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An analysis of concepts of marginality in adult education Parrish, MarDell C. 1985

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c/  An A n a l y s i s  of  in  Concepts  of  Marginality  Adult Education  by MarDell B.A.,  C.  Utah S t a t e  Certificate  in  Parrish University,  International  Utah S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y ,  A THESIS  SUBMITTED  1970  Relations 1970  IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department  of  Administrative,  We a c c e p t  this  to^the  A d u l t and H i g h e r  thesis  required,  THE UNIVERSITY  C.  conforming  standard  OF BRITISH  December ©MarDell  as  COLUMBIA  1985  Parrish,  1985  Education)  In presenting  this  degree at the  thesis  in  partial fulfilment  of  University of  British Columbia,  I agree  freely available for reference copying  of  department  this or  publication of  and study.  thesis for scholarly by  this  his  or  her  Department of The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3  requirements that the  I further agree  purposes  representatives.  may be It  thesis for financial gain shall not  permission.  DE-6(3/81)  the  for  an  advanced  Library shall make it  that permission for extensive granted  is  by the  understood be  allowed  head  that without  of  my  copying  or  my written  i i  An A n a l y s i s of C o n c e p t s of M a r g i n a l i t y in Adult Education ABSTRACT  Concepts of  adult  of  marginality  education.  term m a r g i n a l i t y  has  misinterpretation the  term,  field. Education  of  education  Adult  from  values  denote a  Clark's the  a  state  to  was  first  concept  case  of  state  a service  use  in  the  "Adult  Insecurity,"  Clark  identified  the  Los  e x i s t e n c e wherein a  the  to  study,  Institutional  Branch  of  usage of  a  Angeles  traditional  wherein  the  orientation  adult  subservient  demands. initial  concept status  transition.  H i s subsequent  denoting  status  subunits  system to  Clark  1956,  field  misapplication,  particular  of  Education  had assumed  final  the  for  organizational  prevailed  schools  community  other  much l a t i t u d e  C a l i f o r n i a - - L o s Angeles,  System  denote  to  doctoral  by t h e  educational  to  too  in T r a n s i t i o n : A Study  transition School  left  in the  indiscriminate  and m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  his  University  f o u n d p o p u l a r use  Unfortunately  marginality, In  have  of  within  include  other  of of  marginality the  uses  an a d u l t a  Branch of  the  education  common  subunit  and  developed  resulting term  parental  organizational  was  from  departed  to this from  in r e l a t i o n  educational  to  school  non-organizational  applications. Clark strayed to  was  from i t s  describe  Angeles  inconsistent  the  School  i n a p p l y i n g the  application status  System.  of  in his  the  Adult  He a l s o . u s e d  doctoral  term m a r g i n a l i t y  and  case-study-in-depth  E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h of marginality  to  the  denote  Los the  status of  of  various  adult  other  adult  education  departments,  enterprises,  general,  bureau,  a  concepts  dissertation  to  This  pursues are (3)  for  marginality,  status  programs  of  adult and  in  society.  by C l a r k  programs,  of  in  his  education a  assessing  system  marginality, (12) (13) and  organizational  client  subunit  (11)  validating  literature,  the  practice  for  future  (4)  autonomous  intra-organizational  system (10)  (7)  multiple  marginality,  marginality  subunit subunit  generic  administrator  organizational  multiple  research  and  marginality,  label  are  (9) micro-  macro-system micro-system macro-system applicable  to  concepts--inter-system  marginality. Suggestions  a  Definitions  organizational  organizational  system  (2)  dictionary  establishes  marginality,  marginality,  for  the  marginality,  organizational  (14)  and  contexts,  (5)  system  (8)  to  and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n .  marginality, human  concept  usages w i t h i n  extra-organizational  organizational  marginality,  in  (1) values m a r g i n a l i t y ,  (6)  marginality,  initial  organizational  marginality,  marginality,  Clark's  clarification  organizational  system  were u s e d  activities,  classification  autonomous  system  programs,  that  classes,  administrators'  low  problems  within  concept  stated  links  discusses  for  agencies,  school  marginality the  including  position.  marginality typology  of  describe  thesis  definitions,  schools,  functions,  organizational  subunits,  administrative  and p r o f e s s i o n a l  Additionally,  administrators,  education  also  presented.  i v  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  ii  L I S T OF TABLES  '.  ....viii  ACKNOWLEDGMENT CHAPTER I :  ix  INTRODUCTION  1  Methodology  14  Thesis  20  Format  CHAPTER I I :  CLARK'S WRITINGS CONCERNING  DEFINITIONS PERTINENT  FOR THEIR  MARGINALITY AND  ANALYSIS  23  Clark's  A r t i c l e s Concerning M a r g i n a l i t y  24  Clark's  P u r p o s e of  30  C o n c e p t Development  A S t u d y of  Organizations  36  Dictionary  Definitions  As a B a s i s  Clark's  C o n c e p t s of  Marginality  for  Understanding 46  Margin  48  Marginal  55  Marginality  56  CHAPTER I I I :  DIRECT  LABELING OF CONCEPTS  OF MARGINALITY  IN CLARK'S DISSERTATION Use of  the  59  Term M a r g i n a l i t y w i t h i n  Clark's  Dissertation  61  CHAPTER I V : ANALYSIS AND CRITIQUE  OF USES OF THE TERM  MARGINALITY  IN CLARK'S DISSERTATION  The  for  Premise  Discussion  of  Marginality  109  C a t e g o r i z i n g Concepts  Categories  of  Marginality  and S u b c a t e g o r i e s  and P r e s e n t a t i o n  of  Tabled  of  ...110  Concepts  of  Observations..110  V  Marginality Education  of  the G e n e r a l  External  Marginality  of  Organizational  Comparative  for  Education. 1 1 4  Education  116  Element  120  Organization  122  Marginality  C l a r k ' s Use of  114 115  Element  of C o n t e x t u a l  within  of A d u l t  of A d u l t  Marginality  Non-organizational Summary  Education 111  to the F i e l d  the F i e l d  Education  Parental  of A d u l t  and L e a r n i n g  Marginality  Adult  Value  124  and Key E l e m e n t t h e Term  Analysis  Marginality  his Dissertation  125  CHAPTER V : DIRECT LABELING OF CONCEPTS OF MARGINALITY IN C L A R K ' S MONOGRAPH Use  of  140  t h e Term M a r g i n a l i t y  within  C l a r k ' s Monograph  ...141  CHAPTER V I : ANALYSIS AND CRITIQUE OF USES OF THE TERM MARGINALITY  IN CLARK'S MONOGRAPH  Marginality  of  the General  Value  190 of A d u l t  Education  and L e a r n i n g  > 91  Marginality  External  Marginality  of  Organizational Adult  the F i e l d  Parental  of A d u l t  Marginality  Education  Comparative  to the F i e l d  Element  Element  Organization  Non-organizational  Marginality  of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Education  ...194 194 196 197 202 205 207  Summary of Clark's within  Contextual  and Key E l e m e n t  Use  Term  the  of  the  Analysis  for  Marginality  Monograph  208  CHAPTER V I I : USE OF THE TERM MARGINALITY  IN C L A R K ' S  DISSERTATION AND MONOGRAPH: COMPARED AND CONTRASTED  212  Tabled Data:  212  Ancillary Foci  Compared and C o n t r a s t e d  Observations  of  215  Clark's Doctoral  Introduction  of  the  Study  216  Term M a r g i n a l i t y  to  Adult  Education  222  Relationship  of  Concepts  Suggested  Distinctions  between C o n c e p t s  of  224  Status  and A c c e p t a n c e Defining of  225  Marginality  Conceptual  tThrough  Elements  A Relativistic  Concept  Consistant  Use  of  Conceptual  Testing  CHAPTER V I I I :  Identification  243  Defining of  231  Terms  Concepts  247  of  Marginality  TYPOLOGY FOR CLASSIFICATION  264  OF THE CONCEPTS  OF MARGINALITY Attribution Seven M a j o r Definition Typology Values  of  Concepts  Concepts of  of  284  of  of  Marginality  Marginality  to  Clark  L a b e l e d and  Terms  Defined.287 291  Marginality  292  Marginality  Practice  285  292  Marginality  295  Autonomous  Extra-organizational  Autonomous  Organizational  Marginality  Marginality  297 304  vii  Intra-organizational  Marginality  309  Human S y s t e m M a r g i n a l i t y Administrator Client  310  System M a r g i n a l t i y  312  System M a r g i n a l i t y  Organizational  ..313  System M a r g i n a l i t y  315  ,Organizational  Micro-system  Marginality  321  Organizational  Macro-system  Marginality  321  Organizational  Multiple  Subunit  Micro-system  Marginality  322  Organizational  Multiple  Subunit  Macro-system  Marginality  322  Inter-system Marginality Typology  Adaptable  to  General  323 Systems A p p l i c a t i o n s  CHAPTER I X : SUMMARY STATEMENTS, FINDINGS,  324  CONCLUSIONS,  AND APPLICATIONS  326  Clark's  U s a g e s of  Popular  A c c e p t a n c e and C o n c e p t u a l  Findings  from the  C o n s e q u e n c e s of  the  Term i n A d u l t  Literature  Education  327  Chaos  329  Review  Terminological  333  And C o n c e p t u a l  Imprecision Distinction  334  Drawn between  Operationalization  and I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n Implications  of  the  Study  Recommendations  for  Future  and R e p o r t i n g Conclusions BIBLIOGRAPHY  335 -. Research,  337  Development, 338 .341 344  viii  L I S T OF TABLES  1. Organizational • 2.  System,  Division  3.  4.  7.  of  Structure  of  the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n  and H i g h e r  Education,  Branch,  Los  Angeles 41  and Key E l e m e n t  t h e Term M a r g i n a l i t y and Key E l e m e n t  t h e Term M a r g i n a l i t y Table  Attendance  Standards  among  For C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  Concepts  of M a r g i n a l i t y  of  B u r t o n R. C l a r k ' s  in his D i s s e r t a t i o n Analysis  of  112  B u r t o n R. C l a r k ' s  i n h i s Monograph i n Average  Organizational  System,  Typology  Categories  Analysis  for V a r i a t i o n s  the C a l i f o r n i a School  Major  School  1952-53  Adjustment  of 6.  of  the Los Angeles  40  Extension  System,  Contextual Use  5.  of  Contextual Use  of  1952-53  Organizational  School  Structure  '..192  Daily Subunits  1 952-53  279  And L a b e l i n g of  in Adult Education  of E d u c a t i o n a l  Design  Situations  293 302  ix  ACKNOWLEDGMENT  To those who have s a c r i f i c e d f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a g r e a t u n i v e r s i t y , my g r a t i t u d e i s e x t e n d e d . A n a l y s e s of Burton R. C l a r k ' s c o n c e p t s of m a r g i n a l i t y and t h e p r o c e s s of d e f i n i n g , labeling, and developing schema for measuring concepts of marginality provided opportunity for personal growth. University colleagues are acknowledged for time spent in listening to my development of frameworks, typologies, measurement schema, and i n r e a s o n i n g w i t h me. Graduate work at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has been a t i m e f o r s t u d y , r e s e a r c h , p r a c t i c e , d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n , and patience. Numerous Graduate Academic, T e a c h i n g and R e s e a r c h A s s i s t a n t s h i p s at the University have provided exposure to program p l a n n i n g , c u r i c u l u m development, i n s t r u c t i o n , r e s e a r c h , prison education, institutional analysis and planning, and distance education. These involvements have been p e r s o n a l l y r e w a r d i n g and were h o p e f u l l y b e n e f i c i a l t o b o t h the University and to t h o s e w i t h whom I w o r k e d . Working with D r . D a n i e l R. B i r c h , former Dean of the F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n , and W i l l i a m L. Tetlow, former D i r e c t o r of I n s t i t u t i o n a l A n a l y s i s and P l a n n i n g , i n the g e n e r a t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s e a r c h d a t a needed by the Faculty of Education d u r i n g a p e r i o d of d e c r e a s i n g P r o v i n c i a l f u n d i n g and r e t r e n c h m e n t , was a r a r e o p p o r t u n i t y . A Graduate Teaching Assistantship in the Department of Adult Education provided the opportunity to i n s t r u c t fellow s t u d e n t s and f a c u l t y members c o n c e r n i n g a v a i l a b l e c o m p u t i n g and research facilities. T h r e e o p p o r t u n i t i e s were p r o v i d e d f o r the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n of a s e l f - a u t h o r e d c u r r i c u l u m plan designed to p r e p a r e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t s t o use t h e u n i v e r s i t y c o m p u t i n g facilities for manuscript production and statistical applications. G r a t i t u d e i s expressed to D r . Daniel J . Brown, Associate Professor, Educational Administration, for the o p p o r t u n i t y to o v e r s e e c o m p u t e r l a b s f o r h i s v a r i o u s c o u r s e s and t o p a r t i c i p a t e w i t h him i n d e v e l o p m e n t of a schema for electorate designated f u n d i n g of s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . P r o f e s s o r Brown i s a g e n t l e m a n . To Professors John B u n t i n g C o l l i n s , Gary D i c k e n s o n , P e t e r S. Cookson, R. Rogow, 0. A. Oldridge, Kjell Rubenson, William S. Griffith, Thomas Sork, and Roger Boshier, appreciation is expressed for opportunities extended in r e s e a r c h , i n s t r u c t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n , p u b l i s h i n g , program p l a n n i n g , d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n , p r i s o n e d u c a t i o n , c u r r i c u l u m d e v e l o p m e n t and editing. The Province of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a M i n i s t r y o f J u s t i c e I n s t i t u t e , C o u r t S e r v i c e s Academy, and the School, r e c e i v e thanks for o p p o r t u n i t i e s to d e s i g n v a r i o u s workshops.  Justice, the Land Title and i n s t r u c t  X  B y r o n Burnham, J o s e A n t o n i o M o l i n a , C a r m e l C h a m b e r s , David Little, Gary Kenyon, J e a n n i e Young, Norah W o r s f o l d , D a v i d Guy, Margaret Machila, Diane Reed, and B. J. McGreggor are a p p r e c i a t e d f o r t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p and s u p p o r t . P r o f e s s o r Sherman G. B r o u g h and h i s f a m i l y a r e r e c o g n i z e d f o r t h e i r h o s p i t a l i t y and e n c o u r a g e m e n t d u r i n g the f i n a l d a y s . To my p a r e n t s , Monroe A s a and Golda Criddle Parrish, I express my love for their influence through example and instruction. The b a l a n c e i n t h e l i v e s of my w i f e and seven c h i l d r e n has e n a b l e d me t o p u r s u e a c a d e m i c i n t e r e s t s . For t h e i r stability, growth, and support, I am t h a n k f u l . The m u l t i culturalism in Vancouver, and especially in our University community, has been an e n r i c h i n g , sought a f t e r , and a p p r e c i a t e d experience. We l e a v e many f r i e n d s . I came t o V a n c o u v e r w i t h a lovely wife and four unusually fine c h i l d r e n - - M a r n i e , Myles, M i c h e l l e , and M i t c h e l l . We go home w i t h t h r e e C a n a d i a n s — M c K a y , M e l i s s a and M o r g a n . Born i n V a n c o u v e r and now possessing dual citizenship, my t h r e e youngest children leave with their Canadian b i r t h r i g h t . A s a l u t e to Canada!  1  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION  Authors  in  marginality,  adult  citing  education  Burton  which r e p o r t e d h i s  seminal  California.  used  adult  schools  systems  and  application to  Clark  1  within felt  within  persuade  others  adult  education.  quite  different  common l a b e l . of  contexts.  still  they  other of  Clark  doctoral  the  the the  R.  frequently  Los  systems.  concepts,  of  they  He w r o t e  use  the  are  are  status  in  of  various  California  school  of  also  have  enough  marginality  apparently  deal  applied' in a w i t h one  and a t t r i b u t e d  to  in  with  term m a r g i n a l i t y as  in c o n f l i c t  termed m a r g i n a l i t y ,  writings  convincingly  value  authors  term  education  m a r g i n a l i t y might  T h e s e c o n c e p t s v a r y and a r e F r e q u e n t l y they  the  the  popular  adult  and  conceptual  Although other  of  denote  Angeles  concept  the  and h i s  study  term to  use  a  variety another— a common  source.  'Burton R. Clark, "Adult Education in T r a n s i t i o n : A Study of Institutional Insecurity" (Ph.D. dissertation, University of C a l i f o r n i a - L o s A n g e l e s , 1954) ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Clark, Dissertation).  2  What  are  concepts  concepts?  misapply  assign  plausible  to  the  the  compatible  purposes;  not  Clark's  may  possibly  even o p e r a t i o n a l l y In  marginality Clark's  have  such  find  examples  possibilities within  term m a r g i n a l i t y has great  uniformity and of  their  The  conferences,  by  Had t h e  of  of  adult  graduate a  term  to  definitions, field  has  led  m a r g i n a l i t y has in  popularity  This  i n the  and  Clark,  but  to  specify  t e r m and t h e i r be  that  various  own  Clark's  their  of  of  the  instances  one  of  might  cause,  adult  the  education  i m p r e c i s i o n and a l a c k  the  of  applications.  exclusive,  field  and  concepts  contextual  Regardless  to  Clark  definitions  with  mutually  of  yielding multiple,  use  each c a t e g o r y . used  fail  might  and would f i n d  not  read  Clark  w h i c h may be more  the  thus  compatible  are  to  in  c o n c e p t s of  of  marginality  applications.  term  significant  of  who  u n d e r s t a n d i n g b o t h of  literature,  ways.  may  usages  those  Clark  been  latitude. of  they  contradictory,  usages which a r e  the  attribution  meanings  precise,  case,  would c i t e  Since  with  been  variance  A u t h o r s may c i t e  Another p o s s i b i l i t y  writing  for  carelessly  marginality,  their  usages.  concept.  may  the  term m a r g i n a l i t y .  between  contextual  People  term  to  differences  of  explanations  t e r m e d m a r g i n a l i t y and f o r  such d i v e r s e thus  the  the thus  of  received but  term t h a t  is  i n the and  adult  at  education  professional  i n d i v i d u a l s and i n a number of  less it  it  enabling  education.  used  schools,  variety  study,  been  is  usage,  .it  precisely  important to  consistent  Why, a f t e r  use  years  of  would because develop  of  the  be  less of  precise  term i n  popular  the  use  the of  3  the  term  might  marginality It  is  it  now be  important  applied  i n the  field  apparent  literature authors  that  alike,  through adult  the  and e n d e a v o r  in  its  knowledge  in  disciplined graduate  adult  inquiry  training  monograph  published  California  Press,  cited a  doctoral  school Clark,"  adult as  3  in  education  one  of  1968  of  the  the  the  behind  at  define the  of  them?  term i n  educationists  "creation  the and  by t h e  ensured  by  and of  Clark's  University  from h i s  of  previously  Education in T r a n s i t i o n ,  organizational  agencies  a body  development  footnoting  Berkeley  "Adult  of  systematic  the  However,  2  they c i t e d  study  of  through  which p u b l i c a t i o n  study,  sophisticated  that  lagged  programs."  use  concepts  use.  education  has  the  to  practitioners,  D a r k e n w a l d and M e r r i a m s u g g e s t of  identify  frequent  education  find u t i l i t y  to  the  dynamics  of  sociologist  public Burton  exceptions:  Clark's analysis of the causes and effects of institutional marginality is still of value in understanding a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n s c h o o l and college settings. 4  Furthermore, one  of  D a r k e n w a l d and M e r r i a m  two e x a m p l e s of  even t h o u g h  conducted  5  refer  to  how r e s e a r c h  focused  by i n d i v i d u a l s  outside  Clark's on a d u l t of  the  study  education, field  Gordon G. D a r k e n w a l d and Sharan B. Marriam, Education: Foundations of Practice (New York: Harper 1982), p . 25. 2  Ibid.,  P.  26.  "Ibid.,  P.  26.  Ibid.,  P-  231 .  3  5  as  of  Adult & Row,  4  adult  education,  repeatedly Brunner, which  acknowledged  the  Clark's  school of  most  to  Wilder,  concerns  IV  adds  and  1956 the  and  not  to  the  area  of  Clark's  Monograph  has  its with  individually content the  contents. the  and  1956  numbering of  as  will,  the  7  They  "to  labeled  and  different  to  Chapter as  of  value  series, as  and  "a  Although  8  remained  introductions  other  policy,  published  have  to  administrative  education."  being  study, extent  contribution  in  appear  changing  document  to  implications  well  Clark  They  a  has book,  constant tables  hereafter,  be  referred  to  the  marginality,  of as  Monograph. Because  its  page  agencies."  included  base.  application  school adult  as  the noted  had  brilliant,  public been  of  attention  these  with  say  printed  exception This  which  dealing  beyond  been  to  knowledge  Newberry  gave  6  some o t h e r  Monograph,  valuable,  and  monograph,  degree  field's  importance  Kirchner,  systems his  the  of  apparent  desirable  that  the  frequent  importance the  in  concepts  use  of  the  field  of  term of  adult  marginality  education,  which  are  and it  is  labeled  Clark, Adult Education in Transition: A Study of Institutional Insecurity. U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P u b l i c a t i o n s in S o c i o l o g y and S o c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n s ( B e r k e l e y and Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1956; reprint ed. w i t h T a b l e of Contents (3rd P r i n t i n g ) , B e r k e l e y and L o s A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y of California Press, 1968; L o n d o n , England: Cambridge University Press, 1968); reprint, New Y o r k : A r n o P r e s s , 1980. (hereafter c i t e d as the Monograph. 6  ' E d w a r d de S c h w e i n i t z B r u n n e r , D a v i d S . Wilder, Corinne Kirchner and John S. Newberry, Jr., An Overview of A d u l t Education Research (Chicago: Adult Eduation Association of the U.S.A., 1959), p. 120. Ibid.,  p.  122.  5  with  this  visualize them t o  the  concept  is  to  being  defined--clear,  refine  a useful  is  companion  not and  model and t h e o r y  building.  necessary  step  and f o r  integrating  disciplines defined  and  terms  to  by t h e  that  a part  allow  of  status  is  theory of  for  if  thereof--it  becomes  defining  models  study.  the  concept  of  across  and  necessary  9  terms  for  is  of  than  a  study  boundaries  Anything less  is  possible  building within a f i e l d  and  adult  Once a c o n c e p t by t h e  to  enable  the  essential  tool.  denoted  The p r e c i s e  individuals  c o n c e p t s and t o  "subsidiary concepts"  in theory  fields  and  research  identifying  which  first  denoted  as  A uniform d e f i n i t i o n  become  that  so  a common u n d e r s t a n d i n g  element.  excluding to  states  a r r i v e at  education  well  common t e r m be d e f i n e d  of  clearly  concepts:  would i n t e r f e r e with the construction of adequate theory and the development of systematic research through which the body of knowledge accumulates logically with internal consistency. Consequently, the d i s c o v e r y of v a l i d s o l u t i o n s t o p r a c t i c a l p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d i n the f i e l d would be r e t a r d e d . 1 0  Because tends  to  be  concepts are to  several  concept  of  the one  of  the  formulated. concepts  of  p o p u l a r u s a g e s of  The c o n c e p t  as  term  fundamental  developed  marginality  the  one  by of  of  terms  marginality  a r o u n d w h i c h new  marginality  Clark. three  He  it  is  integral  described  historical  his  conditions  Coolie Verner, "Definition of Terms," in Adult E d u c a t i o n : O u t l i n e s of an E m e r g i n g F i e l d of University Study, ed. Gale Jensen, A.A. Liveright, and Wilbur Hallenbeck (Washington, D. C : A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n of t h e U.S.A., 1964), p . 33. 9  1 0  Ibid.,  p.  27.  6  which  "largely  exist  administration systems," economy,  1 1  of  the  of  operationalized  two b e i n g  potential  "the  effect  of  m a r g i n a l i t y need  to  to  identify  and a c o n t r i b u t i n g  1 6  some  symptoms  adult  education  18  application For  subunit  marginality,  stated  in  of  the  the  school  enrollment  ends  of  the  of  defined  and must  Clark  defined  his  of  subunits.  Clark,  Dissertation,  1 2  Ibid.,  p.  36.  1 3  Ibid.,  p.  26.  "Ibid.,  p.  25.  p.  26.  I b i d . , p.  27.  p.  26.  Ibid.  1 6  Ibid.,  1 8  Ibid.,  1 9  Ibid.  to  indices,  and  marginality, determination of  in to  p.  distinguish  24.  but  1 7  of  adult  1 5  also  whether  an  Confusion their  level  society.  defining  An  concept  sources,  marginality.  or w i t h i n  be  announced  1 4  m a r g i n a l i t y concerns  clarity  and  1 5  only  organizations  units  1  be w e l l  in a state  essential  1 7  of  some e x t e n t  for  1 9  is  education  it  is  to  1 3  factor  concepts  within  purposes  1  made  departments  the  not  and e v i d e n c e s  concerning multiple  1  decisions  pressures  f o r maximum u t i l i t y .  intention  bases,  the  education  "organizational marginality"  his  of  for  1 2  Concepts  of  'givens'  adult  other  and t h e  program."  as  concepts between  education  of adult  unit  is  7  defined  as  an  independent  organizational  element  function  is  education  is  a  not  adult  whose  in  organization  term  unit  direct  within  quotations  be  or  subordinate  Repeated marginality  through  important  larger  and  function  at  the  legally  of  this  will  not be  be  Clark  the  quoted  in  term  to  Branch  ( w h i c h may b e  subunit)  among  other  Los Angeles School  System)  and  function  the  0  Ibid.,  pp.  3-4.  a  its  use  statements, or  formally  to  refer  to  elements.  multiple concepts  denoted  by  examples  of  While  different  and c r i t i q u e  of  context  of  Clark  marginality.  denote thought  subunits  (the  2  of  incorporated  uses  to  education.  legal  used  an  the  term  in  Chapter  of  and it  is  uses each  marginality II  and  critiqued.  Education  not  be  analysis  subunit  rather  exception  made t o  Clark's  adult  of  and  organization  qualifying  will  identify  but,  powerful  the  by  term,  in-depth  a n a l y z e d and  is  with  been  unit  not  frequently  to  appropriate.  used  is  formally  single  point  individually  subsequently  have  the  more  education  subordinate  designation  or  most  m a r g i n a l i t y by C l a r k ,  would  thesis,  Subunits  are  use  or  accompanied  references  which  education  constituted  objective  An a d u l t  organizationally  to  of  formally primary  adults.  or  elements. parts  the  an a d u l t  this  restricted  incorporated  others  of  element  primary objective  will  of  wherein  s u b d i v i s i o n of  education  parental  The  the  and  the of  within wherein  education  as  status an  adult  a parental the of  of  Adult  education  organization  primary adults.  the  2 0  objective Clark  also  8  applied  this  concept  to  California  Department  Association  of  Adult  Variations to  describe  the  collectively, within  both  also  organizational  by  to  comparative  2 6  Adult  Education  and  2 1  to  of  of  adult  the  immediate  the  California  2 2  m a r g i n a l i t y were  education  of  used  subunits,  by  Clark  considered  parental organizations  systems  which  emcompass  and such  organizations.  subunits unit  s u c h as  was c o n s i d e r e d  specifically  2 7  Ibid.,  2 2  Ibid.  2 3  Ibid,  p.  30.  2 4  Ibid,  p.  26.  2 5  Ibid,  pp.  2 6  Ibid.,  p.  2 7  Ibid.,  pp.  2 8  Ibid.,  p.  2 9  Ibid.,  pp.  various  school  identify  24,  on s u c h a c o l l e c t i v e  basis  were  adult  2 8  and p r o g r a m s .  parental organizations  in his  a p p l i c a t i o n of  27.  172,  203.  70. 14,  24-30,  education:  departments,  2 4  172. 70,  by Among  29.  14,  were  of  and s c h o o l s .  programs, the  groupings  Groupings  classes,  2 3  infrequently  2 1  of  classes  Dissertation  schools,  p.  status  collectively.  agencies,  subunits  the  types,  his  administrative  appears  concept  considered  in  enterprises,  Education,  within  whose s t a t u s  Clark  of  organizational  education  subunits  the  parental  Clark  B u r e a u of  Education A d m i n i s t r a t o r s .  status  larger  immediate  adult  of  the  35-6,  70,  172.  2 9  2 5  He and  concepts  9  of  marginality.  consistency to  various  This  with  which C l a r k  adult  education  e l e m e n t s and p a r e n t a l Quite concept  by w h i c h  Dissertation  administrators, organizational Clark they these  two  his  concepts  The  concepts  term  of  marginality" concept in  of  in  have this  application  and  of  marginality  of  c o n c e p t s of of  adult  is  in  h.is  education  and  3 2  status  a  subunit  and a c c e p t a n c e  marginality. and  has  status, he  Clark's will  uses  thesis  be  use  as of  identified,  them  because  3 0  Ibid,  p.  30.  3 1  Ibid,  p.  172.  3 2  Ibid,  pp.  3 3  Ibid,  p.  26-7, 36.  of  marginality.  initial  7C.  i n the  from C l a r k ' s  referred  in contextual  Clark's  been used  distinct  been  organizational  definition  subunits  to  define  marginality.  marginality  concepts  marginality  education  activities,  and c r i t i q u e d as  denote c o n c e p t s which are These  organizational  status  acceptance  analyzed,  comparative  contexts.  c o n c e p t s of  3 1  marginality  and i d e n t i f i e d and  and  3 3  t o merge  terms,  discussed, various  functions,  3 0  position.  to  the  frequency  c o n c e p t s of  adult  additional  denote  appears  relate  of  examine the his  Clark's  status  used  to  applied  elements,  from  the  Clark  will  organizations  distinct  described,  thesis  to  as  initial  These  of  with  of  Clark's  similarities  occur  Few g u i d e l i n e s  marginality  to  concept.  "concepts  similarities  application. concept  literature  were  for  given  10  outside the  the  boundaries  term m a r g i n a l i t y ,  ambiguity  that  marginality. been  field  to of  results  situations.  adult  education  marginality  c o n c e p t s of  Other authors  to  of  of  necessary  to apply  of  have  Clark's  literature for  the  concepts  marginality  attempts  The r e v i e w is  using  seem u n c o n c e r n e d by  concepts  in t h e i r  in  the  identification  of  marginality.  definitions  appear  study.  Clark,  different  novel  adequate  case  from h a v i n g a m u l t i p l i c i t y of  by t h e s e a u t h o r s  these d i s t i n c t Since  his  and c i t i n g  Distinctly  created  concept  of  be  for  the  several  non-existent,  concepts  definitions  of  will  be  proposed. Once c o n c e p t s to  identify  an  identification  of  m a r g i n a l i t y are  applications  of  process  defined  some c o n c e p t s of  is  considered  to  it  may be  possible  marginality.  be an  initial  Such test  of  validity. Outside  of  Clark's  identified  in Chapter I I ,  by  and  Clark  additional  definitional  marginality measurement adult  appears of  any  education  available the  authors  for  to  state  This  writings,  term appears  within  adult  development. have of  been  well  use  thesis  of  have  have  its  will  applied  with  minimal  concepts  of  No r e p o r t s  of  appeared no  and c r i t i q u e d  in  the  guidelines  effects.  Dissertation  be  been  the  defined.  Virtually  in both h i s  which  education  marginality  analyzed  to  None of  a s s e s s i n g m a r g i n a l i t y or  in context,  understand h i s  the  .literature.  term m a r g i n a l i t y  be q u o t e d  initial  are  H i s uses  of  and Monograph w i l l in  an  effort  to  them.  was  commenced  under  the  assumption  that  11  c o n c e p t s of field  of  marginality  adult  education.  application  of  developing  precise  marginality, To  clarify  his  u s e s of  the  clarity  will  field  of  blocks  to  the  must  be  integration  commonly  denoted  terms  might  make t h e  than  to  allowing  potential addressing  for  integration the  in their  of  those  for  concepts  contexts  is  to  theory  to  field  For  the  sociological  theory,  and  mutual maximum use  field  specific,  of  if  visualize  enable  understanding fields  building  t h r o u g h the  j a r g o n of  turn  Terms  studied.  or  in  specific  i n d i v i d u a l s to  being  the  conceptual  the  be  is  across  thereof.  which  meaning and t h u s  universal  and  uses  enjoy  or  subject  and use of  allow  of  of  exist.  s h o u l d be d e f i n e d  terms more  to  each  his  and p r a c t i c e ,  is  of  of  from b o t h  and c r i t i q u e ,  education  avoiding  structure  his  through q u o t a t i o n  field  so as  and c o n c e p t s language,  of  Terms and c o n c e p t s must  which  conventional tend  of  phenomena that  s u c h as  and model b u i l d i n g ,  the  definition  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of utility,  in  in  importance  through c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  adult  be p r e c i s e .  c o n c e p t s need  traced  in theory  common u n d e r s t a n d i n g  the  inconsistency  The  concepts,  and t h r o u g h a n a l y s i s  and' s u c c e s s  may l e a d  of  term m a r g i n a l i t y  contexts, If  marginality.  development  D i s s e r t a t i o n and M o n o g r a p h , their  be  in  assumed.  Clark's  each the  of  definitions  further  and d e v e l o p m e n t  There appeared to  concepts  was  marginality,  lacked d e f i n i t i o n  which rather  and  study.  of  their Turner,  insists:  a body of t h e o r y r e s t s on t h e p r e m i s e t h a t s c i e n t i s t s w i l l do t h e i r b e s t t o d e f i n e c o n c e p t s unambiguously. Not to do so, or to give up b e c a u s e t h e t a s k i s d i f f i c u l t , i s to i'nvite c o n c e p t u a l chaos and thereby to preclude the accumulation of theoretical  12  knowledge. " 3  Clark's with  several  dictionary. the  more  of  of  Clark's  the  of  link  Clark's  to  of  can  definitions  in  a  organizational of  i n i t i a l concept  of  coincides  a  standard  be compared  to  marginality  to  An i n d i v i d u a l o u t s i d e  gain  field  found  marginality w i l l  agreement.  the  marginality  marginality  standardized  jargon s p e c i f i c  will  for  education  concept  organizational  concepts  d e g r e e of  adult  Clark's  of  definitions  popular  determine field  concept  basic  of  the  understanding  of  m a r g i n a l i t y without adult  of  education.  marginality  the  This  to  need  thesis  dictionary  definitions. A  second  challenge  concept's  usefulness  situations  and  made by T u r n e r  by  making  it  is  that  relevant  of  increasing  to  a  observable  occurrences:  A f t e r a l l , t h e u t i l i t y of an a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t c a n o n l y be d e m o n s t r a t e d when the c o n c e p t i s b r o u g h t t o b e a r on some specific empirical problem encountered by investigators: otherwise, concepts remain detached from the very processes they are supposed to h e l p investigators understand. 3 5  Thus,  Turner  accompanied sets  of  c o n c e p t s when  by " o p e r a t i o n a l  definitions,"  procedural  identify  phenomena  J . ed. 3  revised  maintains,  ,  instructions in  the  telling  real world.  abstract 3 6  should  which are  3 5  Ibid.,  3 6  Ibid.  p.  4.  series  individuals One o b j e c t i v e  Turner, The Structure of Soc i o l o g i c a l (Homewood, 1 1 1 . : The D o r s e y P r e s s , 1 9 7 8 ) .  be  how of  or to  this  Theory,  1 3  thesis  is  to  marginality adult  have  of  of  identify  Until  and measure  concept  the  Until  with  adult  the  the  which  concepts  of  and a p p l i e d  is  to  identify  education  in  confusion  resolved, of  it  concept  is  so d e n o t e d ,  restrict or u n t i l  of  to  whether  their  be  identified  the  users  individuals  it  will  of  the  term are  the  the  to of be  field  term to  is  to  continue  types  w h i c h can  in  term m a r g i n a l i t y  enabling  marginality,  of  the  impossible  different  usage  and by  concerning  will  the  distinct  by C l a r k  t e r m m a r g i n a l i t y and i n d i v i d u a l s  among c o n c e p t s  modified  the by  differentiate  to  be  impossible  t a l k i n g about  the  the  the  thing. The p u r p o s e s  of  this  term m a r g i n a l i t y ; p r e s e n t determining  education of  made  in adult  a single  education  determine  be  effects  accompanying d e s c r i p t o r s ,  in  to  instrumented,  apparent  marginality  marginality. labeled  will  m a r g i n a l i t y used  authors.  meanings  same  degree  defined,  summary, an e f f o r t  concepts  of  been  the  education. In  other  ascertain  the  documents  the  literature; term  This  to  its of  perceived  the  term  analyze,  what use  review  are  Clark's  as  use  being  within  as  education; of  the  useful  the  and c r i t i q u e  identified  in adult  o r i g i n of  adult  each the  primary  discuss  t e r m ; and  use  the define  precisely.  exercise  clarification marginality.  in  consistency  these concepts  of  identify,  contained  are  definitions  meaning  p e r t a i n i n g to  theoretical  thesis  of It  the will  is  an  concepts be  historical which  accomplished  are  and  theoretical  currently  through  a  termed,  literature  1 4  review, the  classification  literature,  concept  of  of  the  u s a g e s of  and d e v e l o p m e n t  of  the  term m a r g i n a l i t y  definitions  for  each  in  distinct  marginality. Methodology  Several research. an  research  Primarily  examination  seventeen Clark's  as  the  of  is  under  thesis  Adult after the  the  "doctoral  3 8  and r e f e r r e d  in  this  begins  with  Education,  the  a of  circulated  same t i t l e  as  dissertation  to  37  completion  widely  A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y ,  research  to  questions search.  Was C l a r k ' s similar  to apply  education?  education  marginality.  were  Clark's  completed  University  elsewhere  in To  concept  of  ways  his  concept  extent  to  it  is  of  with do  for to  the  marginality  in  of  this  purposes  use field  applied  applied  marginality  extensively  association what  first  pertinent  the  How  formulated  Was C l a r k  denote a concept  Did Clark  adult  next  published on C l a r k ' s  this  two y e a r s  Reviewed  literature  education? education  analysis,  employed  the Monograph.  marginality  adult  published  of  are  Marginality  Los A n g e l e s , "  Several  in  based  Department  California,  field?  The  monograph,  ' the  guiding  of  Di s s e r t a t i o n .  Dissertation,  thesis  a concept  page e s s a y  220-page  in  methodologies  was  Clark  his  use  Clark's  of  the  term  of  adult  in  outside  adult of  the  consistently referenced of  the  concept(s)  in  term of  Clark, The M a r g i n a l i t y of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , N o t e s and E s s a y s , on E d u c a t i o n f o r A d u l t s , number 20 ("Chicago: Center for the Study of L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n f o r A d u l t s , 1958), p p . 1-17. 3 7  3 8  Idem,  Monograph,  Acknowledgments.  15  marginality within  adult  pertinent this  lend  to  themselves  education. the  above  to  application  What  are  questions  the  and f o r  and  measurement  documents  setting  the  which  are  scope  of  thesis? Acknowledging  beyond t h e review  of  s c o p e of the  regards,  first  on t h a t  that  some of  this  the  literature  assessible  at  a  preceding questions more  was c o n s i d e r e d  literature  library,  the  thesis,  literature  many  personal  that  the  through  to  s e a r c h was  readily  thorough be t h e  computer  search  next  in  British  searches  and  step.  opportunistic,  available  U n i v e r s i t y of  may be  In  focusing  this  author's  Columbia,  available  and on at  the  in  that  University. Portions the  major  i n the  purposes  of  marginality, Clark,  related  of  degree  of of  context  identification  professional  u s e s of  were f e l t  their  the  to  his of  than C l a r k ,  conformity  study. various  to  of  to  article  to  of  B u r t o n R.  analysis  of  the  authors  in  education.  were r e v i e w e d Clark's  exercise  concepts  reference  by  adult  concepts  m a r g i n a l i t y by  c o n c e p t s of  This  and  be p r i m a r y  in adult  of  article  term  and f o r  marginality  Clark's  ssociations  were s e a r c h e d  subjects,  other  testing of  s e a r c h were s y s t e m a t i c  t e r m and c o n c e p t s of  education,  purposes the  the  of  United States  whose w r i t i n g s  Use of  the  literature  identifying  t e r m and c o n c e p t s  adult  the  periodicals  education for  of  to  usages  determine and  for  marginality outside was p e r c e i v e d  m a r g i n a l i t y and  useful in  of in  their  ref inement. Searches  wer e c  made  of  course  syllabi  or o f f e r i n g s  within  16  the  Department  the  of  University  Clark and  of  contained the  in  Coolie  Educational banks  Administrative, Adult British the  [Current  Index  in  Education  Association  beginning  with  to  his  Education 1985  of  Theory  of  the  Research);  and t h e  1960,  concepts, and  Memorial  R e a d i n g Room i n t h e  this  applied  for in  Adult  1982  design  concepts  disciplines.  In  which  British  author's of  1980  they  Journal  and C o n t i n u i n g  of  of  July  R e s e a r c h and Pract ice.  of  and  the Handbook  hundred  books  change,  psychology,  personal  psychology,  Education Research Center (UBC),  of  at  the  the  graduate  Coolie  UBC g e n e r a l  were s c a n n e d of  of  Years);  Adult  library  course  until  shelved  m a r g i n a l i t y o r use the  prior  were  Columbia  personal  Clark  t h r o u g h the  editions  behavior,  Adult  which  A  and  (AEA-USA)  The A d u l t  Omnibus  development,  theories,  the  and a y e a r  A d d i t i o n a l l y , more t h a n one  organizational  U n i v e r s i t y of  and  (CUE)  in  Education:  An  data  and c o n t i n u i n g  inception  1970,  policy,  and  year  Lifelong Learning:  Learning:  computer  America  collection  (Adult  from t h e i r  L ifelong  concerning  the  data  both  of  of  Library  Room;  Education  the  American A s s o c i a t i o n  Education.  planning,  in  Dissertation,  and  (ERIC)  periodicals  issues,  1982  Columbia  (Adult Education Q u a r t e r l y : A Journal  and  Adult  Theory  Center  at  under B u r t o n R.  Reading  United States  research  in  (AAACE)  issue  1953  his  British  Journals  the  listings  Education  (RIE)];  of  doctoral  and  periodicals  of  the  discontinued  Research  to  Education  acceptance  were  Adult  Information  Resources  completed  U n i v e r s i t y of  Verner  Resources  Columbia;  and H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n  the study,  for term  Verner  stacks  examples in  at  of  other  publications  of  17  departmental for  the  faculty  purpose  graduate  of  students  members and s t u d e n t identifying  papers  concepts  brought a d d i t i o n a l  of  were  reviewed  marginality.  references  to  this  Fellow author's  attention. All the  of  Clark's  writings  term or c o n c e p t s  Dissertation, examination  were was  marginality  scanned  the  actual  not,  if  used,  other  the  and  than  his  of  the  focus  whether  the  term  consistently. of  m a r g i n a l i t y had been  f u r t h e r use  of  concepts  of  identified,  of  marginality  contextual  indicators,  was then  used the  the  marginality.  t e r m , m a r g i n a l i t y , was u s e d w i t h i n  a concept  sufficient  B i b l i o g r a p h y , wherein  Initially,  relationships  was u s e d  for  i n the  m a r g i n a l i t y are read.  on  Once a c o n c e p t was  of  listed  work  Whether  these contexts  or  as  by  evidenced  p a s s a g e was  initially  reviewed. References term  from  marginality  additional any of  had  relevant  Clark's  bibliography,  e a c h newly been  or  if  referenced  key words were  marginality,  acceptance,  central,  development,  were  then  retrenchment,  or  listed  marginal,  or o t h e r  article  wherein  examined  Works o r p a s s a g e s were  were  including  stage  used,  works.  writings  identified  reviewed  included in subject  margin,  in  the for if the  indices,  organizational,  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l growth  terms which appear to  be  cycles,  related  to  status. Leading definitions marginality.  to  the  will  establishment  be a n a l y z e d  The  for  dictionary  the  of  definitions,  terms m a r g i n ,  definitions  will  dictionary  m a r g i n a l , and be  identified  18  according  to  their  congruence  identified  c o n c e p t s of  g r o u n d the  newly  Two m a j o r abstraction determine of  adult  and h o m o n y m y , the  view;  or  insist  that  adult  education  similarities Because  been  of  than  a purpose  the of  felt  that  homonymy terms  distinct view  is  definitions felt  and c o n c e p t s  identifying  marginality mutually  used  A  term  of  which  thesis  is  are  is  not  field  abstraction concepts  homonymy  to  used lay  of view  with to  the  to  this  this  assumed adult  in no  designate foundation it  is  end,  a weak  thesis.  Thus,  be examined  of  very  m a r g i n a l i t y used  is  necessary  to  field  one  m a r g i n a l i t y and b e c a u s e  It  the  fact  independent  marginality w i l l  within  in  strong  be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r  uniqueness.  for  that  purposes  concepts  of  education  are  marginality  that  exclusive.  Definitions may be  of  to  logicians,  i n the  independent  and  o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g c o n c e p t s of  are  to  terms.  i n an e f f o r t  concepts  this  required  marginality--the  distinct  the  considered  and  various  is  of  and  and o t h e r s of  each  linguists  homonymy v i e w .  are'  process  m a r g i n a l i t y used  different  the  other  have  Clark  for  i n common E n g l i s h by  concept  exist--the  would  of  by  whether  marginality  39  This  used  concepts  education  and a b s t r a c t  for  concepts  "strategies"  general  them.  marginality.  defined  whether  or a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  identified  Classification  of  for  the  various  will  be u s e d  C o n c e p t s of  to  c o n c e p t s of  establish  Marginality.  a Typology Use of  the  for  the  proposed  George Lakoff and Mark J o h n s o n , M e t a p h o r s We L i v e By ( C h i c a g o and L o n d o n : The U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1 9 8 0 ) , p p . 106-14. 3 9  19  typology authors  may s e r v e as of  concepts  literature, of  this  of  for  analysis  marginality within is  of  the  considered  to  u s e s by  adult  other  education  be beyond t h e  scope  thesis.  Marginality'  marginality will  strategy  which a n a l y s i s  Once d e v e l o p e d , of  one  allow  may  from the  the  Typology for  be  the  tested  adult  evaluation  of  Classification  by  classifying  of  Concepts  concepts  education  literature.  adequacy  for  each  This  of  testing  definition  of  marginality. The  purpose  foundation  for  concepts  of  insignificant Nevertheless,  of  the  the  analysis  method of once  differing  designation  distinguish  this  are  concepts  and  Typology  Classification  processes  for  validated  by  usage  by  of  to  other  to  this  be  labels  the  and  once  will  u s e d by C l a r k be d i s c u s s e d concepts of  concepts,  a  and an  thesis.  term m a r g i n a l i t y  distinct  the  term  frequencies  C o n c e p t s of  validating  ability  felt  through a p p l i c a t i o n of  s e r v e as  marginality appearing  of  The p r o p o s e d d e f i n i t i o n s  t e r m and c o n c e p t  of  to the  Monograph,  listed,  typology.  their  of  marginality w i l l  classification of  is  is  the  The numerous  literature  definitions for  of  identification  from t h e  usage  purposes  and  nominally  thesis.  The  marginality  feasible  usage  among c o n c e p t s of  analyzed.  for  Dissertation  two documents in  Clark's  analysis  for  typology  Numeration  Clark's  in his  reported  of  marginality.  identified  these  proposed  is the in be to and of  proposed using  Marginality,  the  will  be  proposed d e f i n i t i o n s  and  and t y p o l o g y  facilitate authors  may be  further  c r i t i c a l analysis of  adult  of  education  20  literature. Several chapter.  Many  chapters  to  marginality used  to  questions of  be  distinguish  stated  Should  his  the  the  basis  this  Chapter  was  denote  a  the  goals  identified concept  concerning to  t h r o u g h the  of  this  Chapter  identifies  marginality  and  marginality  in his  as  well  as  explicated. constitute work,  have  explores  to  use of  education  for analyzing C l a r k ' s  the  use  Clark extent  be w r i t t e n Should  to this  or  a  previously  analysis.  described  have  in  this  term, m a r g i n a l i t y , education.  been  writings  of  to  Questions marginality  stated.  utilizing  Research  perspective  the of  of  the  on of  term  term i n the  of  organizations the  term a r e  aforementioned the  the  for a p p l y i n g concepts  H i s focus  Dictionary definitions along with  To what  among o t h e r s  adult  purposes  sociological  a basis,  in  stated.  Clark's his  labels  abstraction  conceptual  doctoral study.  the  the  t e r m and c o n c e p t s  been  topics  Format  field  the  adult  thesis  II  first  the  a p p l i c a t i o n of  field  for  in  an  r e s e a r c h methodology as  as  marginality? using  introductory  organizational  marginality?  of  Thesis Clark,  What were  questions,  for  of  Can d e f i n i t i o n s  be a p p r o a c h e d These  serve  concept  of  concepts  strategy?  in t h i s  will  to C l a r k ?  i n term usage?  analysis  for  identified  concept(s)  among  will  been  questions  credited  was he c o n s i s t e n t  homonymy  these  follow.  designate  conceptual  have  study  are  reviewed  and  reviews two  of  his  primary  documents. Chapter  III  is  dedicated  to  presentation  and d i s c u s s i o n  of  21  u s e s of  the  context,  t e r m m a r g i n a l i t y from  wherein  length  to  the  term  facilitate  Clark's  is  used,  Dissertation.  is  identification  quoted  of  in  Each  sufficient  critical  conceptual  elements. Chapter  IV i n c l u d e s  marginality.  Each  illustrated seventeen  in  to  category  charted  u s e s of  and a n a l y z e d .  the  use  of  the  of  the  term i s  u s e s of  observations  the  process  the  in  data  in  Chapter V I I .  themselves  to  categorization  defining  definitions marginality  theme  documents will  Chapter VIII and  Chapter  of  the  Clark's  discussed,  lend  themselves  Ancillary are  for Each  Monograph.  uses  thematically involve  follow. the  term  compared  and  not  lending  labeled  data  study.  from  General  of  observations  his  data  from The  and  Clark's thematic  which are necessary  for  marginality.  dedicated for  time  categorical  Clark's  distinctions of  this  Monograph.  and Monograph a r e  concerning  make  labels  and t h e i r  III,  categorization  presentations  concepts is  to  from  Dissertation  Most  specific  and  context.  tabled  contrasted  presentations  from  charted,  term m a r g i n a l i t y i n h i s  in his  primary  of  presentation  marginality  two  of  defined  data  w h i c h do not  lending themselves  Categorical  discussed.  Contextual  t e r m m a r g i n a l i t y from t h e  quoted  the  not  form.  is  concepts  follow.  C h a p t e r VI i s Clark's  categorizing  subcategory  observations  Chapter V repeats uses  and  for  term m a r g i n a l i t y a r e  General  categorization  Clark's  a premise  to each  subcategories.  the of  proposal the  basic  Additionally,  of  succinct  concepts a  of  generic  22  label  is  education one which  proposed subunits  educational is  denoting  the  which are c o n s i d e r e d system.  marginality to  The d e f i n i t i o n s  be p a r t  of  constitute  of  adult  more  than  a  typology  of  summary  tabled.  The f i n a l statements, limitations research.  for  chapter findings  of  the  study  includes and  the  presentation  conclusions.  and c o n t a i n s  It  addresses  recommendations  for  the  future  23  CHAPTER  II  CLARK'S WRITINGS CONCERNING MARGINALITY AND DEFINITIONS PERTINENT FOR THEIR ANALYSIS The and  principal  analysis  of  marginality. presentation  p u r p o s e of  Clark'*s w r i t i n g s A  of  second  intended  b a c k g r o u n d of  to  to  p r o v i d e the  facilitate  understanding  marginality  as  they  chapter  is  the  pertinent  to  u s a g e s of  the  chapter  is  purpose  term m a r g i n a l i t y a p p e a r s is  this  of  this  Clark's  have  d o c t o r a l study  first  been  reader with of  the  are d i s c u s s e d  identification  used.  several  exercise  of  the  term  chapters.  These  ends w i l l  be a c c o m p l i s h e d t h r o u g h e x p l o r i n g C l a r k ' s  purposes  applying  concepts  study  discussing  his  of  focus  marginality in his on  organizations  doctoral  from  the  background to  uses  i n subsequent  the  wherein  This  sufficient  term  the  for  and by  sociological  perspect ive. The  third  major  dictionary  definitions  the  margin.  term  understanding C l a r k ' s seen as  section of  the  of  this  chapter  focuses  t e r m m a r g i n a l i t y and o f  These d e f i n i t i o n s u s a g e s of  the  f o r m i n g a common d e f i n i t i o n a l  are viewed  term base  as  its  for  root,  a basis  marginality  on  arid  understanding  for are the  24  applications As  of  evidenced  reports,  of  I,  subunits.  his  as  outlined  public  in the  Clark  the  Methodology  was  the  to  first  status  to  of  in  the  examination  of  subsection  of  use  the  adult  to  may  used  be  limit  his  Los  Angeles  the  1950s.  considered the  s y s t e m of  term  education  institutionalizing  4 0  Clark,  4 1  Ibid.  4 2  Ibid.,  of  1.  and  education  Los  of  "adult  Angeles  The document  to  just  While  be a s o c i o l o g i c a l of  the  4 2  Dissertation, schools  School  was c o m p l e t e d  Los A n g e l e s .  in  his case  Clark  originally  education,"  System 1954  study,  education  in  a case however,  study he  at  it the  intended  E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h of  have  and  doctoral  adult  Adult  in order to  adult  Public  repeatedly  discused.  study  Dissertation.  p.  identified  in his  California."  System  term m a r g i n a l i t y  be  development  "purview to  School  the  term m a r g i n a l i t y  California,  concerns  to  the  case  early  used  Each w i l l  within  4 1  school  have  study.  first  the  "directly  R.  in a d d i t i o n  periodicals,  listed  appears  U n i v e r s i t y of  study  books,  A r t i c l e s Concerning M a r g i n a l i t y  organizational  during  the  Clark's  departments"  the  thesis,  discussing  doctoral  Clark an  of  settings.  4 0  Clark in  in  in s p e c i f i c  and u n p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l s  Burton  marginality  a review  this  publications  Chapter  marginality  through  proceedings,  Bibliography other  c o n c e p t s of  in  the the  addressed,  25  studied since  and g e n e r a l i z e d  received  Clark's  focus  reports the  attention on a d u l t  published  extensive  in  citation  of  marginality  within his  source  the  were  no  Clark's the  of  Publications  third  in  book  the  its  index  has  that  be h e l p f u l  to  other  the  made  readers  first  used  document  in  is  to  the  and  to  adult term  primary in  thesis  Clark's  and  the  marginality this  elsewhere  in the  an  been  adult  to  the  Dissertation  in  University  of  Institutions  reprinted  1968." the  of  The  s  this  Since four  book  1956  by  as the  California 0  under  1956,  this  times,  three  Press,  maintained  the page  i n i t i a l p r i n t i n g and  consistent  thesis  thesis  series"  California  article's This  this  index  U n i v e r s i t y of  of  in  Di ssertat i o n .  commencing w i t h page number 43. may  articles  of  with  his  form by t h e  matching  his  by a u t h o r s  and S o c i a l  in  to  study.  Press  as  attributable  field,  references  published  title  has  the  c o n c e p t s of  r e f e r r e d to  was  The s t u d y  3  with  Clark  references  through t h i s  r e p r i n t i n g being  numbering  of  in Sociology  identical  study  Dissertation  California  Monograph w i t h times  the  direct  article,  Monograph,  University  the  other  identified  organizations,  Because  study  O u t s i d e of  document,  educators,  journals associated  literature.  education.  conditions.""  among a d u l t  education  education  in  "state-wide  in that  page  numbering  specific  pages  " Ibid. 3  ""Idem, Adult Education in Transition: A Study of I n s t i t u t i o n a l Insecurity, ed. Philip Selznick, University of California Publications in S o c i o l o g y and S o c i a l Institutions, vol. 1, no. 2 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1968), p p . 43-202. " Idem, 5  Monograph,  1968.  26  in  footnoted  references  reprintings thesis. table  are  the  Monograph a r e a p p l i c a b l e  enumerated  contents  acknowledged  were  added  i n the  to  all  b i b l i o g r a p h y of  this  acknowledgments,  and  i n the  Additionally, a publisher's of  Clark  which  to  page,  to  r e p r i n t s of  the  Monograph.  Monograph t h a t :  This study is based on a doctoral dissertation completed in the Department of Anthropology and S o c i o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , L o s A n g e l e s . " 6  Even  t h o u g h he a c k n o w l e d g e d  doctoral to  the  dissertation,  Di s s e r t a t ion  The  a b s e n c e of  the  adult  fact  that  Clark's of  his  w h i c h was by  the  referred  literature per  se  formally  writings passages  to  Science  elsewhere  of  his  are  seldom  references  thesis  concerning  as  prominent  document  the  marginality  and r e c e i v e s m a j o r a t t e n t i o n  4 7  from  read  his  to  the  and  to  in  any  the term  Monograph  granted  Clark's  and  in part  in  term m a r g i n a l i t y .  1952-53 f e l l o w s h i p  Research C o u n c i l . "  reference  Di s s e r t a t ion  the  his  Dissertation  widely his  on  Monograph.  may be a t t r i b u t e d  i n w h i c h he u s e d  in t h i s  based  a formal  Clark's  referenced  and  was  include  citations  " c o n d u c t e d under a  Social  d i d not  direct  having  he c i t e d  article  b i b l i o g r a p h y of  dissertations  other  Rather,  Clark  the  i n the  education  never  that  1956  Monograph, and  to  Clark  article, is  the  concepts  analysis  in  of this  thesis.  4 6  Ibid.,  Idem, Acknowledgments. 4 7  Acknowledgments. Adult  Educat ion  in  Transition,  1968,  27  Clark's in  1958.  The M a r g i n a l i t y of  Whereas h i s  which  primarily  within  the  focused  and i t s  adult  education.  the  Center  application  of  Values:  Study  marginality  [sought]  of  to  modification."  1964,  the  this  for  of  schools  1958  article  denoted the  w i t h an  published  adult  The  article  was  in case  concept  in  of  firstly  study of  the  field  of  accompanying Director  the  in  Adults. term  and  Precarious  the  American  identified  values, of  of  education.  1956  social  by  Education for  application  field  adult  Assistant  Liberal  was  a  Clark's  one  marginality  and  secondly,  type as  "some of  of it  value affects  discussed.  Clark's  Amer i c a n Soc i o l o g i c a l  Miller,  of  weakness  modification In  5 0  present 5 1  the  concept  published  Dissertation  " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l A d a p t a t i o n and  Review.  conditions  L.  attempted  to  article,  A Case S t u d y "  Soc i o l o g i c a l  value  the  the  was p u b l i s h e d  by H a r r y  9  of  System,  was  8  his  and i m p l i c a t i o n s  The a r t i c l e  for  Clark's  to  on  transition  marginality,  critiqued Clark's  concept  the  Education"  based  P u b l i c School  term  "Postscript""  Miller  the  concerned  the  term,  3-page  Monograph was  Los Angeles  on  Adult  Monograph  Review  was  which  had  reprinted  appeared in  part  in under  the a  " Idem, The M a r g i n a l i t y of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , N o t e s and E s s a y s on E d u c a t i o n f o r A d u l t s , number 20 [ C h i c a g o : Center for t h e S t u d y of L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n f o r A d u l t s , 1 9 5 8 ) , p p . 1-17. 8  " Ibid, 9  Idem, Values: A Case 1956): 327-36. 5 0  5 1  Ibid.,  pp.  16-18.  "Organizational Adaptation and Precarious Study," A m e r i c a n Soc i o l o g i c a l Review 21 (June  pp.  327-28.  28  shortened In the  title  1980,  Clark's  fourth time, In  least a  in Amitai  summary,  three  record  article  this  Monograph was latest  Clark's  publishers, of  at  Etzioni's  least  time  issued six  It  which C l a r k  was  extensively  expected  i n the  reprinted  in at  for  in these  that  term  references  New  already  for  York. by  at  and  has  demand f o r  the  popularity  emphasized the  form  two e d i t i o n s ,  Sustained  5 3  the  of  5 2  been d i s t r i b u t e d  least  printings.  reader.  i n book  by A r n o P r e s s  Monograph has  and book may a c c o u n t  marginality;  sociological  of  the  term  publications.  marginality noted  discussed  would  appear  in  t  other  works  by C l a r k .  Dissertation junior  cited  addressed  colleges  marginality in  these  have books  were  writings " 5  organizational  and s o c i e t y  might  Di s s e r t a t ion  Clark's  to  which  and  discussed,  several but  initial  Clark's concepts  only  followed  relationships  his  been a p p l i e d .  which  two  within  concept  Monograph from books  his  55  of was  Clark's contained  Idem, "Organizational Adaptation and Precarious Values." In Complex O r g a n i z a t i o n s : A Soc i o l o g i c a l R e a d e r , ed. Amitai EtzionT (New York, Chicago, San Francisco, Toronto, London: H o l t , R i n e h a r t & W i n s t o n , 1964), pp. 159-167. 5 2  S e e Reference and p r i n t i n g d a t e s . 5 3  Bibliography for  listing  of  publishers  "Clark, The Open Door C o l l e g e : A Case S t u d y (New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1960); Idem, Educating the Expert Society (San Francisco: Chandler, 1962TJ Idem, The D i s t i n c t i v e College: A n t i o c h , Reed and Swarthmore (Chicago: Aldine, 1970); Idem, A c a d e m i c Power i n I t a l y : B u r e a u c r a c y and O l i g a r c h y i n a N a t i o n a l University S y s t e m ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o Press"! 1977); Idem, "Academic C o o r d i n a t i o n " , Y a l e Higher Education Research Group 24 (New H a v e n , C o n n . : YHERG, 1 9 7 8 . ) ; The H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n System: Academic Organization in Cross-National Perspect ive (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and L o n d o n : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1983). 5  5 5  Idem,  Monograph.  29  applications  of  marginality  found  possible was  trends  cited  5  Clark's articles,  second  use  on  cited  5 6  a  a concept  with  the  occur his  predictable  5 8  and  Clark's Clark's  identify  his  to  Idem,  be  with  the  within  exception his  published  most  in  1 983  will  in  pertinent  term. be  of  assigned  The Open Door C o l l e g e ,  the  two  in  the  three  and  based  the  term  and Monograph w i l l E a c h use  and  meanings  pp.  7  Dissertation  u s a g e s of  cited use  The  5  within  and d i s c u s s e d what to  of  been  the  in p e r i o d i c a l s  Monograph.  the  of  Dissertation, and  Dissertation  contexts  Clark's  was  t e r m m a r g i n a l i t y w h i c h have  u s e s of  Monograph  identifying  marginality outside  Dissertation,  articles  Both  of  referenced,  D i s s e r t a t i o n and t h e  marginality.  considered  of  study,  and Monograph i n c l u d e  of  of  u s a g e s of  this  the  purposes  with  6  based  Di s s e r t a t ion  in connection  condition  in  to  of  example  only  additionally  was  use  an  Monograph  reviewed  writings  first  "Organizational marginality"  quotations,  both  these  The  organizations.  preceding  on  marginality.  w h i c h were p r e v i o u s l y  Clark's identified  in  of  for  as  consequences:  his  a concept  might the  be his for be  terms.  192-193.  M a x Weber, From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. Translated, edited, and w i t h an I n t r o d u c t i o n by. H . H. Gerth and C . W r i g h t M i l l s (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1946), pp. 61-5, as paraphrased by Burton R. C l a r k , The H i g h e r Educat ion System: Academic Organization in Cross-National Perspective (Berkeley, Los A n g e l e s , and L o n d o n : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1983), p . 99. 5 7  "See Marginality of Transition". 5  Clark, Adult  "Organizational Adaptation"; "The E d u c a t i o n " ; and "Adult Education in  30  Observations discussed,  from  the  analyzed, Clark's  A  brief  Purpose  description chapter.  presented  supply  to  to  enable  applying to  one  prepare  of of  A  be  tabled,  compared,  for  study  was  introduction  given  will  background c o n c e r n i n g  reader  reader  Development  Clark's  fuller  adequate  the  Concept  to  o r more c o n c e p t s  the  will  and c r i t i q u e d .  introductory  study  quotations  understand of  in  the  now  the  be  doctoral  Clark's  logic  in  in his  study,  and  the  term  marginality  analyses  of  Clark's  u s e s of  or concepts  of  m a r g i n a l i t y appear  marginality. Clark's  concept  been d e v e l o p e d way.  i n the  Through  identified Angeles  School  concept  of  the  Adult  of  its  factors  educational  a  values  the  pressures."  5 9  prescriptive,  adult  transition  status,  5 9  Clark,  state  of  the  felt  schools,  one  of  be  he  had  the  Los  wherein  a state  wherein  the  School three to  within "highly  has the  a  His  status System  of or  contributing  have  and a s e t  education  142.  felt  represent  reported  programs  Monograph, p.  to  purpose,  had grown t o  Clark  had been a s s u m e d .  Los Angeles  school  traditional  existence  were u p h e l d t o  w h i c h he  Whereas p u b l i c  in C a l i f o r n i a  study,  have  in a  E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h of  developed  open-ended  Clark  case  community demands  m a r g i n a l i t y was  twenty-four  "marginal  schools  to  education  Adult  from  E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h of  to  adult  by t h e  System  orientation  of  organizational  a transition  traditional service  his  field  to  of  observed: operating  tended adult  adaptive  to  be  education to  the  31  expressed  interests  schools  are  Equating  for  an  s t u d e n t s and community g r o u p s ,  close  "service  evidence and  in  of  relationship  character" with  element  their  between  which  had  the  clientele."  "other-directed,"  determining differences  organizational  to  and  Clark  noted  "traditional assumed  a  6 0  modes" service  character: We s h a l l f i n d s t r o n g e v i d e n c e of the s e r v i c e c h a r a c t e r of the s c h o o l s i n t h e way t h a t c l a s s e s a r e i n i t i a t e d and m a i n t a i n e d , w i t h s t u d e n t s in effect making the final decisions. The s e r v i c e o r i e n t a t i o n i s reflected also in the b a s e s f o r h i r i n g and f i r i n g t e a c h e r s , in t h e d u t i e s of the administrative role, and in the c o n t e n t of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d o c t r i n e s . 6 1  Clark Adult  announced  E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h of  state  of  prevailed service  existence to  a state  rather  sense,  the  which s c h o o l s Clark  as  records,  using  facilities, states  6 0  6  to of  Ibid.,  historical  'Ibid.  from one  45.  such the  a  of  the  budget,  profiles. not  state  assumed  first of  schools  and  were  Through adult  hand.  existence  in  a  In an but 1953,  seen  by  historical  schools  enrollment,  Clark  a  values  transition,  adult  community demands.  data,  had  the  from  community demands.  of  as  by  educational  orientations  such v a r i a b l e s  p.  to  existence  System  schools  observe  service  states  schools  adult  existence  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  from h i s  adult  the  a transition  School  traditional  d i d not  of  subservient  described  Los Angeles  subservient  professed  earlier  the  wherein  Clark  state  he had o b s e r v e d  wherein  orientation  empirical  the  that  were  physical  observed  these  T r a n s i t i o n s of to  another  were  32  hypothesized referred  to  "symptoms," factor,"  6 5  "condition,"  hypothesized  had o b s e r v e d of  study  included  identified  6  a  "contributing  "hypothetical study  as  "effects," "  6 3  and as  6 7  a  i n the  states  effects  empirical  of  sources,  marginality,  denoted  of  but were  System  index" not  of  7 0  observed  used  his  bases,  o r measurement  to  misleading  adult  of  Education  its  twenty-four  1887  his  and 1 9 5 3  B r a n c h of adult to  7  or than  the  Los  education hypothesize  and  effects  hypothesized  of  controlled results.  Idem, D i s s e r t a t i o n , p. 25; I b i d . , pp. 25, 27, 28, 29, 30; M o n o g r a p h , p p . 58, 60; " l d e m , D i s s e r t a t i o n , p. 172; Ibid., pp. 26, 27, 29; Monograph, pp. 58, 59; Idem, Dissertation, p. 26; Ibid., p. 26; Monograph, p. 58; Idem, D i s s e r t a t i o n , p. 27; I b i d . , pp. 30, 36; I b i d . , p. 30; M o n o g r a p h , p . 60. 6 2  6 3  6  6 5  6 6  6 7  6 B  6 9  7 1  Ibid.  7 2  Ibid.,  p . • 7.  2  evidences  other  include a s c i e n t i f i c a l l y  substantiate  which  observation  case-study-in-depth evidences  that  research,  existence  Adult  of  His doctoral  symptoms,  direct  in  schools,  historical  bases,  states  symptoms,  but he d i d not  is  evidence  marginality.  without  actual  'and  as  the  strong  o c c u r r i n g between  sources,  the  of  7 1  through  status of  find  schools"  status  existence  the  status  Clark  indices,  the  final  indices,  of  School  schools.  of  he  measurement  final  "We s h a l l  identifying,  hypothesizing  Angeles  the  existence  previous  that  character  state  test  and  6 9  Clark  "indices,"  6 2  "evidences,"  6 6  statement  service  Clark  the  What  e m p i r i c a l l y measured.  the  and  "sources,"  "bases,"  were  Clark's  and  than o b s e r v e d .  as  a  6 8  marginality and  rather  / 0  33  Clark of  sought  this  service  which the three in  to  adult  factors  schools  for  the  "for  character."  w h i c h he  accounting  enumerated  account  reason  He  turned to  had o p e r a t e d . identified  the  three  7 3  the  emergence  as of  for  the  conditions  Marginality being  of  a service  emergence  was  "basic  under  one  of  importance"  character. " 7  Clark  factors:  f i r s t , the m a r g i n a l p o s i t i o n of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n w i t h i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m and t h e effect this status has upon t h e a d u l t s c h o o l ; s e c o n d , the n a t u r e of t h e p u r p o s e s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s i n c e t h e 1 9 2 0 ' s [ s i c ] and its influence on the adaptive behavior of organizational leadership; and t h i r d , a s p e c i f i c set of operating pressures that stem from state legislation and problems of s t u d e n t c l i e n t e l e . The service i n s t i t u t i o n i d e n t i f i e d in this study may be seen as a resultant of the conjunction of t h e s e conditions. 7  5  The m a r g i n a l " p o s i t i o n " , existence is  what  of  Clark  Clark, marginality, Marginality," without  "adult  education  7  within  termed m a r g i n a l i t y . while wrote 7 7  and  not of  rigorously what  he t e r m e d as  among them.  "Ibid. Ibid.  7 6  Ibid.  7 7  Idem.,  Dissertation,  7 8  Ibid.,  p.  26.  the  p.  public  defining  Ibid.  7 5  condition,  or  state  school  of  system"  7 6  reintroduced  distinguishing  7 3  "status",  25.  his  "Sources "bases  Clark  concept  of  and I n d i c e s  of  and  appears  symptoms, to  have  7 8  used  34  these  labels,  among o t h e r s ,  of  marginality.  to  the  reader,  discussed,  Clark's  denote h i s  variables  presently,  analyzed,  to  are p e r f u n c t o r i l y  but w i l l  and  hypothesized  be  reiterated  critiqued  in  variables introduced  in context,  detail  later  and  in  the  programs  to  chapter. He c o n t r a s t e d  the  well-established, school  system,  position and t h e of  of  other  plant  the  each,  8 0  of  budget their  adult  and  fixed  schools  versus  the  capital and  supposedly  affecting  the  in  to  comparative  Additionally the  severity  of  the  Ibid.,  pp.  8 0  Ibid.,  P-  26.  'Ibid.  8 2  Ibid.,  P-  27.  8 3  Ibid.,  P-  27-8.  Ibid.,  P-  25-6.  8 f l  status  status,"  voluntary  as  the  cited adult  to  8 1  that  separate  adult  p o s s e s s e d by  were  of  "pressure  25-6  7 9  8  schools  named by C l a r k  of  for  8 3  the  organizational  a b s e n c e of  compulsory attendance  and  that  within  'constitutional'  capital"  elementary  relation  secondary  general  "general  e l e m e n t s w i t h i n a common s y s t e m , adult  adult  program a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  The  fixed  and  or  education  and o t h e r  facilities  support  8 2  of  primary departments  "formal  administrators.  facilities  versus  state  well-accepted  7 9  status  precarious  schools  comparative  attendance  to  requirements  of  as  contrasts,  education  element  elements. " 8  indices of  of  marginality  economy-minded  were  interest  35  groups,"  the  8 5  "felt  having  to  'sell'  other  educators,"  by g r o u p s the  the  continuation ambiguous  goals.  alert  term.  to C l a r k ' s  not of  an is  and  low d e g r e e  the  especially of  parental  dependent  of to  acceptance"  system  to  and " i n s e c u r i t y "  enrollment  If  9 3  this  economy  8 7  which of  8 8  the  wherein  upon a t t e n d a n c e ,  conditions,  developing  taken  of while is  precision  factors,  in  concept.  symptoms  effects,  Clark's  public  belongs,  have  the  indices,  e a c h of  to  Clark,  and r e m e d i e s  9 2  the  element  that  may  the  the  administrators,  and  8 3  9 0  appears  enumerated  by a d u l t  "relatively  courses  thorough d e f i n i n g  of  the  8 6  element,  of  marginality,  effects  program to  education  education  It  expressed  i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l  adult  adult  need,  the  case,  it  bases,  the  8 5  Ibid.,  p.  28.  8 6  Ibid.,  p.  29;  8 8  Ibid.  8 9  Ibid,  pp.  9 0  Ibid,  p.  9 1  Clark,  Monograph,  9 2  Ibid.,  p.  148.  9 3  Ibid.,  p.  150.  8 7  term  Ibid.,  p.  31-6. 37. p.  58.  first  9 1  indices  of  marginality  30.  step—the to  rigorous  becomes  of  have  explained  its  defining  important to among  evidences,  and h y p o t h e t i c a l of  the  concept  appears  i n making d i s t i n c t i o n s  symptoms,  uses  he  condition,  bypassing  the  logical  Instead  the  his  be  sources,  contributing marginality  as  is  in  quoted  36  context,  discussed,  elements  for  denoted  by C l a r k  term, the  and a n a l y z e d .  defining  and  testing  as m a r g i n a l i t y ,  and i m p r o v i n g c o n c e p t u a l  t e r m and c o n c e p t s  of  marginality, subject  it  to  the  appears  from C l a r k ' s  Clark's  clairty  analysis  of  important  in explaining  of  and t h e  social  future  be  have  one  of  of  the  the  reader  to  the  approach  their  sociological  organizations  modification,  9 5  9 5  Ibid.,  Dissertation, pp.  the  applications  u s a g e s of  "organizations,  importance  norms and v a l u e s  "Clark,  been  usage of  noted  values  of  term the  1-2.  p.  37.  and  perspective  i n the  process  that:  Where v a l u e s a r e i m p l e m e n t e d by organizations, then attention is directed by this concern to organizational process. T h i s has reference to both the processes that shape g o a l s of o r g a n i z a t i o n s and those m o d i f y i n g the patterns of behavior that are means to those goals. In this study, "adult e d u c a t i o n " i s c o n s i d e r e d the general value that is undergoing implementation by a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s c h o o l s and d e p a r t m e n t s . T h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e seen as the i n s t r u m e n t s of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . It is c l e a r that adult education subunits of v a r i o u s s i z e and s c o p e must be b u i l t and m a i n t a i n e d i n o r d e r t o r e a l i z e t h e e d u c a t i o n of a d u l t s . It i s e q u a l l y c l e a r , however, that such organizations are not simply passive tools. They a f f e c t t h e u l t i m a t e v a l u e b e i n g put i n t o effect, and its meaning f o r p r o g r a m and b e h a v i o r . Our c o n c e r n i s w i t h the how of such changes--the conditions and p r o c e s s e s of c h a n g e s i n norms and v a l u e s . In o u r c a s e s t u d y , t h e s e a r e t h e norms and v a l u e s of p u b l i c s c h o o l adult education o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  9  key  perspective.  Clark,  of  in  Clark's  for  practices." " study  which  to  Organizations  is  his  concepts  appear  understanding his  study  9  terms  marginality.  A S t u d y of Preliminary  These  37  For  future  analysis,  identified  "adult  undergoing  it  is  education"  implementation  departments."  important as  "the  by  adult  When the  term a d u l t  writings,  some c o n f u s i o n  may r e s u l t  value"  of  9 7  education" such  as  adult is  9 8  an  division, or  9 6  being  adult  branch,  an amalgam  recognize  a  considers  to  the  used  these  be  "the  by  introduces  in his  his  Di s s e r t a t ion  the  "general  subunit  makes  possible  adult  Ibid.,  9 7  Ibid.  9 8  Ibid.  "Ibid. 1 0 0  1 0  Ibid.  'Ibid.  p. 1  does  of  the and  .  1 0 1  is  schools in  the  or  "general  are  appear  and  element  system,  Clark which  "instruments to  maintain As  the  adult  9 9  of the  Clark  distinction  organizational  in  he  departments,"  important  between  does  undergoing  Monograph.  and t h e  "adult  school  is  s c h o o l s and which  Clark's  school,  While  that  and  class,  education,  value  marginality  that  and when  activity,  adult  distinction  value  when  division  not  has  organizational  marginality this  value"  education,  9 6  elements  he  concept  to  elements.  education  1 0 0  between  of  general  Clark  appears  identified  center,  that  education  as  program,  between  adult  general  d e n o t e an  listed  organizational  distinction  to  note  education  being  education  difference  implementation,"  is  department,  of  implementation and  education  to  unit  or  marginality  education,  the  38  former  suggesting  other  fields  the  less  unit within  full  important  the  and  whose p r i m a r y  unit,  which  not  the  of  the  of  restricted elements Clark  and f u n c t i o n is  not  rather  and  use  interchangeably. Education  twenty-four  adult  unit  is  a  or  become  the  education  subdivision  or  and  1 0 2  Ibid.,  pp.  3-4.  1 0 3  Ibid.,  pp.  1-2.  education  a  parental  more  powerful  use  within  terms  schools,  adult  been s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , this  thesis,  statements,  or  In t h e  Los  adults.  an  adult to  element  of  of  an  is  legal  his  as  and f u n c t i o n  qualified  of  defined  organizational  larger  As has  and  the  the  society  are a p p l i e d ,  is  subordinate  subunit  Because  B r a n c h of  organizational  distinctions  an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  i n whole and i n p a r t . to  to  suggesting  within  whose p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e s  designation  appears  relation  latter  marginality  constituted  quotations  to  of  education  adults.  unit  subunits These  physically  of  and the  in  analysis.  subunit  element  marginal  education  or  organizationally  education  exception  units  an a d u l t  or  terms  society  concepts  but  is  organization organizational  other  objective  is  an a d u l t  formally  education  education  of  i n our  thesis  independent  or v a l u e  organization.  important  In t h i s  An a d u l t  to  larger when  hence a r e  element  status  relation the  field  or v a l u e s w i t h i n  than  in  the  formally  two p r e c e d i n g unit  study  Angeles which  1 0 2  focuses School are  with  the  will  be  incorporated quotations,  and on System  subunit the and  1 0 3  Adult its  organizationally  39  subordinate  to  objectives children the of  parental  and  functions  rather  education  education  subunits  and  its  Clark  wherein  directed  it'may  that  Clark  rather  be  to  the  the  primary  education  of  surmised through a p p l y i n g  was  studying  than the  the  marginality  m a r g i n a l i t y of  adult  units.  In a n a l y z i n g C l a r k ' s helpful  are  than a d u l t s ,  proposed d e f i n i t i o n s adult  organizations  to  keep  focus  was  u s a g e s of  i n mind t h e  on v a r i o u s  the  development  levels  of  adult  term m a r g i n a l i t y , of  Clark's  education  it  is  Di s s e r t a t ion organization.  interested  . . . i n a s o c i o l o g i c a l c a s e s t u d y of t h e e v o l u t i o n of an "institution". We had o r i g i n a l l y intended to limit our p u r v i e w t o j u s t t h e A d u l t E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h of the L o s A n g e l e s S c h o o l System i n order to have a case study in t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z i n g of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . But it became apparent after several months of research that we had t o become f a m i l i a r w i t h c e r t a i n state-wide conditions in order to understand the d e v e l o p m e n t of l o c a l s c h o o l u n i t s . A t t e n t i o n was t h e n partly shifted t o t h e l e v e l of s t a t e l e g i s l a t i v e and e x e c u t i v e a c t i o n ; a t t h e same t i m e , the Los Angeles department was m a i n t a i n e d as a c a s e - s t u d y - i n - d e p t h . The f o r m e r gave us t h e g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e s t a t e of C a l i f o r n i a under which adult education programs have been b u i l t ; t h e l a t t e r p r o v i d e s us w i t h d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on how t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a r e l i k e l y t o work t h e m s e l v e s out w i t h i n l o c a l s c h o o l s y s t e m s . 1  ^he concept of institution is discussed in Chapter V I . Our use of the t e r m i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t of Robert M. Maclver. See R. M . M a c l v e r and C h a r l e s H. Page, S o c i e t y , (New Y o r k : R i n e h a r t and C o . , Inc., 1949, p p . 15-17. 1 0 4  In  this  department"  1 0 a  as  same q u o t a t i o n  Clark  b e i n g m a i n t a i n e d as  Ibid,  pp.  3-4.  r e f e r r e d to  "the  Los  Angeles  a case-study-in-depth.  While  40  it  is  assumed  element, rather  that  reference  certainty  than  is  of  the  reproduced  in  this  to  the  n e g a t e d t h r o u g h use  Branch.  structure  was  In h i s Los  d i a g r a m of  Angeles  thesis  as  Table  1,  of  the  School  same the  word  formal  System Clark  1 0 5  organizational department  organizational  1952-53,  which  identified  is  three  Table 1  CHABS 1  1952-53*  OBOAXIZATIOHAL STHOCTDHK COT TES IDS ABCSI2S SCHOOL SYSTEM, Personnel C omission  Board of Education  -  Batlr ement Board •  Superlntendenl.tj (Business Services Divisions) I  :BuB'fnes'a*DlvlsIon  I  Controlling  (Executive Offices)  fflvlslog ")— -  Bongot Division  3-  Personnel Division  1  ""Office ol Board ServtdeV -| Deputy County Counsel  (Educational Services Divisions) I  I  Office of the Superintendent  I  H Educational Housing Section  T~  . •/  Youth Service Branch ,  Curriculum U l v u I S r H  Auxiliary Services Div  Security Seotlon  ("Operating Divisions") Division of  Division'of  j  Office  Sr High Central Offloe  J r Col lege Canti•al Offic e  J r High Schools  Sr High Schools  Junior • Colleges  Jr High Central  Ad,alt jtion Adult Schools  A^pted'froev.organlx«.tion chart of jlos'.Angele*: School System, no date (In use In  formal  administrative  units  of  adult  Extension  and H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n , t h e  the  Schools.  Adult  diagram  of  the  In  Table  2  1 0 6  education: Adult of  the  Ibid.,  p.  44.  1 0 6  Ibid.,  p.  49.  Division  of  E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h and this  thesis,  formal h i e r a r c h i c a l administrative  1 0 5  195?r53)  Clark's  structure  for  41  the  Adult  Education Branch  is  reprinted.  Table  1 0 7  2  ORGANIZATIOHAL STRUCTURE OF TES JUXJLFF EDUCATION! BBJUICB, DIYISIOH 07 XZTBISION AHD HIGHER EDUCAIIOH, LOS AHQEIES SCHOOL STSTEM,  1952-53*  Supervisor of Adult Education  S u p e r v i s o r of Academic E d u c a t i o n  Supervisor of Hpmemalj;  Supervisor of Am«rlc«nl7. A M t l i f t n . h l n  A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n Center  Twenty-four A c u l t S c h o o l s  I  | fj  | Principal  •  L ] ' L _ j i:  C±D  C ± J C±3  | Counselors |  ^iagrsnxi^TlQ^t^°;*Tlter«  Clark  notes  the  distinct  adult  grounds"  throughout  distinct. Academic and  the  1 0 8  Teachere  Several p a r t - t i m e " s u p e r v i s o r s (parent education,'music)  existence  of  twenty-four  s c h o o l s w h i c h were  He  Clerks i  [  Los A n g e l e s ,  also  notes  "located but  the  organizationally  on s e n i o r  w h i c h were  high  school  administratively  administrative  divisions  of  E d u c a t i o n , Homemaking, A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n and C i t i z e n s h i p , Americanization Center  administrators.  1 0 7  Ibid,  1 0 8  Ibid.  He  p.  48.  over  which there  acknowledges  further  were  full-time  administrative  42  divisions time  s u c h as  education  which  is  supervised  by  part-  administrators.  Clark's of  parent  adult  levels  organizational  education  and w i t h i n  charts  "functions"  the  various  1 0 9  acknowledged  the  at  administrative  various  organizational  occurrence  subunits:  Within t h e D i v i s i o n [ D i v i s i o n of E x t e n s i o n and H i g h e r Education], adult education .is now an important concern of both main branches—the junior college s t r u c t u r e and the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h , The f o c u s of the n e x t s e v e r a l c h a p t e r s i s upon the l a t t e r , w h i c h we have t e r m e d the "adult school organization". The relationship of the junior colleges to the a d u l t schools i s considered in Chapter V . 3  D i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of one concrete organization may be treated as "an organization". For a large u r b a n s c h o o l s y s t e m , i t seems u s e f u l t o consider the entire school s y s t e m as an " o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o m p l e x " ; s u c h a s c h o o l s y s t e m i s composed of a l a r g e number of subunits which in themselves constitute "organizations". 3  1 1 0  Where t h e System  was  Adult  identified  Di s s e r t a t i o n ,  development  Chapter V considered adult  education  initially  he c o n s i d e r e d  u n d e r s t a n d the  the  E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h of  the  schools."  by C l a r k  of  local  school of  Discussion  of  subunits  1 0 9  Ibid.,  p.  1 1 0  Ibid.,  pp.  1 1 1  1bid.,  p.  3-4.  1 1 2  Ibid.,  p.  47-8.  to  Los Angeles  School  be  of  his  order  to  the  "state-wide conditions  "relationship  1 1 2  administrative  the  47. 47-8.  was  units" the  in  and t h e n  in  junior colleges  to  these  quite  focus  1 1 1  various  adult  acceptable  until  43  Clark  introduces  Identification or  subunit  status.  of  his the  then  Clark  Education  announces  Branch  the  value,"  term to  1 1 4  subunits  of  adult  identification the  level  or  the  to  not  of  the  Angeles  administrative 1  and  2.  1 1 3  a  administration  System,  of  but  also  systems,"  but  1 1 7  marginality  adult  to  did  be  a  not constant  pp.  15-7.  "Ibid.,  pp.  1-2.  1 3  1  1  1  1 5  Ibid.  1  1 6  Ibid.  1 1 7  Ibid.  Adult  the  "adult  education  to  adult  education  without  positive  to  intended  identify  to  apply  Clark  the  adult  Dissertation  the  education  in  He r e f e r r e d  to  made  departments  all  Tables to  1 1 6  whether  the  was d e d i c a t e d  decisions  clarify  his  writes  E d u c a t i o n Branch of of  the  therein.  e l e m e n t s diagrammed i n  education  Ibid.,  1  for  the  System and  becomes d i f f i c u l t  Adult  Clark's  "'given'  of  of  of  conducted  levels  Clark  unit  establishment  School  and  the  and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  as  function,  is  "PRESSURES ON A MARGINAL P R O G R A M . "  marginality  marginality.  Within.his Dissertation  C h a p t e r II  discussing  units,  it  the  study  a p p l i e d to  which  m a r g i n a l i t y of  School  case  organizational  levels  marginality.  for  Angeles  is  of  education  education"  element,  of  Los  his  education  various of  adult  Los  adult  concepts only  that  the  of  concept  problematic  marginality  at  1 1 5  pertinent  became  "institutionalizing When  initial  in  of he  the  school  considered  administrative  and  44  organizational  elements  organizational  diagrams.  When  Clark  the  framework"  general  function  The  organizational the  adult  or element  of t h e element itself  of  adult  of  indistinct  or  institutional value,  refers to several organizational  instruction... for  additional  education  Clark,  the  intends  as  people  Tables  who  1  and  D i s s e r t a t i o n , p.  24.  "Adult  Insecurity"  t o address the  t o f o c u s on a s p e c i f i c insecurity rests unit,  with  or i s  r e l a t i o n s h i p s m i g h t be insecurity. distinct  as  had  2  well  elements  inCalifornia;"  subsection. 1 1 9  or  experiencing  Di s s e r t a t ion,  and n o n - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  young  Reproduced  or  element  within  be  organizational  them, o r what t h e c a u s a l  his D i s s e r t a t i o n : "adult  1 1  System,  Institutional  which a r e s a i d t o r e s u l t i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l Clark  administrative  said to  Clark  education  u n i t , whether  of  he i s r e f e r r i n g t o  occurring  of C l a r k ' s  as t o whether  education general  independent  public-  one o f t h o s e he i d e n t i f i e d i n  i n T r a n s i t i o n : A Study  value  an  the  O n l y a s s u m p t i o n s c a n be made w i t h o u t  title  adds t o t h e c o n f u s i o n general  education,  effort to  i s to yet a different organizational  identification  Education  within  of the Los Angeles School  framework.  marginality.  through h i s  "sustained  education  matching  charts  or n o n - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  positive  adult  element  reference  public-school  identified  1 1 8  of a d u l t  of  his organizational whether  had  i t i s not c l e a r whether  1 1 9  value  organizational  he  refers to administrators'  reduce t h e m a r g i n a l i t y school  which  1 2 0  dropped  in  this  as  within  "part-time out of  thesis  45  school;" for  "public a f f a i r s  1 2 1  "community  organizations;" "The  adult  "evening  "legitimate  of  1  national  known a f t e r education  1926  as  and  schools  in  "competing  adult  Clark's education 1  1 3 5  subjects;"  high  night  -  adult  1 3 6  "immigrant  1 3 7  "liberal  1 3 9  Angeles  movement;" " 1  courses;" " 1  local,  Community  were  identified  organizations" " 1  including: school  became "driver  1  and  3  1 3 3  "a  agencies...at  education  1  "evening  "evening  w h i c h common i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  Monograph i d e n t i f i e d  7  1 3 0  education;"  organizations." ""  education  1 2 8  districts;"  "investment  Los  school;"  schools;"  education  "adult  2  "evening  "evening p r o g r a m ; "  1 3 2  liberal  "adult  the  elements  "courses;" "  of  1 2 6  school  school  levels,"  1  and  high  local  0  classes;" "  clubs,  activity;"  education schools;"  schools;"  1 3  classes;" "  and  1 2 7  adult "adult  1 2 5  p r o g r a m ; " " "night  "centers  1 3 8  "evening  school  "community-program"  "public  1 2 3  school;"  1 2 9  a  1 2 2  California;"  classes;"  "programs of  education  adult  adult  elementary  education;"  groups,  "the  evening  of  education  "  "evening  1 3 1  program  agencies;"-  schools  school  school;"  state  1 2  forums;"  "student  colleges by C l a r k  and to  be  5  or q u a l i f i e d "public  still  adult  functions;" " 1  8  other  adult  schools;" " 1  "continuation  I b i d . , p. 5; Ibid., p. 6; Ibid., p. 11; Ibid., p. 131; "Ibid. p. 5; I b i d , p. 165; Ibid, p. 108; I b i d . , p. 36; I b i d . , p. 6; Ibid; Ibid; Ibid.; Ibid.; I b i d . , p. 14; " I b i d . , p. 5; Ibid., p. 6.; Ibid.; I b i d . , p. 5.; I b i d . , p. 10.; Ibid., p. 11.; Ibid.; " Ibid., p. 10; " Ibid., p. 127; I b i d . , p. 130; " " I b i d . , p. 114. 1 2 0  1 2 1  1 2 3  1 2 2  1 2  1 2 5  1 2 6  f  1 2 7  1 3 1  1 2 8  1 3 2  1 3 3  1 3 6  1 3  1 3 7  1 4 0  1 U 3  1  1  " Ibid., 5  p.  163.  1 3 0  1 3 5  1 3 8  1  1  1 2 9  1 3 9  1  2  6  46  school;" " 1  marginality, adult  "remedial  and  9  was  applied  education  application  attempt which  will  the  depth  to  System,  and  term  While be his  made  Adult  and  true  School  System or  possibility his  of  that  of  word  by  the  the  its  in  provide  Adult  49;  1  5  0  of  this  element  or  term,  enumerated thesis in  each  Clark's  length  and  an  elements  developing common  of  to  the  marginality  will  term  used to  of  1  of  not  7  1  in  the  study. primary  Los  Angeles  schools,  be  by  the Clark  ignored.  its  Clark's  root  uses  may  also  the  field.  for  " Ibid.; 8  limits  Marginality  definitions  " Ibid.;  non-  Basis  understand  base  and  case  marginality,  marginality  his  marginality  C o n c e p t s of  definitional 47;  As a  both  Clark's  education  limits  Dictionary concepts  Branch  of  the  his  that  concepts  School  contextual of  made  adult  Clark's  be  in  the  erase  Education  of  Los Angeles  to  is  of  case-study-in-  organizational  Definitions  may  p.  announces h i s  numerous  twenty-four  definitions  "Ponograph, Ibid. 1  the  at  announcement  application  adjective,  a  to  assumption  the  term m a r g i n a l i t y .  useful  of  quoted  B r a n c h of  concepts  the  Understanding  and  be  Clark  announced c o n t e x t u a l  Dictionary  III  The  1 5 0  appearing  the  appears  Dietionary For  Chapter  will  Monograph  imposed  either  many  marginality  Education  elements  is  to  identify  application  focus  education."  applied.  the  while  outside  to  is  Therefore,  In  Monograph  is  organizational  Clark  term  it  Dissertation  originally  the  be  by  elements.  of  Di s s e r t a t ion  academic  of  prove They  understanding 1  " Ibid., 9  p.  47  applications  of  setting—the  field  As out  with  the of  many  concepts  are  concept,  education.  of  at  to  denote  use  times  consider  of  a  dictionaries.  for  definitions,  term  assigned  to  concepts  of  this  specific,  of  among t h e  for  education  these  follow.  the  by  distinct  individuals  Nevertheless,  term  the  enough  to  evidenced  within  by  numerous  desire  indicate  his  Specific  use  of  to  of  be  given.  facilitate  of  the  Marginality  wherein d i s c r i m i n a t i n g  concepts  literature  experience  d i d not to  a  dictionary  1 5 1  often  more c e n t r a l  some  Concepts  may  t o w a r d homonymy and hence  definitions  term  Granted,  distinct  marginality will  this  Clark  the  thesis  from  adult  are  a  borne  the  most  and a p p l i c a t i o n as  identified  accounted  are  from  same.  within  if  commonalities  thesis  term  be one and t h e  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of  proposed  definitions  and as  concepts.  that  by t h e  specific  1 5 1  A Typology for be  single  treatment  multiple definitions  multiple  related  denoted  a  language,  generalizations  them t o  differential  English  within  any u n a b r i d g e d d i c t i o n a r y ,  and may be so c l o s e l y  require  will  marginality  i n the  most  by t h e  standard concepts  the  adult  used  denoted  related,  would  is  of  terms  by a q u i c k s c a n  marginality  term  discussion  which w i l l field.  away  from  ground the  have  the  term.  definitions  dictionary  may  to  abstraction  is  assign  within  definitions  and  the  clarity.  any  Nevertheless, as  been in  concepts  serve  of  The t e n d e n c y  and t o m a i n t a i n c o n c e p t u a l an i n t e n t i o n  These  standard  examination  a  basis  references  for  to  48  understanding  his  concept  or  concepts  facilitate  and enhance  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of  dictionary  definitions  will  strengthening Clark  appears  field  of  use  use  of  the of  education  Dictionary  or  by t h o s e  reviewed of  these  use  of  for  to  segments of of for  the the  term,  purposes  also  of  as  well  denoted  marginal,  be  the  To  concepts.  are  adjective,  definitions  followed  Clark's  marginality  the  marginality.  term m a r g i n a l i t y a l o n e  nouns a r e c o n s i d e r e d ,  adult  examined,  to  Concepts  through  nouns—which  be  common i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  with m o d i f i e r s . Clark  now  of  paired  designations  as by  with  of  the  it. root  word  adjective  will  first  marginal  and  be the  term m a r g i n a l i t y . Margin  and of  The  word m a r g i n has  has  been  natural  stock-brokering,  page  or  be most  sheet  by W e b s t e r  disciplines  psychology,  agriculture,  joinery,  word seems t o  identified  used w i t h i n v a r i o u s  history,  insurance,  been  botany,  politics,  frequently  used  the  main  denote  zoology,  economics,  building,  outside  to  as  1 5 2  a noun  concepts  dentistry,  commerce,  and p a t h o l o g y .  to  denote  body  of  "the  part  p r i n t e d or  life1 5 3  of  The a  written  Webster's Third New I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y of t h e E n g l i sh Language , 15th e d . ( 1 9667"! s . v . "margin" , "marginal", and " m a r g i n a l i t y " . ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as W e b s t e r , 1966. 1 5  2  T h e O x f o r d E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y , 1933 e d . , v o l . V I , s. v. " M a r g i n " , and " M a r g i n a l Thereafter c i t e d a s O x f o r d , 1933; A Supplement t o t h e O x f o r d E n g l i s h D i e t i o n a r y , 1976 e d . , v o l . II, s. v. " m a r g i n " , " m a r g i n a l " , and " m a r g i n a l i t y " . 1 5  3  49  matter."  "  1 5  While t h i s  organizational  case  definition  study,  and a i d u n d e r s t a n d i n g of  other  may be g e n e r a l i z e d  definitions  Clark's  concepts  seem  of  The O x f o r d E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y d e f i n e s  to  to  Clark's parallel  marginality.  margin  as:  That part of a s u r f a c e w h i c h l i e s i m m e d i a t e l y w i t h i n i t s boundary, esp. when i n some way marked off or d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t h e r e s t of t h e surface.... 1 5 5  This the  physical  element  applicable the  The  and  when  central  science suggests  it  is  portions  second  economic/value  definition that  possible of  the  includes  the  to  the  margin  word m a r g i n i s  distinguish  the  within  especially  margin  from  element.  definition  for  m a r g i n c o u l d be  said  to  be an  definition:  A c o n d i t i o n which c l o s e l y approximates below o r beyond w h i c h s o m e t h i n g c e a s e s or d e s i r a b l e .  to to  the limit be p o s s i b l e  1 5 6  This or  definition  state  of  condition  feasibility discussed case  the  adult  and i s  in part  study.  Some a d u l t  terms  would not element  education 1 5  of  of  economic it  c o u l d be h e l p f u l  be  to  adult  evaluated education  be e x i s t i n g  and  "Webster's  1 5 6  0xford, Ibid.  s c h o o l s might  The  programs  New C o l l e g i a t e  1933,  p.  160.  and  Clark's  position Economic  programs  perceived may  be d e s c r i b e d  status  be d i f f e r e n t 1979  of for ed.,  in  which  considerations,  Dictionary,  is  organizational  s u c h a m a r g i n , below  on f i n a n c i a l  "margin". 1 5 5  within  the  elements.  subunits  within  based  continue.  subunits  education  education  feasible,  to  in conceptualizing  for adult  groups s.v.  50  internal  to  external  the  to  requires  system  the  a value  evaluator's existent  internal  or  comparison  of  to  adult  of  and i m m e d i a t e l y  outside  definition  appears  organizational difficulties. System  his  the  elements  the to  margin  include  from t h e  have  or  may  based  be other  the  values  system,  to  of  The a d u l t to  in his to  edge e s p .  struck this  by  a on  elements  by  of  of  the  Los  the  formal  study,  appears  by  the Clark  adult  Dissertation,  p.  of  to  172.  have  some  School  confined  a system, as  and  although  well  as  states  subunits.  rev.  an  organizational  influence  education  to  Angeles  organization,  in:  sciences.  may p r e s e n t  to  in  This  1 5 7  margin  schools  case  farther  physical  Clark's  within  when  something."  concept  7  Clark,  of  "the  lying parallel  lying  as  exist  beyond  [especially]  such  i n t e r n a l to  experienced  area  i n the  i n t e r n a l components  felt  extends  "the  W e b s t e r ' s New W o r l d D i e t i o n a r y , (1973), s . v . ""margin". 1 5 8  status  unstated  remaining area  been  study  g r o u p s were  1 5  ed.  to  by g r o u p s  existence  that  a d j o i n i n g the  case  observations  external  to  or  judgments  education  application  Clark,  acceptance  expressed  external  something"  are considered  structure.  and a f f o r d i n g of  l i m i t and a d j o i n i n g s u r f a c e  To g e n e r a l i z e  groups  evaluator.  some way d i s t i n g u i s h e d the  by  Such v a l u e  suggests  edge  for  and may be d e t e r m i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o  thereof.  extreme  status  judgment  system,  Webster  perceived  The a s s e s s m e n t  values  by t h e  its  system.  combination,  selected  from  If  by of one  expanded  51  speaks  of  adult  activities,  education  they  1 5 9  may  organization  and t h u s  from C l a r k ' s  initial  applied  occur  may be c o n s i d e r e d concept  certain  the  adult  of  predominant.  Core  organizations,  such  field,  no  colleges,  adult  high  their  adult  organization to  observe  than  so  organizations, education  completely  and t e n d  do  the  to  adult  are  seems  educational appear  education  subunits.  some  within  a r e more to  the  Yet  in  community  integrated  c o n f o r m more c l o s e l y subunits  pattern  schools,  as  distinctions  education  as  frequently  margin e x i s t s .  such  subunits that  different  occur  some  many  a distinctive  educational  to  marginality  single  It  other  be c o n c e p t s  within  within  that  an  patterns  with  be o b s e r v e d  external  or  to  homogeneous when c o n t r a s t e d might  or  context.  subunits as  interactions,  organizational  organizational education  1 5 8  internal  w i t h i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  While within  functions,  the  difficult  core  subunits  written  of  i n the  by W e b s t e r  is  that  first  example. An a d d i t i o n a l margin a c t i n g  as  general  a  definition  of  the  buffer:  An amount (of space, time, money, m a t e r i a l , etc.) a l l o w e d o r a v a i l a b l e i n a d d i t i o n t o what i s estimated to be strictly n e c e s s a r y f o r a c e r t a i n p u r p o s e , and s e r v i n g as a p r o v i s i o n f o r unforeseen contingencies, o r a d m i t t i n g of b e i n g a p p l i e d t o o t h e r p u r p o s e s . 1 6 0  Using  this  education  as  1 5 9  1 6 0  definition, a buffer  Ibid.,  pp.  Webster,  one  might  between an  52,  1966,  116, s.v.  view  institution  145. "margin".  the and  field  of  society.  adult If  52  one  concentrates  applicable. of  on p r o g r a m d e v e l o p m e n t ,  In t i m e s of  declining  retrenchment,  enrollment  s t u d e n t s and i n c r e a s i n g students, margin  the  adult  or b u f f e r  stabilize  s t u d e n t s may be education  introduced  fulfills  a student  averted  through  traditional number of program  grants  study,  Adult  or b u f f e r  for  they  state  subunits  increased be  programs. the  may p r o v i d e  flexibility  in enrollment,  Webster  income  p r o v i d e d the  act  adult  lay-offs  may  to  adult  because  the  of  declining  adult  in  from t u i t i o n  in coping with or  the  education  institution case  be  education  through i n c r e a s i n g  was  to  Adult  through  institutions  staffing based  may  subunit  educational as  protective  education  Additional  subsidies,  An a d d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n term m a r g i n .  idle  may be u t i l i z e d  education  or  faculty  left  o r may p r o v i d e d i r e c t  education  whether  facilities  adult  age  mature  institution.  Faculty  of  s p o n s o r s h i p may q u a l i f y  increased case  role.  or  programs  the  period's  and  may p r o v i d e a  the  may be  college  returning  for  light,  in  or  institution  degree  re-assignment  enrollments  adult  to  recruitment  Physical  of  levels  In t h i s  particularly  subunit  total  enrollment  programs.  programs.  the  definition  traditional  enrollments  education  for  total  among  this  for  Clark's  and  fees.  with a margin fluctuations,  funding.  on e c o n o m i c s following  exists  for  definitions:  ( 2 ) : t h e l i m i t below w h i c h economic a c t i v i t y c a n n o t be continued under normal conditions: the particular c o n d i t i o n (as w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i n c r e m e n t of return for labor or for interest on an i n v e s t m e n t ) that l i m i t s the e x i s t e n c e or continuance of an economic process other things being unchanged <a • of p r o d u c t i o n > <the • of c o n s u m p t i o n > 5 a : t h e d i f f e r e n c e that exists between net sales and the cost of merchandise s o l d and t h a t i s t a k e n as t h a t from w h i c h e x p e n s e s must be met o r p r o f i t d e r i v e d o r from which  the  53  other obligations must be met or o t h e r d e r i v e d - - c a l l e d also gross m a r g i n .  advantages  1 6 1  This is  economic economic  education strictly minus  activity,  costs,  on t h e  formula  its it  for  adult  may  of  subunits A  account  Supplement  "profit defines  the  in  the  a  margin that  Another  linked  w i t h common d e f i n i t i o n s  1 6  Ibid.,  as  margin  within index  of the  g r o s s margin found  to  of  m a r g i n c a n be mean  usages  gives  1 6 2  the  e x c e s s between  definition  The b r o k e r a g e  definition  for  of  in  the  root.  income  and  increased resulting  of  "margin of  margin i s margin i s safety"  made for safety, spec, o f s a f e t y (*FACTOR s b .  1966, s . v .  Supplement,  evaluative  g r o s s m a r g i n of  definition  the  profit  useful  brokerage.  1 6 1  the  by in  income.  within  an allowance [is] e q u a l to the f a c t o r  the  fees  organization.  interpreted  potentially  and  be a d i r e c t  would be t h e to  of  Gross  not  acceptable  the  calculated  productivity  Oxford E n g l i s h D i e t i o n a r y  one  e x p e n s e s beyond r e s u l t a n t  part  adult  educational  and i n c r e a s e d  would  relation  m a r g i n " as profit  be  from t u i t i o n s  become  there  including  might  gross margin.  index  anywhere  Alternatively,  might  parental  to  down u s a g e s ,  margin  society  subunit  e x p e n s e s and s u g g e s t s scaling  the  subunit of  sales,  income d e r i v e d  R a t h e r the  other  be a p p l i c a b l e  and  gross  within  education  education  well  expenses.  determining  adult  It  basis  benefit  marginality.  term  The  institutional  which  the  might  programs.  training, for  definition  1976, s .  "margin".  v.  "margin."  one  used  closely  where:  a number 8) minus  54  one. Webster  1 6  3  supplies  the  following  brokerage  definition:  b: t h e e x c e s s market v a l u e of c o l l a t e r a l o v e r t h e f a c e of a l o a n c ( 1 ) : c a s h o r c o l l a t e r a l w h i c h i s deposited with a broker t o s e c u r e him from l o s s on a c o n t r a c t made on b e h a l f of h i s p r i n c i p a l and which may also constitute a partial payment of t h e p u r c h a s e p r i c e (2): a customer's equity i f h i s account i s terminated a t p r e v a i l i n g market p r i c e s " 1 6  These  brokerage  because  of  providing adult  the  education  the  excess  education  staff  the  of  some  1 6 3  1 6  to  to  the to  to  parental  be  be  pilot  other  times  a buffer society..  of  the  1966,  s.  v.  is  established to  the  larger  Typically  the  in  recipient  of  As s t a b i l i t y  is  subunit subunits subunits  and most d r a s t i c  may of  the  may  be  an  adult  cuts  in  education  tends to  protect  from the  ravages  of  crises  the  and t h u s may  b r o k e r ' s m a r g i n - - a margin  jeopardizing  Ibid.  "Webster,  association  retrenchment,  financial  without  in  education  Adult  with  An  programs.  first  i n t i m e s of  organization.  more c e n t r a l  In  the  as  been  education  helpful  education  develop  education  adult  equated  as  and t o  organization  sacrificed  to  serve  the  may r e c e i v e  and p u b l i c  parental  adult  and p r o g r a m i n g .  degree  may  of  reduced.  the  the  adult  used  and f u n d i n g  funding,  legislature  it  transferred  subunit  for  adult  or may even have  and g r o w t h ,  proportionately  viewing  government  which are  be  organization  which  for to  margin are p o t e n t i a l l y  may be a l l o w e d  organization  functions  gradually  safety  subunit  surplus  sustained,  to  • of  system,  funds  core  possibility  intention  educational t i m e s of  of  a m a r g i n of  with a parental with  definitions  "margin."  the  safety,  55  integrity  and s t a b i l i t y  Clark denote  not  his  docotral various  only  concept  study nouns  the  used or  but  to  of  the  root  concepts  also  denote  central  the  the  subunits. of  of  the  marginality  adjective,  concept  term m a r g i n a l i t y  marginal,  o r c o n c e p t s of  to  within  his  paired  with  marginality.  Marginal  The cited or  word m a r g i n a l  within  qualify  the  situations  and  qualifiers  activity;" describe  1 6 8  the  of  the  margin  accepted  1 6 6  of  noun.  term  the  to  be  the  margin,  1973,  s.  within  delimiters  used  When t h e  to  limit  used  as  a  margin or  in  or  within  quantifiers a  or  1 6 7  as  "marginal "marginal  an a d j e c t i v e  school of  to  discussed  referred  program,  v.  the  the  regardless  Dissertation,  When  1 6 5  margin  is  dictionaries  "a word u s e d  program;"  marginal of  all  of  When C l a r k  and a p p l i e d .  Webster, Clark,  existence  school  existence  within  1 6 5  substantive".  by d e f i n i t i o n s  the  within  an a d j e c t i v e ,  are considered  activity is  as  other  "marginal  1 6 6  identified  attributes  defined  thesis,  program;"  thesis  a noun o r  qualifier,  this  this  is  program,  which d e f i n i t i o n  adjective,  to or of  marginal,  "marginal." p.  14;  Monograph, p p .  57,  58,  75. 1 6 7  Idem,  1 6 8  Ibid., Idem, 149.  1 6 9  142,  148,  Idem, 58, 96,  1 7 0  57,  Monograph, pp. pp. 52, 116, Dissertation,  Dissertation, 150.  pp.  118, 145. p. 36;  27,  172,  140.  Monograph, pp.  203;  62,  123,  Monograph,pp.  45,  56  is  used  to  "existence," position,  or  experienced resultant  it  1 7 1  identification  less  adult  within  unit,  the  o r an  full  adult  value,  for  of  non-central being  which  The  education  an  or  1 7 0  existence  margin.  education  factor  status,  element—traits  the the  general adult  contextual  of  "position,"  1 6 9  states  education  and d e s c r i p t i o n it  than  or p r e c a r i o u s  existence  be  essential  designates  the  from  education  "status,"  tentative by  attribute,  describe  positive element  independent  subunit,  is  understanding  are  or  adult  still  an  concepts  of  status. Marginality  Both W e b s t e r marginality Because field  it  as  "The  appears  of  and t h e  1 7 2  adult  quality  that  important  that  if  be  if  made  consistency marginal of  marginality,  appropriate c o n c e p t s of quality  1 7 ,  or  Ibid.,  p. 1 7 2  the  and o t h e r  have  used  three  the  descriptors, marginality of  term  of  the  terms  of  being  to  1966,  s.  v.  in  the  is  terms,  used  of,  or  with  indices  together the  The n a t u r e dependent  "marginality."  has  words m a r g i n and  denotes  education.  it  three  be  conditions  142.  Webster,  the  to  marginality,  marginal  writing  existence,  are  parsimoniously  in adult  being m a r g i n a l . "  While the of  define  terms m a r g i n , m a r g i n a l  assigned  education.  Dictionary  authors  states  in d e s c r i p t i o n  only  state  state  distinctions  within adult  may be u s e d  English  or  denote v a r i o u s  become any,  Clark  education  and m a r g i n a l i t y t o  Oxford  with various of  the  upon  the  57  definition  of  marginality duplicate  margin a s s o c i a t e d in  a  given  or e n l a r g e  definitions,  w i t h a p p l i c a t i o n of  instance.  upon any of  That  the  o r may be a s s i g n e d  a concept  definition  previously  new meanings  cited  of  might  dictionary  by C l a r k  and  other  marginal,  and  authors. The  preceeding  marginality, term  may be h e l p f u l  marginality.  associated  with  marginality  within  whether  he u s e d  c o n c e p t s of exist  the  helpful  theoretical The  review  the his  the  for  organizational  in this  docotral  Monograph. process. upon  might  of  dictionary  are of  definition  concept  concepts  chapter  6f  the  of  its  and  the  review  vital  of  the  of  enlarge  given upon  or  multiple  marginality may  examining  writings,  for  of  term  such  marginality, analysis  Dissertation an  any o f . t h e  That  of and  evaluative dependent  with a p p l i c a t i o n  instance.  and  dictionary  being marginal is  o r may be a s s i g n e d  the  sociological  approach the  margin a s s o c i a t e d  in a  definitions,  tools  state  determine  definitions  Clark's  and  from w h i c h t o  the  of  marginality or  might  term  distinctions.  to a p p l i c a t i o n s  A l l three  duplicate  the  term m a r g i n a l i t y w i t h i n h i s  The n a t u r e  the  concept  the  usage of  among them and f o r  such  the  concepts  study  underpinnings,  a perspective  u s e s of  of  usage of  various  one  literature,  distinguishing  constitute Clark's  study,  multiple  education  pertinent  Clark's  denote a s i n g l e  If  definitions  Clark's  these  to  doctoral  implications  Clark's  margin,  identifying  word  term t o  adult  of  matching  root  identification  of  in  Through  marginality.  within  prove the  definitions  of  a  definition  previously  new meanings  by  cited Clark  and  other  authors.  59  CHAPTER  III  DIRECT LABELING OF CONCEPTS OF MARGINALITY IN C L A R K ' S DISSERTATION This the  chapter  term  document  of  of  this  usages  Chapter  concepts  of  will  serve  sets  the  have  E a c h use  ensure  presentation  that  of  be d i s c u s s e d  the  term w i l l  adequate  of  of  Dissertation,  text  critical  be  upon p r e s e n t a t i o n , be  of  primary  be q u o t e d  will  will  uses  the  conceptual  i n d i v i d u a l l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y  used  Dissertation.  serve  will  the  at  presented elements.  the  analysis  reserved  for  IV.  Clark  Clark's  to  to  Clark's  identification  e a c h use  the  from  study.  length  facilitate  While  dedicated  marginality  sufficient to  is  the  While  as  the  basis  foundation  been  a  marginality  Clark  marginality,  published as  term  the for  this  use  analysis. of  terms the  term  The i n i t i a l  f u r t h e r use this  for a n a l y z i n g concepts  of  times  other  u s e s of  Likewise,  labeled with a l t e r n a t e  Clark's  used  seventeen  for analysis  writings.  basis  also  seventeen  of  of  the  in to  his label  itself analysis term i n  examination  may  m a r g i n a l i t y which  terms.  marginality  in  his  Dissertation  is  60  apparently of  adult  the  education.  reading,  as  reference  to  the  popular  it  be  cognitive  of  tabled  title this of  his  a c c o r d i n g to the  development  of  all  follow  by  This  such  follow of  the  be c i t e d  as  is  to  of  context. next  the  Dissertation.  in s u f f i c i e n t  the  the  in  primary  Clark's  1956 and  is  the  term  of  or  and  use show  analysis from  Di s s e r t a t ion w i l l  lends  uses  and c r i t i q u e , the  to  Data g a t h e r e d  analysis  in  the  Each  discussed  such.  use  use  following  be c r i t i q u e d as of  term  Clark.  A summary  from  variations  quoted  more f u l l y  chapter.  uses  thesis  be  Because itself  thereof,  to will  sub-section  Critique.  focuses  u s e s of  examined  Monograph,  group  w i t h i n the  and d i s c u s s i o n Clark's  direct  Di ssertat ion,  t e r m by B u r t o n R .  term  limited  a single  noted d i s t i n c t i o n s  from t h i s  of  analysis  which the  his  presentation  i n the  Item A n a l y s i s and  Clark's  it  field  study.  purposes  the  data  order  even  be numbered and e a c h c i t a t i o n  observed data  labeled,  within  uses  of  the  received  marginality.  be deemed h e l p f u l  denote,  has  to  publications  thesis  i n summary form and w i l l  tabling,  in  as  same  for  uses w i l l  individual  not  the  in  concepts  Nevertheless  meaning w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c the  the  of  sequential  term w i l l  absence  i n any of  thesis.  might  they  the  t e r m and c o n c e p t s  writings  in concepts  its  the  the  Dissertation  by  published version  Clark's  the  this  elsewhere  While  will,  Clark's  document  given  identified  of  the  for  article,  a p p l i c a t i o n of  indicated  w r i t i n g of  source  initial  on t h e Other  use  of  thesis  the  term m a r g i n a l i t y  sub-sections  follow  t e r m m a r g i n a l i t y i n t h e Monograph  length  to  permit  the  identification  will of  61  the  specific  meanings  in  context.  a l r e a d y made t h r o u g h r e f e r e n c e will  be  separately  Clark. will  U s e s of be  will  (Table  Term  alpha-numeric It  the  is  the  attributes  being  concepts Use of  of  the  Clark entitled  sequential  by  Dissertation  in  the be  tabled  analyses  r e f e r r e d to  by  potential  of  the  and t h e  term  their  marginality  comparative  elements  Contexts  of  use  distinguishing  in  application  development  of  will  the  as  term m a r g i n a l i t y MARGINAL  an h i s t o r i c a l  d u r i n g the  Clark  Clark, Ibid. Ibid.  of  that  of  were  Dissertation,  p.  files,  24.  He  "  be  service-type  education His  historical  chapter  identified  in  the  "significant  "reconstructed  and from t h e  organizational  1 7  1 7 3  second  shaped  adult  California.  explained,  participants, in  condition  development  system  1 7 5  PROGRAM".  or  definitions.  i n the  used  to  distinct  first  of  term  use  Dissertation  contained  1 7 5  each  Term M a r g i n a l i t y W i t h i n C l a r k ' s  conditions,"  1 7 f l  use  use  referred to.  school  experience  of  C o r r e s p o n d i n g numbering  frequently  education  "PRESSURES ON A  1 7 3  of  m a r g i n a l i t y and f o r  organizations  is  D1 t h r o u g h D17.  uses w i l l  adult  their  marginality  public  as  important w i t h each  for  use  labels.  determine  noted  its  distinctions  term m a r g i n a l i t y w i t h i n C l a r k ' s  these quotations  3).  dictionaries,  t r a c e d according to  identified  identify  to  Utilizing  from  r e c o r d as  p u b l i c documents,  the it and  62  previous  studies."  marginality  as  Clark  1 7 6  a condition  explained i n the  his  rationale  following  for  labeling  quotation:  (D1) The e l e m e n t s d i s c u s s e d below a r e d e f i n e d as c o n d i t i o n s because they largely exist as "givens" for the decisions made in the administration of adult e d u c a t i o n d e p a r t m e n t s of school systems. They are important in defining the e n v i r o n m e n t of d e c i s i o n making w i t h i n w h i c h p r o g r a m a d m i n i s t r a t o r s operate. Over the long-run it is possible for the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s to e f f e c t changes i n these conditions; e.g., t h e i r s u s t a i n e d e f f o r t t o r e d u c e the m a r g i n a l i t y of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n w i t h i n t h e p u b l i c - s c h o o l f r a m e w o r k . But in the here-and-now of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , these h i s t o r i c a l elements are conditions of decision and action, rather t h a n means or ends r e a d i l y c h a n g e d by leadership. 1  This point is emphasized here since we are treating the formal goals of public-school adult e d u c a t i o n as a c o n d i t i o n of local decision-making. Compare t h e view of C h e s t e r I . B a r n a r d on p u r p o s e as p a r t of the o b j e c t i v e environment within which new d e c i s i o n s a r e made. Chester I. B a r n a r d , The F u n c t i o n of the Executive, (Cambridge: Harvard University P r e s s , 1938), pp. 194-95. 1  1 7 7  Clark,  in this  marginality which  as  adult  a  that  practices" education further  In  his  of  Ibid.  1 7 7  Ibid.,  pp.  1 7 8  Ibid.,  p.  stable  term m a r g i n a l i t y speaks condition of  organizations, concerned  public  1 7 6  the  i n t r o d u c t i o n to  directly  identified  of  departments  the  "study  i n the  use  rather  education  administered. noted  first  school  his  system  school his their  are  Di s s e r t a t i o n ,  Clark  values  development of  in  systems  and  their  of  adult  California."  "case-study-in-depth"  24-25. 4.  "the  and e n v i r o n m e n t  of  to  be t h e  1 7 8  He  "Adult  63  Education  Branch  of  quotation  D1,  education  within  restrictions structure, earlier value"  to  as  is  outside it  also  exist of  as  adult  of  notes  as  case  'givens' education  study,  location.  m a r g i n a l i t y to  Adult  the  the  this  of  sentence  existence  decisions of  of  made i n  of  the  the  noted  "general value"  discussed  1 8 2  of  school  marginality  systems,"  conditions the  term,  of  administration 1 8 3  marginality,  Marginality  In b r o a d t e r m s t h e p r i m a r y m i s s i o n of a public s c h o o l s y s t e m i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i s t h e e d u c a t i o n of the young. W i t h i n b o t h s c h o o l r a n k s and t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , t h e rank o r d e r of a c c e p t a n c e of different  1 7 9  Ibid.  p.  3.  1 8 0  Ibid.,  p.  24.  'Ibid.,  p.  1 .  1 8  1 8 2  Ibid.,  1 8 3  Ibid.  pp.  24  but  "largely  subheadings:  and I n d i c e s  by  q u o t a t i o n D1 may be  (D2) Sources  or  "historical  systems." the  as  "general  states  other  school  application  of  of  departments  departments  in a D i s s e r t a t i o n  of  and a c t i o n "  m a r g i n a l i t y and t h e  second  include  of  The f i r s t  "adult without  1 8 0  education,  One  decision  In  1 7 9  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l element  elements.  education  for  System."  framework,"  implementations  acknowledge  that  term  c o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d t o  well  "adult  the  School  public-school  geographic  marginality.  Clark's appears  the  "conditions  understood to  Angeles  applied  organizational  elements" or  Los  a specific  by C l a r k ,  through  Clark  Clark  or  1 8 1  the  64  school programs and legitimate concerns of p u b l i c supported education tends to follow the .age progression. H i s t o r i c a l l y , p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for e l e m e n t a r y e d u c a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d first, followed by t h e l e g i t i m a t i o n of h i g h s c h o o l and j u n i o r c o l l e g e levels. Junior college education is p a r t i c u l a r l y well established in California where there is a state system of approximately seventy junior colleges. Providing secondary education of thirteenth and fourteenth year, these colleges a r e l i n k e d to the g r a d e - s e q u e n c e s t r u c t u r e of the s c h o o l s y s t e m . 2  In California, public junior colleges are d e f i n e d as an upward e x t e n s i o n of s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . See J e s s e P . Bogue, The Community C o l l e g e , (New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1950), p p . 9-14. " 2  1 8  Within indices of  of  a seven-page  m a r g i n a l i t y and b e g i n s  marginality.  subsection from  identified  as  marginality  school  of  the  status.  sources,  indices,  He i d e n t i f i e d  develop he  "age  United S t a t e s "  marginality.  general  progression" He i d e n t i f i e d  institutionalized  "Ibid.,  P.  1 8 5  Ibid.,  pp.  1 8 6  Ibid.,  P.  1 8 7  Ibid.  and  25. 25-6. 25.  bases,  1 8 7  his  did  three  organize of  the  marginality  symptoms and e v i d e n c e s  of  as  the  "public the  p r o g r a m s by  population. is  concept  he  and a d d r e s s e d  school  and  i n t e r m i n g l e d what  context  1 8 6  initial  not  sources  R a t h e r he  his  supported educational  1 8  to  Unfortunately,  r a n k s and t h e  whether  been  1 8 5  i n the  publicly  C l a r k ' i d e n t i f i e s sources  i n a way w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h e d  indices  system  subsection  an levels  acceptance those  He f a i l e d  index of  legitimized:  or  school  a  education elementary  to  of  within indicate  source which  of have  education,  65  high  school,  and j u n i o r  In C l a r k ' s within  an  third  college.  use  of  organizational  a s s e s s i n g and v a l i d a t i n g of  the  term  context the  he and  applied claims  his  concept  difficulty  in  status.  (D3) In c o n t r a s t t o the p o s i t i o n of elementary, high school, and junior college educational levels, adult e d u c a t i o n i s , of course, not part of the primary education ladder, and its clientele e x i s t s almost c o m p l e t e l y o u t s i d e of the compulsory-attendance age groups. I t e x i s t s as a s e p a r a t e , p e r i p h e r a l a c t i v i t y . When an a d u l t program i s e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n a s c h o o l system, i t s personnel f i n d s i t s e l f w i t h i n a family of well-established, w e l l - a c c e p t e d programs. Considered on i t s educational acceptability alone, the adult activity initially exists in a somewhat p r e c a r i o u s state. I t must compete w i t h t h e primary departments for budget support and for general organizational position. T h i s has been h i s t o r i c a l l y the status of adult e d u c a t i o n and t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e d e g r e e seems an appropriate c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n today. It is difficult t o . a s s e s s s u c h a f a c t o r as o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m a r g i n a l i t y , since the q u e s t i o n of v a l i d a t i o n i n v o l v e s acceptance by d i f f e r e n t g r o u p s within and without the school s y s t e m , and a c c e p t a n c e on v a r i o u s g r o u n d s . 3  School attendance i s c o m p u l s o r y u n t i l t h e age of sixteen in C a l i f o r n i a . If a person drops out of school a f t e r t h a t age but has n o t g r a d u a t e d from h i g h s c h o o l , he must a t t e n d a c o n t i n u a t i o n s c h o o l f o r four h o u r s a week u n t i l e i g h t e e n . Continuation schools are not now c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . 3  1 8 8  Clark's appears applies  to  use  of  stress  the  the  Di s s e r t a t i o n .  term.  the  Ibid.,  1 8 9  Ibid.  pp.  "organizational  organizational It  There i s  1 8 8  terms  is  the  only  no d i r e c t  25-26.  context use  of  the  marginality"  within  which  descriptor  a p p l i c a t i o n of  a  1 8 9  he  in  the  concept  of  66  marginality  in quotation  to  education",  "adult  value," to  an  most  the  1 9 1  field,  "adult  establishment in  "somewhat  a  not  school to  programs  precarious  that  of  tended  state"  unit.  been  more  to  the  referring  the  His  "general reference to  referred  wherein  its  allow  to  its  educational  well-established  determine  appears  with  In  understood  specifically system  Clark  1 9 3  study.  c o u l d mean e i t h e r  c o u l d have  1 9 2  relation  state."  case  o r an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  he had  in  well-accepted precarious  if  Clark's  Clark  1 9 0  program"  any c o n t e x t  acceptability  D3 t o  to  state  be of  its  and  "somewhat  equating existence  this  he  terms  marginality. Within quotation elements:  an  adult  D3, C l a r k level  of  separate  peripheral a c t i v i t y . "  context  of  adult  activity,  class,  of  a single  elements  any of  were  school,  1 9 0  1 9  Ibid.,  'Ibid.  , 9 2  Ibid.  1 9 3  Ibid.  1 9  "lbid.  1 9 5  adult  school, the  Ibid.  1 9  "  adult  adult  department,  examples.  college  educational  25-6.  any a  D3:  the  single  program,  division  Several  in quotation  and "a in  1 9 5  of  activity,  by C l a r k  junior  pp.  branch,  education  education,  An " a d u l t a c t i v i t y "  educational  preceding  identified and  education,  three  s y s t e m c o u l d be a d e s i g n a t i o n  curriculum,  multiple  high  a school  identifies  or a  comparative elementary,  levels;  well-  67  established, assumed  to  well-accepted  be t h e  organization. there  is  exist  no  programs;  primary  subunits  In C l a r k ' s  reference  i n d i c a t i o n of  o r must  exist  on a  whether school,  and p r i m a r y  within to  a  "primary  departments,  common  departments,"  these comparative branch,  parental 1 9 6  departments  division  or  system  level. It Clark  is  difficult  defines  experienced  it.  used  of  Clark  is  establishment Clark  of  adult  as  adult  as  for  1 9 7  Ibid.,  9 8  Ibid.  1 9 8  p.  of  as  to  or  the the  marginality experiencing  which c o n t r i b u t e s  being  "in  He f u r t h e r  other  existence  f i r s t - use  of  D3 c o n c e r n i n g  26.  whether  of  a  to  is  term  "the  and  labeling  ranking.  (D1 ) ,  element.  of  Equating  with  identification  comparative  to  ordering  elements.  congruent  the  somewhat  refers  w h i c h s u g g e s t s a rank  e l e m e n t and i t s  Ibid.  to  how  education  indices  s t a t u s denotes both e x i s t e n c e  in quotation  1 9 6  as  element  a factor  existence.  relation  in C l a r k ' s  education  1  in  to  assess  adult  An i n d e x  an  education  of  1 9 7  of  are  to  marginality.  adult  with a state  a status,  confusion  of  education"  education  Again,  equivalent  to  that  listed  marginality.  status  states  state"  marginality it  of  of  the  not  refers  precarious  adult  state  was  made . no d i s t i n c t i o n  m a r g i n a l i t y he  identify  marginality  status  of  the  to  preceding quotation  m a r g i n a l i t y o r why i t  characteristics source  from t h e  of  there  is  both  the  Reference  68  to  adult  education  assessment adult  and v a l i d a t i o n  education  organizational, Adult this  quotation  "a  program...within  of  to  be p a r t of  or  elsewhere.  Clark  is  at they  the  the  time  the  adult  outside  be  general  for  1 9 9  Ibid.  2 0 0  Ibid.  2 0 1  Ibid.  considered  School  "clientele  continuation purposes  f  Ibid.,  of  the  age  p.  25.  pp.  "adult  of  25-6.  at  of  adult the  almost age  were as be in  education were  education,  that  Adult Education in noting  that  completely  [sic]  group,"  2 0 1  made  example  because attendance  for  1 9 9  time  schools  His footnoted  eighteen  adult  writings  adult  Clark,  that  "adult  by C l a r k  a different  p a r t of  schools.  of  in  s c h o o l s might  continuation  System.  showing  such  part  exists  by C l a r k  activity."  Clark's  be p a r t of as  all non-  activity,"."an  of  education  to  in and  designation  mentioned  2 0 0  compulsory-attendance  the  mentioned  and an  the  that  exists.  in C a l i f o r n i a ,  that  difficult  organizational  time  recognized  Los Angeles  mandatory u n t i l  2 0 2  be  is  peripheral  the  considered being  the  to  his  adult  observed  education  of  reference might  might  were not  B r a n c h of  at  education  California  not  to  system,"  recognized  interpretation  specifically  separate,  a school  adult  considered  both  "Continuation s c h o o l s "  officially  part  marginality  elements  in addition  the  the  i n which m a r g i n a l i t y  are  Although  of  allow  contexts,  education  education"  not  could  those  not  2 0 2  is  having  69  graduated  from  schools  part  adult  as  high of  education  school,  adult  Clark  felt  footnoting Clark's  identified D3,  college  "school  not  Clark  adult  education  possible  the to  that of  is  the that  and he  was  context  in  determine  classify  of  including  itself  potential  with  occurring  the  levels"  comparative  "elementary, of  the  high  school  w h i c h c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d  well-established,  well-accepted  "primary  departments"  w i t h i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n .  restrict  his  of  mentioned. family  outside  possibility  Given  would  a number of  educational  system"  family  how  are  continuing  statement  completely  an a n o m a l y . is  his  The s e c o n d  schools  it  considering  supports  almost  group.  felt-was  not  in  schools.  quotation  junior  he  education  Clark in  age  Dissertation,  continuing  exist  continuing what  certainty  education  clientele  compulsory-attendance  that  concept When  of  Clark  marginality wrote  well-established,  indicate  the  the  level  adult  and  system, as  the  a whole,  "a  programs,"  and  Clark  not  2 0 3  one  did  those  "primary departments"  and "a  p r o g r a m s , " he d i d  within  education  any  school,  of  well-accepted  organizational  w h i c h c o m p a r i s o n of  of  to  elements  the  school  element  was  not  system  to  or should  be  made. " 2 0  Furthermore, identified  by  2 0 3  2 0  Clark  in  potential his  comparative  diagram  of  the  elements  p.  Presented  29. earlier  in t h i s  thesis  as  were  Organizational  Ibid.  "lbid.,  2 0 5  several  Table  1.  70  Structure  of  Potential  comparative  included both  the  at  and of  Junior  times  within  within  the  College  Central  Higher  Education.  of  Division Office  be  At  the  included of  the  of  the  commission  t h r o u g h a common s u p e r i n t e n d e n t  Clark's  administered  educational  accountable  organizational  administrative Personnel Education  for  superintendent  2 0 6  chart  decisions  Commission purposes as  Ibid.  of are  of  to  the  by  services the  for  two  funnelled  the  Office Junior  Extension'  and  divisions,  the  the of  Division Elementary  Education.  All  boards  three and  a  and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  of  divisions  is  Retirement  approval before  mandates.  elementary  who  superintendent. it  2 0 6  Education  and t h e  Division  Secondary  times  schools  Central  of  subunits  divisions  organizationally  colleges.  Education,  operating  operating  and  five  Division  and  business  including  Adult  High  Education  both  the  2 0 5  schools  adult  Education,  level  D i v i s i o n of  to  Senior  the  for  Elementary  organizational  are  adult  and j u n i o r  units  and H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n a r e the  the  schools  assessed  Secondary  within  1952-53.  s c h o o l s may be a s s e s s e d a t  and t h e  of  comparative  Extension  schools;  Division  Office  for  secondary  comparative Clark  the  High C e n t r a l  may  System,  identified  high  it  by  School  schools;  senior  identified  potential  units  Potential  districts  Angeles  individual adult  other  aggregated. Branch  Los  elementary  junior  Marginality while  the  through being  From  inferred Board the given  are  that  and Board to  the of the  71  The  adult  education  subunits  the  organizational  have  been diagrammed as  equals  each  administrative  level.  marginality  for  Potential  the  because  information  within  adult  comparative this  be  the  lower  Within  than  the  that  fulfilling  identified have  of  of  elements  are  Clark  major o b j e c t i v e s  of  and  of  the  within  is  within systems  judged  i n the  are  to  system.  education  subunits,  institution  potential  larger  element  no  status  identified  within  his  provided  named  adult  as  in  termed  has  the  education  an  indication  differentiated  existence  denoted  at  by C l a r k  marginality  settings  System  subunits  been so  suggest  subunits  no  of  subunits.  that to  adult  is  chart  School  comparative  accorded primary elements  organizational  comparative  chart  states  of  2 0 7  in his  Los Angeles  their  felt  Concepts  denote  by C l a r k  There  chart  education  status  to  the  subunits  is  the  subunits.  thesis  wherein  it  of  education  structure  thesis  between  adult  comparative  organizational this  structure  noted  and  and  elements  termed  primary  subunits. It  would  frequently structure  appear  manifest may  be  administrative  in  authority  which appear  2 0 7  on  status,  financing,  to  within  structure.  a  number  of  administrative  o r by mandated o r  charting.  Ibid.  standards  system  based  function,  organizational  that  be  the  Clark's  a  Models variables power,  legislated  two  system  most  organizational  of  are system  such  as  influence, administrative  common  foci  structure  in  chart  72  which  he  adapted  system d u r i n g of  various  mandated  of  chart  authority. exist  in  the  status  is  the  It  is  evident  that  Significant lines  is  chartable of  authority,  and t h e  priority  assigned  various  magnitude  these  different between  status the  from  primary  adult  education  and  objectives  considered  to  the  existence  to  achieving  adult  those  within  education  2 0 8  one  Ibid.  the  the  the  being  parental  subunit.  in  of  the  than  Los  Angeles  nature  of  lines  of  a r e assumed  to  of  within  a  authority,  units  evidenced  education  Such  the  limited  by  virtue  through  subunits  are  the  an  and  The m a r g i n a l i t y of  education  of  subunits  subunits than  of  values,  organization  organization  exist  organization,  existence  the  afforded  Distinctions  o r more o r g a n i z a t i o n a l goals.  education  support.  parental  important  of  magnitude  organization.  a  a  authority  subunits.  denotes  within  be more  adult  the  on  on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  financial  objectives of  arrangement based  adult  organizational  often  other  subunit  of  of  grounds,  v a l u e s and f u n c t i o n s  priority  latter  and f l e x i b i l i t y  Upon  for  administrative  s c o p e of  the  be  differences  the  mandates,  to  based  and  their  to  school  authority.  system  of  Los Angeles  hierarchical  appears  attributable  charting  among t h e  i n the  Organizational Structure  This  organizational  units.  administrative  of  System.  i n use  represents  2 0 8  organizational  difference  Clark's School  1952-3,  line  No  from a c h a r t  the an  goals  which  are  adults  and  dedicated  are  given  higher  that  given  to  an  73  Clark and  charted  support  Offices,  units  A  marginality  Clark  be  thought  noted  to  be  of  to  indices  in quotation  D3  of  a  Executive  s  Services  organizational of  i n both the  in order  administrative  and E d u c a t i o n a l  identification  and d i v i s i o n s  subunits  and  1 2 0 9  in Chart  assessment  entail  offices  divisons  Divisions  comprehensive  and o t h e r  w h i c h might  labeled  Services  might  administrative  operating  w h i c h he  Business  Divisions.  subunit  both  comparative  adult  facilitate  education  comparisons  status.  that:  It is difficult to assess such a factor as organizational marginality, since the question of validation involves acceptance by d i f f e r e n t groups w i t h i n and w i t h o u t the s c h o o l s y s t e m , and acceptance on v a r i o u s g r o u n d s . 2 1 0  Unless organizational overall being  or  specified,  when  marginality  i n the  of  societal  designated.  that  various  based  on  increased subunit  "various  2 0 9  2 1 0  2 1 1  emphasis  the  an a d u l t  of  an  academic on  2 1 1  Ibid.  Dissertation,  the  quotation,  to  is  states involves  a school  system. acceptance  afford  One  group  may  education  exhibit  subunit  A second  programming  26.  subunit  marginality  programming.  p.  education,  Clark,  Ibid. Clark,  of  to  adult  community  speaks  education  preceding  according  grounds."  one  adult  i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l  acceptance its  in  of  field  organizational  groups,  increases an  of  by g r o u p s  These  status  Clark,  validation  acceptance  prize  otherwise  if  an the  group  may  and may be  less  74  accepting is  of  the  emphasized  common  adult  within  variable  individuals  perception  might  When one of  of  the  effect  be of  importance,  of  of  various  is  concern.  variables,  both  two  considered  when  variables  their  If,  for  and i s then  of  one  not  the  an  however,  of  s o u r c e s of  of  of  with such  status  administratively  m a r g i n a l i t y and m e a s u r i n g of  measured to  such  the  confounding  of  for  the  in  total  concerned  nonmontonic  d i r e c t i o n a l and n o n c o n t i n u o u s ,  contribution  adult  another.  presence  The c o n f o u n d i n g a b i l i t y  are  a  different  measurement  purposes of  by  of  such v a r i a t i o n s  cancel  then m a n i p u l a t i o n  of  determining  the  subunit  sources  intervention,  variables  with  example  status  however,  marginality,  perhaps  an  differently  largely  concern.  a c a d e m i c programming  is  societal  to  only  education  source  may not  manipulating  perceived  considered,  concerned  if  This  When the  is  an a d u l t  identifying  are  is  be c o n s i d e r e d  is  subunit  subunit.  and g r o u p s . subunit  variables  the  which  education  status  education  2 1 2  must  purposes  variance  of  be of  primary  concern. In q u o t a t i o n existence is  as  contingent  distinguish acceptance ability  to  D3 C l a r k  a status.  defined He a l s o  marginality says that  on a f f o r d e d a c c e p t a n c e . between  acceptance  denotes a p p r o v a l ,  state  validation  becomes  afforded  a f f o r d i n g of  among v a r i a b l e s ,  a  of  status  necessary  status.  status  of  to  Whereas  implies  an  which v a r i a b l e s  form  Nonmontonic variables, both two directional noncontinuous are defined and examples are given in appendix.  and the  2 1 2  differentiate  the  and  It  as  75  the  basis  upon w h i c h one  element  is  element.  Marginality,  or  relative  contexts  of  of  adult  the  field  a comparative  element  If  of  validation  education it  is  element  explained  In  the  equate  three  of  somewhat  symptoms  of  substitute he  the had  status."  2 2 0  indices,  as  four  valuing  status as  of  element. an  Clark  what  and  Discussion  adult  maintains,  he  2 1 3  Clark,  2 1 6  Ibid.,  p.  25.  2 1 7  Ibid.,  p.  26.  2 1 8  Ibid.  2 1 9  Ibid.,  p.  25.  2 2 0  Ibid.,  p.  26.  Clark's  of  he  lists  and  first  use  the  26-7;  2 1 4  2 1 8  Indices of  of  later  Ibid.,  to for of  peripheral  terms  occur  he  "bases and appears  and  and e v i d e n c e s w i l l  pp.  as  symptoms of  what  marginality"  "Sources  all  2 1 5  Indices  he  to  "marginal  schools,"  as  relative  and  and  appears  2 1 3  reintroduces In t h e  2 1 7  termed  Dissertation,  Ibid.  adult  "Sources  now  "bases  symptoms  the  termed  Clark  status,"  He does t h i s  "evidence  of  (D4-D7),  of  of  concepts.  "peripheral  casually  previously  bases,  the  education  acceptance,  quotations  existence.  terms  2 1 9  comparative  organizational  denotes  an a d u l t  two d i s t i n c t  with  and  2 1 6  within  relative  involve  peripheral s t a t u s . "  Marginality"  of  and " p r e c a r i o u s n e s s  2 1 4  Marginality"  that  a  a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n between a c c e p t a n c e  here  next  states  perhaps  2 1 5  of  marginality  position,"  what  does  status,  education  m a r g i n a l i t y or  a suggestion  status,  above  r a n k e d above  sources, in  p.  this  27.;  76  thesis.  In q u o t a t i o n D4, C l a r k  "relative D5 he  marginality" with  identifies  second  "index"  factor  to  sentence  to  equate  terms  2 2 2  is  circular  by C l a r k  school,"  the to  Clark  2 2 3  of-the  of  as  as  an  adult  of  the  of  status,  school."  2 2  of  adult  i n the  Clark  to  contributes is  the  The t h i r d of  marginality  and  symptoms  'Ibid.  2 2 2  Ibid.,  2 2 3  Ibid.  2 2  "lbid.  p.  27.  is  adult to  of  First, some e v i d e n c e of r e l a t i v e m a r g i n a l i t y i s i n d i c a t e d i n the formal or " c o n s t i t u t i o n a l " s t a t u s of adult education. The s t a t e s c h o o l s y s t e m i s made up of elementary, high school, and junior college  2 2  or  factor the  he to  status,  "  bases  uses  whether  (D4) some  next  education  wrote:  H e r e we may note peripheral status.  his  synonymously.  precariousness  equation  the  adult  i n d i c a t i o n as  marginality. the  quotation  quotation  administrators"  "to  In  "both a c o n t r i b u t i n g  and symptom  the  equating  continues  In t h i s  of  be  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s " as  then  without  of  contribute  understood  precariousness  Clark  existence  status  2 2 1  marginal position  contributing factor,  indicates  from  of  marginal position  p a r t - t i m e nature  status,  results said  index,  "the  the  "marginality."  reasoning  feels the  to  "the  to  "peripheral s t a t u s . "  m a r g i n a l i t y and a l s o  departments."  departments"  His  of  understood  part-time nature  and a symptom of  education  the  "the  is  "the  77  d i s t r i c t s ; a d u l t c l a s s e s are a t t a c h e d to these u n i t s . Once voted into existence by the e l e c t o r a t e , these districts must maintain appropriate schools. In contrast, adult education has mainly permissive l e g i s l a t i o n for i t s l o c a l establishment. Citizenship and l i t e r a c y c l a s s e s a r e the main exceptions. 2 2 5  Clark  appears  assessment  to  of  the  the  "adult  He  education."  examples  of  concept  of  status  of  For  mentioned the  in  and  districts,  education  of  subunits  Ibid.,  2 2 6  Ibid.  p.  is  status  as  quotation or the  26-7.  to  or  a  focus  or  his  whether  the  describe  the  seem  level  logical.  i t e m s must  be  specifically  subunits--school of  the  in reference  "general  as  organizational  more  use  class  specific  elements  Clark's  c o u l d be  of  designation,  to  conclusions two  within  education  and l i t e r a c y  used  is  primary.  adult  organizational  the  or  specified  education  D4 a r e  subunit  general  being  formal  subunits  J u d g i n g from the  and c l a s s e s .  i n the  2 2 5  the  not  two p o s s i b l e  quotation  identified  the  elements  The a d u l t  identified  organizational  is  or c l a s s r o o m .  by C l a r k  education,  It  determining  education  of  that  comparative  be c e n t r a l  twice with  education  establishment  college  to  indicate  a  and o t h e r  terms  marginality  compared and r a n k e d .  adult  it  education.  adult  school,  considered  to  is of  He n o t e s c i t i z e n s h i p  2 2 6  relative  all  district, units  adult  adult  element  in broad  identifies  purposes  the  education  writes  relative,  marginality for  of  organization  first  element.  status  adult  parental Clark  descriptor,  The c o m p a r i s o n  constitutional  between  the  organizational  measurement. or  use  value"  Dissertation  term,  to  these  of  adult  in  his  78  Introduction.  It  marginality  comparisons  be  made  that  among  is  logical  in  for purposes  categorically are  schools,  among d i s t r i c t  districts  among  identified  the  districts  as  state  school  ranked  operating  existing system  is  considered  t h e n m a r g i n a l i t y might be u s e d individual adult of  adult  education  education  subunits  establishing  individual  or  school,  high school,  basis  local  wherein  purposes  of  population  w i t h i n the  such  With Clark's  to the  chart  2 2 7  adult  Los Angeles  parental  considered  as  the  of  School  of  to  the  the  For  state  existing elementary state  subunits total  for  system. evaluated  Los Angeles  school  either  or on a  is  all  purposes  System w o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d  o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e  the  either  or of  subunits  subunits of  If  be made among  organizational  confines  college  organization,  state,  districts,  education  Clark  system.  and c o r r e s p o n d i n g  c o m p a r i s o n s would be expanded  locally,  the  area  operating  status  education  and j u n i o r c o l l e g e  of  the  within  an  s c h o o l s among  junior  school  the  status  forth.  be a p a r e n t a l  denote  adult  Where m a r g i n a l i t y  System,  to  subunits  geographic  the  state  so and  comparisons might  aggregated  a  to  and  of  within  elements,  considered c o l l e c t i v e l y .  status,  within  level  school,  the  concept  establishing  among c l a s s e s ,  high  within  a  subunits  districts,  elementary,  of  similar  organization—classes and d i s t r i c t s  applying  School to  system might  be be  be a s u p r a - p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . comparative u n i t s of  Ibid,  the  p.  identified,  and w i t h t h e  O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e of  44.  the  Los  help  of  Angeles  79  School  System,  purpose  of by  identified  as  the  in d e s c r i p t i o n  of  2 2 9  the  classes high  the  of  status  Structure  of  schools, the  and  the  California  what  marginality  might  when compared t o and  be u s e d  classes  senior  Los Angeles  School  high  Clark  referring the  to  School are  schools, of  the  can and  the  within  be is  chart  status  is  A  1952as  senior School  of  concept  adult  elementary  the  the  supra-parental of  classes schools,  and j u n i o r c o l l e g e s  which  of  System,  j u n i o r and  the  is  "adult  identified  D4.  the  as  California  being  quotation  schools,  System,  the  marginality  Clark's  elements  denote  held  to  System  in  of  identified  Los Angeles  School  named by C l a r k  education levels,  a concept  colleges  organization  junior  of  of  elementary  junior  adult  for  Branch.  appropriate comparative in  of  organizational  Education  through  occurring  System,  status  application  Again  2 2 8  Organizational 53,  Adult  a p p r o p r i a t e comparisons  the  examination  alternative  classes."  the  2 2 7  establishing  determined  An  1952-53,  within  immediate  the  parental  organization. Each of  distinct  subunits  to  organizations marginality that  each  comparative  combination  a  could  for  parental be  purposes  would elements  2 2 8  Ibid.  2 2 9  Ibid.,  p.  the of  44.  an a d u l t  education  organization basis  for  designating  require in  of  the  addition  or  and  identification to  its  or  supra-parental  a distinct  status,  subunit  own  concept it  of  of  appears different  operational  80  definition In  and measurement summary  quotation, explore  the  the  education  all  level  of  parental  s u c h as  these  Clark  organization  source suggests whole,  exist  has  index,  that  The  virtue  of  to  quoted  or b o t h ,  of  permissive  while  his  second  index,  individual  adult  the  system  Their  schools,  districts  subunits  that  legislative  disparity,  exists  adult  or  education  where  mandate  permissive  for  of  that  or  existence  the and  parental the  adult  legislation,  is  organizational marginality.  is  adult  education,  citizenship other  and  subunits  education  a  Clark on  the  literacy  predominately  subunits  exist  by  legislation.  The t e r m m a r g i n a l i t y was of  could  within  example  exceptions  comparison  One  subunits.  constitutional under  preceding  adult  maintaining  this  of  individual of  Clark's  specified.  or departments  relative  exists  w i t h mandates  not  organizational  a.  main  is  of  marginality  no s u c h mandate  with the  classes.  inquiry  is  in  subunit  or  discussion  organizations  exists  education  of  schools  be c o n s i d e r e d  statewide.  the  organizational  classes,  collectives could  of  instrument.  source,  next base,  used or  by C l a r k  symptom of  in  presentation  marginality.  (D5) Secondly, as frequently happens with a new a c t i v i t y w i t h i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n began as a s e c o n d a r y responsibility of administrators at • other school l e v e l s . . . . the administration of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n t h e s t a t e had t h i s c h a r a c t e r u n t i l 1931, and i t was s y m p t o m a t i c of t h e p r o g r a m ' s weak p o s i t i o n in the s c h o o l system. A f t e r 1931, t h e r e were s e p a r a t e principals but mainly in part-time posts. These positions were any f r a c t i o n of a f u l l t i m e a s s i g n m e n t , w i t h o n e - h a l f t i m e t h e most common. From that basis t h e r e has been a g r a d u a l g r o w t h of f u l l t i m e p o s i t i o n s ;  81  but it is o n l y w i t h i n t h e l a s t f i v e y e a r s (1947-48) t h a t t h e l a r g e s t d e p a r t m e n t i n the s t a t e , (the Adult Education Branch of the L o s A n g e l e s S c h o o l System) became c o m p l e t e l y manned by f u l l t i m e administrators. The part-time nature of administration has been h i s t o r i c a l l y both a contributing factor to and a symptom of the marginal position of the adult education departments. T h i s i n d e x would i n d i c a t e t h a t m a r g i n a l i t y has been r e d u c e d o v e r the l a s t twenty-five years. 2 3 0  "The  part-time  identified  by  nature  Clark  "both a c o n t r i b u t i n g  in  this  factor  to  position  of  the  adult  words,  Clark's  second  as  marginality. represent  various  intensities  education  state  element  administrators" a  and a  three  is  a  in  which  adult  by s e p a r a t e  principals,  appointments;  and a s t a t e  where  completely  manned  discription  of  distinctly  differing  example  these  he w r o t e  of  2 3 0  Ibid,  p.  2 3 1  Ibid.  2 3 2  Ibid.  three  by  the  but  adult  fulltime  states,  Clark  organizational  the  27.  administration  been  or  being  marginal in  other  symptom states  of  which  variable of  of  the  adult  responsibility  of  elsewhere  education on l e s s  in  the  element  is  than  education  full-time  element  administrators." used  contexts. of  or  2 3 1  identified  responsibilities the  the  administration  administered  "become  base,  "secondary  primary  of  administrative  his  has  historically  departments,"  source,  of  as  symptom  i n which the  with  state  quotation  index,  identified  a  administration"  education  He  marginality:  system;  of  "adult  examples In  his  has 2 3 2  In  from first  e d u c a t i o n . . . at  82  other  school  to  adult  the  the  state  and  most  high  school  them.  of  levels." schools  frequently  levels."  In  2 3 6  education  the  second  noted  mainly p a r t - t i m e  posts.  the  adult  individual  administrative classes Los  the  state,  p.  (the  far  2 3 3  Ibid.  2 3 4  Ibid.,  2 3 5  Ibid.  2 3 6  Ibid,  2 3 7  Ibid.,  2 3 8  Ibid.  7.  in his  back as "the  year  in  "that  p. p.  and n a t i o n a l of  to  adult  principals  by  to  Clark  in  assume is  an  school. of  evening it  2 3 8  largest the  this  "evening  in C a l i f o r n i a ,  19 0 7 , "  E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h of  p.  state  reasonable  separate  the  initiated  agencies  although  1856  the  education  separate is  by  specific  illustration  that  first  in Los Angeles  of it  high  had  development  referred  a host  He n o t e d  academic Adult  at  and  2 3 7  established 1947-8  as  case  unit  contexts  stage.  extended  Angeles,"  [was]  school  changed  emergence  In t h i s  education  adult  Clark  the  basis  2 3 4  and  local, of  within  initially  different  at  stage  who  "adult  referring  schools  on a p a r t - t i m e  that  country  was  s c h o o l s were  other  He n o t e d  Clark  that  to  the  Clark  vice-principals  referred levels.  that  by i n d i v i d u a l h o s t  administered  2 3 5  throughout  assumed  These a d u l t  p r i n c i p a l s and  organizational  is  initiated  California.  Clark  emerged  It  2 3 3  Los  and high  wasn't  department Angeles  second school 1887  in  school until in  the  School  27.  10. 6;  Enrollment  in  1887-8  was  30,  Ibid.,  83  System)  became  completely  The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l by of  Clark,  Supervisor  of  include  the  Center;  of  adult  counselors  and  clerks.  Clark's  third  i n which the  third  B r a n c h of  the  Los  administrators  and  Higher  reported  included  His  the  existence  in his  2 4 0  2 4  Clark,  Los of  was on  Angeles  "several  27.  Ibid. Table 2  basis  above.  became  Chart  part-time  2:  2 4 1  1947-8  rule.  This  fulltime  Organizational of  Extension  System, supervisors  Clark  of  Education  the  Branch a d m i n i s t r a t o r s diagram.  example  from  the  by  was  completely  Adult  Division  School  where  marginality  where  manned  Education Branch,  among t h e  p.  System  the  the  teachers,  His contextual of  the  level  level  had "become  state  School  organizational  Ibid.>  'See  the  0  by  and  school  of  to  Education,  oversee  state  element  notation  Adult  music)"  2 3 9  by  Education,  the  education,  Angeles  to  administrators. of  from t h e  h i r e d on a f u l l t i m e  referred  Structure  programs  2 3 9  level  divisional  Academic  individual  2  addresses  the  the  overseen  Citizenship  administrators." "  state  itself,  and  education  referred  in determining  for  the  s t a g e away  Branch  exist  education  adult  manned by f u l l t i m e  and  administrators."  the  Education Branch,  Americanization  principals  Branch,  within  branch l e v e l  supervisors  Americanization  this  the  Adult  fulltime  Homemaking,  one  existing  and w h i c h c o u l d be p e r t i n e n t  application,  where  levels  manned by f u l l t i m e  1952-53, (parent  who were  not  summarized  that  84  the  transition  appointments "index" last  within  twenty-five  divisions Adult  support,  the  state  the  System,  quotation  education  element  education  as  identified within  the  education  these the  adult  education  5  of  Dissertation,  2  " Ibid.,  p.  44..  2  ""lbid.,  p.  27.  2  " See 5  Tables  2  Los Angeles  It of  units the  p.  1 and 2 a b o v e ;  adult  He d e s c r i b e d  adult  organization" as  Los Angeles  occurring the  principalships that  that  schools  which C l a r k  and  within  reported  appears  high  School  the  element  but  the  departments.  of  separate  1931,  the  3  within  organization of  separation  2  an  officer  divisions,'" "  the  that  were p a r t - t i m e .  " Clark, 3  of  departments  or e x e c u t i v e  level.  within  establishment  charts "  education  divisions  of  or p a r e n t a l  2  2  the  observations  on a s t a t e  organizational  organizational  39-40.  Clark's  administrative  been r e d u c e d o v e r  these o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  occurring after  positions  noting  his  of  schools  activity  the  an  "operating  supervisory  adult  system"  He n o t e d  was  service,  the  administration  "school  2  adult  new  departments"  has  which a d u l t  business  begin  "a  the  state. ""  of  of  the  D5,  administrative  2  or any c o m b i n a t i o n  In  fulltime  education  system,  twenty-four  to  marginality  specify  Education Branch,  Branch,  of  "that 2  the of  adult  years." "  d i d not  wrote:  part-time  "the  indicating  Clark he  from  most  Clark and  was  their  illustrated School  in  System.  27.  Clark,  Dissertation,  pp.  85  Whereas most of  local  adult  schools  1952-3  the  System  were  Adult  immediate  host  under t h e  districts,  principals  hierarchically  of  the  began  and s c h o o l  twenty-four  Supervisor  of  schools  linked  immediate  Clark of  the  the  reported  that  Los Angeles  administratively  E d u c a t i o n r a t h e r than to  institutions,  initiatives in  School  to  the  p r i n c i p a l s of  their  twenty-four  individual  schools  system.  Having n u m e r i c a l l y l i s t e d indices,  bases,  there  still  are  or  and expounded on  symptoms  other  of  marginality,  three Clark  sources, noted  that  indices.  (D6) A few o t h e r i n d i c e s of m a r g i n a l i t y a r e a v a i l a b l e . It can be noted that the pressure of economy-minded interest groups is especially severe upon adult education. A n d , t h e economy r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s of t h e s e groups take a s p e c i a l programmatic or "content" bent in adult education. Where economy a t t h e o t h e r s c h o o l l e v e l s i s c e n t e r e d a b o u t p l a n t e x p a n s i o n and t e a c h e r s ' s a l a r i e s , i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i t i s a m a t t e r of c o n t e n t and clientele curtailment. Major segments of t h e p r o g r a m a r e not a c c e p t e d by t h e s e economy groups and their proscription is sought. Here i s a c l e a r index of t h e r e l a t i v e a c c e p t a b i l i t y of p r o g r a m c o n t e n t s of the various educational levels by strong outside social forces. The p r o g r a m b u i l d i n g efforts of the adult a d m i n i s t r a t o r s are sharply q u e s t i o n e d . " 2  In  quotation  identified  m e r e l y as  elements  were  educational Clark  "elementary, 2  the  " Clark, 6  2 4 7  Clark's  "adult  levels." "  viewed  2  D3,  Ibid.,  7  It  adult  high  might  be  education  25-6.  education  education,"  Dissertation, pp.  adult  pp.  6  and  school,  his  and  i n f e r r e d that element  28-29.  element  as  was  comparative  junior  college  at  this  point  an  educational  86  level,  if  require of  one  c o m p a r i s o n of  establishing  considers adult  to  context  of  this  School  levels  merely  elements  use  of  educational  attainment.  in  "relative  Clark  quotation  he v i e w e d  school  acceptability"  minded g r o u p s  education  of  p r o g r a m s "at  "major  the  segments  accepted  by t h e s e  sought."  2 5 2  Ibid.,  2 4 9  Ibid.  2 5 0  Ibid.  'Ibid.  2 5 2  Ibid.  the  pp.  levels  relative  2 4 8  as  adult  [adult groups  identify  28-9.  the  he  in  the  variable the  He  identified  a school  school in  to  acceptability  2 5 1  their  differences  be  to  be of  equating  quotation. to  economy-  and t h e He  the  level.  reflective  appears  in  adult  be c o n s i d e r e d  education] and  what  "other  are  levels."  purposes  education  program c o n t e n t  school  economy  He d i d not  2 4 8  2 5  other  of  the  with m a r g i n a l i t y in t h i s  2 5 0  i n the  adult  of  D6  might  and D 3 , C l a r k  He n o t e d a d i s t i n c t i o n of  levels  for  manifest  t e r m m a r g i n a l i t y as  D2  marginality  identified  quotation  that  as  as  "adult e d u c a t i o n . "  and e d u c a t i o n a l  insofar  of  compares  manifestation  in  the  synonymous  As  marginality, to  indicating  2 4 9  D - 6 , Clark  Again,  as  concepts  organizational units  In  of  elements. element  levels,."  parallel  element,  comparative  Clark's  status.  education  education  that  be an i n d e x  comparative  the  assumes  content  noted  program  that  are  not  proscription i n the  two  is  types  87  of  program  their he  content  acceptability  did  regard  identify to  the  economy  which to  the  types  measures  plant  If  assumption  the  school  junior  college  quotation his  D3,  concept  assigned  of  to  maintains  is  2 5  "  educational the  levels"  the  units use  than  of  the  most  the  clientele is  centered  said  2 5 3  he  as  high school,  and  earlier  that  adult  higher  education  status  indicator  of  that  what  he  state  of  (D7) P e r h a p s t h e most i m p o r t a n t symptom of t h e p r e s e n t m a r g i n a l i t y of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n u n i t s i s t h e f e l t n e e d , e x p r e s s e d by a d u l t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , of h a v i n g t o " s e l l " t h e p r o g r a m t o the public and especially to other educators. T h i s sentiment e x i s t s very s t r o n g l y w i t h i n the ranks of the adult administrators i n the Los Angeles department. I t s t a n d s out i n t h e discussions and reports of such state-wide groups as the California Association of Adult Education Administrators, and i n t h e b u l l e t i n s of t h e B u r e a u of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n of t h e C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t of  2 5  Ibid.  "lbid.  2 5 5  Ibid.,  pp.  25-6.  was  element.  existence:  2 5 3  in  be made i n a p p l i c a t i o n of  term m a r g i n a l i t y i d e n t i f i e s  important  Clark.  termed  he had w r i t t e n  2 5 5  in  and  levels  "elementary,  groups  but  education,  e q u a t e d what  conclude to  groups,  in  adult  salaries,"  t r a n s i t i o n can t h e n  m a r g i n a l i t y to  next  Clark  w i t h the  In  school  and t e a c h e r ' s  variation  interest  "content  other  made t h a t  levels"  these  Clark's  is  on  the  interest  programs.  the  for  economy-minded  of  at  expansion  "other  of  focused  curtailment....Economy  account  economy-minded  actions  two  about  might  88  Education. The a d u l t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s have not a r r i v e d a t a p o i n t where t h e y c a n r e l y upon a f u n d a m e n t a l k i n d of acceptance by the general population, and e s p e c i a l l y by key f i g u r e s i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y and i n t h e s t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e . 6  E. G . , see B u r e a u of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , Proceedings of the Montec i t o Workshop Education, ( C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t of  R e p o r t and in Adult Education,  6  1952),  Under  pp.  his  80-89.  section  Marginality,"  and  2 5 7  symptoms,"  2 5 8  important  symptom  "present" suggests  in  2 5 9  the  Clark important  there  heading which  what  the  symptom that  of the  he  of  of  terms  "felt  "present  a necessity  to  as  H i s use concept  state  of  need"  the  the of  and most  descriptor marginality  existence. to  perception their  of  "bases as  of  identify  marginality."  the  sell  Indices  identifies  his  this  stronger  and  reintroduced  marginality.  current nature  is  he  now l i s t s of  "Sources  modification  used  suggesting that  Clark  2 5 6  of  program,  2 6 0  most  Clark  adult the  his  was  educators  greater  the  marginality. Clark education state-wide  in t h i s  quotation  elements: groups  Administrators"  "the as  and  the "the  2 5 6  Ibid.,  P.  29.  2 5 7  Ibid.,  P.  25.  2 5 8  Ibid.,  P-  26.  2 5 9  Ibid.,  P-  29.  2 6 0  Ibid.  specifically Los  Angeles  California Bureau  of  mentioned  three  d e p a r t m e n t , " and Association Adult  of  Education  adult "such Adult of  the  89  California  State  specifically "most  Angeles  the  symptom of  discussions  State  of  the  Department  Clark's  symptom was  organizations that  having  to  other  educators"  thereof wide  the  stood  assumed  that  education  units  He  that  where  they  two  Adult  is  the  most  Ibid.,  2 6 2  Ibid.  2 6 3  Ibid.  "lbid.  p.  on  his  g r o u p s as  within  these  by a d u l t  the  in  two  organizations  especially  symptom and  and r e p o r t s  the  whether  administrators, and  out  California  uncertain  existent  Los  of  of to  reports  such  state-  2 6 3  "adult  referring  administrators"  to  rather  administrators than "have  upon a f u n d a m e n t a l  29.  is  important  these a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  can r e l y  It  public  discussion  and s u b u n i t s  i n the  the  his  adult  symptom s t o o d  E d u c a t i o n of  2 6 2  "expressed  to  of  he p l a c e d  state-wide  individuals within  named.  refers  2 6 1  2 6  " i n the  he  such  condition  the  elements  administrators  the  not  E d u c a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and  program to  was  the  Clark  notes  a  need  the  out  groups" as When  of  felt  'sell'  Adult  did  marginality  need" and t h a t of  He  2 6 1  education  importance  Education."  o r whether  agreed  that  w i t h the  B u r e a u of  of  adult present  and r e p o r t s of  Education."  noted  "felt  Association  bulletins  the  but  agreed  of  which  symptom of  department  California the  in  occurred,  identified "in  identify  important  education"  Department  to  all  not  k i n d of  2 6  "  it  of  is  adult  administrators.  a r r i v e d at acceptance  a  point by  the  90  general  population,  educational in  which  administrators is  groups  symptom  through  w h i c h have  is  the  "the • p r o g r a m educators."  2  6  felt to  appears  been need  a  state  perceive  adult  figures  legislature." can  adult  identified. of  key  they  their  public  D7 C l a r k  hierarchy  again,  equating  by  The way  2 6 5  this  programs  noted  administrators and  the  achieve  education  Clark  in  that  having  especially  the  to  to  to  sell other  6  population,  educational  the  selling  the  In q u o t a t i o n "general  especially  h i e r a r c h y and i n  acceptance the  and  as-  state  wrote  of  and  especially  and  in  the  in quotations 1  of  acceptance,  limited  by  state D2, D 3 ,  acceptance  this  key  time  figures  legislature." and D 6 , with  that a  by  the  in  the  2 6 7  Clark  state  It is of  marginality. In  reference  to  quotation  D7,  Clark  proffered  the  following  clarification: (D8) We are r e f e r r i n g h e r e p r i m a r i l y t o a c c e p t a n c e of the e d u c a t i o n a l w o r t h of t h e p r o g r a m and i t s p r o p e r place in the educational structure. To t h e e x t e n t the program's educational value is judged to be low, relative t o o t h e r u s e s of s c h o o l m o n i e s , t h e p o s i t i o n and power of t h e adult administrators is built on insecure grounds. M a r g i n a l i t y d i r e c t l y c o n t r i b u t e s to insecurity. In our- i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t , we p o s i t t h a t t h e key t o the insecurity of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a g e n c i e s i s a r e l a t i v e l y low d e g r e e of a c c e p t a n c e . The l o n g - t e r m organizational problem of the adult administrators i s , then, to achieve a  2 6 5  Ibid.  2 6 6  Ibid.  2 6 7  Ibid.  91  w e l l - a c c e p t e d p o s i t i o n i n the e d u c a t i o n a l hierarchy. The i m p o r t a n c e of g a i n i n g a f u l l y l e g i t i m i z e d p o s i t i o n has been r e c o g n i z e d by many spokesmen f o r the f i e l d . This long-term effort for acceptance is, in its organizational meaning, a s t r u g g l e for o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y and s t a b i l i t y . Enduring security for the administrators hinges upon the a c c e p t a n c e of t h e i r work as e d u c a t i o n a l l y v a l u a b l e . 2 6 8  Clark "We  indicates are  w o r t h of  that  the  p r o g r a m and i t s Clark's  2 6 9  suggests a value within  adult  2 7 1  comparative  In  viewed  quotation  to  low  "marginality  directly  posits  that  insecurity  of  in  of  D8 C l a r k  units,  organizational  to  o r one  2 6 9  Ibid.,  p.  2 7 0  Ibid.  2 7 1  Ibid.  2 7 2  Ibid.  2 7 3  Ibid.  an  pp.  2 7 0  appropriate be  the  "administrative on p a r w i t h of  He 2 7 3  "the  a relatively  29-30.  place"  element,  insecurity."  is  educational  what  superiority It  is  clear  sense.  marginality 2 7 2  D8)  educational  in a negative  development  agencies  Dissertation,  one  acceptance."  contributes  Clark,  is  or is  (D7,  "proper  p r e s c r i b e d by C l a r k .  of  2 6 8  the the  education  may be e q u a t i n g  administrative  in  there  marginality  degree  29.  that  "program,"  is  of  phrase  proper place  elements  relatively  the  be p r i m a r y  states  place  an a d u l t  a  Whether t h i s  over  Clark  for  element  be c o n s i d e r e d  of  quotations  acceptance  by C l a r k  education  might  to  proper  use  judgment  education  agencies."  that  two p r e c e d i n g  referring...primarily  structure."  status  i n the  with  "a  noted  that  Clark  then  key low  to  the  degree  9 2  of  acceptance." "  If  2 7  identified  as  a  referred  as  the  the  to  equivalent  Clark  is  of  of  acceptance"  the  event  there  two  are  which t o g e t h e r  Clark  uses the  twice  within  evidently  "proper  place  education  equating  value  of  two v a r i a b l e s  four  education  educational  value  of  application Clark  of  the  labeled  term  comparative  concept the  marginality  appear  Ibid.  2 7 6  Ibid.,  2 7 7  Ibid.  p.  30.  as  sources  whether or as  he  related  in quotation the  D8,  concept  His reference 2 7 7  for  status.  an  is  of  to  a  adult  Judging  program lower  elements  of  marginality.  he u s e s  of  and  than  the  the the  second  status.  section  "lbid.  2 7 5  of  of  times  2 7 5  "a  indices  to  sources  structure"  education  or  as  two c o n c e p t s .  an a d u l t  be  "low p o s i t i o n  the  quotation  the  later  he v i e w s b o t h "a  sources  p r o g r a m s u g g e s t s an a s s i g n m e n t  educational  2 7  same  he  acceptance."  as  a source  term a c c e p t a n c e  the  and the  distinct  constitute  the  in  2 7 6  views  as  of  o r whether  further questions  variables  status,  the  Clark  what  Clark  he e q u a t e s m a r g i n a l i t y w i t h  acceptance"  administrators"  is  which  t h e n m a r g i n a l i t y would  low d e g r e e  low d e g r e e  In  variables  "a r e l a t i v e l y whether  adult  the  insecurity,  d e g r e e of  marginality,  insecurity,  to  marginality,  views  but  of  low  status. of  key t o  to  as  relatively power  assumes t h a t  contributor  ambiguous  relatively  one  as  i n w h i c h the "Sources  preceding and  uses  Indices  of of  93  Marginality," believes  and  2 7 8  are  sources  distinguishing e v i d e n c e s of marginality  as  the  Clark  notes  acceptance  appears  to  by  education  D8  from  announce of  whether  programs, the  focus  for  work as  to  or  identified  the  to  administrators of  is  the  addressing or t h a t  extent  educationally  and  educators  he  administrators  security  value  to  "administrative  some  that  their  "programs"  agencies,  suggesting  other  without  symptoms,  quotation  shifts  security  their  bases,  he  of  when hinges  valuable."  of  both  hinges of  adult  upon  the  2 8 0  the  adult  curricula.  Clark's  next  in his  economy." concept  be  programs  acceptance  appear  of  what  marginality  administrators"  does not  "Enduring  in  focus  adult  of  identify  insecurity.  He does c l a r i f y  that  education  of  to  m a r g i n a l i t y and i n s e c u r i t y  upon t h e He  of  to  indices,  Clark  contextual  administrators. he  sources,  a contributor  2 7 9  section  indices  marginality.  and power  agencies."  the  and  among  Clark's "position  used  2 8 1  four  discussion An  s e r v e s as  uses of  (D9-D12) what  introduction a basis  for  to  he  of  the  terms  Clark's  term m a r g i n a l i t y the  "enrollment  enrollment  understanding his  related  economy concepts  marginality. The  level  2  7 8  of  Ibid.,  state  p.  2 7 9  Ibid.,  pp.  2 8 0  Ibid.,  p.  2 8 1  Ibid.,  pp.  support  25-31 . 29-30. 30. 31-6.  of  adult  education  programs  94  within each  California  school  subunits  the  district  were,  attendance  the they  through to  of  withdraw nature  of  the  according  of  adult  concern  for  to  their  to  schools the  the  state  profit  students' course  level  course  facilities  are  his  of  an  adult  of  the  education  reimbursement  35.  make  a  to  allowing  programs.  Unlike  attendance  is  to  or  enroll  support has  with  the  "termed  This  2 8 2  and was  the  enrollment  operating  pressure of  by  pressures c o u r s e s at  primary  constant  revenue  Maintenance  basis  increases costs  numbers cost  costs  expenses  Maintenance as  the  enrollments  on t h e  While i n s t r u c t i o n a l  constant,  upon lower  increasing  in a system which reimburses  increase.  to  security.  adult  hours.  equal  expenses  state  study  high  actual  free  Clark  case  or  where  internal  reflects  essentially  p.  support  the  are  education  programs,  schools."  registrations.  courses  Ibid.,  adult was  in  relatively  increased  2  Clark,  provide  attendance  education  the  economy  level  remain  the  than  exceptions,  s u r v i v a l and  to  i n low c o s t  from  maintain  courses,  clientele",  of  to  state  education  few  schools  The e n r o l l m e n t adult  adult  "This confluence  economy'  of  statistics Adult  pressure  in a l e v e l  operating  with  year.  reimbursement  school's  economy, the  under  secondary  will.  'enrollment  preceding  providing  c l a i m more  adults,  at  by a t t e n d a n c e  high enrollments  and  compulsory,  the  result  i n c u r r e d through  elementary  than  for  w h i c h can  schools  determined  therefore,  prorated cost  profit  was  per  of  of per  with for adult  attendance  95  hour  decreases  reimbursement education  per  courses  those hours courses.  utilize  Clark was  Angeles  School  As  to  enrollment hour r e m a i n s  facilities  influence  the  course  constant,  while  and a d u l t  d u r i n g hours d i f f e r e n t  elementary  that  per  and  secondary  invluence  on a d u l t  of  education  the  education enrollment  within  the  Los  all  earlier,  of  Clark's  which appear  enhance  next  four  u s e s of  the  term  i n two c o n s e c u t i v e  understanding  of  his  paragraphs,  enrollment  economy  concept. (D9,  D 1 0 , D 1 1 , and D 1 2 ) The e n r o l l m e n t economy needs t o be u n d e r s t o o d in r e l a t i o n to other c o n d i t i o n s . H e r e the m a r g i n a l i t y of adult education within school systems i s r e l e v a n t , i.e., the greater the marginality, the more the p r e s s u r e s of t h e e n r o l l m e n t economy a r e l i k e l y t o p l a y an important role. Local school s y s t e m s w i l l not contribute heavily to a program they only weakly accept; and, where insecure because of marginal s t a t u s , p r o g r a m a d m i n i s t r a t o r s a r e more s u s c e p t i b l e to the pressures of the enrollment economy. The marginality of t h i s p r o g r a m , t h r o u g h i t s i m p a c t upon t h e s e c u r i t y and power of t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , d i r e c t l y c o n d i t i o n s the severity of the enrollment economy pressures. Of no less importance i n t h i s c o n t e x t are the stated goals of organizational leadership. Administrative purpose plays an important role in relation to these operating pressures. In the following section, the manifest goals of adult education are a n a l y z e d . This discussion will then provide us with a c o n f i g u r a t i o n of t h r e e h i s t o r i c a l conditions, e.g., the marginality of organizational p o s i t i o n , the p r e s s u r e s of t h e e n r o l l m e n t economy, and the potential e f f e c t ' of the stated ends of the  2 8 3  from  System.  mentioned  used  for  felt  a major  marginality,  increased  attendance  required  economy  are  with  Ibid.,  pp.  35-6.  96  program.  In two  2 8 3  these paragraphs Clark  ways.  His  statement,  contribute  heavily  might  understood  to  be  to  be a d e f i n i t i o n  of  the  equivalent not  i n the  of  of  of  to  his  and a p p e a r s  they  context  to  both  the  in  systems w i l l  not  weakly  accept"  preceding  His  understood  concepts  to  of  define  2 8  "  quotations  acceptance. is  2 8 5  marginality  marginality.  among t h e  use  school  weak  status,"  define  only  of  c o n c e p t s of  distinguish  to  "local  m a r g i n a l i t y as  "marginal  one  that  program  terms  appear  status  a  appears  use  as  an  Clark  does  acceptance  and  concepts  of  influences  the  his  marginality. Clark security  appears  and the of  forces  an  organizational  made  in  school  the of  the  which  conditions  2 8  of  Clark  2 8 7  he the  "exist  "lbid.,  2 8 5  Ibid.  2 8 6  Ibid.  2 8 7  Ibid.,  as  of  wrote  enrollment adult  mutually  p.  36.  p.  24.  marginality  an a d u l t  one  twice  of  three for  education these  education. exclusive.  and t h e He In  of  historical marginality,  potential  treated  of  decisions  departments  three  to  "historical  the  organizational  economy  element  "marginality  of  'givens'  adult  as  education  He l i s t s  as  identified  g o a l s of as  of  2 8 6  administration  systems."  formal  says  that  economy.  position"  w h i c h he  pressures  saying  an e n r o l l m e n t  the  conditions  be  susceptibility  the  conditions"  to  the  quotation  effect three D 1 2 he  97  identified  the  same h i s t o r i c a l  organizational One m i g h t be  position"  therefore  restricted  Clark  marginality  is  organizational In  economy. an  may be  a  of  position  within  the  a state  that  intensity  of  marginality  Both usages address As  stated  through  its  by  impact  administrators, enrollment  a negative  upon  adult his does  of  concept not  of  the  elements  distinguish  2 8 8  Ibid.,  p.  2 8 9  Ibid.  2 9 0  Ibid.  36.  security  enrollment  "severity" term  2 8 9  severity he  viewed  condition.  of  and  this  program,  power  the  of  severity  the  of  the  applied  his  2 9 0  as  defined  seem t o  to  program.  whether C l a r k  inferior  status,  from t h o s e e l e m e n t s  marginality,  on  used  mean t h a t  marginality  determine  defined  that  based  is  or d e t r i m e n t a l  conditions  pressures."  marginality,  education  the  of  school  saying  and an  use  a single  "The  directly  economy  to  public  to  framework.  the  to  framework.  status  controls  c o u l d be u n d e r s t o o d  Clark,  school  concept  Clark's  themselves  as or  of  marginality  term m a r g i n a l i t y  marginality  as  of  within  acceptance  between t h e  An a t t e m p t was made t o concept  the  economy.  than  concept  public  marginality  school  interpreted  level  Both s t a t e  "the  position  further  relationship  as  public  Clark's  low  enrollment  rather  the  organizational  term u s e s D10 and D11  emphasize the  of  within  2 8 8  understand  to  frameworks.  condition  as  weaker  to  to  different  w h i c h he  applied  acceptance.  among c o n c e p t s of  marginality  Clark used  9 8  within  the  occur,  two p a r a g r a p h s  despite  marginality based  the  based  on s t a t u s .  appears  to  be  marginality claims  a  conceptual  The n a t u r e  the  of  within  context  for  differing  adult  contextual  variations  i n what  context.  Clark  first  within  school  which  might  restricted defines one  only  of  Clark's the  "program  "marginality of to  these  context  four  education  term u s e s ,  used  w h i c h a number of  the  Ibid.,  p.  35;  2 9 2  Ibid.,  p.  36.  2 9 3  Ibid.  2 9 4  Ibid.  may  the  2 9 3  as  and t o  a common of  adult  elements to If  which appears then  both a  Quotation  has  as  systems.  term,  position."  one to  Clark  "program"  D12  addresses  be has and the  context  applied marginality  directly  2 9 4  Within  be  the  an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  term m a r g i n a l i t y  t e r m use  9 2  to  represent  appear  school  of  Clark  reference  education  p a r t i c u l a r operating  2 9 1  his  of  element  Clark  While  The m u l t i t u d e  of  of  organizational  next  2 9 1  of  also  concepts  marginality  "marginal s t a t u s , " "  administrators." of  "the  adult  definitions  adult  to  concept  element  among  elements  D12  marginality  a n n o u n c e d by C l a r k  systems."  the  of  two p a r a g r a p h s .  was  as  through  education  feature  education  a program, a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , Clark  in  by  concept  both paragraphs,  vefers  denoted  m a r g i n a l i t y as  identified as  be  the  D9  between h i s  adult  distinguishing  identified  uses  difference and h i s  distinctly  education  term  on a c c e p t a n c e  a  common  i n which  D9.  to  designate  procedures  position. a context  had  arisen.  99  His  statement  condition,  infers  identified  operating  procedures.  operating  procedures,  "rules  of  of  procedures  the  that  Clark schools:  the  have  of  up l i s t s Clark  class  levels  of  initiation  petitions.  rule;  courses  tend  classroom  independent  2 9 6  of  units  2 9 5  Ibid.,  P.  53.  2 9 6  Ibid.,  pp.  53- 8.  2 9 7  Ibid.,  pp.  58- 62.  2 9 8  Ibid.,  pp.  62- •3.  there  2 9 5  of  the  adult  minimum f o r and  identified  the  the  no-fee  by C l a r k  courses,  of  for  setting  and  using  2 9 8  standard operating  t e n d s not  stated  "operating  s c h o o l s were t h o s e  m a r g i n a l i t y : enrollment  schedule; or  courses,"  and d u r a t i o n w h i c h he  homework  are a general  for  where  from  [sic]."  policies  procedures  those  those  of  school  but a r o u n d w h i c h  "a c l a s s - s i z e  in adult  identified  size  of  open-ended;  condensed  setting  set  adult  stem  and  the  result--a  subsets:  action  operating  between  of  administrators  two  and g r o u p  also  context  complete  adult  courses  and  two  from p r a c t i c e  Standard operating  2 9 7  discussion  Education,"  and m a i n t e n a n c e  minimum e n r o l l m e n t  the  arisen  and t h e  identified  of  of  relationship  his  thought  Board  policy  introduction  concern  marginality,  Clark  identified  introduction  sign  as In  c o n s e n s u s among the  policy.  causal  administrative  policies  is  a  procedures  perceived  be  r e q u i r e d ; no  to  be  shortened  sessions  arose  and w i t h d r a w a l t e n d  to  tend  in order to  to  from to  be  examinations  or a r e be  which  r u n on a  packaged  accommodate  as  open-ended  1 00  entrance  and w i t h d r a w a l ; c l a s s  and s e l f - p a c e d ; enter  and  frequently  will  are  non-existent, of  individual  and  instruction;  increased;  minimum  enrollment  is  evaluat i o n .  2 9  to  used  be b o t h  classes  complete  independent  where  students  specific  entrance  sets  requirements  a r e c o m b i n e d when e x p e d i e n t size,  instruction  and c a n c e l l e d  courses  necessitating in  lieu  an e n r o l l m e n t a c c o r d i n g to  are  tailored  for  as  the  standard  the  preceding  enrollment  specific for  for  classroom  where  courses  demands  is  organizations;  and  course  and  teacher  Clark  to warned  operating  policies  that:  (D13) It should be understood that these operating procedures have arisen in t h e c o n t e x t of d i f f u s e d , openended [ s i c ] p r o g r a m g o a l s and the organizational marginality of a d u l t s c h o o l s . These c o n d i t i o n s h o l d , in g e n e r a l , for the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h , though it has t h e l a r g e s t p u b l i c - s c h o o l p r o g r a m i n t h e c o u n t r y . To i n d i c a t e t h e p e r i p h e r a l n e s s by budget s i z e of t h i s a c t i v i t y , t h e a d u l t s c h o o l p r o g r a m i s a two to three per cent budget item. The t o t a l d i r e c t e x p e n s e s of the program in 1952-1953 were $2,494,789.97 in a school budget of approximately one hundred and eighteen million. Among t h e twenty-four adult s c h o o l s , d i r e c t e x p e n d i t u r e s r a n g e d from $ 5 0 , 2 0 5 . 6 6 t o $ 1 35,772.57. In s i z e of a t t e n d a n c e , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n amounted t o 11,176 ADA u n i t s out of a t o t a l of 366,378 f o r the s c h o o l s y s t e m , o r 3 . 0 5 % Table 3 indicates that the size of the program, using ADA as a c o m p a r a t i v e m e a s u r e , has v a r i e d from 1.79% t o 3.89% of t h e t o t a l s c h o o l s y s t e m i n the p e r i o d 1925-26 t o 19521 6  1 7  18  2 9 9  are  increased  of  economy  of  9  regard  procedures,  class  group  to  offered; courses  • sensitivity  initiated  In  at  units  maintenance  are  revolving-membership type  exit  instructional  work t e n d s t o  Ibid.,  pp.  63-4.  and  101  53. When we compare program s i z e in 1952-53 with twenty-five years ago, we s e e n t h a t t h e p r o g r a m has m a i n t a i n e d a b o u t t h e same r e l a t i v e s i z e i n t h e school system. The a d u l t s c h o o l s have grown p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y t o t h e o v e r - a l l i n c r e a s e i n an e x p a n d i n g s y s t e m .  C o n t r o l l e r ' s Annual F i n a n c i a l Report for the Year E n d i n g June 30, 1953. B o a r d of E d u c a t i o n C i t y of L o s A n g e l e s , J u l y 30, 1953.  1  Fi seal of t h e  E x p e n d i t u r e s C l a s s i f i e d by S c h o o l s , S c h o o l 1952-1953. Los Angeles. C i t y School D i s t r i c t s . 1  C o n t r o l l e r ' s Report,  1  Organizational by  Clark  which  in  the  the  and d e n o t e s  the  program,  the Los  about  the  Clark  to  School  denote  of  of  has  the  the  terms,  the  arose.  Adult  noted in  Clark  Adult Education paragraph activity,  adult in  been  two c o n t e x t s  through  schools,  System--he  0  procedures  m a r g i n a l i t y of  24 a d u l t  0  one  makes no d i s t i n c t i o n s  he u s e s  Angeles  3  schools  as  S c h o o l System  program,  terms  adult  and  B r a n c h t h r o u g h use  schools.  among  policies  Los Angeles  the  cit.  preceding quotation  writes  B r a n c h of  adult  m a r g i n a l i t y of  operating  apparently  school  the  op.  Year  D13 adult  education, this  and  paragraph  E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h of  appears  to  use  them  synonymously. Clark marginality ratios he  of  to 3 0 1  3 0 0  3 0  the  as  reports  he  budget  refers  "system,"  uses  size.  twice as  as  his  Ibid.,  'Ibid.  term,  p.  peripheralness,  indices  He u s e s "the  unit  70.  of  "the  school  as  a  peripheralness total  system"  for comparison.  school and once  synonym of based  system," as  on  which  merely  the  102  Because  of  assumptions  the  a r e made.  peripheralness Education  i n the  B r a n c h of  the  that  system" that  in  that  by C l a r k 3 0 2  Los Angeles  this  is  by C l a r k context  within  is  assumed  to  be t h e  system,"  use,  which  the  it  several  the  terms  The  Adult  public-school Adult  Education  An a s s u m p t i o n  Los Angeles  of  used  largest  System.  the  writing,  Clark  "the  "school is  Clark's  synonymously.  as  School  "system,"  noted  organization  The f i r s t  country"  the  3 0 3  of  marginality  Branch noted  program  made  and  imprecision  is  and " t o t a l School  school  System  constitutes  comparative  also  the  and  parental  elements  are  contained. Because "budget  size,"  magnitude  between  as  a  3  of  subunit.  alloted  Clark 0  " one might  the  peripheralness  expect  variable  present  expressed  the  index  budget  allocated  the  adult  to  the  total  of  the  particular Clark  adult  system.  and  in  education  re-expressed  framework t o  3 0 2  Ibid.  3 0 3  Ibid.  3 0 f l  unit  demonstrated  the  as  an  education  the  adult  indicative  to  the  total  absolute education  estimated  ratio  element  r a t i o was  is  of  by  to  that  expressed  the  system  relative for  the  index. this  $2,494,789.97:118,000,000.00. conceptual  in  The e s t i m a t e d theory  as  a r e p o r t i n g of  Clark  percentage  status  identified  Ibid.  the  same  index  He t h e r e b y  assessment  of  ratio  opened the  the  in  dollars,  door  in  his  marginality  of  103  adult  schools  budgets  to  Clark's of  collectively  the  total  logic  educational  would be t h a t  an i n d i v i d u a l a d u l t  total of  system,  the  in t h i s  Los  marginality  size  of  this  of  units  as both  his  "adult  and  Education  total  Los Angeles of  was  0  1925-6 t o  Clark  s u m m a r i z e d the  over  the  System,  Ibid.  3 0 6  Ibid.  3 0 7  Ibid.  Clark  total  as  a percentage  the  to  the  E d u c a t i o n Branch index  of  adult  as  p e r i o d the  over-all  average  the  the  It  3 0 6  is  a percentage, to  assumed  in  now i d e n t i f i e s  the  the  to  the the  during  the  percent.  noting  schools  increase  of  that  3.89  imprecisely  unit of ADA  System  reported  percent  for  district  marginality School  "  daily  ratio  school  (3.05%).  "adult  is  education  r e p o r t e d the  the  D13  measurement  the  He f u r t h e r  expressed  Clark  of  Los Angeles  p a r a g r a p h somewhat  the  of  in quotation  ADA of  report  System.  year  of  expenditures  expenditures  was  the  1952-3 r a n g e d from 1.79  Although  3 0 5  variable  the  to  direct  Adult  their  school.  to  still  of  extension  would be an  marginality  ratio,  twenty-five  proportionately  the  ratio  An  the  direct  of  Identifying  School  this  of  His reported unit  5  B r a n c h of  years  3 0 7  3  of  relation  Adult  system."  that  education,"  intention  variation  "  index  (11,176:366,378) that  the  identified  (ADA) u n i t .  in  to  to  School  second  alleged  merely  case  budget.  a ratio  a p a r t i c u l a r adult  attendance.  attendance  school  Angeles  Clark's  through r e p o r t i n g the  have  that grown  an  expanding  adult  education  104  element  as  adult  Branch  of  the  intended  to  of  units  ADA  units  over  reporting  this  been  Los Angeles  generated  generated  the  by the  the  than  School  of  or  the it  Adult  is  Education  doubtful  F u r t h e r m o r e , because  the  adult  to  entire  the  as  System,  education  system  year  v a r i a b l e as  marginality  Clark's  by t h e  twenty-five  stable  relatively  a section  rather  make a d i s t i n c t i o n .  constant  that  schools  adult  remained  period,  an  index  unit  that  ratio the ADA  relatively  the  implications  of  marginality  education  unit  he  has  of is  likewise  stable.  final his  four  u s a g e s of  the  term m a r g i n a l i t y occur  D i s s e r t a t i o n w h i c h he has  in  labeled:  (D14) The E f f e c t In  of  Marginality  quotation  value,  that  called  for  value  D15,  Clark  being  wherever  3 0 8  that  seems t o  be e x p r e s s i n g  administrative  insecurity  is  action  present  a is  within  organizations. (D15) Where o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n i s i n s e c u r e , then administrative thought and action needs t o be o r i e n t e d t o w a r d r e d u c i n g t h a t insecurity. M a r g i n a l i t y of a " f u n c t i o n " means t h a t t h e need f o r adjustments c o n t r i b u t i n g to s e c u r i t y i s strengthened. In this way a m a r g i n a l p o s i t i o n d i r e c t l y c o n t r i b u t e s t o an u n c o n t r o l l e d evolution. T h e r e i s a g r e a t e r need t o a d a p t , on o t h e r people's terms if necessary, and less l i k e l i h o o d t h a t change w i l l be controlled from within. For adult education, a marginal position in school systems increases t h e s e n s i t i v i t y of the p r o g r a m t o v o c a l i z e d p u b l i c demands. The a d u l t s c h o o l s have a strong need f o r o u t s i d e i n t e r e s t and s u p p o r t ; t h e i r p r o d u c t i s t h e n l e s s l i k e l y t o be m a i n t a i n e d i n "internal" terms of the organizational personnel. The autonomy of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s r e d u c e d and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s more s u b j e c t t o t h e pressure of  Ibid.,  pp. • 172-3.  105  ad  hoc  demands.  In to  this  school  quotation  systems.  marginality  "a  to  marginal  Clark  applies  He a p p e a r s  within  "sensitivity" of  3 0 9  to  be  school  position" he  administrator  rather  from t h e  may not  program.  This  his  only  use  context  use  of of  to  identified  the  3 1 0  the  "effect"  When he  speaks  to  the  of  of  program  position  of  " M a r g i n a l i t y of  application be  because  of  his  references  in the  school  term that  varies  "the  c a n be  with  is  "an of  public  control  3 0 9  Ibid.,  3 1 0  Ibid.  3 1 1  Ibid.  3 1 2  Ibid.  3 1 3  Ibid.  p.  *Webster,  an who  over  the  an  s.v.  a  "adult  else"?  organizational  schools."  "  position,  3 1 3  Does he mean action"  or a "thing 3 1  that  The meaning  in a variety  of  "function".  of  Clark's through of  adult  depends Clark's  ways d e p e n d i n g  marginality  3 1 2  function.  to . o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  mandate,  Since  'function'"  term to  in  53.  1973,  a  normal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  something  used.  the  problematic.  interpreted  definition  3 1  s y s t e m s , " and  term f u n c t i o n  of  understood  an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  discussion the  reference  to  the  and  from  v a r y i n g degrees  is  education, on  gained  the  contributing  position  by C l a r k  "position use  demands."  speaks  marginality  3 1 1  Clark's is  have  that  of  increases  directly  evolution"  or  saying  public  uncontrolled  may  concept  systems  "vocalized  than  his  contributes  on to  106  insecurity action,  and i n s e c u r i t y  Clark  be a f f e c t e d It  appears  would a p p e a r  sake  be  of  Increased  control  and i n f l u e n c e  Clark's  w h i c h must  over  the  meant  of  can  also  action.  be d e a l t  adult  usages  explain  marginality  with  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  marginality  final  administrative  m a r g i n a l i t y was v i e w e d  organizational  being.  Dissertation  that  through  implying that  through a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  a negative condition the  to  can be a f f e c t e d  the  effects  and  term of  to  be  reduced  for  c o n t r o l and  well  increased  education  by C l a r k  interest  group  programs. marginality  marginality  on  in  his  program  just i f icat ion. (D16-D17) Marginality also s h a p e s t h e d o c t r i n e s t h a t emerge as program r a t i o n a l e s . In t h e a d u l t education context, it s t r e n g t h e n s the need f o r a d o c t r i n e of s e r v i c e , o r what m i g h t be c a l l e d a d o c t r i n e of immediate needs. The doctrine of s e r v i c e seems i n p a r t a r e s p o n s e t o the insecurity of the adult education enterprise within public school systems. The gathering of outside support is a basic requirement for reducing insecurity, and the d o c t r i n e of s e r v i c e s a n c t i o n s t h e tendency to p r o v i d e s e r v i c e i n return for support. Here marginality pushes the program toward an u n c o n t r o l l e d development, with i t s course determined by o u t s i d e forces. 3 1 5  Clark the  first  doctrines  Marginality, and  outside  made a g e n e r a l that  emerge  a c c o r d i n g to of  sentence explains  3 1 5  Clark,  3 1 6  Ibid.  the the  statement:  Clark,  field  of  effect  Dissertation,  as  program  apparently adult of  p.  " M a r g i n a l i t y . . . shapes  occurs  education,  marginality  53.  rationales." both for "in  3 1 6  inside  his  second  the  adult  1 07  education  context."  Clark  earlier  to  insecurity."  the  need  service  for  stated  that  "Marginality directly  He now s t a t e s  3 1 8  a doctrine  of  enterprise  believes  doctrine  of  marginality doctrine  of  within  only  service  to  the  to  "strengthens doctrine of  the  of  adult  to  the  resulting  from  marginality not  of  Whether  3 1 9  marginality  insecurity  and a r e  contributes  systems."  of  effects  direct  this  insecurity  school  made t h r o u g h  are  insecurity  and t h a t  public  other  service  marginality  contribution  is  o r whether  of  creation  the  that  service"  "seems i n p a r t a r e s p o n s e  education Clark  3 1 7  on  resultant  the  through  which m a r g i n a l i t y c o n t r i b u t e s  is  not  clear. Clark's  seventeenth  Di s s e r t a t ion addressed marginality  from  administrator. development  Clark's  increased  control  "outside  forces."  outside  forces  what  the  refers  to  of 3 2 0  as  of  the  perspective reference  the He being  Ibid.  3 1 8  Ibid.,  p.  30.  3 1 9  Ibid.,  p.  53.  3 2 0  Ibid.  3 2 1  Ibid.,  p.  36.  3 2 2  Ibid,  29.  term m a r g i n a l i t y  he p e r c e i v e d  diminished  3 1 7  p.  use  unit  by  previously  of  were  the  the  toward  an  Clark  of  effects  of  education  uncontrolled control  refers  identified  "pressures  his  adult  administrative what  in  the  some of  to  and as  these  enrollment  108  economy,"  "pressure  3 2 1  and a " f e l t  need"  of  for  3 2 3  economy-minded  Dissertation.  to  readers  guide  was  used  to  additional  number was  marginality notion  of  Using  these  table.  in  It  those  repeat  Examination  concepts  to  of his  the  was  3 2 3  Ibid.  time  Table  of  sections already discussed. subheading  Clark's  already cited  seventeen  Dissertation  marginality IV i s  3 2 2  within Contents  Since  as  it  use  D2, no  the  term  assigned.  distinctions  Chapter  additional  i n c l u d e d in the  numerous d i s t i n c t i o n s  of  groups,"  acceptance.  The t e r m m a r g i n a l i t y a p p e a r e d one Clark's  interest  it  as is  has  uses  resulted  among c o n c e p t s c r i t e r i a for  possible  dedicated  to  this  of  to  i n the of  marginality.  recognizing  summarize  process.  preceding  discrete  them  in  a  109  CHAPTER IV  ANALYSIS AND CRITIQUE OF USES OF THE TERM MARGINALITY IN CLARK'S DISSERTATION Each context  of  Clark's  from h i s  basic  of  marginality, analysis  of  for  presentation  and of  data,  of  concepts  of  discussion  and  presentation  the  not  themselves  to  categorization.  the  data  General  Table or  3 will lack  observations  of  term i n the  its  within  c o n c e r n i n g the  of  observations  Di s s e r t a t ion which Once t h e  marginality  be p r e s e n t e d , data  of  subcategories  the  of  the  marginality,  of  resultant  presentation  tabled observations,  and  concepts  to  in  of  use  categorizing  length  in  concepts  to  for  at  dedicated  pertaining lend  the  is  categorizing  categories  the  t e r m m a r g i n a l i t y was q u o t e d  and d i s c u s s e d  This chapter  premise  discussion  the  Dissertation  preceding chapter. a  u s e s of  is  basic  each c a t e g o r y  table  will  premise  presented,  categories  did  defined,  the and  discussed.  follow.  1 10  The P r e m i s e  for  The a n a l y s i s adult  C a t e g o r i z i n g Concepts  of  education  u s a g e s of  involves  education  element,  context,  and  a  questions  are:  What s p e c i f i c  or v a l u e ,  is  to  what  comparative  is  the  experienced value?  by the  comparative  the  designated  a state  the  the  each.  in  potential  for  The  relationship A n d , what  concrete  of  been  or  these systems  application  and measurement  has  is  practice  and p a r e n t a l  the  Term U s e s by B u r t o n R.  Term M a r g i n a l i t y ,  basic  marginality  3,  or  practice,  element,  Table  of  adult  system  identification  or v a l u e s ,  of  of  element,  which  the  field  or v a l u e s ?  education  The g e n e r a t i o n  of  marginality  operationalization  and Key E l e m e n t A n a l y s i s of for  nature  in  adult  the  the  parental  practices,  practices,  in  education of  specific  and  status.  Dissertation  the  adult  specific  greater  concept  of  organization  more  the  elements,  elements,  elements,  or c o n t e x t s , of  or  concepts  identification  comparative  experiencing  The  the  discussion  system  the  of M a r g i n a l i t y  of  the  Contextual Clark  based  in His  upon  this  premi s e . D i s c u s s i o n of C a t e g o r i e s and S u b c a t e g o r i e s of C o n c e p t s of M a r g i n a l i t y and P r e s e n t a t i o n of T a b l e d O b s e r v a t i o n s  The C o n t e x t u a l and Clark's  Use  of  the  Key  summary of  the  his  scheme  for  distinguish  within  Analysis  of  Burton  Term M a r g i n a l i t y i n H i s D i s s e r t a t i o n  only a c a t e g o r i c a l term  Element  data  gathered  Dissertation,  identifying among v a r i o u s  key  elements  c o n c e p t s of  but  from C l a r k ' s also  and  is  a  is  not  use  of  conceptual  contexts  marginality.  R.  which  U s e s of  the  111  term m a r g i n a l i t y , term  in  length in  the  Table  As  term  reviewed, among  by  of  follow.  for  extensions of  concept  of  will  category  labeled  from  then  categories  Such  for  the  usages. could  at  in  education  the  do  table.  and  of  to  from  use  or the  of  a  plausible,  a lack  table  not Some  opposites  seemed  regardless First  immediately  examples  identified  adult  definitions  writings  the  and  distinctions  followed  d e d u c e d as  be  identified  noted  Where l o g i c a l  writings.  are  were  from C l a r k ' s  identified  and d e f i n e d ,  Clark's  the  numbering  categorical  be d e f i n e d ,  conceptually  education  example  writings  Examples  marginality within are  of  i n d i v i d u a l l y quoted  Corresponding  noted.  basis  each.  been  appearance  quotations.  were  from C l a r k ' s  adult  categories  the  the  Categories  have  the  were  within Clark's  of  of  Contents,  form t h e  every  categories  exception  D1 t h r o u g h D17.  distinctions  term usage  exist  to  uses  a discussion  field  the  and numbered as  Table 3 refers  which  with  is  of  an  presented,  defined.  M a r g i n a l i t y of t h e G e n e r a l V a l u e of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and L e a r n i n g The of  the  first  categorical  " M a r g i n a l i t y of  the  label  identified  in Table 3  G e n e r a l V a l u e of  Adult  is  that  E d u c a t i o n and  Learning." Clark  announced that  organizations, marginality"  3 2 4  their  may  Clark,  be  values  his  Di s s e r t a t ion  and t h e i r  applied  Dissertation,  to  p.  any  1.  was  a  practices." of  these  3 2 4  "study  of  Concepts  of  three  concerns:  TT  o  o  Quotation  I u  -Id'  TO"'  £  <°  Number  I Page Numbers Educatlonal  Values  Independent A d u l t  Education  Units  Act 1 v i t y Administrative  Agencies  Administrative Brarcnes of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Adult  Administrators  Adult  Classes  Adult  Education  Adult Education Branch of the Los A n g e l e s School Adult  System  Education  Departments  Adult  Education  Enterprise  Adult  Education  Adult  School  Adult  Men  Enterprise  School(s)  Aauit  School  Program  Amerlean!zatlonl and C i t i z e n s h i p C e n t e r Bureau of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n o f the C a l i f o r n i a Department of EducationCalifornia Association of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Administrators Courses Funct1on Organization Organizational  Position  Program Public  School  Adult  Public  School  Program  Individual Education  .!..... I..  Adult Subunit  Aggregate  Adult  Community  College  Elementary  _1-  Education  ^ IT  E l e m e n t a r y School Established  t-4 -3 «S  Level  O  ">)  Units  •3 X PI  o  Education  H i g h School  Educational  High School  Programs  H i g h School  Units  Ounlop C o l l e p a  H Z PI  Level  >  $ aw  Education  Junior College Educational Junior CollegB  Level  o  Programs  > a  Colleges  Other Educational Other  z > f  Programs  H i g h School  Junior  O  Education  Elementary Educational  L.__..|_-  >  3 O  G  Levels  ^ n a a n >  Programs  O t h e r School  Departments  O t h e r School  Levels  Primary Senior  -3 i—i  O  Departments High  z > z a  Schools  StrohgCentral-Departments  r> >  Wei 1 - E s t a b l I shed, Wei 1-Accepted Programs No C o m p a r a t i v e Element S p e c i f i e d  PI  W i t h i n An Immediate Parental Organization  Z O  z n  Within A Supra-Parental O r g a n i z a t i o n I Level II) Within A Supra-Parental Organization (Level III) C a l i f o r n i a School System ( S t a t e Dept. of E d u c a t i o n ) E l e m e n t a r y School H i g h School  Junior College Large  1  Districts  Organizations  Local  Districts  Local  School  Los  Districts  Districts  System  A n g e l e s School  Publ1c  School  School  System  School  System  Total  School  System  In the U n i t e d  States  System  Act 1vi tv C lass  "2 ° 3  Course  -"5  Funct ion I n t e r a c t 1 on Program  °  &  a o5  £  **  n 0)  §  mi" M  *  3  113  organizational concern  units,  with  implementation  values,  the and  or  practices.  organizational  change"  3 2 5  and  felt  education  value... undergoing departments."  was  that  to  of  adult  study.  considered  implementation  voiced  processes  o r g a n i z a t i o n s seemed good o b j e c t s f o r h i s Adult  He  "a  value  education  3 2 6  be  the  by a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  "general  schools  and  Clark explained that:  3 2 7  These o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e seen as the instruments of implementation. It is clear that adult education u n i t s o f v a r i o u s s i z e and s c o p e must be built and maintained i n order to realize the education of . adults. 3 2 8  When t h e or  focus  standards,  educational elsewhere  i s on  singly  values,  the s t a t u s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n or  collectively,  respectively,  which  learning  values  are  or held  i n s o c i e t y or a p o r t i o n , t h e r e o f , then the concern i s  of t h e m a r g i n a l i t y of t h e g e n e r a l v a l u e of learning.  Such  throughout the marginality  adult  field of  education  learning  Although  values  may  education be  Contexts, is  or  identified wherein  the  considered,  may  p a r t o r a l l o f what i s c o n s i d e r e d  of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , o r may  be o u t s i d e t h e  adult  values  of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n .  adult  constitute either field  among  beliefs  to  be  permeate c o n t e x t s c o n s i d e r e d  the to  field. Clark  3 2 5  Ibid.,  p.  3 2 6  Ibid.  3 2 7  I b i d . , p.  3 2 8  Ibid.  announced  2.  1.  his  study  to  be  one  of  11 4  organizations, concepts adult as  of  assessed  values  various  interest  the  term  however,  and l e a r n i n g a r e  C o n c e p t s of  m a r g i n a l i t y may be  values,  education.  or  to  field  the  of  adult  other  w i t h i n a common  subunits No  falling Clark  evidence within  this  within his  found,  category  of  When one a d d r e s s e s  among  comparison  other  term " a d u l t seventeen  no was  associated units of  values  and  adult  of  adult  Adult Education  to  m a r g i n a l i t y of  to  organizational  the  field  of  values  external  and l e a r n i n g w i t h i n a to  the  adult  status  given  afforded  system. as  illustrated  i n T a b l e 3, of  by t h e  l a c k of  data  such a p p l i c a t i o n s  by  Dissertation.  Marginality  education,  of  in comparisons  was  values  are  of and  individuals,  field  the  applied  education  subunit  status  values,  to  i n the  external  the  organizational  or  values  when  Field  practices  One may a d d r e s s  the  while  focus.  External  the  groups  and  non-organizational  only  the  denote societal  True,  and  Marginality  units,  to  marginality  Dissertation.  organizational  pertain,  practices,  be u s e d  Values m a r g i n a l i t y concepts  education education  might  their  among any number of  of  within his  processes.  and  by any number of  application  identified with  values,  marginality  education  specific  to  their  fields  the the  for of  education" applications  Field  of  m a r g i n a l i t y of  p u r p o s e of  study in of  Adult Education field  establishing  or p r a c t i c e .  association the  the  term  of  status  While Clark  with  is  made  used  the  of  his  within  his  thirteen  marginality  adult  1 15  Dissertation, practice, to  the  c o m p a r i s o n was made t o  and no d i r e c t  field  education  was  in his  applications  apparent.  readers  that  field  of  education,  of  study  does  comparisons the  three  Clark's and not  made t o  subunits  the  of  absence  support  a concept  lead  of  entire  use  of  the  of of  study  or  marginality  the  term  adult  conclusion  by  m a r g i n a l i t y are a p p l i e d to  the  of  to  comparisons  such  to  conslusions,  other and  m a r g i n a l i t y to  are  made,  adult  fields  the  w i t h i n a common p a r e n t a l  in which comparisons  application to  might  concepts  not  instances  of  fields  While C l a r k ' s  Dissertation  some  adult  other  six  system  in  demonstrate  education  subunits  field.  Organizational Marginality The t e r m o r g a n i z a t i o n a l education  d e n o t e s a low  comparison  to  system.  Organizational  individuals in  other  settings  existence  of  category  mere  considered of  status  subunits  or g r o u p s .  societal  to  W h i l e any might  sufficient  incorporation,  mandate,  or  education  organization.  For  in  of  individuals of  defining and r o l e s  without  of  the  the this  is  not  existence  constitution,  and/or  charter. be  organizational  element,  inclusion  subunit  indices  :  individuals  adult  structuring  among as  of  organizational  formal  purposes  bylaws,  Key e l e m e n t s w h i c h must of  common  regarded  of  field  education  interaction  for  objectives,  a  the  be  for  i n the  an a d u l t  denotes  collaboration be  of  within  an o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  formal  concepts  marginality  identified marginality  comparative assessment  of  in  application  include  elements, s t a t e s of  and  the  of  adult  parental  marginality  these  116  three  elements  identify  the  the  essential  element  organizational within  are  context  common  assessed.  said of  because to  the  must  be e x p e r i e n c i n g  assessment,  context  Otherwise,  one  against  s t a t e m e n t s of  able  to  marginality,  the  and the  which status  be  other  status  subunits  is  being  r e m a i n ambiguous  and  incomplete. No s p e c i f i c marginality In of in  application  in C l a r k ' s  reiteration,  field  element,  data  within Adult  field  from  Educat ion  adult  concepts  education  of  Clark's  and  follows,  both  application  organizational  marginality  for  the  adult  parental  along  Dissertation  of  identified.  include  elements,  each element  organization.  with  w h i c h have  education  discussion been  of  classified  Element  term element  one m i g h t of  adult  education frequently used  of  concept  each.  The foci  of  was  key e l e m e n t s e s s e n t i a l  comparative  Description the  of  a non-organizational  Dissertation  and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n the  of  have  has' been  b e c a u s e of  when a p p l y i n g c o n c e p t s  education.  values,  but  were a p p l i e d t o  various  used  labels  Clark his adult  in his  of  the  diversity  marginality  in  the  announced h i s  focus  be  adult  concepts  marginality  most  education  Dissertation  of  to  of  subunits. for  3 2 9  Clark  identification  of  S t a t e d a g a i n f o r c l a r i t y , an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n subunit is not a s u b d i v i s i o n o f an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n u n i t , but r a t h e r an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n element which i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y s u b o r d i n a t e to a p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n or p h y s i c a l l y l a r g e r or more powerful organizational element whose primary objective is not the e d u c a t i o n of a d u l t s . 3 2 9  11 7  adult his  education concepts  addition  to  elements, to  vary  in  the in  adult this  of  the  by C l a r k  education as  Clark  seventeen  department, the  Adult  school and  School  with  term program i s the  Clark's whether  use  of  second  Dissertation  as  has a  the  from t h o s e  a  identified or  with  adult  Education  a  sixteen  identified  in  his  education  Adult  E d u c a t i o n of  the  California  Association  of  adult  agencies,  adult  schools,  adult  program, f u n c t i o n ,  education  denote  process,  appear  to  them as  thereby,  term program to  been  used  wherein  Clark  marginality.  in regards  elements are  Dissertation.  organization,  have  program i n c o n t e x t s  term i n h i s  most  been  the  of  s t a t u s and l a b e l e d  would use  elements d i s t i n c t The  term  subunit  Branch  position,  enterprise  adult  the  Clark  Adult  B u r e a u of  rendered ambiguous,  enumerated  in  term program,  education,  classes,  school  the  of  locations,  Di s s e r t a t ion to  subunit,  Education,  public  applied concepts  of  adult  organizational  education  synonymously  in his  the  term m a r g i n a l i t y  System,  of  applied  education  Administrators, administrative  program,  adult  of  may d e n o t e what  the  adult  administrators,  He  term program i n a s s o c i a t i o n  activity,  Department  and  adult  use  education  terms  Education  the  by C l a r k  The  Los Angeles  California  the  u s e s of  Di s s e r t a t i o n .  label  element,  used  processes,  For example,  an a d u l t  i n T a b l e 3.  subunits.  to  frequently  thesis  value.  education  specificity.  term u s e d most  enumerated  individuals,  adult  Terms u s e d  as  to  The which  denoted  through  One m i g h t  question  denote  still  other  listed.  frequently  used  l a b e l ' for  adult  term a p p e a r i n g education  in  elements  Clark's said  by  1 18  Clark  to  be  Similarly, adult  to  said  reader  by  intended  used  education  adult  of  B u r e a u of  Administrators,  adult  with other  is  his  along  concept  of of  what  the  schools,  adult  of  adult  adult  activity,  Los Angeles  School  Department  Adult  school  organization,  thereof.  labeled  California  Association  term  concurrently  program,  the  the  the  his  as  he  departments,  E d u c a t i o n of  leaves  marginality  with  by C l a r k  E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h of  function,  use  Clark  with  for  experiencing  elements or m u l t i p l e s , by  term,  labels  marginality,  each  identified  California  program,  with  education.  term program, the  element  Clark,  education  Adult  Education,  school  which  synonymously  Adult  the  adult  be e x p e r i e n c i n g  or elements  adult  classes,  System,  to  marginality  are:  is  in a s s o c i a t i o n  education  either  experiencing  usage of  a p p l i c a t i o n of  adult  label,  education  Clark  whether  individual  Labels  when u s e d  and  marginality,  marginality,  of  questioning  condition,  to  instances  education,  elements the  experiencing  Education  program,  and an a d u l t  public  education  enterpr i se. From a r e v i e w Clark  in  element  said  conclude be  his  locations,  used  two  terms to  be e x p e r i e n c i n g Clark  intended  individuals,  or v a l u e s .  by C l a r k  divergent  to  to  application  the  Dissertation  whether  applied  of  is for  A  conslusions.  It  designate marginality, his  cursory  the is  most  for adult  frequently  the it  adult is  c o n c e p t s of  organizational  insufficient labeling  used  review  marginality  the  determination education  reasonable  to  education  impossible  subunits, of  by  to  processes, context  and many  that  of  terms  element a l l o w assume  to  for when  1 19  Clark  writes  addressing  the  marginality status  of  writes  adult  School it  is  of  System, to  common p a r e n t a l  it  addressing Likewise, may  be  status  an  by  i experiencing and  range of  encompass  adult  to  of  the  by t h e  designate  interpretation  elements  Clark's  is of  of  the  to  other  the  When  addressing  the  is the  addressing  the  he the  marginality Los  Angeles  and a d u l t  schools,  status  of  subunits  his  education  adult  within a  to  subunit,  organizational education  to  vary  Clark's  which  have  been  applying his  he  is  process.  enterprise  it  addressing  the  a  process,  or  the  designation.  Terms  elements  to  of  subunits,  the  often  individuals,  to  values.  of  concepts  distinct  of  be  breadth  They  enumerated a r e concepts  said  the  them.  application  Di s s e r t a t ion across  or  is  i n terms  education  activity,  he  and p e r m i t a p p l i c a t i o n s  of  writings  subunit  w h i c h may be g i v e n  adult  an  whether  education  whether  adult  of  determine  adult  education  m a r g i n a l i t y appear  within  to  determine  combinations  education  he  marginality  an a d u l t  and l o c a t i o n s ,  marginality  Because  to  applications  processes, The  of  encompased  Clark  the  difficult  status  difficult  individuals used  be  of  when he w r i t e s  of  writes  of  organization.  departments,  relationship  writes  may  the  is  he  organization.  When C l a r k however,  writes  E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h of  he  in  an  he he  a function,  education  assume  subunits  When  And when he w r i t e s  Adult  adult  administrators,  position,  within  a process. the  adult  individuals.  m a r g i n a l i t y of  classes,  education  of  locations  the  logical  m a r g i n a l i t y of  organizational  given  of  the  status  of  marginality of  of  of  adult  numerous. marginality  120  can  be  c h a r a c t e r i z e d as  identification  of  combinations  m a n i p u l a t i o n may be It  does  marginality  of  important  only  to  identify  whether.the  status  system  or c o n t e x t  are considered  Because  labels  adult  be d e s i g n a t i o n s  of  depending  on  the  categories,  it  is  of  In  five  a term.  that  the  of  not  always  purposes  status to  organization term s t a t u s  the or  of  an a d u l t  status  system.  of  a  to  collectively.  the  conclude  to  thereof, enumerated  the  plurality  Di s s e r t a t ion  it  is  element denotes  determining  to  specified  multiples,  across  most  frequently to  education  status,  other  is  felt  multiple  are  to  be  here  denote  confirm  significant  common t o for  the  the  such  adult  confirming  within  point  a p p l i e d concepts  termed c o m p a r a t i v e  organization  elements  c a n be  of  described the  same  reference  the  unclear.  The e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e to  element  Without a c l e a r  or m a r g i n a l i t y  insufficient  be  of  Di s s e r t a t ion  is  but a l s o  Element  relation  what  focus,  of  collectively.  Comparative  subunits.  meaning  education  for  his  or  in C l a r k ' s  elements which,  Clark  statistical  e l e m e n t s may be c o n s i d e r e d  possible  adult  of  i n d i v i d u a l l y or  instances the  in  unit  elements  of  for  The  further  concepts  such elements w i t h i n  individual range  applying  the  education  label  considered  t e r m usage and t h e  when  specify  for  and n o n - s p e c i f i c ,  futile.  seem not  being casual  status from  of of  Table  marginality adult  an o b s e r v a t i o n . elements, education  identification  is  E x a m i n a t i o n of  which  exist  element, of  education  however,  3,  in  adult  was  in  an  felt  to  education  121  elements  said  by C l a r k  Elements elements  for  system, given  adult  education  identified  of  the  three  elements. question meant  In existed  by  to  status  classes  to  other  departments  to  other  suggesting  that  e l e m e n t s were t o Clark  in  education quotation program, to  comparative  the  as  to  to the  be  adult  education  should classes  be  of  a  i n a common  departments  in  individuals.  addressed  among  established, specific  the  comparative  he  in  a  None of  used  the  is  was  determining  Clark  named  comparisons  three  to  contexts. to  an  In  activity,  terms  might - be  processes,  goals,  focus  adult  and  levels If  one  classes  hard pressed  adult their  or and  status  was  assumes be t h e  making  might  classes  in addition  to  by  adult  describe  identified  the  comparative  elements  departments the  Was  they  programs.  still  elements  department,  D4 C l a r k  of  the  corresponding  educational  identification  the  education  e l e m e n t s of  three  one  to  for  In  contexts,  identify  were c l e a r  While  adult  to  the  comparative  element.  used  the  education.  well-accepted  status assessment,  of  compared p r i m a r y  be  as  three  contexts  In q u o t a t i o n  education  the  each  education  denote a s p e c i f i c well  of  point  of  marginality. or more  adult  three  term  three  two  reference  terms  in only  identified  synonymous?  D3 C l a r k  the  be t h e  e l e m e n t s named  as  he  w h i c h of  the  and a d u l t  elements  i n w h i c h he u s e d contexts  Clark of  adult  comparison  establishing  consideration  marginality  just  marginality.  system.  seventeen c o n t e x t s  used  of  for  nature—adult  Clark  each  be e x p e r i e n c i n g  identified purposes  comparative  to  to  well-  the  more  focus  of  comparisons  1 22  of  classes  by  Clark  to may  appreciable It  understood  that  Clark  or c o m p a r a t i v e to  comparative  and p r o g r a m s as  synonymous,  be  d i d not  element  but  used  not  the  identify  marginality  when  the  c o u l d not  applying  by  Clark  with  a point concept  While  in  multiple  elements.  terms  s t a t u s denoted  which  of  within  were u s e d were  denoted  by C l a r k ' s  use  of  several  contexts  F r e q u e n t l y terms  elements  be c l e a r l y  a  important.  term m a r g i n a l i t y ,  comparative  Hence,  regard specifying  particularly  such comparative  elements.  Classes  as  e l e m e n t s were named  he u s e d  identify  levels.  assurance.  marginality  to  be  appears  reference  which  educational  to  used  distinct  of  the  term  so  named  identified.  Parental Organization The in  Parental Organization c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  order  to  restrict  organizational contexts  of  contexts status  within  by  Concepts  marginality  organizational It  among  to  other  what  appear denote subunits  When one a d d r e s s e s indication system i s or  that not  may  be  of  adult  are  marginality  education  confined  termed p a r e n t a l  may  be  been  applied,  field. in  to All  Clark's  organizations.  however,  in  non-  the  term  contexts.  would  marginality  the  assessment  Dissertation of  applications  has  the  the the  that the  status  within  most of  primary of  system.  frequently  adult  adult  be  it  an  subunits  organization.  education  g o a l s and f u n c t i o n adults,  used  education  a common p a r e n t a l  m a r g i n a l i t y of  education  non-organizational  Clark  of  it  the  is  an  parental  organizational  1 23  Clark and  identified  generically.  denote  Most  school  in  w h i c h he u s e d  systems  which  organizations. the  context  context  of  school  districts,  a total  districts,  while  nevertheless,  their  l a c k of  of  States.  require  school  districts,  than  considered  to  these  of  of  the  the  to  marginality  and o n c e ,  labels  of  in  be g e n e r i c  the  elementary  and j u n i o r  school  of  parental  college  system  labels  label,  because  parental organizations  Los  and t h e  labels  detailed  Angeles school  School  system  are considered  definition  contexts  of  of  to  status.  to  were  specific  each full  references of  generic.  in  organizations  were  of were  the  sixteen  u s e s of  identified.  identified  by C l a r k  a  with uses  and t w e n t y - o n e  identified  United  specific,  Of t h i r t y - o n e  the  More t h a n one p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was m e n t i o n e d with eight  were  the  facilitate  o c c u r r i n g in a s s o c i a t i o n  ten  System,  in be  included  one  organizations  the  system,  wrote  but  association  within  school  of  to  seventeen  as  an a s s e s s m e n t  high  organizations  term usage.  of  Clark's  term m a r g i n a l i t y ,  parental  the  considered  system.  parental organizations  instance.  wrote  identification  While  Parental  of  terms  term m a r g i n a l i t y , C l a r k  a local  School System,  understanding  specifically  generic  In f i f t e e n  school  references  California  used  both  specificity.  Specific  the  he  be  more s p e c i f i c  are,  Clark's  the  might  Once C l a r k  within  to  frequently  such p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  contexts  might  parental organizations  the  Up* to  in a s s o c i a t i o n  of  a single  use  of  the  term i n which five  w i t h an  When m u l t i p l e p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s context  in a l l  are  distinct individual identified  term m a r g i n a l i t y ,  the  124  specificity  of  Most  named  five  System  was  is  the  named.  shift  Branch  of  This  from h i s  the  conditions  units."  the  the  initial  were  that  immediate  parental  assessed  at  two  removed  further was  the  to  be  field  organizational the  status  functions,  System  to  address  the  from t h e  of  adult  contexts. adult  interactions,  was  School  attributed Adult  to  Education  "state-wide of  local  immediate  of  s t a t u s was  of  absence  formal  organizational  p.  system D3  it  within  status  and a t  a  an was  level  organization.  Marginality, is  used  classes,  which occur  denotes  considered  occur  marginality  this  3.  what  which  activities,  fall  Dissertation,  D4,  level  within  but  and p r o g r a m s within  the  in  Marginality  education,  education  by C l a r k  determine  parental  marginality  Concepts  used  In q u o t a t i o n  organization  settings  Clark,  was  In q u o t a t i o n  organizational  3 3 0  to  Non-organizational  c o n c e p t s of  of  of  System  development  addressed.  organization.  classification,  the  the  assessment  a supra-parental  of  of  analyzed  Non-organizational  application  study  term m a r g i n a l i t y  which s t a t u s  determined  The  be  understand  parental  Los Angeles  may  case  School  School  times the  focus  diluted.  identified  California  three  is  3 3 0  Dissertation  steps  that  i n w h i c h the  breadth within  marginality  considering  change of  to  of  in  Los Angeles  in order  Contexts  was  fact  times versus  Clark's  his  term and c o n c e p t  significant  organizations  school  the  in to  objectives,  denote  courses,  outside  classification.  non-  formal In  the  bylaws,  1 25  constitutions, application education  and/or  of  c o n c e p t s of  e l e m e n t s would  While  Clark  in connection  within  his  outside  of  been  terms  with  focus  classes,  his  organizational Concepts  of  of  within  his  marginality various  category  is  of  the  term was  announced  to  to  a  and  outside  in t h i s  designate  The  be  Nevertheless,  exist  defined  as  to  interactions,  do  may be a p p l i e d  and  marginality  specified  study.  functions,  proposed  adult  function,  w h i c h were  contexts.  charter,  enumerated  class,  doctoral  previously  or  classification.  activity,  adults  as  the  application  courses,  contexts,  to  settings  for  mandate  this  use  no  of  designated  Marginality  under  organizational  the  activities,  each  fall  Di ssertat ion, the  programs  marginality  uses the  program  have  incorporation,  of  thesis. the  status  Non-organizational designation  for  such  applications. Summary of C o n t e x t u a l and Key E l e m e n t A n a l y s i s f o r C l a r k ' s Use of t h e Term M a r g i n a l i t y Within His D i s s e r t a t i o n Although Clark the was  Adult  identified  his  case-study-in-depth  E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h of  the  Los Angeles  named as  seventeen  the  adult  applications  applications  of  School  immediate  parental  Outside to  the  of  Adult  of  the  California  were c o m p a r a t i v e  education the  element  term.  term  marginality  was  named and i s  system.  In none of  System  elements Clark's  to  of  of  the  considered the  System,  three  two  three  be  it  Clark's  his  three  Branch, to  of  be  the the  applications  named.  application  Education  School  i n but  With  to  Branch,  of  concepts  there  of  appears  marginality to  be  little  1 26  logical  consistency  elements  said  elements  he  to  Clark  applying of  his  and  logically  matched  parental his  Di s s e r t a t ion  not  only  in  field  whether general  the  applied would there  of  value of  be p a r t equated  field  of  adult  adult  of  parental  the  various  generic  terms  Application  education  elements  education  of was  elements  within  specific  the  term m a r g i n a l i t y  as  casual  of  rather  field  'Ibid.  either  Clark  m a r g i n a l i t y to  adult of  education  does adult  be e x t e r n a l  with  to  in than  the  present  also  be  within,  classified determine  m a r g i n a l i t y of  the  i n t e r n a l or e x t e r n a l not  appear  education the  system. to  But,  "general  to  to  have  values  which  Neither  marginality  w h i c h would be c o n s i d e r e d  education. the  be  was made t o  Dissertation  education  adult  but  w h i c h would not  addressed  in his  may  education,  an e f f o r t  education,  to  education  adult  education.  of  adult  3 3  of  adult  contexts  reference  values the  of  education,  considered  of  of  use  elements  use  comparative  of  to  adult  described  specifically  a direct  general  be  values  adult  a concept be  Clark's  and s o c i a l  Clark  field  the  adult  comparative  may  general  organizations the  chose  education  scientific.  Because  the  to  naming  marginality.  specific  were  organizations.  rigorously  as  seldom  of  adult the  examination  overwhelmingly  m a r g i n a l i t y to  infrequent  his  in  concepts  of  marginality,  and  As e n u m e r a t e d  classifications,  concepts  identification  be e x p e r i e n c i n g identified,  organizations.  when  in C l a r k ' s  because  is of to  Clark  v a l u e . . . undergoing  1 27  implementation and of  because  by a d u l t there  marginality  adult  the  are  Los Angeles of  the  assumption  that  Clark  has  quotations  some  his  even  interpret  the  to  of  is  context,  a  meaning of  of  paramount  an a d u l t  education  unit  is  education  of  wherein  the  3 3 2  education  of  value  primary  it  contexts of  several  the  adult  3 3  as "  a an  in  the  departments  the  key  or as  purpose  i n the  of  of  function  the as  an  an is  System i s quotation  "The A d u l t E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h of s p e c i f i c a l l y named as an a d u l t D 5 , D 7 , and D13.  to  education must  be  and  its  independent and  function  organization other  as  A d u l t education departments are s p e c i f i c a l l y e d u c a t i o n e l e m e n t s i n q u o t a t i o n D1 and D 5 . 3 3  or  organizational  Adult schools are specifically named e l e m e n t s i n q u o t a t i o n s D 1 3 , D14, and D 1 5 .  3 3 3  field  element  objective  a subunit  and  in  elements  Within  that  marginality  an a d u l t  education  primary  obvious  marginality,  e l e m e n t may e x i s t  wherein  is  of  m a r g i n a l i t y of  importance.  adults,  3,  concepts  concept  the  education  adult  adult  to  3 3 2  Education  System,  s c h o o l s and  3 3 1  concept  designated  genera.l  Table  organizational  To a p p l y  Identification  at  his  w i t h i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  manifest.  the  a  schools,  School  the  of  Adult  which i s  by t h e s e  a cursory glance  education.  nature  adult the  State  was a d d r e s s i n g  primary a p p l i c a t i o n  subunit  to  to  System  California  implemented  D i s s e r t a t i o n was  adult  and  School  departments,"  applications  Di s s e r t a t ion 3 3 3  and  basis.  With Clark's  as  schools  possible  departments,  department  cited  three  in C l a r k ' s  education  B r a n c h of  education  than  the  adult named  as  the L o s A n g e l e s S c h o o l education element in  1 28  education to  of  independent  identified  his  adult  education  discussions it  An  or  marginality  subunits,  thereof,  terms p r o g r a m and a d u l t  m a r g i n a l i t y — i n a generic  was e x t r e m e l y  education  marginality.  of  units,  c o n c e p t s of  was  Dissertation.  a p p a r e n t l y used the  instances, adult  No a p p l i c a t i o n of  within Clark's  Clark in  adults.  difficult  to  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l subunit example  is  his  sense.  identify s a i d to  generic  education  use  the be  In  most  particular  experiencing of  the  term  department. Clark  noted  that:  What we s o u g h t t o d e t e r m i n e i n our a n a l y s i s were t h e ways i n w h i c h a d u l t e d u c a t i o n d e p a r t m e n t s are shaped by p r e s s u r e s ' t o w h i c h t h e y have been s u b j e c t i n t h e i r recent d e v e l o p m e n t . 3 3 5  Clark in  appears  a generic  t o have u s e d sense d e n o t i n g  the  terms a d u l t  education  departments  thereby v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l adult  education  e l e m e n t s w h i c h he d i s c u s s e d .  Even  focus  his  and n o n - s p e c i f i c  of  study,  He d e s c r i b e d h i s  Clark  used g e n e r i c  d o c t o r a l work  in  specifying  terms.  as:  a s o c i o l o g i c a l case study of the evolution of an "institution". We had o r i g i n a l l y intended to l i m i t our p u r v i e w t o j u s t t h e A d u l t E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h of the Los Angeles School System in o r d e r t o have a c a s e s t u d y i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z i n g of adult education. But it became apparent . a f t e r several months of r e s e a r c h t h a t we had t o become f a m i l i a r with certain state-wide conditions in order to understand the development of l o c a l s c h o o l u n i t s . A t t e n t i o n was t h e n p a r t l y s h i f t e d t o t h e l e v e l of s t a t e legislative and executive action; at the same t i m e , t h e L o s A n g e l e s d e p a r t m e n t was m a i n t a i n e d as a case-study-in-depth. The f o r m e r gave us t h e g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e s t a t e of California under which a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs have been b u i l t ; t h e l a t t e r p r o v i d e s us w i t h detailed 1  3 3 5  Clark,  Dissertation,  p.  3.  the  1 29  i n f o r m a t i o n on how t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a r e l i k e l y t h e m s e l v e s out w i t h i n l o c a l s c h o o l s y s t e m s .  t o work  'The concept of institution is discussed in Chapter V I . Our use of t h e t e r m i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t of Robert M. M a c l v e r . See R. M. Maclver and C h a r l e s H. Page, S o c i e t y , (New Y o r k : R i n e h a r t and C o . , I n c . , 1949), p p . 15-17. 3 3 6  Because Los  Angeles  anticipated focus his  Clark  specified  School that  when  System,  A  Education  Branch.  marginality attention  contained  in  to  of  adult  schools,  Contrary the  term  references School  3  3 7  the  the  the  of  adult  Education  times.  pp.  his  marginality within  focus the  identified  Los  Angeles  within  each  use  of  as  education  Clark,  of  term  quoted,  or  to  the  to  one  whether  elements.  Dissertation, Branch  Adult  the  was  an a g g r e g a t e ,  from School  the  School System,  preceding assumptions,  Adult  See Table  of  Los Angeles  to  Ibid.,  organizational unit  e a c h a p p l i c a t i o n were  schools  other  was  Dissertation  if  within  the  as  the  it  schools  Clark's  marginality  Clark, t h e s i s as 3 3 8  this  to  to  still  System t h r e e  3 3 6  in  to  adult  determine  E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h of  was  of  Therefore,  was g i v e n  application  potential  the  of  case-study-in-depth,  concepts  Structure  Adult the  his  second  was  3 3 7  his  E d u c a t i o n Branch  B r a n c h would be the  Organizational 1952-53,  Adult  as  discussed  Dissertation.  Clark's  System  the  Clark  the  the  when  using  made  explicit  Los  Angeles  3 3 8  3-4. 1.  D i s s e r t a t i o n , pp. 27, 29, t e r m u s e s D 5 , D 7 , and D 1 3 .  70;  quoted  earlier  130  In "over  reference the  which h i s "a  new  last  D5 C l a r k  twenty-five  observation activity i n the  to  principals  be  departments." these a d u l t as to  be  Angeles  the  which  Angeles  his  School  System. by C l a r k  a second p o s s i b i l i t y .  that  interest  of  systems," public  the  to  in  It  (D1,  the  by  within  the  charts  of  Education has  been  stated  Branch  were  assumed in a  to  the  generic  need  the  the  schools of  the  explanation for  outside  in conjunction with  "a m a r g i n a l of  that  case-study-in-  continued his  Clark,  units Los  wrote  have a s t r o n g  to  "Los  E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h of  concept  all  the  i n q u o t a t i o n D15, and  Clark  referred  adult  "sensitivity addition  w h i c h of  to  Because of  education  organizational  his Adult  assumed  some o r  Clark  D 5 , and D7)  apply his  Clark,  term, wrote  demands,"  as  schools  support."  increased  the  to  'function'"  "The a d u l t  and  same use  a  was  are  he c o n s i d e r e d  Adult  department  specified  of  of  the  reference  p r o g r a m ' s weak  identified  D7  to  education,"  "adult  occurring  departments.  term  An i n t e n t i o n  noting  being  organizational  and  elements  to determine  reference  None  as  several  and  difficult  marginality  he  "Marginality  schools,  In  in his  marginality  i n c l u d i n g "adult  e l e m e n t s were  it.  specifically  s e n s e and t h a t  is  adult  System  in  " p r i n c i p a l s " which  therefore,  of  by C l a r k  used  and n o t e d  m a r g i n a l i t y o r whether  School  labeled  reduction  an o r g a n i z a t i o n , " "the  department."  Angeles  depth  is,  indices  identified  Clark  of  experiencing or  years"  system,"  educational  experiencing  sources  Los  school  It  a  might a p p l y ,  within  position  noted  position  in  program to "marginality  the  school  vocalized of  a  131  'function,'" specific  it  adult  Because  in association  D14,  which  other  than  were  identified  reference  is  to  A third  the  with  a topic  in  marginality  Adult  and  Education,  Los  anticipated  that  organizational charts: Adult  schools.  (D13,  D14,  B r a n c h of  the  the  School  he  might  i n the  of  and i n  Los Angeles  3 3 9  Ibid.,  p.  44.  3 4 0  Ibid.,  p.  49.  as  within  Higher  Clark  the  context System  of  three  the  Higher it  3 a o  was  various  organizational Education,  the  Los  schools  the  Angeles concept  three  Adult times  the  within  d i d apply his  the  of  and  divisions  adult  of  System,  the  these  an  School  of  schools within  of  School  Clark's  reported  1952-53,  one  administrative  the  None  he  Extension  and  noted,  use  application  Because  is  schools"  although  the  System,  Extension  context  "adult  Los Angeles  identified  As p r e v i o u s l y  term  be u n d e r s t o o d  study.  address  adult  and D15,  Organizational Structure  Angeles  and D15) the  Clark's of  schools"  with  to  adult  experiencing  "adult  Dissertation,  Division  Branch,  marginality  t e r m use  Branch,  twenty-four  System.  of  which  similarly classified.  D4 m i g h t  within  D i v i s i o n of  or the  was  D14,  assurance was  to  was made c o n c e r n i n g  elements  Education  Branch, School  the  felt  t e r m use  diagrammed  Education  with  references  Clark's  Organizational Structure 3 3 9  Clark  heading,  assumption  note  t e r m u s e s D13,  within  term m a r g i n a l i t y  1952-53  of  direct  principals of  to  element  these a s s o c i a t i o n s  application  the  difficult  education  marginality. made  is  times  Education  (D5,  D7,  and  1 32  D13).  Additionally,  context  of  B u r e a u of  adult Adult  Education  Clark  classes  (D4),  E d u c a t i o n of  (D7),  wrote  and  designations  (D1-D3, and  D13),  (D14,  any  specifically  the  unit, one  of  the  adult  units  subunits, the  Angeles  School  the  status  determinations  of  System,  to  of  adult  units,  education  where  multiple  to  might  be  D5,  program  understood  organizational  twenty-four  to  was  were  concept  a subunit,  of  the  inadequate  identified,  of  it  to  the  Los  instances for  such  occurred  either  identification  marginality.  as  education  five  in data  of  or  concept  schools  but  such  System;  adult  and c o m p a r a t i v e of  conducted  organizational  School  adult  In a l l  Inadequacies  concept  was  education  application  subunits,  elements  school  an a g g r e g a t e of  data or through  with a single  non-  organization  public  Los Angeles  information  through omission  the  (D3,  he a p p l i e d h i s  school;  aggregated.  be made.  D17),  Adult  of p r o g r a m  activity  education  adult  the  an  the  he u s e d  Dissertation  adult  was  s u c h as  contextual  association  of  application  denote  adult  Clark's  individual  schools  his  the  the  Clark.  independent  whether or  of  w h i c h terms  of  element  (D16,  (D12),  d e t e r m i n i n g whether  an  an  of  named by  of  to  s u c h as  all  analysis  purpose  marginality  (D14-D15),  or  Association  program (D13),  position  (D8),  S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t . of  education  enterprise  organizational  agencies  Most f r e q u e n t l y adult  school  education  and f u n c t i o n  A further for  the  organizational  include  units  adult  adult  D15),  (D13), to  D5-D17),  for  California  California  Education A d m i n i s t r a t o r s (D7). specific  an  administrative  the  the  within  of  multiple  units In  named  in  instances  often  became  133  impossible  to  marginality, which  say and  with in  certainty  comparison  what  to  was  experiencing  w h i c h e l e m e n t s and b a s e d  on  criteria. In C l a r k ' s  adult  five  education  subunits  classes  (D4),  adult  various  and q u i t e  administrative value  of  Los  Angeles  System  to  Clark's  education  different  School be  of  direct  his  the  Adult  his  While  Dissertation  in  units  the  it  to  of  the  be  which  are he  and  of  the  School  assumed  m a r g i n a l i t y were  them  that within  infrequent applies  of  general  California  can  adult  (D7),  E d u c a t i o n Branch  c o n c e p t s of  references  multiple  a combination  identified  and  3 4 2  to  status  (D5),  education Clark  foci.  of  the  departments adult  3 4 1  marginality  described  System,  specific  these c o n t e x t s ,  of  (D8).  education,  application  passages  he  agencies  adult  3 4 3  applications  the  in term  marginality. A  search  associated Clark the  was  with  used  his  Clark's  of  either  subunits  parental  to  in  an a d u l t  3 4  to  Such  a  the  within  the  parental  'Ibid.,  p.  3 4 2  Ibid.,  pp.  3 4 3  Ibid.,  pp.  the  education  relation  both  subunits  of  of  comparative  m a r g i n a l i t y most  organization.  identification  determine  application  c o n c e p t s of  marginality  education  made  parental  3-4.  29,  term m a r g i n a l i t y .  frequently subunit subunits  comparison organization  organization.  1. 27,  other  70.  elements  to  denote  o r of  within  requires and  adult  the  In C l a r k ' s  a the  other case  134  study,  the  parental  schools  might  secondary  schools,  School the  System,  Los  System,  of  was  concept  the  as  or as  noted  adult  Division  an  the  there  immediate  parental  and  if  indicated  Education, State  elements  an  schools  were c o n s i d e r e d  immediate  parental  the  Los  of  4  some d e b a t e  to  be  Angeles  named o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  Superintendent 3  were  or w i t h i n a s u p r a - p a r e n t a l  organization.  Compion)" *  c o u l d be  Clark's  applications  in  organization organizations  where  charge  of  and  the  the  Higher  designation  adult  are d i s c r e t e  Clark  "responsible  Extension  concerning  levels  Because  s c h o o l s were o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y  A.  School  organizations  in  comparative  other  Angeles  Education. parental  host  education and a r e  not  ordered.  in  None  3 a  Los  Higher  E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h of the  the  within  parental  parental  A number of  applied.  the  affiliate  hierarchically  Dissertation  Adult  Associate  (Howard  Education, of  the  to  The  secondary  any of  were d e s i g n a t e d  directly  determine  of  adult  individual  California  Department  existing  when t h e  twenty-four  their  the  parental organization  System  that  be  System,  to  the  E x t e n s i o n and  marginality.  when h o s t  organization  to  e l e m e n t s were c l e a r l y  of  pertinent  School  School  for  E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h of  D i v i s i o n of  reviewed  conceptualized organization  Adult  United States  comparative his  considered the  Angeles  Di.ssertation and  be  the  or the  organization  "lbid.,  organizational contexts was  pp.  e l e m e n t s were named  where  specifically  44,  48-9.  concepts  of  identified  in  Clark's  m a r g i n a l i t y were by  Clark  as  a  135  parental as  organization; nevertheless,  parental organizations  relationship Clark  to  to  be  organizations with generic were  the  School  in  used  the  school  in f i f t e e n  school  system,  either  local  school  system  of  local  S c h o o l System;  the  of  the  twice  school  used once;  United by  denoted  State  States. " 3  Clark  an  were:  system,  ambiguous  o r of  district,  the  used  college  7  references  school  as  and j u n i o r  parental  organizations  districts  school  s a i d by  were  seventeen c i t e d  used  3 its  California  term m a r g i n a l i t y ; t o t a l  elementary  districts,  others  parental organizations  used the  of  Some  the  5  of  w h i c h were  named p a r e n t a l 3  Clark  designation  used  and t h e  elements  System, "  in Table  such because,  identified,  Specifically  given  system,  Angeles  6  listed  marginality.  Angeles . School  labels  which  education  positively  labels.  Los  used once;  high  were  3  school  c o n s i d e r e d as  experiencing  System, "  Generic  adult  is  e a c h use  Los  once;  districts,  once. In  c e r t a i n contexts  believed  to  marginality education  be  in  was u s e d , subunits  organizations. function,  an  An  other  the  than  cited  several in Table  • p r o g r a m w o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d t o  elements  a  program, be  pp.  27,  29,  70.  3  " Ibid.,  pp.  25,  26,  27,  3 4 7  Ibid.,  p.  25.  are  which the  term  categorized  administrative  " Ibid., 6  in  that  3 m i g h t be c a t e g o r i z e d  3  5  contexts  references  activity,  organization,  those  and  parental  27,  29.  as as  adult  parental  agencies, a  public  organization  a  school when  136  they  encompass  objectives  adult  and f u n c t i o n s  other  than  within  them would be  applied three  his  the  to  said of  the  United States context  value"  program,  Nowhere,  external  however,  marginality occurrence  the  the  applications  three Adult  his  direct  education,  course  and c l a s s e s ,  formally  external  to  the  Because  E d u c a t i o n of  and  to  the  " Ibid., 8  3 f l 9  Ibid.,  the  concepts  pp. p.  Clark context  and t o  the  of  "the  27, 29.  of  application  Clark  the of  70.  w h i c h may o c c u r organizations.  of  or  his  concept  identify  of  of the  context his  it  adult  education  his  seventeen  of  repeatedly  concept,  of  activity,  context.  made r e f e r e n c e  is  of  concept  Los Angeles  doubtful school of  Department of  of  to  that  he  systems.  marginality  School  m a r g i n a l i t y to  Association  29,  all  in thirteen  the  wrote  function,  contexts,  California  California  a  marginality  applications  of  Adult  3  outside  Clark  constituted  i n such a  E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h of  application  Angeles times,  are  subunits  marginality.  five  marginality,  adult  marginality  term.  education  Los  context  primary  once.  s y s t e m s when a p p l y i n g h i s  intended His  California  d i d he d i s c u s s  referred  adult  i n the  the  organizations  be e x p e r i e n c i n g  marginality  to  such  When  parental  adults,  any q u a l i f y i n g a d j e c t i v e s  of  school  to of  Clark without  of  interaction,  contexts  uses  to  subunits.  such of  a p p l y i n g c o n c e p t s of  general  in  of  education  concept  times,  In  education  the  to  System, " 3  B u r e a u of  Education, "  Adult  8  3  9  Education.  1 37  Administrators, of  adult  labels  identify  Dissertation  marginality elements  must  terms,  three as  used  subunit  equate the Clark  3 5 0  of  in  was  adult  in Table  terms  seventeen  organization,  ambiguity  four  and  the  is  or  contexts  two were  of  3. of  is  comparative discussing of  the  Clark's  Multiple adult  education  used u s e s of  assumed  of  in  Clark's  different  use  elements,  meaning  occur  than While  the  when  the'  problems  status  exists.  elements,  the  less  i n systems t h e o r y ,  of key  subunit,  elements  to the  terms that  l a b e l s s y n o n y m o u s l y , but  identified  concepts  education  education  conceptual  use  of  i t appears that  adult  his  used.  application  understanding  It  elsewhere  d i f f e r e n t l a b e l s f o r common  in a l l seventeen  t e r m s or  Ibid.  subunits  four  useful  identification generic  conceptual  i n a l l but  subunits.  education  these  i s shown  Generic  subunit  the  direct  a p p e a r s t o have u s e d  settings  organizations  impairs  marginality.  education  of  several  were named  also  the  parental  be  use  parental  Dissertation  he  any  the  All  education  in  the  may  only  term m a r g i n a l i t y  identified:  naming of  marginality,  subunits  education  identified,  e l e m e n t s or  Clark  be  labeling  concept.  He  clarity  When  distinctly  the  subunits.  adult  subunits,  variables.  and  the  in organizational  comparative  generic  t o be  where the  achieve  generic  appear  education  to  To  3 5 0  u s e s of  the  term  identify  the  adult  term to he  i n few  marginality. denote  used  adult  some a d u l t  instances  did  them c o n s i s t e n t l y .  comparative  elements  in  three  of  the  1 38  seventeen c o n t e x t s wherein used  six  within  generic  a single  hierarchical  labels  context  level  Because  of  the  the to  of  term m a r g i n a l i t y  identify  term  status  of  s y s t e m and from s y s t e m t o  designation  elements  is  He  elements,  four  identified  the  in only  education  from s y s t e m t o of  Clark  3 5 1  element  adult  used.  comparative  use.  a comparative  was  imperative  two  e l e m e n t s may v a r y  subsystem,  in  cases.  the  applying  specific  concepts  of  concepts  of  marginality. Clark  did  marginality adult and  application  of  particular  contextual  elements his  did  occurring  appropriate  both o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  3 5 1  or  to  that  apply  of  organizations  to  a single  the  field  he d i d n o t  restrict  either  a  administrative  exists  seventeen  Clark's  his  concept  units  or  in  the  u s e s of  applications  to  the were  for  26-7.  his  the  use  marginality adult  entire  of  speak  been  suggested  field,  including  components, the  to  education  W h i l e he d i d  w h i c h has  and n o n - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l beyond  of  settings.  education,  designation  pp.  the  parental  evidence  accompanying  adult  evidence  Ibid.,  of  marginality  organizational  m a r g i n a l i t y of  insufficient  unit  education  outside  contexts  identified; of  his  settings.  not  adult  were  confirm  organizational  independent  an  to  apply  distinct  Sufficient  information  Clark  few  concepts  level.  term m a r g i n a l i t y  as  organizational  organizational  hierarchical  the  of  Relatively  comparative  of  specifically  outside  education.  within  not  phrase  there to  is  suggest  1 39  that  he  intended  organizational  to  context.  address  marginality  outside  of  an  140  CHAPTER V  DIRECT LABELING OF CONCEPTS OF MARGINALITY IN CLARK'S MONOGRAPH Clark text  of  first  used  what  has  the  been d e n o t e d  published  Institutional  term m a r g i n a l i t y  as  "Adult  Insecurity."  Clark  to  of  broad d i s t r i b u t i o n  its  be b a s e d  publishers, printings. sustained the It  3 5 3  at It  appears by  to  3 5 2  two  is  3 5 2  public  in  the  Monograph,  in  and book may be  field this  of  adult  said  at  this  six that  indicative  education. each  three  thesis  in  exceptions,  manuscript,  by  least  introduced  of  of  because  least  through at  earlier  few  was  important  by  editions,  Monograph, with  Monograph,  the  which  concepts which C l a r k  See Bibliography dates.  3 5 3  the  article  p o p u l a r i t y of  Clark,  Di s s e r t a t i o n , to  i n the  times  E d u c a t i o n i n T r a n s i t i o n : A Study  concluded  the  the  be t h e  authors  apparent  printing  was  t h e s i s as  The m a n u s c r i p t  least  demand f o r  p o p u l a r i t y of  cited the  in  on h i s  in t h i s  twenty-nine  of  them.  which  is  Because  of  the  twenty-  Acknowledgments. for  listing  of  publishers  and  141  nine  textual  sufficient  uses  length  of  to  the  term  facilitate  marginality w i l l  their  discussion,  be c i t e d  analysis,  in and  critique. The the  twenty-nine  text  this two  of  the  chapter  but  identified  as  they  not  presented They  after  from  then  similar  of  lent  outcome  in  the  of  Chapter V I .  of  in  cited  uses  of  itself  in  Table  is  and  been  term  the not  Use of  the  Clark  entitled  will  be be  4,  will  be  analysis  will  be  and  discussed.  and  all  observed  and  from t h e  be a n a l y z e d and c r i t i q u e d i n o r d e r of Non-categorical  The  Term u s e s w i l l  marginality  with data  M29  Summary A n a l y s i s and  categorization  anticipated  index  cited  Because  the  to  through  and d i s c u s s e d .  labeled.  under  Chapter V I .  M1  c o n t e n t s and  labels  presented  Monograph i n t h e  in  data  Clark's  tabeling,  a  Monograph. Clark's  Observations  use  subsection  Term M a r g i n a l i t y W i t h i n C l a r k ' s Monograph C h a p t e r II  Monograph,  3  Monograph  he  first  used  subheading  of  Chapter  II:  5  table  term u s e s have  of  Such d a t a w i l l  labeled  categorizations  be  section  Dissertation  in  sequentially  assigned  all  analysis  be  term m a r g i n a l i t y a p p e a r i n g  alpha-numerically  Tabled  will  Critique  are  i n the  by t h e i r  discussed.  the  manuscript w i l l  uses a p p e a r i n g  cited,  u s e s of  "PRESSURES  5  3 5 4  Clark,  3 5 5  Idem,  ON the  Dissertation,. Monograph,  p.  of A  both h i s MARGINAL  term  p. 57.  24.  Dissertation PROGRAM."  marginality  3  5  In  i n the  " and his first  1 42  (M1 ) MARGINALITY OF ADULT EDUCATION In b r o a d t e r m s , the p r i m a r y m i s s i o n of a p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s t e m i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i s the education of the young. Different school levels are accepted as l e g i t i m a t e c o n c e r n s of t a x - s u p p o r t e d e d u c a t i o n on the b a s i s of t h e i r p a r t i n t h e g r a d e s p r o g r e s s i o n . . . . In contrast to elementary, high school, and junior college education, the adult program is a separate, peripheral activity, and i t s c l i e n t e l e is completely outside the compulsory-attendance age group. When an a d u l t p r o g r a m i s i n i t i a t e d , i t must make i t s way w i t h i n a f a m i l y of e s t a b l i s h e d programs, contending with the s t r o n g , c e n t r a l departments for budget s u p p o r t and favorable treatment. Since its inception, adult education has been, and t o some e x t e n t s t i l l i s , a m a r g i n a l program w i t h i n the school system. 3  F u l l - t i m e a t t e n d a n c e i s c o m p u l s o r y u n t i l the age of sixteen in California. I f a p e r s o n d r o p s out of s c h o o l a f t e r t h a t age and has not g r a d u a t e d from high school, he must a t t e n d a c o n t i n u a t i o n s c h o o l f o r f o u r hours a week until he is eighteen. Continuation schools are not now considered a part of adult education. S t a t e of C a l i f o r n i a , E d u c a t i o n C o d e , 1953, sees. 16601, 1 7 0 0 1 . 3  3 5 6  Clark an  adult  system  appears  education in  the  Monograph,  Clark  individual  "adult  unit"  a  of  education  to  element  United  3 5 6  Ibid,  3 5 7  Ibid.,  within  school,"  p.  his  In case  w h i c h he  quotation  57-8. 43.  concept  of  marginality  context  of  a public  the study  as  3 5 7  an  to  school  Introduction  of  his  to  of  an  be  further defines  organization."  in t h i s  pp.  the  States.  identified  "formal  element  be a p p l y i n g h i s  that as  He i d e n t i f i e d  a  "school  the  adult  " a d u l t p r o g r a m " and  as  143  "a  separate, While  or  peripheral the  term s c h o o l  institutional  teach,  Clark  3 5 9  institutional quotation process. M1,  is  clearly unit.  first  is  difficult  a  particular  position  to  of  question  organizational marginality  the  of  be  of  or  a  reference  to  "a p u b l i c  school  quotation  M1 i s  either could  Clark 3 5 8  3 5 9  Ibid,  Webster,  of  his  p.  of  train  an  used  in  o r as  a  quotation  action."  With  3 6 1  Monograph,  describing  or  as  unit in  the  it  status  of  action.  Either  education  element  is  in a given  s.v.  Ibid.,  s.v.  3 6 1  Ibid.,  s.v.  Clark,  Monograph,  adult adult  the  term  pertinent Clark's  United S t a t e s "  education  an  but  3 6 2  sheds  element  educational  in  for  process  system. program" to  "school".  "program". "activity". p.  of  organization,  57. 1973,  of  system or c o n t e x t .  o r an  such a  use  identification  the  "adult  3 6 0  3 6 2  adult  parental  unit  part  contrasts  used  in t h i s  system i n the  nature  an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l be c o n s i d e r e d  also  to  program,  institutional  is  parental  logical the  term  or a s p e c i f i c  through  and  on  he  unit  institution  Introduction  a "specific  process  elements  light  an  as  the  comparative  little  an  supportable.  may be answered  a  the  whether  whether  unit  in his  term m a r g i n a l i t y  organizational to  it  as  as  a v e r b meaning  term a c t i v i t y ,  determine  appears  The  the  thought  use  as  identified  be u n d e r s t o o d  commonly  Clark's  or  Similarly,  However,  3 5 8  can be u n d e r s t o o d  division;  M1, c a n  3 6 0  activity."  57.  "elementary,  high  144  school,  and j u n i o r c o l l e g e  p r o g r a m " must make programs,  contending  support of  and  high  which  are  adult  education,  strong,  school,  and  the  and  program"  3 6 6  as  Monograph  is  second  are  family  as  of  established  processes  "adult  for  general  college  budget  grouping  education,"  in the  field  departments,"  in quotation  the  his  departments  Both the  central  that  "adult latter  M1.  might  The  first  education"  or  3 6  "  strongly  3 6 5  identifies  use  of  the  term  quotation  marginality,  D3 from h i s  in  presented:  It is difficult to assess such a factor as organizational marginality, since the question of validation involves acceptance by d i f f e r e n t groups w i t h i n and w i t h o u t t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m , and acceptance on v a r i o u s g r o u n d s . 3 6 7  (M2) It is d i f f i c u l t to a s s e s s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m a r g i n a l i t y precisely, since it depends upon the degree of acceptance afforded a p r o g r a m by d i f f e r e n t groups w i t h i n and o u t s i d e t h e s c h o o l system. As evidence,  3 6  Ibid.  "lbid.  3 6 5  Ibid.  3 6 6  Ibid.  3 6 7  Idem,  Dissertation,  p.  26.  his  Dissertation.  (D3)  3 6 3  of  unit.  a r e p h r a s i n g of  Both q u o t a t i o n s  3 6 3  Clark's  a process,  an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l Clark's  elements of  a  notes  junior  of  "strong,  labeling  but  central  treatment."  comparative  would s u p p o r t  as  within  t r a d i t i o n a l l y thought  constitute  it  way  with  favorable  "elementary,  "adult  its  education,"  1 45  however, we may n o t e some symptoms of t h e p e r i p h e r a l s t a t u s i n w h i c h t h e a d u l t s c h o o l s have o p e r a t e d . 3 6 8  In h i s  Monograph C l a r k  marginality  as  clarifies  he  factor,  what  organizational external  a  to  noted  he  it  is  not  marginality,  that  and i s  involves  afforded system.  to  the  which  is  M2 b o t h as  s y s t e m he  refers the  reference  Angeles  School  3 6 8  3 7 1  the  dependent  is  to  a school  System, or  Idem,  internal adult  the  p.  school  Ibid.,  p.  3 7 0  Ibid.,  pp.  Acknowledgments,  'Ibid.,  pp.  43-5,  Ibid.,  pp.  44,  3 7  3 7 2  and  47,  48-52,  51 . 54-7.  47.  internal  status"  of  a  acceptance" to  element  schools.  parental  58.  itself  external  The  the in  school  organization. the  that  Monograph,  of  the  S t a t e Department  systems  of  organizational  education  58.  3 6 9  assessment  d e g r e e of  California  Monograph,  by g r o u p s  define  s y s t e m c o u l d be  public  Monograph,  to  between  assessment  changes throughout  the  3 7 0  the  the  He  i n t e r n a l and  In h i s  of  adult  logical  level  be.  upon "the  the  the  Dissertation.  "peripheral  a p r o g r a m and as  to  organizational  by g r o u p s  on a c c e p t a n c e  M2 as  contextual  Clark's  Education,  rather  He a p p e a r s  identified  to  relationship  validation  but  system.  quotation  Because  the  p r o g r a m by g r o u p s He  3 6 9  the  system to  dependent  in quotation  the  refer  he d i d i n h i s  school  organizational  "program"  as  perceives  parental  that  marginality  not  m a r g i n a l i t y and a c c e p t a n c e  the  and e x t e r n a l  does  of  the  Los of  United  1 46  States,  all  3 7 2  of  Monograph p r i o r  to  w h i c h were his  first  repeatedly  use  of  the  named by C l a r k  in  his  term m a r g i n a l i t y i n  the  document. Clark's  next  presentation  of  six  what  he  marginality,  but  contributing  factor,  hypothetical  u s e s of initially  which  index.  his  Because almost  first,  Clark  verbatim  discussion,  first  thesis,  Monograph,  and  from the applies  only  quotation  variables  been  have  p r i m a r y document variable In  will  Monograph,  he  marginality  3 7 3  3 7 f l 3 7 8  as  of  to  what  of  and  term use,  his in  variables. taken the  including  the  in Table  be  given. be  *  because  will  the  in  presentation  will  3 7  and  3 7 7  were  repeated  the  he had of  variables  be  analyzed,  use  and s i x t h  will  to  of  3 7 3  term m a r g i n a l i t y  their  reference  his  evidence,  index,  and p r e s e n t e d  and o n l y a l t e r a t i o n s  third  an  variables  Dissertation,  numbers  an e v i d e n c e  Ibid.;  second  quotations  repeated,  labels  Ibid.,  and  fifth,  critique  be d i s c u s s e d ,  Clark's  third,  discussion  corresponding  six  in  symptoms  as  He u s e s t h e  likewise  the  as  ambiguous  3 7 6  3 7 9  Clark's  analyses  data c l a s s i f i e d this  second,  from  identifies  enumerates  them.  Clark's  term m a r g i n a l i t y a r e  reintroduces  index,  Monograph and d e s c r i b e s clarifying  he  3 7 5  3 7 8  the  3  of  in  the  and  the  Where o t h e r made  to  presentation  the  of  the  in  his  symptom  of  and c r i t i q u e d . term  marginality,  introduced  as  a  marginality:  58.  p. 3 7 5  Ibid.;  3 7 6  Ibid.;  3 7 7  Ibid.,  p.  60.;  Ibid. 3 7 9  Ibid.,  pp.  57-60.  0  147  (M3) 1. Some e v i d e n c e of m a r g i n a l i t y i s i n d i c a t e d i n t h e constitutional status of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . The s t a t e s c h o o l s y s t e m i s composed of e l e m e n t a r y , h i g h school, and junior college districts; these are the b a s i c legal units for finance and administration. Once voted into existence by t h e l o c a l e l e c t o r a t e , these d i s t r i c t s , under t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e b o a r d s of e d u c a t i o n , must m a i n t a i n a p p r o p r i a t e s c h o o l s . In c o n t r a s t , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n d o e s not have a d i s t r i c t s t a t u s , and adult classes must be a t t a c h e d to the b a s i c l e g a l u n i t s . A l s o , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s backed mainly by permissive legislation; the s t a t e a u t h o r i z e s a d u l t c l a s s e s , but makes no mandate f o r them. C l a s s e s i n c i t i z e n s h i p and l i t e r a c y a r e t h e main e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s nonmandatory status. 3 8 0  Clark  refers  education be  and a s  labeled  as  attached  districts school Both  state  parental  than  the  fulfill  the  parental  organizations.  stated  v a r i a b l e of  legislative  3 8 0  system.  each  and  Ibid.,  their  p.  58.  of  the  adult  element its  junior  may  being college  districts  and  organizations—the  organizations  and  the  state  a supra-parental organization. primary of  objectives  Clark primary  objectives  adults  a r e assumed  m a r g i n a l i t y noted  disparity.  and  parental  education  primary  by v i r t u e  Both  have  system  b o t h as  education  school,  constitute  organizations  other  organizations  high  be n o t e d as  i n t e r n a l to  is  subunit  school  subunits  The  education  system  may  element  The a d u l t  immediate p a r e n t a l  system  functions  education  classes.  elementary,  school are  adult  adult  or the  state  the  an a d u l t  to  districts the  to  by C l a r k  noted  that  subunits  and c o m p a r a t i v e  to  and  and  exist  and  to  functions  of  the  in quotation  M3  both the have  parental  legislative  1 48  mandates  and t h a t  permissive  adult  education  o p e r a t e s w i t h no mandate  under  legislation.  Clark  used  explaining  his  the  second  term  marginality  v a r i a b l e of  in  his  Monograph  in  marginality:  (M4) 2. As f r e q u e n t l y happens w i t h a new a c t i v i t y , a d u l t education began as a secondary responsibility of administrators working with other programs. The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n in the state had this character u n t i l 1931, and i t was s y m p t o m a t i c of the p r o g r a m ' s s e c o n d - c l a s s p o s i t i o n . A f t e r 1931 t h e r e were s e p a r a t e principals, but mainly in part-time posts. The number of full-time positions has g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e d , but it is only within recent years that the l a r g e s t department in the s t a t e , for example, has been manned completely by full-time administrators ( t h e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n b r a n c h of t h e L o s Angeles school system in 1947-48). Part-time administration has been a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r t o , as w e l l as a symptom o f , a m a r g i n a l p o s i t i o n . T h i s index s u g g e s t s t h a t m a r g i n a l i t y has been partially reduced d u r i n g the l a s t t w e n t y - f i v e years. 3 8 1  In  this  variable a The  of  quotation  marginality.  contributing three  Clark  He c l a i m s  factor,  variable  identifies  symptom,  values  that  the  identified  by  administrative  status:  the  status  of  adult  subunit  is  a  the  status  education where  appointed;  and t h e  appointed  as  gradual increase  status  but  where  administrators  increase Clark  separate,  in  full-time  refers  'Ibid.,  p.  to  58.  is  marginality.  wherein  administration responsibility;  administrators administrators  education within  quotation,  a  differentiate  part-time  positions  i n the  of  secondary  adult  of  Clark  full-time  of  values  common v a r i a b l e  and an i n d e x  among the  three  the  subunits. Branch,  indicates  that  are are The  which the  149  variable  is  continuous  administrator  rather  may be a p p o i n t e d  than  for  discrete.  any p o r t i o n  An i n d i v i d u a l  of  a  full-time  adult  education,  equivalent. Clark program, of  appears  to  and a c t i v i t y  identifying  general  He  Education  B r a n c h of  example  an a d u l t  state  of  Clark his  concept  application, Angeles  more the  of that  School  Clark Monograph  to  subunits  identifies  School  through  the  System a s unit  1948.  purposes  a  in a Adult  specific  experiencing  He r e f e r s  to  a  the  state.  make g e n e r a l  marginality the  M4 f o r  organizational  organizational  1931  i n the  being  in quotation  Los Angeles  first  activity,  specifically  education  a department appears  terms  education  marginality during  B r a n c h as  the  synonymously  adult  sense.  of  use  and  Adult  statements  then  to  cite  concerning his  E d u c a t i o n Branch  of  specific the  Los  System.  used  the  term m a r g i n a l i t y  i n d e s c r i b i n g what  he  for  identifies  the as  fifth his  time  third  in  symptom.  (M5) 3. A t h i r d symptom of m a r g i n a l i t y i s t h e a b s e n c e of s e p a r a t e p l a n t f a c i l i t i e s and o t h e r f i x e d c a p i t a l . If a d u l t e d u c a t i o n were a b a s i c p u r p o s e of the schools, with a s t a t u s a p p r o x i m a t i n g t h a t of o t h e r l e v e l s , it would p o s s e s s s p e c i a l f a c i l i t i e s . If a comparison is made to the junior college, the loss in organizational s t a b i l i t y is apparent. Once a school system has e q u i p p e d a j u n i o r c o l l e g e w i t h c l a s s r o o m s , m a c h i n e s h o p , l i b r a r y , and f o o t b a l l s t a d i u m , t h e r e is a reasonable guaranty that i t w i l l remain. The a d u l t s c h o o l , i n c o n t r a s t , has no p h y s i c a l r o o t s w i t h which to protect itself a g a i n s t r e t r e n c h m e n t ; i t can more r e a d i l y be c o n s o l i d a t e d or discontinued. Moreover, plant facilities must be used t h a t a r e not e a s i l y adapted to a d u l t use. Classes are held in elementary and high school rooms or at branches l o c a t e d on nonschool p r o p e r t i e s . The a d u l t administrators seek separate facilities, but t h e y have l i t t l e c h a n c e of 5  his  1 50  o b t a i n i n g them from p u b l i c f u n d s . Thus i t becomes a struggle to obtain even small wooden bungalows on s c h o o l p r o p e r t y f o r t h e s o l e use of a d u l t classes in Los A n g e l e s . Comparisons with j u n i o r c o l l e g e s are p a r t i c u l a r l y useful, since adult education and junior college education are the younger school programs. High s c h o o l s began t o p u s h upward i n t o t h e thirteenth and fourteenth y e a r s a b o u t 1907; s e p a r a t e j u n i o r c o l l e g e s were a u t h o r i z e d , w i t h s t a t e s u p p o r t , i n 1921. Their i n i t i a l e x p a n s i o n t h u s began i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same e r a as t h a t of the a d u l t s c h o o l s . S t a t e of C a l i f o r n i a Department of E d u c a t i o n , T h i r t y - t h i r d B i e n n i a l R e p o r t , 1928, P a r t I , p p . 27-29. 5  T O  Clark  describes  experiencing classes,  plant  m a r g i n a l i t y as  and a d u l t  Clark  classes  identifies  facilities  identified  explanation  and  the  the  absurdity  of  that  the  adult  education  adult  education,  i n Los  an  function  negatives  human symbol  an  "the  of  to  be  school,  is  systems" "  the  separate  Clark  helps  to  Burke's  substantiate  a symptom.  universe  Burke d e c l a r e d  has  a symptom of  illogical.  a n e g a t i v e as "to  of  3 8 3  something--as  negatives  3 8  said  adult  absence  capital."  assertion  suggesting  a d d i t i o n of  fixed  absence  of  element  Angeles.  v a r i a b l e as  other  Such of  of  his  a negative--the  marginality.  product  the  is  Noting  solely  a  that:  ...there a r e no n e g a t i v e s i n n a t u r e , where e v e r y t h i n g s i m p l y i s what i t i s and as it is. To look for negatives in n a t u r e would be a s a b s u r d as t h o u g h you were t o go o u t h u n t i n g f o r t h e s q u a r e r o o t of minusone. The negative i s a f u n c t i o n p e c u l i a r t o symbol  3 8 2  Ibid.,  p.  59.  3 8 3  Ibid.,  p.  59.  * K e n n e t h B u r k e , Language As S y m b o l i c A c t i o n : E s s a y s on L i f e , L i t e r a t u r e , and Method ( B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1966), p . 9. 3 8  151  systems, q u i t e i m p l i c a t i o n of  as t h e s q u a r e r o o t of m i n u s - o n e is an a c e r t a i n m a t h e m a t i c a l symbol s y s t e m .  The quickest way to demonstrate the sheer s y m b o l i c i t y of t h e n e g a t i v e i s t o l o o k a t any object, say, a t a b l e , and t o r e m i n d y o u r s e l f t h a t , t h o u g h i t i s e x a c t l y what i t i s , you c o u l d go on f o r t h e r e s t of your l i f e s a y i n g a l l the t h i n g s t h a t i t i s not. • "It is not a book, it i s not a h o u s e , i t i s not T i m e s S q u a r e , " e t c . , e t c . . . . B u t so f a r as t h e a c t u a l state of affairs is concerned, some s i t u a t i o n p o s i t i v e l y p r e v a i l s , and t h a t ' s that. 3 8 5  Perhaps a l l facilities than  and o t h e r  accept  separate  that  plant  precariousness  of  explaining  Clark  California  fixed  as  capital.  through  to  of  to "a  to  balance  of  Clark's  plant rather  absence a  it,  "the  to  have  and o t h e r  fixed  appeared  organizational  adult  education  facilities that  capital  and l i m i t e d  stability  and i s  units  subunits  investment"  arguement  of  "factor"  worded  facilities  suggest  large  status  general  He  3 8 6  separate  then  of  Clark  c h a r a c t e r i z e d the  For Clark  the  as  plant  few  separate  f i x e d c a p i t o l as  stability  having  possession  contrary in  it.  the  schools."  separate and  or  redefine  an i n d e x  of  and o t h e r  adult  how  to  c a p i t o l as  status  brings status  possessing in  low the  is  definition  facilities to  capital  necessary  fixed  Clark's  contributing  been  is  is  lost is  3 8 7  felt  to  be  error. If  Clark's  existence  of  p r e c e d i n g statement  separate  plant  facilities  3 8 5  Ibid.,  p.  3 8 6  Clark,  Dissertation,  3 8 7  Ibid.  is  9-10. p.  27.  accepted and o t h e r  as  error fixed  and  the  capital  1 52  is of  redefined the  the  as  effects  context  Los  Angeles  is  a  an i n d e x  of of  his  If  illogical  has  organization  True  the  his  of  experiencing  d i d not  use  fourth variable  Clark  enumerated  marginality index,"  in his  a  marginality.  a whole  concept the of  8  rather  of  than  it  use  of  and  and  the  within  marginality. society,  concepts  3 8 9  Idem,  3 8 8  his  and  fifth  identifying index,"  and  in  the  Ibid.,  pp.  p.  59-60.  quite  sixth them as as  a  description  variables "an  59.  of  ambiguous  "symptom"  most important symptom of the present of the a d u l t s c h o o l i s t h e n e c e s s i t y of sell the program to the public and to other e d u c a t o r s . T h i s need i s s t r o n g l y  Monograph,  but  marginality.  (M6 and M7)  3 8 8  be  operating  9  5. The marginality having to especially  to  secure  subunits  may be m a r g i n a l t o for  parental  would  subunit  organizational  calls  the  to  then  by o t h e r  marginality.  Monograph,  of  organization  education  the  relativeness  purposes,  term m a r g i n a l i t y  "hypothetical 3  the  capital,  adult  such a s t a t u s  from C l a r k ' s  Clark of  is  nature  primary  in  schools within  however,  of  others  interpretation  seems r e a s o n a b l e  adult  the  nature  fixed the  Clark's  Again,  its  little  the  on  by  for  o r g a n i z a t i o n as  description  of  s i m i l a r l y experienced  the  distinct  owned  to maintain that  under c o n d i t i o n s  the  study  the  then  marginality  System.  is  facilities  organization  of  depends  it  facilities  maintain  case  Much  organization.  status,  index  Public School  factor.  utilize  this  of  of  felt within the ranks of the Los Angeles adult administrators. I t s t a n d s out i n the r e p o r t s of s u c h s t a t e - w i d e groups as the California Association of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t o r s and i n the b u l l e t i n s of the B u r e a u o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n of the C a l i f o r n i a S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t of E d u c a t i o n . The administrators define their position as "stepchild" in nature. They p e r c e i v e t h a t they are not afforded a fundamental acceptance by other schoolmen and by state legi slators. 6  ...the adult programs should...be a c c e p t e d . . . a s an e q u a l p a r t n e r when i t comes to t h e s t a t u s of t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r , t h e pay of i t s t e a c h e r s , use of facilities and so on. This e q u a l i t y s h o u l d be t h o r o u g h g o i n g and sweep away the v a r i o u s forms of secondc l a s s t r e a t m e n t of a d u l t e d u c a t o r s and t h e i r students which are still found in many districts. Members of governing boards, superintendents, and day school administrators and t e a c h e r s . . . tend to tolerate or show c o n d e s c e n s i o n t o w a r d a d u l t p r o g r a m s as t h o u g h t h e y were step-children in the family of p u b l i c s c h o o l s , t a k e n i n for t h e i r s u b s i s t e n c e allowances r a t h e r than for t h e m s e l v e s . 7  To t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e p r o g r a m ' s e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e is r a n k e d low r e l a t i v e t o o t h e r u s e s of s c h o o l f u n d s , t h e position of the adult school is insecure. Organizational marginality is the basic source of insecurity for administrative branches of adult education. The long-term problem of adult-school administrators i s t o a c h i e v e a "peer" p o s i t i o n . They badly need a parity level, clearly defined and respected by all. The search for acceptance is a struggle for s e c u r i t y . State of California, Department of Education, Bureau of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , R e p o r t and P r o c e e d i n g s of t h e M o n t e c i t o Workshop i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1952, pp. 80-89. I b i d . , pp. 80-81. 6  7  3 9 0  Clark's  3 9 0  context  Ibid.,  pp.  of  application  59-60.  i n the  preceding  quotation  1 54  is  "adult  general.  school" Clark  quotation  has  from  the  in  light  of  to  tolerated  schools."  be  "Los  description  of  effect as  administrators, on a c c e p t a n c e "step-children  Angeles" the  the  he a d d r e s s e s  the  adult  i n the  in  variable  but a p p e a r s of  3 9 2  to  do  so  programs which  f a m i l y of  public  3 9 3  Clark's times  education its  his  and  M o n t e c i t o Workshop w h e r e i n  of  tended  particular,  added t o  status the  adult  in  3 9 1  in his  used  the  term m a r g i n a l i t y  Monograph i n d e s c r i p t i o n  of  for his  the  eighth  sixth  and n i n t h  variable  marginality. (M8 and M9) 6. Since adult education is financed within high s c h o o l and ' j u n i o r college districts, much of its budgetary support has been derivative and often unanticipated. The amount of state aid is an ambiguous index of program m a r g i n a l i t y . The e a r l y b o n u s e s f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n were i n d i c a t i v e o f little local support and reflect the attempts of state a u t h o r i t i e s t o back the p r o g r a m . In t h e f a c e of l o c a l m a r g i n a l i t y g e n e r o u s s t a t e a i d has been a s t r o n g p r o p . This suggests a h y p o t h e t i c a l index. One r e a l t e s t of program strength would be t h e s c a l i n g down of s t a t e a i d t o t h e same p r o p o r t i o n a l l o t e d t o o t h e r p r o g r a m s . The r e d u c t i o n would force local boards to assess program v a l u e . A r e a l t e s t i s not l i k e l y t o happen i n a c l e a r - c u t way, but p o s i n g i t as a h y p o t h e t i c a l t e s t is useful. Both advocates and opponents of the present p r o g r a m a g r e e t h a t f u n d a m e n t a l c h a n g e s would be made. O p p o n e n t s have s o u g h t t o l i m i t s t a t e a i d f o r c e r t a i n t y p e s of c l a s s e s , knowing that local boards would not s u p p o r t t h e s e c l a s s e s out of l o c a l t a x e s . A d u l t e d u c a t o r s , on the o t h e r h a n d , have feared and fought such changes. The e x i s t i n g p r o g r a m c o u l d not maintain i t s e l f in i t s present form if its budget value were reduced. S i n c e s t a t e a i d may be m o d i f i e d from y e a r t o y e a r , adult administrators are always f a c e d w i t h t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of an a d v e r s e c h a n g e . 3 9 1  Ibid.,  3 9 2  Ibid.  3 9 3  Ibid.,  p.  59.  p.  60.  of  155  It seems evident that security f o r the a d u l t s c h o o l i s d e p e n d e n t upon the acceptance, principally by those with power within s c h o o l r a n k s , of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n as a c e n t r a l a c t i v i t y of t h e p u b l i c school, or, minimally, acceptance at a well-defined, stabilized parity level. That t h i s p o s i t i o n has not been a c h i e v e d i s r e a s o n a b l y c l e a r t o b o t h p a r t i c i p a n t s and o b s e r v e r s . " 3 9  Clark  appears  t o make a d i s t i n c t i o n  program m a r g i n a l i t y "amount  of  state  marginality support such  of  programs  than  of  from  internal  as  adult  of  perspective, elements refers  said  experiencing  program,  program v a l u e ,  central  activity  evaluative value  are  3 9  the and  addressed,  the  Ibid.  p.  60.  that  not It  appears  local  state  to  that  or  the  considered distinction  said  public  an  as  adult  school.  to  delemma  be  is  rather  adult school,  of  either between  be b a s e d  on  among  experiencing  element  Once t h e  identification third  to  ambiguous  marginality  support Clark's  t h a n on d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  values  the  from p e r s p e c t i v e s  m a r g i n a l i t y appears  or  of  perspective  Clark's  rather  labeled  reflective  g r a n t i n g groups  classes,  perspective  "Ibid.,  3 9 5  of  fact  is  a  the  collectively.  Clark  be  financial  from  status  marginality. to  state  ambiguous  the  locally.  or  education  of p r o g r a m  receive  and e x t e r n a l  evaluative  index  programs  p r o g r a m m a r g i n a l i t y and l o c a l an  an  education  perspective  terms  He  evidence  is  he  marginality.  as  3 9 5  marginality  the  individually  local  aid"  and c i t e s adult  evaluation  and  between what  or  value  education, and  a  as  a  questions  of  element  or  of  the  the  determination  of  1 56  the  range  M9 C l a r k by  of  refers  local  junior  context  board,  college  Clark's  state  in  enrollment student (M10  consideration  of  within  ranks  school  districts,  next  relationship enrollment  to  under c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  of  the  economy. which  of  concept Clark  the  participation.  of  defined  number  and s u s t a i n e d  the  one  attendance Clark  and  M8  m a r g i n a l i t y on a l o c a l  basis  including high school  and on a s t a t e  two u s e s  In q u o t a t i o n s  basis.  term  are  to  marginality an e n r o l l m e n t  explain  to  the  face  the  that  of  an  economy  as  a  administrative in  and  concern of  is  voluntary  suggested:  and Ml 1) ...that the e n r o l l m e n t economy c o n s t i t u t e s t h e b a s i c complex of p r e s s u r e s o p e r a t i n g upon t h e a d u l t s c h o o l . T h i s i s b e c a u s e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l needs f o r s u r v i v a l and security a r e d i s t i n c t l y shaped i n t h e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o n t e x t by t h e s e f a c t o r s . To comprehend its potential impact, the e n r o l l m e n t economy s h o u l d be seen i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r conditions. The p e r i p h e r a l s t a t u s of t h e a d u l t s c h o o l is very important: t h e g r e a t e r t h e m a r g i n a l i t y , the s t r o n g e r i s t h e p r e s s u r e of the enrollment economy. School systems will not c o n t r i b u t e g e n e r o u s l y to a program they only weakly accept; program administrators who are i n s e c u r e b e c a u s e of m a r g i n a l s t a t u s a r e more susceptible to the pressures upon them. Purpose plays a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e in r e l a t i o n to operating pressures. In t h e following section, the manifest g o a l s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a r e a n a l y z e d . This d i s c u s s i o n w i l l t h e n p r o v i d e us w i t h a configuration of three historical conditions: t h e m a r g i n a l i t y of organizational activity, the pressures of the e n r o l l m e n t economy, and t h e p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t of s t a t e d purpose. 3  Clark  3 9 6  9  6  identifies  Ibid.,  p.  the  62-3.  adult  education  e l e m e n t as  an  adult  1 57  school  and l a t e r  and as  adult  enrollment schools  compete  school  units,"  These  units  of  a  systems,"  3 9 8  economy,  Clark  but  to  "school  California  of  his  State  constitute  distinct  to  Marginal  describe  the  administrators, has  assumed  been  defined  3 9 7  Ibid.  3 9 8  Ibid. ,  P-  62.  3 9 9  Ibid.  P-  61 .  I b i d . / P-  58.  "  0 0  61 .  r  unit  of  and  high  funds.  i n the  as  "school  enrollment  in the  California  to  districts  be  would,  the  identified  marginality."  Education  first  parental  the  assumed  3 9 9  adult  The  of  the  the  on the  quotation  parental  of  of  for  elements  and j u n i o r c o l l e g e  The  0 0  therefore,  organization.  first, and  status,  relative  claims  discussion  be a p p l y i n g  elements:  discussion  "elementary  this  variable  both a program  necessity  with  districts"  first  administrators;  activity.  in  the  Department  appears  the  as  marginality.  in his  a supra-parental  Clark  it  his  comparative of  specified  to  had p r i o r i t y  identified  high school  in d i s c u s s i o n  funds  the  earlier  be  elementary,  schools,  scarce  concept  is  in  identified  which u n i t s  3 9 7  organization  program  he  for  refers  Previously  constitute  application  three  quotation  education. economy,  to  context  i n the  concepts to  adult  marginality  school;  third,  to  an  a  used  i n the  term  state to  the  of  of  refer  earlier  existence to  in t h i s  second,  to  organizational quotation of  administrators thesis  to  by t h i s  to  program of  adult author  1 58  as  a synonym f o r Clark  effects  of  marginality.  next the  uses  third  the  term m a r g i n a l i t y  historical  q u o t a t i o n ,M11, g o a l s of  adult  condition  in summarising  identified  by  him  the in  education.  (M12) In summary, the d i f f u s e g o a l s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a r e not likely to control decision-making. Their generality widens the discretion of program administrators. In the context of the enrollment economy pressures, where o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s u r v i v a l and security depend upon the solving of attendance problems, t h e d a y - t o - d a y i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s u c h o p e n ended purpose is likely to be shaped by these solutions. A n d , i n t h e c o n t e x t of m a r g i n a l i t y , i t i s even more l i k e l y t h a t b a s i c o r g a n i z a t i o n a l needs will r u l e the d a y . As the most significant factors in the e n v i r o n m e n t of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , t h e three conditions specified i n t h i s c h a p t e r may be v i e w e d as u n d e r l y i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t of t h e a d u l t school in California. These a b s t r a c t e d e l e m e n t s do n o t d e t e r m i n e a l l f a c e t s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i o r , but they distinctly and importantly. shape orientation, motivation, and action. u 0 1  The  adult  education  school  element  in  elements or p a r e n t a l Clark shape  in  d o e s not  the  specify  but he a p p e a r s  elements  experience  needs w i l l  assumed  adult  pp.  be g i v e n  education  65-6.  and  suggest  marginality,  organizational  Ibid.,  to  are  the  adult  No c o m p a r a t i v e  identified.  i n w h i c h ways h i s  motivation,  elements,  constitutes  preceding quotation.  organizations  orientation,  that  California  three  action  in adult  that  where  the  likelihood  priority  conditions  adult  education that  decreases.  elements e x p e r i e n c i n g  education  their It  is  marginality  1 59  will  be  influenced  groups,  requests  within  which they  retain  enrollment,  have  been  element.  Clark  over  Clark's how  needs  and  mandates  exist,  and t o  than  established  experiencing control  more by t h e  to  to  from the the  idealistic  to  view  marginality  as  possessing  next  marginality  three  and  u s e s of  perpetuated  organization attract,  of  adult  the  adult  which  education  education very  elements  little  internal  t e r m were u s e d  dependency  to  on s t a t e  describe aid  within  California: (M13,  and  development. the  a  parental to  pressure  g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s  by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  existence  to  necessity  appears  their  respond  M14, M15, and M16) In t h e a d u l t s c h o o l t h e assessment of course value becomes very difficult. Traditional methods of evaluation—written work, examinations, course accreditation—are not feasible, and there a r e no systematic techniques to take t h e i r p l a c e . Attendance has become t h e e v a l u a t i o n a l c r i t e r i o n , a p p l i e d across the board t o c o u r s e s , t e a c h e r s , and s t u d e n t g r o u p s . The a d u l t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s s t r e s s t h i s as their basic standard. Courses are deemed successful or u n s u c c e s s f u l on t h i s b a s i s , and i t i s f e l t t h a t where students remain w i t h a c l a s s t h e y must be b e n e f i t i n g from i t . The e n r o l l m e n t c r i t e r i o n is an objective, easily applied yardstick. Moreover, it reduces administrative anxiety by lessening the need for contending with purposes as criteria of course i n i t i a t i o n and evaluation. With open-ended goals, purpose criteria have been ambiguous. The c o n c r e t e n e s s of the attendance criterion makes it highly serviceable in this context. The e n r o l l m e n t standard possesses an objectivity and universal meaning that is somewhat similar to the profit c r i t e r i o n of s u c c e s s i n p r i v a t e b u s i n e s s . 2 0  It should be understood that these operating procedures have arisen in the context of organizational marginality with its pressures for adaptation. U n t i l t h e m a r g i n a l i t y of t h e a d u l t s c h o o l is reduced, or special s a f e g u a r d s a r e g i v e n to the program, administrators must bank heavily on the survival and security p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of s t a t e a i d .  160  Thus m a r g i n a l i t y f o r c e s a t t e n t i o n t o w a r d attendance. This condition h o l d s f o r the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n b r a n c h , t h o u g h t i t has t h e l a r g e s t public-school program in the country. The p e r i p h e r a l n a t u r e of t h e b r a n c h ' s p r e s e n t a c t i v i t y i s p a r t i a l l y i n d i c a t e d by i t s status as a 2 p e r c e n t i t e m i n the b u d g e t .  In a special meeting with the board of education in January, 1953, the Los Angeles adult administrators stressed t h a t t h e c h i e f i n s t r u m e n t of c u r r i c u l u m e v a l u a t i o n i s the "attendance t h a t remains" in c l a s s e s . TWQ other methods of evaluation were mentioned: reports by advisory committees and classroom v i s i t a t i o n . It i s r e a l i s t i c to stress, as the administrators emphasize, t h a t the l o g i c of t h e s i t u a t i o n makes a t t e n d a n c e t h e y a r d s t i c k of e v a l u a t i o n S p e c i a l M e e t i n g of t h e B o a r d of E d u c a t i o n , J a n u a r y 8, 1953 ( f i e l d n o t e s of a u t h o r ) . 2 0  W  The is  Adult  E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h of  the . o n l y  identified level,  adult  i n the  yet  adult  groupings  or  a concept  of  of  be u s e d  the to  No  On  of  education  more  adult  schools,  Clark's  a  was  organizational  and  c o u l d be t h e  i n the  comparative  which  positively generalized  education  focus  System  contexts,  the  reference  School  Clark  elements  Branch,  which  in a p p l i c a t i o n  of  a p r o g r a m and  to  to  U n i t e d S t a t e s c o u l d d e n o t e any categories processes elements  just  enumerated  occurring are  or  could  within  named by C l a r k  or  these in  the  quotation.  Clark context  adult  marginality. programs  to  denote e d u c a t i o n a l  contexts. preceding  classes,  adult  Los Angeles  element  categories  sub-groupings  public-school all  confined  organizational  including  the  preceding quotation.  still  identified  education  2  refers  of  a 0 2  to  operating  organizational  Ibid.,  p.  83.  procedures  marginality,  having with  "arisen  its  in  pressures  the for  161  adaptation."" be  the  course  0 3  The o p e r a t i n g  acceptance initiation,  universal  of  an e n r o l l m e n t  acceptance  evaluational  teacher  and s t u d e n t  goals.  The a b s e n c e o f  of  the  this  Clark  earlier  enrollment  existence does  of  Clark  for  success, of  as and  for  subunit  perspective.  a causal  a  open-ended  education  operating the  basis  course  suggest  of  to  attendance  an o p e n - e n d e d  not  appear  the  and e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of  one  to  of  g o a l s w i t h i n an a d u l t  discussion  economy,  refers  c r i t e r i o n as  for  between m a r g i n a l i t y and t h e s e c i t e d his  he  level  criterion  performance;  would c o n s t i t u t e quotation  procedures  In  relationship  procedures.  In  operating procedures,  the  noted:  the g r e a t e r the marginality, the stronger is the pressure of the e n r o l l m e n t economy. School systems w i l l not c o n t r i b u t e g e n e r o u s l y to a program they only w e a k l y a c c e p t ; p r o g r a m a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who a r e i n s e c u r e b e c a u s e of m a r g i n a l s t a t u s a r e more s u s c e p t i b l e t o t h e p r e s s u r e s upon t h e m . " 4 0  It  is  addresses  is  not  apparent  that  of  administrator. is  most  the  whether  organizational  Nevertheless,  susceptible  to  the  the  it  is  operating  m a r g i n a l i t y which unit  the  adult  pressures  or  of  the  Clark adult  administrator in a  context  who of  marginality. Clark attendance. branch,  states  that  This  though  "marginality  condition  it  has  the  4 0 3  Ibid.  4 0 4  Ibid.,  p.  62.  4 0 5  Ibid.,  p.  83.  holds  largest  forces for  the  attention adult  public-school  toward  education  program i n  the  1 62  country.""  This  0 5  challenged  in  untested  the  Non-categorical  follow.  Clark  of  branch's present  the  status  as  assumption  continued  a 2 per cent  to  suggest  activity  item  i n the  Clark  Observations  that is  by  the  4 0 6  equate a " p e r i p h e r a l nature" with a c o n d i t i o n appears  to  size  are  indices  The  s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h u s e s of  Monograph  be  suggesting of  were u s e d  that  both absolute  varying significance  to  explain  of  section  "peripheral  partially  budget."  will  of  by  its  appears  to  m a r g i n a l i t y and  size  and  relative  marginality. the  term  an o t h e r - d i r e c t e d  in  Clark's  administrative  or i e n t a t i o n . (M16  and M17) M a r g i n a l i t y , d i f f u s e g o a l s , and t h e p r e s s u r e s of the enrollment economy l a y the b a s i s f o r a s t r o n g " o t h e r directed" o r i e n t a t i o n on the p a r t of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n administrators. They t e n d to face outward, toward clientele and c r i t i c s , not i n w a r d t o w a r d t r a d i t i o n a l r u l e s and t h e i r own c o n c e p t i o n of right and wrong. The pressures of the enrollment economy foster s e n s i t i v i t y t o o u t s i d e demands; insecurity resulting from marginality reenforces this sensitivity, and open-ended purpose encourages it. 3 8  The i m p o r t a n c e of t h e o t h e r - d i r e c t e d orientation is evidenced by the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e duties that are deemed most s i g n i f i c a n t . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e d u t i e s may be divided into three categories: routine school administration; selection, t r a i n i n g , and s u p e r v i s i o n of t e a c h e r s ; and community r e l a t i o n s . Overriding the internal d u t i e s i n i m p o r t a n c e i s the work o u t s i d e the schools. Some of this emphasis appears in the following description by the supervisor of adult education:  In Los Angeles we like to have Principals organize and d i r e c t t h e p r o g r a m in the v a r i o u s communities. We want the  4 0 6  Ibid.  to  nature  indica