the R e g i s t e r e d Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia (RNABC) d e s c r i b e d i t as being, f o r B r i t i s h Columbia (B.C.) at l e a s t , "ad hoc" ("Continuing Education f o r 1978, p. 4) and i n need of a c o o r d i n a t i n g mechanism. The Context The p r a c t i c e of c o n t i n u i n g education f o r nurses e x i s t s w i t h i n the framework of the n u r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n and i t c o e x i s t s with the c o n t i n u i n g education p r a c t i c e s of other h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n s . C o n t i n u i n g education in n u r s i n g a l s o e x i s t s w i t h i n the context of i t s own p a s t . Issues which face the n u r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n as a whole are r e f l e c t e d i n the c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , before examining contemporary 1 4 CNE, the n u r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n , c o n t i n u i n g education i n the a l l i e d h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n s as a whole, and the h i s t o r y of c o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g must be c o n s i d e r e d . Nursing D e f i n i t i o n Nursing i s an a r t and a s c i e n c e . I t i s a s c i e n c e because the p r a c t i c e of n u r s i n g r e q u i r e s a body of knowledge, which can be b u i l t upon, drawn from v a r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e s . Nursing resembles an a r t because i t s p r a c t i c e r e q u i r e s a d a p t a t i o n of knowledge i n s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s . Most important to a d e f i n i t i o n , however, i s that n u r s i n g , as an a r t and s c i e n c e , p r o v i d e s "a s e r v i c e " ( P i e r c e , 1972, p.4). The c e n t r a l focus i s the "care of people who need h e l p i n coping with problems along the continuum of h e a l t h - i l l n e s s " . ( P i e r c e , 1972, p.4). T h i s i s not to say that the nurse i s always d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n g i v i n g care but the nurse i s c e r t a i n l y the f a c i l i t a t o r of the care r e q u i r e d (Orem, 1971). The p o s i t i o n of "nurse" i s not new but n u r s i n g i s s t r u g g l i n g with the need to develop a unique i d e n t i t y . Perhaps the most prominent i s s u e that n u r s i n g must d e a l with i s i t s establishment as a p r o f e s s i o n . Related i s s u e s are the changing r o l e s of nurses and the education r e q u i r e d f o r entry to p r a c t i c e . 1 5 A P r o f e s s i o n ? Nursing has been s t r u g g l i n g f o r years to o b t a i n r e c o g n i t i o n , both from w i t h i n and without, as a p r o f e s s i o n . I t s s t a t u s i n t h i s regard has been dubious. Whether nursing t r u l y possesses some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a p r o f e s s i o n , such as a d i s t i n c t and unique body of knowledge, and c l e a r l y d e f i n e d c a r e e r paths, i s a source of debate. S t y l e s (1975) argued that n u r s i n g l a c k s "coherence; i e . that q u a l i t y of being l o g i c a l l y i n t e g r a t e d , c o n s i s t e n t , and i n t e l l i g i b l e " (p. 7) i n almost every f a c e t — ranging from the o r g a n i z a t i o n of i t s p r a c t i t i o n e r s to the education of r e c r u i t s to the f i e l d . Somers (1971) noted that " t h i s important p r o f e s s i o n f i n d s i t s e l f today i n a s o r t of p r o f e s s i o n a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l limbo" (p.94). The reasons f o r these problems are not e n t i r e l y c l e a r . However, the n u r s i n g community must deal with them i f i t i s to achieve a d e f i n i t e i d e n t i t y . Entry to P r a c t i c e Part of the i d e n t i t y problem stems from the f a c t that there are d i f f e r e n t methods of e n t e r i n g the f i e l d . These are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the " p r o f e s s i o n a l " approach, u s u a l l y i n v o l v i n g u n i v e r s i t y study, and the " t e c h n i c a l " approach ("Standards f o r c o n t i n u i n g ... , 1975). There i s l i t t l e a r t i c u l a t i o n between the two and c r i t i c i s m s of both e x i s t . Graduates of the " p r o f e s s i o n a l " approach are seen as being inadequate i n " p r a c t i c a l " n ursing and " t e c h n i c a l " graduates are seen as not 16 c o n t r i b u t i n g to the p r o f e s s i o n . T h i s i s one of the problems r e l a t e d to what Nakamoto and Verner (1972) term the "ambiguity surrounding n u r s i n g " (p.66). The " d i f f e r e n t i a l p r e p a r a t i o n " (Lysaught, 1974, p. 295) of nurses has caused d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r the n u r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n as a whole and has r a m i f i c a t i o n s f o r the p r a c t i c e of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . Part of the c o n f u s i o n i n p r e p a r i n g nurses may stem from the a p p a r e n t l y d i f f e r i n g g o als of n u r s i n g s e r v i c e and n u r s i n g education (Huckaby, 1979). Nursing s e r v i c e takes a pragmatic, p r e s e n t - o r i e n t e d view of n u r s i n g s i t u a t i o n s , based on the d e s i r e to ensure that s e r v i c e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are c a r r i e d out. Nursing education, and i n p a r t i c u l a r , that type which prepares " p r o f e s s i o n a l s " r a t h e r than " t e c h n i c i a n s " , i s more concerned with what, i d e a l l y , the nurse "should be" i f the p r o f e s s i o n i s to progress ( F e l t o n , 1980). The l a c k of agreement on the goals of b a s i c nursing e d u c a t i o n and more g e n e r a l l y , the f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n of the n u r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n i t s e l f , has meant that the i s s u e of p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m i s l a r g e l y u n r e s o l v e d . In the recent past, there has been a move, at l e a s t i n Canada, to assure a u n i v e r s i t y - t y p e " p r o f e s s i o n a l " education f o r a l l i n d i v i d u a l s e n t e r i n g the f i e l d . Changing Roles To add to the dilemma, t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes i n medical s c i e n c e have impinged on the n u r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n . Nursing has responded to the i n c r e a s i n g complexity by f u r t h e r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n 17 among i t s ranks (Cooper & Hornback, 1973; Lysaught, 1974). The " b a s i c " education experience of the i n d i v i d u a l nurse does not, i n most cases, prepare that person f o r these s p e c i a l i z e d and o f t e n h i g h l y t e c h n i c a l r o l e s . Further to t h i s , there i s a movement toward primary n u r s i n g (Cooper & Byrns, 1973), a type of p r a c t i c e i n which the nurse has an expanded r o l e and takes i n c r e a s e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the welfare of the i n d i v i d u a l p a t i e n t . The c r e a t i o n of c o n t i n u i n g education o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r nurses i s a f f e c t e d by the present s t a t e of the nursing p r o f e s s i o n i n terms of i t s own s t a b i l i t y and coherence. At present, the n u r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n i s not strong on e i t h e r of these p o i n t s . C o n t i n u i n g Education i n the H e a l t h P r o f e s s i o n s Continuing education i n n u r s i n g e x i s t s c o n c u r r e n t l y with that o f f e r e d i n other h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n s . I t i s l o g i c a l to assume that i t i s i n f l u e n c e d by c o n t i n u i n g education p r a c t i c e s i n these a l l i e d p r o f e s s i o n s . Houle (1970) noted, i n f a c t , that " a l l p r o f e s s i o n s have marked s i m i l a r i t i e s of approach when they undertake c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n a l programs" (p.6). The f a c t t h a t c o n t i n u i n g nursing education resembles the more e s t a b l i s h e d p r o f e s s i o n s may not n e c e s s a r i l y bode w e l l f o r CNE. Houle (1970) s t a t e d that "at present, the most s t a r t l i n g and i r o n i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of c o n t i n u i n g education i s i t s d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n the experience of the p r o f e s s i o n a l h i m s e l f " 18 (p.8). Hutchinson (1973) s a i d that " c o n t i n u i n g education f o r h e a l t h manpower i s marked by i t s d i s c o n t i n u i t y . The s e a r c h l i g h t of a p p r a i s a l f i n d s the 'system' of c o n t i n u i n g education a non-system. I t tends to be s p o r a d i c , fragmented, and n o n s e q u e n t i a l " (p.133). Despite the problems, c o n t i n u i n g education i n the h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n s i s assuming g r e a t e r importance both i n the l i f e of the i n d i v i d u a l p r o f e s s i o n a l and as p a r t of the p r o f e s s i o n as a whole. Consumer demand and the d e s i r e of p r o f e s s i o n a l s to b e t t e r themselves f o r t h e i r p o s i t i o n s are a s s u r i n g a p l a c e f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . As much as c o n t i n u i n g education i n i n d i v i d u a l p r o f e s s i o n s i s blossoming, a l b e i t i n an uncoordinated manner, there i s l i t t l e i n t e r - p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . The p r o f e s s i o n s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by " i s o l a t i o n i s m " (Hutchinson, 1973) i n regard to what they deem to be t h e i r unique f u n c t i o n s and need for knowledge. I t i s only r e c e n t l y that i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y e f f o r t s i n the p r o v i s i o n of c o n t i n u i n g education o p p o r t u n i t i e s have been attempted. Cooper (1972a) i n d i c a t e d that one problem with i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y c o n t i n u i n g education i s that i t i s o f t e n seen as one d i s c i p l i n e p r o v i d i n g education f o r another with l i t t l e r e a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n . A Hi s t o r y of Continuing Education i n Nursing F l o r e n c e N i g h t i n g a l e i s r e p o r t e d to have s a i d , "Let us never c o n s i d e r o u r s e l v e s as f i n i s h e d nurses ... We must be 19 l e a r n i n g a l l of our l i v e s " (Goldberg, 1975, p. 1). During the l a s t century, p r o v i s i o n of f o r m a l l y organized o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n c o n t i n u i n g education f o r nurses has i n c r e a s e d . A b r i e f examination of the progress of CNE demonstrates that some of the problems faced were s i m i l a r to and grew out of those faced by the p r o f e s s i o n as a whole. In the e a r l i e s t part of the present century, nurses worked p r i m a r i l y i n h o s p i t a l s and p r i v a t e duty. The p o s i t i o n of nurse was not h i g h l y lauded -- i t was a woman's job (Cooper, 1978). The nurse was seen as. a handmaiden (Schweer, 1978), and the p o s i t i o n was not h i g h l y p a i d . Basic n u r s i n g education c o n s i s t e d of " t r a i n i n g " , r a t h e r than a well-rounded academic and p r a c t i c a l course of s t u d i e s . Although i t was r e c o g n i z e d that nurses needed to l e a r n , there was l i t t l e time and few o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r them to p a r t i c i p a t e i n e d u c a t i o n a l programs d i r e c t e d toward improving t h e i r p r a c t i c e . According to s e v e r a l w r i t e r s , post-graduate courses, a type of i n s e r v i c e education o f f e r e d by h o s p i t a l s , were the f i r s t formal e f f o r t s aimed at b e t t e r i n g the p r a c t i c e of n u r s i n g through c o n t i n u i n g education (Cooper & Hornback, 1973; L u s s i e r , 1980; Nakamoto, 1972). Begun i n the f i r s t decade of the 1900's, these courses were u s u a l l y r e l a t e d to c l i n i c a l s p e c i a l t i e s . There i s reason to b e l i e v e that the courses d i d not represent the most e d u c a t i o n a l l y sound endeavours and that t h e i r q u a l i t y v a r i e d g r e a t l y . The primary m o t i v a t i o n of h o s p i t a l s i n p r o v i d i n g these courses seems to have been to i n c r e a s e t h e i r work f o r c e . 20 In the beginning of t h i s century, the general e d u c a t i o n a l system made l i t t l e p r o v i s i o n f o r c o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g . Cooper and Hornback (1973) and L u s s i e r (1980) i n d i c a t e d that i n the year 1899, courses were o f f e r e d by Columbia U n i v e r s i t y f o r r e g i s t e r e d nurses. G r a d u a l l y , the connection between n u r s i n g and higher education strengthened. By the 1940's, nurses were seeking c o l l e g e c r e d i t f o r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o n t i n u i n g education and the post-graduate courses of e a r l i e r times were l e s s a p p r e c i a t e d . In that decade, the U n i v e r s i t y of P i t t s b u r g h o f f e r e d u n i v e r s i t y c o n t i n u i n g education courses (Schweer, 1978). The 1920's saw a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t form of c o n t i n u i n g education become a v a i l a b l e to nurses. Workshops, short courses, and i n s t i t u t e s were sponsored by i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the American Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n and the N a t i o n a l League f o r Nursing (NLN) (Cooper, 1982). U n i v e r s i t y s c hools of n u r s i n g began at t h i s time and there was some u n i v e r s i t y involvement i n c o n t i n u i n g education (Cooper & Hornback, 1973; Goldberg, 1975). A f t e r World War I, n u r s i n g changed somewhat as nurse veterans sought p o s i t i o n s other than p r i v a t e duty (Cooper, 1978). World War II provided the impetus f o r the development of r e f r e s h e r courses f o r nurses. H o s p i t a l s found that they needed s t a f f and i n a c t i v e nurses wished to r e t u r n to p r a c t i c e to support the war e f f o r t . Consequently, h o s p i t a l s developed r e f r e s h e r programs (Cooper & Hornback, 1973; Schweer, 1978). In those e a r l y times, u n i v e r s i t i e s were not p a r t i c u l a r l y 21 i n v o l v e d i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . By 1959, i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , f e d e r a l funds became a v a i l a b l e f o r the p r o v i s i o n of short courses i n n u r s i n g (Cooper, 1978; Cooper & Hornback, 1973). At about the same time, three regions developed i n t e r s t a t e higher education consortiums. Two important consortiums were WICHE, the Western I n t e r s t a t e C o u n c i l on Higher Education, and WCHEN, the Western C o u n c i l on Higher E d u c a t i o n . These groupings have had strong n u r s i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and C o u n c i l s on Nursing Education have been e s t a b l i s h e d as sub-bodies. These groups c o n t r i b u t e d to r e g i o n a l p l a n n i n g f o r c o n t i n u i n g education f o r nurses by i n s t i t u t i o n s of higher education (Nakamoto, 1972; Schweer, 1978). In 1968, the p r o f e s s i o n ' s concern with c o n t i n u i n g education was demonstrated i n a n a t i o n a l conference h e l d at the U n i v e r s i t y of Wisconsin. T h i s was f o l l o w e d up i n 1969 by the F i r s t N a t i o n a l Conference on C o n t i n u i n g Education i n Nursing h e l d at W i l l i a m s b u r g , V i r g i n i a . T h i s meeting was concerned with the r o l e of i n s t i t u t i o n s of higher education i n the p r o v i s i o n of c o n t i n u i n g education f o r nurses (Nakamoto, 1972). A Second N a t i o n a l Conference was h e l d at Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y i n 1970. T h i s meeting recommended working with the ANA i n the p r o v i s i o n of c o n t i n u i n g n u r s i n g education ( L u s s i e r , 1980 ; Goldberg, 1975). Consequently, i n 1973, the ANA C o u n c i l on Continuing Education was e s t a b l i s h e d . The h i s t o r y of CNE i n Canada has p a r a l l e l e d that i n the United S t a t e s . Canadian nurses, too, have demonstrated concern 22 for c o n t i n u i n g education i n t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n . At the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Congress of Nurses (ICN) meeting h e l d i n Montreal in 1969, an a d d i t i o n a l s e s s i o n .was devoted to c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . Canadian nurses h e l d t h e i r own f i r s t n a t i o n a l conference on c o n t i n u i n g education i n 1979 (L u s s i e r , 1 9 8 0 ) . Recent trends i n CNE i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s have been r e l a t e d to the concern f o r q u a l i t y . As e a r l y as 1970, a mechanism f o r the approval of programs, the C o n t i n u i n g Education R e c o g n i t i o n Program (CERP), was embraced by s t a t e nurses' a s s o c i a t i o n s who urged t h e i r members to p a r t i c i p a t e to maintain competence (Cooper, 1982; L u s s i e r , 1980). L a t e r in the 1970's, the ANA urged p a r t i c i p a t i o n by s t a t e a s s o c i a t i o n s i n a nationwide Continuing Education Approval and R e c o g n i t i o n Program (CEARP). In 1975, a system f o r n a t i o n a l a c c r e d i t a t i o n of c o n t i n u i n g education o f f e r i n g s was c r e a t e d by the American Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n (Cooper, 1982, p. 106). Much of t h i s a c t i v i t y was r e l a t e d to trends toward mandatory c o n t i n u i n g education requirements. As of 1979, ten s t a t e s had mandatory c o n t i n u i n g education laws f o r nurse r e l i c e n s u r e ( L u s s i e r , 1980). The Continuing Education U n i t was e s t a b l i s h e d as a means of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o n t i n u i n g education. Present S t a t u s Goals Today, CNE has two b a s i c purposes. The primary goal i s 23 r e l a t e d to competence. A secondary goal i s r e l a t e d to development of the emergent p r o f e s s i o n of n u r s i n g . Subtle v a r i a t i o n s on each of these themes e x i s t . Competence to p r a c t i c e The c e n t r a l purpose of CNE i s to f o s t e r competence to p r a c t i c e i n the f i e l d . The b a s i c stimulant to the p r o v i s i o n of c o n t i n u i n g education i s the maintenance (or development) of minimal c l i n i c a l competence by p r a c t i t i o n e r s (Levine, 1978). A. n a t i o n a l survey d e s c r i b e d by McNally (1972) found that i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s the primary reason fo r the e x i s t e n c e of CNE was the updating of knowledge and s k i l l s . The I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Nurses (ICN) statement ("Continuing Education f o r 1980) on CNE i n d i c a t e d that one of the purposes of c o n t i n u i n g education i s that i t should serve the p r a c t i t i o n e r ' s needs for updated knowledge. The American Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n p o s i t i o n paper on standards fo r n u r s i n g education ("Standards f o r nursing ...", 1978) i n d i c a t e d that c o n t i n u i n g education i s c e n t r a l to m a i n t a i n i n g competence. Nakamoto's (1972) review of the North American l i t e r a t u r e concluded that the primary purpose of CNE was "the achievement of the l e a r n i n g needed to improve p a t i e n t c a r e " (p. 75). A somewhat higher l e v e l purpose that has been s t a t e d i s to improve the q u a l i t y of c l i n i c a l n u r s i n g p r a c t i c e (Loucks, 1973) r a t h e r than simply m a i n t a i n i n g present l e v e l s . The R e g i s t e r e d Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia (RNABC) s t a t e d that the 24 purpose of c o n t i n u i n g education i s to c o n t r i b u t e to the improvement of nur s i n g care (Continuing Education Approval 1983; Co n t i n u i n g Education f o r R e g i s t e r e d ... , 1978). Schweer (1978) i n d i c a t e d that c o n t i n u i n g education o p p o r t u n i t i e s should b u i l d on pr e v i o u s competence, u t i l i z i n g present knowledge and s k i l l s . Such goals are a step beyond that of mai n t a i n i n g the s t a t u s quo. Some authors have adopted a more g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e on CNE. Tobin (1976a) r e l a t e d i t s p r o v i s i o n to the q u a l i t y of h e a l t h care i n g e n e r a l . Schechter (1974) and Knox (1973) i n d i c a t e d that c o n t i n u i n g education f o r h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s should improve the he a l t h . c a r e system. The primary goals of c o n t i n u i n g education are r e l a t e d c l o s e l y to p r a c t i t i o n e r s ' needs to maintain and improve performance. The a l t r u i s t i c m o t i v a t i o n f o r the nurse i n seeking e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and f o r agencies i n p r o v i d i n g them i s that i t enables the i n d i v i d u a l "to do the best of which he i s capable when c a r i n g f o r p a t i e n t s " (Hayter, 1972, p. 32) and to c o n t r i b u t e , along with other p r o f e s s i o n a l s , to the p r o v i s i o n of the best h e a l t h care p o s s i b l e . Such goals are probably the most common purposes of c o n t i n u i n g education o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r nurses. However, there are i n d i c a t i o n s that n u r s i n g l e a d e r s are aware of other p o s s i b l e purposes. Cooper and Hornback (1973) i n d i c a t e d t h at the aims of c o n t i n u i n g education are broader than that of the maintenance of competence i n the d i r e c t p r o v i s i o n of h e a l t h c a r e . These authors 25 i n d i c a t e d that c o n t i n u i n g education must h e l p the i n d i v i d u a l nurse recognize "the importance of h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the s o c i e t y of which he i s a part and the s i g n i f i c a n c e of h i s work to the common good" (Cooper & Hornback, 1973, p. 53). S i m i l a r to t h i s , the R e g i s t e r e d Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n of O n t a r i o (RNAO) ( P o s i t i o n Paper ... , 1980) s a i d CNE should serve s e v e r a l purposes i n c l u d i n g : the enhancement of p r a c t i c e , and the promotion of p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l growth. T h i s p o s i t i o n i n d i c a t e s that c o n t i n u i n g education should f a c i l i t a t e the development of the n u r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n i t s e l f . Statements such as t h i s c l e a r l y go beyond the purpose of c o n t i n u i n g education f o r nurses as being d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the p r o v i s i o n of p a t i e n t c a r e . P r o f e s s i o n a l i s m - the Hidden Agenda One argument f o r c o n t i n u i n g education i s that nurses are p r o f e s s i o n a l , and, as such, must continue t h e i r l e a r n i n g (Bevis, 1975; Hayter,1972). Cooper (1972b) and Norman (1983) suggested that one of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p r o f e s s i o n a l s i s a commitment to i n c r e a s i n g t h e i r knowledge and a b i l i t i e s r e l a t e d to p r a c t i c e . Statements s i m i l a r to these ideas, i n d i c a t e a b e l i e f , at l e a s t by authors i n the l i t e r a t u r e , i n a r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n and p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m . I t would seem that f o r the nurse, as a p r o f e s s i o n a l , c o n t i n u i n g education i s an o b l i g a t i o n . C e r t a i n l y , c o n t i n u i n g education i s , as the ANA has i n d i c a t e d (Standards fo r n u r s i n g ... , 1978), to s t i m u l a t e p e r s o n a l growth and p r o f e s s i o n a l m a t u r i t y . 26 The r e c o g n i t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of c o n t i n u i n g education to p r o f e s s i o n a l growth on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s i s a microcosm of what some authors i n d i c a t e that c o n t i n u i n g education should be accomplishing i n r e l a t i o n to the p r o f e s s i o n as a whole. S t y l e s (1975) maintained that c o n t i n u i n g education i s at "the c u t t i n g edge of the p r o f e s s i o n " (p.8). T h i s author viewed c o n t i n u i n g education f o r nurses as being "the v e h i c l e f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l coherence" ( S t y l e s , 1975, p.8). The goals of c o n t i n u i n g education are thus l i n k e d with those of the p r o f e s s i o n as a whole. The C o u n c i l on Continuing Education of the 53rd ANA Convention i n 1982 r e l a t e d c o n t i n u i n g education to "the emerging autonomy of the nursing p r o f e s s i o n " (The Impact of Continuing Education ... , 1982, p. 7). Such goals may be more i d e a l i s t i c than r e a l i s t i c . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to know a c c u r a t e l y s i n c e surveys and s t u d i e s of the u s e f u l n e s s of c o n t i n u i n g education to the developing p r o f e s s i o n are n o n - e x i s t e n t . Perhaps t h i s i s an area which the n u r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n must f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r . O r g a n i z a t i o n Today, there are an i n c r e a s i n g number of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r nurses to be i n v o l v e d i n c o n t i n u i n g education a c t i v i t i e s . These o p p o r t u n i t i e s are provided by s e v e r a l persons/groups which have i d e n t i f i e d what they see as being t h e i r r o l e . 27 R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s The l i t e r a t u r e on c o n t i n u i n g education i n nur s i n g i d e n t i f i e s s e v e r a l prime r e s p o n s i b i l i t y - b e a r e r s . The American Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n , f o r example, d e s c r i b e d the unique r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of f i v e s p e c i f i c persons/groups ("Continuing Education i n Nursing: An Overview", 1976). I t i d e n t i f i e d the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the i n d i v i d u a l , the employer, the sponsor ( i e . an e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n ) , the s t a t e nurses' a s s o c i a t i o n , and the American Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n i t s e l f . S i m i l a r l y , i n Canada, the RNABC suggested that r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o n t i n u i n g education should be shared by the i n d i v i d u a l nurse, p r o f e s s i o n a l n u r s i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , h e a l t h care agencies where nurses are employed, and e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . The RNAO i d e n t i f i e d the same bodies as the RNABC with the a d d i t i o n of governmental h e a l t h and e d u c a t i o n . The r a t i o n a l e f o r the involvement of each of these persons/groups i s understandable. The i n d i v i d u a l i s the prime p a r t i c i p a n t i n c o n t i n u i n g education a c t i v i t i e s and the key f a c t o r i n outcomes as a r e s u l t of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . The employer or h e a l t h care agency has a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to ensure a standard of c a r e administered by i t s nursing personnel and an o b l i g a t i o n t o ensure that t h i s i s adequate. E d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s have an o b l i g a t i o n , by v i r t u e of t h e i r e x i s t e n c e , to provide a c c e s s to l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the many segments of the pop u l a t i o n s which they serve. Members of the nur s i n g p r o f e s s i o n comprise one of these segments. Regional and 28 n a t i o n a l n u r s i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s have a s e l f - a p p o i n t e d mandate to uphold the n u r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n and are t h e r e f o r e r e q u i r e d to c o n t r i b u t e to the c o n t i n u i n g education of t h e i r members. F i n a l l y , government can be seen as having a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o n t i n u i n g education f o r nurses in that i t i s a major source of funding f o r h e a l t h care and education and i s concerned with the c o s t s and b e n e f i t s of i t s investment. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of c o l l e g e s and s c h o o l s of n u r s i n g w i t h i n i n s t i t u t i o n s of higher education have been d i s c u s s e d more f r e q u e n t l y ( C u r t i s , Darragh, Fancher, Ingmire, Lesnan, Orwig, P o p e i l , and Shores, 1969). As p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l s recognize that t h e i r f u n c t i o n does not end with the e j e c t i o n of the "complete" product, t h i s t r e n d w i l l be i n evidence. Each group i d e n t i f i e d has a vested i n t e r e s t i n the d i r e c t i o n CNE should take. Nursing o r g a n i z a t i o n s would be most i n t e r e s t e d , f o r example, in the promotion of the p r o f e s s i o n . On the other hand, h e a l t h care i n s t i t u t i o n s have tended to j u s t i f y education which c o n t r i b u t e s to the q u a l i t y of p a t i e n t care (Hamil, 1974). I t may be that as a r e s u l t of these d i f f e r i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , c o n f l i c t i n g d i r e c t i o n s are s e l e c t e d . T h i s seems to c h a r a c t e r i z e the c u r r e n t s t a t e of c o n t i n u i n g education in n u r s i n g . Despite the involvement of d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s , primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r continued l e a r n i n g seems to- r e s t with the i n d i v i d u a l . The ANA and the RNAO, are examples of n u r s i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s which have i n d i c a t e d that the primary 29 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the type of personal and p r o f e s s i o n a l growth that can be achieved through c o n t i n u i n g education belongs to the i n d i v i d u a l . The System (or Non-System) Continuing education f o r nurses occurs i n many s e t t i n g s . There are many l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e . These range from f o r m a l l y planned classroom l e c t u r e s to i n f o r m a l conferences. McNally's (1972) n a t i o n a l survey of c o n t i n u i n g education programs f o r r e g i s t e r e d nurses i n the United S t a t e s found that the p r i n c i p a l conductors of c o n t i n u i n g education were schools of nur s i n g (27.3%) and h o s p i t a l s (26.8%). In B r i t i s h Columbia, c o n t i n u i n g education f o r nurses i s provided by u n i v e r s i t y h e a l t h s c i e n c e d i v i s i o n s , community c o l l e g e s , the p r o v i n c i a l n u r s i n g a s s o c i a t i o n , and e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s as w e l l as i n d i v i d u a l h e a l t h care agencies. The formal o r g a n i z a t i o n of c o n t i n u i n g education o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r nurses i s probably more well-developed i n the Un i t e d S t a t e s than i n Canada. T h i s i s l i k e l y a r e s u l t of the requirement f o r mandatory c o n t i n u i n g education f o r r e l i c e n s u r e i n some s t a t e s . The ANA House of Delegates has made a motion i n d i c a t i n g that the ANA should do whatever i t can to support those i n d i v i d u a l s t a t e s that wish to e s t a b l i s h c o n t i n u i n g education f o r r e l i c e n s u r e . The American Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n p r o v i d e s strong l e a d e r s h i p i n the area of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . It has i d e n t i f i e d i t s best c a p a b i l i t y i n c o n t r i b u t i n g to 30 c o n t i n u i n g education as being that of the assessment of common ed u c a t i o n a l needs and the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of standards for n u r s i n g p r a c t i c e ( " S e l f - D i r e c t e d C o n t i n u i n g ... , 1978). The Continuing Education C o u n c i l of the American Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n has d r a f t e d standards to be used by s t a t e n u r s i n g a s s o c i a t i o n C o n t i n u i n g Education Approval and Recognition Programs ( P o p e i l , 1976). The CEARP f a c i l i t a t e s record-keeping and t r a n s f e r of records on c o n t i n u i n g education a c t i v i t i e s when nurses move from one s t a t e to another. T h i s f u n c t i o n i s r e l a t e d to the need to demonstrate p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s t a t e s r e q u i r i n g mandatory c o n t i n u i n g education f o r r e l i c e n s u r e . At the s t a t e l e v e l , the s t a t e a s s o c i a t i o n s ass.ume l e a d e r s h i p f o r CNE. D i f f e r e n t stages of c o o r d i n a t i o n e x i s t i n d i f f e r e n t s t a t e s . There are examples of i n n o v a t i v e approaches to c o o r d i n a t i o n of c o n t i n u i n g education a c t i v i t i e s . C a r l l e y (1974) d e s c r i b e d the Indiana experience, where f o r a number of y e a r s , CNE c o n s i s t e d of a "myriad of uncoordinated a c t i v i t i e s " (p.13) which were not a l l that s a t i s f a c t o r y . A p r o j e c t to develop a statewide system of CNE was i n t r o d u c e d . T h i s statewide system was s t r u c t u r e d on a " b i l e v e l b a s i s " ( C a r l l e y , 1974, p. 14) with an o v e r a l l s t a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n and l o c a l s t r u c t u r e s . T h i s allowed o v e r a l l c o o r d i n a t i o n , and yet was f l e x i b l e enough to meet the needs of the l e a r n e r p o p u l a t i o n s i n the d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s of the s t a t e . T h i s system was deemed to be s u c c e s s f u l . Another i n n o v a t i v e approach to c o o r d i n a t i o n was sponsored 31 by WICHE i n Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming. An attempt was made to overcome g e o g r a p h i c a l b a r r i e r s and to ensure that nurses i n r u r a l areas of these s t a t e s had access to c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . T h i s p r o j e c t experimented with v a r i o u s d e l i v e r y systems and was s u c c e s s f u l i n p r o v i d i n g access to c o n t i n u i n g education o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The major problem was the e f f o r t r e q u i r e d to maintain c o o r d i n a t i o n . T h i s p r o j e c t concluded that the framework of higher education i s the most l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n to pl a c e a c u r r i c u l u m f o r c o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g . The American system of formal o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c o n t i n u i n g education i s i n a developmental stage. There are many examples of experimental approaches to c o o r d i n a t i o n of c o n t i n u i n g education a c t i v i t i e s which would i n d i c a t e that the nu r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n i n the United S t a t e s i s s t r u g g l i n g to f i n d a more u s e f u l and e f f i c i e n t way to provide c o n t i n u i n g education o p p o r t u n i t i e s . While the American s i t u a t i o n i s not f a r advanced, the Canadian s i t u a t i o n l a g s behind even t h a t . In Canada, the parent o r g a n i z a t i o n , the Canadian Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n , p r o v i d e s minimal l e a d e r s h i p i n the area of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . Probably the most t a n g i b l e evidence of i t s involvement i s the p u b l i c a t i o n of t o p i c a l b i b l i o g r a p h i e s and the spora d i c advertisement of c o n t i n u i n g education o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n i t s j o u r n a l , the Canadian  Nurse. By and l a r g e , the p r o v i n c i a l n u r s i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s are l e f t to t h e i r own de v i c e s i n d e c i d i n g upon the extent of t h e i r involvement i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . G e n e r a l l y , while p r o v i n c i a l 32 nurs i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s have is s u e d statements on c o n t i n u i n g education, i n d i c a t i n g t h e i r a f f i r m a t i o n of i t s importance, they have pr o v i d e d l i t t l e i n the way of c o o r d i n a t i o n of c o n t i n u i n g education a c t i v i t i e s i n i n d i v i d u a l p r o v i n c e s . Across Canada, there have been examples of inno v a t i o n s i n c o n t i n u i n g education f o r nurses i n attempts to meet the p a r t i c u l a r needs of v a r i o u s n u r s i n g p o p u l a t i o n s . The use of d i s t a n c e education has assumed i n c r e a s i n g importance i n CNE as e f f o r t s are made to overcome g e o g r a p h i c a l b a r r i e r s . Correspondence-type p o s t - b a s i c courses such as the Nursing Unit A d m i n i s t r a t i o n course have been developed to a s s i s t nurses i n d i f f e r e n t r o l e s . T e l e c o n f e r e n c i n g , the use of s a t e l l i t e t e l e v i s i o n c ourses, and independent l e a r n i n g packages are being u t i l i z e d with some success. Most of the a c t i v i t i e s and i n n o v a t i o n s , however, have been examples of r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d attempts at p r o v i s i o n with no c e n t r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n or even wide-spread d i s s e m i n a t i o n of inf o r m a t i o n about what i s a v a i l a b l e . T h e i r e x i s t e n c e seems to c h a r a c t e r i z e c o n t i n u i n g education f o r n u r s i n g i n Canada. Kotaska (1981) d e s c r i b e d the s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia: Although there has been much a c t i v i t y i n p r o v i s i o n of o p p o r t u n i t i e s , "there i s no c o o r d i n a t e d way f o r CNE i n B r i t i s h Columbia to determine nurses' l e a r n i n g needs a c c u r a t e l y , to share r e s o u r c e s , and to a v o i d gaps or unnecessary d u p l i c a t i o n of programs" (p. 13). 33 I r o n i c a l l y while the u l t i m a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o n t i n u i n g education has been given to the i n d i v i d u a l , i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l framework of the c u r r e n t p r o v i s i o n of CNE, the i n d i v i d u a l has an i n s i g n i f i c a n t p l a c e . The nurse seeking to i d e n t i f y p e r s o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l needs and f i n d i n f o r m a t i o n about c o n t i n u i n g education o p p o r t u n i t i e s i s given l i t t l e d i r e c t i o n e i t h e r i n i d e n t i f y i n g d e f i c i t s , p l a n n i n g g o a l s , or determining means to achieve those g o a l s . The r o l e and a s p i r a t i o n s of the i n d i v i d u a l nurse are ap p a r e n t l y of l i t t l e consequence to the o v e r a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l scheme. A l s o , the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of s e l f - d i r e c t e d , continued l e a r n i n g , apart from i n s t i t u t i o n a l l y planned a c t i v i t i e s , are not in c o r p o r a t e d i n t o an o v e r a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n . Canadian s t u d i e s have, however, i n d i c a t e d that nurses are s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n v o l v e d i n s e l f - d i r e c t e d continued l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . A survey of h o s p i t a l nurses by B e l l and Rix (1979) found that "nurses are spending over twice as much time each month i n s e l f -d i r e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s as i n o t h e r - d i r e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s " (p. 17). Cl a r k and Di c k i n s o n ' s (1976) study demonstrated s i m i l a r r e s u l t s . These f i n d i n g s are in c o n t r a d i c t i o n to Tobin's (1976b) statement t h a t , "nurses i n general are not s e l f - d i r e c t i v e i n t h e i r own l e a r n i n g " (p. 33). C l e a r l y , nurses are capable of pl a n n i n g and c a r r y i n g out t h e i r own c o n t i n u i n g education a c t i v i t i e s . Under the c u r r e n t system, there are many o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r nurses to p a r t i c i p a t e i n formal c o n t i n u i n g education. There i s , however, l i t t l e sequencing of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s (Levine, 34 1978) and l i t t l e obvious c o n t i n u i t y i n the experience of the i n d i v i d u a l . What i s needed i s "planned growth" (Cooper, 1972, p. 583) f o r the i n d i v i d u a l and the p r o f e s s i o n . The a l t e r n a t i v e i s that " c o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g w i l l continue to be uncoordinated, fragmented, and with d u p l i c a t i o n of e f f o r t s and unmet needs" (Cooper, 1972, p. 583). The Learners A dichotomy e x i s t s i n the p a r t i c i p a t i o n p r a c t i c e s of nurses with regard to c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . While most nurses p a r t i c i p a t e i n some form of c o n t i n u i n g education, one study (Dolphin, 1983) found that a small percentage of nurses w i l l not p a r t i c i p a t e unless f o r c e d . Hayter (1972) c i t e d evidence, p r i m a r i l y r e l a t e d to formal e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s , of i n d i v i d u a l nurses' f a i l u r e to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own l e a r n i n g . Hayter (1972) attempted to i d e n t i f y reasons f o r t h i s behavior and concluded that inconvenient and i n a p p r o p r i a t e o p p o r t u n i t i e s and deemphasis on l e a r n i n g may be the cause. The f a c t that nurses may be i n v o l v e d i n i n f o r m a l education of t h e i r own design was appa r e n t l y not taken i n t o account. I n t e r n a l M o t i v a t i o n G e n e r a l l y , however, i t would seem that nurses a t t i t u d e s toward c o n t i n u i n g education are f a v o r a b l e . C l a r k and D i c k i n s o n (1976) concluded that most nurses' a t t i t u d e s were p o s i t i v e . On the other hand, Bevis (1975) c i t e d s t u d i e s which i n d i c a t e d t h a t 35 most nurses d i d not h i g h l y value l e a r n i n g . Cooper's (1972) statements, although based on experience r a t h e r than o b j e c t i v e data, i n d i c a t e d that a lack of respect f o r l e a r n i n g e x i s t s among some nurses. C o n t r i b u t i n g to t h i s a t t i t u d e i n some cases, may be the f a c t that t r a d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s i n nu r s i n g have not been congruent with the n o t i o n of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g (Puetz & R y t t i n g , 1979). However, b a s i c n u r s i n g education has been a l t e r e d somewhat in recent years and attempts have been made to i n s t i l l the idea of continued l e a r n i n g i n graduates. Attempts to study reasons that nurses p a r t i c i p a t e in c o n t i n u i n g education i n d i c a t e that there are a v a r i e t y of p o s s i b l e m o t i v a t i o n s , although a given i n d i v i d u a l may be i n f l u e n c e d by more than one f a c t o r at a time. Dolphin (1983) concluded that the most important m o t i v a t i n g f a c t o r was r e l a t e d to job competence. S i m i l a r l y , O'Connor's (1980) survey of nurses in c o n t i n u i n g education courses and O'Connor's (1982) study of s e l f - s t u d y p r a c t i c e s among nurses found that p a r t i c i p a t i o n was p r i m a r i l y r e l a t e d to a d e s i r e to a c q u i r e p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge although, agai n , there were found to be many reasons f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Bevis (1975) found that p a r t i c i p a t i o n was r e l a t e d to r o l e p e r c e p t i o n . A s e r v i c e r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n was found to be the primary i n f l u e n c e on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o n t i n u i n g education, although s e r v i c e and p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n s e x h i b i t e d complementary i n f l u e n c e s i n favor of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . For 36 i n d i v i d u a l s p o s s e s s i n g a p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n , involvement i n c o n t i n u i n g l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s would be " i n t r i n s i c a l l y rewarding" (p. 171). There are a l s o socioeconomic f a c t o r s r e l a t e d to nurses' m o t i v a t i o n toward p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Schoen (1981) found that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n formal c o n t i n u i n g education o p p o r t u n i t i e s was c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to employment s t a t u s . The i n d i v i d u a l who worked f u l l time i n nu r s i n g was more l i k e l y to p a r t i c i p a t e than one who d i d not. T h i s seems l o g i c a l s i n c e a prominent reason f o r attendance was r e l a t e d to job competence. T h i s a l s o i s congruent with t h e o r i e s of l e a r n i n g which suggest that a d u l t s are most i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g what has immediate a p p l i c a t i o n f o r them. C l a r k and D i c k i n s o n (1976) a l s o found that a " s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n e x i s t e d between o c c u p a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n and s e l f - d i r e c t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n ... i n d i c a t i n g that nurses more motivated to i n c r e a s e t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s and p r e s t i g e are i n c l i n e d to engage i n more s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s " (p. 21). Some r e s e a r c h e r s have i d e n t i f i e d a r e l a t i o n s h i p between e d u c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o n t i n u i n g l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . C l a r k and D i c k i n s o n (1976) found that nurses whose bas i c p r e p a r a t i o n was i n a u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g or who had some u n i v e r s i t y experience were more l i k e l y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n s e l f -d i r e c t e d c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . Dolphin (1983) concluded that nurses with at l e a s t some u n i v e r s i t y p r e p a r a t i o n possessed more i n t e r n a l m o t i v a t i o n toward involvement i n c o n t i n u i n g education. 37 T h i s was a t t r i b u t e d to the e x i s t e n c e of a " d i p l o m a - l e v e l m e n t a l i t y " (Dolphin, 1983, p. 14) that a l l o w s some nurses "to b e l i e v e that t h e i r b a s i c education prepares them f o r a l i f e t i m e of p r a c t i c e " (p. 14). " I n t e r n a l " m o t i v a t i o n seems to stem from d e s i r e s s t i m u l a t e d by the o c c u p a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n of the nurse as w e l l as an u n d e r l y i n g b e l i e f i n the value of l e a r n i n g . E x t e r n a l M o t i v a t i o n I t appears that few e x t e r n a l motivators f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o n t i n u i n g education a c t i v i t i e s e x i s t . Reward and r e c o g n i t i o n systems for honoring the p a r t i c i p a n t f o r e f f o r t s made in t h i s d i r e c t i o n are few and f a r between. Kotaska (1981), d e s c r i b i n g the s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, noted that there are few i n c e n t i v e s , e i t h e r monetary or i n terms of e d u c a t i o n a l c r e d i t , f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p o s t - b a s i c courses. There e x i s t " d i s i n c e n t i v e s " to involvement i n c o n t i n u i n g l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . Hayter (1972) noted that there i s l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t y to use what i s l e a r n e d and that the "work s i t u a t i o n i s not conducive to implementing improvements. Change may a c t u a l l y be r e s i s t e d " (p. 35). Cooper (1972) r e f e r r e d to a t t i t u d e s among nurses which degrade the c o n t r i b u t i o n nurses can make to each other's l e a r n i n g . T h i s , combined with a l a c k of value p l a c e d on continued l e a r n i n g , has a n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e on a t t i t u d e s toward c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . 38 Issues in Continuing Education in Nursing C o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g i s s t r u g g l i n g with i s s u e s which w i l l have to be r e s o l v e d i f i t i s to be of great use to i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s and the nu r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n as a whole. Some i s s u e s are r e l a t e d to the n u r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n as a whole, others are s p e c i f i c to c o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g . One i s s u e that c o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g faces i n co n s o r t with other aspects of the nu r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n i s the e d u c a t i o n / s e r v i c e dilemma. As i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , there i s a c o n f l i c t between the goals of education and s e r v i c e . Ehrat (1979) i n d i c a t e d that while s e r v i c e i d e n t i f i e s the goal of education as being the p r a c t i t i o n e r "who has the a b i l i t y to render care and s o l v e problems at a s o p h i s t i c a t e d l e v e l " (p. 1), academia's goal f o r education i s the c r e a t i o n of a person with a broad knowledge base who can l e a r n to f u n c t i o n i n v i r t u a l l y any s e t t i n g . T h i s dilemma pervades a l l l e v e l s of n u r s i n g e d u c a t i o n . However, i t i s probably f a i r to s t a t e that c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n , more than a l l other l e v e l s of n u r s i n g education, has "sought to be the bri d g e between education and p r a c t i c e , to serve as the c o l l a b o r a t i v e l i n k between nurse educators and n u r s i n g s e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l " ("The impact of c o n t i n u i n g education ... , 1982, p. 9). Whether i t has a c t u a l l y accomplished t h i s task i s another q u e s t i o n . The f a c t that s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n s are o f t e n the p r o v i d e r s i s a c o m p l i c a t i n g f a c t o r i n t h i s . Another i s s u e i s the s t a t u s of c o n t i n u i n g education i n r e l a t i o n to the n u r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n . U n t i l r e c e n t l y , c o n t i n u i n g 39 education has been accorded l i t t l e equality with other areas of nursing education. Linked with t h i s , and related to the problems of coordination and organization which were discussed e a r l i e r , i s the fact that continuing education in nursing also struggles with i t s a b i l i t y to provide access for a l l nurses (Tobin, 1976b). Because of i t s r e l a t i v e l y low position in the educational system, support for continuing education in nursing i s often not afforded as much of a p r i o r i t y as other aspects of nursing education. An RNABC report ("Continuing education for registered ... , 1978) c i t e d evidence of some problems in thi s regard in B r i t i s h Columbia. A v a i l a b i l i t y i s also a concern in l i g h t of the requirements for mandatory continuing education for nurses that are a r i s i n g in some states. If the requirement to pa r t i c i p a t e in mandatory continuing education i s to be present, then opportunities must be available. Another question concerns whether continuing education should be a requirement for relicensure in nursing. Arguments against mandatory continuing education for nurses have included that i t w i l l promote a "stay-in-place" (Levine, 1978, p. 138) education and that i t w i l l lead to a "l e v e l of mediocrity" (Kelly, 1977, p. 19). Huber (1972) . postulated that with a requirement for mandatory continuing education, the reasons nurses seek continuing education may change. A c r u c i a l question is w i l l the nursing profession trust i t s members to maintain 40 t h e i r competence or w i l l i t f o r c e them i n t o c o n t i n u i n g education a c t i v i t i e s ? . Mandatory c o n t i n u i n g education i s f u r t h e r complicated by doubt concerning the impact of c o n t i n u i n g education on p r a c t i c e . T h i s q u e s t i o n i s unanswered ( F o r n i & Overman, 1974; Lysaught, 1981). P h i l l i p s (1979) i n d i c a t e d that the idea that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s e q u i v a l e n t to competence i s an "unproven assumption" (p. 238). The e v a l u a t i o n of the e f f e c t of c o n t i n u i n g education on p r a c t i c e has been a problem. I t i s d i f f i c u l t and expensive to a c q u i r e the kind of i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d by t h i s type of e v a l u a t i o n . There i s c o n f l i c t i n g evidence as to whether p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o n t i n u i n g education i n f l u e n c e s behavior. Puetz and R y t t i n g (1979), although not u t i l i z i n g r i g o r o u s r e s e a r c h techniques, found that nurses i n v o l v e d i n c o n t i n u i n g education were able to use what they l e a r n e d . Del Bueno (1977), in a study of s p e c i f i c behavior, found that p a r t i c i p a t i o n d i d not have a s i g n i f i c a n t impact. F o r n i and Overman (1974) c o u l d not answer c o n c l u s i v e l y , on the b a s i s of t h e i r survey, whether or not there was a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on behavior as a r e s u l t of c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . Although i t i s c l e a r that c o n t i n u i n g education r e s u l t s i n the a c q u i s i t i o n of knowledge and s k i l l s , s e v e r a l authors i n d i c a t e d that there may be other f a c t o r s to c o n s i d e r i n determining whether or not c o n t i n u i n g education has an impact on p r a c t i c e . Del Bueno (1977) concluded that "few performance 41 f a i l u r e s are r e l a t e d to lack of knowledge or s k i l l " (p. 34) but may be r e l a t e d more to o r g a n i z a t i o n a l problems in the workplace. Along the same l i n e of thought, Huber (1972) noted that " p u t t i n g new knowledge i n t o p r a c t i c e i n v o l v e s f a r more than j u s t r e q u i r i n g a person to be exposed to a l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n " (p. 29). In order to make c o n t i n u i n g education u s e f u l , CNE o f f e r i n g s must provide o p p o r t u n i t y to develop c l i n i c a l s k i l l s . There must a l s o be support f o r a p p l i c a t i o n of new l e a r n i n g i n the workplace. Co n c l u s i o n The recent h i s t o r y and present s t a t u s of c o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g a t t e s t s to the burgeoning expenditure of energy and r e s u l t a n t a c t i v i t y i n the development of formal c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r nurses. In a d d i t i o n , there i s some evidence that i n d i v i d u a l nurses are i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g t h e i r own s e l f - d i r e c t e d e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d to n u r s i n g . There i s , however, no o v e r a l l c o o r d i n a t i n g mechanism f o r CNE. At p r e s e n t , there are m u l t i p l e p r o v i d e r s i n m u l t i p l e s e t t i n g s - each with t h e i r own vested i n t e r e s t s . Thetfe i s no coherent approach to c o n t i n u i n g education p r e s e n t a t i o n . Hence, there i s l i t t l e c o n t i n u i t y , f o r the i n d i v i d u a l nurse or f o r a h o l i s t i c scheme on a broader l e v e l . Because of t h i s , c o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g d e a l s with the " p r e s s i n g needs of the moment" (Nakamoto and Verner, 1972, p. 69), responds to c r i s i s 42 s i t u a t i o n s , and p r e s e n t s i t s e l f i n "time-bound segments" ( G r i f f i n , 1978, p. 5). C o n t i n u i n g education r e q u i r e s a framework which can serve to guide i t s a c t i o n s . At present, the n u r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n i s not able to provide such a framework s i n c e i t faces i t s own dilemmas. A s o l u t i o n to t h i s d e f i c i t must be found i f CNE i s to have any s i g n i f i c a n t impact. W r i t e r s i n the area of CNE have i s s u e d "motherhood" statements i n d i c a t i n g t h at l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g should be adopted as a s o l u t i o n to the dilemma i n which CNE f i n d s i t s e l f . There i s l i t t l e evidence that t h i s has o c c u r r e d . Perhaps t h i s i s because l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g and l i f e l o n g education have not been w e l l understood. Schechter (1974) p o i n t e d out, i n r e l a t i o n to the h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n s as a whole, that " f o r too long there has been l i p s e r v i c e to a f u z z i l y d e f i n e d concept of the need f o r ' l i f e -long l e a r n i n g ' " (p. 95). The remaining chapters represent an attempt to apply the ideas and p r i n c i p l e s of l i f e l o n g education to c o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g . The next chapter d e s c r i b e s a method f o r examining the concept of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g i n an e f f o r t to i d e n t i f y ideas which can c o n t r i b u t e to the c r e a t i o n of a u s e f u l framework on which to base a c t i o n i n CNE. Only by the a n a l y s i s d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter Three and a p p l i e d i n Chapter Four can n u r s i n g b e n e f i t from and make r a t i o n a l use of the n o t i o n of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g . 43 CHAPTER THREE LIFELONG LEARNING AND LIFELONG EDUCATION L i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g and l i f e l o n g education have been d e s c r i b e d as no t i o n s of importance to today's and tomorrow's world. L i f e l o n g education has been t r e a t e d more e x t e n s i v e l y i n the l i t e r a t u r e with more c a s u a l and l e s s d e f i n i t e r e f e r e n c e s made to l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g . Given the d e f i n i t i o n of l e a r n i n g p r o v i d e d i n Chapter One, i t i s understandable that l i f e l o n g e ducation should be t r e a t e d more e x t e n s i v e l y s i n c e the "education" aspect of a l l l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s i s the area that i s most sub j e c t to e x t e r n a l i n f l u e n c e by educators. The problem in the l i t e r a t u r e i s that the terms " l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g " and " l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n " are used interchangeably although there are d i f f e r e n c e s between the two. Lawson (1982) ca u t i o n e d a g a i n s t t h i s , saying that the use of " l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g " as a synonym fo r " l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n " "might be seen as a negation or at l e a s t a weakening of the concept of 'education'" (p.100). An example of t h i s mixing of ideas i s found i n Peterson, Cross, H a r t l e , H i r a b a y a s h i , Kutner, Powell, and V a l l e y ' s (1979) d e f i n i t i o n of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g . These authors d e s c r i b e d i t as "a conceptual framework f o r c o n c e i v i n g , p l a n n i n g , ' implementing, and c o o r d i n a t i n g a c t i v i t i e s designed to f a c i l i t a t e l e a r n i n g by a l l Americans throughout t h e i r l i f e t i m e s " (Peterson et a l , 1979, p.5). Since t h i s d e f i n i t i o n embodies the idea of a d e l i b e r a t e p l a n n i n g of a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t e d to improving l e a r n i n g , i t i s probably more c o n s i s t e n t with a d e f i n i t i o n of l i f e l o n g 44 education. O v e r l y , McQuigg, S i l v e r n a i l , and Coppedge's (1980) d e f i n i t i o n of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g as "any p u r p o s e f u l l e a r n i n g that an i n d i v i d u a l ( a c t o r ) engages i n throughout the l i f e span" (p.5) s u f f e r s from the same f a u l t . In a d d i t i o n , t h i s d e f i n i t i o n l a c k s c l a r i t y because i t i n c l u d e s the term being d e f i n e d . Cropley's (1980) d e f i n i t i o n of l i f e l o n g education takes i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between education and l e a r n i n g d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r . The author s t a t e d that " l i f e l o n g education r e q u i r e s c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the changes i n education which would be necessary f o r promoting, s u p p o r t i n g , even improving l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g " (Cropley, 1980, p.3). Dave's (1976) d e f i n i t i o n i s probably most c o n s i s t e n t with d i s t i n c t i o n s between l e a r n i n g and e d u c a t i o n : L i f e l o n g education i s a process of accomplishing p e r s o n a l , s o c i a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l development throughout the l i f e - s p a n of i n d i v i d u a l s i n order to enhance the q u a l i t y of l i f e of both i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e s . I t i s a comprehensive and u n i f y i n g idea which i n c l u d e s formal, non-formal and i n f o r m a l l e a r n i n g f o r a c q u i r i n g and enhancing enlightenment so as to a t t a i n the f u l l e s t p o s s i b l e development in d i f f e r e n t stages and domains of l i f e . (p. 34) While the emphasis in t h i s chapter i s on l i f e l o n g e ducation, the" c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of i t as a subset of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g as i n d i c a t e d i n Chapter One should be kept i n mind. Educators can c r e a t e optimal e x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r l e a r n i n g but cannot i n f l u e n c e the i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e r n a l l e a r n i n g process. 45 H i s t o r y Although i t i s only r e c e n t l y that l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g and l i f e l o n g education have been embraced wholeheartedly by the world of educators, they are, i n f a c t , not new i d e a s . People have always been able to l e a r n throughout t h e i r l i v e s r e g a r d l e s s of the r e c o g n i t i o n of that f a c t by the formal e d u c a t i o n a l establishment. According to Faure, H e r r a r a , Kaddoura, Lopes, Petrovsky, Rahnan and Ward (1972) education i n p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t y was a c o n t i n u a l a f f a i r . There were no f o r m a l l y o r g a n i z e d s t r u c t u r e s for the purpose of f o s t e r i n g e d u c a t i o n . Instead, i n d i v i d u a l s learned "by l i v i n g and d o i n g " (Faure et a l , 1972, p. 5), by i n t e r a c t i n g with each other and the environment. Examples c i t e d were from a n c i e n t A f r i c a n c i v i l i z a t i o n s where l e a r n i n g was a c o n t i n u a l p r o c e s s . These peoples probably had very p r a c t i c a l reasons f o r involvement i n continuous l e a r n i n g . Other e a r l y c i v i l i z a t i o n s a l s o recognized the need fo r c o n t i n u a l l e a r n i n g . T h e i r g o a l s were, however, more r e l a t e d to enlightenment than s u r v i v a l . Shukla (1971) d e s c r i b e d a n c i e n t Indian times and noted how i t was that the Satapada Brahmanu admonished people to "study every day" (p.15). The Greeks conceived of the idea of a l e a r n i n g s o c i e t y i n which the c u l t u r e provided the environment f o r i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g (Lewis, 1981; McCannon, 1979). For example, i n Athens there were no f o r m a l i z e d schools except f o r a chosen few because the c i t y i t s e l f was to be the t e a c her. Under t h i s system, l e a r n i n g would continue 46 throughout l i f e . When democracy was adopted i n Athens, the So p h i s t s took on the job of educating those of the middle c l a s s e s who so wished. The goal of education was to enhance the r o l e of the c i t i z e n as a p a r t i c i p a n t i n government. A r i s t o t l e and P l a t o emphasized education i n the p u r s u i t of an i d e a l (Lewis, 1981). P l a t o p o s t u l a t e d an i d e a l s o c i e t y -- the Re p u b l i c . To these t h i n k e r s , the purpose of education was to mold a good c i t i z e n but "education was not only f o r the purposes of the s t a t e , ... i t had an end i n i t s e l f " (Lewis, 1981, p. 18). P l a t o and A r i s t o t l e developed metaphysical arguments l i n k i n g a l i f e t i m e of l e a r n i n g with happiness. More r e c e n t l y , The 1919 Report of the Adult Education Committee of the B r i t i s h M i n i s t r y of R e c o n s t r u c t i o n d e a l i n g with the aftermath of World War I recommended that a d u l t education be " u n i v e r s a l and l i f e l o n g " (p.5) i n order to f o s t e r s o c i a l and economic recovery. For modern times the ideas of l i f e l o n g e ducation s t a r t e d i n the arena of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g to Alanen (1982) the idea of l i f e l o n g education as we know i t today was developed i n the e a r l y 1960's by the United Nations E d u c a t i o n a l , S c i e n t i f i c , and C u l t u r a l O r g a n i z a t i o n (UNESCO). The Second UNESCO World Conference on Adult Education i n Montreal (Lowe, 1975) i n 1960 recommended "to a l l governments the i n c l u d i n g of a d u l t education i n the normal system of education as an e s s e n t i a l and i n t e g r a l p a r t (Alanen, 1982, p.4) T h i s was a formal step to e n l a r g i n g the domain of education beyond c h i l d h o o d . 47 A key f a c t o r i n the development of the idea of l i f e l o n g education was a paper by Lengrand (1975). In 1965 The UNESCO I n t e r n a t i o n a l Committee f o r the Advancement of Adult Education, a f t e r reviewing t h i s paper, recommended that UNESCO adopt the p r i n c i p l e of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . Thus, the o f f i c i a l endorsement of the concept of l i f e l o n g education by the e d u c a t i o n a l community came from the a d u l t education s e c t o r . In 1970, l i f e l o n g education became one of the major themes of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Education Year (Alanen, 1982; Parkyn, 1973). The work of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Commission on the Development of Education, set up i n 1971, culminated i n the p u b l i c a t i o n of Learning to Be (Faure et a l , 1972). T h i s i n f l u e n t i a l r e p o r t presented the background and philosophy of l i f e l o n g e d ucation. I t d e s c r i b e d the need for l i f e l o n g education and made recommendations about the development of a l e a r n i n g s o c i e t y . Faure et a l (1972) proposed " l i f e l o n g education as the master concept for e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s i n the years to come" (p. 182). Throughout the 1970's, p a r a l l e l developments of a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t form were t a k i n g p l a c e i n The O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the C o u n c i l of Europe. OECD developed i t s idea of r e c u r r e n t education or "the d i s t r i b u t i o n of education over the l i f e s p a n of the i n d i v i d u a l i n a (formal) r e c u r r i n g way" (Centre f o r E d u c a t i o n a l Research and Innovation, 1973, p. 7). (Here again, the d e f i n i t i o n u t i l i z e s the word being defined.) The C o u n c i l of Europe c o n c e p t u a l i z e d "education permanente" as a means of p r e s e r v i n g the European 48 c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . In the ensuing years, v a r i o u s developing and developed c o u n t r i e s demonstrated i n t e r e s t i n the concept of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g . The Scandinavian c o u n t r i e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , have implemented i n n o v a t i v e approaches to l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g . The development of i n t e r e s t i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada has been slower. Most r e c e n t l y , educators i n t e r e s t e d i n promoting higher education have endorsed the concept. Some authors have questioned the m o t i v a t i o n behind t h i s endorsement. Higher education i n s t i t u t i o n s are e x p e r i e n c i n g decreased enrollment and i t i s only n a t u r a l that they should want to expand t h e i r c l i e n t e l e by i n c l u d i n g the " l i f e l o n g l e a r n e r " as w e l l as the t r a d i t i o n a l student (Cross, 1979; Gross, 1977; Lawson, 1982; Mondale, 1976). However, the American 1973 L i f e l o n g L earning Act gave f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i v e support and r e c o g n i t i o n to the concept of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g ( C h r i s t o f f e l , 1977; MacLean, 1981). U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the e d u c a t i o n a l community in the U.S. has not given whole-hearted support to the implementation a p p a r e n t l y because they fear that funds f o r programs p r e s e n t l y i n o p e r a t i o n w i l l be decreased. Consequently, implementation has lagged somewhat. I t i s evident that the ideas of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g have e x i s t e d i n v a r i o u s forms f o r c e n t u r i e s . However, i t i s only w i t h i n the l a s t 20 years that they have been s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d and e v a l u a t e d i n terms of p o l i c y making f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e . 49 Today, the concepts of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g and l i f e l o n g e ducation remain nebulous. More work needs to be done to d e f i n e them and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s . L i f e l o n g education i s , i n many r e s p e c t s , s t i l l at the conceptual stage. K a l l e n (1979) observed that UNESCO i t s e l f "has not made a c o n s i s t e n t f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n of the o r i g i n a l concept" (p. 54). However, s e r i o u s e f f o r t s are being made more r e c e n t l y to e l u c i d a t e the ide a s . Future developments r e l a t e d to l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g and education w i l l depend on the q u a l i t y of that work. C e r t a i n l y , there i s evidence that the academic community i s g r a p p l i n g with the ide a . (Dave, 1983). The appearance i n 1975 of an E d u c a t i o n a l Resources Information Center (ERIC) d e s c r i p t o r c a l l e d l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g and the i n c r e a s i n g number of p u b l i c a t i o n s and amount of f u g i t i v e l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to i t gi v e evidence of t h i s . However, no matter what stage of development the concept of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g and i t s subset l i f e l o n g education are c u r r e n t l y i n , the need f o r some new c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of education i s apparent. A j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the concept of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g i s provided i n the r e a l i t y of modern-day change. A R a t i o n a l i z a t i o n f o r L i f e l o n g Learning - Change We l i v e i n a world of change u n p a r a l l e l l e d i n previous times. T h i s f a c t has been thoroughly documented. Dubin (1974). and Dutton (1979) p o i n t e d to the tremendous e x p o n e n t i a l i n c r e a s e i n knowledge i n recent y e a r s . Wroczynski (1972) noted changes as 50 a r e s u l t of the s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l r e v o l u t i o n and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r d a i l y l i f e . Faure et a l (1972) d e s c r i b e d the outcomes of these changes in terms of " l e a p s " and "gaps" and c i t e d such examples as the decreased l a g time between s c i e n t i f i c d i s c o v e r y and implementation in s o c i e t y , demographic s h i f t s , and unemployment r e s u l t i n g from changes in working l i f e as outcomes of change. A l l t h i s ferment in the world has s u b j e c t e d the e d u c a t i o n a l system to c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e s s u r e . There are i n d i c a t i o n s that i t , i n t u r n , must change. C e r t a i n l y , i t i s the brunt of c r i t i c i s m (Parkyn, 1973; Leagans, 1978). One source of c r i t i c i s m stems from the f a c t that education has t r a d i t i o n a l l y r e s t e d on the assumption that formal l e a r n i n g can be t e r m i n a l and s u f f i c i e n t f o r a l l of l i f e . Leagans (1978)' noted two assumptions of t r a d i t i o n a l education which no longer are t r u e : 1) "the assumption that the need f o r organised e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s can be met d u r i n g the f i r s t o ne-fourth of the l i f e span" (p. 12). 2) "the converse assumption that the need f o r education d u r i n g the remaining t h r e e - f o u r t h s of a l i f e t i m e can be adequately met by i n c i d e n t a l l e a r n i n g " (p.12). According to the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education (1973), education can no longer be thought of as " p r e p a r a t i o n fo r l i f e " (p. 24). In today's world, people "need not only s o l i d e d u c a t i o n a l foundations, but a l s o l i f e l o n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s to adapt, to renew themselves, and to a c q u i r e new knowledge" ("Carnegie ... , 1973, p.24). 51 L i f e l o n g education has been touted as a s t r a t e g y f o r coping with change (Overly et a l , 1980). S e v e r a l authors (eg. Boshier,1980) have d e s c r i b e d a l e a r n i n g s o c i e t y i n which l e a r n i n g i s a way of l i f e . T h i s idea i s presented as a n e c e s s i t y r a t h e r than an o p t i o n given the world that people must deal with. L i f e l o n g education would be one f a c e t of the l e a r n i n g s o c i e t y . In making c l a i m s f o r l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , one must be c a r e f u l to acknowledge which occurred f i r s t , the changes i n the world, or the appearance of l i f e l o n g education on the scene. L i f e l o n g education has, i n some i n s t a n c e s , been presented as -a new theory of e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e , but as Cropley (1980) p o i n t e d out, i t i s more l i k e l y that the concept of l i f e l o n g education as i t e x i s t s today i s a " r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n of a number of e x i s t i n g ( s o c i e t a l ) t r e n d s " (p.7). And as Mondale (1976) po i n t e d out i n d e s c r i b i n g change i n American s o c i e t y these " s o c i a l trends p r o p e l us toward a n a t i o n a l p o l i c y of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g " (p.44). C l e a r l y , given present r e a l i t i e s , the e d u c a t i o n a l system must commit i t s e l f to developing "people capable of adapting to change" (Peterson et a l , 1979, p.2). The f a c t o r s moving l i f e l o n g e ducation to the f o r e f r o n t of thought have been summarized by the Japanese N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e f o r E d u c a t i o n a l Research ("The I d e a l s and the Tasks", 1982) as being: 1) the need to adapt to the r a p i d changes i n soc i e t y . . . 2) the general i n c r e a s e of e d u c a t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l 52 a s p i r a t i o n s among people 3) the i n c r e a s e i n people's l e i s u r e time and economic c a p a c i t y . . . 4) the need to r e - d i r e c t e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s towards b u i l d i n g a f r e e r and more e n e r g e t i c s o c i e t y , (p.3) The need f o r l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g i s apparent. The techniques f o r o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n and implementation of t h i s n o t i o n are l e s s obvious. Terminology D e s p i t e the apparent a b i l i t y to d e f i n e the words, the terms " l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g " and " l i f e l o n g e d ucation", as used today, are surrounded by much c o n f u s i o n . L i f e l o n g education alone had been v a r i o u s l y r e f e r r e d to as a "concept" and "more than an e d u c a t i o n a l theory" ( G e l p i , 1979, p.5), a " u n i f y i n g p r i n c i p l e " (Cropley,1980, p.8), a " d i s t a n t hope" (UNESCO,1978, p.9), a "theory" of education (Cropley, 1979, p.3), a "philosophy" (Mocker and Spear, 1982, p. 1), a " p o l i c y " (Lawson, 1982, p. 97) and a "slogan" (Moon, 1979, p. 219; Richardson, 1979, p. 46). I t i s important, i n attempting to d e r i v e an understanding of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g and l i f e l o n g education to i d e n t i f y which of the nouns i s a p p l i c a b l e . L i f e l o n g Education - An E d u c a t i o n a l Philosophy The author of t h i s t h e s i s contends that l i f e l o n g i s an e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y . A philosophy has been education d e f i n e d as 53 "a search f o r a general understanding of values and r e a l i t y by c h i e f l y s p e c u l a t i v e rather than o b s e r v a t i o n a l means: an a n a l y s i s of the grounds of and concepts e x p r e s s i n g fundamental b e l i e f s " (Webster, 1981, p. 854). Merriam (1977) d e f i n e d a philosophy as "a systematic conceptual framework embodying c e r t a i n v a l u e s " (p. 196). E l i a s and Merriam (1980) i d e n t i f i e d s i x p h i l o s o p h i c a l c a t e g o r i e s r e l a t e d to education. L i f e l o n g education would seem to be a p h i l o s o p h i c a l s y n t h e s i s of s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t viewpoints -a s y n t h e s i s made necessary by modern times. There are advantages to the educator i f l i f e l o n g education i s d e f i n e d as an e d u c a t i o n a l philosophy s i n c e such a philosophy f u l f i l l s c e r t a i n funct i o n s . Apps (1973) t r i e d to h e l p a d u l t educators develop a working philosophy of t h e i r own. That author i n d i c a t e d that a w e l l -developed philosophy should h e l p answer q u e s t i o n s about the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . Questions r e l a t e d to the f o l l o w i n g areas should be d e a l t with by a p h i l o s o p h y : - what should be - the r e l a t i o n s h i p of e d u c a t i o n a l problems with each other - the r e l a t i o n s h i p of education to s o c i e t y - the purpose of education - the l e a r n e r - content or subject matter - t h e - l e a r n i n g process If l i f e l o n g education i s a philosophy then i t should be p o s s i b l e to u t i l i z e or adapt the framework i m p l i e d by the areas above to analyze the l i t e r a t u r e and answer fundamental q u e s t i o n s about the b a s i c ideas which form i t . An examination of the l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s that t h i s i s the case. Although the answers 54 are not o f t e n e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d , i t i s evident that proponents of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g have given thought to these and other q u e s t i o n s . Dave (1983) i d e n t i f i e d the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l i f e l o n g e ducation and t r i e d "to v i s u a l i z e p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the c o n c e p t - c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r d i f f e r e n t stages and aspects of e d u c a t i o n " (p.2). That author s a i d that "at the o p e r a t i o n a l l e v e l l i f e l o n g education p r o v i d e s a t o t a l system of a l l l e a r n i n g " (Dave, 1983, p.11) and saw i t as a system of education from which a t h e o r e t i c a l framework and g u i d e l i n e s f o r p r a c t i c e c o u l d be drawn. By l o o k i n g at the l i t e r a t u r e with a view to l e a r n i n g more about the areas i n d i c a t e d above, i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e to b e t t e r understand the concept. What seems l o g i c a l , i f l i f e l o n g education i s being examined with the view that i t i s a philosophy, i s to examine the goals and assumptions that c h a r a c t e r i z e the p h i l o s o p h y , as presented i n the l i t e r a t u r e . From that base, i t i s p o s s i b l e to move i n t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s of o p e r a t i o n that govern p r a c t i c e . From these p r i n c i p l e s can be d e r i v e d , p r o v i d i n g there i s i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y , the outcomes, in terms of methods and techniques, which u l t i m a t e l y c h a r a c t e r i z e the p h i l o s o p h y . In addressing these.aspects of l i f e l o n g e ducation, answers to the questions i n d i c a t e d above w i l l become e v i d e n t . If l i f e l o n g education i s a p h i l o s o p h y , ' then general p r i n c i p l e s , and the methods and techniques stemming from them, 55 should have u n i v e r s a l a p p l i c a b i l i t y i n a v a r i e t y of e d u c a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s . Once the o v e r a l l framework of the concept has been i d e n t i f i e d , i t should be p o s s i b l e to examine i t s u s e f u l n e s s to c o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g . Goals In the l i t e r a t u r e two major themes r e l a t e d to the goals of l i f e l o n g education are e v i d e n t . They are l i f e l o n g education f o r p e r s o n a l and f o r s o c i e t a l development. The f i r s t of these goals seems to have r e c e i v e d the g r e a t e s t emphasis. C o n s i d e r i n g the e a r l y h i s t o r i c a l r o o t s of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g t h i s i s not s u r p r i s i n g . However, when the modern-day j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a concept of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g i s i n s e r t e d , i t seems that the second goal should predominate. However, i t i s probable that the two goals are c l o s e l y l i n k e d ( i e . personal development and f u l f i l l m e n t c o n t r i b u t e to s o c i e t a l w e l l - b e i n g ) . Cropley was a major proponent of the individual.development approach as being the goal of l i f e l o n g e d ucation. In h i s view, l i f e l o n g education should "have as i t s u l t i m a t e goal promotion of the s e l f f u l f i l m e n t ( s i c ) of each i n d i v i d u a l " (Cropley 1979, p.3). Dave (1983) seemed to concur with t h i s view: "Above a l l , ( l i f e l o n g education) i s viewed as a means of a t t a i n i n g the h i g h e s t form of s e l f - r e a l i s a t i o n " (p.2). On the other hand there i s the n o t i o n that l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n i s to develop s o c i e t y . A paper presented by the N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e f o r E d u c a t i o n a l Research i n Japan i n d i c a t e d 56 that f o r that country l i f e l o n g education i s "necessary i n order to keep and enhance the dynamism of s o c i e t y " ("The Id e a l s 1982, p.1). The i d e a l expressed here i s that of developing soc i e t y . S o c i e t a l development i n c l u d e s economic and c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s . Scandinavian and European c o u n t r i e s emphasized the c u l t u r a l r e t u r n s of l i f e l o n g education (Overly et a l , 1980). Other c o u n t r i e s have p l a c e d emphasis elsewhere. Each of the views c o u l d be what Jessup (1969) termed "narrowly u t i l i t a r i a n " (p.21). For example, i t i s wrong to p l a c e too much emphasis on education towards the economic development of s o c i e t y . While i t i s t r u e that s o c i e t i e s r e q u i r e education to maintain economic p r o s p e r i t y , to see t h i s as being the s o l e reason f o r l i f e l o n g education i s misguided. I t would seem t h a t , i n a sense, a dichotomy e x i s t s i n some of the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to l i f e l o n g education as to what the goals of education should be. T h i s can be r e s o l v e d when i n d i v i d u a l development i s seen as c o n t r i b u t i n g to s o c i e t a l development and v i c e v e r s a . The q u a l i t y of one i n f l u e n c e s the q u a l i t y of the other and together both c o n t r i b u t e to a q u a l i t y of l i f e . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 1. 57 F i g u r e J_: Goals of L i f e l o n g Education p e r s o n a l development-d u a l i t y of l i f e s o c i e t a l development Thus, the u l t i m a t e goal of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , as i n d i c a t e d by Dave (1983) and Overly (1980) becomes "to maintain and improve the q u a l i t y of l i f e " (Dave, 1983,p.9). In order to achieve t h i s " q u a l i t y " the s i t u a t i o n c r e a t e d must possess c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . According to proponents of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , the s o c i e t y c r e a t e d w i l l be an "educative" (Cropley, 1979, p.42), l e a r n i n g - o r i e n t e d , and democratic (Alanen,1982; Faure, 1972; K a l l e n , l 9 7 9 ) and w i l l manifest e q u a l i t y of access to e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are sometimes mistakenly i d e n t i f i e d as being the goals of l i f e l o n g e ducation. What they r e a l l y represent are steppingstones on the way to the u l t i m a t e goal of l i f e l o n g e d ucation. For example, what i s important i s not to develop a democracy per se but to develop a s i t u a t i o n i n which people can grow and l i v e m e a n i n g f u l l y (Di Paula, 1981; "The i d e a l s 1982), both p e r s o n a l l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y . I f t h i s r e q u i r e s the development of democratic i d e a l s along the way, then so be i t . Thus, as Skager and Dave (1978) noted, i n d i s c u s s i n g democracy and l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , i t i s both an i d e a l and a p r i n c i p l e . 58 In order to achieve the " q u a l i t y of l i f e " which serves as the goal of l i f e l o n g education, i t must be recognized that the c e n t r a l f u n c t i o n of education " i s that of enhancing the human experience" (Skager and Dave, 1977, p.9). Education w i l l be an experience i n which each c i t i z e n has the r i g h t to personal development and the op p o r t u n i t y " f o r a c q u i r i n g , supplementing, and renewing the necessary knowledge, s k i l l s , and a b i l i t i e s to enable h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n working, s o c i a l , and c u l t u r a l l i f e " ("Planning ... , 1981, p.4). I n d i v i d u a l s must develop the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which w i l l allow them to p a r t i c i p a t e f u l l y i n s o c i a l change. Thus, the goal of l i f e l o n g education i s to "enable people to maximally develop themselves v i s - a - v i s t h e i r s o c i e t y " (Overly, 1979, p.55). Faure et a l (1972) i d e n t i f i e d t h i s goal as being the development of the person who i s ready to make a s o c i a l commitment. I n d i v i d u a l s d e veloping i n a l i f e l o n g education environment w i l l possess c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such that they are adaptable to the changing c o n d i t i o n s of s o c i e t y (Faure et a l , 1972; Parkyn,1973), are t r a i n e d to p a r t i c i p a t e i n democratic s o c i e t y , have le a r n e d how to l e a r n (Faure et a l , 1972), are capable of choosing the d i r e c t i o n of t h e i r development (Parkyn, 1973), and have an "ap t i t u d e f o r continuous enrichment throughout l i f e " (UNESCO, 1978, p.11). They w i l l a l s o understand the world around them and be c h a r a c t e r i z e d p r i m a r i l y by e d u c a b i l i t y (Skager & Dave, 1977). Only t h i s type of person can c o n t r i b u t e to a q u a l i t y of l i f e both f o r the i n d i v i d u a l and f o r the r e s t of the s o c i e t y i n which the i n d i v i d u a l l i v e s . 59 L i f e l o n g education t h e r e f o r e , w i l l c o n s i s t not of a set content and body of knowledge, but of a proc e s s . The s p e c i f i c purposes vary a c c o r d i n g to stages of i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t a l development (Overly et a l , 1980). I t ' s goal i s to help people d i s c o v e r themselves (Faure et a l , 1972) so that they can then reach t h e i r own p e r s o n a l maximum p o t e n t i a l and c o n t r i b u t e to s o c i e t y . As the Commission on E d u c a t i o n a l Planning i n A l b e r t a put i t , a philosophy of l i f e l o n g education "seeks to make every i n d i v i d u a l t r u l y a person and a f u l l c i t i z e n of our s o c i e t y " ("A f u t u r e ..." , 1972, p.38). Under the auspices of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , " i t i s hoped that education w i l l be seen as being r e l e v a n t to the t o t a l i t y of experience" (Lawson, 1982, p.101). Assumptions Such l o f t y g o a ls as are i d e n t i f i e d as being the d e s i r e d outcomes of l i f e l o n g education are, of course, based on c e r t a i n assumptions. The nature of the assumptions upon which l i f e l o n g e ducation seems to be based are r e l a t e d to c o n s i d e r a t i o n s concerning the l e a r n e r , the s o c i e t y i n which the l e a r n e r e x i s t s , and the r e s u l t s of the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . One of the key assumptions r e l a t e d to the l e a r n i n g process i s the b e l i e f that the systematic l e a r n i n g p r o v i d e d by l i f e l o n g education can prepare a person to d e a l with the problems to be faced i n the s o c i e t y of which the i n d i v i d u a l i s a p a r t . T h i s b e l i e f p l a c e s q u i t e a burden on the shoulders of the proponents of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n the f i n a l a n a l y s i s , 60 there may i n a c t u a l i t y be no other way to deal with i n d i v i d u a l or s o c i e t a l problems, other than by " l e a r n i n g " toward the s o l u t i o n s . A r e l a t e d assumption i s that the f u l l y s e l f - a c t u a l i z e d person w i l l make a c o n t r i b u t i o n to the s o c i e t y . The Faure Report (Faure et a l , 1972) i n d i c a t e d that there " i s a c l o s e c o r r e l a t i o n ... between changes in the socio-economic environment and the s t r u c t u r e s and forms of a c t i o n of education" (p. 56). Of course, c o r r e l a t i o n does not n e c e s s a r i l y imply c a u s a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i f there i s a c o r r e l a t i o n between education and what goes on i n s o c i e t y , i t may very w e l l be that the mediating i n f l u e n c e i s the i n d i v i d u a l . Thus, perhaps i t i s r e a l i s t i c to assume that a f u l l y developed and s e l f - a c t u a l i z e d person w i l l i n f l u e n c e s o c i e t y . T h i s , of course, presupposes the "goodness" of humankind, a p r e s u p p o s i t i o n upon which the humanistic philosophy i s based. Proponents of l i f e l o n g education a l s o assume that s o c i e t y as a c o l l e c t i v e w i l l demonstrate a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward the ten e t s of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . Value w i l l be p l a c e d on the " l e a r n i n g - l i v i n g e x p e r i e n c e s " (MacLean, 1981, p.12) which are so i n t e g r a l a p a r t of a c h i e v i n g the goals of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . A second assumption r e l a t i n g l i f e l o n g education to s o c i e t y i s t h a t education i s synonymous with democracy, democracy being "the a b o l i t i o n of p r i v i l e g e and the promotion w i t h i n s o c i e t y as a whole of the ideas of autonomy, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and d i a l o g u e " ("Recommendations on the Development 1976, p.1). T h i s presumes that democratic i d e a l s and processes are the only 61 a p p r o p r i a t e ones. The l e a r n e r i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s imbued with a great number of worthy c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I t i s assumed that the l e a r n e r w i l l be motivated to l e a r n (McOannon, 1979), s e l f - c o n f i d e n t about and capable of i d e n t i f y i n g p e r s o n a l goals (Overly et a l , 1980) and able to manage l e a r n i n g experiences (Di Paula, 1981). These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e l a t e back to the r a t h e r humanistic b a s i s f o r l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . A f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the l e a r n e r which i s r e q u i r e d and assumed f o r l i f e l o n g education i s that the l e a r n e r w i l l not only have the d e s i r e to be i n v o l v e d i n l e a r n i n g but that the l e a r n e r has the c a p a b i l i t i e s r e q u i r e d f o r doing so. T h i s f i n a l assumption i s probably the one which i s most c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to f a c t . Faure et a l (1972) c i t e d r e s e a r c h which i n d i c a t e d that humans have a l a r g e unused i n t e l l e c t u a l p o t e n t i a l . Cropley (1977) d e s c r i b e d r e s e a r c h that promotes the idea that i n d i v i d u a l s , of a l l ages, are capable of continued l e a r n i n g . Cropley (1977) p l a c e d p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on the c a p a c i t i e s and c a p a b i l i t i e s of a d u l t s f o r l e a r n i n g . , T h i s i s an important f e a t u r e when c o n s i d e r i n g c o n t i n u i n g l e a r n i n g i n the p r o f e s s i o n s . C l e a r l y , the idea of l i f e l o n g education i s based on some important and f a r - r e a c h i n g assumptions which presuppose p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s and a c t i o n s by the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y . Perhaps, however, in l i g h t of the present r e a l i t i e s , the world can do l i t t l e e l s e than presume that the assumptions upon which l i f e l o n g education are based are true and work towards the goals 62 i t puts forward. P r i n c i p l e s From any c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the goals and assumptions of l i f e l o n g education stem ideas about p r i n c i p l e s i n v o l v e d i n making the goals a r e a l i t y ( i e . how the goals can be worked out in concrete s i t u a t i o n s ) . Since l i f e l o n g education i s somewhat nebulous and i d e a l i s t i c , i t has been d i f f i c u l t f o r w r i t e r s on the t o p i c to i d e n t i f y d e f i n i t e p r i n c i p l e s on which to base p r a c t i c e . Some authors have made noteworthy attempts. Peterson et a l (1979) i d e n t i f i e d three p r a c t i c a l p r i n c i p l e s which they b e l i e v e d c h a r a c t e r i z e what l i f e l o n g education i s . These p r i n c i p l e s a r e : (1) there should be c o o r d i n a t e d l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r people of a l l ages; (2) a l l manner of o r g a n i z a t i o n s - school and nonschool - concerned with the w e l l - b e i n g of people should take p a r t i n f a c i l i t a t i n g l e a r n i n g ; and (3) the community (or c i t y or m e t r o p o l i t a n region) should be the l o c u s f o r p l a n n i n g and conducting l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s ... (Peterson et a l , 1979, p.5) Although encompassing some of the ideas which are at the core of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , t h i s l i s t i s by no means complete. Neither i s . i t of a general enough nature that by implementing the three p r i n c i p l e s , one would have implemented the essence of what i s l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . 63 Gropley (1980) l i s t e d the p r i n c i p l e s of l i f e l o n g e ducation. Key f e a t u r e s that he i d e n t i f i e d as c h a r a c t e r i z i n g l i f e l o n g education are: (1) u n i v e r s a l i t y (2) comprehensiveness (3) a r t i c u l a t i o n (4) f l e x i b i l i t y (5) d i v e r s i t y (6) o r i e n t a t i o n towards s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t Although the f e a t u r e s l i s t e d by Cropley (1980) are more comprehensive, they a l s o i n c l u d e some of the g o als of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . Dave (1983) has a l s o done e x t e n s i v e work toward i d e n t i f y i n g p r i n c i p l e s of o p e r a t i o n f o r l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . That author l i s t e d 20 " c o n c e p t - c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " which were p o s i t e d as being the key ideas and p r i n c i p l e s upon which a system of l i f e l o n g education can be based. Although some of the f e a t u r e s Dave (1983) i d e n t i f i e d were c l e a r l y r e l a t e d to o v e r a l l p r i n c i p l e s of p r a c t i c e , many of the statements are what c o u l d be viewed as c a t e g o r i e s w i t h i n o v e r a l l p r i n c i p l e s . A l s o , some of the f e a t u r e s i d e n t i f i e d as being p r i n c i p l e s , are i n a c t u a l i t y , the goals of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . In order to put l i f e l o n g education i n t o p r a c t i c e , what i s needed are g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s which can be a p p l i e d i n any of a v a r i e t y of s i t u a t i o n s . A review of the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to l i f e l o n g education i n d i c a t e s key f e a t u r e s , as i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 2, which can be put forward as p r i n c i p l e s of o p e r a t i o n which would c h a r a c t e r i z e the implementation of l i f e l o n g 64 education i n any of a v a r i e t y of s i t u a t i o n s . As i s evident i n the f i g u r e and as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the t e x t to f o l l o w , the p r i n c i p l e s of o p e r a t i o n stem d i r e c t l y from the s t a t e d goals of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . F i g u r e 2: Goals and P r i n c i p l e s of L i f e l o n g Education Goals P r i n c i p l e s Q .^The need i s to pro v i d e systematic l e a r n i n g U ^ throughout l i f e ( v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n ) A s o c i e t a l L d e v elopment^—Education i s l i n k e d with l i f e I ( H o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n ) ^ L e a r n i n g and education are r i g h t s T Y JThe i n d i v i d u a l i s the focus of e d u c a t i o n a l 0 IT e f f o r t s F i n d i v i d u a l development^—Emphasis i s pl a c e d on the process of L education r a t h e r than on any s p e c i f i e d 1 content F E The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l combine c e n t r a l and l o c a l f u n c t i o n s Each of the p r i n c i p l e s has, i n some form, been d e s c r i b e d i n • the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to l i f e l o n g e ducation although perhaps not under the t i t l e used here. Each of the p r i n c i p l e s encompasses a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r a c t i c e many of which have been d e s c r i b e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e . The i m p l i c a t i o n s of each p r i n c i p l e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d and expanded 65 upon. 1) The need i s to provide systematic l e a r n i n g throughout l i f e . A c e n t r a l idea of l i f e l o n g education i s that s i g n i f i c a n t l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s should be a v a i l a b l e to people of a l l ages. Cropley (1980) p o i n t e d to "the establishment of a new r e l a t i o n s h i p between age and education" (p. 18) as being one of the key t e n e t s of l i f e l o n g education which d i f f e r e n t i a t e s i t from t r a d i t i o n a l e ducation. Faure et a l (1972) made s p e c i f i c recomendations concerning areas where t r a d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s can make m o d i f i c a t i o n s toward t h i s end. Faure et a l (1972) recommended the development of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s for. p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , a d u l t s , and the e l d e r l y — groups which have not t r a d i t i o n a l l y been the focus of the e d u c a t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e — and i n d i c a t e d that l e a r n e r s should be able to move f r e e l y through an open e d u c a t i o n a l system. Cropley (1977) r e f e r e d to t h i s as v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n . Lowbeer (1978) c i t e d the Swedish example of g u i d e l i n e s f o r policy-making i n r e l a t i o n to t h i s very f a r - r e a c h i n g p r i n c i p l e of systematic l e a r n i n g throughout l i f e . That author i n d i c a t e d that one of the g u i d e l i n e s r e l a t e d to l i f e l o n g education i n Sweden i s that every c i t i z e n should have the r i g h t "to r e c e i v e as much education over as long a p e r i o d as he or she may p o s s i b l y use given the i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t y and s o c i e t y ' s o v e r a l l p r i o r i t i e s i n terms of education r e s o u r c e s " (Lowbeer, 1978, p.30). T h i s g u i d e l i n e p l a c e s some q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , i n terms 66 of a n t i c i p a t e d b e n e f i t to s o c i e t y on the u t i l i z a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e . C l e a r l y , however, the education of i n d i v i d u a l s of a l l ages w i t h i n a s o c i e t y i s , i n most cases, an advantage i n terms of the s o c i e t y ' s development. Faure et a l (1972) s t a t e d the p r i n c i p l e given above i n t h i s way: "Every i n d i v i d u a l must be i n a p o s i t i o n to keep l e a r n i n g throughout h i s l i f e " (p. 181). T h i s would i n d i c a t e that i f a person i s not i n such a p o s i t i o n , i t i s p o s s i b l e to get there e i t h e r by s e l f e f f o r t s or with the a s s i s t a n c e of the e d u c a t i o n a l system that e x i s t s . S o c i e t y has some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a vested i n t e r e s t i n promoting p e r s o n a l development. In order f o r the i n d i v i d u a l to continue to develop p e r s o n a l l y and to make a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to s o c i e t y throughout l i f e , l e a r n i n g must be a continuous process. The danger, and indeed, t h i s i s one of the c r i t i c i s m s of l i f e l o n g education i s that l e a r n i n g w i l l be equated with s c h o o l i n g and that the need to continue to l e a r n w i l l be equated with a p e r c e p t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l as being permanently inadequate to deal with the world and r e q u i r i n g permanent s c h o o l i n g (Gueulette, 1972). T h i s would make l e a r n e r s dependent rather than the independent s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n e r s that proponents of l i f e l o n g education e n v i s i o n . T h i s b r i n g s us to a second p r i n c i p l e of l i f e l o n g education — the emphasis being not on s c h o o l i n g as an end i n i t s e l f but an i n t e g r a t i o n of s c h o o l i n g and education with other aspects of l i f e . 67 2) Education i s l i n k e d with l i f e . As i n d i c a t e d i n F i g u r e 2, t h i s p r i n c i p l e stems d i r e c t l y from one of the goals of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , that of s o c i e t a l development. I f l e a r n i n g and education are to have any use, they must be r e l e v a n t to the s i t u a t i o n i n which i n d i v i d u a l s i n the s o c i e t y f i n d themselves. I f education i s to be l i n k e d with l i f e , i t becomes n e i t h e r p o s s i b l e nor d e s i r a b l e f o r a l l e d u c a t i o n a l experiences to take p l a c e under the au s p i c e s of s c h o o l s . The v a l i d i t y of e d u c a t i o n a l experiences o u t s i d e of the school must be r e c o g n i z e d . Thus, a key idea on which l i f e l o n g education i s based i s what Cropley (1977) d e s c r i b e d as " h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n " (p.33), an i n t e g r a t i o n , f o r the purposes of education, of a l l the components of s o c i e t y i n which l e a r n i n g o c c u r s . Skager and Dave (1977) d e s c r i b e d t h i s as " f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n of a l l s o c i a l agencies f u l f i l l i n g e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s , as w e l l as among elements of the c u r r i c u l u m at any given l e v e l and among l e a r n e r s with d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " (p.50). Such a c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n c o u l d have profound i m p l i c a t i o n s fo r the working out i n p r a c t i c e of a philosophy of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . F i r s t , the emphasis i n terms of the l e a r n e r , w i l l not be to mold a given i n d i v i d u a l to the requirements of the p a r t i c u l a r e d u c a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n , but to de a l with the l e a r n e r in whatever h i s present s t a t u s and s i t u a t i o n i n l i f e are (Di Paula, 1981). Teachers, as le a d e r s i n e d u c a t i o n a l experiences, w i l l make use of the l e a r n e r s l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s . I f as Alanen 68 suggested " s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n can take p l a c e only through membership i n a community" (p.6) and s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n i s one of the goals of l i f . e l o n g e ducation, then i t can be achieved only by making the e d u c a t i o n a l process meaningful i n terms of the s i t u a t i o n i n which the i n d i v i d u a l f i n d s h i m s e l f . Therefore formal s c h o o l i n g and e d u c a t i o n a l experiences must be i n t e g r a t e d with o p p o r t u n i t i e s o u t s i d e the formal s e t t i n g . T h i s may mean that there i s a decreased emphasis on s c h o o l i n g ( C h r i s t o f f e l , 1977) and an i n c r e a s e d emphasis on e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s o u t s i d e of the school s i t u a t i o n . Such o p p o r t u n i t i e s have been r e f e r r e d to by Mocker and Spear (1982) as nonformal and inf o r m a l e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Perhaps t h i s i s what Dave (1976) meant when s t a t i n g that " l i f e l o n g education seeks to view education i n i t s t o t a l i t y " (p.35). Education would have a r o l e i n a i d i n g the f u n c t i o n i n g of s o c i e t y and i n t u r n , s o c i e t y would have a hand i n the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . G e l p i (1979) r e f e r r e d to t h i s as the d i a l e c t i c between s o c i e t y and ed u c a t i o n . Such a view would mean that under a system of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , there would have to be a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between education and work. P r a c t i c a l outcomes of t h i s would have to i n c l u d e p o l i c i e s f a c i l i t a t i n g t r a n s i t i o n s between the school environment and the working s i t u a t i o n , academic c r e d i t f o r working experience, work/learn combinations (Gross,1977; O'Toole, 1974), on-the-job t r a i n i n g (0'Toole,1974), and c r e d i t f o r l i f e experiences (Dowd, 1979; Gross, 1977). Of course, the 69 i n t e g r a t i o n of education and work would not be without d i f f i c u l t i e s because there are b a s i c p h i l o s o p h i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between the goals of e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s (presuming they have adopted l i f e l o n g education) and the goals of employers in the work s e t t i n g . Problems c o u l d a l s o a r i s e i n the areas of c e r t i f i c a t i o n and c r e d e n t i a l i n g . For the p r o f e s s i o n a l , the outcome would be the p u r s u i t of c o n t i n u i n g education i n the workplace, r a t h e r than, e x c l u s i v e l y , i n the classroom. Another p r a c t i c a l outcome of the l i n k i n g of education with l i f e i s the broadening of the c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the arena of e d u c a t i o n . Alanen (1982) r e f e r r e d to t h i s as a " g l o b a l way of t h i n k i n g " (p.5). Thus, any e d u c a t i o n a l endeavour w i l l s t r i v e to e n l i g h t e n on the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s present between v a r i o u s f a c t o r s being s t u d i e d . An o v e r a l l view of these f a c t o r s w i l l be important. Education w i l l no longer be c o n f i n e d to being one way of t h i n k i n g , but w i l l be i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y — a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which the Faure Report (Faure et a l , 1972), Dougan (1978) and MacLean (1981) c a l l f o r . T h i s i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r i t y w i l l be of importance i n the implementation of e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and p l a n n i n g . 3) Learning and education are r i g h t s . In a s o c i e t y where education i s so c l o s e l y t i e d to the experience of l i f e , o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l e a r n i n g and education w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d as being " r i g h t s " f o r every i n d i v i d u a l . The process of education w i l l be "democratized" (Cropley, 1980; 70 Dave, 1983 ; G e l p i , 1979) so that each i n d i v i d u a l has access to education and l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s . The r i g h t to education i s enshrined, so to speak, i n s o c i e t y . T h i s d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n has two components. On the one hand, i t w i l l make p r o v i s i o n f o r e q u a l i t y of access to e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y , so that such o p p o r t u n i t i e s are not l i m i t e d to a few. T h i s u n i v e r s a l i t y of access does not, however, guarantee u n c o n d i t i o n a l e q u a l i t y . That i s , there w i l l be some s e l e c t i v i t y in ensuring that i n d i v i d u a l s r e c e i v e an education w e l l s u i t e d to t h e i r unique set of c a p a b i l i t i e s and a p t i t u d e s . In essence, the placement of t h i s c o n d i t i o n on e q u a l i t y of access, while h e l p i n g the i n d i v i d u a l mature and grow i n a p p r o p r i a t e ways, a l s o conserves s o c i e t y ' s resources and thus c o u l d be in s t r u m e n t a l i n promoting the o v e r a l l goal of s o c i e t a l development. The aspect of d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n that ensures e q u a l i t y of access a l s o means that the e d u c a t i o n a l system must accept l e a r n e r s at any l e v e l of experience. I t must serve p a r t i c i p a n t s at any of a m u l t i t u d e of d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s . S i m i l a r to the way education i s l i n k e d with l i f e , i t must serve i n d i v i d u a l s where they a r e . While the d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n of education serves to ensure education as an i n d i v i d u a l r i g h t , i t a l s o r e q u i r e s of the i n d i v i d u a l t h e i r a c t i v e involvement i n the process of education. Thus, the l e a r n e r i s no longer a p a s s i v e r e c i p i e n t of education but has a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to be an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t . More than a consumer, the i n d i v i d u a l i s to be i n v o l v e d i n decision-making 71 and policy-making. One of the recommendations of the Faure Report ("Recommendations of the Faure 1972) was that "students and the p u b l i c as a whole should be given a greater say i n d e c i s i o n s a f f e c t i n g e d u cation" (p. 10). T h i s i s a recommendation f o r p a r t i c i p a t o r y democracy. I n d i v i d u a l s should be i n v o l v e d in running the e d u c a t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e . Part of what Cropley (1980) saw as d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n i n v o l v e s the s e l f -d e t e r m i n a t i o n that comes with p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h i s e d u c a t i o n a l process i s not imposed by e x t e r n a l f o r c e s but r e s u l t s i n a sense of ownership i n the e d u c a t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e . So, while Faure et a l (1972) i n d i c a t e d that democracy in a p o l i t i c a l sense, w i l l p l a y an important p a r t i n the f u t u r e of v a r i o u s s o c i e t i e s , t h i s must not be confused with the d e m o c r a t i s a t i o n of education which can be c o n s i d e r e d an a p o l i t i c a l movement. A democratic e d u c a t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e c o u l d e x i s t i n any of a v a r i e t y of p o l i t i c a l c o n t e x t s . I t i s one of the premises of l i f e l o n g education that the working out of the idea can and must be molded to the context i n which i t i s p l a c e d . Therefore, t h e o r e t i c a l l y at l e a s t , d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n of the e d u c a t i o n a l e n t e r p r i s e c o u l d take p l a c e i n any p o l i t i c a l s e t t i n g . 4) The i n d i v i d u a l i s the focus of e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t s . An outcome of viewing education as a r i g h t and the i n d i v i d u a l as an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n the e d u c a t i o n a l process i s that t r u s t and r e l i a n c e (Di Paula, 1981) i s p l a c e d on the l e a r n e r . T h i s r e l a t e s back to the assumptions about man d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y . 72 The f i r s t p r e r e q u i s i t e of t h i s i s that the l e a r n e r s be conscious of themselves as l e a r n e r s throughout l i f e (McCannon, 1979) and understand themselves i n that r o l e (Cross, 1979). A c e r t a i n amount of the energy expended in accomplishing the goals of l i f e l o n g education must be d i r e c t e d toward developing these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the l e a r n e r , so t h a t , the g o als of l i f e l o n g education can, i n t u r n , be a chieved. The a t t i t u d e of the l e a r n e r i s c r u c i a l . Faure et a l (1972) i n d i c a t e d that the "study of m o t i v a t i o n i s the key to every modern e d u c a t i o n a l p o l i c y " (p. x x v i i i ) . These authors p o i n t e d out that i n d i v i d u a l m o t i v a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to education depends on 1) the search f o r employment and 2) the d e s i r e f o r l e a r n i n g . T h i s would i n d i c a t e that m o t i v a t i o n f o r l e a r n i n g has e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s . C l e a r l y , i f the i n d i v i d u a l i s to be an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n the e d u c a t i o n a l process, as d e s c r i b e d above, and even s e l f - d i r e c t e d , any m o t i v a t i o n that e x i s t s must be c a p i t a l i z e d upon and f o s t e r e d . In regard to i n t e r n a l m o t i v a t i o n fo r l e a r n i n g , Shukla (1971) s t a t e d that "the f i r s t t a s k . . . i s to develop i n the p u p i l s a keeness to a c q u i r e more knowledge" (p.47). I n d i v i d u a l s as l e a r n e r s must be encouraged to value l e a r n i n g f o r i t s own sake. As w e l l , l e a r n e r s w i l l come to value l e a r n i n g f o r what i t can do f o r them in the context of t h e i r s o c i e t y . E x t e r n a l v a r i a b l e s that a f f e c t m o t i v a t i o n f o r l e a r n i n g w i l l become more powerful i f s o c i e t y as a whole e x h i b i t s a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward l e a r n i n g . The establishment of a dynamic l i n k between 73 education and work w i l l s t i m u l a t e m o t i v a t i o n f o r l e a r n i n g . The l e a r n e r i s the c e n t r a l focus of l i f e l o n g education. As i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r , the l e a r n e r i s to be accepted as i s . I m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s are that v a r i o u s l e a r n i n g s t y l e s are p e r f e c t l y a c c e p t a b l e and are taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . I n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n of the e d u c a t i o n a l process, to make i t more meaningful i n terms of the unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the l e a r n e r i s important. O b v i o u s l y , i f one of the goals of l i f e l o n g education i s to f o s t e r p e r s o n a l development, then i t cannot be expected that a l l i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l develop i n the same d i r e c t i o n nor possess the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The l e a r n e r s and the unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s they possess are to be at the center of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , s i n c e there i s a common goal of c o n t r i b u t i n g to the q u a l i t y of l i f e then there must be c e r t a i n common s k i l l s t h a t every l e a r n e r should achieve. For Cropley (1980), these d e s i r a b l e s k i l l s i n c l u d e d "the a b i l i t y to set goals and evaluate the extent to which they have been achieved, a r e a l i s t i c a p p r a i s a l of one's own p o t e n t i a l s , a c o n s t r u c t i v e l y c r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e to o n e s e l f , s o c i e t y , and knowledge" (p. 6,7). I t would seem l o g i c a l , i f l e a r n e r s are to be a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s and planners, as i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , they must possess these s k i l l s . In essence, people must become s e l f - d i r e c t e d i n t h e i r approach to l e a r n i n g . L i f e l o n g education i s a form of s e l f - d i r e c t e d education (Cross, 1979; G e l p i , 1979). 74 If the l e a r n e r i s to be at the centre of the e n t i r e process, he must be supported i n h i s r o l e . Such support s e r v i c e s as the p r o v i s i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n on l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s and c o u n s e l l i n g ( G i l d e r , 1979; Peterson et a l , 1979) r e l a t e d to d i r e c t i o n s and means w i l l be c r u c i a l . Along these l i n e s , the t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e of a teacher w i l l change s i g n i f i c a n t l y . Faure et a l (1972) noted that the person in the educator r o l e w i l l no longer act as the t r a n s m i t t e r of knowledge s i n c e the goal of the e d u c a t i o n a l process i s no longer to f i l l the student with a p r e s c r i b e d content. Instead, educators w i l l a ct as l i a s o n s between l e a r n e r s and the resources which they r e q u i r e (Galosy, 1978). The t r a d i t i o n a l student/teacher r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l have to be r e - e v a l u a t e d i n terms of the new goals of education and i n l i g h t of some of the p r i n c i p l e s which have been d e s c r i b e d . In some r e s p e c t s , the teacher w i l l be as much a student as the l e a r n e r i s (Shukla, 1971) . Not only w i l l the r o l e of the teacher change, but the number of i n d i v i d u a l s who can a c t i n that r o l e w i l l i n c r e a s e s u b s t a n t i a l l y . G e l p i (1979) p o i n t e d out that educators c o u l d , i n f a c t , be members of the community who have not been f o r m a l l y admitted i n t o the te a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n . Under t h i s system, the e x p e r t i s e and experience of s k i l l e d workers i n the tra d e s and p r o f e s s i o n s c o u l d w e l l be tapped. 75 5) Emphasis i s p l a c e d on the process of education rather than on any s p e c i f i e d c ontent. The development in the i n d i v i d u a l of the s k i l l s r e l a t e d to f o s t e r i n g the a b i l i t y to " l e a r n how to l e a r n " w i l l go much f u r t h e r i n accomplishing the goals of l i f e l o n g education and f o s t e r i n g the development of an i n d i v i d u a l who i s adaptable to changing s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s , than w i l l any requirement f o r d e a l i n g with a s p e c i f i e d c ontent. L i f e l o n g education i s a process of s k i l l development. The s k i l l s developed are g e n e r a l i z a b l e to a v a r i e t y of s i t u a t i o n s i n which the i n d i v i d u a l may f i n d h i m s e l f . D e s i r a b l e s k i l l s r e l a t e to the a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y and l o c a t e needed i n f o r m a t i o n , p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g s t r a t e g i e s , being s e l f - d i r e c t e d i n s e t t i n g goals as w e l l as i d e n t i f y i n g a p p r o p r i a t e g o a l s , and c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r s e l f -e v a l u a t i o n . Faure et a l (1972) i d e n t i f i e d the common thread i n a l l u s e f u l e d u c a t i o n a l experiences as being t r a i n i n g " i n s c i e n c e and in the s c i e n t i f i c s p i r i t " (p. 148), presumably meaning the methods and techniques of s c i e n t i f i c thought. The authors went as f a r as advocating "the p r i n c i p l e of a g e n e r a l , p o l y t e c h n i c a l education at secondary l e v e l — an education which would guarantee p r o f e s s i o n a l m o b i l i t y and l e a d to l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n " (Faure et a l , 1972, pp. 67,68). In a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t v e i n , s e v e r a l authors advocate the u s e f u l n e s s of a general l i b e r a l e d ucation. As Cross (1979) p o i n t e d out, "the academic d i s c i p l i n e s form too narrow a base on 76 which to b u i l d a s o c i e t y " (p. 28). I t does seem l o g i c a l that the adoption of the g l o b a l p e r s p e c t i v e that c o u l d be p r o v i d e d by a l i b e r a l education i s a sound approach to d e a l i n g with an ever-changing s o c i e t y and i s c o n s i s t e n t with the other ideas of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . 6) The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l combine c e n t r a l and l o c a l f u n c t i o n s . The a p p l i c a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s of l i f e l o n g education w i l l c r e a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r o r g a n i z e r s . By i t s very nature, that of p o s s e s s i n g and r e q u i r i n g h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n among and between d i f f e r e n t elements of the t r a d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l system and s o c i e t y , i t would be unwieldy to implement. In the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to the t o p i c , authors (Cross, 1979; Faure, 1972) seemed to agree that an a p p r o p r i a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e i s one which has a c e n t r a l body but which g i v e s c o n s i d e r a b l e freedom to l o c a l a u t h o r i t i e s . T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t with some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l i f e l o n g e ducation. T h i s can be i l l u s t r a t e d by c o n s i d e r i n g the c r i t e r i a , taken from l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , that would r e l a t e to an i d e a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . The c r i t e r i a a r e : 1) l i f e l o n g education i s attempting to achieve optimum usage of resources so that i t i s p o s s i b l e u l t i m a t e l y to ensure access to e d u c a t i o n a l experience f o r everyone 2) a wide v a r i e t y and scope of o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o u l d c o n c e i v a b l y make a c o n t r i b u t i o n to the e d u c a t i o n a l process under a system of l i f e l o n g education 3) education can be accomplished i n numerous ways 77 T h e r e f o r e , the most d e s i r a b l e system and the one which c o u l d best ensure that these c r i t e r i a are met would have a strong c e n t r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n -- strong i n terms of ensuring the enforcement of the p r i n c i p l e s of l i f e l o n g education and e s t a b l i s h i n g d i r e c t i v e s i n that regard — but nonetheless f l e x i b l e i n terms of a l l o w i n g f o r a v a r i e t y of approaches on the l o c a l l e v e l . For example, the c e n t r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n would have a r o l e i n o u t l i n i n g the general s k i l l s that i t i s d e s i r a b l e to f o s t e r i n i n d i v i d u a l s , while the l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n would work out how to accomplish those ends i n a given c o n t e x t . Such a d i s t r i b u t i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s would combine the ideas presented by authors who have w r i t t e n about the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l problem r e l a t e d to l i f e l o n g education and would at the same time be c o n s i s t e n t with the p r i n c i p l e s of l i f e l o n g education that have been o u t l i n e d p r e v i o u s l y . C o n c l u s i o n An examination of h i s t o r i c a l thought i n d i c a t e s that the idea of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g has been present f o r c e n t u r i e s . The need f o r concepts of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g and l i f e l o n g education i n our modern-day e x i s t e n c e has been e s t a b l i s h e d on the b a s i s of changes t a k i n g p l a c e i n our s o c i e t y . The l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to the t o p i c i n d i c a t e s that the goals of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g and i t s supporting e d u c a t i o n a l philosophy, l i f e l o n g education, are d i r e c t e d toward per s o n a l and s o c i e t a l development, both u l t i m a t e l y c o n t r i b u t i n g to an improvement i n q u a l i t y of l i f e . 78 In an attempt to d i s c e r n how these goals can be met, the d i v e r s e l i t e r a t u r e of l i f e l o n g e ducation has been examined and d e f i n i t e p r i n c i p l e s of o p e r a t i o n have been d i s t i l l e d . These general p r i n c i p l e s should be a p p l i c a b l e i n a v a r i e t y of s i t u a t i o n s . The concern i n the next chapter w i l l be to apply the concept of l i f e l o n g education to CNE. 79 CHAPTER FOUR APPLICATION OF A PHILOSOPHY OF LIFELONG EDUCATION TO CONTINUING NURSING EDUCATION An assessment of the present s t a t e of c o n t i n u i n g education in n u r s i n g c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e s that i t c o u l d b e n e f i t from a coherent approach. The problem with CNE does not stem from a lack of energy or imagination but from lac k of d i r e c t i o n . Lysaught (1974) noted that i f CNE " i s to be soundly planned and conducted, there must be some more systematic approach taken i n the f u t u r e than there has i n the pa s t " (p. 296). CNE needs a v i s i o n to i n f l u e n c e g o a l s , means, cont-ent, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and the approach to l e a r n e r s . Such a p e r s p e c t i v e c o u l d be pro v i d e d by an a p p r o p r i a t e p h i l o s o p h y . Some authors have i d e n t i f i e d what they deem to be a p p r o p r i a t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r a philosophy of CNE. Loucks (1973) i n d i c a t e d that CNE must u t i l i z e a democratic approach. The c h o i c e of philosophy must be i n f l u e n c e d by concern " f o r the development of persons based on a deep c o n v i c t i o n of the worth of every i n d i v i d u a l " (Loucks, 1973, p. 26). T h i s b e l i e f w i l l be demonstrated i n the ed u c a t i v e environment that w i l l u l t i m a t e l y e x i s t . P o p e i l (1976) s t a t e d the b e l i e f that CNE must be viewed as a b a s i c human r i g h t . P h i l o s o p h i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s w i l l flow from t h i s . Cooper and Hornback (1973) s t a t e d that "a v i a b l e philosophy of c o n t i n u i n g education encompasses v a r i o u s aspects of l i f e and i s not l i m i t e d to p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n " (p. 47). Further to t h i s , an a p p r o p r i a t e philosophy would be one that 80 focuses on the l e a r n e r . F i n a l l y , Cooper (1983) i n d i c a t e d that i t must encompass a wide range of b e l i e f s r e l a t i n g to n u r s i n g , nursing education, education, and c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . Many of these ideas are i n c l u d e d i n the philosophy of l i f e l o n g education d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter Three. W r i t e r s i n c o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g have acknowledged the need f o r a t t i t u d e s c o n s i s t e n t with l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g and have i s s u e d "motherhood" statements i n d i c a t i n g that to improve c o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g , there should be a commitment to l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g . There i s l i t t l e evidence that t h i s has o c c u r r e d . Perhaps t h i s i s because, f o r nursing, the concepts of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g and l i f e l o n g education have not been w e l l understood. T h i s chapter represents an attempt to apply the p r i n c i p l e s of a philosophy of l i f e l o n g education to c o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g . The a p p l i c a t i o n of such a conceptual framework was made in an e f f o r t to provide a u s e f u l system on which to base a c t i o n . A Philosophy of CNE Based on L i f e l o n g Education Goals D e l i n e a t i n g the goals of c o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g as they would be under a philosophy of l i f e l o n g education can be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as an a p p l i c a t i o n of a general model i n a s p e c i f i c case. T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 3. 81 F i g u r e 3_: Philosophy of L i f e l o n g Education - A p p l i c a t i o n p e r s o n a l development General Model (A) I soc i e t a l development q u a l i t y l i f e of (C) i n d i v i d u a l nurse development Philosophy of CNE Based on L i f e l o n g Education S p e c i f i c Case (D) pro f e s s i o n a l q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e (F) development Whereas the goals of l i f e l o n g education are p e r s o n a l development (A) and s o c i e t a l development (B) both of which u l t i m a t e l y c o n t r i b u t e to an improvement of q u a l i t y of l i f e (C) f o r a l l , the goals of CNE i n the context of a l i f e l o n g education philosophy w i l l i n c l u d e i n d i v i d u a l nurse development (D) both on a p e r s o n a l l e v e l and i n terms of knowledge r e q u i r e d f o r p r a c t i c e in the p r o f e s s i o n , and development of the p r o f e s s i o n ( E ) , both u l t i m a t e l y c o n t r i b u t i n g to the q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e (F) p r o v i d e d . Thus, the c o n t i n u i n g education of the i n d i v i d u a l nurse should c o n t r i b u t e to development on three l e v e l s : 1) the development of the nurse as a person, 2) the development of the nurse as a 82 p r a c t i t i o n e r , and 3) the development of the nurse as a member of the p r o f e s s i o n . Thus, r a t h e r than the c o n t i n u i n g educator being concerned s o l e l y with whether or not the i n d i v i d u a l nurse has the necessary knowledge and s k i l l s to be competent, he or she must a l s o be concerned with the development of the nurse as a person. At the minimum, there must be acknowledgement of the personhood of the i n d i v i d u a l nurse p r a c t i t i o n e r i n terms of unique per s o n a l developmental needs. I d e a l l y , there should be a melding of pe r s o n a l development and f u r t h e r a n c e of the nurse as a competent p r a c t i t i o n e r . I n d i v i d u a l nurse development (D), both on personal and p r a c t i c e l e v e l s , w i l l have a r o l e i n the development of the p r o f e s s i o n (E) as a whole. In a d d i t i o n , as the p r o f e s s i o n i t s e l f develops, a c o n t r i b u t i o n w i l l be made to the development of the i n d i v i d u a l nurse. As the importance of the i n t e r a c t i o n between development of the p r o f e s s i o n and the development of the i n d i v i d u a l nurse i s recog n i z e d and f o s t e r e d by c o n t i n u i n g educators, there w i l l be a c o n t r i b u t i o n to the enhancement of the u l t i m a t e goal of CNE, q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n The most a p p r o p r i a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r implementing l i f e l o n g education would be one which d i s t r i b u t e s f u n c t i o n s c e n t r a l l y and l o c a l l y . The major purpose of such a s t r u c t u r e i s t o c o o r d i n a t e a c t i v i t i e s and a v o i d d u p l i c a t i o n and 83 gaps, while a l l o w i n g l o c a l needs to take precedence. A p p l i e d to n u r s i n g , i t i s obvious that j u s t as l i f e l o n g education, on a broader s c a l e , i s to provide c o o r d i n a t e d o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r education f o r people of a l l ages and walks of l i f e , so CNE should, i n a c o o r d i n a t e d way, p r o v i d e access to e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a l l nurses. There should be a body designated as having the c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g f u n c t i o n . There are at l e a s t two p o s s i b i l i t i e s as to what body c o u l d be u t i l i z e d f o r t h i s purpose. Kotaska (1981) noted t h a t , f o r B.C., the M i n i s t r i e s of Education, H e a l t h , and U n i v e r s i t i e s c o u l d do w e l l to cooperate in the area of p o s t - b a s i c n u r s i n g e d u c a t i o n . The RNABC ("Continuing Education f o r R e g i s t e r e d 1978) recommended that a " d e c i s i o n making s t r u c t u r e to c o o r d i n a t e the d e l i v e r y of c o n t i n u i n g education i n B r i t i s h Columbia be organized at two l e v e l s : a. a d e c e n t r a l i z e d l e v e l , with a c o n t i n u i n g education c o o r d i n a t i n g c o u n c i l f o r each community c o l l e g e r e g i o n ; b. a c e n t r a l i z e d l e v e l , with a p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t y (eg. a p r o v i n c i a l a d u l t education c o u n c i l ) " (p.15). Probably the most obvious p o s s i b i l i t y i s that a n u r s i n g a s s o c i a t i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g the p r o f e s s i o n assume t h i s f u n c t i o n . In Canada, t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n c o u l d be e i t h e r the Canadian Nurses A s s o c i a t i o n or a p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n . A d i f f i c u l t y with having the Canadian Nurse's A s s o c i a t i o n assume t h i s r o l e i s the dramatic r e g i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n Canada. Problems with having 8 4 i n d i v i d u a l p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s as c o o r d i n a t i n g bodies r e l a t e to the same r e g i o n a l s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s . Thus, r e g i o n a l c o o r d i n a t i o n of CNE a c t i v i t i e s would seem more a p p r o p r i a t e . Obvious g e o g r a p h i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s make t h i s a f e a s i b l e p r o p o s a l . In the n u r s i n g s i t u a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , there has a l r e a d y been some c o n s i d e r a t i o n of r e g i o n a l c o o r d i n a t i o n . Cooper and Byrns (1973), i n making recommendations f o r a plan f o r c o n t i n u i n g education i n 5 s t a t e s , recommended that a r e g i o n a l center w i t h i n a Department of Nursing be e s t a b l i s h e d . Lysaught (1974) recommends i n t e r s t a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n of CNE. Having a n u r s i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o o r d i n a t i o n of CNE a c t i v i t i e s may not, however, be the i d e a l approach. Goldberg (1975) suggested that perhaps an e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n might be b e t t e r equipped than a n u r s i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n as a c o o r d i n a t i n g body f o r CNE. C l e a r l y , as Tobin (1976b) i n d i c a t e d , to achieve the goals of CNE r e q u i r e s c o l l a b o r a t i o n of more than j u s t n u r s i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s . C o o r d i n a t i o n of CNE r e q u i r e s the support of c o l l e g e s , u n i v e r s i t i e s , h e a l t h , and community o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and, of course, government. However, a consortium of c o n t r i b u t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o u l d be overseen by e i t h e r a n u r s i n g or an e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . C o n s i d e r i n g other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of l i f e l o n g education ( i e . that o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r broader forms of education should be a v a i l a b l e ) , t h i s type of approach c o u l d have advantages for n u r s i n g . Use of an e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n as the c e n t r a l agency 85 might r e s u l t i n g r e a t e r i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r i t y . The use of a consortium approach, i n which there i s agreement on the s h a r i n g of personnel, p h y s i c a l and f i s c a l r esources, c o u l d reduce c o n f l i c t . What would the c o o r d i n a t i n g f u n c t i o n of the c e n t r a l agency i n v o l v e ? Beyond a v o i d i n g d u p l i c a t i o n , the c o o r d i n a t i n g f u n c t i o n would i n v o l v e the development of g u i d e l i n e s to determine f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s f o r CNE so e f f o r t s c o u l d be aimed at common g o a l s . The c e n t r a l agency would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the development of these g u i d e l i n e s i n the context of broader h e a l t h - r e l a t e d needs and resources a v a i l a b l e . Thus, in the broader sense, c o n t i n u i n g education o p p o r t u n i t i e s would be l i n k e d with the l i f e of the s o c i e t y i n which nurses e x i s t . In a d d i t i o n , long-range p l a n n i n g would tend to decrease the i n c i d e n c e of c o n t i n u i n g education o p p o r t u n i t i e s developed i n response to the onset of c r i s i s . The c e n t r a l agency i t s e l f may not be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r o v i s i o n of c o n t i n u i n g education o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Instead, a p p l i c a t i o n of a philosophy of l i f e l o n g education w i l l r e s u l t i n an expansion of p o s s i b l e p r o v i d e r s . A broader c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of what i s a p p r o p r i a t e education would c o n t r i b u t e to t h i s . The purpose of the c e n t r a l agency w i l l be to ensure adequate access and a v a i l a b i l i t y of c o n t i n u i n g education o p p o r t u n i t i e s to nurses in a l l areas. A major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the c e n t r a l agency w i l l be the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n about e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Cropley (1980) noted, i n r e l a t i o n to l i f e l o n g e ducation, that 86 planning i s " e s s e n t i a l l y a matter of p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n to those who have to make the necessary d e c i s i o n s (p. 83). Along these l i n e s , McNally (1972) suggested that the c r e a t i o n of a cle a r i n g h o u s e f o r CNE in f o r m a t i o n would be v a l u a b l e . A cl e a r i n g h o u s e would have to in c l u d e a r e g i s t r y of c o n t i n u i n g education o f f e r i n g s i n the area that the c e n t r a l agency ser v e s . T h i s would r e q u i r e c o o p e r a t i o n of a l l p r o v i d e r s of c o n t i n u i n g education s e r v i c e s . A c e n t r a l o f f i c e would have to be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h i s purpose. There would have to be development of mechanisms f o r d i s s e m i n a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n . C a r l l e y (1974) suggested p u b l i s h i n g a calendar of CNE a c t i v i t i e s . Regional c o o r d i n a t i o n of CNE would in c r e a s e the l i k e l i h o o d that c r e d i t f o r CNE a c t i v i t i e s would be t r a n s f e r a b l e ("Standards ...",1975). T h i s would prove p a r t i c u l a r l y important i n a po p u l a t i o n of workers who are as mobile as nurses. A l s o , r e g i o n a l c o o r d i n a t i o n might in c r e a s e acceptance of the need f o r CNE by acknowledging p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The o r g a n i z a t i o n of CNE on a l o c a l b a s i s would a l s o allow f o r s e n s i t i v i t y to s p e c i f i c needs among the nur s i n g p o p u l a t i o n . Keeney (1980) poi n t e d out that i t would a l s o allow the maintenance of a "sense of program ownership" (p. 3). T h i s would undoubtedly c o n t r i b u t e to the q u a l i t y of the o f f e r i n g s and might even e f f e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n p a t t e r n s . 87 The Learners Cropley's (1977) ideas of l i f e l o n g education included what were r e f e r r e d to as h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n . E f f o r t s to implement h o r i z o n t a l i n t e g r a t i o n were d e s c r i b e d in the p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n where a d m i n i s t r a t i v e arrangements to c o o r d i n a t e e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r nurses were d i s c u s s e d . V e r t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n , which r e l a t e s s p e c i f i c a l l y to the l e a r n e r , i s an area which must be d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n to CNE. C o o r d i n a t i o n on a broad l e v e l can be accomplished by a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l arrangements, but c o o r d i n a t i o n of CNE a c t i v i t i e s i n the l i v e s of s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l s has not yet been d e a l t with. There must be coherence i n the l i f e of the i n d i v i d u a l nurse i n seeking and p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Cooper (1972b) s a i d that " e f f e c t i v e c o n t i n u i n g education f o r the i n d i v i d u a l r e q u i r e s c o n t i n u i t y , and t h i s depends upon p l a n n i n g " (p. 580). One of the b e n e f i t s of such p l a n n i n g i s that i t w i l l f a c i l i t a t e an " e a s i e r flow of l i f e f o r a l l persons from one endeavour to another" (Carnegie p. 15). T h i s " e a s i e r " flow c o u l d i n i t s e l f be a m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e i n c o n t i n u i n g education a c t i v i t i e s . If i n d i v i d u a l s are aware that the goals sought are l i k e l y to be reached, they are more i n c l i n e d to p a r t i c i p a t e . Of course, n e i t h e r agencies f o r whom i n d i v i d u a l s work nor i n d i v i d u a l i n s t i t u t i o n s can accomplish t h i s planning f o r i n d i v i d u a l s . And t h i s i s as i t should be, s i n c e i n the context of l i f e l o n g education, the primary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l e a r n i n g 88 r e s t s with the i n d i v i d u a l (Houle, 1970; Jessup, 1969). The type of p l a n n i n g r e q u i r e d i s that which only an i n d i v i d u a l can do. As i n d i c a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , c o o r d i n a t i n g agencies, l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s of e d u c a t i o n , and workplaces can and should p r o v i d e i n d i v i d u a l s with i n f o r m a t i o n on which to base t h e i r p l a n n i n g . However, only i n d i v i d u a l s can choose d i r e c t i o n s and personal goals which w i l l i n f l u e n c e s e l e c t i o n of o p p o r t u n i t i e s . T h i s f i t s i n w e l l with the UNESCO (1978) c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of l i f e l o n g e ducation that i t i s not " p e r i o d i c f o r c e d f e e d i n g " but rather " i t s f i n a l o b j e c t i v e must be to s t i m u l a t e an a p t i t u d e f o r continuous enrichment throughout l i f e " (p. 11). One of the assumptions behind these ideas i s that i n d i v i d u a l s possess the t o o l s and m o t i v a t i o n s r e q u i r e d to plan c o n t i n u i n g education a c t i v i t i e s . I f the i n d i v i d u a l does not possess these a t t r i b u t e s , then steps must be taken to h e l p the i n d i v i d u a l a c q u i r e or develop them. The nurse must be able to s e l e c t goals f o r p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l development. As n u r s i n g changes, the nurse must be able and w i l l i n g to s p e c i f y the d i r e c t i o n most s u i t a b l e f o r h i s or her a b i l i t i e s and d e s i r e s . T h i s i s not to say, n e c e s s a r i l y , that a l l nurses w i l l have as a primary concern a d i r e c t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l development. However, f o r reasons r e l a t e d to how r a p i d l y obsolescence i n any job can occur, anyone who p r a c t i c e s n u r s i n g must r e a l i z e t h a t to not pick, a d i r e c t i o n f o r development i s to take a step backwards. Once d i r e c t i o n s have been s e l e c t e d , the i n d i v i d u a l must i d e n t i f y the r o l e that formal 89 c o n t i n u i n g education can p l a y i n h e l p i n g to achieve the goals s p e c i f i e d . A f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c that a philosophy of l i f e l o n g e ducation i n CNE r e q u i r e s of nurses i s that they are s e l f -d i r e c t e d , not only in s e l e c t i n g g o a l s , but i n seeking resources for t h e i r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . Continuing education can i n c l u d e f o r m a l l y planned a c t i v i t i e s such as c l a s s e s and workshops, as w e l l as those that i n d i v i d u a l s design f o r themselves. Such s e l f -d i r e c t i o n r e q u i r e s that the i n d i v i d u a l possess a c e r t a i n amount of confidence i n t h e i r own a b i l i t i e s i n that regard. I n d i v i d u a l s must a l s o possess s k i l l s i n a c q u i r i n g or knowing how to a c q u i r e i n f o r m a t i o n on other resources a v a i l a b l e . These t r a i t s are l e a r n a b l e . The i n d i v i d u a l who has not p r e v i o u s l y a c q u i r e d these t r a i t s through experience, can do so through an a p p r o p r i a t e process. F i n a l l y , the i n d i v i d u a l must possess the m o t i v a t i o n r e q u i r e d to be i n v o l v e d i n c o n t i n u i n g education a c t i v i t i e s . Without m o t i v a t i o n , the p r i o r p l a n n i n g i s not l i k e l y to take p l a c e . If m o t i v a t i o n i s absent, expenditure of energy in the d i r e c t i o n of c o n t i n u i n g education a c t i v i t i e s i s not l i k e l y to occur. Such m o t i v a t i o n has i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l determinants. An i n t e r n a l determinant i s the i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e l i e f i n the value of f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n . There are many i n d i c a t i o n s ( B e v i s , 1975) that nurses do not n e c e s s a r i l y possess t h i s b e l i e f which i s at the heart of the idea of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . Much work should be 90 done i n a s s i s t i n g nurses to value l i f e l o n g education (Schweer, 1978). E x t e r n a l determinants i n c l u d e rewards for c o n t i n u i n g education. These rewards are r e l a t e d to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the environment and expected outcomes. These, then, are the areas that the nurse educator must co n s i d e r i n r e l a t i o n to being of a s s i s t a n c e to the l e a r n e r and i n promoting the cause of c o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g . Cooper and Hornback (1973) p o i n t e d out that when a nurse educator accepts l i f e l o n g e ducation as a philosophy, a more l i m i t e d r o l e i s a l s o accepted. Obviously, the r o l e of the educator i s more l e a r n e r - o r i e n t e d . The nurse educator i n c o n t i n u i n g education w i l l continue to assess needs, p l a n , implement, and evaluate programs. However, the educator w i l l a l s o have to deal with the aspects of the l e a r n e r d e s c r i b e d here. Educators and/or p r o v i d e r s of c o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g w i l l have to a s s i s t nurses to value l e a r n i n g . T h i s can be accomplished and might be approached i n s e v e r a l ways. F i r s t , educators and persons i n prominent p o s i t i o n s i n nursing w i l l themselves have to model a p p r o p r i a t e behavior. Cooper (1972) s t a t e d that nurses have not yet l e a r n e d to respect each other's knowledge and s k i l l . T h i s i s d e t r i m e n t a l when t r y i n g to c r e a t e a s i t u a t i o n where l e a r n i n g i s to be a l t r u i s t i c a l l y valued for i t s own sake and where c o n t i n u i n g education i s to c o n t r i b u t e to improvement of p r a c t i c e . 91 Secondly, i n order to take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n personal goals and a s p i r a t i o n s , educators w i l l have to p l a c e more emphasis on the personhood of the l e a r n e r . Although i t i s not p o s s i b l e f o r each educator to have personal c o n t a c t with each l e a r n e r , f l e x i b i l i t y must be b u i l t i n t o CNE. Requests fo r a l t e r a t i o n s of formal c o n t i n u i n g education o f f e r i n g s on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s w i l l have to be d e a l t with. T h i s c o u l d c r e a t e an unwieldy system of c o n t i n u i n g education. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , i t c o u l d r e s u l t i n the c r e a t i o n of a' system of c o n t i n u i n g education where i n s t r u c t i o n a l planning i s conducted with the need for f l e x i b i l i t y i n mind. One s o l u t i o n to the need f o r emphasis on the unique person of the l e a r n e r while c l i n g i n g to the tenet that the i n d i v i d u a l i s p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the choice of d i r e c t i o n i n c o n t i n u i n g education i s the p r o v i s i o n of c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s f o r l e a r n e r s . T h i s area has l a r g e l y been d i s r e g a r d e d i n CNE. However, with the changes i n the n u r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n i t s e l f and the i n c r e a s i n g d i v e r s i t y of c o n t i n u i n g education as w e l l as the requirement of the philosophy of l i f e l o n g e ducation that the i n d i v i d u a l develop s k i l l s r e l a t e d to seeking education, c o u n s e l l i n g w i l l assume i n c r e a s i n g importance. A comprehensive car e e r and c o n t i n u i n g education c o u n s e l l i n g scheme f o r a l l nurses w i l l b e n e f i t p o t e n t i a l l e a r n e r s and CNE p l a n n e r s . Content Under a philosophy of l i f e l o n g education the goals of 92 c o n t i n u i n g education i n nu r s i n g w i l l r e l a t e to the development of competence i n the f i e l d and per s o n a l development but the concern w i l l be d i r e c t e d more toward the development of a " c o n t i n u i n g " competence and a " c o n t i n u i n g " p e r s o n a l development. T h i s purpose must, of n e c e s s i t y , be r e f l e c t e d i n the content of CNE. No longer w i l l c o n t i n u i n g education be used as a f i r e f i g h t i n g mechanism i n which courses are used to meet immediate and p r e s s i n g needs. Instead c o n t i n u i n g education w i l l be used to meet the a n t i c i p a t e d needs of the f u t u r e . T h i s approach w i l l a l t e r the content of CNE so that rather than a c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the d i s t r i b u t i o n and storage of a knowledge base r e q u i r e d by the immediate s i t u a t i o n , there w i l l be more emphasis on g e n e r a l i z a b l e s k i l l s r e l a t e d to a c q u i r i n g knowledge. The nu r s i n g focus w i l l , however, be preserved and the knowledge requirements of "immediate" s i t u a t i o n s that nurses may f i n d themselves i n w i l l be acknowledged. Se v e r a l authors have i d e n t i f i e d the g e n e r a l i z a b l e content that would have to be i n c l u d e d i n CNE i f a philosophy of l i f e l o n g education i s u t i l i z e d . Cooper and Byrns (1973) have i d e n t i f i e d one area that nurses need f u r t h e r h e l p i n . T h i s area i s r e l a t e d to l e a r n i n g how to l e a r n . They i n d i c a t e d that "nurses need.to l e a r n how to gain access to a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n and how to use i t a f t e r i t i s secured" (Cooper & Byrns, 1973, p. 27). They a l s o need a s s i s t a n c e i n i d e n t i f y i n g t h e i r own l e a r n i n g needs. 93 Nurses must be helped i n l e a r n i n g how to gain access to l e a r n i n g r e s o u r c e s , such as l i b r a r i e s . Once these types of s k i l l s have been adequately developed, a t t e n t i o n can be turned to higher l e v e l s k i l l s such as p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g . Problem-solving i s a g e n e r a l i z a b l e s k i l l many n u r s i n g s i t u a t i o n s demand. I t r e q u i r e s an a n a l y t i c a l and c r i t i c a l approach which can be used in almost any p r a c t i c a l n u r s i n g s i t u a t i o n . Because i t i s g e n e r a l i z a b l e , the a b i l i t y to problem-solve i s an asset to any p r a c t i c i n g nurse. A focus on problem-solving i s not l i m i t e d to or s p e c i f i c to any one p r o f e s s i o n . E d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s p r o v i d i n g p r a c t i c e i n p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g c o u l d be i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y . To t h i s p o i n t , the content of CNE based on a philosophy of l i f e l o n g education has been i d e n t i f i e d as i n c l u d i n g the a c q u i s i t i o n of s k i l l s r e l a t e d to problem-solving, o b t a i n i n g resources, and u t i l i z i n g them. These two areas would seem to be requirements of a philosophy of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . However, i t may be found that i n c l u d i n g these types of s k i l l s w i l l do much to a i d the n u r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n i t s e l f , i n a d d i t i o n to the development of the i n d i v i d u a l p r o f e s s i o n a l as a person and as a p r a c t i t i o n e r . As Chapman (1983) i n d i c a t e d , i n d i v i d u a l nurses need to be fre e to "pursue t h e i r own c o n t i n u i n g education by the p r o v i s i o n of the a p p r o p r i a t e t o o l s " (p. v ) . Once these t o o l s are a c q u i r e d , the nurse i s i n a powerful p o s i t i o n , both in her p r a c t i c e and in her a c t i o n s as a p r o f e s s i o n a l . The p o s s e s s i o n of these 94 g e n e r a l i z a b l e s k i l l s w i l l mean t h a t , i n t h e i r a c t i o n s , nurses w i l l be able to take i n t o account both the requirements of t h e i r own p e r s o n a l i t i e s and the needs of the s o c i e t y i n which they f i n d themselves (Houle, 1980). T h i s i s an i d e a l which Houle (1980) i n d i c a t e d as being an a p p r o p r i a t e outcome of c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . Thus, the content of CNE based on a philosophy of l i f e l o n g education broadens the content of CNE c o n s i d e r a b l y . In f a c t , the content i s the process of a c q u i r i n g the s k i l l s i n d i c a t e d . Aside from the g e n e r a l i z a b l e s k i l l s d e s c r i b e d above, CNE i n the context of l i f e l o n g education w i l l a l s o have a l i b e r a l education component. Such a component i s c o n s i s t e n t with the goal of the development of the i n d i v i d u a l as a person. I t i s assumed that a person with a well-rounded knowledge and l i f e -s k i l l base w i l l be a b e t t e r p r a c t i t i o n e r . The person who f e e l s p e r s o n a l l y f u l f i l l e d w i l l be a more v a l u a b l e p r o f e s s i o n a l . As F e l t o n (1980) p o i n t e d out, most n u r s i n g academics seem to agree that there should be a focus on l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n . The focus i s not on s p e c i f i c f a c t s , but a broader understanding of s i t u a t i o n s and the development of " i n s i g h t , understanding, and a t t i t u d e s " (Cooper & Hornback, 1973, p. 56) that are a p p r o p r i a t e to p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e and u t i l i z a b l e i n a v a r i e t y of s i t u a t i o n s . Such an approach to content i n CNE can go a long way toward p r e p a r i n g nurses who are ready and able to work on the " u n p r e d i c t a b l e , complex, and dynamic problems of the f u t u r e " ( F e l t o n , 1980, p.7) that may appear i n t h e i r p e r s o n a l l i v e s or 95 in the p r o f e s s i o n as a whole. In a d d i t i o n , the development of i n d i v i d u a l s who are prepared to " t h i n k " and u t i l i z e a framework i n approaching t h e i r p r a c t i c e w i l l f a c i l i t a t e the development of theory i n n u r s i n g -- a f u r t h e r s t e p toward p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n . Means The changes in a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , g o a l s , approaches to l e a r n e r s , and content that have been d i s c u s s e d i n p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n s of t h i s chapter w i l l not e x i s t without changes i n the "means" or approaches. To make the changes p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d as being needed without implementing changes i n "means" would d i m i n i s h the impact of the whole approach p r e s c r i b e d by l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . Before any of the p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d changes i n the system of c o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g can be implemented with great impact, there must be changes in b a s i c n u r s i n g e d u c a t i o n . To i n t r o d u c e the ideas of l i f e l o n g education only i n a p p l i c a t i o n to c o n t i n u i n g education would be another " f i r e -f i g h t i n g " mechanism. The o v e r a l l approach to n u r s i n g education, from the i n i t i a t e onwards, must be a l t e r e d . B e l l and Rix (1979) recommended t h a t t r a i n i n g r e l a t e d to the s k i l l s r e q u i r e d f o r l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o b a s i c n u r s i n g e d u c a t i o n . Once these s k i l l s have i n f i l t r a t e d the beginning l e v e l s of n u r s i n g e d u c a t i o n , i t i s more l i k e l y that a f o l l o w - t h r o u g h to c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n can occur. Before the tenets of l i f e l o n g education can be put i n 96 p l a c e , there w i l l a l s o have to be changes i n the n u r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n i t s e l f . For example, c a r e e r paths i n n u r s i n g w i l l have to be c r e a t e d so i n d i v i d u a l s can i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c goals toward which they wish to work. McNally (1972), Russel (1971), Lysaught (1974), and Goldberg (1975) a l l i d e n t i f i e d the need f o r c a r e e r paths i n n u r s i n g . These w i l l serve to f u r t h e r motivate nurses to p a r t i c i p a t e i n l i f e l o n g education a c t i v i t i e s s i n c e i n t e r n a l m o t i v a t i o n w i l l be s t i m u l a t e d by obvious e x t e r n a l m o t i v a t o r s . D e f i n i t e c a r e e r paths and c a r e e r m o b i l i t y are m o t i v a t o r s . In a d d i t i o n , the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of d e f i n i t e career paths w i l l s t i m u l a t e systematic p l a n n i n g f o r c o n t i n u i n g education by i n d i v i d u a l s and i n s t i t u t i o n s . However, other changes i n the system in which nurses p r a c t i c e w i l l have to occur. Changes i n ways of l o o k i n g at g o a l s , ways of approaching content, and i n s k i l l s that are i d e n t i f i e d as being d e s i r a b l e cannot occur without the o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e of n u r s i n g changing i n the same d i r e c t i o n . Cranstoun (1981) s t a t e d that although changes can be i n t r o d u c e d i n c o n t i n u i n g education a c t i v i t i e s , c o rresponding changes must occur where the i n d i v i d u a l a c t u a l l y p r a c t i c e s . Cooper (1982) i d e n t i f i e d b a s i c a l l y the same requirements of the o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e of n u r s i n g . One s t r u c t u r a l change that must occur i s a f u r t h e r i n t e g r a t i o n of education and s e r v i c e i n n u r s i n g . I t was i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r that the goals of these two f a c e t s of n u r s i n g are somewhat d i f f e r e n t . These two f a c t i o n s must agree on goals 97 and pool resources to meet them. T h i s a c t i o n w i l l r e s u l t i n more e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s . CNE i n the context of l i f e l o n g education w i l l mean that the p r o v i d e r s w i l l make grea t e r use of c l i n i c a l p r a c t i c e than at p r e s e n t . The f a c t that l e a r n i n g w i l l take p l a c e in the workplace in which a nurse f i n d s h e r s e l f i s an a p p l i c a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e t h a t ' l e a r n i n g should be a s s o c i a t e d with the l i f e ( i n t h i s case, the work) of the l e a r n e r . Such p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of l e a r n i n g i s more l i k e l y to r e s u l t i n changes i n n u r s i n g p r a c t i c e . (Cooper, 1 982). Huber. (1972) emphasized the ANA's p o s i t i o n on t h i s by i n d i c a t i n g that " p u t t i n g new knowledge i n t o p r a c t i c e i n v o l v e s f a r more than j u s t r e q u i r i n g a person to be exposed to a l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n .... o p p o r t u n i t i e s must be a v a i l a b l e i n the a c t u a l work s e t t i n g to share knowledge, to t r y i t out, to succeed, and to f a i l " (p. 29,30). An NLN paper ("The community ...", 1978) i n d i c a t e d that "not having an o p p o r t u n i t y to use what one has learned can i n h i b i t an i n d i v i d u a l ' s m o t i v a t i o n to continue l e a r n i n g " (p. 13). Nurses must be a b l e to expect to apply what they l e a r n i n CNE a c t i v i t i e s . Since the i n d i v i d u a l i s the focus of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n , i t i s the i n d i v i d u a l who w i l l have to be s t i m u l a t e d and motivated to p a r t i c i p a t e i n CNE. More emphasis w i l l have to be p l a c e d on rewards and i n c e n t i v e s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CNE. Such changes in n ursing as the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c a r e e r paths, and the a p p l i c a t i o n of l e a r n i n g i n , at l e a s t , p r a c t i c e s i t u a t i o n s , w i l l be important means toward implementing l i f e l o n g e d ucation. 98 As Huber (1972) noted, t h i s kind of a p p l i c a t i o n r e q u i r e s teamwork. I t may be that the type of "teamwork" of most use to CNE w i l l be t hat of the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y v a r i e t y . The type of problem-solving s k i l l s that w i l l comprise the content of CNE in the context of l i f e l o n g e ducation w i l l not n e c e s s a r i l y be unique to n u r s i n g . T h e r e f o r e , i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y e f f o r t s at c o n t i n u i n g education w i l l p l a y an important r o l e . T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t with the p r i n c i p l e s of l i f e l o n g education which s t a t e that "emphasis i s p l a c e d on the process of education r a t h e r than on any s p e c i f i e d content" and "education i s l i n k e d with l i f e " . L i f e i s l i n k e d to r e a l i t y and the r e a l i t y of nurses' working c o n d i t i o n s are that they work with other p r o f e s s i o n a l s . I f an o v e r a l l goal of l i f e l o n g education i s that s o c i e t y w i l l b e n e f i t , then a goal of c o n t i n u i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l (and nursing) education must be s i m i l a r . T h i s can be b e t t e r accomplished i f the p r o f e s s i o n s work together. Hence, i t appears that one means of implementing l i f e l o n g education i n CNE w i l l be i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y approaches. Cooper and Byrns (1973) r e a f f i r m e d t h i s by s t a t i n g that " i n the f o r e s e e a b l e f u t u r e , i t i s the i n t e r p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t y that needs a t t e n t i o n ... programs should be b u i l t on the process of i n q u i r y i n t o p a t i e n t care i n which the p r o f e s s i o n a l s are j o i n t l y i n v o l v e d " (P. 23). The "process of i n q u i r y " r e f e r r e d to above c o u l d be taken to mean the process of problem-solving which i s so c e n t r a l to l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . T h i s does not mean that by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n 99 i n t e r p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t i n u i n g education the n u r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n w i l l loose i t s i d e n t i t y . In f a c t , Cooper and Byrns (1973) went on to s t a t e that the "concept of c o n t i n u i n g i n t e r p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a r n i n g , i n which p a t i e n t - c e n t e r e d d i a l o g u e and study with one's p r o f e s s i o n a l c o l l e a g u e s should a l s o r e s u l t i n f u r t h e r i n d i v i d u a l study. For to c o n t r i b u t e to the group, each p r o f e s s i o n a l must pursue h i s own unique knowledges and s k i l l s " (p. 23). An advantage of i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y e d u c a t i o n a l o f f e r i n g s are that they are c o n s e r v a t i v e of e d u c a t i o n a l resources, time, and money. Con c l u s i o n The preceding pages have p r o v i d e d a d e s c r i p t i o n of CNE as i t would be i n the context of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . Changes to the g o a l s , means, treatment of l e a r n e r s , content and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of CNE stem from p r i n c i p l e s c h a r a c t e r i z i n g l i f e l o n g e ducation. From a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the changes, i t would seem that l i f e l o n g education may be a v i a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e f o r CNE. The c o n c l u d i n g chapter examines q u e s t i o n s r e l a t e d to the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of the a p p l i c a t i o n . 100 CHAPTER FIVE CONCLUSION An examination of CNE has r e v e a l e d d e f i c i e n c i e s . I t s o r g a n i z a t i o n l a c k s a framework on which to base a c t i o n i n p r o v i d i n g c o n t i n u i n g education o p p o r t u n i t i e s . There i s a demonstratable need f o r change. L i f e l o n g education has been examined as a s o l u t i o n to the dilemma which CNE f a c e s . T h i s concept has been i d e n t i f i e d as an e d u c a t i o n a l philosophy which w i l l i n f l u e n c e g o a l s , content, means, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and treatment of l e a r n e r s . As an e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y , l i f e l o n g e ducation i s s u i t a b l e f o r use in s i t u a t i o n s where change i s a f a c t o r . The d i f f i c u l t y i n a p p l y i n g l i f e l o n g education stems from the apparent nebulous nature of the concept and the l a c k of c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d p r i n c i p l e s r e l a t e d to i t . I t has been necessary to i d e n t i f y , from a review of the l i t e r a t u r e , such " p r i n c i p l e s " , or the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the philosophy which suggest s t r a t e g i e s f o r implementat i o n . T e s t i n g as a Framework Assuming that a commitment i s made to l i f e l o n g education as being s u i t a b l e f o r adoption as a philosophy of CNE, c e r t a i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w i l l have to be taken i n t o account i n determining i t s u s e f u l n e s s as a framework. In the e a r l y stages, i t ' s f e a s i b i l i t y would need to be examined. F o l l o w i n g adoption, outcomes would need to be c o n s i d e r e d . 101 F e a s i b i l i t y As has been p o i n t e d out i n previous chapters, the a p p l i c a t i o n of l i f e l o n g education w i l l r e q u i r e that r a d i c a l changes in the c u r r e n t s t a t e of CNE take p l a c e . C e r t a i n p r e r e q u i s i t e s must be met i n order f o r implementation to occur. As i n a l l change s i t u a t i o n s , i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e that attempts to implement l i f e l o n g education w i l l meet r e s i s t a n c e . Although i t has been demonstrated i n previous chapters that l i f e l o n g education can, i n p r i n c i p l e , be a p p l i e d to CNE, i t may be that r e s i s t a n c e to the number and types of changes r e q u i r e d would overwhelm any move i n that d i r e c t i o n . One of the f i r s t p r e r e q u i s i t e s to implementation must be f l e x i b i l i t y and open-mindedness on the p a r t of i n d i v i d u a l s and i n s t i t u t i o n s i n v o l v e d . Because l i f e l o n g e ducation i s a philosophy, there i s a " b e l i e f " f a c t o r which must be acknowledged when c o n s i d e r i n g implementation. L i f e l o n g education i s an untested b e l i e f system and a c e r t a i n amount of " f a i t h " i s r e q u i r e d before a commitment can be made to i t . I n d i v i d u a l s , whether p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s or educators, w i l l more l i k e l y be induced to adopt l i f e l o n g e d ucation as a philosophy i f they can be convinced that the c u r r e n t s t a t e of CNE i s inadequate. T h i s w i l l be the f i r s t step to c r e a t i n g a s i t u a t i o n i n which i t i s f e a s i b l e to think that l i f e l o n g education can be adopted. An important p r e r e q u i s i t e to implementation i s c o o p e r a t i o n among i n s t i t u t i o n s . I n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l have to demonstrate 1 02 decreased t e r r i t o r i a l i t y . An i n t e r e s t i n a common goal — to promote the knowledge l e v e l of p r o f e s s i o n a l s and thereby improve q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e - must be f o s t e r e d . Cooperation w i l l have to e x i s t between s i m i l a r and d i f f e r e n t types of i n s t i t u t i o n s . For example, nu r s i n g s e r v i c e and n u r s i n g education i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l have to plan mutually determined g o a l s . S e r v i c e i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l have to f o r e s t a l l some of the demand fo r immediate r e a c t i o n to s i t u a t i o n s i n which education would be of he l p . These i n s t i t u t i o n s must be i n v o l v e d in longer term planning and a n t i c i p a t i o n of needs. Education i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l have to be prepared to work c l o s e l y with s e r v i c e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s . C o n s u l t a t i o n between the two types of i n s t i t u t i o n s must take p l a c e . The p r o b a b i l i t y of such c o o p e r a t i o n i n c r e a s e s as p u r s e - s t r i n g s are ti g h t e n e d and i n s t i t u t i o n s are f o r c e d i n t o s i t u a t i o n s i n which they must use c r e a t i v e means to be of s e r v i c e . The f e a s i b i l i t y of the a p p l i c a t i o n of l i f e l o n g education w i l l a l s o depend on the a b i l i t y of d i f f e r e n t groups of h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s to c o l l a b o r a t e . Vested i n t e r e s t s (and the a b i l i t y to give them up) would be important. Changes i n s o c i e t y , such as those induced by consumer r i g h t s and sexual e q u a l i t y movements, incr e a s e the l i k e l i h o o d that c o l l a b o r a t i o n between p r o f e s s i o n a l groups w i l l occur. A f u r t h e r p r e r e q u i s i t e to implementation i s the need to adopt a more g l o b a l and long-term p e r s p e c t i v e on p l a n n i n g . E d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l have to be allowed to spend money 103 on areas where r e s u l t s may not be h i g h l y or immediately v i s i b l e . For example, i n s t i t u t i o n s might h i r e n u r s i n g education planning a d v i s o r s to h e l p nurses decide on c a r e e r d i r e c t i o n s . A l s o , funds would need to be d i r e c t e d to d e v e l o p i n g i n d i v i d u a l s as l e a r n e r s . Since l i f e l o n g education p l a c e s emphasis on and t r u s t i n the l e a r n e r ' s c a p a b i l i t i e s , t h i s would be p a r t i c u l a r l y important. Along the same l i n e s , funding, e d u c a t i o n a l , and s e r v i c e agencies must be i n v o l v e d i n long-range and a n t i c i p a t o r y p l a n n i n g , t a k i n g i n t o account changes in the h e a l t h care system as a whole and i d e n t i f y i n g d i r e c t i o n s c o n s i s t e n t with the o v e r a l l goals of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . Although the emphasis i n CNE based on l i f e l o n g education w i l l always be on developing the i n d i v i d u a l , there w i l l be a need for a master p l a n to organize t h i s on a l a r g e s c a l e . In order f o r l i f e l o n g education to be s u c c e s s f u l l y implemented, there w i l l a l s o have to be changes i n the work s e t t i n g so that the ideas are r e i n f o r c e d and supported i n the workplace. Examples of such changes c o u l d i n c l u d e more acknowledgement of l e a r n i n g that has taken p l a c e and encouragement of s h a r i n g of knowledge between nurses themselves. T h i s kind of a c t i v i t y would be p a r t i c u l a r l y important i n c l i n i c a l s i t u a t i o n s . In c l i n i c a l s i t u a t i o n s , an a t t i t u d e of i n q u i r y c o u l d be s t i m u l a t e d by c l i n i c a l i n s t r u c t o r s d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r e x p e r t i s e i n asking l e a d i n g and thought-provoking q u e s t i o n s of nurses, thus s t i m u l a t i n g them to t h i n k f o r themselves. T h i s s o r t of outcome 104 can o n l y occur as educators change t h e i r conceptions of the "teacher" r o l e . Educators w i l l be resource persons f o r l e a r n e r s but not the only resource. They w i l l be supporters of the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . T h i s w i l l r e q u i r e a dramatic change i n approach on the p a r t of some educators. Perhaps the most c r u c i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e to implementation i s r e l a t e d to development of m o t i v a t i o n f o r l e a r n i n g . As has been emphasized p r e v i o u s l y , the l e a r n e r i s a c e n t r a l component in the scheme of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . Without l e a r n e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n , l i f e l o n g education cannot be implemented. Learner m o t i v a t i o n can stem from innate c u r i o s i t y and i n t e r e s t but i s more l i k e l y to be s t i m u l a t e d as l e a r n e r s see t a n g i b l e and i n t a n g i b l e e x t e r n a l b e n e f i t s and rewards from involvement i n l e a r n i n g . F i n a l l y , such changes to CNE as would occur under a philosophy of l i f e l o n g education would be most u s e f u l and u l t i m a t e l y s u c c e s s f u l only i n the context of s i m i l a r changes to the b a s i c n u r s i n g education system. T h i s has been e l a b o r a t e d upon p r e v i o u s l y . P r o v i d i n g these types of changes occur, the a p p l i c a t i o n of l i f e l o n g education to CNE i s a f e a s i b l e p r o p o s a l . I t may be that the changes w i l l have to be i n t r o d u c e d over a number of years i n an attempt to f o r e s t a l l r e s i s t a n c e . I t may be that the assumption that these•changes can and w i l l take p l a c e , i s only an assumption. 105 E v a l u a t i o n Another p a r t of t e s t i n g the u t i l i t y of l i f e l o n g education as a framework f o r CNE w i l l be an e v a l u a t i o n of the a p p l i c a t i o n i t s e l f . Two major que s t i o n s w i l l have to be answered r e l a t e d to those areas. The f i r s t area f o r q u e s t i o n i n g r e l a t e s to whether or not CNE was a l t e r e d i n the d i r e c t i o n s t h a t the context of l i f e l o n g education would r e q u i r e . Questions stemming from t h a t w i l l d e a l with whether or not g o a l s , content, means, and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n used are c o n s i s t e n t with l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . The second area of q u e s t i o n i n g w i l l r e l a t e to the goals and purpose of using l i f e l o n g education as a framework. The goal of using l i f e l o n g education i n a p p l i c a t i o n to CNE i s to meet the c o n t i n u i n g l e a r n i n g needs of nurses so that q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e can be maintained and improved. Whether or not t h i s outcome has occu r r e d w i l l have to be t e s t e d . T h i s w i l l be d i f f i c u l t , s i n c e e v a l u a t i o n techniques f o r CNE are not w e l l developed. What w i l l be sought a f t e r i s a d i f f e r e n t i a l e v a l u a t i o n i n an attempt to i d e n t i f y whether CNE based on l i f e l o n g education i s any more u s e f u l than any other type of approach. Given these o v e r a l l q u e s t i o n s f o r e v a l u a t i o n , some s p e c i f i c areas to be explored can be presented. Bennett's (1975) h i e r a r c h y of e v a l u a t i o n evidence p r o v i d e s a framework f o r s p e c i f i c e x p l o r a t i o n s . 106 Inputs F a c i l i t i e s 1) Are f a c i l i t i e s being used to t h e i r maximum p o t e n t i a l ? 2) Do l e a r n e r s have access to f a c i l i t i e s at a v a r i e t y of times? 3) Are a v a r i e t y of d i f f e r e n t f a c i l i t i e s being u t i l i z e d ? 4) Are work s e t t i n g s being used f o r c o n t i n u i n g education a c t i v i t i e s ? I n s t r u c t o r s 1) Are educators t a k i n g a p o s i t i v e view of l e a r n e r s ' c a p a b i l i t i e s ? 2) Are educators spending more time h e l p i n g l e a r n e r s f i n d resources? 3) Are the c o u n s e l l i n g s k i l l s of educators being developed and u t i l i z e d ? I n d i v i d u a l s 1) Are nurses spending time p l a n n i n g t h e i r own CE? Costs 1) Does the monetary expenditure r e q u i r e d outweigh any p o s s i b l e present or f u t u r e b e n e f i t of l i f e l o n g education? 2) Is there an o v e r a l l p l a n f o r CNE? 3) Do the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n o r g a n i z i n g l i f e l o n g education outweigh any p o s s i b l e present or f u t u r e b e n e f i t s ? A c t i v i t i e s 1) Are the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e tasks i n v o l v e d i n o r g a n i z i n g CNE under a philosophy of l i f e l o n g education overwhelming? 2) Do the g o a l s and content of CNE offering's r e f l e c t a p h i l o s o p h y of l i f e l o n g education? 3) In p r e s e n t i n g content, i s there an emphasis on proble m - s o l v i n g and process? 4) Do s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s of formal CNE o f f e r i n g s r e f l e c t an emphasis on process? People Involvement 1) Do educators and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s acknowledge the importance of problem-solving? 1 07 2) Do educators and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s support the implementation of l i f e l o n g education? 3) Compared to c u r r e n t CNE a c t i v i t i e s , what are the e f f e c t s of implementation of l i f e l o n g education on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n CNE a c t i v i t i e s ? 4) Is there i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n formal CNE a c t i v i t i e s ? 5) Are d i f f e r e n t people i n v o l v e d i n CNE a c t i v i t i e s ? (Are d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n s of nurses being reached?) 6) Is there i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n nonformal a c t i v i t i e s ? eg. use of l i b r a r i e s , s u b s c r i p t i o n to j o u r n a l s , study-groups? 7) Is there ease of access to e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l s i n remote areas? Reactions 1) Is there i n c r e a s e d s a t i s f a c t i o n with formal CE a c t i v i t i e s ? 2) Are i n d i v i d u a l nurses demonstrating more enthusiasm about seeking l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s ? 3) Do nurses acknowledge the c o n t r i b u t i o n that c o l l e a g u e s can make to t h e i r own CNE? Lear n i n g Change 1) Do nurses e x h i b i t more n u r s i n g knowledge? 2) Do nurses e x h i b i t more knowledge r e l a t e d to the p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s which border on nursing? 3) Are nurses more knowledgeable about the world i n which they l i v e ? P r a c t i c e Change 1) Can nurses demonstrate g r e a t e r a b i l i t y to problem-so l v e i n c l i n i c a l s i t u a t i o n s ? eg. Are they i d e n t i f y i n g problems more a c c u r a t e l y ? Are they using a wider range of resources i n seeking answers to q u e s t i o n s ? 2) Are nurses more t o l e r a n t of change i n the workplace? 3) Are nurses more able t o adapt to change? End R e s u l t s 1) 2) Is there an i n c r e a s e d p e r c e p t i o n of nurses as knowledgeable p r o f e s s i o n a l s ? Is there a gre a t e r i d e n t i t y with the p r o f e s s i o n 1 08 among nurses? 3) Is the quality of health care enhanced? 4) Are more nurses staying in nursing? 5) Do more nurses have i d e n t i f i a b l e career goals? Conclusion Lifelong education, as a choice of educational philosophy on which to base CNE, has much to o f f e r . Careful examination proves i t to be an i n t e r n a l l y consistent philosophy, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of which, y i e l d p r i n c i p l e s which can be u t i l i z e d to influence actions in several areas. Lifelong education could very well be an appropriate organizing p r i n c i p l e for CNE. The question of whether or not l i f e l o n g education can be applied to CNE can be answered in the affirmative. Such an application i s a mechanical task of defining and delineating the p r i n c i p l e s of l i f e l o n g education and applying them to the various aspects of the process of continuing education. This study was i n i t i a t e d in the hope that, in the f i n a l analysis, i t would be possible to make such an application. Having answered that question, another a r i s e s . Whether or not l i f e l o n g education should be applied to CNE i s a q u a l i t a t i v e , value-laden question. The answer i s dependent on the value c r i t e r i a being used to measure outcomes. Value c r i t e r i a used may be economic in nature. There are at least three possible approaches from an economic perspective and, for each, the answer to the "should" question w i l l be d i f f e r e n t . Economic value c r i t e r i a which involve consideration 109 of only short-term c o s t s to the education system may r e s u l t i n the c o n c l u s i o n that l i f e l o n g education i s not an a p p r o p r i a t e approach. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , economic value c r i t e r i a may take i n t o account c o s t to the e d u c a t i o n a l system on a more long-term b a s i s . F i n a l l y , and these may be the c r i t e r i a which are most l i k e l y to r e s u l t i n an a f f i r m a t i v e answer regarding the p o s s i b l e a p p l i c a t i o n of l i f e l o n g education, economic c r i t e r i a used in making the judgement may take i n t o account c o s t and b e n e f i t s to the education system as w e l l as to the h e a l t h care system as a whole. A l t e r n a t i v e l y , value c r i t e r i a used may be humanistic. Questions that would a r i s e from t h i s approach to c o n s i d e r i n g the u s e f u l n e s s of l i f e l o n g education to CNE i n c l u d e "Are i n d i v i d u a l s d eveloping as people?" and "Are those i n d i v i d u a l s b e t t e r a b l e to serve o t h e r s ? " and "Are those i n d i v i d u a l s making a g r e a t e r c o n t r i b u t i o n to the p r o f e s s i o n as a whole?" Value c r i t e r i a used to make the judgement as to whether l i f e l o n g education f o r CNE i s an a p p r o p r i a t e philosophy may be p u r e l y pragmatic and s e r v i c e - o r i e n t e d . Questions that would have to be asked i n e v a l u a t i n g l i f e l o n g education from t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e would be "What e f f e c t i s CNE under a philosophy of l i f e l o n g e ducation having on the q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e d e l i v e r e d by nurses?" and "Is p a t i e n t care improving?" There are s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e approaches to judging the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of l i f e l o n g education as a philosophy f o r CNE. No matter which approach i s f i n a l l y decided upon, i t s use as an 110 e d u c a t i o n a l philosophy has two advantages which are p a r t i c u l a r l y important to CNE and the n u r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n as a whole. One advantage i s the emphasis on processes r a t h e r than a s p e c i f i e d content. Resultant l e a r n i n g w i l l be u s e f u l i n a v a r i e t y of s i t u a t i o n s . In l i g h t of the c u r r e n t s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of n u r s i n g p r a c t i c e , t h i s would be p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l . Secondly, l i f e l o n g education emphasizes the development of the i n d i v i d u a l as a person. I t i s reasonable to assume that an i n d i v i d u a l who has reached a higher l e v e l of p e r s o n a l development than would o r d i n a r i l y be the case w i l l be b e t t e r prepared to make a c o n t r i b u t i o n to the p r o f e s s i o n of which they are a p a r t . The n u r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n can only b e n e f i t from having such i n d i v i d u a l s i n i t s ranks. The f i n a l a n a l y s i s of CNE may r e s u l t i n the c o n c l u s i o n that n u r s i n g educators have few a l t e r n a t i v e s but to grapple with the p r i n c i p l e s of l i f e l o n g education and begin to apply them. The c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n i n CNE c l e a r l y r e q u i r e s a c t i o n on the p a r t of educators. L i f e l o n g education can serve as a b l u e p r i n t f o r t h i s . I t i s c o n c e i v a b l e that i t c o u l d a l s o be a p p l i e d as a framework in other p r o f e s s i o n s . Whether or not i t w i l l be u t i l i z e d as such, f o r n u r s i n g or any other p r o f e s s i o n a l group, i s a q u e s t i o n yet to be answered. C ; / 1 1 1 REFERENCES Adult Education Committee, M i n i s t r y of R e c o n s t r u c t i o n . (1919). F i n a l r e p o r t . London: H i s Majesty's S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e . Alanen, A. (1982). " L i f e l o n g education - Permanent education -Recurrent education. Adult Education i n F i n l a n d , 19 (2), 3-41 . American Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n . (1975). I n s e r v i c e educat i o n . Kansas C i t y , MO: Author. American Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n . (1975). Standards f o r c o n t i n u i n g  educat ion i n n u r s i n g . Kansas C i t y , MO: Author. American Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n . (1976). Continuing education i n  n u r s i n g : An overview. Kansas C i t y , MO: Author. American Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n . (1976). Continuing educat ion i n  n u r s i n g : G u i d e l i n e s f o r s t a f f development. Kansas C i t y , MO: Author. American Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n . (1977). Reference resources f o r  r e s e a r c h and c o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g . Kansas C i t y , MO: Author. American Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n . (1978). S e l f - d i r e c t e d c o n t i n u i n g  education i n n u r s i n g . Kansas C i t y , MO: Author. American Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n (1978). Standards f o r n u r s i n g  e d u c a t i o n . Kansas C i t y , MO: Author. ("ERIC Document Reproduction S e r v i c e No. ED 169 796) Apps, J.W. (1973). Toward a working philosophy of a d u l t  e d u c a t i o n . ( O c c a s i o n a l Paper Number 36). Syracuse, NY: Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y P u b l i c a t i o n s i n C o n t i n u i n g Education and ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Education. B e l l , F. & Rix, P. (1979). A t t i t u d e s of nurses toward l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g : One h o s p i t a l examines the i s s u e s . J o u r n a l of  C o n t i n u i n g Education i n Nursing, 10 (1), 15-20. Bennett, C.F. (1975). Up the h i e r a r c h y . J o u r n a l of E x t e n s i o n , 13 , 7-12. B e v i s , M.E. (1975) The c o n t i n u i n g l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s of neophyte nurses. Adult E d u c a t i o n , 25 (3), 169-191. Bezold, C. (1982). H e a l t h care i n the U.S.: Four a l t e r n a t i v e 1 12 f u t u r e s . The F u t u r i s t , 4, 14-18. Boshier, R.W. (1980). Towards a l e a r n i n g s o c i e t y . Vancouver, B.C.: L e a r n i n g p r e s s . Career Maps. (1981). RNAO News, 37 (3), 30-31. C a r l l e y , C.A. (1974). Development of a plan f o r a statewide system of c o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g . J o u r n a l of  C o n t i n u i n g Education i n Nursing, 5 (1), 13-19. Carnegie Commission on Higher Education. (1973). Toward a l e a r n i n g soc i e t y : A l t e r n a t i v e channels to l i f e , work, and  s e r v i c e . New York: McGraw-Hill. Centre f o r E d u c a t i o n a l Research and Innovation. (1973). Recurrent education: A s t r a t e g y f o r 1 i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g . P a r i s : O r g a n i s a t i o n f o r Economic Co-operation and Development. Chapman, C. (1983). Back to b a s i c s . Nursing M i r r o r , 156 (15), i v - v i . C h r i s t o f f e l , P. (1977). The government's l i f e l o n g commitment. Change, 9 (6), 44-5. C l a r k , K.M. & D i c k i n s o n , G. (1976). S e l f - d i r e c t e d and other-d i r e c t e d c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n : A study of nurses' p a r t i c i p a t i o n . J o u r n a l of Continuing Education i n Nursing, 7 (4), 16-24. Continuing education f o r nurses: ICN statement. (1980). I n t e r n a t i o n a l Nursing Review, 27 (1), 21. Cooper, S.S. (1972a). C r i t i c a l i s s u e s i n cont i n u i n g education i n  n u r s i n g . Madison, WI.: Wisconsin Univ. TERIC Document Reproduction S e r v i c e No. ED 097 554) Cooper, S.S. (1972b). T h i s I b e l i e v e about c o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g . Nursing Outlook, 20 (9), 579-583. Cooper, S.S. (1978). C o n t i n u i n g education: Yesterday and today. Nurse Educator, 3 (1), 25-29. Cooper, S.S. (1982). C o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g : I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p r a c t i c e . In M.S. Henderson (Ed.), Nursing  educat ion (pp. 103-124). New York: C h u r c h i l l L i v i n g s t o n e . Cooper, S.S. (1983). The p r a c t i c e of cont i n u i n g education i n  n u r s i n g . R o c k v i l l e , MD: Aspen Systems C o r p o r a t i o n . Cooper, S.S., & Byrns, H.H. (1973) A p l a n f o r c o n t i n u i n g  educat ion i n n u r s i n g i n f ive north c e n t r a l s t a t e s  (Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota, and 1 13 Wisc o n s i n ) : A proposal f o r d i s c u s s i o n and a c t i o n . Madison, WI: Wisconsin U n i v e r s i t y E x t e n s i o n . (ERIC Document Reproduction S e r v i c e No. ED 095 385) Cooper, S.S. & Hornback, M.S. (1973). C o n t i n u i n g n u r s i n g  e d u c a t i o n . Toronto, O n t a r i o : McGraw-Hill. Cranstoun, J ; (1981). The p o l i t i c s i n c o n t i n u i n g n u r s i n g e d u c a t i o n . In Proceedings of the Second N a t i o n a l Conference  on C o n t i n u i n g Educat ion i n Nursing" ("coordinated by Ruth B u r s t a h l e r ) Vancouver, B.C., B.C. Cropley, A.J. ( 1 977). L i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n : A p s y c h o l o g i c a l  a n a l y s i s . Oxford: Pergamon Press. Cropley, A.J. (Ed.). (1979). L i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n : A s t o c k t a k i n g . (UIE Monographs #8). Hamburg, West Germany: UNESCO I n s t i t u t e f o r E d u c a t i o n . (ERIC Document Reproduction S e r v i c e No. ED 178 692) Cropley, A.J. (Ed.). (1980). Towards a system of l i f e l o n g  educat i o n . Hamburg: UNESCO I n s t i t u t e f o r Ed u c a t i o n . Cross, K.P. (1979). Responding to l e a r n i n g needs. In L.W. Jones & F.A. Nowothy (Eds.), P r e p a r i n g f o r the new decade V o l .  V I I . New D i r e c t i o n s f o r higher education (pp. 13-28). San F r a n c i s c o , CA: Jossey-Bass. C u r t i s , F.S., Darragh, R.M., Fancher, J.E., Ingmire, A.E., Lesnan, V.B., Orwig, B.I, P o p i e l , E.S. & Shores, W.L. ( 1969). Continuing educat ion i n n u r s i n g . Boulder, CO.: Western I n t e r s t a t e Commission f o r Higher E d u c a t i o n . Dave, R.H. (1976) Foundations of l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n : Some methodological a s p e c t s . In R.H. Dave (Ed.), Foundations of  l i f e l o n g education (pp. 15-56). Toronto, O n t a r i o : Pergamon Press. Dave, R.H. (1983). Some conc e p t u a l and o p e r a t i o n a l aspects of  l i f e l o n g educat i o n . Hamburg: UNESCO I n s t i t u t e f o r Edu c a t i o n . Del Beuno', D.J. (1977). C o n t i n u i n g education spinach and other good t h i n g s . J o u r n a l of Nursing A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , 1 (1), 32-34. Di Paula, F.O. (1981). L e a r n i n g never ends: Need f o r 1 i f e l o n g  l e a r n i n g programs. U n i v e r s i t y of P i t t s b u r g h . Paper presented at the Annual Colloqium of the C o u n c i l of Graduate Students i n E d u c a t i o n . (ERIC Document Reproduction S e r v i c e No. ED 221 499) Dolph i n , N.W. (1983) Why do nurses come to c o n t i n u i n g education programs? J o u r n a l of Con t i n u i n g Educat ion i n Nursing, 14 1 1 4 (4), 8-16. Dolphin, P. & Holtzclaw, B.J. (1983). Continuing education i n  nu r s i n g : S t r a t e g i e s f o r l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g . Reston, VA: Reston P u b l i s h i n g . Dougan, M.A. (1978). A commitment to l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g : By whom and f o r what purpose? In Janet A. Williamson (Ed.), Current  p e r s p e c t i v e s i n n u r s i n g educat i o n : The changing scene ( V o l . 2, pp. 119-1257. S t . L o u i s , MI: C.V. Mosby. Dowd, S i s t e r R. (1979). The ch a l l e n g e of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g . L i b e r a l Education, 65 (2), 135-140. Dubin, S.S. (1974). The psychology of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g : New developments i n the p r o f e s s i o n s . I n t e r n a t i o n a l Review of  Ap p l i e d Psychology, 23 (1), 17-31. Dutton, D. (1979). Keynote address: N a t i o n a l l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g conference. L i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g : The a d u l t years, 2 (7), 13-15. Eh r a t , K.S. (1979). S e r v i c e and education t o g e t h e r : A working model. Nursing A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y , 3 (3), 1-5. E l i a s , J.L. & Merriam, S. (1980). P h i l o s o p h i c a l foundations of  adu l t e d u c a t i o n . New York: Robert E. K r i e g e r P u b l i s h i n g Company. Faure, E., He r r a r a , F., Kaddoura, A., Lopes, H., Petrovsky, A.V., Rahnema, M., & Ward, F.C. (1972). Learning to be: The  world of educat ion today and tomorrow. P a r i s : UNESCO. F e l t o n , G. ( 1980). I_s academic n u r s i n g p r e p a r i n g p r a c t i t i o n e r s  to meet present and fu t u r e s o c i e t a l needs? Washington, D.C: American A s s o c i a t i o n of C o l l e g e s of Nursing. (ERIC Document Reproduction S e r v i c e No. 219 994) F o r n i , P.R. & Overman, R.T. (1974). Does c o n t i n u i n g education have an e f f e c t on the p r a c t i c e of n u r s i n g ? : A survey. J o u r n a l of Continuing Education i n Nursing, 5 (4), 44-51. F o s t e r i n g the growing need to l e a r n (1973). Part I: P r o j e c t C o n t inuing Education f o r Health Manpower. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y . Frankena, W.K. (1966). A model f o r a n a l y z i n g a philosophy of educa t i o n . The High School J o u r n a l , 50, 8 — 15. A f u t u r e of c h o i c e s . (1972). Report of the Commission on Ed u c a t i o n a l P lanning. Edmonton, A l b e r t a : Queen's P r i n t e r . Gagne, R.M. (1977). The c o n d i t i o n s of l e a r n i n g (3rd ed.). New York: H o l t , Rhinehart & Winston. 1 1 5 Galosy, J.R. (1978). In search of an advocate f o r the l i f e l o n g l e a r n e r . L i f e l o n g L e a r n i n g : The Adult Years, j_ (6), 10,11. G e l p i , E. (1979). A f u t u r e f o r 1 i f e l o n g education V o l . 1.  L i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n : P r i n c i p l e s , p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s . (Manchester Monograph's #13). Manchester: U n i v e r s i t y of Manchester. G i l d e r , J . (Ed.). (1979). P o l i c i e s f o r l i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . Washington, DC: American A s s o c i a t i o n of Community and J u n i o r C o l l e g e s . Goldberg, E. (1975). The i m p l i c a t i o n s of c o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g . In C o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n : Who, what, where, when,  how? (pp. 1-8) . New York: N a t i o n a l League f o r Nursing. G r i f f i n , J.K. (1978). P e r s p e c t i v e s and concerns on c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . In N a t i o n a l League f o r Nursing, Implementation  of c o n t i n u i n g educat ion i n n u r s i n g (pp. 1-7). New York, NY: Author. Gross, R. ( 1977). The 1 i f e l o n g l e a r n e r . New York: Simon and Schuster. Gueulette, D. (1972). Is there school a f t e r death? Adult  Leadership, 21 (3), 92. Hamil, E.M. (1974) I n s e r v i c e and c o n t i n u i n g education - whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ? J o u r n a l of Continuing Education i n Nursing, 5 (5), 14-20. Hayter, J . (1972) I n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . J o u r n a l of C o n t i n u i n g Education i n Nursing, 3 (6), 31-38. H i r s t , P.H. & P e t e r s , R.S. (1970). The l o g i c of education. London: Routledge & Kegan P a u l . New York: C h u r c h i l l L i v i n g s t o n e . Houle, C O . (1970). To l e a r n the f u t u r e . Medical C l i n i c s of  North America, 54 (1), 5-17. Dekalb, IL: ERIC Clearinghouse i n Career E d u c a t i o n . Houle, C O . (1980). C o n t i n u i n g l e a r n i n g i n the p r o f e s s i o n s . San F r a n c i s c o , CA: Jossey-Bass. Huber, C. (1972). C o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n : V o l u n t a r y or Mandatory? In American Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n , Three Challenges to the  n u r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n : S e l e c t e d papers from the 1972 ANA  Convention (pp. 27-31). Kansas C i t y , MO: Author. Huckaby, L.M. (1979). Point of view: Nursing s e r v i c e and education, Is there a chasm? Nursing A d m i n i s t r a t i o n  Q u a r t e r l y , 3 (3), 51-54. 1 1 6 Hutchinson, D.J. '(1973). The process of p l a n n i n g programs of c o n t i n u i n g education f o r h e a l t h manpower. In F o s t e r i n g the  Growing Need to Learn (Part I ) : P r o j e c t C o n t i n u i n g Education f o r Health Manpower (pp. 133-174). Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y . The i d e a l s and the tasks of 1i f e l o n g educat ion - A summary of the report by the C e n t r a l C o u n c i l f o r Education (1982TT (NIER O c c a s i o n a l Paper 05/82). Tokyo: N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e f o r E d u c a t i o n a l Research. (ERIC Document Reproduction S e r v i c e No. ED 219 590) The impact of c o n t i n u i n g education on the n u r s i n g p r o f e s s i o n : 1982 ANA 53rd Convention - C o u n c i l on c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n : H i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s and f u t u r e i m p l i c a t i o n s . (1982). J o u r n a l of Continuing Education i n Nursing, V3(6), 6-12. Jensen, G. (1964). How a d u l t education borrows and and r e f o r m u l a t e s knowledge of other d i s c i p l i n e s . In G. Jensen, A.A. L i v e r i g h t & W. Hallenbeck (Eds.), Adult e d u c a t i o n :  O u t l i n e s of an emerging f i e l d of u n i v e r s i t y study (pp. 105-112). Washington, DC: Adult Education A s s o c i a t i o n of • the U.S.A. Jessup, F.W. (1969). The idea of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g . In F.W. Jessup, (Ed.), L i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g : A symposium on c o n t i n u i n g  educat ion (pp. 14-31). London: Pergamon Press. K a l l e n , D. (1979). Recurrent education and l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g : d e f i n i t i o n s and d i s t i n c t i o n s . In T. S c h u l l e r and J . Megarry (Eds.), World yearbook of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . 1979: Recurrent  educat ion and l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g (pp. 45-56). London: Kogan Page. K e l l y , L.Y. (1977). Reference sources f o r mandatory and v o l u n t a r y c o n t i n u i n g education f o r nurses. In American Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n . Reference resources f o r r e s e a r c h and  cont i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g (pp. 16-24). Kansas C i t y , MO: Author. Keeney, W. (ED.). (1980). S e l f - d i r e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l development  (SDPD) : An introduction/VoTT J_. Newton: KS: Growth A s s o c i a t e s . (ERIC Document Reproduction S e r v i c e No. ED 204 691 ) Knox, A.B. (1973). L i f e - l o n g s e l f - d i r e c t e d l e a r n i n g . In F o s t e r i n g the growing need to l e a r n . Part I: P r o j e c t C o n t i n u i n g Education f o r H e a l t h Manpower (pp. 65-131). Syracuse, NY: Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y . Kotaska, J . (1981). P o s t - b a s i c e d u c a t i o n : Another n u r s i n g c r i s i s ? RNABC News, 13 (8), 12-15. Lawson, K. (1982). L i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n : Concept or p o l i c y ? 1 17 I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of L i f e l o n g Educat ion , J_ (2), 97-1 08. Leagans, J.P. (1978). Education beyond youth: An emerging s o c i e t a l p e r s p e c t i v e . L i f e l o n g L e a r n i n g : The Adult Years, j_ (6), 12-15, 27, 30, 31. Lengrand, P. (1975). An i n t r o d u c t i o n to 1 i f e l o n g e ducation. P a r i s : UNESCO Press. Levine, M.E. (1978). Does c o n t i n u i n g education improve n u r s i n g p r a c t i c e ? H o s p i t a l s , 52 (21), 138-140. Lewis, R.B. (1981). The p h i l o s o p h i c a l roots of l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g Toledo, OH: Toledo U n i v e r s i t y , Center f o r the Study of Higher E d u c a t i o n . (ERIC Documentation Reproduction S e r v i c e No. ED 213 356) L i t t l e , D. (1979). Adult l e a r n i n g and educ a t i o n : A concept a n a l y s i s . In P. Cunningham (Ed.), Yearbook of Adult and  Cont i n u i n g Education 1979-80 (5th edTl (pp. 3-19). Chicago, IL: Marquis Academic Media. Loucks, P.M. (1973). A u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g f o r c o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g . J o u r n a l of Co n t i n u i n g Education i n  Nursing, 4 (5), 25-29. Lowbeer, H. (1978) The t h r e s h o l d of new reforms i n Sweden. In UNESCO and the I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of U n i v e r s i t i e s . L i f e l o n g education and u n i v e r s i t y resources (pp. 13-47). P a r i s : UNESCO and the I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of U n i v e r s i t i e s . Lowe, J . (1975). The education of a d u l t s : A world p e r s p e c t i v e . P a r i s : UNESCO Press L u s s i e r , R. (1980). Approval mechanisms. In Proceedings of the  f i r s t nat i o n a l conference on c o n t i n u i n g educat ion i n n u r s i n g , Winnipeg, A p r i l 18-20, 1979 (pp. 2 5 - 4 3 7 7 Vancouver, B.C., B.C. Lysaught, J.P. (Ed.). (1974). A c t i o n i n n u r s i n g : Progress i n  p r o f e s s i o n a l purpose. New York: McGraw-Hill. Lysaught, J.P. (1981). A c t i o n i n a f f i r m a t i o n : Toward an  unambiguous p r o f e s s i o n of n u r s i n g . New York: McGraw-Hill, p r o f e s s i o n s . (SREB Research Monograph No. 17). A t l a n t a , GA: Southern Regional Education Board. MacLean, J.R. (1981). L i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g : An overview. M i n n e a p o l i s , MN: Paper presented at the N a t i o n a l Music Educator's Conference. (ERIC Document Reproduction S e r v i c e No. ED 204 533) McCannon, R.S. (1979). Towards a conceptual understanding of 1 18 1 i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g . (ERIC Document Reproduction S e r v i c e No. ED 217 1551 M c C l e l l a n , J.E. & Komisar, B.P.K. (1962) Preface to the American e d i t i o n . In C D . H a r d i e . Truth and f a l l a c y i n e d u c a t i o n a l  theory (pp. i v - x v i i ) . New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y . McNally, J.M. (1972) C o n t i n u i n g educat ion f o r nurses: A survey  of c u r r e n t programs. Kansas C i t y , MO: American Nurses Assoc i a t i o n . Merriam, S. (1977). P h i l o s o p h i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s on a d u l t e d u c a t i o n : A c r i t i c a l review of the l i t e r a t u r e . Adult  E d u c a t i o n , 27.(4), 1 95-208. Mocker, D.W. & Spear, G.E. (1982). L i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g : Formal,  nonformal, i n f o r m a l , and s e l f - d i r e c t e d (Information S e r i e s No~i 241). Columbus, OH: ERIC Clearinghouse on A d u l t , Career, and V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n . Mondale, W.F. (1976). The next step: L i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g . Change, 8 (9), 42-5. Moon, G. (1979). Future d i r e c t i o n s f o r a l e a r n i n g s o c i e t y - 1984 and beyond. L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n , 65 (2), 217-240. Nakamoto, J . & Verner, C. (1972) C o n t i n u i n g educat ion i n  n u r s i n g : A review of North American l i t e r a t u r e 1960-1970. Vancouver, B.C., B.C.: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t s h Columbia. (W.K, K e l l o g g Foundation P r o j e c t Report No. 4) N a t i o n a l League fo r Nursing. (1978). The community c o l l e g e and  c o n t i n u i n g education f o r h e a l t h p e r s o n n e l . New York: Author. (Pub. No. 2 3-171077 Norman, A. (1983). We are not r e g i s t e r e d know-alls. Nursing  M i r r o r , 157 (3), 14. O'Connor, A.B. (1979). Reasons nurses p a r t i c i p a t e i n c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . Nursing r e s e a r c h , 28 (6), 354-8. O'Connor, A.B. (1980). The c o n t i n u i n g nurse l e a r n e r : Who and why. Nurse Educator, 5 (5), 24-27. O'Connor, A.B. (1982). Reasons nurses p a r t i c i p a t e i n s e l f - s t u d y c o n t i n u i n g education programs. Nursing Research, 31 (6), 371-374. Orem, D. (1971). Nursing: Concepts of p r a c t i c e . New York: McGraw-Hill. O r g a n i z i n g f o r l i f e - l o n g l e a r n i n g . ACE O c c a s i o n a l Paper #2. Burnaby, B.C.: ACE, 1974. 119 Overly, N.V. ( 1979). L i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g : A human agenda. A l e x a n d r i a , VA.: A s s o c i a t i o n f o r S u p e r v i s i o n and C u r r i c u l u m Development. Overly, N.V., McQuigg, R.B., S i l v e r n a i l , D.L., & Coppedge, F.L. (1980). A model for l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g . Bloomington, IN: Commission of L i f e l o n g L e a r n i n g , A Report of the Phi D e l t a Kappa Commission on L i f e l o n g Learning. (ERIC Document Reproduction S e r v i c e No. ED 186 639) O'Toole, J . (1974). Education, work, and q u a l i t y of l i f e . In D.W. Vermilye (Ed.), L i f e l o n g l e a r n e r s - A new c l i e n t e l e  f o r higher educat ion (pp. 12 — 21 ). San F r a n c i s c o , CA: Jossey-Bass. Parkyn, G.W. (1973). Towards a conceptual model of l i f e - l o n g  educat i o n . ( E d u c a t i o n a l S t u d i e s and Documents #12). P a r i s : UNESCO. Peterson, R.E., Cross, K.P., H a r t l e , T.W., H i r a b a y a s h i , J.B., Kutner, M.A., Powell, S.A., & V a l l e y , J.R.. (1979) L i f e l o n g  l e a r n i n g i n America. San F r a n c i s c o , CA: Jossey-Bass. P h i l l i p s , R.E. (1979). The s t a t u s of mandatory c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . In P. Cunningham (Ed.), Yearbook of a d u l t and c o n t i n u i n g education 1979-80 (5th ed.) (pp. 233-239). Chicago, IL: Marquis Academic Media. P i e r c e , L.M. (1972) The impact of technology on nurses and n u r s i n g . In Technology: What of the f u t u r e f o r nurses and  nursing? Paper presented at the 1972 Convention of the American Nurse's A s s o c i a t i o n , D e t r o i t , Michigan. Pipke, I. (1981). F r i e n d or b u r g l a r : Program planners meet the f u t u r e . Canadian J o u r n a l of U n i v e r s i t y and C o n t i n u i n g  Education, 7 (2), 15-20. Planning of the development of a d u l t education i n F i n l a n d . Adult  Education i n F i n l a n d , 1981, j_8 (2), 3-6. P o p e i l , E.S. (1976) Continuing e d u c a t i o n . In J.A. Williamson (Ed.), Current p e r s p e c t i v e s i n nursing e d u c a t i o n : The  changing scene (pp. 145-158). S t . L o u i s , IL: C.V. Mosby' Company. Puetz, B.E. & R y t t i n g , M.B. (1979). E v a l u a t i o n of the e f f e c t of c o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g on h e a l t h c a r e . J o u r n a l of  Cont i n u i n g Education i n Nursing, 10 (2), 22-25. Recommendations of the Faure r e p o r t i n t e r n a t i o n a l commission on  the development of education. (1972). (Occasional Paper #11). Ottawa, O n t a r i o : Canadian Commission 'for UNESCO. Recommendat ions on the development of a d u l t educat i o n . (1976). 120 19th Session of the General Conference of UNESCO's Supreme L e g i s l a t i v e Body. N a i r o b i , Kenya. R e g i s t e r e d Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia. (1978). Co n t i n u i n g education f o r r e g i s t e r e d nurses i n B r i t i s h  Columbia. Vancouver, B.C., B.C.: Author. R e g i s t e r e d Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia. (1983). Co n t i n u i n g education approval program. Vancouver, B.C.: Author. R e g i s t e r e d Nurses' A s s o c i a t i o n of O n t a r i o . (1980). P o s i t i o n  paper on c o n t i n u i n g educat ion f o r r e g i s t e r e d nurses. Toronto, O n t a r i o : Author. Richardson, P.L. (1979). L i f e l o n g education and p o l i t i c s . In J . G i l d e r (Ed.). P o l i c i e s f o r l i f e l o n g education (pp. 46-61). Washington: American A s s o c i a t i o n of Community and J u n i o r C o l l e g e s . R u s s e l , C.H. (1971) Issues i n c o n t i n u i n g education f o r n u r s i n g . In R.W. McHenry, Ends and means: The nat i o n a l conference on  c o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g , 1970. ( P u b l i c a t i o n s i n Continuing Education, Notes and Essays on Education f o r A d u l t s #69) (pp. 8-25). Syracuse, NY: Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y . Schechter, D.S. (1974). Agenda f o r c o n t i n u i n g educat i o n : A c h a l l e n g e to h e a l t h care i n s t i t u t i o n s . Chicago, IL: H o s p i t a l Research and E d u c a t i o n a l T r u s t . Schoen, D.C. (1979). L i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g : How some p a r t i c i p a n t s see i t . J o u r n a l of Cont i n u i n g Education in Nursing, 10 (2), 3-13. Schoen, D.C. (1981). Who takes CE and why? Nursing Careers, 2 (1), 20-21. Schweer, J.E. (1978). Present s t a t u s and f u t u r e d i r e c t i o n s of  u n i v e r s i t y - b a s e d c o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g . (ERIC Document Reproduction S e r v i c e No. ED 160 824) Paper presented at a N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y Extension A s s o c i a t i o n meet i n g . Shukla, P.D. (1971). L i f e l o n g e d u c a t i o n . New D e l h i : O r i e n t Longman. Skager, R. & Dave, R.H. (1977). Cu r r i c u l u m e v a l u a t i o n f o r l i f e  long e d u c a t i o n . Oxford: Pergamon Press, S o l t i s , J.F. (1978). An i n t r o d u c t i o n to the a n a l y s i s of  educat i o n a l concepts (2nd e d . ) . Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Somers, A.R. (1971) He a l t h care i n t r a n s i t i o n : D i r e c t i o n s f o r 121 the f u t u r e . Chicago, IL: H o s p i t a l Research and E d u c a t i o n a l T r u s t . Nursing M i r r o r , 156 (16), 36-38.. S t y l e s , M.M. (1975). Continuing education i n n u r s i n g : The hope f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l coherence. In J.E. Schweer (Ed.), C o n t i n u i n g education i n n u r s i n g : A prospectus (pp. 7-14). Proceeedings of the N a t i o n a l Conference on Continuing Education i n Nursing. I n d i a n a p o l i s , IN: Indiana U n i v e r s i t y . Tobin, H.M. (1976b). S t a f f development: A v i t a l component of c o n t i n u i n g education. J o u r n a l of Con t i n u i n g Educat ion i n  Nursing, 7 (1), 33-39. New York: N a t i o n a l League f o r Nursi n g . UNESCO & the I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of U n i v e r s i t i e s . (1978). L i f e l o n g education and u n i v e r s i t y r e s o u r c e s . P a r i s : UNESCO and the I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of U n i v e r s i t i e s . Webster's New C o l l e g i a t e D i c t i o n a r y . (1981). Toronto, O n t a r i o : Thomas A l l e n & Son. Wrocynski, R. (1972). L i f e l o n g education as a r e s u l t of the s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n o l o g i c a l r e v o l u t i o n . Soc i e t y and  L e i s u r e , J_ , 167-172. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0055858/manifest

Comment

Related Items