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Early agricultural education in British Columbia: The pioneering role of the farmers' institute 1986

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EARLY AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA: THE PIONEERING ROLE OF THE FARMERS' INSTITUTE By MARY MARGARET CARLISLE B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , Adult and Higher Education) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF A p r i l (s) Mary Margaret BRITISH COLUMBIA 1986 C a r l i s l e , 1986 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. The University of British Columbia 1956 Main Mall Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Y3 DE-6(3/81) / ABSTRACT Even though a g r i c u l t u r a l education was among the f i r s t examples of government-sponsored a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i t has r e c e i v e d scant a t t e n t i o n from h i s t o r i a n s o f education. D e t a i l s o f e a r l y a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n i n B.C. are contained i n the r e p o r t s o f the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e and the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e , the b a s i c sources f o r t h i s study. The B r i t i s h Columbia Farmers' I n s t i t u t e was c r e a t e d by the p r o v i n c i a l government i n 1897 to a s s i s t a s t r u g g l i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y . The founding l e g i s l a t i o n p r o v i d e d f o r a d u a l purpose o r g a n i z a t i o n which would promote c o - o p e r a t i v e systems of purchasing, producing, and marketing. I t would a l s o promote and f a c i l i t a t e a program of s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n f o r the p r o v i n c e ' s farmers. A Department of A g r i c u l t u r e had been formed i n 1891 and i t s e a r l y work was l a r g e l y e d u c a t i o n a l i n nature, c o n s i s t i n g of the c o l l e c t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n about a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s i n the p r o v i n c e , the d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t o farmers, and the promotion of s e t t l e m e n t i n r u r a l areas. When the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e was begun, James R. Anderson, the f i r s t s t a t i s t i c i a n and deputy m i n i s t e r o f a g r i c u l t u r e , was appointed Superintendent o f Farmers' I n s t i t u t e s and began immediately t o o r g a n i z e farmers i n t o l o c a l i n s t i t u t e s f o r the p r o v i s i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r a l e ducation. In s p i t e o f the c h a l l e n g e s p r e s e n t e d by the geography o f the p r o v i n c e , the I n s t i t u t e experienced steady growth i n i t s e a r l y y e a r s . By the end o f the p e r i o d examined i n t h i s study, 1897 t o 1915, the I n s t i t u t e had n e a r l y 8500 members i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the B r i t i s h Columbia. During t h i s time the p r o v i n c e experienced a tremendous i n f l u x o f p o p u l a t i o n w i t h many o f the newcomers s e t t l i n g i n r u r a l areas t o take up farming. A g r i c u l t u r e f l o u r i s h e d too, so t h a t the v a l u e o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n i n 1914 a c t u a l l y surpassed t h a t o f both f o r e s t r y and mining. Accompanying the growth i n the importance o f a g r i c u l t u r e was an i n c r e a s e d awareness o f the va l u e o f a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n t o farmers. The Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e expanded and d e c e n t r a l i z e d . The f e d e r a l A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n A c t s u p p l i e d funds t o the p r o v i n c e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n and a F a c u l t y o f A g r i c u l t u r e was one o f t h r e e f a c u l t i e s i n the new U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia when i t opened i n 1915. New a g r i c u l t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s were formed, many wit h the support o f the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . i i i As sources of a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n became i n c r e a s i n g l y d i v e r s e , the focus of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e s h i f t e d toward the promotion of c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y . I t s e a r l y success i n o r g a n i z i n g farmers and p o p u l a r i z i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n was p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the change i n r o l e from primary agent o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n t o f a c i l i t a t o r of a v a r i e t y of programs and s e r v i c e s to farmers. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i LIST OF FIGURES v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT v i i i Chapter I. OVERVIEW OF THE B.C. FARMERS' INSTITUTE . . . . 1 S t r u c t u r e and F u n c t i o n of the B.C. Farmers' I n s t i t u t e 2 O u t l i n e of the Study 6 Sources 8 11. THE SETTING: POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL FORCES 13 The N a t i o n a l Context 14 The P r o v i n c i a l Context 17 A g r i c u l t u r a l Education i n North America . . . .21 General Programs of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n 25 I I I . THE EMERGENCE OF THE FARMERS' INSTITUTE . . . . 30 E a r l y O p e r a t i o n of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e 30 The Movement Toward the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e . .35 The Farmers' I n s t i t u t e and Co-operation Act . .38 The E a r l y O r g a n i z i n g P e r i o d , 1897-1905 . . . . 41 IV. THE EDUCATION PROGRAM OF THE FARMERS' INSTITUTE, 1897-1908 53 The Nature of the Learners 5 3 The Content o f the Program 55 Methods 58 Techniques 61 Resource People 6 3 Devices 66 E v a l u a t i o n 6 7 Outcomes o f the E d u c a t i o n Program, 1897-1908 71 v V. THE DIVERSIFICATION OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION, 1909-1915 77 The Continued Momentum f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l Development . . . . 78 R e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e 84 The Operation of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e , 1909-1915 85 The A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n A c t , 1913 . . . .87 The Founding of the F a c u l t y o f A g r i c u l t u r e . .89 E a r l y A g r i c u l t u r a l Education and the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e 91 C o n c l u s i o n 96 SOURCES CONSULTED 102 APPENDICES 1. E a r l y Growth of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e , 1897-1915 108 2. Y e a r l y Grants t o B r i t i s h Columbia Under the A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n A c t 109 3. D i s p e r s a l o f Funds Under the A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n Act f o r F i s c a l Year Ending March 31, 1914 .110 v i LIST OF FIGURES 1. The E a r l y S t r u c t u r e of the B.C. Farmers' I n s t i t u t e 3 2. E a r l y Growth i n Membership of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e by Region 48 3. Average Attendance and Membership i n R e l a t i o n s h i p t o I n s t i t u t e s , 1897-1915 94 v i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to thank the members of my committee, Dr. Jean Barman, Dr. Graham Kelsey, and Gordon Selman, f o r t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h i s t h e s i s . T h e i r i n t e r e s t i n the t o p i c has p r o v i d e d encouragement and v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s . I am e s p e c i a l l y g r a t e f u l t o Jean Barman f o r her generous h e l p w i t h the w r i t i n g and e d i t i n g p r o c e s s . I a l s o wish to thank Garry Walton f o r the t e c h n i c a l p r o d u c t i o n o f the graphs. v i i i CHAPTER I OVERVIEW OF THE BRITISH COLUMBIA FARMERS' INSTITUTE The e x i s t i n g r e c o r d of the h i s t o r y of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n Canada, and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n B r i t i s h 1 Columbia, i s a sparse one. The h i s t o r y of e d u c a t i o n i s the h i s t o r y of youth e d u c a t i o n and, w i t h some n o t a b l e 2 exc e p t i o n s , i t i s the h i s t o r y of p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g . To i l l u s t r a t e , t o h i s t o r i a n s o f B r i t i s h Columbia education, the term " a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c ation" i s i d e n t i f i e d more wit h the s c h o o l garden program of the p u b l i c s c h o o l system from 1914 t o 1923 than with any of the a d u l t education a c t i v i t i e s o f the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , the Farmers' and Women's I n s t i t u t e s or the a g r i c u l t u r e e x t e n s i o n work of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. A l l of these programs were begun b e f o r e the end o f 1915 and have operated c o n t i n u o u s l y ever s i n c e . In view of the number of B r i t i s h Columbians who have been i n v o l v e d i n a d u l t a g r i c u l t u r a l education, r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a would seem t o be one of the conspicuous omissions from our h i s t o r y of e d u c a t i o n . As many o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l communities of B r i t i s h Columbia have been transformed t o urban and suburban c e n t r e s , the presence of these agencies has d i m i n i s h e d 1 and t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the founding o f a d u l t a g r i c u l t u r a l e ducation i n t h i s p r o v i n c e has been overlooked. A l s o , as o f t e n happens w i t h programs which promote and f a c i l i t a t e economic change, o r attempt t o a m e l i o r a t e i t s e f f e c t s , t h e i r o r i g i n s and the e f f o r t s o f t h e i r founders are o f t e n f o r g o t t e n as the programs win g e n e r a l acceptance and become i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d . Such would seem to be the case w i t h the B r i t i s h Columbia Farmers' I n s t i t u t e and i t s founder, James R. Anderson. I f he i s known at a l l , Anderson i s remembered because of h i s f a t h e r , who was a c t i v e i n the Hudsons' Bay f u r t r a d e , or f o r h i s w r i t i n g of b a s i c works on the f l o r a 3 and fauna of B.C. The Farmers' I n s t i t u t e i s r e f e r r e d t o o n l y b r i e f l y i n l o c a l h i s t o r i e s and i n academic s t u d i e s 4 of a g r i c u l t u r a l development and e d u c a t i o n a l h i s t o r y , even though r e s e a r c h which attempts t o t r a c e the development of p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y on a d u l t e d u c a t i o n has c i t e d the A g r i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t i e s Act of 1873, the e d u c a t i o n a l work of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e begun i n 1891, and the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e and Co-operation Act o f 1897 as s i g n i f i c a n t i n the h i s t o r y of the p r o v i n c i a l government's r o l e i n funding a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h 5 Columbia. S t r u c t u r e and F u n c t i o n of the B.C. Farmers' I n s t i t u t e The f i r s t i n s t i t u t e was formed a t Surrey i n 1897, the r e s u l t o f p o l i t i c a l and economic f o r c e s , on the one hand, and the demands of l o c a l farmers, on t h e other. 2 Created by the 1897 a c t o f the B r i t i s h Columbia l e g i s l a t u r e , the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e has s i n c e t h a t date continued t o f u n c t i o n i n r u r a l areas o f the p r o v i n c e , a d m i n i s t e r e d by the p r o v i n c i a l Department of A g r i c u l t u r e through the o f f i c e o f the Superintendent o f the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e . Both the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t s l o c a l branches a r e c a l l e d Farmers' I n s t i t u t e s . The founding l e g i s l a t i o n p r o v i d e d t h a t a new i n s t i t u t e c o u l d be c r e a t e d when a t l e a s t f i f t e e n p o t e n t i a l members i n d i c a t e d t o the s u p e r i n t e n d e n t t h a t they wished t o form one. A f t e r World War I the s t r u c t u r e o f the p r o v i n c i a l Farmers' I n s t i t u t e changed through the a d d i t i o n o f a d i s t r i c t l e v e l based on g e o g r a p h i c a l r e g i o n s o f B. C. F i g u r e 1 The E a r l y S t r u c t u r e o f the B.C. Farmers' I n s t i t u t e B e l l a Coola Farmers' I n s t i t u t e Superintendent Metchos i n Farmers' I n s t i t u t e Surrey Farmers' I n s t i t u t e Langley Farmers' I n s t i t u t e C e n t r a l Farmers ' I n s t i t u t e Spallumcheen Farmers' I n s t i t u t e Coquitlam Farmers' I n s t i t u t e D e l t a Farmers' I n s t i t u t e Osoyoos Farmers' I n s t i t u t e Port Haney Farmers' I n s t i t u t e The formation of the C e n t r a l Farmers' I n s t i t u t e , a body comprised o f de l e g a t e s from the l o c a l i n s t i t u t e s , was a l s o p r o v i d e d f o r i n the founding l e g i s l a t i o n . The Central Farmers' Institute met annually for a three day conference to debate and select resolutions to be forwarded to the Department of Agriculture or the 6 appropriate l e v e l of government. The Minister of Agriculture has always addressed the gathering and i n the early years of operation was present during much of the proceedings. I n i t i a l l y , the purpose of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e was two-fold: to provide s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r a l knowledge to farmers and to promote co-operation among farmers for the purchase of farm supplies and equipment and for the marketing of t h e i r products. Over the years, the function of the Farmers' Inst i t u t e has evolved i n r e l a t i o n to the changing needs of the farmers, the structure of the p r o v i n c i a l Department of Agriculture and pr o v i n c i a l and federal p o l i c i e s on agriculture. The Annual Reports of the Department of Agriculture suggest that the Insti t u t e has had s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the development of agriculture and r u r a l community l i f e i n B.C. In a p r a c t i c a l way the Institute assisted farmers with clearing land, dyking, drainage, and i r r i g a t i o n . It provided seed, feed, f e r t i l i z e r , stumping powder, and other farm necessities to l o c a l Institutes for co- operative purchase by t h e i r members. The Farmers' Ins t i t u t e also undertook an ambitious educational program. In i t s f i r s t decade of operation i t was the primary agent of adult a g r i c u l t u r a l education, and i t was only with the expansion of the Department of Agriculture 4 i n 1909 t o i n c l u d e separate branches o f h o r t i c u l t u r e , l i v e s t o c k , d a i r y , and p o u l t r y t h a t the Superintendent o f the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e was r e l i e v e d o f t o t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and p r o v i s i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l education i n the p r o v i n c e . S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , the f e d e r a l A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n Act o f 1913 p r o v i d e d funds t o the p r o v i n c e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n purposes. In 1915, r e l y i n g on the f e d e r a l funding, the UBC F a c u l t y of A g r i c u l t u r e began i t s work i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n . The e d u c a t i o n a l program o f the B.C. Farmers' I n s t i t u t e u t i l i z e d methods and techniques which were being developed around North America wherever a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n was b e i n g conducted i n c o n n e c t i o n with experimental farms and a g r i c u l t u r a l c o l l e g e s . Fundamental t o a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i s a system o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication by which knowledge i s d e l i v e r e d to the l e a r n e r s . Few r e g i o n s i n North America c o u l d pose a g r e a t e r c h a l l e n g e t o program o r g a n i z e r s than d i d the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia. I t s p a r t i c i p a n t s were d i s p e r s e d around a l a r g e t e r r i t o r y , d i v i d e d from one another by c l i m a t e and topography and the r e s u l t a n t 7 d i v e r s i f i e d i n t e r e s t s . During the founding years of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n was d i f f i c u l t and modern methods o f communication were i n t h e i r i n f a n c y . In s p i t e o f these c o n s i d e r a b l e b a r r i e r s , the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e launched and s u s t a i n e d an a c t i v e e d u c a t i o n a l program. I f 5 the elements of the program d e s i g n and implementation procedure which made t h i s p o s s i b l e can be i d e n t i f i e d , we may g a i n some v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s i n t o b a s i c techniques of p r o v i d i n g e d u c a t i o n t o a d u l t s under adverse circumstances. O u t l i n e of the Study None of the e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e which mentions the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e has o f f e r e d reasons f o r the i n i t i a l involvement o f the p r o v i n c i a l government i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e d ucation, d e s c r i b e d the nature of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e e d u c a t i o n a l program and the extent o f i t s acceptance by farmers, or assessed i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n p r o v i d i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n . T h i s study e x p l o r e s the o r i g i n and e a r l y development of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e , as i t sought t o educate farmers i n s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r a l methods so t h a t the a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n of the p r o v i n c e might be developed and t h a t farming might become a f e a s i b l e economic e n t e r p r i s e f o r r u r a l s e t t l e r s . I t examines the c ontext o f the founding of the I n s t i t u t e and shows how the a c c e l e r a t i o n of the same f o r c e s which c r e a t e d the i n s t i t u t e was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a r a p i d expansion i n the range of a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s w i t h i n the f i r s t two decades of the I n s t i t u t e ' s e x i s t e n c e . T h i s expansion and the s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of s e r v i c e s f o r c e d a s u b s t a n t i a l change i n the focus of the I n s t i t u t e . By the end of i t s f i r s t decade, the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e was changing from i t s e a r l y p o s i t i o n as primary agent o f 6 a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n t o a c o - o r d i n a t o r of e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t a t o r o f programs of economic a s s i s t a n c e t o farmers. The study demonstrates t h a t i t was the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e which pioneered the p r o v i s i o n of organized, systematic group i n s t r u c t i o n i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h i s p r o v i n c e , and through i t s network of l o c a l i n s t i t u t e s , l a i d a f o u n d a t i o n f o r f u t u r e e x t e n s i o n work i n a g r i c u l t u r e . As a p u b l i c l y funded program of a d u l t education, the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e was born of a complex i n t e r a c t i o n o f economic, p o l i t i c a l , and s o c i a l f o r c e s . The second chapter of t h i s study examines these f o r c e s as they operated a t the p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l l e v e l s . I t a l s o reviews the s t a t e of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e and p l a c e s the founding of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n the c o n t e x t of the a g r i c u l t u r a l education movement which was sweeping North America. Chapter I I I examines the emergence o f the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e from the e a r l y e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e under James R. Anderson, the f i r s t s t a t i s t i c i a n and Deputy M i n i s t e r . I t d e s c r i b e s the p r o v i s i o n s of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e and Co- o p e r a t i o n Act, the e a r l y campaign which was conducted to form l o c a l branches of the I n s t i t u t e , and the problems which the o r g a n i z e r s c o n f r o n t e d . Chapter IV e x p l o r e s the program d e s i g n u t i l i z e d by the e a r l y Farmers' I n s t i t u t e : the nature of the l e a r n e r s , the content, the i n s t r u c t i o n a l methods and techniques, the d e v i c e s and human resources a v a i l a b l e , and the e v a l u a t i o n 7 of the l e a r n i n g . T h i s chapter concludes with a summary o f the outcomes of the i n i t i a l stage of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e as a program of a d u l t a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n . Chapter V d e s c r i b e s how the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e was a l t e r e d by the growth and development of a g r i c u l t u r e and the accompanying demand f o r i n c r e a s e d a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n by the p r o v i n c e ' s farmers. I t examines the r e s t r u c t u r i n g o f the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , the c o n t r i b u t i o n of the A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n Act t o a g r i c u l t u r a l education i n B.C., and the b e g i n n i n g of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n work a t UBC. The records of membership and attendance o f the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e i n i t s founding p e r i o d a r e d i s c u s s e d i n r e l a t i o n t o the changes which were t a k i n g p l a c e i n a g r i c u l t u r e d u r i n g t h a t time. The t h e s i s concludes w i t h an assessment of the c o n t r i b u t i o n of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e t o the e a r l y p e r i o d o f a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n i n B.C. Sources Although secondary sources make o n l y b r i e f r e f e r e n c e t o the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e , standard h i s t o r y t e x t s and a r t i c l e s have p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on the p r e v a i l i n g economic, p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f the l a t e 1890's and e a r l y 20th century. L o c a l h i s t o r i e s c o n t a i n v a l u a b l e b i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n about s p e c i f i c p i o n e e r farm f a m i l i e s and census d a t a d e s c r i b e s the g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the farm p o p u l a t i o n , a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , and p o p u l a t i o n growth. Beyond coverage of the o c c a s i o n a l l a r g e farmers' g a t h e r i n g , the newspapers c o n s u l t e d have not proved to be a u s e f u l 8 source o f i n f o r m a t i o n on a g r i c u l t u r e . Issues r e l a t e d t o mining, f o r e s t r y and f i s h i n g dominated the news i n the papers examined. T h i s study r e l i e s h e a v i l y on the "Annual Reports of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e s " found i n the B r i t i s h Columbia S e s s i o n a l Papers and the Annual Reports of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . The r e p o r t s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t t o t h i s study, those f o r the years between 1891 and 1920, are a r i c h source of i n f o r m a t i o n on the e a r l y o p e r a t i o n of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , and the f i r s t phase o f the I n s t i t u t e ' s o p e r a t i o n . They c o n t a i n r e p r i n t s of i n f o r m a t i o n b u l l e t i n s , r e p o r t s on a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s , l o c a l i n s t i t u t e meetings, and speakers' t o u r s , v e r b a t i m accounts of the proceedings a t the annual C e n t r a l Farmers' I n s t i t u t e , and s t a t i s t i c s on p u b l i c a t i o n s , membership, attendance, s t a f f i n g , and the formation o f new i n s t i t u t e s . An a d d i t i o n a l primary source which p r o v i d e d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n s i g h t i n t o the o p e r a t i o n of a l o c a l i n s t i t u t e are the minutes of the Surrey Farmers' I n s t i t u t e , the o n l y minutes l o c a t e d f o r t h e founding p e r i o d of the B.C. Farmers' I n s t i t u t e . These minutes were kept i n the standard minute book s u p p l i e d by the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e and c o n t a i n accounts of r e g u l a r meetings, d i r e c t o r s ' meetings and the annual g e n e r a l meetings. They appear t o be a f a i r l y complete r e c o r d although i n some cases t h e r e a r e d i s c r e p a n c i e s between the "Annual Report of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e " and the minute book as t o the 9 number of meetings which were h e l d . The d e t a i l i n which the minutes a r e recorded v a r i e s from a f u l l commentary on the meeting t o a b r i e f l i s t i n g o f the speakers, t o p i c s , attendance and the motions passed. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , s i n c e no other minutes were l o c a t e d f o r the founding p e r i o d , i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o make comparisons between Surrey and other i n s t i t u t e s around the p r o v i n c e . An a d d i t i o n a l primary source which was c o n s u l t e d were the James R. Anderson papers i n the P r o v i n c i a l A r c h i v e s . T h i s source p r o v i d e d much i n t e r e s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on the l i f e of Anderson with the u n f o r t u n a t e e x c e p t i o n o f h i s working years, f i r s t as an accountant and l a t e r i n the employ o f the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . H i s d i a r i e s c o n t a i n l i t t l e more than dates and times of meetings, mention of s o c i a l engagements, and comments on the weather. One speech t o an i n s t i t u t e o r g a n i z i n g meeting and s e v e r a l l e t t e r s r e c e i v e d upon h i s r e t i r e m e n t as Superintendent are the o n l y papers r e l a t e d t o the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e . 10 FOOTNOTES 1 See Gordon Selman, " H i s t o r i c a l W r i t i n g i n E n g l i s h About A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n Canada," i n Papers Presented t o a Conference on Research i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n (Vancouver: Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Study o f A d u l t Education, 1980) . 2 For example, Jean Barman, Growing Up B r i t i s h i n B r i t i s h Columbia: Boys i n P r i v a t e School, (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Press, 1984). 3 J . R. Anderson was the son of A. C. Anderson, the s u b j e c t of the a r t i c l e "Alexander C a u l f i e l d Anderson, f u r t r a d e r and s c h o l a r " by H. H. B a n c r o f t i n H i s t o r i c a l Essays on B r i t i s h Columbia, ed. J . K. F r i e s e n and H. K. R a l s t o n . J . R. Anderson i s author o f Trees and Shrubs: Food, M e d i c i n a l and Poisonous P l a n t s of B.C., p u b l i s h e d by the Department of E d u c a t i o n i n 192 5 f o r use i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s , and B r i t i s h Columbia Farmers' Foes and t h e i r Enemies, a b o o k l e t on i n s e c t s p e s t s , p u b l i s h e d by the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , 1895[?]. 4 David Jones, A g r i c u l t u r e , the Land and Education, unpublished d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1978; Margaret Ormsby, " A g r i c u l t u r a l Development i n B r i t i s h Columbia," A g r i c u l t u r a l H i s t o r y 19 (January 1945), pp. 11-20 and "The U n i t e d Farmers of B r i t i s h Columbia: An A b o r t i v e T h i r d - P a r t y Movement," B r i t i s h Columbia Q u a r t e r l y 17 (January - A p r i l 1953), pp.55-73; B. E. Wales, "The Development o f A d u l t Education", J o u r n a l of Education (1964), p. 5. 5Paul Dampiere, Towards a P u b l i c P o l i c y f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia: A Review, O c c a s i o n a l Paper #6, (Vancouver: P a c i f i c A s s o c i a t i o n f o r C o n t i n u i n g Education, 1978), p. 3-4; Gordon Selman, "A Chronology o f A d u l t Education i n B.C. b e f o r e 1914," J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n 18 (1971), pp. 115-122. 6 In 1916, the C e n t r a l Farmers' I n s t i t u t e was renamed the A d v i s o r y Board of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e . Annual meetings are s t i l l h e l d i n V i c t o r i a . 11 7 Cole H a r r i s , "Moving Amid the Mountains," BC S t u d i e s , 58 (Summer 1983), pp. 3-39. H a r r i s d e s c r i b e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the geography, the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system, the economy and s o c i a l development of B r i t i s h Columbia. 12 CHAPTER II THE SETTING: POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, AND SOCIAL FORCES The o r i g i n of any p u b l i c l y funded program of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n can be understood o n l y w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of the more g e n e r a l p o l i t i c a l , economic and s o c i a l f o r c e s out o f which i t emerged. Throughout North America, i n the l a s t h a l f of the 19th and e a r l y 20th c e n t u r i e s , programs of a g r i c u l t u r a l education were an i n t e g r a l p a r t of government p o l i c y on economic development and l a n d settlement. The years under examination, the l a t e 1890's through 1915, were a time d u r i n g which governments attached growing importance t o a g r i c u l t u r e . These years c o i n c i d e d with an e r a i n the h i s t o r y of a d u l t education which produced both new forms of e d u c a t i o n and a new awareness i n a d u l t s t h a t education was a means t o s e l f - improvement and i n c r e a s e d o p p o r t u n i t y i n a r a p i d l y changing world. T h i s chapter examines the f o r c e s a t the n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s which advanced the development o f a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n and o u t l i n e s e a r l y government funded programs of a g r i c u l t u r a l e ducation i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada. F i n a l l y , i t p l a c e s the founding of the farmers' i n s t i t u t e i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n the context 13 o f expanding e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s f o r a d u l t s i n the p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The N a t i o n a l Context Canadians i n the c l o s i n g years of the 19th century were pre - o c c u p i e d with n a t i o n - b u i l d i n g . The economic and p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s a t work w i t h i n the n a t i o n and around the world were g e n e r a l l y conducive t o p o l i c i e s which supported la n d s ettlement and the development of a g r i c u l t u r e . The world-wide economic d e p r e s s i o n of the e a r l y 1890's had eased and the mood of the times was o p t i m i s t i c . By mid decade, the t r e n d of the p o s t - C o n f e d e r a t i o n y e a r s , which had seen e m i g r a t i o n exceed 1 immigration, began t o r e v e r s e . A growing market f o r hard wheat made P r a i r i e settlement d e s i r a b l e and i n 1896 the newly e l e c t e d L i b e r a l government embarked on a strenuous program t o encourage immigration. P r i o r t o t h a t e l e c t i o n , S i r Donald Smith, a p r i n c i p a l f i n a n c i e r o f the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway, had been appointed h i g h commissioner f o r Canada i n the United Kingdom, and i n t h i s c a p a c i t y he had begun a promotional campaign t o a t t r a c t d e s i r a b l e B r i t i s h immigrants t o the a g r i c u l t u r a l areas of Canada. The q u a l i t y o f the newly a r r i v e d B r i t i s h immigrants was the s u b j e c t o f an a r t i c l e i n the Montreal Witness: Instead of stunted, p a l e - f a c e d c r e a t u r e s , the products of the s t r e e t s o f l a r g e c i t i e s , who never saw a t r e e or cow i n t h e i r l i v e s , of whom we have had f a r t o o many samples i n the past , most o f the immigrants t h i s season, so f a r , are s p l e n d i d specimens of the farm l a b o u r e r s c l a s s . There i s a l s o n o t i c e a b l e a c o n s i d e r a b l e s p r i n k l i n g of the b e t t e r c l a s s of farmers, men with means t o i n v e s t ; but c h i e f l y t h e r e i s knowledge o f the c o n d i t i o n s which await them, and f i t n e s s f o r meeting them.2 The a r t i c l e noted t h a t the m a j o r i t y of "the b e t t e r c l a s s of farmers" mentioned were d e s t i n e d f o r B r i t i s h Columbia where they were h o p e f u l of making "a sudden f o r t u n e " i n the newly developing a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y . The end r e s u l t o f an i n v i g o r a t e d immigration p o l i c y was an i n f l u x o f 1,550,000 immigrants between 1901 and 1911, the vast m a j o r i t y coming from B r i t a i n , Europe and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . There was a f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e of 1,400,000 i n the 1911 t o 1921 p e r i o d , most of whom a r r i v e d b e f o r e the 3 outbreak of World War I. Immigration and settlement were c l o s e l y l i n k e d t o the i n t e r e s t s of the r a i l w a y companies i n Canada. The Canadian P a c i f i c Railway had been completed, making i t p o s s i b l e t o s a t i s f y both domestic and f o r e i g n markets f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s . The r a i l w a y would b e n e f i t both from the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of immigrant s e t t l e r s and the f r e i g h t t h a t would be generated by a farm p o p u l a t i o n . The r a i l w a y a l s o promoted t r a v e l and m i g r a t i o n of s e t t l e r s from the e a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s and elsewhere to the West. As s e t t l e m e n t i n the Canadian West grew, so d i d the demand f o r branch l i n e s of the r a i l w a y t o a i d f u r t h e r s e t t l e m e n t and marketing of farm p r o d u c t s . A p o l i t i c a l i s s u e of the time which caused much c o n s t e r n a t i o n among farmers was the c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the p r o t e c t i v e t a r i f f s by the t r a d i t i o n a l l y f r e e t r a d e 4 L i b e r a l p a r t y . E a s t e r n manufacturing i n t e r e s t s 15 p r e v a i l e d , l e d by the Canadian Manufacturers' A s s o c i a t i o n , t o the dismay of P r a i r i e farmers who were not appeased by L a u r i e r ' s removal of t a r i f f s on b i n d e r 5 twine and barbed w i r e . However, the debate engendered by the t a r i f f i s s u e was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the subsequent o r g a n i z a t i o n of farmers and t h e i r e v e n t u a l r e c o g n i t i o n by the f e d e r a l government as a s t r o n g and growing c o n s t i t u e n c y of v o t e r s . By 1910, farmers were o r g a n i z i n g as a p o l i t i c a l movement, p r i m a r i l y i n O n t a r i o and on the p r a i r i e s . The O n t a r i o group i n i t i a t e d a l a r g e demonstration i n Ottawa when 800 farmers presented a p e t i t i o n t o the government. Although L a u r i e r granted them a courteous h e a r i n g , n e i t h e r L i b e r a l nor C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y c o u l d support the farmers' p o s i t i o n . More than one farm l e a d e r concluded t h a t a n a t i o n a l farmers' p a r t y would be necessary i n 6 order t o advance t h e i r i n t e r e s t s a t the f e d e r a l l e v e l . The p o l a r i z a t i o n o f farming and manufacturing i n t e r e s t s a t the t u r n of the c e n t u r y was a r e f l e c t i o n o f the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t a k i n g p l a c e i n Canadian s o c i e t y . C i t i e s were growing at a tremendous r a t e . For example, i n the t e n year p e r i o d ending i n 1901, Montreal's p o p u l a t i o n grew by 108,556 t o 328,172; Toronto reached 7 2 09,892; and Winnipeg grew by 16,701 t o 42,340. Many urban d w e l l e r s endured overcrowded, makeshift housing which l a c k e d proper s a n i t a r y f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s such 8 as garbage c o l l e c t i o n . Leaders of the emerging s o c i a l reform movement d e c r i e d the d i v i s i o n between r i c h and 16 poor t h a t was apparent i n the new urban c e n t r e s . J . S. Woodsworth observed t h a t "In country d i s t r i c t s people are 9 t o a l a r g e e x t e n t on a l e v e l . . . . " Farm l e a d e r s b e l i e v e d " t h a t the g r e a t e s t m i s f o r t u n e t h a t can b e f a l l any country i s t o have i t s people huddled t o g e t h e r i n g r e a t c e n t r e s 10 of p o p u l a t i o n . " One consequence o f r a p i d u r b a n i z a t i o n was a campaign launched to promote a g r i c u l t u r e as a way of l i f e more h e a l t h y and d e s i r a b l e than the s q u a l o r of urban areas. The key to the promotion of r u r a l l i f e was, of 11 course, e d u c a t i o n . Once i n d i v i d u a l s were encouraged onto the land, education would r a i s e the standards of a g r i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e and enable the farmer t o produce more food f o r the growing p o p u l a t i o n . With the r e s u l t i n g improvement i n h i s own standard of l i v i n g , the farmer and h i s f a m i l y would be content i n t h e i r r u s t i c s e t t i n g . T h i s c o n d i t i o n would be mutually advantageous t o both farm and c i t y - d w e l l e r . The P r o v i n c i a l Context The impetus to a g r i c u l t u r a l e ducation i n B.C. a l s o came from events and c o n d i t i o n s a t the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . B r i t i s h Columbia was s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d by the economic d e p r e s s i o n o f the e a r l y 1890's. A g r i c u l t u r a l p r i c e s s u f f e r e d as s u r p l u s farm products from Oregon, C a l i f o r n i a and Washington f l o o d e d the market. The p r o v i n c i a l b a l a n c e of t r a d e i n a g r i c u l t u r a l products w o r r i e d government l e a d e r s , o f f i c i a l s o f the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e and 17 l o c a l farm l e a d e r s . In the year 1891, B r i t i s h Columbia imported a g r i c u l t u r a l products to a value of $1,730,000 and exported o n l y $93,000 worth. I t was known t h a t , w i t h i t s v a r i e d growing c o n d i t i o n s , B.C. c o u l d have produced most of the products which were b e i n g imported, g i v e n a 12 more h i g h l y developed a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y . A f u r t h e r problem was the n e g a t i v e e f f e c t on a g r i c u l t u r a l development o f land s p e c u l a t i o n . Large t r a c t s o f the b e s t land were being h e l d f o r investment purposes making 13 i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r s e t t l e r s t o a c q u i r e a r a b l e l a n d . T h i s p r a c t i c e angered s e t t l e r s such as Henry T h r i f t , who founded the S e t t l e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n of B. C. i n o r d e r t o f u r t h e r the cause o f those who wished t o s e t t l e and farm 14 the l a n d . Nature had r e c e n t l y d e a l t h a r s h l y w i t h the p r o v i n c e ' s farmers. F o l l o w i n g an unseasonably dry summer and a w i n t e r of heavy snows, t h e r e was d i s a s t r o u s f l o o d i n g i n the s p r i n g of 1894. The F r a s e r covered the r i c h farm lands of i t s lower v a l l e y , r u i n i n g the land f o r p l a n t i n g , d e s t r o y i n g crops and l i v e s t o c k and f o r c i n g f l o o d v i c t i m s t o seek refuge i n the depressed c i t y of 15 Vancouver. F l o o d i n g was not l i m i t e d , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , t o the F r a s e r V a l l e y . I n t e r i o r r i v e r s a l s o f l o o d e d , wiping 16 out homes and farms along t h e i r banks. The 1890's and the f i r s t few years of the new century were marked by s e r i o u s f i n a n c i a l problems f o r the p r o v i n c i a l government which went f a r beyond the t r a d e imbalance i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s . In a f i f t e e n year 18 p e r i o d b e g i n n i n g i n 1888 o n l y two years d i d not add t o the accumulated p r o v i n c i a l d e f i c i t which by 1903 amounted 17 t o 512,545,086. The p r o v i n c i a l government had exhausted i t s c r e d i t , l e a d i n g t o the p e r p e t u a l demand f o r an i n c r e a s e d annual payment to the p r o v i n c e by the f e d e r a l government, under the terms of e n t r y i n t o C o n f e d e r a t i o n i n 1871. By the mid 1890's world economic c o n d i t i o n s began t o improve, c r e a t i n g a b r i g h t e r f u t u r e f o r B.C. exports, i n c l u d i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s . The d i s c o v e r y of g o l d i n the Yukon brought thousands of new consumers. The growth o f urban c e n t r e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia and on the p r a i r i e s i n c r e a s e d demand f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s . By 1901, B r i t i s h Columbia had s i x c e n t r e s with a p o p u l a t i o n over f i v e thousand, with V i c t o r i a h a v ing 21,000 and 18 Vancouver 26,000 r e s i d e n t s . The need t o develop an a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y was apparent to the government and i t s Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . The i n c r e a s i n g demands o f the domestic market suggested t h a t farming c o u l d become a v i a b l e o c c u p a t i o n f o r r u r a l B r i t i s h Columbians. The p o s s i b i l i t y of a f o r e i g n export market f o r the p r o v i n c e ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l goods remained s t r o n g . There was every j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r c o n c e r t e d government a c t i o n t o promote a g r i c u l t u r e w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e . Although a g r i c u l t u r e had never been a major source of income f o r the p r o v i n c e , nor had i t employed"as many people as d i d mining, lumbering or f i s h i n g , a M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e , W.J. Armstrong, had been appointed i n 19 1873. During the f i r s t decades f o l l o w i n g B.C.'s e n t r y i n t o C o n f e d e r a t i o n , some s i g n i f i c a n t l e g i s l a t i o n had been passed. In 1873, the Drainage, Dyking and I r r i g a t i o n Act p r o v i d e d f o r c o - o p e r a t i v e endeavors under a government appointed commissioner. The A g r i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t i e s I n c o r p o r a t i o n Act o f 1873 p r o v i d e d f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s making p o s s i b l e the complicated network of c o - o p e r a t i v e s , i n s t i t u t e s and s o c i e t i e s which l a t e r developed as a g r i c u l t u r e expanded i n the p r o v i n c e . L e g i s l a t i o n r e g a r d i n g c a t t l e branding, t h i s t l e s and o t h e r noxious weeds, and the p a s t u r i n g of sheep i n the G u l f I s l a n d s had been enacted. A g e n e r a l system o f t a x a t i o n of a l l land was begun i n 1876. The Land A c t was amended i n 1884, i n t r o d u c i n g a l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system whereby good q u a l i t y land would be s o l d by the s e c t i o n at a h i g h e r p r i c e than non-arable l a n d . The decade o f the 1890's saw a d d i t i o n a l important l e g i s l a t i o n a f f e c t i n g farmers. The H o r t i c u l t u r a l Board Act p r o v i d e d f o r the i n s p e c t i o n of nursery stock and f r u i t t o c o n t r o l d i s e a s e and i n s e c t s . The H o r t i c u l t u r a l and F r u i t - G r o w e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n was i n c o r p o r a t e d by a s p e c i a l a c t i n 1890, and i n 1896 an a c t p r o v i d e d f o r the formation of c o - o p e r a t i v e s f o r the p r o d u c t i o n and marketing of farm p r o d u c t s . T h i s was f o l l o w e d i n 1897 by s i m i l a r l e g i s l a t i o n t o i n c o r p o r a t e a s s o c i a t i o n s o f milk, cheese and b u t t e r producers, The Farmers' I n s t i t u t e and Co-operation Act, and i n 1898 by the A g r i c u l t u r a l C r e d i t 20 A s s o c i a t i o n s Act, which allowed f o r group borrowing o f government funds by farmers' a s s o c i a t i o n s which i n t u r n c o u l d make loans to i n d i v i d u a l members. By the l a t e 1890's, the government had e s t a b l i s h e d the l e g a l b a s i s f o r the development of an a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y . What i t needed now was an a c t i v e campaign t o a s s i s t the settlement o f r u r a l B.C., and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f farming as a f i n a n c i a l l y sound o c c u p a t i o n f o r r u r a l r e s i d e n t s . Immigration campaigns launched by both f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments were al r e a d y b r i n g i n g new s e t t l e r s t o the p r o v i n c e . But many of these intended farmers lacked experience i n farming o r c o n f r o n t e d c o n d i t i o n s and forms of a g r i c u l t u r e completely new t o them. While the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e had produced q u a n t i t i e s of l i t e r a t u r e on the a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l and c o n d i t i o n s i n the p r o v i n c e , the times r e q u i r e d a more a c t i v e approach. The o r g a n i z a t i o n of a farmers' i n s t i t u t e w i t h i t s d u a l e d u c a t i o n a l and economic r o l e was the reasonable next step i n the promotion o f a g r i c u l t u r e . A g r i c u l t u r a l Education i n North America The o r i g i n of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e i n B.C. must a l s o be viewed w i t h i n the context o f the tremendous growth i n a g r i c u l t u r a l education o c c u r r i n g a c r o s s North America. The f i r s t widespread and s y s t e m a t i c e f f o r t s by North American governments to p r o v i d e a d u l t education 19 were i n programs of a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n . Beginning i n the l a s t h a l f of the 19th century, a d u l t e d u c a t i o n was 21 a response t o expanding a g r i c u l t u r a l technology and s c i e n t i f i c knowledge and was l i n k e d t o p o l i c i e s which promoted l a r g e s c a l e immigration and s e t t l e m e n t o f the West. A g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n i n North America has taken many forms s i n c e i t was f i r s t regarded as something more than an a r t t o be l e a r n e d under the w a t c h f u l eye o f an e l d e r f a m i l y member or through c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h a 20 neighbour. Among the f i r s t e f f o r t s t o p r o v i d e a g r i c u l t u r a l education were those of the a g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s which were formed as e a r l y as 1785 i n the 21 U n i t e d S t a t e s and 1789 i n Canada. T h e i r aim was to improve farming p r a c t i c e through education and thereby improve the l i v e s of the a g r a r i a n p o p u l a t i o n . The s o c i e t i e s became common i n both the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada, peaking i n p o p u l a r i t y around 1860 i n the U n i t e d 22 S t a t e s and approximately twenty years l a t e r i n Canada. In a d d i t i o n to p r o v i d i n g w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l and l e c t u r e s on a g r i c u l t u r e , these s o c i e t i e s promoted the i d e a of s t a t e and l a t e r f e d e r a l f u n d i n g t o a g r i c u l t u r a l e d ucation. As p u b l i c funding i n the United S t a t e s became a v a i l a b l e f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n programs, a number of s t a t e a g r i c u l t u r a l c o l l e g e s were b u i l t during the 1850's. Outstanding among government supported e f f o r t s i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n was the M o r i l l A c t , passed i n 1862 i n the United S t a t e s , which p r o v i d e d f o r l a n d grant i n s t i t u t i o n s t o promote t e c h n o l o g i c a l improvement i n a g r i c u l t u r e . The c o l l e g e s developed methods of t a k i n g 22 i n f o r m a t i o n t o farmers, a p r a c t i c e which was l a t e r t o be c a l l e d a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n . One method which the c o l l e g e s used was the h o l d i n g of two t o t h r e e day i n s t i t u t e s f o r farmers i n a v a r i e t y of l o c a t i o n s . These i n s t i t u t e s became an i n c r e a s i n g l y p o p u l a r form o f a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n and they soon evolved i n t o government sponsored and r e g u l a t e d farmers' o r g a n i z a t i o n s whose purpose was the e d u c a t i o n a l and economic betterment 23 of the farmers. Beginning i n 1887, a g r i c u l t u r a l experimental s t a t i o n s were atta c h e d to these land-grant c o l l e g e s which had spread a c r o s s the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The s t a t e - s p o n s o r e d farmers' i n s t i t u t e s f a c i l i t a t e d the work of the c o l l e g e s , becoming so p o p u l a r t h a t by 1880 they had been e s t a b l i s h e d i n twenty-six s t a t e s , and by 1900 i n 24 f o r t y - s e v e n . In Canada, the O n t a r i o government had, i n 1873, purchased l a n d f o r an experimental farm i n Guelph, from which the O n t a r i o School of A g r i c u l t u r e began i n 1874, p a t t e r n e d a f t e r a g r i c u l t u r a l s c h ools i n I r e l a n d with t h e i r a t t a c h e d model farms. The p r e s i d e n t o f the s c h o o l , which was l a t e r c a l l e d the O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e , was James J . M i l l s , who w i t h S. C. Woods, p r o v i n c i a l Commissioner of A g r i c u l t u r e , was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n founding the farmers' i n s t i t u t e i n O n t a r i o i n 1884, the f i r s t 25 Canadian farmers' i n s t i t u t e . As i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e p r o v i d e d speakers f o r the i n s t i t u t e meetings so t h a t the farmers' i n s t i t u t e s came to p r o v i d e an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b a s i s f o r the e x t e n s i o n 23 work of the c o l l e g e . Again l i k e the government operated farmers' i n s t i t u t e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the O n t a r i o Farmers' I n s t i t u t e took over or r e p l a c e d many of the 26 a g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s and a s s o c i a t i o n s . By 1902, 24,000 had j o i n e d l o c a l i n s t i t u t e s and, i n t h a t year, 12 5,000 people attended e d u c a t i o n a l events sponsored by 27 them. In 1886, the f e d e r a l government passed the Experimental Farm S t a t i o n A c t . The f i r s t dominion farm was e s t a b l i s h e d at Ottawa, with branch farms l o c a t e d i n Nova S c o t i a , Manitoba, the North West T e r r i t o r i e s and i n 1889, at A g a s s i z , B.C. The r e s u l t s of the work c a r r i e d on at the farms was p u b l i s h e d f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n t o farmers 28 and p r o v i n c i a l departments of a g r i c u l t u r e . T r a v e l l i n g d a i r y s c h o o l s , which had been operated as e a r l y as 1891 by the O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r e C o l l e g e were adopted by the f e d e r a l Department of A g r i c u l t u r e and a r r i v e d i n B.C. i n 1901. The t a s k of d i s s e m i n a t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n generated by the farms and a g r i c u l t u r a l c o l l e g e s was g r e a t l y a s s i s t e d by the growing p o p u l a r i t y of r e a d i n g f o r e d u c a t i o n a l or r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes and by the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f cheap paper. In r u r a l areas, d e p r i v e d o f the p o p u l a r entertainment and o r g a n i z e d s o c i a l l i f e o f the c i t i e s , i t was not uncommon f o r a farmer t o s u b s c r i b e to two or three weekly papers, one of them l i k e l y t o be 29 an a g r i c u l t u r a l weekly. In f a c t , one of the opponents of the O n t a r i o School of A g r i c u l t u r e had been W i l l i a m 24 Weld, p u b l i s h e r o f The Farmers' Advocate, who f e a r e d t h a t the s c h o o l might remove h i s r e a d e r s h i p among O n t a r i o 30 farmers. General Programs of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n In t h i s p e r i o d o f changing economic and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s , education was seen as a means of i n d i v i d u a l and community improvement. Expanding urban c e n t r e s p r o v i d e d i n c r e a s i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r self-improvement through a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . Malcolm Knowles has p o r t r a y e d the p e r i o d from 1860 to World War I as marked by the d i f f u s i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and the eagerness o f a d u l t s 31 t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n them. Welfare agencies, s e t t l e m e n t houses, v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s , t r a d e and manufacturing a s s o c i a t i o n s , and t r a d e unions promoted and p r o v i d e d e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s f o r t h e i r members. L i b r a r i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d and evening c l a s s e s f o r a d u l t s operated out of schools and u n i v e r s i t i e s . T h i s p e r i o d a l s o saw the formation o f l i t e r a r y s o c i e t i e s , mechanics' i n s t i t u t e s , and n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as the YMCA, the YWCA, and the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Women, a l l o f which i n c l u d e d a strong e d u c a t i o n a l component. Because B.C.'s p o p u l a t i o n was comprised o f r e c e n t immigrants t o the pr o v i n c e , they brought with them a knowledge o f the a d u l t e d u c a t i o n movement which e x i s t e d elsewhere i n North America and B r i t a i n . Some had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n programs i n the Un i t e d S t a t e s or ea s t e r n Canada or had attended a d u l t 25 32 n i g h t s c h o o l s . E a r l i e r i n the century, mechanics' i n s t i t u t e s had e x i s t e d i n V i c t o r i a and New Westminster. L i t e r a r y s o c i e t i e s and mechanics' i n s t i t u t e s had been p u b l i c l y funded from 1871 t o 187 8 and the p r o v i n c i a l Bureau of Mines had o f f e r e d a l e c t u r e course i n Vancouver, V i c t o r i a ' a n d New Westminster i n 1893. The i d e a of an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n program, be i t o f g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t o r s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g f o r a g r i c u l t u r e , was not, t h e r e f o r e , t o t a l l y u n f a m i l i a r t o the p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s l i v i n g a t t h a t time i n B.C. Nor was i n t e r e s t l a c k i n g a t the o f f i c i a l l e v e l , g i v e n the p r i o r i t y accorded improvement i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n and techniques. The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a farmers' i n s t i t u t e was q u i t e c o n s i s t e n t with the trends e x i s t i n g both i n B r i t i s h Columbia and i n Canada. 26 FOOTNOTES H a r o l d Troper, "Immigration," The Canadian E n c y c l o p e d i a , v o l . I I , (Edmonton: H u r t i g P u b l i s h e r s , 1986), p. 863. 2 "New Immigrants, " r e p r i n t e d i n the V i c t o r i a C o l o n i s t , A p r i l 29, 1897, p.7. 3 G e r a l d E. D i r k s , "Immigration P o l i c y , " The Canadian E n c y c l o p i a , p. 865. 4 Robert C r a i g Brown and Ramsay Cook, Canada, 1896- 1921: A N a t i o n Transformed, (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Steward, 1974), pp. 147-148. 5 E n c y c l o p e d i a Canadiana, 1 s t ed., s.v. " T a r i f f s , " by V. C. Fowke. 6 Brown and Cook, pp. 159-161. 7 I b i d . , p. 98. 8 I b i d . , p. 101. 9 J . S. Woodsworth, "Some Aspects of the Immigation Problem i n The Young Women o f Canada (December, 1909), Woodsworth Papers 28, P u b l i c A r c h i v e s of Canada, quoted i n Brown and Cook, p. 101. 10 Brown and Cook,p. 160. 11 David C. Jones, "The Z e i t g e i s t of Western Settlement: E d u c a t i o n and the Myth of the Land," i n S c h o o l i n g and S o c i e t y i n Twentieth Century B r i t i s h Columbia, ed. J . Donald Wilson and David C. Jones, (Calgary: D e t s i l i g , 1980), p. 73. 12 B r i t i s h Columbia, Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e Columbia 1891, ( V i c t o r i a : 851. Annual Report o f the of the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Queen's P r i n t e r , 1892), pT 27 13 I b i d . , 1891, p. 731. 14 H e n r y T. T h r i f t , R e m i n i s c e n c e s , n.p. S u r r e y A r c h i v e s . 15 M a r g a r e t Ormsby, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : A H i s t o r y . ( T o r o n t o : M a c m i l l a n , 1958), p. 313. 16 , A P i o n e e r Gentlewoman i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . ( V a n c o u v e r : U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C. P r e s s , 1976), pp. 69-72. 17 F. H. Howay, "The S e t t l e m e n t and P r o g r e s s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1871-1914," i n H i s t o r i c a l E s s a y s on B.C., ed. J . F r i e s e n and H. K. R a l s t o n , ( T o r o n t o : Gage, 1980), p. 32. 18 C e n s u s o f Canada, 1901, v o l . 1, p. 22. 19Duncan C a m p b e l l , A d u l t E d u c a t i o n a s a F i e l d o f S t u d y and P r a c t i c e , ( V a n c o u v e r : C e n t r e f o r C o n t i n u i n g E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f B. C. and t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o u n c i l f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 1977), p. 5-6. 20 D. W. M e i n i g , The G r e a t C o l u m b i a P l a i n : A H i s t o r i c a l G e o g r a p h y 1805-19101 C S e a t t l e : U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , 1968), p~. 404. 21 B u r t o n K r i e t l o w , R u r a l E d u c a t i o n : Community B a c k g r o u n d s , (New Y o r k : H a r p e r & B r o t h e r s , 1954), p . 210; J . S c h u l z , R i s e and F a l l o f C a n a d i a n Farm O r g a n i z a t i o n s , ( W i n n i p e g : t h e a u t h o r , 1 9 5 6 [ ? ] ) , p. 8. T h e r e a r e r e c o r d s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s e x i s t i n g i n 1789 i n K i n g C o u n t y , Nova S c o t i a and Quebec, i n 1790 i n New B r u n s w i c k and b y 17 91 i n O n t a r i o . 22 M a l c o l m Knowles, The A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Movement i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , (New Y o r k : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , 1962), p. 24; D o u g l a s Lawr, " A g r i c u l t u r a l E d u c a t i o n i n O n t a r i o , " i n E d u c a t i o n and S o c i a l Change: Themes f r o m O n t a r i o ' s P a s t , ed. M i c h a e l K a t z and P a u l H. M a t t i n g l y , (New Y o r k : New Y o r k U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1975), p . 186. 23 Knowles, p. 24. 28 24 I b i d . , p. 40. 25 Lawr, p. 182-185. 26 I b i d . , p. 186. 27 I b i d . , p. 184. 28 The Annual Report of the Experimental Farms f o r 1897 i s a document of nea r l y f i v e hundred pages, i l l u s t r a t e d w ith photographs, charts and diagrams, which describes and summarizes the experimental work of the farms. 29 J . B a r t l e t Brebner, Canada, (Ann Arbor: U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan Press, 1970T) p. 364. 30 Lawr, p. 179. 31 Malcolm Knowles, The Ad u l t Education Movement i n the United S t a t e s , (New York: H o l t , Rinehart and Winston, 1962), p. 15. 32 Examples are Henry Bose, a founding member and promoter of the Surrey Farmers' I n s t i t u t e who attended an evening c o l l e g e at M o o r f i e l d , England before h i s emigration to Canada ( B r i t i s h Columbian, March 3 0, 1946) and M a r t i n B u r r e l l , an e a r l y correspondent f o r the p r o v i n c i a l Department of A g r i c u l t u r e and f e d e r a l M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e , had been a r e g u l a r speaker to farmers' gatherings i n eastern Canada before he moved to B.C. (Ottawa J o u r n a l , January 28, 1926). 29 CHAPTER I I I THE EMERGENCE OF THE FARMERS' INSTITUTE The s e v e r a l f a c t o r s l e a d i n g t o t h e f o u n d i n g o f t h e F a r m e r s ' I n s t i t u t e i n B.C., w h i c h were d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r I I , c o a l e s c e d i n t h e e a r l y work o f t h e f i r s t d e p a r t m e n t a l s t a t i s t i c i a n and D e p u t y M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e , J . R. A n d e r s o n . T h i s c h a p t e r shows how t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e , t h r o u g h i t s s y s t e m o f c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n o n a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s , p r o v i d e d b o t h p o l i t i c a l and f a r m l e a d e r s w i t h c o n v i n c i n g e v i d e n c e i n f a v o u r o f a f a r m e r s ' i n s t i t u t e . I t d i s c u s s e s t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e A c t w h i c h b r o u g h t a b o u t t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e I n s t i t u t e i n 1897 and d e s c r i b e s t h e i n i t i a l o r g a n i z i n g campaign. The E a r l y O p e r a t i o n o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e The f i r s t M i n i s t e r o f F i n a n c e and A g r i c u l t u r e , W. J . A r m s t r o n g , h a d b e e n a p p o i n t e d i n 1873 b u t i t was n o t u n t i l 1891 u n d e r J . H. T u r n e r t h a t t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e became a c t i v e . I n t h a t y e a r , J . R. A n d e r s o n was a p p o i n t e d s t a t i s t i c i a n and so b e g a n a s e v e n t e e n - y e a r f o r m a l a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e d e p a r t m e n t and w i t h a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . An a c c o u n t a n t a n d b u s i n e s s m a n b y p r o f e s s i o n , A n d e r s o n ' s 30 i n t e r e s t i n a g r i c u l t u r e dated back to h i s e a r l y c h i l d h o o d spent i n v a r i o u s Hudson Bay f o r t s i n the P a c i f i c Northwest. His f a t h e r , A. C. Anderson, a Hudson's Bay f a c t o r , had r e c o g n i z e d the a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l o f the r e g i o n and had s u c c e s s f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d farms i n s e v e r a l 1 f o r t s under h i s command. As a teenager, J . R. Anderson s t u d i e d a g r i c u l t u r e i n s c h o o l i n Oregon and was taught fundamental h o r t i c u l t u r a l s k i l l s by h i s f a t h e r on t h e i r farm a t Cathlamet. Anderson's l i f e - l o n g i n t e r e s t was n a t u r a l h i s t o r y and he thus brought to the department a p r o d i g i o u s knowledge of the p r o v i n c e ' s p l a n t s and animals and d i r e c t experience of l i f e and t r a v e l i n the remote i n t e r i o r s e c t i o n s of the P a c i f i c Northwest. Upon Anderson's appointment t o the department, he immediately e s t a b l i s h e d a system o f l o c a l correspondents who would complete an annual q u e s t i o n n a i r e on the a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r a r ea. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r o u t i n e l y sought i n f o r m a t i o n on the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y of stock and crops r a i s e d , the p r e f e r r e d breeds and v a r i e t i e s , the p r e v a l e n c e o f i n s e c t p e s t s and d i s e a s e , m e t e o r o l o g i c a l data, the a v a i l a b i l i t y and c o s t of farm labour, the l o c a l markets f o r farm pr o d u c t s and the p r i c e s r e c e i v e d . Issues o f c u r r e n t i n t e r e s t such as land c l e a r i n g c o s t s and methods would have an e n t i r e l y separate q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Other t o p i c s such as the a v a i l a b i l i t y and p r i c e o f farm la n d or o p i n i o n s on the t e a c h i n g of a g r i c u l t u r e i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l s were p e r i o d i c a l l y 31 3 i n c l u d e d . Correspondents v a r i e d from the ordinary- s e t t l e r s , t o government agents and o f f i c e r s i n the s m a l l e r c e n t r e s , t o farmer a c t i v i s t s who were l e a d e r s i n l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and p o l i t i c s . Although Anderson complained o f inadequate responses, he f r e q u e n t l y r e c e i v e d lengthy and d e t a i l e d r e p o r t s on a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s e n l i v e n e d w i t h the w r i t e r ' s comments on farm i s s u e s . The shortage of good q u a l i t y and i n e x p e n s i v e land f o r a g r i c u l t u r e was a p o p u l a r theme i n the r e p o r t s . In the f i r s t Annual Report he completed f o r the department i n 1891, Anderson estimated t h a t o n l y ten per cent of the land which was owned was c u l t i v a t e d , c r e a t i n g a s i t u a t i o n which f o r c e d s e t t l e r s on to l a n d not n e c e s s a r i l y s u i t e d 4 t o a g r i c u l t u r e . Again i n 1895 and 1896, the a v a i l a b i l i t y and c o s t of a r a b l e land was mentioned. R.L.T. G a l b r a i t h , the F o r t S t e e l e correspondent, r e p o r t e d t h a t Kootenay s e t t l e r s were a n x i o u s l y a w a i t i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the Crows' Nest Pass Railway i n the hope t h a t markets would f o l l o w the opening up of the c o a l mines i n the East Kootenays. He a l s o noted t h a t the r a i l w a y would not d i s p o s e o f the l a n d except i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s . Settlement c o u l d not proceed u n t i l s m a l l p a r c e l s of l a n d became a v a i l a b l e a t p r i c e s s e t t l e r s c o u l d a f f o r d . Another Kootenay correspondent from Tobacco P l a i n s a l s o complained t h a t the good land belonged to the CPR and was 5 not f o r s a l e . There was a shortage of a c c e s s i b l e farm land a c r o s s the p r o v i n c e . No government land f o r pre-emption was l e f t i n the Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y m u n i c i p a l i t i e s o f 6 Langley, Surrey and Richmond. P r i c e s on improved lan d i n 7 the F r a s e r V a l l e y v a r i e d from $2.50 t o $2 5.00 an a c r e . On Vancouver I s l a n d the m e t e o r o l o g i s t from the Dominion Weather S t a t i o n at Sproat Lake claimed t h a t "The l a n d b e i n g h e l d by s p e c u l a t o r s h e r e [ i n the A l b e r n i V a l l e y ] does a g r e a t d e a l of harm i n not o n l y h o l d i n g the country 8 back but i n keeping out good l e g i t i m a t e s e t t l e r s " . Correspondents used the r e p o r t s t o Anderson to advance t h e i r own p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s and he used them o c c a s i o n a l l y t o express h i s p e r s o n a l o p i n i o n s . H.T. T h r i f t and Henry Bose, who r e p o r t e d from Hazelmere and Surrey Centre, were p e r s o n a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the p u b l i c s c h o o l system and l o b b i e d f o r the i n c l u s i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r e i n the c u r r i c u l u m . Anderson r e p o r t e d i n 1897 t h a t i n response t o t h e i r s u g g e s t i o n , he had approached the M i n i s t e r of E d u c a t i o n and an a g r i c u l t u r e t e x t was on order from the p u b l i s h e r . He s t a t e d t h a t t h i s measure would "...undoubtedly l e a d t o d i r e c t i n g the mind of the r i s i n g g e n e r a t i o n towards a g r i c u l t u r a l p u r s u i t s , from which they are so apt i n the p r e s e n t day t o be l e d to 9 other more a l l u r i n g walks of l i f e . " As s t a t i s t i c i a n , Anderson was a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c o m p i l a t i o n o f d a t a on imports and exports. In h i s f i r s t r e p o r t he noted t h a t imports o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s such as pork, f l o u r , apples, plums, prunes, eggs, b u t t e r and cheese amounted t o $1,729,970 wit h a 33 10 duty o f $178,411. As he s y s t e m a t i c a l l y gathered data on c l i m a t e and growing c o n d i t i o n s around the p r o v i n c e , Anderson was a b l e t o make a str o n g case f o r the argument t h a t B.C. c o u l d , g i v e n an improved a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y , be s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n much of i t s food requirements and pr o v i d e a l i v i n g t o i n c r e a s e d numbers of farmers. The p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t o f the department i n i t s e a r l y years was to make a v a i l a b l e t o i n t e n d i n g s e t t l e r s the i n f o r m a t i o n which Anderson compiled and generated. Through the wide d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o p i e s o f the Annual Report, Anderson c i r c u l a t e d f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n along w i t h the suggestions and o p i n i o n s o f the l o c a l corespondents. The r e p o r t s thus c o n t a i n e d s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , d e s c r i p t i o n s o f l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s , and the proposed s o l u t i o n s of Anderson and v a r i o u s correspondents f o r problems c o n f r o n t i n g farmers and the a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y o f the p r o v i n c e . One s o l u t i o n which Anderson favored was the promotion o f c o - o p e r a t i v e s f o r marketing farm produce. He b e l i e v e d t h a t By the l a c k o f c o - o p e r a t i o n i n the p a s t farmers u n q u e s t i o n a b l y have been p l a c e d under a great disadvantage, as compared w i t h the f a c i l i t i e s a f f o r d e d i n other l i n e s of bu s i n e s s which i n c l u d e s i n f o r m a t i o n as t o p r o f i t a b l e markets, the i m p o s i t i o n o f f r e i g h t r a t e s , the e x a c t i o n s o f middle-men and the many o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which e n t e r i n t o and e f f e c t t he p r o f i t s o f the producer.11 T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e on the management of farm b u s i n e s s was d o u b t l e s s informed by Anderson's years of experience i n the import t r a d e i n V i c t o r i a where he had been both a 34 12 p a r t n e r and an accountant i n s e v e r a l f i r m s . C o n s i s t e n t l y s u p p o r t i v e o f c o - o p e r a t i v e systems o f b u s i n e s s f o r farmers, Anderson brought t o h i s t a s k as Deputy M i n i s t e r and l a t e r Superintendent o f Farmers' I n s t i t u t e a commitment to the betterment o f a g r i c u l t u r e by making farming an e c o n o m i c a l l y sound b u s i n e s s venture f o r the i n d i v i d u a l farmer. He was knowledgeable o f procedures i n use around the world and was eager t o implement new methods i n t o B.C.'s d e v e l o p i n g 13 a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y . Anderson's p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t and knowledge o f h o r t i c u l t u r e made him p a r t i c u l a r l y concerned about the obvious need f o r i n f o r m a t i o n by f r u i t growers who were the most r a p i d l y expanding s e c t o r of a g r i c u l t u r e d u r i n g the 1890's. He lamented the l a c k o f knowledge o f p l a n t i n g , p r u n ing, f e r t i l i z e r s , o r c h a r d mulching and 14 i n s e c t c o n t r o l . By 1895, the V i c t o r i a F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n was h o l d i n g r e g u l a r e d u c a t i o n a l s e s s i o n s where p r e s e n t a t i o n s were made on l o c a l f r u i t - g r o w i n g p r a c t i c e . The Board of H o r t i c u l t u r e a l s o sent i t s members on t r i p s t o f r u i t growing areas where they v i s i t e d i n d i v i d u a l o rchards t o examine c o n d i t i o n s and g i v e i n f o r m a t i o n t o the farmers. The Movement Toward the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e I t would appear from the Annual Reports t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t demand on the p a r t o f the p r o v i n c e ' s farmers f o r a formal government-sponsored mass o r g a n i z a t i o n . At the time of the founding of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e the p r o v i n c e c o n t a i n e d e i g h t e e n a g r i c u l t u r a l a s s o c i a t i o n s whose concern was the sponsorship of annual f a i r s and e x h i b i t i o n s . There were a l s o producers' o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; the North-West F r u i t Growers, the Dairymen's A s s o c i a t i o n and the B. C. H o r t i c u l t u r a l S o c i e t y and F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n were the three most e s t a b l i s h e d groups. They i n c l u d e d some e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e i r meetings and a v a i l e d themselves o f the l i t e r a t u r e produced by the department. The f i r s t mention of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e i n the Annual Reports i s i n the combined r e p o r t o f 1895 and 1896, which was w r i t t e n i n 1897 a f t e r the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e and C o -operation Act had been passed. The Manitoba C e n t r a l Farmers' I n s t i t u t e had approached Anderson, who p o l l e d the s e c r e t a r i e s of the a g r i c u l t u r a l a s s o c i a t i o n s t o determine t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n the f o r m a t i o n 15 of a farmers' i n s t i t u t e . He r e p o r t e d l i t t l e response. I t seems l i k e l y t h a t these o r g a n i z a t i o n s a l r e a d y r e c e i v e d the most obvious b e n e f i t s t h a t would come from i n s t i t u t e membership and, furthermore, they tended t o e x i s t i n the major p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s of V i c t o r i a , Vancouver, and New Westminster and so enjoyed an e a s i e r access t o i n f o r m a t i o n of any k i n d than those farmers l i v i n g i n the l e s s p o p u lated r u r a l s e c t i o n of the p r o v i n c e . However, a t the o r g a n i z i n g meeting of the f i r s t farmers' i n s t i t u t e at Surrey, i n August 1897, Anderson spoke t o the meeting on b e h a l f of the Hon. J . H. Turner, the M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e . In summarizing the h i s t o r y o f the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e A c t , he r e v e a l e d t h a t i t was "very much a t the i n s t a n c e of the o f f i c e r s o f the Farmers' A l l i a n c e o f B.C. t h a t the s u b j e c t of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e had been f i r s t taken 16 up." T h i s i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h H. T. T h r i f t ' s account o f h i s own l o b b y i n g e f f o r t s on b e h a l f of the farmers of the lower F r a s e r V a l l e y . T h r i f t , along w i t h two Surrey farmers and a farmer from each of the South Vancouver and Duncan areas, formed the Farmers' A l l i a n c e f o r the purpose o f p u b l i c i z i n g the p l i g h t of the farm p o p u l a t i o n and l o b b y i n g government members and the p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t . They had met with Hon. J . H. Turner t o d i s c u s s v a r i o u s measures which would b e n e f i t farmers b e f o r e the enactment of the farmers' i n s t i t u t e l e g i s l a t i o n . T h r i f t was a founding member and f i r s t s e c r e t a r y of the Surrey Farmers' I n s t i t u t e and was a l s o i n s t r u m e n t a l i n 17 o r g a n i z i n g the S e t t l e r ' s A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1900. I t has been suggested t h a t farmers' i n s t i t u t e s were an attempt on the p a r t of c o n s e r v a t i v e governments t o d e t r a c t from a growing farmers' movement i n e a s t e r n 18 Canada and on the p r a i r i e s . In B r i t i s h Columbia, the encouragement of the farmers' i n s t i t u t e s would have been c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l campaign t o encourage B r i t i s h s e t t l e m e n t i n the Okanagan. As one means o f b r i n g i n g c a p i t a l i n t o a f i n a n c i a l l y t r o u b l e d p r o v i n c e , the government had a d v e r t i s e d i n B r i t a i n and had been s u c c e s s f u l i n a t t r a c t i n g wealthy Englishmen to the 19 Okanagan V a l l e y t o become o r c h a r d i s t s . T h i s campaign was a l s o based on the hope t h a t settlement of the Okanagan by a " b e t t e r c l a s s " of B r i t i s h s e t t l e r would c o u n t e r a c t the growing s t r e n g t h of the labour movement i n the Kootenay mining i n d u s t r y . 2 0 I t would seem, however, t h a t t h e c r e a t i o n of the B.C. Farmers' I n s t i t u t e was predominantly an e x t e n s i o n and c o n s o l i d a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g f u n c t i o n s of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . Through h i s c o n t a c t with the f e d e r a l Department of A g r i c u l t u r e p e r s o n n e l , many of whom were graduates of the O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e , and h i s f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h a g r i c u l t u r i s t s from s t a t e c o l l e g e s i n Washington and Oregon, Anderson was f u l l y informed of the success of farmers' i n s t i t u t e s elsewhere i n North America. The Farmers' I n s t i t u t e and C o-operation A c t 21 When the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e and Co-operation Act was d r a f t e d , many of the o r i g i n a l o b j e c t s of the p r o v i n c i a l Department of A g r i c u l t u r e were i n c l u d e d i n i t s statement of purpose. The two main f o c i of the Act were edu c a t i o n and c o - o p e r a t i o n . A p o p u l a r b e l i e f of the time, a l r e a d y s t r e s s e d by Anderson i n the Annual Report of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , was t h a t what stood i n the way of m a t e r i a l g a i n by farmers was t h e i r ignorance of co- 22 o p e r a t i v e methods of purchase and p r o d u c t i o n . Farmers as a group were r e p e a t e d l y b e r a t e d f o r t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c and c o m p e t i t i v e natures and t h e i r f a i l u r e 38 t o work t o g e t h e r i n t h e manner of s u c c e s s f u l businessmen. C o - o p e r a t i o n among farmers was encouraged by p r o v i d i n g f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of groups o f farmers under the Companies Act of 1897 f o r the purpose o f e s t a b l i s h i n g p l a n t s f o r the p r o c e s s i n g of a g r i c u l t u r a l products, f o r the buying and s e l l i n g of farm produce and f o r the f o r m a t i o n of a c r e d i t a s s o c i a t i o n . The second main f u n c t i o n of the act was education, which grew d i r e c t l y out of the department's ongoing f u n c t i o n t o gather and d isseminate i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t i n e n t t o a g r i c u l t u r e . The i n f o r m a t i o n generated by t h e department on t h e p r o v i n c i a l b alance of imports and exports of a g r i c u l t u r a l products had been compelling evidence t o support those who argued f o r concerted a c t i o n i n support of a g r i c u l t u r e . And, as the department promoted the p r o s p e c t s of r u r a l B.C. t o new s e t t l e r s , i t was c r e a t i n g a g r e a t e r need f o r expanded e d u c a t i o n a l programs. The A c t c l e a r l y s p e c i f i e d the o b j e c t s of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e as the d i s s e m i n a t i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n on a g r i c u l t u r e and the encouragement and improvement o f a g r i c u l t u r e , h o r t i c u l t u r e and a r b o r i c u l t u r e . The Act p r o v i d e d f o r the p o s i t i o n of Superintendent of Farmers' I n s t i t u t e s and d esignated t h r e e major d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e — N e w Westminster, Vancouver I s l a n d and the I n t e r i o r — w i t h the d i v i s i o n s s u b - d i v i d e d i n t o d i s t r i c t s which would c o n t a i n the i n d i v i d u a l i n s t i t u t e s . The procedure f o r the formation of an i n d i v i d u a l i n s t i t u t e was o u t l i n e d . The Act s p e c i f i e d t h a t a minimum of 39 f i f t e e n farmers must p e t i t i o n the Superintendent. The f i r s t meeting f o r the purpose of o r g a n i z i n g must be a d v e r t i s e d l o c a l l y and i n the C\_ Gazette t h i r t y days i n advance of the meeting date. On payment of the annual membership f e e of f i f t y c e n t s , members at the o r g a n i z i n g meeting were e l i g i b l e t o stand f o r e l e c t i o n t o the e x e c u t i v e . Meetings f o r l e c t u r e s and d i s c u s s i o n s on the theory and p r a c t i c e of farming were t o be conducted. A l o c a l i n s t i t u t e was r e q u i r e d t o h o l d two r e g u l a r meetings per year f o r which the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e arranged t h e speakers and p a i d the s a l a r y and any t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t s . In a d d i t i o n , a t l e a s t two supplementary meetings were t o be h e l d f o r which the l o c a l e x e c u t i v e would arrange speakers and the branch would assume any expenses i n v o l v e d . The i n s t i t u t e s would c i r c u l a t e b u l l e t i n s and p e r i o d i c a l s t o a l l members and would o b t a i n and d i s t r i b u t e seeds, p l a n t s and animals t o i n d i v i d u a l farmers. Through the f i n a n c i a l support of the Department, the i n s t i t u t e s were expected t o encourage s c i e n t i f i c e xperimentation and award p r i z e s f o r essays which documented these rudimentary r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s . R e g u l a t i o n s under the Act d e t a i l e d the e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n o f the i n s t i t u t e s . Meetings were t o be w e l l a d v e r t i s e d w i t h the speaker's name and t o p i c g i v e n . S p e c i a l p o s t e r s f o r t h i s purpose were p r o v i d e d by the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . Agendas would be c i r c u l a t e d i n advance and c o p i e s of speeches were t o be sent t o the 40 S u p e r i n t e n d e n t . The g e n e r a l o r i n f o r m a t i o n a l m e e t i n g s were t o be n o n - p a r t i s a n and n o n - s e c t a r i a n , and t h e r e was t o be no a d v e r t i s i n g o f a c o m m e r c i a l n a t u r e . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e t a s k s r e l a t e d t o t h e l o c a l f a r m e r s ' i n s t i t u t e , s e c r e t a r i e s were t o assume t h e r o l e o f l o c a l d e p a r t m e n t a l c o r r e s p o n d e n t and e x e c u t i v e members were e x p e c t e d t o r e c r u i t new members. The s e c r e t a r i e s were t o be recompensed b y t h e Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e f o r t h e c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f work w h i c h t h e i r p o s i t i o n e n t a i l e d . The E a r l y O r g a n i z i n g P e r i o d , 1897 -1905 D u r i n g J u l y 1897, A n d e r s o n i n v i t e d v a r i o u s f a r m l e a d e r s t o a c o n f e r e n c e t o d i s c u s s t h e new l e g i s l a t i o n and how t h e F a r m e r s ' I n s t i t u t e s h o u l d be i m p l e m e n t e d . Among t h o s e who met w i t h A n d e r s o n were H. T. T h r i f t , f r o m S u r r e y ; W. H. Hayward o f M e t c h o s i n who was l a t e r t o s e r v e as c h a i r m a n o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on A g r i c u l t u r e ; G. H. Hadwen o f Duncan, o n t h e e x e c u t i v e o f t h e F r u i t - G r o w e r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n ; and R o b e r t M c B r i d e who was t o become t h e s e c r e t a r y o f t h e s e c o n d f a r m e r s ' i n s t i t u t e f o r m e d i n Richmond. I n p l a n n i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e i n s t i t u t e s y s t e m , t h e p r o m o t e r s o f t h e f a r m e r s ' i n s t i t u t e met w i t h many c h a l l e n g e s . The g r e a t e s t o b s t a c l e was t h e g e o g r a p h y o f t h e p r o v i n c e . E a c h a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n i n B.C. i s s e p a r a t e d b y m o u n t a i n s o r o c e a n f r o m i t s n e i g h b o u r i n g r e g i o n s c r e a t i n g tremendous 41 p h y s i c a l b a r r i e r s t o c o m m u n i c a t i o n . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n f r o m one a r e a t o a n o t h e r d epended on t h e r a i l w a y o r t h e s t e a m s h i p s e r v i c e a l o n g t h e c o a s t and i n t h e i n t e r i o r w a t e r r o u t e s . S e r v i c e b e t w e e n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d and V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d was g e n e r a l l y g o od b u t f a r m i n g c o m m u n i t i e s l i k e B e l l a C o o l a r e c e i v e d o n l y p e r i o d i c s e r v i c e . R a i l s e r v i c e t o mai n c e n t r e s i n t h e I n t e r i o r was e f f i c i e n t b u t o u t l y i n g d i s t r i c t s w ere i s o l a t e d u n l e s s l i n k e d b y w a t e r t r a n s p o r t . T r a v e l l e r s f r e q u e n t l y e n c o u n t e r e d r o a d s made i m p a s s a b l e b y snow, f l o o d i n g , o r s p r i n g b r e a k - u p . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t e r f e r e d w i t h b o t h t h e s p e a k e r s ' a r r i v a l f o r m e e t i n g s and t h e f a r m e r s ' a t t e n d a n c e . The g e o g r a p h y o f t h e p r o v i n c e a l s o c r e a t e s t r e m e n d o u s d i v e r s i t y o f c l i m a t e and s o i l s f r o m one r e g i o n t o t h e n e x t . The i n t e r e s t s o f B.C. f a r m e r s were f r e q u e n t l y u n i q u e t o t h e r e g i o n i n w h i c h t h e y l i v e d . T h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e s e t up b a r r i e r s t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a s e n s e o f u n i t y among f a r m e r s b a s e d on m u t u a l i n t e r e s t i n p r o d u c t i o n and m a r k e t i n g . I t a l s o c o m p l i c a t e d t h e d i f f i c u l t t a s k o f s c h e d u l i n g s p e a k i n g t o u r s where c l i m a t e and v e g e t a t i o n d i c t a t e d t h e t y p e o f f a r m i n g b u t c o u l d change d r a m a t i c a l l y w i t h i n a few m i l e s o f t r a v e l . The t a s k o f o r g a n i z i n g t h e f a r m e r s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was f o r m i d a b l e . To a s s i s t A n d e r s o n i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f l o c a l i n s t i t u t e s , t h e g r o u p a t t e n d i n g t h e summer c o n f e r e n c e s u g g e s t e d h i r i n g an o r g a n i z e r . A s t u d e n t f r o m t h e O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e , T. F. P a t e r s o n , was 42 employed f o r a t h r e e month p e r i o d . He and Anderson embarked on a demanding i t i n e r a r y which i n c l u d e d t h i r t y - one meetings at l o c a t i o n s on Vancouver I s l a n d , the Lower Mainland, Kamloops, and the Okanagan between October 2 2 and December 15, 1897. An a d d i t i o n a l t e n meetings were conducted i n communities on south Vancouver I s l a n d and the G u l f I s l a n d s d u r i n g January 1898. A t the meetings both men would address the farmers, Paterson t e l l i n g of the success of the farmers' i n s t i t u t e i n O n t a r i o and Anderson e x p l a i n i n g the new Farmers' I n s t i t u t e A c t and the o b j e c t s of the i n s t i t u t e . The response of farmers t o the campaign and the i d e a o f the i n s t i t u t e was mixed. According t o Anderson i n h i s subsequent r e p o r t s , two groups of farmers welcomed the I n s t i t u t e : those who saw themselves as " p r o f e s s i o n a l " farmers needing more knowledge and s k i l l s , and those who were a l r e a d y a c t i v e i n farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s and looked to the government f o r a s s i s t a n c e i n d e v e l o p i n g an i n d u s t r y which they saw as e s s e n t i a l t o the f u t u r e o f the 23 p r o v i n c e . Those who r e s i s t e d the campaign were farmers who p l a c e d l i t t l e v a lue on formal o r "book- l e a r n i n g " . R e s i s t a n c e was based on the s u s p i c i o n t h a t the o r g a n i z e r s were pr e a c h i n g t h e o r y without an a p p r e c i a t i o n of i t s p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n . Farmers, too, had c o n s i d e r a b l e l i m i t a t i o n s on t h e i r time and energy and r e s e n t e d a long t r i p which would cut i n t o t h e i r work day. The widespread problems connected w i t h i s o l a t i o n and inadequate t r a n s p o r t a t i o n 43 were f a m i l i a r t o A n d e r s o n f r o m b o t h h i s c h i l d h o o d e x p e r i e n c e s and h i s e x t e n s i v e t r a v e l s a r o u n d t h e p r o v i n c e i n h i s c a p a c i t y as s t a t i s t i c i a n and D e p u t y M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e . He was a l s o w e l l aware o f t h e a t t i t u d e s o f s e t t l e r s l i v i n g i n i s o l a t e d r u r a l a r e a s and p r a i s e d h i s young a s s i s t a n t , P a t e r s o n , whose c l e a r and f o r c i b l e a r g u m e n t s and l u c i d e x p l a n a t i o n s o f t h e g r e a t good e f f e c t e d i n O n t a r i o s i n c e t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e F a r m e r s ' I n s t i t u t e s y s t e m went v e r y f a r i n c o n v i n c i n g o u r p e o p l e o f t h e a d v a n t a g e s t o be d e r i v e d b y t a k i n g t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f o r g a n i z i n g u n d e r t h e A c t . H i s u n i f o r m c o u r t e s y and f o r b e a r a n c e a l s o u n d e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s v e r y o f t e n t h e r e v e r s e o f p l e a s a n t , I h e a r t i l y commend.24 W h i l e A n d e r s o n c o u l d be b l u n t l y c r i t i c a l i n h i s r e p o r t s , he was r e s p e c t f u l o f t h e k n o w l e d g e f a r m e r s h a d d e r i v e d f r o m t h e i r p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e v a r y i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e p r o v i n c e : " T h e r e i s much l a t e n t t a l e n t amongst t h e f a r m e r s o f t h e P r o v i n c e w h i c h o n l y r e q u i r e s e n c o u r a g e m e n t t o be d e v e l o p e d , and s u c h 25 p e r s o n s o f t e n t i m e s make t h e most e f f i c i e n t s p e a k e r . " T h i s a t t i t u d e was a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n h i s f r e q u e n t c l a i m t h a t t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e l o c a l i n s t i t u t e s d epended on t h e o r g a n i z i n g s k i l l s o f t h e i r e x e c u t i v e s and t h e 26 commitment o f t h e i r members. The o n l y c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e w h i c h seems t o h a v e emerged i n t h e e a r l y o r g a n i z i n g p e r i o d was t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e C e n t r a l F a r m e r s ' I n s t i t u t e , a p r o v i s i o n o f t h e 1897 A c t . I n c l u d e d i n t h e f i r s t A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e F a r m e r s ' I n s t i t u t e i s a l e t t e r f r o m Hayward, t h e M e t c h o s i n f a r m e r and p o l i t i c i a n who h a d a t t e n d e d t h e summer c o n f e r e n c e . Hayward made s p e c i f i c s u g g e s t i o n s 44 r e g a r d i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f l o c a l i n s t i t u t e s , p o i n t e d o u t t h e need f o r f u n d s t o p a y l o c a l f a r m e r s t o do t h i s , and u r g e d t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e C e n t r a l I n s t i t u t e a s an 27 a i d t o o r g a n i z i n g a t t h e d i s t r i c t l e v e l . A n d e r s o n m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e p r i o r i t y was t o o r g a n i z e t h e l o c a l i n s t i t u t e s , and d e l a y e d c a l l i n g a m e e t i n g o f t h e C e n t r a l F a r m e r s ' I n s t i t u t e u n t i l 1899. He may h a v e b e e n swayed i n t h i s d e c i s i o n by t h e e a r l i e r e v e n t s i n O n t a r i o when t h e m e e t i n g s o f t h e C e n t r a l I n s t i t u t e became so h o t l y 28 p o l i t i c i z e d t h a t t h e y were d i s b a n d e d . By t h e end o f 1899, t h e r e were n i n e t e e n i n s t i t u t e s o p e r a t i n g w i t h o n l y t h e S u r r e y I n s t i t u t e h a v i n g b e e n f o r m e d b e f o r e t h e c a m p a i g n b e g a n . T h r e e i n s t i t u t e s e x i s t e d i n t h e Okanagan, n i n e i n t h e Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y and s e v e n on V a n c o u v e r and t h e G u l f I s l a n d s , a l l o f w h i c h were i n t h e a r e a i n c l u d e d i n t h e 29 i n i t i a l o r g a n i z i n g c a m p a i g n . I t was n o t u n t i l 1901 t h a t A n d e r s o n embarked on a f u r t h e r c a m p a i g n when h e and h i s a s s i s t a n t s , D . C . A n d e r s o n and G.W.Clemons f r o m t h e O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e , s u c c e s s f u l l y o r g a n i z e d an i n s t i t u t e i n t h e L i l l o o e t d i s t r i c t . Two e a r l y i n s t i t u t e s , S u r r e y and B e l l a C o o l a , were o r g a n i z e d e n t i r e l y o n t h e i n i t i a t i v e o f l o c a l f a r m e r s . They p r o v i d e examples o f how f a r m e r s c o u l d u s e t h e i n s t i t u t e s y s t e m and i t s s u p p o r t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n f o r t h e i r own a d v a n t a g e . A f t e r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m e e t i n g o f A u g u s t 1897, t h e S u r r e y F a r m e r s ' I n s t i t u t e h e l d m e e t i n g s i n f o u r d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s i n t h e d i s t r i c t 45 b e f o r e t h e end o f t h a t y e a r . A n d e r s o n and P a t e r s o n s p o k e a t two o f them p r o m o t i n g s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r e and t h e i n s t i t u t e s y s t e m . L o c a l s p e a k e r s a l s o s p o k e o n a r a n g e o f t o p i c s : s i l o s , d r a i n a g e , t h e u s e o f m a c h i n e r y i n d r a i n a g e , t h e v a l u e o f c o - o p e r a t i o n and i n t e r e s t r a t e s on f a r m m o r t g a g e s . O u t s i d e o f t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n s and d i s c u s s i o n s on them, l i t t l e b u s i n e s s i s r e c o r d e d i n t h e m i n u t e s . I n 1898, s i x m e e t i n g s were h e l d i n v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s , w i t h l o c a l f a r m e r s d o i n g most o f t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n s . The most p o p u l a r t o p i c o f l o c a l f a r m e r s ' a d d r e s s e s was r o a d c o n d i t i o n s , w h i c h was t h e s u b j e c t o f a m o t i o n t o be f o r w a r d e d t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l g overnment r e g a r d i n g t h e improvement o f t h e Y a l e wagon r o a d . A t r a v e l l i n g l i b r a r y was a l s o b e i n g o r g a n i z e d and l o c a l t e a c h e r , A. H. P. Matthew, who was an i n s t i t u t e member, was t a k i n g s u b s c r i p t i o n s f o r t h i s s e r v i c e a t t w e n t y - f i v e 30 c e n t s p e r p e r s o n . The r e c o r d e d m i n u t e s i n d i c a t e t h a t p r e s e n t a t i o n s b y v i s i t i n g s p e a k e r s were o n s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r a l t o p i c s . I n J u n e 1901, a s p e c i a l m e e t i n g was h e l d t o d i s c u s s t h e p u r c h a s e o f b i n d e r t w i n e , t h e l o c a t i o n o f a p r o v i n c i a l m a g a z i n e f o r t h e s t o r a g e o f s t u m p i n g powder i n New W e s t m i n s t e r and a p r o p o s a l f r o m 31 M u t u a l F i r e I n s u r a n c e Company. The 1904 s e c r e t a r y ' s r e p o r t t o t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n 1903 t h e i n s t i t u t e h a d p u r c h a s e d c l o v e r s e e d and b i n d e r t w i n e f o r 32 i t s members. I n 1900 t h e B e l l a C o o l a c o l o n i s t s a p p r o a c h e d 46 Anderson about the formation o f an i n s t i t u t e . S i n c e the settl e m e n t was not w i t h i n any d i s t r i c t a u t h o r i z e d i n the founding l e g i s l a t i o n , i t was not u n t i l a f o u r t h i n s t i t u t e d i v i s i o n was c r e a t e d by Order i n C o u n c i l i n 1902 t h a t the B e l l a Coola Farmers' I n s t i t u t e was formed. T h i s i n s t i t u t e enjoyed a c o n s i s t e n t r a t e o f i n c r e a s e i n membership and was w e l l attended. The B e l l a Coola farmers' c h i e f i n t e r e s t i n i t i a l l y was the c l e a r i n g o f land f o r or c h a r d p l a n t i n g and they were consequently s u p p o r t i v e of the move by the C e n t r a l Farmers' I n s t i t u t e t o have the government supply stumping powder a t reduced 33 r a t e s . They were a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n the supply of departmental p u b l i c a t i o n s a v a i l a b l e to them as Farmers' I n s t i t u t e members. The members of t h i s i n s t i t u t e were o f t e n c a l l e d on to address t h e i r meetings s i n c e the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f o u t s i d e speakers t o them was c o s t l y and steamship s e r v i c e was i n f r e q u e n t . I t would appear from the r e p o r t s t h a t Anderson's e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r the e a r l y growth of the I n s t i t u t e were not met. Acknowledging t h a t sparse p o p u l a t i o n and i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y made o r g a n i z i n g i n the Cariboo and Kootenay areas d i f f i c u l t , he c r i t i c i z e d the Okanagan, a d i s t r i c t which was "one of the r i c h e s t i n the Province, a c c e s s i b l e by r a i l , w e l l s e t t l e d w i t h prosperous farmers, and a p t l y termed 'The garden o f B r i t i s h Columbia'..." and found "no reasonable cause t o a s s i g n f o r t he apparent supineness o f i t s i n h a b i t a n t s f o r n e g l e c t i n g t o take advantage of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e 47 34 A c t . " S e v e r a l y e a r s l a t e r , the Lower Mainland s t a t i s t i c s f o r 1903 i n d i c a t e d a drop i n average membership, the number o f meetings and attendance. Anderson found t h i s u n a cceptable i n a r a p i d l y growing and f e r t i l e p a r t o f t h e p r o v i n c e and suggested 35 t r a n s p o r t a t i o n problems as a p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n . F i g u r e 2 1.100 GROWTH IN MEMBERSHIP OF FARMERS' iNS'liTUTE BY REGiON 0 !R3B ' K 9 S ! 9 0 0 'i9C1 190y i903 ! W 4 *i90"j 1 9 0 6 - .907 ! 9 0 E While the growth o f the I n s t i t u t e d i d f l u c t u a t e i n t h e f i r s t y e a r s of i t s e x i s t e n c e , an a n a l y s i s o f membership i n the t h r e e main d i v i s i o n s d u r i n g the 48 i n i t i a l o r g a n i z i n g p e r i o d r e v e a l s a comparable r a t e of growth (see f i g u r e 2). In 1904, the t o t a l number of meetings rose to two hundred t w e n t y - f i v e and attendance climbed t o 7,171, both s u b s t a n t i a l i n c r e a s e s , but t h e r e was o n l y a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e i n membership. Anderson recommended g r e a t e r d i l i g e n c e on the p a r t o f s e c r e t a r i e s i n m a i n t a i n i n g p a i d up memberships i n the l o c a l i n s t i t u t e s . By then, however, he had r e c e i v e d p o s i t i v e comments from v i s i t i n g speakers on the apparent success o f the I n s t i t u t e i n B.C. and observed t h a t i n comparison t o farmers' i n s t i t u t e s elsewhere i n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the B r i t i s h Columbia Farmers' I n s t i t u t e was making good progress, e s p e c i a l l y when one c o n s i d e r e d 36 the d i f f i c u l t geographic f e a t u r e s of the p r o v i n c e . 49 FOOTNOTES 1 James R o b e r t A n d e r s o n , Add MSS 1912, PABC. 2 AR 1891, pp. 735-736. 3 AR 1891, p. 736; 1901, p. 68, 98, 100. 4 AR 1891, p. 732. 5 AR 1897, pp. 1048-9. 6 P r e - e m p t i o n was t h e s y s t e m o f l a n d a c q u i s i t i o n whereby a n o m i n a l f e e was c h a r g e d f o r t h e r i g h t t o s e t t l e a p a r c e l o f l a n d . T i t l e was a c q u i r e d upon t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f a r e s i d e n c e r e q u i r e m e n t , t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f i m p r o v e m e n t s t o t h e l a n d , and payment o f t h e p u r c h a s e p r i c e . 7 AR 1897, p. 1055. 8 AR 1897, p. 1079. 9 AR 1897, p. 1020. 10 AR 1891, p. 851. 11 AR 1897, p. 1018. 12 A n d e r s o n , Add MSS 1912 13 AR 1894/95, p. 1601. 14 AR 1891, p. 732. 15 AR 1897, p. 1019. 50 16 Surrey Farmes' I n s t i t u t e Minutes, Meeting o f August 28, 1897. 17 T h r i f t , Reminiscences, n. p. 18Carol B a c c h i , " D i v i d e d A l l e g i a n c e s : The Response o f Farm and Labour Women t o S u f f r a g e , " i n A Not Unreasonable Claim, ed. L i n d a Kealey, (Toronto: Women's Press, 1979), p. 104. 19 Ormsby, A H i s t o r y , p. 314. 20 M a r t i n Robin, The Rush f o r S p o i l s , (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1972), p. 38. 21 B r i t i s h Columbia. S t a t u t e s , 1897, ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1897), ch. 13. 22 AR 1895-96, p. 1018. A l s o , Anderson, Add MSS 1912, v o l . 17, f i l e 11. Speech t o the o r g a n i z i n g meeting o f the Richmond Farmers' I n s t i t u t e , August 2, 1897. PABC. 23 ARFI 1902, p. 81. A l o c a l correspondent advocated the p r o v i s i o n o f s k i l l s and knowledge so t h a t farming might be seen as a p r o f e s s i o n comparable i n "tone" t o medicine and law. See a l s o AR 1905, p. 15. 24 ARFI 1898, p. 703. 25 ARFI 1898, p. 705. 26 ARFI 1903, p. 5; 1908, p. 7. 27 ARFI 1898, p. 786-7. 28 W. C. Good, Farmer C i t i z e n . (Toronto: Ryerson P r e s s ) , p. 92. 29 ARFI 1900, p. 1070. 51 30 Minutes of Surrey Farmers' I n s t i t u t e , August to November, 1897. 31 I b i d . , meeting of June 26, 1901. 32 ARFI 1905, p. 16. 3 3 l b i d . , pp. 16-7. 34 ARFI 1900, p. 1070. 35ARFI 1903, p. 5. 36 ARFI 1905, p. 6. 52 CHAPTER IV THE EDUCATION PROGRAM OF THE FARMERS' INSTITUTE, 1897 - 1908 In i t s f i r s t years o f o p e r a t i o n , the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e c o n s o l i d a t e d and expanded the e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s a l r e a d y begun by the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . The I n s t i t u t e i n t r o d u c e d group i n s t r u c t i o n as i t brought farmers together t o hear speakers and to d i s c u s s the i n f o r m a t i o n b e i n g p r e s e n t e d . In t h i s manner the members c o n t r i b u t e d t o the growing body of s c i e n t i f i c knowledge s p e c i f i c t o l o c a l a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. T h i s chapter focuses on the e d u c a t i o n a l program o f the I n s t i t u t e i n i t s formative y e a r s . Beginning w i t h a d e s c r i p t i o n of the l e a r n e r s , i t examines the con t e n t o f the program, the system o f d e l i v e r y , and t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s . An o u t l i n e o f the means by which the program was evaluated, and the outcome of the e a r l y years o f the a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n program conclude the chapter. The Nature of the Learners When the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e was f i r s t e s t a b l i s h e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia, o n l y a s m a l l p a r t o f the p o p u l a t i o n a c t u a l l y l i v e d on farms. The 1901 census l i s t s 5,938 o c c u p i e r s o f farms out o f a t o t a l p r o v i n c i a l p o p u l a t i o n 53 of 178,657. The farm occupants were l o c a t e d p r i m a r i l y i n the New Westminster and Vancouver d i s t r i c t s which i n c l u d e d the lower F r a s e r V a l l e y and Vancouver I s l a n d , but a p o p u l a t i o n o f j u s t over two thousand " o c c u p i e r s o f farms" was s c a t t e r e d through the Cariboo, Okanagan and 1 Kootenay r e g i o n s o f the p r o v i n c e . Farm d w e l l e r s were predominantly o f B r i t i s h o r i g i n , some o f them having a r r i v e d i n B.C. a f t e r l i v i n g 2 i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s or E a s t e r n Canada. As l o c a l h i s t o r i e s make c l e a r , s e t t l e r s from the USA and E a s t e r n Canada o f t e n had experience i n a t r a d e o r b u s i n e s s b e f o r e a r r i v i n g i n B.C. Some had worked on the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the C.P.R. or had worked i n mining o r f o r e s t r y b e f o r e 3 t a k i n g up farming. The B r i t i s h immigrants who came d i r e c t l y t o B.C. to farm were g e n e r a l l y of middle c l a s s o r i g i n s and many s u c c e s s f u l l y t r a n s p l a n t e d t h e i r g e n t i l e 4 country l i f e s t y l e t o the Okanagan and Vancouver I s l a n d . O v e r a l l , r e g a r d l e s s of c l a s s and o c c u p a t i o n a l background, the p o p u l a t i o n o f B. C. over f i v e y e ars o f age i n the 5 1901 census had a 75 p e r cent l i t e r a c y r a t e . In the r e g u l a t i o n s governing the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e s , t h e r e i s no mention of an age requirement f o r membership. I t was a common p r a c t i c e t o welcome anyone i n the community t o meetings, whether they were members or not. F r e q u e n t l y women and c h i l d r e n attended, p a r t l y f o r s o c i a l purposes but a l s o f o r the e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e o f 6 the meeting. Some i n s t i t u t e s favoured the h o l d i n g o f meetings i n schools t o f a c i l i t a t e the c h i l d r e n ' s 7 p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n some form o f a g r i c u l t u r a l i n s t r u c t i o n . The welcome accorded women was c o n s i s t e n t with the d e s i g n a t i o n o f c e r t a i n k i n d s o f farming t o them. D a i r y i n g , f o r example, was a t t h a t time i n B. C. moving from a cottage i n d u s t r y run by women t o the c o - o p e r a t i v e creamery and d a i r y run by men. A s i m i l a r change was t o 8 happen l a t e r i n p o u l t r y . The Content o f the Program The e a r l y promoters o f the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e , who i n e v i t a b l y assumed l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n l o c a l branches, shared the b e l i e f t h a t s u c c e s s f u l farmers c o u l d be c r e a t e d by the p r o v i s i o n of s c i e n t i f i c knowledge and s k i l l s . Anderson, as superintendent, was the main spokesman of t h i s b e l i e f . He d e s c r i b e d t h e s u c c e s s f u l farmer as "a man who has s t u d i e d the v a r i o u s causes which a f f e c t p l a n t and animal l i f e , the most approved methods of manufacturing products, and a l l the i n c i d e n t a l s u b j e c t s p e r t a i n i n g to h i s o c c u p a t i o n , and who a c t s i n 9 c o n f o r m i t y with the te a c h i n g s thus a c q u i r e d . " The d e s i r e t o have educated farmers was echoed by l o c a l farmer, J . M. Webster, when he addressed the Port Haney Farmers' I n s t i t u t e . He s t a t e d t h a t "the government had a l l but coe r c e d the farmers i n t o educating themselves i n the modern and t h e r e f o r e more p r o f i t a b l e methods of farming." He c h a l l e n g e d h i s f e l l o w members to take f u l l advantage of the s e r v i c e s and i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by the 10 government through the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e . 55 A l e a d e r i n the newly formed B e l l a Coola Farmers' I n s t i t u t e spoke of the "constant study, p a t i e n t experiment, and t i r e l e s s i n d u s t r y " t h a t i s demanded of the s u c c e s s f u l farmer. He advocated s c i e n t i f i c farming i n o r d e r t o r a i s e the s t a t u s o f farming as an o c c u p a t i o n . "To make farm labour honourable, p l e a s a n t and p r o f i t a b l e by making i t i n t e l l i g e n t should be the aim of every 11 farmer i n B r i t i s h Columbia, as elsewhere." These excerpts exemplify the a t t i t u d e of farm l e a d e r s who were a l s o more l i k e l y t o see farming as a b u s i n e s s which r e q u i r e d the same degree o f p l a n n i n g , o r g a n i z a t i o n , and f i n a n c i n g as any o t h e r s e r i o u s venture. The p r e c i s e content of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e ducation program o f the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e was determined by the need f o r i n f o r m a t i o n and s k i l l s on the p a r t of the farmers and the c u r r e n t s t a t e o f s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r a l knowledge. S c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r e was i n i t s i n f a n c y and i t was the hope o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r i s t s t h a t farmers c o u l d be t r a i n e d i n the methods and s p i r i t o f s c i e n t i f i c i n q u i r y w h i l e they were a c q u i r i n g the knowledge b e i n g generated i n the expanding North American system o f a g r i c u l t u r a l c o l l e g e s , experimental farms, e x t e n s i o n programs and government departments of 12 a g r i c u l t u r e . In a p e r i o d o f r a p i d growth i n knowledge, i n s t i t u t e members had d i r e c t access to the most c u r r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e through t h e i r c o n t a c t w i t h speakers who were employed i n a g r i c u l t u r a l study and experimentation a t the O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e , a t 56 c o l l e g e s i n the western U n i t e d S t a t e s , and w i t h the Dominion Experimental Farms or the f e d e r a l Department o f 13 A g r i c u l t u r e . I n s t i t u t e members themselves became i n v o l v e d i n crop experiments which would generate knowledge o f l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . Surrey farmers engaged i n f l a x growing experiments to determine the f e a s i b i l i t y of 14 p u r s u i n g a hemp i n d u s t r y i n t h a t a r e a . The s u b j e c t s addressed by speakers a t i n s t i t u t e meetings changed to r e f l e c t the growth i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n and t r e n d s i n a g r i c u l t u r e . The f i r s t p r e s e n t a t i o n s t h a t most farmers heard on the o r g a n i z i n g t o u r s would have been on the v a l u e o f the farmers' i n s t i t u t e and i t s success i n O n t a r i o , c o - o p e r a t i o n , and the B.C. l e g i s l a t i o n . The government sponsored speakers attempted to address the s p e c i f i c needs of a p a r t i c u l a r area. F o r example, drainage was a major problem i n Surrey and e a r l y speakers addressed t h a t i s s u e . V a r i o u s aspects o f d a i r y i n g were a l s o p o p u l a r i n the f i r s t years o f the Surrey I n s t i t u t e . When l o c a l speakers addressed t h a t i n s t i t u t e , i n e v i t a b l y road c o n d i t i o n s came up, s u g g e s t i n g t h a t l o c a l p o l i t i c s may, indeed, have entered 15 i n s t i t u t e b u s i n e s s . By 1903, t o p i c s of i n s t i t u t e p r e s e n t a t i o n s were p r i m a r i l y i n the category of s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r e . The l i s t i n c l u d e s stock improvement, d i s e a s e s o f stock, methods of s o i l c u l t i v a t i o n , d i v e r s i f i e d vs s i n g l e crop farming, forage crops, s i l o s and e n s i l a g e , breeds o f p o u l t r y , p r opagating f r u i t s , and t h e p l a n t i n g and care 57 o f o r c h a r d s . S e v e r a l t a l k s d e a l t w i t h the bu s i n e s s aspect o f farming: the farm as an investment, the o r g a n i z a t i o n and management of a creamery, t h e packing and s a l e o f app l e s . The m e r i t s of farm l i f e and de v e l o p i n g an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f r u r a l l i f e i n c h i l d r e n 16 comprised a t h i r d small category. As B.C. farming became more d i v e r s i f i e d , t a l k s were f e a t u r e d on p o u l t r y , bee-keeping, sheep, hogs, v a r i o u s f i e l d crops, seed q u a l i t y , b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n , f e r t i l i s e r s , l a n d - c l e a r i n g , and d i f f e r e n t a spects of milk and cream p r o d u c t i o n and marketing. Women's presence i n the i n s t i t u t e i s r e f l e c t e d i n such t i t l e s as " B a c t e r i a : T h e i r R e l a t i o n t o H e a l t h and Disease," " D i f f e r e n t Cuts o f Meat: T h e i r S e l e c t i o n and P r e p a r a t i o n , " "Hygienic and Economic Values o f Food, " "Simple Home Remedies without Recourse to the Patent Medicine Man or the Doctor," and 17 "A G i r l ' s P o s s i b i l i t i e s . " Many of these t a l k s , e s p e c i a l l y those ranked as "good" on the Annual r e p o r t s to Anderson, were subsequently p u b l i s h e d f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n t o the members. Methods P r i o r t o the formation o f the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e , the e d u c a t i o n a l work of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e had r e l i e d almost e n t i r e l y on i n d i v i d u a l methods of t r a n s m i t t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and s k i l l s to the farmers of the 18 p r o v i n c e . The r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l i t e r a c y r a t e o f the farming p o p u l a t i o n , the d i s t r i b u t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y among s e v e r a l d i v e r s e g e o g r a p h i c a l regions o f 58 the p r o v i n c e and the sparse p o p u l a t i o n o u t s i d e a few c e n t r e s made the p r i n t e d word the most e f f i c i e n t method of d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n . The department handled l a r g e amounts of correspondence w i t h farmers which s u p p l i e d the department w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n about a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s around the p r o v i n c e . The department a l s o p u b l i s h e d i t s Annual Report, b u l l e t i n s , c i r c u l a r s and mimeograph l e t t e r s . The i n d i v i d u a l approach d i d not cease w i t h the formation o f the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e . Indeed, the demand f o r p u b l i c a t i o n s i n c r e a s e d s i n c e members were e n t i t l e d t o f r e e c o p i e s i n r e t u r n f o r 19 t h e i r annual membership f e e . As w e l l , l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of p u b l i c a t i o n s were generated by the p u b l i c a t i o n o f the l e c t u r e s at the l o c a l i n s t i t u t e meetings and the proceedings of the annual conference o f the C e n t r a l Farmers' I n s t i t u t e . Group methods o f i n s t r u c t i o n were the d e s i r e d outcome of the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the l o c a l i n s t i t u t e s and took the form o f meetings. Members of a l o c a l i n s t i t u t e would gather i n community h a l l s , s c h ools or farmers' homes. A f t e r a b u s i n e s s meeting, one o r two speakers would g i v e l e c t u r e s and l e a d a d i s c u s s i o n on the t o p i c . Refreshments were o f t e n served and f r e q u e n t l y entertainment was p r o v i d e d by members. With the e x c e p t i o n o f the e l e c t i o n o f o f f i c e r s , the f i r s t annual meeting of the Surrey-Langley Farmers' I n s t i t u t e was t y p i c a l o f e a r l y i n s t i t u t e meetings. I t was h e l d i n the aft e r n o o n of January 27, 1898 at Surrey 59 Centre and, as o f t e n happened, the expected guest speaker was unable t o a t t e n d . However, the Dominion D a i r y Commissioner, J . C. Marker had agreed to r e p l a c e the scheduled speaker, A. C. Wells, a prominent dairyman from C h i l l i w a c k . Other speakers were W. H. Ladner, of the neighbouring D e l t a Farmers' I n s t i t u t e , and o r c h a r d i s t , E. Hutcherson, a l s o from D e l t a , who was r e p o r t e d to be " i n s p l e n d i d t r i m , and gave a most e x c e l l e n t paper on f r u i t 20 c u l t u r e and o r c h a r d work." At an evening meeting the same day, Hutcherson spoke again, f o l l o w e d by S. H. Shannon, a l o c a l hog grower. The p r e s i d e n t , C. D. Moggridge, conducted a d i s c u s s i o n on Shannon's "Swine Husbandry" paper. Although i t s l o c a t i o n i s not recorded, the evening meeting would l i k e l y have been i n a d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n from the a f t e r n o o n g a t h e r i n g . In h i s address to the meeting, Moggridge promised t o p r o v i d e speakers on t o p i c s of i n t e r e s t t o the women, e s p e c i a l l y at evening meetings, and t o i n t e r s p e r s e the t a l k s w i t h entertainment. F o r the two meetings t h a t day, the s e c r e t a r y recorded a combined 21 attendance of n i n e t y , which i n c l u d e d many women. Outside o f r e g u l a r meetings, p r o b a b l y the f i r s t group a c t i v i t y i n which i n s t i t u t e members engaged was the t r a v e l l i n g d a i r y s c h o o l which a r r i v e d i n B.C. i n 1901. Run by the Dominion D a i r y Commissioner, J . W. Robertson, i t was Anderson who arranged the i t i n e r a r y and d i d the advance p u b l i c i t y . The school was h e l d i n f o u r l o c a t i o n s i n the p r o v i n c e f o r f i v e t o t e n day p e r i o d s and was 60 attended by ninety-six students. In addition to i n s t r u c t i o n i n the business aspects of dairying, the dairy instructors gave information to farmers on the best methods of caring for milk and cream, the advantage of mechanical cream separators, the value of pasture land i n maintaining the quality of farm land, and the merits of year round dairy a c t i v i t y . Techniques While meetings were the format f o r the learning a c t i v i t i e s of the Farmers' Ins t i t u t e , the lecture, discussion and demonstration were the techniques most frequently used. In meetings, a lecture or t a l k was inevitably followed by a discussion and, where appropriate, a demonstration followed to i l l u s t r a t e the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of the information delivered by the speaker. Underlying the development of these techniques was a commitment to the b e l i e f i n the capacity of every member to contribute to a better knowledge and pr a c t i c e of agriculture. The Surrey fruit-grower, C. D. Moggridge, summarized the philosophy of the I n s t i t u t e : Whatever our special l i n e may be we are none of us so good at i t that we cannot become a l i t t l e better, and few of us are so bad, I hope, that there i s not some point which another may p r o f i t a b l y learn from him.22 The procedure which he recommended was that each presentation should be followed by a discussion "designed to bring out questions, c r i t i c i s m s and suggestions from 23 any one present...." Anderson agreed with Moggridge, 61 recommending t h a t p r e s e n t a t i o n s always be w r i t t e n f i r s t t o e l i m i n a t e i r r e l e v a n c i e s . He thought i t necessary t h a t speakers " e x c i t e a d i s c u s s i o n , and by t h a t means not o n l y draw the r e t i r i n g farmer out o f h i s s h e l l , but t o b r i n g out the most s a l i e n t p o i n t s a f f e c t i n g the p a r t i c u l a r 24 l o c a l i t y . . . " I f l o c a l speakers lacked c o n f i d e n c e b e f o r e an audience, Anderson recommended they t r e a t t h e i r t a l k s as the opening statement i n a d i s c u s s i o n t o which everyone c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e . A l o c a l dairyman, Theodore A. F. Wiancko, i n r e p o r t i n g on a speaking t o u r , s t a t e d h i s b e l i e f " t h a t a meeting i s not a success unless the remarks of the speaker are thoroughly c r i t i c i s e d and 25 d i s c u s s e d . " Guest l e c t u r e r s from the O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e must have shared h i s o p i n i o n . Of t h e i r 1901 speaking t o u r , they noted i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t and an improved l e v e l of d i s c u s s i o n , compared to e a r l i e r t r i p s , and commented, "These meetings were up-to-date and would compare f a v o u r a b l y with some of our b e s t meetings 26 i n O n t a r i o . " A d u l t educators and l e a r n i n g p s y c h o l o g i s t s continue to debate the r e l a t i v e value o f l e c t u r e and d i s c u s s i o n t e c h n i q u e s . Twentieth century r e s e a r c h would c o n f i r m the consensus of the farmers' e a r l y o p i n i o n t h a t a l e c t u r e without a r o u s i n g d i s c u s s i o n 27 was a missed l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t y . W i t h i n the l i t e r a t u r e of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , the development o f the demonstration as a t e a c h i n g technique i s g e n e r a l l y a t t r i b u t e d to the f i e l d of a g r i c u l t u r e 62 2 8 e x t e n s i o n . Because o f i t s p r a c t i c a l nature, i t was u s e f u l i n r e a c h i n g farmers who would r e s i s t "theory" when cont a i n e d i n books but would accept i t when l i n k e d t o everyday p r a c t i c e . In the farmers' i n s t i t u t e , the demonstration was used along w i t h the l e c t u r e t o convey s k i l l s such as stock judging, pruning, g r a f t i n g , p loughing, p o u l t r y k i l l i n g and d r e s s i n g , and crop seeding. I t was a l s o p a r t of long term experiments t o demonstrate the value o f crop r o t a t i o n , f a l l o w i n g , i r r i g a t i o n of orchards, and to t e s t d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t i e s of p l a n t o r breed o f animal. The e f f e c t o f the long-term demonstration procedure was the farmers' i n c r e a s e d awareness o f t h e i r p o t e n t i a l t o improve the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f t h e i r p r o d u c t s . To promote f r i e n d l y c o m p e t i t i o n among farmers and between i n s t i t u t e s , the p r o v i n c i a l Farmers' I n s t i t u t e encouraged the l o c a l i n s t i t u t e s t o o r g a n i z e f i e l d crop c o m p e t i t i o n s and a g r i c u l t u r a l f a i r s i n areas where no a g r i c u l t u r a l a s s o c i a t i o n had formed f o r t h a t purpose. The Department of A g r i c u l t u r e a l l o t t e d sums of money t o be used as cash p r i z e s and the I n s t i t u t e o f f e r e d t r a i n i n g i n the judging and p r e s e n t a t i o n of farm p r o d u c t s . Resource people I n i t i a l l y , r e s o u r c e people t o supply l e c t u r e s , l e a d d i s c u s s i o n s , and g i v e demonstrations were scarce i n B.C. Anderson was f o r c e d t o r e l y on the O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e , the f e d e r a l Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , and American a g r i c u l t u r a l c o l l e g e s i n the western U n i t e d S t a t e s . Predominant among the speakers were a g r i c u l t u r i s t s from O n t a r i o , men l i k e D. Drummond, T. G. Raynor, John Jackson, and D. C. Anderson, who a l l spoke on a range of t o p i c s , and G. R. C o t t e r e l l e , a p o u l t r y expert. When the C e n t r a l Farmers' I n s t i t u t e requested women speakers, the superintendent arranged a l e c t u r e t o u r which i n c l u d e d Laura Rose and Blanche Maddock i n 1906. The women spoke on t o p i c s o f i n t e r e s t t o women—health care, bread-making, c u t s o f meat, c h i l d - c a r e — b u t were both c o n s i d e r e d to be experts i n d a i r y i n g and u s u a l l y a l s o presented l e c t u r e s on d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s of milk p r o d u c t i o n , and b u t t e r and cheese-making. I n c r e a s i n g l y , i t was found t h a t a g r i c u l t u r i s t s from the nearby American c o l l e g e s were b e t t e r informed on a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s i n B.C. than were t h e i r e a s t e r n Canadian c o u n t e r p a r t s . P r o f e s s o r E. R. Lake from the Oregon A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e was c r e d i t e d by the Salmon Arm I n s t i t u t e s e c r e t a r y with "having done more f o r the f r u i t i n d u s t r y [ o f Salmon Arm] than a l l the l i t e r a t u r e 29 t h a t has ever been read on the s u b j e c t . " P r o f e s s o r Lake had been i n v i t e d by the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e t o to u r the Okanagan and had l e c t u r e d and demonstrated methods of pruning t o the i n s t i t u t e s t h e r e . Dr. J . Withycombe o f the Oregon A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e and H. L. Blanchard, a poultryman from Por t Hadlock, Washington a l s o appeared on speakers' l i s t s . Anderson endeavored t o c r e a t e a r o s t e r of l o c a l speakers from the membership of the i n s t i t u t e . Not o n l y 64 would t h i s save the c o s t o f t r a n s p o r t i n g speakers from O n t a r i o s e v e r a l times a year, but a l s o i t would c r e a t e , he hoped, a sense o f mutual r e s p e c t and u n i t y among the 30 l o c a l branches o f the i n s t i t u t e . The problem Anderson encountered was the r e l u c t a n c e of many knowledgeable people t o make p u b l i c p r e s e n t a t i o n s , even though they were c o n s i d e r e d to be the l o c a l a u t h o r i t y on a p a r t i c u l a r aspect o f farming. I t was o n l y w i t h some d i f f i c u l t y t h a t he convinced the V i c t o r i a v e t e r i n a r y surgeon, Dr. S. F. Tolmie, who l a t e r became premier, t o g i v e l e c t u r e s t o 31 l o c a l i n s t i t u t e s . However, i t soon became the p r a c t i c e i n the meetings of the l o c a l i n s t i t u t e s f o r experienced members t o make p r e s e n t a t i o n s . Among the l o c a l speakers were B. E. Maynard of V i c t o r i a who spoke on s o i l s and f e r t i l i z e r s ; H. Bose o f Surrey, who was experimenting with hemp growing; E. A. A t k i n s , a Coquitlam poultryman, and J . T. C o l l i n s o f S a l t S p r i n g I s l a n d who addressed the i s s u e s of farm labour and the values of c o - o p e r a t i o n and 32 i n s t i t u t e work. Because women were welcomed at i n s t i t u t e g a t h e r i n g s , i t was recommended t h a t they be asked t o serve as speakers, e s p e c i a l l y s i n c e i t was suggested t h a t "lady speakers...could probably handle the 33 c h i c k e n q u e s t i o n b e t t e r than men." A Mrs. Johnson, speaking on p o u l t r y , i s l i s t e d among the speakers f o r 1906, the same year t h a t Laura Rose and Blanche Maddock f i r s t conducted speaking t o u r s i n B. C. L i k e the o u t s i d e expert a g r i c u l t u r i s t , the l o c a l speakers were expected t o send c o p i e s o f t h e i r t a l k s t o the department f o r 34 p u b l i c a t i o n i n the Annual Report or i n a b u l l e t i n . Devices As s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n became a v a i l a b l e , Anderson had, even b e f o r e the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e was formed, e s t a b l i s h e d a l i b r a r y i n the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . He a c q u i r e d r e p o r t s o f f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l , and s t a t e departments of a g r i c u l t u r e , p u b l i c a t i o n s from abroad, and from the experimental farm systems. These m a t e r i a l s were supplemented by the data he had been c o l l e c t i n g as s t a t i s t i c i a n f o r the department, most of which was p u b l i s h e d i n the department's Annual Reports. T h i s l i b r a r y was open to the p u b l i c but i n a p r a c t i c a l sense c o u l d serve o n l y farmers i n the V i c t o r i a a r ea. Along w i t h the p r i n t m a t e r i a l s , Anderson assembled a c o l l e c t i o n o f equipment f o r use i n the e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s o f the i n s t i t u t e . His i n t e r e s t and knowledge i n h o r t i c u l t u r e f i r e d an a v i d campaign t o a c q u i r e specimens of n a t i v e p l a n t s , weeds, seeds, and i n s e c t p e s t s from around the p r o v i n c e . The l i b r a r y a l s o c o n t a i n e d a microscope and s l i d e s o f d i s e a s e - c a u s i n g spores which were used t o i l l u s t r a t e l e c t u r e s . Anderson advised the use of " o c u l a r p r e s e n t a t i o n s " and was p l e a s e d t o r e p o r t t h a t he had l o c a t e d i n P o r t l a n d a manufacturer of a good q u a l i t y l a n t e r n with which to show the l a n t e r n s l i d e s i n the department's c o l l e c t i o n o f " o c u l a r 35 a i d e s . " 66 E v a l u a t i o n The success of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e was e v a l u a t e d a t s e v e r a l l e v e l s d u r i n g i t s e a r l y years o f o p e r a t i o n . The i n d i v i d u a l meetings were assessed, the knowledge and a t t i t u d e of the farmers was s u b j e c t i v e l y a p p r a i s e d over a p e r i o d o f s e v e r a l years, and the development of a g r i c u l t u r e was observed a t the community and p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l s . The annual r e p o r t o f each l o c a l i n s t i t u t e to the Superintendent c o n t a i n e d i n f o r m a t i o n as t o membership, attendance and response t o the speaker. Anderson was adamant about the completion and r e t u r n o f these r e p o r t s each year, and the f a i l u r e o f the s e c r e t a r i e s t o comply with the o u t l i n e d procedure was a frequent t o p i c i n h i s annual address t o the C e n t r a l 36 Farmers' I n s t i t u t e . Another p e r s p e c t i v e on l o c a l i n s t i t u t e meetings was c o n t a i n e d i n the speakers' r e p o r t s t o Anderson upon completion o f a t o u r . These r e p o r t s commented on the attendance, the response to the p r e s e n t a t i o n , the q u a l i t y of the q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d i n the d i s c u s s i o n and the g e n e r a l tone of the g a t h e r i n g . Since many of the f i r s t speakers were from the O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r e C o l l e g e , the O n t a r i o Farmers' I n s t i t u t e meetings became an accepted standard by which t o measure the p r o g r e s s o f the B. C. Farmers' I n s t i t u t e . Anderson h i m s e l f was k e e n l y aware o f the r a t e o f pr o g r e s s of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e i n i t s formative y e a r s . He s c r u t i n i z e d the r e p o r t s from speakers, c o n c l u d i n g t h a t "the c l o s e q u e s t i o n i n g o f the speakers by the audience, as compared to t h a t of the e a r l i e r meetings, i s i n d i c a t i v e o f g r e a t advancement i n thought, t o say n o t h i n g of the improvement i n a g r i c u l t u r a l 37 methods." A c t u a l achievement i n a g r i c u l t u r a l development was measured by the s t a t i s t i c s on p r o d u c t i o n , exports and imports which were c o l l e c t e d by the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . While the growth i n p r o d u c t i o n cannot be s o l e l y a t t r i b u t a b l e t o the f u n c t i o n o f the i n s t i t u t e , t h e r e i s a l i k e l y c o r r e l a t i o n between the o r g a n i z i n g and e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y on the p a r t o f the i n s t i t u t e and the r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n the q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s . The p r o v i n c i a l data gathered d u r i n g the f i r s t years of the i n s t i t u t e ' s a c t i v i t y shows c o n s i d e r a b l e growth. In h i s annual address to the C e n t r a l Farmers' I n s t i t u t e , the M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Capt. R. G. Tatlow, remarked on the growth i n p r o d u c t i o n which was a l r e a d y apparent i n the f r u i t and d a i r y s e c t o r s . He announced t h a t t h e 1904 f r u i t crop of 3,010 tons r e p r e s e n t e d an i n c r e a s e o f over 1000 tons over 1903 and a v a l u e o f h a l f a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . The f o u r t e e n creameries had produced 38 1,210,000 pounds of b u t t e r . The f o l l o w i n g year Tatlow r e p o r t e d a f o r t y per c e n t i n c r e a s e i n f r u i t p r o d u c t i o n . C o n g r a t u l a t i n g the farmers on t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i v e methods i n the d a i r y i n d u s t r y , he announced t h a t s i n c e the p r e v i o u s year 68 b u t t e r p r o d u c t i o n had i n c r e a s e d by 200,000 pounds and t h a t t h e r e were now s i x t e e n creameries i n o p e r a t i o n , more than double the number i n e x i s t e n c e i n 1902. Tatlow a l s o took the o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e l a y t o the farmers the complimentary remarks o f W. A. Wilson, judge of the dairy- s e c t i o n i n a r e c e n t Dominion E x h i b i t i o n : "I am convinced t h a t i t s [the B. C. e x h i b i t ] h i g h and uniform q u a l i t y i s l a r g e l y , i f not almost wholly due t o the edu c a t i o n . . . t h e 39 P r o v i n c i a l Government has been p u r s u i n g . " Another measure of the success of t h e Farmers' I n s t i t u t e was attendance. A c c u r a t e r e c o r d s o f p r o v i n c i a l membership, attendance, numbers of meetings, and numbers of speeches were a l l kept by Anderson (see Appendix 1). The numbers a t t e n d i n g every meeting were recorded i n the minutes and were i n c l u d e d i n annual r e p o r t s t o the superintendent who was then able t o determine the numbers of farmers a t t e n d i n g a l l meetings of t h e i n s t i t u t e w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e . Because attendance at farmers' i n s t i t u t e g a t h e r i n g s was not l i m i t e d t o members o f the i n s t i t u t e , the attendance f i g u r e s g i v e n here i n Appendix 1 are not, t h e r e f o r e , an a c c u r a t e i n d i c a t i o n o f the number o f i n s t i t u t e members a t t e n d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l events. I f the Surrey Farmers' I n s t i t u t e attendance f i g u r e s a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of other i n s t i t u t e s , l e s s than h a l f of those people who attended meetings might have been i n s t i t u t e members. In ot h e r words, of the 5,673 who attended meetings i n 1903, l e s s than 2800 were members, i f the Surrey r a t i o o f members to non-members was t y p i c a l 69 of attendance elsewhere i n the p r o v i n c e . Reports of meetings w r i t t e n b o t h by l o c a l s e c r e t a r i e s and by speakers o f f e r e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r low attendance. The most frequent reasons g i v e n were t h a t t h e meeting i n t e r f e r e d with p l a n t i n g or h a r v e s t . Other reasons i n c l u d e d i l l n e s s and poor weather o r road c o n d i t i o n s . O c c a s i o n a l speakers c i t e d poor o r g a n i z a t i o n , l a c k of advance p u b l i c i t y or i n a p p r o p r i a t e c h o i c e o f 40 speaker t o e x p l a i n poor attendance. One speaker, a dairyman from S a r d i s , observed t h a t "The c l a s s of farmers t h a t we are most d e s i r o u s of r e a c h i n g a r e the ones whom 41 the l e a s t excuse w i l l keep from a t t e n d i n g . . . . " Another group of farmers were c r i t i c i z e d by speakers Thomas McMillan and H. G. Reed i n t h e i r r e p o r t on a t o u r through southern Vancouver I s l a n d , S a l t s p r i n g , Surrey, and D e l t a i n the l a t e summer o f 1904. They r e p o r t e d t o Anderson: From a l l we c o u l d see i n our journey through v a r i o u s d i s t r i c t s the p r e s s u r e o f farm work i s not so g r e a t as to prevent a f t e r n o o n s e s s i o n s b e i n g h e l d . Even the farmers themselves, g e n e r a l l y , seem t o have p l e n t y of time to hunt and shoot, and i f they have the r e q u i r e d i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r own c a l l i n g , they can c e r t a i n l y a f f o r d an a f t e r n o o n a t the I n s t i t u t e . 4 2 T h i s comment supported Anderson's own commitment t o h o l d i n g a f t e r n o o n meetings which met w i t h on-going r e s i s t a n c e from farmers who were r e l u c t a n t t o g i v e up t h e i r working hours f o r meetings. By i n t r o d u c i n g c a t t l e judging t o the content of speakers' programs, Anderson broke down the r e s i s t a n c e t o daytime meetings and prepared the way f o r the l a t e r i n n o v a t i o n of two or three 70 43 day s h o r t c o u r s e s . Outcomes of the e d u c a t i o n a l program, 1897- 1908 In s p i t e o f the d i f f i c u l t i e s which the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e encountered i n i t s e a r l y years o f o p e r a t i o n , c o n s i d e r a b l e progress i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n had been made by 1908, when Anderson r e t i r e d as superintendent. Membership had grown to 3,372 and th e r e were 33 l o c a l i n s t i t u t e s . The d i s t r i b u t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o d i s t r i c t was ni n e i n s t i t u t e s on Vancouver and the G u l f I s l a n d s w i t h 840 members; e l e v e n i n s t i t u t e s i n the lower F r a s e r V a l l e y w i t h 1012 members and t h i r t e e n i n s t i t u t e s w i t h 1520 44 members i n the I n t e r i o r . Anderson had succeeded i n h i s g o a l t o have l o c a l people d e l i v e r l e c t u r e s at r e g u l a r meetings and he had won the farmers over t o daytime meetings making p o s s i b l e the i n t r o d u c t i o n of s h o r t courses, a h i g h l y popular f e a t u r e o f i n s t i t u t e programming i n l a t e r y e a r s . The d i s s e m i n a t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e , always dependent on government f i n a n c i a l support, continued w i t h 26,000 45 p u b l i c a t i o n s b e i n g sent t o farmers i n 1908. Anderson r e t i r e d from the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e because o f i l l h e a l t h i n 1908, ending a seventeen year p e r i o d o f employment as s t a t i s t i c i a n , deputy m i n i s t e r and superintendent o f Farmers' 46 I n s t i t u t e s . During t h i s p e r i o d , Anderson had guided the emergence of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e from t h e v a r i e d e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s o f the f l e d g l i n g Department of 71 A g r i c u l t u r e . In i t s formative years, the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e had implemented a system which p r o v i d e d access t o up t o date s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n . I t a l s o c r e a t e d a means by which farmers c o u l d organize themselves f o r g r e a t e r economic g a i n through c o - o p e r a t i v e purchase, p r o d u c t i o n and marketing schemes. 72 FOOTNOTES 1 Census o f Canada, 1901, v o l . 2 , p. 2. Oc c u p i e r i s d e f i n e d as a h o l d e r o f a farm (a p a r c e l o f land over f i v e acres) by way of ownership or by fee payment. 2 I b i d . , p. 2. 3 S h e i l a N i c k o l s , ed. Maple Ridge: A H i s t o r y o f Settlement, (Maple Ridge: Canadian F e d e r a t i o n of U n i v e r s i t y Women, 1072); F e r n T r e l e a v e n , The Sur r e y S t o r y , (Surrey Museum and H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , 1970); Donald Waite, The Langley S t o r y : An E a r l y H i s t o r y o f the M u n i c i p a l i t y o f Langley, Maple Ridge: Don Waite P u b l i s h i n g , 1977), pp.59-162. 4 Jean Barman, Growing Up B r i t i s h i n B r i t i s h Columbia, (Vancouver: UBC Press, 1984), pp. 18-21. 5 Census, 1901, v o l . 4 , p. 324. 6 ARFI 1900, p. 73; 1908, p. 18; Surrey Farmers' I n s t i t u t e Minutes, 1897-1907. Meeting o f November 15, 1906. 7 ARFI 1903, p. 53; 1905, pp. 66-67. 8 The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f such changes f o r farm women are d i s c u s s e d i n M a r j o r i e G r i f f i n Cohen, "The D e c l i n e o f Women i n Canadian D a i r y i n g " i n The Neglected M a j o r i t y : Essays i n Canadian Women's H i s t o r y , v o l . 2, ed. A l i s o n P r e n t i c e and Susan Mann T r o f i m e n k o f f , (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d & Stewart, 1985), pp. 61-83. 9 ARFI 1898, p. 787. 10 ARFI 1900, p. 1072. 11 ARFI 1904, p. 27. 12 See Lawr, p. 185 f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n o f the s t a t e of s c i e n t i f i c knowledge at the time. 13 ARFI 1903, p. 7; 1905, p. 7-8; 1907, p. 7. L i s t s o f speakers, t h e i r home towns, and l e c t u r e t o p i c s were 73 i n c l u d e d i n the Annual Reports d u r i n g the e a r l y years o f the I n s t i t u t e . 14Surrey Farmers' I n s t i t u t e . Minutes o f meetings, December 12 and 13, 1905. 15 Surrey Farmers' I n s t i t u t e . Minutes o f meetings, November 16, 18, 21, 1898; T h r i f t , Reminiscences, n.p. 16 ARFI 1903, p. 7. 17 ARFI 1907, p.6. 18 The d i s t i n c t i o n between methods, techn i q u e s and d e v i c e s used i n t h i s chapter i s t h a t made by C o o l i e Verner. See "Basic Concepts and L i m i t a t i o n s " i n L e a r n i n g and S o c i e t y , ed. J . R. Kidd, Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n of A d u l t Education, 1963. 19 ARFI 1898, p. 791. 20 I b i d . , p. 788. 21 I b i d . , p. 789. 22 I b i d . , p. 791. 23 I b i d . , p. 791. 24 ARFI, 1900, p. 1069. 25 ARFI 1906, p. 16. 26 ARFI 1902, p. 10. 27 C o o l i e Verner and Gary D i c k i n s o n , "The L e c t u r e , An A n a l y s i s and Review of Research," A d u l t E d u c a t i o n 17 (Winter 1967), pp. 85-100). The authors summarize the f i n d i n g s o f numerous s t u d i e s on the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the l e c t u r e as a technique and i n c l u d e a l i s t o f g u i d e l i n e s f o r i t s s e l e c t i o n . See a l s o P aul Bergevin, D. M o r r i s and R. M. Smith i n A d u l t Education Procedures, New York: 74 Seabury Press, 1963. The authors agree w i t h V e r n e r and Di c k i n s o n t h a t the l e c t u r e i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e when changes i n a t t i t u d e , v a l u e s , and behaviour a r e a s p e c i f i c l e a r n i n g o b j e c t i v e . They commend d i s c u s s i o n as a technique which i s conducive t o pr o b l e m - s o l v i n g , l e a d e r s h i p development, and o r a l e x p r e s s i o n . 28 Burton K r i e t l o w , R u r a l E d u c a t i o n : Community Backgrounds. (New York: Harper and Bro t h e r s , 1954), p. 221. 29 ARFI 1905, p. 8. 30 ARFI 1897, p. 705. 31 ARFI 1903, p. 6. Tolmie's l a c k of c o n f i d e n c e as a speaker i s a l s o mentioned i n Anderson's Memoirs, Add MSS 1912, v o l . 9, PABC. 32 I b i d . , p. 7. A l s o ARFI 1907, p.7 33 ARFI 1904, p. 47. 34 ARFI 1909, p. 72. L o c a l speakers were e v e n t u a l l y p a i d a s m a l l sum f o r each manuscript. 35 ARFI 1907, p. 29. 36 ARFI 1907, p. 27; 1908, p. 5. 37 ARFI 1904, p. 6. 38 ARFI 1905, p. 29. 39 ARFI 1906, pp. 43-44. 40 ARFI 1905, p. 11; 1907. p. 47. 41 ARFI 1906, p. 16. 42 ARFI 1905, p. 14. 75 43 ARFI 1907, p. 28. 44 ARFI 1909, p. 7. 45 I b i d . , p. 7. 46 In h i s memoirs, Anderson claimed t h a t the M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e , Capt. R. G. Tatlow, had used the o c c a s i o n o f Anderson's i l l n e s s w i t h pneumonia t o have him " r e t i r e d " from the department. 76 CHAPTER V THE DIVERSIFICATION OF B.C. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION, 1909 TO 1915 By the end o f the f i r s t decade of the 20th century, the B. C. a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y enjoyed a newly e l e v a t e d s t a t u s w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e ' s economy. The promotion o f B.C. products abroad had served the d u a l purpose of encouraging immigration t o the p r o v i n c e and a d v e r t i s i n g B.C. f r u i t . N a t i o n a l l y , the t i d e o f immigration generated by the e x p a n s i o n i s t p o l i c i e s of the L a u r i e r government c r e a t e d a f r e s h demand f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l education t o f a c i l i t a t e western settlement and development based on farming. The r e s u l t i n B. C. was a range of a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n i n n o v a t i o n s which i n c l u d e d u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n and an improved s e r v i c e from a s i g n i f i c a n t l y l a r g e r Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . T h i s chapter d e s c r i b e s the growing momentum of support f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l education which d e r i v e d i t s s t r e n g t h from both n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l i s s u e s . I t examines the 1909 r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the p r o v i n c i a l Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , the A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n A c t of 1913, and the o r i g i n s o f u n i v e r s i t y a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n i n the F a c u l t y o f A g r i c u l t u r e a t UBC. The continued o p e r a t i o n o f the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e and the changes i n i t s f u n c t i o n a r e examined and e x p l a i n e d i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the expansion of a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n r e s o u r c e s . The study concludes w i t h an assessment of the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e d u r i n g i t s for m a t i v e years, 1897-1915. The Continued Momentum f o r A g r i c u l t u r a l Development Throughout the f i r s t decade of the new century, n a t i o n a l p o l i c i e s f a v o u r i n g land s e t t l e m e n t and the development o f a g r i c u l t u r e enjoyed c o n t i n u e d support. The f l o o d o f immigrants, many i n t e n d i n g t o farm b ut l a c k i n g the necessary knowledge and s k i l l s , roused a deep 1 concern i n the h e a r t s o f many Canadians. The u r b a n i z a t i o n o f the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n c o n t i n u e d a t an even pace. Urban d w e l l e r s grew by h a l f t o 3,280,444 i n 1911, w h i l e r u r a l d w e l l e r s had i n c r e a s e d by only seventeen per cent from 3,349,516 i n 1901 to 3,924,394 i n 2 1911. The r i s i n g c o s t o f l i v i n g caused p o l i t i c i a n s and farm l e a d e r s t o s p e c u l a t e on the f u t u r e c a p a c i t y o f the country t o produce i t s own food as the numbers of farmers d e c l i n e d i n p r o p o r t i o n t o the whole p o p u l a t i o n . At the n a t i o n a l l e v e l , concern about the steady i n c r e a s e i n urban p o p u l a t i o n l e d to an i d e a l i z a t i o n o f r u r a l l i f e which ignored the r e a l i t y o f many s e t t l e r s ' 3 e x i s t e n c e . At i t s b e s t , the r h e t o r i c which promoted r u r a l l i f e saw a g r i c u l t u r e as the b a s i s f o r a t h r i v i n g n a t i o n , w i t h farmers p r o s p e r i n g along w i t h other 4 workers. I t was an e x p r e s s i o n o f the myth of the land 78 and Canadian a g r i c u l t u r e which p r e v a i l e d throughout the p e r i o d of l a r g e s c a l e immigration and settlement of the 5 west. The l i k e l i h o o d t h a t a promoter would c l a i m r u r a l o r i g i n s as the b e s t guarantee t o develop f u t u r e l e a d e r s h i p p o t e n t i a l and "...men of g i a n t i n t e l l e c t , p h y s i c a l l y rugged and m o r a l l y sound" was as great i n 1910 as i t had been a decade e a r l i e r when T. F. Paterson, one of the key o r g a n i z e r s o f the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e , 6 addressed B.C. farmers. The impact of n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l immigration p o l i c i e s was f e l t i n B.C. as thousands of immigrants, many o f them from B r i t a i n , took up farming i n the Okanagan and on Vancouver I s l a n d with Americans a r r i v i n g 7 mainly i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y and Kootenay a r e a s . Compared t o the whole o f Canada, where the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e between 1901 and 1911 was 574,878 and urban i n c r e a s e was 1,258,645, the B.C. r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e was 100,318 and urban i n c r e a s e was 113,505. In o t h e r words, the r a t i o of r u r a l t o urban i n c r e a s e i n Canada was f o r t y - s i x per cent w h i l e i n B.C. i t was 8 e i g h t y - f i v e per cent. The 1911 census r e v e a l e d t h a t 24,000 B r i t i s h Columbians were employed i n a g r i c u l t u r e , more than i n 9 lumbering, mining, or f i s h e r i e s . The t o t a l o c c u p i e r s o f 10 farms had grown from 6,739 i n 1901 to 18,467 i n 1911. Many o f these new farmers were d e v o i d o f any farming knowledge or s k i l l s , and those who had farming experience f r e q u e n t l y encountered c o n d i t i o n s f o r which they were unprepared. Changing tre n d s i n a g r i c u l t u r e c r e a t e d a f u r t h e r need f o r i n f o r m a t i o n as ranchers became o r c h a r d i s t s or dairymen, and poultrymen began commercial egg and c h i c k e n p r o d u c t i o n . T h i s decade of growth i n the farm p o p u l a t i o n saw an accompanying expansion i n the s i z e and v a r i e t y of farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s . One of the f i r s t a g r i c u l t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the p r o v i n c e , the B.C. F r u i t Growers' A s s o c i a t i o n , had a membership of 876 by 1914. There were a l s o the Dairymen's A s s o c i a t i o n , the Stockbreeders' A s s o c i a t i o n , the P o u l t r y A s s o c i a t i o n and two bee-keepers a s s o c i a t i o n s , a l l o p e r a t i n g with the a s s i s t a n c e or 11 sponsorship of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . L i k e the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e , they h e l d annual meetings i n V i c t o r i a where a g r i c u l t u r a l i s s u e s s p e c i f i c t o t h e i r i n t e r e s t s were d i s c u s s e d . Farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s of another type which began to appear i n t h i s e r a were the producer co- p e r a t i v e s , p r i n c i p a l l y f o r the marketing o f d a i r y products and f r u i t . The Department of A g r i c u l t u r e a s s i s t e d these c o - o p e r a t i v e s through loans amounting to the sum of $162,100 du r i n g the p e r i o d between 1901 and 12 1913. The e x t e n t to which the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e was an impetus to these o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s not c l e a r . However, i t was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the formation o f the Women's I n s t i t u t e s i n B.C. i n 1909. Laura Rose had proven to be a h i g h l y p o p u l a r speaker on h e r f i r s t speaking c i r c u i t 13 f o r the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e i n 1906. On a f a l l t o u r i n 80 1909 she addressed a meeting o f the Surrey Farmers' I n s t i t u t e a t Tynehead on the s u b j e c t o f women's i n s t i t u t e s and domestic s c i e n c e . S u f f i c i e n t women were p r e s e n t t h a t evening t o enable the Tynehead Women's I n s t i t u t e t o be formed. The f o l l o w i n g day she addressed the meeting of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e a t Surrey Centre and the few women i n attendance agreed t o r e c r u i t more members f o r the Surrey Centre Women's I n s t i t u t e which was 14 subsequently formed on November 9, 1909. The Women's I n s t i t u t e spread r a p i d l y around the p r o v i n c e as a r e s u l t o f Rose's 1909 t o u r and by the end of t h a t year f i f t e e n 15 i n s t i t u t e s e x i s t e d . A l l o f the government-sponsored farm o r g a n i z a t i o n s h e l d annual conferences i n V i c t o r i a , o f t e n on c o n s e c u t i v e days. The r e s u l t was an enlar g e d network o f farm l e a d e r s and a s u b s t a n t i a l lobby on b e h a l f o f a g r i c u l t u r a l i n t e r e s t s and r u r a l communities. The annual C e n t r a l Farmers' I n s t i t u t e , t o which del e g a t e s from each l o c a l branch were sent, had been meeting each year s i n c e 1899. The d e l e g a t e s brought with them motions t o be debated by the conference and l a t e r conveyed t o the a p p r o p r i a t e l e v e l of government. While the m a j o r i t y of the motions r e l a t e d t o l e g i s l a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o a g r i c u l t u r e and r u r a l community development, a s i g n i f i c a n t lobby on b e h a l f of improved a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e developed. The demand f o r an i n c r e a s e i n Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e p e r s o n n e l began when a d a i r y i n s t r u c t o r was 81 16 requested i n 1905. The C e n t r a l I n s t i t u t e passed motions r e q u e s t i n g more p u b l i c a t i o n s , f u r t h e r resource people, l a b o r a t o r i e s , a g r i c u l t u r a l l i b r a r i e s and experimental farms. I t r e p e a t e d l y l o b b i e d the government 17 f o r an a g r i c u l t u r a l c o l l e g e f o r the p r o v i n c e . Delegates a l s o submitted motions t o support the i n c l u s i o n of land f o r an experimental farm i n the endowment f o r the 18 u n i v e r s i t y when i t was f i r s t d i s c u s s e d i n 1906. The I n s t i t u t e had pr e s s u r e d the government i n t o funding s c h o l a r s h i p s f o r B.C. students a t t e n d i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l s chools o u t s i d e B.C. u n t i l such time as one e x i s t e d 19 w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e . The repeated request o f the i n s t i t u t e members f o r more s t a f f was f i n a l l y r e a l i z e d i n 1908 when f o u r graduates o f the O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e were h i r e d by the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . While a g r i c u l t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s m u l t i p l i e d and g r e a t e r importance was a t t a c h e d t o a g r i c u l t u r a l education, the p r o v i n c e ' s a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n was a l s o growing. In 1911, p r o v i n c i a l a g r i c u l t u r a l exports 20 exceeded imports f o r the f i r s t time on r e c o r d . The p r i n c i p a l i n c r e a s e s i n p r o d u c t i o n d u r i n g the decade had been i n f r u i t , milk and p o u l t r y . D a i r y i n g , with i t s r e l a t e d i n d u s t r i e s , and the p o u l t r y i n d u s t r y t y p i c a l l y expanded near the new and growing urban c e n t r e s with the improvement o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d i n g easy access t o t h i s dependable market, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r F r a s e r V a l l e y farmers. Orchard acreage had grown from 7,502 acres i n 1901 82 21 t o 33,618 acres i n 1911. The number o f p o u l t r y had more than doubled d u r i n g the decade with over a m i l l i o n b i r d s 22 i n 1911. The number of milk cows showed an i n c r e a s e from 5.18 t o 7.11 per one hundred acres o f improved 23 l a n d . While government l e a d e r s and department o f f i c i a l s c o n g r a t u l a t e d themselves and the farmers on the s i z a b l e improvement i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , they were aware of the continued i m p o r t a t i o n of farm products and the s t i l l undeveloped p o t e n t i a l of the p r o v i n c e t o supply even more of i t s own food supply. The appointment o f the Royal Commission on A g r i c u l t u r e i n 1912 was an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t a g r i c u l t u r e had come of age i n a p r o v i n c e long dominated by f o r e s t r y , mining and f i s h e r i e s . The commission was c h a i r e d by W. H. Hayward, an e a r l y i n s t i t u t e promoter who was the member of the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e f o r Cowichan. When the r e p o r t was f i l e d w i t h the l e g i s l a t u r e i n 1914, i t h a i l e d the dramatic i n c r e a s e s i n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n which had o c c u r r e d . The Report of the p r o v i n c i a l Royal Commission on A g r i c u l t u r e i n 1914 a l s o c o n t a i n e d s p e c i f i c recommendations wi t h r e s p e c t to education. I t recommended t h a t the government e s t a b l i s h farm t r a i n i n g s c h o o l s , p r o v i d e nature study and a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s , and p r o v i d e d i s t r i c t i n s t r u c t o r s o f a g r i c u l t u r e who would be a v a i l a b l e t o farmers i n the main a g r i c u l t u r a l c e n t r e s of the p r o v i n c e , a system which had 24 been s u c c e s s f u l l y implemented i n O n t a r i o . 83 R e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e As a g r i c u l t u r e assumed a more prominent p o s i t i o n among the p r o v i n c e ' s i n d u s t r i e s , so d i d the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e among government m i n i s t r i e s . The department was completely r e s t r u c t u r e d i n 1909, the r e s u l t o f p e r p e t u a l demands f o r more s e r v i c e s t o farmers and the growing commitment by government t o develop the a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l of the p r o v i n c e . The s t a f f had been expanded by the h i r i n g of f o u r graduates of the O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e i n the p r e v i o u s year. A s s i s t a n t h o r t i c u l t u r i s t s , B. Hoy and M. S. Middleton, were appointed to o f f i c e s i n Vernon and Nelson. R. M. Winslow, h o r t i c u l t u r i s t , and Morley J u l l , p o u l t r y s p e c i a l i s t , had headquarters i n V i c t o r i a . With the opening o f the Vernon and Nelson o f f i c e s , a d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of the e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s o f the department took p l a c e . A d d i t i o n a l s t a f f were a c q u i r e d i n 1909 and the department was d i v i d e d i n t o branches w i t h t r a i n e d s p e c i a l i s t s a t the head of each branch. While a few years e a r l i e r , J . R. Anderson had s i m u l t a n e o u s l y f i l l e d the r o l e o f Deputy M i n i s t e r , s t a t i s t i c i a n , and Superintendent of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e , these jobs were now h e l d by d i f f e r e n t men, and the r o l e of Superintendent d i m i n i s h e d i n s i z e to the extent t h a t i t was o n l y a p a r t of the job of R. W. Hodson who was a l s o head of the d a i r y and stock branch. 84 The new d i v i s i o n s o f the department each assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s and the p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n of l i t e r a t u r e s p e c i f i c t o t h e i r branch, measurably d e c r e a s i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l r o l e o f the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e and the Superintendent's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n . The expansion and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f the department co n t i n u e d as new a g r i c u l t u r a l areas were opened up i n the p r o v i n c e . By 1914 t h e r e was a permanent s t a f f of f o r t y - f i v e i n c l u d i n g a h o r t i c u l t u r i s t and a g r i c u l t u r i s t f o r the newly de v e l o p i n g n o r t h e r n B r i t i s h Columbia, an i n s t r u c t o r i n s o i l s and crops, and an a s s i s t a n t d a i r y i n s t r u c t o r . The most s i g n i f i c a n t f e a t u r e o f the r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the department was the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t the e d u c a t i o n a l needs o f the p r o v i n c e s ' farmers were too gre a t and too v a r i e d t o be served by a s i n g l e o r g a n i z a t i o n under one admini s t r a t o r . The O p e r a t i o n o f the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e , 1909 t o 1915 As o t h e r branches of the department took over much of the a c t u a l p r o v i s i o n of s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n , the super i n t e n d e n t ' s r o l e s h i f t e d i t s focus t o the economic betterment o f farmers. In the 1912 Report, Superintendent W i l l i a m E. S c o t t wrote under the sub-heading Co-operation: T h i s i s the primary o b j e c t o f Farmers' I n s t i t u t e s , and I would a g a i n urge upon you the n e c e s s i t y f o r a c t i v e c o - o p e r a t i o n amongst t h e members of each i n s t i t u t e . In union t h e r e i s s t r e n g t h , and i n o r d e r f o r farmers t o secure the p r i c e which they should f o r t h e i r produce, concerted a c t i o n i s imperative....Co- 85 o p e r a t i o n i n marketing your produce and s e c u r i n g your s u p p l i e s i s the s e c r e t of success, and I t r u s t t h a t t h i s phase of Farmers' I n s t i t u t e work may be taken i n hand by a l l i n s t i t u t e s i n the Province.25 In a d d i t i o n t o encouraging c o - o p e r a t i o n , the Superintendent was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the government sponsored c o - o p e r a t i v e p u r c h a s i n g schemes. The Department of A g r i c u l t u r e made wholesale purchases o f feed, seed, b r e e d i n g stock, stumping powder, f e r t i l i z e r , machinery and o t h e r s u p p l i e s f o r r e s a l e t o l o c a l i n s t i t u t e s a t reduced p r i c e s . In the years immediately f o l l o w i n g J . R. Anderson's r e t i r e m e n t , the d r a m a t i c a l l y i n c r e a s e d s i z e of the department allowed the new s u p e r i n t e n d e n t to co- o r d i n a t e a c t i v i t i e s u s i n g the r e s o u r c e s o f o t h e r branches o f the department. Beginning i n 1910, two day s h o r t courses became popular w i t h i n s t i t u t e members and were conducted by experts w i t h i n the department. The short course system soon developed beyond the o r i g i n a l h o r t i c u l t u r a l and d a i r y courses so t h a t by 1914, when farmers were p o l l e d by the Superintendent t o determine t h e i r wishes f o r the coming season, they requested i n f o r m a t i o n on gardening and marketing, l i v e s t o c k , crops, 26 p o u l t r y , c a t t l e and sheep. Another i n n o v a t i o n begun i n 1910 was the sponsorship o f f r u i t - p a c k i n g s c h o o l s . O r i g i n a l l y h e l d e x c l u s i v e l y i n the Okanagan, they were subsequently o f f e r e d i n o t h e r f r u i t - g r o w i n g c e n t r e s of the p r o v i n c e . In 1911, attendance at t h i r t y schools was 390 and the 86 number of schools was i n c r e a s e d t o f i f t y the f o l l o w i n g y e a r . I t was estimated t h a t e i g h t y per c e n t o f a l l f r u i t s o l d i n 1912 was packed by p u p i l s of the departmental 27 packing s c h o o l s . F i e l d - c r o p c o m petitions among the l o c a l i n s t i t u t e s with p r i z e money s u p p l i e d by the Department a l s o became an e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t e a c t i v i t y d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d and l o c a l i n s t i t u t e s undertook the sponsorship of boys' and g i r l s ' c o m p e titions i n p o t a t o - growing. The s u p e r i n t e n d e n t continued t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the e x t e n s i v e c i r c u l a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n . In 1912, over 140,000 b u l l e t i n s , r e p o r t s and c i r c u l a r s were sent out, mainly t o Farmers' I n s t i t u t e members. The number of i n s t i t u t e s continued t o grow and reached 13 6 i n 1915. The o r g a n i z a t i o n of i n s t i t u t e s had extended t o the nort h c e n t r a l r e g i o n f o l l o w i n g the completion of the Grand Trunk P a c i f i c Railway. The number of members peaked i n 1915 a t 8353 b e f o r e the n e g a t i v e impact o f the f i r s t World War began t o be f e l t (see Appendix 1). During World War I, the I n s t i t u t e was t o s u f f e r a s e r i o u s setback as both farmers and department p e r s o n n e l l e f t f o r a c t i v e s e r v i c e overseas and markets f o r a number of a g r i c u l t u r a l products d e c l i n e d . The A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n A c t , 1913 In the 1911 e l e c t i o n , R. L. Borden's c o n s e r v a t i v e s came to power. A key e l e c t i o n i s s u e and one which had m o b i l i z e d a growing p r o t e s t from the country's farmers was r e c i p r o c i t y . M a r t i n B u r r e l l , who was a former 87 Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e correspondent f o r the Grand Forks area, was appointed f e d e r a l M i n i s t e r of A g r i c u l t u r e . In t h i s c a p a c i t y he i n t r o d u c e d and l e d the debate on a p r o p o s a l t o p r o v i d e the p r o v i n c e s w i t h t e n m i l l i o n d o l l a r s over a t e n year p e r i o d f o r the purpose o f a g r i c u l t u r a l e ducation. The annual amount f o r each p r o v i n c e would be decided j o i n t l y by f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s and roughly based on p o p u l a t i o n . In the debate on the f i r s t r e a d i n g of the b i l l , B u r r e l l emphasized the value of educ a t i o n t o a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n and c i t e d comprehensive a g r i c u l t u r a l education programs i n Europe t o support h i s p o s i t i o n . He a l s o advocated the promotion of the r u r a l l i f e s t y l e t o balance the u r b a n i z a t i o n of the Canadian p o p u l a t i o n . In the debate, no one p r o t e s t e d the i n t e n t or the content o f 28 the b i l l . The passage o f the A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n A c t i n 1913 had a tremendous impact on a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n d e l i v e r e d by the Department of Education, the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e and the new F a c u l t y of A g r i c u l t u r e a t UBC when i t was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1915. The amounts r e c e i v e d by B r i t i s h Columbia are shown i n Appendix 2 and the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f funds by p r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s f o r the year 1914 i s shown i n Appendix 3. Although the A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n Act was not u n i v e r s a l l y acclaimed as h a v i n g a major impact on a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n i n every p r o v i n c e , i n B r i t i s h Columbia the i n j e c t i o n of f e d e r a l money h e r a l d e d an e r a 88 of c o - o p e r a t i o n between the u n i v e r s i t y , the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e and the Department o f E d u c a t i o n i n the 29 p r o v i s i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r a l e ducation. I t has a l s o been c r e d i t e d with making p o s s i b l e one of the most p r o d u c t i v e p e r i o d s i n the h i s t o r y of both the F a c u l t y o f A g r i c u l t u r e 30 and the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e . I t marked the b e g i n n i n g o f the s c h o o l garden p r o j e c t under the s u p e r v i s i o n of J.W. Gibson, funded the p u b l i c a t i o n s e r v i c e s o f the Department of A g r i c u l t u r e and p r o v i d e d the new F a c u l t y of A g r i c u l t u r e w i t h s u f f i c i e n t funds t o engage i n a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n work around the p r o v i n c e . The Founding of the F a c u l t y of A g r i c u l t u r e When the U n i v e r s i t y o f B. C. opened i t s doors i n September, 1915, i t i n c l u d e d courses i n a g r i c u l t u r e among i t s o f f e r i n g s . The f i r s t Dean of A g r i c u l t u r e was Dr. L. S. K l i n c k who had attended the O n t a r i o A g r i c u l t u r a l C o l l e g e b e f o r e doing h i s graduate s t u d i e s a t Iowa S t a t e C o l l e g e . During h i s graduate work he was i n f l u e n c e d by P e r r y Holden who was the f i r s t Superintendent of E x t e n s i o n a t Iowa S t a t e and a pioneer of e x t e n s i o n 31 methods aimed at a l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n . Dr. K l i n c k ' s b e l i e f t h a t the f u n c t i o n of a u n i v e r s i t y was "to extend the boundaries of achieved knowledge and to promote the 32 e x t e n s i o n of h i g h e r l e a r n i n g " was e n t i r e l y compatible w i t h t h a t o f UBC's f i r s t p r e s i d e n t , Dr. F. S. Wesbrook who promoted the concept of the "people's u n i v e r s i t y " 89 and, accompanied by K l i n c k , t r a v e l l e d around the p r o v i n c e t o determine the b e s t means by which the u n i v e r s i t y c o u l d serve B r i t i s h Columbians. K l i n c k and h i s f i r s t f a c u l t y members began a t once t o do e x t e n s i o n work s i n c e students were not admitted t o degree programs u n t i l 1917. They gave p u b l i c l e c t u r e s and s e r v e d as i n s t r u c t o r s i n Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e s h o r t courses and the Department o f E d u c a t i o n summer sch o o l f o r p u b l i c s c h o o l t e a c h e r s of a g r i c u l t u r e . A l l F a c u l t y o f A g r i c u l t u r e e x t e n s i o n work was funded under the terms of the A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n Act, or the " B u r r e l l g r a n t " as i t was commonly c a l l e d . The B u r r e l l g r a n t t o the F a c u l t y of A g r i c u l t u r e amounted to an average o f $23,000 per year and was used f o r s p e c i f i c 33 e x t e n s i o n p r o j e c t s . The t r a d i t i o n o f e x t e n s i o n work which was begun i n the i n f a n t F a c u l t y of A g r i c u l t u r e was to c o n t i n u e long p a s t the end of the t e n year d u r a t i o n o f the B u r r e l l f u n d i n g . The v i g o u r with which i t was i n t r o d u c e d had a c o n s i d e r a b l e impact on the e d u c a t i o n progams of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e as l o c a l i n s t i t u t e s came to r e l y on the UBC F a c u l t y of A g r i c u l t u r e as a source o f l e c t u r e r s f o r t h e i r meetings. The t o p i c s which the UBC f a c u l t y addressed i n d i c a t e a t r e n d toward s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r e which was l a t e r f o r m a l i z e d i n t o p o l i c y when r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the Departments of A g r i c u l t u r e and E d u cation, and the F a c u l t y of A g r i c u l t u r e met i n 1917 to work out a d i v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y among the t h r e e 90 34 e d u c a t i o n a l agents. The F a c u l t y of A g r i c u l t u r e assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d i r e c t i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h and the p r o v i s i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n i n courses where u n d e r l y i n g s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s were emphasized. I t was t o be the t a s k of the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e t o do a l l i l l u s t r a t i o n and demonstration f i e l d work, undertake a l l work aimed at i n c r e a s e d a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n , and t o c o n t i n u e a l l a g r i c u l t u r a l p u b l i c a t i o n s . T h i s d e l i n e a t i o n o f the r o l e s o f the F a c u l t y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e r e i n f o r c e d the change i n focus o f the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e from an e d u c a t i o n a l to an economic one. E a r l y A g r i c u l t u r a l Education and the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e In the years between the founding of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e i n 1897 and the b e g i n n i n g of a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n work by the F a c u l t y of A g r i c u l t u r e a t UBC i n 1915, a g r i c u l t u r e became one of the t h r e e major i n d u s t r i e s i n B.C. W r i t i n g of the s t a t e of a g r i c u l t u r e i n the B r i t i s h Columbia Yearbook of 1897, R. E. G o s n e l l d e s c r i b e d the B.C. farmer as h a ving " s t r u c k rock bottom." "Having disabused h i s mind of many f a l l a c i e s c u r r e n t a few years ago," he was ready to pursue farming on a 35 b u s i n e s s - l i k e b a s i s . And, by 1914 the value of a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n a c t u a l l y surpassed the value of 36 p r o d u c t i o n i n the mining and f o r e s t r y i n d u s t r i e s . More than a change i n farmers' a t t i t u d e s had taken p l a c e between 1897 and 1914 t o account f o r the tremendous 91 growth which o c c u r r e d i n a g r i c u l t u r e . Thousands of immigrants a r r i v e d i n B.C. d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d , many o f them s e t t l i n g i n r u r a l areas t o pursue farming. A g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s , c o - o p e r a t i v e s and producers' a s s o c i a t i o n s were born and a s i g n i f i c a n t farmers' lobby emerged, although mainly as a p a r t o f the government- sponsored a s s o c i a t i o n s . A g r i c u l t u r a l education was promoted by both the p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l governments d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . The Farmers' I n s t i t u t e was cr e a t e d , to p r o v i d e an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e f o r the a s s o r t e d promotional and e d u c a t i o n a l work of the f l e d g l i n g Department of A g r i c u l t u r e . As the Department expanded between 1909 and 1914 and f e d e r a l money was p r o v i d e d f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l education, i n c r e a s e d numbers of expert a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d e l i v e r y o f s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o the p r o v i n c e ' s farmers. The d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f the e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s made p o s s i b l e by the l o c a t i o n of s p e c i a l i s t s i n the v a r i o u s a g r i c u l t u r a l r e g i o n s a l s o p r o v i d e d d i r e c t c o n t a c t between farmers and experts i n s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r e . The opening o f the u n i v e r s i t y w i t h i t s p h i l o s o p h i c commitment to e x t e n s i o n work and the r e a d i n e s s o f i t s F a c u l t y o f A g r i c u l t u r e t o undertake such work a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d t o a wider range of a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n r e s o u r c e s i n B.C. by the end of 1915. The o p e r a t i o n o f the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e i n 1915 r e f l e c t e d the changes i n the p r o v i s i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l 92 e d u c a t i o n . As the Superintendent had s t a t e d i n 1912, i t s main purpose had become the promotion of c o - o p e r a t i o n 37 among farmers. An examination of the r e c o r d o f attendance and membership d u r i n g the 1897 to 1915 p e r i o d a l s o suggests t h a t the nature o f farmers' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the I n s t i t u t e may have p r e c i p i t a t e d the changes which had o c c u r r e d i n the f u n c t i o n o f the I n s t i t u t e . Membership and the number of i n s t i t u t e s showed steady growth i n the e a r l y years (see appendix 1). Both began to a c c e l e r a t e i n 1907-1908, when a number of events occurred which may o f f e r an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h i s phenomenon. A d d i t i o n a l s t a f f were h i r e d i n 1908 and 1909 a l l o w i n g the r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the department and a d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of s e r v i c e s . J . R. Anderson r e t i r e d , and w i t h the new s t a f f and new superintendent, a r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of the o r g a n i z a t i o n may have taken p l a c e , even though t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n i n the r e p o r t s o f any d i s c o n t e n t w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the I n s t i t u t e p r i o r t o t h i s time. L e t t e r s t o Anderson upon h i s r e t i r e m e n t would i n d i c a t e t h a t he was h e l d i n h i g h esteem by the 38 members of the branch i n s t i t u t e s . I t may a l s o be t h a t the i d e a o f the farmers' i n s t i t u t e was becoming a f a m i l i a r p a r t of the a g r i c u l t u r a l scene and i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f farmers were informed o f the b e n e f i t s of membership. 93 F i g u r e 3 AVERAGE ATTENDANCE & MEMBERSHIP IN RELATION TO INSTITUTES, • NUMBER DF INSTITUTES A V E R A G E MEMBERSHIP PER INSTITUTE A V E R A G E ATTENDANCE AT MEETING AS ;< DF A V E R A G E MEMBERSHIP \B?V :P;X : w . > :TOO ITO <X3 ; 9 w taw. / ? : " ; :9SP :V.: i M ' . p i - ; j w s E v e n as membership and t h e number o f i n s t i t u t e s grew a t an i n c r e a s i n g r a t e , a v e r a g e a t t e n d a n c e showed a s l o w b u t s t e a d y d e c l i n e ( f i g u r e 3 ) . I t must be remembered t h a t a t t e n d a n c e i n d i c a t e d a l l p e o p l e who were p r e s e n t and was n o t l i m i t e d t o t h e number o f members who were p r e s e n t . The r a t e o f a t t e n d a n c e w o u l d be e v e n l o w e r i f i t r e p r e s e n t e d o n l y a t t e n d a n c e b y members. T h e r e a r e 94 s e v e r a l l i k e l y e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the d e c l i n e d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f i n c r e a s i n g membership. One p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t farmers may have o r i g i n a l l y j o i n e d the I n s t i t u t e f o r reasons o t h e r than t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the meetings. For payment o f membership, a farmer was e n t i t l e d t o f r e e p u b l i c a t i o n s from the department, economic a s s i s t a n c e through the group purchase schemes o f l o c a l i n s t i t u t e s , and reduced r a t e s on stumping powder. A f u r t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y i s t h a t the a d d i t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s which had come i n t o e x i s t e n c e were competing w i t h the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e f o r farmers' time. For example, with the advent o f the Women's I n s t i t u t e i n 1909, many women who had f o r m e r l y attended the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e may have ceased going t o meetings. In a s i m i l a r manner, i f an i n s t i t u t e had taken advantage o f the p r o v i s i o n s f o r i t s i n c o r p o r a t i o n as a c o - o p e r a t i v e , members may have been occupied w i t h the running o f a co- o p e r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n which would have been seen t o be a more p r e s s i n g need than t h e i r attendance a t i n s t i t u t e meetings. Farmers were a l s o b e i n g encouraged by the I n s t i t u t e t o a t t e n d the short courses o f f e r e d i n a v a r i e t y o f l o c a t i o n s by d i s t r i c t p e r s o n n e l . They a l s o v i s i t e d the d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s f o r i n f o r m a t i o n and c o u l d arrange, f o r example, t o have the d i s t r i c t h o r t i c u l t u r i s t v i s i t t h e i r o r c h a r d f o r advice or a demonstration. In s h o r t , the widening range o f e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e t o farmers d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d r e l i e v e d the farmers of an 95 e a r l i e r dependency on the I n s t i t u t e when i t may have been the o n l y source o f s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n . By 1915, Farmers' I n s t i t u t e meetings were no l o n g e r the most e f f i c i e n t means of a c q u i r i n g up t o date i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e o r i g i n a l e d u c a t i o n a l f u n c t i o n o f the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e was a l t e r e d , a t l e a s t p a r t l y by circumstances of i t s own c r e a t i o n . C o n e l u s i o n The most v i s i b l e achievement o f the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e as a government-sponsored program o f a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n was the s y s t e m a t i c p r o v i s i o n of i n f o r m a t i o n and p r a c t i c a l s k i l l s t o farmers i n a p e r i o d where t h e r e was an obvious need f o r e d u c a t i o n but no other a v a i l a b l e agency or i n s t i t u t i o n to p r o v i d e i t . A l e s s t a n g i b l e but no l e s s important c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the development of a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n was the system of branch i n s t i t u t e s which developed. The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f l o c a l i n s t i t u t e s i n farm communities e s t a b l i s h e d a b a s i s f o r f u t u r e a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n work by both the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e and the UBC F a c u l t y o f A g r i c u l t u r e . I n t e g r a l t o the d e s i g n of the program o f the e a r l y Farmers' I n s t i t u t e was the involvement of the farmers i n v a r i o u s a s p e c t s of the e d u c a t i o n a l program. Once an i n s t i t u t e was formed, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the r e c r u i t m e n t o f members and the program content r e s t e d l a r g e l y w i t h the e x e c u t i v e of the i n d i v i d u a l group. T h i s p o l i c y was c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n of 96 r e l i a n c e by department o f f i c i a l s on l o c a l farmers f o r a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n on a g r i c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s . I t a l s o allowed l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e t o develop i n the running o f the e d u c a t i o n a l program and o t h e r aspects of the I n s t i t u t e ' s work. As they a c q u i r e d knowledge t o improve t h e i r own farming p r a c t i c e and r e p o r t e d on t h e i r experience o f c o n d i t i o n s o f t e n unique t o t h e i r geographic l o c a t i o n , farmers had the o p p o r t u n i t y to develop, perhaps i n s p i t e of themselves, what Douglas Lawr has c a l l e d , "the s p i r i t o f s c i e n t i f i c i n q u i r y " i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s c i e n c e o f 39 a g r i c u l t u r e . The favoured t e a c h i n g techniques o f group d i s c u s s i o n and demonstration by t h e i r very nature enhanced the l e a r n i n g and i n c r e a s e d the l i k e l i h o o d o f a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the e d u c a t i o n a l component o f meetings. The use o f l o c a l speakers gave members o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o develop s k i l l s i n a n a l y s i s , o r g a n i z a t i o n , p u b l i c speaking, and group l e a d e r s h i p . I r o n i c a l l y , i n some ways the success of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e may have l e d t o a d i m i n u t i o n i n i t s s t a t u s as e d u c a t i o n a l agent. I n s t i t u t e members d i s p l a y e d i n t h e i r l o c a l meetings and a t the C e n t r a l Farmers' I n s t i t u t e a growing a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h e value o f a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n and demanded more s e r v i c e s . These demands were met by a d r a m a t i c a l l y expanded and r e s t r u c t u r e d Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e and the new F a c u l t y of A g r i c u l t u r e at UBC, both of which had been the s u b j e c t o f numerous r e s o l u t i o n s from i n s t i t u t e s around 97 the p r o v i n c e . New personnel i n the Department and the UBC F a c u l t y of A g r i c u l t u r e , a l l of whom had u n i v e r s i t y degrees i n a g r i c u l t u r e , took over much of the e d u c a t i o n a l work c a r r i e d out a t the l o c a l l e v e l by the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e . The I n s t i t u t e c o n t i n u e d t o p l a y a r o l e i n a g r i c u l t u r a l education, but i t s r o l e had changed from primary agent t o c o - o r d i n a t o r o f a g r i c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n programs, w i t h s c i e n t i f i c a g r i c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n and much o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l impetus p r o v i d e d by o t h e r agents. 98 FOOTNOTES 1 Brown and Cook, pp. 195-6 2Census of Canada, 1911, v o l . 1 , Table x, Rural and Urban P o p u l a t i o n , p. 526. 3 E. 0. S. S c h o l f i e l d , Add MSS 491, PABC. Quoted i n Canadian Women on the Move, 1867-1920, ed. Beth L i g h t and Joy Parr, [Toronto: New Hogtown Press and OISE), 1983, p. 167. 4 House o f Commons, Debates, January 24, 1913, p. 2149-2150. 5 David C. Jones, "The Z e i t g e i s t of Western Settlement: E d u c a t i o n and the Myth of t h e Land," i n S c h o o l i n g and S o c i e t y i n Twentieth Century B r i t i s h Columbia, ed. J . Donald W i l s o n and David C. Jones, (Calgary: D e t s e l i g , 1980), p. 72. 6 ARFI 1900, p. 1076. 7 Census, 1911, v o l . 2, Table xv, B i r t h p l a c e by d i s t r i c t s , p. 378. 8 C a l c u l a t e d from Census, 1911, v o l . 1 . Table x, p. 526. 9 R. E. Caves and R. H. Holton, "An O u t l i n e o f the Economic H i s t o r y of B. C. 1881-1951," i n F r i e s e n and R a l s t o n , p. 154. 10 CEnsus, 1911, v o l . 4. p. x i i , Table 6. Tenure o f Farm Lands. 11AR 1915, p. 8 12 AR 1915, p. 53. 99 13 ARFI 1907, p. 29. 14 Surrey Farmers' I n s t i t u t e , Minutes o f Meetings, 1907-1918, meetings of 9 and 10 November, 1909. 15 Douglas, p. 7. 16 ARFI 1905, p.88. 17 ARFI 1906, p. 63; 1907, p. 42; 1911, p. 30. 18 ARFI 1906, p.63. 19 ARFI 1911, p. 58. 20Margaret Ormsby, " A g r i c u l t u r a l Development i n B r i t i s h Columbia," A g r i c u l t u r a l H i s t o r y 19 (January 1945), p. 14. 21Census, 1911, v o l . 4, p. x x i v . Table 15. Land i n Orchards, Small F r u i t s and V e g e t a b l e s . 22 I b i d . p. x x i v . Table 66. Number o f P o u l t r y . 23 I b i d . , p. x v i . Table 54. Per Cent D i s t r i b u t i o n o f M i l k Cows. 24 F i n a l Report of the Royal Commission on A g r i c u l t u r e , S e s s i o n a l Papers, 1914, p. 36. 25 ARFI 1912, p. 8. 26 AR 1915, p. 71. 27 AR 1913, p.8. 28 House o f Commons, Debates, January 24, 1913. pp. 2146-2159. 100 29 Howard F l u x g o l d , F e d e r a l F i n a n c i a l Support f o r Secondary E d u c a t i o n and i t s E f f e c t on O n t a r i o , 1900-1972. O n t a r i o Teachers' F e d e r a t i o n , p. 10-11; B l y t h e E a g l e s , A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n a t UBC, Past and Present, Proceedings of a Seminar on A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n i n B.C., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, May 18, 1961, p. 12. 30 E a g l e s , p. 15. 31 I b i d . , p.12 32 Harry Logan, Tuum E s t : U n i v e r s i t y o f B. C. (Vancouver: Columbia, 1958), p. 81. 33 F. M. Clement, The F a c u l t y of A g r i c u l t u r e i n the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. Statements read b e f o r e the Senate, September 20 and November 12, 1926. Wesbrook Papers, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia A r c h i v e s . 34 W i l l i a m C. Gibson, Wesbrook and h i s U n i v e r s i t y , (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1973), p. 176. 35 R. E. G o s n e l l , B r i t i s h Columbia Yearbook, ( V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r , 1897), p. 270. 36 Canadian Annual Review, 1921. p. 889. 37 ARFI 1912, p. 8. In 1897, a t the o r g a n i z i n g meeting of the Richmond Farmers' I n s t i t u t e , Anderson had s t a t e d t h a t the main purpose of the I n s t i t u t e was t o p r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n t o farmers. Add MSS 1912, PABC. 38 James R. Anderson papers, Add MSS 1912, PABC. 39 Douglas Lawr, p. 170. A H i s t o r y o f the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h 101 SOURCES CONSULTED 1. 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Surrey M u n i c i p a l A r c h i v e s . H. T. T h r i f t , Reminiscences. U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C. S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s . Wesbrook Papers, V i c t o r i a . B.C. P u b l i c A r c h i v e s . James R. Anderson papers. Add MSS 1912. 6. Newspapers B r i t i s h Columbian. 1896-7. New Westminster P u b l i c L i b r a r y V i c t o r i a C o l o n i s t . 1897. UBC L i b r a r y . 107 Appendix 1 E a r l y Growth of the Farmers' I n s t i t u t e , 1897-1915 Year number of number of attendance membership i n s t i t u t e s meetings 1897 2 7 163 73 1898 12 • • • • • • 528 1899 19 111 3,527 765 1900 20 93 2,369 1,031 1901 20 144 4,372 1,432 1902 21 183 6,043 1, 591 1903 24 175 5,673 1,969 1904 25 225 7,171 2,062 1905 27 230 5,892 2, 183 1906 27 220 7,431 2,481 1907 28 226 6,861 2,970 1908 33 284 8,661 3,372 1909 41 314 9,105 4,120 1910 49 248 7,451 5,226 1911 62 375 7,024 6,070 1912 77 445 11,577 6,901 1913 92 • * • • • • 8,144 1914 111 • • • • • • 8,353 1915 136 • • • • • * 8,415 Source: p. 50; Annual Report, 1916, p. 18. Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , 1915 108 Appendix 2 Y e a r l y Grants t o B r i t i s h Columbia Under the A g r i c u l t u r e I n s t r u c t i o n A c t Year Amount Year Amount 1912/13 527,335 1918/19 $74,449 1913/14 47,335 1919/20 69,199 1914/15 52,799 1920/21 69,199 1915/16 58,266 1921/22 69,199 1916/17 63,733 1922/23 69,199 1917/18 63,949 1923/24 61,843 T o t a l $726,505 Source: Howard F l u x g o l d , F e d e r a l F i n a n c i a l Support f o r Secondary E d u c a t i o n and i t s E f f e c t on O n t a r i o , 1900-1972, p. 13. 109 Appendix 3 D i s p e r s a l of funds under the A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t r u c t i o n Act f o r f i s c a l year ending March 31, 1914 Short courses i n connec t i o n w i t h Women's I n s t i t u t e s $2,500 Short courses i n connec t i o n w i t h Farmers' I n s t i t u t e s 5,000 Demonstration work i n crop,growing 7,500 Demonstration d a i r y - f a r m work 5,000 Demonstration work i n h o r t i c u l t u r e 5,000 Cow-testing A s s o c i a t i o n work 2,500 I n s t r u c t o r s or Inspe c t o r s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l i n s t r u c t i o n 7,500 School gardens: s u p p l y i n g seed, i n s t r u c t i o n 1,000 Demonstration f i e l d - w o r k 2,500 Stoc k - j u d g i n g competitions 1,000 F r u i t - p a c k i n g c o m p e t i t i o n s 1,000 P u b l i c a t i o n s 2,500 M i s c e l l a n e o u s 4,334 T o t a l $47,334 Source: Annual Report o f the Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , 1913, p. 53. 110

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