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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Transformative learning : becoming aware of possible worlds Taylor, Jane Anne 1989

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TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING: BECOMING AWARE OF POSSIBLE WORLDS By JANE ANNE TAYLOR B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y of Manitoba, 1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , Adult and Higher Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February 1988 (r?)Jane Anne T a y l o r , 1989 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT Human l e a r n i n g i s a complex m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l phenomenon many aspects of which continue to elude understanding and e x p l a n a t i o n . One f a c e t of the l e a r n i n g p u z z l e that has not been adequately e x p l o r e d i s the r o l e that i n d i v i d u a l c onsciousness p l a y s i n human l e a r n i n g . Adult education has been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n s h i f t i n g the focus i n s t u d i e s of l e a r n i n g from an emphasis on the m a t e r i a l to be l e a r n e d to an emphasis on the experience of the i n d i v i d u a l i n the l e a r n i n g t r a n s a c t i o n . T h i s s h i f t i n focus has brought more a t t e n t i o n to the processes of i n d i v i d u a l consciousness as a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . In a d u l t education a sense of urgency about the importance of broadening the concept of l e a r n i n g , and a growing awareness of the importance of consciousness, and changes or t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s i n consciousness as aspects of a more comprehensive concept of l e a r n i n g , are beginning to merge. The course of human h i s t o r y and c u l t u r e speaks e l o q u e n t l y of the t r a n s f o r m a t i v e powers of the human mind to a m p l i f y and extend knowledge by t r a n s c e n d i n g what i s a l r e a d y known. While c u r r e n t l e a r n i n g l i t e r a t u r e s t r e s s e s l e a r n i n g as the process of f a c i l i t a t i n g changes in behaviour or the a c q u i s i t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n , r e t e n t i o n and r e t r i e v a l of knowledge, l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n has been given to l e a r n i n g as a process of c r e a t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of knowledge. T h i s study arose out of a d e s i r e i i t o e x p l o r e t h e r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a s a m a j o r a s p e c t o f l e a r n i n g , a n d t o i n t e g r a t e l i t e r a t u r e on t h i s t o p i c a s a means o f e x t e n d i n g u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f l e a r n i n g a s a t r a n s f o r m a t i v e p r o c e s s . The s t u d y began w i t h e x p l o r a t i o n s i n two d i r e c t i o n s s t i m u l a t e d a n d d i r e c t e d by t h e q u a l i t a t i v e method o f c o n s t a n t c o m p a r a t i v e a n a l y s i s . One was t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c a s e s t u d y o f S a r a w h i c h s u p p l i e d a s l i c e o f e x p e r i e n t i a l d a t a . S a r a ' s c a s e i l l u s t r a t e s l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s f r o m a p e r s o n a l p o i n t o f v i e w w h i c h e m p h a s i z e s c h a n g e s i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s a s a c e n t r a l d y n a m i c o f t h o s e e x p e r i e n c e s . The s e c o n d d i r e c t i o n f o r e x p l o r a t i o n was a s e a r c h o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e f o r s o u r c e s w h i c h m i g h t a c c o u n t f o r t h i s t y p e o f l e a r n i n g . An a n a l y s i s a n d i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e w r i t i n g s o f s e l e c t e d a u t h o r s s u p p l i e d t h e f o u n d a t i o n f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a m o d e l o f t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g . F i n a l l y , t h i s m o d e l was a p p l i e d t o S a r a ' s c a s e a s a means o f c l a r i f y i n g h e r p e r s o n a l l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e a n d i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e m o d e l a s a t o o l f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g l e a r n i n g a s a p r o c e s s o f c r e a t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t i i Table of Contents i v L i s t of F i g u r e s v i i i Acknowledgements ix I. Background to the study 1 A. I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 B. Statement of the problem 8 C. Purpose of the study 10 D. D e f i n i t i o n s 12 E. Methodology 13 1 . I n t r o d u c t i o n 13 2. Adaption of constant comparative method 14 3. A p p l i c a t i o n of constant comparative method ....16 F. Research q u e s t i o n s 21 G. S i g n i f i c a n c e of the study 22 I I . An i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n of her own l e a r n i n g experience: The case h i s t o r y of Sara 25 A. I n t r o d u c t i o n , 25 B. Background to the case study 25 C. Sara's account of her p e r s o n a l l e a r n i n g experience 27 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 27 2. The f i r s t course 28 3. The second course 38 4. The t h i r d course 43 5. Co n c l u s i o n 47 D. Notes on Sara's case i n r e l a t i o n to the concept of t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g 48 I I I . L i t e r a t u r e review ..51 A. I n t r o d u c t i o n 51 B. Bruner: Contextual background f o r an understanding of t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g 54 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 54 2. Mind and consciousness 56 3. Modes of thought 58 4. Human development 61 5. Changing conception of l e a r n i n g ..62 6. The t r a n s a c t i o n a l s e l f 65 7. Powers of language 69 8. C u l t u r e 73 9. The i n f l u e n c e of Vygotsky and Goodman 76 a. Vygotsky 76 b. Goodman 81 10. Mind, consciousness and world-making ....83 i v 11. Developmental theory as c u l t u r e 88 12. C o n c l u s i o n 91 C. F r e i r e : C o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n 91 1 . I n t r o d u c t i o n 91 2. P h i l o s o p h i c a l assumptions 92 3. Education and consciousness 98 4. L e v e l s of consciousness 99 5. Consciousness and l e a r n i n g 102 6. C o n c l u s i o n 105 D. K e l l y : P e rsonal c o n s t r u c t theory 106 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 106 2. The r o l e of l e a r n i n g , t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , consciousness and changes i n consciousness 107 3. C o n s t r u c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v s m 111 4. A summary of the theory of p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s 113 5. C o n s t r u c t s and c o n s t r u c t systems 118 6. Determinism and freedom 121 7. R e c o n s t r u c t i o n , t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , l e a r n i n g and experience 122 8. F a c i l i t a t i n g r e c o n s t r u c t i o n 124 9. C o n d i t i o n s f a v o r a b l e to the formation of new c o n s t r u c t s .....127 10. C o n d i t i o n s unfavorable to formation of new c o n s t r u c t s 130 11. B a r r i e r s to r e c o n s t r u c t i o n 132 1 2 . Co n c l u s i o n 137 E. Mezirow: P e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n 137 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 137 2. Meaning schemes and p e r s p e c t i v e s i n r e l a t i o n to human development 138 3. Le a r n i n g domains and l e a r n i n g processes 140 a. Learning domains 140 b. Learning processes 142 4. Meaning schemes and meaning p e r s p e c t i v e s : D e f i n i t i o n and development 143 a. D e f i n i t i o n 143 b. Development 144 5. C r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i v i t y 147 6. P e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n 150 7. P e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and a d u l t development 152 8. The dynamics of p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n 154 9. I n h i b i t i n g and f a c i l i t a t i n g f a c t o r s i n p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n 157 a. I n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r s ..157 b. The educator's r o l e 159 10. Current approach to l e a r n i n g 160 1 1 . C o n c l u s i o n 163 F. N i c h o l : P a r a d i g m - T r a n s i t i o n Learning 165 v 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n 165 2. K n o w l e d g e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d l e a r n i n g : R e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o c e s s e s 166 3. P a r a d i g m - t r a n s i t i o n l e a r n i n g 168 4. P e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t a n d p a r a d i g m - t r a n s i t i o n 176 5. T r a c i n g some i m p l i c a t i o n s o f p a r a d i g m - t r a n s i t i o n l e a r n i n g 178 6. C o n c l u s i o n .182 G. C o n c l u s i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w 183 I V . I n t e g r a t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e .....185 A. I n t r o d u c t i o n 185 B. Common o r c o m p a t i b l e e l e m e n t s 185 1 . C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a n d f u n c t i o n s o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s 186 2. The n a t u r e o f r e a l i t y 189 3. T r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g ( L e a r n i n g i n v o l v i n g c h a n g e s i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s ) 191 C. The P r o p o s a l o f a m o d e l o f t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g : D e v e l o p i n g a n d e x t e n d i n g t h e c o n c e p t o f t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g 195 1. A model o f t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g 195 a. P h a s e o n e : G e n e r a t i o n o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s 196 b. P h a s e t w o : T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s 201 c. P h a s e t h r e e : I n t e g r a t i o n o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s 203 2. C o n t r i b u t i n g e l e m e n t s 206 a. F a c i l i t a t i n g f a c t o r s 206 b. The power o f r e f l e c t i v i t y 208 c. P o s s i b l e r e s u l t s o r e n d - p r o d u c t s 212 D. The r o o t s o f t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g m o d e l 215 1. The r o o t s o f t h e g e n e r a t i o n p h a s e 216 2. The r o o t s o f t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n p h a s e 218 3. The r o o t s o f t h e i n t e g r a t i o n p h a s e 220 4. The r o o t s o f f a c i l i t a t i n g f a c t o r s 221 E. C o n c l u s i o n 223 V. F i n d i n g s and c o n c l u s i o n s : R e v i s i t i n g S a r a ' s c a s e 225 A. I n t r o d u c t i o n 225 B. P h a s e o n e : G e n e r a t i o n o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s 226 1. E n c o u n t e r i n g t r i g g e r e v e n t s 227 2. C o n f r o n t i n g r e a l i t y 230 C. P h a s e t w o : T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s 240 1. R e a c h i n g t h e t r a n s i t i o n p o i n t 241 2. L e a p o r s h i f t o f t r a n s c e n d e n c e 243 D. P h a s e t h r e e : I n t e g r a t i o n o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s 245 1. P e r s o n a l Commitment 247 2. G r o u n d i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t 248 E. C o n c l u s i o n 250 v i References 253 Appendix A: A n a l y s i s of s e l e c t e d authors 257 Appendix B: A p r o f i l e of the b a s i c process of t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g 287 v i i L I S T OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1: E s s e n t i a l e l e m e n t s o f t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g ...197 F i g u r e 2: M o d e l o f t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g 217 F i g u r e 3: B a c k g r o u n d o f s e l e c t e d a u t h o r s 259 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to express my a p p r e c i a t i o n to a l l of the people who supported, c h a l l e n g e d and encouraged me i n the c r e a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . A l l of my c o l l e a g u e s , f r i e n d s and f a m i l y have my h e a r t f e l t thanks f o r t h e i r p a t i e n c e as I s t r u g g l e d with the r i g o r s of t h i s e x e r c i s e . I acknowledge e s p e c i a l l y Dr. Dan P r a t t , my a d v i s o r , who had enough f a i t h i n me to allow me freedom to f o l l o w my own path, and who helped me f i n d my way when the going got rough. Louise Shores and Leah Seaman spent long evenings i n s t i m u l a t i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n with me, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the beginning phases of the work. I have been s u s t a i n e d by the warmth of many f r i e n d s who have understood and made allowances f o r my r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n d u r i n g the w r i t i n g p r o c e s s . S p e c i a l thanks and hugs go to a l l of my f a m i l y , only a few of which I can acknowledge s p e c i f i c a l l y here, f o r t h e i r enduring l o v e , support and f a i t h i n me. My grandfather, Robert F r a n k l i n , taught me about joy and l o o k i n g beyond t h i n g s that are immediately apparent. My mother, Jane Manshreck, i n s t i l l e d i n me a deep love of l e a r n i n g and p o s i t i v e enthusiasm about l i f e . My daughters, L y d i a and J i l l i a n , warmed and i n s p i r e d me with t h e i r b r i g h t energy, wisdom and l o v e . My husband, Mitch, has taught me much of what I know about the p o t e n t i a l and power of t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g and continues to teach me i n l o v e . To a l l of these s p e c i a l people I d e d i c a t e t h i s t h e s i s . ix TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING: BECOMING AWARE OF POSSIBLE WORLDS I. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY A. INTRODUCTION The l e a r n i n g s o c i e t y i s growing because i t must...the world changes f a s t e r than the gen e r a t i o n s , and i n d i v i d u a l s must l i v e i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t worlds d u r i n g t h e i r l i f e t i m e s (Cross, 1980, p.1). In our world human a f f a i r s are beset by r a p i d l y a c c e l e r a t i n g s o c i a l change and complexity which are ranging f a r beyond our i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l c a p a c i t y to cope ( T o f f l e r , 1 9 7 9 ) . On every l e v e l of e x i s t e n c e i n c r e a s i n g evidence a t t e s t s to the f a c t t hat t r a d i t i o n a l methods of d e a l i n g with problems are i n e f f e c t i v e and inadequate. T h i s evidence m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n many ways: i n per s o n a l c o n f u s i o n , i n t e r - p e r s o n a l and c u l t u r a l a l i e n a t i o n and ag g r e s s i o n , the i n c r e a s i n g and i r r e v e r s i b l e d e s t r u c t i o n of the n a t u r a l environment, and the d a i l y r e a l i t y of the p o s s i b i l i t y of g l o b a l n u c l e a r d e s t r u c t i o n . The response, i n education as i n other areas of human endeavour, has been inadequate because of the heavy r e l i a n c e on the quick t e c h n o l o g i c a l f i x , a s h o r t - s i g h t e d r e a c t i v e response to c u r r e n t c r i s i s . Slowly i t i s being r e a l i z e d that c o n v e n t i o n a l s o l u t i o n s w i l l not so l v e the new complex problems inherent i n the "world problematique" ( B o t k i n , Elmandjra & M a l i t z a , 1979, p.1). In s p i t e of the g r a v i t y of the human s i t u a t i o n many people f e e l that t h i s moment i n h i s t o r y o f f e r s unprecedented o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the development of a new humane world or d e r . 1 The c h a l l e n g e s are great but humankind has a h i s t o r y of meeting c h a l l e n g e s u c c e s s f u l l y through the process of pe r s o n a l growth and l e a r n i n g . Because l e a r n i n g i s c e n t r a l to the mandate of educat i o n , the f i e l d of a d u l t education has a unique o p p o r t u n i t y t o c o n t r i b u t e to the s o l u t i o n of the problems presented by the world problematique by c o n t r i b u t i n g to a g r e a t e r understanding of the process of l e a r n i n g . Meeting the- c h a l l e n g e of the world problematique c a l l s f o r reassessment of c o n v e n t i o n a l responses and development of new p e r s p e c t i v e s and techniques i n every area of human endeavour. In answer to t h i s c h a l l e n g e there i s an i n c r e a s i n g r e c o g n i t i o n w i t h i n a d u l t education that a reassessment and exte n s i o n of the t r a d i t i o n a l c o nception of l e a r n i n g i s e s s e n t i a l . The c u r r e n t a t t e n t i o n focused on l e a r n i n g i s r e s u l t i n g i n the view that l e a r n i n g i s much more comprehensive, wide-ranging, and i n c l u s i v e of human experience than has been p r e v i o u s l y acknowledged; l e a r n i n g i s being r e d e f i n e d as a g l o b a l phenomenon. An i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n e x p l o r i n g conscious awareness and changes i n consciousness as i n t e g r a l to human l e a r n i n g d e r i v e s impetus from viewing l e a r n i n g as a g l o b a l phenomenon. An examination of the meaning of " g l o b a l " l e a r n i n g w i l l p r ovide context f o r an understanding of how the study of l e a r n i n g i n v o l v i n g changes i n consciousness r e l a t e s to a more i n c l u s i v e conception of l e a r n i n g and how t h i s broadened conception of l e a r n i n g may c o n t r i b u t e to the s o l u t i o n of the world problematique. 2 Thomas (1985) p o i n t s out three senses i n which l e a r n i n g may be thought of as g l o b a l . The conception of l e a r n i n g may be g l o b a l i n the sense of r e c o g n i z i n g l e a r n i n g as a world-wide and p a n - c u l t u r a l phenomenon . The whole world i n i t s c u l t u r a l , r a c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , and s o c i a l d i v e r s i t y must be seen as the context f o r l e a r n i n g . In a second sense " g l o b a l " a p p l i e s to "the i n t e l l e c t u a l dimensions of l e a r n i n g c o n s i d e r e d in a l l i t s p o s s i b l e a s p e c t s " ( I b i d , p . x ) . T h i r d l y , " g l o b a l " i s used i n the sense of McLuhan's " g l o b a l v i l l a g e , " i n the r e c o g n i t i o n of the v a r i o u s understandings of what l e a r n i n g means in d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s , and the problems i n v o l v e d i n importing or e x p o r t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r conception of l e a r n i n g i n a p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r e . There are s e v e r a l other important ways i n which the term " g l o b a l " may be a p p l i e d to l e a r n i n g . An understanding of g l o b a l l e a r n i n g may i n c l u d e the concept of l e a r n i n g as a p e r v a s i v e l i f e - l o n g process i n the l i f e of each i n d i v i d u a l which occurs, as a process independent of formal e d u c a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e , whether or not i t i s recognized as such. In a d d i t i o n , t h i s widening of the concept of l e a r n i n g encourages a view of l e a r n i n g which i s " l i f e - d e e p " as w e l l as " l i f e -l o n g " . In t h i s respect " g l o b a l " may be a s s o c i a t e d with attempts to extend the d e f i n i t i o n of l e a r n i n g to i n c l u d e not j u s t our i n t e l l e c t u a l and p h y s i c a l c a p a c i t i e s but the whole spectrum of p e r s o n a l experience w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l , p a r t i c u l a r l y the experience of our own c o n s c i o u s n e s s , an area in which l i t t l e i s known about the c a p a c i t y f o r l e a r n i n g . 3 F i n a l l y , the i n t e g r a t i o n of m u l t i p l e p e r s p e c t i v e s i n a comprehensive i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y study of the phenomena of l e a r n i n g would a s s i s t i n the development of the concept of g l o b a l l e a r n i n g . B o t k i n et a l . (1979) note that the world problematique i s m i r r o r e d i n the s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and d i s c i p l i n a r y fragmentation evident i n t h e o r y - b u i l d i n g and res e a r c h about l e a r n i n g . Major s c h o o l s of thought such as the formal, mathematical, and c y b e r n e t i c approaches, the b i o l o g i c a l , p h y s i o l o g i c a l , and n e u r o l o g i c a l approaches, and the p s y c h o l o g i c a l approaches each pursue t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s with v i r t u a l d i s r e g a r d f o r each o t h e r ' s r e s u l t s . In e f f e c t , each of these schools i s r e d u c t i o n i s t i n that the complexity of the human being i n h i s / h e r t o t a l i t y , i n v o l v i n g i s s u e s such as v a l u e s and motives, contexts and frames of r e f e r e n c e , and the c e n t r a l i t y of consciousness i n human experience, i s not addressed. An i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y d r i v e towards i n t e g r a t i o n arid s y n t h e s i s would h e l p us gain a more g l o b a l understanding of l e a r n i n g with the complexity of the human being at i t s centre (Botkin et a l . , 1979, p.135). An o v e r - a l l p e r s p e c t i v e of the importance of the concept of g l o b a l l e a r n i n g i n a l l of i t s as p e c t s , as a means of c o n t r i b u t i n g to the s o l u t i o n of the problems of the world problematique, i s important only as background f o r t h i s paper. The primary purpose here i s to ex p l o r e i n depth one aspect of g l o b a l l e a r n i n g , that i s , the r o l e of consc i o u s n e s s , or cons c i o u s awareness, and changes i n consc i o u s n e s s , i n 4 l e a r n i n g . Attempting to extend the d e f i n i t i o n of l e a r n i n g t o i n c o r p o r a t e the importance of consciousness and i t s t r a n s f o r m a t i v e powers i n the l e a r n i n g process c h a l l e n g e s not only p r e v i o u s conceptions of l e a r n i n g but the boundaries of the predominant s c i e n t i f i c world view w i t h i n which e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h proceeds. In Western s o c i e t y the accepted world view and model of humankind have been dominated by a r e d u c t i o n i s t , m e c h a n i s t i c , s c i e n t i f i c paradigm which has been extremely s u c c e s s f u l i n a s s i s t i n g i n the e x p l o r a t i o n of the n a t u r a l world as w e l l as the f u r t h e s t reaches of space and the s e c r e t s of the atom. The concept of l e a r n i n g w i t h i n t h i s s c i e n t i f i c p e r s p e c t i v e has been r e s t r i c t e d p r i m a r i l y to a study of the observable, q u a n t i f i a b l e , measurable aspects of l e a r n i n g behaviour. The p s y c h o l o g i c a l study of l e a r n i n g , although b r i e f l y focused on the phenomenological aspects at the turn of the century, came to be dominated by the B e h a v i o r i s t s who conc e n t r a t e d on the environmental c o n t r o l of overt human behaviour,and s i n c e the mid-1960s has been dominated by the C o g n i t i v i s t s who broadened the concept of l e a r n i n g to i n c l u d e the s t r a t e g i e s and processes of l e a r n i n g as they are o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l . The machine metaphor of the B e h a v i o r i s t s was extended by the computer metaphor of the C o g n i t i v i s t s who v i s u a l i z e d the e l e c t r o n i c computer as the most v i a b l e model of how the human mind f u n c t i o n s . Although the computer metaphor attempted to achieve a deeper understanding of l e a r n i n g than 5 was p o s s i b l e with the machine metaphor, by f o c u s i n g on the processes of l e a r n i n g w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l , both metaphors are inadequate to the task of e x p l a i n i n g the complexity of human l e a r n i n g , e s s e n t i a l l y because the complexity of the human being i s not acknowledged w i t h i n the l e a r n i n g models which these metaphors generate. While the C o g n i t i v e R e v o l u t i o n has spoken out f o r the n e c e s s i t y of studying mental r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s w i t h i n the human mind, r i g i d l i m i t a t i o n s have been p l a c e d on how those mental r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s have been c o n c e i v e d . F a i t h f u l adherence to the computer metaphor has produced a view of l e a r n i n g which emphasises the mechanical a c q u i s i t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n , r e t e n t i o n , and r e t r i e v a l of knowledge. While t h i s view has been extremely u s e f u l i n extending the understanding of human l e a r n i n g as a process which occurs w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l , i t does not emphasize s u f f i c i e n t l y a spects of l e a r n i n g which go beyond the mechanical. T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e does not encourage the e x p l o r a t i o n of the strong c r e a t i v e f a c t o r i n human l e a r n i n g , the a b i l i t y that humans have to c r e a t e something new and unique that transcends present knowledge, the a b i l i t y to change, transmute or transform knowledge, that has been the l i f e s p r i n g of the development of human c u l t u r e . In a d d i t i o n , the C o g n i t i v e R e v o l u t i o n l i m i t s the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of other f a c t o r s i n t e g r a l to human l e a r n i n g . F a c t o r s such as the experience of consciousness and "the i n f l u e n c e of a f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s or emotions, the c o n t r i b u t i o n of h i s t o r i c a l and 6 c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s , and the r o l e of the background context i n which p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n s and thoughts occur" (Gardener,1985, p.6) are d e l i b e r a t e l y de-emphasized as being " u n n e c e s s a r i l y c o m p l i c a t i n g to the c o g n i t i v e - s c i e n t i f i c e n t e r p r i s e " ( I b i d , p.6). In the l i g h t of d i s c i p l i n a r y s t u d i e s such as philosophy, psychology, l i n g u i s t i c s , anthropology, and neuroscience, which i r o n i c a l l y Gardener hopes w i l l meld e v e n t u a l l y i n t o a " s i n g l e , u n i f i e d c o g n i t i v e s c i e n c e , " ( I b i d , p.7) i t i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y c l e a r that these "de-emphasized f a c t o r s " are of c r u c i a l importance i n the study of human l e a r n i n g . These f a c t o r s are of c r u c i a l importance because they play a c e n t r a l r o l e i n understanding human behaviour, and i n understanding l e a r n i n g , as a core i n g r e d i e n t i n human behaviour. At present the C o g n i t i v e R e v o l u t i o n i s not p r e s s i n g forward i n d i r e c t i o n s which take i n t o account the complexity of human beings and t h e i r l e a r n i n g behaviour. F u r t h e r development of the concept of l e a r n i n g depends on the d i s c o v e r y of new and powerful metaphors which would h e l p to extend understanding towards a more i n c l u s i v e , h o l i s t i c model of humanity and f a c i l i t a t e the e x p l o r a t i o n of the f u l l range of human l e a r n i n g c a p a c i t i e s . Those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which rank among the most uniquely human, namely, the c r e a t i v e and t r a n s f o r m a t i v e powers of the mind and consc i o u s n e s s , and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l context i n which they develop, have, not been given adequate a t t e n t i o n i n the study of l e a r n i n g . Science has s u c c e s s f u l l y enabled us to 7 e x p l o r e nature and outer space but now the urgency of the world problematique i s f o r c i n g us to r e a l i z e t h a t i t i s i n the v i r t u a l l y uncharted t e r r i t o r y of inner space w i t h i n o u r s e l v e s , w i t h i n our own consciousness, that we must expl o r e f o r new s o l u t i o n s . Recently some c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n s of l e a r n i n g have emphasized conscious awareness and changes i n consciousness as i n t e g r a l to the process of l e a r n i n g . Although a common, workable d e f i n i t i o n of "consciousness" i s e l u s i v e , s e v e r a l authors have c r e a t e d t h e o r e t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s based on t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n of, and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n , p r a c t i c a l a d u l t l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n s , which c r e d i t the t r a n s f o r m a t i v e power of changes i n consciousness as being c e n t r a l to the .l e a r n i n g process, p a r t i c u l a r l y the l e a r n i n g process of the a d u l t . T h i s paper seeks to analyze and i n t e g r a t e the l i t e r a t u r e which e x p l o r e s l e a r n i n g as a t r a n s f o r m a t i v e process and consciousness, and changes i n consciousness, as i n t e g r a l aspects of t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g . B. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM In s p i t e of decades of r e s e a r c h there are s t i l l many f a c e t s of the complex m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l phenomenon, l e a r n i n g , t hat are not understood. The l i m i t e d r e d u c t i o n i s t s c i e n t i f i c paradigm which has dominated our e x p l o r a t i o n of l e a r n i n g has v i r t u a l l y ignored many of the most uniquely human q u a l i t i e s i n an attempt to s o l v e the l e a r n i n g e quation. The p e r v a s i v e 8 i n f l u e n c e o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n l e a r n i n g h a s been t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d o r d i s c o u n t e d b e c a u s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s so d i f f i c u l t t o d e f i n e a n d m e a s u r e . As C r o s s ( 1 9 81) n o t e s "Most e x i s t i n g l e a r n i n g t h e o r i e s a r e more e a s i l y a p p l i e d t o what i s l e a r n e d t h a n t o who i s d o i n g t h e l e a r n i n g " ( p . 2 3 3 ) . A d u l t e d u c a t i o n h a s been i n s t r u m e n t a l i n s h i f t i n g t h e f o c u s t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n e r a s p a r a m o u n t i n t h e l e a r n i n g t r a n s a c t i o n ( e . g . , K n o w l e s , 1980; B r o o k f i e l d , 1 9 8 6 ) . I n t h e p r o c e s s o f h i g h l i g h t i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l , a d u l t e d u c a t o r s became aware o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s a s a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s f o c u s on t h e l e a r n e r h a s e n c o u r a g e d some t h e o r i s t s t o b r o a d e n t h e i r c o n c e p t o f l e a r n i n g t o i n c l u d e c o n s c i o u s n e s s a s a m a j o r f a c t o r i n t h e i r f o r m u l a t i o n s a b o u t t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s ( e . g . , F r e i r e , 1 9 7 0 ; M e z i r o w , 1 9 8 1 ) . O t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l t h i n k e r s draw a t t e n t i o n t o t h e w o r l d ' s d e s p e r a t e n e e d f o r e x t e n d i n g t h e c o n c e p t o f l e a r n i n g t o i n c l u d e i n t e n t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s c h a n g e s , a n d a l s o c a l l f o r an e x t e n s i v e i n t e r n a t i o n a l , i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y r e s e a r c h p r o g r a m d e s i g n e d t o i m p r o v e o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d f a c i l i t a t i o n o f t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s w i t h i n t h e s p h e r e o f t h i s e x t e n d e d c o n c e p t o f l e a r n i n g ( B o t k i n e t a l . , 1 9 7 9 ) . S t i l l o t h e r s a t t e s t t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h r o u g h o u t h i s t o r y , a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y r e c e n t l y , many p e o p l e c o n f i r m t h a t t h e y have e x p e r i e n c e d p e r s o n a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a nd l e a r n i n g i n v o l v i n g some t y p e o f c h a n g e i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s ( F e r g u s o n , 1 9 8 0 ) . T h e r e i s a g r o w i n g body o f e v i d e n c e w h i c h a t t e s t s t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e 9 of l e a r n i n g i n v o l v i n g changes i n consciousness i n the o r d i n a r y experience of i n d i v i d u a l s as w e l l as i n the academic l i t e r a t u r e . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to develop an overview of the area of t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g i n v o l v i n g changes i n consciousness because there have been few ev i d e n t attempts to organize and i n t e g r a t e l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s a r e a . Although the amount of l i t e r a t u r e that d e a l s s p e c i f i c a l l y with l e a r n i n g i n v o l v i n g changes i n consciousness i s l i m i t e d , there are sources which approach the t o p i c i n an i m p l i c i t way and v a r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e s which approach the t o p i c from d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s . There i s co n f u s i o n i n terminology as d i f f e r e n t w r i t e r s use d i f f e r e n t d e f i n i t i o n s of l e a r n i n g , c onsciousness, and changes i n con s c i o u s n e s s . At t h i s j u n c t u r e i t i s important to assess the l i t e r a t u r e to determine whether an i n t e g r a t e d foundation can be l a i d f o r the f u r t h e r development of theory, r e s e a r c h , and p r a c t i c e i n the area of t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g i n v o l v i n g changes i n cons c i o u s n e s s . T h i s t h e s i s aims to explore t h i s i s s u e and i n so doing extend understanding of the concept of l e a r n i n g . C. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY In l i t e r a t u r e on l e a r n i n g there has been l i t t l e emphasis p l a c e d on the r o l e of consciousness and changes i n consciousness i n the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . In s p i t e of the d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent i n attempting to understand the 10 c o m p l e x i t i e s of human consciousness and i t s r o l e i n human l e a r n i n g , the c e n t r a l i t y of consciousness i n the l e a r n i n g experience of the i n d i v i d u a l demands that the attempt be made. The progress of human h i s t o r y speaks to the t r a n s f o r m a t i v e powers of the human mind to a m p l i f y and extend knowledge by t r a n s c e n d i n g what i s a l r e a d y known. An attempt to understand the c r e a t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of knowledge w i t h i n the consciousness of the i n d i v i d u a l i s a step towards understanding l e a r n i n g as a g l o b a l phenomenon w i t h i n a h o l i s t i c c onception of humanity. T h i s paper presents a c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of authors' work s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of i t s a b i l i t y to c o n t r i b u t e to the understanding of l e a r n i n g i n v o l v i n g changes i n consciousness as i t i s e x e m p l i f i e d i n a case study of a p e r s o n a l l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e . The a n a l y s i s i s being undertaken f o r the purpose of i d e n t i f y i n g ' s i m i l a r i t i e s , or c l a r i f y i n g common ground, among f o r m u l a t i o n s of l e a r n i n g which i l l u m i n a t e l e a r n i n g i n v o l v i n g changes i n consciousness; i t i s hoped that an i n t e g r a t i o n of the l i t e r a t u r e w i l l s t i m u l a t e and a s s i s t i n the development of a more g l o b a l concept of l e a r n i n g which r e c o g n i z e s consciousness and changes i n consciousness as i n t e g r a l to l e a r n i n g and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n as an e s s e n t i a l l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . D. DEFINITIONS 1 1 Although a c l e a r e r understanding of the concepts of consciousness and changes i n consciousness i n r e l a t i o n to l e a r n i n g i s one of the aims of t h i s paper, a b a s e l i n e d e f i n i t i o n of each i s o f f e r e d as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r re a c h i n g a common understanding of these terms. It must be understood that a c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of what "consciousness" i s has been h i s t o r i c a l l y a w i l l ' o the wisp as e l u s i v e as " e l e c t r i c i t y " . As with the concept of e l e c t r i c i t y , t h i s does not have to preclu d e attempts to understand the phenomenon and to achieve some mastery r e g a r d i n g i t s use i n terms of d i s c o v e r i n g what i t does. T h e r e f o r e , f o r the purposes of t h i s paper consciousness i s assumed to e x i s t as a matter of common human experience; however, i n seeking a c l e a r e r understanding of consciousness, the focus w i l l be on what i t does, how i t operates, and how we may make use of i t i n c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g l e a r n i n g . With t h i s caveat i n mind the f o l l o w i n g working d e f i n i t i o n s are o f f e r e d : Consciousness i s the s t a t e or f a c u l t y of being mentally conscious or aware of anything; i t i s the i n t e r n a l knowledge, p e r c e p t i o n or awareness of one's own e x i s t e n c e , f e e l i n g s and thoughts. Change i s the f a c t of something becoming other than i t was; i t i s the act of a l t e r i n g the s t a t e or q u a l i t y of anything; i t i s the process of t u r n i n g something i n t o something e l s e . To change i s to become d i f f e r e n t ; to pass from one c o n d i t i o n or s t a t e to another; transmutation; 12 t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . Changes i n consciousness are, t h e r e f o r e , t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s , or a l t e r a t i o n s i n the s t a t e , q u a l i t y or c o n d i t i o n of human awareness. Transformation i s the process of a l t e r i n g or changing the form, shape, appearance, q u a l i t y or c o n d i t i o n of something; transmutation; metamorphosis. Le a r n i n g , i n the t r a d i t i o n a l sense, has been d e f i n e d as the a c q u i s i t i o n , r e t e n t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n , and r e t r i e v a l of knowledge or the m o d i f i c a t i o n of behaviour. In c o n t r a s t to the t r a d i t i o n a l conception of l e a r n i n g , f o r the purposes of t h i s paper primary emphasis w i l l be given to l e a r n i n g as the tr a n s f o r m a t i o n of knowledge ( A l l d e f i n i t i o n s are adapted from the Oxford E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y , 1933). E. METHODOLOGY 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s study began with the nagging hunch that there was more to l e a r n i n g than was accounted f o r i n the c u r r e n t f o r m u l a t i o n s which s t r e s s e i t h e r changes i n behaviour, or the a c q u i s i t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n , r e t e n t i o n and r e t r i e v a l of knowledge. The b a s i c premise that l e d to the development of t h i s paper was that l e a r n i n g was a much broader phenomena, more i n c l u s i v e of human experience, than i s g e n e r a l l y r e a l i z e d . The t r a n s f o r m a t i v e powers of human l e a r n i n g and the involvement of consciousness i n those powers were areas i n the 13 l e a r n i n g domain that had r e c e i v e d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n . How c o u l d these m i s s i n g aspects be t r a c k e d down and examined? 2. Adaption of constant comparative method In examining v a r i o u s methods of approach to the problem grounded theory's constant comparative a n a l y s i s (Glaser & S t r a u s s , 1967; G l a s e r , 1978; S t r a u s s , 1987) suggested i t s e l f as an a p p r o p r i a t e s t r a t e g y f o r a q u a l i t a t i v e approach to t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . Constant comparative method i s w e l l s u i t e d to f l e x i b l e r e s e a r c h e x p l o r a t i o n s using data from d i s p a r a t e sources to d i s c o v e r u n d e r l y i n g p a t t e r n s i n t e r r i t o r y needing c l a r i f i c a t i o n and d e f i n i t i o n . T h i s study was informed from the beginning by constant comparative method but t h i s method has been adapted to meet the study's s p e c i f i c purposes, the e x p l o r a t i o n and understanding of t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g . For purposes of grounded theory (Glaser & S t r a u s s , 1967; G l a s e r , 1978; S t r a u s s , 1987), constant comparative method i s a method of a n a l y s i s designed s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the g e n e r a t i o n and t e s t i n g of theory. For purposes of t h i s study, the emphasis on theory g e n e r a t i o n i s tempered by an e q u a l l y important emphasis on d e s c r i p t i o n of the phenomenon under study. Since there has been l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n d i r e c t l y focused on l e a r n i n g as a t r a n s f o r m a t i v e process, as thorough a d e s c r i p t i o n of the area as p o s s i b l e i s deemed a p p r o p r i a t e as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r the development of theory. The scope of t h i s study does not allow 1 4 f o r the g e n e r a t i o n of an i n t e g r a t e d theory, but i t endeavors to b u i l d a foundation on which a f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d theory of t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g might be c o n s t r u c t e d through a more comprehensive a p p l i c a t i o n of constant comparative method. That being s a i d , i t must be understood t h a t , with that change i n emphasis, the grounded theory s t y l e of approach to q u a l i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s through constant comparative method as d e s c r i b e d by G l a s e r and S t r a u s s (1967, 1978, 1987) i s the b a s i s f o r the methodology used here. The i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s of c o n t i n u a l t h e o r e t i c a l sampling, coding (developing c a t e g o r i e s ) and memoing which form the heart of constant comparative a n a l y s i s , determined the study's d i r e c t i o n and .development. An overview of the process i s w e l l d e s c r i b e d by the f o l l o w i n g : ...the (developing) theory i s rooted i n data not an e x i s t i n g body of theory. L a t e r as the g e n e r a t i n g c o n t i n u e s , comparisons with extant theory may l i n k i t to a number of d i v e r s e t h e o r i e s which touch upon v a r i o u s a s p e c t s and l e v e l s of the emerging theory. T h i s l i n k a g e , at minimum, can p l a c e the generated theory w i t h i n a body of e x i s t i n g t h e o r i e s . More o f t e n , as we have s a i d , i t transcends p a r t of i t while i n t e g r a t i n g s e v e r a l extant t h e o r i e s . I t may shed new p e r s p e c t i v e s and understandings on other t h e o r i e s and h i g h l i g h t t h e i r p r o c e s s . Other t h e o r i e s are n e i t h e r proved or d i s p r o v e d , they are p l a c e d , extended and broadened (Glaser,1978, p.38). I t should be noted that t e c h n i c a l l y a l l of the source m a t e r i a l s are not formal t h e o r i e s , but throughout the study the d e s i g n a t i o n "theory" i s o f t e n a p p l i e d , as being more convenient and more conducive to understanding than other d e s c r i p t i o n s such as " l e a r n i n g f o r m u l a t i o n s " or "work", when 1 5 r e f e r r i n g t o t h e s e m a t e r i a l s . I n t h e c a s e o f t h e q u o t e a b o v e , " t h e o r y " s t a n d s f o r t h e g e n e r a l body o f m a t e r i a l s e l e c t e d f r o m e a c h a u t h o r i n c l u d e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w , w h e t h e r i t i s a f o r m a l t h e o r y o r n o t . Be t h a t a s i t may, an o v e r v i e w o f t h e p r o g r e s s o f r e s e a r c h i n t h i s s t u d y shows how t h e p r o c e s s d e s c r i b e d i n t h e a b o v e q u o t e was a c t u a l i z e d t h r o u g h c o n s t a n t c o m p a r a t i v e m e t h o d . The o v e r - r i d i n g i n f l u e n c e o f c o n s t a n t c o m p a r a t i v e m e t h o d i s e v i d e n t i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y as i t e v o l v e d o v e r t i m e . F r o m t h e f i r s t h u n c h a b o u t t h e e x i s t e n c e a n d n a t u r e o f t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g u n t i l t h e c o n c l u d i n g p a r a g r a p h s o f t h e s t u d y t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i d e a s s p r a n g f r o m t h e p r o c e s s o f c o n s t a n t l y c o m p a r i n g t h e d a t a a t h a n d a n d r e a c h i n g o u t f o r more d a t a t h r o u g h t h e o r e t i c a l s a m p l i n g a s i d e a s d e v e l o p e d a n d demanded more s o u r c e m a t e r i a l f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n a n d g r o u n d i n g . T h e r e was c o n s t a n t d o u b l i n g movement b a c k a n d f o r t h b e t w e e n d a t a s o u r c e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e s t u d y a s t h e m e s were p u r s u e d , c a t e g o r i e s d e v e l o p e d , c o n n e c t i o n s a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n themes a n d c a t e g o r i e s r e a l i z e d a n d a c l e a r e r p i c t u r e o f t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g e v o l v e d . 3 . A p p l i c a t i o n o f c o n s t a n t c o m p a r a t i v e m e t h o d T h e s t u d y g e r m i n a t e d w i t h a h u n c h t h a t c u r r e n t f o r m u l a t i o n s o f l e a r n i n g t h e o r y a r e i n a d e q u a t e t o e x p l a i n c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f l e a r n i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y l e a r n i n g i n w h i c h 16 changes i n consciousness appear to be a c e n t r a l f a c t o r . The per s o n a l experience of the author and of others with t h i s type of l e a r n i n g l e d to e x p l o r a t i o n s i n two d i r e c t i o n s . One was the development of the case study of Sara. T h i s s l i c e of e x p e r i e n t i a l data from the " r e a l world" s u p p l i e d a c l o s e - u p of l e a r n i n g from a p e r s o n a l p o i n t of view which emphasized changes i n consciousness as a major aspect of a l e a r n i n g experience. The type of l e a r n i n g Sara d e s c r i b e d had elements that c o u l d not be accounted f o r by usual approaches to l e a r n i n g . Search began to zero i n on what i t was i n her d e s c r i p t i o n that was d i f f e r e n t . Two prominent ideas, elements or themes i n Sara's account p r o v i d e d the k e r n e l around which the idea of t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g as a d i s t i n c t aspect of l e a r n i n g c o a l e s c e d . One was the d e s c r i p t i o n of the experience of l e a r n i n g as experience of some s o r t of r a d i c a l change, a leap, s h i f t , or t r a n s i t i o n . The second was a strong sense of the importance of the q u a l i t y of pe r s o n a l awareness, p a r t i c u l a r l y changes i n awareness, of s e l f i n r e l a t i o n to the world, as i n t e g r a l to the r a d i c a l change or t r a n s i t i o n . These i d e a s , out of which the study germinated, p r o v i d e d the essence f o r the development of p o s s i b l e c a t e g o r i e s . These ideas generated many q u e s t i o n s . What where the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f e a t u r e s of the type of l e a r n i n g that Sara d e s c r i b e d ? What process and product aspects of l e a r n i n g i n her account were d i f f e r e n t and how c o u l d these be e x p l a i n e d or 17 accounted f o r ? The f o r m u l a t i o n of t e n t a t i v e answers to these q u e s t i o n s p r o v i d e d a b a s i s f o r attempting e x p l o r a t i o n i n a second d i r e c t i o n , the l i t e r a t u r e search, where f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n s developed. Where there any sources i n the l i t e r a t u r e that c o u l d account f o r t h i s type of l e a r n i n g ? What were i t s e s s e n t i a l elements? What might an a n a l y s i s of t h i s type of l e a r n i n g add to our conception of l e a r n i n g ? Beginning f o r a y s i n t o the l i t e r a t u r e produced c o n t a c t with the w r i t i n g s of F r e i r e and Mezirow which h i g h l i g h t e d changes i n consciousness as i n t e g r a l to p a r t i c u l a r types of l e a r n i n g . The dramatic s i m i l a r i t i e s i n u n d e r l y i n g themes i n these data sources, Sara's " s l i c e of l i f e " and the F r e i r e and Mezirow's t h e o r i z i n g , whose authors were so d i s t a n t from each other i n space, time, and experience, appeared to c o n f i r m t h e i r grounding i n common human experience and a f f i r m e d the d i r e c t i o n of the study. At t h i s p o i n t the i n t r o d u c t o r y chapter was w r i t t e n and i t s development and themes r e f l e c t e d the concerns and the rudimentary nature of the c a t e g o r i e s at the beginning of the study. At the same time the l i t e r a t u r e search continued, d i r e c t e d by the nature of the t e n t a t i v e themes and c a t e g o r i e s that c o n t i n u e d to develop i n regard to t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g . The search ranged over a broad spectrum of l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g with the e v o l u t i o n of the human mind, the s t r u c t u r e and processes of both conscious and unconscious 18 aspects of mind, and l e a r n i n g theory i n r e l a t i o n to these c o n s c i o u s and unconscious a s p e c t s , with the goal of f i n d i n g any i n f o r m a t i o n which might r e l a t e t o , c o n f i r m or d e s c r i b e t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g . There was a gradual c e n t e r i n g on f o r m u l a t i o n s that emphasized the t r a n s f o r m a t i v e nature of l e a r n i n g and the r o l e of consciousness, or awareness, and changes in consciousness i n l e a r n i n g . U l t i m a t e l y , l i t e r a t u r e f o r treatment was s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of i t s a b i l i t y to speak d i r e c t l y to Sara's case. Constant comparative method a l s o informed the o r c h e s t r a t i o n of the l i t e r a t u r e review. The f l e x i b i l i t y of the method allowed the i n c l u s i o n of d i s p a r a t e m a t e r i a l s and the i n d i v i d u a l treatment of these m a t e r i a l s i n accordance with the g u i d e l i n e s of t h e o r e t i c a l sampling techniques. Once again, the e v o l v i n g c a t e g o r i e s governed the s e l e c t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n , and treatment of the m a t e r i a l s w i t h i n the review. The a n a l y s i s of the l i t e r a t u r e proceeded under the c o n t i n u i n g guidance of the constant comparative method. In t h i s phase stronger emphasis was p l a c e d on theory generation r a t h e r than d e s c r i p t i o n . The rudimentary c a t e g o r i e s f o r a n a l y s i s d e r i v e d from the case study, had been e v o l v i n g as the l i t e r a t u r e search and l i t e r a t u r e review progressed and now they were r e a p p l i e d with renewed vigour to the t h e o r i e s and case study. Each theory was c o n s t a n t l y and c o n t i n u a l l y compared to each of the other t h e o r i e s , and to the case study, in an e f f o r t to c l a r i f y s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s , and 19 d i s c o v e r common elements or dimensions which might account f o r , d e s c r i b e , provide background f o r , or c l a r i f y l e a r n i n g that i s t r a n s f o r m a t i v e i n nature. I t must be understood that under the guidance of constant comparative method the processes of t h e o r e t i c a l sampling, category coding and memoing were completely i n t e r a c t i v e and continuous. As the c a t e g o r i e s emerged more c l e a r l y throughout the a n a l y s i s they produced the need to r e t u r n to the l i t e r a t u r e f o r f u r t h e r t h e o r e t i c a l sampling of the authors works, which i n turn produced new m a t e r i a l or r e v i s i o n s to be c o n s i d e r e d f o r the l i t e r a t u r e review. E v e n t u a l l y through t h i s in-depth search between and among the s e l e c t e d l i t e r a t u r e items, through constant r e r e a d i n g and r e a n a l y z i n g , the t e n t a t i v e c a t e g o r i e s became more and more d i s t i n c t and e v e n t u a l l y formed the s t r u c t u r e f o r o r g a n i z i n g the a n a l y s i s . The model of t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g that emerged from the a n a l y s i s was used to r e i n t e r p r e t Sara's case and thus reground the understanding of t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g as a d i s t i n c t form of l e a r n i n g . I t i s obvious that Sara's case study was c r u c i a l to the d i r e c t i o n of the study as a whole. O r i g i n a l l y , i t was the source f o r generating rudimentary c a t e g o r i e s and themes which gave d i r e c t i o n to the l i t e r a t u r e search and the s e l e c t i o n of l i t e r a t u r e f o r treatment. Then i t guided the s e l e c t i o n of areas of t h e o r i z i n g w i t h i n the s e l e c t e d l i t e r a t u r e which spoke 20 most d i r e c t l y to the process of t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g . E v e n t u a l l y , i t pro v i d e d a c e n t r a l touchstone f o r the constant comparative a n a l y s i s between and among the t h e o r i e s and i t s e l f . F i n a l l y , the case study became the b a s i s f o r deve l o p i n g the c a t e g o r i e s which c o u l d be used to understand the case study's own dynamics i n more gen e r a l t h e o r e t i c a l terms and thus c o n t r i b u t e to an understanding of t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g i n v o l v i n g changes i n consciousness as a d i s t i n c t mode of l e a r n i n g . The methodology of t h i s paper r e f l e c t s i t s development i n the s t y l e of grounded theory, the method of constant comparative a n a l y s i s , and the s p i r i t of e x p l o r a t i o n which acknowledges r e s e a r c h as a journey, a constant process of d i s c o v e r y . The growth and maturation of t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t , under the d i r e c t i o n of constant comparative method, i s evi d e n t i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the study i t s e l f as i t evolved over t ime. F. RESEARCH QUESTIONS The c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n of focus f o r t h i s study was: As a means of l a y i n g a foundation f o r the understanding of l e a r n i n g as a t r a n s f o r m a t i v e process i n v o l v i n g changes i n cons c i o u s n e s s , what s i m i l a r i t i e s , or common ground can be found among f o r m u l a t i o n s which address t h i s type of l e a r n i n g ? Questions of i n t e r e s t which p e r t a i n to the c e n t r a l q u e s t i o n are: 21 Are there common, key f a c t o r s i n t e g r a l to d e s c r i p t i o n s of l e a r n i n g i n v o l v i n g changes i n consciousness and i f so, what are they? What c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn about l e a r n i n g i n v o l v i n g changes i n consciousness i n the f o l l o w i n g areas: -The l e a r n i n g environment or the context f o r l e a r n i n g -The t e a c h e r - l e a r n e r r e l a t i o n s h i p -Process or s t r u c t u r e of l e a r n i n g - R e s u l t s or products of l e a r n i n g -Supporting assumptions, both e x p l i c i t and i m p l i c i t - I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r l e a r n i n g theory i n general G. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The c e n t r a l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n e r , l i f e l o n g l e a r n i n g , the d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n of l e a r n i n g , and the i n t e r n a t i o n a l t h r u s t f o r the u n i v e r s a l " r i g h t to l e a r n " ( P a r i s Conference, 1985) are themes i n t e g r a l to a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . By developing and su p p o r t i n g these themes the f i e l d of a d u l t education has made a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n towards extending the concept of l e a r n i n g beyond i t s t r a d i t i o n a l bounds, towards a concept which may t r u l y be termed g l o b a l l e a r n i n g . Adult education has pro v i d e d f o r the a d u l t ' s l e a r n i n g needs a c r o s s a much wider spectrum of human experience than has t r a d i t i o n a l , s c h o o l - o r i e n t e d e d u c a t i o n . In t a k i n g up the c h a l l e n g e of extending l e a r n i n g theory to in c l u d e a conception of l e a r n i n g as a t r a n s f o r m a t i v e process, 22 and to focus on e x p l o r i n g the s p e c i f i c r o l e which consciousness and changes i n consciousness play i n t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g , a d u l t education can take a g i a n t step towards r e a l i z i n g l e a r n i n g as: ...a l i f e l o n g process beginning at b i r t h and ending only with death, a process r e l a t e d at a l l p o i n t s to the l i f e e x periences of the i n d i v i d u a l , a process f u l l of meaning and r e a l i t y to the l e a r n e r , a process i n which the student i s a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t r a t h e r than p a s s i v e r e c i p i e n t (Leigh, 1930, p.123 i n Cross, 1981, p.255). In a d d i t i o n , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , as a r e l a t i v e l y young f i e l d of study, has u r g e n t l y sought to d i s c e r n p a t t e r n s that are unique to a d u l t l e a r n i n g as a means of d e f i n i n g , c l a r i f y i n g , and j u s t i f y i n g theory and p r a c t i c e w i t h i n i t s domain. Some w r i t e r s c l a i m that l e a r n i n g i n v o l v i n g changes i n consciousness i s a unique form of a d u l t l e a r n i n g (e.g., Mezirow, 1981; Allman,1983). Supporting theory and r e s e a r c h would indeed strengthen a d u l t education's stance as a unique d i s c i p l i n e and t h e r e f o r e , t h i s c l a i m deserves s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n by a d u l t educators. Adult education i s i n a unique p o s i t i o n , with i t s i n t e r n a t i o n a l and i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y c o nnections, to spearhead a c o l l a b o r a t i v e approach to the understanding and implementation of g l o b a l l e a r n i n g , i n i t s f u l l e s t sense, with r e s e a r c h i n t o the r o l e of changes in consciousness i n l e a r n i n g as a small but important p a r t of that endeavour. In g e n e r a l , r e s e a r c h e f f o r t s i n the areas of consciousness and l e a r n i n g are reminiscent of the man who admitted that he had l o s t h i s keys i n s i d e the house, but he 23 was found searching for them under the lamp post outside because the light was much better there (Ornstein, 1972, p.207 for story). Much current research into learning is being conducted outside under the lamppost. If a serious search for the keys to an understanding of the role of consciousness and changes in consciousness in learning is to be undertaken it is time to begin the complexity of a search within the darkened house. Finding these keys will not be an easy task, but it is hoped that this thesis will light one small candle to help illuminate the dark. 24 I I . AN INDIVIDUAL'S PERCEPTION OF HER OWN LEARNING EXPERIENCE: THE CASE HISTORY OF SARA A. INTRODUCTION For the purposes of t h i s paper a case h i s t o r y w i l l be presented as a c o n t e x t u a l s c e n a r i o which w i l l a s s i s t i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the concept of t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g i n v o l v i n g changes i n co n s c i o u s n e s s . I t w i l l a l s o serve as a touchstone f o r the s e l e c t i o n , a n a l y s i s and i n t e g r a t i o n of t h e o r i e s which s p e c i f i c a l l y address l e a r n i n g as a t r a n s f o r m a t i v e process i n v o l v i n g changes i n consciousness. The f o l l o w i n g i s the case h i s t o r y of Sara. B. BACKGROUND TO THE CASE STUDY Sara i s an a d u l t l e a r n e r who agreed to explore her p e r c e p t i o n s of her own l e a r n i n g experiences r e s u l t i n g from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a s e r i e s of pers o n a l development courses. She was asked to w r i t e an i n f o r m a l account d e s c r i b i n g her l e a r n i n g experience using the f o l l o w i n g combination of d i r e c t i o n s and qu e s t i o n s as a g u i d e l i n e : Write an i n f o r m a l account of your l e a r n i n g experience i n these courses, i n c l u d i n g enough i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e i r g e n e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , o b j e c t i v e s and methods to c r e a t e a sense of the environment i n which you were l e a r n i n g , but c o n c e n t r a t i n g p r i m a r i l y on d e s c r i b i n g as c l e a r l y as p o s s i b l e your p e r c e p t i o n s of your own l e a r n i n g experiences i n t h i s environment. Include some d e s c r i p t i o n of the f o l l o w i n g 25 f a c t o r s , as w e l l as any other f a c t o r s that you c o n s i d e r to be important to an understanding of your l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e . 1. What f a c t o r s prompted your p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s l e a r n i n g experience? Why d i d you decide to take these courses? 2. What d i d the l e a r n i n g process i n v o l v e i n terms of your own p a r t i c i p a t i o n ? E x p l a i n i n d e t a i l the ways i n which the l e a r n i n g process i n v o l v e d your i n t e l l e c t u a l , emotional, and/or a c t i v e p h y s i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . D e s c r i b e as f u l l y as p o s s i b l e how you experienced your p a r t i c i p a t i o n d u r i n g the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . Were there l e a r n i n g stages or d i f f e r e n t types of l e a r n i n g that you c o u l d i d e n t i f y ? E x p l a i n f u l l y . 3. Give s p e c i f i c examples of what you l e a r n e d . 4. In what ways, i f any, was t h i s l e a r n i n g experience p a r t i c u l a r l y unique or meaningful f o r you? If your l e a r n i n g was p a r t i c u l a r l y unique or meaningful, what do you c o n s i d e r to be the f a c t o r s that c o n t r i b u t e d to that uniqueness and/or meaningfulness? 5. What e f f e c t , i f any, has t h i s l e a r n i n g experience had in your l i f e ? Does what you l e a r n e d s t i l l have impact on your l i f e , or are the e f f e c t s fading? The q u e s t i o n s were designed c a r e f u l l y to e l i c i t as d e t a i l e d a d e s c r i p t i o n of Sara's p e r c e p t i o n of her l e a r n i n g experience without drawing p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n to the concept of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l l e a r n i n g i n v o l v i n g changes in c o n s c i o u s n e s s . The f o l l o w i n g i s Sara's d e s c r i p t i o n of her l e a r n i n g e xperience. Sub-headings have been added by the 26 author as a means of c l a r i f y i n g Sara's account. C. SARA'S ACCOUNT OF HER PERSONAL LEARNING EXPERIENCE 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n When I decided to go to the per s o n a l development course my l i f e was a mess. My husband had l e f t a month ago saying that he d i d not thi n k we had enough i n common to keep us together. I had j u s t s t a r t e d to t r y to r e c y c l e my c a r e e r by going back to study at u n i v e r s i t y . I had been a high school teacher, but that was nine years ago, before my second c h i l d had a r r i v e d and I had become a stay-at-home mother. Many teachers were out of work so i t was not l i k e l y that I would f i n d a job even i f I wanted to go back to t e a c h i n g . L u c k i l y , my husband had agreed to l e t me keep the house and support me while I went back to school so I d i d have some time to reo r g a n i z e my l i f e . But i n s p i t e of that advantage I was f e e l i n g p r e t t y d e s o l a t e . I was dragging myself through the days wondering where I would f i n d the s t r e n g t h to cope with the next hour. I t was h o r r i b l y d i f f i c u l t t r y i n g t o give my nine and ten year o l d daughters the e x t r a l o v e and reassurance they needed without l e t t i n g them know how a f r a i d , angry, g r i e f - s t r i c k e n and empty I was f e e l i n g . At t h i s p o i n t my good f r i e n d C a r o l s a i d "Look, I took a course l a s t month that I know you would enjoy. I t gave me a l i f t , and I thi n k i t would make you f e e l b e t t e r about t h i n g s too." I l a u g h i n g l y asked her i f she would win a t o a s t e r by s i g n i n g me up, but I decided I 27 would give i t a t r y . What d i d I have to l o s e ? In the end I d i d take a l l three courses i n the s e r i e s ; I w i l l d e s c r i b e each i n t u r n . 2. The f i r s t course The brochures f o r the f i r s t course s a i d that i t c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d to be a s a l e s or management t r a i n i n g , a r e l a t i o n s h i p s seminar or a l e a d e r s h i p program-a f a i r l y a l l -purpose p e r s o n a l development course. I f e l t I c o u l d use a l l the h e l p I c o u l d get. The course ran f o r f i v e c o n s e c u t i v e days, three evenings p l u s two very f u l l days on the weekend. It was h e l d i n a seminar room at a l o c a l h o t e l . When I a r r i v e d the f i r s t evening I found I was one of sixty-some people ranging i n age from l a t e teens to e a r l y s e v e n t i e s . No one seemed to look as apprehensive or anxious as I was f e e l i n g . Soon the course began and I no longer had time to worry about what was going to happen. I was a l r e a d y i n v o l v e d . I have never l i v e d through f i v e such l i v e l y , e n t e r t a i n i n g and exhausting days i n my l i f e . I d i d n ' t know so much inf o r m a t i o n and a c t i v i t y c o u l d be crammed i n t o such a short time. I have never f e l t so t o t a l l y i n v o l v e d i n l e a r n i n g - s o c h a l l e n g e d , so encouraged, so supported i n the r i s k y business of t r y i n g out new i d e a s . I have never worked so hard or f e l t so l i g h t and e x h i l a r a t e d a f t e r w a r d s . The hours flew by and when i t was over I was eager to l e a r n more. I should t e l l you something about how the course was 28 organized so that you w i l l have some idea of how i t worked. A f a c i l i t a t o r managed and guided the flow of events. A group of v o l u n t e e r s acted as a s s i s t a n t s i n a l l s o r t s of ways. T h e i r a s s i s t a n c e was so low key that I was not very much aware of how much they were h e l p i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s u n t i l near the end of the program. The course was b a s i c a l l y set up on a module system which kept us r e a l l y a c t i v e . The f a c i l i t a t o r would g i v e a short l e c t u r e t t e and then get us i n v o l v e d i n one or two small group e x e r c i s e s which would h e l p us expl o r e the t o p i c that had been d i s c u s s e d i n the l e c t u r e t t e . The small group e x e r c i s e s were super because we c o u l d begin immediately to explore j u s t how we might apply the concepts presented i n the l e c t u r e t t e i n our own l i v e s . Some of the t h i n g s I l e a r n e d came as q u i t e a shock, some were q u i t e c o n f u s i n g , but I w i l l t e l l you more about those l a t e r . I sure l e a r n e d a l o t i n a hurry when I was encouraged to thin k and act out immediately how each idea might f i t i n t o my own l i f e . Each small group e x e r c i s e was always f o l l o w e d by a f u l l group d i s c u s s i o n or que s t i o n and answer p e r i o d with the f a c i l i t a t o r and that r e a l l y helped too. Those d i s c u s s i o n s were o f t e n p r e t t y l i v e l y but i t was a great way to get problems c l a r i f i e d , and some of the i n s i g h t s or ideas that people shared about t h e i r e xperiences i n the e x e r c i s e s were r e a l l y h e l p f u l . And we d i d a l o t of la u g h i n g too. Some t h i n g s were i n c r e d i b l y funny. At f i r s t I was h e s i t a n t about p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the e x e r c i s e s and d i s c u s s i o n s . I was f e e l i n g q u i t e shy and a f r a i d . 29 But as other people showed that they were w i l l i n g to share t h e i r experiences, t h e i r hopes and u n c e r t a i n t i e s , I began to f e e l f r e e to share mine. There was no pressure to p a r t i c i p a t e , but i t soon became evident that p a r t i c i p a t i o n was the key i f I r e a l l y wanted to l e a r n . And I r e a l l y wanted to l e a r n . At the beginning of the workshop we were asked to p i c k an area of our l i v e s i n which we wanted to experience g r e a t e r success as a p o i n t of focus f o r our work in the v a r i o u s a c t i v i t i e s . Where c o u l d I f i n d one p o i n t of focus i n my l i f e ? I t was coming apart at the seams! I t was d i f f i c u l t to choose one area, but I f i n a l l y s e t t l e d on two that I f e l t were most c r u c i a l , my c a r e e r o p t i o n s , and my r e l a t i o n s h i p with my husband. I guess I p i c k e d them because they were the ones that t e r r i f i e d me most. I thought I might as w e l l go f o r broke and d e a l with the tough ones. Of course I d i d not p i e c e t h i s a l l together u n t i l l a t e r but the b a s i c idea behind the l e c t u r e t t e s and the a c t i v i t i e s was that they were s t r u c t u r e d so that we would g r a d u a l l y become aware of the a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s t h at each of us used to guide our p e r s o n a l approaches to l i f e , and the p o s i t i v e or negative e f f e c t s that these b e l i e f systems had on our l i v e s . E v e n t u a l l y we were a l s o given methods of r o o t i n g out those that were i n e f f e c t i v e and d e s t r u c t i v e , and methods of choosing and i n c o r p o r a t i n g a l t e r n a t i v e a t t i t u d e s and b e l i e f s that would l e a d to more s a t i s f a c t i o n and success in our l i v e s . I suppose that how the course was planned to work a l l 30 sounds very simple and s e n s i b l e , but i n p r a c t i c e t h a t process of becoming aware was one of the most p a i n f u l , as w e l l as one of the most e x h i l a r a t i n g , experiences of my whole l i f e . I t was not easy f o r me to look c l o s e l y at myself and be honest. E s p e c i a l l y when i t was becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y c l e a r to me that what I had to be honest about was a l l the devious ways I had chosen f o r sabotaging my own l i f e . I r e s i s t e d l o o k i n g c l o s e l y at myself because I was a f r a i d of a l l the t e r r i b l e t h i n g s I might f i n d . I a l s o wondered i f there was much hope that I c o u l d change anything even i f I d i d f i n d out what was wrong. I d i d not want j u s t to end up making t h i n g s worse f o r myself, i f that were p o s s i b l e . As I remember a g o n i z i n g to one person "What good i s i t going to be f o r me to open the c l o s e t and l e t a l l the o l d bones and garbage come out? What guarantee i s there that I w i l l be able to do anything to c l e a n up the mess? I f e e l a l o t s a f e r j u s t keeping the door c l o s e d as t i g h t l y as p o s s i b l e and going ahead with my l i f e as best I can from day to day." I t was f o r t u n a t e f o r me that v o l u n t e e r (I d i d not know he was a v o l u n t e e r at the time) was very s u p p o r t i v e and encouraged me to go ahead with my c l o s e t c l e a n i n g i n s p i t e of my fear (and my d i s t a s t e f o r house c l e a n i n g ! ) . So now you are wondering what I found i n that c l o s e t . I wasn't very proud of what I found. A whole bunch of garbage that r e a l l y needed to be t o s s e d out. But I am proud of the progress I've made i n c l e a n i n g up the mess. And that l e f t a l o t of room for me to c o n s i d e r new c h a l l e n g e s and 31 p o s s i b i l i t i e s . I had always seen myself as a good p e r s o n - s u p p o r t i v e , l o v i n g , s e n s i t i v e . I thought of myself as someone who always d i d her best to h e l p others and smooth out the rough p l a c e s i n l i f e . I l i k e d the p r a i s e I got f o r being an e n t h u s i a s t i c and e n e r g e t i c worker, a f i n e teacher, a s u c c e s s f u l student, a l o y a l f r i e n d , a good daughter, a l o v i n g mother and w i f e . I was proud of my good humour, my calm e x t e r i o r , my r e p u t a t i o n f o r being the person who i s always s m i l i n g and c h e e r f u l and ready to h e lp o t h e r s . As one of my f r i e n d s used to say, "Dinner f o r f o r t y tomorrow? Of course, Sara w i l l be happy to prepare i t . " I found on c l o s e r examination that the calm and c h e e r f u l e x t e r i o r covered a c a l d r o n of s e e t h i n g anger and resentment, a deep-seated f e a r of r e j e c t i o n and being unloved, a desperate and constant attempt to be worthy in other people's e s t i m a t i o n in hopes that I might f e e l worthy w i t h i n myself, and an overwhelming f e a r of the consequences of e x p r e s s i n g my true f e e l i n g s and needs. My general philosophy seemed to be that i f I was j u s t good, p a t i e n t and understanding enough to everyone around me that e v e n t u a l l y I would be n o t i c e d and my needs f u l f i l l e d . Slowly, as the course progressed I began to see how damaging many of my b a s i c a t t i t u d e s to l i f e were. I c r i n g e d with d i s t a s t e to f i n d out what a v i c t i m and martyr I had become. I was c e n t e r i n g the problems I was having "out t h e r e , " •> with my f a t e as a poor c h i l d who mourned f o r a f a t h e r who had d i e d when she was very young, a s t e p - f a t h e r who had always 32 kept me at arm's l e n g t h , and a husband who d i d not want to be with me any more. L i f e was handing me a d i f f i c u l t r o l e , but compared with the major problems that other people i n the world were e x p e r i e n c i n g , such as war, famine, and d i s e a s e , my problems seemed minuscule. T h e r e f o r e , my a t t i t u d e was that I must j u s t do what I c o u l d to cope with my present problems and be t h a n k f u l f o r the p o s i t i v e t h i n g s that came my way. I was going through the motions of l i f e while the b i g , aching, empty space i n s i d e got bigger and I f e l t i n c r e a s i n g l y h e l p l e s s and sad. The course helped me to see that there were other p e r s p e c t i v e s , other p o s s i b l e ways of l o o k i n g at my l i f e , that promised to be f a r more p r o d u c t i v e . To begin with I became aware that working on my r e l a t i o n s h i p to myself was f a r more c r u c i a l than working on my r e l a t i o n s h i p to other people or c a r e e r s e a r c h . I came to see that the success of a l l other r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n my l i f e , whether with people or with non-human asp e c t s of the world such as c a r e e r , time, and money, flowed from my success i n my r e l a t i o n s h i p with myself. The way I thought, f e l t and acted towards myself was m i r r o r e d i n my other r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h i s change in the way I was seeing myself was a major r e v e l a t i o n , a major s h i f t i n my whole approach to l i f e . I had always thought that c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of s e l f should come l a s t . The idea of p u t t i n g myself f i r s t completely changed my p o i n t of view of how the world worked. I seemed to be l o o k i n g at e v e r y t h i n g with new eyes. 33 I a l s o became con s c i o u s of my own power to take c o n t r o l of v a r i o u s aspects of my own l i f e . A l l of a sudden I r e a l i z e d t h a t I c o u l d have avoided so much of the f r u s t r a t i o n , anger and sadness i n my past l i f e i f I had been aware of my own power to choose! People and events "out t h e r e " d i d not have the t o t a l power I had given them to make me f e e l , t h i n k , or act as I d i d . I had the power to choose how I would f e e l , t h i n k , and act given my l i f e c i rcumstances, and those circumstances that seemed so immutable c o u l d be changed by my w i l l i n g n e s s to r i s k p a r t i c i p a t i o n and commitment i n my own l i f e . Becoming aware of my power to choose gave me such an e n t i r e l y new sense of freedom and excitement about my own p o t e n t i a l . I c o u l d see my l i f e now as a r i v e r of p o s s i b i l i t i e s which I c o u l d master by being a c r e a t i v e n a v i g a t o r . I no longer had to be a cork bobbing along i n the stream and f e e l i n g hard done by when I got dunked and ran i n t o snags. I c o u l d use my experiences to l e a r n and to c h a r t my course on the stream d e l i b e r a t e l y . There would always be unexpected e d d i e s , but the best chance of g e t t i n g s a f e l y to harbour was in having a v i s i o n of the harbour I was seeking and s t e e r i n g a course that I p l o t t e d c o n t i n u o u s l y a c c o r d i n g to my c u r r e n t knowledge. Looking behind me to the past only hampered my progress downstream. Being p r e s e n t l y aware and conscious of my power to make c h o i c e s about my progress was the best way to ensure the success of my adventure towards my e n v i s i o n e d 34 harbour. It i s very simple to look back and see how w e l l t h i n g s a l l turned out, but at the time t h i s type of l e a r n i n g was not easy f o r me. Making changes i n my outlook was a very d i f f i c u l t , t e r r i f y i n g , and c o n f u s i n g p r o c e s s . Each s t r u c t u r e d a c t i v i t y and l e c t u r e t t e brought i t s own new ideas f o r me to apply to my l i f e and I s t r u g g l e d to make some pe r s o n a l sense out of them and i n c o r p o r a t e them i n t o my o l d ideas about myself and my l i f e . Some of the most d i f f i c u l t times where those when I r e a l i z e d that I c o u l d not i n c o r p o r a t e the new ideas i n t o the o l d e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n s . Those were times of major d e c i s i o n and change. I would e i t h e r have to c l i n g to the o l d ways, even though I c o u l d now see how they were h u r t i n g me, or l e t the whole set of o l d ways of t h i n k i n g go and t r u s t i n an e n t i r e l y new way of t h i n k i n g which would demand that I make major readjustments in my l i f e . That was r e a l l y scary because i t meant that I would have to r i s k to f i n d out i f the new ways might work f o r me. What would happen to the r e l a t i o n s h i p s that counted i f I changed my ways of t h i n k i n g and being? Would those that I cared about accept my changes? And there were ideas that I f e l t I c o u l d not give up-e s p e c i a l l y those that anchored my anger and resentment. Acute s u r p r i s e and anguish o f t e n punctuated those moments when I suddenly r e a l i z e d that o l d ideas were not working f o r me the way I thought they would. To l e t go of those f a m i l i a r ideas that I had h e l d as t r u e meant that I would have to make a leap 35 a c r o s s what seemed l i k e a g i a n t chasm to the unknown t e r r i t o r y of a whole new way of l o o k i n g at t h i n g s . I o f t e n questioned my courage and my d e s i r e to make that l e a p . There i s a comfort i n the f a m i l i a r even i f i t s negative q u a l i t i e s are r e c o g n i z e d . As a r e s u l t I o f t e n swung w i l d l y from f e e l i n g very low and incapable of the e f f o r t r e q u i r e d to e x p l o r e f u r t h e r , to f e e l i n g very high and e x c i t e d about new p o s s i b i l i t i e s t h a t I c o u l d see f o r myself that would r e s u l t from changing the way that I was t h i n k i n g . I was used to l e a r n i n g which r e q u i r e d t h i n k i n g ; having my emotions as w e l l as my thoughts so t o t a l l y i n v o l v e d i n the l e a r n i n g process was a new experience f o r me. I d i d a l o t of c r y i n g both at home between s e s s i o n s and d u r i n g the course. The f o r c e of my own anger, f e a r , g r i e f , remorse and joy s u r p r i s e d me with t h e i r i n t e n s i t y as I l e t go of my a n a l y z i n g , calm e x t e r i o r and began to l e t my f e e l i n g s flow. I don't want to leave you with the impression that the course was designed as a way of r e l e a s i n g a f r e e - f o r - a l l of the emotions. Everyone in the course p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a way that was important to them i n d i v i d u a l l y . For many i t was a much more even and c o n f i r m i n g experience. I j u s t found that what I had come to l e a r n demanded that I l e t go of a l o t of t h i n g s that I had been h o l d i n g onto very t i g h t l y so that I c o u l d l e t more p o s i t i v e t h i n g s come i n t o my l i f e . That very process of l e t t i n g go and a c c e p t i n g new p e r s p e c t i v e s on my l i f e was by i t s very nature a very emotional experience. 36 And I don't want you to t h i n k that the course was a l l s e r i o u s , sad and d i f f i c u l t . I t was a l s o a l o t of fun. We laughed a l o t and many of us r e d i s c o v e r e d l a t e n t c h i l d l i k e joy and freedom in a s p i r i t of p l a y f u l n e s s that many of us had almost f o r g o t t e n . There are d e f i n i t e l y many more funny and j o y f u l t h i n g s to remember about the experience than there are sad or u p s e t t i n g ones. The r e l a t i o n s h i p s that formed between people at the course were s p e c i a l . The f a c i l i t a t o r set the tone f o r an atmosphere that was always p o s i t i v e , encouraging and s u p p o r t i v e . We got to know and t r u s t everyone i n v o l v e d very q u i c k l y because we a l l knew we were there to l e a r n , and that we c o u l d h e l p each other by being s u p p o r t i v e and non-judgmental. The f a c i l i t a t o r and the v o l u n t e e r s made i t c l e a r that they were there to a s s i s t people to d i s c o v e r t h e i r own way to move toward t h e i r own g o a l s . There was never any f e e l i n g of being p r e s s u r e d or p e r s o n a l l y a t t a c k e d , only of being c h a l l e n g e d to c o n s i d e r a l t e r n a t e p o i n t s of view or frames of r e f e r e n c e which might be more p r o d u c t i v e and s a t i s f y i n g . At the end of the course I knew I wanted to c o n s o l i d a t e a l l that I had l e a r n e d and reach f o r broader awareness so I immediately signed up f o r the second course i n the s e r i e s of three t h a t were a v a i l a b l e . I t began duri n g the f o l l o w i n g week and I had j u s t enough time to get organized to go. I f e l t very e x c i t e d about what I had l e a r n e d i n the f i r s t course but I 37 knew that I had j u s t s c r a t c h e d the s u r f a c e . I f e l t very s t r o n g l y t hat I was on the edge of d i s c o v e r i n g a l l s o r t s of t h i n g s about myself that would r e a l l y h e l p me face a l l the c h a l l e n g e s I had ahead of me. 3. The second course The second course was a much more intense and c o n c e n t r a t e d f i v e day r e s i d e n t i a l r e t r e a t . The purpose of t h i s course was to c r e a t e an i s l a n d i n time i n which i n d i v i d u a l s are given the r a r e o p p o r t u n i t y to focus as completely as p o s s i b l e on the enhancement of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p with themselves. Every aspect of the course was designed with t h i s purpose i n mind. The r e s i d e n t i a l c e n t r e c r e a t e d a s i m p l i f i e d camp-like atmosphere i n the heart of b e a u t i f u l , p e a c e f u l n a t u r a l surroundings. I t was a p e r f e c t s e t t i n g f o r r e f l e c t i o n and i n t r o s p e c t i o n . Group work i n v o l v i n g l e c t u r e t t e s and d i s c u s s i o n s , guided by a f a c i l i t a t o r with a s s i s t a n c e from v o l u n t e e r s , was s t i l l a major p a r t of the program, but a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s were given much more q u a l i t y time on t h e i r own, r e l a t i v e to the preceding course, to work on the a s s i g n e d a c t i v i t i e s . The group s e s s i o n s p r o v i d e d d i r e c t i o n and c l a r i f i c a t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s but i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t to d i s c o v e r unique meaning and purpose w i t h i n our own l i v e s was the c e n t r a l f o c u s . I had r a t e d the f i r s t course a great 'success because of the amount that I l e a r n e d , but I had no idea how much more 38 p o t e n t a f o r c e f o r c h a n g e t h e s e c o n d c o u r s e w o u l d b e. I f t h e f i r s t c o u r s e m i g h t be c o m p a r e d t o o p e n i n g t h e d o o r on a d a r k c l o s e t a n d b e g i n n i n g a t e n t a t i v e e x a m i n a t i o n o f i t s c o n t e n t s , t h e s e c o n d c o u r s e was l i k e e x p l o r i n g t h e w h o l e h o u s e , d e c i d i n g on a m a j o r r e n o v a t i o n p r o j e c t , s t r i p p i n g t h e b u i l d i n g down t o i t s f o u n d a t i o n s , a nd b e g i n n i n g a w h o l e new s t r u c t u r e . I had n e v e r b e f o r e e x p e r i e n c e d s u c h a p r o f o u n d a n d i n t e n s e p e r i o d o f l e a r n i n g . The s e c o n d c o u r s e f o c u s e d on e n c o u r a g i n g p a r t i c i p a n t s t o become more s e l f - a w a r e , more c o n s c i o u s o f t h e i r own m e n t a l p r o c e s s e s t h r o u g h i n t e n s e i n t r o s p e c t i o n a n d r e f l e c t i o n . T h i s new s e l f - a w a r e n e s s was t h e n t o be p u t t o u s e a s a means o f h e a l i n g o l d wounds a n d c h o o s i n g l i f e p a t t e r n s s u i t a b l e t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l . I f o u n d c o n c e n t r a t i n g so s p e c i f i c a l l y on my own t h o u g h t s , f e e l i n g s a n d e m o t i o n s v e r y d i f f i c u l t . I was u s e d t o f o c u s i n g o u t w a r d , so f o c u s i n g i n w a r d upon m y s e l f so i n t e n s e l y f o r an e x t e n d e d p e r i o d was v e r y d i s t u r b i n g a t f i r s t . I d i d n o t know b e f o r e j u s t how u n c o m f o r t a b l e I was w i t h m y s e l f , how l i t t l e I r e a l l y knew' a b o u t m y s e l f , a nd how l i t t l e I t r u s t e d a n d a c c e p t e d m y s e l f . I n c r e a s i n g my s e l f - a w a r e n e s s was n o t a c o m f o r t a b l e p r o c e s s b u t I h a d g i v e n m y s e l f t h i s c h a l l e n g e a nd I was g o i n g t o s e e i t t h r o u g h . As I c o n t i n u e d w i t h t h e p r o c e s s I b e g a n t o see i t s b e n e f i t s . A l t h o u g h I was f o r c i n g m y s e l f t o f a c e up t o t r u t h s a b o u t m y s e l f t h a t I w o u l d r a t h e r a v o i d o r d e n y , I was a l s o r e a l i z i n g how I m i g h t d e a l more c o n s t r u c t i v e l y w i t h t h o s e t r u t h s . The p r o c e s s o f b e c o m i n g more 39 self-aware a l s o put me i n touch with p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s of myself that had been unrecognized, unexpressed, or under-u t i l i z e d . I was d e l i g h t e d to f i n d that I have s t r e n g t h s that I had never before d i s c o v e r e d or acknowledged. I soon r e a l i z e d that I was beginning to know and understand myself much b e t t e r than I had ever done before and I was slowly l e a r n i n g how I might begin to i n t e g r a t e p a r t s of myself that had been s c a t t e r e d or at war. The r e s u l t was a much more comfortable, a c c e p t i n g and enlarged sense of myself and an i n c r e a s i n g awareness of how I c o u l d continue to nurture my own growth. During the second course I became even more f a m i l i a r with the process of coming to the d e c i s i o n p o i n t at the edge of the g i a n t chasm between o l d ways of t h i n k i n g and a t o t a l l y new way of t h i n k i n g . The i n t e n s i t y of my experience surrounding the approach to the d i z z y i n g edge, the leap of f a i t h a c r o s s the nothingness, and the i n c r e d i b l e newness of the world on the other s i d e i s d i f f i c u l t to e x p l a i n but t h i s type of intense experience was c e n t r a l to my l e a r n i n g d u r i n g these courses and c e r t a i n l y the most amazing and memorable aspect of those courses from my viewpoint s e v e r a l years l a t e r . The experience at the d e c i s i o n p o i n t v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y but I soon came to recognize common elements. Sometimes the approach was the r e s u l t of s t r u g g l i n g through a maze of thoughts and experiences i n a long slow anguished climb, and sometimes, to my s u r p r i s e , I was a l r e a d y l e a p i n g out beyond my own boundaries before I had time to c o n s i d e r what was 40 happening. Sometimes I approached the edge s e v e r a l times and turned back, not f e e l i n g ready to l e a p . Sometimes when I made the leap the changes on the other s i d e seemed so s u b t l e that I b a r e l y saw any immediate d i f f e r e n c e i n the t e r r i t o r y on the other s i d e , and other times I landed i n t e r r i t o r y so new and strange that i t took me a while to a d j u s t and get my b e a r i n g s . Most of the time I f e l t that I made a conscious choice to experience the leap, but sometimes i t j u s t seemed to happen. A l l of a sudden t h i n g s would come together i n a whole new way and I would thi n k "Yes, yes! That i s the way i t i s ! Why d i d I not see i t t h i s way b e f o r e ? " . There always seemed to be a sense of wonder or s u r p r i s e a s s o c i a t e d with the l e ap and the d e l i g h t f u l ( u s u a l l y ! ) awareness of how new and yet how a p p r o p r i a t e the new t e r r i t o r y was. I f e l t a sudden awareness of t h i n g s f i t t i n g together d i f f e r e n t l y as i f I was seeing them for the f i r s t time i n a whole new way. I t was l i k e p l a y i n g with a kaleidoscope and wondering at how j u s t a s u b t l e s h i f t can make the whole p a t t e r n e n t i r e l y new. The p i e c e s are a l l the same o l d p i e c e s , but they have been transformed i n t o an e n t i r e l y new d e s i g n . Once the leap or s h i f t had been made there seemed to be no going back. I f e l t a s o l i d sure sense that I "knew" i n a very deep way, on many d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s , t h a t t h i n g s had changed and I c o u l d not see them in the o l d ways again even i f I t r i e d . I might t r y to choose to r e t r e a t to o l d ways but I would always know the g r e a t e r t r u t h of the new ways. 41 When I reached the new t e r r i t o r y on the other si d e of the chasm where t h i n g s looked so d i f f e r e n t I a l s o f e l t a sense of l i g h t n e s s , of r e l e a s e , of l e t t i n g go of burdens from the past, as i f the s h i f t I had made had r e l e a s e d a whole new reserve of energy from somewhere deep i n s i d e . T h i s energy seemed to be connected to a g r e a t e r sense of peace w i t h i n myself, a new sureness about myself and my l i f e , and a r i s i n g sense of excitement about new p o s s i b i l i t i e s j u s t over the h o r i z o n . What are some examples i f these leaps towards a new way of t h i n k i n g and knowing? I came to know that my love and acceptance of myself i s c e n t r a l to my c a p a c i t y to love and accept o t h e r s , that I am accountable f o r my experience i n my l i f e , t h a t I can c o n t i n u o u s l y choose, i n each moment that passes, the way i n which I w i l l experience my l i f e , and that I can experience and c o n t r o l only my own l i f e , but not the l i v e s of o t h e r s . These statements sound very simple but the new awareness that I have of my own experience, these new ways of seeing, knowing and t h i n k i n g , have had profound e f f e c t s on my l i f e . Some of these e f f e c t s were d r a m a t i c a l l y e v i d e n t i n others as w e l l as myself even before we completed the courses. I had enjoyed watching others grow and change in i n d i v i d u a l ways du r i n g the f i r s t course, as I grew and changed, but the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n myself and others d u r i n g the second course was so obvious and e x c i t i n g that i t was d i f f i c u l t to a s s i m i l a t e j u s t how f a r we had come i n that few days. In 42 p a r t i c u l a r I n o t i c e d remarkable changes i n people's f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s as w e l l as i n the way that they moved and c a r r i e d themselves. Hunched backs s t r a i g h t e n e d , drooping heads became a l e r t and proud, and r i g i d , leaden bodies l i g h t e n e d and r e l a x e d . And the faces! I w i l l never f o r g e t the changed f a c e s ! Faces that were c o l d to begin with were warm and open, faces that were c l o s e d and s u s p i c i o u s or angry were animated with good f e e l i n g s , faces that were sad and overburdened were a l i v e with joy. These blossoming faces were s u f f i c i e n t proof to me, notwithstanding a l l the other evidence, that t r u e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a f f e c t i n g body, mind, and s p i r i t had taken p l a c e . I t shone in each face l i k e a new l i g h t from w i t h i n . I c o u l d f e e l i t s h i n i n g i n mine. 4. The t h i r d course The t h i r d course was not as dramatic f o r me as the f i r s t two, although f o r others i t was. (We a l l seemed to march to d i f f e r e n t drummers and everyone had a d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n about which course was the most important and e f f e c t i v e phase of the program). But even though the t h i r d course d i d not c o n t a i n h i g h drama f o r me i t r e i n f o r c e d what I had l e a r n e d i n the p r e v i o u s courses and i t c o n t i n u e d to support me i n the l e a r n i n g path I had chosen to f o l l o w . The format of the course c o n s i s t e d of d a i l y c o n t a c t with a "support p a r t n e r " chosen by mutual consent from among f e l l o w p a r t i c i p a n t s from the f i r s t two courses, and r e g u l a r weekly 43 meetings with a l a r g e group c o n s i s t i n g p r i m a r i l y of f e l l o w p a r t i c i p a n t s with the a d d i t i o n of a few new people who had taken the f i r s t two courses at other times. The primary purpose of the t h i r d course was to support p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to i n t e g r a t e what they had l e a r n e d i n the f i r s t two courses i n t o t h e i r c u r r e n t l i f e s t y l e . B e l i e v e me. The support was necessary. I came out of the f i r s t two courses f e e l i n g a l i v e and e x c i t e d about new p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r my l i f e but about as steady as a new c o l t s t r u g g l i n g to c o n t r o l those impossibly long s p i n d l y l e g s . The d e s i r e to expl o r e the b i g new wide wonderful world out there was strong but f i g u r i n g out how I was going to t a c k l e i t p e r s o n a l l y was a d i f f e r e n t matter. I t was t r u t h time; time to prove a l l my f i n e promises to myself with a c t i o n and I f e l t not j u s t a l i t t l e shaky and s c a r e d — q u i t e f r a n k l y I was t e r r i f i e d - - b u t determined. I know you can't r e b u i l d a l i f e i n a day, but I wanted to . There was so much to l e a r n , so many plans to be made, so many new ways of t h i n k i n g and behaving that I wanted to t r y out and r e f i n e . The l e a r n i n g process d i d not stop. I found myself awash i n new ideas to explore and I kept having to t e l l myself that I c o u l d not change e v e r y t h i n g I wanted to change in j u s t a few days. Although I was seeing t h i n g s i n my l i f e i n a d i f f e r e n t l i g h t , i t was d i f f i c u l t f i g u r i n g out the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of my new v i s i o n . Even though the whole p i c t u r e of what I wanted had changed w i t h i n me, I knew that I had to 44 p r i o r i t i z e and focus my energy i n work on one or two small areas of change at a time. Once movement and change began in small areas of my l i f e i t was e a s i e r to keep up the momentum and widen the area of focus. The implementation of ideas was not easy. I knew so c l e a r l y now what I wanted, but sometimes what I had l e a r n e d seemed so s l i p p e r y , and a l l my o l d p a t t e r n s of behaviour were w a i t i n g there so smugly and c o n f i d e n t l y , knowing how easy I would f i n d i t to f a l l back i n t o r e l y i n g on them. Working towards my new v i s i o n meant breaking a l o t of o l d and comfortable bonds and p u t t i n g i n c r e d i b l e e f f o r t i n t o forming new p a t t e r n s and behaviours. My f r i e n d s , f a m i l y and a s s o c i a t e s were a l i t t l e h e s i t a n t around me f o r a w h i l e . I was amazed at t h e i r response to me. They recognized changes i n me that I d i d not even know were n o t i c e a b l e ; s u b t l e t h i n g s l i k e an i n c r e a s e i n my energy l e v e l , a d i f f e r e n t q u a l i t y of s e r e n i t y and c o n f i d e n c e about me, the f a c t that d i d not d i s s o l v e at the f i r s t s i g n of c r i t i c i s m , the i r r e p r e s s i b i l i t y of my s m i l e . Others experienced more d i r e c t l y my new found a b i l i t y to speak c l e a r l y and c o n v i n c i n g l y about what I wanted, my d e t e r m i n a t i o n to s t i c k up f o r myself i n a c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n , and my w i l l i n g n e s s to t a c k l e o l d problems from completely d i f f e r e n t angles of a t t a c k . There were l o t s of times when I h e l d my breath as I c o n s c i o u s l y went i n t o a s i t u a t i o n knowing that I was about to put i n t o p r a c t i c e a way of behaving that was uncustomary f o r 45 me. Sometimes I was not able to accomplish what I wanted and I f e l t d i scouraged; at other times I was s u c c e s s f u l beyond my w i l d e s t imaginings. But always I f e l t committed to the new v i s i o n of my l i f e that I had c r e a t e d and I knew that i f I kept working towards i t I would reach my g o a l . Having a support p a r t n e r was an i n v a l u a b l e a s s e t . We checked i n with each other by phone every day and t a l k e d very s p e c i f i c a l l y about our c u r r e n t successes and f a i l u r e s , our a c t i o n p l a n f o r the next day, our f e e l i n g s about our pr o g r e s s , and always about the plans we were forming f o r the f u t u r e and how the small steps we were t a k i n g d a i l y f i t i n t o the p a t t e r n of h e l p i n g us reach our f u t u r e g o a l s . I t was much e a s i e r to t a c k l e d i f f i c u l t tasks knowing that that support was t h e r e . The weekly l a r g e group meetings were a l s o a great h e l p . They were organized around e x e r c i s e s and d i s c u s s i o n s , much as the f i r s t course had been, with l o t s of time to work out i n a group s e t t i n g the problems or c o n f u s i o n s that had a r i s e n i n the past week and p e r s o n a l a c t i o n plans f o r the coming week. We were so comfortable with each other w i t h i n the group, and knew each other so w e l l , t h at we were able to g i v e each other i n v a l u a b l e feedback and encouragement on a ongoing b a s i s . And of course, although we now f e l t more and more c o n f i d e n t i n being a b l e to keep working towards our goals on the i n d i v i d u a l paths we had set f o r o u r s e l v e s , the f a c i l i t a t o r helped us to stay focused on our commitment to our own l i v e s . I t f e l t marvelous going back to the group where we a l l f e l t so r 46 s a f e , and yet at the same time so c h a l l e n g e d , to move forward with our i n d i v i d u a l p l a n s . Seeing how other people were changing and deve l o p i n g , f o l l o w i n g t h e i r successes and f a i l u r e s so r e g u l a r l y and c l o s e l y , and f e e l i n g t h e i r genuine support f o r my endeavours was an i n v a l u a b l e source of i n s p i r a t i o n , energy and courage f o r me. I was s u r p r i s e d to f i n d how o f t e n I came to blocks i n my path and the r e a l i z a t i o n that to get r i d of them I would have to work out a s h i f t i n the way I was seein g the problem. Obvi o u s l y , although I had made major changes i n the way I was t h i n k i n g about my l i f e there were s t i l l changes to be made. Again I would f i n d myself i n that now f a m i l i a r s t r u g g l e l e a d i n g up to a l e a p a c r o s s the v o i d towards a new way of seeing t h i n g s . The process was not any e a s i e r , but at l e a s t i t was f a m i l i a r and I knew from experience that the r e s u l t s I c o u l d c r e a t e by going through with the process were very worthwhile. I was f e e l i n g a growing c o n f i d e n c e i n my a b i l i t y to l e a r n i n t h i s way, and I knew that when the courses were over I would be able to continue to l e a r n and grow on my own, knowing that h e l p from other people would always be there i f I needed i t . 5. C o n c l u s i o n , I do not think that making a leap to a whole new way of knowing or seeing i s something that we do e a s i l y or n a t u r a l l y . I do not t h i n k that I would have been a b l e to l e a r n i n t h i s 47 way, or at l e a s t not as e f f e c t i v e l y , or i n such a short p e r i o d of time, i f I had not been guided i n the experience of these two c o u r s e s . The new self-awareness that I achieved ushered i n a major p e r i o d of change and l e a r n i n g i n my l i f e . I had not r e a l i z e d before that important l e a r n i n g can take p l a c e through changes i n my awareness of myself, other people and s i t u a t i o n s i n my l i f e . During these courses I experienced s e v e r a l major leaps a c r o s s the v o i d towards new p e r s p e c t i v e s , or major s h i f t s i n my ways of seeing and t h i n k i n g about myself and my r e l a t i o n s h i p s to the people and events i n my l i f e . The major l e a r n i n g s h i f t that I made was i n r e a l i z i n g the power of my own awareness and my a b i l i t y to make s h i f t s or changes i n that awareness. I l e a r n e d to experience changes i n my awareness, to reco g n i z e f a m i l i a r f e a t u r e s of the process of these changes as they took p l a c e , and to some extent a c t i v e l y c o n t r o l the process of changes i n my awareness as a means towards f i n d i n g meaning and f u l f i l l m e n t i n my own l i f e . Knowing what an important p a r t my own awareness p l a y s i n my l e a r n i n g has had, and w i l l continue to have, a strong i n f l u e n c e on how I choose to l i v e my l i f e . D. NOTES ON SARA'S CASE IN RELATION TO THE CONCEPT OF LEARNING INVOLVING CHANGES IN CONSCIOUSNESS An a n a l y s i s of Sara's account of her l e a r n i n g experience q u i c k l y r e v e a l s that i n t h i s l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n t r a d i t i o n a l ideas about l e a r n i n g as the a c q u i s i t i o n , r e t e n t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n , and r e c o l l e c t i o n of knowledge do not adequately 48 e x p l a i n the type of l e a r n i n g that Sara d e s c r i b e s . She speaks of "the experience at the d e c i s i o n p o i n t " p r eceding "leaps or s h i f t s to new t e r r i t o r y , " p i e c e s (of knowledge) "transformed i n t o an e n t i r e l y new d e s i g n , " "the process of becoming more self - a w a r e , " and the "sudden awareness of t h i n g s f i t t i n g together d i f f e r e n t l y as i f I was seeing them f o r the f i r s t time in a whole new way." Sara's account of her l e a r n i n g experience supports the concept of l e a r n i n g as a c r e a t i v e , t r a n s f o r m a t i v e process which i n v o l v e s changes, t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , or transmutations of a c q u i r e d knowledge i n t o e n t i r e l y new p a t t e r n s or s t a t e s f u e l e d i n some way by changes i n awareness or c o n s c i o u s n e s s . T h i s p e r s o n a l account which emphasises the primacy of t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g i n v o l v i n g changes i n consciousness p r o v i d e s a r a t i o n a l e f o r the p u r s u i t of f u r t h e r understanding of t h i s type of l e a r n i n g . A search of l i t e r a t u r e r e g a r d i n g l e a r n i n g f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s type of t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g i n v o l v i n g changes i n consciousness produced few l e a r n i n g f o r m u l a t i o n s which address t h i s type of l e a r n i n g d i r e c t l y . There were, however, a few t h e o r i s t s whose work appeared to r e l a t e to t h i s type of l e a r n i n g and t h e i r work was s e l e c t e d f o r review and c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s on the b a s i s of the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a : The a b i l i t y of the l e a r n i n g f o r m u l a t i o n t o : 1. apply d i r e c t l y to the concept of t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g i n v o l v i n g changes i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s . 2. c l a r i f y the i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g case study. 49 3. to b r i n g meaning t o , or e x p l a i n , l e a r n i n g as a t r a n s f o r m a t i v e process i n v o l v i n g changes i n co n s c i o u s n e s s . Using these c r i t e r i a the t h e o r e t i c a l l e a r n i n g f o r m u l a t i o n s s e l e c t e d f o r treatment i n c l u d e d the work of Bruner, F r e i r e , K e l l y , Mezirow, and N i c h o l . The work of these w r i t e r s w i l l thus form the b a s i s f o r a l i t e r a t u r e review and a constant comparative c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the concept of t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g i n v o l v i n g changes i n con s c i o u s n e s s . 50 I I I . LITERATURE REVIEW A. INTRODUCTION T h i s l i t e r a t u r e review d i f f e r s somewhat from the t r a d i t i o n a l conception of the l i t e r a t u r e review i n terms of general a t t i t u d e toward source m a t e r i a l s and t h e i r s e l e c t i o n and treatment. T h i s a t t i t u d e i s based on c r i t e r i a d i s c u s s e d i n the Methodology s e c t i o n , i n accordance with t h e o r e t i c a l sampling procedures of grounded theory's constant comparative method. On the b a s i s of those c r i t e r i a the work of Bruner, F r e i r e , K e l l y , Mezirow and N i c h o l were s e l e c t e d over time, and the treatment of each author's works was i n d i v i d u a l i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o the unique c o n t r i b u t i o n that each was p e r c e i v e d to be a b l e to make towards the needs of the emerging c a t e g o r i e s g u i d i n g the study. The review of each author c o n t a i n s only the m a t e r i a l that c o n t r i b u t e s most s t r o n g l y t o the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n of t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g , organized i n the manner which seems most a p p r o p r i a t e to i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n . In Bruner's case, although h i s work does not approach the t o p i c i n any d i r e c t way, a comprehensive a n a l y s i s based p r i m a r i l y on two of h i s recent works, p r o v i d e s a r i c h t h e o r e t i c a l background f o r the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of l e a r n i n g as a t r a n s f o r m a t i v e process. F r e i r e ' s theory of c o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n and i t s p h i l o s o p h i c underpinnings were winnowed "from h i s -ex t e n s i v e w r i t i n g s as evidence i n support of t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g . The p h i l o s o p h i c ideas behind K e l l y ' s p e r s o n a l 51 c o n s t r u c t theory, h i s d i s c u s s i o n s of the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s of h i s theory, as w e l l as the theory i t s e l f , speak e l o q u e n t l y of the t r a n s f o r m a t i v e powers of the human mind; the ideas that c o n t r i b u t e most s t r o n g l y to a con c e p t i o n of l e a r n i n g as a t r a n s f o r m a t i v e process were e x t r a c t e d from K e l l y ' s work. Mezirow's t h e o r i z e s d i r e c t l y about p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , a form of change i n consciousness, as a d i s t i n c t form of l e a r n i n g ; h i s e x p l a n a t i o n of p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and i t s t h e o r e t i c a l antecedents were reviewed. While N i c h o l ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of paradigm t r a n s i t i o n l e a r n i n g i s drawn only from s e v e r a l unpublished papers, i n c o n t r a s t to the more s u b s t a n t i a l m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e from the other authors, i t s u p p l i e s a unique view of l e a r n i n g as a t r a n s f o r m a t i v e process i n a p r a c t i c a l l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n and supports i t with yet another t h e o r e t i c a l l i n e of thought. Although other m a t e r i a l s from each author might have been i n c l u d e d , these were judged to be most r e l e v a n t to the emerging c a t e g o r i e s . Although a n a l y s i s i s u s u a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d to be a f u n c t i o n of the l i t e r a t u r e review, i n t h i s case a n a l y s i s proceeds only i n a l i m i t e d sense. Although the work of the authors represented has been analyzed to glean m a t e r i a l which may he l p to e x p l i c a t e t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g , and reanalyzed as the emerging c a t e g o r i e s demanded d u r i n g the course of the study, the prime purposes here were to present the m a t e r i a l d e s c r i p t i v e l y and to develop some of i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s , as they appeared to be p e r t i n e n t to the emerging c a t e g o r i e s d u r i n g the 52 course of the l i t e r a t u r e review. F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s i n t h i s s e c t i o n i s unnecessary i n that f u r t h e r i n t e n s e a n a l y s i s w i l l take p l a c e i n the f o l l o w i n g c h a pter. T h i s review a l s o d i f f e r s from the c o n v e n t i o n a l concept of a l i t e r a t u r e review i n that i t c r i t i q u e s the authors only i n r e l a t i o n to what t h e i r m a t e r i a l may o f f e r to an understanding of the t o p i c of the study. Since none of them s p e c i f i c a l l y intended to e x p l i c a t e t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g , none should be taken to task f o r what they d i d not accomplish i n that d i r e c t i o n . Any appearance of c r i t i q u e i s o f f e r e d i n terms of extending and b u i l d i n g on the unique c o n t r i b u t i o n of each source of m a t e r i a l i n comparison with a l l of the others i n the s p i r i t of constant comparative method. I t should be remembered, as noted i n the methodology s e c t i o n that t e c h n i c a l l y a l l of these source m a t e r i a l s are not t h e o r i e s , but from time to time the d e s i g n a t i o n "theory" may be a p p l i e d as being more convenient than other d e s c r i p t i o n s such as " l e a r n i n g f o r m u l a t i o n s " or "work" when r e f e r r i n g to these m a t e r i a l s . I t should a l s o be noted that Sara's case study i s a most important p a r t of the l i t e r a t u r e under review but i t i s p l a c e d i n i t s own separate chapter to emphasize and f a c i l i t a t e i t s m u l t i - f a c e t e d f u n c t i o n w i t h i n t h i s study. T h i s chapter w i l l proceed with the p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h e o r e t i c a l f o r m u l a t i o n s r e l a t i n g to t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g i n v o l v i n g changes i n consciousness as they have been gleaned 53 from the works of Bruner, F r e i r e , K e l l y , Mezirow and N i c h o l . B. BRUNER: CONTEXTUAL BACKGROUND FOR AN UNDERSTANDING OF TRANSFORMATIVE LEARNING 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n The l i f e work of Jerome Bruner, the eminent American p s y c h o l o g i s t , epitomizes the s h i f t from b e h a v i o r i s t dominated psychology to c o g n i t i v e psychology, and more r e c e n t l y the e f f o r t to push our conceptions of human mind and consciousness beyond the narrow computer model which has been predominant i n c o g n i t i v e psychology d u r i n g the l a s t t h i r t y y e a r s . Throughout h i s c a r e e r Bruner has been a t r a i l b l a z e r i n the study of c o g n i t i o n , p e r c e p t i o n , and the nature of knowing and h i s work has had a major e f f e c t on the course of psychology and education i n the Un i t e d S t a t e s and elsewhere. He has always attempted to expand the l i m i t s : although he i s known as one of the i n s t i g a t o r s , i f not the founder of the " c o g n i t i v e r e v o l u t i o n " , he i s c o n s t a n t l y concerned about the negative narrowing e f f e c t of the tendency toward s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , which has l i m i t e d the scope of i n q u i r y i n psychology as w e l l as i n other d i s c i p l i n e s (Bruner, 1983, p.280). In h i s most recent works (1979, 1983, 1986) h i s wide-ranging i n t e l l e c t has s t r i v e n towards b r i d g i n g the gap between s c i e n c e and the humanities, and towards embedding psychology i n a matrix of i n t e r r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s t h a t study the c a p a b i l i t y of the human mind and consc i o u s n e s s , as steps towards a deeper 54 understanding the human c o n d i t i o n . H i s comprehensive p e r s p e c t i v e , i n c l u s i v e of the h i s t o r i c a l development of ideas in many d i s c i p l i n e s , p r o v i d e s a r i c h context f o r the understanding of l e a r n i n g as a t r a n s f o r m a t i v e process i n v o l v i n g changes i n consciousness. Although Bruner does not address a d u l t l e a r n i n g d i r e c t l y , h i s d e v e l o p i n g conception of the nature of knowing and human development are i n c r e a s i n g l y a p p l i c a b l e to f o r m u l a t i o n s of a d u l t l e a r n i n g i n v o l v i n g changes i n consciousness; the emphasis of h i s work moves s t e a d i l y i n the d i r e c t i o n of r e c o g n i z i n g consciousness and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of consciousness as c e n t r a l to the process of l e a r n i n g . Bruner i n d i c a t e s that the theme that has dominated h i s working l i f e i s "a c o n v i c t i o n that one c o u l d study mind by examining how i t expressed i t s e l f i n a c h i e v i n g , s t o r i n g and t r a n s f o r m i n g knowledge of the world" (Bruner, 1983, p.274). Bruner's e a r l y work co n c e n t r a t e d on the mechanisms f o r the achievement and storage of knowledge, the focus that expressed the core concerns of the " c o g n i t i v e r e v o l u t i o n " . His l a t e r works (1979, 1983, 1986) i n t e g r a t e ideas from the growing edge, i n f i e l d s as d i v e r s e as psychology, anthropology, s o c i o l o g y , l i n g u i s t i c s , e d u c a t i o n , p h i l o s o p h y , and l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m , to p o r t r a y a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t stance towards human development and l e a r n i n g which h i g h l i g h t s the t r a n s f o r m a t i v e powers of the mind and consciousness, and the a c t i v e , c r e a t i v e p a r t that i n d i v i d u a l s p l a y i n t h e i r own c o n s t r u c t i o n of r e a l i t y . As h i s work 55 progresses he p l a c e s i n c r e a s i n g emphasis on l e a r n i n g as a t r a n s f o r m a t i v e process i n which consciousness and changes i n consciousness p l a y a c e n t r a l r o l e . Bruner's c u r r e n t e x p l o r a t i o n s beyond the s t r i c t l i m i t a t i o n s of c o g n i t i v i s m towards a comprehensive, m u l t i -d i s c i p l i n e based understanding of the nature of human thought and human development form a c o n v i n c i n g context f o r i n t e g r a t i n g and understanding t h e o r i e s s p e c i f i c to a d u l t l e a r n i n g which s t r e s s l e a r n i n g as a t r a n s f o r m a t i v e process i n v o l v i n g changes i n co n s c i o u s n e s s . An overview of Bruner's c u r r e n t t h i n k i n g , and the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a d u l t l e a r n i n g i n v o l v i n g changes i n consciousness which can be drawn from h i s thought, w i l l form the backdrop f o r a comparative a n a l y s i s of l e a r n i n g f o r m u l a t i o n s which d e a l s p e c i f i c a l l y with l e a r n i n g as a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a l process i n v o l v i n g consciousness and changes i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s . 2. Mind and consciousness Bruner b e l i e v e s h i s l i f e ' s i n t e r e s t i n the human mind and i t s knowledge processes r e f l e c t s the growth o f a s i g n i f i c a n t modern theme which has a r i s e n as an i n e v i t a b l e consequence o f the growing complexity o f the world i n w h i c h we l i v e . "You cannot p r o p e r l y conceive of managing a complex world of in f o r m a t i o n without a workable concept of mind" ( I b i d . , 1983, p.63). He regards t h i s t h e m e as a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e " Z e i t g e i s t " , t h e s p i r i t of t h e t i m e s , and t h e e m e r g i n g s o c i e t y 56 i n which the generation and management of knowledge are i n c r e a s i n g l y regarded as primary keys to economic and s o c i a l power and progress ( I b i d . , p.274). The " c o g n i t i v e r e v o l u t i o n " arose i n response to the needs of t h i s s o c i e t y , but i t s focus became too narrow and the "heart of psychology-the study of the powers of mind and t h e i r e n a b l e m e n t - f e l l n e g l e c t e d . . . ( I b i d . , 1983, p.63). Bruner (1979, 1983, 1986) a s p i r e s to r e s t o r e that h e a r t . Bruner d e f i n e s mind as "a concept, an idea we c o n s t r u c t in order to house the remarkable accomplishments that make i t p o s s i b l e f o r human beings (and other c r e a t u r e s , who knows?) to go beyond the in f o r m a t i o n g i v e n " ( I b i d . , 1983, p.201). Every human being and every s o c i e t y has i t s own con c e p t i o n of mind which f i t s t h a t person's or s o c i e t y ' s ideology about the worth of human beings and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the surrounding world ( I b i d . , p.201). "Consciousness i s an instrument of mind, whatever you may take mind to be" ( I b i d . , p.201). The concept of consciousness i s narrower than mind because p a r t of mind i s understood to be unconscious ( A r i s t o t l e , Wundt, Freud). Bruner c o n s i d e r s consciousness to be a form of p r i v a t e d i s p l a y , "the output of some s o r t of device f o r c r e a t i n g a "here and now" i n an accentuated way": "an e x t r a o r d i n a r y way of h i g h l i g h t i n g the immediate" ( I b i d . , p.201). Bruner acknowledges the age-old s t r u g g l e to d e f i n e consciousness and i t s f u n c t i o n and suggests that h i s t o r i c a l l y 57 there are two i m p l i c i t t h e o r i e s of consciousness, the T r o u b l e Theory and the Zest Theory. The Trouble Theory suggests that consciousness i s a t o o l f o r d e a l i n g with d i f f i c u l t c h o i c e s and t r o u b l e s . The Zest Theory suggests that consciousness i s an ornament a r i s i n g out of p l a y f u l n e s s and disengagement ( I b i d . , p.202). Bruner suggests that the ornaments of consciousness are a l s o t o o l s and t h i s idea w i l l be c l a r i f i e d as t h i s d i s c u s s i o n c o n t i n u e s . 3. Modes of thought Bruner proposes that there are two complementary modes of c o g n i t i v e f u n c t i o n i n g , "two modes of thought, each p r o v i d i n g d i s t i n c t i v e ways of o r d e r i n g experience, of c o n s t r u c t i n g r e a l i t y " (Bruner, 1986, p.11). The f i r s t mode, the paradigmatic, i s formal, l o g i c a l , e x p l a n atory, and cause-and-e f f e c t o r i e n t e d . I t ' s f u n c t i o n i s e a s i l y understood. I t i s : ...the most powerful p r a c t i c a l t o o l i n man's p o s s e s s i o n (which) c o n v e r t s what one knows i n t o an a b s t r a c t p r o p o s i t i o n a l form and then manipulates the p r o p o s i t i o n s f o r m a l l y r a t h e r than pushing the " r e a l " world around e m p i r i c a l l y to see how i t works. I t i s Vygotsky's " s c i e n t i f i c t h i n k i n g " , P i a g e f ' s "formal o p e r a t i o n s , " James Mark Baldwin's " p r o p o s i t i o n a l mode" (Ibid.,1983, p.204). I t i s the mode u s u a l l y equated with s c i e n c e and human power over nature. The paradigmatic ways of knowing seek to transcend the p a r t i c u l a r by reaching f o r a b s t r a c t i o n , and t h e i r goal i s to e s t a b l i s h t r u t h . U n t i l r e c e n t l y i t was thought that the formal, paradigmatic mode d e a l t with r e a l i t i e s t h a t are independent of the observer, but modern 58 p h y s i c s would deny the independence of the knower from the known ( I b i d . , p.205). The second mode of thought, the n a r r a t i v e mode, t e l l s a s t o r y ; i t i s t e x t u a l r a t h e r than l o g i c a l ( I b i d . , p.204). The n a r r a t i v e mode, t y p i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with the a r t s and humanities, i s concerned with the human c o n d i t i o n ; i t seeks to endow human experience with meaning. Psychic r e a l i t y , the landscapes of human a c t i o n and consciousness, are i t s domain. I t seeks l i f e l i k e n e s s or v e r i s i m i l i t u d e r a t h e r than o b j e c t i v e t r u t h (Bruner, 1986, pp.12-14). Instead of s t r i v i n g f o r the independence of the observer, the n a r r a t i v e mode seeks to make sense of the r e l a t i o n of the observer to what i s being recounted; i t i n c l u d e s a p o i n t of view, an e v a l u a t i o n , however i m p l i c i t ( I b i d . , 1983, p.205). Meaning i s i n h e r e n t l y d e r i v e d from the d i s c o v e r y of r e l a t i o n s h i p : ...the meaning of anything inheres i n i t s r e l a t i o n to other t h i n g s - h i s t o r i c a l , c a u s a l , i n c l u s i v e , s c a l a r , s p a t i a l , a f f e c t i v e , or whatever r e l a t i o n one can imagine.... the meaning of any u n i t . . . l i e s i n i t s use ( I b i d . , p.206)....meaning depended not on anything i n t r i n s i c i n the world but upon the use to which knowledge was put ( I b i d . , p.278). Human problems are concerned almost e x c l u s i v e l y with meaning and do not y i e l d e a s i l y to formal l o g i c a l s o l u t i o n ; they are constant predicaments with which we l i v e . Bruner b e l i e v e s that the power of the n a r r a t i v e mode i s i n i t s a b i l i t y to give meaning to human experience or predicaments: T a l e s , myths, drama, the d i v e r s e forms of a r t provide the n a t u r a l mode f o r d e p i c t i n g human predicaments—how they 59 are managed and mismanaged, how laughed at or h e l d at arm's l e n g t h or succumbed t o . Human c u l t u r e (whatever e l s e i t i s ) i s a stock of "forms" f o r g i v i n g s t r u c t u r e and meaning to human predicaments....(Recognition must be given to) the importance of the " m y t h o l o g i c a l l y i n s t r u c t e d community"-the power of the c u l t u r e ' s stock to render meaningful and communal the predicaments of i t s adherents ( I b i d . , pp.206-207). T h e r e f o r e , both the paradigmatic mode and the n a r r a t i v e mode f u n c t i o n as t o o l s f o r understanding. The paradigmatic mode of consciousness permits humans to understand much of the p h y s i c a l world. The n a r r a t i v e mode permits humans to understand themselves i n r e l a t i o n to the p h y s i c a l world and the worlds they c r e a t e through language and c u l t u r e . The n a r r a t i v e mode " r e f l e c t s our use of language and the manner i n which i t operates " c o n s t i t u t i v e l y " . . . to c r e a t e a conscious r e a l i t y of i t s own. N a r r a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n f i l l s i n the gaps and y i e l d s "meaning" ( I b i d . , 1983, p.215). Bruner hypothesizes about the nature of consciousness, i n the l i g h t of the f u n c t i o n of the n a r r a t i v e mode as a "connection-maker" and f i l l e r - o f - g a p s , " t h a t : If there i s any purpose to consciousness, beyond i t s being an instrument f o r the a n a l y s i s of n e c e s s i t y and t r o u b l e , i t must s u r e l y be to provide us with a v e h i c l e f o r making present the absent, making v i s i b l e the unseen, making p o s s i b l e the unimagined ( I b i d . , p.215). The n a r r a t i v e mode i s more than an ornament that d e l i g h t s us with s t o r i e s ; the n a r r a t i v e mode i s a t o o l the human mind can use, not only to c r e a t e meaning w i t h i n the present l i f e space, but to leap the boundaries of time and space, and to transcend and transform c u r r e n t r e a l i t y . The human mind, i n the n a r r a t i v e mode of consciousness, can reach i n t o the past and 60 i n t o the f u t u r e to c r e a t e new o p t i o n s f o r the pr e s e n t . The r e c o g n i t i o n of the paradigmatic and n a r r a t i v e modes as d i s t i n c t i v e ways of knowing, and t h e i r importance to our conception of human mind and consciousness and the way they operate i n l e a r n i n g , arose out of Bruner's s t u d i e s i n many areas i n c l u d i n g human development, and the nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c u l t u r e and the s e l f i n that development. Those areas w i l l now be e x p l o r e d . 4. Human development Bruner's primary i n t e r e s t i n the development of the mind took him i n many d i r e c t i o n s i n the study of human development. As Bruner s t u d i e d c h i l d development i n the 1960s and 1970s he came to the c o n c l u s i o n that the development of mind from c h i l d h o o d to adulthood c o u l d not take p l a c e without: ...the a i d of the ready-made t o o l s of a c u l t u r e and i t s language, that mental growth comes as much from the ou t s i d e i n as from the i n s i d e o u t . . . . c u l t u r a l l y p rovided p r o s t h e t i c d e v i c e s (that) make i t p o s s i b l e f o r the human mind to v a u l t beyond i t s e l f ( I b i d . , p.278). T h i s c o n c l u s i o n f u r t h e r aroused Bruner's i n t e r e s t i n the nature of a r t and s c i e n c e , and the " d i s c i p l i n e s of knowledge" as ways of knowing and e x p e r i e n c i n g . As a r e s u l t he began to see the study of human development as: ...not only p a r t of the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e of maturation and l e a r n i n g , but a l s o one of the s c i e n c e s of the a r t i f i c i a l . We were, a f t e r a l l , a s p e c i e s that c r e a t e d i t s e l f by the c o n s t i t u t i v e power of our symbol-making, our i n s t i t u t i o n -c r e a t i n g , our very c u l t u r e - c r e a t i n g . Whatever you might say about the growth of mind, you c o u l d never say i t without s p e c i f y i n g the d e v i c e s and t o o l s (such as language and education) that made i t p o s s i b l e ( I b i d . , 61 pp.278-279). Bruner thus became an e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r i s t who advocated "the understanding of knowledge as a p r o s t h e t i c d e v i c e " ( I b i d . , p. 279), a t o o l that p e r m i t t e d us to grasp, r e t a i n and transform the world i n a g e n e r a t i v e way, and a developmental l i n g u i s t who s t u d i e d how people a c q u i r e the s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l uses of language ( I b i d . , p.279). Bruner's s t u d i e s of human development thus l e d him to view l e a r n i n g from a p e r s p e c t i v e which h i g h l i g h t e d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the processes of l e a r n i n g and the processes of developing the human mind w i t h i n the context of c u l t u r e . T h i s p e r s p e c t i v e encouraged the e v o l u t i o n of an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the t r a n s f o r m a t i v e powers i n human l e a r n i n g , those powers which allow the human mind to use c u r r e n t knowledge to make a c r e a t i v e l e a p beyond what i s a l r e a d y known, and p a r t i c u l a r l y , the f u n c t i o n of consciousness as the source of these powers. F o l l o w i n g Bruner's t h i n k i n g about the nature of knowledge and l e a r n i n g , the development of S e l f , the power of language, and the i n f l u e n c e of c u l t u r e w i l l c l a r i f y h i s c o n ception of the development of mind and consciousness and t h e i r r o l e i n human development and l e a r n i n g . 5. Changing conceptions of l e a r n i n g U n t i l 1960 a major assumption that guided l e a r n i n g r e s e a r c h i n psychology was that l e a r n i n g i s a u n i t a r y process; that b a s i c a l l y a l l l e a r n i n g i s a l i k e ( I b i d . , p.182). Bruner 62 e x p l o r e s three aspects of the " c o g n i t i v e r e v o l u t i o n " which questioned that assumption and exert a r e v o l u t i o n a r y e f f e c t on approaches to l e a r n i n g and education; a r e v o l u t i o n a r y e f f e c t so strong i n Bruner's t h i n k i n g that i t has taken him f a r beyond the main stream of c o g n i t i v e psychology. These three aspects are a conception of mind as "method a p p l i e d to t a s k s " ( I b i d . , p.183), a b e l i e f t h a t ways of framing ideas are l i n k e d to l e v e l s of development, and an emphasis on the generativeness of knowledge. Each of these w i l l be examined i n turn i n the l i g h t of what they might add to the conception of t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g . The f i r s t aspect i s a conception of mind as "method a p p l i e d to t a s k s . You don't t h i n k about p h y s i c s , you t h i n k p h y s i c s . P h y s i c s i s not j u s t a d e s c r i p t i o n of the world: i t i s the way you get to the d e s c r i p t i o n " ( I b i d . , p.183). According to t h i s idea each academic d i s c i p l i n e may be p e r c e i v e d as a d i s t i n c t world view or p e r s p e c t i v e which both g i v e s access to c e r t a i n types of p e r c e p t i o n of experience and l i m i t s o t h e r s . T h i s conception of mind has major i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y at the a d u l t l e v e l . I f l e a r n e r ' s can be encouraged to a conscious awareness of the systematic p e r s p e c t i v e s , or world views, with which they guide t h e i r l i v e s , and the p o s s i b i l i t i e s and l i m i t s which these e n t a i l , t h i s can be a f i r s t s t e p towards a sense of c o n t r o l and p e r s o n a l c h o i c e i n t h e i r l i v e s and a v i s i o n of how those p e r s p e c t i v e s might be transformed. 63 The second aspect i s a concept, d e r i v e d from P i a g e t , that "the c h i l d ' s understanding of any mathematical or s c i e n t i f i c idea would be framed by the l e v e l of i n t e l l e c t u a l o p e r a t i o n s that he had achieved. "There are ways of framing ideas that are a p p r o p r i a t e to the l e v e l of development or a b s t r a c t i o n that the c h i l d has reached" ( I b i d . , p.183). Although Bruner does not do so, t h i s concept might a l s o be extended to c l a r i f y a d u l t ways of framing ideas which r e f l e c t v a r i o u s l e v e l s of development and a b s t r a c t i o n w i t h i n the a d u l t ' s consciousness and understanding. Whereas u n t i l r e c e n t l y r e s e a r c h a t t e n t i o n has been focused almost e x c l u s i v e l y on c h i l d development and l e a r n i n g where progress or change seems most s p e c t a c u l a r , obvious and c r u c i a l , growing a t t e n t i o n i s being focused on v a r i o u s l e v e l s of a d u l t development and l e a r n i n g , the modes of framing ideas inherent at v a r i o u s l e v e l s , and the p o s s i b i l i t y of changing these ways of framing ideas through l e a r n i n g . The v a r i o u s t h e o r e t i c a l attempts to e x p l a i n l e a r n i n g i n v o l v i n g changes i n consciousness, d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s paper, are i n t i m a t e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The t h i r d aspect i s an emphasis on " g e n e r a t i v e n e s s " as a q u a l i t y of knowledge: Knowledge i s not a storehouse. You a l r e a d y "know" most of what you " l e a r n " i n s c i e n c e and mathematics. "Learning" i s , most o f t e n , f i g u r i n g out how to use what you a l r e a d y know i n order to go beyond what you c u r r e n t l y t h i n k . There are many ways of doing t h a t . Some are more i n t u i t i v e ( n a r r a t i v e mode); others are f o r m a l l y d e r i v a t i o n a l (paradigmatic mode). But they a l l depend on knowing something " s t r u c t u r a l " about what you are 64 contemplating-how i t i s put together. Knowing how something i s put together i s worth a thousand f a c t s about i t . I t permits you to go beyond i t ( I b i d . , p.183). T h i s emphasis re p r e s e n t s a s h i f t i n t h i n k i n g about knowledge as a s t a t i c product to be consumed and reproduced through r o t e l e a r n i n g , to a conception of knowledge as a dynamic product f o r e v e r i n the process of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , and l e a r n i n g as a dynamic process of knowledge c r e a t i o n or g e n e r a t i o n ; l e a r n i n g as a t r a n s f o r m a t i v e p r o c e s s , a constant e f f o r t to go beyond the given to new combinations, new understandings and new p o s s i b i l i t i e s . 6. The t r a n s a c t i o n a l s e l f Bruner's s t u d i e s of language and c u l t u r e have l e d him to view human development as a t r a n s a c t i o n a l p rocess i n c o n t r a s t to t r a d i t i o n a l t h e o r i e s which view development as p r i m a r i l y e g o c e n t r i c . T r a n s a c t i o n s are d e f i n e d by Bruner as: ...those d e a l i n g s which are premised on a mutual s h a r i n g of assumptions and b e l i e f s about how the world i s , how mind works, what we are up t o , and how communication should proceed" ( I b i d . , 1986, p.57). T r a n s a c t i o n i m p l i e s that l e a r n i n g and development are to some extent s o c i a l processes which operate through mutual access to othe r ' s minds. The p r e v a i l i n g view of p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s of development have p o r t r a y e d young c h i l d r e n as b a s i c a l l y e g o c e n t r i c beings who lack t r a n s a c t i o n a l s k i l l s . I t i s assumed that these s k i l l s must be g r a d u a l l y developed and le a r n e d ( I b i d . , 1986, pp.60-61). Bruner d e s c r i b e s the standard view of 65 egocentrism i n terms of four b a s i c premises which he f e e l s are " a r b i t r a r y , p a r t i a l and deeply rooted i n the m o r a l i t y of our own c u l t u r e " ( I b i d . , 1986, p.61). He c l a i m s that t h e i r acceptance as u n i v e r s a l s i n h i b i t s the development of workable concepts of the nature of s o c i a l t r a n s a c t i o n and the nature of s e l f . Bruner takes i s s u e with each of these premises. The f i r s t premise i s that c h i l d r e n have an e g o c e n t r i c p e r s p e c t i v e , that i s , that the a b i l i t y to take the p e r s p e c t i v e of others i s not i n i t i a l l y present i n c h i l d r e n . In c o n t r a s t to t h i s standard view Bruner proposes that young c h i l d r e n o f t e n adopt an e g o c e n t r i c framework because they do not have the l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n of s c r i p t s , s c e n a r i o s and event s t r u c t u r e s that a d u l t s use to understand events i n t h e i r environment. " I t i s not that the c h i l d does not have the c a p a c i t y to take another's p e r s p e c t i v e , but r a t h e r that he cannot do so without understanding the s i t u a t i o n i n which he i s o p e r a t i n g . " ( I b i d . , 1986, p.68). I t may be hypothesized that a d u l t s , as w e l l , may r e t r e a t to an e g o c e n t r i c p e r s p e c t i v e i n a s i m i l a r way when they do not have a s u f f i c i e n t l y developed mental schema to understand the context i n which they are o p e r a t i n g . T h i s may be a very important c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the understanding of a d u l t l e a r n i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a world that i s changing so r a p i d l y and i n such complex ways. If a d u l t s do not have s u f f i c i e n t l y developed mental schema, and have not l e a r n e d the s k i l l s whereby they can c o n s c i o u s l y develop new mental schema in 66 response to changes i n t h e i r environment, they may be at a d i s t i n c t disadvantage in t h e i r e f f o r t s to cope with t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with others and the world. The second premise i s i n regard to p r i v a c y ; the s e l f i s assumed to be i n h e r e n t l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , p r i v a t e , and beyond c u l t u r e . In r e l a t i o n to t h i s premise Bruner notes that ideas about p r i v a c y i n r e f e r e n c e to s e l f are c u l t u r a l l y r e l a t i v e and the idea of a p r i v a t e s e l f " f r e e of c u l t u r a l d e f i n i t i o n " ( I b i d . , 1986, p.68) i s p a r t i c u l a r to the Western conception of s e l f . Although Bruner does not e l a b o r a t e at t h i s p o i n t , i f h i s l a t e r d i s c u s s i o n of Vygotsky i s c o n s i d e r e d , i t i s i m p l i c i t l y c l e a r that the Western idea of a p r i v a t e s e l f may hamper our understanding of the. c u l t u r a l as w e l l as i n d i v i d u a l components of l e a r n i n g i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to the development of the s e l f . The t h i r d premise proposes that l e a r n i n g takes plac e through unmediated conceptualism, that i s , that the c h i l d ' s knowledge of the world i s achieved p r i n c i p a l l y by d i r e c t encounters with the world. In c o n t r a s t , Bruner contends that our encounters with the world are o f t e n v i c a r i o u s and mediated through our i n t e r a c t i o n and n e g o t i a t i o n with o t h e r s . Much of our experience i s mediated through our c o n t a c t with language and other symbol systems which we share with other people w i t h i n our c u l t u r e . T h i s p o i n t a l s o emphasizes the importance of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the i n d i v i d u a l to others and to c u l t u r e i n the development of s e l f . 67 F i n a l l y , the premise of t r i p a r t i s m suggests that c o g n i t i o n , a f f e c t , and a c t i o n are separate processes t h a t , with time and s o c i a l i z a t i o n , come to i n t e r a c t with one another. Or, c o n v e r s e l y , that the three stem from a common process which g r a d u a l l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e s i n t o autonomous systems. In e i t h e r case, c o g n i t i o n i s slow to develop and i s " s o c i a l l y b l i n d . " ( I b i d . , 1986, p.61). Contrary to the essence of the premise of t r i p a r t i s m Bruner emphasizes the importance of r e c o g n i z i n g that c o g n i t i o n , emotion, and a c t i o n are a mutually i n t e r a c t i v e , s t r u c t u r a l l y interdependent, u n i f i e d whole. These components of behaviour a r e : ...aspects of a l a r g e r whole that a c h i e v e s i t s i n t e g r a t i o n only w i t h i n a c u l t u r a l system. Emotion i s not u s e f u l l y i s o l a t e d from the knowledge of the s i t u a t i o n that arouses i t . C o g n i t i o n i s not a form of pure knowing to which emotion i s added....And a c t i o n i s a f i n a l common path based on what one knows and f e e l s . Indeed, our a c t i o n s are f r e q u e n t l y d e d i c a t e d to keeping a s t a t e of knowledge from being upset...or to the avoidance of s i t u a t i o n s that are a n t i c i p a t e d to be emotion-arousing ( I b i d . , pp.117-118). While i t may be u s e f u l to th i n k of thought, emotion and a c t i o n s e p a r a t e l y f o r some purposes, our understanding of the s e l f as a u n i f i e d whole may be obscured i f we do not r e c o g n i z e t h e i r u l t i m a t e connectedness. I f we a b s t r a c t them too r i g i d l y : ...we l o s e s i g h t of the f a c t that i t i s one of the f u n c t i o n s of a c u l t u r e to keep them r e l a t e d and together i n those images, s t o r i e s , and the l i k e by which our experience i s given coherence and c u l t u r a l r e l e v a n c e . The s c r i p t s and s t o r i e s . . . a r e templates f o r c a n o n i c a l ways of f u s i n g the three i n t o s e l f - d i r e c t i n g patterns-ways of being a S e l f i n t r a n s a c t i o n " ( I b i d . , 1986, p.69). Two important r e l a t i o n s h i p s must be noted here.. F i r s t , the 68 s e l f develops i n t r a n s a c t i o n with c u l t u r e , by l e a r n i n g to use c u l t u r a l l y t r a n s m i t t e d p a t t e r n s i n the s e r v i c e of i t s own d e f i n i t i o n and development. Secondly, the development of the t r a n s a c t i o n a l s e l f must be understood i n terms of the mutual i n t e r a c t i o n of s e l f and c u l t u r e monitored through the u n i t y of emotion, c o g n i t i o n , and a c t i o n . C l e a r l y , our conception of l e a r n i n g , which has h e r e t o f o r e c o n c e n t r a t e d on the c o g n i t i o n processes of the s e l f alone as the avenue to l e a r n i n g , must take i n t o account the r o l e of the c u l t u r a l m i l i e u of the l e a r n e r , and the importance of the i n t e g r a l u n i t y of emotion, c o g n i t i o n and a c t i o n i n human development and l e a r n i n g . 7. Powers of language Language i s our most powerful t o o l f o r o r g a n i z i n g experience and f o r c o n s t i t u t i n g " r e a l i t i e s " (Bruner, 1986, p.8). I t s modes of o r g a n i z i n g human knowledge give us some i n s i g h t i n t o the o p e r a t i o n of the human mind and consc i o u s n e s s . Language i s a major avenue f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g people's processes of t r a n s a c t i o n , t h e i r inner d i a l o g u e w i t h i n themselves and t h e i r outer d i a l o g u e with the world. The pos s e s s i o n of language g i v e s us: ...a h i g h l y a b s t r a c t system f o r accomplishing communicative f u n c t i o n s that are c r u c i a l f o r r e g u l a t i n g j o i n t a t t e n t i o n and j o i n t a c t i o n , f o r c r e a t i n g t o p i c s and commenting upon them i n a f a s h i o n that segments " r e a l i t y , " f o r f o r e f r o n t i n g and imposing p e r s p e c t i v e s on events, f o r i n d i c a t i n g our stance toward the world to which we r e f e r . . . ( I b i d . , 1986, p.62). In a d d i t i o n , "the j o i n t and mutual use of language g i v e s 69 us a huge step i n the d i r e c t i o n of understanding other minds" ( I b i d . , 1986, p.62). We recognize the o r g a n i z a t i o n of our own minds and the minds of others i n our n a t u r a l use of the s y n t a c t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of our language t r a n s a c t i o n s . Language i s used to organize experience i n ways that we can share. Language a l s o a s s i s t s t r a n s a c t i o n i n i t s power to r e f e r , to d i r e c t another's a t t e n t i o n to an item of experience. "Reference p l a y s on the shared p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s and shared c o n t e x t s of speakers" ( I b i d . , 1986, p.63) and a l l o w s them to map each others s u b j e c t i v e worlds. Bruner concludes t h a t : ...(the) b a s i s upon which l i n g u i s t i c r e f e r e n c e i t s e l f r e s t s must r e f l e c t a n a t u r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of mind, one i n t o which we grow through experience r a t h e r than one we achieve by learning...human beings must come equipped with the means not only to c a l i b r a t e the working of t h e i r minds a g a i n s t one another, but to c a l i b r a t e the worlds i n which they l i v e through the s u b t l e means of r e f e r e n c e . In e f f e c t , then, . t h i s i s the means whereby we know Other Minds and t h e i r p o s s i b l e worlds ( I b i d . , 1986, p.64). Language allows people to c r e a t e some sense of s t a b i l i t y , p r e d i c t a b i l i t y , c o n t i n u i t y and shared experience i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with o t h e r s . Language has the power to endow experience with meaning but meaning, by nature, i s always underdetermined and ambiguous. People must n e g o t i a t e common meaning i n t h e i r t r a n s a c t i o n s with each o t h e r . Bruner h y p o t h e s i z e s that humanity has been d r i v e n to c o n s t r u c t the l a r g e s c a l e products of language-drama and s c i e n c e and the d i s c i p l i n e s of understanding-as ways of c r e a t i n g new forms i n which to 70 t r a n s a c t and n e g o t i a t e t h i s e f f o r t a f t e r meaning ( I b i d . , 1986, p.64). Language i s a l s o powerful i n i t s c o n s t i t u t i v e n e s s , " t h e c a p a c i t y of language to c r e a t e and s t i p u l a t e r e a l i t i e s of i t s own" ( I b i d . , 1986, p.64). The h y p o t h e t i c a l e n t i t i e s and f i c t i o n s i n s c i e n c e or n a r r a t i v e are given r e a l i t y through the c o n s t i t u t i v e n e s s of language. " C o n s t i t u t i v e n e s s g i v e s an e x t e r n a l i t y and an apparent o n t o l o g i c a l s t a t u s to the concepts words embody; f o r example, the law, gross n a t i o n a l product..." ( I b i d . , 1986, p.64). C o n s t i t u t i v e n e s s e n t a i l s : . . . c o n v e r t i n g our mental processes i n t o products and endowing them with a r e a l i t y i n some world. The p r i v a t e i s rendered p u b l i c . And thereby, once again, we l o c a t e o u r s e l v e s i n a world of shared r e a l i t y . The c o n s t i t u t i v e n e s s of language...creates and t r a n s m i t s c u l t u r e and l o c a t e s our p l a c e i n i t . . . ( I b i d . , 1986, p. 65) . The power of language to " l o c a t e our p l a c e " must not be overlooked by those who wish to understand l e a r n i n g i n v o l v i n g changes in c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Our consciousness of "our p l a c e , " our stance, has extremely important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r l e a r n i n g . As Bruner e x p l a i n s , p a r t of the r e a l i t y that i s c r e a t e d and t r a n s m i t t e d by language: . . . i s the stance that the language i m p l i e s toward knowledge and r e f l e c t i o n , and the g e n e r a l i z e d set of stances one n e g o t i a t e s c r e a t e s i n time a sense of one's s e l f . R e f l e c t i o n and " d i s t a n c i n g " are c r u c i a l aspects df a c h i e v i n g a sense of the range of p o s s i b l e stances-a m e tacognitive step of huge import ( I b i d . , pp.132-133). One i m p l i c a t i o n f o r l e a r n i n g a r i s i n g from t h i s i s that as l e a r n e r s become aware of the stance or set of stances which guide and l i m i t t h e i r range of view or p e r s p e c t i v e i n l i f e , 71 they can a l s o become aware of the p o s s i b i l i t y of changing or t r a n s f o r m i n g that stance or p e r s p e c t i v e . I n t e n t i o n a l l e a r n i n g and i n t e n t i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e of the l e a r n i n g process are thus based on the awareness of a l t e r n a t i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s . Consciousness viewed i n t h i s way may be r e c o g n i z e d as p a r t of both the process and the product of l e a r n i n g . A second i m p l i c a t i o n i s that becoming aware of stance or p e r s p e c t i v e r e q u i r e l e a r n e r s to be a b l e to d i s t a n c e themselves or stand back from t h e i r experience, to r e f l e c t back on that experience, or to c r e a t e space between themselves and t h e i r e xperience, so that they can see themselves and t h e i r experience more c l e a r l y . Consciousness allows them to d i s t a n c e themselves both i n time and space. A t h i r d i m p l i c a t i o n i s the importance of awareness of p e r s o n a l stance as i n t e g r a l to the development of a sense of s e l f , which i s a sense of p e r s o n a l i d e n t i t y , and a sense of p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l and input i n t o t h at i d e n t i t y . A strong sense of s e l f i s generated p a r a l l e l t o , and dependent upon, a sense of consciousness of the power to c r e a t e and choose p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e stances, p e r s p e c t i v e s or world views. Learning i n v o l v i n g changes i n consciousness i s thus i m p l i e d to be a major f a c t o r i n the development of s e l f . But a l l of these i m p l i c a t i o n s must be r e l a t e d back to language as an instrument of c u l t u r e as w e l l as an instrument f o r the development of the i n d i v i d u a l . 72 8. C u l t u r e Bruner notes that i n the l a s t decade there has been a r e v o l u t i o n i n the d e f i n i t i o n of human c u l t u r e . There has been a move away from t h i n k i n g of c u l t u r e as a s t r u c t u r e d set of in t e r c o n n e c t e d r u l e s which people use to guide t h e i r a c t i o n s , to the idea of " c u l t u r e as i m p l i c i t and only semiconnected knowledge of the world from which, through n e g o t i a t i o n , people a r r i v e at s a t i s f a c t o r y ways of a c t i n g i n given c o n t e x t s " ( I b i d . , 1986, p.65). The process of a c t i n g i n a c u l t u r e i s based on an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of that c u l t u r e . We i n t e r p r e t the symbolic models of c u l t u r e through our t r a n s a c t i o n s with t h e i r many forms, and the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s developed i n those t r a n s a c t i o n s are used to organize the a c t i v i t i e s , responses, p e r c e p t i o n s and experiences of the con s c i o u s s e l f . C u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s and models p r o v i d e the template f o r a l l human a c t i o n , growth and understanding. Our " s e l f h o o d " a r i s e s out of our sense of what c o n s t i t u t e s c u l t u r a l l y a c c e p t a b l e t r a n s a c t i o n s and our d e f i n i t i o n of our own scope and p o s s i b i l i t y i n n e g o t i a t i n g those t r a n s a c t i o n s . We come to know c u l t u r e and o u r s e l v e s through c o l l e c t i v e s t o r i e s that suggest the nature of coherence, p r o b a b i l i t y and sense or meaning w i t h i n our world. We d e f i n e our own i n t e n t i o n s , our h i s t o r y and our p r o j e c t e d f u t u r e i n terms of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c u l t u r a l dramas i n which we pl a y a pa r t ( I b i d . , pp.66-67): For s t o r i e s d e f i n e the range of c a n o n i c a l c h a r a c t e r s , the s e t t i n g i n which they operate, the a c t i o n s that are 73 p e r m i s s i b l e and comprehensible. And thereby they p r o v i d e , so to speak, a map of p o s s i b l e r o l e s and of p o s s i b l e worlds in which a c t i o n , thought and s e l f - d e f i n i t i o n are p e r m i s s i b l e (or d e s i r a b l e ) ( I b i d . , p.66). Therefore s e l f can never be independent of one's c u l t u r a l -h i s t o r i c a l e x i s t e n c e , but i t can have some e f f e c t on the course of that e x i s t e n c e . Bruner acknowledges that i t i s claimed that s e l f r i s e s out of our c a p a c i t y to r e f l e c t upon our own a c t s , by the o p e r a t i o n of "metacognition" ( I b i d . , p.67). T h i s c l a i m suggests that changes in consciousness or awareness are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the development of a sense of s e l f . But recent r e s e a r c h on metacognition i n d i c a t e s t h a t : ...metacognitive a c t i v i t y ( s e l f - m o n i t o r i n g and s e l f -c o r r e c t i o n ) i s very unevenly d i s t r i b u t e d , v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g to c u l t u r a l background, and...can be taught s u c c e s s f u l l y as a s k i l l . . . H o w much and i n what form i t develops w i l l . . . d e p e n d upon the demands of the c u l t u r e i n which one l i v e s ( I b i d . , p.67). So i t seems that the development of a strong sense of s e l f , t i e d as i t i s to the development of the c a p a c i t y f o r conscious r e f l e c t i o n , i s p o t e n t i a l l y a v a i l a b l e i n human development, but very unevenly r e a l i z e d a c c o r d i n g to c u l t u r a l background. The d i s c o v e r y that metacognitive r e f l e c t i v i t y , which i m p l i e s l e a r n i n g through changes in consciousness, may be a b l e to be taught as a s k i l l i s a p o s s i b i l i t y of immense s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the development of l e a r n i n g p o t e n t i a l , both i n i n d i v i d u a l s and i n the c u l t u r e s i n which they l i v e . Bruner suggests that the n a r r a t i v e mode of consciousness p l a y s a c r u c i a l but g e n e r a l l y unrecognized r o l e i n the 74 r e l a t i o n s h i p between s e l f and c u l t u r e . He i m p l i e s that although r e c o g n i t i o n i s given to the f u n c t i o n and importance of the paradigmatic mode of thought, the p o s s i b l e importance of the n a r r a t i v e mode i n human development and f u n c t i o n i n g has not been f u l l y r e c o g n i z e d : I n s o f a r as we account f o r our own a c t i o n s and f o r the human events that occur around us p r i n c i p a l l y i n terms of n a r r a t i v e , s t o r y , drama, i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e that our s e n s i t i v i t y to n a r r a t i v e p r o v i d e s the major l i n k between our own sense of s e l f and our sense of others i n the s o c i a l world around us. The common c o i n may be pr o v i d e d by the forms of n a r r a t i v e that the c u l t u r e o f f e r s us. Again, l i f e c o u l d be s a i d to i m i t a t e a r t ( I b i d . , 1986, p.69) . Thus s e n s i t i v i t y to n a r r a t i v e mode w i t h i n the context of c u l t u r e enables the process of t r a n s a c t i o n , the development of s e l f and i t s c a p a c i t y f o r r e f l e c t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and the general development and l e a r n i n g of the i n d i v i d u a l . In summary, Bruner views the development of the t r a n s a c t i o n a l s e l f w i t h i n the context of c u l t u r e as a process in which: I t would seem a warranted c o n c l u s i o n , then, that our "smooth"and easy t r a n s a c t i o n s and the r e g u l a t o r y s e l f t h a t executes them, s t a r t i n g as a b i o l o g i c a l readiness based on a p r i m i t i v e a p p r e c i a t i o n of other minds, i s then r e i n f o r c e d and e n r i c h e d by the c a l i b r a t i o n a l power that language bestows, i s given a l a r g e r - s c a l e map on which to operate by the c u l t u r e i n which t r a n s a c t i o n s take p l a c e , and ends by being a r e f l e c t i o n of the h i s t o r y of that c u l t u r e as that h i s t o r y i s co n t a i n e d i n the c u l t u r e ' s images, n a r r a t i v e s , and t o o l k i t ( I b i d . , 1986, p.67). In Bruner's conception the development of mind and consciousness are i n e x t r i c a b l y l i n k e d to the gene r a l human developmental process which evolves i n the matrix of the 75 i n t e r a c t i n g f o r c e s of l e a r n i n g , language, c u l t u r e , and s e l f . 9. The i n f l u e n c e of Vygotsky and Goodman Bruner acknowledges the primary i n f l u e n c e of Vygotsky (1962, 1978) and Goodman (1978, 1984) i n h i s c u r r e n t t h i n k i n g , which emphasizes the key r o l e that consciousness p l a y s i n human development and l e a r n i n g . The ways i n which each of these t h e o r i s t s works have c o n t r i b u t e d to Bruner's conceptions w i l l now be e x p l o r e d . a. Vygotsky Bruner acknowledges a debt to Vygotsky f o r h i s c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of language and c u l t u r e to human development, and the r o l e of consciousness i n l e a r n i n g . C e n t r a l to Vygotsky's t h i n k i n g was the P a v l o v i a n concept of "The Second S i g n a l System", the world processed through language i n c o n t r a s t to the world of the senses. I t represents the idea of nature transformed by h i s t o r y and c u l t u r e through the encoding power of language ( I b i d . , 1986, pp.70-71). Vygotsky's major premise was the view that man i s "subject to the d i a l e c t i c a l p l a y between nature and h i s t o r y , between h i s q u a l i t i e s as a c r e a t u r e of b i o l o g y and as a product of human c u l t u r e " ( I b i d . , 1986, p.71). Language and consciousness are mediating f a c t o r s i n t h i s d i a l e c t i c . People e x h i b i t u n i t y of p e r c e p t i o n , speech and a c t i o n . Thought and speech, as f a c e t s of language, f u n c t i o n as instruments f o r the planning 76 and c a r r y i n g out of a c t i o n : Language i s . . . a way of s o r t i n g out one's thoughts about t h i n g s . Thought i s a mode of o r g a n i z i n g p e r c e p t i o n and a c t i o n . But a l l of them each i n t h e i r way, a l s o r e f l e c t s the t o o l s and a i d s a v a i l a b l e i n the c u l t u r e f o r use i n c a r r y i n g out a c t i o n ( I b i d . , 1986, p.72). These t o o l s and a i d s made a v a i l a b l e vary from c u l t u r e to c u l t u r e . In every c u l t u r e " . . . s o c i e t y p r o v i d e s a t o o l k i t of concepts and ideas and t h e o r i e s that permit one to get to higher ground mentally" (Ibid.,1986, p.73). As new higher concepts are formed, they transform lower concepts. These new concepts g i v e people new vantage p o i n t s or broader p e r s p e c t i v e s on t h e i r o l d concepts. They provide a way of t u r n i n g around on thoughts and seeing them i n a new l i g h t ; a process of mind r e f l e c t i n g on i t s e l f ; a process of consciousness ( I b i d . , p.73). Consciousness, equipped with concepts and the language f o r forming and transfo r m i n g them, p l a y s a major r o l e i n mediating between the i n d i v i d u a l and c u l t u r e . Consciousness or r e f l e c t i o n i s a means of c o n t r o l which develop w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l : Consciousness and c o n t r o l appear only at a l a t e stage i n the development of a f u n c t i o n , a f t e r i t has been used and p r a c t i c e d u n c o n s c i o u s l y and spontaneously. In order to sub j e c t a f u n c t i o n to i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n t r o l , we must f i r s t possess i t (Thought and Language, p.90 i n I b i d . , p.73). Bruner p o i n t s out that "This suggests that p r i o r to the development of s e l f - d i r e c t e d , c o nscious c o n t r o l , a c t i o n i s , so to speak, a more d i r e c t or l e s s mediated response to the world" ( I b i d . , p.73). S e l f - d i r e c t e d conscious r e f l e c t i o n i s 77 developed as the l e a r n e r develops the c a p a c i t y f o r i n t e r n a l d i a l o g u e or thought. Bruner c a l l s thought a c o n t i n u a t i o n of d i a l o g u e i n agreement with Vygotsky's concept of thought as the i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n of d i a l o g u e ( I b i d . , 1983, pp.215-216). The c a p a c i t y f o r thought, and t h e r e f o r e f o r p e r s o n a l c o n t r o l , i s developed as the e x t e r n a l l e a r n i n g d i a l o g u e through c u l t u r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , such as teachers or peers, i s i n t e r n a l i z e d . Although Vygotsky, i n the f a s h i o n of most l e a r n i n g t h e o r i s t s , c o n c e n t r a t e s on the c h i l d as l e a r n e r , h i s l e a r n i n g theory can be f r u i t f u l l y a p p l i e d to a d u l t l e a r n i n g as w e l l . Vygotsky says that human l e a r n i n g "presupposes a s p e c i f i c s o c i a l nature and a process by which c h i l d r e n grow i n t o the i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e of those around them" (Mind i n S o c i e t y , p.88, i n I b i d . , 1986, p.73). The Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), i s a Vygotsky concept of major relevance to l e a r n i n g theory. The ZPD i s : ...the d i s t a n c e between the a c t u a l developmental l e v e l as determined by independent problem s o l v i n g and the l e v e l of p o t e n t i a l development as determined through problem s o l v i n g under a d u l t guidance or i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n with more capable peers" (Mind i n S o c i e t y , p.86, i n I b i d . , p.73). I t seems reasonable to propose that the ZPD can be extended to account f o r the way i n which the more competent a s s i s t the l e s s competent, whatever t h e i r age, and whatever the form or mode of l e a r n i n g . The primary importance of the ZPD concept i s that i t emphasizes the s o c i a l and developmental nature of human l e a r n i n g . Vygotsky b e l i e v e d that the modernization of the Russian 78 peasant c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d i n the same way as one d e s c r i b e s the mental growth of a c h i l d as a c r e a t i v e process of f u s i n g c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n and cons c i o u s n e s s . The goal was a c o n v e r s i o n of consciousness or the c r e a t i o n of new cons c i o u s n e s s : He b e l i e v e d that the t r a n s m i s s i o n of mind a c r o s s h i s t o r y i s e f f e c t e d by s u c c e s s i v e mental sh a r i n g s that assure a p a s s i n g on of ideas from the more able or advanced to the l e s s so. And the medium i n which the t r a n s m i s s i o n occurs i s language and i t s products: l i t e r a c y , s c i e n c e , technology, l i t e r a t u r e . . . . L a n g u a g e , whether i n a r t or i n s c i e n c e , r e f l e c t e d our l i v e s i n h i s t o r y . Yet at the same time i t c o u l d p r o p e l us beyond h i s t o r y ( I b i d . , pp.74-75). Bruner explores how t h i s t r a n s m i s s i o n of mind acr o s s the ZPD may occur by r e f e r r i n g to s t u d i e s i n t u t o r i n g and the way in which the t u t o r a c t s as "consciousness f o r two" ( I b i d . , p.75). He r e d e f i n e s the ZPD as the zone "that e x i s t s between what people can recognize or comprehend when present before them, and what they can generate on t h e i r own" ( I b i d . , pp.75-76). In a l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n the more competent (the t u t o r ) serves as a " v i c a r i o u s c o n s c i o u s n e s s " f o r others and makes a "loan of con s c i o u s n e s s " to the l e s s competent (the l e a r n e r ) i n a dynamic n e g o t i a b l e t r a n s a c t i o n . Learning i s a c o l l a b o r a t i v e e n t e r p r i s e i n which the t u t o r e n t e r s i n t o a d i a l o g u e with the l e a r n e r and guides the l e a r n i n g process ( I b i d . , p. 132). The t u t o r i d e a l l y "remains f o r e v e r on the growing edge of the c h i l d ' s ( l e a r n e r ' s ) competence" l e n d i n g consciousness to the l e a r n e r as a c r u t c h that w i l l enable the l e a r n e r to achieve h i s \ h e r own consciousness ( I b i d . , pp.76-77). Vygotsky reasoned that the a c q u i s i t i o n of language i s a paradigm case for the e x p l a n a t i o n of l e a r n i n g i n that the " a s p i r a n t speaker 79 must " b o r r o w " t h e k n o w l e d g e a n d c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f t h e t u t o r t o e n t e r a l a n g u a g e " ( I b i d . , p. 7 6 ) . I t seems i m p l i c i t h e r e t h a t c o n s c i o u s n e s s i s a human c a p a c i t y w h i c h r e q u i r e s a s s i s t a n c e f r o m o t h e r s f o r i t s f u l l d e v e l o p m e n t a nd t h a t a d u l t s , a s w e l l a s c h i l d r e n , may s t i l l n e e d a " l o a n o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s " i f t h e y a r e t o a c h i e v e t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t p o t e n t i a l . A new a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r , a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f , t h e c a p a c i t y f o r c o n s c i o u s n e s s may be t h e g o a l o f t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g i n v o l v i n g c h a n g e s i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s . V y g o t s k y ' s c e n t r a l c o n t r i b u t i o n was i n e m p h a s i z i n g t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f " u n d e r s t a n d i n g man a s a p r o d u c t o f c u l t u r e a s w e l l a s a p r o d u c t o f n a t u r e " ( I b i d . , p . 7 8 ) . " H i s o b j e c t i v e was t o e x p l o r e how human s o c i e t y p r o v i d e d i n s t r u m e n t s t o empower t h e i n d i v i d u a l m i n d " ( I b i d . , 1 9 8 3 , p . 1 3 7 ) . He u n d e r s t o o d t h e b u r d e n o f l e a r n i n g t o be d i v i d e d b e t w e e n t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d h i s s o c i e t y i n t h a t t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s t o o k p l a c e u n d e r a d u l t g u i d a n c e o r i n c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h more c a p a b l e p e e r s ( I b i d . , p . 1 8 1 ) . I n t h i s way V y g o t s k y s t r e s s e d t h e c u l t u r a l c omponent a n d t h e s o c i a l n a t u r e o f l e a r n i n g , i n t e r m s o f t h e u s e o f c u l t u r a l t o o l s s u c h a s l a n g u a g e , a n d t h e c o l l a b o r a t i o n o r g u i d a n c e n e c e s s a r y b e t w e e n t h e e d u c a t o r a n d t h e l e a r n e r i n t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . He r e c o g n i z e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f l a n g u a g e , b o t h a s a m e d i a t i n g f a c t o r b e t w e e n t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d c u l t u r e , a n d a s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e o p e r a t i o n o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s , a s t h e key t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r o c e s s e s o f human c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d l e a r n i n g . Thus he 80 h i g h l i g h t e d the s o c i a l nature of l e a r n i n g , and the c e n t r a l r o l e of the t r a n s m i s s i o n of mind or r e f l e c t i v e consciousness i n the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . b. Goodman Bruner conceives r e a l i t y to be m u l t i - f a c e t e d and dynamic, and the i n d i v i d u a l ' s experience of v a r i o u s f a c e t s of r e a l i t y as e q u i v a l e n t to the experience of d i f f e r e n t worlds. The work of Goodman (1978, 1984) helps Bruner e x p l a i n how d i f f e r e n t r e a l i t i e s or d i f f e r e n t worlds are c r e a t e d by i n d i v i d u a l s and c u l t u r e s . F i r s t , Bruner o u t l i n e s b r i e f l y i n h i s own terms the worlds we are a l l f a m i l i a r with: Most of what we d e a l with i n the s o c i a l world...could not e x i s t but f o r a symbolic system that b r i n g s that world i n t o e x i s t e n c e : n a t i o n a l or l o c a l l o y a l t y , money, memberships, promises, p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . The same can be s a i d as w e l l , though in somewhat d i f f e r e n t form, f o r the world of "nature", f o r our experience of nature i s shaped by conceptions of i t formed i n d i s c o u r s e with o t h e r s . . . the " r e a l i t y " of most of us i s c o n s t i t u t e d roughly i n t o two spheres: that of nature and that of human a f f a i r s , the former more l i k e l y to be s t r u c t u r e d i n the paradigmatic mode of l o g i c and s c i e n c e , the l a t t e r i n the mode of s t o r y and n a r r a t i v e . The l a t t e r i s centered around the drama of human i n t e n t i o n s and t h e i r v i c i s s i t u d e s : the f i r s t around the e q u a l l y compelling, e q u a l l y n a t u r a l idea of c a u s a t i o n . The s u b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y that c o n s t i t u t e s an i n d i v i d u a l ' s sense of h i s world i s roughly d i v i d e d i n t o a n a t u r a l and a human one ( I b i d . , p.88) . In a s k i n g what p s y c h o l o g i c a l processes account f o r these two worlds of p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i t y Bruner says "The q u e s t i o n i s not whether two s e t s of processes produce two d i f f e r e n t worlds, but how any processes c o u l d produce the world c o n s t r u c t i o n s we f i n d " ( I b i d . , p.89). To answer t h i s q u e s t i o n 81 Bruner t u r n s to the philosophy of Nelson Goodman. Nelson Goodman (1978, 1984) presents a c o n s t r u c t i v i s t p h i l o s o p h y , which i s at one str o k e a philosophy of s c i e n c e , a philosophy of a r t , and a philosophy of c o g n i t i o n . He c a l l s i t a ph i l o s o p h y of understanding: I t s c e n t r a l t h e s i s " c o n s t r u c t i v i s m , " i s that c o n t r a r y to common sense there i s no unique " r e a l world" that p r e e x i s t s and i s independent of human mental a c t i v i t y and human symbolic language; that what we c a l l the world i s a product of some mind whose symbolic procedures c o n s t r u c t the world ( I b i d . , p.95). The world we l i v e i n , the world as i t appears to us, i s "c r e a t e d " by mind. The d i v e r s e and complex set of a c t i v i t i e s which comprise world making i n v o l v e s c r e a t i n g or "making not with hands but with minds, or ra t h e r with languages or other symbol systems" (Ways of Worldmaking, p.42 i n I b i d . , p.96). The worlds that a r t i s t s , s c i e n t i s t s , and o r d i n a r y people c r e a t e are c o n s t r u c t e d , but always out of other worlds, c r e a t e d by o t h e r s , which they take as g i v e n . We a l l c r e a t e world's f o r v a r i o u s purposes, and we always base our c o n s t r u c t e d v e r s i o n on a p r e v i o u s l y c o n s t r u c t e d world which we have taken as given to s u i t our purposes ( I b i d . , p.96). "Any p r e v i o u s l y c o n s t r u c t e d world v e r s i o n may be taken as given f o r subsequent c o n s t r u c t i o n s . So, i n e f f e c t , world making i n v o l v e s the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of worlds and world v e r s i o n s a l r e a d y made" ( I b i d . , p.97). Bruner r e c o g n i z e s Goodman's work as a r a t i o n a l e f o r the processes of world making and world t r a n s f o r m a t i o n which Bruner had come to f e e l were b a s i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the 82 development of the human mind and consciousness. He l i n k s h i s own ideas about the importance of r e c o g n i z i n g the d i s c i p l i n e s of s c i e n c e and the humanities as windows on the o p e r a t i o n s of mind and consciousness to Goodman's conceptions of world making as a way of demonstrating the r o l e of consciousness i n human development. 1 0 . Mind, consciousness and world-making If we take as "given that mind i t s e l f c o n s t r u c t s s c i e n t i f i c t h e o r i e s , h i s t o r i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s , or metaphoric renderings of experience by r e l a t e d forms of world making ( I b i d . , p. 4 4 ) , then our conception of both s c i e n c e and the humanities must be seen i n an e n t i r e l y new l i g h t . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of both s c i e n c e and the humanities i s heightened as both: ...come to be a p p r e c i a t e d as a r t f u l figments of men's minds as c r e a t i o n s produced by d i f f e r e n t uses of mind. The world of M i l t o n ' s "Paradise L o s t " and the world of Newton's P r i n c i p i a e x i s t not only i n the minds of men; each has an e x i s t e n c e i n an " o b j e c t i v e world" of c u l t u r e -w.hat the p h i l o s o p h e r K a r l Popper c a l l s world Three. They are both, i n the sense of modern modal l o g i c , c o l l e c t i o n s of p o s s i b l e worlds ( I b i d . , pp. 4 4 - 4 5 ) . Bruner i m p l i e s that i t i s of primary importance f o r humans to be aware of t h e i r p o t e n t i a l f o r c r e a t i n g " p o s s i b l e worlds," t h e i r r o l e i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the worlds they l i v e i n , and t h e i r c a p a c i t y to l e a r n how the process of c o n s t r u c t i o n takes p l a c e : . . . i t i s f a r more important, f o r a p p r e c i a t i o n the human c o n d i t i o n , to understand the ways human beings c o n s t r u c t t h e i r worlds... than i t i s to e s t a b l i s h the o n t o l o g i c a l 83 s t a t u s of the products of these p r o c e s s e s . For my c e n t r a l o n t o l o g i c a l c o n v i c t i o n i s that there i s no " a b o r i g i n a l " r e a l i t y a g a i n s t which one can compare a p o s s i b l e world i n order to e s t a b l i s h some form of correspondence between i t and the r e a l world ( I b i d . , p. 46). E x p l o r i n g the human c a p a c i t y f o r world making; e x p l o r i n g how we c r e a t e products of the mind, the worlds of r e a l i t y i n which we l i v e , how we come to experience them as r e a l , and how we manage to b u i l d them i n t o our c u l t u r e are Bruner's concern. E x p l i c i t l y , Bruner s t a t e s that such an e x p l o r a t i o n w i l l g ive us a g r e a t e r understanding of the human c o n d i t i o n , and i m p l i c i t l y , he p r o j e c t s that t h i s e x p l o r a t i o n w i l l a l s o y i e l d understanding of how the human c o n d i t i o n can be c o n s c i o u s l y guided towards c o n s t r u c t i v e i n d i v i d u a l and c u l t u r a l change. T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l i n v e s t i g a t e some of the f a c t o r s which Bruner f e e l s are the foundations f o r these e x p l o r a t i o n s . At the heart of our world making i s the process of p e r c e p t i o n , which must be understood as i n v o l v i n g more than a carbon copy of our o r d i n a r y sense impressions: .. . P e r c e p t i o n i s to some u n s p e c i f i a b l e degree an instrument of the world as we have s t r u c t u r e d i t by our ex p e c t a n c i e s . Moreover, i t i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of complex p e r c e p t u a l processes that they tend where p o s s i b l e to a s s i m i l a t e whatever i s seen or heard to what i s expected ( I b i d . , p.47). Thus p e r c e p t i o n , and u l t i m a t e l y our thought and language are guided by the worlds, the "models i n the head," that we c r e a t e . In most i n d i v i d u a l s these models or worlds "appear to be d i v e r s e , r i c h , l o c a l , and e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y g e n e r a t i v e " ( I b i d . , p.47). Bruner argues s t r o n g l y that these "models i n the head" are 84 based on g e n e r a l understanding, from which hypotheses can be generated from the p a r t i c u l a r s of past experience and then t e s t e d a g a i n s t f u t u r e experience ( I b i d . , p.184). T h i s idea echoes c o n s t r u c t i v i s t ideas of other t h e o r i s t s i . e . , K e l l y (1955), but Bruner goes on to connect t h i s i n d i v i d u a l use of mind with i t s c u l t u r a l r e f l e c t i o n s : The great d i s c i p l i n e s l i k e p h y s i c s or mathematics, or h i s t o r y , or dramatic forms i n l i t e r a t u r e , were, i n t h i s view, l e s s r e p o s i t o r i e s of knowledge than of methods f o r the use of mind. They p r o v i d e d the s t r u c t u r e that gave meaning to the p a r t i c u l a r s . That, a f t e r a l l , was what c u l t u r e was about. The o b j e c t of education was to get as s w i f t l y as p o s s i b l e to that s t r u c t u r e - t o penetrate a s u b j e c t , not to cover i t ( I b i d . , pp.184-185). Our p e r s o n a l worlds, our c o l l e c t i o n s of "models i n the head," are unique, but through language and c u l t u r e we are abl e to some extent to share worlds and come to understand one another. We can understand how t h i s process works by examining the c u l t u r a l l y shared worlds of s c i e n c e and the humanities. Science and the humanities are c u l t u r a l l y shared "models i n the head" or " p o s s i b l e worlds" which have a major e f f e c t on the way we see the world i n which we l i v e . They are, i n e f f e c t , two very d i f f e r e n t forms of an i l l u s i o n of r e a l i t y based p r i m a r i l y on the two major modes of consciousness, the paradigmatic and the n a r r a t i v e modes, which use very d i f f e r e n t s e t s of methods to c r e a t e those r e a l i t i e s . S cience, i s o r i e n t e d outward towards an e x t e r n a l world while the humanities are o r i e n t e d inward toward a p e r s p e c t i v e and a p o i n t of view toward the world ( I b i d . , p.52). T h i s o r i e n t a t i o n , or stance has a major bearing on the type of 85 world that i s c r e a t e d : ...the humanist d e a l s p r i n c i p a l l y with the world as i t changes with the p o s i t i o n and stance of the viewer. Science c r e a t e s a world that has an " e x i s t e n c e " l i n k e d to the i n v a r i a n c e of t h i n g s and events a c r o s s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s i n the l i f e c o n d i t i o n s of those who seek to understand-though modern p h y s i c s has shown that t h i s i s t r u e w i t h i n very c o n s t r a i n e d l i m i t s . The humanities seek to understand the world as i t r e f l e c t s the requirements of l i v i n g i n i t . . . ( A work in the humanities) a c h i e v e s u n i v e r s a l i t y through context s e n s i t i v i t y , a work of s c i e n c e through context independence ( I b i d . , p.50). Bruner i m p l i e s that the s t r e n g t h and importance of the humanities as methods of world making and consciousness c r e a t i n g l i e s i n t h e i r i m p l i c i t agenda, "the c u l t i v a t i o n of hypotheses, the a r t of hypothesis g e n e r a t i o n " ( I b i d . , p.52). I t i s i n hypothesis g e n e r a t i o n ( i n c o n t r a s t to the s c i e n t i f i c g o al of hypothesis f a l s i f i c a t i o n ) that "one c u l t i v a t e s m u l t i p l e p e r s p e c t i v e s and p o s s i b l e worlds to match the requirements of those p e r s p e c t i v e s " ( I b i d . , p. 52). Bruner concludes that the "ornaments" of consciousness, the a r t s and humanities, are a l s o t o o l s : For they, the works of a r t and the c a n o n i c a l c u l t u r a l forms, are instruments f o r e n v i s a g i n g p o s s i b i l i t y communally. They are a means of c o n t i n u i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n by s o c i a l means that can then be i n t e r n a l i z e d i n thought, in i n t e r n a l d i a l o g u e ( I b i d . , 1983, p.216). I t f o l l o w s that the humanities open p o s s i b i l i t i e s both f o r the i n d i v i d u a l and f o r the c u l t u r e f o r "the o b j e c t of understanding human events i s to sense the a l t e r n a t i v e n e s s of human p o s s i b i l i t y " ( I b i d . , 1986, p 53). I t i s t h i s conscious awareness of the a l t e r n a t i v e n e s s of human p o s s i b i l i t y , the awareness of the human c a p a c i t y f o r world making, that may be 86 h y p o t h e s i s e d to be a core concept f o r the understanding of l e a r n i n g i n v o l v i n g changes i n cons c i o u s n e s s . But the f u n c t i o n of the humanities as t o o l s of consciousness may even go beyond sensing the " a l t e r n a t i v e n e s s of human p o s s i b i l i t y ; " the humanities may a l s o be t o o l s f o r tr a n s f o r m i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Bruner (1979) e x p l o r e s the a c t s of c r e a t i o n that produce the humanities and the a r t s , and concludes that the pr o d u c t i o n of " e f f e c t i v e s u r p r i s e s " i s i n t e g r a l to these a c t s of c r e a t i o n . "An act that produces e f f e c t i v e s u r p r i s e - t h i s I s h a l l take as the hallmark of a c r e a t i v e e n t e r p r i s e . " ( I b i d . , 1979, p.18). C r e a t i o n of e f f e c t i v e s u r p r i s e i s o f t e n the r e s u l t of connecting of d i v e r s e experiences by the mediation of symbol, metaphor and image. "Metaphoric combination leaps beyond systematic placement, e x p l o r e s connections that before were unsuspected" ( I b i d . , 1979, p.20). Bruner proposes "that a l l of the forms of e f f e c t i v e s u r p r i s e grow out of c o m b i n a t o r i a l a c t i v i t y - a p l a c i n g of t h i n g s i n new p e r s p e c t i v e s " ( I b i d . , 1979, p. 20). "The triumph of e f f e c t i v e s u r p r i s e i s that i t takes one beyond common ways of e x p e r i e n c i n g the w o r l d . . . C r e a t i v e products have t h i s power of r e o r d e r i n g experience and thought i n t h e i r image" ( I b i d , 1979, p.22). Although Bruner (1979) does not make an e x p l i c i t c o n n e c t i o n between changes i n consciousness and the way a work of a r t c r e a t e s " e f f e c t i v e s u r p r i s e s " and p l a c e s t h i n g s i n "new p e r s p e c t i v e s , " l a t e r Bruner (1983) pro v i d e s the connecting 87 l i n k by proposing that "perhaps a work of a r t c r e a t e s i t s magic by p r o v i d i n g a v e h i c l e f o r t r a n s f o r m i n g , transmuting, r e a r r a n g i n g consciousness?" ( I b i d . , 1983, p.203). The humanities and the a r t s may thus provide a means not only of understanding the processes of i n d i v i d u a l consciousness i n i t s own r i g h t , but a l s o the processes of s h a r i n g and tr a n s f o r m i n g c o n s c i o u s n e s s . A c a r e f u l study of the a r t s and humanities under the guidance of t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e may l e a d to a gr e a t e r understanding of the i n d i v i d u a l process of t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g i n v o l v i n g changes i n co n s c i o u s n e s s . Perhaps i t i s p o s s i b l e to spe c u l a t e that as the paradigmatic mode gave humanity power over nature, so too, the n a r r a t i v e mode can give humanity power i n i t s own r i g h t , i f we are w i l l i n g to l e a r n from i t ; the n a r r a t i v e mode may give humanity power over mind. 1 1 . Developmental theory as c u l t u r e In what way does Bruner e n v i s i o n the power of the n a r r a t i v e mode to a f f e c t our understanding of, and our c a p a c i t y to i n f l u e n c e mind? His method i s a par a b l e about t h e o r i e s of human development, past, present, and p o s s i b l e f u t u r e . As an example of how c r e a t e d worlds become r e a l i t y Bruner examines the developmental t h e o r i e s of Freud, P i a g e t and Vygotsky and t h e i r impact on our c u l t u r e . The view of each t h e o r i s t expresses a c u l t u r a l p o s t u r e : 88 Freud faces the present from the p a s t : growth i s by f r e e i n g . Piaget r e s p e c t s the i n v i o l a t e i n t e g r i t y of the pre s e n t : growth i s the n u r t u r i n g of i n t r i n s i c l o g i c . And Vygotsky turns the c u l t u r a l past i n t o the g e n e r a t i v e present by which we reach toward the f u t u r e : growth i s reaching ( I b i d . , p.145). Each of these t h e o r i e s was a p p l i c a b l e i n the c u l t u r e which generated them. "Theories of human development, once accepted i n t o the p r e v a i l i n g c u l t u r e . . . give a s o c i a l r e a l i t y to the processes they seek to e x p l i c a t e ( I b i d . , p.134). Tr u t h i s dependent on context, on the r e a l i t y of a c r e a t e d world, and t h e r e f o r e "..the t r u t h s of t h e o r i e s of development are r e l a t i v e to the c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t s in which they are a p p l i e d " ( I b i d . , p. 135). Humans develop a c c o r d i n g to the way i n which t h e i r g e n e t i c i n h e r i t a n c e and t h e i r c u l t u r a l i n h e r i t a n c e i n t e r a c t . Human c u l t u r e and the human genome are the two paths on which i n s t r u c t i o n s about how humans should grow are c a r r i e d from one gene r a t i o n to the next. "Human c u l t u r e simply p r o v i d e s ways of development among the many that are made p o s s i b l e by our p l a s t i c g e n e t i c i n h e r i t a n c e " ( I b i d . , p.135). The p l a s t i c i t y of human genetic endowment and the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of c u l t u r a l development have a major i m p l i c a t i o n f o r t h e o r i e s of human development, and t h e o r i e s of l e a r n i n g i n v o l v i n g the development of mind and co n s c i o u s n e s s : For the impact of ideas about mind does not stem from t h e i r t r u t h , but seemingly from the power they exert as p o s s i b i l i t i e s embedded i n the p r a c t i c e s of a c u l t u r e . . . . p o s s i b i l i t y when widely enough accepted i s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o n e c e s s i t y ( I b i d . , p.138). Thus the power of ideas r e s t s i n t h e i r c a p a c i t y to c r e a t e 89 " p o s s i b l e worlds" which people and c u l t u r e s may accept as part of t h e i r r e a l i t y or as t r a n s f o r m a t i v e seeds f o r the development of a new r e a l i t y . Bruner suggests that we need to c r e a t e new p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r human development through the c r e a t i o n of a new breed of developmental theory. He has a v i s i o n of a " p o s s i b l e world" fo r human development and l e a r n i n g : It w i l l be motivated by the qu e s t i o n of how to c r e a t e a new gen e r a t i o n that can prevent the world from d i s s o l v i n g i n t o chaos and d e s t r o y i n g i t s e l f . I thin k that i t s c e n t r a l t e c h n i c a l concern w i l l be how to c r e a t e i n the young an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the f a c t that many worlds are p o s s i b l e , that meaning and r e a l i t y are c r e a t e d and not d i s c o v e r e d , that n e g o t i a t i o n i s the a r t of c o n s t r u c t i n g new meanings by which i n d i v i d u a l s can r e g u l a t e t h e i r r e l a t i o n s with each other. I t w i l l not, I t h i n k , be an image of human development that l o c a t e s a l l of the sources of change i n s i d e the i n d i v i d u a l , the s o l o child....man, s u r e l y , i s not "an i s l a n d , e n t i r e of i t s e l f " but a pa r t of the c u l t u r e that he i n h e r i t s and then r e c r e a t e s . The power to r e c r e a t e r e a l i t y , to re i n v e n t c u l t u r e , we w i l l come to rec o g n i z e , i s where a theory of development must begin i t s d i s c u s s i o n of mind ( I b i d . , p.149). Although Bruner a p p l i e s h i s v i s i o n to the development of the young, t h i s developmental v i s i o n must e q u a l l y be a p p l i e d to the c o n c e p t i o n of a d u l t l e a r n i n g . B r i g h t v i s i o n s of p o s s i b l e worlds can be c r e a t e d by a d u l t s who are c o n s c i o u s l y aware of t h e i r c a p a c i t y to l e a r n to transform t h e i r own consciousness and worlds. The process of t r a n s i t i o n to those worlds can be brought about much more q u i c k l y i f the a d u l t s of a c u l t u r e and the world f i r s t c r e a t e the v i s i o n and the matching p o s s i b l e worlds as a bequest to t h e i r young. 90 12. C o n c l u s i o n Although he does not d i r e c t l y o f f e r a theory of l e a r n i n g , the e v o l u t i o n of thought which c o u l d be a p p l i e d to understanding l e a r n i n g as a t r a n s f o r m a t i v e process i s c l e a r and strong i n B r u n e r 1 s work. T h i s e x p l o r a t i o n of the development of h i s thought p r o v i d e s a broad t h e o r e t i c a l approach to a concept of l e a r n i n g as a t r a n s f o r m a t i v e process i n v o l v i n g consciousness and changes i n c o n s c i o u s n e s s . C. FREIRE: CONSCIENTIZATION 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n F r e i r e , a B r a z i l i a n p h i l o s o p h e r - p o l i t i c i a n - e d u c a t o r , has developed a complex t h e o r e t i c a l approach to l e a r n i n g i n which changes of c o n s c i o u s n e s s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y the development of c r i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , are a c e n t r a l dynamic. F r e i r e ' s theory of c o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n and h i s e d u c a t i o n a l methodology were developed c o n c u r r e n t l y i n h i s work with a d u l t l i t e r a c y e d ucation i n B r a z i l (1947-1964) and l a t e r i n C h i l e and elsewhere i n the world. F r e i r e ' s l i f e ' s work has been d e d i c a t e d to improving the l o t of the poor and uneducated by viewing education, p r i m a r i l y l i t e r a c y education and education f o r c r i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , as a means of i n i t i a t i n g s o c i a l reform. His philosophy and e d u c a t i o n a l theory has been developed out of an attempt to i n t e g r a t e M a r x i s t and C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s . His c o n t e n t i o n i s 91 that through c o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n the e x p l o i t e d and oppressed w i l l become aware of themselves i n t h e i r own r e a l i t y and as a r e s u l t of t h i s awareness they w i l l be able to become a c t i v e agents i n the c r e a t i o n and c o n t r o l of t h e i r own f u t u r e . F r e i r e ' s t h e o r i e s and methodology, based on t h i s c o n t e n t i o n , have had world-wide impact on e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s . Although F r e i r e formulates h i s ideas i n terms of a philosophy and methodology of ed u c a t i o n , h i s conception of l e a r n i n g i s c l e a r l y i m p l i e d i n these f o r m u l a t i o n s . His i d e a l e d u c a t i o n a l process r e f l e c t s the l e a r n i n g process i n v o l v e d . A s u c c i n c t account of the b a s i c f e a t u r e s of F r e i r e ' s theory of education i s not to be found i n h i s w r i t i n g s . One must glean the g i s t of h i s thoughts on l e a r n i n g from h i s t h e o r i e s about the r e l a t i o n s h i p of education and human consc i o u s n e s s , which are h i s main themes, from h i s w r i t i n g s as a whole. Even t h i s task i s made d i f f i c u l t by the f a c t that h i s meaning i s o f t e n obscured by c o n f u s i n g r h e t o r i c and a "convoluted, d u l l , o v e r l y metaphysical s t y l e , devoid of the r e a l human experience which generated such p r o v o c a t i v e i d e a s " (Boston, i n Grabowski, 1972, p.86). N e v e r t h e l e s s , h i s ideas about the r e l a t i o n s h i p of l e a r n i n g and changes i n consciousness have had powerful p r a c t i c a l consequences and deserve c l o s e examination. An overview of F r e i r e ' s ideas about l e a r n i n g i n r e l a t i o n to changes i n consciousness f o l l o w s . 2. P h i l o s o p h i c a l assumptions 92 F r e i r e ' s philosophy has been d e s c r i b e d as r e l a t i n g most c l o s e l y to pragmatism, in h i s emphasis on viewing l e a r n i n g from w i t h i n the p e r s p e c t i v e of the day-to-day problems of the l e a r n e r s ; e x i s t e n t i a l i s m , i n h i s view of people as capable of freedom i n t h e i r encounter with r e a l i t y ; and humanism, i n h i s concern f o r e n a b l i n g people to become aware of and use t h e i r own power to "break through otherwise o p p r e s s i v e and d e b i l i t a t i n g b a r r i e r s to l i f e " (Farmer, i n Grabowski, 1972, p.4). These p h i l o s o p h i c a l roots are f u r t h e r augmented by F r e i r e ' s attempt to i n t e g r a t e M a r x i s t and C h r i s t i a n p r i n c i p l e s i n t o h i s education theory and methodology. F r e i r e f e e l s that the uniqueness of human e x i s t e n c e l i e s i n humanity's a b i l i t y to separate s e l f from the environment, and to communicate and r e l a t e a c r o s s the gap, that the f a c t of s e p a r a t i o n c r e a t e s , between s e l f and o t h e r s , and s e l f and the world: To be human i s to engage in r e l a t i o n s h i p s with others and with the world. I t i s to experience that world as an o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y , independent of o n e s e l f , capable of being known. Animals, submerged w i t h i n r e a l i t y , cannot r e l a t e to i t ; they are c r e a t u r e s of mere c o n t a c t s . But man's separateness from and openness to the world d i s t i n g u i s h e s him as a being of r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Men, u n l i k e animals, are not only i n the world but with the world ( F r e i r e , 1973, p.3). F r e i r e ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of e x i s t e n c e i s important to an understanding of the importance he g i v e s to r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n human e x i s t e n c e : As used here to e x i s t i s more than to l i v e , because i t i s more than being i n the world: i t i s to be with the world as w e l l . And t h i s c a p a c i t y f o r communication between the being which e x i s t s and the o b j e c t i v e world g i v e s to 93 " e x i s t i n g " a q u a l i t y of c r i t i c a l c a p a c i t y not present i n mere " l i v i n g . " Transcending, d i s c e r n i n g , e n t e r i n g i n t o d i a l o g u e (communicating and p a r t i c i p a t i n g ) are e x c l u s i v e l y a t t r i b u t e s of e x i s t e n c e . One can only e x i s t in r e l a t i o n to others who a l s o e x i s t , and i n communication with them ( I b i d . , pp.3 - 4 ) . Humanity i s f r e e to use i t s power to form r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n a m u l t i p l i c i t y of ways: ...men are not l i m i t e d to a s i n g l e r e a c t i o n pattern.They organize themselves, choose the best response, t e s t themselves, a c t , and change i n the very a ct of responding. They do a l l t h i s c o n s c i o u s l y , as one uses a t o o l to d e a l with a problem ( I b i d . , p.3 ) . Thus, humanity c o n s c i o u s l y uses the power to b u i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s as a t o o l i n t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s with the world. In a d d i t i o n , "men r e l a t e to t h e i r world i n a c r i t i c a l way" ( I b i d . , p.3 ) . They understand o b j e c t i v e r e a l i t y through r e f l e c t i o n and i n t h i s a ct of c r i t i c a l p e r c e p t i o n d i s c o v e r t h e i r own t e m p o r a l i t y and achieve a sense of t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l nature. "Transcending a s i n g l e dimension, they reach back to yesterday, recognize today, and come upon tomorrow" ( I b i d . , p.3 ) . Because humanity has the power to emerge from time, d i s c o v e r t e m p o r a l i t y , and f r e e themselves from "today," they are a b l e to be a c t i v e and c r e a t i v e i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with the world: Because they are not l i m i t e d to the n a t u r a l ( b i o l o g i c a l ) sphere but p a r t i c i p a t e i n the c r e a t i v e dimension as w e l l , men can interve n e i n r e a l i t y i n order to change i t . I n h e r i t i n g a c q u i r e d experience, c r e a t i n g and r e - c r e a t i n g , i n t e g r a t i n g themselves i n t o t h e i r c o n t e x t , responding to i t s c h a l l e n g e s , o b j e c t i f y i n g themselves, d i s c e r n i n g , t r a n s c e n d i n g , men enter i n t o the domain which i s t h e i r s e x c l u s i v e l y — t h a t of H i s t o r y and of C u l t u r e ( I b i d . , p.4 ) . F r e i r e i m p l i e s two b a s i c human modes of r e l a t i n g to the world, 94 i n t e g r a t i o n a n d a d a p t a t i o n : I n t e g r a t i o n w i t h o n e ' s c o n t e x t , a s d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m a d a p t a t i o n , i s a d i s t i n c t i v e l y human a c t i v i t y . I n t e g r a t i o n r e s u l t s f r o m t h e c a p a c i t y t o a d a p t o n e s e l f t o r e a l i t y p l u s t h e c r i t i c a l c a p a c i t y t o make c h o i c e s a n d t o t r a n s f o r m t h a t r e a l i t y . . . T h e i n t e g r a t e d p e r s o n i s p e r s o n a s S u b j e c t . I n c o n t r a s t , t h e a d a p t i v e p e r s o n i s p e r s o n a s o b j e c t , a d a p t a t i o n r e p r e s e n t i n g a t most a weak f o r m o f s e l f - d e f e n s e . I f man i s i n c a p a b l e o f c h a n g i n g r e a l i t y , he a d j u s t s h i m s e l f i n s t e a d . A d a p t a t i o n i s b e h a v i o r s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e a n i m a l s p h e r e ; e x h i b i t e d by man, i t i s s y m p t o m a t i c o f h i s d e h u m a n i z a t i o n . ( I b i d . , p.4) . T h r o u g h o u t h i s t o r y p e o p l e h a v e s t r u g g l e d t o a t t a i n t h e i r f u l l h u m a n i t y by w o r k i n g t o o v e r c o m e f a c t o r s w h i c h e n c o u r a g e them t o weaken t h e i r p o w e r s t h r o u g h a c c o m m o d a t i o n and a d j u s t m e n t r a t h e r t h a n e x t e n d t h e i r p o w e r s t h r o u g h i n t e g r a t i o n . As h u m a n i t y r e l a t e s t o t h e w o r l d by r e s p o n d i n g t o i t s c h a l l e n g e s , t h e y b e g i n " t o d y n a m i z e , t o m a s t e r , a n d t o h u m a n i z e r e a l i t y . T h ey a d d t o i t s o m e t h i n g o f t h e i r own m a k i n g , by g i v i n g t e m p o r a l m e a n i n g t o g e o g r a p h i c s p a c e , by c r e a t i n g c u l t u r e " ( I b i d . , p . 5 ) . I n r e l a t i n g w i t h t h e w o r l d a n d w i t h o t h e r humans, p e o p l e c r e a t e , r e - c r e a t e , a n d d e c i d e , a n d i n d o i n g s o c h a n g e r e a l i t y a n d p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f h i s t o r i c a l e p o c h s ( I b i d . , p . 5 ) . An h i s t o r i c a l e p o c h i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s e r i e s o f v a l u e s , c o n c e r n s , a t t i t u d e s and ways o f b e i n g and b e h a v i n g w h i c h a r e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e themes a n d t a s k s o f t h a t e p o c h . E p o c h s a r e f u l f i l l e d t o t h e d e g r e e t h a t t h e i r themes a r e g r a s p e d a n d t a s k s s o l v e d and t h e y a r e s u p e r c e d e d when n e w l y e m e r g i n g c o n c e r n s a r i s e w h i c h demand t h e c r e a t i o n o f new t a s k s a n d themes ( I b i d . , p . 5 ) . H u m a n i t y p l a y s a m a j o r r o l e i n t h i s 95 h i s t o r i c a l p r o c e s s : Men p l a y a c r u c i a l r o l e i n the f u l f i l l m e n t and in the superseding of the epochs. Whether or not men can p e r c e i v e the epochal themes and above a l l , how they act upon the r e a l i t y w i t h i n which these themes are generated w i l l l a r g e l y determine t h e i r humanization or dehumanization, t h e i r a f f i r m a t i o n as S u b j e c t s or t h e i r r e d u c t i o n as o b j e c t s . For only as men grasp the themes can they i n t e r v e n e i n r e a l i t y i n s t e a d of remaining mere onlookers. And only by d e v e l o p i n g a permanently c r i t i c a l a t t i t u d e can men overcome a posture of adjustment i n order to become i n t e g r a t e d with the s p i r i t of the times ( I b i d . , pp.5-6). F r e i r e b e l i e v e s that u n f o r t u n a t e l y humanity's c r i t i c a l response to the themes of the times are o f t e n blocked by the powerful f o r c e of myths and o r g a n i z e d a d v e r t i s i n g , i d e o l o g i c a l or otherwise, that are c r e a t e d to manipulate and c o n t r o l i n d i v i d u a l s and groups. I n d i v i d u a l s become s p e c t a t o r s r a t h e r than a c t o r s ; they l o s e t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r c h o i c e . "Ordinary men do not p e r c e i v e the tasks of the time; the l a t t e r are i n t e r p r e t e d by an " e l i t e " and.presented i n the form of r e c i p e s , of p r e s c r i p t i o n s " ( I b i d . , p.6). I n d i v i d u a l s who f o l l o w p r e s c r i p t i o n s become a d j u s t e d and dehumanized rather than i n t e g r a t e d and humanized. F r e i r e i m p l i e s that change and movement from one h i s t o r i c a l epoch to another i s i n e v i t a b l e and that the way i n which humanity copes with change i s c r u c i a l to humanization. " I f men are unable to p e r c e i v e c r i t i c a l l y the themes of t h e i r time, and thus to i n t e r v e n e a c t i v e l y i n r e a l i t y , they are c a r r i e d along i n the wake of change" ( I b i d . , p.7). I f i n d i v i d u a l s are submerged i n the change and do not develop a f l e x i b l e , c r i t i c a l s p i r i t , which i s the necessary t o o l f o r 96 p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the change or t r a n s i t i o n between epochs, they w i l l not be able to take an a c t i v e p a r t as s o c i e t y begins moving from one epoch to another: Lacking such a s p i r i t , men cannot p e r c e i v e the marked c o n t r a d i c t i o n s which occur i n s o c i e t y as emerging values i n search of a f f i r m a t i o n and f u l f i l l m e n t c l a s h with e a r l i e r values seeking s e l f - p r e s e r v a t i o n . The time of epochal t r a n s i t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s an h i s t o r i c a l - c u l t u r a l " t i d a l wave." C o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n c r e a s e between the ways of being, understanding, behaving, and v a l u i n g which belong to yesterday and other ways of p e r c e i v i n g and v a l u i n g which announce the f u t u r e . As the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s deepen, the " t i d a l wave" becomes stronger and i t s c l i m a t e i n c r e a s i n g l y emotional. T h i s shock between a yesterday which i s l o s i n g relevance but s t i l l seeking to s u r v i v e , and a tomorrow which i s g a i n i n g substance, c h a r a c t e r i z e s the phase of t r a n s i t i o n as a time of announcement and a time of d e c i s i o n . Only, however, to the degree that the c h o i c e s r e s u l t from a c r i t i c a l p e r c e p t i o n of the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s are they r e a l and capable of being transformed i n a c t i o n . Choice i s i l l u s o r y to the degree i t r e p r e s e n t s the e x p e c t a t i o n s of o t h e r s ( I b i d . , p.7 ) . "While a l l t r a n s i t i o n i n v o l v e s change, not a l l change r e s u l t s i n t r a n s i t i o n " ( I b i d . , p.7 ) . Surface changes can occur w i t h i n a s i n g l e h i s t o r i c a l epoch but profound change, when o l d themes begin to l o s e t h e i r substance and s i g n i f i c a n c e and new themes emerge, h e r a l d s a t r a n s i t i o n to a new epoch: The time of t r a n s i t i o n i n v o l v e s a r a p i d movement i n search of new themes and new t a s k s . In such a phase man needs more than ever to be i n t e g r a t e d with h i s r e a l i t y . I f he l a c k s the c a p a c i t y to p e r c e i v e the "mystery" of the changes, he w i l l be a mere pawn at t h e i r mercy ( I b i d . , pp.7 - 8 ) . The t r a n s i t i o n phase i s f u l l of c o n f u s i o n and c o n f l i c t as the new, emerging themes of the f u t u r e grow i n s t r e n g t h and c l a s h with the entrenched, e s t a b l i s h e d themes of the a i d o r d e r : As the l i n k between one epoch in exhaustion and another g a i n i n g substance, the t r a n s i t i o n had aspects of 97 p r o l o n g i n g and c o n s e r v i n g the o l d s o c i e t y at the same time that i t extended forward i n t o the new s o c i e t y . The new p e r c e p t i o n s d i d not p r e v a i l e a s i l y or without s a c r i f i c e : the o l d themes had to exhaust t h e i r v a l i d i t y before they c o u l d give way to the new. Thus the dynamic of t r a n s i t i o n i n v o l v e d the c o n f u s i o n of f l u x and r e f l u x , advances and r e t r e a t s . . . . the moment of t r a n s i t i o n belongs much more to "tomorrow," to the new time i t announces, than i t does to the o l d ( I b i d . , p.9). Thus F r e i r e d e f i n e s humanity's progress i n terms of people's a b i l i t y to a c t i v e l y , c o n s c i o u s l y take p a r t i n the c r e a t i o n and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of r e a l i t y , which he sees p r i m a r i l y i n h i s t o r i c a l and s o c i a l terms. In t h i s context humanity's a b i l i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n the i n e v i t a b l e t r a n s i t i o n between h i s t o r i c a l epochs i s c r u c i a l . F r e i r e views the development c r i t i c a l c o nsciousness as e s s e n t i a l to humanity's a b i l i t y to cope with t r a n s i t i o n , and thereby achieve l i b e r a t i o n and humanization. His focus i s on the development of consciousness i n s o c i a l groups i n v o l v e d i n h i s t o r i c a l and s o c i a l process rather than i n d i v i d u a l s , although he recognizes the importance of the development of i n d i v i d u a l consciousness as i n t e g r a l to that p r o c e s s . 3. Education and consciousness F r e i r e f e e l s that education has a c r u c i a l r o l e to play i n the t r a n s i t i o n a l phase i n s o c i e t y . F r e i r e ' s e d u c a t i o n a l methodology i s based on h i s b e l i e f that people must l e a r n how to cope with s o c i e t a l t r a n s i t i o n i f they are to reach toward t h e i r own humanization. Moreover, l e a r n i n g must take the form of a growing consciousness w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l s of t h e i r 98 p o t e n t i a l f o r a c t i v e c h o i c e w i t h i n t h e i r own r e a l i t y . Thus, f o r e d u c a t i o n , "The important t h i n g i s to he l p men (and nat i o n s ) h e l p themselves, to p l a c e them i n c o n s c i o u s l y c r i t i c a l c o n f r o n t a t i o n with t h e i r problems, to make them the agents of t h e i r own r e c u p e r a t i o n " ( I b i d . , p.16). F r e i r e e x p l a i n s t h i s process f u r t h e r : What was needed was to go to the people and h e l p them to enter the h i s t o r i c a l process c r i t i c a l l y . The p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r t h i s task was a form of education e n a b l i n g the people to r e f l e c t on themselves, t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and t h e i r r o l e i n the new c u l t u r a l c l i m a t e — i n d e e d to r e f l e c t on t h e i r very power of r e f l e c t i o n . The r e s u l t i n g development of t h i s power would mean an i n c r e a s e d c a p a c i t y f o r c h o i c e . Such an education would take i n t o the most s e r i o u s account the v a r i o u s l e v e l s at which the B r a z i l i a n people p e r c e i v e d t h e i r r e a l i t y as being of the g r e a t e s t importance f o r the process of t h e i r humanization. T h e r e i n l a y my own concern to analyze these h i s t o r i c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d l e v e l s of understanding ( I b i d . , pp.16-17). F r e i r e i m p l i e s here that the v a r i o u s h i s t o r i c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d l e v e l s at which people p e r c e i v e and understand t h e i r r e a l i t y are v a r i o u s l y e f f e c t i v e as means of a c h i e v i n g f u l l humanization. T h e r e f o r e r e c o g n i z i n g these l e v e l s of consciousness and a s s i s t i n g people to l e a r n to make t r a n s i t i o n s towards higher l e v e l s of consciousness and understanding i s education's primary task, the c r u c i a l aspect of l e a r n i n g . 4. L e v e l s of consciousness It i s F r e i r e ' s c o n t e n t i o n that s o c i e t i e s , or ra t h e r groups of people w i t h i n those s o c i e t i e s , move through s e v e r a l l e v e l s of consciousness i n the process of t h e i r development. 99 F r e i r e d e s c r i b e s i n d e t a i l the major f e a t u r e s of v a r i o u s l e v e l s of consciousness and r e s u l t i n g l e v e l s of understanding evident i n s o c i e t y . On the f i r s t l e v e l i n d i v i d u a l s submerged i n the h i s t o r i c a l process are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s t a t e of " s e m i - i n t r a s i t i v i t y of con s c i o u s n e s s . " At t h i s l e v e l of consciousness i n d i v i d u a l s "cannot apprehend problems s i t u a t e d o u t s i d e t h e i r sphere of b i o l o g i c a l n e c e s s i t y . T h e i r i n t e r e s t s c e n t r e almost t o t a l l y around s u r v i v a l , and they lack a sense of l i f e on a more h i s t o r i c plane" ( I b i d . , p.17). The p e r c e p t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s at t h i s l e v e l i s l i m i t e d and they ar e : ...impermeable to c h a l l e n g e s s i t u a t e d o u t s i d e the sphere of b i o l o g i c a l n e c e s s i t y . In t h i s sense only, semi-i n t r a n s i t i v i t y r e p r e s e n t s a near disengagement between men and t h e i r e x i s t e n c e . In t h i s s t a t e , discernment i s d i f f i c u l t . Men confuse t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of the o b j e c t s and c h a l l e n g e s of the environment, and f a l l prey to magical e x p l a n a t i o n s because they cannot apprehend t r u e c a u s a l i t y ( I b i d . , p.17). The next stage i n the development of consciousness i s an " i n i t i a l , predominantly n a i v e , stage of t r a n s i t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s " ( I b i d . , p.18) c a l l e d naive t r a n s i t i v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by: ...an o v e r - s i m p l i f i c a t i o n of problems; by a n o s t a l g i a f o r the past; by underestimation of the common man; by a strong tendency to gr e g a r i o u s n e s s ; by a lack of i n t e r e s t in i n v e s t i g a t i o n , accompanied by an accentuated t a s t e f o r f a n c i f u l e x p l a n a t i o n s . . . A l t h o u g h men's h o r i z o n s have expanded and they respond more openly to s t i m u l i , these responses s t i l l have a magical q u a l i t y ) . Naive t r a n s i t i v i t y i s the consciousness of men who are s t i l l almost p a r t of a mass, i n whom the dev e l o p i n g c a p a c i t y for d i a l o g u e i s s t i l l f r a g i l e and capable of d i s t o r t i o n . If t h i s consciousness does not progress to the stage of c r i t i c a l t r a n s i t i v i t y , i t may be d e f l e c t e d by s e c t a r i a n i r r a t i o n a l i t y i n t o f a n a t i c i s m ( I b i d . , p.18). 100 Once the process of c o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n has begun, moving through the stage of naive t r a n s i t i v e consciousness becomes c r i t i c a l because at t h i s stage movement can "evolve toward c r i t i c a l t r a n s i t i v i t y , c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a l e g i t i m a t e l y democratic m e n t a l i t y , or i t can be d e f l e c t e d toward the debased, c l e a r l y dehumanized, f a n a t i c i z e d consciousness c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of m a s s i f i c a t i o n " ( I b i d . , p.20). M a s s i f i c a t i o n i s a s t a t e of consciousness i n which people f o l l o w the p r e s c r i p t i o n s of others while b e l i e v i n g that they are a c t i n g from t h e i r own c h o i c e ( I b i d . , p.20). T r a n s i t i v e consciousness develops as i n d i v i d u a l s become more aware of themselves and t h e i r r e a l i t y and t h e i r power to act on i t . In the s t a t e of t r a n s i t i v e consciousness people "amplify t h e i r power to p e r c e i v e and respond to suggestions and q u e s t i o n s a r i s i n g i n t h e i r c ontext, and i n c r e a s e t h e i r c a p a c i t y to enter i n t o d i a l o g u e not only with other men but with t h e i r world" ( I b i d . p.17). I n d i v i d u a l s become permeable or open, and r e p l a c e t h e i r disengagement from e x i s t e n c e with almost t o t a l engagement. "Exi s t e n c e i s a dynamic concept, implying e t e r n a l d i a l o g u e between man and man, between man and the world, between man and h i s C r e a t o r . I t i s t h i s d i a l o g u e which makes of man an h i s t o r i c a l being" ( I b i d . , pp.17-18). The l e v e l of consciousness which i s F r e i r e ' s e d u c a t i o n a l goal i s c r i t i c a l l y t r a n s i t i v e c o nsciousness, a s t a t e i n which i n d i v i d u a l s recognize and act upon t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r genuine c h o i c e . C r i t i c a l t r a n s i t i v i t y i s expressed i n " . . . h i g h l y 101 permeable, i n t e r r o g a t i v e , r e s t l e s s and d i a l o g i c a l forms of l i f e " ( I b i d . , pp.17-18). F r e i r e d e s c r i b e s t h i s l e v e l of consciousness i n more d e t a i l : The c r i t i c a l l y t r a n s i t i v e consciousness i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by depth i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of problems; by the s u b s t i t u t i o n of c a u s a l p r i n c i p l e s f o r magical e x p l a n a t i o n s ; by the t e s t i n g of one's " f i n d i n g s " and by openness to r e v i s i o n ; by the attempt to av o i d d i s t o r t i o n when p e r c e i v i n g problems and to a v o i d p reconceived n o t i o n s when a n a l y z i n g them; by r e f u s i n g to t r a n s f e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ; by r e j e c t i n g p a s s i v e p o s i t i o n s ; by soundness Of argumentation; by the p r a c t i c e of d i a l o g u e r a t h e r than polemics; by r e c e p t i v i t y to the new f o r reasons beyond mere n o v e l t y and by the good sense not to r e j e c t the o l d j u s t because i t i s o l d — b y a c c e p t i n g what i s v a l i d i n both o l d and new ( I b i d . , p.18). F r e i r e a s s o c i a t e s the a c t i v e c h a r a c t e r of c r i t i c a l c o nsciousness with " a u t h e n t i c a l l y democratic regimes" i n c o n t r a s t to the s i l e n c e and i n a c t i o n engendered by lower s t a t e s of consciousness that mark r i g i d , a u t h o r i t a r i a n s t a t e s ( I b i d . , p.18-19). 5. Consciousness and l e a r n i n g There has been a gradual s h i f t i n F r e i r e ' s w r i t i n g s i n regards to the purposes of l e a r n i n g and education, from emphasis on t r a n s f o r m a t i o n w i t h i n to s o c i e t y to an emphasis on the r e v o l u t i o n a r y r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of s o c i e t y , but common c e n t r a l ground has always been h e l d by the idea of c o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n f o r c r i t i c a l c o nsciousness, a r a d i c a l l e a r n e d change i n co n s c i o u s n e s s . F r e i r e notes that, while a c e r t a i n amount of awakening of c r i t i c a l awareness i s a s s o c i a t e d with economic progress and 1 02 i n c r e a s i n g l y complex forms of l i f e , t r u e c r i t i c a l l y t r a n s i t i v e c onsciousness must be i n t e n t i o n a l l y developed by the i n d i v i d u a l , u s u a l l y with the a i d of education s p e c i f i c a l l y designed f o r that purpose. C r i t i c a l consciousness i s the: . . . a u t h e n t i c a l l y c r i t i c a l p o s i t i o n which a person must make h i s own by i n t e r v e n t i o n i n and i n t e g r a t i o n with h i s own con t e x t . C o n s c i e n t i z a c a o ( c o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n ) r e p r e s e n t s the development of the awakening of c r i t i c a l awareness. I t w i l l not appear as a n a t u r a l byproduct of even major economic changes, but must grow out of a c r i t i c a l e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t based on f a v o r a b l e h i s t o r i c a l c o n d i t i o n s ( I b i d . , p.19). C o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n i s the name F r e i r e g i v e s to the process whereby people move from l e s s aware to more aware s t a t e s of con s c i o u s n e s s . C o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n , "the process i n which men, not as r e c i p i e n t s , but as knowing s u b j e c t s , achieve a deepening awareness both of the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l r e a l i t y which shapes t h e i r l i v e s and of t h e i r c a p a c i t y to transform that r e a l i t y , " i s f o r F r e i r e the c e n t r a l concept i n h i s theory of l e a r n i n g and the c e n t e r p i e c e of h i s methodology ( I b i d . , 1970a, p.27). Human consciousness, a c c o r d i n g to F r e i r e , " s t r e t c h e s forward": i t a c t i v e l y expresses i n t e n t i o n a l i t y or purpose. Only human beings have the c a p a c i t y to o b j e c t i f y and r e f l e c t , and yet the common h a b i t u a l human r e a c t i o n to the world i s n o n - r e f l e c t i v e . I f people are to f u l f i l l t h e i r p o t e n t i a l t h i s n o n - r e f l e c t i v e stance must be transcended by the process of c o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n i n t o a s t a t e of c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n or c r i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s . F r e i r e s t r e s s e s the d i a l e c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between consciousness and the world, that i s , between man and 103 the world. Education i s never n e u t r a l : i t e i t h e r domesticates people, separates them from t h e i r world, and negates t h e i r power of r e f e c t i o n or i t l i b e r a t e s and humanizes them by h e l p i n g them to be aware of t h e i r connection to the world and the l i b e r a t i n g power of t h e i r consciousness to a c t i v e l y d i s c o v e r and invent the world ( F r e i r e i n Education on the  Move, 1975, p.75-76). Learning through c o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n i s not a s o l i t a r y p r o c e s s . Moving towards a c r i t i c a l stance demands that people enter i n t o r e l a t i o n s h i p with others through d i a l o g u e to enable them to c o n f r o n t and understand t h e i r common r e a l i t y . In F r e i r e ' s methodology educators form a p a r t n e r s h i p with l e a r n e r s i n " c u l t u r e c i r c l e s " to explore the l e a r n e r s concerns w i t h i n t h e i r community and develop g e n e r a t i v e themes from the context of t h e i r every-day l i v e s . In d i s c u s s i n g these g e n e r a t i v e themes, c r u c i a l problems in the l i v e s of the people are i d e n t i f i e d and c l a r i f i e d . These processes of problem-posing and d i a l o g u e promotes movement toward c r i t i c a l c o n sciousness which focuses not only on o b j e c t i v e e x t e r n a l r e a l i t y , but a l s o on i t s e l f , i n a form of s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n , becoming a "consciousness of c o n s c i o u s n e s s . " C r i t i c a l c o n sciousness makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r people to become aware of the c o m p l e x i t i e s of t h e i r s i t u a t i o n , understand t h e i r p l a c e i n i t and p l a n to take a c t i o n to change i t . At t h i s p o i n t p r a x i s begins P r a x i s , "the a c t i o n and r e f e c t i o n of men upon t h e i r world 1 04 i n order to transform i t " ( I b i d . , 1970b, p.66) i s a continuous dynamic process based on the i n t e r a c t i o n of r e f l e c t i o n and a c t i o n , which allows people to be aware o f, understand, and act upon t h e i r r e a l i t y . N e i t h e r r e f l e c t i o n or a c t i o n have t r a n s f o r m a t i v e power when pursued on t h e i r own. C o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n , l e a d i n g to i n c r e a s e d awareness, only has the power to l i b e r a t e when coupled with r a d i c a l and tra n s f o r m i n g a c t i o n on r e a l i t y . The task of c r e a t i n g and tr a n s f o r m i n g r e a l i t y through p r a x i s makes the humanization and l i b e r a t i o n of people an a c t u a l i t y . 6. C o n c l u s i o n F r e i r e ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n to the idea of l e a r n i n g as a t r a n s f o r m a t i v e process i n v o l v i n g changes i n consciousness i s c o n s i d e r a b l e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p of human consciousness to education and l e a r n i n g are h i s main themes. H i s t h e o r i z i n g about c o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n , the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of human consciousness through l e a r n i n g , i s c e n t r a l to h i s view of humanity's development towards humanization and l i b e r a t i o n . The c r e a t i v e and t r a n s f o r m a t i v e power of human consciousness i n d e a l i n g with t r a n s i t i o n as a constant i n s o c i a l and h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y i s , a c c o r d i n g to F r e i r e , the key to man's p r o g r e s s . Although F r e i r e may be c r i t i c i z e d f o r h i s convoluted w r i t i n g s t y l e , h i s work p r o v i d e s a r i c h and comprehensive fund of r e l a t e d themes and ideas f o r those who have the pa t i e n c e to mine them. A l l of these major themes c o n t r i b u t e to a 105 conception of l e a r n i n g as a t r a n s f o r m a t i v e process and these ideas begin to f l e s h out the c a t e g o r i e s f o r a n a l y s i s i n t h i s study very q u i c k l y . Confidence i n F r e i r e ' s t h e o r i z i n g i s enhanced because i t emerged over many years of experience i n l i t e r a c y education i n v a r i o u s c o u n t r i e s and t h e r e f o r e i s amply grounded in p r a c t i c e . F r e i r e ' s conception of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s i n consciousness as c e n t r a l to l e a r n i n g i s deeply rooted i n an h i s t o r i c a l and s o c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e which p r o v i d e s an e x c e l l e n t f o i l to more p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y o r i e n t e d t h e o r i e s ; F r e i r e ' s p e r s p e c t i v e emphasizes the importance of s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l aspects of human l e a r n i n g i n g e n e r a l , and, of t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r . D. KELLY: PERSONAL CONSTRUCT THEORY 1 . I n t r o d u c t i o n George K e l l y was an American p s y c h o l o g i s t whose pe r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t theory (1955) a t t r a c t e d r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n when he f i r s t proposed i t , but h i s i n f l u e n c e has s t e a d i l y grown and i n recent years there has been a f l o u r i s h of r e s e a r c h a c t i v i t y and a c o n c e r t e d attempt to develop p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n s of h i s ideas (Bannister & F r a n s e l l a , 1971, Adams-Weber & Mancuso, 1983, Thomas and H a r r i - A u g s t e i n , 1985). K e l l y ' s p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t theory i s a comprehensive p e r s o n a l i t y theory, i n f a c t , "a theory of man" ( K e l l y , 1955, 1 0 6 p.182), encompassing a l l asp e c t s of human p s y c h o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n i n g . For the purposes of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e review, K e l l y ' s theory w i l l not be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l , but the b a s i c o u t l i n e of the theory w i l l be c l a r i f i e d along with an examination of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e which gi v e s r i s e to the theory, and a d i s c u s s i o n of m a t e r i a l which i s p e r t i n e n t to the e x p l o r a t i o n of the emerging c a t e g o r i e s d e s c r i p t i v e of t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g a c c o r d i n g to K e l l y ' s p e r s p e c t i v e . 2. The r o l e of l e a r n i n g , t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , consciousness and changes i n consciousness I t must be understood that while K e l l y does not s t r u c t u r e h i s theory of p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s around concepts l a b e l e d " l e a r n i n g " and " t r a n s f o r m a t i o n " i n r e l a t i o n to "consciousness" and "changes i n consciousness", concepts of major importance i n the emerging concept c a t e g o r i e s of t h i s study, a strong case can be made f o r the i n t e g r a l importance of these concepts i n the theory's assumptive s t r u c t u r e . Although these concept l a b e l s are not s p e c i f i c a l l y used by K e l l y to e x p l i c a t e h i s theory, t h e i r preeminent presence i s assumed or i m p l i e d , and the theory and i t s s u p p o r t i v e assumptive s t r u c t u r e are u s e f u l t o o l s f o r g a i n i n g c l a r i t y about these concepts. The theory of pe r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s i s a comprehensive theory of man's p s y c h o l o g i c a l nature and as such can be used to gain a c l e a r e r understanding of these aspects of human f u n c t i o n i n g . Although K e l l y does not use the concept of l e a r n i n g 1 0 7 d i r e c t l y he i s s p e c i f i c about the r o l e of l e a r n i n g i n the theory of p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s : L e a r n i n g i s assumed to take p l a c e . I t has been b u i l t i n t o the assumptive s t r u c t u r e of the system...Learning i s not a s p e c i a l c l a s s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s : i t i s synonymous with any and a l l p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s . I t i s not something that happens to a person on o c c a s i o n ; i t i s what makes him a person in the f i r s t p l a c e ( I b i d . , p. 7 5 ) . And a l s o : The Experience C o r o l l a r y has profound i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r our t h i n k i n g about the t o p i c of l e a r n i n g . When we accept the assumption that a person's c o n s t r u c t i o n system v a r i e s as he s u c c e s s i v e l y construes the r e p l i c a t i o n of events, together with the antecedent assumption that the course of a l l p s y c h o l o g i c a l processes i s p l o t t e d by one's c o n s t r u c t i o n of events, we have p r e t t y w e l l bracketed the t o p i c of l e a r n i n g ( I b i d . , p. 7 5 ) . I t i s obvious that K e l l y views l e a r n i n g as a cornerstone of the assumptive system of the theory of p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s . "One's c o n s t r u c t i o n of events", the formation of c o n s t r u c t s , i s assumed to be a l e a r n i n g process, and l e a r n i n g i s c l e a r l y i m p l i c a t e d i n the f u n c t i o n of c o n s t r u c t systems. Although " t r a n s f o r m a t i o n " i s not s p e c i f i c a l l y mentioned i n the theory of p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s , as a type of change i t i s i m p l i c i t w i t h i n the theory's assumptions as w e l l : Another important p r i o r c o n v i c t i o n i s that the u n i v e r s e can be measured along a dimension of time. T h i s i s a way of s a y i n g that the u n i v e r s e i s c o n t i n u a l l y changing with r e s p e c t to i t s e l f . . . . w i t h i n our u n i v e r s e something i s always going on. In f a c t , t h at i s the way the u n i v e r s e e x i s t s ; i t e x i s t s by happening ( I b i d . , p. 7 ) . And l a t e r : ...we propose to p o s t u l a t e a process as the p o i n t of departure fo r the f o r m u l a t i o n of a p s y c h o l o g i c a l theory. T h i s the whole c o n t r o v e r s y as to what prods an i n e r t organism i n t o a c t i o n becomes a dead i s s u e . Instead, the 108 organism i s d e l i v e r e d f r e s h i n t o the p s y c h o l o g i c a l world a l i v e and s t r u g g l i n g ( I b i d . , p.37). T h e r e f o r e , having assumed that "the person i s not an o b j e c t which i s t e m p o r a r i l y i n a moving s t a t e but i s himself a form of motion" ( I b i d . , p.48), " t r a n s f o r m a t i o n " , as a type of change, can be c o n s i d e r e d to be a n a t u r a l process i n man, as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of human consciousness as i t i s of any other aspect of the u n i v e r s e . K e l l y ' s i n t e n t i o n s i n regard to consciousness are l e s s s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e d , but no l e s s c l e a r : there i s strong evidence throughout K e l l y ' s d i s c u s s i o n that consciousness, a l s o , i s b u i l t i n t o the assumptive s t r u c t u r e of the theory. In the i n t r o d u c t i o n he notes that "each man contemplates i n h i s own p e r s o n a l way the stream of events upon which he f i n d s h i m s e l f so s w i f t l y borne" ( I b i d . , p.3) and f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e s t h i s stream i n terms of W i l l i a m James' stream of consciousness ( I b i d . , pp.3-4). L a t e r , he d e s c r i b e s c o n s t r u c t s as being " e x p l i c i t l y formulated or i m p l i c i t l y a c t ed out, v e r b a l l y expressed or u t t e r l y i n a r t i c u l a t e . . . i n t e l l e c t u a l l y reasoned or v e g e t a t i v e l y sensed" ( I b i d . , p. 9), a statement which i m p l i e s a range, or s e r i e s of l e v e l s , of consciousness w i t h i n which man c o n s t r u e s . In f a c t , K e l l y s t r e s s e s t h a t the b a s i s of p e r c e p t i o n i n h i s theory "has been broadened to i n c l u d e "nonconscious" as w e l l as "conscious" processes and the manner of p e r c e p t i o n has been c a s t i n the form of c o n s t r u c t s which i n c l u d e both conscious and nonconscious aspects ( I b i d . , p. 175). "Construing i s not to be confounded with v e r b a l 109 f o r m u l a t i o n . . . . C o n s t r u i n g . . . i s by no means l i m i t e d to those experiences which people can t a l k about or those which they can t h i n k about p r i v a t e l y " ( I b i d . , p.51). In s p i t e of t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n of the importance of nonconscious processes K e l l y i m p l i e s that man can l e a r n to a m p l i f y the use of consciousness as an important t o o l f o r understanding the world: ...man's widening awareness of the u n i v e r s e as an o r d e r l y u n f o l d i n g of events gave him i n c r e a s e d c a p a c i t y to p r e d i c t and made h i s world more and more manageable...Man g r a d u a l l y d i s c o v e r e d that he c o u l d l a y a s i g h t on the f u t u r e through the experience of the past ( I b i d . , p.75). And l a t e r , the c o n s t r u c t system and the stream of consciousness are d e s c r i b e d i n terms of each other, suggesting that they are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d : (There i s an)...assumed n e c e s s i t y f o r seeking out the regnant c o n s t r u c t system i n order to e x p l a i n the behaviour of men, r a t h e r than seeking merely to e x p l a i n each b i t of behaviour as a d e r i v a t i v e of i t s immediately antecedent behaviour. If one i s to understand the course of the stream of consciousness, he must do more than c h a r t i t s headwaters; he must know the t e r r a i n through which i t runs and the volume of the f l o o d which may cut out new channels or erode o l d ones ( I b i d . , p.83). Throughout K e l l y ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of the theory of p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s there are many such examples of statements which imply the c e n t r a l i t y of consciousness i n human experience and i n the assumptive s t r u c t u r e of the theory of p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s . Indeed, i n c o n c l u s i o n , he c a l l s h i s theory "a d i s c i p l i n e d psychology of the inner outlook" ( I b i d . , p.183). I t i s c l e a r that " l e a r n i n g " , " t r a n s f o r m a t i o n " and "consciousness" h o l d a preeminent p o s i t i o n i n the assumptive s t r u c t u r e of the theory of p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s and that much 1 10 can be l e a r n i n g about these concepts and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s by pursuing the i m p l i c a t i o n s of K e l l y ' s theory. With t h i s i n mind, a gen e r a l d i s c u s s i o n of the p h i l o s o p h i c a l foundation and the assumptive s t r u c t u r e of the theory of p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s f o l l o w s . 3. C o n s t r u c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v s m In the i n t r o d u c t i o n to h i s theory of p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s K e l l y notes that while a sharp d i s t i n c t i o n i s u s u a l l y drawn between forms of thought (philosophy) and the a c t u a l t h i n k i n g behaviour of people (psychology), he proposes a unique combination of both as a f r u i t f u l stance. Of h i s p e r s o n a l i t y theory, the theory of pe r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s , he says: "As a philosophy i t i s rooted i n the p s y c h o l o g i c a l o b s e r v a t i o n of man. As a psychology i t i s concerned with the p h i l o s o p h i c a l outlooks of i n d i v i d u a l man" ( I b i d . , p. 16). And he f u r t h e r e l a b o r a t e s : ...we have taken the b a s i c view that whatever i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of thought i s d e s c r i p t i v e of the t h i n k e r ; that the e s s e n t i a l s of s c i e n t i f i c c u r i o s i t y must u n d e r l i e human c u r i o s i t y i n g e n e r a l . If we examine a person's philosophy c l o s e l y , we f i n d o u r s e l v e s s t a r i n g at the person h i m s e l f . I f we reach an understanding of how a person behaves, we d i s c o v e r i t i n the manner i n which he rep r e s e n t s h i s circumstances to himself ( I b i d . , p.16). Combining these ideas w i t h i n a h i s t o r i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e he sees human progress r e s u l t i n g , i n l a r g e measure, from what might broadly be l a b e l e d " s c i e n c e " ( I b i d . , p.4) and man's c a p a c i t y and tendency toward " s c i e n t i f i c thought", which seeks to p r e d i c t and c o n t r o l surrounding events ( I b i d . , p.43). His 1 11 model of " m a n - t h e - s c i e n t i s t " ( I b i d . , p.4), as e v o c a t i v e of humanity's means of making progress, i s i m p l i c i t l y dependent on humanity's success as "man-the-philosopher" ( I b i d . , p.16); man's behaviour, and the success of that behaviour as an approach to the world, i s dependent on man's thought. On t h i s f oundation, a conception of the important i n t e r a c t i o n of phil o s o p h y , h i s t o r y , and psychology i n man's development, K e l l y b u i l d s the p h i l o s o p h i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e of c o n s t r u c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v i s m as a b a s i s f o r h i s theory of pers o n a l c o n s t r u c t s . The major t e n e t s of c o n s t r u c t i v e a l t e r h a t i v i s m are the assumptions that i n human terms " l i f e i n v o l v e s the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n or c o n s t r u c t i o n of r e a l i t y " ( K e l l y , 1955, p.8) and that "our present i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of the uni v e r s e are sub j e c t to r e v i s i o n or replacement" ( I b i d . , p.15). In other words, l i f e i n v o l v e s the c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of r e a l i t y . K e l l y best expresses what t h i s stance means to the i n d i v i d u a l : We take the stand that there are always some a l t e r n a t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s a v a i l a b l e to choose among i n d e a l i n g with the world. No one needs to p a i n t hi m s e l f i n t o a corner; no one needs to be completely hemmed i n by circumstances; no one needs to be the v i c t i m of h i s biography. We c a l l t h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n c o n s t r u c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v i s m ( I b i d . p.15). Within c o n s t r u c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v i s m K e l l y views humanity from a p e r s p e c t i v e that acknowledges the i n t e r p l a y of h i s t o r i c a l and pe r s o n a l f o r c e s , but which emphasizes most s t r o n g l y the pe r s o n a l f o r c e s , the power of i n d i v i d u a l s to s t r u c t u r e and 112 r e s t r u c t u r e t h e i r own l i v e s . The p e r s o n a l power o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s f o c u s e d t h r o u g h K e l l y ' s m o d e l o f man, w h i c h i s c a p t u r e d i n t h e image o f " m a n - t h e - s c i e n t i s t " , whose u l t i m a t e a i m i s t h e p r e d i c t i o n and c o n t r o l t h e e v e n t s o f h i s l i f e ( I b i d . , pp.4-5). T h i s a i m i s f u l f i l l e d t h r o u g h man's: . . . c r e a t i v e c a p a c i t y . . . t o r e p r e s e n t t h e e n v i r o n m e n t , n o t m e r e l y t o r e s p o n d t o i t . B e c a u s e he c a n r e p r e s e n t h i s e n v i r o n m e n t , he c a n p l a c e a l t e r n a t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s upon i t a n d , i n d e e d , do s o m e t h i n g a b o u t i t i f i t d o e s n ' t s u i t h i m ( I b i d . p.8) . T h u s , man i s c o n c e i v e d a s e s s e n t i a l l y c r e a t i v e , a c t i v e , a n d c a p a b l e o f c h o i c e i n h i s a b i l i t y t o c o n s t r u c t a n d r e c o n s t r u c t h i s own r e a l i t y . K e l l y ' s t h e o r y i l l u m i n a t e s how man c r e a t e s r e a l i t y t h r o u g h t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s a n d c o n s t r u c t s y s t e m s . 4. A summary o f t h e t h e o r y o f p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s A b r i e f summary o f K e l l y ' s t h e o r y o f p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s w i l l s e r v e a s b a c k g r o u n d t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f c o n s t r u c t s a n d c o n s t r u c t s y s t e m s : a . F u n d a m e n t a l P o s t u l a t e : A p e r s o n s ' s p r o c e s s e s a r e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y c h a n n e l i z e d by t h e ways i n w h i c h he a n t i c i p a t e s e v e n t s . b. C o n s t r u c t i o n C o r o l l a r y : A p e r s o n a n t i c i p a t e s e v e n t s by c o n s t r u i n g t h e i r r e p l i c a t i o n s . c . I n d i v i d u a l i t y C o r o l l a r y : P e r s o n s d i f f e r f r o m e a c h o t h e r i n t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f e v e n t s . d. O r g a n i z a t i o n C o r o l l a r y : E a c h p e r s o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y e v o l v e s , f o r h i s c o n v e n i e n c e i n a n t i c i p a t i n g e v e n t s , a c o n s t r u c t i o n s y s t e m e m b r a c i n g o r d i n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n c o n s t r u c t s . e. D i c h o t o m y C o r o l l a r y : A p e r s o n ' s c o n s t r u c t i o n s y s t e m i s composed o f a f i n i t e number o f d i c h o t o m o u s c o n s t r u c t s . f . C h o i c e C o r o l l a r y : A p e r s o n c h o o s e s f o r h i m s e l f t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e i n a d i c h o t o m i z e d c o n s t r u c t t h r o u g h 113 which he a n t i c i p a t e s the gr e a t e r p o s s i b i l i t y f o r exte n s i o n and d e f i n i t i o n of h i s system. g. Range C o r o l l a r y : A c o n s t r u c t i s convenient f o r the a n t i c i p a t i o n of a f i n i t e range of events o n l y . h. Experience C o r o l l a r y : A person's c o n s t r u c t i o n system v a r i e s as he s u c c e s s i v e l y construes the r e p l i c a t i o n s of events. i . Modulation C o r o l l a r y ; The v a r i a t i o n i n a person's c o n s t r u c t i o n system i s l i m i t e d by the p e r m e a b i l i t y of the c o n s t r u c t s w i t h i n whose ranges of convenience the v a r i a n t s l i e . j . Fragmentation C o r o l l a r y : A person may s u c c e s s i v e l y employ a v a r i e t y of c o n s t r u c t i o n subsystems which are i n f e r e n t i a l l y incompatible with each other. k. Commonality C o r o l l a r y : To the extent that one person employs a c o n s t r u c t i o n of experience which i s s i m i l a r to that employed by another, h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l processes are s i m i l a r to those of the other person. 1. S o c i a l i t y C o r o l l a r y : To the extent that one person construes the c o n s t r u c t i o n processes of another, he may play a r o l e i n a s o c i a l process i n v o l v i n g that other person ( I b i d . , pp.103-104). An examination of some of the terms i n the fundamental p o s t u l a t e , "a person's processes are p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y c h a n n e l i z e d by the ways i n which he a n t i c i p a t e s events" ( I b i d . , p.47), and s e v e r a l other major terms from the c o r o l l a r i e s , w i l l a s s i s t i n a c h i e v i n g a more s p e c i f i c understanding of c o n s t r u c t s and c o n s t r u c t systems. A person, as a form of motion, i s conceived to be c o n s t a n t l y i n a s t a t e of change or process and these processes are guided, c o n t r o l l e d or " c h a n n e l i z e d " , that i s : We conceive a persons's processes as o p e r a t i n g through a network of pathways ra t h e r than as f l u t t e r i n g about i n a vast emptiness. The network i s f l e x i b l e and i s f r e q u e n t l y m o d i f i e d , but i t i s s t r u c t u r e d and i t both f a c i l i t a t e s and r e s t r i c t s a person's range of a c t i o n ( I b i d . , p.49). . T h i s network of pathways, which both f a c i l i t a t e s and i n h i b i t s a person's movement, i s the c o n s t r u c t system. "Ways" i m p l i e s that the channels are e s t a b l i s h e d as a 1 1 4 means to ends. "They are l a i d down by the d e v i c e s which a person i n v e n t s i n order to achieve a purpose" ( I b i d . , p.49). Thus, the process of forming the c o n s t r u c t system i s seen as being unique to the purposes of a p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l . "He" emphasises t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l may choose to operate i n a c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l i z e d manner. "Each person may e r e c t and u t i l i z e d i f f e r e n t ways, and i t i s the way he chooses which c h a n n e l i s e s h i s p r o c e s s e s " ( I b i d . , p.49). " A n t i c i p a t e s " i s the word that b u i l d s i n the p r e d i c t i v e and m o t i v a t i o n a l f e a t u r e s of the theory: L i k e the prototype of the s c i e n t i s t that he i s , man seeks p r e d i c t i o n . His s t r u c t u r e d network of pathways leads toward the f u t u r e so that he may a n t i c i p a t e i t . T h i s i s the f u n c t i o n i t s e r v e s . A n t i c i p a t i o n i s both the push and p u l l of the psychology of p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s ( I b i d . , p.49). The p s y c h o l o g i c a l processes of the i n d i v i d u a l are t i e d down, or connected to r e a l i t y i n that "Man u l t i m a t e l y seeks to a n t i c i p a t e r e a l events" ( I b i d . , p.49): A n t i c i p a t i o n i s not merely c a r r i e d on f o r i t s own sake; i t i s c a r r i e d on so that f u t u r e r e a l i t y may be b e t t e r r e p r e s e n t e d . I t i s the f u t u r e which t a n t a l i z e s man, not the p a s t . Always he reaches out to the f u t u r e through the window of the present ( I b i d . , p.49). People reach towards the f u t u r e i n ways that r e f l e c t the uniqueness of t h e i r own c o n s t r u c t systems: In a n t i c i p a t i n g events "each person attunes h i s ear to the r e p l i c a t i v e themes he hears and each attunes h i s ear i n a somewhat d i f f e r e n t way....it i s h i s seeking to a n t i c i p a t e the whole world of events and thus r e l a t e h i m s e l f to them that best e x p l a i n s h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s . If he a c t s to preserve the system, i t i s because the system i s an e s s e n t i a l c h a r t f o r h i s pe r s o n a l a d v e n t u r e s . . . ( I b i d . , p.59). 1 15 T h e r e f o r e , i n d i v i d u a l s r e l a t e themselves t o r e a l i t y , to the world, other people and themselves through the c o n s t r u c t systems they generate or c o n s t r u e . The c o n s t r u c t system becomes a pe r s o n a l c h a r t or map f o r the a n t i c i p a t i o n , e x p l o r a t i o n and understanding of r e a l i t y . T h i s c o n s t r u c t system map i s r e a l i z e d through the process of c o n s t r u i n g : C o n s t r u i n g i s a way of seeing events that makes them look r e g u l a r . By c o n s t r u i n g events i t becomes p o s s i b l e to a n t i c i p a t e them. To be e f f e c t i v e , the c o n s t r u c t i o n system i t s e l f must have some r e g u l a r i t y . The p a l p a b l e f e a t u r e of r e g u l a r i t y i s r e p e t i t i o n , not mere r e p e t i t i o n of i d e n t i c a l events...but r e p e t i t i o n of some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c which can be a b s t r a c t e d from each event and c a r r i e d i n t a c t a c r o s s the bridge of time and space. To construe i s to hear the whisper of r e c u r r e n t themes i n the events that r e v e r b e r a t e around us ( I b i d . , p.76). T h i s element of r e p e t i t i o n i n the form of r e c u r r e n t themes c o n t r i b u t e s to another aspect of the process of c o n s t r u i n g , that i s , the a b i l i t y to p l a c e an o r g a n i z i n g s t r u c t u r e or framework on r e a l i t y : By c o n s t r u i n g we mean " p l a c i n g an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " : a person p l a c e s an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n upon what i s construed. He e r e c t s a s t r u c t u r e , w i t h i n the framework of which the substance takes shape or assumes meaning. The substance which he construes does not produce the s t r u c t u r e ; the person does....The s t r u c t u r e which i s e r e c t e d by c o n s t r u i n g i s e s s e n t i a l l y a b s t r a c t i v e , though the person may be so l i m i t e d i n the a b s t r a c t i o n that h i s c o n s t r u i n g may, i n e f f e c t , be r e l a t i v e l y c o n c r e t i s t i c . . . . I n c o n s t r u i n g , the person notes f e a t u r e s i n a s e r i e s of elements which c h a r a c t e r i z e some of the elements and are p a r t i c u l a r l y u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of o t h e r s . Thus he e r e c t s c o n s t r u c t s of s i m i l a r i t y and c o n t r a s t . Both the s i m i l a r i t y and the c o n t r a s t are inherent i n the same c o n s t r u c t ( I b i d . , p.50). T h i s s t r u c t u r e or framework which i s generated d u r i n g the process of c o n s t r u i n g r e s u l t s i n a system of c o n s t r u c t s . A c o n s t r u c t i s a "way i n which some t h i n g s are construed 1 1 6 as being a l i k e and yet d i f f e r e n t from o t h e r s " ( I b i d . , p.105). The essence of the c o n s t r u c t i s formed by n o t i n g the r e l e v a n t s i m i l a r i t y and d i f f e r e n c e to be found w i t h i n i t s range of convenience. The elements l y i n g w i t h i n the range of convenience (relevance) of the c o n s t r u c t form i t s context ( I b i d . , p.108). In s t r u c t u r i n g r e a l i t y i n terms of s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s : Each c o n s t r u c t r e p r e s e n t s a p a i r of r i v a l h ypothesis e i t h e r of which may be a p p l i e d to a new element which the person seeks to c o n s t r u e . . . J u s t as the experimental s c i e n t i s t designs h i s experiments around r i v a l h y p o t h e s i s , so each person designs h i s d a i l y e x p l o r a t i o n of l i f e around the r i v a l hypothesis which are suggested by the c o n t r a s t s i n h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n system. Moreover, j u s t as the s c i e n t i s t cannot foresee p o s s i b i l i t i e s that he has not somehow c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n terms of hypothesis so any i n d i v i d u a l can prove or d i s p r o v e only that which h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n system t e l l s him are the p o s s i b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s . Again, the c o n s t r u c t i o n system s e t s the l i m i t s beyond which i t i s impossible f o r him to p e r c e i v e . His c o n s t r u c t s are c o n t r o l s on h i s outlook ( I b i d . , p.129). But while c o n s t r u c t s set up l i m i t s and c o n t r o l s they a l s o provide a b a s i s f o r freedom of movement, choice and c r e a t i v i t y : One way to thin k of the c o n s t r u c t i s as a pathway of movement. The two-ended c o n s t r u c t p r o v i d e s a person with a dichotomous c h o i c e , whether i t be a choice i n how he w i l l p e r c e i v e something or a c h o i c e i n how he w i l l act....The system of c o n s t r u c t s which one e s t a b l i s h e d f o r h i m s e l f r e p r e s e n t s the network of pathways along which he i s f r e e to move...When a person must move he i s co n f r o n t e d with a s e r i e s of dichotomous c h o i c e s . Each c h o i c e i s c h a n n e l i z e d by a c o n s t r u c t . As he recons t r u e s h i m s e l f he may e i t h e r r a t t l e around i n h i s o l d s l o t s or he may c o n s t r u c t new pathways across areas which were not p r e v i o u s l y a c c e s s i b l e ( I b i d . , p.128). Not only i s freedom of movement w i t h i n the c o n s t r u c t system p o s s i b l e , but freedom to reconstrue and c r e a t e new c o n s t r u c t s 1 17 i n p r e v i o u s l y unknown t e r r i t o r i e s of r e a l i t y become p o s s i b l e as w e l l . I t must be noted that t h i s freedom of movement, made p o s s i b l e w i t h i n and beyond present c o n s t r u c t systems, i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n of new c o n s t r u c t s , i s a l s o freedom of movement and e x p r e s s i o n w i t h i n a h o l i s t i c view of the i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y . The genera t i o n and o p e r a t i o n of c o n s t r u c t systems takes p l a c e w i t h i n the realm of the whole i n d i v i d u a l , not j u s t the i n t e l l e c t : A l a r g e p o r t i o n of human behaviour f o l l o w s nameless channels which have no language symbols, nor any kinds of signpost whatsoever....The psychology of pe r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s i s b u i l t upon an i n t e l l e c t u a l model, to be sure, but i t s a p p l i c a t i o n i s not intended to be l i m i t e d to that which i s o r d i n a r i l y c a l l e d i n t e l l e c t u a l or c o g n i t i v e . I t i s a l s o taken to apply to that which i s commonly c a l l e d emotional or a f f e c t i v e and to that which has to do with a c t i o n or c o n a t i o n . The c l a s s i c a l t h r e e f o l d d i v i s i o n of psychology i n t o c o g n i t i o n , a f f e c t i o n , and co n a t i o n has been completely abandoned i n the psychology of p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s ( I b i d . , p.130). C o n s t r u c t s and c o n s t r u c t systems are of use i n understanding the e s s e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of a l l asp e c t s of human f u n c t i o n i n g , and i n developing a p e r c e p t i o n of people as i n t e g r a t e d , whole beings. Having examined the b a s i c parameters of c o n s t r u c t s and c o n s t r u c t systems, t h e i r inherent f u n c t i o n i n the l i v e s of i n d i v i d u a l s w i l l be ex p l o r e d . 5. C o n s t r u c t s and c o n s t r u c t systems Man's c r e a t i v e c a p a c i t y i s manifest i n h i s a b i l i t y to generate c o n s t r u c t s and c o n s t r u c t systems as a means of making 118 sense of h i s world, and as r e f e r e n c e guides f o r h i s behaviour. A c o n s t r u c t i s a " r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the u n i v e r s e " (the universe being " e s s e n t i a l l y a course of events") ( I b i d . , p. 12), a r e c o g n i t i o n of a r e c u r r e n t theme ( I b i d . , p.74), "a framework f o r making p r e d i c t i o n s " ( I b i d . , p.163), a "personal v e r s i o n of r e a l i t y " ( I b i d . , p.135), or a way of c o n s t r u i n g the world ( I b i d . , p.9). The a c t of c o n s t r u i n g i s an a c t of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and the r e s u l t i n g c o n s t r u c t i s a model, a theory, an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or r e p r e s e n t a t i o n that must be t e s t e d a g a i n s t the r e a l i t y of subsequent events. C o n s t r u c t s are unique p e r s o n a l t o o l s , c r e a t e d by the i n d i v i d u a l , and used i n h i s e f f o r t to understand the world: Man c r e a t e s h i s own ways of seeing the world i n which he l i v e s ; the world does not c r e a t e them f o r him. He b u i l d s c o n s t r u c t s and t r i e s them on f o r s i z e . H is c o n s t r u c t s are sometimes organized i n t o systems...The same events can o f t e n be viewed i n the l i g h t of two or more systems. Yet the events do not belong to any system. Moreover, man's p r a c t i c a l systems have a p a r t i c u l a r f o c i and l i m i t e d ranges of convenience ( I b i d . , p . 1 2 ) . The n e u t r a l i t y of events, and the way the same event can be construed d i f f e r e n t l y w i t h i n d i f f e r e n t c o n s t r u c t i o n systems, can be seen i n the v a r i e t y of p e r s p e c t i v e s that academic d i s c i p l i n e s , that i s , shared, p u b l i c c o n s t r u c t systems, may place on the same event ( I b i d . , p.10). But, as i s the case with p u b l i c c o n s t r u c t systems, man's p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t systems tend to be designed p r i m a r i l y to f i t l i m i t e d realms of events (ranges of convenience), and have a l i m i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n w i t h i n those realms ( f o c i of convenience) ( I b i d . , pp.10-12). Tr u t h , the correspondence between the c o n s t r u c t system and 119 r e a l i t y , can only be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n a l i m i t e d range which i s dependent on the adequacy of the c o n s t r u c t system ( I b i d . , p.11). Some c o n s t r u c t s and c o n s t r u c t systems are more adequate than others because they "support more p r e c i s e and more accu r a t e p r e d i c t i o n s about more events" ( I b i d . , p.15); that i s , they have g r e a t e r p r e d i c t i v e e f f i c i e n c y i n e n a b l i n g man to a n t i c i p a t e events: Thus c o n s t r u c t systems can be c o n s i d e r e d as a kind of scanning p a t t e r n which a person c o n t i n u a l l y p r o j e c t s upon h i s world. As he sweeps back and f o r t h a c r o s s h i s p e r c e p t u a l f i e l d he p i c k s up b l i p s of meaning. The more adequate h i s scanning p a t t e r n , the more meaningful h i s world becomes. The more i n tune i t i s with the scanning p a t t e r n s used by o t h e r s , the more b l i p s of meaning he can p i c k up from t h e i r p r o j e c t i o n s . Viewed in t h i s manner the psychology of pe r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s commits us to a p r o j e c t i v e view of a l l p e r c e p t i o n ( I b i d . , p.147). The v a l i d i t y of the c o n s t r u c t system cont i n u e s to be t e s t e d as i t i s p r o j e c t e d on r e a l i t y , and changes to the system are co n s i d e r e d i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r a b i l i t y to enhance the a n t i c i p a t i v e c a p a c i t y of the system. K e l l y summarises how c o n s t r u c t s are organized and used by the i n d i v i d u a l i n t h i s way: The c o n s t r u c t s which are h i e r a r c h i c a l l y organized i n t o systems are v a r i o u s l y s u b j e c t to t e s t i n terms of t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s i n h e l p i n g the person a n t i c i p a t e the course of events which make up the u n i v e r s e . The r e s u l t s of the t e s t i n g of c o n s t r u c t s determine the d e s i r a b i l i t y of t h e i r temporary r e t e n t i o n , t h e i r r e v i s i o n , or t h e i r immediate replacement. We assume that any system may, i n proper time, have to be r e p l a c e d ( I b i d . , p.44). M a n - t h e - s c i e n t i s t uses c o n s t r u c t s and c o n s t r u c t systems as t o o l s f o r i n t e r p r e t i n g and e x p l o r i n g the world. Construct systems f u n c t i o n l i k e the s c i e n t i s t ' s t h e o r i e s , b i n d i n g 120 together f a c t s i n an org a n i z e d , comprehensible way which g i v e s man the freedom to be a c t i v e i n t e s t i n g the theory a g a i n s t the r e a l i t y of the u n i v e r s e . So c o n s t r u c t systems, s c i e n t i f i c t h e o r i e s being one type of c o n s t r u c t system, act l i k e t h e o r i e s i n a l l o w i n g men "to p l a y a c t i v e r o l e s i n the shaping of events" ( I b i d . , p.19) i n an a c t i v e u n i v e r s e which i s i n i t s e l f an event. 6. Determinism and freedom J u s t how f r e e i s man to play an a c t i v e r o l e i n shaping the u n i v e r s e ? K e l l y ' s answer i s that the extent to which man's a c t i o n s are determined, and the extent to which he i s a f r e e agent, depends on e n t i r e l y on the type of c o n s t r u c t system he has c r e a t e d . Within a c o n s t r u c t system, s u p e r o r d i n a t e c o n s t r u c t s have a d e t e r m i n i s t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p with subordinate c o n s t r u c t s w i t h i n t h e i r realm: We are l e f t with one important kind of determinism, the c o n t r o l of a su p e r o r d i n a t e c o n s t r u c t over i t s elements ....an element does not determine the c o n s t r u c t s which are used to subsume i t . . . ( I b i d . , p.21). Events are i n themselves are not determined. Man p l a c e s c o n s t r u c t i o n s on events and t h e i r s t a t u s i s determined by that c o n s t r u c t i o n . Many d i f f e r e n t c o n s t r u c t i o n s can be p l a c e d on the same events. The events do not subordinate our c o n s t r u c t i o n of . them: "The s t r u c t u r e we e r e c t i s what r u l e s us" ( I b i d . , p.20). . . . s i n c e determinism c h a r a c t e r i z e s the c o n t r o l that a c o n s t r u c t e x e r c i s e s over i t s subordinate elements, freedom c h a r a c t e r i z e s i t s independence of those 121 elements...Determinism and freedom are opp o s i t e s i d e s of the same coin--two as p e c t s of the same r e l a t i o n s h i p . . . U l t i m a t e l y a man sets the measure of h i s own freedom and h i s own bondage by the l e v e l at which he chooses to e s t a b l i s h h i s c o n v i c t i o n ( I b i d . , p p . 2 1 - 2 2 ) . Thus each i n d i v i d u a l i s u l t i m a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s own freedom or lack of freedom through h i s power to c r e a t e and r e c r e a t e h i s own c o n s t r u c t system. Man i s f r e e "to the extent that he i s ab l e to construe h i s circumstances, can f i n d f o r himself freedom from t h e i r domination...man can enslave h i m s e l f with h i s own ideas and then win h i s freedom again by r e c o n s t r u i n g h i s l i f e ( I b i d . , p . 2 1 ) . 7 . R e c o n s t r u c t i o n , t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , l e a r n i n g and experience Because K e l l y views both the world (the universe i s a stream of e v e n t s ) , and man (the stream of c o n s c i o u s n e s s ) , as processes i n which change, and t r a n s f o r m a t i o n as a type of change, i s constant, the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of c o n s t r u c t systems i s as important as t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n . The flow of changing events demands the constant r e e v a l u a t i o n of c u r r e n t c o n s t r u c t s and the development of new ones. K e l l y o u t l i n e s why r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l : The u n i v e r s e i s r e a l ; i t i s happening a l l the time; i t i s i n t e g r a l ; and i t i s open to piecemeal i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . D i f f e r e n t men construe i t i n d i f f e r e n t ways. Since i t owes no p r i o r a l l e g i a n c e to any one man's c o n s t r u c t i o n system i t i s always open to r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . Some of the a l t e r n a t i v e ways of c o n s t r u i n g are b e t t e r adapted to man's purposes than are o t h e r s . Thus, man comes to understand h i s world through an i n f i n i t e s e r i e s of s u c c e s s i v e approximations. Since man i s always faced with c o n s t r u c t i v e a l t e r n a t i v e s , which he may explore i f he wishes, he need not con t i n u e i n d e f i n i t e l y to be the ab s o l u t e v i c t i m e i t h e r of h i s past h i s t o r y or of h i s present circumstances ( I b i d . , p.43). 1 2 2 Since change or t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s a constant i n l i f e events, man can best a n t i c i p a t e the world i f he i s w i l l i n g to engage in a continuous process of r e e v a l u a t i o n and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of h i s c u r r e n t c o n s t r u c t system. Understanding, c o n t r o l , and r i c h n e s s i n l i f e experience r e s u l t from the process of c r e a t i n g , and choosing from among a l t e r n a t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s . In K e l l y ' s view the a c t of c r e a t i v e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , l e a r n i n g and experience are very c l o s e l y r e l a t e d , i f not synonymous: Things happen to us p e r s o n a l l y only when we behave i n r e l a t i o n to them. But we have a l r e a d y committed o u r s e l v e s to the p o s i t i o n that p s y c h o l o g i c a l response i s i n i t i a l l y and b a s i c a l l y the outcome of a c o n s t r u i n g a c t . Experience, t h e r e f o r e , i n t h i s system, must be d e f i n e d as the compass of f a c t which has f a l l e n w i t h i n a man's purview. I t i s a set of p e r s o n a l l y construed events. To study a man's experience, then i s to have a look at that upon which, r i g h t l y or wrongly, he has p l a c e d some c o n s t r u c t i o n . . . . E x p e r i e n c e i s the extent of what we know--up to now. I t i s not n e c e s s a r i l y valid....Knowing t h i n g s i s a way of l e t t i n g them happen to us ( I b i d . , p. 171 ) . Experience thus depends on man's continuous, a c t i v e , c r e a t i v e e f f o r t s towards the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of h i s c o n s t r u c t system; there i s no human experience without the act of r e c o n s t r u i n g . K e l l y emphasizes t h i s p o i n t : Experience i s made up of the s u c c e s s i v e c o n s t r u i n g of e v e n t s . . . I t i s not what happens around him that makes a man experienced: i t i s the s u c c e s s i v e c o n s t r u i n g and r e c o n s t r u i n g of what happens, as i t happens, that e n r i c h e s the experience of h i s l i f e ( I b i d . , p.73). And l a t e r he enlarges on the same i d e a : ...our experience i s that p o r t i o n of the uni v e r s e which i s happening to u s — t h a t i s , which i s s u c c e s s i v e l y c o n s t r u e d by u s — a n d the inc r e a s e of experience i s a f u n c t i o n , not of the hodgepodge of events which we 1 23 have construed, or of the time spent i n being aware of them, but of the s u c c e s s i v e r e v i s i o n of our c o n s t r u c t system i n the general d i r e c t i o n of i n c r e a s e d v a l i d i t y ( I b i d . , p.172). Thus, an i n c r e a s e i n experience r e s u l t s from a r e v i s i o n , change or t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n the c o n s t r u c t system, a process of r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . A f a i l u r e i n the process of r e c o n s t r u c t i o n by the i n d i v i d u a l i s a l s o a f a i l u r e to i n c r e a s e experience and a f a i l u r e to l e a r n : If he f a i l s to reconstrue events, even though they keep r e p e a t i n g themselves, he minimizes h i s e x p e r i e n c e . The person who takes events f o r granted and who does not seek new l i g h t to throw upon them, adds very l i t t l e to h i s s t o r e of experience as the years go on. Sometimes i t i s s a i d that a person l e a r n s from e x p e r i e n c e . From the standpoint of the psychology of p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s , however, i t i s the l e a r n i n g which c o n s t i t u t e s experience ( I b i d . , p.172). Thus l e a r n i n g and experience are e s s e n t i a l l y connected; one d e f i n e s the other, and both are r e a l i z e d through the process of r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , which i s e s s e n t i a l l y a process of change or t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , l e a r n i n g , experience and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n are aspects of the same c r e a t i v e process of c o n s t r u i n g and r e c o n s t r u i n g whereby man comes to know the world i n which he l i v e s . 8. F a c i l i t a t i n g r e c o n s t r u c t i o n K e l l y b e l i e v e d that the t h e r a p i s t s r o l e was centered i n t r y i n g t o understand people's ways of viewing the world so that they c o u l d be helped to work out a l t e r n a t i v e ways of r e l a t i n g to others and t h e i r environment. He saw the t h e r a p i s t - c l i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p as a p a r t n e r s h i p , the purpose of 1 24 which was to l i b e r a t e c l i e n t s by e n a b l i n g them to escape from the imprisoning c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of t h e i r own views of l i f e through the r e - i n v e n t i o n or r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e i r c o n s t r u c t systems. He o u t l i n e d t h i s p a r t n e r s h i p i n t h i s way: We see him (the c l i e n t ) approaching r e a l i t y i n the same ways that a l l of us have to approach i t i f we are to get anywhere. The methods range a l l the way from those of the a r t i s t to those of the s c i e n t i s t . L i k e them both and a l l the people i n between, the c l i e n t needs to assume that something can be c r e a t e d that i s not a l r e a d y known or i s not a l r e a d y t h e r e . In t h i s undertaking the f o r t u n a t e c l i e n t has a p a r t n e r , the p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t . But the p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t does not know the f i n a l answer e i t h e r - s o they face the problem t o g e t h e r . Under the circumstances there i s nothing f o r them to do except f o r both to i n q u i r e and both to r i s k o c c a s i o n a l mistakes.'. .. ( I t i s a) genuinely c o - o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t . . . a p a r t n e r s h i p . ( K e l l y , 1969, p.228). In h i s r o l e as partner K e l l y helped people become aware of the s t r u c t u r e of t h e i r c o n s t r u c t systems and helped them to r e s t r u c t u r e d y s f u n c t i o n a l or inadequate c o n s t r u c t s ; he d e v i s e d s e v e r a l methods f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g t h i s p r o c e s s . Two of these techniques were r e p e r t o r y g r i d technique and f i x e d r o l e therapy. Repertory g r i d technique was developed by K e l l y as a f l e x i b l e t o o l f o r measuring or a s s e s s i n g the unique dimensions of a person's c o n s t r u c t system and the p a t t e r n s of r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c o n s t r u c t s w i t h i n i t . The form and content of the r e p e r t o r y g r i d changed and developed as needed i n i t s use as a mapping d e v i c e to explore the unique p s y c h o l o g i c a l space of the i n d i v i d u a l . I t s b a s i c purpose was b r i n g i n g i n t o awareness the unique f e a t u r e s and parameters of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n s t r u c t system. 1 25 F i x e d r o l e therapy was a method d e v i s e d to allow c l i e n t s to t r y out new c o n s t r u c t s i n a s p i r i t of p e r s o n a l e x p l o r a t i o n and experiment. F i r s t , the t h e r a p i s t asked a c l i e n t to w r i t e a s e l f - c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , a c h a r a c t e r sketch of h i m s e l f w r i t t e n from the view-point of an i n t i m a t e o u t s i d e r , i n order to f i n d out how he viewed himsel f and h i s world. Next, the t h e r a p i s t examined the s e l f - c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n and d e v i s e d a f i x e d r o l e sketch, a p o r t r a i t of a person who was d i f f e r e n t i n some l i m i t e d d e s i r a b l e way from the s e l f - c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n , as a means of d e v e l o p i n g new dimensions along which the c l i e n t might see and be i n h i s l i f e . The c l i e n t was asked to attempt to be, f o r a short p e r i o d , the person i n the f i x e d r o l e s k e t c h . The r o l e became a hypothesis f o r the c l i e n t to experiment with i n c o n s u l t a t i o n with the t h e r a p i s t , a p o s s i b i l i t y f o r him to experience, and a means of becoming aware that man i s s e l f - i n v e n t i n g and not n e c e s s a r i l y trapped f o r e v e r i n s i d e h i s own customary thought and behaviour (Bannister & F r a n s e l l a , 1971, pp.133-134). With the a s s i s t a n c e of such techniques as the r e p e r t o r y g r i d and f i x e d r o l e therapy K e l l y helped people to become self-aware, that i s , to be aware of t h e i r c o n s t r u c t systems, and to l e a r n to r e c o n s t r u c t them. K e l l y views r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n terms of at l e a s t two p r o c e s s e s , a s h i f t i n the elements of a c o n s t r u c t w i t h i n the context of that c o n s t r u c t , a c o n t e x t u a l s h i f t , or b u i l d i n g a new set of c o n s t r u c t s to r e p l a c e the o l d a l t o g e t h e r , as i n the 1 26 process of f i x e d r o l e therapy ( I b i d . , p.150). He d e s c r i b e s the c l i e n t as e x p e r i e n c i n g an i n i t i a l " l i f t " as a r e s u l t of the f r e e i n g e f f e c t of a c o n t e x t u a l s h i f t f o l l o w e d by p o s s i b l e c o n f u s i o n or a f e e l i n g of i n s e c u r i t y because "This i s a freedom which he cannot use u n t i l he has a c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h i n which i t (the s h i f t ) can operate in a way which w i l l g ive him some preview of l i f e " ( I b i d . , p.149). Obviously, the process of r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , whether i t be a c o n t e x t u a l s h i f t i n a s i n g l e c o n s t r u c t or the b u i l d i n g of a new set of c o n s t r u c t s , r e q u i r e s the support of s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s f o r i t s success. 9. C o n d i t i o n s f a v o r a b l e to the formation of new c o n s t r u c t s K e l l y advocated the i n t r o d u c t i o n of f r e s h elements, an experimental atmosphere, and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of v a l i d a t i n g data as key i s s u e s i n c r e a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s f a v o r a b l e to the emergence of new c o n s t r u c t s . He f e l t that the formation of new c o n s t r u c t s should be attempted from w i t h i n the context of an i n s u l a r , p r o t e c t e d environment, not t h r e a t e n i n g l y d i f f e r e n t from the person's usual l i f e , but l a c k i n g that world's f a m i l i a r c o m p l e x i t i e s : The (new) elements being r e l a t i v e l y unbound by o l d c o n s t r u c t s which would be seen as being incompatible with the new c o n s t r u c t , do not i n v o l v e the person with the o l d c o n s t r u c t s u n t i l he has brought the new i n t o a s t a t e of u s e f u l n e s s ( K e l l y , 1955, p.161). T h i s p r o t e c t e d environment i s necessary f o r the development, maturation, or " f l e s h i n g out" of new c o n s t r u c t s ; i n such a 127 s u p p o r t i v e atmosphere new c o n s t r u c t s have a b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t y to gain the s t r e n g t h and d e f i n i t i o n necessary to achieve i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o the c o n s t r u c t system of the person. K e l l y a l s o recommends the use of new v e r b a l elements, f o r example, i n the form of s t o r i e s , and the p l a y i n g out of a r t i f i c i a l r o l e s : ...as elements upon which to c r e a t e new c o n s t r u c t s which in t u r n are l a t e r to have more v i t a l meanings...The patent a r t i f i c i a l i t y of the r o l e i s the very f e a t u r e which prevents the tender shoots of new ideas from being trampled i n the f r a n t i c rush to maintain o n e s e l f i n h i s p r e v i o u s r o l e ( I b i d . , p.162). K e l l y viewed an atmosphere of experimentation as extremely important to the formation of new c o n s t r u c t s : . . . t h i s means the s h i f t i n g of c o n s t r u c t grounds upon which p r e d i c t i o n s are based and the checking of v a l i d a t i n g experiences to see which a n t i c i p a t i o n s have corresponded to a c t u a l outcomes... 11 means that the c o n s t r u c t s are t r i e d out i n r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n from each o t h e r : t h i s corresponds to the s c i e n t i s t ' s use of experimental c o n t r o l s . . . . T h e atmosphere of experimentation i s one i n which the consequences of one's experimental a c t s are seen as l i m i t e d . One does not "play f o r keeps." C o n s t r u c t s i n the t r u e s c i e n t i f i c t r a d i t i o n are seen as "being t r i e d on f o r s i z e . " They are seen p r o p o s i t i o n a l l y . In f a c t , the seeing of c o n s t r u c t s as proposed r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of r e a l i t y r a t h e r than the r e a l i t y i t s e l f i s propaedeutic to experimentation ( I b i d . , p.163). The c l i e n t who was to form new c o n s t r u c t s was encouraged to t r y out new behaviors or to explore w i t h i n a c o n t r o l l e d s i t u a t i o n t e n t a t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s on an experimental b a s i s . The atmosphere f o r t h i s e x p l o r a t i o n was a l s o enhanced because the "psychotherapy room i s a p r o t e c t e d l a b o r a t o r y where hypotheses can be formulated, t e s t - t u b e s i z e d experiments can be performed, f i e l d t r i a l s planned, and outcomes eva l u a t e d . 1 28 ( K e l l y , 1969, p.228). The a v a i l a b i l i t y of v a l i d a t i n g data i s a l s o an important c o n d i t i o n f o r the formation of new concepts a c c o r d i n g to K e l l y : A c o n s t r u c t i s a framework f o r making p r e d i c t i o n s . I f i t does not work, there i s a tendency to a l t e r i t - - w i t h i n the more permeable aspects of the c o n s t r u c t i o n system of course. I f r e t u r n s on the p r e d i c t i o n are u n a v a i l a b l e or unduly delayed one i s l i k e l y to postpone changing the c o n s t r u c t under which the p r e d i c t i o n was made ( K e l l y , 1955, p.163). K e l l y p o i n t s out that the saying "knowledge of r e s u l t s f a c i l i t a t e s l e a r n i n g " must be c a r e f u l l y i n t e r p r e t e d because the experimenter and the s u b j e c t i n the l e a r n i n g experiment may not see the same t h i n g s as r e s u l t s ( I b i d . , p.163). Rather than throwing the emphasis upon knowledge of preconceived r e s u l t s , we have chosen to throw the emphasis upon a v a i l a b i l i t y of r e s u l t s i n general as a f a c i l i t a t i n g c o n d i t i o n f o r the formation of new c o n s t r u c t s . In t h i s manner the subject i s permitted to phase h i s experience i n d i f f e r e n t ways ( I b i d . , p.164). The t h e r a p i s t must s k i l l f u l l y monitor the l e a r n i n g process and respond to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s need f o r v a l i d a t i n g d a ta: The c l i n i c i a n needs to be c o n t i n u a l l y a l e r t as to what c o n s t r u c t s are being " t r i e d on" and t r y to govern the a v a i l a b i l i t y of data i n terms of what i s r e l e v a n t to the c o n s t r u c t a c t u a l l y being used ( I b i d . , p.164). K e l l y f e l t that r o l e - p l a y i n g was a l s o e f f e c t i v e because i t was an e x c e l l e n t way of e n a b l i n g the c l i e n t to t r y out new c o n s t r u c t s while having immediate access to v a l i d a t i n g m a t e r i a l . R o l e - p l a y i n g c o u l d be used to rehearse ways of being and r e c e i v e a p r e l i m i n a r y round of v a l i d a t i n g data before 1 29 t r y i n g those ways of being i n other l e s s c o n t r o l l e d s i t u a t i o n s ( I b i d . , p.165). The advantage of the t h e r a p e u t i c s i t u a t i o n was that the c l i e n t c o u l d be given an o p p o r t u n i t y , which i s not normally a v a i l a b l e , to r e c e i v e v a l i d a t i n g data i n response to a wide v a r i e t y of experimental c o n s t r u c t i o n s , and i n t h i s way the c a p a c i t y to l e a r n through the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of new c o n s t r u c t s was g r e a t l y enhanced. The t h e r a p e u t i c s i t u a t i o n : . . . i n v o l v e s a c a r e f u l p r i o r a n a l y s i s of the c l i e n t ' s p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s and an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r him to work them out i n e x p l i c i t forms. Again, i t must be a way of g i v i n g the r i g h t answers to the r i g h t q u e s t i o n s r a t h e r than the l i t e r a l answers to the wrong q u e s t i o n s ( I b i d . , p. 1 65) . 10. C o n d i t i o n s unfavorable to formation of new c o n s t r u c t s C o n d i t i o n s of t h r e a t , preoccupation with o l d m a t e r i a l and lack of a " l a b o r a t o r y " i n which to experiment are c o n d i t i o n s that i n h i b i t the formation of new c o n s t r u c t s a c c o r d i n g to K e l l y . If i n d i v i d u a l s f e e l h i g h l y threatened i t i s u n l i k e l y that they can form new c o n s t r u c t s . A new c o n s t r u c t i s t h r e a t e n i n g i n r e l a t i o n to the higher c o n s t r u c t s w i t h i n the system i n which i t i s to be i n c o r p o r a t e d . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l c o n s t r u c t system which makes a new c o n s t r u c t t h r e a t e n i n g may not appear s e r i o u s to someone e l s e but " I t s mere i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y with the c o n s t r u c t i o n system upon which one leans h e a v i l y i n any way may make i t s elements t h r e a t e n i n g " ( I b i d . , p.167). When people are i n s i s t e n t on c o n s t r u c t i n g elements i n 1 30 such a way as to make them t h r e a t e n i n g they do so because of the inherent nature of c o n s t r u c t s themselves: One maintains h i s c o n s t r u c t system by c l a r i f y i n g i t . . . T h i s means...that one c o n t r o l s h i s system by m a i n t a i n i n g a c l e a r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the elements which the system excludes as w e l l as those which i t i n c l u d e s . The moment one f i n d s himself becoming i n v o l v e d i n any way with the excluded elements of h i s system, he becomes aware of the onset of i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y and sees these new c l u t c h i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s as t h r e a t s . L i k e a wounded animal, he keeps f a c i n g h i s enemy ( I b i d . , p.167). Severe t h r e a t may traumatize or immobilize i n d i v i d u a l s , f r e e z i n g them i n i n e f f e c t i v e modes of behaviour or throwing them back upon o l d e r and more i n f a n t i l e c o n s t r u c t i o n of l i f e ; i n such s i t u a t i o n s i n d i v i d u a l s may a l s o f i n d proof of those p r i m i t i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n s i n the experience ( I b i d . , p.168). Preoccupation with o l d m a t e r i a l can a l s o hamper the development of new c o n s t r u c t s . Old or f a m i l i a r m a t e r i a l : ...tends to be f i x e d i n p l a c e by o l d and c h i l d l i k e c o n s t r u c t s : i t i s only as we l e t the c l i e n t interweave i t with new and a d u l t m a t e r i a l that he s t a r t s b r i n g i n g h i s c o n s t r u c t s up to date. The i n t e r l a r d i n g of new m a t e r i a l with the o l d c a l l s f o r new s o r t i n g of o l d m a t e r i a l i n t o new c a t e g o r i e s that w i l l f i t both the o l d and the new m a t e r i a l ( I b i d . , p.168). Old m a t e r i a l i n the form of a h a b i t , "a c o n s t r u c t i n a s t a t e of i n o p e r a t i v e i m p e r m e a b i l i t y " ( I b i d . , p. 168), can f r e e i n d i v i d u a l s to t r y new ways of being, by anchoring them i n the f a m i l i a r and g i v i n g them a margin of s a f e t y , but h a b i t may a l s o f r e e z e the c o n s t r u c t system and prevent the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of new c o n s t r u c t s : A h a b i t may be c o n s i d e r e d as a convenient kind of s t u p i d i t y which leaves a person f r e e to act i n t e l l i g e n t l y elsewhere. Whether he takes advantage of the o p p o r t u n i t y or not i s another q u e s t i o n . Some people f a i l to s e i z e the 131 advantages o f f e r e d them by t h e i r s t u p i d i t y ( I b i d . , p.169). K e l l y a l s o emphasizes that new c o n s t r u c t s are not formed when one l a c k s a l a b o r a t o r y i n which to t r y them out: A l a b o r a t o r y i s a s i t u a t i o n i n which there i s present f o r the person to r e - s o r t , a s u f f i c i e n t amount of the s t u f f out of which new c o n s t r u c t s can be formed. (For instance) I t i s d i f f i c u l t to form new s o c i a l concepts out of s i t u a t i o n s which are barren of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( I b i d . , p.169). A l a b o r a t o r y a l s o p r o v i d e s convenient i n s u l a t i o n from other v a r i a b l e s , the c o m p l e x i t i e s of which might swamp or overwhelm the person who i s t r y i n g to form new c o n s t r u c t s ; "...a person who i s completely and c o n t i n u a l l y i n v o l v e d i n the u l t i m a t e consequences of h i s a c t s i s i n no p o s i t i o n to experiment with new i d e a s " ( I b i d . , p.170). "A l a b o r a t o r y . . . p e r m i t s a person to explo r e i n a l i m i t e d sphere. The bang that r e s u l t s from some of h i s in a d v e r t e n t mixtures need not blow up h i s world" ( I b i d . , p.170). 11. B a r r i e r s to r e c o n s t r u c t i o n In s p i t e of K e l l y ' s o p t i m i s t i c outlook on man's c a p a b i l i t i e s i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of r e a l i t y , there are many b a r r i e r s to the f u l l development of these c a p a b i l i t i e s i n the i n d i v i d u a l . In a sense, p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t theory i s a r e c o g n i t i o n of the problematic nature of the processes of c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n and an attempt to understand these processes w e l l enough to attempt to remove the b a r r i e r s which hamper the development of 1 32 i n d i v i d u a l s to t h e i r f u l l p o t e n t i a l : The focus of convenience which we have chosen f o r our own t h e o r y - b u i l d i n g e f f o r t s i s the p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of l i f e . We are concerned with f i n d i n g b e t t e r ways to h e l p a person reconstrue h i s l i f e so that he need not be the v i c t i m of h i s past ( I b i d . , p.23) . Many of these b a r r i e r s a r i s e from the e s s e n t i a l nature of the c o n s t r u c t system and the c o n s t r u i n g p r o c e s s . C o n s t r u c t s and c o n s t r u c t systems are r e a l and they are r e a l i n t h e i r e f f e c t s . "Man looks at h i s world through t r a n s p a r e n t p a t t e r n s or templets which he c r e a t e d and then attempts to f i t over the r e a l i t i e s of which the world i s composed" ( I b i d . , p.9). These c o n s t r u c t s ( p a t t e r n s or templets) l i m i t the f i e l d of v i s i o n and i f they do not adequately f i t r e a l i t y they may block the progress of the i n d i v i d u a l . The adequacy of c o n s t r u c t s and c o n s t r u c t systems depends i n pa r t on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as comprehensiveness, s t r u c t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n , range and f l e x i b i l i t y . E s p e c i a l l y important f o r purposes of r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s t h e i r r e l a t i v e degree of p e r m e a b i l i t y or imp e r m e a b i l i t y . P e r m e a b i l i t y r e f e r s to the c a p a c i t y of a c o n s t r u c t or c o n s t r u c t system to embrace new elements ( I b i d . , p.80). P e r m e a b i l i t y i s the q u a l i t y of p l a s t i c i t y , r e s i l i e n c y or a d a p t a b i l i t y which a l l o w s f o r ease i n the process of change, whether m o d i f i c a t i o n or t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , w i t h i n a c o n s t r u c t system: A person who approaches h i s world with a r e p e r t o r y of impermeable c o n s t r u c t s i s l i k e l y to f i n d h i s system unworkable through the wider expanses of events. He w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , tend to c o n s t r i c t h i s experience to the narrower ranges which he i s prepared to understand. On 133 the other hand, i f he i s prepared to p e r c e i v e events i n new ways, he may accumulate experience r a p i d l y . I t i s t h i s a d a p t a b i l i t y which p r o v i d e s a more d i r e c t measure of the growing v a l i d i t y of a man's c o n s t r u c t system than does the amount of time he consumes i n swatting at the events which buzz around h i s ears ( I b i d . , p.172). T h e r e f o r e , the q u a l i t y of the c o n s t r u c t system has a major be a r i n g on the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r , and the success of, the process of r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . R e c o n s t r u c t i o n can be hampered in other ways as w e l l . A major b a r r i e r to r e c o n s t r u c t i o n may be the f a c t that man i s not n e c e s s a r i l y aware of, or " a r t i c u l a t e about the c o n s t r u c t i o n s he p l a c e s upon h i s worId....Thus, i n studying the psychology of man-the-philosopher we must take i n t o account h i s subverbal p a t t e r n s of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i o n " ( I b i d . , p.16). The i m p l i c a t i o n here i s that awareness of the s t r u c t u r e and contents of the i n d i v i d u a l c o n s t r u c t system can be of immense value f o r the process of r e c o n s t r u c t i o n ; awareness allows f o r planned, c o n s i s t e n t e f f o r t i n a chosen d i r e c t i o n r a t h e r than a haphazard n a t u r a l process which may or may not be c o n s i s t e n t with i n d i v i d u a l g o a l s . Furthermore, a person may be r e l u c t a n t to express or t e s t h i s c o n s t r u c t s ( I b i d . , p.14). T e s t i n g and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a c o n s t r u c t or c o n s t r u c t system i s not without r i s k , which an i n d i v i d u a l may not be prepared to accept: In seeking improvement he i s r e p e a t e d l y h a l t e d by the damage to the system that a p p a r e n t l y w i l l r e s u l t from the a l t e r a t i o n of a subordinate c o n s t r u c t . F r e q u e n t l y h i s p e r s o n a l investment i n the l a r g e r system, or h i s p e r s o n a l dependence upon i t , i s so great that he w i l l forego the 134 a d o p t i o n o f a more p r e c i s e c o n s t r u c t i n t h e s u b s t r u c t u r e . I t may t a k e a major a c t o f p s y c h o - t h e r a p y o r e x p e r i e n c e t o g e t him t o a d j u s t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n s y s t e m t o t h e p o i n t where t h e new and more p r e c i s e c o n s t r u c t can be i n c o r p o r a t e d ( I b i d . , p . 9 ) . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e framework p r o v i d e d by an i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n s t r u c t s y s t e m may n o t be a d e q u a t e t o t h e t a s k o f f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t i n p a r t i c u l a r ways, a t a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e : Our p o s i t i o n i s t h a t even t h e c h a n g e s w h i c h a p e r s o n a t t e m p t s w i t h i n h i m s e l f must be c o n s t r u e d by him. The new o u t l o o k w h i c h a p e r s o n g a i n s from e x p e r i e n c e i s i t s e l f an e v e n t ; and, b e i n g an e v e n t i n h i s l i f e , i t needs t o be c o n s t r u e d by him i f he i s t o make any s e n s e out of i t . I n d e e d , he c a n n o t even a t t a i n t h e new o u t l o o k i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e u n l e s s t h e r e i s some c o m p r e h e n s i v e o v e r v i e w w i t h i n w h i c h i t c a n be c o n s t r u e d . . . . one d o e s not l e a r n c e r t a i n t h i n g s m e r e l y from t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s t i m u l i w h i c h p l a y upon him; he l e a r n s o n l y what h i s framework i s d e s i g n e d t o p e r m i t him t o see i n t h e s t i m u l i ( I b i d . , p.79) . T h i s p a s s a g e has e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e e d u c a t o r . I t i m p l i e s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s must p a s s t h r o u g h some s o r t of d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s o r p h a s e s i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e i r c o n s t r u c t s y s t e m s b e f o r e c e r t a i n t y p e s of e x p e r i e n c e , l e a r n i n g and r e s t r u c t u r i n g a r e p o s s i b l e ; t h e l i m i t s of narrow c o n s t r u c t s y s t e m s must be p u s h e d back t o a l l o w f o r p o s i t i v e g r o w t h and c h a n g e . I t a l s o i m p l i e s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s may not be c a p a b l e o f p u s h i n g back t h e s e l i m i t s w i t h o u t a s s i s t a n c e f r o m someone who i s a b l e t o h e l p them become aware o f t h e i r own c o n s t r u c t s y s t e m s , and t h e i r own power t o t a k e some s o r t o f c o n s c i o u s c o n t r o l of t h e i r d e v e l o p m e n t . I t i s h e r e t h a t t h e e d u c a t o r , as w e l l as t h e t h e r a p i s t , must r e c o g n i z e t h e c h a l l e n g e and t h e i n v i t a t i o n o f f e r e d by K e l l y ' s t h e o r y of p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s . 135 In the l i g h t of the b a r r i e r s to r e c o n s t r u c t i o n which have been d i s c u s s e d i t i s p o s s i b l e to c r i t i c i z e K e l l y f o r being too o p t i m i s t i c about man's p o t e n t i a l f o r p r e d i c t i o n and c o n t r o l of the events of h i s l i f e . K e l l y ' s optimism about man's p o t e n t i a l i s expressed i n the b e l i e f t h a t : The d i r e c t i o n of h i s movement, hence h i s m o t i v a t i o n , i s toward b e t t e r understanding of what w i l l happen...our l i v e s are wholly o r i e n t e d toward the a n t i c i p a t i o n of events. The person moves out toward making more and more of the world p r e d i c t a b l e and not o r d i n a r i l y does he withdraw more and more i n t o a p r e d i c t a b l e world ( I b i d . , p.157). I t can be argued that K e l l y ' s own evidence about the b a r r i e r s to r e c o n s t r u c t i o n would r e f u t e the c l a i m that man does not " o r d i n a r i l y " r e t r e a t i n t o a p r e d i c t a b l e world. N e v e r t h e l e s s , he makes a strong case f o r the advantages f o r man i n being w i l l i n g to take the r i s k of moving out towards a b e t t e r understanding of h i s world. As m a n - t h e - s c i e n t i s t i s w i l l i n g to engage i n the r e c r e a t i o n of h i s c o n s t r u c t systems, h i s t h e o r i e s of the world, he gains freedom and c o n t r o l . T h e o r i e s are the t h i n k i n g of men who seek freedom amid s w i r l i n g events. The t h e o r i e s comprise p r i o r assumptions about c e r t a i n realms of these events. To the extent that the events may, from these p r i o r assumptions, be construed, p r e d i c t e d , and t h e i r r e l a t i v e courses c h a r t e d , men may e x e r c i s e c o n t r o l , and gain freedom f o r themselves in the process ( I b i d . , p.22). In t a k i n g that r i s k man i s l i k e l y to be able to c r e a t e f o r himself a c o n s t r u c t system which becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y u s e f u l : The man whose p r i o r c o n v i c t i o n s encompass a broad p e r s p e c t i v e , and are c a s t i n terms of p r i n c i p l e s rather than r u l e s , has a much b e t t e r chance of d i s c o v e r i n g those a l t e r n a t i v e s which w i l l l e a d e v e n t u a l l y to h i s emancipation ( I b i d . , p.22). 136 K e l l y would say that success and f u l f i l l m e n t f o r humanity, both i n d i v i d u a l l y and c o l l e c t i v e l y , r e s t s on the w i l l i n g n e s s of i n d i v i d u a l s to continue to take that r i s k . 12. C o n c l u s i o n K e l l y ' s theory of p e r s o n a l c o n s t r u c t s i s a w e l l developed and c a r e f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d theory which u n f o l d s at a high l e v e l of a b s t r a c t i o n . He w r i t e s with c l a r i t y and s t y l e about i t s a p p l i c a t i o n and relevance to the understanding of both the every day l i f e of o r d i n a r y people and the progress of humanity. His work has i n s p i r e d r e s e a r c h and the p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of h i s ideas i n many d i f f e r e n t areas of human endeavour. Above a l l , h i s emphasis on the t r a n s f o r m a t i v e powers of the human mind i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n and r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of c o n s t r u c t systems, and the importance of self-awareness i n developing those powers, make h i s w r i t i n g s a p r o l i f i c source of ideas r e l a t e d to the conception of t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g . E. MEZIROW: PERSPECTIVE TRANSFORMATION 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n P e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , a form of change i n consciousness, i s the core concept around which Mezirow (1978, 1981, 1985a, 1985b, 1988) has organized h i s view of a d u l t development and a d u l t l e a r n i n g . I t i s the heart of h i s 1 37 c r i t i c a l theory of a d u l t l e a r n i n g and e d u c a t i o n . In h i s e a r l y f o r m u l a t i o n of the concept (1978), the work of Kuhn (1962), F r e i r e (1970), consciousness r a i s i n g phenomena in s o c i a l a c t i o n movements such as the women's movement and the c i v i l r i g h t s movement, and h i s own r e s e a r c h with women in c o l l e g e r e - e n t r y programs (Mezirow, 1975) were str o n g i n f l u e n c e s . L a t e r , (1981,1985a,1985b,1985c,1986,1988) p s y c h o l o g i s t s such as K e l l y (1955), Rogers (1978), and Bruner (1973), s o c i o l o g i s t s such as Berger and Luckmann (1966) and European c r i t i c a l s o c i a l t h e o r i s t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y Jurgen Habermas (1971), have had i n c r e a s i n g i n f l u e n c e on the development of h i s thought. His t h e o r i z i n g , thus grounded i n h i s own rese a r c h program and a broad spectrum of c u r r e n t thought i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , both European and North American, i s f e r t i l e ground fo r the e x p l o r a t i o n of the emerging c a t e g o r i e s c e n t e r i n g on l e a r n i n g i n v o l v i n g changes i n consciousness; an overview of h i s thought i n r e l a t i o n to t h i s growing understanding of t r a n s f o r m a t i v e l e a r n i n g f o l l o w s . 2. Meaning schemes and p e r s p e c t i v e s i n r e l a t i o n t o human development During the course of t h e i r development c h i l d r e n are s o c i a l i z e d i n t o ways of p e r c e i v i n g r e a l i t y through meaning schemes and p e r s p e c t i v e s ( c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s ) that are u n c r i t i c a l l y a s s i m i l a t e d from people who are s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h e i r l i v e s . These meaning schemes and p e r s p e c t i v e s are 138 i n f l u e n c e d by a p s y c h o l o g i c a l f o r c e - f i e l d , which i n c l u d e s a l l the unique f e a t u r e s of biography, c u l t u r e , language, and h i s t o r i c a l time and p l a c e , i n which these c h i l d r e n l i v e . T h e r e f o r e , the way people come to construe themselves and t h e i r r e a l i t y as a d u l t s depends on the p s y c h o - c u l t u r a l f o r c e -f i e l d i n which they grew up (Mezirow, 1985c, pp. 1-2). These u n c r i t i c a l l y a c q u i r e d meaning schemes operate u n c o n s c i o u s l y , o u t s i d e awareness, to determine how people p e r c e i v e and what they p e r c e i v e : We use our r e p e r t o i r e of meaning schemes to c l a s s i f y o b j e c t s and events so that what comes i n t o awareness i s , in r e a l i t y , only a s e l e c t i v e l y i n t e r p r e t e d v e r s i o n of what we p e r c e i v e ( I b i d . , p.2). Meaning schemes organize and c o n t r o l peoples' a n t i c i p a t i o n s or e x p e c t a t i o n s and these "tend to become s e l f - f u l f i l l i n g p r o p h e s i e s " ( I b i d . , p.4). People's experience tends to match what they a n t i c i p a t e and expect because new experience i s i n t e r p r e t e d i n the context of t h e i r e x i s t i n g meaning schemes; "Meaning schemes and p e r s p e c t i v e s are s t r u c t u r e s of psycho-c u l t u r a l assumptions w i t h i n which our past experience a s s i m i l a t e s and transforms new experience" ( I b i d . , p.4). Thus, the way i n which people experience r e a l i t y i n the present i s c o n t r o l l e d by t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s t r u c t u r e of meaning schemes and p e r s p e c t i v e s , which are a r e f l e c t i o n of how they have experienced r e a l i t y i n the p a s t . People undergo developmental t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s i n t h e i r c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e s as they a c q u i r e new meaning schemes and d i f f e r e n t i a t e and extend o l d ones. In c h i l d h o o d , these 139 developmental t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s u s u a l l y progress u n c o n s c i o u s l y , o u t s i d e of awareness, under the i n f l u e n c e of p h y s i c a l maturation and the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process ( I b i d . , p.5). Because these meaning s t r u c t u r e s are a s s i m i l a t e d and developmentally transformed u n c o n s c i o u s l y and u n c r i t i c a l l y , they may be untrustworthy, d i s t o r t e d , l i m i t e d and d y s f u n c t i o n a l depending on the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p a r t i c u l a r h i s t o r y and biography. In adulthood, the c a p a b i l i t y to b r i n g these u n c o n s c i o u s l y a s s i m i l a t e d s t r u c t u r e s i n t o consciousness, examine them c r i t i c a l l y , and transform them, can be developed: In adulthood, a new dimension of development makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r us to extend our understanding and sense of agency by b r i n g i n g i n t o awareness the meaning schemes and p e r s p e c t i v e s u n c r i t i c a l l y a c q u i r e d i n c h i l d h o o d i n order to c r i t i c a l l y analyze and v a l i d a t e them. T h i s i s what i s unique about a d u l t l e a r n i n g and t h e r e f o r e of c e n t r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r a d u l t education ( I b i d . , pp.5-6). T h i s unique a d u l t l e a r n i n g process i s c a l l e d p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . To understand the concept of p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n Mezirow's ge n e r a l approach to l e a r n i n g must be understood. 3. L e a r n i n g domains and l e a r n i n g processes a. Learning domains Mezirow encourages a m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l conception of l e a r n i n g . Basing h i s ideas on Habermas'(1971) theory of knowledge development, he t h e o r i z e s that there are three d i s t i n c t but i n t e r r e l a t e d l e a r n i n g domains. Habermas suggests that knowledge i s developed a c c o r d i n g to three primary 1 40 cognitive interests, the technical, the practical and the emancipatory, which are grounded in three different aspects of social existence—work, interaction and power (Mezirow, 1981, p.4). These knowledge generating areas of human interest: ...are "knowledge constitutive" because they determine categories relevant to what we interpret as knowledge. They also determine the mode of discovering knowledge and for establishing whether knowledge claims are warranted (Ibid., pp.4-5). These three modes of knowing suggest that there are three different domains of learning, each with its own appropriate mode of inquiry, educational strategy and learning goals. The first learning domain deals with technical interests grounded in the world of work and involves instrumental action for the prediction, control and manipulation of the environment through the empirical-analytic sciences. The second domain deals with practical interests grounded in social and communicative interaction and explored through the historical-hermeneutic sciences, the sciences of interpretation and explanation, with the goal of learning for interpersonal understanding. The third domain deals with emancipatory interests grounded in power relationships, explored through the critical social sciences with the goal of learning for perspective transformation: This involves an interest in self-knowledge, that is the knowledge of self-reflection, including interest in the way one's history and biography has expressed itself in the way one sees oneself, one's roles and social expectations. Emancipation is from libidinal, institutional or environmental forces which limit our options and rational control over our lives but have been taken for granted as beyond human control. 141 I n s i g h t s g a i n e d t h r o u g h c r i t i c a l s e l f - a w a r e n e s s a r e e m a n c i p a t o r y i n t h e s e n s e t h a t a t l e a s t one c a n r e c o g n i z e t h e c o r r e c t r e a s o n s f o r h i s o r h e r p r o b l e m s ( I b i d . , p . 5 ) . The mode o f i n q u i r y i n h e r e n t i n t h e c r i t i c a l s o c i a l s c i e n c e s i s c r i t i q u e . T h i s c r i t i q u e i s f o c u s e d on i d e o l o g i e s , t h e b e l i e f s y s t e m s t h a t s h a p e a g r o u p ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e a l i t y a n d a r e u s e d t o j u s t i f y a n d l e g i t i m i z e a c t i o n : C r i t i c a l t h e o r i s t s h o l d , w i t h M a r x , t h a t one must become c r i t i c a l l y c o n s c i o u s o f how an i d e o l o g y r e f l e c t s a n d d i s t o r t s m o r a l , s o c i a l a n d p o l i t i c a l r e a l i t y and what m a t e r i a l a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e and s u s t a i n t h e f a l s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s w h i c h i t r e p r e s e n t s — e s p e c i a l l y r e i f i e d p o w e r s o f d o m i n a t i o n ( I b i d . , p . 6 ) . N o n r e f l e c t i v e o r f a l s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s must be t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o c r i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s f o r e m a n c i p a t i o n t o t a k e p l a c e . M e z i r o w b e l i e v e s t h a t c r i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s o r a w a r e n e s s makes d r a m a t i c p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l c h a n g e p o s s i b l e , b u t n o t i n e v i t a b l e ; t r a n s f o r m e d c o n s c i o u s n e s s d o e s n o t a u t o m a t i c a l l y l e a d t o a c t i o n b a s e d on t h a t c o n s c i o u s n e s s . R a t h e r , l e a r n i n g f o r e m a n c i p a t o r y a c t i o n s e r v e s t h e p u r p o s e o f p r o v i d i n g l e a r n e r s w i t h c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n , w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e y c h o o s e o r a r e a b l e t o a c t on t h a t u n d e r s t a n d i n g . M e z i r o w e q u a t e s e m a n c i p a t o r y l e a r n i n g w i t h h i s own c o n c e p t o f p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ( I b i d . , p . 6 ) . b. L e a r n i n g p r o c e s s e s M e z i r o w d e s c r i b e s t h r e e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s e s w h i c h e a c h o p e r a t e i n a l l t h r e e l e a r n i n g d o m a i n s . The f i r s t i s l e a r n i n g w i t h i n m e a n i n g schemes by d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n a nd e l a b o r a t i o n o f k n o w l e d g e . The s e c o n d p r o c e s s i n v o l v e s t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f 1 42 new meaning schemes which are " s u f f i c i e n t l y c o n s i s t e n t and compatible with e x i s t i n g meaning schemes to complement them w i t h i n a p r e v a i l i n g or emerging meaning p e r s p e c t i v e ( I b i d . , 1985c, p.11). The t h i r d process i s l e a r n i n g through meaning t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , that i s , becoming aware of s p e c i f i c assumptions upon which a meaning scheme i s based and through a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n or reframing of meaning a c h i e v i n g a new s y n t h e s i s , a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . ( I b i d . , pp.1 1-12). 4. Meaning schemes and meaning p e r s p e c t i v e s : D e f i n i t i o n and development a. D e f i n i t i o n To understand the process of l e a r n i n g through p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n one must understand a web of i n t e r r e l a t e d concepts, the most c e n t r a l being the concepts of meaning scheme and meaning p e r s p e c t i v e . According to Mezirow (1988) meaning schemes and meaning p e r s p e c t i v e s are the "boundary s t r u c t u r e s " which s e l e c t i v e l y order and d e l i m i t our l e a r n i n g by s e t t i n g up h a b i t s of e x p e c t a t i o n which c o n t r o l our p e r c e i v i n g , comprehending and remembering. Meaning i s c r e a t e d as experience i s construed through these c u l t u r a l l y a s s i m i l a t e d meaning schemes and p e r s p e c t i v e s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e our "horizons of e x p e c t a t i o n " (p.223). Although meaning p e r s p e c t i v e i s the broader term used throughout h i s w r i t i n g ; Mezirow-- conceives of meaning schemes as s m a l l e r sub-sets of r e l a t e d e x p e c t a t i o n s w i t h i n a meaning 143 p e r s p e c t i v e . Meaning schemes are " r u l e s and p r i n c i p l e s of s t r a t e g y " or "sets of r e l a t e d and h a b i t u a l e x p e c t a t i o n s governing i f - t h e n , c a u s e - e f f e c t and category r e l a t i o n s h i p s as w e l l as event sequences, goal o r i e n t a t i o n s and p r o t o t y p e s " ( I b i d . , 1988, p.226). Mezirow d e f i n e s meaning p e r s p e c t i v e s i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t but r e l a t e d ways. He claims that a meaning p e r s p e c t i v e i s not simply a c o g n i t i v e s t r u c t u r e ( I b i d . , 1985c, p.4) but "an i n t e g r a t e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e with dimensions of thought, f e e l i n g and w i l l " ( I b i d . , 1978, p.108). Mezirow d e f i n e s meaning p e r s p e c t i v e as "an o r i e n t i n g frame of r e f e r e n c e made up of s e t s of schemes, t h e o r i e s , p r o p o s i t i o n s , b e l i e f s and e v a l u a t i o n s " ( I b i d . , 1988, p.223), or "the s t r u c t u r e of p s y c h o - c u l t u r a l assumptions w i t h i n which new experience i s a s s i m i l a t e d and transformed by one's past e x p erience" ( I b i d . , 1981, p.6), or "a form of consciousness i n v o l v i n g a p a r t i c u l a r c o n s t e l l a t i o n of b e l i e f s , a t t i t u d e s , d i s p o s i t i o n s , e t c . " ( I b i d . , 1985b, p.145). Our meaning p e r s p e c t i v e i s a p e r s o n a l paradigm that p o s i t i o n s us f o r a c t i o n , d e f i n e s our e x p e c t a t i o n s , and s e l e c t i v e l y o r d e r s what we l e a r n and the way we l e a r n i t ( I b i d . , 1985a, p.22). Our meaning p e r s p e c t i v e i s thus the meaning s t r u c t u r e or meaning system which p r o v i d e s a c o n s i s t e n t , coherent p a t t e r n on which we base our approach to l i f e . b. Development Mezirow c a l l s on evidence from the work of Bruner and 1 44 K e l l y to c o n f i r m h i s conception of s e v e r a l f a c t o r s as being e s s e n t i a l to the understanding of the development of p e r s p e c t i v e s . He agrees that p e r s p e c t i v e s are c o n s t i t u t i v e of experience; that i s , they c r e a t e or generate experience. Human experience i s brought i n t o being through language which b u i l d s up l i n g u i s t i c a l l y c i r c u m s c r i b e d or organized areas of meaning, that i s , meaning p e r s p e c t i v e s ( I b i d . , 1981, p.14). R e a l i t y i s c o n s t r u c t i v e i n nature and people attempt to improve t h e i r a b i l i t y to a n t i c i p a t e r e a l i t y by developing p e r s o n a l category systems which i n f l u e n c e t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s . "We c o n s t r u c t a model of the world with our system of c a t e g o r i e s , come to expect c e r t a i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s and behaviors to occur and then experience our c a t e g o r i e s ( I b i d . , p.15). Personal category systems, p e r s p e c t i v e s , depend h e a v i l y on symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , p r i m a r i l y language, f o r t h e i r development. In the course of human i n t e l l e c t u a l development, the emergence of the c a p a c i t y f o r symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n p e r m i t t e d : . . . r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s not only of what i s but a l s o of what i s not and what might be. T h i s r e q u i r e s the development of s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s which permits one to make the c r u c i a l d i s t i n c t i o n between one's own p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s and e x t e r n a l events. T h i s self-awareness i s a p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r developing the c a p a c i t y to c a t e g o r i z e the same s t i m u l i a c c o r d i n g to s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t c r i t e r i a or p o i n t s of view. Through symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n one can d i a l o g u e with o n e s e l f , and, i n imagin a t i o n , c o n s t r u c t the p e r s p e c t i v e of the other person. P e r s p e c t i v e t a k i n g then becomes an i n d i s p e n s a b l e h e u r i s t i c f o r higher l e v e l c o g n i t i v e and p e r s o n a l i t y development ( I b i d . , p.15). T h i s being so, Mezirow i s concerned that although c u l t u r e can e i t h e r i n h i b i t or f a c i l i t a t e the development of s e l f -1 45 consciousness and a b i l i t y to make symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , f r e q u e n t l y c u l t u r e s have a negative e f f e c t on the development of these a b i l i t i e s and thus on general human development ( I b i d . , p.15). C u l t u r e s vary i n the degree to which they encourage the c u l t i v a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t i v i t y , s e l f - c o n s c i o u s , or self-awareness. Self-awareness i s necessary to the development of the a b i l i t y to d e c e n t r a t e (to analyze t h i n g s i n the world from a p e r s p e c t i v e other than one's p e r s o n a l or l o c a l p e r s p e c t i v e ) , and d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e (to conceive of i n f o r m a t i o n as independent of the speaker's p o i n t of view), which are e s s e n t i a l to p e r s p e c t i v e t a k i n g ( I b i d . , 1981, pp.15-16). P e r s p e c t i v e t a k i n g , t a k i n g the p e r s p e c t i v e of others " i s the mechanism by which t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o c c u r s " ( I b i d . , 1978, p. 104). P e r s p e c t i v e t a k i n g i s more than r o l e t a k i n g ; i t a l s o i m p l i e s "a conscious r e c o g n i t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e between one's o l d viewpoint and the new one and a d e c i s i o n to a p p r o p r i a t e the newer p e r s p e c t i v e as being of more va l u e " ( I b i d . , p.105). Although Mezirow does not make the connections d i r e c t l y , t h i s i m p l i e s two t h i n g s : that the a b i l i t y f o r p e r s p e c t i v e t a k i n g i s not u n i v e r s a l l y developed and that the c a p a c i t y f o r p e r s p e c t i v e t a k i n g i s e s s e n t i a l to p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ; one cannot transform a p e r s p e c t i v e e a s i l y i f one i s not aware of t a k i n g a p e r s p e c t i v e . Mezirow i s a l s o concerned about the l i m i t i n g nature of p e r s p e c t i v e s , which he d e f i n e s i n terms of K e l l y ' s (1955) 1 46 c o n s t r u c t s : C o n s t r u c t s c o n t r o l one's outlook. K e l l y b e l i e v e s that even human behaviour which has no language symbols n e v e r t h e l e s s i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y c h a n n e l e d . . . P e r s p e c t i v e s are systems of such c o n s t r u c t s i n v o l v i n g what P o l a n y i r e f e r s to as " t a c i t knowing," unformulated knowledge such as that we have of a problem we are attempting to sol v e as d i s t i n c t from e x p l i c i t o r y formulated knowledge of which we can become c r i t i c a l l y r e f l e c t i v e ( I b i d . , 1981, p. 1 6) . T h i s acknowledges that much of the meaning system, whether thought of i n terms of a c o n s t r u c t system or a meaning p e r s p e c t i v e , operates not only o u t s i d e language but un c o n s c i o u s l y , o u t s i d e of awareness. Mezirow agrees with K e l l y that b r i n g i n g what i s ou t s i d e awareness i n t o consciousness i s important as a means of a l l o w i n g i n d i v i d u a l s to gain i n s i g h t i n t o , and some measure of c o n t r o l over t h e i r p e r s o n a l meaning systems. Mezirow suggests that being aware of the l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s inherent i n c u l t u r e and language and i n the nature of p e r s p e c t i v e s themselves, i s the f i r s t s tep towards tra n s c e n d i n g those l i m i t s through p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g to Mezirow, l e a r n i n g to become aware, that i s , l e a r n i n g to access powers of awareness or consciousness, i s a matter of developing the c a p a c i t y f o r c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i v i t y . 5. C r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i v i t y Mezirow equates s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , self-awareness, and r e f l e c t i v i t y , and acknowledges t h e i r primary r o l e i n p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . He d i v i d e s self-awareness i n t o two 147 dimensions, consciousness and c r i t i c a l c o n sciousness, each of which c o n t a i n s s e v e r a l l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i v i t y . The f i r s t dimension, consciousness, i s d i v i d e d i n t o four l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i v i t y . The general act of r e f l e c t i v i t y i s becoming aware of our own s p e c i f i c p e r c e p t i o n , meaning or behaviour or of our h a b i t s of seeing, t h i n k i n g or a c t i n g . A f f e c t i v e r e f l e c t i v i t y i s becoming aware of how we f e e l about the way we are p e r c e i v i n g , t h i n k i n g or a c t i n g or about our h a b i t s of doing so. D i s c r i m i n a n t r e f l e c t i v i t y r e f e r s to the process of a s s e s s i n g the e f f i c a c y of our h a b i t s of p e r c e i v i n g , t h i n k i n g , and a c t i n g ; i d e n t i f y i n g immediate causes; r e c o g n i z i n g r e a l i t y c o n t e x t s (dreaming, awake, watching a p l a y e t c . ) i n which we are f u n c t i o n i n g and i d e n t i f y i n g our r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n the s i t u a t i o n . Judgmental r e f l e c t i v i t y i n v o l v e s making and becoming aware of our value judgments about our p e r c e p t i o n s , thoughts, a c t i o n s and h a b i t s ( I b i d . , 1 981, p.12) . In i n t r o d u c i n g the second dimension of consciousness, Mezirow p o i n t s out that p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n goes beyond the concept of "meta-learning" (Maudsley,1979), which i n v o l v e s becoming aware of, and i n c r e a s i n g l y i n c o n t r o l of h a b i t s of p e r c e p t i o n , thought, and a c t i o n ; he equates t h i s type of awareness with the b a s i c r e f l e c t i v i t y of h i s f i r s t dimension of c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Mezirow cl a i m s that c r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i v i t y , the second dimension of consciousness, goes beyond t h i s b a s i c awareness. C r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i v i t y , which i s at the core of 1 48 p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , i n v o l v e s becoming c r i t i c a l l y aware not only of h a b i t s of p e r c e p t i o n , thought and a c t i o n but of the reasons why we have these h a b i t s , "the c u l t u r a l assumptions governing these r u l e s , r o l e s , conventions and s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s which d i c t a t e the way we see, t h i n k , f e e l and a c t " (Mezirow, 1981, p.13). C r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i v i t y i s a s p e c i a l type of self-awareness which p l a y s a c r u c i a l r o l e i n p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e i n a d u l t l e a r n i n g . I t i s an "awareness of why we a t t a c h the meanings we do to r e a l i t y " ( I b i d . , p.11). C r i t i c a l r e f l e c t i v i t y , c r i t i c a l awareness or c r i t i c a l c o nsciousness are a l l terms Mezirow uses to d e s c r i b e t h i s process of c r i t i c a l s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n , that i s "becoming aware of our awareness and c r i t i q u i n g i t " ( I b i d . , p.13). These concepts i n c l u d e a c t s of s e l f - r e f l e c t i o n under the c a t e g o r i e s of conceptual r e f l e c t i v i t y ( r e f l e c t i o n on the adequacy of our c o n c e p t s ) , p s y c h i c r e f l e c t i v i t y ( r e f l e c t i o n on our h a b i t s of thought or c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n ) , and t h e o r e t i c a l r e f l e c t i v i t y (becoming aware of the reasons f o r our h a b i t s of thought, or f o r c o n c e p t u a l inadequacy i n our set of t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d c u l t u r a l or p s y c h o l o g i c a l assumptions, and r e a l i z i n g that another p e r s p e c t i v e with more f u n c t i o n a l c r i t e r i a may e x p l a i n p e r s o n a l experience more s a t i s f a c t o r i l y ) ( I b i d . , p.13). The modes of r e f l e c t i v i t y , i n c l u d i n g both consciousness and c r i t i c a l c o nsciousness, are o r g a n i z e d so that each l e v e l i n c o r p o r a t e s the preceding l e v e l s w i t h i n i t s own sphere, with 1 49 t h e o r e t i c a l r e f l e c t i v i t y being the most i n c l u s i v e and t h e r e f o r e the most powerful. Mezirow b e l i e v e s that the c a p a c i t y f o r t h e o r e t i c a l r e f l e c t i v i t y i s not u s u a l l y developed u n t i l adulthood, i f at a l l , but he i m p l i e s that i t i s worth a c h i e v i n g , because i t endows people with the power to see t h e i r world from many d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of view, to be t r u l y aware of c o n t e x t : In adulthood, the reasons fo r p r i n c i p l e s are more l i k e l y to be sought through c r i t i c a l examination of broad paradigmatic ( i n s t r u m e n t a l l e a r n i n g ) , i d e o l o g i c a l ( d i a l o g i c l e a r n i n g ) , or psychodynamic ( s e l f - r e f l e c t i v e l e a r n i n g ) c o n t e x t s . As we age, we can become more a t t e n t i v e to context and more c r i t i c a l l y r e f l e c t i v e of meanings taken f o r granted that at an e a r l i e r age we p e r c e i v e d as context-independent ( I b i d . , 1985a, p.25). Although the degree to which the modes of r e f l e c t i v i t y are a g e - r e l a t e d i s unknown, Mezirow c l a i m s t h a t : . . . c r i t i c a l consciousness-and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e o r e t i c a l r e f l e c t i v i t y - r e p r e s e n t s a uniquely a d u l t c a p a c i t y and, as such, becomes r e a l i z e d through p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . P e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n becomes a major l e a r n i n g domain and the uniquely a d u l t l e a r n i n g f u n c t i o n ( I b i d . , 1981, p.13). 6. P e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n In meeting the changes and c h a l l e n g e s of l i f e , meaning schemes, as minor s u b - s e c t i o n s of the t o t a l meaning s t r u c t u r e , are o f t e n changed and m o d i f i e d without d i s t u r b i n g or t h r e a t e n i n g the s t a b i l i t y of the all-encompassing meaning s t r u c t u r e , the meaning p e r s p e c t i v e . "Although the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of meaning schemes i s an everyday occurrence, the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of a meaning p e r s p e c t i v e i s not" ( I b i d . , 150 1988, p.226). P e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s a l e a r n i n g process i n response to l i f e ' s c h a l l e n g e s which i n v o l v e s a re-framing or metamorphosis of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s e n t i r e meaning s t r u c t u r e . T h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g meaning p e r s p e c t i v e which r e s u l t s i n a new way of seeing and being i n the world, a new sense of r e a l i t y , a new meaning p e r s p e c t i v e . P e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n can take p l a c e on a p e r s o n a l , group or c o l l e c t i v e b a s i s ( I b i d . , p.226) and i s d e f i n e d as: ...the emancipatory process of becoming c r i t i c a l l y aware of how and why the s t r u c t u r e of p s y c h o - c u l t u r a l assumptions has come to c o n s t r a i n the way we see o u r s e l v e s and our r e l a t i o n s h i p s , r e c o n s t i t u t i n g t h i s s t r u c t u r e to permit a more i n c l u s i v e and d i s c r i m i n a t i n g i n t e g r a t i o n of experience and a c t i n g upon these new understandings. I t i s the l e a r n i n g process by which a d u l t s come to recognize t h e i r c u l t u r a l l y induced dependency r o l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s and the reasons f o r them and take a c t i o n to overcome them ( I b i d . , 1981, pp.6-7) . Mezirow (1981) equates p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n to a p e r s o n a l paradigm t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , drawing on Kuhn's (1962) concept of "paradigm", F r e i r e ' s c o n s c i e n t i z a t i o n , and Habermas' l e a r n i n g f o r emancipatory a c t i o n ( I b i d . , 1981, p.7). Emancipatory l e a r n i n g i n v o l v e s an i n t e r e s t i n self-knowledge, the knowledge of s e l f - r e f e c t i o n , which i s the t h i r d area of c o g n i t i v e i n t e r e s t or l e a r n i n g domain c o n c e p t u a l i z e d by Habermas, and the domain which Mezirow (1981) r e l a t e s to p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . Mezirow c l a i m s that p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s a " c a r d i n a l dimension of a d u l t development" ( I b i d . , 1978, p.100), the most d i s t i n c t i v e l y a d u l t domain of 151 l e a r n i n g , and t h e r e f o r e , must be c o n s i d e r e d a c e n t r a l f u n c t i o n of a d u l t education ( I b i d . , 1981, p.7). 7. P e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and a d u l t development A d u l t s have a n a t u r a l tendency to become c r i t i c a l l y c onscious of how and why t h e i r h a b i t s of p e r c e p t i o n , thought and a c t i o n have l i m i t e d t h e i r approach to l i f e (Mezirow, 1981, p.7) : The p o s s i b i l i t i e s of l e a r n i n g through t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s i n meaning schemes and p e r s p e c t i v e s become q u a l i t a t i v e l y d i f f e r e n t i n the a d u l t years, when we move from an awareness of the conceptual and ps y c h i c c o n s t r a i n t s on our l e a r n i n g toward an understanding of the reasons f o r these c o n s t r a i n t s ( I b i d . , 1985a, p.25). C u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s a f f e c t development and l e a r n i n g i n t i m a t e l y , and t h e r e f o r e a s s i s t or i n h i b i t the p o t e n t i a l f o r n a t u r a l movement toward becoming c r i t i c a l l y c o n s c i o u s , e n t e r i n g new meaning p e r s p e c t i v e s , and reaching m a t u r i t y ( I b i d . , 1978, p.106): ...to the degree our c u l t u r e permits, we tend to move through adulthood along a m a t u r i t y g r a d i e n t that i n v o l v e s a s e q u e n t i a l r e s t r u c t u r i n g of one's frame of r e f e r e n c e f o r making and understanding meanings. We move through s u c c e s s i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s toward a n a l y z i n g t h i n g s from a p e r s p e c t i v e i n c r e a s i n g l y removed from one's p e r s o n a l or l o c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , a process Jerome Bruner c a l l s " d e c e n t r a t i o n " ( I b i d . , 1978, p.104). As i n d i v i d u a l s move p r o g r e s s i v e l y from p e r s p e c t i v e to p e r s p e c t i v e they c o n t i n u a l l y r e i n t e r p r e t and r e c o n s t r u c t the r e a l i t y of the p a s t . They may i n c o r p o r a t e o l d e r meaning p e r s p e c t i v e s i n t o t h e i r present one, but they can never r e t u r n to the o l d ones i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l form ( I b i d . , p.106). 152 "Maturity holds the promise that becoming o l d e r may indeed mean becoming wiser because wisdom can mean i n t e r p r e t i n g r e a l i t y from a higher p e r s p e c t i v e " ( I b i d . p.106). I t i s i n t h i s sense that Mezirow f e e l s t h a t p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n f u n c t i o n s as an e x p l a n a t i o n of t r a n s i t i o n between stages of ad u l t p s y c h o l o g i c a l development i n major l i f e - s p a n t h e o r i e s such as those of Kohlberg (1976), Gould (1978) and Levinson (1978) ( I b i d . , p.13). Adult development and p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n are seen as being i n t i m a t e l y connected: M a t u r i t y may be seen as a developmental process of movement through the a d u l t years toward meaning p e r s p e c t i v e s that are p r o g r e s s i v e l y more i n c l u s i v e , d i s c r i m i n a t i n g and more i n t e g r a t i v e of experience....We move,if we can, towards p e r s p e c t i v e s that are more u n i v e r s a l and b e t t e r a b l e to deal with a b s t r a c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s , that more c l e a r l y i d e n t i f y p s y c h o c u l t u r a l assumption shaping our a c t i o n s and causing our needs, that p r o v i d e c r i t e r i a f o r more p r i n c i p l e d value judgments, enhance our sense of agency or c o n t r o l and giv e us a c l e a r e r meaning and sense of d i r e c t i o n i n our l i v e s ( I b i d . , 1978, p.106). Thus, the b a s i c p h y s i c a l and mental c o n s t r u c t i v e tasks of ch i l d h o o d development are p o t e n t i a l l y extended and transcended in the process of a d u l t development which i s e s s e n t i a l l y a h o l i s t i c process i n v o l v i n g the mental, emotional, and s p i r i t u a l growth of the whole person through p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . Mezirow (1981) claims that the n a t u r a l tendency to move towards new p e r s p e c t i v e s may be "explained as a quest f o r meaning by which to b e t t e r understand o u r s e l v e s and to a n t i c i p a t e events" (p.7). and through a quote from C a r l Rogers connects t h i s tendency i n humans to the "formative d i r e c t i o n a l 153 tendency i n the universe...an e v o l u t i o n a r y tendency toward g r e a t e r order, g r e a t e r i n t e r r e l a t e d n e s s , g r e a t e r complexity" (Rogers, 1978 i n Mezirow, 1981, p.7). In t h i s way Mezirow connects p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n to human development not only i n terms of m a t u r i t y but i n terms of hopes for humanity's progress through the c r e a t i v e f o r c e of e v o l u t i o n . 8. The dynamics of p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n Mezirow o u t l i n e s the b a s i c dimensions and elements of p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n as a s p e c i f i c type of l e a r n i n g process with s p e c i f i c g o a l s . P e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s a process o f : L e a r n i n g how we are caught i n our own h i s t o r y and are r e l i v i n g i t . We l e a r n to become c r i t i c a l l y aware of the c u l t u r a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l assumptions that have i n f l u e n c e d the way we see o u r s e l v e s and our r e l a t i o n s h i p s and the way we p a t t e r n our l i v e s ( I b i d . , 1978, p.101). P e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n may occur through a s e r i e s of gradual t r a n s i t i o n s or through sudden i n s i g h t ( I b i d . , 1981, p.7). The more common dimension i s through a gradual accumulation, an a c c r e t i o n , of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s i n s p e c i f i c meaning schemes, and the more dramatic i s an epochal t r a n s f o r m a t i o n (evident i n consciousness r a i s i n g , p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , r e l i g i o u s c o n v e r s i o n e t c . ) , i n v o l v i n g the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of a t o t a l system of meaning schemes ( I b i d . , 1985a, p.24). The epochal t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t e n takes p l a c e i n response to an e x t e r n a l l y imposed e x i s t e n t i a l dilemma, a d i s o r i e n t i n g dilemma, which c o n t r a d i c t s the t a k e n - f o r - g r a n t e d 1 54 assumptions of the e x i s t i n g meaning p e r s p e c t i v e i n a way that cannot be ignored ( I b i d . , 1988, p.226): There are c e r t a i n c h a l l e n g e s or dilemmas of a d u l t l i f e t h a t cannot be r e s o l v e d by the usual way we handle problems... 1 i f e becomes untenable, and we undergo s i g n i f i c a n t phases of reassessment and growth i n which f a m i l i a r assumptions are c h a l l e n g e d and new d i r e c t i o n s and commitments are c h a r t e d . . . R e s o l v i n g these anomalies though c r i t i c a l a n a l y s i s of assumptions behind the r o l e s we p l a y can l e a d to s u c c e s s i v e l e v e l s of s e l f development ( I b i d . , p.101). Mezirow agrees with contemporary e x i s t e n t i a l t h i n k e r s and Hegel and Marx i n the r e c o g n i t i o n that t r a n s f o r m a t i o n takes p l a c e i n a c y c l e of three phases. The f i r s t i s a l i e n a t i o n from p r e s c r i b e d s o c i a l r o l e s . The second i s a reframing stage i n which there i s a r e c o g n i t i o n of the p o s s i b i l i t y of e f f e c t i n g change through one's own i n i t i a t i v e and a r e s t r u c t u r i n g of one's conception of r e a l i t y and one's p l a c e i n i t . "This i n v o l v e s a r e d e f i n i t i o n of problems and the need f o r a c t i o n and new c r i t e r i a f o r a s s i g n i n g values and making judgments ( I b i d . , 1978, p.105). F i n a l l y there i s a c o n t r a c t u a l s o l i d a r i t y stage, " w i t h i n which i t becomes p o s s i b l e to p a r t i c i p a t e again i n s o c i e t y — o r i n i t s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n — b u t on one's own i n n e r - d i r e c t e d terms as d e f i n e d by the new meaning p e r s p e c t i v e ( I b i d . , p.105). Mezirow en l a r g e s on t h i s c y c l e i n h i s conception of the dynamics of p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n as they were d e r i v e d from h i s (1978) rese a r c h with c o l l e g e r e - e n t r y women, a co n c e p t i o n that has remained r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e throughout h i s w r i t i n g s . At that time the f o l l o w i n g elements of p e r s p e c t i v e 155 t r a n s f o r m a t i o n were d e r i v e d : (1) a d i s o r i e n t i n g dilemma; (2) s e l f examination; (3) a c r i t i c a l assessment of p e r s o n a l l y i n t e r n a l i z e d assumptions and a sense of a l i e n a t i o n from s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s ; (4) r e c o g n i z i n g one's problem as being shared by o t h e r s ; (5) e x p l o r i n g o p t i o n s f o r new ways of a c t i n g ; (6) b u i l d i n g competence and s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e i n new r o l e s ; (7) p l a n n i n g a course of a c t i o n ; (8) a c q u i r i n g knowledge and s k i l l s f o r implementing one's p l a n s ; (9) p r o v i s i o n a l e f f o r t s to t r y new r o l e s and to assess feedback; and (10) a r e i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o s o c i e t y on the b a s i s of c o n d i t i o n s d i c t a t e d by the new p e r s p e c t i v e ( I b i d . , 1 981 , p.7). These items are u s e f u l f o r e x p l a i n i n g c o n d i t i o n s and a c t i o n steps surrounding p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n but they do not appear to touch d i r e c t l y on the dynamics or process elements of the process of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i t s e l f . Progress through the elements of p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n r e s u l t s i n new meaning p e r s p e c t i v e s which give i n d i v i d u a l s new o r i e n t a t i o n s to l i f e , r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of t h e i r whole e x i s t e n c e and i t s e x p r e s s i o n : A new meaning p e r s p e c t i v e has dimensions of thought, f e e l i n g and w i l l . I t i n v o l v e s seeing one's s e l f and one's r o l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n a c o n s i s t e n t coherent way, a way which w i l l d i c t a t e a c t i o n p r i o r i t i e s . Meaning p e r s p e c t i v e s are more than a way of s e e i n g : they are p r o p o s a l s to experience one's l i f e which i n v o l v e s a d e c i s i o n to take a c t i o n . F e e l i n g s and events are i n t e r p r e t e d e x i s t e n t i a l l y , not i n t e l l e c t u a l l y as by an observer ( I b i d . , 1978, p.105). New meaning p e r s p e c t i v e s can l e a d to a new sense of i d e n t i t y and autonomy, s e l f c o n f i d e n c e , a v i s i o n of new p o s s i b i l i t i e s and a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r a c t i o n , and the power to choose among them; a l l of which g i v e people a sense of agency and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r own l i v e s and the power to take some measure of c o n t r o l over how they w i l l l i v e them. New 156 p e r s p e c t i v e s g i v e i n d i v i d u a l s a new con c e p t i o n not only of themselves but of t h e i r p l a c e i n s o c i e t y : T h i s major r e o r d e r i n g of r e a l i t y and r e d e f i n i t i o n of one's own p o s s i b i l i t i e s w i t h i n i t mandates a c t i o n d e c i s i o n s . Personal problems can be seen as having t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t i n p u b l i c i s s u e s , and these c a l l f o r both i n d i v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n ( I b i d . , p.103). Mezirow thus views the development of new p e r s p e c t i v e s , which b r i n g s with i t the development of c r i t i c a l c o nsciousness, as a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r l i b e r a t i n g p e r s o n a l development and s o c i a l a c t i o n . But the success of that l i b e r a t i o n process depends upon the success of i n d i v i d u a l s i n n a v i g a t i n g through many p o s s i b l e o b s t a c l e s to p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and to the l i k e l i h o o d of i n c o r p o r a t i n g new p e r s p e c t i v e s i n t o t h e i r every-day l i v e s . 9. I n h i b i t i n g and f a c i l i t a t i n g f a c t o r s i n p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n a. I n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r s There are many f a c t o r s which a f f e c t the i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y to achieve p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . The i n t e n s i t y of events, the traumatic s e v e r i t y of the d i s o r i e n t i n g dilemma w i t h i n the l i f e of the person i n c r e a s e s the p o s s i b i l i t y and p r o b a b i l i t y of the occurrence of p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , but even int e n s e e x t e r n a l or i n t e r n a l p r essure does not ensure that p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n w i l l occur. Both c u l t u r a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s p r o v i d e strong stumbling blocks that r e s t r a i n the n a t u r a l tendency to l e a r n through p e r s p e c t i v e 157 t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . H a b i t u a l p a t t e r n s , i n t e r n a l i z e d c u l t u r a l assumptions, unresolved c h i l d h o o d dilemmas, the r e i f i c a t i o n (acceptance of human phenomena as co n c r e t e , and beyond human c o n t r o l ) of the s o c i a l order, and the sheer d i f f i c u l t y of making the passage between the o l d p e r s p e c t i v e and the new one may a l l be o b s t a c l e s that block the path to p o t e n t i a l p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n ( I b i d . , 1981, pp.7 - 8 ) . Learning through p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n can be p a i n f u l because i t "ofte n i n v o l v e s a comprehensive reassessment of one s e l f and the very c r i t e r i a that one has been using to make c r u c i a l value judgments about one's l i f e " ( I b i d . , 1985a, p.24). C r i t i c a l l y a p p r a i s i n g the assumptions u n d e r l y i n g our r o l e s and b e l i e f s i s u s u a l l y e m o t i o n a l l y charged and t h r e a t e n i n g as the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s e l f concept may be h i g h l y i n v e s t e d i n ma i n t a i n i n g the o l d p e r s p e c t i v e . Even though the development of the s e l f concept i s p a r t of the journey towards m a t u r i t y i t i s not an easy journey ( I b i d . , 1978, p.105). I n d i v i d u a l s may choose not to a c t , but even i f they do choose to a c t the process i s s t i l l fraught with d i f f i c u l t y . "Even a f t e r r e s t r u c t u r i n g one's r e a l i t y and seeing the need f o r a c t i o n , the w i l l or de t e r m i n a t i o n to persevere i n c a r r y i n g out one's plans may r e q u i r e s p e c i a l support and a s s i s t a n c e " ( I b i d . , p.105). Moving to a new p e r s p e c t i v e and s u s t a i n i n g the a c t i o n s which i t r e q u i r e s i s dependent on an a s s o c i a t i o n with others who share the new p e r s p e c t i v e and are w i l l i n g to give support and reinforcement f o r the a c t i o n s based on the 158 new p e r s p e c t i v e . b. The educator's r o l e I t i s i n a s s e s s i n g the i n h i b i t i n g and f a c i l i t a t i n g f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and a s s i s t i n g l e a r n e r s to n e g o t i a t e t h e i r own p e r s p e c t i v e s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s that Mezirow sees the r o l e of educators. In f a c t , he sees the support f u n c t i o n ranging along a continuum from education to therapy depending on the s e v e r i t y of the i n h i b i t i n g f a c t o r s to p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n an i n d i v i d u a l case ( I b i d . , 1978, p. 1 05) . Mezirow's co n c e i v e s of the educator's r o l e as t h a t of c a t a l y s t , f a c i l i t a t o r and supporter i n the l e a r n e r ' s process of p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . In f o l l o w i n g the elements of p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n d e t a i l e d by Mezirow, educators have an o p p o r t u n i t y to act as c a t a l y s t by c h a l l e n g i n g l e a r n e r s to enter i n t o a process of s e l f examination, and to a c t as f a c i l i t a t o r and supporter as they progress through the steps which enable them to embed t h e i r new p e r s p e c t i v e i n t h e i r l i v e s . Educators can emphasize s e l f - h e l p and s e l f - e x p l o r a t i o n , encourage s h a r i n g of common problems and experiences, model behaviour which a s s i s t s the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n process, h e l p l e a r n e r s develop r e l e v a n t new s k i l l s and knowledge, p r o v i d e environments i n which l e a r n e r s can t e s t out t h e i r new p e r s p e c t i v e s with minimum r i s k , encourage the e x p l o r a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e s and the development of a c t i o n p l a n s , and g e n e r a l l y support the development of competence and s e l f -159 c o n f i d e n c e i n the l e a r n e r s as they i n t e g r a t e new p e r s p e c t i v e s i n t o t h e i r l i v e s . In Mezirow's view perhaps the most s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n educators can make i s i n acknowledging that the educator's r o l e i s t o : . . . i d e n t i f y and f a c i l i t a t e the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n of meaning p e r s p e c t i v e s of l e a r n e r s . Education cannot be d e f i n e d by a s i m p l i s t i c p r e o c c u p a t i o n with f o s t e r i n g d i r e c t behaviors change...The most s i g n i f i c a n t behaviour changes may be f u n c t i o n s of p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , and such t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s o f t e n an e s s e n t i a l p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r meaningful behaviour changes ( I b i d . , p.107). In broadening the concept of l e a r n i n g to i n c l u d e p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n as an important dimension which a f f e c t s l e a r n i n g i n a l l of i t s more g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d dimensions, educators can genuinely become a c t i v e i n f a c i l i t a t i n g l e a r n e r s attempts to achieve p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . 10. Current approach to l e a r n i n g In recent w r i t i n g Mezirow (1988) has taken a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t tack on l e a r n i n g as p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . While i n e a r l i e r f o r m u l a t i o n s he suggested that the t h i r d l e a r n i n g domain, that of emancipatory a c t i o n , was the most important f o r p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , he now pursues l e a r n i n g and c r i t i c a l awareness i n terms of the second domain, that of communicative i n t e r a c t i o n . If l e a r n i n g i s seen as a d i a l o g i c process which i n c l u d e s d i a l o g u e w i t h i n the s e l f and d i a l o g u e with o t h e r s , Mezirow i s now s t r e s s i n g the d i a l o g u e with others r a t h e r than with s e l f . He begins with the d e f i n i t i o n of l e a r n i n g i n terms of the 160 making of meaning: We l e a r n by making meaning of our experience. Learning may be best understood as the process of c o n s t r u i n g and a p p r o p r i a t i n g a new or r e v i s e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the meaning of one's experience as a guide to d e c i s i o n and a c t i o n . Meaning i s c e n t r a l to l e a r n i n g " ( I b i d . , 1988, p.223). Then he focuses on the negative aspects of c u l t u r a l input to the s t r u c t u r e of meaning without t a k i n g i n t o account the p o s s i b i l i t y of p o s i t i v e a spects of c u l t u r a l input or the p o s s i b i l i t y f o r unique, c r e a t i v e p e r s o n a l input i n t h e i r development: Meaning schemes and p e r s p e c t i v e s are s t r u c t u r e s of l a r g e l y unexamined p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s which o f t e n r e s u l t i n d i s t o r t e d views of r e a l i t y : we get trapped by our own h i s t o r y . They are transformed through a c r i t i c a l l y r e f l e c t i v e assessment of e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l , i d e o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t o r t i o n s , a c q u i r e d through the process of s o c i a l i z a t i o n i n childhood...Transforming these s t r u c t u r e s of meaning i s seen as the most s i g n i f i c a n t "developmental task" of adulthood i n a modern s o c i e t y ( I b i d . , p.224). Here Mezirow i s more focused on the content of p e r s p e c t i v e s i n t r a n s f o r m a t i o n r a t h e r than the process of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i t s e l f . In f a c t , he reduces l e a r n i n g , t r a n s f o r m a t i o n and the making of meaning to a matter of words: Rather than a p s y c h o l o g i c a l process or event, meaning i s e s s e n t i a l l y and i n h e r e n t l y l i n g u i s t i c . To understand under what c o n d i t i o n s i t i s true ( i n accord with what i s ) or v a l i d ( j u s t i f i a b l e ) ( I b i d . , p.224). According to t h i s view, knowledge becomes communicative, c o n s e n s u a l l y a r r i v e d at meanings obtained through the process of c r i t i c a l d i s c o u r s e i n which c o n t e s t e d meanings are confirmed or negated ( I b i d . , p.225). Tran s f o r m a t i o n , a c c o r d i n g to Mezirow in h i s e a r l i e r 161 w r i t i n g s (1981) meant an: ...emacipatory process of becoming c r i t i c a l l y aware of how and why the s t r u c t u r e of p s y c h o - c u l t u r a l assumptions has come to c o n s t r a i n the way we see o u r s e l v e s . . . r e c o n s t i t u t i n g t h i s s t r u c t u r e . . . a n d a c t i n g upon these new understandings ( I b i d . , 1981, pp. 6-7). In c o n t r a s t to the meaning c a r r i e d by t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n 1981 by 1988 t r a n s f o r m a t i o n becomes a gradual process of g a t h e r i n g meaning: The way we a r r i v e at new meanings when c o n f r o n t i n g the unknown i n v o l v e s a process which can be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as context a c c r e t i v e . We begin with our p a r t i a l i n s i g h t s to d i r e c t the way we c o l l e c t a d d i t i o n a l data, comparing i n c i d e n t s , key concepts or words and r e l a t i n g them, o f t e n m e t a p h o r i c a l l y , to our meaning schemes. When the p r o p e r t i e s of the experience do not f i t , new schemes are c r e a t e d and the p r o p e r t i e s are i n t e g r a t e d i n t o them. Over time, the l i m i t e d i n i t i a l understanding becomes transformed as we come to d i s c o v e r i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n other e x p e r i e n t i a l , t h e o r e t i c a l , l i t e r a r y or a e s t h e t i c meaning c o n t e x t s . Each item of i n f o r m a t i o n i s a b u i l d i n g block of understanding and i s c l a r i f i e d by the d i s c o v e r of f u r t h e r b u i l d i n g b l o c k s of data. We c o n t i n u a l l y move back and f o r t h between the p a r t s and the whole of which we seek to understand, f o l l o w i n g the procedure d e s c r i b e d as the "hermeneutic c i r c l e ( I b i d . , pp.225-226). In t h i s s c e n a r i o p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n occurs b a s i c a l l y as a s o c i a l process through d i s c o u r s e , the e x t e r n a l d i a l o g u e , while the i n d i v i d u a l process of i n t e r n a l d i a l o g u e and r e f l e c t i o n as an a c t of consciousness i s down-played: From the p e r s p e c t i v e of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n theory, a d u l t development i s understood as an a d u l t ' s p r o g r e s s i v e l y enhanced c a p a c i t y to engage i n c r i t i c a l l y r e f l e c t i v e d i s c o u r s e through which expressed ideas are v a l i d a t e d . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n r e c o g n i z e s that development i n adulthood i s both a f u n c t i o n of a person's biography and h i s c u l t u r e ( I b i d . , p.227). T h i s s h i f t i n focus m i r r o r s "Mezirow's movement away from a philosophy of consciousness towards a theory of communication" 1 62 ( C o l l a r d & Law, 1988, p.3) as he i n c r e a s i n g l y f o l l o w s Habermas' theory of communicative competence. The b a s i c c r i t i q u e of C o l l a r d & Law (1988) c e n t e r s on t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of Mezirow's f a i l u r e to p r o v i d e an i n t e g r a t e d theory; they f e e l that h i s theory i s fragmentary and " f a i l s adequately to address the s o c i a l context of h i s emancipatory ide a s " ( C o l l a r d & Law, 1988, A b s t r a c t ) . In c o n t r a s t , i n the context of t h i s author's work, Mezirow f a i l s to address s u f f i c i e n t l y the p e r s o n a l or p s y c h o l o g i c a l context of h i s emancipatory i d e a s . H o p e f u l l y , as Mezirow's work conti n u e s he w i l l produce an i n t e g r a t e d theory that addresses both i s s u e s adequately. The key seems to be i n the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the c o n t r a s t i n g emphases on the s o c i a l and the c o l l e c t i v e on the one hand, and the p s y c h o l o g i c a l and the i n d i v i d u a l on the other, i n a c l e a r c o nception of p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n f o r emancipation. 1 1. C o n c l u s i o n Mezirow's t h e o r i z i n g i s very comprehensive and r i c h i n d e t a i l i n terms of drawing the work of other t h e o r i s t s from v a r i o u s d i s c i p l i n e s ( i e . Habermas, F r e i r e , L a i n g , Bruner and K e l l y ) i n t o the realm of h i s theory. T h i s p r o v i d e s f o r a r i c h c r o s s - f e r t i l i z a t i o n of ideas but at the present time these ideas have not been i n t e g r a t e d s u f f i c i e n t l y enough to present - a coherent, i n t e g r a t e d theory. Although the theme of p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i s a u n i f y i n g f a c t o r , concepts from 163 v a r i o u s areas of thought i . e . , European c r i t i c a l theory v i a Habermas and i n t e r a c t i o n i s m v i a American s o c i o l o g y have been drawn together without c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Assuming that theory c o n s t r u c t i o n i s an e v o l v i n g process t h i s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a disadvantage i f the theory c o n t i n u e s to evolve but i t i s somewhat c o n f u s i n g i n i t s present s t a t e . Mezirow p l a c e s heavy emphasis on the o b s t a c l e s to p e r s p e c t i v e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y , i t seems, because he emphasizes the c u l t u r a l component of human l e a r n i n g f a r more s t r o n g l y than the i n d i v i d u a l component. Mezirow's humanity i s t i g h t l y bound by c u l t u r a l o b s t a c l e s with some l i m i t e d hope of breaking f r e e . While i t i s important to recognize the power of c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s , t h e i r p o s i t i v e as w e l l as t h e i r negative e f f e c t s must be taken i n t o account, and the c r e a t i v e c a p a c i t y of humanity to c r e a t i v e l y i n t e r a c t with c u l t u r e , i n i n d i v i d u a l as w e l l as c o l l e c t i v e s ways, must be r e c o g n i z e d . In t h i s matter, Mezirow's p o i n t of view does not maintain a balance between p o s i t i v e and negative c u l t u r a l and p e r s o n a l f o r c e s . Mezirow's t h e o r i z i n g takes important steps towards extending the concept of l e a r n i n g i n t o broader dimensions which take p e r s o n a l consciousness i n t o account and may h e l p to take l e a r n i n g theory beyond narrow b e h a v i o r i s t or c o g n i t i v i s t approaches. By