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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An analysis of concepts of marginality in adult education 1985

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c / An A n a l y s i s of Concepts of M a r g i n a l i t y i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n by M a r D e l l C . P a r r i s h B . A . , Utah S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1970 C e r t i f i c a t e in I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s Utah S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , 1970 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t and Higher E d u c a t i o n ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to^the r e q u i r e d , s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December 1985 © M a r D e l l C . P a r r i s h , 1985 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6(3/81) i i An A n a l y s i s of Concepts of M a r g i n a l i t y in A d u l t E d u c a t i o n ABSTRACT Concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y have found popu lar use in the f i e l d of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y i n d i s c r i m i n a t e usage of the term m a r g i n a l i t y has l e f t too much l a t i t u d e for m i s a p p l i c a t i o n , m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g . C l a r k was f i r s t to use the term, m a r g i n a l i t y , to denote a p a r t i c u l a r concept in the f i e l d . In h i s d o c t o r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l case s t u d y , "Adult E d u c a t i o n in T r a n s i t i o n : A Study of I n s t i t u t i o n a l I n s e c u r i t y , " U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a - - L o s A n g e l e s , 1956, C l a r k i d e n t i f i e d a t r a n s i t i o n by the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Branch of the Los Ange les School System from a s t a t e of e x i s t e n c e wherein t r a d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e s p r e v a i l e d to a s t a t e wherein the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s c h o o l s had assumed a s e r v i c e o r i e n t a t i o n s u b s e r v i e n t to community demands. C l a r k ' s i n i t i a l concept of m a r g i n a l i t y was deve loped to denote the f i n a l s t a t u s of the Branch r e s u l t i n g from t h i s t r a n s i t i o n . H i s subsequent uses of the term d e p a r t e d from d e n o t i n g the s t a t u s of an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n subuni t in r e l a t i o n to o ther s u b u n i t s w i t h i n a common p a r e n t a l e d u c a t i o n a l s c h o o l system to i n c l u d e o ther o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and n o n - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n s . C l a r k was i n c o n s i s t e n t i n a p p l y i n g the term m a r g i n a l i t y and s t r a y e d from i t s a p p l i c a t i o n i n h i s d o c t o r a l c a s e - s t u d y - i n - d e p t h to d e s c r i b e the s t a t u s of the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Branch of the Los Ange les Schoo l System. He a l s o . u s e d m a r g i n a l i t y to denote the s t a t u s of v a r i o u s o ther a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t s , i n c l u d i n g tha t of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a g e n c i e s , c l a s s e s , departments , e n t e r p r i s e s , s c h o o l s , s c h o o l programs, programs in g e n e r a l , a bureau , and p r o f e s s i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' s o c i e t y . A d d i t i o n a l l y , concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y were used by C l a r k i n h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n to d e s c r i b e the low s t a t u s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , f u n c t i o n s , a c t i v i t i e s , programs, and a s u b u n i t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n . T h i s t h e s i s l i n k s C l a r k ' s i n i t i a l concept to d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n s , d i s c u s s e s problems in a s s e s s i n g and v a l i d a t i n g m a r g i n a l i t y w i t h i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t s , e s t a b l i s h e s a t y p o l o g y for c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of usages w i t h i n the l i t e r a t u r e , and pursues concept c l a r i f i c a t i o n and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . D e f i n i t i o n s are s t a t e d for (1) v a l u e s m a r g i n a l i t y , (2) p r a c t i c e m a r g i n a l i t y , (3) autonomous e x t r a - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m a r g i n a l i t y , (4) autonomous o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m a r g i n a l i t y , (5) i n t r a - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m a r g i n a l i t y , (6) human system m a r g i n a l i t y , (7) a d m i n i s t r a t o r system m a r g i n a l i t y , (8) c l i e n t system m a r g i n a l i t y , (9) o r g a n i z a t i o n a l system m a r g i n a l i t y , (10) o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m i c r o - system m a r g i n a l i t y , (11) o r g a n i z a t i o n a l macro-system m a r g i n a l i t y , (12) o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m u l t i p l e subun i t m i c r o - s y s t e m m a r g i n a l i t y , (13) o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m u l t i p l e subun i t macro-system m a r g i n a l i t y , and (14) for the g e n e r i c l a b e l a p p l i c a b l e to o r g a n i z a t i o n a l system m a r g i n a l i t y c o n c e p t s - - i n t e r - s y s t e m m a r g i n a l i t y . Sugges t i ons for f u t u r e r e s e a r c h are a l s o p r e s e n t e d . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF TABLES '. . . . . v i i i ACKNOWLEDGMENT ix CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION 1 Methodology 14 T h e s i s Format 20 CHAPTER I I : CLARK'S WRITINGS CONCERNING MARGINALITY AND DEFINITIONS PERTINENT FOR THEIR ANALYSIS 23 C l a r k ' s A r t i c l e s C o n c e r n i n g M a r g i n a l i t y 24 C l a r k ' s Purpose of Concept Development 30 A Study of O r g a n i z a t i o n s 36 D i c t i o n a r y D e f i n i t i o n s As a B a s i s f or U n d e r s t a n d i n g C l a r k ' s Concepts of M a r g i n a l i t y 46 M a r g i n 48 M a r g i n a l 55 M a r g i n a l i t y 56 CHAPTER I I I : DIRECT LABELING OF CONCEPTS OF MARGINALITY IN CLARK'S DISSERTATION 59 Use of the Term M a r g i n a l i t y w i t h i n C l a r k ' s D i s s e r t a t i o n 61 CHAPTER I V : ANALYSIS AND CRITIQUE OF USES OF THE TERM MARGINALITY IN CLARK'S DISSERTATION 109 The Premise for C a t e g o r i z i n g Concepts of M a r g i n a l i t y . . . 1 1 0 D i s c u s s i o n of C a t e g o r i e s and S u b c a t e g o r i e s of Concepts of M a r g i n a l i t y and P r e s e n t a t i o n of T a b l e d O b s e r v a t i o n s . . 1 1 0 V M a r g i n a l i t y of the G e n e r a l V a l u e of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n E d u c a t i o n and L e a r n i n g 111 M a r g i n a l i t y E x t e r n a l to the F i e l d of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . 1 1 4 M a r g i n a l i t y of the F i e l d of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n 114 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l M a r g i n a l i t y 115 A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Element 116 Comparat ive Element 120 P a r e n t a l O r g a n i z a t i o n 122 N o n - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l M a r g i n a l i t y 124 Summary of C o n t e x t u a l and Key Element A n a l y s i s f or C l a r k ' s Use of the Term M a r g i n a l i t y w i t h i n h i s D i s s e r t a t i o n 125 CHAPTER V : DIRECT LABELING OF CONCEPTS OF MARGINALITY IN CLARK'S MONOGRAPH 140 Use of the Term M a r g i n a l i t y w i t h i n C l a r k ' s Monograph . . . 141 CHAPTER V I : ANALYSIS AND CRITIQUE OF USES OF THE TERM MARGINALITY IN CLARK'S MONOGRAPH 190 M a r g i n a l i t y of the G e n e r a l V a l u e of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and L e a r n i n g > 91 M a r g i n a l i t y E x t e r n a l to the F i e l d of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . . . 1 9 4 M a r g i n a l i t y of the F i e l d of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n 194 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l M a r g i n a l i t y 196 A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Element 197 Comparat ive Element 202 P a r e n t a l O r g a n i z a t i o n 205 N o n - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l M a r g i n a l i t y 207 Summary of C o n t e x t u a l and Key Element A n a l y s i s f or C l a r k ' s Use of the Term M a r g i n a l i t y w i t h i n the Monograph 208 CHAPTER V I I : USE OF THE TERM MARGINALITY IN CLARK'S DISSERTATION AND MONOGRAPH: COMPARED AND CONTRASTED 212 T a b l e d D a t a : Compared and C o n t r a s t e d 212 A n c i l l a r y O b s e r v a t i o n s 215 F o c i of C l a r k ' s D o c t o r a l Study 216 I n t r o d u c t i o n of the Term M a r g i n a l i t y to A d u l t E d u c a t i o n 222 R e l a t i o n s h i p of Concepts Suggested 224 D i s t i n c t i o n s between Concepts of S t a t u s and Acceptance 225 D e f i n i n g M a r g i n a l i t y tThrough I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of C o n c e p t u a l Elements 231 A R e l a t i v i s t i c Concept 243 C o n s i s t a n t Use of D e f i n i n g Terms 247 C o n c e p t u a l T e s t i n g of Concepts of M a r g i n a l i t y 264 CHAPTER V I I I : TYPOLOGY FOR CLASSIFICATION OF THE CONCEPTS OF MARGINALITY 284 A t t r i b u t i o n of Concepts of M a r g i n a l i t y to C l a r k 285 Seven Major Concepts of M a r g i n a l i t y L a b e l e d and D e f i n e d . 2 8 7 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 291 Typology of M a r g i n a l i t y 292 V a l u e s M a r g i n a l i t y 292 P r a c t i c e M a r g i n a l i t y 295 Autonomous E x t r a - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l M a r g i n a l i t y 297 Autonomous O r g a n i z a t i o n a l M a r g i n a l i t y 304 v i i I n t r a - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l M a r g i n a l i t y 309 Human System M a r g i n a l i t y 310 A d m i n i s t r a t o r System M a r g i n a l t i y 312 C l i e n t System M a r g i n a l i t y . .313 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l System M a r g i n a l i t y 315 , O r g a n i z a t i o n a l M i c r o - s y s t e m M a r g i n a l i t y 321 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Macro-sys tem M a r g i n a l i t y 321 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l M u l t i p l e Subuni t M i c r o - s y s t e m M a r g i n a l i t y 322 O r g a n i z a t i o n a l M u l t i p l e Subuni t Macro- sys tem M a r g i n a l i t y 322 I n t e r - s y s t e m M a r g i n a l i t y 323 Typology A d a p t a b l e to G e n e r a l Systems A p p l i c a t i o n s 324 CHAPTER IX: SUMMARY STATEMENTS, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND APPLICATIONS 326 C l a r k ' s Usages of the Term i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n 327 Popular Acceptance and C o n c e p t u a l Chaos 329 F i n d i n g s from the L i t e r a t u r e Review 333 Consequences of T e r m i n o l o g i c a l And C o n c e p t u a l I m p r e c i s i o n 334 D i s t i n c t i o n Drawn between O p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n and I n s t r u m e n t a t i o n 335 I m p l i c a t i o n s of the Study -. 337 Recommendations for F u t u r e R e s e a r c h , Development, and R e p o r t i n g 338 C o n c l u s i o n s .341 BIBLIOGRAPHY 344 v i i i LIST OF TABLES 1 . O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e of the Los Ange les Schoo l • System, 1952-53 40 2. O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e of the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h , D i v i s i o n of E x t e n s i o n and Higher E d u c a t i o n , Los Ange les Schoo l System, 1952-53 41 3. C o n t e x t u a l and Key Element A n a l y s i s of Burton R. C l a r k ' s Use of the Term M a r g i n a l i t y in h i s D i s s e r t a t i o n 112 4. C o n t e x t u a l and Key Element A n a l y s i s of Burton R. C l a r k ' s Use of the Term M a r g i n a l i t y in h i s Monograph '..192 5. Adjustment T a b l e for V a r i a t i o n s in Average D a i l y At tendance S tandards among O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S u b u n i t s of the C a l i f o r n i a Schoo l System, 1 952-53 279 6. Typology For C l a s s i f i c a t i o n And L a b e l i n g of Concepts of M a r g i n a l i t y in A d u l t E d u c a t i o n 293 7. Major C a t e g o r i e s of E d u c a t i o n a l Des ign S i t u a t i o n s 302 ix ACKNOWLEDGMENT To those who have s a c r i f i c e d for the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a grea t u n i v e r s i t y , my g r a t i t u d e i s ex tended . A n a l y s e s of Burton R. C l a r k ' s concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y and the p r o c e s s of d e f i n i n g , l a b e l i n g , and d e v e l o p i n g schema for measuring concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y p r o v i d e d o p p o r t u n i t y for p e r s o n a l growth. U n i v e r s i t y c o l l e a g u e s are acknowledged for time spent in l i s t e n i n g to my development of frameworks, t y p o l o g i e s , measurement schema, and in r e a s o n i n g w i t h me. Graduate work at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia has been a time for s t u d y , r e s e a r c h , p r a c t i c e , d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n , and p a t i e n c e . Numerous Graduate Academic , T e a c h i n g and Research A s s i s t a n t s h i p s at the U n i v e r s i t y have p r o v i d e d exposure to program p l a n n i n g , c u r i c u l u m development , i n s t r u c t i o n , r e s e a r c h , p r i s o n e d u c a t i o n , i n s t i t u t i o n a l a n a l y s i s and p l a n n i n g , and d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n . These invo lvements have been p e r s o n a l l y rewarding and were h o p e f u l l y b e n e f i c i a l to both the U n i v e r s i t y and to those wi th whom I worked. Working wi th D r . D a n i e l R. B i r c h , former Dean of the F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n , and W i l l i a m L . T e t l o w , former D i r e c t o r of I n s t i t u t i o n a l A n a l y s i s and P l a n n i n g , i n the g e n e r a t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s e a r c h data needed by the F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n d u r i n g a p e r i o d of d e c r e a s i n g P r o v i n c i a l f u n d i n g and re trenchment , was a r a r e o p p o r t u n i t y . A Graduate T e a c h i n g A s s i s t a n t s h i p in the Department of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n p r o v i d e d the o p p o r t u n i t y to i n s t r u c t f e l l o w s tudents and f a c u l t y members c o n c e r n i n g a v a i l a b l e computing and r e s e a r c h f a c i l i t i e s . Three o p p o r t u n i t i e s were p r o v i d e d for the implementat ion of a s e l f - a u t h o r e d c u r r i c u l u m p l a n des igned to p r e p a r e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s tudents to use the u n i v e r s i t y computing f a c i l i t i e s f or manuscr ip t p r o d u c t i o n and s t a t i s t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s . G r a t i t u d e i s expressed to D r . D a n i e l J . Brown, A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r , E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , f or the o p p o r t u n i t y to oversee computer l a b s for h i s v a r i o u s c o u r s e s and to p a r t i c i p a t e w i t h him in development of a schema for e l e c t o r a t e d e s i g n a t e d fund ing of secondary e d u c a t i o n . P r o f e s s o r Brown i s a gent leman. To P r o f e s s o r s John Bunt ing C o l l i n s , Gary D i c k e n s o n , Pe ter S. Cookson, R. Rogow, 0. A . O l d r i d g e , K j e l l Rubenson, W i l l i a m S. G r i f f i t h , Thomas S o r k , and Roger B o s h i e r , a p p r e c i a t i o n i s expressed for o p p o r t u n i t i e s extended in r e s e a r c h , i n s t r u c t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n , p u b l i s h i n g , program p l a n n i n g , d i s t a n c e e d u c a t i o n , p r i s o n e d u c a t i o n , c u r r i c u l u m development and e d i t i n g . The P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of J u s t i c e , the J u s t i c e I n s t i t u t e , Court S e r v i c e s Academy, and the Land T i t l e S c h o o l , r e c e i v e thanks for o p p o r t u n i t i e s to d e s i g n and i n s t r u c t v a r i o u s workshops. X Byron Burnham, Jose A n t o n i o M o l i n a , Carmel Chambers, D a v i d L i t t l e , Gary Kenyon, J e a n n i e Young, Norah W o r s f o l d , Dav id Guy, Margaret M a c h i l a , Diane Reed, and B. J . McGreggor are a p p r e c i a t e d for t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p and s u p p o r t . P r o f e s s o r Sherman G . Brough and h i s f a m i l y are r e c o g n i z e d for t h e i r h o s p i t a l i t y and encouragement d u r i n g the f i n a l d a y s . To my p a r e n t s , Monroe Asa and Golda C r i d d l e P a r r i s h , I express my love for t h e i r i n f l u e n c e through example and i n s t r u c t i o n . The ba lance i n the l i v e s of my wi fe and seven c h i l d r e n has enabled me to pursue academic i n t e r e s t s . For t h e i r s t a b i l i t y , growth , and s u p p o r t , I am t h a n k f u l . The m u l t i - c u l t u r a l i s m i n Vancouver , and e s p e c i a l l y i n our U n i v e r s i t y community, has been an e n r i c h i n g , sought a f t e r , and a p p r e c i a t e d e x p e r i e n c e . We leave many f r i e n d s . I came to Vancouver wi th a l o v e l y wife and four u n u s u a l l y f i n e c h i l d r e n - - M a r n i e , M y l e s , M i c h e l l e , and M i t c h e l l . We go home wi th three Canadians—McKay , M e l i s s a and Morgan. Born i n Vancouver and now p o s s e s s i n g d u a l c i t i z e n s h i p , my three youngest c h i l d r e n l eave wi th t h e i r Canadian b i r t h r i g h t . A s a l u t e to Canada! 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Authors i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n f r e q u e n t l y use the term m a r g i n a l i t y , c i t i n g Burton R. C l a r k and h i s p o p u l a r w r i t i n g s which r e p o r t e d h i s seminal d o c t o r a l study of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n in C a l i f o r n i a . 1 C l a r k used the term to denote the s t a t u s of v a r i o u s a d u l t s c h o o l s w i t h i n the Los Ange le s and C a l i f o r n i a s c h o o l systems and f e l t the concept of m a r g i n a l i t y might a l s o have a p p l i c a t i o n w i t h i n o ther sys tems. He wrote c o n v i n c i n g l y enough to persuade o t h e r s of the c o n c e p t u a l v a l u e of m a r g i n a l i t y i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . A l though o ther a u t h o r s a p p a r e n t l y d e a l w i th q u i t e d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t s , they use the term m a r g i n a l i t y as a common l a b e l . These concepts v a r y and are a p p l i e d ' i n a v a r i e t y of c o n t e x t s . F r e q u e n t l y they are i n c o n f l i c t w i th one ano ther— s t i l l they are termed m a r g i n a l i t y , and a t t r i b u t e d to a common s o u r c e . ' B u r t o n R. C l a r k , "Adul t E d u c a t i o n in T r a n s i t i o n : A Study of I n s t i t u t i o n a l I n s e c u r i t y " ( P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a - L o s A n g e l e s , 1954) ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as C l a r k , D i s s e r t a t i o n ) . 2 What are the p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s for v a r i a n c e in concept s termed m a r g i n a l i t y and for the a t t r i b u t i o n to C l a r k of such d i v e r s e concept s? People may c a r e l e s s l y read C l a r k and thus misapp ly the term m a r g i n a l i t y . A u t h o r s may c i t e C l a r k , but a s s i g n to the term m a r g i n a l i t y , meanings which may be more c o m p a t i b l e to t h e i r purposes ; they may f a i l to s p e c i f y d i f f e r e n c e s between C l a r k ' s usages of the term and t h e i r own c o n t e x t u a l usages . Another p o s s i b i l i t y might be tha t C l a r k ' s w r i t i n g may not have been p r e c i s e , thus y i e l d i n g m u l t i p l e , and p o s s i b l y even o p e r a t i o n a l l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y , d e f i n i t i o n s of the c o n c e p t . In such c a s e , those who use v a r i o u s concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y would c i t e C l a r k and would f i n d c o n t e x t u a l i n s t a n c e s of C l a r k ' s usages which are c o m p a t i b l e w i th t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s . S ince the p o s s i b i l i t i e s are not m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e , one might f i n d examples w i t h i n each c a t e g o r y . R e g a r d l e s s of c a u s e , the term m a r g i n a l i t y has been used in the f i e l d of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n w i t h grea t l a t i t u d e . T h i s has l e d to i m p r e c i s i o n and a l a c k of u n i f o r m i t y of u n d e r s t a n d i n g both of the concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y and of t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s . The term m a r g i n a l i t y has been used in the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e , i n graduate s c h o o l s , and at p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e s , by a v a r i e t y of i n d i v i d u a l s and in a number of ways. Had the term r e c e i v e d l e s s usage , . i t would be l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t to s t u d y , but i t i s p r e c i s e l y because of the p o p u l a r i t y of the term tha t i t i s important to deve lop p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n s , thus e n a b l i n g c o n s i s t e n t use of the term i n the f i e l d of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . Why, a f t e r y e a r s of p o p u l a r use of 3 the term might i t now be important to i d e n t i f y the concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y a p p l i e d i n the f i e l d and endeavor to d e f i n e them? I t i s apparent through the frequent use of the term in the l i t e r a t u r e that a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r a c t i t i o n e r s , e d u c a t i o n i s t s and a u t h o r s a l i k e , f i n d u t i l i t y in i t s use . Darkenwald and Merr iam suggest that the " c r e a t i o n of a body of knowledge in a d u l t e d u c a t i o n through s y s t e m a t i c and d i s c i p l i n e d i n q u i r y has lagged behind the development of graduate t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s . " 2 However, f o o t n o t i n g C l a r k ' s monograph p u b l i s h e d in 1968 at B e r k e l e y by the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , which p u b l i c a t i o n ensured from h i s p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d d o c t o r a l s t u d y , they c i t e d "Adul t E d u c a t i o n in T r a n s i t i o n , a s o p h i s t i c a t e d study of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l dynamics of p u b l i c s c h o o l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a g e n c i e s by the s o c i o l o g i s t Burton C l a r k , " 3 as one of the e x c e p t i o n s : C l a r k ' s a n a l y s i s of the causes and e f f e c t s of i n s t i t u t i o n a l m a r g i n a l i t y i s s t i l l of v a l u e in u n d e r s t a n d i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e s and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y i n s c h o o l and c o l l e g e s e t t i n g s . 4 F u r t h e r m o r e , Darkenwald and M e r r i a m 5 r e f e r to C l a r k ' s study as one of two examples of how r e s e a r c h focused on a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , even though conducted by i n d i v i d u a l s o u t s i d e of the f i e l d of 2 G o r d o n G . Darkenwald and Sharan B . M a r r i a m , A d u l t E d u c a t i o n : F o u n d a t i o n s of P r a c t i c e (New Y o r k : Harper & Row, 1982), p . 25. 3 I b i d . , P . 26. " I b i d . , P . 26. 5 I b i d . , P- 231 . 4 a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , a d d s t o t h e f i e l d ' s k n o w l e d g e b a s e . T h e y r e p e a t e d l y a c k n o w l e d g e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e C l a r k s t u d y , B r u n n e r , W i l d e r , K i r c h n e r , and N e w b e r r y n o t e d t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h C l a r k ' s 1956 m o n o g r a p h , 6 g a v e a t t e n t i o n t o a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n c e r n s a n d t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e s e h a d a p p l i c a t i o n " t o o t h e r s c h o o l s y s t e m s a n d some o t h e r a g e n c i e s . " 7 T h e y l a b e l e d C h a p t e r IV o f h i s M o n o g r a p h , d e a l i n g w i t h i m p l i c a t i o n s a n d p o l i c y , a s "a most v a l u a b l e , n o t t o s a y b r i l l i a n t , c o n t r i b u t i o n o f v a l u e b e y o n d t h e a r e a o f p u b l i c s c h o o l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . " 8 A l t h o u g h C l a r k ' s M o n o g r a p h h a s been i n c l u d e d i n d i f f e r e n t s e r i e s , h a s been i n d i v i d u a l l y p r i n t e d a s w e l l a s b e i n g p u b l i s h e d a s a b o o k , i t s c o n t e n t a n d p a g e n u m b e r i n g a p p e a r t o h a v e r e m a i n e d c o n s t a n t w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f c h a n g i n g i n t r o d u c t i o n s a n d t a b l e s o f c o n t e n t s . T h i s 1956 d o c u m e n t w i l l , h e r e a f t e r , be r e f e r r e d t o a s the M o n o g r a p h . B e c a u s e o f t h e f r e q u e n t u s e o f t h e t e r m m a r g i n a l i t y , a n d i t s a p p a r e n t i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e f i e l d o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , i t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t t h e c o n c e p t s o f m a r g i n a l i t y w h i c h a r e l a b e l e d 6 C l a r k , A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n T r a n s i t i o n : A S t u d y o f I n s t i t u t i o n a l I n s e c u r i t y . U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P u b l i c a t i o n s i n S o c i o l o g y a n d S o c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n s ( B e r k e l e y a n d L o s A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1956; r e p r i n t e d . w i t h T a b l e o f C o n t e n t s ( 3 r d P r i n t i n g ) , B e r k e l e y a n d L o s A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1968; L o n d o n , E n g l a n d : C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 8 ) ; r e p r i n t , New Y o r k : A r n o P r e s s , 1980 . ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d a s t h e M o n o g r a p h . ' E d w a r d de S c h w e i n i t z B r u n n e r , D a v i d S . W i l d e r , C o r i n n e K i r c h n e r a n d J o h n S . N e w b e r r y , J r . , An O v e r v i e w o f A d u l t E d u c a t i o n R e s e a r c h ( C h i c a g o : A d u l t E d u a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n o f t h e U . S . A . , 1 9 5 9 ) , p . 120 . I b i d . , p . 122 . 5 w i t h t h i s common term be d e f i n e d so as to a l l o w i n d i v i d u a l s to v i s u a l i z e the s t a t e s be ing denoted by the concept s and to enable them to a r r i v e at a common u n d e r s t a n d i n g of s t a t u s for the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n e lement . A un i form d e f i n i t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l i f the concept i s to become a u s e f u l r e s e a r c h t o o l . Once a concept i s w e l l d e f i n e d - - c l e a r , i d e n t i f y i n g tha t denoted by the concept and e x c l u d i n g that which i s not a p a r t t h e r e o f - - i t becomes p o s s i b l e to r e f i n e companion and " s u b s i d i a r y c o n c e p t s " 9 necessary for model and t h e o r y b u i l d i n g . The p r e c i s e d e f i n i n g of terms i s a necessary f i r s t s tep in theory b u i l d i n g w i t h i n a f i e l d of study and for i n t e g r a t i n g theory and models a c r o s s b o u n d a r i e s of d i s c i p l i n e s and f i e l d s of s t u d y . A n y t h i n g l e s s than c l e a r l y d e f i n e d terms and c o n c e p t s : would i n t e r f e r e w i th the c o n s t r u c t i o n of adequate theory and the development of s y s t e m a t i c r e s e a r c h through which the body of knowledge accumulates l o g i c a l l y w i t h i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , the d i s c o v e r y of v a l i d s o l u t i o n s to p r a c t i c a l problems encountered i n the f i e l d would be r e t a r d e d . 1 0 Because of the p o p u l a r usages of the term m a r g i n a l i t y i t tends to be one of the fundamental terms around which new concept s are f o r m u l a t e d . The concept of m a r g i n a l i t y i s i n t e g r a l to s e v e r a l concept s deve loped by C l a r k . He d e s c r i b e d h i s concept of m a r g i n a l i t y as one of t h r e e h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n s 9 C o o l i e V e r n e r , " D e f i n i t i o n of T e r m s , " in A d u l t E d u c a t i o n : O u t l i n e s of an Emerging F i e l d of U n i v e r s i t y S tudy , e d . Gale J e n s e n , A . A . L i v e r i g h t , and W i l b u r H a l l e n b e c k (Washington, D . C : A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n of the U . S . A . , 1964), p . 33. 1 0 I b i d . , p . 27. 6 which " l a r g e l y e x i s t as ' g i v e n s ' f or the d e c i s i o n s made in the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n departments of s choo l s y s t e m s , " 1 1 the o ther two be ing "the p r e s s u r e s of the e n r o l l m e n t economy, and the p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t of the s t a t e d ends of the p r o g r a m . " 1 2 Concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y need to be w e l l d e f i n e d and must be o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d for maximum u t i l i t y . C l a r k d e f i n e d h i s concept of " o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m a r g i n a l i t y " 1 3 to some extent and announced h i s i n t e n t i o n to i d e n t i f y not on ly i n d i c e s , 1 4 s o u r c e s , 1 5 b a s e s , 1 6 and a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r to m a r g i n a l i t y , 1 7 but a l s o some symptoms 1 8 and e v i d e n c e s 1 9 f or d e t e r m i n a t i o n of whether an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n subun i t i s in a s t a t e of m a r g i n a l i t y . C o n f u s i o n c o n c e r n i n g m u l t i p l e concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y concerns t h e i r l e v e l of a p p l i c a t i o n w i t h i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s or w i t h i n s o c i e t y . For purposes of c l a r i t y in d e f i n i n g concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y , i t i s e s s e n t i a l to d i s t i n g u i s h between a d u l t e d u c a t i o n u n i t s and s u b u n i t s . An a d u l t e d u c a t i o n u n i t i s 1 1 C l a r k , 1 2 I b i d . , 1 3 I b i d . , 1 " I b i d . , 1 5 I b i d . 1 6 I b i d . , 1 7 I b i d . , 1 8 I b i d . , 1 9 I b i d . D i s s e r t a t i o n , p . 24. p . 36. p . 26. p . 25. p . 26. p . 27. p . 26. 7 d e f i n e d a s an i n d e p e n d e n t a n d f o r m a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e l e m e n t w h e r e i n t h e p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e a n d f u n c t i o n i s t h e e d u c a t i o n o f a d u l t s . An a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t i s n o t a s u b d i v i s i o n o f an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n u n i t b u t , r a t h e r an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n e l e m e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y s u b o r d i n a t e t o a p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o r l a r g e r o r more p o w e r f u l o r g a n i z a t i o n whose p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e a n d f u n c t i o n i s n o t a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . The t e r m u n i t w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f i t s u s e i n d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n s o r a c c o m p a n i e d by q u a l i f y i n g s t a t e m e n t s , w i l l be r e s t r i c t e d t o t h e d e s i g n a t i o n o f l e g a l o r f o r m a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d e l e m e n t s . S u b u n i t s w i l l be u s e d t o r e f e r t o s u b o r d i n a t e p a r t s o f l e g a l l y o r f o r m a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d e l e m e n t s . R e p e a t e d r e f e r e n c e s h a v e b e e n made t o m u l t i p l e c o n c e p t s o f m a r g i n a l i t y w h i c h a r e m o s t f r e q u e n t l y d e n o t e d by C l a r k a n d o t h e r s t h r o u g h u s e o f t h e s i n g l e t e r m , m a r g i n a l i t y . W h i l e i t i s i m p o r t a n t a t t h i s p o i n t t o i d e n t i f y e x a m p l e s o f d i f f e r e n t u s e s o f m a r g i n a l i t y by C l a r k , i n - d e p t h a n a l y s i s a n d c r i t i q u e o f e a c h w o u l d n o t be a p p r o p r i a t e . C l a r k ' s u s e s o f t h e t e r m m a r g i n a l i t y w i l l be i n d i v i d u a l l y q u o t e d i n c o n t e x t i n C h a p t e r I I a n d s u b s e q u e n t l y a n a l y z e d a n d c r i t i q u e d . C l a r k u s e d t h e t e r m t o d e n o t e t h e s t a t u s o f t h e A d u l t E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h ( w h i c h may be t h o u g h t o f a s a n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t ) among o t h e r s u b u n i t s w i t h i n a p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ( t h e L o s A n g e l e s S c h o o l S y s t e m ) w h e r e i n t h e p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e a n d f u n c t i o n i s n o t t h e e d u c a t i o n o f a d u l t s . 2 0 C l a r k a l s o 2 0 I b i d . , p p . 3 -4 . 8 a p p l i e d t h i s concept to the Bureau of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n of the C a l i f o r n i a Department of E d u c a t i o n , 2 1 and to the C a l i f o r n i a A s s o c i a t i o n of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t o r s . 2 2 V a r i a t i o n s of the concept of m a r g i n a l i t y were used by C l a r k to d e s c r i b e the s t a t u s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t s , c o n s i d e r e d c o l l e c t i v e l y , both w i t h i n immediate p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and w i t h i n l a r g e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l systems which emcompass such immediate p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . C l a r k a l s o c o n s i d e r e d the s t a t u s of v a r i o u s groupings of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t s c o l l e c t i v e l y . Groupings were by o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t t y p e s , such as c l a s s e s and s c h o o l s . Among s u b u n i t s whose s t a t u s was c o n s i d e r e d on such a c o l l e c t i v e b a s i s by C l a r k i n h i s D i s s e r t a t i o n were a d u l t e d u c a t i o n : a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a g e n c i e s , 2 3 c l a s s e s , 2 4 d e p a r t m e n t s , 2 5 e n t e r p r i s e s , 2 6 s c h o o l s , 2 7 s c h o o l p r o g r a m s , 2 8 and p r o g r a m s . 2 9 He appears to s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f y the p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and comparat ive s u b u n i t s i n f r e q u e n t l y in h i s a p p l i c a t i o n of concepts 2 1 I b i d . , p . 29. 2 2 I b i d . 2 3 I b i d , p . 30. 2 4 I b i d , p . 26. 2 5 I b i d , pp . 14, 24, 27. 2 6 I b i d . , p . 172. 2 7 I b i d . , pp . 70, 172, 203. 2 8 I b i d . , p . 70. 2 9 I b i d . , pp . 14, 24-30, 35-6 , 70, 172. 9 of m a r g i n a l i t y . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l examine the frequency and c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h which C l a r k a p p l i e d h i s concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y to v a r i o u s a d u l t e d u c a t i o n e l ements , and i d e n t i f i e d comparat ive e lements and p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and c o n t e x t s . Q u i t e d i s t i n c t from C l a r k ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m a r g i n a l i t y concept by which the s t a t u s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t s i s d e s c r i b e d , C l a r k used a d d i t i o n a l concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y in h.is D i s s e r t a t i o n to denote the s t a t u s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , 3 0 f u n c t i o n s , 3 1 a c t i v i t i e s , 3 2 and a subun i t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n . 3 3 C l a r k appears to merge concept s of s t a t u s and acceptance as they r e l a t e to h i s concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y . C l a r k ' s use of these two t erms , acceptance and s t a t u s , w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d , d i s c u s s e d , a n a l y z e d , and c r i t i q u e d as he uses them to d e f i n e v a r i o u s c o n c e p t s of m a r g i n a l i t y . The term m a r g i n a l i t y has been used in the l i t e r a t u r e to denote concept s which are d i s t i n c t from C l a r k ' s i n i t i a l c o n c e p t . These concept s have been r e f e r r e d to as "concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y " i n t h i s t h e s i s because of s i m i l a r i t i e s w i t h C l a r k ' s concept of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m a r g i n a l i t y . These s i m i l a r i t i e s occur i n d e f i n i t i o n and i n c o n t e x t u a l a p p l i c a t i o n . Few g u i d e l i n e s for a p p l i c a t i o n of C l a r k ' s i n i t i a l concept of m a r g i n a l i t y were g iven 3 0 I b i d , p . 30. 3 1 I b i d , p . 172. 3 2 I b i d , p p . 26-7 , 7C. 3 3 I b i d , p . 36. 1 0 o u t s i d e the boundar i e s of h i s case s t u d y . Other a u t h o r s u s i n g the term m a r g i n a l i t y , and c i t i n g C l a r k , seem unconcerned by the ambigu i ty tha t r e s u l t s from hav ing a m u l t i p l i c i t y of concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y . D i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y have been c r e a t e d by these a u t h o r s in t h e i r a t tempts to a p p l y C l a r k ' s concept to n o v e l s i t u a t i o n s . The review of l i t e r a t u r e i n the f i e l d of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s neces sary for i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of these d i s t i n c t concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y . S ince adequate d e f i n i t i o n s for the s e v e r a l concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y appear to be n o n - e x i s t e n t , d e f i n i t i o n s w i l l be p r o p o s e d . Once concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y are d e f i n e d i t may be p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y a p p l i c a t i o n s of some concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y . Such an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p r o c e s s i s c o n s i d e r e d to be an i n i t i a l t e s t of v a l i d i t y . O u t s i d e of C l a r k ' s i n i t i a l w r i t i n g s , which w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d i n Chapter I I , the term appears to have been a p p l i e d by C l a r k and a u t h o r s w i t h i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n w i t h minimal a d d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n a l development . None of the concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y appears to have been w e l l d e f i n e d . No r e p o r t s of measurement of any s t a t e of m a r g i n a l i t y have appeared i n the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . l i t e r a t u r e . V i r t u a l l y no g u i d e l i n e s are a v a i l a b l e f o r a s s e s s i n g m a r g i n a l i t y or i t s e f f e c t s . H i s uses of the term m a r g i n a l i t y in both h i s D i s s e r t a t i o n and Monograph w i l l be quoted in c o n t e x t , a n a l y z e d and c r i t i q u e d i n an e f f o r t to unders tand h i s use of them. T h i s t h e s i s was commenced under the assumption that 11 concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y l a c k e d d e f i n i t i o n and development in the f i e l d of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . There appeared to be i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n a p p l i c a t i o n of concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y . The importance of d e v e l o p i n g p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n s of c o n c e p t s , such as those for m a r g i n a l i t y , was f u r t h e r assumed. To c l a r i f y C l a r k ' s development of h i s concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y , each w i l l be t r a c e d through q u o t a t i o n of each of h i s uses of the term m a r g i n a l i t y i n t h e i r c o n t e x t s from both h i s Di s s e r t a t ion and Monograph, through c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of uses and t h e i r c o n t e x t s , and through a n a l y s i s and c r i t i q u e , t h e r e o f . If the f i e l d of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s to enjoy c o n c e p t u a l c l a r i t y and' success in theory and model b u i l d i n g , which in t u r n may l e a d to the i n t e g r a t i o n of theory and p r a c t i c e , the b u i l d i n g b l o c k s must be p r e c i s e . Terms and concepts must be s p e c i f i c i f common u n d e r s t a n d i n g in the f i e l d i s to e x i s t . Terms and concept s need d e f i n i t i o n so as to a l l o w i n d i v i d u a l s to v i s u a l i z e commonly denoted phenomena or meaning and thus enable mutual u n d e r s t a n d i n g of that which i s be ing s t u d i e d . For maximum u t i l i t y , terms and concept s sh ou ld be d e f i n e d through the use of c o n v e n t i o n a l language , a v o i d i n g the jargon of the f i e l d which might tend to make the terms s u b j e c t or f i e l d s p e c i f i c , r a t h e r than a l l o w i n g for more u n i v e r s a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g and t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i n t e g r a t i o n and use a c r o s s f i e l d s of s t u d y . T u r n e r , a d d r e s s i n g the s t r u c t u r e of s o c i o l o g i c a l t h e o r y , i n s i s t s : a body of theory r e s t s on the premise tha t s c i e n t i s t s w i l l do t h e i r best to d e f i n e concept s unambiguous ly . Not to do so , or to g i v e up because the task i s d i f f i c u l t , i s to i 'nvi te c o n c e p t u a l chaos and thereby to p r e c l u d e the a c c u m u l a t i o n of t h e o r e t i c a l 1 2 knowledge . 3 " C l a r k ' s concept of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m a r g i n a l i t y c o i n c i d e s w i th s e v e r a l d e f i n i t i o n s for m a r g i n a l i t y found i n a s t a n d a r d d i c t i o n a r y . C l a r k ' s concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y w i l l be compared to the more p o p u l a r s t a n d a r d i z e d d e f i n i t i o n s of m a r g i n a l i t y to determine the degree of agreement. An i n d i v i d u a l o u t s i d e of the f i e l d of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n can g a i n a b a s i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g of C l a r k ' s concept of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m a r g i n a l i t y wi thout the need of j argon s p e c i f i c to the f i e l d of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l l i n k C l a r k ' s i n i t i a l concept of m a r g i n a l i t y to d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n s . A second c h a l l e n g e made by T u r n e r i s tha t of i n c r e a s i n g a c o n c e p t ' s u s e f u l n e s s by making i t r e l e v a n t to o b s e r v a b l e s i t u a t i o n s and o c c u r r e n c e s : A f t e r a l l , the u t i l i t y of an a b s t r a c t concept can o n l y be demonstrated when the concept i s brought to bear on some s p e c i f i c e m p i r i c a l problem encountered by i n v e s t i g a t o r s : o t h e r w i s e , concept s remain detached from the very proces se s they are supposed to h e l p i n v e s t i g a t o r s u n d e r s t a n d . 3 5 Thus , Turner m a i n t a i n s , concept s when a b s t r a c t sh ou ld be accompanied by " o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s , " 3 6 which are s e r i e s or s e t s of p r o c e d u r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s t e l l i n g i n d i v i d u a l s how to i d e n t i f y phenomena in the r e a l w o r l d . One o b j e c t i v e of t h i s 3 , J . T u r n e r , The S t r u c t u r e of Soc i o l o g i c a l T h e o r y , r e v i s e d e d . (Homewood, 1 1 1 . : The Dorsey P r e s s , 1978). 3 5 I b i d . , p . 4. 3 6 I b i d . 1 3 t h e s i s i s to a s c e r t a i n the degree to which concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y have been d e f i n e d , i n s t r u m e n t e d , and a p p l i e d in a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . In summary, an e f f o r t w i l l be made to i d e n t i f y d i s t i n c t concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y used in a d u l t e d u c a t i o n by C l a r k and by other a u t h o r s . U n t i l the apparent c o n f u s i o n c o n c e r n i n g the meanings of m a r g i n a l i t y i s r e s o l v e d , i t w i l l be i m p o s s i b l e to i d e n t i f y and measure the e f f e c t s of the d i f f e r e n t types of m a r g i n a l i t y . U n t i l a s i n g l e concept i s i d e n t i f i e d which can be l a b e l e d wi th the term m a r g i n a l i t y and i n d i v i d u a l s i n the f i e l d of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n r e s t r i c t t h e i r usage of the term to the concept so denoted , or u n t i l the term m a r g i n a l i t y i s m o d i f i e d by accompanying d e s c r i p t o r s , e n a b l i n g i n d i v i d u a l s to d i f f e r e n t i a t e among concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y , i t w i l l c o n t i n u e to be i m p o s s i b l e to determine whether users of the term are t a l k i n g about the same t h i n g . The purposes of t h i s t h e s i s are to review the o r i g i n of the term m a r g i n a l i t y ; p r e s e n t d e f i n i t i o n s p e r c e i v e d as be ing u s e f u l i n d e t e r m i n i n g the meaning of the term w i t h i n the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e ; i d e n t i f y , a n a l y z e , and c r i t i q u e each use of the term c o n t a i n e d i n what are i d e n t i f i e d as the p r i m a r y documents p e r t a i n i n g to i t s use i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ; d i s c u s s the t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s i s t e n c y of C l a r k ' s use of the term; and d e f i n e these concepts p r e c i s e l y . T h i s e x e r c i s e i s an h i s t o r i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the concept s which are c u r r e n t l y termed, m a r g i n a l i t y . I t w i l l be a c c o m p l i s h e d through a l i t e r a t u r e 1 4 r e v i e w , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the usages of the term m a r g i n a l i t y in the l i t e r a t u r e , and development of d e f i n i t i o n s for each d i s t i n c t concept of m a r g i n a l i t y . Methodology S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h methodolog ies are employed in t h i s r e s e a r c h . P r i m a r i l y a concept a n a l y s i s , t h i s t h e s i s beg ins wi th an examinat ion of The M a r g i n a l i t y of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 3 7 a seventeen page essay p u b l i s h e d two y e a r s a f t e r the c o m p l e t i o n of C l a r k ' s Di s s e r t a t i o n . Reviewed next i s the w i d e l y c i r c u l a t e d 220-page monograph, p u b l i s h e d under the same t i t l e as C l a r k ' s D i s s e r t a t i o n , based on C l a r k ' s " d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n completed i n ' the Department of A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s , " 3 8 and r e f e r r e d to e lsewhere i n t h i s t h e s i s as the Monograph. S e v e r a l r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s were f o r m u l a t e d for purposes of g u i d i n g the l i t e r a t u r e s e a r c h . Was C l a r k f i r s t to use the term m a r g i n a l i t y to denote a concept p e r t i n e n t to the f i e l d of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ? Was C l a r k ' s concept of m a r g i n a l i t y a p p l i e d in a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s i m i l a r to the ways i t i s a p p l i e d o u t s i d e of the f i e l d ? D i d C l a r k a p p l y h i s concept of m a r g i n a l i t y c o n s i s t e n t l y in a d u l t e d u c a t i o n ? How e x t e n s i v e l y was C l a r k r e f e r e n c e d in a d u l t e d u c a t i o n in a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h h i s use of the term m a r g i n a l i t y . To what extent do C l a r k ' s c o n c e p t ( s ) of 3 7 C l a r k , The M a r g i n a l i t y of A d u l t Educat i o n , Notes and E s s a y s , on E d u c a t i o n for A d u l t s , number 20 ("Chicago: Center for the Study of L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n for A d u l t s , 1958), pp . 1-17. 3 8 I d e m , Monograph, Acknowledgments. 15 m a r g i n a l i t y l e n d themselves to a p p l i c a t i o n and measurement w i t h i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . What are the documents which are p e r t i n e n t to the above q u e s t i o n s and for s e t t i n g the scope of t h i s t h e s i s ? Acknowledging that some of the p r e c e d i n g q u e s t i o n s may be beyond the scope of t h i s t h e s i s , a more thorough s e a r c h and review of the l i t e r a t u r e was c o n s i d e r e d to be the next s t e p . In many r e g a r d s , the l i t e r a t u r e s e a r c h was o p p o r t u n i s t i c , f o c u s i n g f i r s t on that l i t e r a t u r e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e in t h i s a u t h o r ' s p e r s o n a l l i b r a r y , at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and on that a s s e s s i b l e through computer searches a v a i l a b l e at the U n i v e r s i t y . P o r t i o n s of the l i t e r a t u r e s e a r c h were s y s t e m a t i c in that the major p e r i o d i c a l s of p r o f e s s i o n a l s s o c i a t i o n s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s were searched a r t i c l e by a r t i c l e for purposes of i d e n t i f y i n g uses of the term and concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y , r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s , and for r e f e r e n c e to Burton R. C l a r k , whose w r i t i n g s were f e l t to be pr imary to a n a l y s i s of the term and concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y in a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . Use of the term and concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y by a u t h o r s i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , o ther than C l a r k , were reviewed to determine the degree of t h e i r c o n f o r m i t y to C l a r k ' s usages and for purposes of t e s t i n g C l a r k ' s concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y o u t s i d e of the c o n t e x t of h i s s t u d y . T h i s e x e r c i s e was p e r c e i v e d u s e f u l in i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of v a r i o u s concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y and i n t h e i r r e f inement. Searches werce made of course s y l l a b i or o f f e r i n g s w i t h i n 16 the Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t and Higher E d u c a t i o n at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; l i s t i n g s under Burton R. C l a r k c o n t a i n e d in the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia L i b r a r y and the C o o l i e Verner A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Reading Room; both E d u c a t i o n a l Resources I n f o r m a t i o n Center (ERIC) computer data banks [ C u r r e n t Index to J o u r n a l s in E d u c a t i o n ( C U E ) and Resources i n E d u c a t i o n ( R I E ) ] ; p e r i o d i c a l s of the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n of the U n i t e d S t a t e s of Amer ica (AEA-USA) b e g i n n i n g wi th the 1953 i s s u e s , the year in which C l a r k completed h i s d o c t o r a l r e s e a r c h data c o l l e c t i o n and a year p r i o r to acceptance of h i s D i s s e r t a t i o n , and c o n t i n u i n g u n t i l they were d i s c o n t i n u e d in 1982 ( A d u l t E d u c a t i o n : A J o u r n a l of Research and Theory and L i f e l o n g L e a r n i n g : The A d u l t Y e a r s ) ; p e r i o d i c a l s of the American A s s o c i a t i o n for A d u l t and C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n (AAACE) from t h e i r i n c e p t i o n i n 1982 through the J u l y 1985 i s s u e (Adul t E d u c a t i o n Q u a r t e r l y : A J o u r n a l of Research and Theory and L i f e l o n g L e a r n i n g : An Omnibus of P r a c t i c e . and R e s e a r c h ) ; and the 1960, 1970, and 1980 e d i t i o n s of the Handbook of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . A d d i t i o n a l l y , more than one hundred books c o n c e r n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l deve lopment , change, p s y c h o l o g y , p l a n n i n g , c o n c e p t s , t h e o r i e s , b e h a v i o r , p e r s o n a l p s y c h o l o g y , p o l i c y , and des ign which were s h e l v e d at the C o o l i e Verner Memoria l Reading Room i n the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Research Center at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (UBC), the UBC g e n e r a l s t a c k s and t h i s a u t h o r ' s p e r s o n a l l i b r a r y were scanned for examples of a p p l i e d concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y or use of the term i n o ther d i s c i p l i n e s . In the course of graduate s t u d y , p u b l i c a t i o n s of 1 7 d e p a r t m e n t a l f a c u l t y members and s tudent papers were reviewed for the purpose of i d e n t i f y i n g concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y . F e l l o w graduate s tudent s brought a d d i t i o n a l r e f e r e n c e s to t h i s a u t h o r ' s a t t e n t i o n . A l l of C l a r k ' s w r i t i n g s l i s t e d in the B i b l i o g r a p h y , wherein the term or concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y are used , o ther than h i s D i s s e r t a t i o n , were r e a d . I n i t i a l l y , the focus of the examinat ion was on r e l a t i o n s h i p s and whether the term m a r g i n a l i t y was used c o n s i s t e n t l y . Once a concept of m a r g i n a l i t y had been i d e n t i f i e d , the work was scanned for f u r t h e r use of concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y . Whether the a c t u a l t erm, m a r g i n a l i t y , was used w i t h i n these c o n t e x t s or n o t , i f a concept of m a r g i n a l i t y was used as e v i d e n c e d by s u f f i c i e n t c o n t e x t u a l i n d i c a t o r s , then the passage was i n i t i a l l y r e v i e w e d . Re ferences from each newly i d e n t i f i e d a r t i c l e wherein the term m a r g i n a l i t y had been used , were then examined for a d d i t i o n a l r e l e v a n t works . Works or passages were reviewed i f any of C l a r k ' s w r i t i n g s were r e f e r e n c e d or i n c l u d e d in the b i b l i o g r a p h y , or i f key words were l i s t e d in s u b j e c t i n d i c e s , i n c l u d i n g m a r g i n a l i t y , m a r g i n a l , m a r g i n , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , a c c e p t a n c e , c e n t r a l , r e t renchment , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l growth c y c l e s , s tage development , or o ther terms which appear to be r e l a t e d to s t a t u s . L e a d i n g to the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of d e f i n i t i o n s , d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n s w i l l be a n a l y z e d for the terms m a r g i n , m a r g i n a l , and m a r g i n a l i t y . The d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n s w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d 18 a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r congruence or a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s for each of the i d e n t i f i e d concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y . T h i s p r o c e s s i s r e q u i r e d to ground the newly d e f i n e d concept s in common E n g l i s h t erms . Two major " s t r a t e g i e s " used by l i n g u i s t s and l o g i c i a n s , a b s t r a c t i o n and homonymy, 3 9 have been c o n s i d e r e d i n an e f f o r t to determine whether the concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y used i n the f i e l d of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n by C l a r k and o t h e r s are in f a c t one very g e n e r a l and a b s t r a c t concept of m a r g i n a l i t y - - t h e a b s t r a c t i o n view; or whether d i f f e r e n t and independent concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y e x i s t - - t h e homonymy v iew. A s t r o n g homonymy view would i n s i s t t h a t the v a r i o u s concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y used i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a r e ' d i s t i n c t and independent w i t h no s i m i l a r i t i e s o ther than the term which i s used to d e s i g n a t e them. Because a purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s to l a y the f o u n d a t i o n for o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y and because i t i s f e l t that d i s t i n c t d e f i n i t i o n s are neces sary to t h i s end, a weak homonymy view i s f e l t to be a p p r o p r i a t e for t h i s t h e s i s . T h u s , terms and concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y w i l l be examined f o r purposes of i d e n t i f y i n g u n i q u e n e s s . I t i s not assumed tha t concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y used w i t h i n the f i e l d of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n are m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e . D e f i n i t i o n s for the v a r i o u s concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y tha t may be i d e n t i f i e d w i l l be used to e s t a b l i s h a Typology f o r the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Concepts of M a r g i n a l i t y . Use of the proposed 3 9 G e o r g e L a k o f f and Mark Johnson , Metaphors We L i v e By (Chicago and London: The U n i v e r s i t y of Ch icago P r e s s , 1980), p p . 106-14. 1 9 t y p o l o g y may serve as one s t r a t e g y for a n a l y s i s of uses by other a u t h o r s of concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y w i t h i n the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e , which a n a l y s i s i s c o n s i d e r e d to be beyond the scope of t h i s t h e s i s . Once d e v e l o p e d , the Typology for C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Concepts of M a r g i n a l i t y ' may be t e s t e d by c l a s s i f y i n g concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y from the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e . T h i s t e s t i n g w i l l a l l o w the e v a l u a t i o n of adequacy for each d e f i n i t i o n of m a r g i n a l i t y . The purpose of the proposed t y p o l o g y i s to serve as a f o u n d a t i o n for the a n a l y s i s of C l a r k ' s usage of the term and concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y . Numeration i s f e l t to be an i n s i g n i f i c a n t method of a n a l y s i s for purposes of t h i s t h e s i s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , once C l a r k ' s usage of the term m a r g i n a l i t y i s i d e n t i f i e d i n h i s D i s s e r t a t i o n and Monograph, and once the d i f f e r i n g d e s i g n a t i o n for concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y a p p e a r i n g in these two documents are n o m i n a l l y l i s t e d , f r e q u e n c i e s w i l l be r e p o r t e d in t h i s t h e s i s . The numerous l a b e l s used by C l a r k to d i s t i n g u i s h among concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y w i l l be d i s c u s s e d and a n a l y z e d . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of d i s t i n c t concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y from the l i t e r a t u r e through a p p l i c a t i o n of proposed d e f i n i t i o n s and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the c o n c e p t s , u s i n g the Typo logy for C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Concepts of M a r g i n a l i t y , w i l l be f e a s i b l e p r o c e s s e s for v a l i d a t i n g the proposed d e f i n i t i o n s and t y p o l o g y . The proposed d e f i n i t i o n s and t y p o l o g y may be f u r t h e r v a l i d a t e d by t h e i r a b i l i t y to f a c i l i t a t e c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of term and concept usage by o ther au thors of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n 20 l i t e r a t u r e . S e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s have been i d e n t i f i e d in t h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r . Many of these q u e s t i o n s w i l l s erve as t o p i c s i n c h a p t e r s to f o l l o w . Should the concept of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m a r g i n a l i t y be c r e d i t e d to C l a r k ? What were the l a b e l s C l a r k used to d e s i g n a t e h i s c o n c e p t ( s ) of m a r g i n a l i t y ? To what extent was he c o n s i s t e n t i n term usage? Can d e f i n i t i o n s be w r i t t e n to d i s t i n g u i s h among concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y ? Should t h i s c o n c e p t u a l a n a l y s i s be approached u s i n g an a b s t r a c t i o n or a homonymy s t r a t e g y ? These q u e s t i o n s , among o t h e r s p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d w i l l f or the b a s i s f or t h i s c o n c e p t u a l a n a l y s i s . T h e s i s Format C l a r k , through the r e s e a r c h methodology d e s c r i b e d in t h i s Chapter was i d e n t i f i e d as f i r s t to use the t erm, m a r g i n a l i t y , to denote a concept in the f i e l d of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . Q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g a p p l i c a t i o n of the term and concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y to the f i e l d of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n have been s t a t e d . Research goa l s for t h i s t h e s i s have been s t a t e d . Chapter II i d e n t i f i e s C l a r k ' s w r i t i n g s u t i l i z i n g the term m a r g i n a l i t y and e x p l o r e s h i s purposes for a p p l y i n g concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y in h i s d o c t o r a l s t u d y . H i s focus on o r g a n i z a t i o n s as w e l l as the s o c i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of the study are e x p l i c a t e d . D i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n s of the term a r e reviewed and c o n s t i t u t e a b a s i s , a long wi th the a forement ioned rev iews of h i s work, f o r a n a l y z i n g C l a r k ' s use of the term i n the two pr imary documents. Chapter I II i s d e d i c a t e d to p r e s e n t a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n of 21 uses of the term m a r g i n a l i t y from C l a r k ' s D i s s e r t a t i o n . Each c o n t e x t , wherein the term i s u sed , i s quoted in s u f f i c i e n t l e n g t h to f a c i l i t a t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c r i t i c a l c o n c e p t u a l e l ements . Chapter IV i n c l u d e s a premise for c a t e g o r i z i n g concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y . Each c a t e g o r y and subcategory i s d e f i n e d and i l l u s t r a t e d in c h a r t e d form. C o n t e x t u a l data from C l a r k ' s seventeen uses of the term m a r g i n a l i t y are c h a r t e d , d i s c u s s e d , and a n a l y z e d . G e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s which do not l e n d themselves to c a t e g o r i z a t i o n f o l l o w . Chapter V repea t s the p r o c e s s of Chapter I I I , t h i s t ime for C l a r k ' s uses of the term m a r g i n a l i t y from the Monograph. Each use of the term i s quoted in c o n t e x t . Chapter VI i s the p r e s e n t a t i o n of the c a t e g o r i c a l data from C l a r k ' s uses of the term m a r g i n a l i t y i n h i s Monograph. G e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n s not l e n d i n g themselves to c a t e g o r i z a t i o n f o l l o w . C a t e g o r i c a l data t a b l e d from C l a r k ' s uses of the term m a r g i n a l i t y i n h i s D i s s e r t a t i o n and Monograph are compared and c o n t r a s t e d i n Chapter V I I . A n c i l l a r y o b s e r v a t i o n s not l e n d i n g themselves to c a t e g o r i z a t i o n are t h e m a t i c a l l y l a b e l e d and d i s c u s s e d . Most theme p r e s e n t a t i o n s i n v o l v e data from C l a r k ' s two pr imary documents c o n c e r n i n g h i s s t u d y . The themat ic p r e s e n t a t i o n s w i l l make d i s t i n c t i o n s which are neces sary f o r d e f i n i n g s p e c i f i c concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y . Chapter V I I I i s d e d i c a t e d to the p r o p o s a l of s u c c i n c t d e f i n i t i o n s and l a b e l s f or each of the b a s i c concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y and t h e i r s u b c a t e g o r i e s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , a g e n e r i c 22 l a b e l i s proposed for d e n o t i n g the m a r g i n a l i t y of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t s which are c o n s i d e r e d to be p a r t of more than one e d u c a t i o n a l system. The d e f i n i t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e a t y p o l o g y which i s t a b l e d . The f i n a l c h a p t e r i n c l u d e s the p r e s e n t a t i o n of summary s ta tements , f i n d i n g s and c o n c l u s i o n s . I t addresses the l i m i t a t i o n s of the study and c o n t a i n s recommendations for f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . 23 CHAPTER II CLARK'S WRITINGS CONCERNING MARGINALITY AND DEFINITIONS PERTINENT FOR THEIR ANALYSIS The p r i n c i p a l purpose of t h i s c h a p t e r i s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a n a l y s i s of Clark'*s w r i t i n g s p e r t i n e n t to usages of the term m a r g i n a l i t y . A second purpose of t h i s c h a p t e r i s the p r e s e n t a t i o n of background of C l a r k ' s d o c t o r a l s tudy wherein the term m a r g i n a l i t y appears to have f i r s t been used . T h i s e x e r c i s e i s i n t e n d e d to p r o v i d e the reader w i t h s u f f i c i e n t background to f a c i l i t a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the s e v e r a l uses of the term m a r g i n a l i t y as they are d i s c u s s e d i n subsequent c h a p t e r s . These ends w i l l be a c c o m p l i s h e d through e x p l o r i n g C l a r k ' s purposes for a p p l y i n g concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y i n h i s d o c t o r a l s tudy and by d i s c u s s i n g h i s focus on o r g a n i z a t i o n s from the s o c i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e . The t h i r d major s e c t i o n of t h i s c h a p t e r focuses on d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n s of the term m a r g i n a l i t y and of i t s r o o t , the term m a r g i n . These d e f i n i t i o n s are viewed as a b a s i s f or u n d e r s t a n d i n g C l a r k ' s usages of the term m a r g i n a l i t y arid are seen as forming a common d e f i n i t i o n a l base for u n d e r s t a n d i n g the 24 a p p l i c a t i o n s of concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y in s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g s . As e v i d e n c e d through a review of the books , p e r i o d i c a l s , r e p o r t s , p r o c e e d i n g s , and u n p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l s l i s t e d i n the B i b l i o g r a p h y of t h i s t h e s i s , in a d d i t i o n to the examinat ion of o ther p u b l i c a t i o n s as o u t l i n e d in the Methodology s u b s e c t i o n of Chapter I , Burton R. C l a r k was f i r s t to use the term m a r g i n a l i t y in d i s c u s s i n g the s t a t u s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t s . 4 0 C l a r k ' s A r t i c l e s C o n c e r n i n g M a r g i n a l i t y C l a r k appears to have used the term m a r g i n a l i t y r e p e a t e d l y in h i s d o c t o r a l s t u d y . Each w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d and d i s c u s e d . C l a r k f i r s t used the term m a r g i n a l i t y i n h i s D i s s e r t a t i o n , an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l case study of "adul t e d u c a t i o n s c h o o l s and d e p a r t m e n t s " 4 1 w i t h i n the Los Ange le s P u b l i c Schoo l System d u r i n g the e a r l y 1950s. The document was completed i n 1954 at the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s . Whi le h i s d o c t o r a l s tudy may be c o n s i d e r e d to be a s o c i o l o g i c a l case s t u d y , i t " d i r e c t l y concerns the development of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l system of C a l i f o r n i a . " 4 2 C l a r k o r i g i n a l l y in tended to l i m i t h i s "purview to j u s t the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Branch of the Los Ange les Schoo l System in order to have a case study in the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z i n g of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , " however, he a d d r e s s e d , 4 0 C l a r k , D i s s e r t a t i o n . 4 1 I b i d . 4 2 I b i d . , p . 1. 25 s t u d i e d and g e n e r a l i z e d "s ta te -wide c o n d i t i o n s . " " 3 The study has s i n c e r e c e i v e d a t t e n t i o n among a d u l t e d u c a t o r s , a t t r i b u t a b l e to C l a r k ' s focus on a d u l t e d u c a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s , h i s a r t i c l e s and r e p o r t s p u b l i s h e d in j o u r n a l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f i e l d , and to the e x t e n s i v e c i t a t i o n of the s tudy by a u t h o r s of o ther a d u l t e d u c a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e . Because C l a r k f i r s t used the term m a r g i n a l i t y w i t h i n h i s D i s s e r t a t i o n the document i s the pr imary source i n the s tudy of the concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y in a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . O u t s i d e of r e f e r e n c e s made in t h i s t h e s i s to the document, no o ther d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e s to C l a r k ' s D i s s e r t a t i o n were i d e n t i f i e d through t h i s s t u d y . C l a r k ' s a r t i c l e , r e f e r r e d to e l sewhere i n t h i s t h e s i s as the Monograph, was p u b l i s h e d w i t h an index i n 1956 by the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Pres s in the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P u b l i c a t i o n s in S o c i o l o g y and S o c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n s s e r i e s " 0 under the i d e n t i c a l t i t l e as h i s D i s s e r t a t i o n . S i n c e 1956, t h i s Monograph wi th i t s index has been r e p r i n t e d four t i m e s , three t imes in book form by the U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , the t h i r d r e p r i n t i n g be ing i n 1968." s The book m a i n t a i n e d page numbering matching tha t of the a r t i c l e ' s i n i t i a l p r i n t i n g and commencing wi th page number 43. T h i s c o n s i s t e n t page numbering may be h e l p f u l to r e a d e r s of t h i s t h e s i s i n tha t s p e c i f i c pages " 3 I b i d . ""Idem, A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n T r a n s i t i o n : A Study of I n s t i t u t i o n a l I n s e c u r i t y , e d . P h i l i p S e l z n i c k , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P u b l i c a t i o n s in S o c i o l o g y and S o c i a l I n s t i t u t i o n s , v o l . 1, no . 2 ( B e r k e l e y and Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1968), pp . 43-202. " 5 Idem, Monograph, 1968. 26 in f o o t n o t e d r e f e r e n c e s to the Monograph are a p p l i c a b l e to a l l r e p r i n t i n g s which are enumerated in the b i b l i o g r a p h y of t h i s t h e s i s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , a p u b l i s h e r ' s page, acknowledgments, and t a b l e of c o n t e n t s were added to r e p r i n t s of the Monograph. C l a r k acknowledged i n the Monograph t h a t : T h i s s tudy i s based on a d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n completed in the Department of A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y , U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s . " 6 Even though he acknowledged t h a t the a r t i c l e was based on h i s d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , C l a r k d i d not i n c l u d e a formal r e f e r e n c e to the Di s s e r t a t ion in the b i b l i o g r a p h y of h i s Monograph. The absence of d i r e c t c i t a t i o n s of C l a r k ' s D i s s e r t a t i o n in the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e may be a t t r i b u t e d i n p a r t to the f a c t tha t d i s s e r t a t i o n s per se are seldom wide ly read and to C l a r k ' s never h a v i n g f o r m a l l y r e f e r e n c e d h i s Di s s e r t a t ion in any of h i s o ther w r i t i n g s i n which he used the term m a r g i n a l i t y . R a t h e r , he c i t e d passages and r e f e r e n c e s from h i s Monograph which was "conducted under a 1952-53 f e l l o w s h i p g r a n t e d to C l a r k by the S o c i a l S c i e n c e Research C o u n c i l . " 4 7 C l a r k ' s 1956 a r t i c l e , r e f e r r e d to e lsewhere in t h i s t h e s i s as the Monograph, i s the prominent document c o n c e r n i n g the term and concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y and r e c e i v e s major a t t e n t i o n and a n a l y s i s i n t h i s t h e s i s . 4 6 I b i d . , Acknowledgments. 4 7 I d e m , A d u l t Educat i on i n T r a n s i t i o n , 1968, Acknowledgments. 27 C l a r k ' s The M a r g i n a l i t y of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n " 8 was p u b l i s h e d i n 1958. Whereas h i s Monograph was based on h i s D i s s e r t a t i o n which p r i m a r i l y concerned the t r a n s i t i o n of the a d u l t s c h o o l s w i t h i n the Los Ange les P u b l i c Schoo l System, t h i s 1958 a r t i c l e focused on the term m a r g i n a l i t y , the concept denoted by the t erm, and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to and i m p l i c a t i o n s for the f i e l d of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . The a r t i c l e was p u b l i s h e d w i t h an accompanying 3-page " P o s t s c r i p t " " 9 by H a r r y L . M i l l e r , A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r of the Center f o r the Study of L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n for A d u l t s . M i l l e r c r i t i q u e d C l a r k ' s a t tempted a p p l i c a t i o n of the term and concept of m a r g i n a l i t y to the f i e l d of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . C l a r k ' s a r t i c l e , " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l A d a p t a t i o n and P r e c a r i o u s V a l u e s : A Case S t u d y " 5 0 was p u b l i s h e d in 1956 in the American Soc i o l o g i c a l Review. The a r t i c l e f i r s t l y i d e n t i f i e d "some of the c o n d i t i o n s of weakness in s o c i a l v a l u e s , and s e c o n d l y , [ sought] to presen t a case study of one type of v a l u e m o d i f i c a t i o n . " 5 1 C l a r k ' s concept of m a r g i n a l i t y as i t a f f e c t s v a l u e m o d i f i c a t i o n was d i s c u s s e d . In 1964, C l a r k ' s Monograph which had appeared in the Amer i c a n Soc i o l o g i c a l Review was r e p r i n t e d in p a r t under a " 8 Idem, The M a r g i n a l i t y of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , Notes and Essays on E d u c a t i o n for A d u l t s , number 20 [ C h i c a g o : Center f o r the Study of L i b e r a l E d u c a t i o n for A d u l t s , 1958), pp . 1-17. " 9 I b i d , pp . 16-18. 5 0 I d e m , " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l A d a p t a t i o n and P r e c a r i o u s V a l u e s : A Case S t u d y , " American Soc i o l o g i c a l Review 21 (June 1956): 327-36. 5 1 I b i d . , pp . 327-28. 28 shor tened t i t l e in A m i t a i E t z i o n i ' s s o c i o l o g i c a l r e a d e r . 5 2 In 1980, C l a r k ' s Monograph was r e p r i n t e d in book form for the f o u r t h t i m e , t h i s l a t e s t t ime by Arno Press of New Y o r k . In summary, C l a r k ' s Monograph has been d i s t r i b u t e d by at l e a s t three p u b l i s h e r s , i s s u e d in a t l e a s t two e d i t i o n s , and has a r e c o r d of at l e a s t s i x p r i n t i n g s . 5 3 S u s t a i n e d demand for the a r t i c l e and book may account for the p o p u l a r i t y of the term m a r g i n a l i t y ; which C l a r k emphasized i n these p u b l i c a t i o n s . I t was expected tha t the term m a r g i n a l i t y d i s c u s s e d e x t e n s i v e l y in the r e f e r e n c e s a l r e a d y noted would appear in t other works by C l a r k . C l a r k ' s w r i t i n g s 5 " which f o l l o w e d h i s D i s s e r t a t i o n addressed o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n j u n i o r c o l l e g e s and s o c i e t y to which h i s i n i t i a l concept of m a r g i n a l i t y might have been a p p l i e d . C l a r k ' s Monograph 5 5 was c i t e d in these books and s e v e r a l concepts from C l a r k ' s Di s s e r t a t ion were d i s c u s s e d , but on ly two books c o n t a i n e d 5 2 I d e m , " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l A d a p t a t i o n and P r e c a r i o u s V a l u e s . " In Complex O r g a n i z a t i o n s : A Soc i o l o g i c a l Reader , e d . A m i t a i E t z i o n T (New Y o r k , C h i c a g o , San F r a n c i s c o , T o r o n t o , London: H o l t , R i n e h a r t & W i n s t o n , 1964), pp . 159-167. 5 3 S e e Reference B i b l i o g r a p h y for l i s t i n g of p u b l i s h e r s and p r i n t i n g d a t e s . 5 " C l a r k , The Open Door C o l l e g e : A Case Study (New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1960); Idem, E d u c a t i n g the Exper t S o c i e t y (San F r a n c i s c o : C h a n d l e r , 1962TJ Idem, The D i s t i n c t i v e C o l l e g e : A n t i o c h , Reed and Swarthmore ( C h i c a g o : A l d i n e , 1970); Idem, Academic Power i n I t a l y : Bureaucracy and O l i g a r c h y i n a N a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t y System ( C h i c a g o : U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press"! 1977); Idem, "Academic C o o r d i n a t i o n " , Y a l e Higher E d u c a t i o n Research Group 24 (New Haven, C o n n . : YHERG, 1978 . ) ; The Higher E d u c a t i o n System: Academic O r g a n i z a t i o n i n C r o s s - N a t i o n a l P e r s p e c t i ve ( B e r k e l e y , Los A n g e l e s , and London: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1983). 5 5 I d e m , Monograph. 29 a p p l i c a t i o n s of a concept of m a r g i n a l i t y . The f i r s t use of m a r g i n a l i t y found i n these w r i t i n g s was in c o n n e c t i o n wi th p o s s i b l e t r e n d s for o r g a n i z a t i o n s . " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l m a r g i n a l i t y " was c i t e d as an example of a c o n d i t i o n w i t h p r e d i c t a b l e c o n s e q u e n c e s : 5 6 C l a r k ' s second use of a concept of m a r g i n a l i t y o u t s i d e of h i s a r t i c l e s , which were p r e v i o u s l y r e f e r e n c e d , was i n 1 983 5 7 C l a r k ' s o n l y usages of the term m a r g i n a l i t y which have been i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s s t u d y , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of the two p r e c e d i n g q u o t a t i o n s , occur w i t h i n h i s D i s s e r t a t i o n , in the Monograph based on h i s D i s s e r t a t i o n , and i n the three a d d i t i o n a l l y c i t e d a r t i c l e s 5 8 p u b l i s h e d in p e r i o d i c a l s and based on both the D i s s e r t a t ion and the Monograph. The D i s s e r t a t i o n and Monograph i n c l u d e C l a r k ' s most p e r t i n e n t usages of the term m a r g i n a l i t y . Both C l a r k ' s D i s s e r t a t i o n and Monograph w i l l be rev iewed to i d e n t i f y h i s uses of the t erm. Each use w i t h i n h i s D i s s e r t a t ion and Monograph w i l l be c i t e d and d i s c u s s e d for purposes of i d e n t i f y i n g c o n t e x t s of use and what might be c o n s i d e r e d to be C l a r k ' s a s s i g n e d meanings to the terms . 5 6 I d e m , The Open Door C o l l e g e , pp . 192-193. 5 7 M a x Weber, From Max Weber: Essays i n S o c i o l o g y . T r a n s l a t e d , e d i t e d , and w i t h an I n t r o d u c t i o n by. H . H . G e r t h and C . Wright M i l l s (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1946), p p . 61-5 , as p a r a p h r a s e d by Burton R. C l a r k , The Higher Educat ion System: Academic O r g a n i z a t i o n i n C r o s s - N a t i o n a l P e r s p e c t i v e ( B e r k e l e y , Los A n g e l e s , and London: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1983), p . 99. 5 "See C l a r k , " O r g a n i z a t i o n a l A d a p t a t i o n " ; "The M a r g i n a l i t y of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n " ; and "Adult E d u c a t i o n in T r a n s i t i o n " . 3 0 O b s e r v a t i o n s from the q u o t a t i o n s w i l l be t a b l e d , compared, d i s c u s s e d , a n a l y z e d , and c r i t i q u e d . C l a r k ' s Purpose of Concept Development A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of C l a r k ' s study was g iven in the i n t r o d u c t o r y c h a p t e r . A f u l l e r i n t r o d u c t i o n w i l l now be p r e s e n t e d to supply adequate background c o n c e r n i n g the d o c t o r a l study to enable the reader to unders tand C l a r k ' s l o g i c in a p p l y i n g one or more concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y in h i s s t u d y , and to prepare the reader for a n a l y s e s of C l a r k ' s uses of the term m a r g i n a l i t y . C l a r k ' s concept or concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y appear to have been deve loped in the f i e l d of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n a t r a d i t i o n a l way. Through h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l case s t u d y , C l a r k f e l t he had i d e n t i f i e d a t r a n s i t i o n by the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Branch of the Los Ange les Schoo l System from a s t a t e of e x i s t e n c e wherein t r a d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e s were uphe ld to a s t a t e wherein a s e r v i c e o r i e n t a t i o n to community demands had been assumed. H i s concept of m a r g i n a l i t y was deve loped to r e p r e s e n t the s t a t u s of the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Branch of the Los Ange les S c h o o l System or of i t s t w e n t y - f o u r a d u l t s c h o o l s , one of t h r e e c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s to the t r a n s i t i o n which he r e p o r t e d to have o b s e r v e d : "margina l s t a t u s , open-ended p u r p o s e , and a set of o p e r a t i n g p r e s s u r e s . " 5 9 Whereas p u b l i c s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n has tended to be p r e s c r i p t i v e , C l a r k f e l t programs w i t h i n the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s c h o o l s i n C a l i f o r n i a had grown to be " h i g h l y a d a p t i v e to the 5 9 C l a r k , Monograph, p . 142. 31 expressed i n t e r e s t s of s tudent s and community g r o u p s , and the s c h o o l s are i n c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h e i r c l i e n t e l e . " 6 0 E q u a t i n g " s e r v i c e c h a r a c t e r " wi th " o t h e r - d i r e c t e d , " C l a r k noted ev idence for d e t e r m i n i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between " t r a d i t i o n a l modes" and an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l element which had assumed a s e r v i c e c h a r a c t e r : We s h a l l f i n d s t r o n g ev idence of the s e r v i c e c h a r a c t e r of the s c h o o l s i n the way that c l a s s e s are i n i t i a t e d and m a i n t a i n e d , w i th s t u d e n t s in e f f e c t making the f i n a l d e c i s i o n s . The s e r v i c e o r i e n t a t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d a l s o in the bases for h i r i n g and f i r i n g t e a c h e r s , in the d u t i e s of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e , and in the content of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d o c t r i n e s . 6 1 C l a r k announced tha t he had observed a t r a n s i t i o n by the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Branch of the Los Angeles Schoo l System from a s t a t e of e x i s t e n c e wherein t r a d i t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e s p r e v a i l e d to a s t a t e wherein the a d u l t s c h o o l s had assumed a s e r v i c e o r i e n t a t i o n s u b s e r v i e n t to community demands. In an e m p i r i c a l sense , C l a r k d i d not observe such a t r a n s i t i o n , but r a t h e r the s t a t e of e x i s t e n c e of the a d u l t s c h o o l s in 1953, which s c h o o l s p r o f e s s e d s e r v i c e o r i e n t a t i o n s and were seen by C l a r k as s u b s e r v i e n t to community demands. Through h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d s , e a r l i e r s t a t e s of e x i s t e n c e of the a d u l t s c h o o l s were d e s c r i b e d u s i n g such v a r i a b l e s as budget , e n r o l l m e n t , p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o f i l e s . C l a r k observed these s t a t e s from h i s h i s t o r i c a l d a t a , not f i r s t hand. T r a n s i t i o n s of the a d u l t s c h o o l s from one s t a t e of e x i s t e n c e to another were 6 0 I b i d . , p . 45. 6 ' I b i d . 32 h y p o t h e s i z e d r a t h e r than o b s e r v e d . What C l a r k i d e n t i f i e d as r e f e r r e d to as " s o u r c e s , " 6 2 " i n d i c e s , " 6 3 " e f f e c t s , " 6 " "symptoms ," 6 5 " b a s e s , " 6 6 " e v i d e n c e s , " 6 7 and as a " c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r , " 6 8 a " c o n d i t i o n , " 6 9 and a " h y p o t h e t i c a l i n d e x " 7 0 of m a r g i n a l i t y were h y p o t h e s i z e d in the s tudy but were not observed and e m p i r i c a l l y measured. C l a r k ' s statement that "We s h a l l f i n d s t r o n g ev idence of the s e r v i c e c h a r a c t e r of the s c h o o l s " 7 1 i s m i s l e a d i n g in tha t C l a r k had observed the f i n a l s t a t u s of the a d u l t s c h o o l s , which s t a t e of e x i s t e n c e he denoted as m a r g i n a l i t y . H i s d o c t o r a l study i n c l u d e d i d e n t i f y i n g , through h i s t o r i c a l r e s e a r c h , p r e v i o u s s t a t e s of e x i s t e n c e o c c u r r i n g between 1887 and 1 953 7 2 and h y p o t h e s i z i n g i n d i c e s , s o u r c e s , bases , symptoms, ev idences and e f f e c t s of the s t a t u s wi thout d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n or e m p i r i c a l measurement of a c t u a l s t a t e s of e x i s t e n c e o ther than the f i n a l s t a t u s of the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Branch of the Los Angeles Schoo l System 'and i t s t w e n t y - f o u r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s c h o o l s . C l a r k used h i s c a s e - s t u d y - i n - d e p t h to h y p o t h e s i z e i n d i c e s , s o u r c e s , bases , symptoms, ev idences and e f f e c t s of m a r g i n a l i t y , but he d i d not i n c l u d e a s c i e n t i f i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d t e s t or measurement to s u b s t a n t i a t e h i s h y p o t h e s i z e d r e s u l t s . 6 2 I d e m , D i s s e r t a t i o n , p . 25; 6 3 I b i d . , p p . 25, 27, 28, 29, 30; Monograph, pp . 58, 60; 6 " l d e m , D i s s e r t a t i o n , p . 172; 6 5 I b i d . , pp . 26, 27, 29; Monograph, pp . 58, 59; 6 6 I d e m , D i s s e r t a t i o n , p . 26; 6 7 I b i d . , p . 26; Monograph, p . 58; 6 B I d e m , D i s s e r t a t i o n , p . 27; 6 9 I b i d . , pp . 30, 36; / 0 I b i d . , p . 30; Monograph, p . 60. 7 1 I b i d . 7 2 I b i d . , p . • 7. 33 C l a r k sought to account "for the reason for the emergence of t h i s s e r v i c e c h a r a c t e r . " 7 3 He t u r n e d to c o n d i t i o n s under which the a d u l t s c h o o l s had o p e r a t e d . M a r g i n a l i t y was one of three f a c t o r s which he i d e n t i f i e d as be ing of "bas ic importance" i n a c c o u n t i n g f o r the emergence of a s e r v i c e c h a r a c t e r . 7 " C l a r k enumerated the three f a c t o r s : f i r s t , the m a r g i n a l p o s i t i o n of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n w i t h i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l system and the e f f e c t t h i s s t a t u s has upon the a d u l t s c h o o l ; second, the nature of the purposes of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s i n c e the 1920's [ s i c ] and i t s i n f l u e n c e on the a d a p t i v e b e h a v i o r of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p ; and t h i r d , a s p e c i f i c set of o p e r a t i n g p r e s s u r e s that stem from s t a t e l e g i s l a t i o n and problems of s tudent c l i e n t e l e . The s e r v i c e i n s t i t u t i o n i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s study may be seen as a r e s u l t a n t of the c o n j u n c t i o n of these c o n d i t i o n s . 7 5 The m a r g i n a l " p o s i t i o n " , "s ta tus" , c o n d i t i o n , or s t a t e of e x i s t e n c e of "adul t e d u c a t i o n w i t h i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l system" i s what C l a r k termed m a r g i n a l i t y . 7 6 C l a r k , w h i l e not r i g o r o u s l y d e f i n i n g h i s concept of m a r g i n a l i t y , wrote of what he termed "Sources and I n d i c e s of M a r g i n a l i t y , " 7 7 and r e i n t r o d u c e d as "bases and s y m p t o m s , 7 8 without d i s t i n g u i s h i n g among them. C l a r k appears to have used 7 3 I b i d . 7 " I b i d . 7 5 I b i d . 7 6 I b i d . 7 7 I d e m . , D i s s e r t a t i o n , p . 25. 7 8 I b i d . , p . 26. 34 these l a b e l s , among o t h e r s , to denote h i s h y p o t h e s i z e d v a r i a b l e s of m a r g i n a l i t y . C l a r k ' s v a r i a b l e s are p e r f u n c t o r i l y i n t r o d u c e d to the r e a d e r , p r e s e n t l y , but w i l l be r e i t e r a t e d i n c o n t e x t , and d i s c u s s e d , a n a l y z e d , and c r i t i q u e d in d e t a i l l a t e r in the c h a p t e r . He c o n t r a s t e d the p r e c a r i o u s s t a t e of a d u l t programs to w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d , w e l l - a c c e p t e d p r i m a r y departments w i t h i n the s c h o o l s y s t e m , 7 9 the budget support and g e n e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n of e a c h , 8 0 t h e i r "formal or ' c o n s t i t u t i o n a l ' s t a t u s , " 8 1 and the s t a t u s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n program a d m i n i s t r a t o r s to that of o ther a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . 8 2 The "general absence of s eparate p l a n t f a c i l i t i e s and other f i x e d c a p i t a l " 8 3 f or a d u l t s c h o o l s v e r s u s f a c i l i t i e s and f i x e d c a p i t a l possessed by comparat ive e lements w i t h i n a common system, and v o l u n t a r y a t tendance to a d u l t s c h o o l s v e r s u s the compulsory a t tendance requ irements of e l ementary and secondary s c h o o l s were c i t e d as c o n t r a s t s , supposed ly a f f e c t i n g the s t a t u s of the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n element i n r e l a t i o n to that of comparat ive e l e m e n t s . 8 " A d d i t i o n a l l y named by C l a r k as i n d i c e s of m a r g i n a l i t y were the s e v e r i t y of the "pressure of economy-minded i n t e r e s t 7 9 I b i d . , pp . 25-6 8 0 I b i d . , P- 26. 8 ' I b i d . 8 2 I b i d . , P- 27. 8 3 I b i d . , P- 27-8 . 8 f l I b i d . , P- 25-6 . 35 g r o u p s , " 8 5 the " f e l t need, expressed by a d u l t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , of hav ing to ' s e l l ' the program to the p u b l i c and e s p e c i a l l y to o ther e d u c a t o r s , " 8 6 the " r e l a t i v e l y low degree of a c c e p t a n c e " 8 7 by groups i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l to the p a r e n t a l system to which the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n element b e l o n g s , and " i n s e c u r i t y " 8 8 of the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n e lement , an e n r o l l m e n t economy wherein c o n t i n u a t i o n of c o u r s e s i s dependent upon a t t e n d a n c e , 8 3 and ambiguous g o a l s . 9 0 I t appears tha t C l a r k , i n d e v e l o p i n g h i s concept of m a r g i n a l i t y , may not have taken the l o g i c a l f i r s t s t e p — t h e thorough d e f i n i n g of the c o n c e p t . I n s t e a d he appears to have enumerated the symptoms of the c o n d i t i o n , 9 1 e x p l a i n e d i t s e f f e c t s 9 2 and r e m e d i e s 9 3 wh i l e b y p a s s i n g the r i g o r o u s d e f i n i n g of the t erm. I f t h i s i s the c a s e , i t becomes important to be a l e r t to C l a r k ' s p r e c i s i o n in making d i s t i n c t i o n s among s o u r c e s , i n d i c e s , e f f e c t s , symptoms, bases , e v i d e n c e s , c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r s , c o n d i t i o n s , and h y p o t h e t i c a l i n d i c e s of m a r g i n a l i t y as each of C l a r k ' s uses of the term m a r g i n a l i t y i s quoted in 8 5 I b i d . , p . 28. 8 6 I b i d . , p . 29; 8 7 I b i d . , p . 30. 8 8 I b i d . 8 9 I b i d , p p . 31-6 . 9 0 I b i d , p . 37. 9 1 C l a r k , Monograph, p . 58. 9 2 I b i d . , p . 148. 9 3 I b i d . , p . 150. 36 c o n t e x t , d i s c u s s e d , and a n a l y z e d . These terms appear to be key e lements for d e f i n i n g and t e s t i n g concepts which have been denoted by C l a r k as m a r g i n a l i t y , u n d e r s t a n d i n g h i s usage of the t erm, and improv ing c o n c e p t u a l c l a i r t y in f u t u r e a p p l i c a t i o n s of the term and concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y . A Study of O r g a n i z a t i o n s P r e l i m i n a r y to the a n a l y s i s of C l a r k ' s usages of the term m a r g i n a l i t y , i t appears important for the reader to approach the s u b j e c t from C l a r k ' s p e r s p e c t i v e . C l a r k ' s study i s one of " o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e i r v a l u e s and p r a c t i c e s . " 9 " C l a r k , i n e x p l a i n i n g the s o c i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of h i s s tudy and the importance of o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the proces s of s o c i a l norms and v a l u e s m o d i f i c a t i o n , noted t h a t : Where v a l u e s are implemented by o r g a n i z a t i o n s , then a t t e n t i o n i s d i r e c t e d by t h i s concern to o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . T h i s has r e f e r e n c e to both the p r o c e s s e s tha t shape g o a l s of o r g a n i z a t i o n s and those m o d i f y i n g the p a t t e r n s of b e h a v i o r tha t are means to those g o a l s . In t h i s s t u d y , "adul t e d u c a t i o n " i s c o n s i d e r e d the g e n e r a l v a l u e tha t i s undergo ing implementat ion by a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s c h o o l s and depar tments . These o r g a n i z a t i o n s are seen as the in s t ruments of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n . I t i s c l e a r tha t a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t s of v a r i o u s s i z e and scope must be b u i l t and m a i n t a i n e d i n o r d e r to r e a l i z e the e d u c a t i o n of a d u l t s . I t i s e q u a l l y c l e a r , however, tha t such o r g a n i z a t i o n s are not s imply p a s s i v e t o o l s . They a f f e c t the u l t i m a t e v a l u e be ing put i n t o e f f e c t , and i t s meaning for program and b e h a v i o r . Our concern i s w i th the how of such c h a n g e s - - t h e c o n d i t i o n s and p r o c e s s e s of changes i n norms and v a l u e s . In our case s t u d y , these are the norms and v a l u e s of p u b l i c s c h o o l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 9 5 9 " C l a r k , D i s s e r t a t i o n , p . 37. 9 5 I b i d . , pp . 1-2. 37 For f u t u r e a n a l y s i s , i t i s important to note tha t C l a r k has i d e n t i f i e d "adul t e d u c a t i o n " as "the g e n e r a l v a l u e that i s undergo ing implementat ion by a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s c h o o l s and d e p a r t m e n t s . " 9 6 When the term a d u l t e d u c a t i o n appears in C l a r k ' s w r i t i n g s , some c o n f u s i o n may r e s u l t as to when the "general v a l u e " 9 7 of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s be ing i d e n t i f i e d and when "adul t e d u c a t i o n " 9 8 i s be ing used to denote an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l element such as an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n program, a c t i v i t y , c l a s s , s c h o o l , d i v i s i o n , b r a n c h , department , c e n t e r , d i v i s i o n or s c h o o l system, or an amalgam of these l i s t e d e l ements . Whi l e C l a r k does r e c o g n i z e a d i f f e r e n c e between a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , which he c o n s i d e r s to be "the g e n e r a l v a l u e that i s undergo ing implementat ion by a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s c h o o l s and d e p a r t m e n t s , " 9 9 and the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e lements which are " ins truments of i m p l e m e n t a t i o n , " 1 0 0 he does not appear to m a i n t a i n the d i s t i n c t i o n in h i s D i s s e r t a t ion and Monograph. As C l a r k i n t r o d u c e s h i s concept of m a r g i n a l i t y t h i s important d i s t i n c t i o n between the "genera l v a l u e " 1 0 1 and the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t or subuni t makes p o s s i b l e the d i s t i n c t i o n between the m a r g i n a l i t y of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , and m a r g i n a l i t y in a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , the 9 6 I b i d . , p . 1 . 9 7 I b i d . 9 8 I b i d . " I b i d . 1 0 0 I b i d . 1 0 ' I b i d . 38 former s u g g e s t i n g the f i e l d or v a l u e i s m a r g i n a l i n r e l a t i o n to o ther f i e l d s or v a l u e s w i t h i n s o c i e t y and the l a t t e r s u g g e s t i n g the l e s s than f u l l s t a t u s of an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t in r e l a t i o n to o ther u n i t s or s u b u n i t s w i t h i n s o c i e t y or w i t h i n the l a r g e r o r g a n i z a t i o n . These d i s t i n c t i o n s become important when the concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y are a p p l i e d , and hence are important i n our a n a l y s i s . In t h i s t h e s i s an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n u n i t i s d e f i n e d as an independent and f o r m a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l element whose pr imary o b j e c t i v e and f u n c t i o n i s the e d u c a t i o n of a d u l t s . An a d u l t e d u c a t i o n subuni t i s not a s u b d i v i s i o n of an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n u n i t , but r a t h e r an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n element which i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y s u b o r d i n a t e to a p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n or p h y s i c a l l y l a r g e r or more powerfu l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l element whose p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e s and f u n c t i o n i s not the e d u c a t i o n of a d u l t s . As has been s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y , use of the terms u n i t and subuni t w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s , w i th the e x c e p t i o n of q u o t a t i o n s and q u a l i f i e d s ta tements , w i l l be r e s t r i c t e d to d e s i g n a t i o n of l e g a l or f o r m a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d elements in whole and in p a r t . In the two p r e c e d i n g q u o t a t i o n s , C l a r k appears to use the terms u n i t 1 0 2 and s u b u n i t 1 0 3 i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y . Because h i s s tudy focuses on the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Branch of the Los Ange les Schoo l System and i t s t w e n t y - f o u r a d u l t s c h o o l s , which are o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y 1 0 2 I b i d . , pp . 1 0 3 I b i d . , p p . 3-4. 1-2. 39 s u b o r d i n a t e to p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s wherein the pr imary o b j e c t i v e s and f u n c t i o n s are d i r e c t e d to the e d u c a t i o n of c h i l d r e n r a t h e r than a d u l t s , i t ' m a y be surmised through a p p l y i n g the proposed d e f i n i t i o n s tha t C l a r k was s t u d y i n g the m a r g i n a l i t y of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t s r a t h e r than the m a r g i n a l i t y of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n u n i t s . In a n a l y z i n g C l a r k ' s usages of the term m a r g i n a l i t y , i t i s h e l p f u l to keep in mind the development of C l a r k ' s Di s s e r t a t ion and i t s focus on v a r i o u s l e v e l s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n . C l a r k was i n t e r e s t e d . . . i n a s o c i o l o g i c a l case study of the e v o l u t i o n of an " i n s t i t u t i o n " . 1 We had o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d to l i m i t our purview to j u s t the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Branch of the Los Ange les Schoo l System in order to have a case study in the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z i n g of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . But i t became apparent a f t e r s e v e r a l months of r e s e a r c h that we had to become f a m i l i a r w i t h c e r t a i n s t a t e - w i d e c o n d i t i o n s i n order to unders tand the development of l o c a l s c h o o l u n i t s . A t t e n t i o n was then p a r t l y s h i f t e d to the l e v e l of s t a t e l e g i s l a t i v e and e x e c u t i v e a c t i o n ; at the same t ime , the Los Ange les department was m a i n t a i n e d as a c a s e - s t u d y - i n - d e p t h . The former gave us the g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n s i n the s t a t e of C a l i f o r n i a under which a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs have been b u i l t ; the l a t t e r p r o v i d e s us w i t h d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on how these c o n d i t i o n s are l i k e l y to work themselves out w i t h i n l o c a l s c h o o l sys tems. ^ h e concept of i n s t i t u t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d in Chapter V I . Our use of the term i s s i m i l a r to that of Robert M. M a c l v e r . See R. M. M a c l v e r and C h a r l e s H . Page, S o c i e t y , (New Y o r k : R i n e h a r t and C o . , I n c . , 1949, p p . 1 5 - 1 7 . 1 0 4 In t h i s same q u o t a t i o n C l a r k r e f e r r e d to "the Los Angeles department" as be ing m a i n t a i n e d as a c a s e - s t u d y - i n - d e p t h . Whi l e 1 0 a I b i d , pp . 3-4 . 40 i t i s assumed t h a t r e f e r e n c e was to the same o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e l ement , c e r t a i n t y i s negated through use of the word department r a t h e r than B r a n c h . In h i s d iagram of the f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the Los Ange les S c h o o l System 1952-53, which i s r e p r o d u c e d i n t h i s t h e s i s as T a b l e 1 , 1 0 5 C l a r k i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e T a b l e 1 CHABS 1 OBOAXIZATIOHAL STHOCTDHK COT TES IDS ABCSI2S SCHOOL SYSTEM, 1952-53* Personnel Board of Batlr ement C omission - Education Board • (Business Services Divisions) I :BuB'fnes'a*DlvlsIon I I Controlling fflvlslog-")— Bongot Division 3- Superlntendenl (Educational Services Divisions) I Personnel Division T~ Curriculum UlvuISr Auxiliary Services Div ("Operating .tj (Executive Offices) Office of the Superintendent I1 ""Office ol Board ServtdeV -| Deputy County Counsel H Educational Housing Section . • / Youth Service Branch , H Security Seotlon Divisions") Division of j Division'of Jr High Central O f f i c e Sr High Central Offloe J r High Schools Sr High Schools Jr Col Canti Offic lege •al e Junior • Colleges A^pted'froev.organlx«.tion chart of jlos'.Angele*: School System, no date (In use In 195?r53) Ad, alt jtion Adult Schools formal a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n : the D i v i s i o n of E x t e n s i o n and H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n , the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Branch and the A d u l t S c h o o l s . In T a b l e 2 1 0 6 of t h i s t h e s i s , C l a r k ' s d iagram of the f o r m a l h i e r a r c h i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e f o r 1 0 5 I b i d . , p . 44. 1 0 6 I b i d . , p . 49. 41 the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Branch i s r e p r i n t e d . 1 0 7 T a b l e 2 ORGANIZATIOHAL STRUCTURE OF TES JUXJLFF EDUCATION! BBJUICB, DIYISIOH 07 XZTBISION AHD HIGHER EDUCAIIOH, LOS AHQEIES SCHOOL STSTEM, 1952-53* Supervisor of Academic Education Supervisor of Adult Education Supervisor of Hpmemalj; Twenty-four Acult Schools Supervisor of Am«rlc«nl7. A M t l i f t n . h l n Americanization Center I • L ] ' L _ j i: | Counselors | P r i n c i p a l | fj C±D C ± J C ± 3 Clerks i | Teachere [ ^iagrsnxi^TlQ^t^°;*Tlter« Several part-time "supervisors (parent education,'music) C l a r k notes the e x i s t e n c e of t w e n t y - f o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y d i s t i n c t a d u l t s c h o o l s which were " l o c a t e d on s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l grounds" throughout Los A n g e l e s , but which were a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y d i s t i n c t . 1 0 8 He a l s o notes the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i v i s i o n s of Academic E d u c a t i o n , Homemaking, A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n and C i t i z e n s h i p , and the A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n C e n t e r over which there were f u l l - t i m e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . He acknowledges f u r t h e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e 1 0 7 I b i d , p . 48. 1 0 8 I b i d . 42 d i v i s i o n s such as parent e d u c a t i o n which i s s u p e r v i s e d by p a r t - t ime a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . C l a r k ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r t s acknowledged the o c c u r r e n c e of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n " f u n c t i o n s " 1 0 9 at v a r i o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l s and w i t h i n the v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s u b u n i t s : W i t h i n the D i v i s i o n [ D i v i s i o n of E x t e n s i o n and Higher E d u c a t i o n ] , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . is now an important concern of both main branches—the j u n i o r c o l l e g e s t r u c t u r e and the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h , The focus of the next s e v e r a l c h a p t e r s i s upon the l a t t e r , which we have termed the "adul t s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n " . 3 The r e l a t i o n s h i p of the j u n i o r c o l l e g e s to the a d u l t s c h o o l s i s c o n s i d e r e d i n Chapter V . 3 D i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of one c o n c r e t e o r g a n i z a t i o n may be t r e a t e d as "an o r g a n i z a t i o n " . For a l a r g e urban s c h o o l system, i t seems u s e f u l to c o n s i d e r the e n t i r e s c h o o l system as an " o r g a n i z a t i o n a l complex"; such a s c h o o l system i s composed of a l a r g e number of s u b u n i t s which i n themselves c o n s t i t u t e " o r g a n i z a t i o n s " . 1 1 0 Where the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Branch of the Los Ange les Schoo l System was i d e n t i f i e d i n i t i a l l y by C l a r k to be the focus of h i s D i s s e r t a t i o n , he c o n s i d e r e d "s ta te -wide c o n d i t i o n s i n order to unders tand the development of l o c a l s c h o o l u n i t s " 1 1 1 and then in Chapter V c o n s i d e r e d the " r e l a t i o n s h i p of the j u n i o r c o l l e g e s to the a d u l t s c h o o l s . " 1 1 2 D i s c u s s i o n of these v a r i o u s a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s u b u n i t s was q u i t e a c c e p t a b l e u n t i l 1 0 9 I b i d . , p . 47. 1 1 0 I b i d . , pp . 47-8 . 1 1 1 1 b i d . , p . 3 -4 . 1 1 2 I b i d . , p . 47-8 . 43 C l a r k i n t r o d u c e s h i s i n i t i a l concept of m a r g i n a l i t y . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the p e r t i n e n t a d u l t e d u c a t i o n f u n c t i o n , u n i t or subuni t then became p r o b l e m a t i c for the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of s t a t u s . C l a r k announces tha t h i s case s tudy i s of the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Branch of the Los Ange le s Schoo l System and the " i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z i n g of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n " 1 1 3 conducted t h e r e i n . When the term m a r g i n a l i t y i s a p p l i e d to the "adul t e d u c a t i o n v a l u e , " 1 1 4 to a d u l t e d u c a t i o n u n i t s , and to a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t s 1 1 5 at v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e v e l s wi thout p o s i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the e lement , i t becomes d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y the l e v e l or l e v e l s to which C l a r k in tended to a p p l y h i s concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y . W i t h i n . h i s D i s s e r t a t i o n C l a r k w r i t e s not on ly of the m a r g i n a l i t y of the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Branch of the Los Ange les Schoo l System, but a l s o of the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e lements diagrammed in T a b l e s 1 and 2. Chapter II of C l a r k ' s D i s s e r t a t i o n was d e d i c a t e d to d i s c u s s i n g "PRESSURES ON A MARGINAL P R O G R A M . " 1 1 6 He r e f e r r e d to m a r g i n a l i t y as a " ' g i v e n ' for the d e c i s i o n s made i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n departments of s c h o o l s y s t e m s , " 1 1 7 but d i d not c l a r i f y whether he c o n s i d e r e d m a r g i n a l i t y to be a cons tant i n a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and 1 1 3 I b i d . , pp . 15-7. 1 1 " I b i d . , pp . 1-2. 1 1 5 I b i d . 1 1 6 I b i d . 1 1 7 I b i d . 44 o r g a n i z a t i o n a l elements which he had i d e n t i f i e d t h r o u g h h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d i a g r a m s . 1 1 8 When C l a r k r e f e r s t o a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' " s u s t a i n e d e f f o r t t o reduce the m a r g i n a l i t y of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n w i t h i n the p u b l i c - s c h o o l f r a m e w o r k " 1 1 9 i t i s not c l e a r whether he i s r e f e r r i n g t o the g e n e r a l v a l u e of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e or o r g a n i z a t i o n a l element matching one of those he i d e n t i f i e d i n h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r t s of the Los A n g e l e s S c h o o l System, or whether r e f e r e n c e i s t o y e t a d i f f e r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l element or n o n - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n or element o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n the p u b l i c - s c h o o l framework. Only assumptions can be made w i t h o u t p o s i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the element s a i d t o be e x p e r i e n c i n g m a r g i n a l i t y . The t i t l e i t s e l f of C l a r k ' s Di s s e r t a t i o n , " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n T r a n s i t i o n : A Study of I n s t i t u t i o n a l I n s e c u r i t y " adds t o the c o n f u s i o n as t o whether C l a r k i n t e n d s t o ad d r e s s the g e n e r a l v a l u e of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n or t o f o c u s on a s p e c i f i c o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t , whether i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n s e c u r i t y r e s t s w i t h the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n g e n e r a l v a l u e , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t , or i s independent of them, or what the c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s might be which a r e s a i d t o r e s u l t i n i n s t i t u t i o n a l i n s e c u r i t y . C l a r k r e f e r s t o s e v e r a l a d d i t i o n a l d i s t i n c t as w e l l as i n d i s t i n c t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and n o n - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l elements w i t h i n h i s D i s s e r t a t i o n : " a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n C a l i f o r n i a ; " 1 2 0 " p a r t - t i m e i n s t r u c t i o n . . . f o r young people who had dropped out of 1 1 Reproduced as T a b l e s 1 and 2 i n t h i s t h e s i s s u b s e c t i o n . 1 1 9 C l a r k , D i s s e r t a t i o n , p. 24. 45 s c h o o l ; " 1 2 1 " p u b l i c a f f a i r s f o r u m s ; " 1 2 2 a "community-program" for "community a g e n c i e s ; " - 1 2 3 " p u b l i c a d u l t e d u c a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; " 1 2 " "the a d u l t s c h o o l ; " 1 2 5 "adul t s c h o o l s ; " 1 2 6 "The a d u l t s c h o o l s of C a l i f o r n i a ; " 1 2 7 "evening s c h o o l ; " 1 2 8 "evening s c h o o l c l a s s e s ; " 1 2 9 "evening s c h o o l s ; " 1 3 0 " e v e n i n g h i g h s c h o o l ; " 1 3 1 "evening s c h o o l a c t i v i t y ; " 1 3 2 "evening p r o g r a m ; " 1 3 3 " l e g i t i m a t e evening p r o g r a m ; " 1 3 " "night s c h o o l s ; " 1 3 5 "a n i g h t program of e lementary and h i g h s c h o o l s u b j e c t s ; " 1 3 6 - a d u l t e d u c a t i o n "programs of l o c a l s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s ; " 1 3 7 "immigrant e d u c a t i o n ; " 1 3 8 "centers of l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n ; " 1 3 9 " l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s ; " 1 " 0 "adul t e d u c a t i o n a g e n c i e s . . . a t l o c a l , s t a t e and n a t i o n a l l e v e l s , " which common i d e n t i f i c a t i o n became known a f t e r 1926 as the "adul t e d u c a t i o n movement;" 1 " 1 " d r i v e r e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s ; " 1 " 2 "investment c o u r s e s ; " 1 " 3 and "student g r o u p s , c l u b s , and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . " 1 " " Community c o l l e g e s and a d u l t s c h o o l s in Los Ange les were i d e n t i f i e d by C l a r k to be "competing a d u l t e d u c a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s " 1 " 5 C l a r k ' s Monograph i d e n t i f i e d or q u a l i f i e d s t i l l o ther a d u l t e d u c a t i o n e lements i n c l u d i n g : " p u b l i c a d u l t s c h o o l s ; " 1 " 6 " c o u r s e s ; " 1 " 7 "evening s c h o o l f u n c t i o n s ; " 1 " 8 " c o n t i n u a t i o n 1 2 0 I b i d . , p . 5; 1 2 1 I b i d . , p . 6; 1 2 2 I b i d . , p . 11; 1 2 3 I b i d . , p . 131; 1 2 " I b i d . f p . 5; 1 2 5 I b i d , p . 165; 1 2 6 I b i d , p . 108; 1 2 7 I b i d . , p . 36; 1 2 8 I b i d . , p . 6; 1 2 9 I b i d ; 1 3 0 I b i d ; 1 3 1 I b i d . ; 1 3 2 I b i d . ; 1 3 3 I b i d . , p . 14; 1 3 " I b i d . , p . 5; 1 3 5 I b i d . , p . 6 . ; 1 3 6 I b i d . ; 1 3 7 I b i d . , p . 5 . ; 1 3 8 I b i d . , p . 10 . ; 1 3 9 I b i d . , p . 1 1 . ; 1 4 0 I b i d . ; 1 " 1 I b i d . , p . 10; 1 " 2 I b i d . , p . 127; 1 U 3 I b i d . , p . 130; 1 " " I b i d . , p . 114. 1 " 5 I b i d . , p . 163. 46 s c h o o l ; " 1 " 9 and " r e m e d i a l a c a d e m i c e d u c a t i o n . " 1 5 0 The t e r m , m a r g i n a l i t y , was a p p l i e d by C l a r k t o many o f t h e e n u m e r a t e d a d u l t e d u c a t i o n e l e m e n t s . In C h a p t e r I I I o f t h i s t h e s i s e a c h a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e t e r m m a r g i n a l i t y a p p e a r i n g i n C l a r k ' s D i s s e r t a t i o n a n d M o n o g r a p h w i l l be q u o t e d a t l e n g t h a n d an a t t e m p t w i l l be made t o i d e n t i f y t h e e l e m e n t o r e l e m e n t s t o w h i c h t h e t e r m i s a p p l i e d . W h i l e i t i s t r u e t h a t C l a r k a n n o u n c e s h i s c a s e - s t u d y - i n - d e p t h t o be t h e A d u l t E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h o f t h e L o s A n g e l e s S c h o o l S y s t e m , h i s a p p l i c a t i o n o f c o n c e p t s o f m a r g i n a l i t y i n b o t h h i s D i s s e r t a t i o n a n d M o n o g r a p h t o n u m e r o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a n d n o n - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e l e m e n t s a p p e a r s t o e r a s e t h e c o n t e x t u a l l i m i t s o r i g i n a l l y i m p o s e d by t h e a n n o u n c e m e n t o f h i s c a s e s t u d y . T h e r e f o r e , w h i l e t h e a s s u m p t i o n i s made t h a t C l a r k ' s p r i m a r y f o c u s i s e i t h e r t h e A d u l t E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h o f t h e L o s A n g e l e s S c h o o l S y s t e m o r i t s t w e n t y - f o u r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s c h o o l s , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a p p l i c a t i o n o f c o n c e p t s o f m a r g i n a l i t y by C l a r k o u t s i d e h i s a n n o u n c e d c o n t e x t u a l l i m i t s w i l l n o t be i g n o r e d . D i e t i o n a r y D e f i n i t i o n s A s a B a s i s F o r U n d e r s t a n d i n g C l a r k ' s C o n c e p t s o f M a r g i n a l i t y D i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e t e r m m a r g i n a l i t y , i t s r o o t word a n d a d j e c t i v e , may be u s e d t o u n d e r s t a n d C l a r k ' s u s e s o f t h e t e r m m a r g i n a l i t y . D i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n s may a l s o p r o v e u s e f u l i n d e v e l o p i n g c o n c e p t s o f m a r g i n a l i t y i n t h e f i e l d . T h e y p r o v i d e a common d e f i n i t i o n a l b a s e f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g 1 "Ponograph, p . 4 7 ; 1 " 7 I b i d . ; 1 " 8 I b i d . ; 1 " 9 I b i d . , p . 4 9 ; 1 5 0 I b i d . 47 a p p l i c a t i o n s of the term of m a r g i n a l i t y w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c s e t t i n g — t h e f i e l d of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . As w i th many terms i n the E n g l i s h language , and as borne out by a q u i c k scan of most any unabr idged d i c t i o n a r y , the term m a r g i n a l i t y i s used to denote m u l t i p l e c o n c e p t s . G r a n t e d , concept s denoted by the use of a s i n g l e term are most o f t en r e l a t e d , are at t imes g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s from a more c e n t r a l c o n c e p t , and may be so c l o s e l y r e l a t e d that some i n d i v i d u a l s would c o n s i d e r them to be one and the same. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the s t a n d a r d concept s denoted by the term are d i s t i n c t enough to r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t i a l treatment and a p p l i c a t i o n as ev idenced by the m u l t i p l e d e f i n i t i o n s a s s i g n e d to the term w i t h i n numerous d i c t i o n a r i e s . 1 5 1 A Typology for C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Concepts of M a r g i n a l i t y w i l l be proposed w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s wherein d i s c r i m i n a t i n g d e f i n i t i o n s for concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y w i l l be g i v e n . These d e f i n i t i o n s , i f s p e c i f i c , may f a c i l i t a t e d i s c u s s i o n of commona l i t i e s among the d i s t i n c t concept s which w i l l have been i d e n t i f i e d from the l i t e r a t u r e of the f i e l d . The tendency in t h i s t h e s i s toward homonymy and hence away from a b s t r a c t i o n i s accounted f o r by a d e s i r e to ground the concept s w i t h i n the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e and to m a i n t a i n c o n c e p t u a l c l a r i t y . C l a r k d i d not i n d i c a t e an i n t e n t i o n to a s s i g n any s t a n d a r d d e f i n i t i o n s to h i s use of the t e r m . N e v e r t h e l e s s , examinat ion of these d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n s may serve as a b a s i s for 1 5 1 S p e c i f i c d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n s and r e f e r e n c e s to f o l l o w . 48 u n d e r s t a n d i n g h i s concept or concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y . To f a c i l i t a t e and enhance u n d e r s t a n d i n g of C l a r k ' s use of the t erm, d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n s w i l l now be reviewed for purposes of s t r e n g t h e n i n g common i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these c o n c e p t s . C l a r k appears to use the term m a r g i n a l i t y a lone as w e l l as wi th m o d i f i e r s . Concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y are a l s o denoted by C l a r k through use of the a d j e c t i v e , m a r g i n a l , p a i r e d wi th nouns—which nouns are c o n s i d e r e d , to be d e s i g n a t i o n s of the f i e l d of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n or segments of i t . D i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n s of the root word w i l l f i r s t be examined, f o l l o w e d by those for the a d j e c t i v e m a r g i n a l and the term m a r g i n a l i t y . Marg in The word margin has been i d e n t i f i e d by W e b s t e r 1 5 2 as a noun and has been used w i t h i n v a r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e s to denote concept s of n a t u r a l h i s t o r y , p s y c h o l o g y , bo tany , z o o l o g y , d e n t i s t r y , s t o c k - b r o k e r i n g , a g r i c u l t u r e , economics , commerce, l i f e - i n s u r a n c e , j o i n e r y , b u i l d i n g , p o l i t i c s , and p a t h o l o g y . 1 5 3 The word seems to be most f r e q u e n t l y used to denote "the p a r t of a page or sheet o u t s i d e the main body of p r i n t e d or w r i t t e n 1 5 2 W e b s t e r ' s T h i r d New I n t e r n a t i o n a l D i c t i o n a r y of the E n g l i sh Language , 15th e d . ( 1 9667"! s . v . "margin" , " m a r g i n a l " , and " m a r g i n a l i t y " . ( h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Webster , 1966. 1 5 3 T h e Oxford E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y , 1933 e d . , v o l . V I , s. v . " M a r g i n " , and " M a r g i n a l Thereafter c i t e d as O x f o r d , 1933; A Supplement to the O x f o r d E n g l i s h D i e t i o n a r y , 1976 e d . , v o l . I I , s. v . "margin", " m a r g i n a l " , and " m a r g i n a l i t y " . 49 m a t t e r . " 1 5 " Whi le t h i s d e f i n i t i o n may be g e n e r a l i z e d to C l a r k ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l case s t u d y , o ther d e f i n i t i o n s seem to p a r a l l e l and a i d u n d e r s t a n d i n g of C l a r k ' s concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y . The O x f o r d E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y d e f i n e s margin a s : That p a r t of a s u r f a c e which l i e s immediate ly w i t h i n i t s boundary , e s p . when in some way marked o f f or d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the r e s t of the s u r f a c e . . . . 1 5 5 T h i s p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e d e f i n i t i o n i n c l u d e s the margin w i t h i n the element and suggests that the word margin i s e s p e c i a l l y a p p l i c a b l e when i t i s p o s s i b l e to d i s t i n g u i s h the margin from the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n s of the e lement . The second d e f i n i t i o n for margin c o u l d be s a i d to be an e c o n o m i c / v a l u e d e f i n i t i o n : A c o n d i t i o n which c l o s e l y approx imates to the l i m i t below or beyond which something ceases to be p o s s i b l e or d e s i r a b l e . 1 5 6 T h i s d e f i n i t i o n c o u l d be h e l p f u l i n c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g the p o s i t i o n or s t a t e of c o n d i t i o n of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n e l ements . Economic f e a s i b i l i t y of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t s and programs i s d i s c u s s e d and i s in p a r t e v a l u a t e d w i t h i n C l a r k ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l case s t u d y . Some a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s c h o o l s might be d e s c r i b e d in economic terms to be e x i s t i n g w i t h i n such a m a r g i n , below which i t would not be f e a s i b l e , based on f i n a n c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , f or the element to c o n t i n u e . The p e r c e i v e d s t a t u s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t s and programs may be d i f f e r e n t for groups 1 5 " W e b s t e r ' s New C o l l e g i a t e D i c t i o n a r y , 1979 e d . , s . v . "margin". 1 5 5 0 x f o r d , 1933, p . 160. 1 5 6 I b i d . 50 i n t e r n a l to the system from i t s p e r c e i v e d s t a t u s for groups e x t e r n a l to the system. The assessment and a f f o r d i n g of s t a t u s r e q u i r e s a v a l u e judgment and may be de termined a c c o r d i n g to the e v a l u a t o r ' s v a l u e s system, by expres sed or u n s t a t e d v a l u e s e x i s t e n t i n t e r n a l or e x t e r n a l to the system, or by a c o m b i n a t i o n , t h e r e o f . Such va lue judgments may be based on comparison of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n e lements to o t h e r elements s e l e c t e d by the e v a l u a t o r . Webster suggests tha t the margin extends beyond "the extreme edge of something" to i n c l u d e "the a r e a l y i n g p a r a l l e l to and immediate ly a d j o i n i n g the edge e s p . [ e s p e c i a l l y ] when in some way d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the remain ing area l y i n g f a r t h e r i n : the o u t s i d e l i m i t and a d j o i n i n g s u r f a c e of s o m e t h i n g . " 1 5 7 T h i s d e f i n i t i o n appears to have been s t r u c k i n the p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e s . To g e n e r a l i z e a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s concept of margin to an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l case s tudy such as C l a r k ' s may present some d i f f i c u l t i e s . The a d u l t s c h o o l s of the Los Ange les School System are c o n s i d e r e d to e x i s t w i t h i n the formal o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . C l a r k , in h i s case s t u d y , appears to have c o n f i n e d h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s to i n t e r n a l components of a system, a l t h o u g h acceptance by groups i n t e r n a l to the o r g a n i z a t i o n , as w e l l as by e x t e r n a l groups were f e l t by C l a r k to i n f l u e n c e s t a t e s of e x i s t e n c e e x p e r i e n c e d by a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t s . I f one 1 5 7 W e b s t e r ' s New World D i e t i o n a r y , r e v . and expanded e d . (1973) , s . v . ""margin". 1 5 8 C l a r k , D i s s e r t a t i o n , p . 172. 51 speaks of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n f u n c t i o n s , 1 5 8 i n t e r a c t i o n s , or a c t i v i t i e s , 1 5 9 they may occur i n t e r n a l or e x t e r n a l to an o r g a n i z a t i o n and thus may be c o n s i d e r e d to be c o n c e p t s d i f f e r e n t from C l a r k ' s i n i t i a l concept of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m a r g i n a l i t y as a p p l i e d w i t h i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t . Whi le c e r t a i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s occur f r e q u e n t l y w i t h i n the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n f i e l d , no s i n g l e p a t t e r n seems predominant . Core s u b u n i t s w i t h i n some e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , such as w i t h i n many h i g h s c h o o l s , appear homogeneous when c o n t r a s t e d wi th t h e i r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t s . I t might be observed that a d i s t i n c t i v e margin e x i s t s . Yet in o ther e d u c a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , such as some community c o l l e g e s , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t s are i n t e g r a t e d w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n so c o m p l e t e l y tha t d i s t i n c t i o n s are more d i f f i c u l t to observe and tend to conform more c l o s e l y to the core s u b u n i t s than do the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t s w r i t t e n of i n the f i r s t example. An a d d i t i o n a l g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n by Webster i s that of the margin a c t i n g as a b u f f e r : An amount (of space , t i m e , money, m a t e r i a l , e t c . ) a l l o w e d or a v a i l a b l e i n a d d i t i o n to what i s e s t i m a t e d to be s t r i c t l y neces sary f o r a c e r t a i n p u r p o s e , and s e r v i n g as a p r o v i s i o n for unforeseen c o n t i n g e n c i e s , or a d m i t t i n g of be ing a p p l i e d to o ther p u r p o s e s . 1 6 0 U s i n g t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , one might view the f i e l d of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n as a b u f f e r between an i n s t i t u t i o n and s o c i e t y . I f 1 5 9 I b i d . , pp . 52, 116, 145. 1 6 0 W e b s t e r , 1966, s . v . "margin" . 52 one c o n c e n t r a t e s on program development , t h i s d e f i n i t i o n may be a p p l i c a b l e . In t imes of re t renchment , p a r t i c u l a r l y in period's of d e c l i n i n g e n r o l l m e n t among t r a d i t i o n a l or c o l l e g e age s tudent s and i n c r e a s i n g e n r o l l m e n t s of r e t u r n i n g and mature s t u d e n t s , the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n subun i t may p r o v i d e a p r o t e c t i v e margin or b u f f e r for the t o t a l i n s t i t u t i o n or may ac t to s t a b i l i z e t o t a l e n r o l l m e n t l e v e l s for the i n s t i t u t i o n . A d u l t s tudents may be i n t r o d u c e d to degree programs through a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs. In t h i s l i g h t , the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t f u l f i l l s a s tudent r e c r u i t m e n t r o l e . F a c u l t y l a y - o f f s may be a v e r t e d through re -ass ignment of f a c u l t y to a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs. P h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s l e f t i d l e because of d e c l i n i n g t r a d i t i o n a l e n r o l l m e n t s may be u t i l i z e d through i n c r e a s i n g the number of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs. A d d i t i o n a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n program s p o n s o r s h i p may q u a l i f y the e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n for i n c r e a s e d g r a n t s or s t a t e s u b s i d i e s , as was the case in C l a r k ' s case s t u d y , or may p r o v i d e d i r e c t income from t u i t i o n and f e e s . A d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t s may p r o v i d e i n s t i t u t i o n s w i th a margin or b u f f e r f o r i n c r e a s e d f l e x i b i l i t y i n c o p i n g wi th f l u c t u a t i o n s , whether they be i n e n r o l l m e n t , s t a f f i n g or f u n d i n g . An a d d i t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n based on economics e x i s t s for the term m a r g i n . Webster p r o v i d e d the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s : (2 ) : the l i m i t below which economic a c t i v i t y cannot be c o n t i n u e d under normal c o n d i t i o n s : the p a r t i c u l a r c o n d i t i o n (as w i th r e g a r d to the increment of r e t u r n f o r l a b o r or for i n t e r e s t on an investment) tha t l i m i t s the e x i s t e n c e or c o n t i n u a n c e of an economic p r o c e s s o ther t h i n g s be ing unchanged <a • of p r o d u c t i o n > <the • of consumption> 5 a: the d i f f e r e n c e tha t e x i s t s between net s a l e s and the c o s t of merchandise s o l d and tha t i s taken as tha t from which expenses must be met or p r o f i t d e r i v e d or from which 53 other o b l i g a t i o n s must be met or o ther advantages d e r i v e d - - c a l l e d a l s o gros s m a r g i n . 1 6 1 T h i s economic d e f i n i t i o n might w e l l be a p p l i c a b l e anywhere there i s economic a c t i v i t y , c o s t s , and s a l e s , i n c l u d i n g a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs. The gross margin might be c a l c u l a t e d s t r i c t l y on the b a s i s of income d e r i v e d from t u i t i o n s and fees minus i n s t i t u t i o n a l expenses . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , e d u c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , i t s b e n e f i t w i t h i n s o c i e t y and i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t i v i t y for which i t may account might become p a r t of the e v a l u a t i v e formula f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the gross m a r g i n . Gross margin w i t h i n the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t would not be a d i r e c t index of m a r g i n a l i t y . Rather the index would be the gros s margin of the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n subuni t in r e l a t i o n to the gros s margin found in o ther s u b u n i t s of the p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . A Supplement to the O x f o r d E n g l i s h D i e t i o n a r y 1 6 2 g i v e s the term " p r o f i t margin" as one a c c e p t a b l e d e f i n i t i o n of the r o o t . I t d e f i n e s a p r o f i t margin as the excess between income and expenses and suggests tha t the p r o f i t margin can be i n c r e a s e d by s c a l i n g down usages , i n t e r p r e t e d to mean usages r e s u l t i n g in expenses beyond r e s u l t a n t income. Another p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l d e f i n i t i o n of margin i s one used w i t h i n b r o k e r a g e . The brokerage d e f i n i t i o n of margin i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h common d e f i n i t i o n s for "margin of s a f e t y " where: an a l lowance [ i s ] made for s a f e t y , spec , a number e q u a l to the f a c t o r of s a f e t y (*FACTOR s b . 8) minus 1 6 1 I b i d . , 1966, s . v . "margin". 1 6 Supplement , 1976, s. v . "margin." 54 o n e . 1 6 3 Webster s u p p l i e s the f o l l o w i n g brokerage d e f i n i t i o n : b: the excess market va lue of c o l l a t e r a l over the face of a l oan c (1) : cash or c o l l a t e r a l which i s d e p o s i t e d wi th a broker to secure him from l o s s on a c o n t r a c t made on b e h a l f of h i s p r i n c i p a l and which may a l s o c o n s t i t u t e a p a r t i a l payment of the purchase p r i c e (2 ) : a c u s t o m e r ' s e q u i t y i f h i s account i s t e r m i n a t e d at p r e v a i l i n g market p r i c e s 1 6 " These brokerage d e f i n i t i o n s of margin are p o t e n t i a l l y h e l p f u l because of the p o s s i b i l i t y • of v i e w i n g a d u l t e d u c a t i o n as p r o v i d i n g a margin of s a f e t y for the p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . An a d u l t e d u c a t i o n subuni t may be a l l o w e d to deve lop i n a s s o c i a t i o n wi th a p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n or may even have been e s t a b l i s h e d wi th the i n t e n t i o n for i t to serve as a b u f f e r to the l a r g e r e d u c a t i o n a l system, to government and to soc ie ty . . T y p i c a l l y i n t imes of s u r p l u s and growth, a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s the r e c i p i e n t of excess funds which are used to p i l o t programs. As s t a b i l i t y i s s u s t a i n e d , f u n c t i o n s of the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t may g r a d u a l l y be t r a n s f e r r e d to o ther more c e n t r a l s u b u n i t s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n and funding to the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t s may be p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y reduced . In t imes of re t renchment , an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t may r e c e i v e the f i r s t and most d r a s t i c c u t s i n f u n d i n g , s t a f f and p r o g r a m i n g . A d u l t e d u c a t i o n tends to p r o t e c t the c o r e of the p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n from the ravages of the l e g i s l a t u r e and p u b l i c i n t imes of f i n a n c i a l c r i s e s and thus may to some degree be equated wi th the b r o k e r ' s m a r g i n - - a margin which may be s a c r i f i c e d wi thout j e o p a r d i z i n g the s a f e t y , 1 6 3 I b i d . 1 6 " W e b s t e r , 1966, s. v . " m a r g i n . " 55 i n t e g r i t y and s t a b i l i t y of the c e n t r a l s u b u n i t s . C l a r k not on ly used the root of the term m a r g i n a l i t y to denote h i s concept or concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y w i t h i n h i s d o c o t r a l s tudy but a l s o the a d j e c t i v e , m a r g i n a l , p a i r e d wi th v a r i o u s nouns to denote the concept or concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y . M a r g i n a l The word m a r g i n a l i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n a l l d i c t i o n a r i e s c i t e d w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s as an a d j e c t i v e , "a word used to l i m i t or q u a l i f y a noun or o ther s u b s t a n t i v e " . 1 6 5 When used as a q u a l i f i e r , the a t t r i b u t e s of e x i s t e n c e w i t h i n the margin or in s i t u a t i o n s d e f i n e d by d e f i n i t i o n s of margin d i s c u s s e d w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s , are c o n s i d e r e d to be the d e l i m i t e r s or q u a n t i f i e r s and q u a l i f i e r s of the noun. When C l a r k r e f e r r e d to a "marginal p r o g r a m ; " 1 6 6 "marg ina l s c h o o l p r o g r a m ; " 1 6 7 or "marginal a c t i v i t y ; " 1 6 8 the term m a r g i n a l i s used as an a d j e c t i v e to d e s c r i b e the e x i s t e n c e of the program, s c h o o l program, or a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the m a r g i n , r e g a r d l e s s of which d e f i n i t i o n of margin i s a c c e p t e d and a p p l i e d . When the a d j e c t i v e , m a r g i n a l , 1 6 5 W e b s t e r , 1973, s. v . " m a r g i n a l . " 1 6 6 C l a r k , D i s s e r t a t i o n , p . 14; Monograph, p p . 57, 58, 75. 1 6 7 I d e m , Monograph, pp . 118, 140. 1 6 8 I b i d . , pp . 52, 116, 145. 1 6 9 I d e m , D i s s e r t a t i o n , p . 36; Monograph, pp . 62, 123, 142, 148, 149. 1 7 0 I d e m , D i s s e r t a t i o n , p p . 27, 172, 203; Monograph,pp . 45, 57, 58, 96, 150. 56 i s used to d e s c r i b e " s t a t u s , " 1 6 9 " p o s i t i o n , " 1 7 0 or " e x i s t e n c e , " 1 7 1 i t d e s i g n a t e s l e s s than f u l l s t a t u s , n o n - c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n , or t e n t a t i v e or p r e c a r i o u s s t a t e s of e x i s t e n c e be ing e x p e r i e n c e d by the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n e l e m e n t — t r a i t s which are r e s u l t a n t from e x i s t e n c e w i t h i n the m a r g i n . The p o s i t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n of the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n element or a t t r i b u t e , be i t the g e n e r a l v a l u e , an independent a d u l t e d u c a t i o n u n i t , or an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t , i s s t i l l an e s s e n t i a l c o n t e x t u a l f a c t o r for u n d e r s t a n d i n g concepts of s t a t u s . M a r g i n a l i t y Both W e b s t e r 1 7 2 and the O x f o r d E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y d e f i n e m a r g i n a l i t y as "The q u a l i t y or s t a t e of be ing m a r g i n a l . " Because i t appears that C l a r k and o ther a u t h o r s w r i t i n g i n the f i e l d of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n have used the terms m a r g i n , m a r g i n a l and m a r g i n a l i t y to denote v a r i o u s s t a t e s of e x i s t e n c e , i t has become important that d i s t i n c t i o n s a s s i g n e d to the three terms, i f any , be made i f the three terms are to be used w i t h c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . Whi le the words margin and m a r g i n a l may be used in d e s c r i p t i o n of c o n d i t i o n s o f , or i n d i c e s of m a r g i n a l i t y , on ly the term m a r g i n a l i t y , t o g e t h e r w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e d e s c r i p t o r s , p a r s i m o n i o u s l y denotes the v a r i o u s concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y in a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . The na ture of the q u a l i t y or s t a t e of b e i n g m a r g i n a l i s dependent upon the 1 7 , I b i d . , p . 142. 1 7 2 W e b s t e r , 1966, s. v . " m a r g i n a l i t y . " 57 d e f i n i t i o n of margin a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a p p l i c a t i o n of a concept of m a r g i n a l i t y i n a g iven i n s t a n c e . That d e f i n i t i o n might d u p l i c a t e or e n l a r g e upon any of the p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n s , or may be a s s i g n e d new meanings by C l a r k and o ther a u t h o r s . The p r e c e e d i n g d e f i n i t i o n s of m a r g i n , m a r g i n a l , and m a r g i n a l i t y , may be h e l p f u l i n i d e n t i f y i n g C l a r k ' s usage of the term m a r g i n a l i t y . Through matching these v a r i o u s concepts a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the root word to C l a r k ' s usage of the term m a r g i n a l i t y w i t h i n h i s d o c t o r a l s t u d y , one might determine whether he used the term to denote a s i n g l e concept or m u l t i p l e concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y . I f m u l t i p l e concepts 6f m a r g i n a l i t y e x i s t w i t h i n the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n l i t e r a t u r e , the d e f i n i t i o n s may prove h e l p f u l f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g among them and for examining the t h e o r e t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of such d i s t i n c t i o n s . The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n t h i s c h a p t e r of C l a r k ' s w r i t i n g s , the review of C l a r k ' s d o c o t r a l s tudy and i t s s o c i o l o g i c a l and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n d e r p i n n i n g s , and the review of d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n s p e r t i n e n t to a p p l i c a t i o n s of the term m a r g i n a l i t y , c o n s t i t u t e a p e r s p e c t i v e from which to approach the a n a l y s i s of C l a r k ' s uses of the term m a r g i n a l i t y w i t h i n h i s D i s s e r t a t i o n and Monograph. A l l three are v i t a l t o o l s for such an e v a l u a t i v e p r o c e s s . The na ture of the s t a t e of be ing m a r g i n a l i s dependent upon the d e f i n i t i o n of margin a s s o c i a t e d wi th a p p l i c a t i o n of a concept of m a r g i n a l i t y i n a g i v e n i n s t a n c e . That d e f i n i t i o n might d u p l i c a t e or e n l a r g e upon any o f . t h e p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d d i c t i o n a r y d e f i n i t i o n s , or may be a s s i g n e d new meanings by C l a r k a n d o t h e r a u t h o r s . 59 CHAPTER III DIRECT LABELING OF CONCEPTS OF MARGINALITY IN CLARK'S DISSERTATION T h i s c h a p t e r i s d e d i c a t e d to the p r e s e n t a t i o n of uses of the term m a r g i n a l i t y from C l a r k ' s D i s s e r t a t i o n , the p r i m a r y document of t h i s s t u d y . Each use of the term w i l l be quoted at s u f f i c i e n t l e n g t h to ensure tha t adequate t e x t w i l l be p r e s e n t e d to f a c i l i t a t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of c r i t i c a l c o n c e p t u a l e l ements . Whi le each use w i l l be d i s c u s s e d upon p r e s e n t a t i o n , the a n a l y s i s of the usages i n d i v i d u a l l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y w i l l be r e s e r v e d for Chapter I V . C l a r k used the term m a r g i n a l i t y seventeen t imes in h i s D i s s e r t a t i o n . Whi le C l a r k a l s o used o ther terms to l a b e l concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y , the seventeen uses of the term i t s e l f w i l l s erve as the b a s i s for t h i s a n a l y s i s . The i n i t i a l a n a l y s i s s e t s the f o u n d a t i o n f o r a n a l y s i s of f u r t h e r use of the term in C l a r k ' s p u b l i s h e d w r i t i n g s . L i k e w i s e , t h i s examinat ion may serve as a b a s i s for a n a l y z i n g concept s of m a r g i n a l i t y which have been l a b e l e d w i t h a l t e r n a t e t erms . C l a r k ' s use of m a r g i n a l i t y i n h i s D i s s e r t a t i o n i s 60 a p p a r e n t l y the i n i t i a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the concepts to the f i e l d of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . C l a r k ' s D i s s e r t a t i o n has r e c e i v e d l i m i t e d r e a d i n g , as i n d i c a t e d by the absence of even a s i n g l e d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e to the document in any of the p u b l i c a t i o n s examined in the w r i t i n g of t h i s t h e s i s . N e v e r t h e l e s s i t i s the p r i m a r y source for the term and concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y . C l a r k ' s 1956 a r t i c l e , g i v e n the same t i t l e as h i s D i s s e r t a t i o n , and i d e n t i f i e d e l sewhere in t h i s t h e s i s as the Monograph, i s the p o p u l a r p u b l i s h e d v e r s i o n of h i s s t u d y . Whi le i t might be deemed h e l p f u l to group term uses from C l a r k ' s w r i t i n g s a c c o r d i n g to noted d i s t i n c t i o n s or v a r i a t i o n s in concepts they denote , the p r e s e n t a t i o n of quoted term use w i l l , be s e q u e n t i a l f or purposes of more f u l l y f o l l o w i n g the c o g n i t i v e development of the term by Burton R. C l a r k . Each use of the term w i l l be numbered and each c i t a t i o n d i s c u s s e d to show i t s meaning w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c c o n t e x t . A summary and a n a l y s i s of the uses w i l l f o l l o w in the next c h a p t e r . Data ga thered from i n d i v i d u a l uses of the term w i t h i n the D i s s e r t a t ion w i l l be t a b l e d i n summary form and w i l l be c r i t i q u e d as s u c h . Because not a l l observed data from t h i s a n a l y s i s of uses l ends i t s e l f to t a b l i n g , such data and d i s c u s s i o n and c r i t i q u e , t h e r e o f , w i l l f o l l o w by o r d e r of C l a r k ' s use i n the t h e s i s s u b - s e c t i o n l a b e l e d , Item A n a l y s i s and C r i t i q u e . T h i s a n a l y s i s focuses on the use of the term m a r g i n a l i t y w i t h i n C l a r k ' s D i s s e r t a t i o n . Other t h e s i s s u b - s e c t i o n s f o l l o w i n which the uses of the term m a r g i n a l i t y i n the Monograph w i l l be c i t e d i n s u f f i c i e n t l e n g t h to permi t the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of 61 the s p e c i f i c meanings i n c o n t e x t . U t i l i z i n g d i s t i n c t i o n s a l r e a d y made through r e f e r e n c e to d i c t i o n a r i e s , use of each term w i l l be s e p a r a t e l y t r a c e d a c c o r d i n g to i t s s e q u e n t i a l use by C l a r k . Uses of the term m a r g i n a l i t y w i t h i n C l a r k ' s D i s s e r t a t i o n w i l l be i d e n t i f i e d as D1 through D17. C o r r e s p o n d i n g numbering w i l l i d e n t i f y these q u o t a t i o n s of use in the t a b l e d a n a l y s e s (Tab le 3). Term uses w i l l f r e q u e n t l y be r e f e r r e d to by t h e i r a l p h a - n u m e r i c l a b e l s . I t i s important w i t h each use of the term m a r g i n a l i t y to determine the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and the comparat ive e lements or a t t r i b u t e s be ing r e f e r r e d t o . Contex t s of a p p l i c a t i o n w i l l be noted f o r t h e i r p o t e n t i a l use i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g d i s t i n c t concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y and for development of d e f i n i t i o n s . Use of the Term M a r g i n a l i t y W i t h i n C l a r k ' s D i s s e r t a t i o n C l a r k f i r s t used the term m a r g i n a l i t y i n the second c h a p t e r e n t i t l e d "PRESSURES ON A MARGINAL P R O G R A M " . 1 7 3 He i d e n t i f i e d m a r g i n a l i t y as an h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n tha t shaped s e r v i c e - t y p e o r g a n i z a t i o n s d u r i n g the development of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l system of C a l i f o r n i a . 1 7 " H i s " s i g n i f i c a n t c o n d i t i o n s , " 1 7 5 C l a r k e x p l a i n e d , were " r e c o n s t r u c t e d from the e x p e r i e n c e of p a r t i c i p a n t s , and from the h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d as i t i s c o n t a i n e d i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f i l e s , p u b l i c documents, and 1 7 3 C l a r k , D i s s e r t a t i o n , p . 24. 1 7 f l I b i d . 1 7 5 I b i d . 62 p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s . " 1 7 6 C l a r k e x p l a i n e d h i s r a t i o n a l e for l a b e l i n g m a r g i n a l i t y as a c o n d i t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n : (D1) The e lements d i s c u s s e d below are d e f i n e d as c o n d i t i o n s because they l a r g e l y e x i s t as "givens" for the d e c i s i o n s made i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n departments of s c h o o l systems. They are important in d e f i n i n g the environment of d e c i s i o n - making w i t h i n which program a d m i n i s t r a t o r s o p e r a t e . Over the l o n g - r u n i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t o r s to e f f e c t changes in these c o n d i t i o n s ; e . g . , t h e i r s u s t a i n e d e f f o r t to reduce the m a r g i n a l i t y of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n w i t h i n the p u b l i c - s c h o o l framework. But i n the here-and-now of d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , these h i s t o r i c a l e lements are c o n d i t i o n s of d e c i s i o n and a c t i o n , r a t h e r than means or ends r e a d i l y changed by l e a d e r s h i p . 1 1 T h i s p o i n t i s emphasized here s i n c e we are t r e a t i n g the formal g o a l s of p u b l i c - s c h o o l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n as a c o n d i t i o n of l o c a l d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g . Compare the view of C h e s t e r I . Barnard on purpose as p a r t of the o b j e c t i v e environment w i t h i n which new d e c i s i o n s are made. Ches ter I . B a r n a r d , The F u n c t i o n of the E x e c u t i v e , (Cambridge: H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1938), pp . 1 9 4 - 9 5 . 1 7 7 C l a r k , i n t h i s f i r s t use of the term m a r g i n a l i t y speaks of m a r g i n a l i t y as a r a t h e r s t a b l e c o n d i t i o n and environment i n which a d u l t e d u c a t i o n departments of s c h o o l systems are a d m i n i s t e r e d . In the i n t r o d u c t i o n to h i s Di s s e r t a t i o n , C l a r k noted tha t h i s "study of o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e i r v a l u e s and t h e i r p r a c t i c e s " d i r e c t l y concerned "the development of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l system of C a l i f o r n i a . " 1 7 8 He f u r t h e r i d e n t i f i e d h i s " c a s e - s t u d y - i n - d e p t h " to be the "Adul t 1 7 6 I b i d . 1 7 7 I b i d . , pp . 24-25. 1 7 8 I b i d . , p . 4. 63 E d u c a t i o n Branch of the Los Ange les Schoo l S y s t e m . " 1 7 9 In q u o t a t i o n D1, C l a r k a p p l i e d the term m a r g i n a l i t y to "adul t e d u c a t i o n w i t h i n the p u b l i c - s c h o o l f r a m e w o r k , " 1 8 0 wi thout r e s t r i c t i o n s to a s p e c i f i c case s t u d y , o r g a n i z a t i o n a l element or s t r u c t u r e , or geographic l o c a t i o n . A d u l t e d u c a t i o n , as noted e a r l i e r by C l a r k , c o u l d be unders tood to i n c l u d e the "genera l v a l u e " 1 8 1 as w e l l as implementat ions of t h i s "genera l va lue" through o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e l ements . One of the " h i s t o r i c a l elements" or " c o n d i t i o n s of d e c i s i o n and a c t i o n " 1 8 2 d i s c u s s e d by C l a r k i s m a r g i n a l i t y . The f i r s t sentence of q u o t a t i o n D1 may be unders tood to acknowledge the e x i s t e n c e of s t a t e s of m a r g i n a l i t y o u t s i d e of "adul t e d u c a t i o n departments of s c h o o l sys tems," but i t a l s o notes tha t m a r g i n a l i t y and the o ther c o n d i t i o n s " l a r g e l y e x i s t as ' g i v e n s ' f o r the d e c i s i o n s made in the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n departments of s c h o o l s y s t e m s . " 1 8 3 C l a r k ' s second a p p l i c a t i o n of the term, m a r g i n a l i t y , appears i n a D i s s e r t a t i o n subheadings : (D2) Sources and I n d i c e s of M a r g i n a l i t y In broad terms the p r i m a r y m i s s i o n of a p u b l i c s c h o o l system in the U n i t e d S t a t e s i s the e d u c a t i o n of the young. W i t h i n both s c h o o l ranks and the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n , the rank o r d e r of acceptance of d i f f e r e n t 1 7 9 I b i d . p . 3. 1 8 0 I b i d . , p . 24. 1 8 ' I b i d . , p . 1 . 1 8 2 I b i d . , p p . 24 1 8 3 I b i d . 64 s c h o o l programs and l e g i t i m a t e concerns of p u b l i c supported e d u c a t i o n tends to f o l l o w the .age p r o g r e s s i o n . H i s t o r i c a l l y , p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for e lementary e d u c a t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d f i r s t , f o l l o w e d by the l e g i t i m a t i o n of h i g h s c h o o l and j u n i o r c o l l e g e l e v e l s . J u n i o r c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d i n C a l i f o r n i a where there i s a s t a t e system of a p p r o x i m a t e l y seventy j u n i o r c o l l e g e s . P r o v i d i n g secondary e d u c a t i o n of t h i r t e e n t h and f o u r t e e n t h y e a r , 2 these c o l l e g e s are l i n k e d to the grade-sequence s t r u c t u r e of the s c h o o l system. 2 I n C a l i f o r n i a , p u b l i c j u n i o r c o l l e g e s are d e f i n e d as an upward e x t e n s i o n of secondary e d u c a t i o n . See Jes se P . Bogue, The Community C o l l e g e , (New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1950), pp . 9 - 1 4 . 1 8 " W i t h i n a seven-page s u b s e c t i o n C l a r k ' i d e n t i f i e s sources and i n d i c e s of m a r g i n a l i t y and beg ins to d e v e l o p h i s i n i t i a l concept of m a r g i n a l i t y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , he d i d not o r g a n i z e the s u b s e c t i o n i n a way which d i s t i n g u i s h e d sources of m a r g i n a l i t y from i n d i c e s of the s t a t u s . Rather he i n t e r m i n g l e d what he i d e n t i f i e d as s o u r c e s , i n d i c e s , bases , symptoms and ev idences of m a r g i n a l i t y 1 8 5 He i d e n t i f i e d h i s contex t as the " p u b l i c s c h o o l system in the U n i t e d S t a t e s " 1 8 6 and addres sed the acceptance of p u b l i c l y supported e d u c a t i o n a l s c h o o l programs by those w i t h i n s c h o o l ranks and the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n . He f a i l e d to i n d i c a t e whether "age p r o g r e s s i o n " 1 8 7 i s an index or a source of m a r g i n a l i t y . He i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n which have been i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d and l e g i t i m i z e d : e lementary e d u c a t i o n , 1 8 " I b i d . , P . 25. 1 8 5 I b i d . , pp . 25-6 . 1 8 6 I b i d . , P . 25. 1 8 7 I b i d . 65 h i g h s c h o o l , and j u n i o r c o l l e g e . In C l a r k ' s t h i r d use of the term he a p p l i e d h i s concept w i t h i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t and c l a i m s d i f f i c u l t y in a s s e s s i n g and v a l i d a t i n g of the s t a t u s . (D3) In c o n t r a s t to the p o s i t i o n of e l e m e n t a r y , h i g h s c h o o l , and j u n i o r c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i s , of c o u r s e , not p a r t of the p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n l a d d e r , and i t s c l i e n t e l e e x i s t s a lmost c o m p l e t e l y o u t s i d e of the c o m p u l s o r y - a t t e n d a n c e age g r o u p s . 3 I t e x i s t s as a s e p a r a t e , p e r i p h e r a l a c t i v i t y . When an a d u l t program i s e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n a s c h o o l system, i t s p e r s o n n e l f i n d s i t s e l f w i t h i n a f a m i l y of w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d , w e l l - a c c e p t e d programs. C o n s i d e r e d on i t s e d u c a t i o n a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y a l o n e , the a d u l t a c t i v i t y i n i t i a l l y e x i s t s in a somewhat p r e c a r i o u s s t a t e . I t must compete w i t h the pr imary departments for budget support and for g e n e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n . T h i s has been h i s t o r i c a l l y the s t a t u s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and to a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree seems an a p p r o p r i a t e c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n t o d a y . I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o . a s s e s s such a f a c t o r as o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m a r g i n a l i t y , s i n c e the q u e s t i o n of v a l i d a t i o n i n v o l v e s acceptance by d i f f e r e n t groups w i t h i n and wi thout the s c h o o l system, and acceptance on v a r i o u s grounds . 3 S c h o o l a t tendance i s compulsory u n t i l the age of s i x t e e n i n C a l i f o r n i a . I f a person drops out of s c h o o l a f t e r that age but has not graduated from h i g h s c h o o l , he must a t t e n d a c o n t i n u a t i o n s c h o o l for four hours a week u n t i l e i g h t e e n . C o n t i n u a t i o n s c h o o l s are not now c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . 1 8 8 C l a r k ' s use of the terms " o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m a r g i n a l i t y " 1 8 9 appears to s t r e s s the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l contex t w i t h i n which he a p p l i e s the t erm. I t i s the o n l y use of the d e s c r i p t o r in the Di s s e r t a t i o n . There i s no d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n of a concept of 1 8 8 I b i d . , 1 8 9 I b i d . pp . 25-26. 66 m a r g i n a l i t y i n q u o t a t i o n D3 to C l a r k ' s case s t u d y . In r e f e r r i n g to "adul t e d u c a t i o n " , 1 9 0 C l a r k c o u l d mean e i t h e r the "general v a l u e , " 1 9 1 the f i e l d , or an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t . H i s r e f e r e n c e to an "adul t p r o g r a m " 1 9 2 c o u l d have been unders tood to a l l o w most any c o n t e x t i f he had not s p e c i f i c a l l y r e f e r r e d to i t s e s t a b l i s h m e n t in a s c h o o l system wherein i t s e d u c a t i o n a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y i n r e l a t i o n to that of more w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d and w e l l - a c c e p t e d programs tended to determine i t s "somewhat p r e c a r i o u s s t a t e . " 1 9 3 C l a r k appears to be e q u a t i n g t h i s "somewhat p r e c a r i o u s s ta te" wi th the s t a t e of e x i s t e n c e he terms m a r g i n a l i t y . W i t h i n q u o t a t i o n D3, C l a r k i d e n t i f i e s three a d u l t e d u c a t i o n e lements : an a d u l t l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , and "a separate p e r i p h e r a l a c t i v i t y . " 1 9 " An "adul t a c t i v i t y " 1 9 5 i n the c o n t e x t of a s c h o o l system c o u l d be a d e s i g n a t i o n of any s i n g l e a d u l t a c t i v i t y , a s i n g l e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , a program, c l a s s , c u r r i c u l u m , s c h o o l , b r a n c h , department , d i v i s i o n or a m u l t i p l e of any of the p r e c e d i n g examples . S e v e r a l comparat ive e lements were i d e n t i f i e d by C l a r k i n q u o t a t i o n D3: e l ementary , h i g h s c h o o l , and j u n i o r c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s ; w e l l - 1 9 0 I b i d . , p p . 25-6 . 1 9 ' I b i d . , 9 2 I b i d . 1 9 3 I b i d . 1 9 " l b i d . 1 9 5 I b i d . 67 e s t a b l i s h e d , w e l l - a c c e p t e d programs; and p r i m a r y departments , assumed to be the p r i m a r y s u b u n i t s w i t h i n a common p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . In C l a r k ' s r e f e r e n c e to "primary d e p a r t m e n t s , " 1 9 6 there i s no i n d i c a t i o n of whether these comparat ive departments e x i s t or must e x i s t on a s c h o o l , b r a n c h , d i v i s i o n or system l e v e l . I t i s d i f f i c u l t from the p r e c e d i n g q u o t a t i o n to a s se s s how C l a r k d e f i n e s m a r g i n a l i t y or why i t was that a d u l t e d u c a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e d i t . C l a r k made . no d i s t i n c t i o n as to whether the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of m a r g i n a l i t y he l i s t e d are i n d i c e s or the source of the s t a t e of m a r g i n a l i t y . An index of m a r g i n a l i t y used to i d e n t i f y the s t a t u s of an element e x p e r i e n c i n g m a r g i n a l i t y i s not e q u i v a l e n t to a f a c t o r which c o n t r i b u t e s to e s t a b l i s h m e n t of s t a t e s of m a r g i n a l i t y . C l a r k r e f e r s to a d u l t e d u c a t i o n as be ing " i n a somewhat p r e c a r i o u s s t a t e " 1 9 7 of e x i s t e n c e . He f u r t h e r r e f e r s to "the s t a t u s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n " 1 9 8 which suggests a rank o r d e r i n g of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n in r e l a t i o n to o ther e l ements . E q u a t i n g m a r g i n a l i t y w i th a s t a t e of e x i s t e n c e i s congruent w i th l a b e l i n g i t as a s t a t u s , f o r s t a t u s denotes both e x i s t e n c e and r a n k i n g . A g a i n , as in C l a r k ' s f i r s t - use of the term (D1 ) , there i s c o n f u s i o n i n q u o t a t i o n D3 c o n c e r n i n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of both the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n element and i t s comparat ive e l ement . Reference 1 9 6 I b i d . 1 9 7 I b i d . , 1 9 8 I b i d . p . 26. 68 to a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u l d a l l o w the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n that assessment and v a l i d a t i o n of m a r g i n a l i t y i s d i f f i c u l t in a l l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o n t e x t s , both o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and non- o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , in which m a r g i n a l i t y e x i s t s . A d u l t e d u c a t i o n elements s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned by C l a r k i n t h i s q u o t a t i o n i n a d d i t i o n to h i s g e n e r a l d e s i g n a t i o n of "adul t e d u c a t i o n " are "a s e p a r a t e , p e r i p h e r a l a c t i v i t y , " . " a n a d u l t p r o g r a m . . . w i t h i n a s c h o o l sys tem," and an "adul t a c t i v i t y . " 1 9 9 A l t h o u g h the " C o n t i n u a t i o n s c h o o l s " 2 0 0 mentioned by C l a r k were not o f f i c i a l l y r e c o g n i z e d at the time of C l a r k ' s w r i t i n g s as p a r t of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n in C a l i f o r n i a , such s c h o o l s might be c o n s i d e r e d to be p a r t of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n at a d i f f e r e n t t ime in C a l i f o r n i a or might be c o n s i d e r e d p a r t of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n e l s ewhere . C l a r k observed tha t the c o n t i n u a t i o n s c h o o l s were not at the t ime c o n s i d e r e d to be p a r t of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , that i s they were not be ing r e c o g n i z e d as p a r t of the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Branch of the Los Angeles Schoo l System. C l a r k , i n n o t i n g that the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n " c l i e n t e l e e x i s t s almost c o m p l e t e l y [ s i c ] o u t s i d e of the c o m p u l s o r y - a t t e n d a n c e age g r o u p , " 2 0 1 made r e f e r e n c e to the c o n t i n u a t i o n s c h o o l s . H i s f o o t n o t e d e x a m p l e 2 0 2 might be for purposes of showing that because a t tendance i s mandatory u n t i l the age of e i g h t e e n for those not hav ing 1 9 9 I b i d . 2 0 0 I b i d . 2 0 1 I b i d . f p . 25. 2 0 2 I b i d . , pp . 25-6 . 69 graduated from h i g h s c h o o l , that not c o n s i d e r i n g c o n t i n u i n g s c h o o l s as p a r t of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u p p o r t s h i s statement that a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c l i e n t e l e e x i s t a lmost c o m p l e t e l y o u t s i d e of the c o m p u l s o r y - a t t e n d a n c e age group . The second p o s s i b i l i t y i s that C l a r k f e l t c o n t i n u i n g s c h o o l s are a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and he was f o o t n o t i n g what he f e l t - w a s an anomaly. Given the contex t in C l a r k ' s D i s s e r t a t i o n , i t i s not p o s s i b l e to determine wi th c e r t a i n t y e d u c a t i o n how C l a r k would c l a s s i f y o c c u r r i n g in c o n t i n u i n g s c h o o l s . C l a r k i d e n t i f i e d a number of p o t e n t i a l comparat ive e lements in q u o t a t i o n D3, i n c l u d i n g the "e lementary , h i g h s c h o o l , and j u n i o r c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s " of the s c h o o l system, the "school system" i t s e l f which c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as a whole , "a f a m i l y of w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d , w e l l - a c c e p t e d programs ," and "primary departments" w i t h i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n . 2 0 3 C l a r k d i d not r e s t r i c t h i s concept of m a r g i n a l i t y to any one of those ment ioned . When C l a r k wrote of "primary departments" and "a f a m i l y of w e l l - e s t a b l i s h e d , w e l l - a c c e p t e d programs ," he d i d not i n d i c a t e the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e v e l w i t h i n the s c h o o l system to which comparison of the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n element was or sh ou ld be m a d e . 2 0 " F u r t h e r m o r e , s e v e r a l p o t e n t i a l comparat ive e lements were i d e n t i f i e d by C l a r k in h i s d iagram of the O r g a n i z a t i o n a l 2 0 3 I b i d . 2 0 " l b i d . , p . 29. 2 0 5 P r e s e n t e d e a r l i e r in t h i s t h e s i s as T a b l e 1. 70 S t r u c t u r e of the Los Ange les Schoo l System, 1 9 5 2 - 5 3 . 2 0 5 P o t e n t i a l comparat ive u n i t s i d e n t i f i e d for the a d u l t s c h o o l s i n c l u d e d the e lementary s c h o o l s ; secondary s c h o o l s i n c l u d i n g both j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s ; and j u n i o r c o l l e g e s . M a r g i n a l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l a d u l t s c h o o l s may be a s se s sed at t imes w h i l e at o ther t imes i t may be a s s e s s e d for a d u l t s c h o o l s a g g r e g a t e d . P o t e n t i a l comparat ive u n i t s to the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Branch i d e n t i f i e d by C l a r k i n c l u d e d the f i v e e lementary d i s t r i c t s w i t h i n the D i v i s i o n of E lementary E d u c a t i o n , the J u n i o r High C e n t r a l O f f i c e and the S e n i o r High C e n t r a l O f f i c e w i t h i n the D i v i s i o n of Secondary E d u c a t i o n , and the J u n i o r C o l l e g e C e n t r a l O f f i c e w i t h i n the D i v i s i o n of E x t e n s i o n ' and Higher E d u c a t i o n . At the l e v e l of o p e r a t i n g d i v i s i o n s , the p o t e n t i a l comparat ive o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s u b u n i t s for the D i v i s i o n of E x t e n s i o n and Higher E d u c a t i o n are the D i v i s i o n of E lementary E d u c a t i o n and the D i v i s i o n of Secondary E d u c a t i o n . A l l three o p e r a t i n g d i v i s i o n s are a d m i n i s t e r e d by two boards and a commission through a common s u p e r i n t e n d e n t and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of both b u s i n e s s and e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s d i v i s i o n s who are o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l y a c c o u n t a b l e to the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t . From C l a r k ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r t 2 0 6 i t i s i n f e r r e d that a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s of the Ret i rement Board and the P e r s o n n e l Commission are f u n n e l l e d through the Board of E d u c a t i o n f o r purposes of a p p r o v a l b e f o r e be ing g i v e n to the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t as mandates. 2 0 6 I b i d . 7 1 The a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t s noted by C l a r k in h i s c h a r t of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of the Los Ange les Schoo l System have been diagrammed as equa l s to t h e i r comparat ive s u b u n i t s at each a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l . There i s no i n d i c a t i o n of m a r g i n a l i t y for the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t s . P o t e n t i a l comparat ive s u b u n i t s i d e n t i f i e d by C l a r k in h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e c h a r t 2 0 7 have been so termed w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s because i t i s f e l t that C l a r k has p r o v i d e d no i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n the c h a r t to suggest d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s t a t u s between a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t s and the named p o t e n t i a l comparat ive s u b u n i t s . Concepts of m a r g i n a l i t y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s denote s t a t e s of e x i s t e n c e w i t h i n l a r g e r systems wherein the s t a t u s of the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n element i s judged to be lower than tha t a c c o r d e d p r i m a r y elements i n the system. W i t h i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e t t i n g s the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and comparat ive e lements are denoted as s u b u n i t s , and e lements f u l f i l l i n g major o b j e c t i v e s of an i n s t i t u t i o n are termed pr imary s u b u n i t s . I t would appear that s t a n d a r d s w i t h i n a system are f r e q u e n t l y m a n i f e s t i n system s t r u c t u r e . Models of system s t r u c t u r e may be based on a number of v a r i a b l e s such as a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a t u s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e power, i n f l u e n c e , f u n c t i o n , f i n a n c i n g , or by mandated or l e g i s l a t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y which appear to be the two most common f o c i i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r t i n g . C l a r k ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e c h a r t 2 0 7 I b i d . 72 which he adapted from a c h a r t in use in the Los Angeles s c h o o l system d u r i n g 1 9 5 2 - 3 , 2 0 8 r e p r e s e n t s the h i e r a r c h i c a l arrangement of v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t s . I t appears to be based on a mandated l i n e of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y . No d i f f e r e n c e in s t a t u s i s e v i d e n t for a d u l t e d u c a t i o n in C l a r k ' s c h a r t of the O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e of the Los Ange les Schoo l System. T h i s i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to the l i m i t e d nature of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r t i n g tha t i s based on a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l i n e s of a u t h o r i t y . S i g n i f i c a n t c h a r t a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s are assumed to e x i s t among the l i n e s of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a u t h o r i t y w i t h i n a system and the scope of a u t h o r i t y , the magnitude of a u t h o r i t y , and the p r i o r i t y a s s i g n e d v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t s by v i r t u e of t h e i r mandates , the l a t t e r o f t e n be ing e v i d e n c e d through the magnitude and f l e x i b i l i t y of f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t . Upon these grounds , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t s are a f f o r d e d d i f f e r e n t s t a t u s from o ther s u b u n i t s . D i s t i n c t i o n s e x i s t between the p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e s of an o r g a n i z a t i o n , and the v a l u e s and f u n c t i o n s of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . The m a r g i n a l i t y of an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n subun i t denotes the e x i s t e n c e of v a l u e s , g o a l s and o b j e c t i v e s w i t h i n a p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n which are c o n s i d e r e d to be more important than the e d u c a t i o n of a d u l t s and the e x i s t e n c e of one or more o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s u b u n i t s d e d i c a t e d to a c h i e v i n g those g o a l s . Such s u b u n i t s are g i v e n h i g h e r p r i o r i t y w i t h i n the p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n than tha t g i v e n to an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t . 2 0 8 I b i d . 73 C l a r k c h a r t e d both o p e r a t i n g d i v i s o n s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and support u n i t s which he l a b e l e d in Chart 1 2 0 9 a s E x e c u t i v e O f f i c e s , B u s i n e s s S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n s and E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n s . A comprehensive assessment of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m a r g i n a l i t y might e n t a i l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of comparat ive a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e s and d i v i s i o n s in both the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n subun i t and o ther s u b u n i t s i n o r d e r to f a c i l i t a t e comparisons which might be thought to be i n d i c e s of s t a t u s . C l a r k noted in q u o t a t i o n D3 t h a t : I t i s d i f f i c u l t to a s se s s such a f a c t o r as o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m a r g i n a l i t y , s i n c e the q u e s t i o n of v a l i d a t i o n i n v o l v e s acceptance by d i f f e r e n t groups w i t h i n and without the s c h o o l system, and acceptance on v a r i o u s g r o u n d s . 2 1 0 Unles s o therwise s p e c i f i e d , when one speaks of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m a r g i n a l i t y i n the f i e l d of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , the o v e r a l l or s o c i e t a l s t a t u s of an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n subun i t i s be ing d e s i g n a t e d . C l a r k , in the p r e c e d i n g q u o t a t i o n , s t a t e s tha t v a l i d a t i o n of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m a r g i n a l i t y i n v o l v e s acceptance by groups i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l to a s c h o o l system. These v a r i o u s groups , a c c o r d i n g to C l a r k , a f f o r d acceptance based on " v a r i o u s g r o u n d s . " 2 1 1 One group may e x h i b i t an i n c r e a s e d acceptance of an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n subun i t i f the subun i t i n c r e a s e s i t s academic programming. A second group may p r i z e an emphasis on community programming and may be l e s s 2 0 9 I b i d . 2 1 0 C l a r k , D i s s e r t a t i o n , p . 26. 2 1 1 I b i d . 74 a c c e p t i n g of the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n subun i t i f academic programming i s emphasized w i t h i n the s u b u n i t . T h i s i s an example of a common v a r i a b l e which i s p e r c e i v e d d i f f e r e n t l y by d i f f e r e n t i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s . When the s o c i e t a l s t a t u s of an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t i s c o n s i d e r e d , however, such v a r i a t i o n s i n p e r c e p t i o n might be c o n s i d e r e d to l a r g e l y c a n c e l one a n o t h e r . When one i s concerned on ly wi th the measurement of t o t a l s t a t u s of an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t and i s not concerned w i t h i d e n t i f y i n g the source of m a r g i n a l i t y , then the presence of such v a r i a b l e s may not be of c o n c e r n . I f , however, sources of s t a t u s are of impor tance , perhaps for purposes of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y m a n i p u l a t i n g v a r i o u s sources of m a r g i n a l i t y and measuring the e f f e c t of i n t e r v e n t i o n , then m a n i p u l a t i o n of such confounding v a r i a b l e s i s of c o n c e r n . The confound ing a b i l i t y of nonmontonic v a r i a b l e s , both two d i r e c t i o n a l and n o n c o n t i n u o u s , 2 1 2 must be c o n s i d e r e d when v a r i a b l e s are measured for purposes of d e t e r m i n i n g t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n to the v a r i a n c e of pr imary c o n c e r n . In q u o t a t i o n D3 C l a r k d e f i n e d m a r g i n a l i t y as a s t a t e of e x i s t e n c e as a s t a t u s . He a l s o says tha t v a l i d a t i o n of s t a t u s i s c o n t i n g e n t on a f f o r d e d a c c e p t a n c e . I t becomes neces sary to d i s t i n g u i s h between acceptance and a f f o r d e d s t a t u s . Whereas acceptance denotes a p p r o v a l , the a f f o r d i n g of s t a t u s i m p l i e s an a b i l i t y to d i f f e r e n t i a t e among v a r i a b l e s , which v a r i a b l e s form 2 1 2 N o n m o n t o n i c v a r i a b l e s , both two d i r e c t i o n a l and noncont inuous a r e d e f i n e d and examples are g i v e n i n the append ix . 75 the b a s i s upon which one element i s ranked above a comparat ive e lement . M a r g i n a l i t y , or r e l a t i v e s t a t u s , w i t h i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t s of the f i e l d of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n denotes the v a l u i n g of a comparat ive element above tha t of an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n e lement . I f v a l i d a t i o n of m a r g i n a l i t y or r e l a t i v e s t a t u s of an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n element does i n v o l v e a c c e p t a n c e , as C l a r k m a i n t a i n s , i t i s a s u g g e s t i o n of a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n between acceptance and s t a t u s , e x p l a i n e d here as two d i s t i n c t c o n c e p t s . In the next four q u o t a t i o n s (D4-D7) , C l a r k appears to equate m a r g i n a l i t y w i th " p e r i p h e r a l s t a t u s , " 2 1 3 "marg ina l p o s i t i o n , " 2 1 4 and " p r e c a r i o u s n e s s of the a d u l t s c h o o l s , " 2 1 5 a l l three s t a t e s of e x i s t e n c e . He does t h i s as he l i s t s what he perhaps somewhat c a s u a l l y termed "Sources and I n d i c e s of M a r g i n a l i t y " 2 1 6 and what he now r e i n t r o d u c e s as "bases and symptoms of p e r i p h e r a l s t a t u s . " 2 1 7 In the f i r s t he appears to s u b s t i t u t e the terms "evidence of r e l a t i v e m a r g i n a l i t y " 2 1 8 f or what he had p r e v i o u s l y termed "Sources and I n d i c e s of M a r g i n a l i t y " 2 1 9 and "bases and symptoms of p e r i p h e r a l s t a t u s . " 2 2 0 D i s c u s s i o n of C l a r k ' s use of the terms s o u r c e s , i n d i c e s , bases , symptoms and ev idences w i l l occur l a t e r i n t h i s 2 1 3 C l a r k , D i s s e r t a t i o n , 2 1 5 I b i d . 2 1 6 I b i d . , p . 25. 2 1 7 I b i d . , p . 26. 2 1 8 I b i d . 2 1 9 I b i d . , p . 25. 2 2 0 I b i d . , p . 26. pp . 26-7; 2 1 4 I b i d . , p . 2 7 . ; 76 t h e s i s . In q u o t a t i o n D4, C l a r k i s unders tood to be e q u a t i n g " r e l a t i v e m a r g i n a l i t y " w i t h " p e r i p h e r a l s t a t u s . " 2 2 1 In q u o t a t i o n D5 he i d e n t i f i e s "the p a r t - t i m e na ture of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s " as h i s second "index" of m a r g i n a l i t y and a l s o as "both a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r to and a symptom of the m a r g i n a l p o s i t i o n of the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n d e p a r t m e n t s . " 2 2 2 C l a r k then c o n t i n u e s i n the next sentence to equate "the m a r g i n a l p o s i t i o n of the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n departments" to " m a r g i n a l i t y . " 2 2 3 In t h i s q u o t a t i o n C l a r k uses the terms index , c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r , and symptom synonymously. H i s r e a s o n i n g i s c i r c u l a r wi thout i n d i c a t i o n as to whether he f e e l s "the p a r t - t i m e nature of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s " c o n t r i b u t e s to the s t a t u s , i n d i c a t e s e x i s t e n c e of the s t a t u s , i s the s t a t u s , or r e s u l t s from the s t a t u s of m a r g i n a l i t y . The t h i r d f a c t o r i s s a i d by C l a r k to c o n t r i b u t e "to the p r e c a r i o u s n e s s of the a d u l t s c h o o l , " unders tood as an e q u a t i o n of m a r g i n a l i t y to "the p r e c a r i o u s n e s s o f - t h e a d u l t s c h o o l . " 2 2 " C l a r k wrote : (D4) Here we may note some bases and symptoms of p e r i p h e r a l s t a t u s . F i r s t , some ev idence of r e l a t i v e m a r g i n a l i t y i s i n d i c a t e d i n the formal or " c o n s t i t u t i o n a l " s t a t u s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . The s t a t e s c h o o l system i s made up of e l e m e n t a r y , h i g h s c h o o l , and j u n i o r c o l l e g e 2 2 ' I b i d . 2 2 2 I b i d . , p . 27. 2 2 3 I b i d . 2 2 " l b i d . 77 d i s t r i c t s ; a d u l t c l a s s e s are a t t a c h e d to these u n i t s . Once vo ted i n t o e x i s t e n c e by the e l e c t o r a t e , these d i s t r i c t s must m a i n t a i n a p p r o p r i a t e s c h o o l s . In c o n t r a s t , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n has main ly p e r m i s s i v e l e g i s l a t i o n for i t s l o c a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t . C i t i z e n s h i p and l i t e r a c y c l a s s e s are the main e x c e p t i o n s . 2 2 5 C l a r k appears to use the d e s c r i p t o r , r e l a t i v e , to i n d i c a t e that assessment of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m a r g i n a l i t y i s a comparat ive measurement. The comparison for purposes of d e t e r m i n i n g formal or c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a t u s of the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n subun i t i s between the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n element and o ther s u b u n i t s w i t h i n the p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n c o n s i d e r e d to be c e n t r a l or p r i m a r y . C l a r k f i r s t w r i t e s in broad terms of the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n e lement . He i d e n t i f i e s i t twice wi th the g e n e r a l d e s i g n a t i o n , "adul t e d u c a t i o n . " 2 2 6 He notes c i t i z e n s h i p and l i t e r a c y c l a s s as examples of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . I t i s not s p e c i f i e d whether the concept of r e l a t i v e m a r g i n a l i t y i s be ing used to d e s c r i b e the s t a t u s of a l l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n e lements or a s p e c i f i c l e v e l d i s t r i c t , s c h o o l , or c l a s s r o o m . J u d g i n g from the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t s mentioned by C l a r k two p o s s i b l e c o n c l u s i o n s seem l o g i c a l . For the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of s t a t u s two or more items must be compared and r a n k e d . The a d u l t e d u c a t i o n e lements s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d i n q u o t a t i o n D4 are o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s u b u n i t s - - s c h o o l and c o l l e g e d i s t r i c t s , and c l a s s e s . C l a r k ' s use of the t erm, a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , in the q u o t a t i o n c o u l d be i n r e f e r e n c e to these o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s u b u n i t s or to the "genera l va lue" of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i d e n t i f i e d as the focus of h i s D i s s e r t a t i o n in h i s 2 2 5 I b i d . , p . 2 2 6 I b i d . 26-7. 78 I n t r o d u c t i o n . I t i s l o g i c a l in a p p l y i n g a concept of m a r g i n a l i t y that comparisons for purposes of e s t a b l i s h i n g s t a t u s be made among c a t e g o r i c a l l y s i m i l a r s u b u n i t s w i t h i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n — c l a s s e s are ranked among c l a s s e s , s c h o o l s among s c h o o l s , and d i s t r i c t s among d i s t r i c t l e v e l e l ements , o p e r a t i n g d i s t r i c t s among o p e r a t i n g d i s t r i c t s , and so f o r t h . C l a r k i d e n t i f i e d the e l e m e n t a r y , h i g h s c h o o l , and j u n i o r c o l l e g e d i s t r i c t s as e x i s t i n g w i t h i n the s t a t e s c h o o l system. I f the s t a t e s c h o o l system i s c o n s i d e r e d to be a p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , then m a r g i n a l i t y might be used to denote the s t a t u s of e i t h e r i n d i v i d u a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t s w i t h i n the s t a t e , or of a l l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t s c o n s i d e r e d c o l l e c t i v e l y . For purposes of e s t a b l i s h i n g s t a t u s , compar i sons might be made among e i t h e r i n d i v i d u a l or aggregated a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t s e x i s t i n g w i t h i n a l o c a l geographic area and c o r r e s p o n d i n g e lementary s c h o o l , h i g h s c h o o l , and j u n i o r c o l l e g e d i s t r i c t s , or on a s t a t e b a s i s wherein the p o p u l a t i o n of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s u b u n i t s f or purposes of comparisons would be expanded to the t o t a l sys tem. Where m a r g i n a l i t y of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t s i s e v a l u a t e d l o c a l l y , such as w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s of the Los Angeles Schoo l System, the Los Angeles Schoo l System would be c o n s i d e r e d to be the p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and the s t a t e s c h o o l system might be c o n s i d e r e d to be a s u p r a - p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . With the comparat ive u n i t s i d e n t i f i e d , and w i t h the h e l p of C l a r k ' s c h a r t of the O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e of the Los Ange les 2 2 7 I b i d , p . 44. 79 Schoo l System, 1 9 5 2 - 5 3 , 2 2 7 the a p p r o p r i a t e comparisons for the purpose of e s t a b l i s h i n g the s t a t u s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n can be de termined by examinat ion of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e v e l s , and i s i d e n t i f i e d as the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h . An a l t e r n a t i v e a p p l i c a t i o n of a concept of m a r g i n a l i t y i s in d e s c r i p t i o n of the s t a t u s of what C l a r k i d e n t i f i e d as "adul t c l a s s e s . " 2 2 8 Aga in through r e f e r r i n g to C l a r k ' s c h a r t of the O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e of the Los Ange les Schoo l System, 1952- 5 3 , 2 2 9 the a p p r o p r i a t e comparat ive e lements are i d e n t i f i e d as c l a s s e s o c c u r r i n g in the e lementary s c h o o l s , j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s , and j u n i o r c o l l e g e s of the C a l i f o r n i a Schoo l System, the C a l i f o r n i a Schoo l System be ing the s u p r a - p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n named by C l a r k in q u o t a t i o n D4. A concept of m a r g i n a l i t y might be used to denote the s t a t u s of a d u l t c l a s s e s when compared to c l a s s e s h e l d w i t h i n the e lementary s c h o o l s , j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s , and j u n i o r c o l l e g e s w i t h i n the Los Ange les Schoo l System, which i s the immediate p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . Each d i s t i n c t combinat ion of an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t or of s u b u n i t s to a p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n or s u p r a - p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o u l d be the b a s i s for a d i s t i n c t concept of m a r g i n a l i t y f o r purposes of d e s i g n a t i n g s t a t u s , and i t appears tha t each would r e q u i r e the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t comparat ive e lements i n a d d i t i o n to i t s own o p e r a t i o n a l 2 2 8 I b i d . 2 2 9 I b i d . , p . 44. 80 d e f i n i t i o n and measurement i n s t r u m e n t . In summary of the d i s c u s s i o n of C l a r k ' s p r e c e d i n g q u o t a t i o n , the l e v e l of i n q u i r y i s not s p e c i f i e d . One c o u l d e x p l o r e the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m a r g i n a l i t y of i n d i v i d u a l a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s , s c h o o l s or departments w i t h i n the system or c o l l e c t i v e s of these o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s u b u n i t s . T h e i r e x i s t e n c e c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d r e l a t i v e to i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l s , d i s t r i c t s or a l l p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t s s t a t e w i d e . C l a r k i s m a i n t a i n i n g that l e g i s l a t i v e d i s p a r i t y , such as e x i s t s in t h i s quoted example where the p a r e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n has a. c o n s t i t u t i o n a l mandate and the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n subun i t e x i s t s under p e r m i s s i v e l e g i s l a t i o n , i s a source or i n d e x , or b o t h , of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m a r g i n a l i t y . C l a r k suggests tha t no such mandate e x i s t s f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , on the whole , w i th the main e x c e p t i o n s of c i t i z e n s h i p and l i t e r a c y c l a s s e s . The comparison i s tha t o ther s u b u n i t s p r e d o m i n a t e l y e x i s t w i t h mandates whi l e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n s u b u n i t s e x i s t by v i r t u e of p e r m i s s i v e l e g i s l a t i o n . The term m a r g i n a l i t y was next used by C l a r k i n p r e s e n t a t i o n of h i s second i n d e x , s o u r c e , base , or symptom of m a r g i n a l i t y . (D5) S e c o n d l y , as f r e q u e n t l y happens w i t h a new a c t i v i t y w i t h i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n began as a secondary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s at • o ther s c h o o l l e v e l s . . . . the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n the s t a t e had t h i s c h a r a c t e r u n t i l 1931, and i t was symptomatic of the program's weak p o s i t i o n i n the s c h o o l system. A f t e r 1931, there were s epara te p r i n c i p a l s but main ly i n p a r t - t i m e p o s t s . These p o s i t i o n s were any f r a c t i o n of a f u l l t i m e ass ignment , w i t h o n e - h a l f t ime the most common. From t h a t b a s i s t h e r e has been a g r a d u a l growth of f u l l t i m e p o s i t i o n s ; 81 but i t i s on ly w i t h i n the l a s t f i v e y e a r s (1947-48) tha t the l a r g e s t department in the s t a t e , (the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Branch of the Los Angeles S c h o o l System) became c o m p l e t e l y manned by f u l l t i m e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . The p a r t - t i m e na ture of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has been h i s t o r i c a l l y both a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r to and a symptom of the m a r g i n a l p o s i t i o n of the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n depar tments . T h i s index would i n d i c a t e that m a r g i n a l i t y has been reduced over the l a s t t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s . 2 3 0 "The p a r t - t i m e nature of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n " has been i d e n t i f i e d by C l a r k in t h i s q u o t a t i o n as h i s t o r i c a l l y be ing "both a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r to and a symptom of the m a r g i n a l p o s i t i o n of the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n d e p a r t m e n t s , " 2 3 1 or in o ther words, as C l a r k ' s second i n d e x , s o u r c e , base , or symptom of m a r g i n a l i t y . He i d e n t i f i e d three a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a t e s which r e p r e s e n t v a r i o u s i n t e n s i t i e s of h i s i d e n t i f i e d v a r i a b l e of m a r g i n a l i t y : a s t a t e i n which the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n element i s a "secondary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a d m i n i s t r a t o r s " w i t h p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s e lsewhere in the system; a s t a t e i n which the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n element i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by separate p r i n c i p a l s , but on l e s s than f u l l - t i m e appo intments ; and a s t a t e where the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n element has "become c o m p l e t e l y manned by f u l l t i m e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . " 2 3 2 In d i s c r i p t i o n of these three s t a t e s , C l a r k used examples from d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t e x t s . In h i s f i r s t example he wrote of the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of "adul t e d u c a t i o n . . . at 2 3 0 I b i d , 2 3 1 I b i d . 2 3 2 I b i d . p . 27. 82 o ther s c h o o l l e v e l s . " 2 3 3 I t i s assumed that C l a r k was r e f e r r i n g to the a d u l t s c h o o l s i n i t i a t e d by i n d i v i d u a l host s c h o o l s w i t h i n the s t a t e of C a l i f o r n i a . These a d u l t s c h o o l s were i n i t i a l l y 2 3 4 and most f r e q u e n t l y 2 3 5 a d m i n i s t e r e d on a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s by the h i g h s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s and v i c e - p r i n c i p a l s who had i n i t i a t e d them. C l a r k r e f e r r e d to o ther d i f f e r e n t and s p e c i f i c o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e v e l s . He noted tha t "adul t e d u c a t i o n a g e n c i e s emerged throughout the c o u n t r y at l o c a l , s t a t e and n a t i o n a l l e v e l s . " 2 3 6 In the second stage of development of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n C l a r k noted the emergence of s epara te p r i n c i p a l s i n main ly p a r t - t i m e p o s t s . In t h i s case i t i s r e a s o n a b l e to assume that the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n u n i t r e f e r r e d to by C l a r k i s an i n d i v i d u a l a d u l t s c h o o l at a host h i g h s c h o o l . C l a r k changed c o n t e x t s in h i s i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s second a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a g e . He noted t h a t a l t h o u g h "evening s c h o o l c l a s s e s extended as f a r back as 1856 i n C a l i f o r n i a , and 1887 in Los A n g e l e s , " 2 3 7 and "the f i r s t s eparate even ing h i g h s c h o o l [was] e s t a b l i s h e d in Los Ange les i n 19 0 7," 2 3 8 i t wasn't u n t i l the 1947-8 academic year "that the l a r g e s t department in the s t a t e , (the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Branch of the Los Ange les Schoo l 2 3 3 I b i d . 2 3 4 I b i d . , p . 27. 2 3 5 I b i d . 2 3 6 I b i d , p . 10. 2 3 7 I b i d . , p . 6; E n r o l l m e n t i n 1887-8 was 30, I b i d . , p . 7. 2 3 8 I b i d . 83 System) became c o m p l e t e l y manned by f u l l t i m e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . " 2 3 9 The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l e v e l s e x i s t i n g w i t h i n the Branch r e f e r r e d to by C l a r k , and which c o u l d be p e r t i n e n t in d e t e r m i n i n g the l e v e l of a p p l i c a t i o n , i n c l u d e the branch l e v e l i t s e l f , overseen by the S u p e r v i s o r of the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h , the d i v i s i o n a l l e v e l where f u l l t i m e s u p e r v i s o r s e x i s t f o r Academic E d u c a t i o n , Homemaking, A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n and C i t i z e n s h i p and the A m e r i c a n i z a t i o n C e n t e r ; and the i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l l e v e l where p r i n c i p a l s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs oversee t e a c h e r s , c o u n s e l o r s and c l e r k s . C l a r k ' s t h i r d stage away from the s t a t e of m a r g i n a l i t y was one i n which the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n element had "become c o m p l e t e l y manned by f u l l t i m e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . " 2 " 0 H i s c o n t e x t u a l example of t h i s t h i r d s t a t e addresses the s t a t e of the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Branch of the Los Ange les School System where from 1947-8 a d m i n i s t r a t o r s h i r e d on a f u l l t i m e b a s i s became the r u l e . T h i s B r a n c h , r e f e r r e d to by C l a r k , was manned by the f u l l t i m e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . H i s n o t a t i o n on C h a r t 2: O r g a n i z a t i o n a l S t r u c t u r e of the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n B r a n c h , D i v i s i o n of E x t e n s i o n and Higher E d u c a t i o n , Los Ange les S c h o o l System, 1952-53, r e p o r t e d the e x i s t e n c e of " s e v e r a l p a r t - t i m e s u p e r v i s o r s (parent e d u c a t i o n , mus ic )" among the Branch a d m i n i s t r a t o r s who were not i n c l u d e d i n h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d i a g r a m . 2 4 1 C l a r k summarized tha t 2 3 9 I b i d . > p . 27. 2 4 0 I b i d . 2 4 ' S e e T a b l e 2 above . 84 the t r a n s i t i o n from p a r t - t i m e to f u l l t i m e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e appointments w i t h i n "the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n departments" was an "index" i n d i c a