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A procedural framework for reflective problem setting in policy research : the case of schools Owen-Clarke, Patricia 1989

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A PROCEDURAL FRAMEWORK FOR REFLECTIVE PROBLEM SETTING IN POLICY RESEARCH: THE CASE OF SCHOOLS  By PATRICIA OWEN-CLARKE A., The U n i v e r s i t y of S h e f f i e l d (England), 1955 .Ed., The U n i v e r s i t y of V i c t o r i a (B.C.), 1977  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION  in THE  FACULTY OF EDUCATION  (Department o f A d m i n i s t r a t i v e , A d u l t and Higher Education)  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u l y 1989 ® P a t r i c i a Owen-Clarke, 1989  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment  of the  requirements for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or by  his  or  her  representatives.  It  is  understood  that  copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  R^«*,Ws\vfaJti K/C A*J ufiJt" Q_*U-3 IWakfl-f £<^«*aa-fc«on  The University of British Columbia Vancouver; Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  J  ABSTRACT This state and  study  of public  was  prompted  schooling  by t h e p e r c e i v e d  to  need  f o r an a n a l y t i c a l  of problem s e t t i n g — a s  the task  of problem  directed a t developing, an and  approach SchOn  States;  technique  that  a critically  important  Inquiry  and a p p l y i n g problem  was,  precursor therefore,  t o the case of schools, s e t t i n g proposed  by  Rein  (1977) .  upon  some s o c i a l subjecting  on t h e n o t i o n  metaphors  consequently,  the  troubled  pay c o n s c i o u s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e  solving.  to reflective  Premised depends  the currently  i n Canada a n d t h e U n i t e d  would enable p o l i c y m a k e r s t o task  by  that  that  uncritically  the framing  are often  used  t o make  s i t u a t i o n s - - t h i s approach  o f problems  unwittingly, sense  of  and  trouble-  i s concerned  with  t o s c r u t i n y t h e deep metaphors f o u n d t o u n d e r l i e  'stories'  told  Accordingly, uncovering,  a  about  problematic  procedural  and a n a l y s i n g  framework  social was  situations.  developed f o r  such metaphors, and f o r e x a m i n i n g  their policy-related u t i l i t y . These schools--to  procedures the analysis  document o f o u r t i m e s , National Nation  Commission  at Risk:  were  applied — in  of a major  the case  of  po1 i c y - i n f l u e n c i n g  n a m e l y , t h e 1983 R e p o r t by t h e U.S.  on E x c e l l e n c e  i n Education  The I m p e r a t i v e f o r E d u c a t i o n a l  titled,  Reform."  "A The.  f i n d i n g s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s suggested t h a t t h e Commission had (metaphorically) workplace whose  with  level  viewed  t h e s c h o o l a s an  industrial  a mass p r o d u c t i o n mode o f t e c h n o l o g y : one  and s t a n d a r d o f p r o d u c t i v i t y  had s l i p p e d , and  whose need was f o r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f more  rigorous  q u a l i t y c o n t r o l measures. In  response  to the c r i t i c a l  appraisal  of  this  metaphoric frame, t h e problem o f s c h o o l s was r e f r a m e d as one involving school  t h e need  being  seen  f o r second-order (metaphorically)  system  change; t h e  as a mass p r o d u c t i o n  workplace  i n need o f g e a r i n g - u p t o a ' p r o c e s s ' mode o f  technology  ( f o c u s s e d on t h e c o n t i n u o u s ' f l o w ' o f l e a r n i n g ) .  The  organizational  characteristics  found  i n workplaces  h a v i n g a ' p r o c e s s ' mode o f t e c h n o l o g y were p r o j e c t e d t o suggest  the analogical  tomorrow. it  implications  f o r the school of  Given the p o s i t i v e nature of these i m p l i c a t i o n s ,  was c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h i s metaphor f o r change m e r i t e d t h e  attention  of educational  procedural  framework used  i n v e s t i g a t i o n by p o l i c y  p o l i c y m a k e r s ; and t h a t t h e t o frame  analysts.  iii  i t warranted  further  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page LIST OF TABLES  xvii  LIST OF FIGURES  xviii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  xxi  Chapter 1.  INTRODUCING THE STUDY  1  OVERVIEW  2  The "ProblenTof Schools  . . .  " G e t t i n g the Problem R i g h t " f o r Policymaking Problem Framing  .  . .  8 Process  Assumptions . . .  P o l i c y - I s s u e Related Knowledge  10 10  Assumptions School p o l i c y - i s s u e r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s  9 9  Policymaking p r o c e s s - r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s  STRUCTURE AND ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY  4 6  PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Knowledge Related t o the Policymaking  2  10 . . .  11  . . . .  11  I: Framework f o r the I n t e g r a t e d Study General p e r s p e c t i v e Organization I I : An Approach t o R e f l e c t i v e Problem S e t t i n g i n P o l i c y Research  12 12 13 13  Chapter  2.  Page General p e r s p e c t i v e  13  Organization  14  I I I : The Case o f S c h o o l s  14  General p e r s p e c t i v e  14  Organization  15  FRAMING THE METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF REFLECTIVE PROBLEM SETTING ...  17  The Approach t o Problem S e t t i n g Proposed by R e i n and Schttn The  18  ' M e t h o d o l o g i c a l Problem'  APPROACHING THE QUESTION OF PROBLEM SETTING  19 . .  19  Assumptions  19  The  20  Problem-Setting Process  Problem S e t t i n g as Unconscious Reasoning . . . Framing t h e p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n  20 20  C o n c e p t u a l i z i n g the process of unconscious  problem s e t t i n g  22  G e n e r a t i v e Metaphor  25  I n t e r p r e t i n g Problem-Setting S t o r i e s  28  S u r f a c e metaphors  28  Deep metaphors  28  Bounding t h e P r o b l e m a t i c S i t u a t i o n  29  P r e p a r a t o r y Research  30  Tasks  DISCOVERING THE PROBLEM FRAME  31  Examining t h e S t o r y  31  Procedural Considerations  33  SPELLING OUT THE GENERATIVE METAPHOR  v  34  Chapter  Page Seeking A n a l o g i c a l S t r u c t u r e  34  Procedural Considerations  35  ELABORATING THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE METAPHOR  . .  Using T h e o r i e s and Models  36 36  Defining theory  37  D e f i n i n g model  38  P r o c e d u r a l Problems  . . . .  38  JUDGING THE ADEQUACY OF THE PROBLEM FRAME  ...  39  The C r i t e r i a f o r D e f i n i n g Adequacy  39  Procedural Considerations  39  CONFIRMING/REFRAMING THE PROBLEM TO BE ADDRESSED  42  The  42  P r o c e s s o f Reframing  D e l i b e r a t e frame r e s t r u c t u r i n g  . . . . . .  The p e r s i s t e n c e o f o l d metaphors  43  Procedural Considerations  44  CHAPTER SUMMARY  3.  42  45  P r e p a r a t o r y Research Tasks  45  Sub-Problems  45  FRAMING THE PROCEDURES FOR REFLECTIVE PROBLEM SETTING  46  PREPARATORY RESEARCH TASKS  47  Bounding t h e P r o b l e m a t i c S i t u a t i o n S e l e c t i n g t h e Documentation t o be A n a l y s e d A v a i l a b i l i t y o f r e l e v a n t problemsetting stories Research r e q u i r e m e n t s  vi  47 . .  48 48 51  Chapter  Page UNCOVERING THE GENERATIVE METAPHOR UNDERLYING THE PROBLEM FRAME Sub-Problem  53  [1]: Guidelines f o r Identifying  R e l e v a n t (Metaphoric) Data  53  "Schema r e c o g n i t i o n "  54  Schema p a t t e r n - s e e k i n g  55  SPELLING OUT THE UNDERLYING GENERATIVE METAPHOR Sub-Problem [ 2 ] : Framework F o r S p e l l i n g  57  Out A G e n e r a t i v e Metaphor  57  Examining Normative Assumptions  58  ELABORATING THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE METAPHOR Sub-Problem the  . .  59  [ 3 ] : Framework f o r E l a b o r a t i n g  Assumptions o f The Metaphor  61  Kaplan's P a t t e r n Model  62  EXAMINING THE POLICY-RELATED UTILITY OF THE PROBLEM FRAME Sub-Problem [ 4 ] : Bases f o r t h e S e l e c t i o n of C r i t e r i a f o r Examining t h e U t i l i t y of A G i v e n Problem Frame C r i t e r i a f o r judging the p o l i c y - r e l a t e d u t i l i t y o f program e v a l u a t i o n . . . . . . C r i t e r i a f o r j u d g i n g frame adequacy i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l s c i e n c e  65  Sub-Problem [ 5 ] : C r i t e r i a f o r J u d g i n g t h e ' V a l i d i t y ' o f I n t e r p r e t i v e Accounts ...  68  Sub-Problem the  64 64 64  [ 6 ] : C r i t e r i a f o r Examining  U t i l i t y of A G i v e n Problem Frame  . . .  70  The p l a u s i b i l i t y o f a (metaphoric) frame . .  70  The (metaphoric) a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of a frame  71  The u t i l i t y o f a problem frame Sub-Problems [7] & [ 8 ] : P r o c e d u r a l Framework f o r Examining A Problem Frame and f o r Reframing t h e Problem vii  72 72  Chapter  Page CONFIRMING/REFRAMING THE PROBLEM  .  CHAPTER SUMMARY 4.  BOUNDING  76 77  THE PROBLEMATIC SITUATION:  THE CASE OF SCHOOLS  79  BOUNDING THE PROBLEMATIC SITUATION  81  S u p p o s i t i o n s U n d e r l y i n g t h e Framing of t h e Research Q u e s t i o n o f t h e Study P r e - S u p p o s i t i o n s About Problem Framing  . . .  f o r P o l i c y Purposes The  traditional  82  method o f p r o b l e m f r a m i n g  A systems approach t o problem f r a m i n g Some I m p l i c a t i o n s The  81  .  . . .  o f The S y s t e m s A p p r o a c h  .. .  systems approach t o i n q u i r y  82 84 86 86  The'school as seen from a systems perspective  87  The D e l i m i t a t i o n s Limitations  o f t h e Study  88.  Imposed b y t h e R e s e a r c h e r ' s  Frame o f R e f e r e n c e  89  The d o c u m e n t a t i o n t o be a n a l y s e d  89  The  approach taken t o t h e i n q u i r y  89  The  q u e s t i o n s asked  90  The  nature of the findings  91  SELECTING THE.DOCUMENTATION  TO BE ANALYSED  . .  Bounding t h e Source I d e n t i f y i n g t h e Research Requirements CHAPTER SUMMARY Making a S u p p o r t a b l e Choice  viii  91 91  . . . .  91 94 92  Chapter 5.  Page  UNCOVERING AND SPELLING OUT THE GENERATIVE .METAPHOR USED TO FRAME THE PROBLEM OF SCHOOLS  95  UNCOVERING THE GENERATIVE METAPHOR UNDERLYING THE PROBLEM FRAME  96  SPELLING OUT THE UNDERLYING GENERATIVE METAPHOR  98  The Case o f S c h o o l s  99  P r o c e d u r a l Format  99  Commission's F i n d i n g s Regarding "Content" I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s u r f a c e metaphors  . . 100  . . . . 101  Analogical implications of the deep metaphor  102  Recommendations Regarding "Content" I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s u r f a c e metaphors  103 . . . . 104  Analogical implications of the deep metaphor Commission's F i n d i n g s Regarding  104  "Expectations" I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s u r f a c e metaphors  105 . . . . 107  A n a l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the deep metaphor  10 7  Recommendations Regarding " E x p e c t a t i o n s " I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s u r f a c e metaphors  . . . 108  . . . . 109  Analogical implications of the deep metaphor  110  Commission's F i n d i n g s Regarding "Time" . . . . 112 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s u r f a c e metaphors Recommendations Regarding "Time" Analogical implications of the deep metaphor ix  . . . . 113 114 113  Chapter  Page I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s u r f a c e metaphors Analogical  . . . .  115  i m p l i c a t i o n s of the  deep metaphor  115  Commission's F i n d i n g s R e g a r d i n g "Teaching" . . 117 I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s u r f a c e metaphors Analogical  . . . .  i m p l i c a t i o n s of the  deep metaphor  118  Recommendations Regarding "Teaching" I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s u r f a c e metaphors Analogical  118 . . . .  119  i m p l i c a t i o n s of the  deep metaphor OVERVIEW 6.  118  119 121  ELABORATING THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE METAPHOR "SCHOOL AS AN INDUSTRIAL WORKPLACE" TOWARD A PATTERN MODEL OF THE  123  INDUSTRIAL WORKPLACE  125  The Woodward S t u d i e s  12 6  Findings  127  Conclusion  134  Open Systems C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n t h e I n d u s t r i a l Workplace  136  Relationship  136  w i t h t h e environment  Need t o m a i n t a i n a "steady s t a t e "  137  The work o f a system  13 8  Inputs  138  Structure  144  Process  144  P r o c e s s as t e c h n o l o g y Outputs Orgware  • 145 147 14 7  x  Chapter  Page Tendency toward  differentiation  and e l a b o r a t i o n  149  'Change' i n systems  150  A Systemic P a t t e r n Model o f the I n d u s t r i a l Workplace IMPLICATIONS OF THE METAPHOR  153 158  Mass P r o d u c t i o n Hardware: P l a n t and T o o l M a t e r i e l  158  Mass P r o d u c t i o n Software  158  Operating procedures  158  Feedback mechanisms  160  Mass P r o d u c t i o n Orgware  160  The s t r u c t u r e o f i n t e r - r e l a t e d f u n c t i o n s . . 160. E x p e c t a t i o n s o f workers  161  Worker r e m u n e r a t i o n  162  Mass P r o d u c t i o n Thruput  162  CHAPTER SUMMARY 7.  162  EXAMINING THE POLICY-RELATED UTILITY OF THE PROBLEM FRAME USED IN THE CASE OF SCHOOLS  . . . 164  PLAUSIBILITY OF THE PROBLEM FRAME  166  E v i d e n c e t o Support t h e Researcher's I n t e r p r e t a t i o n E v i d e n c e t o Support t h e G e n e r a l  166  A c c e p t a b i l i t y o f t h e Frame  168  I t s p o s i t i o n as t h e dominant metaphor  . . . 168  Literature references  169  New d i s c o v e r i e s i n systems t h e o r y  171  Conclusion APPROPRIATENESS OF THE PROBLEM FRAME xi  171 172  Chapter  Page Correspondence  Between t h e I n t e r n a l  P r o p e r t i e s o f t h e Metaphor  '. . 172  Hardware  173  Software  177  Orgware  180  Thruput  184  Conclusion  185  Correspondence  Between t h e Change  P r o p e r t i e s o f t h e Metaphor  186  The change p r o p e r t i e s o f an e n t i t y  186  The change p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e v e h i c l e o f t h e metaphor  187  S c h o o l s and change i n t h e p a s t c e n t u r y . . . 189 S c h o o l s and change i n t h e next c e n t u r y . . . 192 Conclusion  194  "Change" p o t e n t i a l i n t h e metaphor  195  CHAPTER SUMMARY 8.  197  REFRAMING THE PROBLEM OF SCHOOLS UNCOVERING AND SPELLING OUT THE GENERATIVE METAPHOR USED TO REFRAME THE PROBLEM OF SCHOOLS S p e l l i n g Out The R e - S t r u c t u r e d  19 8 19 9  G e n e r a t i v e Metaphor Normative  201  Ideas About P r o c e s s Technology  ELABORATING THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE METAPHOR R e f i n i n g The Concept o f P r o c e s s Technology  . . . 204 . . 207 . . 207  The Hardware o f P r o c e s s Technology  . . . . . 209  The Software o f P r o c e s s Technology  210  The Orgware o f P r o c e s s Technology  210  xii  Chapter  Page R e l a t i o n s h i p among system-wide managerial f u n c t i o n s ...  211  R e l a t i o n s h i p among m a n a g e r i a l r o l e s and functions w i t h i n the production plant  . . 212  R e l a t i o n s h i p between workers and their 'tools'  217  R e l a t i o n s h i p between workers and supervisory s t a f f  9.  218  The Thruputs o f P r o c e s s P r o d u c t i o n  219  Summary  219  Conclusion  221  EXAMINING THE REFRAMED PROBLEM OF SCHOOLS PLAUSIBILITY OF THE REFRAMED PROBLEM  . . . .  222  . . . . .  223  E v i d e n c e t o Support t h e R e s e a r c h e r ' s Interpretation The r e f o r m p r o p o s a l s as m a n i f e s t a t i o n of f i r s t - o r d e r change  223 224  The e n v i r o n m e n t a l i m p e r a t i v e f o r second-order change  226  E v i d e n c e t o Support t h e G e n e r a l A c c e p t a b i l i t y o f t h e Reframed Problem  . . . 228  Conclusion  233  APPROPRIATENESS OF THE NEW PROBLEM FRAME . . . . Correspondence Between t h e I n t e r n a l P r o p e r t i e s o f t h e Metaphor An o v e r v i e w The t h r u p u t o f p r o c e s s p r o d u c t i o n s c h o o l s  234 23 4 237 . 237  The hardware o f p r o c e s s p r o d u c t i o n s c h o o l s . 240 The s o f t w a r e o f t h e p r o c e s s production school The orgware o f p r o c e s s p r o d u c t i o n s c h o o l s  xiii  240 . 244  Chapter  Page Correspondence Between t h e Change P r o p e r t i e s o f t h e Metaphor  248  Some assumptions about change  248  The  249  Newtonian Legacy  Beyond t h e Newtonian Legacy  . . . . . . . . 250  E d u c a t i o n as a system f a r - f r o m - e q u i l i b r i u m Conclusion  254  UTILITY OF THE REFRAMED PROBLEM A c c e p t a b i l i t y of the Value  255  Implications  of t h e Metaphor The  values  255  i m p l i e d by p r o c e s s p r o d u c t i o n  Potential for actualization  ...  . . 257 258  Promotion o f s e l f - r e g u l a t i o n  259  Increased  260  production  Decreased ( f i n a n c i a l and human) c o s t s Capacity  . . . 261  o f t h e Reframed Problem  t o Lead t o A c t i o n  262  Evidence of " P " o l i t i c a l  support  263  Evidence of " p " o l i t i c a l  support  264  E v i d e n c e o f a c t i o n begun Conclusion 10.  . 252  266 268  IMPLICATIONS OF THE REFRAMED PROBLEM FOR POLICYMAKING EXAMINING THE IMPLICATIONS OF  270  THE METAPHOR FOR CHANGE  2 71  Implications for Society  272  Beyond t h e Newtonian Legacy P r i v a t i z a t i o n of education Environmental c o l l a p s e xiv  273 . 275 274  Chapter  Page Implications f o r Educational Policymaking  . . 276  The l i n k between system s u r v i v a l and t h e s h i f t from a Newtonian t o an h o l i s t i c w o r l d v i e w  277  Implications f o r education of the consequences o f i n c r e a s i n g technological complexity  278  I m p l i c a t i o n s o f e s t a b l i s h i n g new organized technology  279  R e c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of the school's r o l e and m i s s i o n Hardware  281  Software  282  Orgware  283  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Schools A changed r o l e and m i s s i o n A changed view o f t h e s c h o o l ' s t h r u p u t s A change i n o r g a n i z e d t e c h n o l o g y CHAPTER SUMMARY 11.  281  285 285 . . 288 289 ..290  REFLECTING UPON THE STUDY AN OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY  291 292  Framework f o r The I n t e g r a t e d Study  294  The d u a l purpose  294  The problem  294  A P r o c e d u r a l Approach t o R e f l e c t i v e Problem S e t t i n g i n P o l i c y Research  295  Background  295  Toward a methodology f o r problem s e t t i n g . . 296 The Case o f S c h o o l s xv  297  Chapter  Page U n c o v e r i n g and s p e l l i n g o u t t h e g e n e r a t i v e metaphor used t o frame the problem of s c h o o l s  297  E l a b o r a t i n g the assumptions of the metaphor " S c h o o l as an i n d u s t r i a l w o r k p l a c e " . . .  298  Examining the p o l i c y - r e l a t e d u t i l i t y of the problem frame used i n t h e c a s e of s c h o o l s  300  Reframing the problem  302  of schools  ......  Examining the reframed problem EXAMINING THE  U T I L I T Y OF  302  THE  PROCEDURAL FRAMEWORK Assessment Proposed  30 7  o f Outcomes  307  Areas f o r S c h o o l - R e l a t e d Research  . .  Operational Observations  310  Contextual constraints The  use o f metaphor-mapping f o r m a t s  The  development  o f a p a t t e r n model  308  .  310  . . . .  311  ......  312  Limitations  312  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Process-Related Research  . . 313  G e n e r a l i z e a b i l i t y of the Procedures  313  C o n c l u d i n g Remarks  314  REFERENCES  315  xvi  LIST  OF T A B L E S  Table 6.1  Page Features  of  Organized  Influenced  by  Management  Production  6.2  Industrial  6.3  The I n d u s t r i a l Inputs of "Organized Technology"  8.1  Comparison Advanced  9.1  1  Technology  Inputs  .  .  .  .  128 140  o f D i f f e r e n t Forms O p e r a t i n g Systems  Technology'-Titled Categories B u s i n e s s C o u r s e s O f f e r e d by B.C.l.T. i n the F a l l , 1987  xvii  148 of 208 of 230  LIST OF FIGURES Figure  Page  1.1  The Nested T h r e e - T i e r S t r u c t u r e o f t h e Study . .  12  2.1  Unconscious Problem S e t t i n g  21  2.2  Conceptualization of the Problem-Setting Process  23  Factors A f f e c t i n g the A v a i l a b i l i t y of Relevant Problem-Setting 'Stories'  49  3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4  Framework f o r S p e l l i n g Out a G e n e r a t i v e Metaphor Framework F o r C o n c e p t u a l i z i n g The Assumptions That Flow From A Metaphor  60  61  3.5  P i c t u r e o f P a r t o f An O r g a n i z e d Whole  3.6  Bases F o r The S e l e c t i o n o f C r i t e r i a F o r Examining The P o l i c y - R e l a t e d U t i l i t y Of A Problem Frame P r o c e d u r a l Framework f o r Examining a Problem Frame S p e l l i n g Out t h e Named F e a t u r e "Content" o f the G e n e r a t i v e Metaphor: S c h o o l as an I n d u s t r i a l Workplace  5.1  58  Framework f o r E l a b o r a t i n g t h e Assumptions of t h e Metaphor  3.7  .  62  66 73  103  5.2  S p e l l i n g Out t h e Named F e a t u r e " E x p e c t a t i o n s " of t h e G e n e r a t i v e Metaphor: S c h o o l as an I n d u s t r i a l Workplace . .I l l  5.3  S p e l l i n g Out t h e Named F e a t u r e "Time" o f the G e n e r a t i v e Metaphor: S c h o o l as an I n d u s t r i a l Workplace  xviii  115  Figure 5.4  6.1 6.2 6.3  Page S p e l l i n g Out the Named F e a t u r e "Teaching" of the G e n e r a t i v e Metaphor: School as an I n d u s t r i a l Workplace  120  The R e l a t i o n s h i p Between Hardware, S o f t w a r e , and Orgware i n O r g a n i z e d Technology  146  A Double-Faceted P a t t e r n Model Of I n d u s t r i a l Workplace  154  The  S y s t e m i c P a t t e r n Model of t h e I n d u s t r i a l Workplace  155  6.4  I m p l i c a t i o n s of the Metaphor  7.1  P r o c e d u r a l Framework f o r Examining a Problem Frame 165 From Examining the P l a u s i b i l i t y t o Examining t h e A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f The Problem Frame . . . 172  7.2 7.3 7.4 8.1 8.2  8.3 8.4  8.5  I m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e Metaphor "School as A Mass P r o d u c t i o n Workplace"  174  Examining the A p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of A Problem Frame  18 6  Simple M e t a p h o r i c Elements Complex Metaphor (c)  201  of  Complex Metaphor (c) "The School of Today G e a r i n g Up t o Become the School of Tomorrow as a Mass P r o d u c t i o n Workplace G e a r i n g Up t o Become a P r o c e s s P r o d u c t i o n Workplace" . . . .  202  The r e s t r u c t u r e d G e n e r a t i v e Metaphor of t h e Reframed Problem  203  S p e l l i n g Out the O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Elements of the Metaphor: School as a Workplace w i t h a P r o c e s s Mode of Technology  205  I m p l i c a t i o n s of the Metaphor of the P r o c e s s P r o d u c t i o n Workplace  9.1  "The  9.2  I m p l i c a t i o n s of the Metaphor "School as a P r o c e s s P r o d u c t i o n Workplace" SOCRATES: H e l p i n g C h i l d r e n Learn One-to-One  9.3  159  Changing  Nature of Work"  xix  220 232 236 . . 242  Figure  Page  11.1  The  Nested  Three-Tier  11.2  The  Projected.  Technology  Structure  Implications on  the  of  of  Study  .  . 2 9 3  .  .  Process  Organization  xx  the  of  Schools  305  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I should provided  l i k e t o acknowledge t h e f i n a n c i a l  by t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s  assistance  and H u m a n i t i e s  Research  C o u n c i l o f Canada i n t h e form o f a D o c t o r a l F e l l o w s h i p which enabled  me t o pursue  t h e study  of action research  at the  T a v i s t o c k I n s t i t u t e o f Human R e l a t i o n s i n t h e U.K. Many  individuals  have  provided  a s s i s t a n c e , and support o f v a r i o u s k i n d s .  encouragement, P a r t i c u l a r thanks  are owed t o t h e members o f my c o m m i t t e e — t o Jamie W a l l i n who steered  t h e development o f my p r o p o s a l ;  who g u i d e d  my r e a d i n g s  i n d e f a t i g a b l e support; whose sage a d v i c e be  t o Gaalen  Erickson  on m e t a p h o r ; t o Tom S o r k f o r h i s  and t o my s u p e r v i s o r , Jean H i l l s , f o r  and u n f l a g g i n g encouragement I s h a l l  ever  grateful. I  family  am  indebted  members  who  decade-long w i t h r a w a l  t o those have  so  f r i e n d s , c o l l e a g u e s , and patiently  p u t up  with  my  from t h e i r l i v e s ; and i n p a r t i c u l a r t o  P e t e r C l a r k e w i t h o u t whose f i n a n c i a l and moral s u p p o r t endeavour would n o t have been p o s s i b l e .  xx i  this  r  Chapter 1 INTRODUCING THE STUDY When we examine t h e p r o b l e m - s e t t i n g s t o r i e s t o l d by t h e a n a l y s t s and p r a c t i t i o n e r s o f s o c i a l p o l i c y , i t becomes a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e f r a m i n g o f p r o b l e m s o f t e n depends upon metaphors u n d e r l y i n g t h e s t o r i e s [metaphors] which g e n e r a t e problem s e t t i n g and s e t t h e d i r e c t i o n o f problem-solving . . . . . . we ought t o become c r i t i c a l l y aware o f t h e s e g e n e r a t i v e metaphors, t o i n c r e a s e t h e r i g o r and p r e c i s i o n of our a n a l y s i s o f s o c i a l p o l i c y problems. . . (Schon, 1979:255-256) This d i s s e r t a t i o n of  i s concerned w i t h  t h e development  means by w h i c h p o l i c y m a k e r s m i g h t i n c r e a s e r i g o r and  precision  i n the analysis  of s o c i a l p o l i c y  t h e r e b y improve t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e i r work. by  the currently  troubled  state  Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ; an  analytical  technique  that  p r o b l e m s and  I t was prompted  of p u b l i c  schooling i n  and by t h e p e r c e i v e d need f o r would  help  policy  analysts  (and'Others who c o n t r i b u t e  t o the formulation of educational  policies)  and r e f l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n  task  pay c o n s c i o u s  o f problem s e t t i n g  problem  solving) .  i n q u i r y was d i r e c t e d analysis and  and p r a c t i c e  Schon  utility  t o the  (as a p r e c u r s o r t o t h e i r f o c u s on  In response  to this perceived  at operationalizing o f problem  (1977), and Schfin  setting  (1979);  an approach t o t h e advanced by R e i n  and a t  assessing the  o f t h e proposed p r o c e d u r e s by c r i t i c a l l y  reflecting  upon t h e i r t r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e case o f s c h o o l s .  1  need,  The  first  overview  of  explains the  section  the  situation  the g e n e r a l  i n q u i r y may  purpose of the  of  this  t h a t prompted the  perspectives  be viewed.  i n t r o d u c t i o n provides  an  study,  and  from which the purpose of  Subsequent s e c t i o n s o u t l i n e the  s t u d y , and  the  o r g a n i z a t i o n of the  chapters  i n the t h e s i s .  OVERVIEW The  'Problem' of S c h o o l s Whether or not we  a  general  'crisis  of  systems of Canada and  concern,  opinions are  as  there  confidence'  subject  scrutiny,  is  one  the  and  those  about  schooling  responsible  those  which  so  to  activity  to t h i s  end  years  (with  few  state-wide  seen;  reports  school  has  in  While  'what needs f i x i n g  educational  seem  in  i t i s up  to  p o l i c y to  reform.  will the  accomplish United  this  task  states,  where  been p a r t i c u l a r l y marked over  some 30 having  national  been  1  represent,  does  i s i n t r o u b l e , and  charged but,  and  everyone  for developing  remains  last  be  1  i n t e r e s t s they  b r i n g about the much-needed s c h o o l How  public  disapprobation.  constituent  thing  agreement—public  the  now  of. i n c r e a s i n g l y w i d e s p r e a d  c o n c e r n i n g 'what i s wrong v a r i e d as  in  is  the U n i t e d S t a t e s , i t i s apparent t h a t  t h e y have become t h e public  a c c e p t the c l a i m t h a t t h e r e  issued  and on  more t h a n the  status  s c h o o l i n g ) , i n d i c a t i o n s are t h a t the p o l i c y m a k e r s may  now  the 250 of be.  finding  themselves  capacity  of t h e i r  in trouble.  I t would  proposed p o l i c i e s  seem t h a t  to d e l i v e r  the  fundamental  s c h o o l r e f o r m — a s p r o m i s e d — i s b e i n g viewed from a number of informed  quarters with considerable  skepticism.  Shapiro  (1984:12-13). f o r example, c o m p l a i n s t h a t the r e f o r m measures r e p r e s e n t " l i t t l e more t h a n a s e t of p r o p o s a l s f o r s c h o o l i n g as  usual."  that  And,  even  school would  in like  i f everything  r e f o r m were put be  today."  vein,  Leonard  proposed  into  effect,  "the r e s u l t i n g  different  Indeed,  out how  points  observes  i n a l l the r e p o r t s  f u n d a m e n t a l l y no he  (1984:48)  from  the  i t would,  on  school  school  of  in fact,  be  much l i k e t h e s c h o o l of a hundred y e a r s ago: T e a c h e r s w o u l d s t i l l be s t a n d i n g o r s i t t i n g i n f r o n t o f some t w e n t y t o t h i r t y - f i v e m o s t l y p a s s i v e s t u d e n t s o f t h e same age a n d g i v i n g o u t t h e same i n f o r m a t i o n a t t h e same t i m e t o a l l t h e s e s t u d e n t s , r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t i e s , cultural backgrounds, or l e a r n i n g s t y l e s . (Leonard, 1984:48) As "space  Leonard  age"  will  sees  it,  n o t be met  buggy" e d u c a t i o n a l r e f o r m s . in  the needs of our  by what he c a l l s  structural  and  "horse  be r e q u i r e d  However, the p e r s i s t e n c e of the  organizational  1982b; H a r t , 1983; Goodlad, 1983)  appear general  to  fundamental  t o be a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  schooling  that  century  resistence  American  features  North  a  and  i s a thorough r e -  characterized (Cuban,  in a  And, he i s c e r t a i n l y not a l o n e  s u g g e s t i n g t h a t what w i l l  s t r u c t u r i n g of the s c h o o l s .  society  structural  f o r the  change  f e a t u r e of s o c i a l  ( W a t z l a w i c k , Weakland, and F i s c h , 1974).  have past  bespeaks that  would  systems i n  To  date,  seen as h a v i n g  concern  with  focussed  e d u c a t i o n a l change  largely  might be  on t h e q u e s t i o n o f how t o  ensure t h e s u c c e s s f u l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f i n n o v a t i v e p r a c t i c e s (e.g. F u l l a n ,  1982; Common, 1985).  However, c o m p l a i n t s i n  the U. S. about t h e i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f  r e c e n t l y announced  r e f o r m measures t o d e l i v e r " r e a l " change a r e now b e i n g made well  before  cases,  the stage  of policy  before  the policy  even  formulated.  has been  completely  They a r e , moreover, b e i n g made on t h e grounds  t h a t proposed getting  i m p l e m e n t a t i o n — i n some  solutions  are directed  s c h o o l performance  a t t h e problem  "back on t r a c k " ,  of  r a t h e r than o f  i m p r o v i n g s c h o o l performance i n new and b e t t e r ways. Such c r i t i c i s m s suggest t h a t t h e r e c e n t p r o p o s a l s f o r school  reform  situation social  a r e seen as a d d r e s s i n g t h e wrong  t h a t would appear t o be endemic i n t h e f i e l d o f  policy;  f o r , as A c k o f f  (1974) p o i n t s o u t , "we  more o f t e n because we s o l v e t h e wrong problem we g e t t h e wrong s o l u t i o n t o t h e r i g h t ' G e t t i n g t h e Problem It  problem—a  would,  policymakers  fail  than because  problem."  Right' f o r Policymaking  indeed,  seem t h a t t h e mechanisms whereby  'get' and ' s e t '  ( i . e . understand  the problems t h a t t h e i r p o l i c i e s s u b s e q u e n t l y i s not a t a l l w e l l understood.  and d e f i n e ) seek t o s o l v e  As observed by Dunn:  P r o b l e m s t r u c t u r i n g , w h i c h i s t h a t phase i n t h e p r o c e s s o f i n q u i r y where a n a l y s t s grope toward p o s s i b l e d e f i n i t i o n s o f a p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n , i s no doubt t h e most c r u c i a l b u t l e a s t u n d e r s t o o d a s p e c t o f p o l i c y analysis. (Dunn, 1981:98)  That t h e p o l i c y m a k i n g e n t e r p r i s e h a s — a s s u g g e s t e d by Schfln  (1979)--for  entirely the  some t w e n t y y e a r s been v i e w e d  as a p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g  lack  of  attention  activity,  to t h i s  crucial  might task  almost  account f o r of  problem  definition.  A r e v i e w of t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o p o l i c y -  making  certainly  would  bear out SchOn's  (1979)  contention  t h a t t h e p u b l i c p o l i c y f i e l d i s dominated by a p r e o c c u p a t i o n with  solution-seeking.  As  noted by  Schfln  (1979:260-261),  the  problems themselves a r e g e n e r a l l y assumed t o be  given.  The  a s s u m p t i o n seems t o be t h a t  easily  v o i c e , t h e problems of c i t i e s , the  know, o r c a n  t h e problems of t h e economy,  problems of p o p u l a t i o n c o n t r o l , but t h a t we cannot y e t  s o l v e them." the  "we  A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e r o l e of t h e p o l i c y m a k e r (and  p o l i c y a n a l y s t ) i s t o be a p r o b l e m - s o l v e r ; t h e t a s k — t o 1  f i n d s o l u t i o n s t o known p r o b l e m s . However, as p o i n t e d given,  out by Schfin, problems a r e not  "they are constructed  by  human b e i n g s  a t t e m p t s t o make sense of complex and t r o u b l i n g  x  in  their  situations."  Schfln (1979:261) goes on t o suggest t h a t i f problems a r e assumed t o be g i v e n , t h i s i s i n p a r t because t h e y a r e always t a k e n t o have t h e same f o r m — o n e marked by what he c a l l s "an i n s t r u m e n t a l i s t " p o s i t i o n : "Problem-solving c o n s i s t s i n the e f f o r t t o f i n d means f o r t h e achievement of our o b j e c t i v e s , i n t h e f a c e o f c o n s t r a i n t s t h a t make s u c h a c h i e v e m e n t difficult. According to t h i s instrumenta l i s t p o s i t i o n , t h e r e a r e always o b j e c t i v e s , g o a l s or p u r p o s e s ; t h e s e a r e r o o t e d i n human v a l u e s and a r e , i n a s e n s e , a r b i t r a r y , i n a s m u c h as t h e y depend on what we ( o r o t h e r s ) want t o achieve. There a r e a l s o c o n s t r a i n t s t o t h e achievement of t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s , always i n c l u d i n g t h e c o n s t r a i n t of l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e s . And f i n a l l y , t h e r e a r e t h e v a r i o u s a v a i l a b l e means, t h e o p t i o n a l c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n f r o m w h i c h we may s e l e c t t h e b e s t ( o r a t l e a s t an a c c e p t a b l e ) p a t h t o o u r objectives."  And,  since the  determine  the  form t h a t these c o n s t r u c t i o n s t a k e  range  of  solutions  that  are then  will  possible,  problem s t r u c t u r i n g can be seen t o be c e n t r a l t o the t a s k of successful policy  development.  Our a t t e n t i o n i s , t h u s , drawn t o t h e need i n p o l i c y making the  f o r a much g r e a t e r  awareness  p r o c e s s e s by which the problems  solving  policies  are  sought)  'framed,' i n the f i r s t p l a c e .  o f , and  emphasis  on,  ( f o r which t h e problem-  become  structured,  or  In r e l a t i o n t o t h e problem of  s c h o o l s , t h e n , we might ask: Given the  that  problem  most c r u c i a l ,  structuring  but  has  developing  the  problem  educational  t o improving school  identified  l e a s t understood a s p e c t o f  a n a l y s i s — h o w might the e d u c a t i o n a l 'framing'  been  of  policy  policymaker s e t about  schools  reform  as  for  purposes  p o l i c i e s that  performance i n new  and  are  of  attuned  b e t t e r ways?  Problem Framing. For  R e i n and  Schon  ( 19 7 7 ) , p r o b l e m  framing i s  t r i g g e r e d by a p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n — t h i s i s a s i t u a t i o n i n which uncomfortable, w o r r i e d , or i r r i t a t e d experienced. problematic  Judgment about what i t i s t h a t requires  a way  gives i t meaning—that an the  'seeing'  are  i s actually  the s i t u a t i o n  that  s t r u c t u r e s the s i t u a t i o n i n terms of  u n d e r s t a n d a b l e problem; d i f f e r e n c e between  of  feelings  a problem  b e i n g r e p r e s e n t e d by  one's p e r c e p t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n as  i t i s and one's c o n c e p t i o n of how  i t 'ought' t o be.  7 A c c o r d i n g t o R e i n and Schfln (1977), i t i s a g e n e r a l l y accepted  notion  organizing  that  our sensory  aggregates"—i.e. (perhaps  we  what  into  l e a r n and perceptions  interpretive  we  sometimes  reference")  that  are based  experience.  This  reference process  'know' by means o f  process  into  frameworks o f  refer  t o as  on p r e v i o u s  o f c a r r y i n g over  f r o m one domain o f e x p e r i e n c e  of 'seeing'  "meaningful concepts  "frames  of  patterns  of  our frames o f  to  another--the  s o m e t h i n g we d o n ' t know i n t e r m s o f  s o m e t h i n g we d o - - l e a d s  t o what h a s been c a l l e d by Schfin  (1979:254) a " g e n e r a t i v e metaphor." As  Schon sees i t , g e n e r a t i v e metaphors p r o v i d e  our  p e r s p e c t i v e s o f t h e w o r l d ; f o r they shape how we t h i n k about t h i n g s , make sense o f r e a l i t y ,  and s e t t h e [ s o c i a l  problems we l a t e r t r y t o s o l v e . is  H i s concern  n o t t h a t we ought t o t h i n k m e t a p h o r i c a l l y about  policy  problems,  but that  we  already  metaphors we  employ  disaggregated  w o r r i e s and concerns  to  i n this  us.  As  a  through suggests setting  and may  we  frames  social  d o ; and t h a t t h e  find  a r e n o t always  neglect  to  ourselves  paying  i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y framed Schon  context  t o frame and make sense o f o t h e r w i s e  result,  appropriateness,  policy]  policies.  apparent  check  their  the p r i c e  The remedy,  (1979 : 255) , i s t o seek o u t t h e p r o b l e m t h a t people  describe a p a r t i c u l a r  have u s e d  problematic  t o understand  situation,  and  and t o " s p e l l  out t h e metaphor, e l a b o r a t e t h e assumptions which f l o w from it,  and  examine  situation."  their  appropriateness  i n the  present  8  The Schon  conduct o f such  analyses  as a c r i t i c a l l y  (1977)  i s viewed by R e i n and  important  r e s e a r c h ; and they make a s t r o n g case the  policymaking  process.  t o hold  promise,  of policy  for i t s inclusion i n  However,  "methodology f o r problem s e t t i n g " appears  aspect  while  (Rein and Schfln,  i t i s — from  their  1977:237)  an o p e r a t i o n a l  s t a n d p o i n t — o n l y rough-hewn. I t poses a number o f p r o c e d u r a l questions  that  application. approach  beg p u t t i n g  of practical  To conduct such a t e s t , and t o see whether t h e  t o problem  setting  might, t h u s , be s u c c e s s f u l l y applicable  analytical  educational  t o thetest  policymakers  schools'—was  advanced  by R e i n  honed i n t o a  'tool'--one  t h e main o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s  demonstratably  that  b e t t e r understand  a n d Schfln  could  help  'the problem o f  study.  PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Within  the overarching  purpose  of  seeking  policy  knowledge t h a t might c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e d i s c i p l i n e o f p o l i c y s c i e n c e , t h e purpose o f t h e study was t w o f o l d . hand i t sought knowledge about a p a r t i c u l a r policymaking  process,  namely,  t h e process  On t h e one  aspect  of the  o f problem  s e t t i n g ; and, on t h e o t h e r hand i t sought knowledge r e l a t e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l p o l i c y i s s u e , namely, 'the problem o f schools.'  S p e c i f i c a l l y , i t sought:  ^ F o r Dror ( 1 9 6 8 : 8 ) , p o l i c y s c i e n c e can be p a r t l y d e s c r i b e d as ". . . the d i s c i p l i n e that searches f o r p o l i c y knowledge, t h a t seeks g e n e r a l p o l i c y - i s s u e knowledge and p o l i c y m a k i n g knowledge, and i n t e g r a t e s them i n t o a d i s t i n c t study."  Knowledge R e l a t e d t o t h e Policymaking Process To  see i f a p r o c e d u r a l  framework  for  p r o b l e m - s e t t i n g frame a n a l y s i s c o u l d be the  developed  (along  l i n e s suggested by Rein and SchOn) and shown, through  practical  application  sufficient  clarity  t o t h e case  of schools,  (and g e n e r a l i z e a b i l i t y )  be deemed o f use t o p o l i c y a n a l y s t s  Assumptions• following o  conducting  Implicit  in  that  t o have i t might  i n general.  this  purpose  are the  assumptions:  That  t h e approach  Rein  and Schfln  foundation conscious  t o problem  setting  a d v o c a t e d by  p r o v i d e s a p r o m i s i n g and f e a s i b l e  f o r t h e development  of a  and r e f l e c t i v e problem  'practice' of  setting  i n policy  a n a l y s i s ; and, o  That i n o r d e r t o o p e r a t i o n a l i z e key  concepts  further  expounded  explication;  such an approach, t h e  by R e i n and Schfln  and, t h e i r  require  broadly conceived  approaches t o : —  u n c o v e r i n g t h e problem  —  making e x p l i c i t t h e u n d e r l y i n g  —  e l a b o r a t i n g t h e assumptions the metaphor,  —  examining t h e adequacy  —  c o n f i r m i n g / r e f r a m i n g t h e problem t o be a d d r e s s e d ,  require refinement.  frame, metaphor,  and i m p l i c a t i o n s  of  o f t h e problem frame, and  Policymaking process-related questions.  Answers were  sought t o such p o l i c y m a k i n g p r o c e s s - r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s a s : How can t h e r e s e a r c h e r most u s e f u l l y 'bound' t h e p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n — r e c o g n i z i n g t h a t any s u c h d e l i m i t a t i o n must employ a r e s e a r c h e r - i m p o s e d frame of r e f e r e n c e ? How can t h e i n q u i r e r go about: — — —  d i s c o v e r i n g t h e p r o b l e m - s e t t i n g frame used i n a p a r t i c u l a r p o l i c y document? making e x p l i c i t t h e g e n e r a t i v e metaphor underl y i n g t h a t frame? e l a b o r a t i n g t h e assumptions o f t h a t metaphor?  In r e l a t i o n t o what c r i t e r i a might t h e a p p r o p r i a t e ness o f any g i v e n p r o b l e m - s e t t i n g frame be a s s e s s e d ? How m i g h t t h e u t i l i t y to policymakers of a p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m - s e t t i n g frame be j u d g e d i n p r a c t i c e ? and, What p r i n c i p l e s might be used t o g u i d e e f f o r t s a t r e f r a m i n g a s o c i a l p o l i c y problem?  P o l i c y - I s s u e R e l a t e d Knowledge To  see what  analytical  might  be  learned—by  applying  p r o c e d u r e s t o some ( s e l e c t e d )  such  policy-relevant  document o f o u r t i m e — a b o u t 'the problem o f s c h o o l s . * A s s u m£ t i o n s^.  Implicit  in this  purpose  i s the  f o l l o w i n g assumption: o  That the will  the f i n d i n g s  deriving  proposed  procedures  be o f  interest  educational policymaking.  from  the a p p l i c a t i o n of  t o t h e problem t o those  of schools  concerned  with  School sought  to  policy-issue the  related  following  questions.  policy-issue  Answers  related  were  questions:  What d o e s an a n a l y s i s of the d e s c r i p t i o n s used in some ( s e l e c t e d ) p o l i c y - r e l e v a n t d o c u m e n t o f o u r t i m e reveal about the problem-setting frame(s) guiding the school reform proposals?  G i v e n an a n a l y s i s o f t h e a s s u m p t i o n s c a r r i e d by its underlying generative metaphor, how a p p r o p r i a t e is this problem-setting frame as a base for the development of v i a b l e school reform p o l i c i e s ?  *  How m i g h t s c h o o l s be  the currently experienced problem a l t e r n a t i v e l y framed, or reframed?  *  What w o u l d be alternative?  STRUCTURE  The can  be  with  to  be  of  potential  with  two for  policy  schools;  setting). within to  In  which  form  a  these  (as  three  order  orders  of  diagrammatically  providing Chinese  a  of  a  sets  to  of  policy of  as  represented  It being in  kind  the  is  (i.e. of  the  problem  are  integrated a  useful  third,  to  systemically  of  with  dissertation —  Figure  course  each  science  process  structure—rather the  an  concerned  study — const i t u t e s  discourse  organizing  is  policy  explorations  discourse.  such  discourse,  different  the  of  study  orders  framework  policy  three-tier  boxes—for  and  the  two  distinct  overarching, these  turn,  of  of  OF T H E STUDY  the  contributing  knowledge  of  implications  which  different  policy-related issue  policy  AND O R G A N I Z A T I O N  explorations  seen  the  the  of  1.1); like the  a  'see' nested  and, set  study.  as of  •(Introducing  • FRAMEWORK  the r a t i o n a l e  f o r the inquiry)  of  A PROCEDURAL APPROACH TO REFLECTIVE PROBLEM SETTING IN POLICY RESEARCH INTEGRATED as  applied  to  III  STUDY  THE CASE OF SCHOOLS  ( R e f l e c t i n g upon t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e findings)  F i g u r e 1.1 The Nested T h r e e - T i e r S t r u c t u r e o f t h e Study I : Framework f o r t h e I n t e g r a t e d Study General p e r s p e c t i v e .  Impetus f o r t h e s t u d y was l e n t  by t h e c u r r e n t l y t r o u b l e d s t a t e o f p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g , and t h e perceived  lack o f consensus  actually constitutes t o pursue problem  and c l a r i t y  c o n c e r n i n g what  " t h e problem o f s c h o o l s . " The s t i m u l u s  s e t t i n g , o r problem f r a m i n g / r e f r a m i n g , as  p o l i c y r e l e v a n t r e s e a r c h stemmed  from t h e work o f R e i n and  Schon who note t h a t ; When c o n s e n s u s h a s e r o d e d and t h e n a t u r e o f t h e problem i s i n doubt, then t h e e x p l o r a t i o n o f problem s e t t i n g becomes most u r g e n t . (Rein and Schon, 1977:237)  Accordingly,  i n q u i r y was d i r e c t e d  an approach t o problem s e t t i n g 1977)  a t "trying out"  (suggested by R e i n and Schfln,  by r e f i n i n g i t and a p p l y i n g i t t o t h e case o f s c h o o l s -  -thereby framed  examining  how t h e p r o b l e m  ( i n the case  under  o f s c h o o l s has been  s t u d y ) , and how  i t might  be  reframed. Organization.  As i l l u s t r a t e d  i n F i g u r e 1.1,  framework f o r i n t e g r a t i n g i n q u i r y c o n c e r n i n g a p o l i c y and  a  policy  Discourse chapter)  process  at this  envelops  level  the study  includes  of the r a t i o n a l e  as a  discussion  the issue  whole.  (in this  f o r t h e s t u d y ; and  reflection  upon t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e s t u d y as t h e y relate and  ( i n Chapter  10) t o t h e reframed problem  ( i n Chapter 11) t o an assessment  of the u t i l i t y  p r o c e d u r e s developed f o r p r o b l e m - s e t t i n g frame I I : An Approach t o R e f l e c t i v e S e t t i n g i n P o l i c y Research General p e r s p e c t i v e . which  the  configured is  employed  troublesome  of the  analysis.  Problem  I t i s supposed  interpretation  of schools,  that  t h e way i n  of a problematic s i t u a t i o n i s  i s dependent upon t h e n a t u r e o f t h e 'frame' f o r a g g r e g a t i n g , and m a k i n g sensory data.  a r r a y o f p o s s i b l e frames  sense  And t h a t , w h i l e from  o f , the among t h e  t h a t might be s e l e c t e d f o r such a  purpose none can be c l a i m e d as t h e ' t r u e ' o r ' r i g h t ' is  likely  that  some  particular  possess g r e a t e r i n t e r p r e t i v e purposes, than o t h e r s .  that  problem-setting  power, and u t i l i t y  one—it frames  f o r policy  Based on such s u p p o s i t i o n s , i n q u i r y i n t h i s phase of the  study  was  directed  at  developing  a blueprint  for  (a)  g u i d i n g the course of a c o n s c i o u s and r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e of problem  framing/reframing,  and  (b)  for  assessing  the  a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s and p o l i c y - r e l a t e d u t i l i t y of a g i v e n frame. Organization. two  chapters  This  (Chapters study  of  the  provides  an  interpretive  problem  (1977) and  Schon  of  and  3).  2,  problems  reflective  phase  are  study  The  framed  in  overview  setting (1979),  the  of  of  methodological  Chapter the  suggested  and  consists  by  2,  approach  R e i n and  identifies  which  ( i n the  to  Schon  form  of  p r e p a r a t o r y r e s e a r c h tasks and sub-problems) the o p e r a t i o n a l questions address  i t evokes. these  Chapter  3.  to  case  the  procedural  framework  o p e r a t i o n a l requirements  Trial of  designed  to  i s developed  in  a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s p r o c e d u r a l framework  schools  a n a l y s i s , as conducted Ill:  A  leads  i n the  to  a  different  level  'core' phase of the  study.  of  The Case of Schools General  perspective.  examine the " s t o r i e s " classrooms,  and  " f i x i n g , " we  may  about  people t e l l  As language  is  supposed  about  life  that  if  we  i n s c h o o l s and  the t h i n g s t h a t they t h i n k t h e r e need  d i s c e r n the g e n e r a t i v e metaphors t h a t frame  the problems to which t h e i r subsequently  It  problem  solving  activities  are  directed.  Bates  (1982) notes, t h e r e e x i s t s  i n our  everyday  about c h i l d r e n and s c h o o l i n g a v a r i e t y of powerful,  and c o n f l i c t i n g , metaphors:  Metaphors of the c h i l d as f l o w e r , n i g g e r , enemy, cog, machine, chameleon, m i n i a t u r e a d u l t , psychopath, gentleman, or r e a s o n e r , are common c u r r e n c y i n s t a f f r o o m s as are our metaphors of the s c h o o l as f a c t o r y , c l i n i c , o r bureaucracy. ( B a t e s , 1982:8) It  i s , then,  from  with  documentary  the  uncovering  sources—and  of  with  problem-setting  frames t h a t they  of the study i s  concerned.  The b l u e p r i n t developed  such the  metaphoric  data  a n a l y s i s of  the  generate—that  this  part  (Chapter 3) f o r d e a l i n g w i t h  such an a n a l y s i s i s a p p l i e d t o the case of s c h o o l s , as i t i s r e p r e s e n t e d by the " s t o r i e s " t o l d about s c h o o l i n g i n what i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a major p o l i c y - i n f l u e n c i n g document of time,  namely,  Commission on R i s k : The  a  (1983)  the  8,  9)  inquiry  (U.S.)  titled,  s i x .chapters  the  this  National  "A N a t i o n  proposed  successive  s i t u a t i o n , " and  at  i n Chapter  i n the  Chapter  Case  4,  of  to  study of  the  5,  advance  reflective procedural  Accordingly,  "bounding the  6,  the  problematic  i t is  "Bounding  the  Problematic  Schools."  5 i s concerned  the G e n e r a t i v e  Schools"—as  3.  stages  4,  " s e l e c t i n g the documentation f o r a n a l y s i s , "  dealt with  Situation  i n Chapter  r e s e a r c h t a s k s of  (Chapters  phase of the  framing/reframing—according  preparatory  Out  The  t h a t make up through  framework  are  the  I m p e r a t i v e f o r E d u c a t i o n a l Reform."  and  problem  by  Excellence i n Education  Organization. 7,  report  our  with  "Uncovering  and  Spelling  Metaphor(s) Used t o Frame the Problem of 'seen'  by  this  inquirer/interpreter  in  the  s e l e c t e d document, "A N a t i o n a t R i s k " .  provides  an  in-depth  And Chapter  6,  finding  by  e x p l o r a t i o n of t h i s  " E l a b o r a t i n g t h e Assumptions o f t h e Metaphor I n d u s t r i a l Workplace'." might  be c o n s i d e r e d  The  is  analysed  as an  e x t e n t t o which t h i s metaphor  t o have  makers w i t h an a p p r o p r i a t e  'School  provided  educational  policy-  and u s e f u l p r o b l e m - s e t t i n g frame  and d i s c u s s e d  7,  i n Chapter  "Examining the  Problem Frame Used In The Case o f S c h o o l s . " An a l t e r n a t i v e way o f f r a m i n g t h e problem o f s c h o o l s is  proposed  8,  i n Chapter  Schools."  This  "Reframing  alternative (what  frame  might  be  The  Problem  Of  i s generated considered  by  restructuring  the  dominantly-held)  metaphor, so t h a t i n s t e a d o f s i m p l y v i e w i n g  the s c h o o l as  a k i n d o f mass p r o d u c t i o n manufactory  upcn  out a p p r o p r i a t e l y packaged  turning  graduates) , t h e s c h o o l  and  learning) . such  be  (intent labelled  can be seen as a system t h a t i s i n  need o f ' g e a r i n g up' from a mass p r o d u c t i o n t o a mode o f t e c h n o l o g y  to  (focussed  The problem  on t h e c o n t i n u o u s  of schools  i s hereby  in  (second-  order)  structural  of rather  than  merely  changes i n t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m — c a n be a d d r e s s e d .  The  plausibility,  i s , change  flow of  reframed  a way t h a t t h e p e r c e i v e d need f o r v e r y r e a l change—that  'process'  appropriateness,  and  utility  r e s t r u c t u r e d metaphor i s d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter the Reframed Problem o f S c h o o l s " ;  11  provides  an overview  d i s c u s s e s t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s suggested  this  "Examining  and t h e i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s  f o r p o l i c y m a k i n g a r e examined i n Chapter Chapter  9,  of  10. of the study,  by i t s f i n d i n g s .  and  Chapter 2 FRAMING THE METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF REFLECTIVE PROBLEM SETTING What i s t o be r e s i s t e d i s t h e n o t i o n t h a t t h e c u l t i v a t i o n of methodology i s e i t h e r necessary or s u f f i c i e n t f o r s u c c e s s f u l s c i e n t i f i c endeavour. I t i s s u r e l y not necessary. M e t h o d o l o g y , Weber (135:115) r i g h t l y s a y s , "can o n l y b r i n g us r e f l e c t i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the means which have demonstrated t h e i r v a l u e i n p r a c t i c e by r a i s i n g them t o t h e l e v e l o f e x p l i c i t c o n s c i o u s n e s s ; i t i s no more the p r e c o n d i t i o n o f f r u i t f u l i n t e l l e c t u a l work t h a n the knowledge of anatomy i s the p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r c o r r e c t w a l k i n g . " T h i s i s t o say t h a t methodology p r o v i d e s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d l o g i c , from which the l o g i c - i n - u s e may be q u i t e independent. Yet e x p l i c i t c o n s c i o u s n e s s can improve what i s b e i n g done w i t h o u t f u l l awareness. (Kaplan, 1 9 6 4 : 2 4 ) Based social  on  policy  "discover  conviction  issues  unconsciously situations,  the  use  Rein  i s dependent to  and  the t a c i t  make  'first  laid  out  i n what t h e y c a l l  formalized  of  their  a  troublesome propose  that  we and  f o r problem s e t t i n g i s  s u g g e s t i o n s and  'second  way."  ideas into  i s , here,  "methodology." 17  we  social  insights  "a nonf orma 1 i s t i c  necessary  a c t u a l i z a t i o n of such a  metaphors  The approach t h e y suggest as  p r o c e d u r a l framework  attempted — as  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of  t h a t o r g a n i z e our  s t e p ' toward a methodology  development  of  (1977:237)  Schfin  frames  our  upon the  sense  then t h a t we c h a l l e n g e them." a  that  The  a more  envisaged—and  step'  for  the  18 The Approach t o Problem S e t t i n g Proposed by R e i n and Schfln The Rein  and  "methodology Schfln  unconscious  for  problem  (1977:237)  setting"  integrates a  problem-setting  proposed  discussion  processes  with  nature  (e.g. examining  models);  others  disaggregating experiments possible and  might  be  worries,  that  offer  work  a  are  into  retrospective in  e x i s t i n g s t o r i e s , maps, t h e o r i e s , and  problems).  Schon  strategies  of  proposals  concerning conscious s t r a t e g i e s f o r t r a n s l a t i n g worries p r o b l e m s . Some o f t h e s e  by  termed  prospective  aggregating  back  from  In a l l ,  the  stimulus  worries,  (e.g. thought  p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s to ideas presented  and  a  are  no  guide  by  rather  Rein  than  a  se,  a  d e f i n i t i v e methodology. However,  while  there  "steps'  per  d i s t i l l a t i o n of the i d e a s p r e s e n t e d by R e i n and Schfln (1977) and  Schfln  conscious, involving envisaged  (19 79 ) , d o e s reflective, five  suggest  problem  procedural  that  setting  the  c o u l d be  s t a g e s . These s t a g e s  conduct  of  viewed  as  might  be  as:  (1)  d i s c o v e r i n g the problem frame t h a t has been used t o g i v e meaning t o a p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n ;  (2)  s p e l l i n g out the g e n e r a t i v e metaphor t h a t u n d e r l i e s ( i . e . g e n e r a t i v e of) t h i s problem frame;  (3)  e l a b o r a t i n g the assumptions of t h a t metaphor; t h e n ,  (4)  j u d g i n g the adequacy of the problem frame ( i n the l i g h t of the assumptions of the underlying g e n e r a t i v e metaphor, and i n the c o n t e x t of the g i v e n s i t u a t i o n ) ; and  (5)  c o n f i r m i n g or r e f r a m i n g the problem t o be  addressed.  19  The  'Methodological  Problem'  How t h e p o l i c y a n a l y s t i s t o approach t h e q u e s t i o n o f problem s e t t i n g ,  and t o a c t u a l l y  go a b o u t e a c h o f t h e s e  procedural tasks c o n s t i t u t e s the 'methodological this  study.  A c c o r d i n g l y , what i s understood  i n approaching  i s , next,  noted;  and  are  1  of  t o be i n v o l v e d  t h e t a s k , and o p e r a t i o n a l i z i n g each o f t h e s e  stages  problems.  problem  reviewed;  operational  preparatory  questions  research tasks are  are i d e n t i f i e d  as sub-  These p r e p a r a t o r y r e s e a r c h t a s k s and sub-problems  subsequently  addressed,  i n t h e form  of a  procedural  framework, i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . APPROACHING THE QUESTION OF PROBLEM SETTING Assumptions The the  questions  operational  approach  asked i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e addressed t o  aspects  concerned w i t h t h e a r t i c u l a t o r y s t y l e used by t h e s e  authors;  directed at questioning  bases upon which t h e i r T h i s does, o f c o u r s e , researcher's  other  proposal  seem  only  the epistemological  i s seen t o be p r e d i c a t e d .  r a i s e t h e q u e s t i o n as t o whether t h e  apperception  t r u l y r e f l e c t s those therefore,  setting.  proposed are not  a r e they  problem  and Schfln's They  nor  to reflective  of Rein  of  these  epistemological  i n t e n d e d by R e i n and Schfln. prudent  assumptions about t h e i r  as p o s s i b l e a t t h e o u t s e t .  that  these  proposal  I t would,  p e r c e p t i o n s , and  be made as e x p l i c i t  To t h i s end, t h e  r e s t of t h i s  s e c t i o n i s d e d i c a t e d t o an i n t e r p r e t i v e o v e r v i e w seen t o be t h e key concepts  bases  expounded by R e i n  o f what a r e and Schfln.  20 The  Problem-Setting The  Schfln  problem-setting  seems  natural  Process  to  process  encompass  course  of  policy  both  policy  t h a t which  process—what  'ought' of p o l i c y  might  development.  be  problem  thought  setting.  of as  occurs  The  naturally  "unconscious  and  in  the  ' i s , ' as i t  agenda  thought  For purposes  a d i s t i n c t i o n has been made between the of  Rein  t h a t which they advocate  structured problem-setting  research  by  decision-making—the  were, of p o l i c y a n a l y s i s ; and deliberately  described  for  the  as  the  of  of t h i s  ' i s ' and the  as a  study, 'ought'  o c c u r r i n g process  r e a s o n i n g " ; and  the  is  deliberately  s t r u c t u r e d p r o b l e m - s e t t i n g agenda, as n o n f o r m a l i s t i c a l l y s e t out  by  Rein  and  Schfln,  is  termed  "reflective  problem  setting."  Problem S e t t i n g as Unconscious According process  begins  to  Rein  with  a  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by d i f f u s e , irritation—i.e. of  worries  Reasoning  and  Schfln,  the  problematic intuited  problem-setting  situation;  d i s c o m f o r t , concern,  t h a t elude  an  orderly  one and  formulation  what the problem i s a l l about. Framing the p r o b l e m a t i c  about  what  requiring  i t . i s that the  experience. significant, will  and  the  frame w i l l  of  a  the  frame  to  highlight  salient  The  problematic the  certain  ignore others as t r i v i a l  "bind together  including  is actually  application  This  situation.  or  into  i s seen  as  field  of  worries  as  irrelevant—it  f e a t u r e s of the  relevant worries,  judgment  situation,  a pattern that i s  21  coherent and g r a s p a b l e "  (Rein and Schon, 1977:239).  I t might be h e l p f u l unconscious Figure  problem  to c o n c e p t u a l i z e these stages of  setting  as,  for  example,  depicted i n  2:1.  SOCIAL SETTING  Undifferentiated Phenomenological Experience  Problem Frame  (A) D i f f u s e concerns/worries  T B ) Salient f e a t u r e s framed  Policy  SUB CONSCIOUS WORLD VIEW  Figure Unconscious Figure  2.1  shows  logical  experience  diffuse  concerns/worries  articulated  of  problem  unconscious  process  however, are  the  It {A3  does not  a  Problem S e t t i n g  the  undifferentiated  particular that CB).  of  problem  What  this  setting  l i n k a g e s between s t a t e  show what happened t o  the  social  phenomeno-  setting  become t r a n s l a t e d  frame  t h a t are omitted i n the  show why  2:1  {A3  (A3  as  into  an  picture  of  fails  to  and  state  the  show, £B3.  those f e a t u r e s i n s t a t e  problem  features highlighted  frame (B3; nor does i t i n t h e frame  (B3  c o n s i d e r e d t o be s a l i e n t , and to f i t together as they  do.  are  22 To  fill  i n t h e gaps l e f t  r e q u i r e s both r e f l e c t i o n appear  and s p e c u l a t i o n ;  t o be d e f i n i t i v e  q u e s t i o n s thus posed.  by an u n c o n s c i o u s  answers  process  f o r t h e r e do n o t  to the epistemological  I t does, however, seem (as noted by  R e i n and Schon) t o be a g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d n o t i o n t h a t we l e a r n and 'know' by means o f a g g r e g a t i n g s e n s o r y p e r c e p t i o n s into  ' p a t t e r n s ' t h a t have meaning f o r u s ; and, t h a t we a r e  a b l e t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s by v i r t u e o f ' s e e i n g ' something don' t know i n terms o f something metaphor-making p r o c e s s  we  we d o — i . e . by means o f a  (Wittgenstein,  1953; N i e t z s c h e ,  1968; von B e r t a l a n f f y , 1981; B a t e s o n , 1977; B a t e s , 1982). Conceptualizing setting. process  One  'tapes'  o f memory  the  the problem-setting  'unconscious  'tapes.'  problem  (mind)'  as a  And, t o i m a g i n e  these  as c a r r y i n g e x p e r i e n t i a l l y g a t h e r e d i n f o r m a t i o n i n  form  unconscious memory  of c o n c e p t u a l i z i n g  i s t o imagine  repository  the  way  the process of unconscious  o f some  isomorphic^  mind might  -  code.  way, t h e  ( m e t a p h o r i c a l l y ) be thought o f as a  bank o f apprehended p a t t e r n s t h a t  c a t e g o r i z e d , and s t o r e d  In t h i s  'knowings'  represent  coded,  about t h e w o r l d — a s shown  i n F i g u r e 2:2.  1  Von B e r t a l a n f f y (1981:104) p o s t u l a t e s an i s o m o r p h i s m between c o n s t r u c t s o f p s y c h o l o g y and n e u r o p h y s i o l o g y . By isomorphism he does n o t mean a s i m p l e s i m i l a r i t y between p s y c h o l o g i c a l and b r a i n - p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s , b u t some k i n d o f code " l i k e a punched computer program t a p e , o r t h e g e n e t i c code o f p r o t e i n s y n t h e s i s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e n u c l e i c a c i d s o f t h e chromosomes" whose p r o g r a m i s i s o m o r p h i c , w i t h o u t t h e r e h a v i n g t o be any d i r e c t s i m i l a r i t y o r resemblance ( C l a r k e , 1982b:24).  23  Undifferentiated ^ Policy P h e n o m e n o i o g i c a l i . ^ P r o b l e m s e t t i n g / s o l v i n g by Experience means o f t h e p r o b l e m " f r a m e "  SOCIAL SETTING  irrelevant features  "junk"  "SUB" CONSCIOUS WORLD VIEW (B)  (A) Diffuse c o n c e r n s and worries  FEELINGS  UNCONSCIOUS f  Step " X " Pattern recognition  Salient features c o n f i g u r e d as in pattern "B"  Discomfort irritation  ^  MEMORY BANK OF APPREHENDED, "PATTERNS"  Figure Conceptualization  of the  2:2 Problem-Setting  Process  24 As that  illustrated  between  conscious During  state  step  step  in  "X,"  i n Figure [A]  the  and  2:2,  state  i t might be CB)  there  problem-setting  the phenomenological  " p a t t e r n B."  as CB).  However, CA)  it  in certain  experienced "pattern  experience  "We  respects.  Therefore,  CA)  do  not  CB),  some of  have  become  culturally  selectively  accepted  e x p l a i n anomoly away."  junk  of  "X." CA)  CA)  the  is  been  i s seen  i t i s only  like  features  a counterpart  However, as Ronco and Schon  learn to  devise  i s not a c t u a l l y  "sub"  t h a t has  M e t a p h o r i c a l l y speaking,  in state  B."  is a  process—step  r e c o g n i z e d i n terms of a p a s t e x p e r i e n c e : one coded as  imagined  (1977:49)  inattentive  to  in  note,  error;  we  categories i n order  to  A c c o r d i n g l y , i t can be expected  that  such f e a t u r e s w i l l e i t h e r be c a s t out as j u n k , or i g n o r e d as irrelevant. It from  might, moreover, be  s t a t e CA)  change  t o s t a t e CB)  i n experienced  irritation  felt  imagined  t h a t the  i s s i g n a l l e d by  ________.  i n s t a t e CA)  The  g i v e way  and  this,  acceptable  concomitant  discomfort to the  i n s i g h t w i t h the r e c o g n i t i o n of a meaningful "X";  a  transition  "ah-ha" o f  p a t t e r n i n step  i n t u r n , becomes a c o n f i r m a t o r y "mmh"  frame  puts  c l o s u r e around  u n c e r t a i n t y / , i n s t a t e CB).  and  otherwise  as  an  irritating  A 'metaphor' has been b o r n .  i •  For certain  Schon  (1979:254),  k i n d of p r o d u c t — a  looking  at  things--and  process  by  which  existence."  new  "'metaphor'  refers  both  to  p e r s p e c t i v e or frame, a way  to a c e r t a i n  p e r s p e c t i v e s on  k i n d of the  world  T h i s p r o c e s s of SEEING-AS (the  a of  process—a come  into  "meta-pherein"  25  or " c a r r y i n g o v e r " of frames or p e r s p e c t i v e s from one  domain  of e x p e r i e n c e t o another) Schfln c a l l s " g e n e r a t i v e metaphor." Generative  Metaphor  A metaphor i s " g e n e r a t i v e " when i t p r o v i d e s [from  "a b a s i s f o r m a k i n g t h e n o r m a t i v e  findings to  familiar  recommendations] by  situations  evaluated."  familiar  To i l l u s t r a t e , official  stock"  opposed t o " h e a l t h y  framing  his worries  pathology. likely and  who,  in talking  i n terms of  leap  p r o j e c t i n g onto  notions  R e i n and  a housing as  (Rein and Schfln, 1977:241)  that  are  un-  already  Schfln c i t e the case of about "decaying  s t o c k , " can  be  housing  seen t o  a metaphor of d i s e a s e  In accordance w i t h such a frame the o f f i c i a l  t o c o n s i d e r remedies i n terms of  "arresting  be and is  decay,"  " r e h a b i l i t a t i n g o l d stock" etc. T h a t we a r e d e a l i n g h e r e w i t h a m e t a p h o r becomes c l e a r when we c o n s i d e r t h a t h o u s e s a r e n o t l i t e r a l l y e i t h e r h e a l t h y or d i s e a s e d . Indeed, one man's "decay" may be a n o t h e r man's o l d w o r l d c h a r m . T h a t we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h an o p e r a t i o n a l , r a t h e r t h a n a d e c o r a t i v e metaphor, becomes c l e a r i f we observe t h a t the h o u s i n g o f f i c i a l pays a t t e n t i o n t o j u s t those phenomena t h a t f i t h i s metaphor and i g n o r e s the r e s t , and i f we observe t h a t t h e r e m e d i e s he e s p o u s e s , and c o n s i d e r s o b v i o u s , a r e t h o s e t h a t f l o w f r o m t h e m e t a p h o r and w o u l d n o t seem o b v i o u s ( i n d e e d , might seem wrong) i f c o n s i d e r e d from the p o i n t of view of a d i f f e r e n t metaphor. That we are d e a l i n g w i t h a g e n e r a t i v e metaphor becomes c l e a r i f we observe t h a t the metaphor s e t s the d i r e c t i o n of remedial a c t i o n i n the v e r y p r o c e s s by which i t s e l e c t s out events and e x p l a i n s them. Once we have been a b l e t o see houses as d i s e a s e d o r h e a l t h y , a w h o l e s e t o f p r e s c r i p t i o n s p r e s e n t themselves f o r a c t i o n . (emphasis added) . B e c a u s e we b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s b e t t e r t o be h e a l t h y than d i s e a s e d , the h e a l t h metaphor i s g e n e r a t i v e of d i r e c t i o n s of s o l u t i o n f o r the problem of h o u s i n g . (Rein and Schfln, 1977:241)  26  According  t o Schon  (1979),  the generative  metaphors  we employ t o frame and make sense o f o t h e r w i s e d i s a g g r e g a t e d d a t a a r e n o t always apparent t o u s . As a r e s u l t , we n e g l e c t to  check  paying  their  appropriateness,  the p r i c e  Part of this  through  a n d may f i n d  inappropriately  framed  policies.  n e g l e c t may be due t o o u r r e l i a n c e on some  r a t h e r commonly used g e n e r a t i v e metaphors, Schon  ourselves  suggest R e i n and  (1977:241-243).  Some  commonly  used g e n e r a t i v e metaphors,  HEALTH/DISEASE metaphor,  a r e i n such good  like the  currency i n our  c u l t u r e t h a t we can be b l i n d e d by t h e v e r y " o b v i o u s n e s s " o f the  solutions  commonly situation ideal."  found  they suggest. metaphor  i n terms Here,  abnormal i t i e s  which  i s , f o r example, t h e  frames  the problematic  o f " d e p a r t u r e s from  problems that  There  need  n o r m a l i t y t o be r e g a i n e d .  a prototypical  are identified t o be c o r r e c t e d  a s FLAWS — i n order f o r  Another v a r i a t i o n o f t h i s theme  sees t h e i d e a l i n terms o f t h e s i t u a t i o n "as i t used t o be"; and t h e problem, as one o f how b e s t t o r e t u r n t h i n g s t o t h e way  t h e y once  were.  [The clamour  f o r educational  reform  based on a 'back t o t h e b a s i c s ' r h e t o r i c might be viewed as i l l u s t r a t i v e o f such a m e t a p h o r i c i n f l u e n c e . ] Another  commonly found metaphor  i s that  which  sees  the  s i t u a t i o n as one i n which e s s e n t i a l NEEDS remain unmet;  the  remedy r e q u i r i n g  social  a way t o meet such needs.  welfare p o l i c i e s  suffered  by t h e poor  aimed  atalleviating  and handicapped  [Perhaps  the hardships  might  be s e e n a s  27 r e l a t e d t o t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m - f r a m i n g metaphor.] And, villains,  finally,  victims  where  or h e r o e s , the s i t u a t i o n  terms of BATTLE and VICTORY. underlie  the  i t i s possible  to  may  identify  be  seen i n  [Such a metaphor would seem t o  p r o b l e m - s e t t i n g frames  adopted  "opposing" management/labour " s i d e s " of i n d u s t r i a l  by  the  relations  d i s p u t e s ; and, u n d o u b t e d l y , i t c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e a d v e r s a r i a l approach t o governance a s s o c i a t e d w i t h In the  party  politics.]  such ways, t h e g e n e r a t i v e metaphors  frames  imprison  us  we  use  by  their  c r e a t i v e work.  to  s e t problems  o b v i o u s n e s s as  can  contained i n  just  t h e y can  as  easily  free  us f o r  As Bates a s s e r t s :  Metaphors a l l o w us t o s t r u c t u r e and c r e a t e meaning out of e x p e r i e n c e . They may a l s o a c t l i k e f l y b o t t l e s , t o keep us t r a p p e d i n i n v i s i b l e p r i s o n s . They c a n , moreover, m i s l e a d us when we a p p l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e m e t a p h o r s t o s i t u a t i o n s b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d i n o t h e r ways. ( B a t e s , 1982:7) Bates'  statement  i s referenced to Nietzsche  (1968),  who  argued t h a t t h e use of metaphor i s b a s i c t o the i n t e l l e c t u a l processes  we  Wittgenstein bewitchment  use  to e s t a b l i s h  (1953) who  truth  and  meaning; and  to  ( c i t e d i n Bates 1982:6) l i k e n e d "the  of our i n t e l l i g e n c e by means of language" t o the  f l y that i s trapped i n a b o t t l e . It  i s , s u g g e s t s Schfln  obviousness it,  that  field  of  (1979:266), the v e r y sense of  about what i s wrong, and what i t t a k e s t o f i x  i s " t h e h a l l m a r k of g e n e r a t i v e m e t a p h o r i n t h e social  policy."  The  way  to  dissolve  this  o b v i o u s n e s s , of c o u r s e , i s t o become aware o f , and t o f o c u s  28 a t t e n t i o n upon, the g e n e r a t i v e metaphors  which u n d e r l i e our  problem-setting  since generative  metaphors  stories.  are o r d i n a r i l y  However,  tacit,  this  i s not as easy as i t  sounds. In o r d e r t o b r i n g g e n e r a t i v e metaphors and  critical  awareness,  Schon  (1979:267)  to r e f l e c t i v e  suggests t h a t  c o n s t r u c t them, "through a k i n d of p o l i c y - a n a l y t i c  we  literary  c r i t i c i s m , from the g i v e n s of the p r o b l e m - s e t t i n g s t o r i e s tell.  [For] i t i s through s t o r y t e l l i n g  t h a t we  d i s c o v e r our frames and the g e n e r a t i v e metaphors  we  can b e s t  implicit in  our frames." Interpreting Problem-Setting Stories Schon c a u t i o n s t h a t i n t h e p r o c e s s of p o l i c y - a n a l y t i c literary  criticism  i t i s important to d i s t i n g u i s h  between  what might be c a l l e d " s u r f a c e " and "deep" metaphors. S u r f a c e metaphors  may  be  found  which t h e s t o r y i s t o l d ; but t h e s e may offer  clues  i n the  of the s t o r y need  in  or may not r e l a t e , or  t o the g e n e r a t i v e metaphor which  problem of the s t o r y .  language  'sets'  In o t h e r words, the s u r f a c e  the  language  not c o n t a i n any o b v i o u s m e t a p h o r i c c l u e s  t o t h e u n d e r l y i n g deep Deep m e t a p h o r s .  metaphor. It  i s the  deep  metaphor  which  a c c o u n t s f o r what i s named, and what o m i t t e d i n a problemsetting  story.  I t i s t h e deep m e t a p h o r t h a t makes i t  understandable  why  when e v i d e n c e  would  certain  assumptions  are  taken  as  true  suggest o t h e r w i s e ; and, i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  29 why  the  normative  conclusions  are  o b v i o u s l y from the f a c t s , the way  they  (1979:267)  SchOn  problem-setting which  suggests  s t o r y by  i s generative  of  found  follow  t h a t we  give  it a  interpret  our  interpretation  i s , to a very  a  deep m e t a p h o r 'reading,  sense v e r y much l i k e the one employed i n l i t e r a r y And  so  do.  c o n s t r u c t i n g the  it—"we  to  1  in a  criticism.  considerable  extent,  t e s t a b l e a g a i n s t the g i v e n s of the s t o r y . " I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o r e c o g n i z e , however, t h a t the s t o r y which one  we s u b j e c t t o p o l i c y - a n a l y t i c i n q u i r y r e p r e s e n t s of  any  number o f  problematic  situation  analyst  need  will  frames w i l l  ways might  t o be  alert  i n which be  the  framed;  t o the  fact  elements and  the  that  only of  a  policy  different  a f f e c t not o n l y what i s seen as the problem of a  p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n , but the v e r y elements t h a t c o n s t i t u t e the p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n Bounding the P r o b l e m a t i c As  Rein  and  itself. Situation  Schfin  (1977:239)  point out,  frames, and t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d names, may experiences  i n d i f f e r e n t ways."  "different  be used t o i n t e g r a t e  Indeed, i t i s apparent  that: Frames d i f f e r i n scope, i n the number and v a r i e t y of w o r r i e s and o t h e r f e a t u r e s of the s i t u a t i o n they subsume, and i n the degree t o which they reduce c o l l e c t i o n s of w o r r i e s t o a mode o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a s i n g l e d i r e c t i o n of a c t i o n . (Rein and SchOn, 1977:240) I t would seem, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e r e i s no set  definitive  of c o n c e r n s and w o r r i e s t h a t go t o make up a p r o b l e m a t i c  30  social  situation.  housing  In which  situation,"  or  case,  a  label  such  " p u b l i c s c h o o l i n g " can  impose an a p r i o r i frame on the c o n t e x t and s y s t e m i c boundaries) problematic  be  "urban  seen  to  scope ( i . e . the  of a p o l i c y a n a l y s t ' s i n q u i r y — f o r  the  s i t u a t i o n t h a t i s , today, r e f e r r e d t o as one  "urban h o u s i n g "  may,  of  tomorrow, be a q u e s t i o n r e l a t e d t o the  " d i s t r i b u t i o n of n a t i o n a l income"; and, today's "public  as  schooling,"  problematic  become t o m o r r o w ' s w o r r y  about  the  " d e l i v e r y of e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . " However,  in  r e c o g n i t i o n of  the  need  for  some  way  of d e l i m i t i n g the scope of a p o l i c y a n a l y t i c i n q u i r y , i t  is  clear  that  required. minimize frame  some  But, the  of  how  the  parameter-defining inquirer  restrictive  reference)  situation,  such  to  so  'bound'  i s a q u e s t i o n t h a t s/he  Closely a l l i e d  of  of  both  these  be  the  problematic address.  t o the dilemma of "whose l a b e l l i n g  "whose p r o b l e m - s e t t i n g  situation w i l l  researcher-imposed  w i l l need t o  the p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n w i l l be t a k e n as question  are  ( m i n d f u l o f the need t o  i n f l u e n c e of a  is  labels  d e c i s i o n s i s to  ' g i v e n ' ? " i s the  s t o r y about t h a t  selected for analysis?"  of  S i n c e the  narrow the  focus  given effect  of  the  subsequent i n q u i r y , the r a t i o n a l e upon which they a r e based will,  clearly,  need t o be  carefully  thought  p r e p a r a t o r y r e s e a r c h t a s k s ) i n advance of the P r e p a r a t o r y Research The precursors  through  (as  inquiry.  Tasks  f o l l o w i n g r e s e a r c h t a s k s are seen, t h e r e f o r e , as to the  five  stages  of  i n q u i r y mooted f o r t h e  31  p r a c t i c e of problem s e t t i n g i n p o l i c y r e s e a r c h : (a)  Bounding t h e p r o b l e m a t i c  situation.  How i s t h e i n q u i r e r t o d e l i m i t what i s t o be c o n s i d e r e d as f a l l i n g w i t h i n t h e p u r v i e w of a given problematic s i t u a t i o n — r e c o g n i z i n g that d e l i m i t a t i o n r e q u i r e s t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f some i n t e r p r e t i v e frame? (b)  S e l e c t i n g t h e documentation t o be a n a l y z e d . Upon what b a s e s s h o u l d t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e d o c u m e n t a t i o n t o be a n a l y z e d be made? ( i . e . whose ' s t o r i e s ' s h o u l d be a n a l y z e d , and why?)  DISCOVERING THE PROBLEM FRAME Examining the S t o r y To d i s c o v e r , o r uncover, a problem frame r e q u i r e s t h e examination  of d o c u m e n t a t i o n — o r , what R e i n and Schon  t o as a " s t o r y " ' " — t h a t the  given  " t e l l s about" what has been t a k e n as  problematic, s i t u a t i o n .  According  to  ( 1 9 7 9 : 2 6 4 ) , t h e c l u e s f o r d i s c o v e r i n g a t a c i t problem a r e t o be found i n the words (and perhaps s u r f a c e used  refer  t o name the " t h i n g s " of a p r o b l e m - s e t t i n g  Schon frame  metaphors) story; for  they have been, used by the s t o r y t e l l e r because they f i t the frame  that  s/he  problematic understood metaphor  To process  selected  situation. as  that  problematic  has  meaning  the  [The  to  term  framework  is analogically  make  sense  "problem provided  used  of  frame" by  the  the is deep  to e l u c i d a t e the'  situation.] illustrate  what  he  means by  of naming and f r a m i n g , "  the  "complementary  Schon c i t e s t h e f o l l o w i n g  32  ' s t o r y ' about t h e urban h o u s i n g s i t u a t i o n : The e x p e r t s c o n c l u d e d t h a t i f t h e community were t o be h e a l t h y , i f i t were n o t t o r e v e r t a g a i n t o a b l i g h t e d o r s l u m a r e a , as t h o u g h p o s s e s s e d o f a c o n g e n i t a l d i s e a s e , t h e a r e a must be planned as a whole. I t was n o t enough, t h e y b e l i e v e d , t o remove e x i s t i n g b u i l d i n g s t h a t were u n s a n i t a r y o r u n s i g h t l y . I t was i m p o r t a n t t o r e d e s i g n t h e whole a r e a so as t o e l i m i n a t e t h e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t cause s l u m s — t h e o v e r c r o w d i n g o f d w e l l i n g s , t h e l a c k of p a r k s , t h e l a c k o f adequate s t r e e t s and a l l e y s , t h e absence o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a r e a s , t h e l a c k o f l i g h t and a i r , t h e p r e s e n c e o f outmoded s t r e e t p a t t e r n s . I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t the piecemeal approach, the removal of i n d i v i d u a l s t r u c t u r e s t h a t were o f f e n s i v e , would be o n l y a palliative. (SchOn, 1 9 7 9 : 2 6 2 ) 2  Schfln  first  maps  the features  "community," "slum a r e a , " etc.) first  (Rein order  and Schfln  that  a r e named ( e . g .  "blighted," "congenital  [1977:245] d e s c r i b e  disease,"  mapping as "a  attempt a t t h e f o r m a l i z a t i o n o f t h e s t o r y . " As  they see i t , a map h e l p s t o p i n - p o i n t t h e v a r i a b l e s t h a t a r e operative context,  i n a s i t u a t i o n — o r g a n i z i n g and l o c a t i n g them i n as "an o r d e r l y arrangement o f landmarks.")  t h i s map, t h e main c h a r a c t e r s  of  the story  as t h e "community" and t h e " e x p e r t s healthy and  "diseased."  the  problem-setting  problematic  z  These  'named' f e a t u r e s  frame s e l e c t e d  are i d e n t i f i e d  (planners)."  community i s seen by t h e e x p e r t s  Within  The once  as now " b l i g h t e d " can be seen t o f i t  t o make s e n s e o f t h e  urban h o u s i n g s i t u a t i o n ; f o r i t i s a frame based  This account (from t h e n i n e t e e n - f i f t i e s ) i s drawn from J u s t i c e Douglas's o p i n i o n on t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y o f t h e (U.S.) F e d e r a l Urban Renewal P r o g r a m i n t h e D i s t r i c t o f C o l u m b i a — a s quoted i n , Urban Renewal: P e o p l e , P o l i t i c s and P l a n n i n g , Jewel B e l l u s h and Murray Hausknecht (eds.) (Garden C i t y , New York: Doubleday. 1967:62)  33  on  the commonly used g e n e r a t i v e metaphor o f HEALTH/ DISEASE  --in  which the  community as  a w h o l e i s p e r s o n i f i e d , and  SEEN-AS h a v i n g a d i s e a s e d body. Procedural  Considerations  Now, facilitated setting  clearly,  r e c o g n i t i o n of  where t h e  s t o r y are  metaphor as they  as  are  explicitly  w i t h i n which we  of  the  reflective  of  frame i s problemthe  deep  i n t h i s example of S c h o n ' s — w h e r e  (metaphoric)  supposed t h a t , i f we  problem  'named' f e a t u r e s  terms " h e a l t h y , " " b l i g h t e d " and such unambiguous  the  "congenital disease" clues.  the  provide  I t might, however, be  a r e g e n e r a l l y unaware of the metaphors  t a c i t l y frame s o c i a l p o l i c y problems, i t i s  b e c a u s e — m o r e o f t e n than n o t — t h e  terms used t o d e s c r i b e the  'things'  s t o r y are  'literal. to  how  wide  of 1  our  problem-setting  taken  story,  those  being  I f t h i s i s the c a s e , i t r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n  the i n q u i r e r - i n t e r p r e t e r i s t o i d e n t i f y range  as  of  potential  words and  candidates)  in a  as  (from a v e r y  problem-setting  ( s u r f a c e ) metaphors t h a t a r e  to  be  taken as c o n s t i t u t i n g r e l e v a n t m e t a p h o r i c d a t a . To f a c i l i t a t e d i s c u s s i o n and p r o c e d u r a l r e s o l u t i o n of this as  concern  ( i n the next  c h a p t e r ) , i t i s , here,  presented  Sub-problem [ 1 ] : G u i d e l i n e s f o r i d e n t i f y i n g r e l e v a n t (metaphoric)  data.  How i s the i n q u i r e r t o i d e n t i f y from a l l the p o t e n t i a l (metaphoric) d a t a i n a g i v e n p r o b l e m - s e t t i n g s t o r y those which are i n d i c a t i v e of the deep ( g e n e r a t i v e ) metaphor?  34  SPELLING OUT THE GENERATIVE METAPHOR A f t e r r e c o g n i z i n g t h e metaphor a to  ( p r o b l e m - s e t t i n g ) s t o r y ' s problem work  through  t h e elements  that i s generative of frame,  i t i s necessary  o f t h e analogy  i t suggests.  Seeking A n a l o g i c a l S t r u c t u r e This  i s understood  features, attributes,  t o mean m a k i n g  e x p l i c i t the  o r ' p r e d i c a t e subschemata  1  (Ortony,  1979b) o f t h e more f a m i l i a r l y u n d e r s t o o d metaphoric term (or 'vehicle')  ( B 3 — n o t i n g t h e correspondence  the named f e a t u r e s and a t t r i b u t e s 'tenor')  [A] t h a t t h e y  course of t h i s  between t h e s e and  o f t h e s u b j e c t term (or  are intended t o e l u c i d a t e .  In the  p r o c e s s , t h e i n q u i r e r needs n o t o n l y t o pay  a t t e n t i o n t o t h o s e f e a t u r e s t h a t appear s a l i e n t because they a r e "named" i n t h e d e s c r i p t i o n , b u t t o be on t h e a l e r t f o r those  that are omitted,  f o r they  may  tacitly  carry  an  importance t h a t r e n d e r s t h e analogy i n a p p r o p r i a t e . The Schfin  inquirer  (1979:265),  will  also  need t o be a l e r t ,  t o the p o s s i b i l i t y  t h a t amongst t h e un-  named f e a t u r e s o f t h e metaphor CB3 t h a t g e t t a c i t l y over  as an e x p l a n a t o r y  situation  ( A 3 , t h e r e may  ideas a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  description  carried-  of the problematic  be a c o n s t e l l a t i o n  (B3.  suggests  of  normative  ( I t i s , a c c o r d i n g t o R e i n and  Schon, t h e s e t a c i t l y h e l d v a l u e s and b e l i e f s t h a t r e n d e r t h e s o l u t i o n t o p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s " o b v i o u s , " and i n need o f more c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n . ) In mentioned  r e f e r e n c e , f o r example, concerning  t h e problem  to the story  o f urban  slums,  already he  notes  35  that  no  matter  d i s e a s e , or  whether  we  see  slum  areas  i n terms  of  (as i n the v i e w p o r t r a y e d by a n o t h e r metaphor)  o f n a t u r a l community, t h e r e i s a l r e a d y , w i t h t h e s e i d e a s , a [culturally  conditioned] e v a l u a t i o n — " a  sense  of  the  good  which i s t o be sought and t h e e v i l which i s t o be a v o i d e d . When we see {A} as £B], we c a r r y over t o [A) t h e e v a l u a t i o n i m p l i c i t i n CB}"  (Schon, 1980:265).)  As he e x p l a i n s :  Once we a r e a b l e t o see a slum as a b l i g h t e d a r e a , [ f o r e x a m p l e ] we know t h a t b l i g h t must be removed ( " u n s a n i t a r y and u n s i g h t l y b u i l d i n g s " must be t o r n down) and t h e a r e a r e t u r n e d t o i t s former s t a t e ( r e d e s i g n e d and r e b u i l t ) . The m e t a p h o r i s one o f d i s e a s e and c u r e . Moreover, the c u r e must not be a "mere p a l l i a t i v e " ; a p a r t i c u l a r , w h o l i s t i c v i e w of m e d i c i n e i s i n v o l v e d i n t h i s metaphor. I t would not be enough, the e x p e r t s s a i d , t o remove o f f e n s i v e s t r u c t u r e s p i e c e m e a l . Effective p r o p h y l a x i s r e q u i r e s an " i n t e g r a t e d and balanced" plan. J u s t as i n m e d i c i n e one must t r e a t t h e whole man, so one must " t r e a t " the whole community. (Schon, 1979:265) Procedural Considerations Clearly, characteristics,  the and  extent  to  which  normative e v a l u a t i o n s  the  structural  implicit  in  £B3  are a p p r o p r i a t e i n the case of (A3 cannot be judged i f they remain as u n r e c o g n i z e d a s s u m p t i o n s .  Some k i n d of a n a l y t i c a l  t e m p l a t e would, t h e r e f o r e , seem t o be c a l l e d f o r i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e mapping of such a n a l o g i c a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , as c a l l e d f o r i n Sub-problem  [2]:  Framework f o r s p e l l i n g out  a g e n e r a t i v e metaphor.  How might an a n a l y t i c a l framework f o r g u i d i n g the p r o c e s s of " s p e l l i n g out a g e n e r a t i v e metaphor" be a r t i c u l a t e d ?  36  ELABORATING THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE METAPHOR To a c c o m p l i s h hitherto that  unrecognized  logical  and e m p i r i c a l  i n d e t a i l the relationships  might be seen t o o b t a i n between t h e elements o f t h e  analogy  (that i s suggested  metaphor). 246)  t h i s requires developing  F o r such  by t h e u n d e r l y i n g g e n e r a t i v e  a purpose,  recommend t h e use o f  R e i n and Schfln (1977:245-  t h e o r i e s , and models.  Using T h e o r i e s and Models T h e o r i e s and models, l i k e maps, a r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n an attempt  t o provide  a simplified  p i c t u r e of r e a l i t y , but,  u n l i k e maps, they n o t o n l y i d e n t i f y s t r a t e g i c v a r i a b l e s , b u t specify Rein  how  these  dynamically  relate  and SchOn see i t , s t o r i e s ,  3  t o each o t h e r .  As  maps, t h e o r i e s and models  are a l l means by which an i n q u i r e r might a r r i v e a t an unders t a n d i n g about t h e n a t u r e  of a problematic  s i t u a t i o n ; and,  w h i l e they note t h a t t h e r e i s no sharp o r r i g i d  demarcation  between t h e s e  o f problem  setting type  that  means, Rein  t h e developmental and Schfln p r e s e n t  process  as a " k i n d o f i d e a l  [ p r o c e s s ] " does suggest a p r o g r e s s i o n i n a p p l i c a t i o n :  Then we may c o n c e i v e o f t h e p r o b l e m - s e t t i n g p r o c e s s as moving from t h e d i f f u s e d e t e c t i o n o f a w o r r y , t o t h e t e l l i n g o f a s t o r y about t h e p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n , t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a t h e o r y t h a t makes e x p l i c i t t h e causal linkages suggested i n the story, to the f o r m u l a t i o n o f a model t h a t d i s p l a y s t h e h i e r a r c h i c a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the e s s e n t i a l elements of the theory. (Rein and Schfln, 1977:244-245)  3  R e i n and Schfln do note [1979:245-246], however, t h a t , "some m o d e l s s e e k o n l y t o p r o v i d e an a c c o u n t i n g o r d e s c r i p t i o n on how t h e v a r i a n c e o f complex events can be p a r t i t i o n e d . Here a model i s l i k e a map . . ."  37 Defining theory.  The term " t h e o r y " i s here t a k e n as  meaning "a s y m b o l i c c o n s t r u c t i o n " (Kaplan, 1964:296) t h a t i s used way  i n e v e r y d a y , as w e l l as i n s c i e n t i f i c , o f making  1964:295).  a r e made.  sense of a d i s t u r b i n g s i t u a t i o n "  I t i s i n essence  then, considered  affairs  ( i . e . i n an a b s t r a c t  as "a (Kaplan sense),  t o be o f t h e same s t u f f o f which metaphors  Indeed, as observed  by S c h e f f l e r :  The l i n e , even i n s c i e n c e , between s e r i o u s t h e o r y and metaphor, i s a t h i n one i f i t can be drawn a t a l l . t h e r e i s no obvious p o i n t a t which we must say, "Here t h e metaphors s t o p and t h e t h e o r i e s b e g i n . " ( S c h e f f l e r , 1960:47) Now, a l t h o u g h might  be  hypothesis  t h e phrase " c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a t h e o r y "  understood  as m e a n i n g  we  devise  some  t o account f o r t h e p a t t e r n o f t h i n g s and events  t h a t have been d e s c r i b e d that  that  i n the s t o r y — i t w i l l  t h e p a t t e r n o f t h i n g s and e v e n t s  be r e c a l l e d  described  by t h e  s t o r y t e l l e r i s presumed t o r e f l e c t t h e metaphoric frame s/he has  already constructed  situation. theory"  t o account f o r the problematic  Accordingly,  i s , here,  taken  the phrase  t o mean  " c o n s t r u c t i o n of a  'construing the elements,  and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e e l e m e n t s , o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g generative  metaphor'—where  metaphorically) has  caused  to spell  metaphor  i m p l i c i t l y (and  s e r v e s AS DOES A THEORY t o a c c o u n t f o r what  the problematic  p r e s c r i b e what s h o u l d is  the  situation,  and t o p r e d i c t /  ( t h e r e f o r e ) be done t o remedy i t .  f  It  o u t t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e metaphor so as t o  make o f i t a t h e o r y .  38 D e f i n i n g model. theory  move from  to the "formulation  requiring of  To  the  a more e l a b o r a t e  "a model may  of a model"  of  i s understood  a as  s p e l l i n g out o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s  metaphor/theory.  (1976:170)  the c o n s t r u c t i o n  [Indeed,  be  as  noted  by  Brown  thought of as a metaphor whose  i m p l i c a t i o n s have been s p e l l e d out."] The e f f e c t of t h i s e l a b o r a t i o n i s t o ' f l e s h o u t ' what i s known about the m e t a p h o r i c term [ B 3 so t h a t i t becomes an ' i d e a l i z e d ' v e r s i o n a g a i n s t which the analogous f e a t u r e s of a generic  example of t h e p r o b l e m a t i c  mapped f o r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . two  abstractions  The  s i t u a t i o n [A3  Procedural The  be  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s e  i s thus seen t o d i s p l a y "the h i e r a r c h i c a l  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of t h e e s s e n t i a l elements of t h e (Rein and Schon,  can  theory"  1977:245).  Problems task  of  elaborating  the  assumptions  metaphor i s seen as r e q u i r i n g a w e l l a r t i c u l a t e d framework.  The  purpose  illustrate  what  of such a framework  i s understood  t o be  of  the  conceptual  would  meant  by  be  to  "the  h i e r a r c h i c a l i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of t h e e s s e n t i a l elements o f the the  t h e o r y , " , and assumptions  requirement  to f a c i l i t a t e of  i s framed  the under  the p r o c e s s of  metaphoric  term  elaborating [B3.  This  t h e r u b r i c of Sub-problem [ 3 ] :  Framework f o r e l a b o r a t i n g t h e assumptions o f t h e metaphor How might an a n a l y t i c a l framework f o r g u i d i n g the p r o c e s s of " e l a b o r a t i n g the a s s u m p t i o n s of the metaphor" be articulated?  39  JUDGING THE ADEQUACY OF THE PROBLEM FRAME The C r i t e r i a In  for Defining  Adequacy  d i s c u s s i n g t h e f e a t u r e s o f a frame t h a t r e n d e r i t  adequate f o r problem s e t t i n g , R e i n and SchOn suggest t h a t ,  "The c r i t e r i a  i n t o t h e axioms  (1977:248-251)  f o r d e f i n i n g adequacy go d e e p l y  on which s o c i a l  scientific  inquiry  rests."  And t h e y note t h a t t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n t w e i g h t i n g schemes f o r j u d g i n g t h e adequacy o f a problem frame: We may judge such a frame by i t s p l a u s i b i l i t y and c o n s i s t e n c y , by i t s c a p a c i t y t o l e a d t o a c t i o n , by i t s v a l u e i m p l i c a t i o n s , by i t s "beauty," and f i n a l l y , by i t s testability—its openness t o learning through the c o r r e c t i o n o f thought by e x p e r i e n c e . (Rein and Schon, 1977:250) Procedural Considerations Now, R e i n and SchOn g i v e  no i n d i c a t i o n  o f whether  they c o n s i d e r a l l named c r i t e r i a t o p r o v i d e n e c e s s a r y and/or sufficient,  and/or e q u a l grounds f o r t e s t i n g t h e adequacy o f  a problem frame f o r p r a c t i c a l p o l i c y m a k i n g p u r p o s e s . they  offer  any s u g g e s t i o n s upon  which  a  Nor do  rather  more  s y s t e m a t i c approach t o t h i s a s p e c t o f frame a n a l y s i s  might  be based.  *  R e i n and SchOn f o o t n o t e (1977:251): "That t r u t h i s n o t t h e o n l y way t o e v a l u a t e t h e q u a l i t y o f s p e c u l a t i o n i s , o f c o u r s e , n o t a new i d e a . Lave and March i n an i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i s s u e argue t h a t one never f u l l y r e s o l v e s t h e c o n f l i c t between t r u t h , b e a u t y , and j u s t i c e as c r i t e r i a f o r j u d g i n g t h e o r i e s and i d e a s . " C h a r l e s Lave and James C. March, The S o c i a l S c i e n c e (New York: Harper and Row, 1975), Chapter 3, pp. 51-78.  40  Moreover, t h e i r advocacy o f r e f l e c t i v e e x a m i n a t i o n o f the  interpretive  rendered  by  accounts of problematic  various  storytellers  social  does  situations  not include  any  r e f e r e n c e t o t h e need f o r s i m i l a r e x a m i n a t i o n of (e.g. t h e validity/plausibility  o f ) t h e i n t e r p r e t i v e account o f t h e s e  s t o r i e s p r o v i d e d by t h e i n q u i r e r .  As a consequence, much i s  l e f t t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e development o f a  framework f o r  guiding r e f l e c t i v e practice i n t h i s regard. Given,  f o r example,  the pragmatic context  of  p o l i c y m a k i n g , i t would seem i m p o r t a n t t h a t t h e c r i t e r i a used for  making  the  rigor-driven  in  judgments  about problem frames s a t i s f y  axioms  of the s o c i a l  r e s p e c t t o frame adequacy,  driven  dicta  of the p o l i c y  not only  scientific  community  but, a l s o , the relevancefield  i n respect  to  frame  utility. To t h i s related  end, i t i s proposed t h a t t h e term  utility"  integration adequacy  be used as an u m b r e l l a  of the concepts associated  and p o l i c y - r e l a t e d  relevance.  the  ultimate  responsibility  the  utility  of a p r o b l e m - s e t t i n g  f o r making  p o l i c y m a k e r s c o n c e r n e d , i t would the  label  t o c o v e r an  with  scientific  Furthermore, since a judgment  frame  seem  "policy-  rests  only  about  with  fitting  the that  a n a l y s t ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n i n t h i s r e g a r d be i n t h e form of  an e x a m i n a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n a "judgment." The setting  fourth  procedural  i s , accordingly,  seen  stage  of r e f l e c t i v e  i n terms  of examining  p o l i c y - r e l a t e d u t i l i t y of t h e problem frame, r i s e t o t h e f o l l o w i n g sub-problems:  problem  and  as  the  giving  41  Sub-problem [ 4 ] : Bases f o r the s e l e c t i o n of p o l i c y - r e l a t e d u t i l i t y of a  On what c r i t e r i a u t i l i t y be based?  c r i t e r i a f o r examining problem frame.  might the concept of  the  policy-related  Sub-problem [ 5 ] ; Criteria for accounts.  judging  the  "validity*  of  interpretive  On t h e b a s i s o f w h a t k i n d s o f e v i d e n c e m i g h t t h e ' v a l i d i d t y ' of i n t e r p r e t i v e accounts ( e i t h e r of s t o r y t e l l i n g observers, or of a n a l y t i c a l inquirers) be assessed?  Sub-problem [ 6 ] ; C r i t e r i a f o r examining g i v e n problem frame  the  policy-related u t i l i t y  On what bases might t h e c r i t e r i a f o r j u d g i n g f r a m e a d e q u a c y be i n t e g r a t e d judging u t i l i t y i n the p o l i c y f i e l d ?  of  a  (scientifically) with those f o r  Sub-problem [ 7 ] : Procedural  framework f o r examining  a problem frame.  How might t h e c r i t e r i a s e l e c t e d f o r e x a m i n i n g t h e p o l i c y related u t i l i t y o f a problem frame be o r d e r e d t o form a comprehensive p r o c e d u r a l framework f o r g u i d i n g p r a c t i c e in t h i s respect?;  Now, setting this  whether o r not t h e c o u r s e o f r e f l e c t i v e problem  i s considered  t o be completed w i t h  "examination" w i l l ,  t h e conduct of  no doubt, depend upon t h e r o l e and  mandate o f t h e a n a l y s t , and t h e r e s u l t s o f h i s / h e r It  does, however,  seem r e a s o n a b l e t o suppose t h a t  analysis. inquiry  42  would c o n t i n u e u n t i l  ( a t l e a s t ) an 'adequate'  had  been d i s c o v e r e d — e i t h e r  of  the problematic  problem  i n a l r e a d y documented  situation,  o r as a  frame  accounts  result  of the  a n a l y s t ' s e f f o r t s t o re-frame t h e problem.  CONFIRMING/REFRAMING THE PROBLEM TO BE ADDRESSED The P r o c e s s o f Reframing To re-frame a problem i s t o f i n d a new way o f SEEING (i.e.  of p e r c e i v i n g  situation.  and e v a l u a t i n g ) t h e p r o b l e m a t i c  The p r o c e s s o f r e - f r a m i n g i s  thus—as  SchOn  (1979:278) n o t e s - - s i m i 1 a r t o t h e m a k i n g o f a g e n e r a t i v e metaphor.  I t might, s i m i l a r l y , o c c u r as t h e r e s u l t o f some  spontaneous  flash  of  insight,  deliberate  attempt  to  better  troubling  or of a  c o n s c i o u s and  understand  a c o m p l e x and  situation.  5^Ii^££i^__ll£!!£_I^^iIH£iH£i£2 •  T  n  e  need f o r  d e l i b e r a t e frame r e s t r u c t u r i n g can be c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f two d i f f e r e n t occurs  when  sets of circumstances.  the p a r t i c i p a n t s  concerned  with  a  The f i r s t particular  s o c i a l p o l i c y b r i n g t o t h e debate " d i f f e r e n t and c o n f l i c t i n g frames,  [ones]  metaphors"; problem  generated  by d i f f e r e n t  and  conflicting  so t h a t what i s needed i s a way o f r e f r a m i n g t h e  that  will  reconcile  o p p o s i n g views  (Schfln,  1979).  The second c i r c u m s t a n c e a r i s e s when frames t h a t have been i n good c u r r e n c y go out o f s t y l e .  43 According of  ordinary  that are  our  t o R e i n and  discourse  way  of  seeing  Schon  (1977:240) , a good  among people t r a f f i c s things,  and  deal  i n frames,  conceptualizing  drawn from a common r e s e r v o i r of c u l t u r a l l y  ideas,  developed^  frames.  However, when o l d frames  utility  (perhaps as a r e s u l t of a s h i f t i n t h e s t a n d a r d s of  explanation, longer  provide  becomes  a consensual  necessary  But, t h i s (1982)  or of s i t u a t i o n a l  may  to  select  seem t o have  so  lost  their  c h a n g e s ) so t h a t t h e y  basis or  for action,  construct  new  no  then i t frames.  be more e a s i l y s a i d than done; f o r as  Smith  cautions,  One problem w i t h how we t h i n k about phenomenon i s t h a t once we have chosen a s e t of metaphors and a p p l i e d them t o a p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t , they s l o w l y become r e i f i e d and i t i s hard t o t h i n k of t h a t phenomenon independent of t h e m e t a p h o r s and metonymies [ c o n t e x t s ] we have been u s i n g as the v e h i c l e of our t h i n k i n g . (Smith, 1982:331) The p e r s i s t e n c e of o l d metaphors.  Smith  note t h a t when we do manage t o g e n e r a t e new  goes on  metaphors,  to  they  are most l i k e l y t o be mapped on t o the o l d ones, r a t h e r than on t o the o r i g i n a l "second-level  3  [experience  maps as opposed  of the] t e r r a i n — m a k i n g to a genuinely  alternate  them map  B.E.F. Beck (1978) suggests t h a t the c u l t u r e w i t h i n which i n d i v i d u a l s a r e r e a r e d w i l l i n f l u e n c e the development of t h e i r semantic codes towards c e r t a i n h i g h l y v a l u e d , sensebased c o n f i g u r a t i o n s (or " c u l t u r a l r o o t metaphors"). And, by way o f i l l u s t r a t i n g how d i f f e r e n t e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s may g i v e r i s e t o d i f f e r i n g metaphor c l u s t e r s , she c i t e s (1982:11) a w e l l known s t u d y by S e g a l l , C a m p e l l , and H e r s k o v i t s (1966) i n which "they show t h a t persons l i v i n g i n 'carpentered environments' have h a b i t s of v i s u a l p e r c e p t i o n t h a t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from persons accustomed to ' u n c a r p e n t e r e d , n a t u r a l ' environments."  44  of  the  w i l l  terrain,  reflect  o r i g i n a l . "  the  other to  alternative  much  the  metaphor,  original  larger  of  altered."  The  some  the]  that  the  terrain  metaphor  may  Smith.  has  second  better  map  than  d i s e q u i 1 i b r i a t e d  through  occurs  changes.  associated  In  by  The  become  structure  second  be  phenomenon  suggests  r e a l i t y  or  going  hoped  d i f f i c u l t i e s  r e - v i e w  fractured  is  [experience  is  the  Considerations  Two  when  i t  (p.331)  Procedural  a t t e m p t  although  "a  i f  when  i t  the  such  a  means  f i r s t  were  of  could  a be  s i g n i f i c a n t l y  phenomenon case,  an  happen  part  that  an  of  can  central  [worldview]  with  i n  warns  question  Smith,  If a relationship is* changing, the metaphor beingused to capture that r e l a t i o n s h i p must a l s o have the capacity to [represent] change i n ways similar to the dynamic p r o p e r t i e s of the phenomenon [in order to serve as a u s e f u l metaphor]. (Smith, 1982:333)  Clearly, consideration the  such when  r e f r a m i n g  problem  o f  d i f f i c u l t i e s i t  comes  the  to  w i l l  need  to  developing  p r o b l e m ,  as  be  taken  guidelines  r e q u i r e d  i n  into for Su b -  [8] :  G u i d e l i n e s f o r problem  reframing.  What g u i d e l i n e s m i g h t be d e v e l o p e d f o r analyst i n the task of problem reframing?  a s s i s t i n g  the  45 CHAPTER SUMMARY With framework policy and  respect  for  the  research,  sub-problems  developmental Preparatory  to  the  reflective the  development practice  following  were  of  a  of problem s e t t i n g  preparatory  formulated  procedural  (in  research  this  in  tasks  chapter)  for  attention:  Research  (a)  Bounding the  (b)  S e l e c t i n g the  Tasks problematic  situation.  documentation  t o be  analyzed.  Sub-Problems [1]  Guidelines data.  [2]  Framework f o r  [3]  for  Framework f o r metaphor.  identifying  relevant  (metaphoric)  s p e l l i n g out a generative elaborating  [4]  Bases f o r problem  examining the frame.  [5]  C r i t e r i a for accounts.  [6]  C r i t e r i a f o r examining the a g i v e n problem frame.  [7]  Procedural  [8]  G u i d e l i n e s for problem  assumptions  of  policy-related utility  j u d g i n g the  framework  the  metaphor.  for  'validity'  of  the  of  interpretive  policy-related utility  examining . a problem  reframing.  a  of  frame.  Chapter 3 FRAMING THE PROCEDURES FOR REFLECTIVE PROBLEM SETTING As l o n g as men must make hypotheses t o s o l v e t h e i r problems, they w i l l seek a n a l o g i e s t o s t i m u l a t e t h e i r i n v e n t i o n , and when these a n a l o g i e s g e n e r a t e e x p l a n a t o r y c a t e g o r i e s , these i m m e d i a t e l y f u n c t i o n as e x p l a n a t o r y metaphors. (Pepper, 1982:200) . we e x p l a i n by i n s t i t u t i n g o r d i s c o v e r i n g relations. . . The p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s t h a t h o l d c o n s t i t u t e a p a t t e r n , and an e l e m e n t i s e x p l a i n e d by b e i n g shown t o occupy t h e p l a c e t h a t i t does occupy i n the p a t t e r n . ( K a p l a n , 1964:334) Of t h e m e t h o d o l o g i c a l chapter,  two  issues i d e n t i f i e d  preparatory  research  r e q u i r i n g a t t e n t i o n before  tasks  i n the l a s t  were  t h e work o f r e f l e c t i v e  setting  could  be a d v a n c e d .  The f i r s t  chapter  deals, therefore, with the preparatory  seen  as  problem  s e c t i o n of  this  research  tasks o f : (a)  Bounding t h e P r o b l e m a t i c S i t u a t i o n , and  (b)  S e l e c t i n g t h e Documentation t o be A n a l y s e d .  Subsequent s e c t i o n s o u t l i n e t h e procedures  developed  study f o r a d d r e s s i n g t h e o p e r a t i o n a l concerns the  last  chapter  the  five  procedural  i n this  (identified i n  as sub-problems) a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each o f stages  o f problem 46  setting  (as, here,  47  formulated  on t h e b a s i s o f i d e a s g l e a n e d f r o m R e i n a n d S c h o n  [ 1 9 7 7 ] , a n d Schfln [ 1 9 7 9 ] ) ,  namely:  (1)  UNCOVERING THE GENERATIVE METAPHOR UNDERLYING THE PROBLEM FRAME  (2)  SPELLING  (3)  ELABORATING THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE METAPHOR  (4)  EXAMINING THE POLICY-RELATED U T I L I T Y OF THE PROBLEM FRAME  (5)  CONFIRMING/REFRAMING THE PROBLEM.  OUT THE GENERATIVE METAPHOR  PREPARATORY RESEARCH TASKS  Bounding t h e Problematic In  order  analytic  delimit and  t o impose  inquiry,  researcher)  study.  must d e l i m i t  on t h e s u b j e c t o f a analyst  (like  t h e scope o f h i s / h e r  an a r b i t r a r y  policy  any  other  inquiry.  To  boundary between what i s ,  i s n o t , t o be i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h e p u r v i e w o f t h e Such  a boundary  problem-setting perspective, similarly, about  order  the policy  i s t o place  what  Situation  serves,  frame,  i n t h e same way a s d o e s  to circumscribe  or point-of-view  acts  to limit  what  t h e phenomenon u n d e r  the  particular  of the inquirer.  the inquirer  investigation—for  a  may the  I t ,  discover results  we o b t a i n a r e c o n d i t i o n e d b y t h e q u e s t i o n s we a s k . Moreover, i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e c o n s t r a i n i n g imperatives of sound r e s e a r c h very  i n this  regard,  i t i s supposed t h a t  a p p r e h e n s i o n o f phenomena i s d e p e n d e n t  adopting  some  1976 :169) .  perspective,  some  "point  upon  of view,"  our our  (Brown,  48 It  would  minimize  the  limiting  bounding  seem,  therefore, that  i n f l u e n c e o f an of  the  only  way  to  i n e s c a p a b l y s u b j e c t i v e and  a problematic  situation  i s to  ensure  t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r ' s frame of r e f e r e n c e i s (a) c o n s c i o u s l y chosen  (for i d e n t i f i a b l e  r e a s o n s ) ; and  articulated  i n the c o n t e x t o f a  at  enables  least,  some a l t e r n a t i v e section  of  the  Chapter  4,  that  i t is  s y s t e m i c framework  simultaneous  perspectives  (b)  recognition  (as i l l u s t r a t e d  which  deals  (which,  with  i n the  of  first  bounding  the  p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n i n 'the case of s c h o o l s ' ) . S e l e c t i n g the Documentation t o be The might be as  q u a n t i t y and selected  being  the  research  type of ' s t o r y ' documentation t h a t  f o r a n a l y s i s i n problem s e t t i n g a r e seen  a f u n c t i o n of  deemed t o be)  Analysed  (a) the a v a i l a b i l i t y  relevant problem-setting requirements  of  the  of  (what a r e  'stories', particular  and  (b)  case  in  question. Availability The  availability  of r e l e v a n t p r o b l e m - s e t t i n g of r e l e v a n t p r o b l e m - s e t t i n g  viewed as a p r o d u c t of such f a c t o r s as problematic  situation  ( i . e . whether  ( i ) the  i t i s so  'stories'. stories 'age' new  is  of the that i t  a w a i t s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , or has been around l o n g enough t o have been the s u b j e c t of p o l i c y r e s e a r c h , and p o l i c y d e v e l o p m e n t / r e v i e w ) ,  and  'problem' f o r m u l a t i o n , ( i i ) the reason why  p o l i c y research i s considered necessary.  Three such  such  reasons  are c o n s i d e r e d , h e r e , t o be r e l e v a n t i n the case of r e s e a r c h i n t o problem s e t t i n g .  They a r e :  49  (1)  the problematic s i t u a t i o n i s s o new a n d u n i q u e t h a t no r e l e v a n t p o l i c y e x i s t s t o d e a l w i t h i t ,  (2)  the e x i s t i n g p o l i c y , or associated p o l i c i e s are g e n e r a l l y viewed as b e i n g i n need o f r e v i e w , i n o r d e r t o meet c h a n g i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l / s o c i e t a l conditions,  (3)  the existing policy i s the subject c o n f l i c t i n g (and d i v i s i v e ) v i e w s . The  determining that  will  relationship  between  the quantity, likely  researcher,  as  be  and  these kind,  available  NEWLY lEMERGING  factors of  i s seen  relevant  10  T  as  material by t h e  3.1.  OF LONG STANDING DURATION  BEEN FELT FOR SOME TIME  REASON WHY RESEARCH I S NEEDED r#i-  strongly-felt  for selection  suggested i n Figure  'AGE' DT PROBLEMATIC SITUATION  of  15  years  NO EXISTING POLICY  1  few ( i f any) stories 1  #2  POLICY GENERALLY SEEN AS I N NEED OF UPDATING TO MEET CHANGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS  r#3  POLICY SUBJECT OF CONTROVERSIAL DEBATE  few ( i f any) ' new' stories  I commissioned and r e s e a r c h  a few conflicting  Figure Factors  old accounts some new stories/cartoons studies reports  many accounts/stories  3.1  Affecting the A v a i l a b i l i t y of Relevant Problem-Setting 'Stories'  50  In  case  problematic relevant  #1,  f o r example,  situation,  social  problem-setting  i t i s more  policy  exists,  'stories'  conceptualization  of a newly  have  than  and  been  likely  that  researcher  that  no  few  ( i f any)  documented.  Problem  might be seen i n i t s i n f a n c y  i n s t a n c e ; and t h e p o l i c y  emerging  may f i n d  i n such an i t necessary  to begin  h i s / h e r i n q u i r y w i t h t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f a c c o u n t s by  various  stakeholders  ( a n d , where a p p r o p r i a t e ,  technical  experts) . Where (as i n case #2) as t h e r e s u l t o f a p o l i c y longer the  effective  (traditional) least) the been  context,  f o r some t i m e ,  has  recently  him/herself,  may  become find  collection  of s t o r i e s  studies  secondary  analyses  provide  formulation  worries.  Ideally,  ethnographic  form,  such and  describe  to  the  researcher,  undertake  people's  documentation n o t be  ( i n t h e form of I f the s i t u a t i o n  problematic,  i t necessary that  'new'  large-scale  recommendations) o f t h e problem.  more  that  (and perhaps a n a l y z e d )  o r even, . t h a t  and some  underlying  s i t u a t i o n has  i t i s possible  been c o l l e c t e d  researchers;  the s i t u a t i o n ,  policy  then ' o l d '  metaphor  And, i f t h e p r o b l e m a t i c  have a l r e a d y  other  s i t u a t i o n , , or  has c h a n g e d ) ,  have been commissioned t h a t w i l l of  the s o c i a l  a c c o u n t s may be f o u n d — ones t h a t w i l l ( a t  policy.  emerging  stories by  because  r e f l e c t t h e dominant g e n e r a t i v e  current  s i t u a t i o n emerges  (or a s e t o f p o l i c i e s ) t h a t i s no  (either  environmental  a problematic  the  c o n c e r n s and  would  take  an  guided/inf1uenced  by  51 researcher-chosen  (problem)  topics.  s o u r c e of r e l e v a n t m e t a p h o r i c m a t e r i a l Beck  Another  i s , as suggested by  (1982:10), "the c a r t o o n s of a c u l t u r e  c a p t u r e , i n a s u c c i n t way,  fruitful  .  . [ f o r ] They  some of the paradox i n h e r e n t i n  c u l t u r a l v a l u e s and imagery." Where a p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n  i s o c c a s i o n e d by  f a c t t h a t p e o p l e have brought d i f f e r e n t , and s t o r i e s t o t h e p o l i c y debate w i l l need to  conflicting,  (as i n case #3) , the  inquirer  ( f o r purposes of r e f r a m i n g the problem) t o be a b l e  l o c a t e a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l i n g of the s t o r i e s t o l d  the  various  evident,  protagonists.  Since,  f o r the c o n f l i c t  to  such a c c o u n t s must a l r e a d y e x i s t , t h i s s h o u l d  prove d i f f i c u l t — a l t h o u g h , of  the  such s t o r i e s  clearly,  are l i k e l y  the number and  to r e f l e c t  the  'age'  by be not  variety of the  controversy. Research r e q u i r e m e n t s . The selection seen  as  of documentation being  driven  by  rationale  for analysis the  unique  upon which the  might be based i s r e q u i r e m e n t s , and  c i r c u m s t a n c e s of each i n d i v i d u a l case 'study.' a 1  generalization,  i t might  be  assumed  However, as that  under  A 1984-1985 s t u d y undertaken by the B r i t i s h Columbia M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n t i t l e d " L e t ' s T a l k About S c h o o l s , " asked p a r t i c i p a n t s to respond to a d i s c u s s i o n paper t h a t had been developed by an A d v i s o r y Committee a p p o i n t e d for that task. Respondents' o p i n i o n s and p r e f e r e n c e s were, t h e r e f o r e , s o u g h t on a number o f r a t h e r s p e c i f i c p r e d e t e r m i n e d problem i s s u e s — a n d were, c l e a r l y , o r i e n t e d t o problem s o l u t i o n ( i . e . the problems were t a k e n as ' g i v e n ' ) . The r e s u l t i n g r e p o r t does not p r o v i d e the k i n d of d a t a t h a t i s u s e f u l f o r r e s e a r c h i n t o problem s e t t i n g . A t r a n s c r i p t of the A d v i s o r y Committee's d e l i b e r a t i o n s w h i l e i t attempted t o f o r m u l a t e the problem i s s u e s might, however, have p r o v i d e d a much more ' t e l l i n g ' t a l e !  52  circumstances thorough  where  there  i s no  existing  policy,  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of v i e w p o i n t s would be  a  sought—with  a view t o f r a m i n g the problem so t h a t i t can accommodate as wide  a  range  of  constituent worries  and  concerns  possible.  (Thoroughness [of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ] might be  as  been  having  nothing  achieved  that i s In  when a d d i t i o n a l  as  judged  stories  yield  new.)  cases  where  existing  policies,  or  proposed  p o l i c i e s , are seen as r e q u i r i n g a t t e n t i o n (e.g; as i n cases #2  and  may  be  #3,  above),  found  'stories'  by  high  writers,  institutional stories  profile  agents).  Because  important  accepted sources  as of  tacit  h e l d , dominant, e x p l a n a t o r y by  Rein  and  critical  more  embody  some  researchers  situations  of  tend  'reality,'  metaphoric  and  made e x p l i c i t  to  be  they  provide  data—i.e.  widely-  metaphors—that  (particularly  explanatory  promising  a n a l y s t may  be  less  metaphors  problem-setting  need, as and  noted  subjected  that  alternatives  well-known)  that frames  to  are  accounts  generative  (and  the  of  policy  mandated t o b r i n g these t o the a t t e n t i o n of  the p o l i c y m a k e r s ) , the chances a r e 1982 : 331)  (e.g.  scrutiny.  While may  SchOn, t o be  various  such ( o p i n i o n - i n f l u e n c i n g )  social  accounts  i n the  views  'opinion leaders'  media p e r s o n a l i t i e s ,  about p r o b l e m a t i c  societally  conflicting)  t o have been a l r e a d y e x p r e s s e d  told  politicians,  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e (and  they  i f they  will do  have  (as c a u t i o n e d by  little  not e a s i l y map  Smith,  acceptability on t o the  as  current  53  way  of  viewing  explanatory  the  problem  ( i . e . on  to  the  dominant  metaphor). UNCOVERING THE GENERATIVE METAPHOR UNDERLYING THE PROBLEM FRAME  Having first  task  describes  selected i s to  the document(s)  locate  the problem  the  ('bounded  1  t o be a n a l y z e d ,  p a r t i c u l a r part(s)  that  f o r the i n q u i r y ) , and  tells  'what i s wrong' and 'what i n need of f i x i n g . ' is  to i d e n t i f y ,  storyteller  and  'surface,'  the  The n e x t s t e p  t h e deep metaphor  that  has used t o makes sense o f the problem: a  the task  (as noted i n sub-problem #1) r e q u i r i n g the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f r e l e v a n t metaphoric data. Sub-Problem [13: G u i d e l i n e s f o r I d e n t i f y i n g R e l e v a n t (Metaphoric) Data There a r e s e v e r a l ways be  'cued'  given  t o the  problem  i n which the i n q u i r e r might  deep metaphor  frame.  A surface  which  i s generative  expression  or  of a  metaphor(s)  t h a t has been used t o h i g h l i g h t some ' t h i n g ' (as i n t h e case of the " b l i g h t e d " [slum] community) o r a c t i o n i n t h e problem d e s c r i p t i o n , might, f o r example, s e r v e as a c l u e . ultimately, be dependent  the d i s c e r n m e n t o f a deep metaphor upon the schema  (pattern)  However,  i s going to  recognizing  ability  of the i n q u i r e r - i n t e r p r e t e r .  ^ B e r l i n e r (1986: 11) notes t h a t i t i s s a i d t h a t "experts have e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y f a s t and a c c u r a t e p a t t e r n r e c o g n i t i o n capabilities. These r e c o g n i t i o n s k i l l s appear t o a c t l i k e schema i n s t a n t i a t i o n s [ c o n c r e t e instances that represent abstracted patterns]. The r e c o g n i t i o n of p a t t e r n s reduces the c o g n i t i v e p r o c e s s i n g load of a person.  54 "Schema r e c o g n i t i o n " schema  recognition  comprehension be  Rumelhart  accounts  f o r o u r p r o d u c t i o n and  o f speech u t t e r a n c e s whether t h e s e u t t e r a n c e s  i n t e n d e d by t h e s t o r y t e l l e r J  metaphoric . difficult  (1979) s u g g e s t s t h a t  As R u m e l h a r t  t o be t a k e n (1979:88)  as l i t e r a l  asserts,  i n b o t h cases t o determine what i s b e i n g  or  i t i s conveyed  s i m p l y from t h e meanings o f t h e " i n d i v i d u a l l e x i c a l items o f the u t t e r a n c e . " interpretation  And, he n o t e s t h a t i n b o t h c a s e s , " t h e  seems t o depend on k n o w l e d g e w e l l  d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e terms i n v o l v e d . " v e r y g e n e r a l account the  comprehension  languages  beyond  He, t h e r e f o r e , p o s i t s a  o f what he sees as b e i n g i n v o l v e d i n  process  f o r both  literal  and f i g u r a t i v e  alike:  The p r o c e s s o f c o m p r e h e n s i o n i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h e p r o c e s s o f s e l e c t i n g and v e r i f y i n g c o n c e p t u a l schemata t o account f o r the s i t u a t i o n ( i n c l u d i n g i t s l i n g u i s t i c c o m p o n e n t s ) t o be u n d e r s t o o d . H a v i n g s e l e c t e d and v e r i f i e d t h a t some c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f schemata o f f e r s a s u f f i c i e n t account o f t h e s i t u a t i o n , i t i s s a i d t o be understood. . . a "schema" i s t a k e n t o be an a b s t r a c t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a g e n e r a l i z e d concept o r s i t u a t i o n , and a schema i s s a i d t o "account f o r a s i t u a t i o n " whenever t h a t s i t u a t i o n can be t a k e n as an i n s t a n c e o f t h e g e n e r a l c l a s s o f c o n c e p t s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e schema. (Rumelhart, 1979:85) 1  According recognition language)  to  (whether  is  Rumelhart  (19 7 9 : 8 3 - 8 4 ) ,  in figurative  or  schema  nonfigurative  c o m p l e t e l y dependent upon "knowledge o f t h e  w o r l d " ; and " l i n g u i s t i c u t t e r a n c e s a r e always i n t e r p r e t e d i n some  J  context."  A c c o r d i n g t o M i l l e r (19 7 9 : 2 4 7 - 2 4 8 ) , t h e p r o c e s s o f s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d l i t e r a l comprehension subsumes t h e p r o c e s s of comprehending metaphors.  55  Schema r e c o g n i t i o n holistic, pieces  experience.  of  'story',  or  dinosaur context  the  bone  (whether  t h e y be  paleontologist's fossils)  as  a  are  i n which  expressions  findings  'seen'  personal,  of  the in a  fragmented  i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to  the  i n which they are found (be i t a s t o r y s i t u a t i o n , or  a mountain cave) and knowledge  (of  Rumelhart n o t e s , up'  comprehended i n the  similar  ' m o d e l s ' ) — a t one  'bottom  viewed  I t i s , f o r example, one  puzzle a  i s , thus,  and  'story'  the  process  of  of  s i t u a t i o n s , or  same t i m e .  t o the s t a n d a r d  light  This  worldly dinosaur  i s contrary,  as  approach which assumes the  constructing According  meaning  component  meanings.  to  linguistic  knowledge comes i n t o p l a y o n l y  p o s s i b l e meanings has been s e l e c t e d "  that  from  smaller  approach, a f t e r the  "non  set  of  (p.85).  Rumelhart's p o s i t i o n i s consonant w i t h t h a t of Hanson who  asserts: One does not f i r s t soak up an o p t i c a l p a t t e r n and t h e n c l a s p an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on i t — t h e o r i e s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s are ' t h e r e ' i n the s e e i n g from the outset. (Hanson, 1965:9-10)  And  i t i s on such e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l grounds t h a t the  approach  t a k e n t o problem s e t t i n g i s , i n t h i s s t u d y , p r e d i c a t e d . Such an approach r e c o g n i z e s  the  s u b j e c t i v i t y of t h e  schema r e c o g n i t i o n and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ; and  researcher's  requires  him/her  t o a l s o u n d e r t a k e a r e f l e c t i v e assessment of t h e s e e f f e c t s . Schema  p a t t e r n-seeking.  pattern-seeking  used i n  this  The study  process  of  schema  (to uncover the  deep  56 metaphor g e n e r a t i v e of the p r o b l e m - s e t t i n g frame employed i n the case of s c h o o l s ) would, i n r e t r o s p e c t , seem t o have been predicated  on  the  following  s e t of  tacit  'understandings'  /rationalizations: (1)  Problems r e p r e s e n t the d i f f e r e n c e between p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e s i t u a t i o n as i t i s and c o n c e p t i o n of how i t 'ought' t o be.  one's one's  (2)  " P r o b l e m s a r e d e f i n e d by h y p o t h e t i c a l s o l u t i o n s ; [ f o r ] t h e p r o b l e m ' s f o r m u l a t i o n and t h e p r o p o s e d s o l u t i o n are p a r t of the same h y p o t h e s i s i n which thought and a c t i o n a r e f u s e d " ( W i l d a v s k y , 1979:83).  (3)  The " s o l u t i o n s " p r o v i d e d i n a p r o b l e m - s e t t i n g s t o r y w i l l s e r v e a s d a t a on t h e b a s e s o f w h i c h t o p o s t u l a t e the s t o r y t e l l e r s ' s c o n c e p t i o n of how the s i t u a t i o n 'ought' ' i d e a l l y ' t o be.  (4)  I f the s t o r y does not i n c l u d e an e x p l i c i t l i n g u i s t i c 'model' (e.g. i n the form of an analogy or s i m i l e ) to r e p r e s e n t t h i s ' i d e a l , ' then the model must beimplicit. F o r , w i t h o u t such a c o n c e p t i o n of how the s i t u a t i o n 'ought' t o be, t h e r e i s no ' s e e i n g ' of the problem. 1  (5)  I f the model i s i m p l i c i t , then i t s e r v e s , as does a metaphor, t o generate u n d e r s t a n d i n g . (In t h i s sense a l l words a r e s y m b o l i c c o n s t r u c t i o n s t h a t c a n be s a i d t o be m e t a p h o r i c , f o r they c a r r y meaning w i t h o u t s i g n a l l i n g t h a t they do so.)  (6)  I t i s t h i s p o s t u l a t e d ( m e t a p h o r i c a l l y used) c o n c e p t i o n t h a t i s s o u g h t — n o t something t h a t l o o k s l i k e a l i n g u i s t i c metaphor.  (7)  Because the ( t a c i t l y used) c o n c e p t i o n i s w e l l u n d e r s t o o d (even i f i t i s not r e c o g n i z e d by the u s e r t o be a c t i n g as a model i n the c i r c u m s t a n c e s ) , the s o l u t i o n s i t p r o v i d e s f o r remedying the p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n w i l l seem t o be o b v i o u s .  (8)  I t i s h e l p f u l , t h e n , t o ask, " t o what p r o b l e m — i n some o t h e r c o n t e x t ( t h a t i s f a m i l i a r to the s t o r y t e l l e r ) — i s t h i s (recommended c o u r s e of a c t i o n ) a l s o an obvious s o l u t i o n ? "  (9)  I t i s a l s o h e l p f u l t o ask, " i n what o t h e r c o n t e x t s ( f a m i l i a r t o the s t o r y t e l l e r ) might the normative i d e a s u n d e r p i n n i n g t h e s e s o l u t i o n s be found?"  57 (10)  "The p e r c e p t i o n o f a p a t t e r n i s what g i v e s t h e ' c l i c k of r e l a t i o n s ' spoken of i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e norms o f c o h e r e n c e f o r t h e v a l i d a t i o n o f a theory. The e x p l a n a t i o n i s sound when e v e r y t h i n g f a l l s i n t o p l a c e " (Kaplan, 1964:334-335).  (11)  F a i l u r e to achieve t h i s " c l i c k of r e l a t i o n s " p o s s i b l y s i g n a l s a ' c u l t u r a l ' gap b e t w e e n t h e i n q u i r e r and the s t o r y t e l l e r ( i . e . a l a c k of w o r k i n g knowledge of the b e l i e f . s , customs, or social/ l i n g u i s t i c forms of the s t o r y t e l l e r ' s ' w o r l d ' ) . SPELLING OUT THE UNDERLYING GENERATIVE METAPHOR Having i d e n t i f i e d the most p l a u s i b l e deep metaphor of  the  problem  vehicle  CB}  setting  story  ( i . e . having  t h a t has been used  identified  the  [ m e t a p h o r i c a l l y , as a model]  t o e l u c i d a t e the s u b j e c t of the p r o b l e m a t i c  situation  the n e x t t a s k  f e a t u r e s of  i s t o p l o t the c o r r e s p o n d i n g  analogy suggested by the m e t a p h o r — s o t h a t we might the  "theory  suggested  that  i n the  makes e x p l i c i t story"  ( R e i n and  the  causal  [A3), the  construe linkages  SchOn, 19 7 7:24 4 - 2 4 5 ) .  T h i s t a s k i s seen as b e i n g f a c i l i t a t e d by the p r o v i s i o n of a 'template,'  or  framework, f o r g u i d i n g  (as i d e n t i f i e d i n sub-problem  analogy c o n s t r u c t i o n  #2).  Sub-Problem [ 2 ] : Framework For S p e l l i n g Out A G e n e r a t i v e Metaphor The out  framework  a generative  "metaphor-theme" 1979])  of  F i g u r e 3.2. newly  the  that  proposed  m e t a p h o r i s f o u n d e d on ( i . e . the  identified  According  apprehended  i s , here,  metaphor of generative  [A3  the as  for  spelling  abstracted £B}  metaphor—as  [Black, shown i n  t o t h i s framework, [A3 s y m b o l i z e s  image of  t h a t w h i c h , f o r m e r l y , we  our found  58  problematic;  f o r [ A 3 i s now  seen "as i f " i t were  r a t h e r , i n terms o f t h e image we have of t h e more  CB3—or  familiarly  known C B 3 . However, [A3 i s not [ B 3 ; i t can o n l y be l i k e [ B 3 in  certain  like  respects.  Those ways  [B3 a r e named i n t h e s t o r y ;  i n which  [A3 seems  and t h e s e named  most  features  s e r v e as a b r i d g e t o l i n k t h e h i g h - s a l i e n t a t t r i b u t e s o f [ B 3 with  what had been l o w - s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s of [A3.  Figure  3:2  Framework f o r S p e l l i n g Out a G e n e r a t i v e Metaphor Examining N o r m a t i v e Assumptions The  framework  (illustrated  i n Figure  3.2)  also  p r o v i d e s f o r an e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e e x p r e s s e d problem s o l u t i o n s f o r [A3 and any n o r m a t i v e that  may  have t a c i t l y  been c a r r i e d  f r o m what  i s 'known'  about d e a l i n g w i t h such'problems i n t h e c o n t e x t of [B3. purpose  of such  an  analysis  i s to surface  ideas  any  The  normative  59 assumptions t h a t  might be t a c i t l y u n d e r g i r d i n g  suggested by t h e g e n e r a t i v e elaborated  and examined  metaphor,  the analogy  so t h a t t h e y can be  f o r appropriateness  i n relation to  CA}. ELABORATING THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE METAPHOR It w i l l to  "spell  be r e c a l l e d t h a t Schon (1979:255) e x h o r t s us  out the metaphor,  [ a n d t o ] e_labo r a t e t h e  assumptions which f l o w from i t " [ s i c ] . assumptions requiring the  which  flow  from"  Elaboration  a metaphor  i s u n d e r s t o o d as  us t o make e x p l i c i t t h o s e assumptions upon which  'underlying  predicated.  a s s u m p t i o n ' o f t h e metaphor i s , i t s e l f ,  These assumptions a r e about t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s  t h a t a r e b e l i e v e d t o o b t a i n among t h e c o n c e p t s in  o f "the  t h e metaphor — concept s  hierarchically-ordered  levels  that  incorporated  are related  of the metaphoric  a t two  construct,  as i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 3.3. At t h e l e v e l  i m m e d i a t e l y below  t h e metaphor o f 'the  p a t t e r n o f CA) as t h e p a t t e r n o f CB}' i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f correspondence  that  i s assumed  between t h e c o n c e p t s  that  form t h e c o n s t i t u e n t elements o f p a t t e r n CA} and o f p a t t e r n CB}, when t h e s e a r e f o r c e d by t h e metaphor  i n t o an a n a l o g i c a l  relationship  ( e . g . Cal} i s t o CA} what Cbl} i s t o CB}).  And,  at a level  below  held  about  n a t u r e of t h e metaphoric term  the  this,  a r e t h e assumptions  about t h e way i t s c o n s t i t u e n t elements Cb3};  of concepts, values,  r e l a t e d t o each  other.  that are CB}—i.e.  (of C b l } , Cb2}, and  and b e l i e f s )  are ('in t r u t h ' )  60  p a t t e r n o f [A3  iR (seen as)  p a t t e r n o f [B3  t what  a-, i s t o [A3  b  x  i s t o [B3  J A  -r-  "  is  view o f [A3  dependent upon  understanding of p a t t e r n o f [B3  THEREFORE WHEN THE PATTERN OF [B3 IS SEEN THUSLY: _L,  [A3 IS SEEN THUSLY IF  [ B 3 WERE SEEN THUSLY: T  THEN [A3 WILL BE SEEN THUSLY  F i g u r e 3.3 Framework F o r C o n c e p t u a l i z i n g The Assumptions That Flow From A Metaphor  61  Because  the  assumptions  that  are  held  nature of a metaphoric term w i l l a f f e c t the correspondence elements  of  that CA)  (sub-problem #3)  can be and  framework  constituent devised  for  e l a b o r a t i n g the assumptions of the metaphor  i s seen as needing, f i r s t , a generalized  the  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p of  assumed between the  CB),  about  t o provide  f o r the development  ( i d e a l type) model of the metaphoric term  of CB).  Sub-Problem [3]: Framework f o r E l a b o r a t i n g the Assumptions of The Metaphor The on  the  primary focus  identification  in this  and  framework i s , a c c o r d i n g l y ,  articulation  r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t i s assumed  of  the  pattern  (from what we t h i n k we  of  'know')  t o o b t a i n f o r CB)'s i n g e n e r a l . From t h i s g e n e r a l i z e d  (ideal  type) model of the metaphoric term CB), the i m p l i c a t i o n s the  metaphor  (for i t s subject  CA})  can,  i n an  of  'ideal'  g e n e r a l i z e d sense, be subsequently drawn. The  steps  conjectured  as  being  involved  t h i s stage of problem s e t t i n g  are shown i n F i g u r e 3.4.  might  from  be  'spelling  viewed  as  flowing  out the u n d e r l y i n g  the  generative  framework  in They  used  for  metaphor.'  unknown 'pattern' of CA}  i d e a l type •model' of CB} IMPLICATIONS FOR  CA)  characteristic features  ? 7 ? Figure  3.4  Framework f o r E l a b o r a t i n g the Assumptions  of the Metaphor  62 A model t h a t thus aims t o show t h e c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f the elements t h a t go t o make up our i m p l i c i t , and e x p l i c i t , understanding  of the ' i d e a l i z e d ' v e r s i o n of the metaphoric  term CB] i s l i k e n e d here t o Kaplan's " p a t t e r n model." Kaplan's P a t t e r n Model. According  t o Kaplan  which p r o v i d e u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,  (1964),  there  and t h e r e b y  a r e two m o d e l s  explanation.  "Very  r o u g h l y , we know t h e r e a s o n f o r something e i t h e r when we can fit  i t i n t o a known p a t t e r n  when  we  can deduce  'deductive some  model']"  s i t u a t i o n s lend  [the 'pattern model'], or e l s e  i t from  (p.332).  other  known  truths [the  And i t would seem t h a t  themselves more a p p r o p r i a t e l y  m o d e l , and some t o t h e o t h e r ,  " b o t h may  while t o one  serve, a u s e f u l  purpose i n methodology"(p.333). A c c o r d i n g t o t h e p a t t e r n model, t h e n , something i s e x p l a i n e d when i t i s so r e l a t e d t o a s e t o f o t h e r elements t h a t t o g e t h e r t h e y c o n s t i t u t e a u n i f i e d system. We u n d e r s t a n d something by i d e n t i f y i n g i t as a s p e c i f i c p a r t i n an o r g a n i z e d whole. (Kaplan, 1964:333) Kaplan goes on t o i l l u s t r a t e h i s p o i n t by d e s c r i b i n g a  drawing  t h a t c o n s i s t s of a "long  w i t h a s h o r t one b r a n c h i n g a  short  curved  line  vertical  straight line  upwards from i t near t h e t o p , and  joining  i t on t h e same s i d e near t h e  b o t t o m " — a s might be p i c t u r e d i n F i g u r e 3.5.  F i g u r e 3.5 P i c t u r e o f P a r t o f An O r g a n i z e d Whole  63  As  Kaplan  says,  explained.  the  drawing  I t represents  accompanied by h i s dog, building  (the  curved  i s meaningless u n t i l  "a  soldier with  disappearing  line  i s the  fixed  i t is  bayonet,  around the c o r n e r  dog's t a i l ) .  As  of a Kaplan  (1964:334) e x p l a i n s : We u n d e r s t a n d the f i g u r e [drawing] by b e i n g b r o u g h t t o s e e t h e w h o l e p i c t u r e , o f w h i c h w h a t i s t o be explained i s only a part. I t i s i n t h i s way that f a m i l i a r i t y may come i n t o p l a y : the unknown i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h s o m e t h i n g known, t h o u g h n o t by way o f i t s l o c a l p r o p e r t i e s but i n terms of i t s p l a c e i n a network of relations. .we e x p l a i n by i n s t i t u t i n g o r d i s c o v e r i n g relations. . . These r e l a t i o n s may be o f v a r i o u s d i f f e r e n t s o r t s : causal, purposive, mathematical, and perhaps other basic types, as w e l l as various c o m b i n a t i o n s and d e r i v a t i v e s of t h e s e . The p a r t i c u l a r r e l a t i o n s t h a t h o l d c o n s t i t u t e a p a t t e r n , and an element i s e x p l a i n e d by b e i n g shown t o occupy the p l a c e t h a t i t does occupy i n the p a t t e r n . (Kaplan, 1964:334) Having clarifying  developed  our  a pattern  understanding  of  model  CB),  the  f o r purposes  of  next  to  step  is  c o n s t r u c t a n o t h e r , h i g h e r o r d e r , p a t t e r n m o d e l — f o r purposes of  sharpening  relationship  our  appreciation  between  CB)  and  of  CA).  the This  (metaphoric) involves  the  matching up of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s and change p r o p e r t i e s of  the  i d e a l type model developed  f e a t u r e s , and  It  s i t u a t i o n CA), and  ( s i m i l a r , or g e n e r i c ) i s , then,  correspondence  CB),  with  change needs, t h a t are d e s c r i b e d  about the p r o b l e m a t i c cases of  for  seen  from  an  (or not  analogous  in  i n other  the  story  documented  CA)-type s i t u a t i o n s . e x a m i n a t i o n of seen, as  the  the  case  analogical may  be)  to  64  o b t a i n between t h e p a t t e r n s of r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h u s r e v e a l e d f o r CB} and f o r CA} t h a t a judgment might be made about the utility,  f o r p o l i c y m a k i n g purposes,  of the a n a l o g i c a l model  thus suggested by t h e (analysed) deep metaphor. EXAMINING THE UTILITY OF THE  POLICY-RELATED PROBLEM FRAME  Sub-Problem [ 4 ] : Bases f o r the S e l e c t i o n o f C r i t e r i a f o r Examining the U t i l i t y of A G i v e n Problem Frame Given suggested  the  ( i n Chapter  problem-setting incorporate Schfln also  pragmatic  as  2)  frame  not  nature t h a t the  should,  only  the  into  practicality.  account To  this  the end,  p o l i c y m a k i n g , i t was  criteria  for  axioms  undergirding social  take  of  f o r judging a  policymaking identified  science  by  inquiry,  policymakers' i t m i g h t be  purposes, Rein  but  should  penchant  serving a  similar  p r o v i d e d them by the c r i t e r i a  "an  service  by  Wholey  " u s e f u l n e s s " of t h a t k i n d of an Criteria  for policymakers  e v a l u a t i o n of a program"; and  suggested  timely. both  as  that  t o note the  'examination.' utility  of  A c c o r d i n g t o Wholey, f o r an e v a l u a t i o n  of a program t o be u s e f u l f o r p o l i c y purposes relevant,  to  frame"  (1978) f o r g o v e r n i n g  f o r j u d g i n g the p o l i c y - r e l a t e d  program e v a l u a t i o n .  for  instructive  c o n s i d e r "the c r i t i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f a g i v e n problem as  and  reliable,  valid,  objective,  i t needs t o be  understandable,  and  By r e l e v a n t he means t h a t the e v a l u a t i o n i s seen as  "applicable"  and  "acceptable."  By  reliable  he  means  65 that, given  t h e same i n f o r m a t i o n , o t h e r s  same c o n c l u s i o n . is  "solid,"  is  safe  By v a l i d he means t h a t s u p p o r t i v e  "strong"  sense]  a t t e n t i o n t o the f i n d i n g s . bias.  jargon"—that metaphors] timely  By  i s used  f o r policymakers  t o pay  By o b j e c t i v e he means f r e e from  understandable  i s , written i n plain  that  evidence  [many people would a g r e e ] — s o t h a t i t  [ina political  evaluator  would come t o t h e  can be u n d e r s t o o d  he means  language  "free of  [and w i t h  deep  by p o l i c y makers.  And  i n two s e n s e s . The f i r s t  requires that the  e v a l u a t i o n be p r o v i d e d b e f o r e d e c i s i o n s have t o be made. The second r e f e r s t o t h e p r o v i s i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s t i m e l y because i t r e f l e c t s ,  c a p s u l i t e s , or connects with  s o c i e t a l c o n c e r n s t h a t a r e i n good Now, Rein  juxtaposing  and Schon  wider  currency.  these c r i t e r i a  w i t h t h o s e noted by  ( f o r d e f i n i n g t h e adequacy of a problem-  s e t t i n g frame) does suggest a congruency and c o m p l e m e n t a r i t y that  would  support  their  bases f o r examining t h e  being  considered  (together)  policy-related u t i l i t y  as  of a given  problem frame (as r e q u i r e d f o r t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f sub-problem #4).  This  perceived  relatedness  i s illustrated  i n Figure  3.6 by means o f i n t e r - c o n n e c t i n g arrows between t h e u t i l i t y — focussed  criteria  proposed  side of the f i g u r e ) ,  by Wholey  (on t h e  and t h e a d e q u a c y - f o c u s s e d  right-hand criteria  advanced by R e i n and Schfln. Criteria social science. of  Figure  f o r j u d g i n g frame adequacy i n t h e f i e l d As shown ( u n d e r l i n e d )  3.6, t h e s e  criteria  of  on t h e l e f t - h a n d s i d e  can be seen t o r e l a t e t o a  66 CRITERIA HELD BY SOCIAL SCIENTISTS FOR 'JUDGING' . (from R e i n and SchOn, 19 7 7)  CRITERIA HELD BY LAY POLICYMAKERS FOR 'JUDGING' . . (according t o Wholey, 1978)  PLAUSIBILITY  RELEVANCE  (Having f a c e validity)  APPLICABILITY  CONSISTENCY  UNDERSTANDABILITY (Metaphoric language i s within experience.)  ACCEPTABILITY  i  (Internal structure having appropriate correspondence.)  1i VALIDITY (Has 'good' supporting evidence.) 1 1 RELIABILITY (Others would come t o same conclusion.)  (Constructural validity.)  (Consistent with larger belief system.)  1 OBJECTIVITY (Seen t o be f r e e from evaluator bias.) I  VALUE IMPLICATIONS (Is m o r a l l y acceptable) CAPACITY TO LEAD TO ACTION  1 4  TIMELINESS (Can use i n f o f o r decision-making)  (Can l e a d t o implementable policies.)  (Issue c u r r e n t — has p o l i t i c a l momentum.) F i g u r e 3.6  Bases F o r The S e l e c t i o n o f C r i t e r i a F o r Examining The P o l i c y - R e l a t e d U t i l i t y Of A Problem Frame  67 frame's draw  PLAUSIBILITY;  together  relating  l a r g e number  ( i . e . i t s capacity  of  facts  them i n a network of p l a u s i b l e  there i s within  a  CONSISTENCY  and  to  "worries"--  c a u s a t i o n so  that  coherence both between the p r o p o s i t i o n s c o n t a i n e d  the  frame, and  between the  frame and  other  s e t s of  b e l i e f s h e l d by the i n q u i r e r ) ; VALUE IMPLICATIONS ( i . e . i t s c a p a c i t y t o l e a d t o a m o r a l l y a c c e p t a b l e p o s i t i o n ) ; and i t s CAPACITY TO LEAD TO ACTION (through implementable "Beauty" t h a t beauty, and  i s omitted  like  sensitive  more l i k e l y arena  of  economic, than of t h e o r e t i c a l , The  list  on  the  ' t r u t h , ' i s ' i n the eye of the  i s , consequently,  politically  from t h i s  policies).  t o be  beholder'—  conceived,  policymaking,  in this  of  "parsimony"!  c r i t e r i o n of " t e s t a b i l i t y "  attempted  i n the  i n terms  i s also omitted.  i s so on the grounds t h a t the purpose of r e f l e c t i v e [as  grounds  study]  i s to  It  practice  s e e k , and  confirm,  :  u s e f u l / w o r k a b l e ways of r e s o l v i n g p r a c t i c a l p r o b l e m s — n o t t o seek a  'truth'  t h a t i s 'out  t h e r e t o be  found'  and  to  s u b j e c t e d t o e m p i r i c a l t e s t s aimed a t d i s c o n f i r m a t i o n .  be  Rein  and Schon [1977:249] n o t e , "by the c r i t e r i o n of t e s t a b i l i t y , problems are g a m b l e s — r i s k - t a k i n g v e n t u r e s an  informed  g u e s s — b u t we  wrong by the Now, problem  must be  i n which we make  prepared  t o be  judged  evidence." while  "wrong" i s , h e r e ,  f r a m e s e l e c t e d by  taken  t o mean t h a t the  the policymakers  i s found,  in  r e t r o s p e c t , t o have not been the most u s e f u l way  of  [making  situation—  Rein  and  sense  of]  the  experienced  Schon's  use  of  the  term  problematic does r a i s e  'seeing'  questions  68  c o n c e r n i n g the c r i t e r i a upon which i n t e r p r e t i v e a c c o u n t s t o be  judged and  tested  as v a l i d i n the  [as i d e n t i f i e d i n sub-problem  sense of  are  'correct'  #5].  Sub-Problem [ 5 ] ; C r i t e r i a f o r J u d g i n g the ' V a l i d i t y ' of I n t e r p r e t i v e Accounts Criteria a c c o u n t s are (or  levels)  questions  about  validity  the  the  match b e t w e e n  storyteller.  interpretive  d i f f e r e n t orders  l e v e l they r e l a t e a.troublesome  the  about t h a t  'actors'  to  social  involved—  situation—as  i t is  T h i s s e t of q u e s t i o n s i s aimed  ' c o r r e c t n e s s ' of  sense of  of  t o two  At one  i t i s e x p e r i e n c e d by  j u d g i n g the  i n the  the  of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  a problem-setting story  'seen' by at  judging  seen, h e r e , t o p e r t a i n  situation—as and  for  the  problem-setting  frame  the a p t n e s s , f i t , or a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of  the  a n a l o g y suggested by i t s u n d e r l y i n g g e n e r a t i v e metaphor.  It  i s t h i s l e v e l of a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s t h a t i s of i n t e r e s t t o R e i n and  SchOn; and At  i s the  another  q u e s t i o n s of  of  level  'correctness'  conceptualization the  f o c u s of a t t e n t i o n  inquirer.  "how  the  the  problematic  The  frame—as  question that an  section. however,  match between  interpretive  ' c o r r e c t n e s s ' of  a given t e x t — t h a t  question  r e l a t e t o the  s t o r y t e l l e r ' s conceptual  analytic can  interpretation,  of the p r o b l e m a t i c s i t u a t i o n — a s  storyteller(s)—and that  of  in this  framed  the by  conceptualization 'seen' by  i s , here,  interpretative  asked account  the is, of  i s i t s e l f an i n t e r p r e t i v e account of some  situation—be  judged?"  It i s , therefore,  a  c o n c e r n i n g the v a l i d i t y of i n t e r p r e t i v e i n q u i r y  at  69 a meta l e v e l ; and i s , a c c o r d i n g l y , seen here as t h e h a l l m a r k of  r e f l e c t i v e p r a c t i c e — b o t h as i t r e l a t e s t o t h e i n q u i r e r ' s  own  interpretation  of  textual  material,  and  to  his/her  c r e a t i v e e f f o r t s i n r e s p e c t t o problem r e f r a m i n g . Now,  a c c o r d i n g to Smith  (1984:386),  the b a s i s  of  t r u t h or t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s i n i n t e r p r e t i v e i n q u i r y i s " s o c i a l agreement."  I t would, t h e r e f o r e , seem r e a s o n a b l e t o  that v e r i f i c a t i o n  of the i n q u i r e r ' s  problem-setting  story  not  source  from  the  would  be  storytellers.  Similarly,  researcher  seek  would  stakeholders conclusions such  t a k e s on  independent  a  regarding  frame  role,  to confirm  and  framing/reframing.  t o the  that  Of  the and  his/her course,  becomes more p r o b l e m a t i c i f t h e  (1984:387) and Smith and Heshusius  circularity  independent,  (from the p a r t i c i p a n t s  adequacy/utility.  a participant  problem  of a  outset)—if  supposed  i n the s i t u a t i o n )  cross-referencing  analyst  Smith  involved  (at t h e other,  i t is  evidence  interpretation  sought  i t s e l f — from  suppose  interpretive  engages  For,  as  i n some noted  by  (1986:9), t h e r e i s  (hermeneutical) process  which T a y l o r p u t s t h u s : U l t i m a t e l y , a good e x p l a n a t i o n i s one which makes sense of the b e h a v i o u r ; but then t o a p p r e c i a t e a good e x p l a n a t i o n one has t o agree on what makes good sense; what makes good sense i s a f u n c t i o n of one's r e a d i n g s [of the s i t u a t i o n ] and t h e s e i n t u r n a r e based on t h e k i n d of sense one u n d e r s t a n d s . ( T a y l o r , 1971:14) A c c o r d i n g l y , i t might be c o n c l u d e d t h a t — i n the f i n a l analysis—the  "proof of t h e i n t e r p r e t e r ' s pudding" i s t o be  found i n t h e t a s t e e x p e r i e n c e of the p o l i c y m a k i n g d i n e r s f o r whom i t was i n t e n d e d !  70  Sub-Problem [ 6 ] : C r i t e r i a f o r Examining the U t i l i t y of A G i v e n Problem Frame The  c r i t e r i a here proposed f o r e x a m i n i n g t h e p o l i c y -  r e l a t e d u t i l i t y of a g i v e n problem frame a r e : (a)  based on an amalgam of the c r i t e r i a shown i n F i g u r e 3.6; and  two  sets  (b)  defined i n a p u r p o s e - s p e c i f i c way ( i . e . t h e y a r e tailored to relate specifically to the assessment o f t h e g e n e r a t i v e metaphor t h a t frames the problem of a p r o b l e m - s e t t i n g s t o r y ) . The p l a u s i b i l i t y of a (metaphoric) frame.  seen as the f i r s t , and most c r u c i a l c r i t e r i o n . understood  (as suggested i n F i g u r e  validity'—i.e. t o be  ' r e l e v a n t ' / 'apply'/  s i t u a t i o n , i n a way  indicated  plausibility  of  I t might be  i n terms o f  'make sense o f ' / ' t e l l  ( i n t e l l e c t u a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y ) As  This . i s  'face  i n terms of t h e e x t e n t t o which i t i s seen  about' a p r o b l e m a t i c finds  3.6)  of  by  a given  the problem  t h a t the r e c i p i e n t  acceptable.  connecting frame  the t r u t h  arrows,  i s seen  as  the  resting  upon t h e e x t e n t t o which the frame can s a t i s f y a l l t h e o t h e r 'bases' i d e n t i f i e d  i n F i g u r e 3.6.  F o r , t h e e x t e n t t o which  a problem frame i s found a p p l i c a b l e i s s u r e l y dependent upon the  recipient's, (i)  (ii)  (iii)  understanding the a n a l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the g e n e r a t i v e m e t a p h o r — w h i c h assumes h i s / h e r c u l t u r a l f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e metaphor; 'seeing' the frame as appropriate to c i r c u m s t a n c e s — i . e . as m e t a p h o r i c a l l y ' f i t t i n g ' possessing c o n s t r u c t u r a l v a l i d i t y ) ;  the (or  f i n d i n g the frame s u f f i c i e n t l y c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s / her l a r g e r b e l i e f system (worldview) t h a t i t i s c o n s i d e r e d ' v a l i d . ' (As noted by Smith and H e s h u s i u s [1986:9] " W i t h i n the q u a l i t a t i v e paradigm, v a l i d i s a l a b e l a p p l i e d t o an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o r d e s c r i p t i o n w i t h which one agrees.")  71  C o n c o m i t a n t l y , t h e e x t e n t t o which a problem found  acceptable  is  seen  as  being  frame i s  dependent  upon  the  recipient's, (a)  c o n s i d e r i n g t h e v a l u e i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e frame t o be a c c e p t a b l e ( i . e . m o r a l l y d e f e n s i b l e ) ; and  (b)  c o n c e i v i n g i t t o have the c a p a c i t y t o l e a d t o a c t i o n ( b e c a u s e i t c a n be r e l i e d u p o n t o h a v e / g a i n w i d e s p r e a d a c c e p t a n c e and s u p p o r t , a n d / o r i s p e r c e i v e d t o be p o l i t i c a l l y t i m e l y ) .  (c)  r e g a r d i n g t h e f r a m e t o be ' p o l i t i c a l ' bias. The  (metaphoric)  conceptualized  as  free  of  (adversarial)  a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of a frame.  an  all-encompassing  criteria  i n c o r p o r a t e s a l l t h o s e c o n c e p t u a l bases shown to  support  consistency.  a  frame's  'applicability'  that  i n Figure in  3.6  terms  of  These i n c l u d e t h e n o t i o n o f c o n s t r u c t u r a 1  v a l i d i t y as i t r e l a t e s  (a) t o t h e s t r u c t u r a l  of t h e frame's i n t e r n a l elements; w i t h the  This i s  larger belief  system  and  correspondence  (b) t o i t s congruence  or w o r l d v i e w  of which  i ti s ,  seemingly, a c o g n i t i v e l y systemic p a r t . Furthermore, constructural metaphor of in  a  since  validity  can,  'the problem  cognitive  this  itself,  understanding be  seen t o r e s t on  frame as a system  suprasystem  that  is  of the  (of i d e a s n e s t e d  embedded  in  some  1  e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n t e x t ) — t h e c r i t e r i o n of frame a p p r o p r i a t e ness a l s o r e l a t e s  to  "whether the  internal  aspects  of  the  metaphor can change i n c o n c e r t w i t h t h e i n t e r n a l changes i n the phenomenon i t i s b e i n g a p p l i e d t o " (Smith, 1982:333).  72 The u t i l i t y of a problem frame. the  third  on,  the  value  and  final  practical  criterion.  This i s regarded  I t embraces, and  focusses  considerations associated with  i m p l i c a t i o n s of  the  frame, and  (b)  as  (a)  the  i t s capacity to  lead to a c t i o n .  Sub-Problems [7] & [83: P r o c e d u r a l Framework f o r Examining A Problem Frame and f o r Reframing the Problem The p r o c e d u r a l framework developed response  t o sub-problem #7)  utility  of  a problem  directional provides  alternative  to  frame t a k e s  the  shown  and  utility  directional  of  the  a n e g a t i v e response  problem, t h i s  form of a yes/  i n Figure the  problem  3.7.  It  frame—with  be  an  negative  S i n c e the a l t e r n a t i v e  a t any g i v e n stage i s t o reframe  framework can  no  plausibility,  sequence t o accommodate a  a t any stage i n the p r o c e s s .  (in  the p o l i c y - r e l a t e d  s e q u e n t i a l assessment of  appropriateness  response  f o r examining  f l o w - c h a r t , as  for a  i n t h i s study  the  seen t o p r o v i d e a s e t of  g u i d e l i n e s f o r r e f r a m i n g t h e problem, (as c a l l e d f o r i n subproblem  #8.) It  s h o u l d be noted  o f i n t e r p r e t i n g and and  ongoing.  themselves reached  exercising the  examining  They a r e to being  i n the  t h a t , i n p r a c t i c e , the and  not  discrete  suspended  proceedings.  analytical  rigor,  and  J  until  integrative  activities a certain  However,  f i n d i n g s i n some c o h e r e n t  becomes n e c e s s a r y .  a n a l y s i n g are  of b e i n g  processes  that  point i s  f o r purposes able to  manner, a l i n e a l  lend  of  present approach  PROBLEM FRAME AS INTERPRETED p L A U S I B I L I T Y  A P P R 0  P R I A T E N E S S  U  Is t h e r e s u p p o r t f o r the r e s e a r c h e r ' s interpretation ?  Is there evidence t h a t the frame might o b t a i n g e n e r a l acceptance ?  I s t h e r e correspondence between the internal properties of the metaphor ?  Reframe the problem of the i n q u i r y ,  NO  NO  REFRAME THE PROBLEM OF THE PROBLEMATIC SITUATION:  Find another way of f r a m i n g the problem & repeat a n a l y s i s Can p l a u s i b l e correspondence be found i f the metaphor i s r e structured to f o c u s on the problem a t a different level?  I s t h e r e correspondence between the change p r o p e r t i e s of the metaphor ?  <N0  Are the v a l u e i m p l i c a t i o n s of the metaphor a c c e p t a b l e ? •^NO^)  I L I Has  the frame the c a p a c i t y t o l e a d t o a c t i o n ? H• ( N O )  C o n f i r m the u t i l i t y of the problem frame f o r p o l i c y purposes  Figure  3.7  P r o c e d u r a l Framework f o r Examining a Problem Frame  74 As  indicated  plausibility  in  Figure  i s applied, f i r s t  ahead of any  detailed  'constructural  3.7,  of  assessment  the  work),  i n respect to  researcher's  of what c o n s t i t u t e s the problem frame of the assessment  is  corroborating  made  by  evidence  researchers/commentators evidence may  t o support  Secondly, is  assessed  (i.e. and  the  pronouncement 'story.'  (where  t h i s might be  s/he  by,  the  of a g i v e n problem frame  policymakers  i s considered  evidence  i s sought t o  keeping'  w i t h , or e a s i l y  to  on  so.)  i n respect to i t s perceived  acceptability  other  the problem of the i n q u i r y t o f o c u s  the p l a u s i b i l i t y  accepted  of  ( I f t h e r e i s no  'face  the e x t e n t t o which i t i s l i k e l y t o  be  Such  possible)  interpretations  of the same s t o r y .  the  the r e s e a r c h e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ,  chose t o reframe  the q u e s t i o n of why  assembling  from  of  (and i t i s recommended, w e l l  analytical  validity'  the  'maps o n t o  1  make, sense t o ,  concerned).  hinge  show t h a t the  validity'  Since  upon  familiarity,  problem  frame i s ' i n  (Smith,  1982:331),  o t h e r p r o b l e m - s e t t i n g frames t h a t enjoy good c u r r e n c y w i t h i n the  culture.  the  f r a m e m i g h t be  concerned,  In  the absence of e v i d e n c e found  acceptable  t o suggest  by t h e  that  policymakers  i t would seem s e n s i b l e f o r the a n a l y s t t o l o c a t e  (or c r e a t e ) an a l t e r n a t i v e  (more ' p l a u s i b l e ' ) way  the p r o b l e m — o n e t h a t , perhaps, more l i k e l y t o be found  of  framing  maps on t o a frame t h a t i_s  acceptable.  Assessment of the frame's a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s i s based on the  question  of whether  can  be  t o o b t a i n between the  found  or  not  appropriate internal  correspondence p r o p e r t i e s of  75  the  metaphor—as  and,  between the  vehicle)  of  point  the  by  to  the the  problem.  correspondence followed  metaphor.  between  metaphor would  spelled  change p r o p e r t i e s  the  correspondence  framing  previously  the  and  (of the  and  of  assessment  internal  the  problem  f u l l y be  assessment of i t s change p r o p e r t i e s ,  a t a d i f f e r e n t systemic  each of  the  have been p o s i t i v e t o would then the  be  of  level—might  focus fruit-  assessments were found  stage,  of  frame the  to  of  utility  to  (a) the a c c e p t a b i l i t y  lead  the to  frame would  questionable.  i n the  course  of  spelling  assumptions of the g e n e r a t i v e characteristic  have had it  out,  and  Of  been  is or  (b)  the  course,  the  negated  (at t h a t  frame  at  the  time) been  always  possible  elaborating  the  metaphor, some h i t h e r t o unkown  might emerge t h a t  shadow over the value  metaphor,  action.  However,  of the  to  the  i f e i t h e r of these f a c t o r s  considered that,  this  implications  the  plausibility  preceding  examined i n r e s p e c t  'value'  capacity  outset  of  explored.  If  of  of  properties,  would suggest t h a t a r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the m e t a p h o r — t o on  of the  a l t e r n a t i v e way  positive  metaphor's  the  assessment  properties  need f o r an a  elaborated;  subject  negative  internal  But,  between  a negative  A  out,  i t is realized will  i m p l i c a t i o n s of the frame, or  cast a inhibit  i t s c a p a c i t y to lead to a c t i o n . On  the  policy-related  basis  of  utility  confirmed or r e j e c t e d .  these of  the  considerations, frame  would  then, be  the  either  76 CONFIRMING/REFRAMING THE PROBLEM Because t h e p r o c e s s o f problem f r a m i n g i s e s s e n t i a l l y a c r e a t i v e one (and t h e r e f o r e c i r c u l a r , r a t h e r t h a n  linear  i n n a t u r e [ H i c k l i n g , 1 9 7 6 ] ) , t h i s s t e p might j u s t as w e l l be viewed as a b e g i n n i n g one, as an e n d i n g one.  Indeed, t h i s  p o i n t i s b r o u g h t home  by W i l d a v s k y (1979:83), who s a y s , i n  the  analysis,  context of p o l i c y  "Problems  a r e n o t so much  s o l v e d as superseded." C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t i s t o be e x p e c t e d t h a t — i n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s — t h e end-product o f t h i s will of  (or any o t h e r such) s t u d y  s i m p l y r e p r e s e n t a s t e p p i n g - o f f p o i n t f o r a new round  problem-setting a c t i v i t i e s .  SchOn's s t a r t i n g  C o n c o m i t a n t l y , R e i n and  p o i n t o f c o n c e r n s and w o r r i e s m i g h t be  viewed as s i g n a l l i n g t h e c u l m i n a t i o n o f an e a r l i e r problemsetting  period;  one w h e r e b y  particular  feelings  d i s c o m f o r t were r e c o g n i z e d as a t t e n d a n t upon phenomenological  e x p e r i e n c e s , and  b e l o n g i n g t o some p a r t i c u l a r But,  since  each  genre  were  of  particular  identified  as  of concern or worry.  such c o n c e r n and worry had thus come  into  p e r c e p t u a l r e c o g n i t i o n by v i r t u e o f some metaphor (which had g i v e n i t meaning), a whole problem problem  in a  An setting which  i t i s l i k e l y t h a t each was i d e n t i f i e d as  i n i t s own r i g h t ,  larger  ( r a t h e r t h a n as a m i n i -  problematic situation).  overview of these  ideas suggests that  problem  f o r p o l i c y purposes i s an i t e r a t i v e p r o c e s s ; one i n t h e w o r r i e s and c o n c e r n s  a g g r e g a t e d and f r a m e d  o f y e s t e r d a y become  t o f o r m t h e p r o b l e m o f t o d a y ; and  77 whereby  these  problems-of-the-day  merely mini-problems  g e t t o be r e c o g n i z e d as  of a larger problematic s i t u a t i o n — o n e s  t h a t r e q u i r e a g g r e g a t i n g and r e - f r a m i n g  i n o r d e r t o become  the problem o f tomorrow; and so on, ad i n f i n i t u m . CHAPTER SUMMARY This chapter  has been concerned  discussing the r a t i o n a l e this It  study  was  for,  f o r conducting  suggested  w i t h o u t l i n i n g , , and  t h e procedures  problem-setting  developed i n  frame  t h a t , as a p r e p a r a t o r y  analysis.  research  task,  r e s e a r c h e r s pay r e f l e c t i v e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e way they  'bound  the  problematic  the  s u b j e c t i v e " p o i n t of view"  serve  situation'—recognizing,  t o bias the questions  preparatory provided  research  w h i c h must  they  d i s c o v e r i e s they might make.  and  acknowledging (unavoidably)  a s k , and t o d e l i m i t t h e  In c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a second  t a s k , a comprehensive  f o r guiding the s e l e c t i o n  rationale  was  o f documentation t o be  analysed. The stages  procedures  of r e f l e c t i v e  experiential Chapter  outlined  resolution  2) i n c o n n e c t i o n  i n r e s p e c t t o each o f f i v e  problem  setting  described the  o f t h e sub-problems i d e n t i f i e d ( i n w i t h each s t a g e .  The g u i d e l i n e s  p r e s e n t e d f o r " u n c o v e r i n g t h e g e n e r a t i v e metaphor u n d e r l y i n g the  problem  schema  frame,"  pattern  f o r example, d e s c r i b e  recognition that,  the process  i n retrospect,  of was  considered  t o have been used t o uncover t h e deep metaphor  underlying  the problem-setting  schools.  frame found  i n t h e case o f  78  The  framework  for "spelling  diagrammatically  out the  metaphor"  was  'template'  f o r g u i d i n g analogy c o n s t r u c t i o n .  was e x t e n d e d — f o r  illustrated  generative t o form  a  T h i s framework  purposes o f " e l a b o r a t i n g t h e assumptions  of t h e m e t a p h o r " — t o a r t i c u l a t e t h e p a t t e r n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s obtaining  among  the elements  that  implicit,  as w e l l  'idealized'  form o f t h e m e t a p h o r i c term.  as e x p l i c i t ,  go  t o make  understanding  r e f e r e n c e t o Kaplan's p a t t e r n model, how  up o u r of the  I t was shown, by such a g e n e r a l i z e d  ( i d e a l type) model c o u l d serve t o r e v e a l t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the metaphor f o r i t s s u b j e c t . Two s e t s  of c r i t e r i a  were proposed  t o serve  bases f o r examining t h e p o l i c y - r e l a t e d u t i l i t y frame.  as. t h e  o f a problem  One s e t , suggested by Wholey (1978) f o r j u d g i n g t h e  p o l i c y - r e l a t e d u t i l i t y o f program e v a l u a t i o n , i s f o c u s s e d on considerations  of p r a c t i c a l  policymakers.  The o t h e r  (1977), social (of  represents science  inquiry.  An amalgam o f t h e s e  reframing  and Schfln  yes/no  with  considerations  and u t i l i t y ) was proposed  a comprehensive s e t o f c r i t e r i a  sequential  to lay  t h e r i g o r - f o c u s s e d axioms a s s o c i a t e d  g i v e n problem frame.  negative  and r e l e v a n c e  s e t , i d e n t i f i e d by R e i n  p l a u s i b i l i t y , appropriateness,  to provide  a  utility  f o r examining a  These were s e t w i t h i n t h e framework o f directional  flow  chart  so t h a t  a  response a t any s t a g e o f t h e c h a r t would l e a d t o a o f t h e problem, and a p o s i t i v e response t h r o u g h o u t  would c u l m i n a t e  i n confirmation  of the u t i l i t y  purposes) o f t h e problem frame i n q u e s t i o n .  (for p o l i c y  Chapter 4 BOUNDING THE PROBLEMATIC SITUATION: THE CASE OF SCHOOLS We presuppose, i n e v e r y i n q u i r y , n o t o n l y a s e t o f d a t a b u t a l s o a s e t o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , b o t h about our m a t e r i a l s and about t h e i n s t r u m e n t s by which t h e y a r e t o be t r a n s f o r m e d i n t h e c o g n i t i v e e n t e r p r i s e . We draw our p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s from e a r l i e r i n q u i r i e s , from other s c i e n c e s , from everyday knowledge, from t h e e x p e r i e n c e s of c o n f l i c t and f r u s t r a t i o n which m o t i v a t e d our i n q u i r y , from h a b i t and t r a d i t i o n , from who knows where P r e s u p p o s i t i o n s are brought to the problematic situation. There a r e , b e s i d e s , b e l i e f s a r i s i n g i n and p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e s i t u a t i o n , as i n q u i r y g e t s under way. We may c a l l them s u p p o s i t i o n s . They a r e t h e b e l i e f s t h a t make t h e s i t u a t i o n p r o b l e m a t i c , e i t h e r because we cannot c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e them i n t h e c o n c e p t u a l frame a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e , o r b e c a u s e t h e y a r e i n c o n f l i c t w i t h one a n o t h e r , o r b e c a u s e t h e y c o n t r a d i c t some o f o u r presuppositions. (Kaplan, 1964:87) " I c r e a t e r e a l i t y by how I look a t i t . " Caveat emptor. ( A l l e n d e r , 1986:181) Rein need f o r  and Schon  (1977) have  drawn a t t e n t i o n  us t o become aware o f , and t o s c r u t i n i z e , t h e  problem-setting  frames t h a t p o l i c y m a k e r s  use t o make sense  of p r o b l e m a t i c s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s ; f o r such frames or  'bound,  1  the  delimit,  what t h e p o l i c y m a k e r s a r e then a b l e t o 'see' o f  that s i t u a t i o n . Chapter  t o the  A no l e s s u r g e n t need was i d e n t i f i e d ,  in  2, f o r us t o become aware o f , and t o make e x p l i c i t ,  p r o b l e m - s e t t i n g , frames t h a t c i r c u m s c r i b e t h e approach  79  80 we—as  i n q u i r e r s — t a k e i n the  study  o t h e r words, w h i l e we  are r e f l e c t i n g  about, how  thinking,  others  are  S c h f l n ' s c a u t i o n , and frames  that  guide  of  such  matters.  upon, and s p e c u l a t i n g  i t behoves us  t o remember  to s e t about d i s c o v e r i n g the  our  own  In  thinking.  For,  as  tacit  noted  by  Kaplan: . t h e s c i e n t i s t has va l u e s , and f o r t h e b e h a v i o r a l s c i e n t i s t the s u b j e c t - m a t t e r g i v e s h i s v a l u e s an u n a v o i d a b l e r e l e v a n c e . The d i s t o r t i o n s of o b s e r v a t i o n which may r e s u l t are e l i m i n a t e d or c a n c e l e d o n l y w i t h the greatest d i f f i c u l t y . D i s c o u n t i n g them by making them e x p l i c i t and by i n c o r p o r a t i n g the s c i e n t i s t ' s v a l u e s i n the scope of h i s study i s r a t h e r more p r o m i s i n g . ( K a p l a n , 1964:138-139) Moreover, as M i l e s and Huberman comment: Most r e s e a r c h e r s w o u l d a g r e e t h a t , t o know what you're d o i n g , you need t o know how your model of knowing a f f e c t s what you are d o i n g . ( M i l e s and Huberman, 1984:20) Accordingly, concerned with that  the  first  s e c t i o n of t h i s  w i t h making e x p l i c i t the model of  suppositions frames,  and  and  presuppositions  chapter  knowing—replete  (Kaplan,  1964:87)—  t h e r e b y t a c i t l y imposes d e l i m i t a t i o n s  t h i s r e s e a r c h e r ' s p e r c e p t i o n of what i s  is  problematic  on,  about  "the 'problem' of s c h o o l s . " T h i s i s f o l l o w e d by a r e v i e w of the l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t such a frame can be expected  t o impose ( i n t h i s study)  *  the s e l e c t i o n Of documentation t o be  *  the approach taken i n the  *  the q u e s t i o n s t h a t w i l l be asked,  inquiry, and  analysed,  upon:  81 *  the  nature of the  The  final  selection  of  rationale  findings  section  of  documentation  f o r the  that w i l l  the  for  result.  chapter  deals  analysis,  c h o i c e t h a t was  and  with  the  provides  the  made.  BOUNDING THE PROBLEMATIC SITUATION S u p p o s i t i o n s U n d e r l y i n g the Framing of the Research Q u e s t i o n of the Study First, Chapter as  it  3 for  well  be  uncover  framing  it  can i n the  as  way  to  of  the  problematic  of  social  'seeing'  that  the a  approach  tacitly  frame  just  suppositions field  of  of s o c i a l p o l i c y .  For,  the  have  had  of  the  of  in  can  in  the  policy  that  discussed  held  problem  field  (i.e.  situation  the  a problem-setting  the  inquirer—like some  supposed  uncovering  used  underlying research,  is  analyst—has 'making  spawned  to  sense')  his/her  research  question. The way t h e 1:6)  can  be  problematic was t o  problem of t h i s  seen,  situation  as  s t u d y was f r a m e d  follows,  to  w i t h which the  have  (Chapter  'bound'  question  of  the  the study  deal:  G i v e n t h a t p r o b l e m s t r u c t u r i n g has b e e n i d e n t i f i e d a s t h e most c r u c i a l , b u t l e a s t u n d e r s t o o d a s p e c t o f p o l i c y a n a l y s i s — h o w might the e d u c a t i o n a l policymaker set about framing the problem of schools for purposes of developing educational reform p o l i c i e s that are attuned to meeting school performance i n new a n d b e t t e r ways? Implicit that  in  this  educational  problem-setting reform  frame  p o l i c i e s are  is  failing  the  supposition  to b r i n g  about  82  real  change  i n the s t r u c t u r e  policymakers undergirding  are this  educational  'getting  the  supposition  policymakers  schools/schooling traditionally,  of s c h o o l s / s c h o o l i n g  wrong';  and  i s the p r e - s u p p o s i t i o n are getting  'wrong' b e c a u s e  gone about  problem  because  that  the problem  o f t h e way t h e y  (or not gone about)  of  have,  the task of  problem framing.  P r e - S u p p o s i t i o n s About Problem Framing f o r P o l i c y Purposes The  traditional  honoured  fashion,  collecting needs  of data  assessment);  according  method of problem framing. problem (very  framing  often  has i n v o l v e d  and counting  i n turn  issues  o f t h e most commonly  (e.g. school  streaming/tracking; be  based  objective that,  on  a belief  states  as s u c h ,  piecemeal  discipline;  class  size).  that  f o r which they  can  of f i n d i n g s  (or emergent) c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  of i s s u e s ; and the f o c u s s i n g of problem-solving each  the  by means of some form of  the a n a l y s i n g  t o some predetermined  In time-  perceived academic  This  problems  attention to of problem standards;  approach appears t o exist  as  concrete  "a s o l u t i o n " can be found; and be e f f e c t i v e l y  dealt with  in a  the s o l u t i o n t o some of our most commonly  held  fashion.  That  concerns i n education  apparently  r e q u i r e s the i n s t i t u t i o n of  q u i t e c o n t r a d i c t o r y o p e r a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s , has t o be ignored by  those  who  considerable  take  this  ambiguity  approach. about whether  There  i s , f o r example,  teachers  should  focus  83 on h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s meet c u r r i c u l u m e x p e c t a t i o n s , and s i m p l y "fail"  p u p i l s who  teachers  should  individual positive pupils  cannot  work  student  "make t h e g r a d e " ;  on m o d i f y i n g  abilities,  and c o n t i n u o u s ( C l a r k e , 1982).  curriculum  i n an attempt  l e a r n i n g experience Clearly,  teaching  f o c u s on a t t e n d i n g t o t h e l e a r n i n g needs o f and  those  that  requirements  centre  a r e premised  or whether  on t h e c o m p l e t i o n  t o meet  t o provide  a  for a l l their practices that a l l students, of curriculum  on i r r e c o n c i l a b l y d i f f e r e n t frames  of r e f e r e n c e . As to  p o i n t e d o u t by Husen  "diagnose"  what he c a l l s  (1983: 4 6 0 ) , i n h i s attempt  the malaise that besets  education i n h i g h l y i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t i e s , stem  from  obfuscated  goal by  conflicts rhetoric."  that  tend  He  points  t o be  formal  " t h e problems ignored  or  to the following  examples: Formal e d u c a t i o n i n our t e c h n o l o g i c a l s o c i e t y e x i s t s t o impart competencies, and i s , t h e r e f o r e , c r e a t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s . The s c h o o l — p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a t e c h n o l o g i c a l l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d s o c i e t y — c a n n o t a t once s e r v e a s an e q u a l i z e r and as an i n s t r u m e n t that e s t a b l i s h e s , r e i n f o r c e s , and l e g i t i m i z e s d i f f e r e n c e s . Such g o a l c o n f l i c t s make i t e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e s c h o o l t o pursue genuine e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s c o n d u c i v e t o self-fulfillment and s o c i a l education, goals that t r a d i t i o n a l l y play a prominant r o l e i n c u r r i c u l a r rhetoric. On t h e one hand, t h e s c h o o l i s expected t o pursue i n t r i n s i c g o a l s , t o f o s t e r " i n q u i r i n g minds" t h a t enjoy l e a r n i n g f o r i t s own sake. On t h e o t h e r hand,, t h e rewards f o r pursuing l e a r n i n g are e x t r i n s i c t o the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s : g r a d e s , degrees, j o b s . A g a i n , on t h e one hand, t h e s c h o o l i s expected t o f o s t e r a c o o p e r a t i v e s p i r i t , p r i m a r i l y through group work. On t h e o t h e r hand, the rewards almost always go to individual accomplishments. (Husen, 1983:461)  84 It  i s , therefore,  pre-supposed  that  the  traditional  approach t o the f r a m i n g of problems f o r p u b l i c s c h o o l administration discretely that  ( i . e . as  solvable  issues  the  as  'discipline'  symptoms of a d i s e a s e .  seen  as  y e t t o be  Accordingly,  policies  approach  are  i n a whole,  help  "get  the  'right'"  problem  (that  i s a systems  y  systems  approach  to  problem  the p o s i t i o n t h a t ,  viewed  as  abstract  framing.  "problems  elements  t h a t can be e x t r a c t e d problem element w i l l  from i t ;  This  e x i s t only  ( A c k o f f , 1980:29). of  a  As s u c h , system  of  i s not the  (or mini-messes)  f o r no s i n g l y  conceptualized  have an independent e f f e c t on t h e mess  As a consequence, messes have t o be d e a l t  synthetically,  as  f o n d l y r e f e r s t o as "a mess."  sum of the s o l u t i o n s t o the problems  points  their  approach t o  In t h e s e t e r m s , the " s o l u t i o n " t o a mess  Ackoff  systems  i t i s pre-supposed t h a t what would  seek t o s o l v e )  as a whole.  what i t i s  way.  p r o b l e m s — a system t h a t A c k o f f  simple  are  and  abstract subjective constructs" they  'standards'  about our p u b l i c s c h o o l  policymakers  takes  as  systemic,  problem f r a m i n g . A  and  As a consequence,  framed  s a t i s f a c t o r i l y explanatory  educational  existed  speaking) e f f e c t s of a p r o b l e m — r a t h e r l i k e  that i s a c t u a l l y problematic is  issues  e n t i t i e s ) has been found w a n t i n g . And,  such  (metaphorically  i f problematic  system  as a system  of  problems, an approach  out i s an e s s e n t i a l p r o p e r t y  opposed t o problem s o l v i n g .  with which  of p l a n n i n g ,  as  85  Now, reference  while their  Rein  and  SchOn  (1977) do  p o s i t i o n t o a systems way  congruency between t h e i r p e r s p e c t i v e and reflected  throughout t h e i r  writing.  not  explicitly  of t h i n k i n g , the t h a t of A c k o f f  It is particularly  e v i d e n t i n t h e i r c r i t i c i s m of the view t h a t d e f i n e s the of p o l i c y  research  as  "instrumental  is  task  problem s o l v i n g , where  s o l u t i o n s e n t a i l d i s c r e t e p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s " (Rein and Schfln, 1 9 7 7 : 2 3 5 ) ; and present  m i g h t be  inferred  from the c r i t e r i a  they  i n r e s p e c t t o problem frames:  . . . a l l frames used t o s e t problems must s e r v e b o t h e x p l a n a t o r y and n o r m a t i v e f u n c t i o n s . They must e n a b l e the i n q u i r e r t o group a d i s t r i b u t e d s e t of w o r r i e s i n t e r m s o f phenomena t h a t a r e s e q u e n c e d a c c o r d i n g t o b e f o r e - a n d - a f t e r , then-and-now. They must a l l o w t h e i n q u i r e r to o r d e r e v e n t s i n the f i e l d of social e x p e r i e n c e so as t o p e r m i t e x p l a n a t i o n of l a t e r e v e n t s i n terms of e a r l i e r ones — t h a t i s , they must p e r m i t the l o c a t i o n of e v e n t s i n a c a u s a l space so t h a t q u e s t i o n s of "Why?" and "What i f . . . ?" can be addressed t o a c t i o n s i n t h i s space w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t y of a determinate answer. M o r e o v e r , f r a m e s must c o n t a i n a b a s i s f o r a c t i o n . They must p e r m i t the i n q u i r e r not o n l y t o e x p l a i n the phenomena a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i s w o r r i e s , but t o s e t the d i r e c t i o n s of a c t i o n s designed t o reduce them. In t h i s sense, frames must f a c i l i t a t e what we have c a l l e d the n o r m a t i v e l e a p from f i n d i n g s t o recommendations. (Rein and Schfln, 1977:240) It  would  aggregating  indeed  seem a r g u a b l e  "a d i s t r i b u t e d  t h a t the  notion  s e t of w o r r i e s " i n t o a  of  "whole"  problem f r a m e — a frame t h a t a t once e x p l a i n s , d i a g n o s e s ,  and  c o n t a i n s the p r e s c r i p t i o n of d i r e c t i o n f o r r e m e d i a l a c t i o n — is  one  with  expounded  the  by  view expressed  holistic,  Ackoff.  systems, view of  It i s certainly  by Immegart and  "problems,"  consonant w i t h  Pilecki.that:  as the  86 Phenomena i n t h e s y s t e m s p e r s p e c t i v e a r e v i e w e d n o t as i s o l a t e d e v e n t s b u t i n s t e a d a r e a s s e s s e d i n t o t a l i t y , i n c o n t e x t , and i n a c h r o n o l o g i c a l sequence. P u t a n o t h e r way, t h e systems p e r s p e c t i v e places import on t h e e v o l u t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f a l l e v e n t s and p r o b l e m s , and i s concerned w i t h the t o t a l i t y of behaviour or f u n c t i o n i n an u n f o l d i n g t i m e s e q u e n c e . I t i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h l i n k a g e s and p a t t e r n s i n t i m e - s p a c e . Immegart a n d P i l e c k i (1973:6)  Upon r e f l e c t i o n , approach  to  foundation  this  that  systems  inquiry  i t c a n be r e c o g n i z e d rests  Since  not only  such  a  an  model  t h e meanings t h a t  and  t h e way r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n  the  very  way i n w h i c h  conceptualized—some should  on  of  general  of knowing  are attached  them  the research  that the  epistemological  i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e t e n e t s  theory.  influence,  then,  will  t o data  are perceived, but  task  i s approached and  of the implications of this  approach  be i d e n t i f i e d .  Some I m p l i c a t i o n s o f The S y s t e m s A p p r o a c h The  systems  approach  Immegart a n d P i l e c k i theory as  being  holistic  thinking.  analytic  that which system whole.  This  and c o n t e x t u a l  F o r , as A c k o f f  of  i n nature—meaning that i t  (1980)  i s t o be e x p l a i n e d  and i s e x p l a i n e d  reminds  o f t h e whole  i t sparts—while,  K a t z a n d Kahn  to  mode i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d  w i t h a s y n t h e t i c r a t h e r t h a n an a n a l y t i c  mode, an e x p l a n a t i o n  explanations  According  (1973), " t h e s y s t e m s a p p r o a c h " i s n o t a  b u t a mode o f t h o u g h t .  i s preoccupied of  to inquiry.  way  us, i n the  i s derived  i n synthetic  from  thinking,  i s viewed as p a r t o f a l a r g e r  i n terms o f i t s r o l e  (1966) p u t i t t h u s :  i n that  larger  87 . . . the f i r s t s t e p [of r e s e a r c h i n t h e systems mode] s h o u l d always be t o go t o t h e next h i g h e r l e v e l o f system o r g a n i z a t i o n , t o study t h e dependence o f t h e system i n q u e s t i o n upon t h e supersystem [or suprasystem] of which i t i s a p a r t , f o r t h e supersystem s e t s t h e l i m i t s o f v a r i a n c e o f b e h a v i o u r o f t h e dependent system. More a n a l y t i c study can then e x p l o r e t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f subsystems t o t h i s l i m i t e d range o f v a r i a n c e . (Katz and Kahn, 1966:58) In study,  terms of the s u b j e c t  there  i s a distinct  of i n v e s t i g a t i o n  advantage  of  i n being  this  able  to  apprehend t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s c h o o l s and s c h o o l i n g from t h e systems p e r s p e c t i v e : f o r i t p e r m i t s t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r t o scan the o r g a n i z a t i o n of s c h o o l i n g from d i f f e r e n t vantage p o i n t s -or l e v e l s of a n a l y s i s . The s c h o o l as seen from a systems p e r s p e c t i v e . F i r s t , the s c h o o l may be p e r c e i v e d as an e n t i t y t h a t possesses characteristics  of a r e l a t i v e l y  autonomous "system",  subsystem  functions  o f i t s own  activities  s e r v i n g as i t s p r o d u c t i o n  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s s e r v i n g the managerial perspective, "nested"  the school — a s  (e.g. with  function).  school  From t h i s  a s y s t e m — c a n be s e e n t o be  (along w i t h o t h e r s c h o o l s ) w i t h i n t h e (super-, or) District.  From t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f an a l t e r n a t i v e s y s t e m i c school  can be  suprasystem the  seen as a subsystem  ( i . e . as f u l f i l l i n g  larger educational  Provincial In  with  classroom  f u n c t i o n ; and  suprasystem s t r u c t u r e of t h e l o c a l School  the  the  and/or other  State  level  of the educational  the production  system—either  view,  f u n c t i o n of  at the  District,  of o p e r a t i o n s ) .  words, the school  c a n be s e e n — f r o m t h e  p e r s p e c t i v e o f any l e v e l of a n a l y s i s — a s a s y s t e m i c  p a r t of  88  a system o f s c h o o l i n g . turn,  And t h i s system o f s c h o o l i n g can, i n  be seen as s e r v i n g  ( p a r t o f ) t h e maintenance  sub-  system f u n c t i o n o f t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t a l system. What i s t o be u n d e r s t o o d by t h e  term  "school"  is  f u r t h e r d e f i n e d under t h e r u b r i c o f t h e d e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e study. The  D e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e Study The  study i s d e l i m i t e d t o a conceptual  analysis of  those f a c t o r s t h a t a r e seen as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e problem setting  (as opposed  making;  t o problem  facet  of p o l i c y -  and t o t h e o p e r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f an approach  problem  setting  (suggested  conducted i n t h e c o n t e x t In "school"  reference  i s understood  ideal-type public  solving)  model  educational  1  by R e i n  of p u b l i c  and S c h o n ,  to  1977)--  schooling.  t o the case as a g e n e r i c  of s c h o o l s , term  of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l  the term  standing  f o r an  organization  of  programmes and s e r v i c e s a t t h e p r i m a r y ,  e l e m e n t a r y , and/or secondary l e v e l s — a s found i n Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a . T  As e x p l a i n e d by A l l i s o n (1980; 23-24) , who d e v o t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n t o d e v e l o p i n g a model embodying t h e features c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a l l d i f f e r e n t kinds of schools: . . . i d e a l - t y p e models a r e a b s t r a c t i o n s from r e a l i t y i n which s e l e c t e d g e n e r i c f e a t u r e s a r e e x a g g e r a t e d t o a l o g i c a l extreme so as t o make them c l e a r and s u b j e c t t o subsequent a n a l y s i s . I t follows that these features appear i n i d e a l - t y p e s i n a manner which w i l l r a r e l y , i f e v e r , be found i n t h e i r e m p i r i c a l r e f e r e n t s . . . . I d e a l t y p e s a r e n o t i n t e n d e d t o be e x h a u s t i v e , nor a r e they meant t o i n c l u d e a l l f e a t u r e s o f t h e s u b j e c t , b u t they are i n t e n d e d t o p r e s e n t a c l e a r s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f f e a t u r e s of i n t e r e s t .  89  L i m i t a t i o n s Imposed by t h e R e s e a r c h e r ' s Frame o f Reference The documentation documentation  t o be a n a l y s e d .  In s e l e c t i n g the  t o be a n a l y s e d , i t can be r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e  choice w i l l  be i n f l u e n c e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s need t o p u t  her  h y p o t h e s i s — t h a t educational policymakers  (tacit)  been g e t t i n g t h e 'problem' way  they  have  addressed—to  framed  o f s c h o o l s 'wrong' because o f t h e  the problematic  the t e s t .  have  situation  t o be  This i s r e f l e c t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g  research question: *  What does an a n a l y s i s o f t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s used i n some ( s e l e c t e d ) p o l i c y - i n f l u e n c i n g document o f our time r e v e a l about t h e p r o b l e m - s e t t i n g frame(s) guiding the school reform proposals? Furthermore,  the d e l i m i t a t i o n of the i n q u i r y t o the  sphere o f p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n i n t h e c o n t e x t s o f Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s can be seen t o p u t l i m i t a t i o n s on t h e number, and  source,  of p o l i c y - i n f l u e n c i n g  considered f o r s e l e c t i o n .  (The f r a m i n g o f t h e study  the c o n t e x t o f a d i s s e r t a t i o n and  documents t h a t might be within  imposed c o n s t r a i n t s o f space  time t h a t f u r t h e r l i m i t e d t h e s e l e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s t o  one document.) T h e _ a p p r oa c h _ t a k e n _ t o_th____SH__Y_ • expected  (as a l r e a d y noted  approach') the  that data w i l l ,  purpose  (reductionist-type)  1  c a n be  i n t h e c o n t e x t o f 'the systems pre-dominantly,  of s y n t h e s i s— i n t o  f rameworks — r a t h e r  1  than  analysis.  be o r d e r e d f o r  systemic  f o r purposes  conceptual of  detailed  90 Indeed, seen  this  'systems  to characterize  approach'  to inquiry  the underlying  epistemological  " o r g a n i c i s m i c ^ w o r l d v i e w " (Pepper, 1942) o f -as  evidenced  can be  the researcher-  i n the conceptualization  of the o v e r a l l  s t r u c t u r e o f t h i s s t u d y as a s e t o f n e s t e d C h i n e s e boxes. The q u e s t i o n s asked.  I t can be e x p e c t e d  respect  to the questions asked,  evidence  o f t h e systems  what  will  be  sought  there w i l l  (or o r g a n i c i s m i c ) i n the analysis  g e n e r a t i v e metaphors w i l l  of  be t h e r e l a t i o n a l  For,  (identified) correspondence  of elemental parts that  whole  compared)  patterns  further  approach.  between t h e networks (metaphorically  be  that, i n  constitute  (as per Kaplan's  p a t t e r n model o f knowing). I n d e s c r i b i n g t h e f o u r b a s i c systems of knowledge i n Western thought t h a t P e p p e r , i n h i s (1942) "World Hypotheses," suggested had proved s u f f i c i e n t l y f r u i t f u l t o p r o v i d e a r e l a t i v e l y adequate i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e f u l l scope o f t h e w o r l d ' s f a c t s — H a r r e l l (1982:224) n o t e s : O r g a n i c i s m - - i n which the b a s i c o p e r a t i o n i s t o compose a s t r u c t u r e and t h e p r i m a r y c o g n i t i o n i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f p a r t s t o w h o l e — i s an h y p o t h e s i s d e r i v e d from t h e r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t an organism i s somehow more t h a n t h e sum o f i t s p a r t s . The o t h e r t h r e e c a t e g o r i a l s e t s proposed by Pepper can be capsulized as: Formism—basic operation, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ; c o g n i t i o n , the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the p a r t i c u l a r t o the g e n e r a l . Mechanism—basic operation, correlation (especially i n the sense o f c a u s a l i m p l i c a t i o n s ) ; c o g n i t i o n i d e n t i f i e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r t i c u l a r s . . Contextualism--basic operation, a c t of a t t e n t i o n ; c o g n i t i o n concerned w i t h f i g u r e - g r o u n d r e l a t i o n ships. The i d e n t i t y o f a p a r t i c u l a r t h i n g o r event i s a l t e r e d by what i s a t t e n d e d t o i n i t s context (thus—no stable, universal categories).  91 The n a t u r e o f t h e f i n d i n g s . expected way  be  t h a t t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e study w i l l be framed i n a  t h a t , i s congruent  with  I t can, likewise,  implications  policymakers  with  drawn  t h e systems p e r s p e c t i v e — i . e .  f o r the a t t e n t i o n  of educational  and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s t h a t l a r g e l y  f o c u s on a  h i g h e r l e v e l o f system o r g a n i z a t i o n than t h e s c h o o l . SELECTING THE DOCUMENTATION TO BE ANALYSED Bounding t h e Source As a l r e a d y n o t e d , t h e d e l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e i n q u i r y t o the sphere o f p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n i n t h e c o n t e x t s o f Canada and the  United  source,  1975  a limitation  o f pb1 i c y - i n f 1 u e n c i n g  considered study  States puts  f o r selection.  on t h e number, and  documents  Furthermore,  o f s c h o o l i n g had been conducted O.E.C.D. E x t e r n a l E x a m i n e r s '  that  might  be  as no n a t i o n - w i d e i n Canada s i n c e t h e  Report  on E d u c a t i o n a l  P o l i c y i n Canada, and no p r o v i n c i a l study o f n a t i o n a l  repute  s i n c e t h e 1969 H a l l ,  seemed  only  Dennis Report  of O n t a r i o ^ — i t  r e a s o n a b l e t h a t t h e f i e l d o f c a n d i d a t e s be narrowed t o  t h o s e t h a t were American i n o r i g i n . I d e n t i f y i n g t h e Research In  reference to Figure  circumstances  J  Requirements  of t h i s  case  3.1 (p. 4 9 ) , t h e p a r t i c u l a r  'study'  can be i d e n t i f i e d  with  The S u l l i v a n Report on t h e Royal Commission on E d u c a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia t i t l e d "A Legacy f o r L e a r n e r s " ( 1 9 8 8 ) — which may w e l l become a n a t i o n a l l y - r e f e r e n c e d s t u d y — w a s not commissioned u n t i l t h r e e y e a r s a f t e r t h e commencement o f t h i s study.  92  both  s i t u a t i o n s #2  educational are  policies  generally  changing  s e e n as  reform  #3.  For,  as  in  ( i n b o t h Canada and being  environmental  educational recent  and  #2,  existing  the U n i t e d  States)  i n need o f u p d a t i n g t o meet  conditions;  policies  and,  proposed  as  for  in U.S.  #3,  major  schools  t i m e s t o address such needs have become the  of some c o n s i d e r a b l e To  satisfy  circumstances,  in  subject  debate.  the  requirements  of  both  these  sets  of  i t would seem c l e a r t h a t the documentation t o  be s e l e c t e d f o r a n a l y s i s (a) r e f l e c t  the  constitutes context  should:  most w i d e l y - h e l d  view p o s s i b l e  of  'the problem' of s c h o o l s / s c h o o l i n g  what  i n the  of what are seen t o be changing e n v i r o n m e n t a l  conditions, (b) i n c l u d e  and  those proposed  s o l u t i o n s t h a t have been  the  s u b j e c t of debate. Making a S u p p o r t a b l e C h o i c e Based on  a l l of  the  above-mentioned  the p o l i c y - i n f l u e n c i n g document t o be in  this  studies  study had, of  clearly,  American  (U.S.) titled, Reform"  of the h i g h - p r o f i l e  proposals  Nation  (1983) .  Commission at  Risk:  on The  that  for  the document so s e l e c t e d was  National "A  selected for analysis  schoo1s/schoo1ing  controversially-received Accordingly,  t o be. one  considerations,  contained  school  reform.  the r e p o r t by  Excellence Imperative  in for  the  Education Educational  93 Chosen  from  amongst  several  research  and  commissioned s t u d i e s on s c h o o l i n g i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h i s report—which  embodied numerous o t h e r  commissioned  studies  and r e p o r t s — w a s judged t o have r e c e i v e d the g r e a t e s t amount of  p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n , and  debate and  (1985:134), f o r example, "reform  a l l equal.  A Nation  proposals."  reports  and  And,  books  widest  According  documents  are  at Risk i s a s l i m manuscript,  but  page f o r page i t i s c l e a r l y recent  the  l e g i s l a t i v e response i n t h a t c o u n t r y .  to Feinberg not  t o have s t i m u l a t e d  t h e most i n f l u e n t i a l  i t heads the  selected  by  list  of  Tetreault  of  eight  and  the such  Schmuck  (1985:45) on the grounds t h a t : .the r h e t o r i c i n which they are embedded i s l i k e l y t o shape e d u c a t i o n a l debate f o r the next two decades. P r e p a r e d by i n f l u e n t i a l p o l i c y g r o u p s and p r o m i n e n t educators, the p r o p o s a l s carry weight with the e d u c a t i o n a l community and the p u b l i c . "Rhetoric" i s , here, taken of  metaphoric  report  utterances  convey  schools"  and  their by  situation."  with  as meaning the embodiment which  understanding  the of  "the  which they make sense of  Furthermore,  i t  is  authors  of  problem  "the  the of  problematic  supposed  that  the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the r h e t o r i c used i n the American r e p o r t , "A  Nation  debate  at  Risk,"  on  the  Canadians;  and,  perception  of  i s not  subject that "the  of  there  dissimilar  to  schooling  i s conducted  exists a  school"  that  that  socially is  i n which by  constructed  fundamentally  g e n e r a l i z a b l e w i t h i n the broad c o n t e x t of contemporary N o r t h American c u l t u r e .  94  CHAPTER SUMMARY The  first  reflexive  section  of t h i s  c h a p t e r was d e v o t e d t o a  e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m - s e t t i n g frame used by  t h i s i n q u i r e r t o make sense o f what i s p r o b l e m a t i c about t h e way  'the p r o b l e m o f s c h o o l s ' has been framed f o r p o l i c y  purposes.  This  supposition  that past e f f o r t s  substantial failed  examination revealed to bring  structural/operational)  because  addressing  'right'  about r e a l ( i . e .  change  proposals f o r school  the  the underlying  i n schools  r e f o r m have  problem.  have  n o t been  I t was,  further,  c o n j e c t u r e d t h a t p o l i c y m a k e r s have been g e t t i n g t h e problem 'wrong'  because  traditionally  of the piecemeal  approach  that  been t a k e n i n t h e f i e l d  of s o c i a l  policy to  a s s e s s i n g what i s wrong and what i n need o f f i x i n g . on t h i s p r e - s u p p o s i t i o n , i t was suggested t h a t a systems  approach  fruitful.  t o problem  setting/solving  And, t h e congruence  between  was n o t e d .  I t was, m o r e o v e r ,  Based  (holistic)  might  be more  a such an approach  and t h a t s u g g e s t e d by R e i n and Schfln f o r r e f l e c t i v e setting  has  problem  observed that the  o v e r a l l approach t o i n q i r y t a k e n i n t h i s s t u d y r e f l e c t e d t h e t e n e t s o f g e n e r a l systems t h e o r y — a n d what, i n p h i l o s o p h i c a l terms, was d e s c r i b e d  by Pepper  (1942)  as an " o r g a n i s m i c "  worldview. A  second  documentation  section  dealt  for analysis;  with  the s e l e c t i o n  and p r o v i d e d  a rationale for  s u p p o r t i n g t h e c h o i c e o f t h e 1983 (U.S.) Commission N a t i o n a t R i s k " f o r purposes o f t h i s s t u d y .  of  Study "A  Chapter 5 UNCOVERING AND SPELLING OUT THE GENERATIVE METAPHOR USED TO FRAME THE PROBLEM OF SCHOOLS . . . t h e m e t a p h o r i c a l statement does n o t a c t u a l l y s t a t e t h e a n a l o g y , even where a r e l e v a n t l y i m p o r t a n t one e x i s t s . I t i s r a t h e r i n t h e n a t u r e o f f an i n v i t a t i o n t o s e a r c h f o r one, and i s i n p a r t judged by how w e l l such a s e a r c h i s rewarded. ( S c h e f f l e r , 1960:48) We c o n c l u d e t h a t d e c l i n e s i n e d u c a t i o n a l performance are i n l a r g e p a r t t h e r e s u l t o f d i s t u r b i n g i n a d e q u a c i e s i n t h e way t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s i t s e l f i s o f t e n conducted. . . . (U.S. The  N a t i o n a l Commission on E x c e l l e n c e , 1983:18)  contents  of t h i s  chapter  were  produced  by  a p p l y i n g t o t h e document, "A N a t i o n a t R i s k , " t h e p r o c e d u r a l framework  (outlined  generative  metaphor  problem-setting  i n Chapter underlying  3)  f o r uncovering  the problem  frame  the of a  s t o r y , and f o r ' s p e l l i n g o u t ' t h a t metaphor.  I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t , w h i l e t h e r e p o r t i n g o f these analyses then  i s n e c e s s a r i l y conducted  that)  fashion,  their  i n a linear  content  (first  this,  i s e x p e r i e n t i a 11y  d i s c e r n e d i n a much more ( h o l i s t i c ) " a l l a t once" way. consequence,  t h e a n a l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s suggested  As a  by t h e  named f e a t u r e s o f t h e g e n e r a t i v e metaphor a r e more  'telling'  when v i e w e d , i n r e t r o s p e c t , as a whole, t h a n when  assessed,  en r o u t e , i n piecemeal sequence.  96  UNCOVERING THE GENERATIVE METAPHOR UNDERLYING THE PROBLEM FRAME The  part  of t h e Commission's  'story' that  s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h e problem o f s c h o o l s as  wrong, and i n need o f f i x i n g  deals  ( i . e . what i s seen  i n the school  system) i s  found i n t h e R e p o r t , "A N a t i o n a t R i s k , " under t h e r u b r i c o f "Findings"  and "Recommendations."  the Commission's c o n c l u s i o n "declines  i n educational  I t i s best  summed up by  (page 18) t h a t what i s wrong i s  performance," and t h a t what needs  f i x i n g i s " t h e way t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s i t s e l f i s [ o f t e n ] conducted." We c o n c l u d e t h a t d e c l i n e s i n e d u c a t i o n a l performance are i n l a r g e p a r t t h e r e s u l t o f d i s t u r b i n g i n a d e q u a c i e s i n t h e way t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s i t s e l f i s o f t e n conducted. The f i n d i n g s t h a t f o l l o w , c u l l e d from a much more e x t e n s i v e l i s t , r e f l e c t f o u r i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s o f the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s : c o n t e n t , e x p e c t a t i o n s , t i m e , and teaching. (Commission F i n d i n g s , p a r a . 37:18) T h i s a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e problem i s , c l e a r l y , of  any h e l p f u l  'solutions'  surface  metaphors;  a r e not r e f e r e n c e d  exemplifies suggests t h a t  the 'ideal'  and t h e p r o p o s e d  t o any e x p l i c i t  state  which  devoid  model  i s sought.  that This  t h e model used by t h e Commissioners t o make  sense o f t h e i r f i n d i n g s i s such a f a m i l i a r one t o them (and, no doubt, t o us) t h a t i t i s n o t r e c o g n i z e d what  as such, so t h a t  i s 'seen' t o be t h e problem i s t a k e n t o be a l i t e r a l  'truth'—and  the s o l u t i o n s ,  obvious.  Answers were, a c c o r d i n g l y , questions:  sought t o t h e f o l l o w i n g  .97 *  "To what p r o b l e m — i n some o t h e r c o n t e x t ( t h a t i s f a m i l i a r t o the s t o r y t e l l e r s ) — a r e t h e s e recommended c o u r s e s of a c t i o n a l s o o b v i o u s s o l u t i o n s ? " and *  " I n what o t h e r c o n t e x t s ( f a m i l i a r t o t h e s t o r y t e l l e r s ) might the n o r m a t i v e i d e a s u n d e r p i n n i n g t h e s e s o l u t i o n s a l s o be found?" Viewed  of  the  i n r e l a t i o n t o the whole p r o b l e m - s e t t i n g s t o r y  report,  these  relations"—for  the  C o m m i s s i o n were  seen  questions  courses as  of  elicited action  a  "click  proposed  r e m i n i s c e n t of the  by  of the  traditional  management c o n s u l t a n t ' s c a l l f o r t i g h t e r q u a l i t y c o n t r o l  to  combat d e c l i n i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y i n the w o r k p l a c e . Finding  documentary e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t the  p l a u s i b i l i t y o f the r e s e a r c h e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n 7:166-168), i t was made f o r assuming f i n d i n g s by  determined  seeming  (see Chapter  t h a t a s t r o n g case c o u l d  be  t h a t t h e Commission had made sense of i t s  ' s e e i n g ' the e d u c a t i o n a l system as i f i t were a  business enterprise;  and  the  " s c h o o l as  ( i f i t w e r e ) an  i n d u s t r i a l workplace." When t h e s c h o o l i s viewed as an i n d u s t r i a l w o r k p l a c e , " d e c l i n e s i n e d u c a t i o n a l performance" meaning,  'decreases  expression,  problem simply,  school  "the conduct  meaning 'the way carried  in  can be i n t e r p r e t e d as  productivity';  of the e d u c a t i o n a l  and  p r o c e s s , " as  s c h o o l i n g i s managed by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and  out by t e a c h e r s . '  Under such a v i e w , the  o f s c h o o l s i s seen as h a v i n g been f r a m e d , as  a  the  problem  q u e s t i o n t o be answered  of  workplace  management.  overall quite The  thus becomes, "What changes have t o  be made t o s c h o o l system o r g a n i z a t i o n  i n order to  p r o d u c t i v i t y and the q u a l i t y of system  performance?"  improve  98  Now, g i v e n t h a t we 'know' how t o c o r r e c t t h e problem of poor p r o d u c t i v i t y and s t a n d a r d s (product-oriented) of  schools  key  i s obvious.  result  would  workplaces,  areas  the s o l u t i o n  other  t o t h e problem  C o r r e c t i o n s need t o be made t o t h e  of the educational  i n the manufacturing  workplace.  o f performance i n  And, g i v e n  p r o c e s s — j u s t as  process  this  of  some  'obviousness,  1  they  industrial i t i s not  s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e f o u r key r e s u l t areas o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l process  w h i c h a r e p i n p o i n t e d by t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r s t o be  targetted areas  f o r reform  that  industrial 5.1,  have,  can be found  traditionally,  (manufactoring)  to parallel  key r e s u l t  been o f c o n c e r n  i n the  s e c t o r , as i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e s  5.2, 5.3, and 5.4. SPELLING OUT THE UNDERLYING GENERATIVE METAPHOR The  metaphor  framework d e v i s e d (Chapter  3)  for spelling  provides  conceptual  images  conjured  interpreter)  by t h e "named"  story—along  with  out a generative  a mechanism up  ( i n t h e mind  features of a  t h e normative  made e x p l i c i t ; and whereby t h e  whereby t h e  ideas  they  of the  problem-setting evoke—can  be  i n f l u e n c e these e x e r t on t h e  way we come t o ' s e e ' t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e m e t a p h o r c a n be traced. spelling industrial and  I t s a p p l i c a t i o n i s demonstrated i n r e s p e c t t o t h e out of the generative workplace,"  (as shown i n F i g u r e s  5.4) which i s p r e s e n t e d  i n t h e case o f s c h o o l s .  metaphor,  "school  as an  5.1, 5.2, 5.3,  as t h e g e n e r a t i v e metaphor used  99 The  Case of  Schools  Four  aspects  of  the  " e x p e c t a t i o n s , " "time," and Commissioners t o be analytical conceptual  " t e a c h i n g " — w e r e s e l e c t e d by  to  these  images c o n j u r e d up  to i l l u s t r a t e  process—"content,"  t a r g e t t e d f o r reform.  framework  each have, f i r s t , is  educational  four  In a p p l y i n g  our  named f e a t u r e s ,  the  ( i n the i n t e r p r e t e r ' s mind) by  t o be mapped. the  the  The  purpose of such a  map  analogous r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t might  be  seen t o o b t a i n between them as elements of t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n of  schools,  and  as  elements of  t r a d i t i o n a l l y operated is  'known'  about  the  o r g a n i z a t i o n of  i n d u s t r i a l workplace.  the  operation  of  e f f e c t i v e i n d u s t r i a l w o r k p l a c e , and what 'solutions'  to  the  problem  performance/productivity]  of  [of  S e c o n d l y , what  an  efficient  and  are recommended as  declining  schools  the  educational  have t o be i n s e r t e d ,  so as t o i l l u s t r a t e the t a c i t r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t can be  seen  t o o b t a i n between them. Procedural  Format.  In o r d e r material of  t o accommodate t h e  display  of a l l t h i s  ( w i t h i n the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by page s i z e ) , each  the  four  analysed  process  separately  aspects  named by  the  (as shown i n F i g u r e 5.1  Figure  5.2  for  "expectations";  Figure  5.4  for teaching).  For  Figure  5.3  each, the  Commission i s for  f o r "time";  and  "Findings"  and  "Recommendations" of the Commission are p r e s e n t e d form) i n the accompanying t e x t , w i t h that  are  seen of  relevance  i n the  "contents";  ( i n boxed  the s u r f a c e metaphors  e x p l i c a t i o n of the  deep  100 metaphor  identified  of  (boldfaced)  the  these  analogical  i n boldface p r i n t . surface  metaphors  i m p l i c a t i o n s of  metaphor are then developed  f o r each  Commission's F i n d i n g s Regarding  F i n d i n g s Regarding  the  An  interpretation  (where f o u n d ) , deep  and  (generative)  in turn.  "Content"  Content  By c o n t e n t we mean the v e r y " s t u f f " of e d u c a t i o n , the c u r r i c u l u m . Because of our concern about the c u r r i c u l u m , the Commission examined p a t t e r n s o f c o u r s e s h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s took i n 1964-69 compared w i t h c o u r s e p a t t e r n s i n 1976-81. On the b a s i s of t h e s e a n a l y s e s we c o n c l u d e : o  Secondary s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a have been homogenized, d i l u t e d , and d i f f u s e d t o the p o i n t t h a t they no l o n g e r have a c e n t r a l purpose. In e f f e c t , we have a c a f e t e r i a - s t y l e c u r r i c u l u m i n which a p p e t i z e r s and d e s s e r t s can e a s i l y be m i s t a k e n f o r t h e main courses. Students have m i g r a t e d from v o c a t i o n a l and c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t o r y p r o g r a m s t o " g e n e r a l track" c o u r s e s i n l a r g e numbers. The p r o p o r t i o n of s t u d e n t s t a k i n g a g e n e r a l program of study has i n c r e a s e d from 12 p e r c e n t i n 1964 t o 42 p e r c e n t i n 1979.  o  This c u r r i c u l a r smorgasbord, combined w i t h extensive student c h o i c e , e x p l a i n s a great deal about where we f i n d o u r s e l v e s today. We o f f e r i n t e r m e d i a t e a l g e b r a , but o n l y 31 p e r c e n t o f our r e c e n t h i g h s c h o o l graduates complete i t ; we o f f e r French I , but o n l y 13 p e r c e n t complete i t ; and we o f f e r Geography, but o n l y 16 p e r c e n t complete i t . C a l c u l u s i s a v a i l a b l e i n s c h o o l s e n r o l l i n g about 60 p e r c e n t of a l l s t u d e n t s , but o n l y 6 p e r c e n t of a l l s t u d e n t s complete i t .  o  Twenty — f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e c r e d i t s e a r n e d by g e n e r a l t r a c k h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s are i n p h y s i c a l and h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n , work e x p e r i e n c e o u t s i d e the s c h o o l , r e m e d i a l E n g l i s h and m a t h e m a t i c s , and p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e and development c o u r s e s , such as t r a i n i n g f o r a d u l t h o o d and m a r r i a g e . (A N a t i o n a t R i s k : p a r a . 38:18-19)  101  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s u r f a c e metaphors. The the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s  "content"  i s seen as b e i n g made up of  of  "stuff"  ( i . e . i n f o r m a t i o n a l matter) r e l a t i n g t o p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t s . In an e d u c a t i o n a l referred  to  as  s e t t i n g these  s u b j e c t s c o n s t i t u t e what i s  "curriculum."  The  s u b j e c t s , of  a  school's  c u r r i c u l u m a r e m e t a p h o r i c a l l y l i k e n e d (by the Commission) t o foods t h a t are s e r v e d a t mealtimes t o Expanding on normative b i a s various  this  a n a l o g y , the Commission r e v e a l s  in i t s beliefs  subjects;  about the  f o r i t l i k e n s the  (and program e x p e c t a t i o n s ) meal t h a t i s served the  in a  of  desserts.  educational  The  main  process  (normatively  content  and  are  of  (non-academic) a p p e t i z e r s organization  of  today's a  c a f e t e r i a where the c l i e n t s are f r e e  unmarked and  their relative nutritional Students  of  sequence—  i s , i n c o n t r a s t , l i k e n e d t o t h a t of  inferior)  t h a t are  'proper')  course being considered  t o chose from amongst a smorgasbord offerings  value  curriculum offerings  (normatively  (academically-oriented)  relative  a  yesteryear to a t r a d i t i o n a l  g r e a t e r n u t r i t i o n a l v a l u e than the or  students.  seen  a r r a y of  unordered  (curriculum)  i n respect  to  value. as  having  moved  i n droves  (like  m i g r a t i n g b i r d s ) from the more demanding c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t o r y programs t o the  l e s s demanding g e n e r a l  t r a c k s because  of  t h i s freedom of c h o i c e ; and because the system a s s i g n s  equal  rewards ( i n the form of c r e d i t p o i n t s t o be gained) t o  those  choosing  the  easier  (to d i g e s t ) , and  perhaps  more t a s t y ,  non-academic s u b j e c t s as i t does t o those s e l e c t i n g the more  102  difficult  (to d i g e s t ) , and perhaps more n u t r i t i o u s , academic  courses—courses be  t h a t are considered  e d u c a t i o n a l l y 'good'  consequence, homogenized  for  (by the Commission) t o  them.  m e t a p h o r i c a l l y seen  educational  been d i f f u s e d and  meal  whose  They  as  are,  as  p a r t a k i n g of  nutritional  value  a an has  diluted.  A n a l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e deep metaphor.  As  shown i n F i g u r e 5.1, the element of e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s t h a t the Commission l a b e l s as  "content" i s e x p l i c i t l y  meaning  " c u r r i c u l u m " i n the  likened  to  prescribed  context  of  foodstuff that  is  'courses*  traditional  of  a  served  s t a t e d as  schools. 'ideally' meal,  (It is as  and  the 'non-  i d e a l l y , ' as a " h e l p y o u r s e l f " c a f e t e r i a - s t y l e smorgasbord.) In  the  industrial  context,  p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s would r e f e r t o process  procedures  material  during  t h a t are the  the  'what i s done'  ' l a i d on' o r  course  of  manufacture)  into  a finished  would suggest  t h a t students are  content  the  ( i . e . the t o the  raw  i t s transformation  (or  product. 'seen'  'fed')  of  By a n a l o g y ,  this  as the raw m a t e r i a l  o f the s c h o o l ' s p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s ; and t h a t by b e i n g ' f e d ' the moved  'stuff' along  of the  the  process  assembly-line  t r a n s f o r m e d , s t a g e by stage grade) i n t o a f i n i s h e d  (curriculum) ,  they  (track/stream)  to  are  become  (e.g. c o u r s e by c o u r s e ; grade by  (educated)  product  (graduate).  103  [B] i n d u s t r i a l workplace  school  F i g u r e 5.1 S p e l l i n g Out t h e Named F e a t u r e "Content" o f t h e G e n e r a t i v e Metaphor: School as an I n d u s t r i a l Workplace Recommendations R e g a r d i n g  "Content"  We recommend t h a t S t a t e and l o c a l h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n r e q u i r e m e n t s be s t r e n g t h e n e d and t h a t , a t a minimum, a l l s t u d e n t s s e e k i n g a d i p l o m a be r e q u i r e d t o l a y t h e foundations i n t h e F i v e New B a s i c s by t a k i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g c u r r i c u l u m during t h e i r A years of high s c h o o l : (a) _ y e a r s o f E n g l i s h ; (b) 3_ y e a r s o f mathematics; (c) _3 y e a r s o f s c i e n c e ; (d) 3^ y e a r s o f s o c i a l s t u d i e s ; and (e) o n e - h a l f year o f computer s c i e n c e . For t h e c o l l e g e bound, 2 y e a r s o f f o r e i g n language i n h i g h s c h o o l a r e s t r o n g l y recommended i n a d d i t i o n t o those t a k e n e a r l i e r . Whatever t h e s t u d e n t ' s e d u c a t i o n a l o r work o b j e c t i v e s , knowledge o f t h e New B a s i c s i s t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f s u c c e s s  104 f o r t h e a f t e r - s c h o o l y e a r s and, t h e r e f o r e , forms t h e c o r e o f t h e modern c u r r i c u l u m . . A high l e v e l of shared e d u c a t i o n i n t h e s e B a s i c s , t o g e t h e r w i t h work i n t h e f i n e and p e r f o r m i n g a r t s and f o r e i g n languages, c o n s t i t u t e s the mind and s p i r i t o f our c u l t u r e . [Italics i n text.] (A N a t i o n a t R i s k : p a r . 47, 48:24)  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s u r f a c e metaphors. [None r e l e v a n t . ] A n a l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e deep metaphor. already taken,  noted,  the process  i n the context  element  of  'content'  of the i n d u s t r i a l  As  might be  workplace,  to  i n c l u d e a l l t h o s e t h i n g s t h a t a r e ' l a i d on' o r ' f e d ' t o t h e raw  material t o transform  i t into  a standardized  product.  Now, we know t h a t t h e development  century)  of h i g h l y r a t i o n a l i z e d  has gone ' h a n d - i n - g l o v e '  finished  (over t h e p a s t  manufacturing  with the accumulation  processes  of a b s t r a c t e d  knowledge about what i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be 'the b e s t way' t o proceed  f o r optimal  obtaining  production results  t h e g r e a t e s t e c o n o m i c r e t u r n on i n v e s t m e n t  money, t i m e , and e f f o r t ) . representing is  ( i n t h e sense of  T h i s knowledge might be seen as  a s e t o f normative  a p p l i e d i n the i n d u s t r i a l  unconsciously, prescriptions  i n other  ideas  (prescriptions)  workplace  d i d not e x i s t  (or were  The v a r i a n c e  ignored  variance  i n outcome,  j o b s i n any way  i n procedures  (process  a n d an o v e r a l l  p r o d u c t i o n s t a n d a r d s and e f f i c i e n c y .  I f such  by workers)  t h a t would be f o l l o w e d as a r e s u l t c o u l d be expected to  that  (and o f t e n , perhaps  organizational settings).  e v e r y o n e w o u l d be f r e e t o do t h e i r pleased.  of  they  content) to lead  lowering  of  105  I f , t h e r e f o r e , the problem of d e c l i n i n g  productivity-  i s viewed as b e i n g the r e s u l t of v a r i a n c e i n the p r o c e d u r e s used t o p r o c e s s raw m a t e r i a l s (as i t would seem t o be i n the case of s c h o o l s , where the s t a n d a r d of o u t p u t  i s considered  to  a  have  allowing  become choice  mediocre/shoddy i n the  partly  curriculum  as  [process  result  content]  to  of be  ' l a i d on' the s t u d e n t s ) then the s o l u t i o n i s t o r e f o r m u l a t e , and  more t i g h t l y  followed—as  r e g u l a t e , the  process  procedures to  i l l u s t r a t e d by the Commission's recommendation  t o i n t r o d u c e a more p r e s c r i b e d c u r r i c u l u m around a c o r e New  Basics.  Commission's F i n d i n g s Regarding F i n d i n g s Regarding We  define  "Expectations"  Expectations  expectations  ledge, a b i l i t i e s , and  i n terms of  the  s k i l l s s c h o o l and  l e v e l of  know-  c o l l e g e graduates  should possess. They a l s o r e f e r t o the t i m e , hard work, b e h a v i o u r , s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e , and m o t i v a t i o n t h a t a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r h i g h s t u d e n t achievement. Such e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e e x p r e s s e d t o s t u d e n t s i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t ways: o  by g r a d e s , w h i c h r e f l e c t t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h s t u d e n t s d e m o n s t r a t e t h e i r mastery of subject matter;  o  o  be  through high school requirements, which t e l l most important;  and college graduation students which s u b j e c t s are  by the presence or absence of r i g o r o u s  examinations  r e q u i r i n g students t o demonstrate t h e i r mastery of content and s k i l l b e f o r e r e c e i v i n g a diploma or a degree; o  by c o l l e g e admissions h i g h s c h o o l standards;  requirements which and  reinforce  o  by t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r students c o n f r o n t i n t h e i r t e x t s and a s s i g n e d r e a d i n g s .  of  1 06  Our a n a l y s e s deficiencies:  i n each o f these  areas  indicate notable  o  The amount decreased n i g h t ) and achievement  o f homework f o r h i g h s c h o o l s e n i o r s h a s ( t w o - t h i r d s r e p o r t l e s s than 1 hour a g r a d e s have r i s e n as a v e r a g e s t u d e n t has been d e c l i n i n g .  o  I n many o t h e r i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s , c o u r s e s i n mathematics (other than arithmetic or general mathematics), biology, chemistry, p h y s i c s , and geography s t a r t i n g r a d e 6 and a r e r e q u i r e d o f a l l students. The t i m e s p e n t on t h e s e s u b j e c t s , . b a s e d on c l a s s h o u r s , i s a b o u t t h r e e t i m e s t h a t s p e n t b y e v e n t h e m o s t s c i e n c e - o r i e n t e d U.S. s t u d e n t , i . e . , t h o s e who s e l e c t 4 y e a r s o f s c i e n c e a n d m a t h e m a t i c s i n secondary s c h o o l .  o  A 1980 S t a t e - b y - S t a t e s u r v e y o f h i g h s c h o o l d i p l o m a requirements reveals that only eight States require h i g h schools t o o f f e r f o r e i g n language i n s t r u c t i o n , but none r e q u i r e s s t u d e n t s t o t a k e t h e c o u r s e s . Thirty-five States require only 1 year of m a t h e m a t i c s , a n d 36 r e q u i r e o n l y 1 y e a r o f s c i e n c e for a diploma.  o  I n 13 S t a t e s , 50 p e r c e n t o r more o f t h e u n i t s r e q u i r e d f o r h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n may be e l e c t i v e s chosen by t h e s t u d e n t . Given t h i s freedom t o choose t h e s u b s t a n c e o f h a l f o r more o f t h e i r education, many s t u d e n t s opt f o r l e s s demanding p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e c o u r s e s , such as b a c h e l o r l i v i n g .  o  "Minimum c o m p e t e n c y " e x a m i n a t i o n s 37 S t a t e s ) f a l l s h o r t o f w h a t i "minimum" t e n d s t o become t h e lowering educational standards f o r  o  O n e - f i f t h of a l l 4-year p u b l i c c o l l e g e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s must a c c e p t e v e r y h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e w i t h i n t h e S t a t e r e g a r d l e s s o f program f o l l o w e d o r grades, thereby serving notice to high school s t u d e n t s t h a t they c a n e x p e c t t o a t t e n d c o l l e g e even i f t h e y do n o t f o l l o w a d e m a n d i n g c o u r s e o f s t u d y i n high school or perform w e l l .  o  A b o u t 23 p e r c e n t o f o u r more s e l e c t i v e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s reported that t h e i r general level of s e l e c t i v i t y d e c l i n e d d u r i n g t h e 1 9 7 0 ' s , a n d 29 p e r c e n t r e p o r t e d r e d u c i n g t h e number o f s p e c i f i c high school courses required f o r admission (usually by d r o p p i n g f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e r e q u i r e m e n t s , w h i c h a r e now s p e c i f i e d a s a c o n d i t i o n f o r a d m i s s i o n b y o n l y o n e - f i f t h of our i n s t i t u t i o n s of higher education.  (now r e q u i r e d i n s needed, as t h e "maximum," thus all.  107  o  Too few experienced teachers and scholars, are involved i n writing textbooks. During the past d e c a d e o r so a l a r g e number o f t e x t s have been " w r i t t e n down" b y t h e i r p u b l i s h e r s t o e v e r - l o w e r reading levels i n response to p e r c e i v e d market demands.  o  A r e c e n t s t u d y by E d u c a t i o n P r o d u c t s Information Exchange r e v e a l e d t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s were a b l e t o m a s t e r 80 p e r c e n t o f t h e m a t e r i a l i n some o f t h e i r s u b j e c t - m a t t e r t e x t s b e f o r e t h e y had e v e n opened t h e b o o k s . Many books do not c h a l l e n g e t h e  s t u d e n t s t o whom t h e y a r e a s s i g n e d . (A N a t i o n a t R i s k : p a r s . , 39  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s u r f a c e metaphors. of  education,  terms and  of  the  skills  "expectations" degree  of  students  difficulty  should  T h e r e a l s o a p p e a r s , t o be of expectations. required "stuff" way,  of  are  depends  mastery  over)  the  form  to  i n Figure  industrial management the  variances  5.2,  i n respect  in  products).  aspect  matter,  to the and  notion  motivation  of a c q u i r i n g the  somewhat  normative,  in a contest  conquering  ( i . e . showing  designed  admission  where  (whether  requirements,  (code)  " e x p e c t a t i o n s " might to to of  the q u a l i t y  mean (a)  the the  conduct and  in or  [sic].  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e deep metaphor.  context  standards  (as f i n i s h e d  t h a t are  'try' t h e i r mettle  Analogical noted  overcoming,  in  abilities,  contenders  challenges  subject  examinations)  quantitatively  i n the process  as  context  knowledge,  I n a g e n e r a l , and  seen  upon  the  of  of  a qualitative  whilst  of education.  success  possess  seen  In the  I t r e f e r s to the behaviours  students  students  are  + 40:19-21)  be  taken  in  the  held  by  workers  of  expectations observance  by  e s t a b l i s h e d to  q u a n t i t y of t h e i r  As  control  performance  108  outputs,  and  (b) the achievement by workers of h i g h  of q u a l i t y - c o n t r o l l e d  output.  would t r a n s l a t e i n t o concern (as  quality  standards of h i g h  raw  schools/colleges standards  considered of graduate (and  Standards  and  workers)  conducive  setting,  this  themselves  according  t o the  to  achievement  p e r f o r m a n c e , and  worker-teachers)  f o r such conduct and  Recommendations Regarding  school  that students deport  materials/'good'  t h a t are standards  In t h e  levels  t h a t the.  establish  high  achievement.  "Expectations"  Expectations  We recommend t h a t s c h o o l s , c o l l e g e s , and universities adopt more r i g o r o u s and measurable s t a n d a r d s , and h i g h e r e x p e c t a t i o n s , f o r a c a d e m i c p e r f o r m a n c e and student c o n d u c t , and t h a t 4-year c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s r a i s e t h e i r requirements f o r admission. T h i s w i 11 help s t u d e n t s do t h e i r b e s t e d u c a t i o n a l l y w i t h c h a l l e n g i n g m a t e r i a l s i n an environment t h a t s u p p o r t s l e a r n i n g and a u t h e n t i c accomplishment. Implementing Recommendations 1.  Grades s h o u l d be i n d i c a t o r s o f academic achievement so they can be r e l i e d on as e v i d e n c e of a s t u d e n t s ' s readiness f o r f u r t h e r study.  2.  F o u r - y e a r c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s s h o u l d r a i s e t h e i r admissions requirements and a d v i s e a l l p o t e n t i a l a p p l i c a n t s of t h e s t a n d a r d s f o r a d m i s s s i o n i n terms of s p e c i f i c c o u r s e s r e q u i r e d , performance i n t h e s e a r e a s , a n d l e v e l s o f a c h i e v e m e n t on s t a n d a r d i z e d achievement t e s t s i n each of t h e f i v e B a s i c s and, where a p p l i c a b l e , f o r e i g n languages.  3.  S t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s o f a c h i e v e m e n t ( n o t t o be c o n f u s e d w i t h a p t i t u d e t e s t s ) s h o u l d be a d m i n i s t e r e d a t m a j o r t r a n s i t i o n p o i n t s f r o m one l e v e l o f s c h o o l i n g t o a n o t h e r and p a r t i c u l a r l y f r o m h i g h s c h o o l t o c o l l e g e o r work. The purposes of t h e s e t e s t s w o u l d be t o : (a) c e r t i f y t h e student's c r e d e n t i a l s ; (b) i d e n t i f y t h e need f o r r e m e d i a l i n t e r v e n t i o n ; and (c) i d e n t i f y the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r  109 advanced or a c c e l e r a t e d work. These t e s t s s h o u l d be a d m i n i s t e r e d as p a r t o f a n a t i o n w i d e (but not f e d e r a l ) s y s t e m o f S t a t e and l o c a l s t a n d a r d i z e d tests. T h i s system s h o u l d i n c l u d e o t h e r d i a g n o s t i c procedures t h a t a s s i s t t e a c h e r s and students evaluate student progress. 4.  Textbooks and  other t o o l s  of  learning  s h o u l d be u p g r a d e d and u p d a t e d rigorous content. . . .  to  and  teaching  assure  more  6. Because no t e x t b o o k i n any s u b j e c t can be geared t o t h e n e e d s o f a l l s t u d e n t s , f u n d s s h o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e to support t e x t development i n "thinmarket" a r e a s , s u c h as t h o s e f o r d i s a d v a n t a g e d s t u d e n t s , the l e a r n i n g d i s a b l e d , and the g i f t e d and talented. •  •  •  (A N a t i o n a t R i s k : p a r s .  59-63, & 65:27-28)  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s u r f a c e metaphors. recommends t h a t  s c h o o l s , c o l l e g e s and  stricter,  flexible,  determining  less  performance  more  Commission  universities precise  employ  methods  of  (through assessment of s t u d e n t achievement)  the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  and  The  ' l a y i n g on the c o n t e n t . '  i s c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as  Clearly,  something t o be  student rated i n  n u m e r i c a l terms and equated w i t h a ' l e v e l ' of a t t a i n m e n t a  rung  reached  on  a hierarchical  ' l a d d e r ' ; or  a  amount of l i q u i d s i g n i f i e d by a mark on a graduated The  amount of  l e a r n i n g possessed  something t h a t s h o u l d be e v i d e n c e d whether i t be  by the s t u d e n t  volume beaker).  i s seen as  by h i s / h e r grade  i n the form of a l e t t e r grade,  (as  level—  a s s i g n e d by  a  t e a c h e r i n assessment of s t u d e n t performance on a p a r t i c u l a r e x e r c i s e , or t o the c l a s s Grade l e v e l a s s i g n e d by the s c h o o l as a r e s u l t of a s t u d e n t ' s  aggregated  program of s c h o l a s t i c achievement.  marks f o r an  annual  110  In k e e p i n g  w i t h the v i e w p o i n t t h a t the  student's  engagement w i t h l e a r n i n g i s a c o n t e s t d e s i g n e d t o c h a l l e n g e (and t h e r e b y schools,  promote g r e a t e r f e a t s of p e r f o r m a n c e ) ,  colleges  establish  and  universities  more d e m a n d i n g  criteria  are  called  the  upon  (standards)  in  their  e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r s t u d e n t performance  and conduct; and the  year  to  post-secondary  institutions  raise  to  their  4-  entry  requirements. A n a l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the deep metaphor. F u r t h e r to  the  rationalization  learning  ' c o n t a i n e d ' by  in  they  what  have  t h a t d e c l i n e s i n the students  been  result  'fed',  productivity  of  deficiencies  i n the a p p l i c a t i o n  exhortation  a manufacturing  and  are  declines in  industry  the  of p r o c e s s  p o i n t s from  particularly  from  one  level  product  each  The production  at  critical  of  content—the tests  high school to college  t o a demand f o r q u a l i t y  manufacture  result  the  at  of s c h o o l i n g to  work" i s a n a l o g o u s outputs  of  deficiencies  t o employ s t a n d a r d i z e d a c h i e v e m e n t  "major t r a n s i t i o n another  as  from  amount  transition  control stage  in  or of the  o f mass-produced goods. analogy  between  processes  is  e d u c a t i o n a l and further  manufacturing  reinforced  by  the  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t e x t b o o k s and o t h e r l e a r n i n g / t e a c h i n g media as t o o l s ; and by a l l u s i o n t o the f a c t t h a t t e x t b o o k s  cannot  be  "geared"  t o accommodate v a r i a n c e i n s t u d e n t p o p u l a t i o n s  as  [say] can m a c h i n e - t o o l s t h a t a r e a b l e t o handle v a r i a n c e  i n t h e i r p r o c e s s i n g of d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of raw  materials.  Ill  CB}  [A]  school  industrial  workplace  t image  image standards f o r student behaviour and graduate achievement  standards f o r c o n t r o l of worker e f f o r t & product output.  i  problem solutions  normative i d e a s about  r a i s e standards for students i n earning grades and promotion  i f we r a i s e p r o d u c t i o n quotas we g e t workers t o work h a r d e r  institute standardized t e s t i n g of students at major transition p o i n t s from one l e v e l of schooling to another.  have t o t i g h t e n quality control a t each stage o f production, to correct/reject as c l o s e t o source as p o s s i b l e any variance (from the standard) i n output, Figure  5.2  S p e l l i n g Out t h e Named F e a t u r e " E x p e c t a t i o n s " of the G e n e r a t i v e Metaphor: S c h o o l as an I n d u s t r i a l Workplace  The adoption  Commission's of  distinguishing  more r i g o r o u s and  Grade  concerning  the  standards  for  measurable  between "top of the l i n e " and  (graduate) p r o d u c t s and  recommendation  promotion)  (through the awarding i s advanced  by  the  lesser  quality  of l e t t e r g r a d e s , Commissioners  as  112 supporting  "learning  m i g h t be s e e n  as  their  that  scarce  supply  such of  rewards—as  times as  to  if  they for  to  done  be  does  role  of  be c o n s i d e r e d  of  as  offered because  threatened  example,  suggest  the  are  value  for  It  t r a d i t i o n a l l y held b e l i e f  they  are  when,  [This  analogical  if  considered  (or,  work r e q u i r e d  the  tasks  are  increased).  accomplishments."  be m o t i v a t e d t o e x p e n d g r e a t e r w o r k  allotted  rewards  authentic  stemming from the  t h a t workers w i l l on  and  the  some  extrinsic they  w i t h the  number  a given rate  of  of  raw m a t e r i a l ,  in  loss  of  "pieces" is  concerning  seen  and a t  are  reward  ambiguity  s t u d e n t who c a n be  effort  other  at  some times,  worker.] Similarly,  standardized from  one  stemming  from  measures  at  correction source  as  call  to  institute  t e s t s of achievement  level  process  the  of the  each  in  schooling practice  stage  order or  to  rejection)  of  to  of an  at  major  another,  tightening industrial  locate output  (and  the  application  transition might  be  quality plant's  as  pointsseen  as  control production  eliminate,  variance  of  close  through to  its  possible.  Commission's F i n d i n g s Regarding "Time" F i n d i n g s R e g a r d i n g Time Evidence presented to the Commission demonstrates t h r e e d i s t u r b i n g f a c t s a b o u t t h e u s e t h a t A m e r i c a n s c h o o l s and s t u d e n t s make o f t i m e : (1) compared t o o t h e r nations, A m e r i c a n s t u d e n t s s p e n d much l e s s t i m e on s c h o o l w o r k ; (2) t i m e s p e n t i n t h e c l a s s r o o m and on homework i s o f t e n u s e d i n e f f e c t i v e l y ; and (3) s c h o o l s a r e n o t d o i n g enough t o h e l p d e v e l o p e i t h e r the s t u d y s k i l l s r e q u i r e d t o use t i m e w e l l o r t h e w i l l i n g n e s s t o s p e n d more t i m e on s c h o o l work.  113  o  I n England and o t h e r i n d u s t r i a l i z e d c o u n t r i e s , i t i s not unusual f o r academic h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s t o spend 8 hours a day a t s c h o o l , 220 days p e r y e a r . I n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , by c o n t r a s t , t h e t y p i c a l day l a s t s 6 hours and t h e s c h o o l y e a r i s 18C days.  o  I n many s c h o o l s , t h e time spent l e a r n i n g how t o cook and d r i v e counts as much toward a h i g h s c h o o l d i p l o m a as t h e t i m e s p e n t s t u d y i n g m a t h e m a t i c s , E n g l i s h , c h e m i s t r y , U.S. h i s t o r y , o r b i o l o g y .  o  A study o f t h e s c h o o l week i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s found t h a t some s c h o o l s p r o v i d e d s t u d e n t s o n l y 17 hours o f academic i n s t r u c t i o n d u r i n g t h e week, and t h e average s c h o o l p r o v i d e d about 22.  o  A C a l i f o r n i a study o f i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s r o o m s found t h a t because o f poor management o f c l a s s r o o m t i m e , some elementary s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d o n l y o n e - f i f t h o f the instruction others received i n reading comprehension.  o  I n most s c h o o l s , t h e t e a c h i n g o f study s k i l l s i s h a p h a z a r d and u n p l a n n e d . Consequently, many s t u d e n t s c o m p l e t e h i g h s c h o o l and e n t e r c o l l e g e w i t h o u t d i s c i p l i n e d and s y s t e m i c study h a b i t s . (A N a t i o n a t R i s k : p a r a . 41:21-22)  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s u r f a c e metaphors. [None r e l e v a n t . ] A n a l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e deep metaphor. as  a process  setting  element, i s seen  as a matter  application considered  concerning  of student i n this  ( F i g u r e 5.3) i n t h e  m i l i e u where worker time  t o academic  i t requires  worker time  1  work.  Itis  as i t i s i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l  i s f a c t o r e d as a p r o d u c t i o n  t o be so c a u s a l l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h that  school  t h e e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t  time  context,  Time,  cost,  amounts o f p r o d u c t i v i t y  1  m a n a g e m e n t - - i n much t h e same way as  i s 'scientifically  i n an i n d u s t r i a l o r b u s i n e s s  managed' f o r maximum  workplace.  output  114 Recommendations Regarding  "Time"  Recommendation C: Time We recommend t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t l y more time be devoted t o l e a r n i n g t h e New B a s i c s . T h i s w i l l r e q u i r e more e f f e c t i v e use of the e x i s t i n g s c h o o l day, a l o n g e r s c h o o l day, or a lengthened s c h o o l y e a r . Implementing Recommendations 1.  S t u d e n t s i n h i g h s c h o o l s s h o u l d be more homework than i s now the c a s e .  assigned  far  2. I n s t r u c t i o n i n e f f e c t i v e study and work s k i l l s , which a r e e s s e n t i a l i f s c h o o l and independent time i s t o be used e f f i c i e n t l y s h o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e e a r l y g r a d e s and c o n t i n u e d t h r o u g h o u t the student's schooling. 3. S c h o o l s d i s t r i c t s and S t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e s s h o u l d s t r o n g l y c o n s i d e r 7-hour s c h o o l days, as w e l l as a 200- t o 220-day s c h o o l y e a r . 4. The t i m e a v a i l a b l e f o r l e a r n i n g be e x p a n d e d through better classroom management and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l day. If necessary, a d d i t i o n a l t i m e s h o u l d be f o u n d t o meet t h e s p e c i a l needs of slow l e a r n e r s , the g i f t e d , and o t h e r s who need more i n s t r u c t i o n a l d i v e r s i t y than can be accommodated d u r i n g a c o n v e n t i o n a l s c h o o l day or s c h o o l y e a r . 5. The burden on t e a c h e r s f o r m a i n t a i n i n g d i s c i p l i n e s h o u l d be reduced t h r o u g h t h e development o f f i r m and f a i r c o d e s o f s t u d e n t c o n d u c t t h a t a r e e n f o r c e d c o n s i s t e n t l y , and by c o n s i d e r i n g a l t e r n a t i v e c l a s s r o o m s , programs, and s c h o o l s t o meet the needs of c o n t i n u a l l y d i s r u p t i v e s t u d e n t s . 6.  A t t e n d a n c e p o l i c i e s w i t h c l e a r i n c e n t i v e s and s a n c t i o n s s h o u l d be used t o r e d u c e t h e amount o f time l o s t through student absenteeism and tardiness.  7. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e burdens on the t e a c h e r and i n t r u s i o n s i n t o the s c h o o l day s h o u l d be t o add time f o r t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g .  related reduced  8. P l a c e m e n t and g r o u p i n g o f s t u d e n t s , as w e l l as promotion and g r a d u a t i o n p o l i c i e s , s h o u l d be g u i d e d by t h e academic p r o g r e s s o f s t u d e n t s and t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n a l needs, r a t h e r t h a n by r i g i d adherence t o age. (A N a t i o n a t R i s k : p a r s . 68, 70, & 72-76:29-38)  115  IB}  industrial  workplace  the l e v e l of p r o d u c t i v i t y of an i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t can be r a i s e d by increasing the time spent by workers on the production 1 ine •  5.3  S p e l l i n g Out the Named Feature "Time" of the G e n e r a t i v e Metaphor: School as an I n d u s t r i a l Workplace I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s u r f a c e metaphors. [None r e l e v a n t . ] A n a l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the deep metaphor. recommendations extensions as  of  a correlate  regarding  the  viewpoint  of the time  "time" that  can sees  be  seen  academic  as  The natural  achievement  spent on academic work; and  time spent by students i n school as r e q u i r i n g  the 1  'management.  116  For  example, t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f time as a c r i t i c a l f a c t o r i n  cost-effective  (i.e. efficient)  p r o d u c t i v i t y can be r e a d i l y  r e c o g n i s e d as a f e a t u r e t h a t tends t o preoccupy  management  i n the workplace. Similarly, discipline, codes  concern  and t h e c o n s i s t e n t  of conduct  analagous  maintainance  enforcement  of  (normative)  t o t h e p r e o c c u p a t i o n o f management i n with  enforcement  of d i s c i p l i n e ,  the control  of workers  and s t r i c t  (as p a t t e r n e d on t h e m i l i t a r y  a l s o be seen  of  f o r s t u d e n t s i n s c h o o l s c a n be seen as  workplaces  conduct  f o r the  i n terms  other  through  the  codes  of expected  model).  [ I t might,  o f t h e h a n d l i n g o f r e c a l c i t r a n t raw  materials.] In  like  controlling as  a  t h e Commission's  s t u d e n t a b s e n t e e i s m and  direct  historically, industrial  vein,  reflection been  sector.  of  taken  recommendation f o r  t a r d i n e s s can be seen  the approach  to control  that  workers  Those r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  that  has,  i n the would  l e n g t h e n t h e s c h o o l day, t h e s c h o o l y e a r , and t h e p e r c e n t a g e of  time t o be spent on academic  identified  with  an i n d u s t r i a l  s u b j e c t s c a n , l i k e w i s e , be sector  demand  work hours i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i v i t y . for  students  according their  t o be  to their  grouped,  academic  instructional  (rather  promoted  f o r remuneration  And, t h e c a l l and  graduated  p r o g r e s s , and on t h e b a s i s o f than  on t h e i r  r e l a t e d ] ) needs i s analogous t o t h e c a l l ranked  f o r longer  and p r o m o t i o n  s o c i a l [age-  f o r workers t o  be  on t h e b a s i s  of  m e r i t e d performance r a t h e r t h a n on y e a r s o f s e r v i c e .  Commission's F i n d i n g s Regarding F i n d i n g s Regarding  "Teaching"  Teaching  The Commission found t h a t not enough o f the a c a d e m i c a l l y able students are being a t t r a c t e d to t e a c h i n g ; t h a t teacher preparation programs need substantial improvement; t h a t the p r o f e s s i o n a l working l i f e of t e a c h e r s i s on the whole u n a c c e p t a b l e ; and t h a t a s e r i o u s s h o r t a g e of t e a c h e r s e x i s t s i n key f i e l d s . o  Too  many t e a c h e r s a r e b e i n g drawn from the bottom  q u a r t e r of students.  o  graduating  high  school  and  college  The t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m i s weighted h e a v i l y w i t h c o u r s e s i n " e d u c a t i o n a l methods" a t the expense o f . c o u r s e s i n s u b j e c t s t o be t a u g h t . A survey of 1,350 i n s t i t u t i o n s t r a i n i n g teachers i n d i c a t e d t h a t 41 p e r c e n t o f t h e t i m e of elementary s c h o o l t e a c h e r c a n d i d a t e s i s spent i n e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s , w h i c h r e d u c e s t h e amount o f time a v a i l a b l e f o r s u b j e c t matter c o u r s e s . o  The average s a l a r y a f t e r 12 y e a r s of t e a c h i n g i s o n l y $17,000 p e r y e a r , and many t e a c h e r s a r e r e q u i r e d t o supplement t h e i r income w i t h p a r t - t i m e and summer employment. In a d d i t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l t e a c h e r s have l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e i n such c r i t i c a l p r o f e s s i o n a l d e c i s i o n s a s , f o r example, t e x t b o o k selection.  o  Despite widespread publicity about an o v e r p o p u l a t i o n of t e a c h e r s , severe s h o r t a g e s of c e r t a i n k i n d s of t e a c h e r s e x i s t : i n the f i e l d s o f mathematics, s c i e n c e , and f o r e i g n languages; and among s p e c i a l i s t s i n e d u c a t i o n f o r the g i f t e d and t a l e n t e d , l a n g u a g e m i n o r i t y , and handicapped students.  o  The shortage of t e a c h e r s i n mathematics and science i s p a r t i c u l a r l y severe. A 1981 survey of 45 S t a t e s r e v e a l e d s h o r t a g e s o f m a t h e m a t i c s t e a c h e r s i n 43 S t a t e s , c r i t i c a l s h o r t a g e s of e a r t h s c i e n c e s t e a c h e r s i n 33 S t a t e s , and physics t e a c h e r s everywhere.  o  H a l f of the newly employed mathematics, s c i e n c e , and E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s are not q u a l i f i e d t o t e a c h t h e s e s u b j e c t s ; fewer than o n e - t h i r d of U.S. h i g h s c h o o l s o f f e r p h y s i c s t a u g h t by q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s . (A N a t i o n a t R i s k : p a r a . 42:22)  118  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s u r f a c e metaphor. high  school  and  college  source of personnel personnel  students  seen  f o r teacher r e c r u i t m e n t .  i s conceptualized  as  a  r e c r u i t s are d r a w n — a s i s water found  are  Newly  t e a c h e r s to be drawn  as  graduating the  major  T h i s source  'pool' from which from a w e l l . The  teacher  Commission  from the pool of g r a d u a t i n g  school and c o l l e g e students as  [sediment-laden,  of  high  less  'good']  A n a l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the deep metaphor.  As  water drawn from the bottom of a w e l l .  illustrated ment,  selection,  remuneration range  of  can  easily  concerns  identified  fall,  under  certification  with  i n workplaces  r u b r i c of personnel  Recruitment and the by  purview some  other  advancement has  of  and  the  broad  (other  than  (or, i n more r e c e n t Such r e s o u r c e s  have,  system i n any  s e l e c t i o n f o r t r a i n i n g have colleges/universities;  state/provincial  tended  recruit-  advancement,  not been managed i n the school  i n t e g r a t e d way.  career  that  be  career  of human resource management).  traditionally,  come  such i s s u e s as teacher  training,  s c h o o l s ) , under the years,  5.4,  i n Figure  agency;  t o have been on  an  ad  and hoc  basis.  Recommendations Regarding Recommendation D;  "Teaching"  Teaching  T h i s recommendation c o n s i s t s of seven p a r t s . E a c h i s intended to improve the p r e p a r a t i o n of t e a c h e r s or to make t e a c h i n g a more rewarding and r e s p e c t e d p r o f e s s i o n . Each of the seven stands on i t s own and should not be c o n s i d e r e d s o l e l y as an implementing recommendation.  119 1. Persons p r e p a r i n g t o t e a c h s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o meet h i g h e d u c a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s , t o demonstrate an a p t i t u d e f o r t e a c h i n g , and t o d e m o n s t r a t e competence i n an academic d i s c i p l i n e . Colleges and u n i v e r s i t i e s o f f e r i n g t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n p r o g r a m s s h o u l d be j u d g e d by how w e l l their g r a d u a t e s meet these c r i t e r i a . 2. S a l a r i e s f o r t h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n s h o u l d be increased and should be professionally c o m p e t i t i v e , m a r k e t - s e n s i t i v e , and performancebased. S a l a r y , p r o m o t i o n , t e n u r e , and r e t e n t i o n d e c i s i o n s s h o u l d be t i e d t o an effective e v a l u a t i o n t h a t i n c l u d e s p e e r r e v i e w so t h a t s u p e r i o r t e a c h e r s can be rewarded, average ones e n c o u r a g e d , and p o o r ones e i t h e r i m p r o v e d o r terminated. 3. School boards s h o u l d adopt an 11-month c o n t r a c t for teachers. This would ensure time f o r c u r r i c u l u m and p r o f e s s i o n a l development, programs f o r s t u d e n t s w i t h s p e c i a l n e e d s , and a more adequate l e v e l of t e a c h e r compensation. 4. School b o a r d s , a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , and t e a c h e r s s h o u l d cooperate to develop c a r e e r ladders f o r teachers t h a t d i s t i n g u i s h among t h e b e g i n n i n g i n s t r u c t o r , the e x p e r i e n c e d t e a c h e r , and the master t e a c h e r . 6. I n c e n t i v e s , such as g r a n t s and l o a n s , s h o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e t o a t t r a c t o u t s t a n d i n g s t u d e n t s t o the t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n those areas o f c r i t i c a l s h o r t a g e . 7. Master t e a c h e r s s h o u l d be i n v o l v e d i n d e s i g n i n g t e a c h e r p r e p a r a t i o n programs and i n s u p e r v i s i n g teachers during t h e i r probationary years. (A N a t i o n a t R i s k : p a r a s . 80, 81:31) I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s u r f a c e metaphors. [None r e l e v a n t . ] A n a l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the deep metaphor. p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s of t e a c h e r s is  r e c o n c e p t u a l i z e d by  the  (as c r e d e n t i a l l e d  Commission  so  that  The  'masters') i t tacitly  p r o v i d e s a b e t t e r ' f i t ' w i t h the p r e - i n d u s t r i a l model of the craftsman.  For t h e c a r e e r of t e a c h i n g i s r e c o n c e p t u a l i z e d  as  with hierarchically  a  ladder  placed  'rungs'  to  mark  120  CA) school  CB) industrial workplace  image  more a b l e graduates n e e d t o be attracted to teaching  teaching ( t o o many teachers drawn from bottom of grads)  preparation programs n e e d much improvement  personne1 issues of staff : recruitment selection training licencing  p r o f , work l i f e is unacceptable/  promotion retention,  problem solutions  normative ideas about  higher salaries for teachers  incentives needed to help r e c r u i t & r e t a i n more a b l e staff. e.g.-subsidies for trainees, and better salary and c a r e e r advancement opportunities  grants & loans for outstanding recruits m e r i t pay & career ladders  Figure  (  5.4  S p e l l i n g O u t t h e Named F e a t u r e " T e a c h i n g " o f t h e Generative M e t a p h o r : S c h o o l as an I n d u s t r i a l W o r k p l a c e  121  graduated  steps  that  can  be  climbed--as  (beginning t e a c h e r ) , t o journeyman master craftsman In higher  keeping  starting  outstanding ities the  (master  for  this  salaries  'master'  (experienced  metaphor,  merit  pay,  teachers  can  pay  organizations)  scales  and  teacher), to  recommendations  for teachers, grants and  an o r g a n i z a t i o n r e c r u i t  re  loans  for  opportun-  seen t o  stem  from  (in contrast to service  incentives—in  promotional  and  promotional  a l l be  i n d u s t r i a l / b u s i n e s s model w h e r e  sector  apprentice  teacher).  with  recruits;  from  the  form of  attractive  o p p o r t u n i t i e s — a r e used  (and k e e p ) more a b l e  to  help  staff.  OVERVIEW The  foregoing  analyses  a p p l i c a t i o n o f an a n a l y t i c a l of  a generative  which  the  projected the  'problem i n the  industrial It  connected industrial solutions with for  the  metaphor;  to  schools' "A  demonstrate  framework t o the and  report,  to  'spelling  illustrate  can  Nation  be at  the  the  extent  understood Risk,"  out'  as  to  being  i n terms  of  or f a c t o r y model.  also  helps  with  what  reveal is  workplace  t h a t are schools.  educational  schools,"  of  serve  how  'known' serve  the  about  to  recommended f o r  by  way  of  the  tacitly 'fixing'  Those p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g reform  normative  "more  running  ideas of  influence what i s  policies  "more s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t i n g o f s t u d e n t s , "  the  'wrong'  that  discipline and  an  call  in  the  "more  122  rigorous grading/promoting p r a c t i c e s " as r e p r e s e n t i n g  tacitly  t r a n s p o s e d judgments  requirements: requirements that necessary  part  o f t h e 'good'  come t o e x p e c t from  might, t h u s , be  are generally  management  a successfully  about  seen  control  considered a  practices  we  have  operated i n d u s t r i a l or  business workplace. No doubt t h i s way o f f r a m i n g t h e problem o f s c h o o l s is  as w i d e l y  literally classic  a c c e p t e d as i t i s b e c a u s e  'true.' example  I t would c e r t a i n l y of a  u n c h a l l e n g e d because  problem  seem t o r e p r e s e n t a  frame  the analogical  i t i s v i e w e d as  that  has  remained  implications  of the  g e n e r a t i v e metaphor which u n d e r g i r d i t have n o t been s p e l l e d out,  nor t h e assumptions which f l o w from t h e s e i m p l i c a t i o n s  subjected to c r i t i c a l  scrutiny.  Whether o r n o t i t i s u s e f u l f o r p o l i c y m a k e r s t o frame what i s p r o b l e m a t i c about s c h o o l s i n t h i s way remains t o be examined. such  assessment,  images this  B u t , b e f o r e any problem frame  projected  i t would  seem  only  by i t s u n d e r l y i n g  case, of the i n d u s t r i a l  i s subjected t o  prudent  generative  workplace—be  that  metaphor—in  'fleshed out'  ( i . e . e l a b o r a t e d ) ; and, t h a t t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s t h e s e for  i t s s u b j e c t — h e r e , t h e s c h o o l — b e made e x p l i c i t .  task i s undertaken i n the next chapter.  the  suggest This  Chapter 6 ELABORATING THE ASSUMPTIONS OF THE METAPHOR "SCHOOL AS AN INDUSTRIAL WORKPLACE"  Effectiveness, yes. But this?) The Canadian School Executive. March 1984  As the  31  illustrated  i n the l a s t chapter, t h e authors of  Commission R e p o r t ,  sense'  o f what  system  by ' s e e i n g '  "A N a t i o n a t R i s k , " a p p e a r  i s p r o b l e m a t i c about i t s component  colleges,  and u n i v e r s i t i e s  speaking)  product-manufacturing  t o 'make  t h e U.S. e d u c a t i o n a l (subsystem)  schools,  as i f t h e y were ( m e t a p h o r i c a l l y p l a n t s whose s t a n d a r d s and  l e v e l s o f p r o d u c t i v i t y are i n d e c l i n e , and whose o p e r a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s a r e , t h e r e b y , i n need o f r e f o r m . The virtue rendered  solution  t o the problem  o f t h e frame's  o f s c h o o l s i s thus (by  underlying generative  metaphor)  ' o b v i o u s ' — t o w i t , a p p l y t o s c h o o l s t h e same 'good' 123  124  organizational  practices  that  are  found  to obtain  i n the  c o n d u c t o f an e f f e c t i v e , and e f f i c i e n t l y r u n , m a n u f a c t u r i n g p l a n t i n the i n d u s t r i a l The  sector.  recommendations  accordingly,  seen  administrative pedagogical  proposed by t h e Commission  as b e i n g d i r e c t e d  processes found  ones,  as  might  "educational process").  be  are,  at reforming c e r t a i n  i n schools inferred  And, as noted  (rather  from  than  the  term  ( i n Chapter 5 ) , the  f o u r p r o c e s s elements t h a t a r e t a r g e t t e d by t h e  Commission  f o r r e f o r m can r e a d i l y be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h p r a c t i c e s found i n t h e i n d u s t r i a l w o r k p l a c e (under t h e r u b r i c o f " p r o c e d u r a l o r process r e g u l a t i o n s , " , " q u a l i t y c o n t r o l , "  " e f f i c i e n t use o f  t i m e , " and "human r e s o u r c e management"). Now  the Commission's  on an a s s u m p t i o n . metaphor  seen  p r o p o s a l s seem t o be  predicated  This assumption, which i s i n h e r e n t i n the  (tacitly)  t o have b e e n u s e d  problem o f s c h o o l s , i s t h a t an a p p r o p r i a t e  t o frame  the  (and i n s i g h t f u l )  c o r r e s p o n d e n c e e x i s t s between t h e p a t t e r n o f f e a t u r e s characterizes the  pattern  a product-manufacturing i n d u s t r i a l of f e a t u r e s  institution  that  characterizes  s u c h as a s e c o n d a r y  c o u r s e , f o r the purpose  school.  o f c h e c k i n g the  an And  that  plant  and  educational i t i s , of  'validity'  o f such  an u n d e r l y i n g assumption t h a t SchOn (1979:255) e x h o r t s us t o "spell  out  the  metaphor,  elaborate  the  assumptions  which  f l o w from i t [ s i c ] , and examine t h e i r a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s i n t h e present  situation." Having  a r e now  spelled  out  the metaphor  ( i n Chapter  ready t o e l a b o r a t e the assumptions  5 ) , we  that flow  from  125  it,  u s i n g t h e p r o c e d u r a l framework developed  f o r t h a t purpose. this  I t i s , then, with the task of applying  p r o c e d u r a l framework  assumptions  of  i n Chapter 3  to the elaboration  t h e metaphor  "school  as  an  of the  industrial  workplace" t h a t the r e s t of t h i s chapter i s concerned. next s e c t i o n d e a l s , a c c o r d i n g l y , w i t h t h e development " p a t t e r n model"  The of a  ( K a p l a n , 1964) o f t h e ( m e t a p h o r i c term)  ' i n d u s t r i a l w o r k p l a c e . ' I t i s f o l l o w e d by an o v e r v i e w o f t h e model so d e v e l o p e d ; and a r e v i e w o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s such a conceptualization standing of  analogically  suggests  f o r our  under-  ( t h e s u b j e c t o f t h e metaphor) 'the s c h o o l . '  TOWARD A PATTERN MODEL OF~ THE INDUSTRIAL WORKPLACE Before  a t t e m p t i n g t o d e v e l o p a model o f t h e p a t t e r n  of r e l a t i o n s h i p s o b t a i n i n g among t h e s a l i e n t elements o f t h e setting  termed  prudent  t o check  'the i n d u s t r i a l  workplace,'  out the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y  the i n d u s t r i a l w o r k p l a c e  i t would  seem  o f t h e image o f  (as a mass p r o d u c t i o n manufactory)  t h a t i s suggested by t h e f e a t u r e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r o c e s s t h a t a r e t a r g e t t e d f o r r e f o r m by t h e Commission. The 1965,  industrial-based  1970) i s i n s t r u c t i v e i n t h i s r e g a r d .  p r o v i d e s a p r o m i s i n g base model  r e s e a r c h o f Woodward  of the i n d u s t r i a l  findings  o f t h e Woodward  some d e t a i l .  upon w h i c h workplace, studies  (1958,  And, because i t  t o found a p a t t e r n an o v e r v i e w  of the  a r e , next, presented i n  126  The  Woodward  Studies  Between wide  1953 a n d 1 9 5 7 , s u r v e y s  variety  (England),  of  manufacturing  were  firms  conducted  in a  i n South  Essex  t o a s c e r t a i n the extent t o which the p r a c t i c e of  "management  theory"--as  espoused  a n d „taught i n b u s i n e s s  classes  i n the local  business  s u c c e s s . B u t , when t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e s u r v e y s  tabulated, practice to  a  number  colleges—might  of d i f f e r e n t  emerged: p a t t e r n s w h i c h  business  industry  success,  the size  concerned.  according  to  £££_lH£__£Il ~ -  However,  patterns could  a n <  ^  classified  with  a  of  when  neither  nor the type of  t h e f i r m s were and  according  grouped  techniques  t o an  pattern  of  order  p r o d u c t i o n s y s t e m was f o u n d  characteristic  were  management  be r e l a t e d  of the firm,  s i m i l a r i t y of objectives  technical complexity—each associated  be c o r r e l a t e d w i t h  of  t o be  of o r g a n i z a t i o n  (Woodward, 1 9 5 8 ) . Defining (along  a  exercised  single over  researchers complexity  technological complexity continuum)  the physical limitations  finally (that  (2)  (3)  collapsed  they  into three d i s t i n c t (1)  t o which  the order  had observed  stages.  as  the  control  extent  could  be  of production, the of technological  i n the firms  studied)  These were:  u n i t o r s m a l l batch (e.g. made-to-order as custom s u i t s , machine t o o l s ) ;  goods  l a r g e b a t c h , a s s e m b l y , a n d mass p r o d u c t i o n mass-produced c l o t h i n g , a u t o m o b i l e s ) ; and  "flow" or "process" production  (e.g.o i l ,  such  (e.g.  chemicals).  127  Findings. technical  The Woodward  method u s e d  manufactured  was  findings  by a f i r m  the single  suggested  t o produce  most  that the  t h e goods i t  important  factor i n  d e t e r m i n i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e and i n s e t t i n g t h e tone of  human r e l a t i o n s  requirement  f o r business  organizational and  the  i n s i d e t h e f i r m ; and t h a t an e s s e n t i a l success  p a t t e r n used  technology  was  a match between t h e  t o manage t h e f i r m as a whole,  (typed as  'unit,'  'mass,  1  'process')  employed i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s . Such f i n d i n g s  put i n doubt t h e v a l i d i t y  c o l l e g e c o u r s e s t h a t had been e s p o u s i n g  of those  'the p r i n c i p l e s ' o f  b u s i n e s s management on t h e ( w i d e l y accepted) assumption there  was  which  held  principles  one s e t o f p r i n c i p l e s f o r a l l types that  were  being  for effective  technology.  management  of p r o d u c t i o n proceses. taught  were  o n l y i n t h e case o f f i r m s employing of  that  indeed  The  valid—but  a mass p r o d u c t i o n mode  They d i d n o t h o l d f o r f i r m s u s i n g s m a l l  b a t c h o r f l o w t e c h n o l o g y , because t h e s i t u a t i o n a l demands of of  t h e s e t e c h n o l o g i e s were d i f f e r e n t . organizational  influenced different  by  management  the s i t u a t i o n a l  that  1  (The major f e a t u r e s were  demands  modes o f p r o d u c t i o n t e c h n o l o g y  seen  as  being  of these  three  are displayed i n  a n n o t a t e d form, f o r c o m p a r a t i v e p u r p o s e s , i n T a b l e 6.1.)  • F o r e x a m p l e , e a c h t e c h n i c a l s i t u a t i o n was s e e n as r e q u i r i n g a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f c o o p e r a t i o n between members o f t h e management team. T h e r e f o r e , t h e communication system used t o l i n k them needed t o be d i f f e r e n t from one s i t u a t i o n t o a n o t h e r , d e p e n d i n g on t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n t e c h n o l o g y i n use.  Table 6.1 F e a t u r e s o f Organized Management I n f l u e n c e d by P r o d u c t i o n Technology FEATURES  UNIT PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY  1) The chronological sequencing of basic managerial functions.  Marketing  | DEVELOPMENT | P r o d u c t i o n  MASS PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY  Development 1 PRODUCTION 1 M a r k e t i n g  2) The degree of coordination needed between the managerial functions on a day-to-day operational basis.  Daily c o o r d i n a t i o n i s necessary.  1 Development i often  1 Production  indistinguishable.  DEVELOPMENT  3) The relative importance of managerial functions to the success and survival of the business.  4)  The manner in which the tasks associated with each of the basic managerial functions is operationalized, e.g. inspection 1  1  is central and most important. The s k i l l and ingenuity of those responsible for development is c r i t i c a l to the success of the firm.  There i s a high sense of responsibility & satisfaction when producing individual units so craftsmen monitor their own standards.  R&D a high l e v e l activity; separate from o t h e r functions o r may n o t exist.  Day-to-day integration of functions not n e c e s s a r y (seen as d i s r u p t i v e ) j but c o o p e r a t i o n e s s e n t i a l i n exc h a n g e <tf i n f o .  PRODUCTION is  central and most important. Success depends upon the e f f i c i e n c y of  administration & production; & on the p r o g r e s s i v e reduction of unit costs.  INSPECTION  is a c r i t i c a l l y important function of production management as unit costs have to be kept under CONTROL.  PRODUCTION THROUGH PROCESS TECHNOLOGY  Development  |MARKETING| P r o d u c t i o n  Development p e o p l e work i n c o n j u c t i o n w i t h M a r k e t i n g t o c r e a t e new p r o d u c t s ( t o g e t h e r w i t h new p r o c e s s ) f o r which t h e y have a s s u r e d l o n g - t e r n , l a r g e volume m a r k e t s . They a r e always w e l l ahead (( Independent) o f P r o d u c t i o n .  MARKETING  is central and most important. Success i s very dependant upon existence of a market waiting to absorb the product as storage d i f f i c u l t or impossible. Inspection i s less important as self-correcting devices become increasingly incorporated into the production process i t s e l f .  129  Perhaps  the most s u r p r i s i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  t h e r e s e a r c h e r s found c o n c e r n e d of  b a s i c managerial  the c h r o n o l o g i c a l  functions.  Management  identified  "Development,"  managerial  f u n c t i o n s t h a t were b a s i c t o any  e n t e r p r i s e ; and  " P r o d u c t i o n , " and  s i n c e i t had  assumed logic  i t , this as  sequencing  'given.  of t h i s  1  of  theory  had  "Marketing"  as  manufacturing  i t , and  finally  b a s i c f u n c t i o n s had  However, as  sequencing  sequencing  seemed l o g i c a l t o suppose t h a t  one f i r s t developed a p r o d u c t , t h e n produced marketed  difference  shown i n T a b l e  been  6.1,  the  h e l d o n l y i n the case of f i r m s  u s i n g a mass p r o d u c t i o n mode o f t e c h n o l o g y . It  was  found  t h a t the  function  t o be  attended  to  f i r s t by companies p r o d u c i n g i n d i v i d u a l o r s m a l l b a t c h madet o - o r d e r goods was to  'sell'  produce  t h a t of marketing;  f o r t h e y had,  first,  a p r o s p e c t i v e c l i e n t on the i d e a t h a t t h e y c o u l d  what was  wanted.  Accordingly, i n this  case,  the  f u n c t i o n o f development d i d not o c c u r u n t i l a f t e r t h e o r d e r was  secured,  customer  could  f u n c t i o n was production was  and  until be  the  ascertained.  sometimes found  itself  Moreover,  t o be  of  the  the  design  indistinguishable  from  d e s i g n e d as i t was b e i n g f i t t e d on t h e c u s t o m e r ) .  mass  production  ' p r o c e s s ' t e c h n o l o g y were  firms,  to  have  d e v e l o p i n g the p r o d u c t t h e y were now unlike their this  requirements  (e.g. custom t a i l o r i n g where t h e garment  Companies employing like  individual  stage  proceeded  begun  first  manufacturing.  mass p r o d u c t i o n c o u n t e r p a r t s , they had embarked  from  the  upon p r o d u c t i o n . function  of  They  had,  development  to  found, by But, not  at  instead, that  of  130 marketing—for,  only  a f t e r securing  the  kind  of  long-term  market (e.g. 20 y e a r s ) t h a t c o u l d ensure a p r o f i t a b l e r e t u r n on the enormous c a p i t a l o u t l a y i n v o l v e d i n (the required  for)  process  technology  c o n t e m p l a t e the p r o d u c t i o n The was the  could  'tooling-up'  they  afford  function.  second f e a t u r e of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l management t h a t  found by the Woodward r e s e a r c h situational  technologies  demands o f  was  team t o be  the  influenced  different  (as shown i n T a b l e 6.1)  to-day b a s i s . the  For,  the  managerial  amount of  functions  the degree of  the l e v e l o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l c o m p l e x i t y In  unit/small  managerial  coordination  n o t e d , the  on  independence was  i n the mass p r o d u c t i o n  required  for  example,  day-to-day  basis;  of development and  indistinguishable.  the  production  coordination and was, changing about  the  and,  A greater  of  operations  functions  However, w h i l e  d i d not  customers'  (e.g.  appear t o be  r e s p o n s e t o p r o d u c t d e s i g n ) was  and  Research  to  R  the  &  D  i n ex-  Production  about  seen as e s s e n t i a l .  daily  necessary,  co-operation  from M a r k e t i n g t o  concerns,  the  o f t e n l o c a t e d r i g h t away  i n d e e d , f e l t t o be d i s r u p t i v e , information  degree  f i r m s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n respect to  plant[s]).  as  production  found between the m a n a g e r i a l  Development D i v i s i o n (which was  from  as  increased.  development f u n c t i o n i n companies h a v i n g t h e i r own and  day-  found t o d e c r e a s e  firms,  a  functions  were o f t e n found t o be of  co-  f u n c t i o n s were h i g h l y i n t e r - d e p e n d a n t , r e q u i r i n g  operational already  batch  coordination  was  by  production  O r d i n a t i o n needed between the m a n a g e r i a l f u n c t i o n s on a  between  to  market  131  An even g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f i n d e p e n d e n c e was between For,  the f u n c t i o n s i n firms using  as  already noted,  process  the marketing  technology.  was done, ahead o f  p r o d u c t i o n , on a l o n g - t e r m b a s i s ; and, r e s e a r c h was directed  a t t h e development o f e n t i r e l y  were independant  found  largely  new p r o d u c t s  that  of both e x i s t i n g p r o d u c t i o n f a c i l i t i e s  and  customer r e q u i r e m e n t s . The  third  feature  of  organizational  management  (shown i n Table 6.1) t h a t Woodward found c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n a l demands o f t h e d i f f e r e n t p r o d u c t i o n t e c h n o l o g i e s was  t h e r e l a t i v e importance o f t h e m a n a g e r i a l f u n c t i o n s t o  the  s u c c e s s and s u r v i v a l o f t h e b u s i n e s s .  each  o f t h e t h r e e modes o f t e c h n o l o g y ,  I n t h e case o f t h e most  critical  f u n c t i o n was found t o be t h a t which was c e n t r a l l y l o c a t e d i n the  chronological  'development'  sequencing  i n unit/small  batch  of  functions:  firms;  i.e.  'production' i n  mass p r o d u c t i o n e n t e r p r i s e s ; and 'marketing' i n p l a n t s u s i n g process found  technology.  to rest  almost  Business entirely,  s u c c e s s was, a c c o r d i n g l y , i n the case  b a t c h t e c h n o l o g y , upon t h e s k i l l  of unit/small  and i n g e n u i t y o f t h o s e  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r development; i n t h e case o f mass p r o d u c t i o n , upon t h e e f f i c i e n c e y o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f p r o d u c t i o n and t h e p r o g r e s s i v e r e d u c t i o n o f u n i t p r o d u c t i o n c o s t s ; and, i n t h e case o f p r o c e s s t e c h n o l o g y , upon t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y market t h a t c o u l d absorb volume o f p r o d u c t be d i f f i c u l t ,  t h e proposed  new p r o d u c t  of a  ( f o r the  t h a t ' f l o w s ' from p r o c e s s t e c h n o l o g y can  or impossible, to hold i n storage).  132 As studies by  shown i n Table  also  a firm  suggested  directly  6.1, t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e Woodward  that the production technology  affected  t h e manner  i n which  used tasks  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each o f t h e b a s i c m a n a g e r i a l f u n c t i o n s (such as  decision-making  and i n s p e c t i o n )  were  operationalized.  For example, o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a v i n g a mass p r o d u c t i o n mode o f technology  were found  managerial  preoccupation  "inspection."  t o be s i n g u l a r l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a with  As W o o d w a r d  issues of "control"  d e s c r i b e s them,  and  t h e mass  p r o d u c t i o n w o r k p l a c e s were c o n t i n u o u s l y w o r k i n g t o push back limitations;  t h e r e was, a c c o r d i n g l y c o n s i d e r a b l e p r e s s u r e  p u t on employees as p r o d u c t i o n t a r g e t s were s e t h i g h e r and higher.  However, she n o t e s t h a t , a l t h o u g h i n c e n t i v e s  were  o f f e r e d employees t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r o u t p u t , t h e p a c e — i n t h e l a s t r e s o r t — w a s a c t u a l l y s e t by t h e o p e r a t o r s t h e m s e l v e s . This preoccupation w i t h i n c r e a s i n g managerial was  n o t seen  t o o b t a i n where  complex u n i t / s m a l l  batch  control  the technologically  mode o f p r o d u c t i o n was  less  concerned;  here, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  f o r t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e p r o d u c t was  largely  of craftsmen-workers  i n t h e hands  relatively one,  well-skilled,  to "hustle"  were w o r k i n g on a c o m p l i c a t e d machinery where t h e mode o f p r o d u c t i o n  managerial  process concern  were  autonomous, and s e l f - m o t i v a t e d (no  f o r example, attempted  complex  who  t h e e n g i n e e r s who  design).  Likewise,  was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e more  technology, there about c o n t r o l  was l i t t l e  issues.  need f o r  Here, t h e q u a l i t y  o f t h e p r o d u c t , l i k e t h e t i m i n g , and t h e t e s t i n g , was b u i l t i n t o t h e h i g h l y automated  (and s e l f - r e g u l a t e d ) p r o c e s s i n g .  133  Now,  i n a d d i t i o n to  management t h a t a r e  noted  the  f e a t u r e s of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  i n Table  organizational  characteristics  Woodward t o be  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the  by  a f i r m to process  continuum  of  6.1,  were  a number of  measured  and  other  found  k i n d of t e c h n o l o g y  i t s products.  used  When p l o t t e d a l o n g  technological complexity,  the  by  the  measures  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each of these o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can  be  seen t o f a l l  'trends.  i n t o one  or o t h e r of t h r e e  directional  1  For  example,  the  measures  associated  with  some  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were found t o i n c r e a s e , a l o n g w i t h  increased  technological complexity—from  'process'  production—as  i n the case of the f o l l o w i n g f e a t u r e s :  — t h e number of hierarchy, —the  ' u n i t * t o 'mass' t o  levels  of  authority  i n the  span of c o n t r o l of the c h i e f e x e c u t i v e  — t h e r a t i o of personnel,  managers and  supervisory  --the r a t i o of i n d i r e c t to d i r e c t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and c l e r i c a l s t a f f w o r k e r s , and, - - t h e p r o p o r t i o n of g r a d u a t e s engaged on p r o d u c t i o n . On following  the  other  features  among  management officer,  staff  to  l a b o u r , and o f to hourly paid supervisory  staff  hand, the measures a s s o c i a t e d w i t h were  found  to  increase  from  'unit'  'mass' p r o d u c t i o n , t o peak w i t h mass p r o d u c t i o n , and d e c r e a s e i n the case of 'process' —the  total  technology:  span of c o n t r o l of f i r s t - l i n e s u p e r v i s o r s ,  the to  then t o  134  --organizational f l e x i b i l i t y ( i . e . t h e number d i f f e r e n t p e r m u t a t i o n s of arrangements t h a t can t r i e d t o i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i v i t y and lower c o s t s )  of be  — a m o u n t of w r i t t e n as opposed t o v e r b a l communication, — s p e c i a l i z a t i o n between f u n c t i o n s of management, — s e p a r a t i o n of production,  administration  and  the  supervision  of  — n e g a t i v e tone of i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s , and of a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r s , of management and s u p e r v i s o r y s t a f f . One the to  organizational  feature  was  found t o d e c r e a s e  l e v e l of t e c h n o l o g i c a l c o m p l e x i t y 'mass' t o  the  total  'process'  of the  p r o d u c t i o n — i t was  budget t h a t was  Conclusion. Woodward  of i n d u s t r i a l  increased  spent on  s t u d i e s have  from ' u n i t *  the p e r c e n t a g e of  labour  In view of the  as  costs.  f a c t t h a t the  findings  proved s e m i n a l t o the  study  o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t would make sense t o c o n c l u d e  t h a t t h e r e i s no s i n g l e s e t of s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t can,  in a generalized  i n d u s t r i a l workplace. three  sets  of  be  w o r k p l a c e by  reflecting  the  and  i n r e c o g n i t i o n of  r e l a t i o n s h i p s found  Woodward  situational  technology),  s a i d to c h a r a c t e r i z e  Therefore,  organizational  industrial  'process'  way,  (and  i d e n t i f i e d by  demands of  'unit,'  be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d  case w i t h t h r e e s p e c i a l c a s e s — o r ,  'mass,'  the as and  as  a  general  as a framework t h a t would  (metaphorically  speaking)  incorporate,  s y s t e m i c a l l y r e l a t e , the  organizational  her  the  i t i s proposed t h a t the p a t t e r n model  of the i n d u s t r i a l w o r k p l a c e  and  in  the  serve  as  a  suprasystem three  sets  to of  r e l a t i o n s h i p s found i n the Woodward schema.  135  Now, t o 'see' industrial system"  a "model o f  workplace  Woodward's schema o f t h e  as [ i f i t were] a g e n e r a l  i s t o employ  a metaphor.  This  (supra)  metaphor  is  p r e d i c a t e d on t h e u n d e r l y i n g assumption t h a t an a p p r o p r i a t e (and  insightful)  correspondence e x i s t s  between t h e p a t t e r n  of i n d u s t r i a l w o r k p l a c e f e a t u r e s r e p r e s e n t e d schema, with  and t h e p a t t e r n  representations  (supra)  system  of systemic  o f open  social  framework.  features  associated  systems i n a  In t u r n ,  this  general  "underlying  assumption"  i s predicated  corresponding  r e l a t i o n s h i p s o b t a i n between t h e c o n s t i t u e n t  parts  of these  two p a t t e r n s  on  i n t h e Woodward  the assumption  when they  are forced  a n a l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p by t h e metaphor.  that  i n t o an  And, t h e i n s i g h t s  t h a t can be d e r i v e d from t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a model t h a t i s premised on such an a n a l o g y assumptions  undergirding  w i l l depend, i n t u r n , upon t h e  our understanding  o f open  social  systems. Because t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g  u n d e r p i n s t h e metaphor on  which o u r p a t t e r n model o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l w o r k p l a c e i s t o be constructed, upon  which  i t would seem i m p o r t a n t i t rests  be made  that  t h e assumptions  explicit.  To t h i s e n d ,  the common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f open systems (as found i n Katz and  Kahn, 1966; B u c k l e y ,  Ackoff,  1974) a r e r e v i e w e d  illustrated might  1967; Immegart and P i l e c k i , 1973;  be  with 'seen'  Woodward's schema.  examples in  i n the next  o f analogous  industrial  s e c t i o n ; and  features—as  workplaces  they  found i n  136 Open Systems C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the I n d u s t r i a l Workplace A c c o r d i n g t o Immegart and P i l e c k i are  (1973:31), systems  of two b a s i c t y p e s , "open" and " c l o s e d . "  They c o n t i n u e :  Open s y s t e m s a r e t h o s e w h i c h e x c h a n g e m a t t e r and energy w i t h t h e i r environment. C l o s e d systems a r e s e l f c o n t a i n e d , and a r e u n a f f e c t e d by o t h e r systems o r t h e i r environment. A l l c l o s e d systems (best e x e m p l i f i e d by c e r t a i n c h e m i c a l r e a c t i o n s o r p e o p l e i n advanced s t a g e s of p s y c h i c d i s o r d e r ) move toward e n t r o p y , a " d e a t h - s t a t e " of i n e r t i a . Open systems, s i n c e they i n t e r a c t w i t h and use t h e i r environment, combat e n t r o p y and t h u s e x i s t i n a d y n a m i c " l i f e s t a t e , " t y p i f i e d by i n c r e a s i n g o r d e r , d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , v a r i a t i o n , and c o m p l e x i t y . R e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the environment. A c c o r d i n g t o Katz o  and Kahn (1966), a l l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e open systems . They a r e , a c c o r d i n g l y , a f f e c t e d by t h e environment i n which they f i n d  t h e m s e l v e s , and  sustenance.  upon which t h e y must depend f o r  They do, however, i n t u r n , have e f f e c t s on the  environment of which t h e y form a f u n c t i o n i n g p a r t . In in  the c a s e , f o r example, of a s o c i a l system engaged  t h e mass p r o d u c t i o n of (say) woolen c l o t h , t h e r e a r e (at  least)  three  kinds  of  environments  m a n u f a c t u r i n g p l a n t must depend, and effect.  There  the  finished  upon which  i s t h e p h y s i c a l environment  p l a n t r e q u i r e s c e r t a i n amounts of o t h e r power  upon  which i t has  from which  the an the  raw m a t e r i a l , l a b o u r , and  ( t h a t i s cheap, r e l a t i v e t o the market p r i c e of product);  and w h i c h , i n t u r n ,  i s affected  by  ^ I t m i g h t be n o t e d t h a t t h i s v e r y 'literal' c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f . s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s as open s y s t e m s r e s t s on the m e t a p h o r i c use of a ' s c i e n t i f i c model'; f o r i t i s the model p r o v i d e d by g e n e r a l systems t h e o r y t h a t a l l o w s us t o 'see' s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a s i f t h e y w e r e open systems.  137  the  physical  presence  of  the  plant—either  in beneficial  ways (e.g. a t t r a c t i v e and/or c o m m u n i t y - a c c e s s i b l e b u i l d i n g s , gardens, wharves, p l a y i n g  areas,  etc)  or  in deleterious  (e.g. u n a t t r a c t i v e and/or dangerous a r e a s , b u i l d i n g s , d o c k s , cesspools,  slag/waste  There a r e ,  similarly,  which  the  plant  legislative favourable  heaps,  etc)  and/or  economic and  must depend  s u p p o r t ; and  for  p o l l u t i n g ways.  s o c i a l environments upon favourable  financial  upon which i t , i n t u r n , has  and  either  or unpopular e f f e c t s .  It  w o u l d seem s a f e  t o assume t h a t t h e  extent  to  which an i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e impacts on i t s environment i s directly this  r e l a t e d to  might be  the  scale  of  seen t o i n c r e a s e  i t s operations;  e x p o n e n t i a l l y as one  from ' u n i t , ' t o 'mass,' t o 'process' Need t o m a i n t a i n have  a  tendency  modifying from  organization  of  the in  their  external  openness, forces  r a d i c a l way.  may  This  f o r open systems which s u r v i v e  by a "steady s t a t e . "  so  that  be  prevented  is  are  of  a  T h i s s t a t e i s dynamic i n n a t u r e r a t h e r  equilibrium.  There i s a c o n t i n u o u s i n f l o w and  the  e n e r g y e x c h a n g e s , and  parts  remain  the  notwithstanding—the v i r t u a l l y unchanged.  their  characterized  In o t h e r words, i t i s not a m o t i o n l e s s  of  the  'normal'  than s t a t i c .  ratio  moves  Open s y s t e m s  characteristic functioning  any  that  technology.  a "steady s t a t e " .  limit  influences  changing  reaction;  to  and  same so  of  outflow,  true but  r e l a t i o n s h i p between  that — growth  'essence'  or  the  and  expansion  system  remains  138  Our  woolen  recognizable  mill  will,  as a c l o t h - p r o d u c i n g  how much i t may grow i n t h e s i z e making o p e r a t i o n s . presumably,  still  accordingly, organization, and scope  And, our f i r m o f custom  remain no matter  of i t s c l o t h tailors  will,  continue  t o produce g a r m e n t s — e v e n  i f i t  changes i t s modus o p e r a n d i  from s m a l l t o l a r g e b a t c h  (mass)  production. The work o f a s y s t e m . transform,  takes  output,  mill  works t o  by some p r o c e s s (e.g. s p i n n i n g and w e a v i n g ) , t h e  m a t t e r and energy it  A woolen  (e.g. b a l e s o f raw w o o l , dyes, e t c ) which  i n as i n p u t s f r o m t h e e n v i r o n m e n t s , o r p r o d u c t form  assimilate  Just  some  (e.g woven woolen c l o t h ) , which i s  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e system Inputs.  into  (e.g. H a r r i s Tweed).  as a b i o l o g i c a l  c e r t a i n things  from  organism can only  t h e environment  by way o f  nourishment, so can a s o c i a l system o n l y make use o f e n e r g i c and  informational  inputs  that  are appropriate  purpose. The mechanism by which a system or  t r a n s l a t e s p o t e n t i a l inputs  into  a usable  coding  will  performed which  form, i s termed  selects,  o f energy  and  to  i t s  rejects,  information  "coding."  The form o f t h i s  be a f f e c t e d by t h e n a t u r e  of the f u n c t i o n s  by t h e system;  the coding  takes  and, once e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e form will  help  perpetuate the type of  f u n c t i o n i n g t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e system. The  raw m a t e r i a l  inputs  of a t e x t i l e  mill, for  example, w i l l be coded a c c o r d i n g t o i t s p r o d u c t i o n f u n c t i o n - t h a t i s , a c c o r d i n g t o whether i t f u n c t i o n s t o produce  cloth  139  characterized  as, say, cotten,  or  linen,  or  wool.  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e c l o t h - m a k i n g f u n c t i o n may be l i m i t e d t o t h e processing specific  of  only  coding  certain  o f t h e raw m a t e r i a l s .  p a r t i c u l a r woolen m i l l grade  that  as e i t h e r  "mungo"  s t a p l e ) , o r "shoddy" are not f e l t e d ,  s t a p l e t h a n mungo). containers, on  wool  (i.e.  reclaimed  and o f b e t t e r  being  function,  that  mill's  a  that i s  ( i . e . o f poor q u a l i t y and v e r y from  appropriately  their  materials  q u a l i t y and  And, s i n c e o t h e r i n p u t s — e . g  of t h e i r  production  perpetuate  reclaimed  longer  of storage  looms, s p i n d l e s , b o b b i n s , e t c — w i l l  the basis  given  For instance,  may f u n c t i o n s o l e l y t o produce low-  c l o t h : e.g. c l o t h made from  'coded' short  q u a l i t i e s - - r e q u i r i n g more  be s e l e c t e d  coded f o r t h e  selection will  serve t o  characteristic functioning  (and  p r o d u c t o u t p u t o f , s a y , "shoddy.") In  a broad  sense,  classified  as b e i n g  e i t h e r of a m a t e r i a l , i n f o r m a t i o n a l , or  energic  nature.  workplace,  social  system  However, i n t h e c o n t e x t  i t i s possible  inputs  o f an  to sub-categorize  m i g h t be  industrial  these  broad  t y p e s o f i n p u t s as shown i n T a b l e 6.2. Two d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f m a t e r i a l i n p u t s a r e n e c e s s a r y for  t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f an i n d u s t r i a l w o r k p l a c e .  labelled  i n Table  6.2  as " m a t e r i e l  initial  c a p i t a l expenditure  basic  (input)  items  inputs,"  (or o u t p u t ) ;  as t h e p l a n t  The f i r s t , requires  an  f o r i t s e c u r e s such (which  houses the  'machinery') and t h e t o o l s / m a c h i n e s t h e m s e l v e s .  I t can be  expected  complexity  t h a t , as t h e l e v e l  i n c r e a s e s , so w i l l  of t e c h n o l o g i c a l  t h e o u t p u t o f c a p i t a l by v i r t u e o f which  Table  6.2  Indu s t r i a l  \  Inputs  Materiel  Inputs  MATERIAL  \  PLANT  INPUTS  /  TOOLS  Information  'INFORMATIONAL^  \\  )  Inputs  TECHNICAL ( 'know-how') PROGRAM  INPUTS FEEDBACK  \  Energic  Inputs  PERSONNEL I N WORK ROLES ENERGIC INPUTS Administrative  Inputs  ORGANIZATIONAL MANAGEMENT  Raw M a t e r i a l MATERIAL INPUTS  )  Inputs  SOMETHING CHANGED BY PRODUCTION PROCESS TO FORM OUTPUT  141  inputs  are  required  acquired, (e.g.  the  and  the  specificity  processing  of  machinery  plant  of  design  a  [process  t e c h n o l o g y ] h y d r o - e l e c t r i c p l a n t i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t of dam  s t r u c t u r e which houses  second  it).  Labelled  i n T a b l e 6.2  kind  material  of  the  as  "raw  input  w o r k p l a c e i s t h a t which i s 'put  material inputs,"  needed  by  an  t h r o u g h ' the  the  industrial  transformation  (or c o m b i n a t o r i a l , value-added) p r o c e s s t o form the b a s i s of the  system's  output.  The  nature  of  this  ('thruput')  m a t e r i a l w i l l a f f e c t the k i n d of t e c h n o l o g y t h a t can be used t o change i t i n t o an a c c e p t a b l y variable  and  suitable  i t becomes  processing In  unpredictable  (e.g.  some c a s e s  processing  The  more  i t i s , f o r example, the  less  large  batch,  diamonds t h a t r e q u i r e a  of  for  f i n i s h e d product.  plant  i t s raw  may  to  materials,  brought t o the  standardized  the p r o c e s s i n g  machinery.  Moreover,  have  material  technologies c l o t h e s ) , and in  terms  of  c u t by  engage  in  that  they  be  noted  that  t o produce i n t e g r a l p r o d u c t s the d i m e n s i o n a l  in  e l e c t r i c i t y , and  the  or for  hand).  the  pre-  can  use  processing  information.  of of  is  by  a  assembly-line  (such as c a r s  type raw m a t e r i a l  capacity) the  there  be  ( d i s c r e t e u n i t ) type  u s e d i n u n i t / s m a l l b a t c h and  volume  type  state required for ingestion  i t should  currently--required technology,  t o be  so  d i f f e r e n c e i n type between the i n t e g r a l raw  assembly-line,  that  such  (experienced  i s — a t  'flow'  and  least,  or  'process'  things  as o i l ,  [ I t might be a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t  142 w i t h advances i n t h e development of a r t i f i c i a l and  robotics,  future, type  highly  a l s o be  automated  processes  a v a i l a b l e f o r the  intelligence will,  processing  of  in  integral-  products.] As  shown i n T a b l e 6.2,  "information  inputs"  r e q u i r e d by an i n d u s t r i a l w o r k p l a c e i n (at l e a s t ) two To  start  with,  'program'  the  (like  system has  the  as coming i n t o  need of  D.N.A. o f  guide i t s f u n c t i o n i n g .  i n custom p r o d u c t i o n ) ,  (computerized) automated  seen t o  system and  by  skilled  processing  machine d e s i g n .  come i n t o t h e  i t  needs  conditions,and  Such The  craftsmen/technicians and  programs a s s o c i a t e d  i n the  might  form of  a  about  i t i s doing  type of  environmental  in relation input  is  such i n p u t  to i t s  known  is  because i t r e p r e s e n t s  difference  between  and  output  o u t p u t f o r the o r g a n i z a t i o n t o m a i n t a i n i t i s by  the  d i f f e r e n c e t h a t the course.)  'putting  in'  what  as  negative  ( I t i s c a l l e d negative  And  also value  feedback.  actual  with  i n d u s t r i a l w o r k p l a c e i s an open  informational  simplest  i n the i n c r e a s i n g l y  authority.)  information  a b o u t how  environment. "feedback."  considered  (Information  system  n o r m a t i v e o r d e r , e.g.  S e c o n d l y , because an system,  to  a s o c i a l system i n the form of t h e t e c h n i c a l  (especially  highly  forms.  organism)  Such i n f o r m a t i o n might be  possessed  complex  are  some ' b l u e p r i n t ' or  a biological  'know-how'  be  the  i s required  the as  i t s 'steady s t a t e . '  (feeding  back)  of  this  system c o r r e c t s f o r i t s d e v i a t i o n s from  143  woolen  Now,  as c a n be r e c o g n i z e d  mill,  the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s  'steady course,  state' will  continued  of  of our  survival  upon i t s r e c e i v i n g  a c t i n g upon) t i m e l y i n f o r m a t i o n  market a c c e p t a b i l i t y (i.e.  depend  i n the context  in a  (and, of  (feedback) about t h e  t h e woolen goods i t has produced  about t h e match between consumer e x p e c t a t i o n s and t h e  quality  and  quantity  o f what  i t h a s , and  is  still  producing). Whatever t h e mode o f t e c h n o l o g y will  be r u n w i t h t h e aim o f m i n i m i z i n g  consistent with a given  quality  i n u s e , t h e system costs  ( t o a degree  of product).  This  i n c l u d e c o n t r o l l i n g f o r p r o d u c t i o n e r r o r s as c l o s e t o s o u r c e as p o s s i b l e . of  quality  problem  mass p r o d u c t i o n .  control i s , similarly,  i s s u e w i t h mass p r o d u c t i o n ; technology  the product  w i t h m a i n t a i n i n g t h e steady  'after  really  i n mass  (and, o f c o u r s e ,  state) the marketing  I f production  i f production  falls  arm has t h e  short  exceeds  market  demand  D i v i s i o n t h a t has t o spend more o f  advertizing  process  production  of market  demand, i t i s t h e s a l e s f o r c e t h a t has t o d e a l w i t h  Marketing  an  o f r e c o n c i l i n g o u t p u t and m a r k e t demand  the event.'  customers;  The  i s marketed ahead o f p r o d u c t i o n .  o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s with maximizing production  task  only  f o r i n b o t h custom and  However, s i n c e t h e c e n t r a l p r e o c c u p a t i o n  unenviable  their  However, as has been n o t e d , t h e problem  control i s greatest with  of quantity  will  and s a l e s p r o m o t i o n s  i t i s the  i t s budget on  ( t h a t i t might  spend on market c r e a t i o n and market r e s e a r c h ) .  irrate  otherwise  144 The  energic  production as  inputs  work r o l e s . "  accomplish  the  they  such  by  the  a c t i v i t i e s of  the  provided,  "personnel  W h i l e t h e s e r o l e s are s p e c i f i c t o the  with  industry, cover  to  f u n c t i o n of an i n d u s t r i a l w o r k p l a c e are  shown i n T a b l e 6.2,  involved  required  production  can  be  tasks  functions  generalized  as,  for  of  across  example,  that  tasks  particular  organizations  maintenance  machine r e p a i r r o l e s ) and  in  to  (e.g.  janitorial,  and  production  s k i l l e d and  s e m i - s k i l l e d t e c h n i c a l , and u n s k i l l e d , l a b o u r ) .  However, s i n c e the energy of p e r s o n n e l roles  i s d i r e c t e d toward  separate order  and  coordination  i n some  a task that i s a l l i e d  from, the p r o d u c t i o n  (e.g.  work  to,  but  f u n c t i o n — i . e . toward b r i n g i n g  t o the  overall  organization—a  case  can be made f o r c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e " a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n p u t s " as a two  sub  category  kinds  of e n e r g i c  input.  of i n p u t can be  Taken as  seen t o p r o v i d e  a whole,  the  these  s t r u c t u r e of  an open system. Structure. is  a network  of  relationships;  The  s t r u c t u r e of an  i n t e r r e l a t e d (and  i t i s , according  positions Sales  and  and  (such  'marketing) as  Marketing)  than  role a  'development,' of  Manager and  illustrated  system  Kahn (1966),  (such as  rather  Production as  interdependent)  t o Katz and  s t r u c t u r e of e v e n t s or f u n c t i o n i n g s 'production,'  open s o c i a l  static  role  Director  of  i n most o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  charts. Process. create  new  A social  products,  or  system may  train  people  process m a t e r i a l s  to  to  or  do  something,  145  provide a service. purpose can something  be  The  processes  seen t o be  those  i t employs t o f u l f i l i t s t h i n g s i t does t o change  ( i t i m p o r t s as ah i n p u t ) i n t o an o u t p u t .  The  t h i n g s t h a t an i n d u s t r i a l w o r k p l a c e  does t o  t r a n s f o r m i t s i n p u t s of raw m a t e r i a l i n t o a f i n i s h e d it  does through  the use  of something  P r o c es_ s__a s__ t e c h n o_l o g y_. "technology tools  and  1  is still  called Now,  sometimes used  machines—or  the  product  "technology."  while  the  term  t o mean merely  hardware—employed  the  in  the  p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s , i t i s becoming more and more f r e q u e n t l y u