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Program planning as technology in three adult education units Burnham, Byron Robert 1984

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PROGRAM PLANNING AS TECHNOLOGY IN THREE ADULT EDUCATION UNITS by BYRON ROBERT BURNHAM A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF ADMINISTRATIVE, ADULT, AND HIGHER EDUCATION We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1984 © Byron Robert Burnham 1984 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department O f Administrative. Adult, and Higher Education The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 E-6 (3/81) i i PROGRAM PLANNING AS TECHNOLOGY IN THREE  ADULT EDUCATION UNITS This study examines program p l a n n i n g i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n u n i t s i n a school d i s t r i c t , a community c o l l e g e and a u n i v e r s i t y . Program planning i s conceptualized as technology which i s defined as a c t i v i t i e s undertaken to change program ideas into planned educational a c t i v i t i e s . This d e f i n i t i o n and a framework of three kinds of technology (long-linked, mediating, and i n t e n s i v e ) and e i g h t program p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s a l l o w e d s p e c i f i c t a s k s performed by program planners to be examined f o r d i f f e r e n c e s . The study was undertaken to determine i f d i f f e r e n c e s in program planning e x i s t among u n i t s and i f the concept of t e c h n o l o g y can be u s e f u l l y employed i n describing program planning. The case study method i s employed i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . Depth i n t e r v i e w s with t h i r t y i n d i v i d u a l s , o r g a n i z a t i o n r e p o r t s , r e c o r d s , and publications contained data which were analyzed and used to describe the technology of each u n i t . Most i n t e r v i e w s d e a l t w i t h how programs were planned. They were tape recorded and conducted i n two phases. Other i n t e r v i e w s d e a l t with the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the u n i t s and the o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o w h i c h t h e y b e l o n g e d . The r e p o r t s , r e c o r d s , and p u b l i c a t i o n s were used to h e l p d e s c r i b e the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t of a unit and corroborate data from interviews. Program p l a n n i n g was a c c o m p l i s h e d i n s i m i l a r ways by i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n a given u n i t . Degree of c o n f o r m i t y v a r i e d among the u n i t s and technology was not a s t a n d a r d u n d e r t a k i n g , a l t h o u g h p a t t e r n s of a technology were present i n each u n i t . I n d i v i d u a l s e x h i b i t e d personal consistency more than they exhibited consistency in a unit. The h i s t o r i c a l i i i or c o n t e x t u a l s e t t i n g of u n i t s i n f l u e n c e d the p a t t e r n of t e c h n o l o g y employea. The investigator concludes that mixed technologies e x i s t in the units and they are a f f e c t e d by u n i t purpose, l e a d e r s h i p , and h i s t o r y . It was a l s o concluded tha t i n t e g r a t i n g a u n i t w i t h i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n was an important goal f o r u n i t and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l heads and t h i s goal a l s o affected the kind of technology pattern used by u n i t . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES vi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS v i i i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ix CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 1 The Problem 3 The Purpose • 4 Research Questions 5 Defin i t i o n of Terms 6 Assumptions of the Study 8 Plan of the Dissertation 8 II. LITERATURE REVIEW 10 The Concept of Technology 10 Development of the Framework 14 Summary 30 III. THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK 34 The Framework 34 Originating the Idea ••• 35 Developing Program Ideas 36 Establishing Objectives 38 Selecting and Sequencing Learning A c t i v i t i e s 39 Ensuring P a r t i c i p a t i o n 41 Securing Resources 43 Evaluating 4 5 The Technologies Compared and Contrasted 47 IV. METHODOLOGY 54 Selection of Research Subjects 55 Case Study Techniques 57 Use of Written Records 68 Data Collection • 69 Data Analysis 72 Data Presentation 72 Summary 73 V TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) V. DESCRIPTIONS OF THREE ADULT EDUCATION UNITS 75 The Community Education Department 75 The Community Programs and Services Division 88 The Continuing Studies Division 104 Units Compared and Contrasted 125 VI. PROGRAM PLANNING IN A SCHOOL DISTRICT 131 Community Education Department P r o f i l e s 170 VII. PROGRAM PLANNING IN A COMMUNITY COLLEGE 175 Community Programs and Services Division P r o f i l e s 245 VIII. PROGRAM PLANNING IN A UNIVERSITY 252 Continuing Studies Division P r o f i l e s 306 IX. COMPARISON OF INSTITUTIONAL PROGRAM PLANNING PROFILES AND THE FRAMEWORK OF TECHNOLOGIES 311 Community Education Department 311 Community Programs and Services D i v i s i o n 317 The Continuing Studies Division 323 Comparison of the Units' Tasks 327 Conclusions and Summary 346 X. CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY .354 REFERENCES 370 APPENDICES 378 Appendix A. Program T i t l e s and Fees From School D i s t r i c t A and College A F a l l 1980 Catalogs 379 Appendix B. Program Planning Tasks Reported by a l l Interviewees and Grouped by Operation 391 vi LIST OF TABLES 1. Frameworks of Program Planning Compared and Contrasted 22 2. Program Planning Tasks Compared and Contrasted by Operation and Technology 48 3. Interviews by Organization and Position 63 4. Operations Mentioned in Phase I Contrasted to Operations Mentioned in Phase II by Position 71 5. Continuing Education Enrollment and Ratios by School D i s t r i c t 76 6. School D i s t r i c t and College Enrollment Rates by School D i s t r i c t 77 7. Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of Adult Education Enrollment in School D i s t r i c t A by Year 78 8. Number of Classes Held in School D i s t r i c t A 79 9. Number and Percentage of Registration by Course Type and Year in School D i s t r i c t A 80 10. College and School D i s t r i c t Enrollments and Ratios by College A Regions 90 11. College Enrollment Rates in B r i t i s h Columbia 90 12. Number and Percentage of Registrations by Course Type in College A, B r i t i s h Columbia and the Lower Mainland 92 13. Noncredit Program Registrations by Year and University 106 14. Courses, Enrollments, and Percentage Change by Year, Credit, and Noncredit Programs 107 15. University Noncredit A c t i v i t i e s Reporting Categories and Totals by Year 110 16. Means and Standard Deviations of College and School D i s t r i c t Registration Fees 126 vi i LIST OF TABLES (Continued) 17. Subheadings From the 1980 F a l l Catalogs of School D i s t r i c t A and College A 127 18. Frequency of D i s t r i b u t i o n of Tasks by Unit, Technology, and Operation 329 19. Percent Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Homogeneity 336 20. Percentage of Single Tasks Reported by Operation and Organization 342 21. Operations Mentioned in Phase II by Respondent 345 v i i i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 1. Adult Education Technology 12 2. Bar Graph of Programs by Semester and Semester Combination in School D i s t r i c t A. 171 3. Histogram of Total Number of Tasks and Responses Reported 333 4. Frequency Polygons Representing Frequency of Response by Interviewee Group and Unit... 341 5. Scattergram I l l u s t r a t i n g Degree of Correlations Between Years of Experience and Frequency of Responses 343 ix ACKNOWLEDGMENTS A 1 i t t l e more than twenty-four hours have passed s i n c e my F i n a l Oral Defense. The examination went well and I am pleased. I suppose that i t is ap p r o p r i a t e to f e e l some s a t i s f a c t i o n about one's performance. But contemplation q u i c k l y r e v e a l s the s i g n i f i c a n t contributions of teachers, c o l l e a g u e s , and f a m i l y . In f a c t , i t i s these people who have helped me make success not only p o s s i b l e but r e a l . Committee members with t h e i r p ersonalities, concern, and encouragement have helped keep the project on t r a c t and moving. Tom Sork with h i s reassurance, John Cal am with h i s writing a b i l i t i e s , and Jamie Wallin with his insight have each helped and taught me. The hours of re a d i n g , c o n s i d e r a t i o n , and d i s c u s s i o n W i l l i a m G r i f f i t h contributed have not only made the study comprehensible, but those hours also taught lessons about clear thinking and patience. They are much appreciated. Colleagues and f e l l o w students who were w i l l i n g to spend time in finding holes in the l o g i c and w i l l i n g to l e t me rehearse the i n t e l l e c t u a l problems; were there in the beginning and at the defense. Their strength was f e l t throughout. And, undergirding a l l else was my family. Heather, Jason, Jared, and Rebecca each s a c r i f i c i e d for dad. I hope they also gained from l i v i n g away from home. My wife who never fl i n c h e d and always knew "you can do i t ! " was and is my closest friend. And who else but a f r i e n d would give up a house for a small apartment and two years of Vancouver rain. To her I owe much and acknowledge her help. 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The education of adults is provided by a var iety of i n s t i t u t i on s ranging from universities involved in public higher education to pr ivate business f irms involved in the production of goods and serv ices. Such organizations conduct adult education in numerous formats and use various methods. Adults learn in classes, small groups, or individually within the organizational boundaries of churches, armies, and profess ional associa-t ions. Poss ib ly because of the dispersed nature of adult education a number of attempts have been made to define and describe this organiza-t iona l activity. Several authors, Verner, Houle, Boyd and Apps, and Schroeder, who have discussed or studied adult education have noted several common or closely related elements.* For example, Verner observed that al l institutions have a common interest in the processes of adult education and ca l l ed these processes methods and techniques. Methods bas ica l ly involve organizing people around an institution so that systematic learning might take place. Examples of methods are classes, discussion groups, assemblies, and intern-ships. Techniques, on the other hand, are the re la t ionsh ips establ ished between learners and the knowledge to be learned. Examples of techniques are lectures , group discuss ions, ro le playing and d r i l l s . Boyd and Apps appear to use Verner's concept of method when they propose "transactional modes" as an element in defining adult education. 2 Houle suggested an a n a l y s i s that c o n s i d e r e d two aspects of adult education. The f i r s t was an examination of the si t u a t i o n or category of an educational program. The s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n was defined by the source of authority and direction of planning and control. The second aspect was the design of the educational a c t i v i t y . Houle noted t h i s aspect was comprised of several design elements r e l a t i n g to planning and i n s t r u c t i o n . He f u r t h e r noted these design elements were g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the situ a t i o n in which they exist. Verner's methods seem to be r e l a t e d t o , but not i d e n t i c a l with, Houle's c a t e g o r i e s . Verner's concept of techniques i s cont a i n e d w i t h i n Houle's design aspect of education. Although Verner separated the concepts of method and technique for ana l y t i c a l purposes, Houle combined situation and design for description of a dynamic a c t i v i t y — a d u l t education. Schroeder maintained that order in adult education, although d i f f i c u l t to f i n d , could be di s c e r n e d by studying the process of planning adult education programs.3 His o b j e c t i v e was to e s t a b l i s h order in adult education by analyzing the re l a t i o n s h i p among agents, c l i e n t s , and program planning in adult education. These authors proceeded from a b e l i e f that common processes existed in ad u l t education. This commonality, however, allowed f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n program planning. This study investigates program planning as a process of adult education which may provide some ra t i o n a l base upon which compari-sons of adult education organizations may be made and which w i l l contribute to understanding of organizations that have received l i t t l e consideration from the d i s c i p l i n e of adult education when contrasted to other areas of study within adult education such as learner motivations. 3 The Problem Although the m a j o r i t y of s t u d i e s in adult education have been conducted in organizational settings, l i t t l e research has been done on the agencies which sponsor adult education. The e x i g u i t y of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l research in adult education e x i s t s in s p i t e of the f a c t that some de f i n i t i o n s of adult education assume an organized base of a c t i v i t y . ^ G r i f f i t h noted that because o r g a n i z a t i o n s of adult education vary g r e a t l y i n f o r m , aim, and c o n t e n t i t becomes d i f f i c u l t to t h i n k s y s t e m a t i c a l l y about the f i e l d . 5 He also noted that c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and development models have been used to aid systematic thinking. The c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n approach was used by Houle, Verner, Knowles and Schroeder to produce t y p o l o g i e s of i n s t i t u t i o n s i n v o l v e d in a d u l t education. The developmental model approach enabled G r i f f i t h and Carey to conceptualize adult education organizations as growing and thus moving through stages of development .6 However " n e i t h e r the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n approach nor the developmental model approach has been s u f f i c i e n t l y refined to make i t of pra c t i c a l use . . . neither of the approaches affords an appreciable power of p r e d i c t i o n . " 7 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n has p r o v i d e d t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r and the r e s e a r c h e r with few e m p i r i c a l t o o l s or v a r i a b l e s u s e f u l i n the p r a c t i c e and study of adult education. Most such research e f f o r t s are d e s c r i p t i v e i n nature as they attempt to e s t a b l i s h the order sought by Schroeder and others. This current study i s an investigation of program planning as an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e and as such seeks to e s t a b l i s h a concept which may provide a u s e f u l way to view program p l a n n i n g . I f program p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s v a r y f r o m one k i n d of organization to another, then the d i s c i p l i n e of adult education may be able to use organizational structure, development, and purpose to explain why 4 s p e c i f i c program planning patterns are found in one organization and not in another. The Purpose This study w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e the processes used by adult education units to produce educational programs. The term "adult education unit" is used to r e f e r to those o r g a n i z a t i o n a l departments having education of adults as a primary function. The processes of adult education are defined as the technologies used by adult education units in transforming input or raw m a t e r i a l s i n t o output or f i n i s h e d products. There are at l e a s t two broad di v i s i o n s of adult education processes, each possessing a number of operations. This study w i l l consider the processes involved with planning an adult education a c t i v i t y and w i l l not be concerned with the second broad d i v i s i o n , the instr u c t i o n of adults. Some dimensions involved in program planning i n c l u d e : d e f i n i n g a problem; r e a c h i n g an audience; s e t t i n g o b j e c t i v e s ; s e l e c t i n g i n s t r u c t o r s ; s e c u r i n g r e s o u r c e s ; developing a schedule; and selecting i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques. This idea of process can be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as an adult education unit's technology which i s de f i n e d as "the a c t i o n s that an i n d i v i d u a l performs upon an o b j e c t with or without the aid of t o o l s or mechanical d e v i c e s , i n order to make some change i n that o b j e c t . The o b j e c t or 'raw m a t e r i a l ' , may be a l i v i n g being, human or ot h e r w i s e , a symbol or an inanimate object. People are raw materials in people-changing or people-p r o c e s s i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s . . . ." 8 T h i s d e f i n i t i o n of technology w i l l be employed to examine the ways an adult education unit attempts to plan and administer i t s programs. Thompson p o s i t e d that t e c h nology can vary from o r g a n i z a t i o n to organization and that there are th r e e kinds of technology: l o n g - l i n k e d , 5 m e d i a t i n g , and i n t e n s i v e . 9 T h i s s t u d y e m p l o y s T h o m p s o n ' s s u g g e s t e d t y p o l o g y t o a s s i s t i n an e x a m i n a t i o n f o r v a r i a t i o n i n p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g among t h r e e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n u n i t s and t h e r e b y d e t e r m i n e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f u s i n g t h e c o n c e p t o f t e c h n o l o g y i n t h e s t u d y o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n u n i t s . Can a d u l t e d u c a t o r s u s e t h i s c o n c e p t t o s t u d y a d u l t e d u c a t i o n u n i t s and t h e i r p r o c e s s e s ? To a n s w e r t h i s q u e s t i o n an e x a m i n a t i o n o f s o m e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n u n i t s and t h e i r t e c h n o l o g y was c a r r i e d o u t . T h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s posed i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n g u i d e d t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n s The q u e s t i o n s p r e s e n t e d d e a l w i t h t h e ways a d u l t e d u c a t i o n u n i t s a r e s i m i l a r t o o r d i f f e r e n t f r o m o n e a n o t h e r a n d t h e r e c i p r o c a l i n f l u e n c e s b e t w e e n a u n i t and an o r g a n i z a t i o n . The h y p o t h e s e s a r e s t a t e d as r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s t o a c c o m p l i s h t w o p u r p o s e s : f i r s t , t h e y a l l o w t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f h y p o t h e s e s t h a t may o r d i n a r i l y r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t and i n c o m p a t i b l e r e -s e a r c h d e s i g n s ; s e c o n d l y , t h e y a i d t h e r e s e a r c h e r i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r e l e -v a n c e o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r . As G o t t s c h a l k e x p l a i n e d , " t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r . . . s e e k s f o r p a r t i c u l a r s t h a t w i l l e n a b l e h i m t o a n s w e r h i s i n t e r r o g a t i v e , r u t h l e s s l y e l i m i n a t i n g t h o s e t h a t do n o t l e a d t o an a n s w e r o r a s u s p e n s i o n o f judgment."10 The q u e s t i o n s d e a l w i t h t h e t e c h n o l o g y used by a u n i t and i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t . (1) Does t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o p o s e d b y T h o m p s o n d e s c r i b e t h e t e c h -n o l o g i e s e m p l o y e d b y a d u l t e d u c a t i o n u n i t s ? B e c a u s e t e c h n o l o g y o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a c t i o n i s a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and t h e i r u n i t s , Thompson b u i l t an a r g u m e n t f o r s p e c i f i c k i n d s o f t e c h n o l o g y e x i s t i n g i n c e r t a i n t y p e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h e d e s c r i p t i v e c a p a c i t y o f t h e t y p o l o g y w i l l be t e s t e d a g a i n s t t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h r e e c a s e s t u d i e s . 6 If Thompson's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was shown to have l i m i t e d d e s c r i p t i v e power for adult education units, the following question was to be raised: (la) Is there a d i s c e r n i b l e p a t t e r n of technology used by adult education units? One dominant technology may exist for a l l units, or there may be various technologies used by single units. Questions two, three, and four were asked r e g a r d l e s s of the use of question one or i t s alternative. (2) Do a d u l t e d u c a t i o n u n i t s i n d i f f e r e n t p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n organizations d i f f e r from one another in technology? Because public adult education units are found in s i m i l a r environments, share s i m i l a r c l i e n t s and are concerned with l e a r n i n g , they can be expected to share common ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s . This question focused data c o l l e c t i o n and analysis upon the comparison of t e c h n o l o g i e s of a d u l t education u n i t s belonging to d i f f e r e n t public educational organizations. (3) What, i f any, i n f l u e n c e does an o r g a n i z a t i o n have upon the technology of i t s adult education unit? Because adult education units are part of a larger organization, the expectation was they were influenced by the organization. This question focused data c o l l e c t i o n and analysis upon the context of a unit's technology. (4) What, i f any, influence does the technology of an adult education u n i t have upon i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n ? T h i s q u e s t i o n i n t r o d u c e s the i s s u e of reciprocal influence of a unit's technology upon the organization. These questions were used to guide data c o l l e c t i o n and provide answers intended to e s t a b l i s h the u t i l i t y of Thompson's typology in adult education study. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Crucial elements dealing with o r g a n i z a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e s and program planning concepts are defined in order to make the material and data used 7 in t his study meaningful and concise. The program planning concepts are presented f i r s t . A program i s a s p e c i f i c s t r u c t u r e d p e r i o d of l e a r n i n g i n v o l v i n g a learner or learners, an instructor, and an organizational sponsor. Program pi anni ng i s a c o l l e c t i o n of c e r t a i n tasks performed by an adult educator in order to change an idea i n t o an organized l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t y . - Program planning occurs before, during, and after the learning a c t i v i t y takes place and is synonymous with technology. Program p l a n n i n g tasks are s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s undertaken during program planning in order to complete an operation. An example is writing an i n s t r u c t i o n a l objective. Program p l a n n i n g o p e r a t i o n s are c l u s t e r s of s p e c i f i c and r e l a t e d tasks. These include (1) o r i g i n a t i n g an idea; (2) developing the idea; (3) e s t a b l i s h i n g o b j e c t i v e s ; (4) s e c u r i n g r e s o u r c e s ; (5) s e l e c t i n g and sequencing l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s ; (6) ensuring p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; and (7) evaluating. An a d u l t e d u c a t i o n u n i t i s a component of an o r g a n i z a t i o n having a d i s c r e t e s t r u c t u r e and a primary f u n c t i o n of educating a d u l t s . It may serve other functions for the larger organization, but these are compatible and subordinate to adult education. For example, public r e l a t i o n s may be a function of the adult education unit but the performance of t h i s function is secondary to i t s adult education function. O r g a n i z a t i o n i s used to r e f e r to any one of the f o l l o w i n g three p u b l i c l y supported e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s : a school d i s t r i c t ; a community college; and a university. Technology in t h i s study w i l l be used to r e f e r to those program planning actions performed to change ideas, needs, and impulses to teach or l e a r n i n t o organized l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s . It i s a synonym f o r program 8 planning. Long-1inked, mediating, and intensive types of technology are defined and described in some detail in Chapter II. Assumptions of the Study This study makes certain assumptions about o r g a n i z a t i o n s and technology. First, the organizational assumptions are presented. (1) Every organization exists in an environment over which i t has less than total control and as a result i t is affected by environmental changes. (2) Adult education units are sufficiently different from other units within the same organization to warrant a study of the characteristics of a unit's technology before attempting quantitative measurement and analysis. (3) The technology of an adult education unit is observable and subject to qualitative interpretation. Plan of the Dissertation This document is comprised of ten chapters including this introductory chapter. Chapter II presents efforts of a literature search dealing with the concepts of technology and program planning. Chapter III describes in some detail the conceptual framework built upon three kinds of technology and seven program planning operations. Chapter IV is an explanation of the methodology used in gathering and analyzing data. Chapter V presents the three research subjects by describing their organizational contexts and h i s t o r i c a l development. Chapter VI is an analysis of program planning processes used by a school d i s t r i c t . Chapters VII and VIII treat a community college's and university's program planning processes. Chapter IX compares the analyzed program planning processes and provides evidence for the descriptive capacity of Thompson's typologies. Chapter X concludes the study with some suggestions and implications for further research. 9 FOOTNOTES ^-Coolie Verner, A Conceptual Scheme for the Ident i f i ca t ion and  C l a s s i f i c a t i on of Processes for Adult Education, (Washington, D.C: Adult Education Associat ion of USA, 1962); Cy r i l 0. Houle, The Design of  Education, (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1972); Robert D. Boyd and Jerold W. Apps, "A Conceptual Model for Adult Education" in Redefining  the D i sc ip l ine of Adult Education eds. Robert D. Boyd and Jerold W. Apps, (San Francsico: Jossey-Bass Publisher, 1980); Wayne L. Schroeder, "Typology of Adult Learning Systems" in Bui lding an E f fec t i ve Adult Education  Enterprise ed. John M. Peters, (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publ ishers, 1980). 2Boyd and Apps, "A Conceptual Model," pp. 5-6. ^Schroeder, "Typology of Adult Learning Systems," p. 43. ^Malcolm S. Knowles, The Modern Pract ice of Adult Education, (New York: Association Press, 1970); Houle, The Design of Education; Verner, A Conceptual Scheme. ^Will iam S. G r i f f i t h , "Adult Education Inst i tut ions" in Handbook of  Adult Education eds. Robert M. Smith, George F. Aker, and J. Roby Kidd, (New York: Macmillian Publishing Company, Inc., 1970). 6 W i l l iam S. Gr i f f i th , "Implications for Administrators in the Changing Adult Education Agency," Adult Education 15 (Spring, 1965): 139-144; James Carey, Form and Forces in University Adult Education, (Chicago: Center for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults, 1961). ^Gri f f i th, "Implications for Administrators," p. 176. Q Charles Perrow "A Framework for the Comparative Analysis of Organizations," American Sociological Review 32(1967):pp. 197-208. ^James D. Thompson, Organization in Act ion, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1967). Louis Gottschalk, Understanding History: A Primer of H i s to r i ca l  Method, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1950). 10 CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter explores l i t e r a t u r e from two d i s c i p l i n e s . Organization theory provided p e r s p e c t i v e s on technology and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i l e a d u l t education provided p e r s p e c t i v e s on program planning. These two concepts were combined to develop a conceptual framework b r i e f l y introduced in t h i s chapter by presenting d e f i n i t i o n s of three kinds of t e c h n o l o g i e s , a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of each d e f i n i t i o n , and examples of each technology using Houle's program pl a n n i n g model.* The three kinds of technologies are discussed more f u l l y in Chapter III. The Concept of Technology Organizations exist for a purpose. They are "social instruments that produce things needed by some s e c t o r of s o c i e t y . T h e concept of technology i s a v i t a l part of an o r g a n i z a t i o n . L i t t e r e r began with the production process as he defined an organization: To begin with, an organization produces something. T y p i c a l l y , we think of i t as producing an o b j e c t such as an automobile, or a service such as medical care. Organizations of t h i s kind are c a l l e d formal organizations, because they e n t a i l some degree of conscious planning and t h e i r purposes or objectives are more observable. What they produce i s consumed by p o r t i o n s of s o c i e t y o u t s i d e the organization i t s e l f . As L i t t e r e r pointed out, any study of an organization's production must be concerned with the formal o r g a n i z a t i o n . The workflow i s part of planned relationships within an organization. Harvey defined technology as "the mechanisms or processes by which an o r g a n i z a t i o n t u r n s out i t s product or s e r v i c e . H i s d e f i n i t i o n was 11 s o l i d l y i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t . I n d e e d , i t was H a r v e y ' s p u r p o s e t o d e m o n s t r a t e a r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e t e c h n o l o g y e m p l o y e d by an o r g a n i z a -t i o n and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s s t r u c t u r e . A number o f o t h e r a u t h o r s ( H i c k s o n , Pugh and P h e y s e y ; J . H u n t ; and R. H u n t ) c o n s i d e r e d t e c h n o l o g y and i t s e f f e c t u p o n i n d u s t r i a l o r g a n i z a t i ons.5 " P e o p l e - p r o c e s s i n g " o r g a n i z a t i o n s w e r e s t u d i e d by Hage and A i k e n u s i n g P e r r o w ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f t e c h n o l o g y . ^ T h e y e x p l o r e d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t e c h n o l o g y and s t r u c t u r e i n t h o s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t p r o v i d e d s o c i a l and h e a l t h s e r v i c e . P e r r o w ' s d e f i n i t i o n i s b r o a d , i n c l u s i v e , and s u p p l i e s much i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h e r e s e a r c h e r . The d e f i n i t i o n l e t s one c o n s i d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e r a w m a t e r i a l t o be c h a n g e d , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o c e s s i t s e l f , t h e u s e o r n o n - u s e o f t o o l s , and t h e s t a g e s o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n a p r o c e s s . I t c a n be u s e d . i n s i d e o r o u t s i d e an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t . T h e d e f i n i t i o n c a n a p p l y t o an i n d u s t r i a l , s e r v i c e , o r e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n a l l o w s i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e s t u d y of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n u n i t s , c a v e a t s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s h o u l d be o b s e r v e d . A d u l t e d u c a t i o n and t e c h n o l o g y B o r r o w i n g and r e f o r m u l a t i n g c o n c e p t s f r o m o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s and a p p l y i n g them i n t h e s t u d y o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n has been a c o n s c i o u s a c t i v i t y s i n c e J e n s e n o u t l i n e d t h e s t e p s . ^ R e c e n t l y B o y d a n d A p p s w a r n e d a d u l t e d u c a t o r s a b o u t p r o b l e m s i n h e r e n t i n s u c h an u n d e r t a k i n g . 8 Two m a j o r p r o b l e m s a r e a l l o w i n g o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s t o d e f i n e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and i m p r o p e r l y u t i l i z i n g c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k s i n w h i c h t h e s e c o n c e p t s e x i s t . The f i r s t p r o b l e m o f l e t t i n g o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s d e f i n e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s n o t an i s s u e i n t h i s s t u d y b e c a u s e i t p r o c e e d s f r o m o b s e r v a t i o n s about t h e phenomenon o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and s e e k s t o add t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f 12 what Houle, Schroeder, and Verner c a l l e d common processes of adult education. Conceptual frameworks from other d i s c i p l i n e s can be used to provide insight into adult education units. A conceptual framework which posits technology as an organizational variable may be used to explain why adult education units d i f f e r from one another. To achieve t h i s c a p a b i l i t y the processes of adult education must be conceptualized as i t s technology. As noted e a r l i e r both Houle and Verner recognized that the processes of adult education were common to a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n v o l v e d in h e l p i n g a d u l t s l e a r n . These processes can be thought of as transformation procedures for two kinds of e n t i t i e s . Ideas of can be transformed i n t o e d u c a t i o n a l programs and i n d i v i d u a l s who lea r n during an educational experience can be transformed in c a p a b i l i t y , s k i l l or attitude, or a l l three. This study deals with the transformation process of ideas into educational programs. According to Perrow's d e f i n i t i o n of technology as a p p l i e d to adult education, the objects can be thought of as inputs such as needs, problems and, as Houle noted, impulses to learn or teach. Such inputs are the basis f o r program ideas. The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of program ideas i n t o output or planned e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i s the r e s u l t of technology. F i g u r e 1 i l l u s t r a t e s the flow of input, technological application and output of an adult education unit. Input (raw material) 1. Needs 2. Problems 3. Impulses to learn or teach _^ Adult Education-Technology 1. Originating program 2. Developing ideas 3. Designing programs 4. Ensuring p a r t i c i p a t i o n 5. Securing resources 6. Evaluating programs -> Output (processed materi al) 1. Organized learning a c t i v i t i e s Figure 1. Adult education technology. 13 The inputs for an adult education unit can take the form of needs, problems, and desires to teach or learn. The f e l t needs of indiv iduals supply much of the content of adult education programs. These needs range from technical s k i l l s required for soc ia l survival to needs of creat ive expression. Technical s k i l l s can be found in programs which emphasize vocational t ra in ing and basic education. Needs stemming from creat ive expression can be found in hobby programs such as wine making and photography. Problems facing ind iv idua ls as they move into new social roles are the basis for programs teaching s k i l l s in s ingle parenting, or buying and maintaining a home. Inputs can also take the form of impulses to teach or learn. The impulse to teach is exemplif ied by ind iv idua l s who approach an adult education unit and request the opportunity to share a special talent which they possess. The impulse to learn is represented by individuals who enjoy learning and can be found in course after course with no apparent pattern to the choice of the subject matter learned. Organizational needs can be expressed in courses dealing, with staff training, organizational interpretation (public relations) and performance of organizational purpose. Just as individuals assuming new social roles face problems, organizations also face problems as they change roles or purpose. When th i s happens problems form one source of needs for adult education act iv it ies in an organizational context. The actions of a unit in transforming input into adult education programs comprise its technology. Technology as an organizational variable was considered by a number of wr i ters and researchers (Hage and Aiken, Harvey, Hickson, Mintzberg, and Woodward), most of whom have attempted to establish a relationship between technology and organizational structure.^ After reviewing a number of empirical studies, Mintzberg noted "Technology 14 i s c l e a r l y a m a j o r f a c t o r i n t h e d e s i g n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e s . " ^ T h o m p s o n , p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t e c h n o l o g y was r e l a t e d t o an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s g r o w t h p a t t e r n . ^ F o r t e c h n o l o g y o r p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g t o be u s e f u l as an e x p l a n a t o r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n u n i t , such t e c h n o l o g y s h o u l d p o s s e s s t h e q u a l i t y o f v a r i a b i l i t y . T h i s c h a p t e r s e e k s t o e s t a b l i s h v a r i a b i l i t y by p r o p o s i n g a f r a m e w o r k o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l v a r i a n c e and t h e n r e l a t i n g i t t o p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g . D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e F r a m e w o r k P r o g r a m p l a n n i n g h a s b e e n t h e s u b j e c t o f a n u m b e r o f t r e a t i s e s and some e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h . F o u r s t u d i e s have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e f r a m e w o r k used i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . H o u l e , P e n n i n g t o n and G r e e n , R o b b i n s , and Knox p r o d u c e d s t u d i e s w h i c h d e l i n e a t e d e i t h e r b r o a d a r e a s or s p e c i f i c t a s k s o f p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g , o r b o t h . 12 E a c h s t u d y i s b r i e f l y r e v i e w e d ; a s y n t h e s i z e d c o n c e p t o f p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g i s p r e s e n t e d by c o m p a r i n g f o u r p l a n n i n g a p p r o a c h e s f o u n d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e ; e a c h s t u d y i s c o m p a r e d t o t h e f r a m e w o r k ; and f i n a l l y t h e c o m p a r i s o n i s d i s p l a y e d i n t a b u l a r f o r m . H o u l e ' s d e s i g n s y s t e m H o u l e c r e a t e d a t w o p a r t s y s t e m f o r a n a l y z i n g e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g . The f i r s t p a r t was i d e n t i f y i n g t h e k i n d s o f s i t u a t i o n s i n w h i c h p r o g r a m s w e r e p l a n n e d . H o u l e c l a s s i f i e d e l e v e n m a j o r c a t e g o r i e s o f d e s i g n s i t u a t i o n s . Each c a t e g o r y was d i s t i n g u i s h e d by " t h e s o u r c e o f a u t h o r i t y and d i r e c t i o n so f a r as p l a n n i n g and c o n t r o l a r e c o n c e r n e d . " ^ E x a m p l e s o f t h r e e o f t h e e l e v e n c a t e g o r i e s a r e : an i n d i v i d u a l d e s i g n i n g an a c t i v i t y f o r a l a r g e r g r o u p ; an i n s t i t u t i o n d e s i g n i n g an a c t i v i t y i n a new f o r m a t ; and 15 an i n d i v i d u a l , group or i n s t i t u t i o n d e s i g n i n g an a c t i v i t y f o r a mass audience. The present study is concerned with situations in which an i n s t i t u t i o n plans an a c t i v i t y in a new or established format. While Houle maintained that the program planning process was a f f e c t e d by the major category of design s i t u a t i o n involved, the present investigation seeks to demonstrate v a r i a b i l i t y due to t e c h n o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s within a single category of educational design situation. The second part of Houle's system was comprised of seven d e c i s i o n points, several of them containing a number of components. They were: (1) i d e n t i f y i n g a possible educational a c t i v i t y ; (2) deciding to proceed; (3) i d e n t i f y i n g and r e f i n i n g objectives; (4) designing a suitable format; (5) f i t t i n g the format i n t o the l a r g e r p a t t e r n s of l i ^ e ; ( 6).carrying out the program and (7) measuring and appraising the r e s u l t s of the a c t i v i t y . Pennington and Green's c l u s t e r s Pennington and Green developed s i x program pl a n n i n g c l u s t e r s from t h e i r investigation of professional continuing e d u c a t i o n . C l u s t e r s were formed by grouping tasks and d e c i s i o n s i n v o l v e d in program planning as i d e n t i f i e d through interviews with planners of continuing medical education programs. The researchers began with s p e c i f i c program planning tasks and moved to more abstract l e v e l s of c l u s t e r s in developing a model of program planning. The i d e n t i f i e d c l u s t e r s were: (1) o r i g i n a t i n g the idea; (2) developing the idea; (3) making a commitment; (4) developing the program; (5) t e a c h i n g the course and (6) e v a l u a t i n g the impact. The authors noted that these s i x c l u s t e r s were not performed s e q u e n t i a l l y , however, each cluster was used at some point in the program planning process. 16 Robbins's steps Robbins, after reviewing seven studies of program planning, presented the f o l l o w i n g synthesis of major steps in the process; (1) e s t a b l i s h an operational base for de l i v e r i n g services; (2) originate a program idea; (3) form a planning group; (4) analyze r e l e v a n t systems; (5) i d e n t i f y p a r t i c i p a n t needs; (6) f o r m u l a t e program o b j e c t i v e s ; (7) design program s t r u c t u r e s ; (8) determine program content and methods; (9) acquire resources; (10) promote program and r e c r u i t p a r t i c i p a n t s ; (11) i n i t i a t e and operate program; and (12) e v a l u a t e program.I 5 He used t h i s framework to di s c o v e r which tasks and sequences program planners used i n developing programs. Robbins hypothesized that steps would be valued d i f f e r e n t l y by program planners grouped according to function and role orientation. While he found t h e r e was high agreement on the importance of planning steps he found l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n on r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n and as a r e s u l t could make no conclusion about d i f f e r e n t valuing by groups defined by function or role orientation. Knox's concepts Knox edited the volume dealing with program development, administra-t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n in the 1980 Adult Education Handbook S e r i e s . ^ His i n i t i a l chapter sets a framework f o r program pl a n n i n g by l i s t i n g the components of the process. The o r g a n i z a t i o n of the book r e f l e c t e d the framework by describing in separate chapters the components involved. Knox made two d i v i s i o n s in h i s framework. One was program development and inc l u d e d (1) o r i g i n s , (2) o b j e c t i v e s , and (3) e v a l u a t i o n s . The second d i v i s i o n was program administration and included (4) p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and (5) resources. Other components which were not usually i d e n t i f i e d as steps in program planning were noted by Knox as s t a f f i n g and leadership. These two 17 f u n c t i o n s d e a l t with o r g a n i z a t i o n a l concerns which i n d i r e c t l y influence program planning. These broader i s s u e s are not considered in t h i s investigation. Synthesized operations The following operations have been i d e n t i f i e d by at least three of the four studies cited and represent a synthesis of the four author's ideas: (1) Originating a program idea (2) Developing the idea (3) Establishing objectives (4) Selecting and sequencing learning a c t i v i t i e s (5) Ensuring p a r t i c i p a t i o n (6) Securing resources (7) Evaluating Each of the operations is now considered and compared to four studies reviewed. Three authors propose o r i g i n a t i n g the i d e a as an i n i t i a l undertaking. The only exception to t h i s is Robbin's use of establishing an operational base for d e l i v e r i n g services. Pennington and Green i d e n t i f i e d d e v e l o p i n g the i d e a as a c l u s t e r of tasks which seems to i n c l u d e forming a planning group and a n a l y z i n g relevant systems as delineated by Robbins and deciding to proceed as noted by Houle. Establishing objectives was i d e n t i f i e d by three of the four studies as beginning a step, component, or a c t i v i t y of s i g n i f i c a n c e . Only Pennington and Green d i d not make t h i s a s e p a r a t e component as they included i t in developing the program. S e l e c t i n g and sequencing 1 earn i n g a c t i v i t i e s was i d e n t i f i e d by Knox and i s d e s c r i p t i v e of the kinds of a c t i v i t i e s which are i n v o l v e d in t h i s part of program planning. Houle's component of designing a suitable format i s a p a r a l l e l n o t i o n as are the two steps Robbins c a l l e d determining program s t r u c t u r e and d e t e r m i n i n g program content and methods. This 18 operation was included in developing the program as noted by Pennington and Green. Ensuring par t i c i p a t i o n describes what Robbins c a l l e d promoting program and r e c r u i t i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s , what Knox noted as p a r t i c i p a t i o n and persistence, and what Houle described as f i t t i n g the format into the larger patterns of l i f e . This o p e r a t i o n i s i n c l u d e d in Pennington's and Green's work as part of developing the program. Securing resources i s the s i x t h o p e r a t i o n i d e n t i f i e d in program planning. Three authors l i s t e d t h i s as a major step in program planning. The exception i s Pennington and Green who included i t as part of developing 3 the program. Robbins, Houle, and Pennington and Green make note of o p e r a t i n g the program. The synthesized framework does not include t h i s step because i t seems to be conceptually d i f f e r e n t from planning a program. Pennington and Green did not l i s t any task f o r the c l u s t e r they l a b e l e d "teaching the course" and Houle treated t h i s part of his design system with more brevity than other parts. A l l four s t u d i e s i n c l u d e d e v a l u a t i o n as a component of program planning. The framework contrasted The program planning formats i d e n t i f i e d in each study d i f f e r in one or two ways from the operations outlined above. The following comparison of the operations framework with the f o u r frameworks from the l i t e r a t u r e d isclose apparent differences. Attempts to harmonize those differences are presented. Houle's design system of decision points and planning components seems more comprehensive than the framework of operations presented here. His 19 system identifies two areas, making a decision to proceed and putting the plan into e f fec t , which are not spec i f ied in the current framework. Deciding to proceed, however, is represented by the operation "developing the idea". Putting the plan into e f fec t , as noted e a r l i e r , is considered as conceptually different from planning. Pennington's and Green's f i r s t two c lus ters para l l e l the f i r s t two operations. Their third cluster, making a commitment, is included in the other operations belonging to the synthesized framework. Making a commit-ment includes selecting instructors, f a c i l i t i e s , and formats which entail commitments to people, suppl iers and course content. These tasks are appropriately placed in the operation labe l led "securing resources". Other tasks Pennington and Green l isted in this cluster are consideration of target audiences, and recruitment. The f i r s t task is appropriately placed in the operation "developing the idea." The second task is placed in the operation "ensuring participation." The synthesized framework includes four operations which Pennington and Green included in one c lus ter . The operations estab l i sh ing object ives, se lect ing and sequencing learning ac t i v i t i e s , ensuring participation and securing resources are part of the cluster labeled developing the program. In order to be precise about the act iv i t ies involved in program planning, this framework specifies four operations. The last c lus ter that is subs tan t i a l l y d i f fe rent from the present framework is teaching the course. The authors l i s t no tasks for this operation. This absence of tasks may be due to the essent ia l d i f ference between planning a program and i t s execution in that i f such tasks were included they would deal with in s t ruc t ion and learning and not with planning. The major difference between the synthesized framework and that 20 which was del imited by Pennington and Green is in the amount of deta i l concerning objectives, learning act iv i t ies, participation and resources. Comparison of Robbins's framework with the operations framework demonstrates close agreement between the two, although Robbins's planning steps seem to provide unneeded deta i l at the broad level of program planning analysis. The f i r s t step which Robbins notes is establishing an operational base for delivery services. The synthesized framework is used in an organizational context which assumes the establ ished base, thus making this step redundant in the present investigation. Forming a planning group, analyzing relevant systems, and identifying participant needs are included in the f i r s t two operations of the current framework. The synthesized framework uses se lect ing and sequencing learning activit ies as the operation which includes the steps Robbins noted as determining program structure and determining content and methods. The basic differences between the program planning steps as outlined by Robbins and those operations used in th i s framework seem to be estab l i sh ing an operational base, which is assumed in th i s study, and i n i t i a t i n g and operating the program, which has been discussed previously. The most evident difference found when comparing Knox's framework to the framework used in this study is the major division Knox made between program development and program administration. This study does not use the divisions because c r i te r i a are not offered for classifying components. It would be d i f f i cu l t to place evaluation, for instance, in one or another of the two divisions. The only other major contrast between the two frame-works is the absence in Knox's framework of program idea development. Of these two contrasts the most noteworthy is the operation t i t l ed "developing the idea." The inclusion or exclusion of the divisions has l i t t l e effect 21 upon the parts of program planning because i t seems to be a categorization with low u t i l i t y to this study. Table 1 is provided to summarize and v i s u a l l y aid in i d e n t i f y i n g d i f f e r e n c e s among the four frameworks and between these four and the synthesized framework. The synthesized framework is presented under the heading Operations. Houle's framework is l i s t e d under the heading Design  System. Pennington and Green's components are l a b e l e d C I u s t e r s and Robbins's are i d e n t i f i e d as Steps. Knox writes of Procedures and t h i s term is used to i d e n t i f y his framework. Tasks and operations A l l authors reviewed wrote about tasks performed in each of the major program planning operations. Most tasks were given as examples of how a p a r t i c u l a r o p e r a t i o n was performed. Pennington and Green used the term a c t i v i t i e s to describe tasks and because they used a c t i v i t i e s to form the c l u s t e r s , t h e i r study i s an e s p e c i a l l y r i c h source of t a s k s . ^ Each chapter of the book Devel oping, Admini s t e r i n g , and E v a l u a t i n g A d u l t  Education c o n s i d e r e d in d e t a i l concepts of program pl a n n i n g making i t another r i c h source of t a s k s . ^ These two works are major sources of program planning tasks for t h i s present study. Tasks used in t h i s study are not meant to be an exhaustive l i s t i n g of ways to perform operations, however, they are used to provide examples of d i f f e r e n t ways to plan programs. Tasks seem to be l i m i t e d o n l y by the insight and imagination of individual program planners. The value of using the tasks l i s t e d in d e t a i l in the section "The Framework" of Chapter III i s in helping to c l a s s i f y tasks by operation and technology. Tasks selected from the l i t e r a t u r e were placed within operations based upon the l o g i c a l agreement of the purpose of a task and an operation. Some 22 TABLE 1 FRAMEWORKS OF PROGRAM PLANNING COMPARED AND CONTRASTED Operations Des ign a System Clusters'- Stepsc Procedures 1. Originating the idea 2. Developing the idea A possible idea is identified A decision is made to proceed 1. Originating the idea 2. Developing the idea 3. Making a commitment 1. Establish operat ional base 2. Originate program 3. Form a planning group 4. Analyze relevant systems 5 . Identify participant needs 1. Program origins 3. Establish-ing objectives 4. Selecting and sequenc-ing learning activities Objectives are ident-ified and establi shed A suitable format is designed Developing the program 6. Formulate program objectives 7. Determine program structure 2. Formulation of objectives Selection and organiz-ation of learning activities Insuring participa-tion 6. Securing resources 7. Evaluating The format is fitted into the larger patterns 6. Learning resources are selected and a leader is chosen 7. The plan is put into effect 8. The results are measured 5 . Teaching the course 6. Evaluating the impact 8. Determine program content and methods 9. Promote program and recruit participants 10. Acquire resources 11. Initiate and operate program 12. Evaluate program 4. Acquisition of resources 5 . Evaluation of program Design system proposed by Houle ^Clusters proposed by Pennington and Green "Steps proposed by Robbins j Procedures proposed by Knox 23 tasks seemed to have purposes which allowed them to be placed in more than one operation. When th i s happened the task was assigned to one operation and n o t a t i o n was made that i t could be an extension or c o n t i n u a t i o n of another operation. Tasks and technologies Tasks were placed within operations and assigned to one or more of the technologies as defined by Thompson by matching task c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with technology c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 1 9 Where tasks were used in more than one technology, d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n was made by how those tasks were performed. The assignment of the tasks to t e c h n o l o g i e s was v a l i d a t e d by asking graduate students of a d u l t education in a program planning seminar to assign the tasks to the three technologies. The following d e f i n i t i o n s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of technologies were provided to each individual along with a set of cards containing program planning tasks. The students were asked to s o r t the cards i n t o three c a t e g o r i e s r e p r e s e n t i n g each of the t e c h n o l o g i e s . The c r i t e r i a f o r d e c i d i n g where to place a card was the student's p e r c e p t i o n of a task's congruence with the d e f i n i t i o n s and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the technologies. Long-linked technology "A long-linked technology involves s e r i a l interdependence in the sense that act Z can be performed only a f t e r s u c c e s s f u l completion of act Y, which r e s t s upon act X, and so on. . . . It approaches i n s t r u m e n t a l perfection when i t produces a single kind of standard product, r e p e t i t i v e l y and at a constant rate."20 In t h i s b r i e f description Thompson provided a few of t h i s technology's c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . For him s e r i a l dependence, unitary products, r e p e t i t i o n , constancy of rate and concern f o r the process were hallmarks of l o n g - l i n k e d technology. A u n i t using t h i s technology 24 would tend to perform the various o p e r a t i o n s of program planning in a sequential fashion. The use of this technology allows the planning process to be scheduled in advance and modified only s l i g h t l y . Serial dependency lends i n f l e x i b i l i t y and 1 i n e a r i t y to the process because a change in any step has implications f o r following steps. U n i t a r y products r e f e r s to outcomes which are s i m i l a r in type and quality. In adult education the products of program planning are learning a c t i v i t i e s that are h i g h l y s i m i l a r i n format and of constant q u a l i t y . A unit using l o n g - l i n k e d technology w i l l produce l e a r n i n g experiences of s i m i l a r d u r a t i o n and format, and f o r s i m i l a r c l i e n t e l e , c o s t , place and time. Because the process i s s t a n d a r d i z e d the q u a l i t y and kinds of programs produced w i l l vary only s l i g h t l y . The variation which does exist may be l a r g e l y related to d i f f e r e n t instructors in programs. Repetition refers to recurrent use of content, personnel, format, and c l i e n t groups in a s p e c i f i c program. Even i f program t i t l e s are used more than once, unless formats, kinds of p a r t i c i p a n t s , subject matter and instructors are used again, production of programs i s not considered to be r e p e t i t i v e . Constancy of r a t e i s i n d i c a t e d by a more or l e s s s t a b l e number of programs produced which i s subject to minor v a r i a t i o n but w i l l e x h i b i t s t a b i l i t y from year to year. It i s al s o i n d i c a t e d by c o n t r o l of the pr o d u c t i o n process which means that the process can be queued and as a re s u l t i s somewhat predictable in terms of where a program w i l l be in the process at any given time. Constancy of r a t e i s r e l a t e d to the l a s t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c noted f o r t h i s technology—instrumental perfection. Instrumental p e r f e c t i o n i s used to i n d i c a t e e f f i c i e n c y of process. C o n t r o l l i n g the p r o d u c t i o n process a l l o w s a program planner to develop several programs at the same time, thus increasing e f f i c i e n c y . Because the 25 process is repeated more than once, i t can be modified for e f f i c i e n c y as experience i s gained. An assembly l i n e process i s an example of long-linked technology. Long-linked technology as a program planning process can be i l l u s t r a t e d by applying i t to Houle's education design system. Identifying e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i s accomplished in l i m i t e d but h i g h l y e f f i c i e n t ways. The decision to proceed is usually understood to be a positive one. Exceptions to this occur when the i d e n t i f i e d a c t i v i t y is extraordinary in terms of what the adult education u n i t u s u a l l y plans. D e f i n i t i o n and refinement of o b j e c t i v e s w i l l be l a r g e l y accomplished by the i n s t r u c t o r r a t h e r than the program planner, however, when the program planner does undertake t h i s part of the developmental system, objectives w i l l be defined and r e f i n e d in a s y s t e m a t i c manner. A format i s u s u a l l y s e l e c t e d based upon the unit's f a m i l i a r i t y with formats rather than designed. F i t t i n g a program i n t o l a r g e r p a t t e r n s of l i f e i s g e n e r a l l y accomplished by a d v e r t i s i n g the program and l e t t i n g i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n e r s f i t t h e i r l i f e patterns to the program. The program is implemented by adhering c l o s e l y to the o r i g i n a l design or plan with minor deviations. Measured re s u l t s are used to make judgements about the system. These results along with other information about program planning deadlines and completion of assignments are part of the assessment made about the process. Long-linked technology i s characterized by e f f i c i e n c y , sequence, and f i r m l y established plans. Mediating technology Thompson described t h i s technology as " l i n k i n g of c l i e n t s who are or wish to be interdependent. . . . Complexity in the mediating technology comes not from the n e c e s s i t y of having each a c t i v i t y geared to the requirements of the next but r a t h e r from the f a c t that the mediating 26 technology r e q u i r e s o p e r a t i n g in standardized ways and extensively; e.g., pi with multiple c l i e n t s or customers d i s t r i b u t e d in time.' The h a l l m a r k s of t h i s t e c h n o l o g y are interdependence, c l i e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n and e x t e n s i v e o p e r a t i o n s . Interdependence r e f e r s to a l i n k a g e between c l i e n t s : both l e a r n e r and teacher. Learners are t r a d i t i o n a l l y viewed as the c l i e n t e l e of an adult education unit, however, the concept of mediating technology i n c l u d e s two c l a s s e s of c l i e n t e l e ; teachers and learners. For the c l i e n t group composed of teachers the adult education u n i t s u p p l i e s an audience of learners. Interdependence is the result of performing a brokering function between the c l i e n t s . Not only are the two kinds of c l i e n t s brought into an interdependent s i t u a t i o n with one another but also the adult education unit is dependent upon each of i t s c l i e n t groups for accomplishing program planning. Client p a r t i c i p a t i o n is one r e s u l t of an adult education unit's performance as an education broker. This kind of adult education development has been elaborately explained by Schroeder who b a s i c a l l y views adult education as "a developmental process that links various agent and adult c l i e n t s systems together for the purpose 22 of es t a b l i s h i n g d i r e c t i o n s and procedures for programs of adult learning. C l i e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n can occur in an a c t i v e or passive way. A c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the program p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s i s e x e m p l i f i e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s a t t e n d i n g planning s e s s i o n s and making d e c i s i o n s about l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . A p a s s i v e r o l e i s e x e m p l i f i e d by p a r t i c i p a n t s o f f e r i n g o p i n i o n s about what should be done. These opi n i o n s can be volunteered but more l i k e l y they w i l l be sought out by program planners. The term e x t e n s i v e o p e r a t i o n was used by Thompson to designate the involvement of m u l t i p l e customers. The concept i s u s e f u l in adult education because not only do adult education units deal with more than one c l i e n t , but also such units deal with diverse c l i e n t s at the same time. In 27 a given e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y the p a r t i c i p a n t s may be i n d i v i d u a l s with v a r y i n g l e v e l s of education who attend because of personal or o r g a n i z a -tional interest. Although adult education units deal with individuals in learning situations, organizations are often part of i t s c l i e n t e l e . Thompson noted that mediating technology also "requires operating in stan d a r d i z e d ways".^ S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n permits l i n k i n g of customers suspended in time. Thompson used examples of bank depositors and borrowers as being suspended in time which p o i n t s to the n e c e s s i t y of standard operating procedures in li n k i n g these two groups. Adult education seems to be d i f f e r e n t from these examples and as a r e s u l t does not always r e q u i r e the degree of standardization c i t e d by Thompson. Adult education may begin with i t s customers suspended in time and space, however, these customers are e v e n t u a l l y brought together at some time and place with the obvious exception of distance education where the learner and teacher are usually i n d i f f e r e n t p l a c e s . By using f i l m s , videotapes and correspondence the teacher may deli v e r a lecture at a time d i f f e r e n t from the time the learner l i s t e n s to i t . When t h i s i s the case, s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of m a t e r i a l s , formats, and devices becomes c r i t i c a l . An example of mediating technology would be a f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n which lacks borrowers and depositors. To i l l u s t r a t e the e f f e c t of mediating technology, Houle's system w i l l again be employed to demonstrate some e f f e c t s t h i s technology has upon program planning. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a possible educational a c t i v i t y is a f u n c t i o n of a unit's s e r v i c e o r i e n t a t i o n . A u n i t which uses mediating technology c o n s i d e r s ideas which are as f a r ranging and d i v e r s e as the c l i e n t e l e i t serves. Ideas have t h e i r genesis with both l e a r n e r s and teachers and decisions to proceed with development are based upon expressed i n t e r e s t of c l i e n t s . The d e f i n i t i o n and ref i n e m e n t of o b j e c t i v e s i s a co l l a b o r a t i v e e f f o r t involving the l e a r n e r , teacher and program planner. 28 The design of a suitable format is not constrained by t r a d i t i o n , but rather i t is a function of the interaction of the dependent groups. At times the adult educator may propose formats, however, decision making is greatly influenced by the c l i e n t s . F i t t i n g the format into larger patterns of l i f e i s accomplished by a l l o w i n g the l e a r n e r and teacher to\design a format which f i t s t h e i r p a t t e r n s of l i f e . The p a r t i c i p a t i o n of l e a r n e r s and teachers in the planning process helps ensure programs under development w i l l f i t the larger patterns of l i v i n g . E f f e c t i n g the plan is once again a cooperative venture. This cooperation can range from consultation given by the adult educator as c l i e n t s implement the plan, to consultation given by c l i e n t s as the adult educator implements the plan. The measure and a p p r a i s a l of r e s u l t are based upon how well the c l i e n t was served i n addition to how well the program produced the desired e f f e c t s . Mediating technology is characterized by c l i e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n , interdependence and variety in l i m i t s . These three elements are present i n , but subordinate to, feedback and variety in techniques in intensive technology. Intensive technology "This t h i r d [technology] we label intensive to s i g n i f y that a variety of techniques is drawn upon in order to achieve a change in some s p e c i f i c o b j e c t ; but the s e l e c t i o n , combination, and order of a p p l i c a t i o n are determined by feedback from the object i t s e l f . When the object i s human, the i n t e n s i v e t e c h nology i s regarded as 'therapeutic' but the same technical logic is found also in the construction industry and in research where objects of concern are nonhuman."^4 This technology is characterized by feedback, a variety of techniques, and change. Feedback, while present in each of the three technologies, has two distinguishing features in t h i s technology. The f i r s t feature is i t s 29 formative nature; i t is present throughout the process. The second feature is that the subject of feedback i s the program i t s e l f . In other technologies the subject is usually the participant, his feelings and the l e a r n i n g which has occur r e d ; the process; or other i n d i c a t o r s of the outcome. Feedback in intensive technology is used to provide information about the program under development. Th i s feedback i s used by the adult educator to choose which task or tasks to perform and when to perform them. Use of feedback for th i s purpose gives v a r i a b i l i t y to the planning process which has implications for the adult educator. One implication i s that he cannot e a s i l y p r e d i c t when program planning w i l l have been completed. Another i s that when a planning framework i s established, i t i s at best an e s t i m a t i o n of when and how planning w i l l take place. V a r i a b i l i t y of process is a function of feedback and the use of alternative tasks. A l t e r n a t i v e tasks r e f e r s to the e x i s t e n c e of a number of ways to accomplish the needed o b j e c t i v e s i n program planning. For example, ori g i n a t i n g an idea can be accomplished by assessing needs, surveying for ideas, or receiving ideas from c l i e n t s . Change, noted as a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of i n t e n s i v e technology deals not with the object of technology but rather with the technology i t s e l f . Based upon feedback from the ide a , a program planner may change the task s , the way they are performed and the order in which they are performed. The three major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s technology—feedback, variety of techniques, and change — combi ne to produce a d i s t i n c t i v e process of a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of i d e a s i n t o programs. Other technologies might exhibit one or two of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , however, i t i s o n l y when a l l three c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s operate in c o n j u n c t i o n with one another that i n t e n s i v e technology i s employed. A h o s p i t a l provides an example of the use of intensive technology. 30 Applying i n t e n s i v e technology to Houle's design system produces the following example of program planning. Because this technology uses i n f o r -mation in determining la t e r steps to be taken in the planning process, the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s w i l l i n v o l v e procedures which i n i t i a l l y supply much information. The decision to proceed i s a tentative one which i s r e p e a t e d l y c o n s i d e r e d a f t e r every step in the procedure. I d e n t i f y i n g and r e f i n i n g the o b j e c t i v e s are accomplished as part of designing a suitable format. The format is designed by the adult educator a c t i n g upon i n f o r m a t i o n about what the e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y r e q u i r e s in order to be a viable a c t i v i t y by f i t t i n g into i d e n t i f i e d patterns of l i f e . These three elements, 1) o b j e c t i v e s , 2) formats, and 3) f i t , are a l l considered by the adult educator in designing the educational a c t i v i t y . In thi s technology i t becomes d i f f i c u l t to place the components in discrete s e q u e n t i a l planning steps. The program i s implemented by the adult educator who uses a l a r g e v a r i e t y of resources to make the program a r e a l i t y . The measurement and a p p r a i s a l of r e s u l t s are a c t i v i t i e s which occur continuously throughout the planning process. This component of the design system is a hallmark of the intensive technology. Summary E x p l o r a t i o n of o r g a n i z a t i o n theory l i t e r a t u r e has provided s e v e r a l views on the concept of technology as a factor in organizational structure. Students of organization theory are not in agreement on the importance of technology's influence upon structure. However, a l l acknowledge i t s status as an organizational variable. Perrow's d e f i n i t i o n of technology is broad enough to allow a concept of adult education, namely program planning, to be viewed as technology. 31 A review of program planning l i t e r a t u r e has provided four views of planning e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and enabled p r o d u c t i o n of a s y n t h e s i z e d view of program planning. The review has demonstrated that the four program planning frameworks used are at such a s u f f i c i e n t l y abstract level as to be f a i r l y s i m i l a r . This s i m i l a r i t y helped produce a s y n t h e s i z e d model, but f a i l e d to p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t v a r i a t i o n needed f o r an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e . Chapter III d e t a i l s the synthesized model at a level which helps demonstrate v a r i a b i l i t y in program planning by placing program planning tasks in operations by kind of technology. 32 FOOTNOTES 1-Houle, The Design of Education, pp. 31-58. ^Joseph A. Litterer, Organizations: Structure and Behavior, (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1980), p. 3/3. ° L i t t e r e r , The Analysis of Organizations, (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1965), p. 5~! ^Edward Harvey, "Technology and the Structure of Organizations," American Sociological Review 33(1969), p. 247. 5 David J. Hickson, D. S. Pugh, and Diana C. Pheyseh "Operations Technology and Organization S t ructure: An E m p i r i c a l R e a p p r a i s a l , " Administrative Science Quarterly 14(1969): pp. 378-397; John W. Hunt, The Rest!ess Org anizat ion, (Sydney: John Wiley and Sons Aus t ra la s ia , 1972); Raymond Hunt, "Technology and Organization," Academy of Management Journal 13(1970): pp. 235-252. ~ 6 Jerald Hage and Michael Aiken, "Routine Technology, Social Structure, and Organizational Goals," Administrative Science Quarterly 14(1969): pp. 366-376. ^Gale Jensen, "How Adult Education Borrows and Reformulates Knowledge of Other Disciplines," in Adult Education: Outlines of an Emerging Field of  Univers i ty Study, (eds.) Gale Jensen, A. A. L iver i ght , and Wilbur Hallenbeck, (Washington, D.C.: Adult Education Association of USA, 1964). 8Boyd and Apps, "A Conceptual Model." ^Hage and Aiken, "Technology, S t r u c t u r e , and Goa l s ; " Hancey, "Technology and Structure; " Hickson, "Operations Technology"; Henry Mintzberg, The Structur ing of Organizations: A Synthesis of Research (Englewood CI i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hal 1 , 1979); Jane Woodward, Industrial Organization: Theory and Pract ice (London: Oxford Univers i ty Hress, iybb). ^Henry Mintzberg, Structur ing of Organizations, (Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1979), p. 249. HJames 0. Thompson, Organizations in Action, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1967). A , 1 Houle, The Design of Education; Floyd Pennington and Joseph Green, "Comparative Analysis of Program Development Processes in Six Professions," Adult Education 27(1976): pp. 13-23; Joseph Nevin Robbins, "Process of Program Planning and Orientations Toward Organizational Role by Continuing Educat ion Program Planners in P u b l i c Community Co l leges, " (Ph.D. d i s se r ta t i on , F lo r ida State Univers i ty, 1977); Alan B. Knox, ed., Developing, Administering, and Evaluating Adult Education, (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1980). Houle, The Design of Education, p. 42. 33 14pennington and Green, "Analysis of Program Development." l^Robbins, "Process of Program Planning." 16Knox, Developing, Administering, and Evaluating. 1 7Pennington and Green, "Analysis of Program Development." lSKnox, Developing, Administering, and Evaluating. ^Thompson, Organizations in Action. 20lbid., p. 16. 2 1 I b i d. 2 2Schroeder, "Typology of Adult Learning Systems," p. 56. 23Thompson, Organizations in Action, p. 16 2 4 I b i d . , p. 27 34 CHAPTER III THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK This chapter presents the planning framework in d e t a i l by describing planning operations in terms of the three technologies. Each technology i s di s c u s s e d in terms of which planning tasks are used i n an o p e r a t i o n . F i n a l l y , a three-by-seven contingency t a b l e i s presented to compare and contrast each task within an operation and technology. The Framework The c r i t i c a l o p e r a t i o n s of adult education technology i d e n t i f i e d e a r l i e r are: (1) o r i g i n a t i n g program ideas; (2) ? devel opi ng the i d e a ; (3) establishing objectives; (4) selecting and sequencing learning a c t i v i t i e s ; (5) ensuring p a r t i c i p a t i o n ; (6) s e c u r i n g r e s o u r c e s ; and (7) e v a l u a t i n g . Each of these o p e r a t i o n s i s comprised of s p e c i f i c tasks r e l a t i n g to i t s function. By completing an individual task or some combination of tasks, an operation i s performed. For example, or i g i n a t i n g a program idea can be undertaken by one or some combination of the f o l l o w i n g t a s k s : a s s e s s i n g needs; r e p l i c a t i n g programs; responding to c l i e n t r e q u e s t s ; r e v i e w i n g l i t e r a t u r e ; and s o l i c i t i n g ideas from advisory boards. Each of the seven o p e r a t i o n s has a number of p o s s i b l e tasks which, when any one of them i s completed at some l e v e l , f u l f i l l s the f u n c t i o n of that o p e r a t i o n . These tasks may take on a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c form depending upon the kind of technology used in program planning. Originating the Idea This o p e r a t i o n g i v e s b i r t h to the ideas which are su b j e c t e d to a number of other o p e r a t i o n s . Not a l l ideas o r i g i n a t e d w i l l be developed 35 into programs. Some w i l l remain as ideas, others w i l l move through opera-t i o n s and f o r various reasons be r e j e c t e d as p o t e n t i a l programs. S t i l l others w i l l be transformed into formal learning experiences. Although this is the logical operation to examine f i r s t , thoughtful consideration of the total framework can dis c l o s e the d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y of several nonlinear progressions in program planning. Long-linked technology This technology is represented by performance of one or some combina-tion of the following tasks which are characterized by e f f i c i e n c y , learner concern, and standard products. Tasks i n c l u d e : a s s e s s i n g needs by a d m i n i s t e r i n g a q u e s t i o n n a i r e to p o t e n t i a l l e a r n e r s i n an e f f o r t to i d e n t i f y e d u c a t i o n a l needs; c o n s i d e r i n g market demand by measuring the popularity of programs offered in s i m i l a r contexts; complying with sponsor requests, which r e f l e c t s i n s t i t u t i o n a l and learner concern; and reviewing other program ideas by su r v e y i n g program c a t a l o g u e s from other u n i t s i n s i m i l a r circumstances. Expertise of programmers i s directed at maintaining the process. Mediating technology This technology depends h e a v i 1 y upon c l i e n t ( l e a r n e r s and teachers) p a r t i c i p a t i o n and interdependence and r e f l e c t s a service orientation held by the unit. The opinions of c l i e n t s are valued as much as the opinion of experts. Tasks i n c l u d e : a s s e s s i n g needs by d i s c u s s i o n with p o t e n t i a l teachers and learners; considering c l i e n t requests in order to estimate the success of a program; valuing c l i e n t consensus (which r e f l e c t s the in t e r -dependent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of c l i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) ; and d e c i d i n g upon a program idea once the consensus is determined and ideas are understood by the c l i e n t s . 36 Intensive technology This technology is characterized by reliance upon expert opinion about the idea, the use of feedback, and by d i v e r s i t y in p o s s i b l e outcomes. Expert opinion can be i n t e r n a l or e x t e r n a l to the u n i t and may also be found in the p r o f e s s i o n a l and academic l i t e r a t u r e . Tasks i n c l u d e : assessing needs by expert diagnosis; considering the nature of the problem by c r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and by i n v o l v i n g informed, knowledgeable people; valuing expert opinion; and generating i n t u i t i v e program ideas based upon concepts and comments of experts about learner needs and problems. Developing Program Ideas. Within this operation a number of events take place that are c r u c i a l f o r the continued t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the idea i n t o a program. Houle made special note that a decision was made to proceed with the development of an idea. Pennington and Green found that an idea was developed to some extent before a commitment was made to c a r r y forward a program. The o p e r a t i o n presented here combines the development and commitment events, where ideas may or may not receive favorable support. Long-linked technology This technology i s characterized by a concern for the organization and e f f i c i e n c y i n terms of producing programs tha t w i l l be well r e c e i v e d by learners. Tasks include: t a l k i n g with unit personnel to informally test ideas with c o l l e a g u e s , m a i n t a i n i n g the i n s t i t u t i o n a l p e r s p e c t i v e , and r e f i n i n g the idea to s p e c i f i c and manageable l e v e l s ; r e v i e w i n g other program approaches to c o n s i d e r how other o r g a n i z a t i o n have implemented ideas which are s i m i l a r to the one under development; deter m i n i n g u n i t interests which Pennington and Green note as "assessment of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i nterests and c a p a b i l i t i e s " 1 ; adopting unit d e f i n i t i o n s of int e r e s t s ; and 37 determining the feas ib i l i ty of a program idea to estimate avai labi l i ty of the unit's resources for the program idea. Mediating technology Interdependence of the learner, teacher, and program planner is the major characteristic of mediating technology. The service orientation of adult education units using this technology is evident because of inter-dependent relationships. Participation of cl ients is also evident in the tasks l isted as examples in this technology. Tasks include: talking with c l i en t s to maintain l inks between potent ia l ins t ructors and potential learners; reviewing c l i e n t opinions to make some judgments about the val idity of cl ient opinions; and determining cl ient interests by involving the learners and teachers as well as the adult educator. An addit ional task of adopting c l i en t d e f i n i t i o n of in teres t s helps ensure program feas ib i l i ty , points to the service orientation that comes from performing the broker function in adult education, and seems to be re lated to what Clark termed a "catering relationship to . . . c l iente le. " 2 Intensive technology Feedback about the ideas to the program planner is a noticeable characteristic in this technology. Another characteristic is reliance upon expert opinion and diagnosis about support for the ideas. Ideas are easi ly thought of as problems in th i s technology. Examples of tasks include: ta lk ing with experts to test program ideas; reviewing data about the problem from expert sources to provide information about an idea; determining expert diagnosis of learner needs from collecting information about the program ideas or problem; adopting assessment of expert interests and needs by choosing among d i f f e r i n g opinions about the problem; and 38 d e t e r m i n i n g f e a s i b i l i t y of a program by v a l u i n g expert o p i n i o n s from a variety of sources and perspectives. Establishing Objectives After tentative commitments to ideas are made and ideas receive some development, objectives may be established. A c t i v i t i e s within t h i s opera-t i o n i n d i c a t e that a d e c i s i o n to proceed with the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n has occurred and mark the change of an i d e a i n t o a program. Pennington and Green stopped r e f e r r i n g to ideas at t h i s p o i n t in t h e i r program planning model and began r e f e r r i n g to the program, and Houle saw the o b j e c t i v e s g i v i n g shape to an e d u c a t i o n a l program. The idea seems to change by gaining a discernable configuration in t h i s operation. Long-linked technology A major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s t echnology i s p r o d u c t i o n of s i m i l a r objectives in type and content. For example, the objectives produced by a u n i t using l o n g - l i n k e d technology w i l l be m o s t l y b e h a v i o r a l in nature. Another unit using this technology w i l l use mostly goal statements. Other kinds of o b j e c t i v e s can be used by a u n i t , but a p r e f e r e n c e w i l l be shown f o r one kind over another. U n i t a r y o b j e c t i v e s a l s o r e f e r s to content. There w i l l be a tendency for the same or s i m i l a r objectives to be repeated by a u n i t . Such r e p e t i t i o n i s r e l a t e d to another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s operation: e f f i c i e n c y . Examples of tasks include: formulating objectives in l i g h t of l e a r n e r d e s i r e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n purpose, and sponsor r e q u i r e -ments; emphasizing harmony between o r g a n i z a t i o n purpose and program outcomes to ensure that the investment of planning e f f o r t s w i l l be r e a l i z e d in an actual program; and writing objectives in customary ways to allow the process to remain an e f f i c i e n t one. 39 Mediating technology C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s technology that have e f f e c t s upon the establishment of objectives are interdependence and c l i e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Interdependence comes from li n k i n g the two c l i e n t groups of instructors and l e a r n e r s . C l i e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the p l a n n i n g process i s a r e s u l t of e s t a b l i s h i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g the l i n k a g e . Examples of tasks i n c l u d e : formulating objectives in l i g h t of, and in conjunction with, learner and teacher desires; emphasizing f e a s i b i l i t y for teacher and learner which, as Szczypkowski p o i n t s out, may be a s c r e e n i n g a c t i v i t y 3 ; and w r i t i n g o b j e c t i v e s in l i g h t of l e a r n e r and teacher d e s i r e s , which r e f l e c t s a concern for service orientation. Intensive technology This technology is characterized by involvement of the expert in the establishment of objectives. It involves feedback about the objectives in l i g h t of the program. Examples are: f o r m u l a t i n g o b j e c t i v e s in l i g h t of expert opinion about learner desires or needs or both; emphasizing expert o p i n i o n about a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of the f o r m u l a t e d o b j e c t i v e s in l i g h t of learner needs; and writing objectives in conformity with widely regarded c r i t e r i a . Selecting and Sequencing Learning A c t i v i t i e s T h i s o p e r a t i o n adds to the program's d i s t i n c t i v e shape i n i t i a t e d i n the preceding o p e r a t i o n . The goals or o b j e c t i v e s o f t e n d e l i m i t the selection of learning a c t i v i t i e s . However, f a m i l i a r i t y with one or a group of s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s can also set boundaries for e s t a b l i s h i n g objectives, developing ideas, and o r i g i n a t i n g ideas. This process again demonstrates why program planning i s at times a nonlinear undertaking. This operation may be viewed as i n s t r u c t i o n a l design. 40 L o n g - l i n k e d technology This o p e r a t i o n 1s performed m i n i m a l l y by a d u l t educators working 1n l o n g - l i n k e d technology. S e l e c t i n g and s e q u e n c i n g l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i s u s u a l l y p e r f o r m e d t h e f i r s t t i m e a p r o g r a m i s p r o d u c e d . When 1t 1s r e p r o d u c e d t h e sequence u s u a l l y r e m a i n s t h e same. A n o t h e r way t h e o p e r a t i o n i s m i n i m a l l y used i s by a l l o w i n g t h e p r o g r a m i n s t r u c t o r t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o s e l e c t and sequence the a c t i v i t i e s . The program planner may be m i n i m a l l y i n v o l v e d i n an o p e r a t i o n area because i t i s o n l y t a n g e n t i a l l y r e l a t e d t o program p l a n n i n g or because of u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the range of i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques. These two elements w i l l cause an a d u l t educator t o use an a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n r e p e a t e d l y once i t has been e s t a b l i s h e d . R e p e t i t i o n l e n d s i t s e l f t o u n i t a r y p r o d u c t s , e f f i c i e n c y , and a c o n s t a n t r a t e o f p r o d u c t i o n . Because t h e same p a t t e r n o f l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s i s repeated, the products of t h i s t e c h n o l o g y tend t o be s i m i l a r . U s i n g t h e same p a t t e r n i s e f f i c i e n t b e c a u s e i t r e q u i r e s l e s s e f f o r t t o reproduce a p a t t e r n than t o develop a new one. I f a programmer can ass i g n t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s e l e c t i n g and s e q u e n c i n g l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s t o o t h e r p e o p l e , ( h e may be more l i k e l y t o p l a n a d d i t i o n a l work than i f he ° completed t h i s o p e r a t i o n h i m s e l f . Examples of t a s k s w i t h i n t h i s technology i n c l u d e : r e l y i n g upon t h e i n s t r u c t o r t o s e t a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h f r e e s t h e program planner from d e t a i l r e l a t i n g t o s p e c i f i c programs and a l l o w s him t o c o n c e n t r a t e e n e r g y upon o t h e r p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g o p e r a t i o n s ; d e t e r m i n i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a c t i v i t i e s which g i v e s the a d u l t educator an o p p o r t u n i t y t o review the a c t i v i t i e s s e t by the i n s t r u c t o r thus r e f l e c t i n g concern f o r t h e p r o c e s s and p r o v i d i n g t h e o c c a s i o n t o e n s u r e t h e p r o d u c t f i t s t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a i m s ; and r e p r o d u c i n g l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h e n s u r e s s t a n d a r d p r o d u c t s , h e l p s m a i n t a i n a c o n s t a n t r a t e o f p r o d u c t i o n , and i s e f f i c i e n t . 41 Mediating technology Tasks in this technology r e f l e c t interdependence and participation. The adult educator maintains the linkages among the three groups involved in order to perform the following tasks: involving learner and instructors to set act iv it ies; determining su i tabi l i ty of activity with cl ients; and modifying learning a c t i v i t i e s in conjunction with the c l i en t s . This involvement allows for previous learning a c t i v i t i e s of the learner, in s t ructor , and program planner to be considered and u t i l i z e d as appropriate in the program plan. Intensive technology Tasks in th is technology are character ized by the use of feedback provided by s k i l l e d observation. The feedback comes from a var iety of sources but i t is usual ly mediated by expert opinion. The fo l lowing are examples of tasks used in this technology: relying upon expert opinion in setting act iv it ies by valuing expert opinion from l i terature, consultants, or course planners; 'determining appropriateness of a c t i v i t i e s for the objectives and content of the program; and designing learning act iv i t ies by careful consideration of i n s t ruc t iona l development experts because no activity is considered as appropriate solely because of prior application or experience. This results in a variety of products. Ensuring Participation Ensuring participation is accomplished by marketing the program, coun-seling the participant, cosponsoring the activity, or some combination of these efforts. This operation requires the program to be relat ively stable in shape or form. Houle suggested that a program is interpreted to a unit's many publics when marketing occurs. In the same way counseling can be seen as interpreting a program on a one to one basis. Cosponsoring may 42 also be viewed as interpreting a program when it is done for the purpose of making a program legitimate to a potential group of participants. Long-linked technology Tasks in this technology are usual ly e f f i c i e n t , sequenced, and effective. They are historical in that the tasks used are generally ones f am i l i a r in a unit 's context. E f f i c i e n c y is obtained by using f am i l i a r processes with sequential tasks that allow the operation to be controlled and queued. Effectiveness is determined by how manageable the process is with a given level of secured participation. Examples of long-linked tasks include: developing a general vehicle based upon unit and/or organization requirements; using broad means of d i s t r i b u t i o n ; producing public information campaigns; counseling learners through printed materials; and cosponsoring the program with known organizations. A general vehicle refers to newspaper advertisements, large brochures, and electronic advertisements al l of which are generic in nature or contain a complete l i s t ing of program. A broad means of distribution means general mailing l i s t s intended for addresses and not specific people. Mediating technology Tasks in this technology ref lect interdependence between the clients of a uni t , pa r t i c i pa t i on , and extensive operations. Interdependence is reflected by the use of instructors in counseling learners. Participation is re f l ec ted in the counseling function and in the publ ic information campaign. Extensive operations ref lect the involvement of many people in the planning process. Examples of tasks in mediating technology include: developing a general vehic le based upon c l i e n t requirements, which is s im i l a r to the task used in long- l inked technology; encouraging word of mouth campaigns, which r e l y upon learner and teacher involvement to 43 communicate with p o t e n t i a l l e a r n e r s or t e a c h e r s ; c o u n s e l i n g l e a r n e r s through instructor contact, which r e f l e c t s a high degree of interdependence between the adult educator and learners; and cosponsoring programs, which l o c a t e s c l i e n t s w i t h i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s and secures t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n by coopting the organizations. Intensive technology This technology r e f l e c t s variety in the form and content of marketing v e h i c l e s , of products, and the use of expert s k i l l s . Varied products of this technology w i l l manifest the numerous ways of advertising programs. The technology involves the use of expert s k i l l in production of vehicles and other means of s e c u r i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Tasks w i t h i n i n t e n s i v e technology i n c l u d e : d e v e l o p i n g a s p e c i f i c v e h i c l e based upon program requirements; using highly s p e c i f i c means of d i s t r i b u t i o n because programs are developed f o r s p e c i f i c purposes which have l i m i t e d or s p e c i a l i z e d appeal; producing p r o f e s s i o n a l l y developed public information campaigns which can represent the use of internal (a trained s t a f f member in public r e l a t i o n s ) or e x t e r n a l (a c o n s u l t a n t from the f i e l d of p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s ) s k i l l s ; a d v i s i n g l e a r n e r s through p r o f e s s i o n a l c o u n s e l o r s which helps learners understand the vari e t y of opportunities for study; and cosponsor-ing programs with o r g a n i z a t i o n s having e x p e r t i s e which a l l o w s an adult education u n i t to i n c r e a s e p a r t i c i p a t i o n by elevating or emphasizing i t s level of expertise. Securing Resources Resources can be considered as those materials, e f f o r t s , and energies necessary to produce and c a r r y out a program. Resources needed f o r a program can be determined by c o n s i d e r i n g the s e l e c t e d o b j e c t i v e s , or available resources can influence which objectives are selected. Certain 44 objectives may require specific resources. For example, some performance objectives require specific devices in order for the learner to demonstrate his c apab i l i t i e s . The a v a i l a b i l i t y of resources may l i m i t the range of objectives dealing with business administration because the adult education unit or i ts organization possesses a cos t ly , sophist icated computerized business simulation. This two-way direction of an operation again points to the d i f f i cu l ty of using a linear process to explain program planning. Long-linked technology Tasks in this technology are characterized by repetition, constancy of rate, and standardizat ion. Repetit ion refers to using the same kind of resources. Constancy of rate is achieved by a unit having a high degree of control over resources. Such a unit can ant ic ipate resources with some degree of confidence. Standardization refers to using a resource in a consistent manner and producing similar products. Tasks in this technology may include: re ly ing on internal resources such as money, personnel, and mater ia l s , which allows a unit some degree of control over the planning process; selecting instructors based upon knowledge about past performance, which is usual ly done from a pool of in s t ructors well known to the unit e i ther by reputation or by f i r s t hand experience; and using f a c i l i t i e s under control of the unit, which means they can be scheduled easi ly and f i t into the total program of the unit. Mediating technology This technology is characterized by interdependence and is a result of coopting as explained in the following tasks. Participation is reflected in using f a c i l i t i e s that cl ients have indicated as preferable. Examples of these tasks include: relying upon coopted resources refers to the sharing of decis ion making power to gain access to resources;^ se lect ing 45 instructors based upon wants and a v a i l a b i l i t y of c l i en t s refers to indicated preferences of learners for spec i f i c ins t ructors in terms of their content expertise, personality, or both and the indicated desires of the potential instructors to teach specific content; and using f ac i l i t i e s based upon client desires refers to securing f a c i l i t i e s based upon quality and suitable location as perceived by cl ients. Intensive technology Tasks in this technology reflect a variety of resources used. Which resources are used is a function of the information about what is needed. The nature of the content has an ef fect upon resources used. These kinds of tasks include: re ly ing upon resource development assumes that no resource is r ead i l y avai lable or appropriately useable for a l l programs; selecting instructors based upon program requirements narrows the range of possible instructors to those with expertise in the content area; and using f a c i l i t i e s based upon program requirements allows for specialized labs and equipment, environmental conditions or locat ion in re l a t i on to the participants. Evaluating This operation can involve a specific period of time and be a discrete activity. It can also involve the entire program planning process and be inseparable from the process i tse l f . Evaluating can also be a dimension of other operations considered in this chapter. Long-linked technology This technology is concerned with eff ic ient evaluation. Efficiency is aided by performing evaluations in standardized ways and at a constant rate and frequency. Tasks in th i s technology inc lude: using unit-developed 46 instruments and standardized c r i t e r i a for evaluative purposes; selecting cr i ter ia of unit concern usually includes the number of participants in a program, the efficiency of the planning process, and the effectiveness of a program; reporting results to the unit and sponsor demonstrates a concern for data which re f l ec t e f f i c i e n c y , learner happiness, and qua l i ty of the program; and using results to improve the planning process includes such items as meeting deadlines, and controlling expense. Mediating technology This technology is characterized by participation or interdependence and emphasizes the service orientation of the unit. The use of mediating technology makes the following operations extensive in nature because of the involvement of multiple cl ients (both teachers and learners). Examples of tasks include: selecting c r i te r i a of cl ient concern by conversation with the learners and teachers; using a cl ient developed instrument about what the learner or teacher considered to be important and how well important parts of a program were handled; report ing to c l i e n t s which uses the linkage established among the three parties involved in the adult education experience; and using resu l t s to improve serv ice by bringing addit ional services to people and improving the qua l i ty of current serv ice on the basis on information obtained from evaluation act iv it ies. Intensive technology This technology is characterized by the involvement of the expert, the use of several kinds of evaluation, and concentration upon both a program and process. Tasks include: selecting c r i t e r i a recommended by an expert usual ly means that a unit w i l l c o l l e c t data in a number of areas such as numbers of participants, learning, and effectiveness; using professionally developed instruments could be the ut i l izat ion of standardized instruments 47 purchased commercially, or instruments developed for a specific program by trained evaluators; reporting results to expert audience means reporting to professional or academic audiences through a journal or in-house means; and using results to improve program outcomes means the concerns of efficiency give way to concerns of effectiveness. The Technologies Compared and Contrasted Each technology shares similar tasks whose differences become apparent only after comparing the purposes and specific actions taken in completing a task. When these actions are juxtaposed, contrasts become more evident that when they are presented in a narrat ive form. Table 2 presents task charac ter i s t i c s grouped by operations within technologies to aid in comparing and contrasting. Tasks of long- l inked technology are character ized by considering agency in teres t s , reproducing both learning and evaluating a c t i v i t i e s , reproducing program ideas, marketing to general audiences, and using internal and other resources. Agency interests are used by programmers to help define the kinds of program ideas developed. These ideas are developed by the planner in consultation with other unit personnel.. Unit or organization goals can be used to es tab l i sh object ives. Instructors' knowledge of other programs helps them to select learning act ivit ies. A general marketing approach is used to ensure participation. Internal or well-known resources w i l l be used by units employing long- l inked technology. Unit concerns shape and influence the kind of evaluating that takes place. These characteristics were derived from a review of the task assigned to long- l inked technology and can be used to help locate that technology as program planning. TABLE 2 PROGRAM PLANNING TASKS COMPARED AND CONTRASTED BY OPERATION AND TECHNOLOGY Operations Long-1inked Technologies Mediating Intensi ve A. Originating Ideas B. Developing the Idea 1. Needs Assessment a. singular need b. questionnaire to learner 2. Consider Market Demand 3. Comply with Sponsor Requests 4. Review Other Program Ideas 1. Talk with Agency Personnel 1. Needs Assessment a. c l i e n t needs b. discussion with c l i e n t 2. Consider C l i e n t Requests 3. Value C l i e n t Consensus 4. Decide Upon Program Ideas 1. Talk with C l i e n t s 1. Needs Assessment a. v a r i e t y of needs b. discussion with experts 2. Consider Nature of Problem 3. Value Expert Opinion 4. Generate I n t u i t i v e Program Ideas 1. Talk with Experts 2. Review Other Program Approaches 3. Determine Agency Interest 4. Adopt Unit Definition of Interest 2. Review C l i e n t Opinion 3. Determine C l i e n t Interest 4. Adopt C l i e n t Interest 2. Review Data About Problem 3. Determine Expert's Diagnosis and Needs 4. Adopt Expert Assessment of Interest Determine F e a s i b i l i t y Emphasize Unit Resources and Commitment 5 . Determine F e a s i b i l i t y Emphasize Client Commitment 5 . Determine F e a s i b i l i t y Emphasize Expert Opinions TABLE 2 (Continued) Technologies  Operations Long-linked Mediating Intensive C. E s t a b l i s h i n g Objectives S e l e c t i n g & Sequencing Learning A c t i v i t i e s 1. Formulate Objectives in Light of Learner Desires, Agency Purpose and Sponsor Requirements 2. Emphasize Harmony Between Agency Purpose and Program Outcomes 3. Write Objectives i n Customary Way 1. Rely Upon Inst r u c t o r to Set A c t i v i t i e s 2. Determine E f f e c t i v e -ness of A c t i v i t i e s 3. Reproduce Learning A c t i v i t i e s 1. Formulate Objectives in Light of C l i e n t Desires 2. Emphasize F e a s i b i l i t y f o r C l i e n t 3. Write Objectives i n Light of C l i e n t Desires 1. Rely Upon Program Planner to Set A c t i v i t i e s i n Con-ju n c t i o n with C l i e n t s 2. Determine S u i t a b i l i t y of A c t i v i t y with C l i e n t s 3. Modify Learning A c t i v i t i e s i n Con-j u n c t i o n with C l i e n t s 1. Formulate Objectives in Light of Expert Opinion About Learner Needs 2. Emphasize Expert Opinion About Appropriatness of Objectives 3. Write Objectives in Conformity with some Recognized C r i t e r i a 1. Rely on Expert Opinion i n S e t t i n g A c t i v i t i e s 2. Determine Appropriateness of A c t i v i t i e s f o r Objec-t i v e s and Content of Program 3. Design Learning A c t i v i t i e s TABLE 2 (Continued) Technologies  Operations Long-linked Mediating Intensive E. Ensuring P a r t i c i -1. Develop General Vehicle Based Upon Agency Requirements 2. Use Broadbased Mailing L i s t 1. Develop General Vehicle Based Upon Client Requirements 2. Use Cultivated Mailing L i s t 1. Develop S p e c i f i c Vehicle Based Upon Program Requirements 2. Use Highly S p e c i f i c L i s t 3. Produce Public Infor-mation Campaign 3. Produce Word of Mouth Campaign 3. Produce Pr o f e s s i o n a l l y Developed Public Infor-mation Campaign 4. Counsel Learner Through Printed Materials 4. Counsel Learner Through Instructor Contact 4. Counsel Learner Through Professional Counselor 5 . Cosponsor with Known Organization, but Retain Control 5. Cosponsor with Organiza-tions Having Influence with Clients 5. Cosponsor with Organiza-tions Having Expertise F. Securing Resources 1. Rely Upon Internal Resources 1. Rely Upon Coopted Resources 1. Rely Upon Resource Development 2. Select Instructors Upon Knowledge of of Past Performance 2. Select Instructors Based Upon Wants and A v a i l a b i l i t y of Clients 2. Select Instructors Based Upon Program Require-ments 3. Use F a c i l i t i e s Over Which Unit has Control 3. Use F a c i l i t i e s Based Upon Client Desires 3. Use F a c i l i t i e s Based Program Requirements TABLE 2 (Continued) Operations Long-1inked Technologies Mediating Intensive G. Evaluating 1. Select C r i t e r i a of Unit Concern 2. Use Unit Developed Instrument 1. Select C r i t e r i a of CIient-Concern 2. Use Cli e n t Developed Instrument 1. Select C r i t e r i a Recommended by Expert 2. Use Expert Developed Instrument 3 . Report Results to Unit or Sponsor or Both 4. Use Results to Improve Process 3 . Report Results to Clients 4. Use Results to Improve Service , 3 . Report Results to Expert (Academic or Professional Audience) 4. Use Results to Improve Program 52 Tasks of mediating technology are characterized by considering learners ' and teachers' needs, discussion with c l i e n t s , determining teachers' and learners ' des ires, and involving other organizations. C l ients ' needs and therefore interests are used in or i g inat ing program ideas and designing evaluation. Desires of teachers and learners influence the establishment of objectives and the selection of learning act iv i t ies. Cosponsoring with other organizations in addit ion to serving as abroad marketing mechanism helps to ensure participation. Coopting helps- secure resources. These charac te r i s t i c s can be used to i dent i f y mediating technology as program planning. Tasks of intensive technology are characterized by considering expert opinion, reviewing program requirements, and re ly ing on profess ional assistance. Expert opinion helps generate program ideas and develop them. It also influences the evaluation of programs. Program requirements affect the kinds of resources and how those resources are used and obtained. It also affects the methods used for ensuring participation. Expert opinion largely affects the kind of evaluations performed and how the results are used. These cha rac te r i s t i c s w i l l ass ist in typing program planning act ivit ies as intensive technology. A total of 81 tasks have been identified (Table 2) and placed within a technology and program planning operation. These tasks are related either by the object of the task or the way the task is completed. When these tasks are both re lated by object ive and method they are i d e n t i f i a b l e by operation and technology. Chapter IV explains how data were gathered and how they were analyzed using the framework presented here. 53 FOOTNOTES iFloyd Pennington and Joseph Green, "Analysis of Program Development," P- 18. ^Burton Clark, Adult Education in T r a n s i t i o n : A Study of I n s t i t u t i o n a l  Inscurity, University of C a l i f o r n i a P u b l i c a t i o n s in S o c i o l o g y and S o c i a l Institutions, Vol. 1 (Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a : University of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1959), p. 85. -J JRonald Szczypkowski, " O b j e c t i v e s and A c t i v i t i e s " in Developing  A d m i n i s t e r i n g , and E v a l u a t i n g A d u l t Education ed. Alan B. Knox, (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1980). 4 P h i l i p Selznick, TVA and the Grass Roots: A Study in the Sociology of  Formal O r g a n i z a t i o n s , (Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1949). 54 CHAPTER IV METHODOLOGY This study uses a method of investigation b u i l t upon the nature of the problem. Some e f f o r t has been spent t r y i n g to l a b e l the methodology as " n a t u r a l i s t i c , " " s c i e n t i f i c , " " q u a l i t a t i v e , " or "grounded theory." A number of books about q u a l i t a t i v e research, by Guba and Lincoln, Bogden and T a y l o r , Mann, F r a n k l i n and Osborne, and McKinney were reviewed to help s e l e c t a research method.1 Some of these works defend and promote a growing emphasis on q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h and seek to e s t a b l i s h i t in a d i f f e r e n t paradigm from s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h . 2 Others, such as Bogdan and Taylor, note that S i n c e t h e p o s i t i v i s t s and t h e phenomenologi s t s approach  d i f f e r e n t problems and seek d i f f e r e n t answers, t h e i r research wi 11  t y p i c a l T y demand d i f f e r e n t methodologies. The p o s i t i v i s t searches f o r " f a c t s " and " c a u s e s " t h r o u g h methods such as s u r v e y questionnaires, inventories, and demographic analysis, which produce quantitative data and which allow him or her to s t a t i s t i c a l l y prove r e l a t i o n s h i p s between operationally defined variables.-* This study incorporates positions, techniques, and analysis which seem to belong to both the p o s i t i v i s t and phenomenologist p o s i t i o n s or paradigms. The research questions were stated prior to c o l l e c t i o n of data, a sequence commonly f o l l o w e d by p o s i t i v i s t r e s e a r c h e r s . Data were co l l e c t e d through case study techniques, which have been assigned by some to n a t u r a l i s t i c research. 4 N a t u r a l i s t i c or s c i e n t i f i c research labels have not been a p p l i e d to t h i s study. A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the research subjects, procedures, and techniques may help in understanding the nature of t h i s inquiry. 55 Selection of Research Subjects The s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s study were three adult education u n i t s , each located in a d i f f e r e n t p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n in Greater Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. Organizations included a school d i s t r i c t , a c o l l e g e , and a u n i v e r s i t y . S e l e c t i o n of s u b j e c t s i n v o l v e d two l e v e l s of o p e r a t i o n . One l e v e l was conceptual and was concerned with f i n d i n g s u b j e c t s which might provide the g r e a t e s t v a r i a t i o n in program planning processes among one another. This was done to avoid problems such as one experienced by Robbins: The c o n t i n u i n g education program planners who parti c i p a t e d in the study should have proved to be an extremely d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c o l l e c t i o n of persons. They represented d i f f e r e n t types and sizes of i n s t i t u t i o n s and communities, worked under d i f f e r e n t types of s t a t e c o l l e g e systems, were educationed [ s i c ] and employed under d i f f e r e n t circumstances, and planned d i f f e r e n t types of continuing education programs. However, a dominating c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of those persons i s t h e i r c o n s i s t e n c y in regard to the data c o l 1ected by means of the questionnaire. Their organizational role orientations are generally the same, t h e i r opinions on the importance of program planning steps are quite s i m i l a r , and t h e i r approaches to planning t y p i c a l programs and involving others in planning are rather close. Robbins did not consider his sample to be a possible reason for lack of variance. His claim that i n s t i t u t i o n s were of d i f f e r i n g types could be questioned because his sample was r e s t r i c t e d to public community colleges.^ The present investigation used three d i f f e r e n t kinds of p u b l i c education organizations to increase the p r o b a b i l i t y of variation in program planning. S u b j e c t s were s e l e c t e d t h a t share e i t h e r p art of a l l of t h e i r geo-p o l i t i c a l s e r v i c e area with one another. The school d i s t r i c t ' s area i s nested w i t h i n the c o l l e g e ' s , which i s nested w i t h i n the u n i v e r s i t y ' s s e r v i c e area. The second l e v e l of o p e r a t i o n s concerned p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . These i n c l u d e d , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o o p e r a t i o n , economic f e a s i b i l i t y , and 56 repeated a c c e s s i b i l i t y when necessary. O r g a n i z a t i o n c o o p e r a t i o n was obtained from u n i t d i r e c t o r s in two i n s t a n c e s . The dean of Continuing Studies in the un i v e r s i t y independently made the decision to allow his unit to be s t u d i e d a f t e r he was assured the i n v e s t i g a t i o n would not be dysfunctional to the unit's operations. The director of Community Educa-t i o n in the school d i s t r i c t c o n s u l t e d with the superintendent p r i o r to a l l o w i n g h i s u n i t to be s t u d i e d . In the t h i r d i n s t a n c e , consent to study the Community Programs and Services Division of the college was obtained from the p r i n c i p a l a f t e r the c o l l e g e ' s r e s e a r c h and e t h i c s committee reviewed a formal research proposal. Latitude to study each organization varied considerably. The college provided any and a l l information deemed necessary by the investigator. The school d i s t r i c t allowed i n t e r v i e w s with individuals after c l e a r i n g them with the d i r e c t o r or h i s a s s i s t a n t . Few records were provided by the d i s t r i c t and access to minutes was l i m i t e d . The u n i v e r s i t y allowed the i n v e s t i g a t o r to choose data sources and pursue c o l l e c t i o n somewhat independently of any c l e a r a n c e mechanism. An o f f e r to help set up appointments was made by the dean and used w i t h i n h i s u n i t . Contextual interviews outside of the unit were set up independently of the dean. Economic f e a s i b i 1 i t y dictated s e l e c t i o n of research subjects within a reasonable driving distance of the investigator's residence, thus l i m i t i n g s u b j e c t s to the Greater Vancouver area. Repeated a c c e s s i b i l i t y was a function of organizational cooperation and economic f e a s i b i l i t y . Follow-up interviews were necessary to c l a r i f y some information obtained in i n i t i a l interviews and data from written sources. 57 Case Study Techniques Case study was used as a research technique for at least two reasons. The research subjects were portrayed in a more h o l i s t i c manner than most s t a t i s t i c a l approaches seem to allow. Such a broad approach allowed c o n s i d e r a t i o n of v a r i a b l e s not i d e n t i f i e d before data were c o l l e c t e d and analyzed but which could have been s i g n i f i c a n t in drawing conclusions about the subjects. The second reason for using case study was based upon a f e l t need for an expansionist stance toward the problem under study. This s,tudy is an i n i t i a l application of the concept of technology in adult education program planning and is among a small number of studies which have applied a technology framework to administrative processes in organization theory. I n i t i a l thoughtful applications are usually done with some apprehension and the c o r r e c t n e s s of using a concept in t h i s manner has not been assumed. Case study seemed to p r o v i d e a stance t h a t allowed f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n of v a l i d i t y . D e f i n i t i o n and use of case study Case study i s conceived as an approach that may use any one or combination of the following research techniques: using personal documents; probing many f a c e t s of a respondent's l i f e ; s h a r i n g e x p e r i e n c e s ; and c o l l e c t i n g l i f e histories.? This i n v e s t i g a t i o n used in-depth i n t e r v i e w s and documentary research. I n t e r v i e w s . The i n t e r v i e w s were c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication, which tended to enhance data v a l i d i t y by r e c o g n i z i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between a message and i t s meaning, based upon both interviewer's and respondent's perceptions. 8 Conceptualizing interviews in this manner during the present study was consistent with Kahn and Cannell's d e f i n i t i o n : 58 We use the term interview to refer to a sp e c i a l i z e d pattern of verbal i n t e r a c t i o n - - i n i t i a t e d for a s p e c i f i c purpose, and focused on some s p e c i f i c content area, with consequent e l i m i n a t i o n of extraneous m a t e r i a l . Moreover, the i n t e r v i e w i s a p a t t e r n of interaction in which the role r e lationship of the interviewer and respondent i s h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d , i t s s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c depending somewhat on the purpose and character of the interview.9 Most i n t e r v i e w s in the present study were used to o b t a i n an understanding of program planning o p e r a t i o n s from the p e r s p e c t i v e of individuals working within adult education units. This was accomplished by focusing the interaction upon concrete examples of program planning tasks from the experience of the respondent. These i n t e r v i e w s were conducted in two d i s t i n c t phases to ensure planning tasks were from the experience of respondents and not reactions to the framework o u t l i n e d in Chapter I I I . The f i r s t phase allowed the respondent to lead the interviewer through the program planning process as the respondent used i t . Any probes used i n t h i s phase were extremely broad. They u s u a l l y c o n s i s t e d of the phrase "and then what d i d you do?" or i t s equivalent. The second phase of each i n t e r v i e w was begun a f t e r the respondents s i g n a l e d that the program planning process as they used i t had been t h o r o u g h l y d i s c u s s e d . The b e g i n n i n g of t h i s phase was u s u a l l y characterized by a reference by the interviewer to some planning operation outlined in Chapter III but not mentioned by the respondent in phase I of the interview. Respondents were informed or reminded that program planning was not a s t a n d a r d i z e d process and t h a t the o p e r a t i o n s about to be mentioned might not be part of t h e i r practice. Respondents were invited to comment on the appropriateness of these operations in reference to t h e i r work. This two-phase i n t e r v i e w enabled a more complete coverage of the synthesized operations than the use of only one phase could have allowed. 59 This combination resulted in data which were complete and in a sit u a t i o n where voluntary data and s o l i c i t e d data could be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . Other interviews focused upon a unit's environment and relationships between units and their organizations as well as relationships among units. These interviews were more structured than framework interviews. Structure was provided by asking respondents s i m i l i a r questions to begin discussion in s p e c i f i c areas. Probes in these areas were more focused and varied than probes in the framework interview. The interviewer attempted to establish a productive climate, l i s t e n a n a l y t i c a l l y , probe thoughtfully, motivate the respondent, and control the i n t e r v i e w . - ^ A pr o d u c t i v e c l i m a t e was sought in part by l o c a t i n g the interview in the o f f i c e or home of the respondent whenever possible. Seven of the total 32. interviews were conducted somewhere other than respondent's o f f i c e s . Six interviews were held in respondents' homes, and one interview was held in a restaurant. The location of interviews in either the o f f i c e and the home accomplished two t h i n g s : the respondent was l o c a t e d i n f a m i l i a r surroundings, which generated questions that could be used to e s t a b l i s h rapport through c o n v e r s a t i o n thus enhancing a p r o d u c t i v e i n t e r v i e w . E s t a b l i s h m e n t of a p r o d u c t i v e c l i m a t e was a l s o aided by matching respondent's degrees of fo r m a l i t y in speech, maintaining an open a t t i t u d e , b e i n g w i l l i n g to t r u s t , a c c e p t i n g whatever i n f o r m a t i o n respondents gave, and av o i d i n g making any overt e v a l u a t i o n during interviews. An open attitude was i n i t i a l l y indicated by stating that the purpose of the interviewing was to c o l l e c t information about how program planning was a c t u a l l y done as opposed to prescribing what should be done. L i s t e n i n g a n a l y t i c a l l y i n f l u e n c e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the interviewer and respondents in a number of ways. The most important was 60 allowing the interviewer to determine the respondent's frame of reference. Some respondents were highly c r i t i c a l of the organization for which they worked. By c a r e f u l l y l i s t e n i n g i t was determined in some cases these persons had c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y exhibited c r i t i c a l outlook in organizations f o r which they f o r m e r l y worked. This was confirmed in one i n s t a n c e by a discussion with a former supervisor. Thoughtful probing was based upon an a l y t i c a l l i s t e n i n g . Downs et a l . and Kann and Cannell l i s t s e v e r a l kinds of inadequate responses that r e q u i r e probing. The most common responses in the present study that r e q u i r e d f o l l o w - u p questions were incomplete because respondents often assumed the i n t e r v i e w e r knew more than he d i d about p r o v i n c i a l and organizational adult education. Probes were based upon responses given and were of one of the two general types. Directed probes focused upon w e l l -defined areas of interest to the interviewer and were more commonly used during the contextual interviews and during the second phase of framework r e l a t e d i n t e r v i e w s . I n d i r e c t probes focused upon the process of the interview and were designed to maintain information exchange. This type of probe was used e x t e n s i v e l y but not e x c l u s i v e l y d u r i n g the f i r s t phase of framework related interview. M o t i v a t i n g the informant to remain i n t e l l e c t u a l l y i n v o l v e d in the i n t e r v i e w was attempted by e x p l a i n i n g t h a t the i n t e r v i e w was part of a study of the ways adult education programs were planned in e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . R e c o g n i t i o n was given to the informants' responses by emphasizing the study's focus upon what was a c t u a l l y done in program planning rather than what should be done. Controlling interviews resulted from adhering to the four p r i n c i p l e s j u s t o u t l i n e d . D i s c i p l i n e used by the i n t e r v i e w e r r e s u l t e d in open but 61 controlled interviews. This issue of control was deemed more important in framework interviews than contextual interviews. Development and refinement of i n t e r v i e w techniques occurred during three practice interviews. A past d i r e c t o r of c o n t i n u i n g education, and two program planners who work at u n i v e r s i t i e s not included as subjects in this study were used. After an i n i t i a l interview the tape recorded results were reviewed and suggestions about interviewing techniques were made and incorporated into the remaining practice interviews. These techniques led to interviews that were open thus allowing respondents to provide data they f e l t were important. Open i n t e r v i e w s served three purposes. F i r s t , the respondent was asked to give a n a r r a t i v e account of a general area of planning, thus allowing the interviewer to probe using either a funnelling or an inverted funnelling technique. Funnelling refers to the d i r e c t i o n of questioning: moving from broad to narrow and concrete concerns. The second purpose was to communicate the f e e l i n g that responses were not evaluated as to t h e i r c o r r e c t n e s s . The t h i r d purpose was to couch the i n t e r v i e w in language f a m i l i a r to the respondent. Because the respondent did most of the t a l k i n g , i t was he who e s t a b l i s h e d the degree of f o r m a l i t y during the interview. S u b s t a n t i v e areas covered during framework i n t e r v i e w s were those operations i d e n t i f i e d in Chapter III. Contextual interviews focused upon relationships between a unit and i t s organization as perceived by the unit d i r e c t o r and the organizational head. The following equation is an example of the i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s i n t r o d u c i n g the i n i t i a l area for discussion during framework interviews. 62 Ideas for adult education programs come from a variety of sources. I'm interested in the way you find program ideas. Can you describe what you usual ly do to get ideas? Give specific examples i f you can. After respondents enumerated the ways program ideas were obtained and indicated they could think of no others, an ind i rec t probe was used to f a c i l i t a t e the process. An example of this type of probe is given below. Note the absence of any hint to subsequent program planning operations. "After you got the idea for the Women's Management Program, then what did you do?" This kind of probe was used extens ively throughout the f i r s t phase of framework interviews. A l l interviews were tape recorded enabling the interviewer to concentrate upon analytical l i s ten ing and consequently formul ate probes rather than devoting attention to accurately recording oral data. Accuracy of recorded data was perfect , thus l i m i t i n g problems of v a l i d i t y to researcher interpretation. Equipment f a i l u re presented one problem in taping interviews. The second half of one interview was inaudible. That interview was with an organizational head and thus the data did not pertain to program planning. However, i t meant that he had to be reinterviewed. Notes were taken from the audible half of the i n i t i a l interview and reviewed by both the respondent and the interviewer before the makeup interview was begun. Interviews were conducted with individuals in three public education organizations. The selection of these three organizations is treated later in this chapter. The selection of informants within these organizations was made by their meeting one of two cr i ter ia . Job positions were used as indicators of persons having f i r s t hand knowledge of the program planning process used in a unit. Select ing people by th i s c r i t e r i o n provided a minimum of seven interviews in each organization. 63 The second c r i t e r i o n was i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of knowledgeable individuals by p r e v i o u s l y s e l e c t e d informants. Informants were asked to i d e n t i f y persons who had an understanding of the unit. Individuals so recommended were interviewed whenever i t was p r a c t i c a l to do so. Unit heads provided guidance in identifying individuals. Occasionally, when i t was f e l t to be u s e f u l , they were asked to make i n i t i a l c o n t a c t about the proposed interview. Table 3 displays the number of people interviewed by position and type of organi z a t i on. TABLE 3 INTERVIEWS BY ORGANIZATION AND POSITION Position Organization Type School D i s t r i c t College University Program Planners Part-time Program Planners Adult Education Instructors Secretary/Clerk/ Administrative Assistant Director/Dean School Board Member Assoc. Vice President Past Director Superintendent/ President TOTAL 10 10 10 NOTE: Total number of interviews = 30 64 Interviews in the school d i s t r i c t were arranged by working through the director of Community Education who offered advice about individuals who might be able to explain program development in the unit. As interviews proceeded, i t became apparent that part - t ime program planners played an important role in program planning. Therefore, an interview was arranged with one of the longest employed p a r t - t i m e programmers. The superintendent, board member, and d i rector supplied background and contextual data for the study. A lack of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l records necessitated the interview with the school trustee who provided some historical data. Interviews in the community co l lege were arranged through the principal who introduced the investigator to the dean of Community Programs and Services, a personnel of f icer, and the college l ibrarian. He explained that the investigator was to be allowed free access to college information and documents. As interviews proceeded, one particular program planner was recommended as a person who would provide a valuable and somewhat different perspective about program planning. The past director, principal, and dean al l provided contextual data. Most interviews in the university were arranged through the dean of continuing studies. A few were arranged by the invest igator himself. Contextual data were obtained during interviews with the dean, the un ivers i ty president, the past d i rec to r , and associate academic v i ce -president. Issues of val idity and r e l i a b i l i t y This investigation is concerned with validating the application of the concept of technology to program planning in adult education. Validity of data co l l ec t i on through q u a l i t a t i v e methodologies has been reviewed by 65 GubaH and Deutscher 1^. Guba notes v a l i d a t i o n problems arise because of researcher presence, researcher involvement with respondents, bias on the part of the i n v e s t i g a t o r or respondents, and f i n a l l y d i s t o r t i o n due to manner of data c o l l e c t i o n . } The f i r s t item i s not a' 7concern i n t h i s study. Researcher presence may have an e f f e c t when p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n i s the data c o l l e c t i o n technique, however, t h i s study used in-depth i n t e r v i e w s as a c o l l e c t i o n technique. The remaining three items l i s t e d by Guba are at i s s u e when interviews are used. Involvement with respondents was f r i e n d l y . Rapport was e s t a b l i s h e d by showing i n t e r e s t i n the respondent before the actual interview began. This in t e r e s t was demonstrated by asking questions which concentrated upon a person's family, career, hobbies or interests, or some combination of these areas. Questions about a person's c a r e e r may have been interpreted as gathering data, however, t h i s aspect was modified by the f a c t that the tape r e c o r d e r was turned on a f t e r the rapport b u i l d i n g session. The act of turning on the recorder was meant to be a signal that the data c o l l e c t i o n phase was beginning. Rapport i s sometimes treated as a state of relationships that can be achieved and then f o r g o t t e n . Experience i n the f i e l d demonstrated that rapport once achieved needed constant attention throughout the interview process. This was accomplished by a conversational mode of interviewing. Respondents were o f t e n i n t e r r u p t e d f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n observations, or by questions that changed the d i r e c t i o n of the interview. Another problem i n the area of r e s e a r c h e r involvement i s becoming i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n v o l v e d and l o s i n g o b j e c t i v i t y . The nature of the resea r c h design helped m i n i m i z e the p o s s i b i l i t y of overinvolvement by c a l l i n g f o r in depth i n t e r v i e w s r a t h e r than p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n s . 66 Interviews were usually one hour in length, the shortest was t h i r t y minutes and the longest was almost two hours. The problem of bias has two aspects. One i s bias on the part of the researcher as he c o l l e c t s and interprets data. This aspect was minimized by three techniques. F i r s t , interviews which focused on program planning were led by the respondent. No framework of program planning was described by the interviewer u n t i l the respondent indicated he had given as much data on program planning as possible. One respondent seemed uncomfortable in leading the interview and asked a number of times "Is this what you want," or "Is t h i s what you are l o o k i n g for"? Second, i n t e r v i e w s were with i n d i v i d u a l s in e q u i v a l e n t p o s i t i o n s across organizations. Any variation from equivalent positions usually occurred in contextual interviews. The only exception was the part-time programmer in the school d i s t r i c t . There were no e q u i v a l e n t p o s i t i o n s in the other two o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h i r d , application of the framework in analyzing data was done after data had been sy n t h e s i z e d i n t o program planning p r o f i l e s f o r each u n i t . The process seems more rigorous than immediate application of the framework to data from individual interviews. The second aspect of b i a s comes from informants as they attempt to please, p l a c a t e , or d e c e i v e i n t e r v i e w e r s . T h i s t h r e a t to v a l i d i t y was minimized by l e t t i n g respondents report how program planning was carried out with l i t t l e or no reference to any framework. The l a s t problem Guba mentioned was d i s t o r t i o n due to data c o l l e c t i o n techniques. This was minimized by using a tape recorder to ensure accurate note taking and to allow the investigator to concentrate upon the interview process and i n t e r a c t i o n rather than accuracy in note t a k i n g . Recordings were analyzed and reanalyzed for consistency within a single interview and among interviews within a unit. This cross checking was also supplemented 67 by cross checking between interview data and data obtained from documents and reports. Cross checking is s i m i l i a r to t r i a n g u l a t i o n , which is used to establish structural corroboration or the v a l i d a t i o n of evidence by other 13 pieces of evidence. These t h r e a t s to v a l i d i t y have been c o n s i d e r e d and techniques have been employed to help minimize them. R e l i a b i l i t y on the other hand poses problems that because of the nature of t h i s study are not as r e a d i l y minimized as t h r e a t s to v a l i d i t y . The concept of r e l i a b i l i t y has importance in studies where measurement is fin e and discrete. Studies using these kinds of measures use r e l i a b i l i t y as i n d i c e s of c o n s i s t e n c y of measuring instruments. One technique of e s t a b l i s h i n g c o n s i s t e n c y in q u a l i t a t i v e studies i s auditing findings of investigators by independent experts. The audit is a review of reasonableness of decision and inference made based upon data. The ultimate test of r e l i a b i l i t y in q u a l i t a t i v e studies is r e p l i c a t i o n of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s using s i m i l i a r s u b j e c t s and the same methodology. Guba noted s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i n t e r v i e w i n g t h a t i n d i c a t e t h i s data c o l l e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e ' s i n a b i l i t y to s a t i s f y the r e q u i r e m e n t s of r e l i a b i l i t y : The materials are d i f f i c u l t or impossible to pretest (unless one i s using a highly structure interview with predeveloped protocols). The r e s u l t s are u n p r e d i c t a b l e and may be nonaggregatable or more equivalent over several interviews. Since only small samples can be handled by unstructured interviewing techniques the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the results is moot. Such interviews are also d i f f i c u l t i f not impossible to standardize (that i s , to put into standard content or form), although, t h i s i s to be expected s i n c e the respondents f o r u n s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w i n g are themselves of "unstandardized" and unique s u b j e c t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n t e r v i e w s are d i f f i c u l t to r e p l i c a t e , s i n c e the data c o l l e c t i o n d e v i c e i s a human being..and the technique i s a l s o h i g h l y v u l n e r a b l e to i n t e r v i e w e r b i a s . 1 4 The very nature of u n s t r u c t u r e d depth i n t e r v i e w i n g c a l l s f o r the investigator to make judgements regarding which l i n e of inquiry to follow 68 with which i n d i v i d u a l . R e p l i c a t i o n and a u d i t i b i l i t y stand as major techniques in judging the r e l i a b i l i t y of q u a l i t a t i v e studies. Use of Written Records Most organizations produce records in one form or another. Interviews can be viewed as c o l l e c t i n g o r a l records of people. This s e c t i o n deals with evidence that has been committed to writing in the form of records or documents. Reports r e f e r to p u b l i s h e d sources of i n f o r m a t i o n about an organization, including: f i n a n c i a l , s t a t i s t i c a l and annual reports as well as program l i s t i n g s . Documents refer to unpublished organizational sources of i n f o r m a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g : l e t t e r s ; memos; minutes of meetings; program summaries; job descriptions; and statements of goals and purposes. These sources were used to c o l l e c t information about numbers of s t a f f employed in units, formal structure of the unit and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the organization, number and kinds of programs planned per year, populations served, f i n a n c i a l information, and number of program enrollments per year. These data helped establish a h i s t o r i c a l background of each unit within i t s organization. The background provided a s e t t i n g for information obtained from interviews. Another use of reports and documents was to locate corroborative data. For example, one respondent indicated he conscientiously evaluated most i f not a l l programs he developed and then, a few minutes l a t e r , he noted evaluation was the most neglected area of program planning and one that he f e l t could be greatly improved. In a subsequent meeting, copies of evalua-t i o n forms he had used were requested. W i t h i n a few minutes three d i f f e r e n t instruments that he had developed and used were located. These documents provided corroborative data needed to e s t a b l i s h the accuracy of 69 the interview data and helped resolve an apparent internal inconsistency in an interview. Data from documents and reports were the most useful in establishing a contextual setting for the units. Each unit shared a s i m i l a r geographical location and demographic s i t u a t i o n , although t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l and organiza-t i o n a l s e t t i n g s were unique. Data from rec o r d s and documents helped establish the context of the units in th i s regard. V a l i d i t y of documents i s e s t a b l i s h e d through e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l c r i t i c i s m . External c r i t i c i s m is b a s i c a l l y e s t a b l i s h i n g the authenticity of documents. Thi s process was not used i n t h i s study because documents were obtained d i r e c t l y from o r g a n i z a t i o n a r c h i v e s or some o f f i c i a l representative of an organization. Internal c r i t i c i s m was used extensively in some situations where the accuracy of a claim needed to be established because i t e i t h e r d i f f e r e d from data obtained from i n t e r v i e w s or from records and could i n f l u e n c e the subsequent in t e r p r e t a t i o n of other data. The major method of i n t e r n a l c r i t i c i s m was comparing i n f o r m a t i o n from i n t e r v i e w s with people who were a c t o r s i n documented a c t i v i t i e s with documented information from those a c t i v i t i e s . Written documents and records were not primary sources of data about program planning. However, they d i d supply data h e l p f u l i n p r o v i d i n g h i s t o r i c a l and contextual data about research subjects. Data C o l l e c t i o n Data were c o l l e c t e d i n two ways. The f i r s t was i n t e r v i e w s , which provided the major amount of information about the planning process as well as the c o n t e x t u a l s e t t i n g of that process. Supplementary but important information in terms of uniqueness of data and i t s corroborative value was obtained from document and record analysis. 70 Data from informants were obtained by using two d i f f e r e n t kinds of interviews. The f i r s t kind was the framework interview conducted in two phases and designed to gather data about the u n i t and i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Table 4 presents a c o n t r a s t of phases in terms of when operations were mentioned by informants. Most operations were mentioned by i n t e r v i e w e r s in Phase I of the i n t e r v i e w s . There was some v a r i a t i o n among the respondents when the p o s i t i o n i s considered. For example, 80 percent of the time program planners mentioned o p e r a t i o n s in Phase I of t h e i r i n t e r v i e w s , and instructors mentioned operations with equal frequency in Phase I and Phase II. Only 30 percent of the responses were operations mentioned in Phase II when a l l respondents are considered. Such data provides some confidence that the majority of data c o l l e c t e d were provided by the respondent with only broad and nonspecific probes provided by the researcher. Programmers, secretaries, d i r e c t o r s , and instructors a l l received the same kind of i n t e r v i e w w h i l e deans and d i r e c t o r s r e c e i v e d i n t e r v i e w s c o n s i s t i n g of two d i s t i n c t p a r t s . The f i r s t was s i m i l a r to i n t e r v i e w s r e c e i v e d by programmers, s e c r e t a r i e s , and i n s t r u c t o r s . The value of interviewing deans and dire c t o r s about program planning was in comparing and contrasting what they thought t h e i r s t a f f s were doing with what t h e i r s t a f f s reported. The second part was conducted immediately after the f i r s t . Content of the interview centered upon the unit director's perceptions of his unit's r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the organization. Other contextual data were obtained from two past unit d i r e c t o r s , a former academic vice-president and organizational heads. Records and documents were obtained from the three research subjects. University archives proved to be a r i c h source of organizational minutes and memos. Individuals from the school d i s t r i c t supplied some documents TABLE 4 OPERATIONS MENTIONED IN PHASE I CONTRASTED TO OPERATIONS MENTIONED IN PHASE II BY POSITION Positions Phase Programmers Secretaries Directors and Dean Instructors A B Operations C D E F G % A B Operations C D E F G % A B Operations C D E F G % A B Operations C D E F G .% I 10 10 7 7 9 2 9 81 3 2 1 0 3 0 3 57 5 4 3 3 3 4 3 71 4 4 1 0 2 1 2 50 II 0 0 3 3 1 5 1 19 0 1 2 3 0 3 0 43 • 0 1 2 2 2 1 2 29 0 0 3 4 2 3 2 50 NOTE: A = Originating Ideas; B = Developing Ideas; C = Establishing Objectives; D = Selecting and Sequencing Learning A c t i v i t i e s ; E = Ensuring P a r t i c i p a t i o n ; F = Securing Resources; G - Evaluating. 72 but few records were obtained from the o r g a n i z a t i o n because of e i t h e r a lack of a record keeping system or an unwillingness to share i t s records. The f o u r t h o r g a n i z a t i o n a l source was the M i n i s t r y of Education which supplied two years of comparable s t a t i s t i c a l data on a l l three subjects and three years of comparable s t a t i s t i c a l data on two research subjects. Data Analysis Data were analyzed by f i r s t i n dexing each of the i n t e r v i e w s . This index was used to l o c a t e comments and o b s e r v a t i o n s about the planning process or the c o n t e x t u a l s e t t i n g or both. As program planning process descriptions were written, data were cross checked among program planners in each unit. Few c o n f l i c t s in substantive matters were found. Data were also cross checked among programmers in each of the organizations. A f i n a l cross check was made between the director's or deans' and the programmers' perceptions of the planning process. Data were also compared and contrasted within and among units. This allowed program planning p r o f i l e s to be developed by i d e n t i f y i n g s i m i l a r t asks. If no common tasks c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d f o r a u n i t , then m u l t i p l e patterns of planning were i d e n t i f i e d . Patterns are more global than common tasks and i n c l u d e items such as shared p h i l o s o p h i e s , a t t i t u d e s , and p r i o r i t i e s . Once p r o f i l e s or patterns were established, the t o t a l frame-work was used as a t o o l f o r a n a l y s i s . P r o f i l e s were examined and typed according to the technology they most c l o s e l y resembled. Planning patterns were used to categorize each unit as to i t s approach to program planning. Data Presentation Data from documents, reports, and contextual interviews are presented in Chapter V as descriptions of the three adult education units and t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The data are both s t a t i s t i c a l and n a r r a t i v e in nature 73 providing some idea as to the scope and kind of adult education a c t i v i t i e s each u n i t encourages. Data from i n t e r v i e w s about program planning are presented in Chapters VI, VII, and VIII with each chapter f o c u s i n g on one of the subjects. Data from each i n t e r v i e w are rep o r t e d anonymously to assure the c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y promised to each i n t e r v i e w e e . To f u r t h e r a s s u r e c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y , a l l interviewees are reported as male and referred to as such even though 13 of the i n t e r v i e w s were with women. To a s s i s t the reader in p l a c i n g i n t e r v i e w s in the proper u n i t , o r g a n i z a t i o n , and p o s i t i o n , they are r e f e r e n c e d with a coded acronym. For example, CI2 i n d i c a t e s the i n t e r v i e w e e i s from the c o l l e g e (C) and i s the second (2) instructor (I) interviewed; and UPl indicates the f i r s t (1) programmer (P) in t e r v i e w e d from the u n i v e r s i t y (U). Each acronym i s e x p l a i n e d when i n i t i a l l y mentioned and again in the bibliography. Summary This chapter began with a d i s c u s s i o n of s c i e n t i f i c and n a t u r a l i s t i c inquiry. Reasons for using case studies techniques were next discussed. A d e f i n i t i o n and explanation of case study as used in t h i s investigation was given. Data c o l l e c t i o n by source and process was i d e n t i f i e d , and f i n a l l y data analysis was described as a series of cross checks and comparisons to arr i v e at planning p r o f i l e s . Planning patterns were mentioned as ways to account f o r m u l t i p l e p l a n n i n g p r o f i l e s w i t h i n a s i n g l e u n i t . Chapter V prov i d e s an example of the use of case study i n examining the c o n t e x t u a l settings of three adult education units. 74 FOOTNOTES lEgon G. Guba and Yvonna S. L i n c o l n , E f f e c t i v e E v a l u a t i o n , (San F r a n c i s c o : Jossey-Bass P u b l i s h e r s , 1981); Robert Bogdan and Steven J. Taylor, Introduction to Qu a l i t a t i v e Research Methods: A Phenomenoloqical  Approach to the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s , (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1975); Peter Mann, Methods of Sociolo"g~ical Enquiry, (Oxford: B a s i l B l a c k w e l l , 1968); B i l l y J. F r a n k l i n and Harold W. Osborne, eds., Research Methods:  Issues and Insights, (Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a ; Wadsworth P u b l i s h i n g Company, Inc., 1971); John C. McKinney, C o n s t r u c t i v e Typology and S o c i a l Theory, (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1966). ^Guba and Lincoln, E f f e c t i v e Evaluation. 3Bogdan and Taylor, Qualitative Research Methods, p. 2. ^Robert Stake, "The Case Study Method in Social Inquiry," Educational  Researcher 7 (February, 1978):5-8. ^Robbins, "Process of Program Planning," pp. 112-113. 6 I b i d . , p. 45. ^William J. Goode and Paul K. Hatt, Methods in Social Research, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1952). 8 C a l W. Downs, C. Paul Smeyak, and Ernest M a r t i n , P r o f e s s i o n a l  Interviewing, (New York: Harper and Row Publishers, 1980). 9Rober L. Kann and Charles F. Cannel, The Dynamics of I n t e r v i e w i n g :  Theory, Technique, and Cases, (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 19b/), p. lb. *°Downs, Smeyak, and Martin, Professional Interviewing. l^Guba, E f f e c t i v e Evaluation i p A C I r w i n Deutscher, "Looking Backward: Case Studies on the Progress of Methodology in Sociological Research" in Q u a l i t a t i v e S o c i o l o g y : F i r s t h a n d  Involvement with the S o c i a V World ed. W i l l i a m J. F i l s t e a d , (Chicago: Markham Publishing Company, 1970). 1 3 E l l i o t W. E i s n e r , The E d u c a t i o n a l Imagination: On the Design and Evaluation of School Programs, (New York: M a c m i l l i a n P u b l i s h i n g Company, 19/9), p. 215. l^Guba and Lincoln, E f f e c t i v e Evaluation, p. 187. 75 CHAPTER V DESCRIPTIONS OF THREE ADULT EDUCATION UNITS The adult education units in a school d i s t r i c t , a community college, and a university that were included in this study are described in the next three s e c t i o n s . Data f o r u n i t d e s c r i p t i o n s c o n s i s t e d of two types, s t a t i s t i c a l data d e s c r i b i n g s i z e , age, and program o f f e r i n g s f o r each of the u n i t s s t u d i e d and o b s e r v a t i o n s made by u n i t and o r g a n i z a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s about the context of the a d u l t education u n i t s and t h e i r organizations. Some comments about external r e l a t i o n s h i p s with other units and "organizations are a l s o presented. These data o f f e r evidence of h i s t o r i c a l and organizational influences on program planning. The Community Education Department Data f o r the s t a t i s t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n were obtained from the school d i s t r i c t and the M i n i s t r y of Education r e p o r t s . Data f o r the n a r r a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n were obtained from i n t e r v i e w s with the Community Education directo r , school d i s t r i c t superintendent and a school board trustee. S t a t i s t i c a l description This d e s c r i p t i o n p r o v i d e d data about the r e l a t i v e s i z e of four contiguous school d i s t r i c t s ; t h e i r enrollment rates and comparable data for a l o c a l community c o l l e g e d i s t r i c t , and a content p r o f i l e f o r the school d i s t r i c t included in the sample. Content p r o f i l e refered to the kinds of programs offered by an educational organization. For example, a vocational i n s t i t u t e might be expected to o f f e r a number of programs r e l a t e d to 76 vocational training. Such a profi le was useful in drawing some conclusions about the kind of adult education programs being conducted by the school d istr ict included in this research. The Community Education Department served an estimated adult popula-t ion of 112,647 indiv iduals or 83.4 percent of the tota l school d i s t r i c t population.^ Of the four school d i s t r i c t s which comprised a community col lege region, this was the largest number of adults and the second largest percentage of adults within a d i s t r i c t . Using information from a consultant's report on continuing education re lat ionsh ips in the col lege d i s t r i c t , enrollment rat ios between the col lege and school d i s t r i c t s within i t s region were ca l cu l a ted . 2 If a ratio had the value of one there would be an equal number of enrollments in school d i s t r ic t programs and community college programs. Enrollment ratios and actual enrollments are presented in Table 5. TABLE 5 CONTINUING EDUCATION ENROLLMENT AND RATIOS BY SCHOOL DISTRICT School School Distr ict College Enrollment Distr ict Enrollment Enrollment Ratio A 15,420 95 162:1 B 12,854 354 36:1 C 3,537 65 54:1 D 6,316 1,027 6:1 The college had fewer enrollments than the school d i s tr icts with the smallest difference between the college and the School Distr ict D and the greatest between the college and School Distr ict A. Contrasting enrollment ra t io s with enrollment rates provided an in teres t ing comparison because these s t a t i s t i c s demonstrated that when 77 enrollment r a t i o s were low the en r o l l m e n t r a t e s were high. Enrollment r a t e s i n Table 6 were c a l c u l a t e d by d i v i d i n g the number of en r o l l m e n t s reported in the four d i s t r i c t s by the adult population. TABLE 6 SCHOOL DISTRICT AND COLLEGE ENROLLMENT RATES BY SCHOOL DISTRICT School School D i s t r i c t College School Adult D i s t r i c t Enrollment College Enrollment D i s t r i c t Population Enrollment Rate/1000 Enrollment Rate/1000 A 112,647 15,420 13.7 95 .08 B 74,398 12,854 17.3 354 .48 C 29,834 3,537 11.9 65 .21 D 31,762 6,316 19.9 1,027 3.23 The enrollment r a t e s of the c o l l e g e i n each school d i s t r i c t and the school d i s t r i c t e n r o l l m e n t r a t e s demonstrated a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p . These data presented a comparative view of the subject school d i s t r i c t with three other contiguous school d i s t r i c t s and the community c o l l e g e which serves a l l four school d i s t r i c t s . School D i s t r i c t A had the largest adult p o p u l a t i o n of the four d i s t r i c t s , the second lowest school d i s t r i c t e n r o l l m e n t r a t e , and the highest e n r o l l m e n t r a t i o of the fo u r school d i s t r i c t s . The level of college a c t i v i t y in adult education programs was p o s i t i v e l y r e l a t e d to the l e v e l of a c t i v i t y in school d i s t r i c t a d u l t education programs. The number of school d i s t r i c t enrollments was highest in D i s t r i c t A which had the largest adult population. Its enrollment rate, however, was second lowest of the four d i s t r i c t s , and the college's enrollment rate was 78 the lowest in D i s t r i c t A. These data i n d i c a t e d a v a r i a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the colleg e ' s and the school d i s t r i c t ' s e n r o l l m e n t r a t e s w i t h i n i t s region. In some d i s t r i c t s the c o l l e g e had more e n r o l l m e n t s in i t s programs than in other d i s t r i c t s . As w i l l be noted l a t e r , school d i s t r i c t s and the college have varying degrees of cooperation. Additional observa-t i o n s about D i s t r i c t A's r e l a t i o n s h i p to the c o l l e g e are r e p o r t e d i n the narrative description of the school d i s t r i c t . The following tables and figures deal e x c l u s i v e l y with School D i s t r i c t A. Table 7 presents enrollment data supplied by the Director of Community Education in the d i s t r i c t . Data f o r 1976 through 1978 were confirmed by comparing these data with data from the Mi n i s t r y of Education. 3 TABLE 7 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF ADULT EDUCATION ENROLLMENT IN SCHOOL DISTRICT A BY YEAR Year Enrollment Year Enrollment 1963 3,667 1972 9,985 1964 3,348 1973 9,778 1965 NA 1974 11,036 1966 NA 1975 13,026 1967 NA 1976 14,708 1968 5,155 1977 15,527 1969 6,380 1978 16,513 1970 8,563 1979 15,783 1971 NA 1980 18,642 Table 8 presents the number of c l a s s e s held each year i n School D i s t r i c t A and reported to the M i n i s t r y of Education. The decrease i n classes held in 1980/81 was explained by a labor s t r i k e which c u r t a i l e d the a c t i v i t i e s in adult education during the spring programming period. 79 TABLE 8 NUMBER OF CLASSES HELD IN SCHOOL DISTRICT A Year Number Average of Classes Class Size % Change in % Change in Number of Classes Average Class Size 1976/77 1977/78 1978/79 1979/80 1980/81 866 910 927 982 803 17.9 17.8 16.7 17.3 17.1 5.08 1.87 5.93 -18.25 -0.5 -6.17 3.59 -1.15 The data indicated that a f a i r l y constant rate of program production was maintained by the school d i s t r i c t . For example in 1977/78 44 more programs were held than the year before. This represented a 5 percent change from the previous year. Percent changes vary from 2 percent to 6 percent in four of the f i v e years years presented in Table 8. Even when the d i s t r i c t ' s usual production c a p a b i l i t i e s were threatened by a labor dispute, the change was l imited to 18 percent of total production. Steady growth in enrollment was interrupted by occasional and small decreases and has been accompanied by growth in s t a f f pos i t ions. Unti l 1972 adult education programs were managed by a director and secretary. Since then, the number of people on staff has grown to seven ful l - t ime and fifteen part-time employees. Table 9 displays data re lated to the content of the adult education e f fo r t of School D i s t r i c t A. Data from 1976-1977 were obtained from the Min i s t ry of Education's Annual S t a t i s t i c a l Reports. Data for 1980 were obtained from Community Education's Annual Report to the school d i s t r i c t superintendent. In the year after 1978/79 two addit ional categories were used to report enrollment data. General trends, however, can be seen even though TABLE 9 NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF REGISTRATION BY COURSE TYPE AND YEAR IN SCHOOL DISTRICT A Course Type  High School Academic Language Vocational General Comm. Completion Upgrading Training Prof. Devel. Interest Ed. Total Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % 1976/77 823 5.3 71 .5 2,499a 16.1 12,134 78. 1 15,527 1977/78 752 4.7 201 1.2 3,254 20.1 11,957 74. 0 16,164 1978/79 667 4.3 289 1.9 810 5.3 3,407 22.1 8,989 58. 3 1,258 8.2 15,417 1979/80 613 3.3 747 4.0 986 5.3 4,179 22.4 7,674 41. 2 4,443 23.8 18,642 a T h i s f i g u r e i s a t o t a l of " P r o f e s s i o n / B u s i n e s s / T e c h n i c a l " (n = 919) and " V o c a t i o n a l " (n = 1,580) as reported in 1976. 81 the data are reported more discretely in the last two years. Even though the tota l numbers of reg i s t ra t ions increased by 637 between 1976/77 and 1977/78, the categor ica l changes between the years were s l i gh t . What change did occur were decreases in general interest and high school completion course enrollments. Academic upgrading course enrollments more than doubled, while vocational and profess ional development course enrollments increased by nearly a third. The number of general education course enrollments continued to decrease in r e l a t i ve number to other kinds of couse enrollments between 1978 and 1980. The number of vocational and professional development course enrollments remained v i r tua l ly unchanged in relative number as did enrollments in English language t r a in ing courses. The greatest area of growth from 1979 to 1980 was Community Education which was defined by the Min i s t ry of Education as "Courses and processes which assist individuals and groups to identify, assess, and meet their learning needs in order to improve the quality of l i f e . " 4 The categorical changes in enrollment may be attributed to at least two factors. The f i r s t was a qualitative change in the school d i s t r ic t approach to adult education. The second factor may merely be a change in report ing procedures or the a v a i l a b i l i t y of more d i screte report ing categories than was previously ava i lab le. The f i r s t factor seemed to account for sh i f t s which occurred over the ent i re four year period where the second factor could account for only changes from 1977/78 to 1978/79. Contextual description The Community Education Department seemed well integrated with the administrative structure of School Distr ict A. Factors which affected this integration were a supportive board of trustees, a professional community 82 education director and a committed superintendent. Each of these factors contributed uniquely to the department's integration. The board of trustees demonstrated their support for adult education in a least three ways. F irst , when presented with a proposal to increase fees for adult education programs the board supported the department with a budgetary allocation rather than a fee increase as reported in a personal interview on June 25, 1981. This support was re f lec ted in the 1980 Financial Statement which reports that Community Education was subsidized by the d i s t r ic t with $24,871.5 The board member expressed his attitude by saying "when we're subsidizing other things, why not continuing education?" A second way support was demonstrated was the board's approval of the department's proposed programs. Before each program period, a l i s t ing of courses was presented to the board for approval. The d i rector in a personal interview on May 29, 1981 reported never having had a course disapproved, but he also noted that he f i l te red programs before they were presented to the board and that "most of the problems have been worked out." F i l t e r i n g r e f e r e d to e l i m i n a t i n g programs that might be controvers ia l . Examples of controvers ia l courses that were " f i l t e r e d " included programs dealing with drugs, sex education, medical self help, and barbering. The third way support for adult education was demonstrated was in the way the Director of Community Education was viewed in terms of his level of responsibi l ity by the board of trustees member. "[SUH, (school unit head)] is almost, he hasn't got the t i t l e but almost, the level of a [ s i c ] assistant superintendent, at least the way the fellows [superintendent and assistant superintendent] work with him." This view of the d i rec tor was pa r t l y a funct ion of his professional a c t i v i t i e s in the province and the d i s t r i c t and his in teract ion with the 83 b o a r d o f t r u s t e e s . The d i r e c t o r h a d b e e n a c t i v e i n a p r o f e s s i o n a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a s s o c i a t i o n ( t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A s s o c i a t i o n o f C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t o r s ) f o r 11 y e a r s . He h a d s e r v e d as an e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r i n t h e A s s o c i a t i o n and e n c o u r a g e d h i s s t a f f t o be i n v o l v e d i n p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . The d i r e c t o r ' s p r o f e s s i o n a l image was f u r t h e r e d by i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h b o a r d m e m b e r s on a r e g u l a r and s u s t a i n e d b a s i s . The d i r e c t o r e x p l a i n e d how he g a i n e d s u p p o r t f r o m t h e b o a r d : I 'm a member o f t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ' s C a u c u s , I go t o a l l o f t h e b o a r d m e e t i n g s , I t a l k t o b o a r d members , I work c l o s e l y w i t h b o a r d members. T h e r e ' s an i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h b o a r d members. When t h e b o a r d has r e t r e a t s , and t h e y go s o m e w h e r e , t h e n I go t o t h o s e . Of c o u r s e , you d e v e l o p s u p p o r t by p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and d a t a on p r o g r a m s . You d o n ' t d e v e l o p s u p p o r t by a n s w e r i n g q u e s t i o n s at t h e b o a r d t a b l e . T h e s u p p o r t o f t h e b o a r d was p a r t i a l l y g e n e r a t e d b y t h e way t h e d i r e c t o r a c t e d o u t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r o l e . T h i s r o l e was a r e s u l t o f p l a n n i n g b y t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t who r e p o r t e d p u r p o s e l y b u i l d i n g i n t o t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and C o m m u n i t y E d u c a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t o v e r l a p p i n g and i n t e r -r e l a t e d p a r t s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e d i r e c t o r ' s m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ' s Caucus a l l o w e d t h e d i r e c t o r t o h e l p make d e c i s i o n s about i s s u e s w h i c h w e r e n o t d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o C o m m u n i t y E d u c a t i o n . Some o f t h e s e i s s u e s i n c l u d e d o v e r a l l d i s t r i c t p e r s o n n e l d e c i s i o n s . In a d d i t i o n t o m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e C a u c u s , t h e d i r e c t o r w a s g i v e n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a number o f n o n - a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e d i s t r i c t . Some o f t h e s e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were management o f t h e d i s t r i c t ' s s u m m e r s c h o o l , t h r e e c o m m u n i t y s c h o o l s , and t h e d i s t r i c t ' s p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s w h i c h i n c l u d e d p u b l i s h i n g a r e g u l a r n e w s l e t t e r . A l l t h r e e o f t h e s e f a c t o r s , a s u p p o r t i v e b o a r d , a p r o f e s s i o n a l d i r e c t o r and a c o m m i t t e d s u p e r i n t e n d e n t , a f f e c t and were a f f e c t e d by t h e t e n d e n c y o f s c h o o l d i s t r i c t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t o l o o k i n t e r n a l l y f o r 84 n o n t r a d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l programs. The superintendent (SCEO, school chief executive o f f i c e r ) in a personal interview on June 17, 1981 commented on t h i s tendency. If [ D i s t r i c t A] needs to o f f e r c e r t a i n programs l i k e ABE programs or equivalency programs, we are conditioned to think that Community Education can do that. As a matter of fact our Community Education director s i t s in the Planning Caucus, meets every Monday morning with the rest of the assistant superintendents and myself, so the question i s s i m p l y posed "[SUH], can you do so and so next week?" Some school d i s t r i c t s were perceived by D i s t r i c t A's superintendent to look to community c o l l e g e s or i n s t i t u t e s f o r adult education program delivery. He supposed that sometimes ideas were ca r r i e d from school board meetings to c o l l e g e s or i n s t i t u t e s by the c o l l e g e l i a s o n board member without ever consulting the adult education dire c t o r . As I read my c o u n t e r p a r t s i n [School D i s t r i c t s B, C, and D], more l i k e l y somebody there might go to PVI or [ C o l l e g e A] and say "can you offe r t h i s ? " In fact i t might never come to that planning group. It might come d i r e c t l y from the board, secretary/treasurer or the superintendent who would phone over. It might even be conveyed through the . . . c o l l e g e or c o u n c i l rep who would take i t . The Community Education Department cooperated with other adult education providers. For example, municipal parks and recreation depart-ments are often major providers of adult education program and sometimes compete with the other adult education units. However, in School D i s t r i c t A Community Education and the Parks and R e c r e a t i o n Department have a written set of guidelines which were j o i n t l y developed by the two units and r e f l e c t e d an i n t e n t i o n to cooperate i n o f f e r i n g a c t i v i t i e s and l e a r n i n g experiences which do not duplicate the e f f o r t of either unit. Three times a year these u n i t s j o i n t l y p u b l i s h e d a cat a l o g u e of programs each u n i t o f f e r s . Community Education also cooperated with another school d i s t r i c t and a community c o l l e g e i n p u b l i s h i n g another c a t a l o g u e of courses. Both the 85 cooperating school d i s t r i c t and community college d i s t r i c t were adjacent to School D i s t r i c t A and i t s community college d i s t r i c t . The relationship between the Community Education Department and the community c o l l e g e which served School D i s t r i c t A was one of a r t i c u l a t e d cooperation. Evidence of this a r t i c u l a t i o n was found in an annual report: Our r e l a t i o n s h i p with [ C o l l e g e A] has continued to grow and develop t h i s year. A number of courses were cosponsored and in addition several meetings were held with the continuing education administration in order to define ways to integrate and a r t i c u l a t e school d i s t r i c t programs with college programs throughout the . . . College [A] region. 6 This statement seemed more a p p r o p r i a t e l y regarded as one of hope rather than one of operational procedure. The superintendent commented on r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the d i s t r i c t ' s Community Education Department and other adult education departments in the c o l l e g e r e g i o n . He f e l t c o m p e t i t i o n with other school d i s t r i c t s was a r e s u l t of t h e i r having s i m i l a r academic missions. The community college, however, had a d i f f e r e n t academic mission but shared the same geographical t e r r i t o r y . Such common t e r r i t o r y compounded problems stemming from o v e r l a p p i n g and d u p l i c a t i n g program areas. The superintendent noted t h a t a number of program areas ex i s t f o r which r e s p o n s i b i l i t y had not been fixed. His f e e l i n g was these areas and the positive growth patterns of both adult education units have led to a somewhat competitive atmosphere and that growth of the community college programs was viewed by the direct o r as occurring at the expense of the Community E d u c a t i o n Department programs and c l i e n t e l e . The superintendent viewed t h i s competion as non-malevolent and healthy: I'm confident that there is not a degree of malice, but there i s c e r t a i n l y a degree of discomfort, a watching one another over their shoulder, making sure that i f there is a meeting where somebody i s , they are t h e r e too, to make sure t h e i r i n t e r e s t s are watched. I haven't been at the meetings, but I suspect t h a t there i s a c o m p e t i t i o n , kind of i n d i r e c t t a k i n g i s s u e s with one another in meetings with the M i n i s t r y . . . . I'd be s u r p r i s e d i f t h a t wasn't the case. I think, frankly, i t s healthy. 86 The superintendent's s u s p i c i o n s were an accurate description of the relationship between the two units. The lack of cooperation was recognized by several people in the community c o l l e g e . One of these i s C S , the secretary in the college's adult education unit who was interviewed on June 19, 1981. He perceived the s i t u a t i o n in terms of school d i s t r i c t f a c i l i t i e s used by the college. While he was grateful for the assistance given by the school d i s t r i c t , he f e l t that i t could be improved. What I've found, and I s a i d t h i s to him over the phone, "Well [SP2], you always come up with a room f o r me, and don't think I don't a p p r e c i a t e i t , the problem we have i s that i t ' s some l i t t l e out of the way school. This one c l a s s of ours i s the o n l y t h i n g that i s going on at night. The b u i l d i n g i s dark, the only people that are there are the j a n i t o r s . The students drive up, they think the school i s closed." So we do have one awful problem with space. CS's perception came from the college side of the problem. From the school d i s t r i c t side one contributing factor to the competitive situation is "piracy" of program ideas. A school d i s t r i c t programmer interviewed on May 14, 1981, made this observation. The other major source of ideas would be the lower mainland meetings. A l l of the CE [ c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n ] d i r e c t o r s from colleges, u n i v e r s i t i e s , i n s t i t u t e s get together usually once every program perio d or t w i c e and t a l k - they used to t a l k - [ i t i s ] a l i t t l e more clandestine now, but they used to talk about what would work, what didn't work and. . . . When sc h o o l s were the only guys i n v o l v e d in the whole t h i n g i t was a l o t e a s i e r because everybody had t h e i r [ s i c ] own d i s t r i c t and you didn't have to worry about piracy. A mutual d i s t r u s t existed between the school d i s t r i c t and community college. The people working for the school d i s t r i c t were concerned with losing ideas and c l i e n t e l e to the college. College personnel were puzzled about the d i s t r i c t ' s attitude. The perceptions of college employees toward the school d i s t r i c t are treated extensively in the Community Programs and Services Division section l a t e r in t h i s Chapter. 87 The unit's technology influenced i t s parent organization in at least two ways. F i r s t , the organization had adopted materials developed by the u n i t as i t developed an o r g a n i z a t i o n