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Program planning as technology in three adult education units Burnham, Byron Robert 1984

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PROGRAM PLANNING  AS TECHNOLOGY IN  THREE ADULT EDUCATION  UNITS  by  BYRON ROBERT BURNHAM  A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT  OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF  EDUCATION  in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF  ADMINISTRATIVE,  ADULT, AND  HIGHER  EDUCATION  We a c c e p t t h i s  thesis  as conforming  to t h e r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1984 ©  Byron  Robert  Burnham  1984  In p r e s e n t i n g requirements  this thesis f o r an  of  British  it  freely available  agree t h a t for  understood that for  Library  shall  for reference  and  study.  I  f o r extensive copying of  h i s or  be  her  g r a n t e d by  f i n a n c i a l gain  shall  the  not  be  of  further this  Administrative.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 1956 Main Mall V a n c o u v e r , Canada V6T 1Y3  this  E-6  (3/81)  my  thesis  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  Adult, and Higher Education  Columbia  thesis  It is  permission.  Department O f  make  head o f  representatives.  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  the  University  the  p u r p o s e s may by  the  I agree that  permission  department o r  f u l f i l m e n t of  advanced degree a t  Columbia,  scholarly  in partial  written  i i PROGRAM PLANNING AS  TECHNOLOGY IN THREE  ADULT EDUCATION UNITS  This study school  examines program p l a n n i n g  d i s t r i c t , a community c o l l e g e and  conceptualized  as  change program  ideas i n t o  and  technology  which  planned  a framework o f three k i n d s  in adult education  a university.  i s defined  as  educational  of t e c h n o l o g y  Program p l a n n i n g i s  activities  activities.  was  program  planners  definition  among  concept  describing  program  planning.  The  case  study  method  interviews with t h i r t y publications technology planned.  contained  interviews  data  organizations  with  to  i s employed  can  be  in this  usefully  employed  investigation.  which  were  analyzed  and  used  Most i n t e r v i e w s d e a l t w i t h  were t a p e  dealt  technology  recorded  the  which  and  conducted  relationships  they  i n two  between  belonged.  The  the  and  to describe  how  programs phases. units  reports,  in  Depth  individuals, organization reports, records,  of each u n i t . They  of  for differences.  tasks  undertaken to d e t e r m i n e i f d i f f e r e n c e s i n program p l a n n i n g e x i s t i f the  examined  specific  and  study  and  t o be  This  to  The  units  by  undertaken  (long-linked, mediating,  i n t e n s i v e ) and e i g h t p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s a l l o w e d performed  units in a  the were  Other  and  the  records,  and  p u b l i c a t i o n s were used t o h e l p d e s c r i b e t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t o f a unit  and  c o r r o b o r a t e data  Program p l a n n i n g within  a given  was  unit. not  accomplished  in s i m i l a r  Degree of c o n f o r m i t y  technology  was  technology  were p r e s e n t  c o n s i s t e n c y more than  from i n t e r v i e w s .  a  standard  they  i n each  individuals  v a r i e d among t h e  undertaking, unit.  ways by  although  patterns  Individuals exhibited  exhibited consistency in a unit.  units  The  of  and a  personal historical  i ii or  contextual  setting  of  units  influenced  the  pattern  of  technology  employea. The and also  investigator  they are  affected  concluded  important affected  goal  the  concludes that  kind  that for  by  technologies exist  unit purpose, l e a d e r s h i p ,  integrating unit  mixed  and  of t e c h n o l o g y  a  unit  with  organizational pattern  used by  units  history.  It  was  i t s organization  was  an  heads unit.  and  i n the  and  this  goal  also  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  i i  LIST OF TABLES LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS  vi viii  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  ix  CHAPTER I.  INTRODUCTION  1  The Problem The Purpose Research Questions D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms Assumptions o f the Study Plan of the D i s s e r t a t i o n II.  LITERATURE REVIEW The Concept o f Technology Development of the Framework Summary  III.  THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK The Framework O r i g i n a t i n g the Idea Developing Program Ideas Establishing Objectives S e l e c t i n g and Sequencing Learning A c t i v i t i e s Ensuring P a r t i c i p a t i o n S e c u r i n g Resources Evaluating The T e c h n o l o g i e s Compared and C o n t r a s t e d  IV.  METHODOLOGY S e l e c t i o n o f Research S u b j e c t s Case Study Techniques Use o f W r i t t e n Records Data C o l l e c t i o n Data A n a l y s i s Data P r e s e n t a t i o n Summary  3 •  4 5 6 8 8 10 10 14 30 34  34 ••• 35 36 38 39 41 43 4  5  47 54 55 57 68 • 69 72 72 73  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS V.  (Continued)  DESCRIPTIONS OF THREE ADULT EDUCATION UNITS The  Community Education  75  Department  75  The Community Programs and S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n The Continuing S t u d i e s D i v i s i o n Units Compared and C o n t r a s t e d VI.  PROGRAM PLANNING IN A SCHOOL DISTRICT Community Education  VII.  170  PROGRAM PLANNING IN A COMMUNITY COLLEGE  175 Profiles  252  Profiles  COMPARISON OF INSTITUTIONAL PROGRAM PLANNING PROFILES AND FRAMEWORK OF TECHNOLOGIES Community Education Department Community Programs and S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n The Continuing S t u d i e s D i v i s i o n Comparison of the U n i t s ' Tasks Conclusions and Summary  X.  245  PROGRAM PLANNING IN A UNIVERSITY Continuing Studies D i v i s i o n  IX.  131  Department P r o f i l e s  Community Programs and S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n VIII.  88 104 125  CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY  306 THE 311 311 317 323 327 346 .354  REFERENCES  370  APPENDICES  378 Appendix A. Program T i t l e s and Fees From School D i s t r i c t A and C o l l e g e A F a l l 1980 C a t a l o g s Appendix B. Program Planning Tasks Reported by a l l Interviewees and Grouped by Operation  379 391  vi  LIST OF TABLES  1.  2.  Frameworks o f Program Planning Compared and Contrasted  22  Program Planning Tasks Compared and C o n t r a s t e d by Operation  and Technology  48  3.  Interviews by O r g a n i z a t i o n and P o s i t i o n  63  4.  Operations Mentioned i n Phase I C o n t r a s t e d t o Operations Mentioned i n Phase II by P o s i t i o n  71  C o n t i n u i n g Education School D i s t r i c t  76  5.  6.  7.  Enrollment  and R a t i o s by  School D i s t r i c t and C o l l e g e Enrollment by School D i s t r i c t  Rates 77  Frequency D i s t r i b u t i o n of A d u l t Education i n School  District  Enrollment  A by Year  8.  Number o f C l a s s e s Held  9.  Number and Percentage o f R e g i s t r a t i o n by Course Type and Year i n School D i s t r i c t A  80  C o l l e g e and School D i s t r i c t by C o l l e g e A Regions  90  10.  i n School  78 District  Enrollments  C o l l e g e Enrollment  12.  Number and Percentage of R e g i s t r a t i o n s by Course Type i n C o l l e g e A, B r i t i s h Columbia and t h e Lower Mainland  14.  15.  16.  79  and R a t i o s  11.  13.  Rates i n B r i t i s h  A  Columbia  90  92  Noncredit Program R e g i s t r a t i o n s by Year and University  106  Courses, E n r o l l m e n t s , and Percentage Change by Year, C r e d i t , and Noncredit Programs  107  U n i v e r s i t y Noncredit A c t i v i t i e s and T o t a l s by Year  110  Reporting  Categories  Means and Standard D e v i a t i o n s o f C o l l e g e and School D i s t r i c t R e g i s t r a t i o n Fees  126  vi i LIST OF TABLES (Continued) 17.  18.  Subheadings From the 1980 F a l l D i s t r i c t A and C o l l e g e A Frequency of D i s t r i b u t i o n Technology,  C a t a l o g s of School 127  of Tasks by U n i t ,  and Operation and  Interpersonal  329  19.  Percent I n t r a p e r s o n a l  Homogeneity  20.  Percentage of S i n g l e Tasks Reported by Operation and O r g a n i z a t i o n  342  21.  Operations Mentioned  345  i n Phase II by Respondent  336  viii  LIST OF  ILLUSTRATIONS  1.  Adult Education Technology  2.  Bar Graph of Programs by Semester and Combination i n School D i s t r i c t A.  3.  4.  5.  Histogram of T o t a l Reported  Number of Tasks  12  and  Semester 171 Responses 333  Frequency Polygons Representing Frequency of Response by Interviewee Group and U n i t . . .  341  Scattergram I l l u s t r a t i n g Degree of C o r r e l a t i o n s Between Years of Experience and Frequency of Responses  343  ix  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  A 1 i t t l e more than t w e n t y - f o u r Defense.  The examination  appropriate  to feel  contemplation colleagues,  h o u r s have p a s s e d  went w e l l and I am pleased.  some  satisfaction  In f a c t ,  concern,  and moving.  writing  abilities,  t a u g h t me.  I suppose t h a t i t i s  one's  performance.  But  i t i s t h e s e p e o p l e who have h e l p e d  make s u c c e s s n o t o n l y p o s s i b l e but r e a l .  tract  about  Oral  q u i c k l y r e v e a l s t h e s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s of t e a c h e r s ,  and f a m i l y .  personalities,  s i n c e my F i n a l  and encouragement  Tom  Sork  with  C o m m i t t e e members w i t h have helped  his reassurance,  and Jamie W a l l i n with  his insight  me  their  keep the p r o j e c t on John C a l am w i t h h i s have each helped and  The h o u r s o f r e a d i n g , c o n s i d e r a t i o n , and d i s c u s s i o n W i l l i a m  G r i f f i t h c o n t r i b u t e d have not o n l y made the study comprehensible, hours a l s o taught  lessons about c l e a r t h i n k i n g and p a t i e n c e .  but those  They are much  appreciated. Colleagues  and f e l l o w s t u d e n t s  f i n d i n g holes i n the l o g i c problems; was f e l t And,  were t h e r e  and w i l l i n g  i n the beginning  were  willing  t o spend t i m e i n  t o l e t me r e h e a r s e  the i n t e l l e c t u a l  and at the defense.  Their strength  throughout. u n d e r g i r d i n g a l l e l s e was my f a m i l y .  Rebecca each s a c r i f i c i e d from  who  home.  f o r dad.  My w i f e who never  and  i s my c l o s e s t f r i e n d .  for  a small  and  acknowledge her help.  apartment  Heather,  Jason,  I hope they a l s o gained from  Jared, and living  away  f l i n c h e d and always knew "you can do i t ! " was  And who e l s e but a f r i e n d  and two years  would g i v e up a house  of Vancouver r a i n .  To her I owe much  1  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION  The education of adults  is  provided by a v a r i e t y of  institutions  ranging from universities involved in p u b l i c higher education to p r i v a t e business  f i r m s involved in the production of goods and s e r v i c e s .  organizations conduct adult education in numerous formats methods.  Adults learn in classes,  and use various  small groups, or i n d i v i d u a l l y within the  organizational boundaries of churches, armies, and p r o f e s s i o n a l tions.  Possibly  associa-  because of the d i s p e r s e d nature of adult education a  number of attempts have been made to d e f i n e and d e s c r i b e t h i s tional  Such  organiza-  activity.  Several  authors, Verner, Houle, Boyd and Apps, and Schroeder, who have  discussed or studied adult education have noted several related elements.*  common or closely  For example, Verner observed that a l l i n s t i t u t i o n s have  a common i n t e r e s t in the processes of adult education and c a l l e d these processes methods and techniques.  Methods b a s i c a l l y involve organizing  people around an i n s t i t u t i o n so that systematic  learning might take place.  Examples of methods are classes, discussion groups, assemblies, and internships.  Techniques, on the other hand, are the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between learners and the knowledge to be are l e c t u r e s , group d i s c u s s i o n s ,  learned.  established  Examples of techniques  r o l e p l a y i n g and d r i l l s .  Boyd and Apps  appear to use Verner's concept of method when they propose "transactional modes" as an element in defining adult education.  2 Houle education.  suggested  an a n a l y s i s t h a t c o n s i d e r e d  The f i r s t was an examination  educational  program.  The s p e c i f i c  a u t h o r i t y and d i r e c t i o n design of  several  further  design  noted  situation  methods  Houle's c a t e g o r i e s . Houle's design  design  seem  education planning  Verner's  concept  aspect  programs.3  t h a t order  greatly influenced  He  by t h e  Verner  purposes,  i s contained separated  Houle combined  situation  difficult  of planning  to e s t a b l i s h  among agents,  within  education.  the process  H i s o b j e c t i v e was  with,  the concepts  i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , although  by a n a l y z i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p  adult education.  comprised  and i n s t r u c t i o n .  of techniques  be d i s c e r n e d by s t u d y i n g  in adult  was  t o , but n o t i d e n t i c a l  Although  for analytical  maintained  order  clients,  adult  in adult  and program  education.  These authors  program  t o be r e l a t e d  aspect of education.  could  education  this  f o r d e s c r i p t i o n o f a dynamic a c t i v i t y — a d u l t  Schroeder to f i n d ,  The second aspect was the  to planning were  by the source of  exist.  of method and technique and  elements  of a d u l t  or category of an  was d e f i n e d  Houle noted  relating  design  i n which they  Verner's  situation  activity.  elements  these  of the s i t u a t i o n  of planning and c o n t r o l .  of the educational  two a s p e c t s  proceeded from a b e l i e f t h a t common processes e x i s t e d i n T h i s c o m m o n a l i t y , however, a l l o w e d f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n  planning.  This  study  i n v e s t i g a t e s program  of a d u l t education which may p r o v i d e some r a t i o n a l  planning  as a process  base upon which  compari-  sons of a d u l t education o r g a n i z a t i o n s may be made and which w i l l c o n t r i b u t e to  understanding  from  of o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t  the d i s c i p l i n e  of a d u l t education  study w i t h i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  such  have  received  little  consideration  when c o n t r a s t e d t o other  as l e a r n e r m o t i v a t i o n s .  areas of  3 The Although conducted  the m a j o r i t y  Problem  of s t u d i e s  in organizational  in adult  settings, l i t t l e  agencies which sponsor a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . research  in adult  education  exists  d e f i n i t i o n s of adult education Griffith greatly  noted  i n form,  that  research  because o r g a n i z a t i o n s  approach  produce  typologies  developmental  of adult  i t becomes  organizations  development.6  practical  However model  use . . . n e i t h e r  of p r e d i c t i o n . "  useful  to  vary think  thinking.  as growing  and S c h r o e d e r t o  in adult  education.  The  and Carey t o c o n c e p t u a l i z e  and thus moving through  the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  has been  The c l a s s i -  sufficiently  approach  refined  of the approaches a f f o r d s  stages of nor t h e  t o make  i t of  an a p p r e c i a b l e  power  7  Organizational practitioner  involved  enabled G r i f f i t h  "neither  approach  education  difficult  by H o u l e , V e r n e r , K n o w l e s  approach  some  He a l s o n o t e d t h a t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and  5  of i n s t i t u t i o n s  model  adult education  developmental  was used  that  base of a c t i v i t y . ^  development models have been used t o a i d s y s t e m a t i c fication  been  has been done on the  of the f a c t  assume an organized  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y about t h e f i e l d .  have  The e x i g u i t y o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  in spite  a i m , and c o n t e n t  education  research  and t h e r e s e a r c h e r  in adult  education  w i t h few e m p i r i c a l  i n t h e p r a c t i c e and s t u d y o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n .  has p r o v i d e d  the  t o o l s or v a r i a b l e s Most such  research  e f f o r t s a r e d e s c r i p t i v e i n n a t u r e as t h e y a t t e m p t t o e s t a b l i s h t h e o r d e r sought by Schroeder and o t h e r s . program  planning  establish  This  current  as an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  a concept  which  may  provide  variable a useful  way  organization  to another, then the d i s c i p l i n e o f adult education structure,  development,  vary  to view  I f program  use o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  activities  and as s u c h  planning.  to  planning  study i s an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  from  and purpose  one  seeks t o program kind  of  may be able  to explain  why  4 s p e c i f i c program planning  patterns  are found  i n one o r g a n i z a t i o n  and not i n  another.  The This units  study w i l l  Purpose  i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p r o c e s s e s used by a d u l t  to produce educational  programs.  The term  used t o r e f e r t o t h o s e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a d u l t s as a p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n . as the t e c h n o l o g i e s raw  materials  broad  education  education  study w i l l  an adult education  processes,  consider  a c t i v i t y and w i l l  the i n s t r u c t i o n of a d u l t s .  planning  include:  defining  selecting  idea  unit's technology  which  p e r f o r m s upon an o b j e c t devices,  i n order  material',  inanimate o b j e c t . processing employed administer  education  a problem;  i s defined  involved  reaching  being,  with  planning  i n program setting  developing  a  as an a d u l t that  education  an i n d i v i d u a l  t h e a i d of t o o l s or m e c h a n i c a l  human  The o b j e c t  or o t h e r w i s e ,  a symbol  i n people-changing  This d e f i n i t i o n  t o examine the ways an a d u l t  involved  resources;  as " t h e a c t i o n s  People are raw m a t e r i a l s 8  a number of  an a u d i e n c e ;  t o make some change i n t h a t o b j e c t .  . . ."  input or  techniques.  w i t h or w i t h o u t  organizations.  of  are d e f i n e d  possessing  Some dimensions  can be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d  may be a l i v i n g  education  T h e r e a r e at l e a s t two  each  instructors; securing  of process  having  unit" i s  in transforming  the processes  and s e l e c t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n a l  This  education  not be concerned with the second broad  division,  schedule;  units  i n t o o u t p u t or f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t s .  This  objectives;  departments  The processes of adult  used by adult  d i v i s i o n s of adult  operations.  "adult  education  education  or 'raw or an  or people-  o f t e c h n o l o g y w i l l be  unit  attempts  to plan and  i t s programs.  Thompson organization  posited  that  technology  and t h a t there are t h r e e  can vary  kinds  from  organization  of technology:  to  long-linked,  5 mediating, typology  and i n t e n s i v e . 9  to assist  among t h r e e  adult  This  study  i n an e x a m i n a t i o n  education  units  of technology  Can  use t h i s concept  their  educators  processes?  education questions  To a n s w e r  units posed  similar  to or d i f f e r e n t  between  a unit  questions of  vance  that  of subject  matter.  seeks f o r p a r t i c u l a r s  of its  they  that  that  employed  organizational units, in  by  action  typology  will  types  adult  research  investigation.  first,  with  education  they  are stated allow  different  explained,  the  units  are  influences as  research  consideration  and i n c o m p a t i b l e  i n determining  the  "the investigator  h i m t o answer  his  t o an a n s w e r  the technology  rerele-  .  . .  interrogative, or a  used  suspension  b y a u n i t and  context.  adult is  of  be t e s t e d  proposed  education  by Thompson d e s c r i b e  units?  a characteristic  Thompson b u i l t an a r g u m e n t  certain  The  and t h e r e c i p r o c a l  do n o t l e a d  deal  u n i t s and  o f some  out.  adult  The h y p o t h e s e s  enable  (1) D o e s t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n nologies  this  aid the researcher  will  The q u e s t i o n s  organizational  guided  t h e ways  As G o t t s c h a l k  e l i m i n a t i n g those  judgment."10  was c a r r i e d  may o r d i n a r i l y r e q u i r e  secondly,  ruthlessly  with  two purposes:  designs;  education  units.  Questions  and an o r g a n i z a t i o n .  hypotheses  search  deal  planning  appropriateness  an e x a m i n a t i o n  f r o m one a n o t h e r  to accomplish  i n program  to study adult  section  Research presented  suggested  in the study of adult education  technology  in the f o l l o w i n g  The q u e s t i o n s  for variation  this question  and t h e i r  Thompson's  and t h e r e b y d e t e r m i n e t h e  of using the concept adult  employs  against  of three  case  or  and t h e i r  kinds of technology  The d e s c r i p t i v e  the findings  technology  of a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s  for specific  organizations.  Because  the tech-  capacity studies.  existing of  the  6 If Thompson's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n power f o r adult education (la)  Is  education may  be  there  units?  various  one  (2)  Do  One  education and  three,  and  are  found  This  comparison  t e c h n o l o g y of  of  learning,  the  context  This  a unit's  (4) What, i f any,  adult there  of t h e  use  of  of  be  adult  education  Because p u b l i c  adult  share s i m i l a r c l i e n t s  expected  data c o l l e c t i o n education  to share and  common  analysis  units  upon  belonging  to  organizations.  education  does  unit?  an  the e x p e c t a t i o n  question  organization  have  Because a d u l t education  focused  was  upon  the  units  are  they were i n f l u e n c e d  data c o l l e c t i o n  and  by  a n a l y s i s upon  technology. i n f l u e n c e does the  i n f l u e n c e of  These q u e s t i o n s intended  by  different public  in technology?  focused  u n i t have upon i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n ? reciprocal  in  t h e y can  influence  part of a l a r g e r o r g a n i z a t i o n , organization.  another  technologies  i f any,  the  units  question  i t s adult  of  used  e x i s t f o r a l l u n i t s , or  i n s i m i l a r environments,  public educational What,  raised:  f o u r were asked r e g a r d l e s s  education  are c o n c e r n e d w i t h  (3)  technology  to be  used by s i n g l e u n i t s .  d i f f e r from one  units  different  was  i t s alternative.  characteristics. the  of  dominant technology may  adult  organizations  u n i t s , the f o l l o w i n g question  technologies  or  shown t o have l i m i t e d d e s c r i p t i v e  a d i s c e r n i b l e pattern  Q u e s t i o n s two, question  was  t e c h n o l o g y of  This question  an  adult  introduces  a unit's t e c h n o l o g y upon the  education  the  i s s u e of  organization.  were used to guide data c o l l e c t i o n  to e s t a b l i s h the u t i l i t y of Thompson's t y p o l o g y  and  provide  in adult  answers education  study. D e f i n i t i o n of Terms Crucial planning  elements d e a l i n g  concepts  are  defined  with  organizational  i n order  to make the  variables material  and and  program data used  7 in  t h i s study meaningful  presented  is a s p e c i f i c  l e a r n e r or l e a r n e r s , Program  an  The  educator  program planning  Program  to  change  planning and  an  of  concepts  learning  organizational  occurs  an  idea  before,  tasks  are  into  an  during,  i s synonymous with  planning  program planning  period  are  involving  performed  organized  and  a  sponsor.  i s a c o l l e c t i o n of c e r t a i n t a s k s  in order  a c t i v i t y takes place  structured  i n s t r u c t o r , and  p i anni ng  a c t i v i t y . - Program  an  concise.  first.  A program  adult  and  by  an  learning  a f t e r the  learning  technology.  specific  activities  i n order to complete an o p e r a t i o n .  undertaken  An  during  example i s w r i t i n g  instructional objective. Program  tasks.  planning  These i n c l u d e  establishing sequencing  operations  are  c l u s t e r s of  (1) o r i g i n a t i n g an  objectives; learning  (4)  idea;  securing  activities;  (6)  specific  and  (2) d e v e l o p i n g the  resources;  ensuring  (5)  related idea;  (3)  selecting  participation;  and  and  (7)  evaluating. An  adult education  discrete  structure  and  serve other f u n c t i o n s and  unit  i s a component of an o r g a n i z a t i o n  a primary function  f o r the  larger organization,  s u b o r d i n a t e to a d u l t education.  function  of  the  adult  education  publicly  i s used  supported  unit  planning learn  actions  in  but  the  performance of  may  compatible  this  be  a  function  to  any  one  institutions:  of a  the  following  school  three  district;  a  a university.  this  study  will  be  used  to  refer  performed to change ideas, needs, and  into organized  these are  It  function.  refer  educational  community c o l l e g e ; and Technology  to  but  adults.  For example, p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s may  i s secondary to i t s adult e d u c a t i o n Organization  of e d u c a t i n g  having a  learning  situations.  to  those  program  impulses to teach  or  I t i s a synonym f o r p r o g r a m  8 planning.  Long-1inked, mediating, and intensive types of technology are  defined and described in some detail in Chapter I I .  Assumptions of the Study This study technology.  makes c e r t a i n  assumptions  about  o r g a n i z a t i o n s and  F i r s t , the organizational assumptions are presented.  (1) Every organization exists in an environment over which i t has less than total control and as a result i t i s affected by environmental (2) Adult education units are s u f f i c i e n t l y different from within the same organization to warrant  changes.  other units  a study of the characteristics of a  unit's technology before attempting quantitative measurement and analysis. (3) The technology of an adult education unit i s observable and subject to qualitative  interpretation. Plan of the Dissertation  This document i s comprised of ten chapters including this introductory chapter.  Chapter  II presents efforts of a l i t e r a t u r e search dealing with  the concepts of technology and program planning. some detail  the conceptual  III describes in  framework b u i l t upon three kinds of technology  and seven program planning operations. methodology used  Chapter  Chapter  IV i s an explanation of the  in gathering and analyzing data.  Chapter  V presents the  three research s u b j e c t s by d e s c r i b i n g t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l contexts and h i s t o r i c a l development. processes  used  Chapter  VI i s an a n a l y s i s of program planning  by a school d i s t r i c t .  Chapters  VII and VIII  community c o l l e g e ' s and u n i v e r s i t y ' s program planning processes. IX compares the analyzed program planning processes  and provides  for the descriptive capacity of Thompson's typologies.  Chapter  treat a Chapter evidence  X concludes  the study with some suggestions and implications for further research.  9 FOOTNOTES ^-Coolie Verner, A Conceptual Scheme f o r the I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Processes f o r Adult Education, (Washington, D.C: Adult Education A s s o c i a t i o n of USA, 1962); C y r i l 0. Houle, The Design of Education, (San F r a n c i s c o : Jossey-Bass P u b l i s h e r s , 1972); Robert D. Boyd and Jerold W. Apps, "A Conceptual Model for Adult Education" in Redefining the D i s c i p l i n e of Adult Education eds. Robert D. Boyd and J e r o l d W. Apps, (San Francsico: Jossey-Bass Publisher, 1980); Wayne L. Schroeder, "Typology of Adult Learning Systems" in B u i l d i n g an E f f e c t i v e Adult Education E n t e r p r i s e ed. John M. P e t e r s , (San F r a n c i s c o : Jossey-Bass P u b l i s h e r s , 1980). 2  Boyd and Apps, "A Conceptual Model," pp. 5-6.  ^Schroeder, "Typology of Adult Learning Systems," p. 43. ^Malcolm S. Knowles, The Modern P r a c t i c e of Adult E d u c a t i o n , (New York: Association Press, 1970); Houle, The Design of Education; Verner, A Conceptual Scheme. ^ W i l l i a m S. G r i f f i t h , "Adult Education I n s t i t u t i o n s " in Handbook of Adult Education eds. Robert M. Smith, George F. Aker, and J . Roby Kidd, (New York: Macmillian Publishing Company, Inc., 1970). 6  W  i l l i a m S. G r i f f i t h , "Implications for Administrators in the Changing Adult Education Agency," Adult Education 15 (Spring, 1965): 139-144; James Carey, Form and Forces in University Adult Education, (Chicago: Center for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults, 1961). ^ G r i f f i t h , "Implications Q  for Administrators," p. 176.  Charles Perrow "A Framework f o r the Comparative A n a l y s i s Organizations," American Sociological Review 32(1967):pp. 197-208.  of  ^James D. Thompson, O r g a n i z a t i o n in A c t i o n , (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1967). Louis G o t t s c h a l k , Understanding H i s t o r y : A Primer of H i s t o r i c a l Method, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1950).  10  CHAPTER II  LITERATURE REVIEW  This theory  chapter  explores  provided  perspectives  organizations while planning.  literature  These  on  concepts  framework b r i e f l y introduced  two  disciplines.  technology  adult education  two  from  its relationship  provided  perspectives  combined  to  were  in t h i s  and  Organization  chapter  by  develop  presenting  a  on  to  program  conceptual  definitions  of  t h r e e k i n d s of t e c h n o l o g i e s , a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of each d e f i n i t i o n ,  and  e x a m p l e s of each t e c h n o l o g y  The  three kinds  of t e c h n o l o g i e s are d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y  The Organizations produce  things  technology  u s i n g Houle's p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g model.*  exist  needed  is a vital  production process  Concept of Technology  f o r a purpose. by  i n Chapter I I I .  some  They are " s o c i a l  sector  of  s o c i e t y . T h e  p a r t of an o r g a n i z a t i o n .  as he d e f i n e d  instruments  that  concept  of  L i t t e r e r began w i t h  the  an o r g a n i z a t i o n :  To begin with, an o r g a n i z a t i o n produces something. Typically, we t h i n k of i t as p r o d u c i n g an o b j e c t s u c h as an a u t o m o b i l e , o r a s e r v i c e such as medical care. O r g a n i z a t i o n s of t h i s kind are c a l l e d formal o r g a n i z a t i o n s , because they e n t a i l some degree of c o n s c i o u s planning and t h e i r purposes or o b j e c t i v e s are more o b s e r v a b l e . What t h e y p r o d u c e i s consumed by p o r t i o n s of s o c i e t y o u t s i d e the organization itself. As  Litterer  pointed  out,  any  concerned with the f o r m a l relationships  within  turns  of an o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s p r o d u c t i o n  o r g a n i z a t i o n . The  workflow  i s p a r t of  must  be  planned  an o r g a n i z a t i o n .  Harvey d e f i n e d t e c h n o l o g y organization  study  out  as "the  i t s product  mechanisms or processes or  s e r v i c e . H i s  by which  definition  an was  11 solidly  in  an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  demonstrate tion  and  effect  Indeed,  a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  and t h e  Pugh  context.  organization's  Pheysey;  upon  and  R.  A number  i n d u s t r i a l o r g a n i z a t i ons.5  explored  organizations  for  the  relationship provided  social  Perrow's d e f i n i t i o n i s  broad,  the  that  researcher.  raw m a t e r i a l  non-use of t o o l s ,  apply to  the  nature  education  the  units,  other  to  organiza-  authors  (Hickson,  technology  and  its  organizations technology.^  and s t r u c t u r e  i n those  service.  inclusive, lets  purpose  an  d e f i n i t i o n of  and h e a l t h  one  and s u p p l i e s  much i n f o r m a t i o n  consider  influence  the  the  process  itself,  of  the  t h e use or  and t h e s t a g e s o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n a p r o c e s s . an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t .  an i n d u s t r i a l , s e r v i c e ,  of  of  by  "People-processing"  the nature of  c a n be u s e d . i n s i d e o r o u t s i d e can  employed  between technology  The d e f i n i t i o n  t o be c h a n g e d ,  Harvey's  Hunt) c o n s i d e r e d  w e r e s t u d i e d by Hage and A i k e n u s i n g P e r r o w ' s They  was  technology  structure.  J . Hunt;  it  definition caveats  or educational  allows  its  mentioned  in the  The d e f i n i t i o n  organization.  a p p l i c a t i o n to  the  following  It  Although  study  section  of  adult  should  be  observed.  Adult  education  and  technology  Borrowing  and  reformulating  a p p l y i n g them i n t h e s t u d y of since  Jensen  educators problems  outlined  about are  the  problems  allowing  is the  not  an  first  steps.^ inherent  other  issue  phenomenon  problem of in this of  adult  in  such  frameworks other  because  education  has  Recently  disciplines  letting  study  from  adult education  improperly u t i l i z i n g conceptual The  concepts  been  disciplines  a conscious  an u n d e r t a k i n g .  to  define  adult  8  Two  proceeds  and s e e k s  to  from  add t o  adult major  education  in which these concepts define  and  activity  Boyd and Apps w a r n e d  disciplines it  other  adult  and  exist. education  observations  about  the understanding  of  12 what  Houle,  education. provide  Schroeder, Conceptual  insight  into  p o s i t s technology adult  education  and V e r n e r  called  common  recognized  a d u l t education  units.  A conceptual  thought can  as i t s technology. the processes  of a d u l t  or a l l three.  According  educational the flow  education  impulses  1.  Adult  to a l l  These p r o c e s s e s  can be  with  who l e a r n  i n c a p a b i l i t y , s k i l l or  the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  of technology  process  t o l e a r n or teach.  activities of i n p u t ,  as a p p l i e d t o a d u l t  of as i n p u t s such  i s the r e s u l t  as needs,  problems  Such inputs are the b a s i s  The t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f p r o g r a m  _^  Needs Problems Impulses t o l e a r n or teach  Figure  common  i d e a s i n t o o u t p u t or  of technology.  technological application  Figure  and output  1  of an  unit.  Input (raw m a t e r i a l ) 1. 2. 3.  were  and Verner  programs.  the o b j e c t s can be thought  f o r program i d e a s .  adult  education  Houle  f o r two kinds of e n t i t i e s . Ideas of  deals  t o Perrow's d e f i n i t i o n  as Houle noted,  illustrates  both  can be transformed  T h i s study  of ideas i n t o e d u c a t i o n a l  planned  earlier  i n t o e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s and i n d i v i d u a l s  d u r i n g an e d u c a t i o n a l experience  and,  As noted  o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n must be  involved in helping adults learn.  be t r a n s f o r m e d  education,  which  as an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e may be used to e x p l a i n why  of as t r a n s f o r m a t i o n procedures  attitude,  framework  u n i t s d i f f e r from one another.  that  organizations  of a d u l t  f r a m e w o r k s f r o m o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e s can be used t o  To a c h i e v e t h i s c a p a b i l i t y t h e p r o c e s s e s conceptualized  processes  education  Adult EducationTechnology 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  O r i g i n a t i n g program Developing ideas Designing programs Ensuring p a r t i c i p a t i o n Securing resources E v a l u a t i n g programs  technology.  ->  Output (processed materi a l ) 1.  Organized learning activities  13  The inputs for an adult education unit can take the form of needs, problems, and d e s i r e s to teach or l e a r n .  The f e l t needs  supply much of the content of adult education programs.  of i n d i v i d u a l s These needs range  from t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s r e q u i r e d for s o c i a l s u r v i v a l to needs of c r e a t i v e expression.  Technical s k i l l s  can be found in programs which emphasize  v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and basic education. expression  can  photography.  be found  in  hobby  Needs stemming from c r e a t i v e  programs  such  as  wine  making  and  Problems f a c i n g i n d i v i d u a l s as they move i n t o new s o c i a l  r o l e s are the basis f o r programs teaching s k i l l s in s i n g l e p a r e n t i n g , or buying and maintaining a home. Inputs can also take the form of impulses to teach or l e a r n . impulse to teach is  e x e m p l i f i e d by i n d i v i d u a l s  The  who approach an adult  education unit and request the opportunity to share a special talent which they possess.  The impulse to learn is represented by individuals who enjoy  learning and can be found in course after course with no apparent pattern to the choice of the subject matter learned. Organizational training,  needs can be expressed in courses dealing, with staff  organizational  of organizational  interpretation (public relations) and performance  purpose.  Just as individuals  assuming new social  roles  face problems, o r g a n i z a t i o n s also face problems as they change r o l e s or purpose.  When t h i s happens problems form one source of needs f o r adult  education a c t i v i t i e s in an organizational context. The a c t i o n s  of a u n i t  in t r a n s f o r m i n g  programs comprise i t s technology.  input i n t o adult education  Technology as an organizational variable  was considered by a number of w r i t e r s and r e s e a r c h e r s (Hage and Aiken, Harvey, Hickson, Mintzberg, and Woodward), most of whom have attempted to establish  a relationship between technology and organizational structure.^  After reviewing a number of empirical studies,  Mintzberg noted "Technology  14 is c l e a r l y  a major f a c t o r  Thompson,  postulated  growth  i n the design of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  that  technology  or  program  characteristic  of  the  variability.  q u a l i t y of  an a d u l t  proposing a framework program  This chapter  tasks  reviewed;  four  compared  to  used  of  organization's  as  an  explanatory  should  seeks to e s t a b l i s h  possess  v a r i a b i l i t y by  and t h e n r e l a t i n g  it  to  the  of the  the  subject  Four s t u d i e s  in  this  which  planning, concept  approaches  of  a number of  have c o n t r i b u t e d  investigation.  studies  framework;  of  or  Houle,  program  found  the  either Each  and  broad  is  literature;  comparison  is  and  development  study  planning  i n the  and f i n a l l y  to the  Pennington  delineated both.12  treatises  Green,  areas  is  or  briefly  presented  by  each  study  is  displayed  in  form.  first  system  part  was  planned.  situations.  a two part identifying  Houle  so f a r  the eleven group;  system for the  classified  Each c a t e g o r y was  and d i r e c t i o n  larger  been  program  Houle created  a  an  technology  Framework  planning  Houle's design  of  such  Development  a synthesized  comparing  three  useful  variance  and Knox p r o d u c e d  specific  tabular  unit,  be  of t e c h n o l o g i c a l  research.  framework  Robbins,  were  to  planning.  empirical  the  The  related  p l a n n i n g to  education  P r o g r a m p l a n n i n g has  of  was  pattern.^  For  some  technology  structures."^  kinds  analyzing educational of  eleven  distinguished  as p l a n n i n g and c o n t r o l categories  are:  situations major  which  categories  by " t h e  source  of  are c o n c e r n e d . " ^  an i n d i v i d u a l  an i n s t i t u t i o n d e s i g n i n g  in  designing  an a c t i v i t y  planning. programs  of  design  authority Examples  an a c t i v i t y  i n a new  format;  of for and  15 an  individual,  group  or  institution  designing  an  activity  f o r a mass  audience. The plans  present study  an a c t i v i t y  i s concerned  in a new  or e s t a b l i s h e d format.  t h a t the p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g p r o c e s s design  situation  variability educational The points,  involved,  due  the  was  present  While  institution  Houle  maintained  a f f e c t e d by t h e m a j o r c a t e g o r y of investigation  seeks  to  demonstrate  t o t e c h n o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n a s i n g l e category of  design  second  with s i t u a t i o n s i n which an  situation.  p a r t of Houle's s y s t e m was  comprised  of seven d e c i s i o n  s e v e r a l of them c o n t a i n i n g a number of components. They were:  identifying  a possible educational  identifying  and  f i t t i n g the format program and  to  proceed;  (3)  a suitable  format;  (5)  i n t o t h e l a r g e r p a t t e r n s of l i ^ e ; ( 6 ) . c a r r y i n g out  the  refining  activity;  (2) d e c i d i n g  (1)  o b j e c t i v e s ; (4) d e s i g n i n g  (7) measuring and  a p p r a i s i n g the r e s u l t s  of the  activity.  Pennington and Green's c l u s t e r s Pennington their  and  investigation  formed  by g r o u p i n g  i d e n t i f i e d through programs.  The  Green d e v e l o p e d  s i x program p l a n n i n g c l u s t e r s  from  of p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n . C l u s t e r s  were  t a s k s and  d e c i s i o n s i n v o l v e d i n program p l a n n i n g  i n t e r v i e w s with planners of c o n t i n u i n g medical  researchers  began w i t h  specific  moved to more a b s t r a c t l e v e l s of c l u s t e r s planning.  The  developing  the  identified  clusters  i d e a ; (3) making  a model  were: (1) o r i g i n a t i n g  a commitment;  education  program p l a n n i n g tasks  in developing  (4) d e v e l o p i n g  (5) t e a c h i n g t h e c o u r s e and (6) e v a l u a t i n g t h e i m p a c t .  The  was  used at some p o i n t in the program p l a n n i n g  the the  idea;  (2)  program;  authors  process.  and  of program  t h a t t h e s e s i x c l u s t e r s were not p e r f o r m e d s e q u e n t i a l l y , however, cluster  as  noted each  16 Robbins's steps Robbins, a f t e r  reviewing  seven s t u d i e s of program  the f o l l o w i n g s y n t h e s i s o f m a j o r s t e p s operational form  a  base f o r d e l i v e r i n g  planning  group;  (4) a n a l y z e  resources;  (8) d e t e r m i n e  relevant  program o b j e c t i v e s ; (7) d e s i g n  program  content  and r e c r u i t  systems;  and methods;  participants;  Robbins hypothesized  program planners  that  steps  (9)  acquire  (11) i n i t i a t e and  He used t h i s f r a m e w o r k t o  5  w h i c h t a s k s and s e q u e n c e s p r o g r a m p l a n n e r s  programs.  i d e a ; (3) identify  o p e r a t e p r o g r a m ; and (12) e v a l u a t e p r o g r a m . I discover  (1) e s t a b l i s h an  (5)  program  (10) promote program  in the process;  presented  s e r v i c e s ; (2) o r i g i n a t e a program  p a r t i c i p a n t needs; (6) f o r m u l a t e structures;  planning,  would  used i n d e v e l o p i n g  be valued  d i f f e r e n t l y by  grouped a c c o r d i n g t o f u n c t i o n and r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n . While  he f o u n d t h e r e was h i g h a g r e e m e n t on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f p l a n n i n g s t e p s he found  little  conclusion  v a r i a t i o n on r o l e o r i e n t a t i o n and as a r e s u l t c o u l d make no  about d i f f e r e n t  valuing  by groups d e f i n e d  by f u n c t i o n  or r o l e  orientation.  Knox's  concepts  Knox e d i t e d the volume tion  d e a l i n g with  and e v a l u a t i o n i n t h e 1980 A d u l t  initial  chapter  components framework  sets  of the process.  included  f o r program  was program  Handbook S e r i e s . ^ planning  involved.  Knox  One was p r o g r a m d e v e l o p m e n t and The s e c o n d  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and i n c l u d e d (4) p a r t i c i p a t i o n ,  were noted  His  by l i s t i n g t h e  (2) o b j e c t i v e s , and (3) e v a l u a t i o n s .  Other components  planning  administra-  The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e book r e f l e c t e d t h e  i n h i s framework.  (1) o r i g i n s ,  resources. program  Education  development,  by d e s c r i b i n g i n separate chapters the components  made two d i v i s i o n s  division  a framework  program  which were not u s u a l l y i d e n t i f i e d by Knox as s t a f f i n g  and l e a d e r s h i p .  and (5)  as steps i n These two  17 functions program  dealt  with  planning.  organizational These  broader  c o n c e r n s which i n d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e  issues  are  not  considered  in  this  investigation.  Synthesized The  operations  f o l l o w i n g operations  four s t u d i e s c i t e d  and  have been i d e n t i f i e d  represent  a synthesis  by  at l e a s t three of  of the four author's  the  ideas:  (1) O r i g i n a t i n g a program idea (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)  Developing the idea Establishing objectives S e l e c t i n g and sequencing l e a r n i n g Ensuring p a r t i c i p a t i o n Securing resources  (7)  Evaluating  Each of the operations reviewed.  Three  undertaking. operational  The  authors  and  compared to f o u r  o r i g i n a t i n g the  to t h i s  idea  i s Robbin's use  as  an  studies initial  of e s t a b l i s h i n g an  base f o r d e l i v e r i n g s e r v i c e s .  which  relevant  considered  propose  o n l y exception  P e n n i n g t o n and tasks  i s now  activities  seems  Green i d e n t i f i e d to  include  systems as d e l i n e a t e d  developing  forming  t h e i d e a as a c l u s t e r of  a planning  by Robbins and  group  deciding  and  analyzing  to proceed as noted  by Houle. Establishing as  beginning  Pennington included  and  step, Green  and  did  identified  not  the  or  by  activity  make t h i s  program  notion  structure  and  as  of  of  four  studies Only  component  they  a c t i v i t i e s was  as  i d e n t i f i e d by Knox  which are i n v o l v e d  Houle's component of d e s i g n i n g are  the  significance.  a separate  i s d e s c r i p t i v e of t h e k i n d s o f a c t i v i t i e s  a parallel  three  program.  sequencing 1 earning  part of program planning. is  was  component,  i t in developing  Selecting and  a  objectives  the  determining  two  steps  Robbins  program  content  in t h i s  a s u i t a b l e format  called and  determining  methods.  This  18 o p e r a t i o n was  included i n d e v e l o p i n g  the program as noted by Pennington  and  Green. Ensuring and  p a r t i c i p a t i o n d e s c r i b e s what Robbins c a l l e d promoting program  recruiting  participants,  p e r s i s t e n c e , and  The  resources  the  as  participation  and  the format i n t o the l a r g e r Green's  program.  i s the  Three authors  exception  noted  T h i s o p e r a t i o n i s i n c l u d e d i n P e n n i n g t o n ' s and  work as part of developing  planning.  Knox  what Houle d e s c r i b e d as f i t t i n g  p a t t e r n s of l i f e .  Securing  what  listed  i s Pennington and  sixth this  operation  as  a major  Green who  identified  step  in  in program  i n c l u d e d i t as part of  program planning.  developing 3  the  program. R o b b i n s , H o u l e , and  program.  The  P e n n i n g t o n and Green make n o t e of o p e r a t i n g  synthesized  framework does not  include this  step  seems to be c o n c e p t u a l l y d i f f e r e n t from p l a n n i n g a program. Green d i d not course" than  and  other All  list  any  task  f o r the  Houle t r e a t e d t h i s  cluster  they  part of h i s design  because i t  Pennington  labeled "teaching  system with  the  and the  more b r e v i t y  parts.  four  studies  included  evaluation  as  a component  of  program  planning. The  framework c o n t r a s t e d The  two  program p l a n n i n g f o r m a t s  ways from the o p e r a t i o n s  the o p e r a t i o n s  identified  o u t l i n e d above.  framework with  d i s c l o s e apparent d i f f e r e n c e s .  i n each study d i f f e r i n one The  or  f o l l o w i n g comparison of  the f o u r frameworks from the  literature  Attempts to harmonize those d i f f e r e n c e s are  presented. Houle's design more comprehensive  system than  of d e c i s i o n p o i n t s the  framework  of  and  planning  operations  components seems  presented  here.  His  19 system i d e n t i f i e s two areas, plan  into e f f e c t ,  making a decision to proceed and putting the  which are not  Deciding to proceed, however, the idea".  specified  in the c u r r e n t  framework.  is represented by the operation "developing  Putting the plan i n t o e f f e c t , as noted e a r l i e r , is considered  as conceptually different from planning. Pennington's operations.  and Green's f i r s t two c l u s t e r s p a r a l l e l the f i r s t two  Their third cluster,  making a commitment,  other operations belonging to the synthesized framework. ment includes selecting instructors, commitments  to people, s u p p l i e r s  facilities,  Making a commit-  and formats  and course content.  a p p r o p r i a t e l y placed in the operation l a b e l l e d Other tasks Pennington  is included in the  which entail  These tasks are  "securing  resources".  and Green l i s t e d in this cluster are consideration  of t a r g e t audiences, and r e c r u i t m e n t .  The f i r s t task i s  placed in the o p e r a t i o n "developing the idea."  appropriately  The second task is placed  in the operation "ensuring participation." The synthesized framework includes four operations which Pennington and Green included in one c l u s t e r .  The o p e r a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h i n g  objectives,  s e l e c t i n g and sequencing l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , ensuring participation and securing resources are part of the cluster labeled developing the program. In order to be precise about the a c t i v i t i e s  involved in program planning,  this framework specifies four operations. The l a s t c l u s t e r that is s u b s t a n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t from the present framework operation.  is t e a c h i n g the course.  The authors  list  no tasks f o r  this  This absence of tasks may be due to the e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e  between planning a program and i t s execution in that i f such tasks were included they would deal planning.  with  instruction  and l e a r n i n g  and not  with  The major difference between the synthesized framework and that  20 which was d e l i m i t e d by Pennington and Green i s in the amount of d e t a i l concerning objectives, learning a c t i v i t i e s , participation and resources. Comparison of Robbins's framework  with the operations  demonstrates close agreement between the two, steps  seem to provide unneeded d e t a i l  planning  analysis.  The f i r s t  although Robbins's planning  at the broad l e v e l  step which Robbins notes  operational base for delivery services.  framework  an  the e s t a b l i s h e d base,  thus  investigation.  participant needs are included in the f i r s t The s y n t h e s i z e d  program  is establishing  Forming a planning group, analyzing relevant systems,  framework.  of  The synthesized framework is used  in an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l context which assumes making this step redundant in the present  framework  and identifying  two operations of the current  uses s e l e c t i n g  and  sequencing  learning a c t i v i t i e s as the operation which includes the steps Robbins noted as determining program structure and determining content and methods.  The  basic differences between the program planning steps as outlined by Robbins and those operations used in t h i s framework seem to be e s t a b l i s h i n g operational  base, which i s  assumed  in t h i s  study,  and i n i t i a t i n g  an and  operating the program, which has been discussed previously. The most evident difference found when comparing Knox's framework to the framework used in this  study is  program development and program the divisions It  the major division Knox made between  administration.  This study does not use  because c r i t e r i a are not offered for c l a s s i f y i n g  components.  would be d i f f i c u l t to place evaluation, for instance, in one or another  of the two divisions.  The only other major contrast between the two frame-  works is the absence in Knox's framework of program idea development.  Of  these two contrasts the most noteworthy is the operation t i t l e d "developing the idea."  The inclusion  or exclusion of the divisions  has l i t t l e effect  21 upon the parts of program with  low  u t i l i t y to t h i s 1 is  Table  differences synthesized  heading Operations. System.  to  four  framework.  because i t seems to be a c a t e g o r i z a t i o n  study.  provided  among t h e  planning  The  summarize  and  frameworks  and  synthesized  Houle's framework  Pennington  and  Robbins's are i d e n t i f i e d  Green's  as Steps.  visually  aid  between  framework is listed  components  in  these  identifying  four  i s presented  under  are  the  and  the  under  the  heading  labeled  Design  CIusters  Knox w r i t e s of Procedures and  and  this  term  i s used to i d e n t i f y h i s framework.  Tasks and  operations  All program  authors planning  particular  reviewed  wrote about tasks performed  operations.  o p e r a t i o n was  to d e s c r i b e t a s k s  clusters,  their  chapter  of  Education  the  book  another  rich  source  program  planning  different insight  and  i s an  tasks f o r t h i s  operations,  concepts  the tasks l i s t e d  present  of how  a c t i v i t i e s to form  source  of  and  works a r e  the  tasks.^  Each  Evaluating  Adult  of p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g  meant to be  major  an e x h a u s t i v e  are used t o p r o v i d e  T a s k s seem t o be program planners.  i n the s e c t i o n "The  in h e l p i n g to c l a s s i f y t a s k s by o p e r a t i o n and  making i t sources  of  listing  of  limited The  examples of o n l y by  the  value of u s i n g  Framework" of Chapter  III i s  technology.  Tasks s e l e c t e d from the l i t e r a t u r e were placed w i t h i n o p e r a t i o n s upon the l o g i c a l  a  study.  however, they  of i n d i v i d u a l  in d e t a i l  rich  T h e s e two  ways t o p l a n p r o g r a m s . imagination  used  Admini s t e r i n g ,  are not  as examples  major  P e n n i n g t o n and Green used t h e t e r m  especially  of t a s k s . ^  study  were given  because they  in detail  Tasks used in t h i s ways to perform  and  Devel o p i n g ,  considered  tasks  performed.  activities  study  Most  i n each of the  agreement of the purpose of a task  and  an o p e r a t i o n .  based Some  22 TABLE 1 FRAMEWORKS OF PROGRAM PLANNING COMPARED AND CONTRASTED  Operations  Des ign System  a  Clusters'-  Steps  c  Procedures  1. Establish operat ional base 1. Originating the idea  A possible idea is identified  1. Originating the idea  2. Originate program  2. Developing the idea  A decision is made to proceed  2. Developing the idea  3. Form a planning group  3. Making a commitment  4. Analyze relevant systems  1. Program origins  5. Identify participant needs Objectives are identified and establi shed  4. Selecting and sequencing learning activities  A suitable format is designed  7. Determine program structure  The format is fitted into the larger patterns  8. Determine program content and methods  Insuring participation  Developing the program  6. Formulate program objectives  3. Establishing objectives  2. Formulation of objectives  Selection and organization of learning activities  9. Promote program and recruit participants 6. Securing resources  7. Evaluating  6. Learning resources are selected and a leader is chosen 7. The plan is put into effect 8. The results are measured  10. Acquire resources  5. Teaching the course  11. Initiate and operate program  6. Evaluating the impact  12. Evaluate program  Design system proposed by Houle ^Clusters proposed by Pennington and Green "Steps proposed by Robbins j Procedures proposed by Knox  4. Acquisition of resources  5. Evaluation of program  23 tasks seemed to have purposes which allowed one  operation.  and  n o t a t i o n was made t h a t  another  When t h i s  them to be placed  happened the task  was  assigned  i t c o u l d be an e x t e n s i o n  i n more  to one  than  operation  or c o n t i n u a t i o n o f  operation.  Tasks and t e c h n o l o g i e s Tasks were placed w i t h i n o p e r a t i o n s technologies  as d e f i n e d by Thompson  technology  characteristics.19  technology,  differentiation  The  by matching  Where t a s k s  of adult education  the tasks to the t h r e e  a s e t of cards sort  the  student's  cards  into  technologies.  perception  Long-linked  three  The c r i t e r i a  characteristics  than  one  seminar to  The f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s and t o each i n d i v i d u a l  tasks.  categories  of a task's  along  The students  representing  congruence  with  with  were asked  each  of  the  was t h e  the d e f i n i t i o n s  and  of the t e c h n o l o g i e s .  technology  a c t Z can be p e r f o r m e d r e s t s upon  perfection  planning  f o r d e c i d i n g where t o p l a c e a c a r d  "A l o n g - l i n k e d t e c h n o l o g y  which  i n more  with  tasks were performed.  i n a program  c o n t a i n i n g program p l a n n i n g  technologies.  that  characteristics  were used  was made by how those  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t e c h n o l o g i e s were provided  to  task  to one or more of the  a s s i g n m e n t of t h e t a s k s t o t e c h n o l o g i e s was v a l i d a t e d by a s k i n g  graduate students assign  and assigned  a c t X,  involves serial only after  and  interdependence  successful completion  so on. . . .  It approaches  when i t produces a s i n g l e kind of standard  and  at a constant  few  of t h i s  rate."20  technology's  u n i t a r y products, were h a l l m a r k s  In t h i s  brief  of l o n g - l i n k e d  F o r him  product,  serial  of r a t e and concern  technology.  o f a c t Y,  instrumental  d e s c r i p t i o n Thompson  characteristics.  r e p e t i t i o n , constancy  i n the sense  repetitively provided  a  dependence,  f o r the process  A unit using this  technology  24 would  tend  to perform  sequential to  fashion.  be scheduled  the v a r i o u s o p e r a t i o n s of program p l a n n i n g  The use of t h i s technology  i n advance  and m o d i f i e d  a l l o w s the p l a n n i n g  only s l i g h t l y .  Serial  in a  process  dependency  l e n d s i n f l e x i b i l i t y and 1 i n e a r i t y t o t h e p r o c e s s b e c a u s e a change i n any step has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f o l l o w i n g steps. Unitary products quality.  t o outcomes which  In a d u l t education the products  activities unit  refers  of program  that are h i g h l y s i m i l a r i n format  using long-linked technology w i l l  are s i m i l a r  i n t y p e and  p l a n n i n g are l e a r n i n g  and o f c o n s t a n t q u a l i t y .  A  produce l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s of  s i m i l a r d u r a t i o n and f o r m a t ,  and f o r s i m i l a r c l i e n t e l e , c o s t , p l a c e and  time.  is standardized  Because  the process  programs produced  will  may be l a r g e l y r e l a t e d Repetition client than  vary only s l i g h t l y . to different  unless  instructors  The v a r i a t i o n  instructors  and k i n d s o f  which does  program.  formats,  are used  again,  kinds  exist  i n programs.  r e f e r s t o r e c u r r e n t use of content, personnel,  groups i n a s p e c i f i c once,  the q u a l i t y  format,  Even i f program t i t l e s are used of p a r t i c i p a n t s ,  subject  matter  and more and  production of programs i s not c o n s i d e r e d t o be  repetitive. Constancy  of r a t e i s i n d i c a t e d  programs produced stability  from  which i s s u b j e c t to minor v a r i a t i o n  year  production process result process  to year.  It i s also  indicated  w h i c h means t h a t t h e p r o c e s s  but w i l l  exhibit  by c o n t r o l  of the  can be queued and as a  i s somewhat p r e d i c t a b l e i n terms of where a program w i l l at any g i v e n  characteristic  noted  Instrumental Controlling several  by a more or l e s s s t a b l e number o f  time.  Constancy  of r a t e  is related  f o r this technology—instrumental  perfection  i s used  the production process  be i n the  to the  last  perfection.  to i n d i c a t e e f f i c i e n c y of process. a l l o w s a program planner t o develop  programs at t h e same time, thus  increasing efficiency.  Because the  25 process i s repeated more than once, i t can experience linked  i s gained.  An  be m o d i f i e d f o r e f f i c i e n c y  assembly l i n e process  i s an e x a m p l e of  long-  technology. Long-linked  technology  as  a  program  planning  i l l u s t r a t e d by a p p l y i n g i t to Houle's education educational ways.  as  The  activities decision  Exceptions  to t h i s  i s accomplished  to proceed occur  t e r m s of what t h e  design  in l i m i t e d  identified  adult education  r e f i n e m e n t of o b j e c t i v e s w i l l  unit  system.  to be  activity  usually  can  be  Identifying  but h i g h l y e f f i c i e n t  i s u s u a l l y understood  when the  process  a positive  one.  i s e x t r a o r d i n a r y in  plans.  be l a r g e l y a c c o m p l i s h e d  Definition  by t h e  and  instructor  r a t h e r than the p r o g r a m p l a n n e r , however, when t h e p r o g r a m p l a n n e r does undertake  t h i s part of the developmental  and r e f i n e d  i n a s y s t e m a t i c manner.  upon the  unit's f a m i l i a r i t y  program  into  advertising  larger  patterns  the program  p a t t e r n s to the program. the used  original  design  with  or  and  system, o b j e c t i v e s w i l l  A format  formats of  letting  is  plan  with  comes  not  learners f i t their  minor d e v i a t i o n s .  Measured  These r e s u l t s  made about the process.  a by  life  along of  Long-linked  results with  are  other  assignments technology  sequence, and f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d plans.  technology  Thompson d e s c r i b e d t h i s t o be  Fitting  accomplished  about program p l a n n i n g d e a d l i n e s and c o m p l e t i o n  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e f f i c i e n c y ,  wish  based  The program i s implemented by adhering c l o s e l y t o  are part of the assessment  Mediating  designed.  generally  individual  to make judgements about the system.  information  is usually selected  r a t h e r than  life  be d e f i n e d  technology  as  interdependent. . . . Complexity from  requirements  the  of t h e  n e c e s s i t y of next  but  having  r a t h e r from  "linking  of c l i e n t s  who  i n the  mediating  technology  each the  activity fact  geared  t h a t the  are  to  or  the  mediating  26 technology  requires operating  i n s t a n d a r d i z e d ways and e x t e n s i v e l y ; e.g.,  pi with m u l t i p l e c l i e n t s or customers d i s t r i b u t e d The  hallmarks  participation linkage  and  between  of  this  technology  extensive  operations.  clients:  both  in time.'  are  interdependence,  Interdependence  learner  and  teacher.  t r a d i t i o n a l l y viewed as the c l i e n t e l e  of an a d u l t education  the concept  of m e d i a t i n g  i n c l u d e s two  teachers and  learners.  education result  unit  technology  For the c l i e n t  s u p p l i e s an  of performing  of  kinds of c l i e n t s  one  but a l s o the a d u l t education  client one  T h i s kind of adult education Schroeder that  who  basically  are  however,  clientele;  the  clients.  Not  only  situation  with  i s dependent upon each of i t s  planning.  Client  participation is  unit's performance as an education  development has  views  l i n k s v a r i o u s agent and  unit  program  r e s u l t of an adult education  unit,  a  Interdependence i s the  brought i n t o an interdependent  groups f o r a c c o m p l i s h i n g  to  Learners  c l a s s e s of  learners.  f u n c t i o n between  are the two another  refers  group composed of teachers the adult  audience  a brokering  client  broker.  been e l a b o r a t e l y e x p l a i n e d  adult education  as "a developmental  by  process  a d u l t c l i e n t s systems together f o r the purpose  22 of e s t a b l i s h i n g d i r e c t i o n s and  procedures  C l i e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n can o c c u r participation participants  i n the  program  attending  learning  activities.  offering  opinions  passive  about  v o l u n t e e r e d but more l i k e l y The  they  of  multiple  process  sessions role  should will  t e r m e x t e n s i v e o p e r a t i o n was  involvement education  what  i n an a c t i v e or p a s s i v e way.  planning  planning A  f o r programs of a d u l t l e a r n i n g .  customers.  a l s o such  is exemplified  making  is exemplified be  done.  These  decisions by  about  opinions  can  concept  is useful  the  in adult  u n i t s deal with more than  u n i t s deal with d i v e r s e c l i e n t s  be  planners.  used by Thompson t o d e s i g n a t e The  by  participants  be sought out by program  because not o n l y do a d u l t education  c l i e n t , but  and  Active  at the same time.  one In  27 a given  educational  activity  v a r y i n g l e v e l s of education tional  interest.  Although  learning situations, Thompson standardized  who a t t e n d  adult  because of personal  education  u n i t s deal  with  or o r g a n i z a i n d i v i d u a l s in  o r g a n i z a t i o n s are o f t e n p a r t of i t s c l i e n t e l e .  noted  that  ways".^  suspended i n time.  t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s may be i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h  mediating  technology  Standardization  also "requires  permits  linking  operating i n of  customers  Thompson used examples of bank d e p o s i t o r s and borrowers  as b e i n g  suspended  in time  which  points  operating  procedures in l i n k i n g these  to the n e c e s s i t y  two groups.  Adult  of  standard  education  seems to  be d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e s e e x a m p l e s and as a r e s u l t does not a l w a y s r e q u i r e the degree of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n c i t e d with  i t s customers  suspended  i n time  are e v e n t u a l l y brought t o g e t h e r exception  of distance  in d i f f e r e n t teacher listens  places.  to i t .  and d e v i c e s  illustrate  where the l e a r n e r  becomes c r i t i c a l .  the e f f e c t  be e m p l o y e d  program planning.  are u s u a l l y  and c o r r e s p o n d e n c e t h e  from the time the l e a r n e r  An example of mediating  technology  which l a c k s borrowers and d e p o s i t o r s .  of m e d i a t i n g  The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  considers  clientele  i t serves.  interest  and teacher  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of m a t e r i a l s ,  technology,  Houle's system  of a p o s s i b l e e d u c a t i o n a l  a f u n c t i o n of a unit's s e r v i c e o r i e n t a t i o n .  teachers  customers  t o d e m o n s t r a t e some e f f e c t s t h i s t e c h n o l o g y  technology  ideas  I d e a s have t h e i r  collaborative effort  The d e f i n i t i o n  genesis  with  involving the l e a r n e r , teacher  has upon  mediating  and d i v e r s e as t h e both  l e a r n e r s and  development are based upon and r e f i n e m e n t  will  activity is  A u n i t which uses  w h i c h a r e as f a r r a n g i n g  and d e c i s i o n s t o proceed with of c l i e n t s .  begin  a t some t i m e and p l a c e w i t h t h e o b v i o u s  i s the case,  institution  may  however, these  By u s i n g f i l m s , v i d e o t a p e s  When t h i s  would be a f i n a n c i a l  again  education  Adult education  and space,  may d e l i v e r a l e c t u r e at a time d i f f e r e n t  formats,  To  by Thompson.  expressed  of o b j e c t i v e s i s a  and p r o g r a m  planner.  28 The design of a s u i t a b l e format it  i s a f u n c t i o n of the i n t e r a c t i o n  adult  educator  may propose  accomplished  which f i t s teachers will  of the dependent groups.  formats,  i n f l u e n c e d by the c l i e n t s . is  i s not c o n s t r a i n e d by t r a d i t i o n , but r a t h e r  Fitting  however, the format  by a l l o w i n g t h e l e a r n e r  their  p a t t e r n s of l i f e .  in the p l a n n i n g  process  helps  clients  as t h e a d u l t  appraisal addition  of r e s u l t t o how  well  and t e a c h e r t o \ d e s i g n a f o r m a t  ensure  programs  o f l e a r n e r s and under  development  E f f e c t i n g the plan i s once again a consultation  given by  implement the plan, to c o n s u l t a t i o n  given by  educator a r e based  implements upon  the program  how  The measure and  the c l i e n t  the d e s i r e d  participation,  v a r i e t y i n l i m i t s . These t h r e e elements and v a r i e t y i n techniques  from  the plan.  well  produced  technology i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c l i e n t  feedback  i s greatly  i n t o l a r g e r p a t t e r n s of l i f e  T h i s c o o p e r a t i o n can range  the adult educator as c l i e n t s  making  The p a r t i c i p a t i o n  f i t the l a r g e r p a t t e r n s of l i v i n g .  c o o p e r a t i v e venture.  decision  At times the  was  served i n  effects.  Mediating  interdependence  and  are present i n , but s u b o r d i n a t e t o ,  in intensive  technology.  I n t e n s i v e technology "This t h i r d of  techniques  object;  by feedback  intensive  technical  logic  from  technology i s found  where o b j e c t s of concern This  combination,  and o r d e r  the o b j e c t i t s e l f . i s regarded  also  as  specific  of a p p l i c a t i o n are  ' t h e r a p e u t i c ' b u t t h e same  i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n i n d u s t r y and i n r e s e a r c h  are nonhuman."^  4  Feedback, w h i l e present i n each  distinguishing  i n some  a variety  When the o b j e c t i s human,  technology i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by feedback,  and change. two  i n t e n s i v e to s i g n i f y that  i s drawn upon i n order t o achieve a change  but t h e s e l e c t i o n ,  determined the  [ t e c h n o l o g y ] we l a b e l  features in this  a v a r i e t y of techniques,  of the t h r e e t e c h n o l o g i e s , has  technology.  The f i r s t  feature i s  its  29 formative is  that  nature;  i t i s present  the s u b j e c t  technologies  of  the s u b j e c t  learning  which  outcome.  Feedback  throughout  feedback  i s t h e program  has o c c u r r e d ;  the process;  in i n t e n s i v e technology  predict  t o provide  when p r o g r a m  and the of the  information  and when t o perform  purpose gives v a r i a b i l i t y  which has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the a d u l t educator. cannot e a s i l y  indicators  other  T h i s f e e d b a c k i s used by t h e a d u l t  to choose which task or tasks to perform  Use of feedback f o r t h i s  In  his feelings  or o t h e r  i s used  The second f e a t u r e itself.  i s u s u a l l y the p a r t i c i p a n t ,  about t h e p r o g r a m under d e v e l o p m e n t . educator  the process.  planning  to the p l a n n i n g  One i m p l i c a t i o n will  have been  them.  process  i s that he completed.  Another i s t h a t when a p l a n n i n g framework i s e s t a b l i s h e d , i t i s at best an estimation process  o f when and how  planning  take  place.  V a r i a b i l i t y of  i s a f u n c t i o n o f feedback and t h e use of a l t e r n a t i v e t a s k s .  Alternative  tasks  refers  t o t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a number o f ways t o  accomplish  t h e needed  originating  an i d e a can be accomplished  ideas,  will  or r e c e i v i n g  Change, n o t e d  o b j e c t i v e s i n program  ideas from  planning.  For example,  by a s s e s s i n g needs,  surveying f o r  clients.  as a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i n t e n s i v e t e c h n o l o g y d e a l s not  with the o b j e c t of technology  but r a t h e r with the technology  itself.  Based  upon f e e d b a c k f r o m t h e i d e a , a p r o g r a m p l a n n e r may change t h e t a s k s , t h e way they are performed and the order The of  three major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  techniques,  accomplishing technologies  i n which they are performed. of t h i s  variety  and c h a n g e — combi ne t o p r o d u c e a d i s t i n c t i v e p r o c e s s o f the transformation  might e x h i b i t  of ideas  into  programs.  one or two o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ,  i s o n l y when a l l t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s another  technology—feedback,  that i n t e n s i v e technology  operate  i s employed.  example of the use of i n t e n s i v e technology.  Other  however, i t  i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h one A hospital  p r o v i d e s an  30 Applying  intensive technology  t o Houle's design system produces the  f o l l o w i n g example of program planning. mation  i n determining  later  steps  Because t h i s technology  to be taken  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s initially one  supply much i n f o r m a t i o n .  which  Identifying  and r e f i n i n g  after  will  i n v o l v e procedures  every  step  The format  i s designed  which  i s a tentative  in the  the o b j e c t i v e s are a c c o m p l i s h e d  d e s i g n i n g a s u i t a b l e format.  infor-  i n the planning process, the  The d e c i s i o n t o proceed  i s repeatedly considered  uses  procedure. as p a r t o f  by the a d u l t  educator  a c t i n g upon i n f o r m a t i o n about what t h e e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y r e q u i r e s i n order  to be a v i a b l e  These  three  a c t i v i t y by f i t t i n g  elements,  technology  sequential  i t becomes  planning  and 3) f i t ,  are a l l  i n d e s i g n i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y .  difficult  steps.  p a t t e r n s of l i f e .  to p l a c e the components  The p r o g r a m  a large variety  i s implemented  by t h e a d u l t  who  reality.  The measurement and a p p r a i s a l o f r e s u l t s a r e a c t i v i t i e s  c o n t i n u o u s l y throughout  design system  i s a hallmark  of resources  the p l a n n i n g  process.  In  in discrete  educator  occur  uses  identified  1) o b j e c t i v e s , 2) f o r m a t s ,  c o n s i d e r e d by the a d u l t educator this  into  t o make t h e p r o g r a m a which  T h i s component of the  of the i n t e n s i v e technology.  Summary E x p l o r a t i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e o r y l i t e r a t u r e has p r o v i d e d s e v e r a l views on the concept Students  of o r g a n i z a t i o n t h e o r y  technology's as  an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l v a r i a b l e .  viewed  as a f a c t o r  a concept  as technology.  in organizational structure.  are not i n agreement on the importance of  i n f l u e n c e upon s t r u c t u r e .  enough t o allow be  o f technology  However, a l l acknowledge i t s s t a t u s  Perrow's d e f i n i t i o n  of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ,  of technology  namely program  i s broad  planning, t o  31 A review  of p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g  literature  has  provided  f o u r v i e w s of  p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and e n a b l e d  p r o d u c t i o n of a s y n t h e s i z e d  view  has  demonstrated  program planning  frameworks used are at such  a sufficiently  as to be f a i r l y  similar.  of  model,  program  but  failed  organizational level  which  program  planning.  provide  helped  sufficient  Chapter  demonstrate tasks  review  This s i m i l a r i t y  variable.  helps  planning  to  The  III d e t a i l s  variability  in operations  the  four  abstract  level  produce a s y n t h e s i z e d  variation  needed  for  an  the s y n t h e s i z e d model at a  in program  by kind of  that  planning  technology.  by  placing  32 FOOTNOTES 1-Houle, The Design of Education, pp. 31-58. ^Joseph A. L i t t e r e r , Organizations: Structure and Behavior, (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1980), p. 3/3. ° L i t t e r e r , The A n a l y s i s Sons, 1965), p. 5~!  of O r g a n i z a t i o n s , (New York: John Wiley and  ^Edward Harvey, "Technology and the S t r u c t u r e of American Sociological Review 33(1969), p. 247.  Organizations,"  D a v i d J . Hickson, D. S. Pugh, and Diana C. Pheyseh "Operations Technology and Organization S t r u c t u r e : An E m p i r i c a l R e a p p r a i s a l , " Administrative Science Quarterly 14(1969): pp. 378-397; John W. Hunt, The Rest!ess Org anizat i o n , (Sydney: John Wiley and Sons A u s t r a l a s i a , 1972); Raymond Hunt, "Technology and Organization," Academy of Management Journal 13(1970): pp. 235-252. ~ 5  J e r a l d Hage and Michael Aiken, "Routine Technology, Social Structure, and Organizational Goals," Administrative Science Q u a r t e r l y 14(1969): pp. 366-376. 6  ^Gale Jensen, "How Adult Education Borrows and Reformulates Knowledge of Other Disciplines," in Adult Education: Outlines of an Emerging F i e l d of U n i v e r s i t y Study, (eds.) Gale Jensen, A. A. L i v e r i g h t , and Wilbur Hallenbeck, (Washington, D.C.: Adult Education Association of USA, 1964). 8  Boyd and Apps, "A Conceptual Model."  ^Hage and Aiken, " T e c h n o l o g y , S t r u c t u r e , and G o a l s ; " Hancey, "Technology and S t r u c t u r e ; " Hickson, "Operations Technology"; Henry M i n t z b e r g , The S t r u c t u r i n g of O r g a n i z a t i o n s : A S y n t h e s i s of Research (Englewood CI i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l 1 , 1979); Jane Woodward, Industrial Organization: Theory and P r a c t i c e (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Hress, iybb). ^ H e n r y M i n t z b e r g , S t r u c t u r i n g of Organizations, (Englewood C l i f f s , New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1979), p. 249. HJames 0. Thompson, Organizations in Action, (New York: Book Company, 1967).  McGraw-Hill  H o u l e , The Design of Education; Floyd Pennington and Joseph Green, "Comparative Analysis of Program Development Processes in Six Professions," Adult Education 27(1976): pp. 13-23; Joseph Nevin Robbins, "Process of Program Planning and Orientations Toward Organizational Role by Continuing E d u c a t i o n Program P l a n n e r s i n P u b l i c Community C o l l e g e s , " (Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n , F l o r i d a State U n i v e r s i t y , 1977); Alan B. Knox, ed., Developing, A d m i n i s t e r i n g , and Evaluating Adult Education, (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1980). A,1  Houle, The Design of Education, p. 42.  33 14pennington and Green, " A n a l y s i s o f Program Development." l^Robbins,  "Process  16Knox, Developing, 17  Pennington  of Program  Planning."  Administering,  and E v a l u a t i n g .  and Green, " A n a l y s i s of Program Development."  lSKnox, Developing,  Administering,  ^Thompson, O r g a n i z a t i o n s  and E v a l u a t i n g .  in Action.  2 0 l b i d . , p. 16. 2 1  2 2  I b i d. Schroeder,  "Typology of Adult  23Thompson, O r g a n i z a t i o n s 2 4  Ibid.,  p. 27  Learning  Systems," p. 56.  i n A c t i o n , p. 16  34  CHAPTER I I I THE This chapter  presents  planning operations discussed  CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK the p l a n n i n g  framework  in detail  in terms of the three t e c h n o l o g i e s .  i n terms  of which  F i n a l l y , a three-by-seven  planning  contingency  tasks  by d e s c r i b i n g  Each technology i s  a r e used  i n an o p e r a t i o n .  t a b l e i s presented  t o compare and  c o n t r a s t each task w i t h i n an o p e r a t i o n and technology.  The The  critical  operations  Framework  of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  technology  identified  e a r l i e r a r e : (1) o r i g i n a t i n g p r o g r a m i d e a s ; ( 2 ) d e v e l o p i ng t h e i d e a ; (3) ?  establishing  objectives;  (5) e n s u r i n g  (4) s e l e c t i n g  participation;  Each o f t h e s e o p e r a t i o n s function.  By completing  an o p e r a t i o n  (6) s e c u r i n g r e s o u r c e s ;  an i n d i v i d u a l  task  activities;  and (7) e v a l u a t i n g .  ideas  from  to c l i e n t  advisory  of t a s k s ,  a program i d e a can be  of the f o l l o w i n g t a s k s :  programs; responding  and s o l i c i t i n g  or some combination  For example, o r i g i n a t i n g  u n d e r t a k e n by one o r some c o m b i n a t i o n  literature;  learning  i s comprised of s p e c i f i c tasks r e l a t i n g to i t s  i s performed.  needs; r e p l i c a t i n g  and sequencing  requests;  boards.  Each  assessing reviewing  o f the seven  o p e r a t i o n s has a number o f p o s s i b l e t a s k s w h i c h , when any one o f them i s c o m p l e t e d at some l e v e l , f u l f i l l s tasks  may  technology  take used  on  the f u n c t i o n of t h a t o p e r a t i o n .  a characteristic  i n program  form  depending  upon  These  the kind of  planning.  O r i g i n a t i n g t h e Idea This operation  gives  birth  number of o t h e r o p e r a t i o n s .  to the ideas  which  are subjected  Not a l l i d e a s o r i g i n a t e d w i l l  be  to a  developed  35 i n t o programs.  Some w i l l  remain as ideas, others w i l l  t i o n s and f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s others w i l l  be transformed  i s the l o g i c a l total  operation  be r e j e c t e d as p o t e n t i a l  i n t o formal  thoughtful  framework can d i s c l o s e the d i s t i n c t  Long-linked  Still  Although  this  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the  p o s s i b i l i t y of s e v e r a l n o n l i n e a r  planning.  technology  T h i s technology  i s represented  by performance of one or some combina-  t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g tasks which are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e f f i c i e n c y , concern,  opera-  programs.  l e a r n i n g experiences.  to examine f i r s t ,  p r o g r e s s i o n s i n program  move through  and  standard  administering  products.  a questionnaire  Tasks  include:  to p o t e n t i a l  assessing  learners  learner  needs  by  i n an e f f o r t  to  i d e n t i f y e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s ; c o n s i d e r i n g m a r k e t demand by m e a s u r i n g t h e p o p u l a r i t y of programs o f f e r e d i n s i m i l a r c o n t e x t s ; requests,  which  reflects  institutional  complying  and l e a r n e r concern;  o t h e r p r o g r a m i d e a s by s u r v e y i n g p r o g r a m c a t a l o g u e s s i m i l a r circumstances. the  with  sponsor  and r e v i e w i n g  from other u n i t s i n  E x p e r t i s e of programmers i s d i r e c t e d at m a i n t a i n i n g  process.  Mediating  technology  T h i s t e c h n o l o g y depends h e a v i 1 y upon c l i e n t ( l e a r n e r s and t e a c h e r s ) participation  and interdependence  by the u n i t .  The o p i n i o n s of c l i e n t s  experts. teachers success  Tasks  the  are valued  and l e a r n e r s ; c o n s i d e r i n g c l i e n t of a program;  valuing c l i e n t of c l i e n t  idea once the consensus  clients.  a service orientation  requests  consensus  potential  i n order t o e s t i m a t e the  (which  relationships);  i s determined  held  as much as the o p i n i o n of  i n c l u d e : a s s e s s i n g needs by d i s c u s s i o n w i t h  dependent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c program  and r e f l e c t s  reflects  the i n t e r -  and d e c i d i n g upon a  and ideas  are understood  by  36  Intensive  technology  This technology i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by r e l i a n c e upon expert the  idea,  Expert  t h e use o f f e e d b a c k ,  opinion  found  can be i n t e r n a l  i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l  assessing  needs by expert  by c r i t i c a l valuing  thinking  expert  and by d i v e r s i t y or e x t e r n a l  and a c a d e m i c  diagnosis;  literature.  considering  and g e n e r a t i n g  concepts and comments of experts  in possible  about  outcomes.  t o t h e u n i t and may a l s o be  intuitive  Tasks  include:  the nature of the problem  and by i n v o l v i n g i n f o r m e d ,  opinion;  opinion  knowledgeable  program  ideas  people;  based  upon  about l e a r n e r needs and problems.  Developing Program Ideas. Within  this  operation  for the continued  a number of events  transformation  take  place  that  are c r u c i a l  of the i d e a i n t o a program.  Houle made  s p e c i a l note that a d e c i s i o n was made t o proceed with idea.  Pennington and Green found that  before  the development of an  an i d e a was developed t o some extent  a commitment was made t o c a r r y f o r w a r d a p r o g r a m .  presented  The o p e r a t i o n  here combines the development and commitment events,  may or may not r e c e i v e f a v o r a b l e  Long-linked  where  ideas  support.  technology  This t e c h n o l o g y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a concern f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and e f f i c i e n c y i n terms o f producing learners. ideas  Tasks  with  refining  include:  colleagues,  the idea  t a l k i n g with  maintaining  to s p e c i f i c  program approaches t o c o n s i d e r ideas  programs t h a t w i l l unit  be w e l l  personnel  to i n f o r m a l l y  the i n s t i t u t i o n a l  and m a n a g e a b l e how o t h e r  r e c e i v e d by  levels;  p e r s p e c t i v e , and reviewing  o r g a n i z a t i o n have  which  Pennington  and Green  interests  and c a p a b i l i t i e s " ; 1  adopting  note  as "assessment  other  implemented  w h i c h a r e s i m i l a r t o t h e one under d e v e l o p m e n t ; d e t e r m i n i n g  interests  test  unit  of i n s t i t u t i o n a l  u n i t d e f i n i t i o n s of i n t e r e s t s ; and  37 determining the f e a s i b i l i t y of a program idea to estimate a v a i l a b i l i t y of the unit's resources for the program idea. Mediating  technology  Interdependence of the l e a r n e r , t e a c h e r , and program planner is the major characteristic of mediating technology. adult  education units using  this  technology  The service orientation of is  evident because of  dependent relationships.  Participation of c l i e n t s  tasks l i s t e d as examples  in this  technology.  r e v i e w i n g c l i e n t opinions  also evident  in the  Tasks include: talking  c l i e n t s to maintain l i n k s between p o t e n t i a l learners;  is  inter-  instructors  with  and p o t e n t i a l  to make some judgments  about the  v a l i d i t y of c l i e n t opinions; and determining c l i e n t interests by involving the l e a r n e r s and teachers as well as the adult educator. task of adopting c l i e n t d e f i n i t i o n of i n t e r e s t s feasibility,  points  An a d d i t i o n a l  helps ensure  program  to the service orientation that comes from performing  the broker f u n c t i o n in adult e d u c a t i o n , and seems to be r e l a t e d to what Clark termed a "catering relationship to . . . c l i e n t e l e . "  2  Intensive technology Feedback  about the ideas  to the program  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c in this technology.  planner i s  Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c is reliance upon  expert opinion and diagnosis about support for the ideas. thought of as problems in t h i s technology. talking  with experts to t e s t  program  problem  from  to  expert  sources  a noticeable  Examples of tasks i n c l u d e :  ideas;  provide  Ideas are e a s i l y  r e v i e w i n g data about the  information  about  an  idea;  determining expert diagnosis of learner needs from c o l l e c t i n g information about the program ideas or problem; adopting assessment of expert interests and needs by choosing  among d i f f e r i n g o p i n i o n s  about the problem; and  38 determining f e a s i b i l i t y v a r i e t y of sources and  of  a p r o g r a m by v a l u i n g e x p e r t  t e n t a t i v e commitments  development, o b j e c t i v e s tion  i n d i c a t e that  occurred  and  may  be  to  Objectives  ideas  are  established.  a decision  to  made and  ideas  Activities  proceed  with  the  receive  within  this  and  mark the change of an i d e a i n t o a p r o g r a m .  began r e f e r r i n g t o t h e  giving  shape t o  gaining  a discernable  Long-linked  an  educational  p r o g r a m , and program.  configuration  Houle saw  The  in this  idea  i n type and  unit  long-linked  Another u n i t using  for  content.  kind  over  For  the  planning  objectives  seems t o  change  technology w i l l  be  use  m o s t l y goal  in nature.  statements.  a preference  a l s o r e f e r s to  content.  same or s i m i l a r o b j e c t i v e s to be  repeated  objectives  Such r e p e t i t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o a n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  operation:  efficiency.  harmony  outcomes to ensure that the in an  of  tasks  of l e a r n e r d e s i r e s , o r g a n i z a t i o n emphasizing  a c t u a l program; and  process to remain an  Other  be shown  by a u n i t .  Examples  between  include:  formulating  p u r p o s e , and  organization  investment of p l a n n i n g  sponsor  purpose  efforts will  one.  this  objectives  and  requireprogram  be r e a l i z e d  w r i t i n g o b j e c t i v e s i n customary ways to allow  efficient  a  will  Unitary  a tendency f o r the  produced by  mostly behavioral  be used by a u n i t , but  another.  objectives  be  ments;  by  of s i m i l a r  There w i l l  in l i g h t  and  operation.  example, the  t h i s technology w i l l  of o b j e c t i v e s can  one  has  technology  objectives  kinds  opera-  Pennington  A major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s t e c h n o l o g y i s p r o d u c t i o n  using  some  transformation  Green s t o p p e d r e f e r r i n g t o i d e a s at t h i s p o i n t i n t h e i r p r o g r a m model  from a  perspectives.  Establishing After  opinions  the  39 Mediating  technology  Characteristics establishment  of  this  technology  of o b j e c t i v e s are interdependence  Interdependence comes from l i n k i n g the two learners.  Client  establishing formulating teacher  and  maintaining  points  out,  in l i g h t  of  client  and  be  a  l e a r n e r and  f o r teacher  screening teacher  and  the  participation. and  is a result  E x a m p l e s of t a s k s  in c o n j u n c t i o n  feasibility  upon  with,  of  include:  learner  and  l e a r n e r which,  activity ;  and  3  d e s i r e s , which  as  writing  reflects  a  for service orientation.  Intensive  technology  This  technology  establishment  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  of o b j e c t i v e s .  l i g h t of t h e p r o g r a m . expert  and  effects  c l i e n t groups of i n s t r u c t o r s  linkage.  of,  may  have  in the p l a n n i n g process  the  objectives in light  Szczypkowski  concern  participation  d e s i r e s ; emphasizing  objectives  that  o p i n i o n about  It i n v o l v e s feedback  of  the  expert  in the  about the o b j e c t i v e s i n  Examples are: f o r m u l a t i n g o b j e c t i v e s i n l i g h t  l e a r n e r d e s i r e s or needs or  opinion  about a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  learner  needs;  and  involvement  both;  of t h e f o r m u l a t e d  emphasizing  expert  o b j e c t i v e s in l i g h t  writing objectives in conformity  with  widely  of  of  regarded  criteria.  S e l e c t i n g and Sequencing L e a r n i n g  Activities  T h i s o p e r a t i o n adds t o t h e program's d i s t i n c t i v e shape i n i t i a t e d i n the  preceding  selection of  operation.  The  of l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s .  similar  developing  activities  can  ideas,  originating  and  planning  goals  or  objectives often  However, f a m i l i a r i t y with one  a l s o set boundaries  why  program  i s at times  may  be viewed as i n s t r u c t i o n a l  delimit  ideas.  or a group  for establishing objectives,  T h i s process  again  a n o n l i n e a r undertaking.  design.  the  demonstrates  This operation  40  Long-linked  technology  This operation 1s performed m i n i m a l l y by a d u l t educators working 1n l o n g - l i n k e d technology.  S e l e c t i n g and s e q u e n c i n g  learning activities i s  u s u a l l y performed the f i r s t time a program i s produced. reproduced  t h e s e q u e n c e u s u a l l y r e m a i n s t h e same.  When 1 t 1s  A n o t h e r way t h e  o p e r a t i o n i s m i n i m a l l y used i s by a l l o w i n g t h e p r o g r a m i n s t r u c t o r t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o s e l e c t and sequence t h e a c t i v i t i e s .  The program planner may  be m i n i m a l l y i n v o l v e d i n an o p e r a t i o n area because i t i s o n l y t a n g e n t i a l l y r e l a t e d t o program p l a n n i n g o r because o f u n f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the range o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l techniques.  These two elements w i l l cause an a d u l t educator  t o use an a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n r e p e a t e d l y once i t has been e s t a b l i s h e d . Repetition lends i t s e l f t o u n i t a r y products, constant rate of production.  e f f i c i e n c y , and a  B e c a u s e t h e same p a t t e r n o f l e a r n i n g  a c t i v i t i e s i s repeated, t h e products o f t h i s t e c h n o l o g y tend t o be s i m i l a r . U s i n g t h e same p a t t e r n i s e f f i c i e n t b e c a u s e i t r e q u i r e s l e s s e f f o r t t o reproduce a p a t t e r n than t o develop a new one. I f a programmer can assign t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s e l e c t i n g and s e q u e n c i n g  learning activities to  o t h e r p e o p l e , h e may be more l i k e l y t o p l a n a d d i t i o n a l work than i f he ° (  completed t h i s o p e r a t i o n h i m s e l f .  Examples o f t a s k s w i t h i n t h i s technology  i n c l u d e : r e l y i n g upon t h e i n s t r u c t o r t o s e t a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h f r e e s t h e program planner from d e t a i l r e l a t i n g t o s p e c i f i c programs and a l l o w s him t o c o n c e n t r a t e e n e r g y upon o t h e r p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g o p e r a t i o n s ; d e t e r m i n i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a c t i v i t i e s which g i v e s t h e a d u l t educator an o p p o r t u n i t y t o review the a c t i v i t i e s s e t by t h e i n s t r u c t o r thus r e f l e c t i n g concern f o r t h e p r o c e s s and p r o v i d i n g t h e o c c a s i o n t o e n s u r e t h e p r o d u c t f i t s t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a i m s ; and r e p r o d u c i n g l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h  ensures  s t a n d a r d p r o d u c t s , h e l p s m a i n t a i n a c o n s t a n t r a t e o f p r o d u c t i o n , and i s efficient.  41  Mediating technology Tasks in t h i s technology r e f l e c t interdependence and participation. The adult educator maintains  the linkages  among the three groups involved  in order to perform the following tasks: involving learner and instructors to set a c t i v i t i e s ; modifying  determining s u i t a b i l i t y of  learning  involvement  activities  allows f o r  instructor,  and  in c o n j u n c t i o n with the c l i e n t s .  previous  program  a c t i v i t y with c l i e n t s ;  learning  planner  to  activities  be considered  of  the  and  and This  learner,  utilized  as  appropriate in the program plan. Intensive technology Tasks in t h i s technology are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the use of feedback provided by s k i l l e d o b s e r v a t i o n .  The feedback comes from a v a r i e t y of  sources but i t i s u s u a l l y mediated by expert o p i n i o n . examples of tasks used in this technology: setting  relying upon expert opinion in  a c t i v i t i e s by valuing expert opinion from l i t e r a t u r e ,  or course p l a n n e r s ; ' d e t e r m i n i n g  appropriateness  objectives and content of the program; and designing c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n a l activity  The f o l l o w i n g are  is  of a c t i v i t i e s f o r the learning a c t i v i t i e s by  development experts because no  considered as appropriate s o l e l y because of prior  or experience.  consultants,  application  This results in a variety of products. Ensuring P a r t i c i p a t i o n  Ensuring p a r t i c i p a t i o n is accomplished by marketing the program, counseling the participant, these efforts.  cosponsoring  the a c t i v i t y ,  or some combination of  This operation requires the program to be r e l a t i v e l y stable  in shape or form.  Houle suggested that  unit's many publics when marketing occurs.  a program i s  i n t e r p r e t e d to a  In the same way counseling can  be seen as interpreting a program on a one to one basis.  Cosponsoring may  42 also be viewed as interpreting a program when i t is done for the purpose of making a program legitimate to a potential group of participants. Long-linked technology Tasks effective.  in  this  technology  They are h i s t o r i c a l  f a m i l i a r in a u n i t ' s context.  are  usually  Effectiveness  E f f i c i e n c y i s obtained by using  developing a general  requirements;  using  information campaigns;  broad  and  familiar  the operation to be controlled  is determined by how manageable the process  with a given level of secured participation. include:  sequenced,  in that the tasks used are generally ones  processes with sequential tasks that allow and queued.  efficient,  Examples of long-linked tasks  vehicle based upon unit means  counseling  of  is  distribution;  and/or  organization  producing  public  learners through printed materials;  and  cosponsoring the program with known organizations. A general vehicle refers to newspaper advertisements, large brochures, and electronic advertisements a l l of which are generic in nature or contain a complete l i s t i n g of program.  A broad means of d i s t r i b u t i o n means general  mailing l i s t s intended for addresses and not s p e c i f i c people. Mediating technology Tasks in this technology r e f l e c t interdependence between the c l i e n t s of a u n i t , p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and e x t e n s i v e o p e r a t i o n s . reflected by the use of instructors  Interdependence  in counseling learners.  is r e f l e c t e d in the c o u n s e l i n g f u n c t i o n